TABLE OF CONTENTS
The present document describes the early history of the states along the eastern shores of the Baltic sea. Before the early 13th century, the area appears to have attracted little attention from the Lithuanians to the south, the Poles and Pomeranians to the south-west, the Scandinavian kingdoms to the west, and the Russian principalities to the east. After the fall of Jerusalem to the Muslims in 1187, and the subsequent decline of the crusader states along the eastern Mediterranean coast, the eastern Baltic represented the last major pagan stronghold in Europe and provided a new area of opportunity for crusading. In 1193, Pope Celestine III called for a crusade against the pagans of northern Europe. German crusaders conquered much of the present-day republic of Latvia in the early 13th century and established the city of Riga in 1301. During the papacy of Pope Innocent III, the Livonian order of the Knights of the Sword (fratres militiæ Christi de Livonia) was founded in 1202 by the Cistercian monk Theoderich to intensify the fight against pagans in the Baltic area. However, it was the knights of the Teutonic Order who became the dominant force in the area and established for themselves an independent state which lasted for more than two hundred years.
The Brothers of St Mary's Hospital of the Germans in Jerusalem (fratres hospitalis sancte Marie Theutonicorum Ierusolimitanorum) was founded by Germans in Jerusalem in 1143. In 1199, it was raised to an order of knighthood by Pope Innocent III, often known as the Teutonic Order (Ordo Theutonicorum). After founding establishments in Palestine, Armenia, and Cyprus, it assumed the protection of the Burzenland in Transylvania in 1211 but was expelled from Hungary in 1225 by King András II. The Teutonic Knights were offered a new field of activity by Konrad Duke of Mazovia [Piast] who was fighting the heathen Prussians. The Grand Master of the Order, Hermann of Salza, was granted far-reaching privileges for the Order by Emperor Friedrich II at Rimini in Mar 1226. A smaller group, the Knights of Christ of Dobrin, was founded in 1228 by Christian Bishop of Prussia, Konrad Duke of Mazovia and the Bishop of Płock, but was incorporated into the Teutonic Knights in 1235/37.
In the early 13th century, the whole of the eastern Baltic area was loosely known as Prussia. The early 14th century Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ of Peter von Dusburg describes "terra Prussie" as including "Wiselam, mare salsum, Memelam, terram Russie, ducatum Masovie et ducatum Dobrinensem", with the river "Wisela" dividing Poland and Pomerania from Prussia. The Teutonic Order completed its conquest of Prussia in 1283. Under the Treaty of Soldin in 1309, the Order divided its possessions in eastern Pomerania with Brandenburg, with the state of Pommerellen (see the document POMERANIA) being incorporated into the territory of the Teutonic Knights. The eleventh Grand Master, Siegfried von Feuchtwagen, transferred his residence from Venice to Marienburg in 1309. This marked the start of a period of consolidation in Prussia, with the clearance of huge forest areas and the planned settlement of numerous villages for settlers who arrived in considerable numbers from Westphalia, lower Saxony, central Germany and Silesia. Conflict with Poland was terminated by the peace of Kalisch in 1343.
The union between Lithuania and Poland presaged the end of the Teutonic Order's power in Prussia, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen being killed in the battle of Grunwald [Tannenberg] in 1410. Szamaiten and other regions were surrendered under the First Peace of Thorn, which also required payment of a large settlement sum. Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen was deposed in 1413. The "League of Lizards" of west Prussian knights, founded in 1397, supported Poland and opposed the central government of the Order. Grand Master Paul von Russdorf instituted a grand council of the land in 1432 and in 1440 the Prussian League of nobility and towns was formed. The League overthrew the government of the Order in 1454, when Danzig was annexed by Poland. Marienburg was surrendered to Poland in 1454 and Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen moved his seat to Königsberg. Under the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, Kulm, Pommerellen and the Samland were ceded to Poland and the Order acknowledged Polish sovereignty over the rest of the state.
The Order was finally secularised in 1523 and 1525. The last Grand Master declared himself Duke of Prussia and continued to rule over the Order´s remaining territories as such. Under his successors, the duchy of Prussia expanded westwards and eventually passed to the senior Hohenzollern electoral line of Brandenburg. Friedrich III Elector of Brandenburg adopted the title king of Prussia in 1701.
A collection of charters relevant to this region was published in the mid-19th century by von Bunge in his Liv-, Esth- und Curländisches Urkundenbuch nebst Regesten, the first three volumes of which cover the period up to 1393. These documents trace the development of Danish influence in the late 11th/early 12th century, the arrival of Christian missionaries and foundation of bishoprics under Papal sponsorship, and of course the consolidation of the power of the Order of Teutonic Knights and the succession of its Grand Masters.
Chapter 1. COURLAND
The area of Courland (Kurzeme, Kuramo) is the south-western part of the present-day republic of Latvia, south-west of the river Daugava. It was conquered by the Knights of the Sword, and passed into the sphere of influence of the Teutonic Knights in the 1230s when the two orders were amalgamated, although the Knights of the Sword retained a semi-autonomous existence in the form of the Livonian Order which continued to rule a large part of Livonia and Courland. The early 14th century Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ of Peter von Dusburg records the conquest of "terre Curonie" by the Teutonic Knights in 1260. The Teutonic Order conquered new lands in Livonia, Courland and Estonia after absorbing the cathedral chapter and town of Riga in 1393. Courland existed as an independent duchy from 1561 until 1795, as a vassal state of the kingdom of Poland. The duchy was ceded to Russia by the last duke of Courland.
1. GOTTHARD Ketteler, son of GOTTHARD Ketteler zu Melrich, Hovestadt und Neu-Assen & his wife Margareta van Bronckhorst-Batenburg (-9 Feb 1556). His paternal ancestral family is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln. m () SIBYLLE von Nesselrode, daughter of WILHELM von Nesselrode zu Stein & his wife --- (-1571). Heiress of Nesselrode. Gotthard & his wife had two children:
a) JOHANN Ketteler . m AGNES Schenk von Nideggen, daughter of JOHANN Schenk von Nideggen & his wife Anna von Vittinghoff This couple were ancestors of the Ketteler family at Melrich.
b) GOTTHARD Ketteler (-Mitau 17 May 1587, bur Mitau). Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights in Livland 1559. Duke of Courland and Semgallen 5 Mar 1562. m (Königsberg 14/24 Feb 1566) ANNA Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Güstrow, daughter of ALBRECHT VII “der Schöne” Herzog von Mecklenburg-Güstrow & his wife Anna von Brandenburg (Güstrow 6 or 14 Oct 1533-4 Jul 1602, bur Mitau). Gotthard & his wife had seven children:
ii) FRIEDRICH (25 Nov 1569-16 Aug 1642). He succeeded his father in 1589 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen. He abdicated 1639. m (14 Mar or 4 May 1600) ELISABETH MAGDALENE Herzogin von Pommern, daughter of ERNST LUDWIG I Duke of Pomerania in Wolgast & his wife Sophie Hedwig von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (14 Jun 1580-23 Feb 1649).
iii) SIGISMUND (-young).
iv) GOTTHARD (-young).
v) GEORG (-young).
