BAVARIA, dukes

  v2.0 Updated 14 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.            DUKES of BAVARIA, AGILOLFING families 5

THEODO I -514, THEODO II 514- 6

GARIBALD I [555]-[591] 6

TASSILO I [591]-609, GARIBALD II 609- 9

THEODO III [640], THEODO IV, THEODEBERT [670] 10

THEODO V -718, THEODEBERT 718-724, GRIMOALD 718-728, THEODOALD 718, HUGOBERT 724-739. 11

ODILO 739-748, TASSILO II 748-788. 14

Chapter 2.            MARKGRAFEN in BAVARIA 9th CENTURY. 17

A.       MARKGRAF in BAVARIA (ENGELDEO) 17

ENGELDEO [890]-895. 17

B.       MARKGRAF in BAVARIA (LUITPOLD) 18

LUITPOLD 895-907. 18

Chapter 3.            DUKES of BAVARIA (LUITPOLDINGE) 18

BERTHOLD 938-947, HEINRICH III 985-989. 18

ARNULF 908-937, EBERHARD 937-938. 22

Chapter 4.            DUKES of BAVARIA, SAXON KINGS of GERMANY [OTTONEN] 27

HEINRICH I 947-955, OTTO 976-982. 27

HEINRICH II 955-976/985-995, HEINRICH IV 995-1004/1009-1017. 29

Chapter 5.            DUKES of BAVARIA (LUXEMBOURG) 34

HEINRICH V 1004-1009/1017-1024, HEINRICH VII 1042-1047. 34

Chapter 6.              DUKES of BAVARIA (WAIBLINGE KINGS of GERMANY) 35

HEINRICH VI 1027-1042/1047-1049, HEINRICH VIII 1053-1054, KONRAD II 1054-1055, AGNES 1056-1061. 35

Chapter 7.            DUKE of BAVARIA (ZÜTPHEN) 36

KONRAD I 1049-1053. 36

Chapter 8.            DUKE of BAVARIA (GRAFEN von NORTHEIM) 37

OTTO 1061-1070. 37

Chapter 9.            DUKES of BAVARIA (WELF) 37

WELF I 1070-1077/1096-1101, WELF II 1101-1120, HEINRICH IX 1120-1126, HEINRICH X 1126-1138, HEINRICH XII 1156-1180. 37

HEINRICH 1120-1126, WELF VI 1139-1191. 41

Chapter 10.           DUKES of BAVARIA (BABENBERG) 46

LEOPOLD 1139-1141, HEINRICH XI 1143-1156. 46

Chapter 11.           DUKES of BAVARIA (WITTELSBACH) 46

A.       DUKES of BAVARIA 1180-1294. 46

OTTO I 1180-1183, LUDWIG I 1183-1231. 47

OTTO II 1231-1253, LUDWIG II 1253-1294, HEINRICH I 1253-1290. 51

B.       DUKES of LOWER BAVARIA 1180-1340. 58

HEINRICH I 1255-1290, OTTO III 1290-1312, LUDWIG III 1290-1296, STEFAN I 1290-1310, HEINRICH II 1310-1339, OTTO IV 1310-1334, HEINRICH III 1312-1333, JOHANN I 1339-1340. 58

C.      DUKES of UPPER BAVARIA 1304-1340, DUKES of BAVARIA.. 67

LUDWIG IV 1304-1347, LUDWIG V 1347-1361, STEFAN II 1347-1375, LUDWIG VI 1347-1351, WILHELM I 1347-1388, OTTO V 1347-1351. 67

D.      DUKES of BAVARIA, DUKES of BAVARIA-INGOLSTADT, DUKES of BAVARIA-LANDSHUT. 73

STEFAN II