- see below.
vii) ELISABETH (1575-19 Nov 1601). m (17 Sep 1595) ADAM WENZEL Duke of Teschen, son of WENZEL III ADAM Duke of Teschen & his second wife Sidonie Katharine von Sachsen-Lauenburg (12 Dec 1574-13 Jul 1617).
WILHELM of Courland, son of GOTTHARD Ketteler Duke of Courland and Semgallen & his wife Anna Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Güstrow (20 Jul 1574-7 Apr 1640). He succeeded his father in 1589 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen. He abdicated 1616.
m (5 Jan 1609) SOPHIE of Prussia, daughter of ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH Markgrafen Duke opf Prussia & his wife Marie Eleonore Herzogin von Jülich (31 Mar 1582-Schloß Goldingen 4 Dec 1610).
Wilhelm & his wife had one child:
1. JACOB (Goldingen 28 Oct/7 Nov 1610-Mitau 22/31 Dec 1682). He succeeded his uncle in 1639 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen. m (Königsberg 30 Sep/9 Oct 1645) LUISE CHARLOTTE Markgräfin von Brandenburg, daughter of GEORG WILHELM Elector of Brandenburg & his wife Elisabeth Charlotte Pfalzgräfin von Simmern (Berlin Schloß 3/13 Sep 1617-Mitau 9/19 Aug 1676). Jacob & his wife had nine children:
a) LUISE ELISABETH (Mitau 12/22 Aug 1646-Weferlingen 16/26 Dec 1690, bur 1695 Homburg). m (Cölln an der Spree 23 Oct 1670) as his second wife, FRIEDRICH Erblandgraf von Hessen-Homburg, son of FRIEDRICH I "der Ältere" Landgraf von Hessen-Homburg & his wife Margareta Elisabeth Gräfin von Leiningen-Westerburg (Homburg 30 Mar 1633-Homburg 24 Jan 1708, bur Homburg). He succeeded in 1680 as FRIEDRICH II “mit dem silbernen Bein” Landgraf von Hessen-Homburg.
b) LADISLAUS LUDWIG FRIEDRICH (4 Dec 1647-13 Mar 1648).
c) CHRISTINA SOPHIE (15 May 1649-9 Jun 1651).
- see below.
e) CHARLOTTE SOPHIE (1 Sep 1651-1 Dec 1728). Abbess of Herford 1688.
f) MARIE ANNA (Mitau 12/16 Jun 1653-Weilmünster 16 Jun 1711, bur Kassel St Martin). m (Kassel 21 May 1673) KARL Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel, son of WILHELM VI Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel & his wife Sophie Markgräfin von Brandenburg (Kassel 3 Aug 1654-Kassel 22 Mar 1730, bur Kassel St Martin).
g) KARL JACOB (25 Oct 1654-29 Dec 1677).
h) FERDINAND (1 Nov 1655-Danzig 4 May 1737, bur Mitau). Regent of Courland 1698. He succeeded his nephew in 1711 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen. m (Danzig 5 Jan 1731) JOHANNA MAGDALENA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weissenfels, daughter of JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his wife Friederike Elisabeth Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Weissenfels 17 Mar 1708-Leipzig 25 Jan 1760, bur Weissenfels).
i) ALEXANDER (18 Oct 1658-near Ofen 17 Jul 1686). He died from wounds received at the battle of Ofen.
FRIEDRICH KASIMIR of Courland, son of JACOB Duke of Courland and Semgallen & his wife Luise Charlotte Markgräfin von Brandenburg (6 Jul 1650-Mitau 22 Jan 1698, bur Mitau). He succeeded his father in 1681 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen.
m firstly (The Hague 15 Oct 1675) SOPHIE AMALIE Gräfin von Nassau-Siegen, daughter of HEINRICH Graf von Nassau-Siegen Governor of Hulst & his wife Marie Elisabeth Gräfin von Limburg-Stirum (Schloss Wisch, Terborg 10 Jan 1650-Mitau 15/25 Nov 1688).
m secondly (Berlin 29 Apr 1691) as her first husband, ELISABETH SOPHIE Markgräfin von Brandenburg, daughter of FRIEDRICH WILHELM Elector of Brandenburg & his second wife Dorothea Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Berlin 26 Mar/5 Apr 1674-Römhild 22 Nov 1748, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). She married secondly (Potsdam 30 Mar 1703) as his third wife, Christian Ernst Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She married thirdly (Schloss Ehrenburg, near Coburg 3 Jan 1714) as his second wife, Ernst Ludwig Herzog von Sachsen-Meningen.
Friedrich Kasimir & his first wife had five children:
1. FRIEDRICH (3 Apr 1682-11 Feb 1683).
2. MARIA DOROTHEA (Mitau 2 Aug 1684-Berlin 17 Jan 1743, bur Berlin Cathedral). m (Schloss Charlottenburg 31 Oct 1703) ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt zu Sonnenburg, son of FRIEDRICH WILHELM "der Grosse" Elector of Brandenburg and Herzog in Preußen & his second wife Dorothea Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (-Berlin 24 Jan 1672-Schloß Friedrichsfelde 21 Jun 1731, bur Berlin Cathedral).
3. ELEONORE CHARLOTTE (Mitau 11 Jun 1686-Bevern 28 Jul 1748, bur Braunschweig Cathedral). m (Bayreuth 5 Aug 1714) ERNST FERDINAND Herzog von Braunschweig-Bevern, son of FERDINAND ALBRECHT I Herzog von Braunschweig-Bevern & his wife Christine Landgräfin von Hessen-Eschwege (Osterholz 4 Mar 1682-Braunschweig 14 Apr 1746, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).
4. AMALIE LUISE (Mitau 23 Jul 1687-Siegen 18 Jan 1750, bur Siegen). m (Bayreuth 13 Apr 1708) as his second wife, FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF Fürst von Nassau-Siegen, son of WILHELM MORITZ Fürst von Nassau-Siegen & his wife Ernestine Charlotte Pss von Nassau-Dillenburg (Siegen 20 Feb 1680-Siegen 13 Feb 1722, bur Siegen).
5. CHRISTINA SOPHIE (5 Nov 1688-22 Apr 1694).
Friedrich Kasimir & his second wife had two children:
6. FRIEDRICH WILHELM (10 Jul 1692-Kippinghof 20 Jan 1711). He succeeded his father in 1698 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen, under the regency of his uncle Ferdinand 1698. m (St Petersburg 31 Oct/11 Nov 1710) ANNA Ivanovna Grand Princess of Russia, daughter of IVAN V Alexeievich Emperor of Russia & his wife Praskovia Feodorovna Saltikova (Moscow 28 Jan/7 Feb 1693-Winter Palace 28 Oct 1740). She succeeded her husband as Duchess of Courland 1711-1730. She succeeded in 1730 as ANNA Empress of Russia.
7. LEOPOLD KARL (14 Dec 1694-Grobin 21 Jul 1697).
1. ERNST JOHANN Biron, son of KARL von Bühren & his wife Katharina Hedwig von der Raub gt Thülen (Kalnzeen 22 Nov 1690-Mitau 28 Dec 1772). His paternal ancestral family is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln. He served at the Russian imperial court. He was created Graf von Biron by Imperial order at Vienna 2 Sep 1730. Herr zu Wartenberg in Silesia 1734. He was elected Duke of Courland and Semgallen 13 Jul 1737. First minister of Russia 1740. He was imprisoned 20 Nov 1740, banished until 1761. He entered Mitau 22 Jan 1763. Abdicated 1769. m (Mitau 25 Feb 1723) BENIGNA GOTTLIEBE von Trotta gt Treyden, daughter of LEVIN Trotta gt Treyden & his wife Elisabeth von Wildemann a.d.H. Keweln (15 Oct 1703-Mitau 5 Nov 1782, bur Mitau). Ernst Johann & his wife had three children:
a) PETER (Mitau 15 Feb 1724-Schloss Gellenau, Kr Glatz 13 Jan 1800, bur Sagan). He succeeded his father in 1769 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen. Duke of Sagan 6 Apr 1786. He abdicated 28 Mar 1795 as Duke of Courland and Semgallen at the request of Russia. m firstly (Arolsen 14 Oct 1765, divorced Mitau 26 Aug 1772) KAROLINE Pss von Waldeck, daughter of KARL Fürst von Waldeck & his wife --- (Arolsen 14 Aug 1748-Lausanne 18 Aug 1782, bur Lausanne Cathedral). m secondly (6 Mar 1774, divorced under protest 12 Jun 1778) EVDOKIA Pss Yusupova, daughter of BORIS Prince Yusupov & his wife Irina Sinovieva (16 May 1743-St Petersburg 19 Jul 1780). m thirdly (Mitau 6 Nov 1779) ANNA CHARLOTTE DOROTHEA Gräfin von Meden, daughter of JOHANN FRIEDRICH Graf von Meden zu Alt-Autz & his wife Luise Charlotte von Manteuffel gt Zoege a.d.H. Plathon (Mesothen 3 Feb 1761-Löbichau 20 Aug 1821).
- HERZOGINNEN von SAGAN.
b) other children: PRINZEN BIRON von CURLAND.
Chapter 2. ESTONIA
Denmark conquered the northern part of the present-day republic of Estonia in the early 13th century: the Icelandic Annals record that "Valdemarus rex Dannorum" waged war in Estonia in 1219. King Valdemar II established his illegitimate son as duke, although later the title was held directly by the kings of Denmark. The southern part of Estonia was conquered by the Knights of the Sword, and passed into the sphere of influence of the Teutonic Knights in the 1230s when the two orders were amalgamated. Denmark and the Knights of the Teutonic Order agreed the division of Estonia between them in the treaty of Stensby 7 Jun 1238. Estonia remained under Danish government until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic Order. The Teutonic Order conquered new lands in Livonia, Kurland and Estonia after absorbing the cathedral chapter and town of Riga in 1393.
1. KNUD Valdemarsen, illegitimate son of VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark & his mistress Helene Guttormsdotter (1211-15 Oct 1260, bur Ringsted Church). Duke at Tallinn in Estonia 1223 to 1227, and [1238-1240].
Chapter 3. LIVONIA
Albert of Buxhövden was consecrated Bishop of the Livonians in 1199, under the archiepiscopal jurisdiction of Bremen, but later as a direct vassal of the Pope. The town of Riga was founded in 1201. Livonia was conquered by the Knights of the Sword, but, as the "Terra Mariana", was established as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire by Philipp King of Germany 2 Feb 1207. It later fell under the direct jurisdiction of the Papal legate. The early 14th century Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ of Peter von Dusburg records that the Teutonic Order conquered "terra Lyvonie", dated to 1236. The following year the Order of the Knights of the Sword was amalgamated with the Teutonic Order, along with its territories, although the Knights of the Sword retained a semi-autonomous existence in the form of the Livonian Order which continued to rule a large part of Livonia and Courland, while the archbishopric of Riga ruled most of central Livonia. The Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ of Peter von Dusburg records that "rex Vithenus cum multitudines copiosa Lethowinorum" invaded "terram Lyvonie" in 1296. The Teutonic Order absorbed the cathedral chapter and town of Riga in 1393 and conquered new lands in Livonia, Kurland and Estonia. After the battle of Swienta 1 Sep 1435, the Livonian Order and the Livonian ecclesiastical authorities, together with city representatives, signed the Livonian Confederation agreement 4 Dec 1435.
Chapter 4. PRUSSIA
As noted in the Introduction to this document, the term "Prussia" was originally the name given loosely to the whole geographic area covered by the eastern Baltic states. The early 14th century Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ of Peter von Dusburg describes "terra Prussie" as including "Wiselam, mare salsum, Memelam, terram Russie, ducatum Masovie et ducatum Dobrinensem", with the river "Wisela" dividing Poland and Pomerania from Prussia. At that time, the term represented no political entity. In 1511, Albrecht von Brandenburg, younger son of Friedrich V Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach und Bayreuth and his wife Zofia of Poland, was appointed Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. After the Order was secularised in 1525, Albrecht declared himself Duke of Prussia, under the suzerainty of his maternal uncle Zygmunt I King of Poland, and converted to Lutheranism. His rule was confined to the area south-west of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with Königsberg as its capital. His grand-daughter Anna, daughter and heiress of Albrecht Friedrich Duke of Prussia, married Johann Sigismund Kurprinz von Brandenburg who in 1608 succeeded as Elector of Brandenburg and in 1618 inherited the duchy of Prussia on the death of his father-in-law. The Treaty of Wehlau 19 Sep 1657 confirmed the independence of the duchy of Prussia from the kingdom of Poland, and 18 Jan 1701 Friedrich III Elector of Brandenburg was proclaimed King of Prussia at Königsberg, a title which was recognised by the emperor and became the main title by which the family was known until 1871.
A. DUKES of PRUSSIA [HERZOGEN in PREUßEN] 1525-1618
ALBRECHT von Brandenburg, son of FRIEDRICH V "der Ältere" Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach & his wife Zofia of Poland (Ansbach 17 May 1490-Schloß Tappiau 20 Mar 1568, bur Königsberg Cathedral). Botho’s Chronicon Brunsvicensium Picturatum names “Casimirum, Jeorium, Albertum et Fredericum” as the four sons of “Marggreve Frederick, Marggreven Albrechtes sone, des Korforsten to Brandenborch unde Borchgreve to Nurenbarge” and his wife. Canon at Würzburg cathedral 1507/11. Canon at Mainz cathedral 1509/11. Canon of St Gereon at Köln until 1511. Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights 1511, until 1525 when he secularised the order, married, and declared himself Duke of Prussia [Herzog in Preußen] under the suzerainty of the king of Poland.
m firstly (Königsberg 1 Jul 1526) DOROTHEA of Denmark, daughter of FREDERIK I King of Denmark & his first wife Anna von Brandenburg (1 Aug 1504-Königsberg Schloß 11 Apr 1547, bur Königsberg Cathedral).
m secondly (Königsberg 26 Feb 1550) ANNA MARIE von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, daughter of ERICH I Herzog von Braunschweig-Calenberg & his second wife Elisabeth von Brandenburg (23 Apr 1532-Schloß Neuhausen bei Königsberg 20 Mar 1568, bur Königsberg Cathedral).
Albrecht & his first wife had six children:
1. ANNA SOPHIE (Königsberg 11 Jun 1527-Lübz 6 Feb 1591, bur Schwerin Cathedral). m (Wismar 24 Feb 1555) JOHANN ALBRECHT I Herzog von Mecklenburg-Güstrow, son of ALBRECHT VII Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin in Güstrow & his wife Anna von Brandenburg (Güstrow 23 Dec 1525-Schwerin 12 Feb 1576, bur Schwerin Cathedral).
2. KATHARINA (b and d [24 Feb 1528]).
3. FRIEDRICH ALBRECHT (5 Dec 1529-1 Jan 1530).
4. LUCIA DOROTHEA (8 Apr 1531-1 Jan 1532).
5. LUCIA (Königsberg 3 Feb 1537-early May 1539).
6. ALBRECHT (b and d Mar 1539).
Albrecht & his second wife had two children:
7. ELISABETH (20 May 1551-Königsberg Schloß 19 Feb 1596, bur Königsberg Cathedral).
8. ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH (Schloß Neuhausen near Königsberg 29 Apr 1553-Fischhausen 27/28 Aug 1618, bur Königsberg). He succeeded his father in 1568 as ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH Duke of Prussia [Herzog in Preußen]. He was afflicted by madness from 1573. In 1577, the King of Poland designated his cousin Georg Friedrich Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach as regent. After the latter's death, Joachim Friedrich Elector of Brandenburg succeeded as regent in 1605, being replaced by his son Johann Sigismund after his death. m (Königsberg 14 Oct 1573) MARIE ELEONORE Herzogin von Jülich, daughter of WILHELM "der Reiche" Herzog von Kleve Jülich und Berg, Graf von der Mark und Ravensberg & his wife Maria Archduchess of Austria (Kleve 15/16 Jun 1550-1 Jun 1608). Albrecht Friedrich & his wife had seven children:
a) ANNA (Königsberg 3 Jul 1576-Berlin 9/10 Apr 1625, bur Königsberg Cathedral). Heiress of Prussia and, through her mother, of the duchies of Kleve, Jülich and Berg. m (Königsberg 30 Oct 1594) JOHANN SIGISMUND Kurprinz von Brandenburg, son of JOACHIM FRIEDRICH Elector of Brandenburg & his first wife Katharina von Brandenburg (Halle an der Saale 8 Nov 1572-Berlin 23 Dec 1619/2 Jan 1620, bur Berlin Cathedral). He succeeded his father in 1608 as JOHANN SIGISMUND Elector of Brandenburg.
b) MARIE (Königsberg Schloß 23 Jan 1579-Bayreuth 21 Feb 1649, bur Bayreuth Stadtkirche). m (Plassenburg 9 May 1604) CHRISTIAN Markgraf von Brandenburg in Bayreuth, son of JOHANN GEORGE “Oeconomus” Elector of Brandenburg & his third wife Elisabeth von Anhalt-Zerbst (Berlin 30 Jan 1581-Bayreuth 9 Jun 1655, bur Bayreuth Stadtkirche).
c) ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH (Königsberg Schloß 1 Jun 1580-Schloß Neuhausen 8 Oct 1580, bur Königsberg Schloßkirche).
d) SOPHIE (31 Mar 1582-Schloß Goldingen 4 Dec 1610). m (5 Jan 1609) WILHELM Duke of Courland, son of GOTTHARD Ketteler Duke of Courland and Semgallen & his wife Anna Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Güstrow (20 Jul 1574-7 Apr 1640).
e) ELEONORE (22 Aug 1583-Berlin 9 Apr 1607, bur Berlin Cathedral). m (Berlin 2 Nov 1603) as his second wife, JOACHIM FRIEDRICH Elector of Brandenburg, son of JOHANN GEORGE “Oeconomus” Elector of Brandenburg & his first wife Sophie von Liegnitz (Berlin 27 Jan 1546-near Köpenick 28 Jul 1608, bur Berlin Cathedral).
f) WILHELM FRIEDRICH (23 Jun 1585-Königsberg Schloß 18 Jan 1586, bur Königsberg Cathedral).
g) MAGDALENE SIBYLLE (Königsberg Schloß 30 Dec 1586-Dresden 12 Feb 1659, bur Freiburg Cathedral). m (Torgau 19 Jul 1607) as his second wife, JOHANN GEORG von Sachsen, son of CHRISTIAN I Elector of Saxony & his wife Sophie Markgräfin von Brandenburg (Dresden 5 Mar 1585-Dresden 8 Oct 1656, bur Freiberg). He succeeded his brother in 1611 as JOHANN GEORG I Elector of Saxony.
B. KINGS in PRUSSIA [KÖNIGEN in PREUßEN] 1701-1772, KINGS of PRUSSIA 1772-1797
FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of FRIEDRICH WILHELM "der Grosse" Elector of Brandenburg and Herzog in Preußen & his first wife Luise Henriette Pss van Oranje, Gräfin von Nassau (Schloß Königsberg 1/11 Jul 1657-Berlin 25 Feb 1713, bur Berlin Cathedral). Kurprinz von Brandenburg. Statthalter of Kleve. He succeeded his father in 1688 as FRIEDRICH III Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia [Herzog in Preußen]. He was proclaimed FRIEDRICH I King in Prussia [König in Preußen] at Königsberg 18 Jan 1701, and was recognised as such by the Emperor.
m firstly (Schloß Potsdam 13/23 Aug 1679) ELISABETH HENRIETTE Landgräfin von Hessen-Kassel, daughter of WILHELM VI Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel & his wife Hedwig Sophie Markgräfin von Brandenburg (Schloß Kassel 8/18 Nov 1661-Schloß Berlin 27 Jun 1683, bur Berlin Cathedral).
m secondly (Schloß Herrenhausen 29 Sep/8 Oct 1684) SOPHIE CHARLOTTE Pss von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Hannover, daughter of ERNST AUGUST Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg zu Hannover (Schloß Iburg 10 Oct 1668-Schloß Hannover 1 Feb 1705, bur Berlin Cathedral).
m thirdly (by proxy Schwerin 19 Nov 1708, in person Berlin Cathedral 28 Nov 1708) SOPHIE LUISE Herzogin zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of FRIEDRICH I Herzog zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin zu Grabow (Schloß Grabow 6/16 May 1685-Schloß Schwerin 29 Jul 1735, bur Schwerin Nicolaikirche).
Friedrich III/I & his first wife had one child:
1. LUISE DOROTHEA SOPHIE (Schloß Berlin 29 Sep 1680-Schloß Kassel 23 Dec 1705, bur Kassel St Martin). m (Berlin 31 May 1700) as his first wife, FRIEDRICH Erblandgraf von Hessen-Kassel, son of KARL Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel & his wife Marie Anna Pss of Courland (23 Apr 1676-Stockholm 5 Apr 1751, bur Stockholm Riddarholmskyrka). He was proclaimed FREDERIK King of Sweden in 1720. He succeeded in 1730 as FRIEDRICH I Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel.
Friedrich III/I & his second wife had two children:
2. FRIEDRICH AUGUST (Schloß Berlin 27 Sep/6 Oct 1685-Schloß Berlin 21/31 Jan 1686, bur Berlin Cathedral).
3. FRIEDRICH WILHELM (Cölln an der Spree 14 Aug 1688-Schloß Potsdam 31 May 1740, bur Potsdam Garnisonkirche, transferred 1993 Berlin Cathedral). Statthalter der Kurmark 1703. He succeeded his father in 1713 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM I King in Prussia. m (Berlin 28 Nov 1706) SOPHIA DOROTHEA Pss von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Hannover, daughter of GEORG LUDWIG Elector of Hannover [later GEORGE I King of Great Britain] & his wife Sophie Dorothea Herzogin von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle (Hannover 16/26 Mar 1687-Schloß Monbijou, near Berlin 28 Jun 1757, bur Potsdam Garnisonkirche, transferred 1993 Berlin Cathedral). Friedrich Wilhelm & his wife had fourteen children:
a) FRIEDRICH LUDWIG (Schloß Berlin 23 Nov 1707-Schloß Berlin 13 May 1708, bur Berlin Cathedral). Fürst von Oranien (Orange).
b) WILHELMINE (Schloß Berlin 3 Jul 1709-Schloß Bayreuth 14 Oct 1758, bur Bayreuth Schloßkirche). m (Schloß Berlin 20 Nov 1731) as his first wife, FRIEDRICH Erbmarkgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, son of GEORG FRIEDRICH KARL Markgraf von Brandenburg in Bayreuth & his wife Dorothea Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (Weferlingen 10 May 1711-Bayreuth 26 Feb 1763, bur Bayreuth Schloßkirche). He succeeded his father in 1735 as FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
c) FRIEDRICH WILHELM (Schloß Berlin 16 Aug 1710-Schloß Berlin 31 Jul 1711, bur Berlin Cathedral). Fürst von Oranien (Orange).
d) FRIEDRICH (Schloß Berlin 24 Jan 1712-Schloß Sans-Souci, near Potsdam 17 Aug 1786, bur 1993 Schloß Sans-Souci). He succeeded his father in 1740 as FRIEDRICH II "der Grosse" King in Prussia. Following the Peace of Berlin 28 Jul 1742 (confirmed by the Treaty of Ratibor 6 Dec 1742), Maria Theresia Queen of Hungary and Bohemia ceded to Prussia both Upper and Lower Silesia. As a result, Friedrich II became “souverainer und oberster Herzog von Schlesien” 31 Jul 1742. In 1744, he took possession of the principality of Ostfriesland on the death of its last prince. By the Treaty of Partition of Poland, St Petersburg 5 Aug 1772, Prussia received the territory of West Prussia. As the possessor of the whole of Prussia, Friedrich II took the title King of Prussia (König von Preußen) 13 Sep 1772. m (Schloß Salzdalum, near Wolfenbüttel 12 Jun 1733) ELISABETH CHRISTINE Pss von Braunschweig-Bevern, daughter of FERDINAND ALBRECHT II Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg zu Bevern [later FERDINAND ALBRECHT I Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel] & his wife Antoinette Amalie Pss von Braunschweig-Blankenburg (Schloß Bevern, Wolfenbüttel 8 Nov 1715-Niederschönhausen, near Berlin 13 Jan 1797, bur Berlin Cathedral).
e) CHARLOTTE ALBERTINE (Schloß Berlin 5 May 1713-Schloß Berlin 10 Jun 1714, bur Berlin Cathedral).
f) FRIEDERIKE LUISE (Schloß Berlin 28 Sep 1714-Schloß Schwaningen 4 Feb 1784, bur Ansbach Stadtkirche). m (Schloß Berlin 30 May 1729) KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach, son of WILHELM FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach & his wife Christiane Charlotte Herzogin von Württemberg (Ansbach 12 May 1712-killed in a hunting accident Gunzenhausen 3 Aug 1757, bur Ansbach).
g) PHILIPPINE CHARLOTTE (Schloß Berlin 13 Mar 1716-Schloß Braunschweig 17 Feb 1801, bur Braunschweig Cathedral). m (Berlin 2 Jul 1733) KARL Erbherzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg zu Wolfenbüttel, son of FERDINAND ALBRECHT II Herzog von Braunschweig-Bevern [later FERDINAND ALBRECHT I Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel] & his wife Antoinette Amalie Pss von Braunschweig-Blankenburg (Braunschweig 1 Aug 1713-Braunschweig 26 Mar 1780, bur Braunschweig Cathedral). He succeeded in 1735 as KARL Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg zu Wolfenbüttel.
h) LUDWIG KARL WILHELM (Schloß Berlin 2 May 1717-Schloß Berlin 31 Aug 1719, bur Berlin Cathedral).
i) SOPHIE DOROTHEA (Schloß Berlin 25 Jan 1719-Schloß Schwedt 13 Nov 1765, bur Schwedt Stadtkirche). m (Schloß Potsdam 10 Nov 1734) FRIEDRICH WILHELM Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt, son of PHILIPP WILHELM Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt & his wife Johanna Charlotte Pss von Anhalt-Dessau (Oranienbaum 27 Dec 1700-Schloß Wildenbruch 4 Mar 1771, bur Schwedt Stadtkirche).
j) LUISE ULRIKE (Schloß Berlin 24 Jul 1720-Svartsjö castle, on an island in Lake Mälar, Sweden 2 Jul 1782, bur Stockholm Riddarholmskyrkan). m (by proxy Berlin 17 Jul 1744, in person Drottningholm 29 Aug 1744) ADOLF FRIEDRICH Herzog von Holstein-Eutin, son of CHRISTIAN AUGUST Herzog von Holstein-Eutin & his wife Albertine Friederike Markgräfin von Baden-Durlach (Gottorf 14 May 1710-Stockholm 12 Apr 1771). Crown Prince of Sweden 1743. He succeeded in 1751 as ADOLF FREDERIK King of Sweden.
k) AUGUST WILHELM (Berlin 9 Aug 1722-Schloß Oranienburg 12 Jun 1758, bur Berlin Cathedral). Statthalter of Pomerania 1731. King Friedrich II declared August heir presumptive to the throne of Prussia 30 Jun 1744, with the title “August Prince of Prussia”. General of Infantry in the Prussian army. m (Schloß Berlin 6 Jan 1742) LUISE AMALIE Pss von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of FERDINAND ALBRECHT I Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his wife Antoinette Amalie Pss von Braunschweig-Blankenburg (Schloß Bevern, Wolfenbüttel 29 Jan 1722-Schloß Berlin 13 Jan 1780, bur Berlin Cathedral). August Wilhelm & his wife had four children:
- see below.
ii) FRIEDRICH KARL (Prinzliches Palais, Berlin 30 Dec 1747-Schloß Protzen, near Fehrbellin 26 May 1767, bur Berlin Cathedral).
iii) FRIEDERIKE SOPHIE WILHELMINE (Prinzliches Palais, Berlin 7 Aug 1751-Het Loo Castle, near Apeldoorn Netherlands 9 Jun 1820, bur Apeldoorn, transferred to Delft 27 Nov 1822). m (Berlin 4 Oct 1767) WILLEM V Prince of Orange-Nassau, Stadhouder of the United Provinces, Fürst von Nassau-Diez, son of WILLEM IV Prince of Orange-Nassau, Stadhouder of the United Provinces & his wife Anne Pss Royal of Great Britain, Ireland and Hannover (The Hague 8 Mar 1748-Braunschweig 9 Apr 1806, bur Braunschweig, transferred to Delft 29 Apr 1958).
iv) EMIL (Schloß Magdeburg 30 Oct 1758-Berlin 15 Feb 1759, bur Berlin Cathedral).
l) ANNA AMALIE (Schloß Berlin 9 Nov 1723-Wilhelmstraßepalais, Berlin 30 Mar 1787, bur Berlin Cathedral). Abbess of Quedlinburg 16 Jul 1755.
m) HEINRICH (Schloß Berlin 18 Jan 1726-Schloß Rheinsberg 3 Aug 1802, Rheinsberg Monument in Garten). General of Infantry in the Prussian army. m (Charlottenburg 25 Jun 1752) WILHELMINE Landgräfin von Hessen-Kassel, daughter of MAXIMILIAN Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel & his wife Friederike Charlotte Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Schloß Kassel 25 Feb 1726-Berlin 8 Oct 1808, bur Berlin Cathedral).
n) AUGUST FERDINAND (Schloß Berlin 23 May 1730-Wilhelmstraßepalais, Berlin 2 May 1813, bur Berlin Cathedral). m (Schloß Charlottenburg 27 Sep 1755) his niece, ANNA ELISABETH LUISE Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Schwedt, daughter of FRIEDRICH WILHELM Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt & his wife Sophie Pss of Prussia (Schloß Schwedt 22 Apr 1738-Prinzliches Palais, Berlin 10 Feb 1820, bur Berlin Cathedral). August & [his wife] had seven children [it is said that, of his children, all but the first daughter were fathered by Karl Graf von Schmettau (1742-1806)]:
i) ELISABETH (Magdeburg 1 Nov 1761-Prinzliches Palais, Berlin 28 Aug 1773, bur Berlin Cathedral).
ii) HEINRICH (Wilhelmplatzpalais, Berlin 20 Oct 1769-Schloß Friedrichsfelde, near Berlin 8 Dec 1773, bur Berlin Cathedral).
iii) LUISE (Prinzliches Palais, Berlin 24 May 1770-Radziwiłłpalais Berlin 7 Dec 1836, bur Antonin, Posen Province). Coadjutrix at Herford 1794. m (Berlin 17 Mar 1796) ANTON HENRYK Prinz Radziwiłł, son of MICHAEL HIERONYMUS Prinz Radziwiłł Herzog von Nieświcź, Herzog von Olyko & his wife Helena Przezdziecka (13 Jun 1775-Berlin 7 Apr 1833). Statthalter [Governor] of the Grand Duchy of Poznan.
iv) CHRISTIAN (Schloß Friedrichsfelde 11 Nov 1771-Wilhelmplatzpalais, Berlin 8 Oct 1790, bur Berlin Cathedral). Coadjutor of the Knights of the Order of St John at Sonnenburg 1786. Lieutenant Colonel in the Prussian army.
v) LOUIS (Schloß Friedrichsfelde 18 Nov 1772-killed in action Saalfeld 10 Oct 1806, bur 1815 Berlin Cathedral). Provost at Magdeburg cathedral 1802. Lieutenant General in the Prussian army. Mistress (1): HENRIETTE Fromme, daughter of ---. Louis had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):
- VON WILDENBRUCH.
vi) PAUL (Schloß Friedrichsfelde 29 Nov 1776-Schloß Friedrichsfelde 2 Dec 1776, bur Berlin Cathedral).
vii) AUGUST (Schloß Friedrichsfelde 19 Sep 1779-Bromberg 19 Jul 1843, bur Berlin Cathedral). General of Infantry and Chief of Artillery in the Prussian army. Mistress (1): KAROLINE FRIEDERIKE Wichmann, daughter of JOHANN FRIEDRICH Joost Wichmann [builder at Potsdam] & his wife Anna Dorothea Dechwitz [or Teichwitz] (chr Potsdam St Nicolai 25 Oct 1781-Rome 1 Jan 1844, bur Berlin Dorotheenstädtische Kirche). She was ennobled in Prussia as "Frau von Waldenburg" at Berlin 28 Sep 1810. Mistress (2): AUGUSTA Arend, daughter of --- (Berlin 10 Jul 1801-Prillwitz 26 May 1834). She was ennobled in Prussia as "von Prillwitz" 12 Jul 1825. Mistress (3): EDWINA Viereck, daughter of ---. August had illegitimate children by his three mistresses:
- VON WALDENBURG, VON PRILLWITZ, VIERECK.
FRIEDRICH WILHELM Prince of Prussia, son of AUGUST WILHELM Prince of Prussia & his wife Luise Pss von Braunschweig-Bevern (Prinzliches Palais, Berlin 25 Sep 1744-Marmorpalais, Potsdam 16 Nov 1797, bur Potsdam Garnisonkirche). He succeeded his uncle in 1786 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM II King of Prussia. He inherited Ansbach and Bayreuth in 1791 on the death of his distant cousin.
m firstly (Schloß Charlottenburg 14 Jul 1765, divorced 21 Apr 1769) his first cousin, ELISABETH Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of KARL I Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg zu Wolfenbüttel & his wife Philippine Charlotte Pss of Prussia (Schloß Wolfenbüttel 8 Nov 1746-Landhaus Friedrichsgnade, near Stettin 18 Feb 1840, bur 1849 Stettin Schloßkirche).
m secondly (by proxy Darmstadt 5 Jul 1769, in person Schloß Charlottenburg 14 Jul 1769) FRIEDERIKE LUISE Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt, daughter of LUDWIG IX Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt & his first wife Karoline Henriette Christine Pfalzgräfin von Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (Prenzlau 16 Oct 1751-Schloß Monbijou, Berlin 25 Feb 1805, bur Berlin Cathedral).
Mistress (1): WILHELMINE Enke, daughter of JOHANN ELIAS Enke & his wife Maria Susanna Schnetzer (Dessau 19 Dec 1753-Berlin 9 Jun 1820). She was created Gräfin von Lichtenau by the King of Prussia 28 Apr 1795, backdated to 20 Apr 1794. She married firstly (1781, divorced 1795) Johann Friedrich Ritz, and by him was ancestor of the family von Ritz-Lichtenau, and married secondly (Breslau 3 May 1802, divorced 9 Aug 1810) Franz Xaver Ignaz von Holbein (-5 Sep 1855), Director of the Hofburg Theatre (his stage name was “Fortuno”) who was created Herr von Holbeinsberg 30 Nov 1852 in Austria.
Mistress (2): JULIE AMALIE ELISABETH von Voss, daughter of FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN von Voss & his wife Amalie Ottilie von Viaregg (-Berlin 2 Jan 1789). Friedrich Wilhelm II married her bigamously (22 Dec 1786). She was ennobled in Prussia as Gräfin von Ingenheim 12 Nov 1787.
Mistress (3): JULIANE Gräfin von Dönhoff, daughter of FRIEDRICH WILHELM Graf von Dönhoff & his wife Anna Sophie Charlotte Freiin von Langermann (17 Oct 1768-1831). Friedrich Wilhelm II married her bigamously (11 Apr 1790, repudiated Nov 1793).
Friedrich Wilhelm II & his first wife had one child:
1. FRIEDERIKE (Potsdam 7 May 1767-Oatlands Park, Weybridge, Surrey 6 Aug 1820, bur Weybridge). m (Charlottenburg, Berlin 29 Sep 1791, London 24 Nov 1791) FREDERICK AUGUSTUS Duke of York, son of GEORGE III King of Great Britain & his wife Charlotte Pss zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz (St James’s Palace 16 Aug 1763-Rutland House, Arlington Street, London 5 Jan 1827, bur St George’s Chapel Windsor).
Friedrich Wilhelm II & his second wife had eight children:
2. FRIEDRICH WILHELM (Potsdam 3 Aug 1770-Berlin 7 Jun 1840, bur Charlottenburg Mausoleum). He succeeded his father in 1797 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM III King of Prussia. m firstly (Berlin 24 Dec 1793) LUISE Pss zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz, daughter of KARL LUDWIG FRIEDRICH Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz [later KARL II Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz] & his first wife Friederike Karoline Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Hannover 10 Mar 1776-Schloß Hohenzieritz, Mecklenburg-Strelitz 19 Jul 1810, bur Charlottenburg Mausoleum). m secondly (Schloß Charlottenburg 9 Nov 1824) AUGUSTE Gräfin von Harrach, daughter of FERDINAND Graf von Harrach & his wife Christiane von Rayski (Dresden 30 Aug 1800-Homburg vor der Höhe 5 Jun 1873, bur Charlottenburg Mausoleum). She was ennobled in Prussia as Fürstin von Liegnitz and Gräfin von Hohenzollern at Berlin 8 Nov 1824.
- KINGS of PRUSSIA 1797-1871, EMPERORS of GERMANY 1871-1918.
3. CHRISTINE (Potsdam 31 Aug 1772-Potsdam 14 Jun 1773, bur Berlin Cathedral).
4. LUDWIG (Potsdam 5 Nov 1773-Prinzessinenpalais, Berlin 28 Dec 1796, bur Berlin Cathedral). Major General of Cavalry in the Prussian army. m (Berlin 26 Dec 1793) as her first husband, FRIEDERIKE Pss zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz, daughter of KARL LUDWIG FRIEDRICH Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz [later KARL II Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz] & his first wife Friederike Karoline Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Hannover 2 Mar 1778-Hannover 29 Jun 1841, bur Herrenhausen Mausoleum). She married secondly (possibly Potsdam 7 Jan 1799, divorced 20 Feb 1814) Friedrich Prinz zu Solms-Braunfels (-Slawentzitz 13 Apr 1814), and thirdly (Neustrelitz 29 May 1815 and Carlton House 29 Aug 1815) Ernest Augustus Duke of Cumberland, who succeeded in 1837 as King of Hannover.
- PRINCES of PRUSSIA.
5. WILHELMINE (Potsdam 18 Nov 1774-The Hague 12 Oct 1837, bur Delft). m (Berlin 1 Oct 1791) WILLEM Prins van Oranje-Nassau, son of WILLEM V Prince of Orange-Nassau, Fürst von Nassau-Diez, Stadhouder of the United Provinces & his wife Friederike Sophie Wilhelmine Pss of Prussia (The Hague 24 Aug 1772-Berlin 12 Dec 1843, bur Delft). He was proclaimed WILLEM I King of the Netherlands in 1815.
6. son stillborn (29 Nov 1777).
7. AUGUSTA (Potsdam 1 May 1780-Bellevuepalais, Kassel 19 Feb 1841, bur Kassel). m (Berlin 13 Feb 1797) as his first wife, WILHELM Prinz von Hessen-Kassel, son of WILHELM IX Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel [later WILHELM I Elector of Hessen] & his wife Caroline Pss of Denmark (Hanau 28 Jul 1777-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Nov 1847, bur Hanau Marienkirche). He succeeded his father in 1821 as WILHELM II Elector of Hessen.
8. HEINRICH (Berlin 30 Dec 1781-Rome 12 Jul 1846, bur Berlin Cathedral). General of Infantry in the Prussian army. Grand Master of the Prussian Order of St John.
9. WILHELM (Potsdam 3 Jul 1783- Berlin 28 Sep 1851, bur Berlin Cathedral). General of Cavalry in the Prussian army. Governor-General of the province of the Rhine 1830. Governor of the Fortress of Mainz 1834. m (Berlin 12 Jan 1804) MARIE ANNA Landgräfin von Hessen-Homburg, daughter of FRIEDRICH V LUDWIG Landgraf von Hessen-Homburg & his wife Karoline Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Schloß Homburg 13 Oct 1785-Schloß Berlin 14 Apr 1846, bur Berlin Cathedral).
- PRINCES of PRUSSIA.
Friedrich Wilhelm II had five illegitimate children by Mistress (1):
10. daughter (b and d Falkenhagen 10 Aug 1770).
11. ULRIKE SOPHIE WILHELMINE von Berckholzen (Potsdam Mar 1774-Berlin 5 Sep 1774).
12. CHRISTINA SOPHIE FRIEDERIKE von Lützenburg (Potsdam 25 Aug 1777-Berlin 31 Aug 1777).
13. ALEXANDER (Potsdam 4 Jan 1779-Potsdam 1 Aug 1787). He was created Graf von der Marck 25 Jan 1787 by Prussian decree.
14. MARIANNE (Potsdam 29 Feb 1780-Paris 11 Jun 1814). She was created Gräfin von der Marck 25 Jan 1787, by Prussian decree. m firstly (17 Mar 1797, divorced 1799) as his first wife, FRIEDRICH KARL Erbgraf zu Stolberg-Stolberg, son of KARL LUDWIG Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg & his wife Charlotte Gräfin von Flemming (Stolberg 12 Nov 1769-Darmstadt 23 Dec 1805). m secondly (14 Nov 1801, divorced 1807) KASPAR von Miaskowski, son of --- (-9 May 1820). m thirdly (1807) ETIENNE de Thierry, son of --- (-Paris 8 Dec 1843). Chevalier de l’Empire 12 Feb 1812.
Friedrich Wilhelm II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2):
15. GUSTAV ADOLF Graf von Ingenheim (2 Jan 1789-Wiesbaden 4 May 1855). m (23 May 1826) his niece, EUGENIE CONSTANCE de Thierry von der Mark, daughter of ETIENNE de Thierry & his wife Marianne Gräfin von der Mark (24 Nov 1808-17 Mar 1881).
- GRAFEN von INGENHEIM.
Friedrich Wilhelm II had two illegitimate children by Mistress (3):
16. FRIEDRICH WILHELM (Berlin 24 Jan 1792-Berlin 6 Nov 1850). He was ennobled in Prussia as Graf von Brandenburg 6 Jul 1795. Prussian Minister-President. m (24 May 1818) MATHILDE von Massenbach, daughter of KARL CHRISTOPH WILHELM von Massenbach & his wife Amalie Henrietta von Gualtieri (24 Oct 1795-Berlin 5 Mar 1885).
- GRAFEN von BRANDENBURG.
17. JULIE (Neuchâtel 4 Jan 1793-Vienna 27 or 29 Jan 1848). She was ennobled in Prussia as Gräfin von Brandenburg 6 Jul 1795. m (Berlin 20 May 1816) as his second wife, FRIEDRICH FERDINAND Fürst von Anhalt-Köthen-Pless, son of FRIEDRICH ERDMANN Prinz von Anhalt-Köthen & his wife Luise Ferdinanda Gräfin zu Stolberg-Wernigerode (Pless 25 Jun 1769-Köthen 23 Aug 1830, bur Köthen Katholische Kirche). He succeeded his second cousin in 1818 as FRIEDRICH FERDINAND Herzog von Anhalt-Köthen.
 Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), p. 18.
 Haverkamp (1988), p. 19.
 Huillard-Bréholles, J. L. A. (ed.) (1852) Historia Diplomatica Friderici Secundi (Paris) Tome II, Pars I, p. 549, and Haverkamp (1988), p. 20.
 Haverkamp (1988), pp. 19 and 20.
 Hirsch, T, Töppen, M, Strehlke, E. (eds.) (1861) Scriptores rerum Prussicarum, Band I (Leipzig), Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 50.
 Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), p. 131.
 Haverkamp (1988), p. 20.
 Leuschner (1980), p. 131.
 Leuschner (1980), p. 134.
 Leuschner (1980), p. 135.
 Bunge, F. G. von (1853, 1855, 1857) Liv-, Esth- und Curländisches Urkundenbuch nebst Regesten, Bänder I, II, III (Reval) (available in Google Book).
 Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 96.
 Leuschner (1980), p. 134.
 ES VIII 91.
 ES VIII 91 (no details of their descendants shown).
 ES I.3 377.
 ES I.3 377.
 ES I.3 377-8.
 Íslenzkir Annálar sive Annales Islandici (Copenhagen, 1847) ("Annales Islandici"), 1219, p. 95.
 Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84), p. 242, footnote 45.
 Haverkamp (1988), p. 20.
 Leuschner (1980), p. 134.
 Bilmanis, A. (1944) Latvia-Russian Relations: documents, p. 10 (available in Snippet View in Google Book).
 Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 65.
 Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 163.
 Leuschner (1980), p. 134.
 Chronicon Terræ Prussiæ Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 50.
 Leibnitz, G. W. (1711) Scriptorum Brunsvicensia illustrantium, Tome III (Hannover), Chronicon Brunsvicensium, p. 420.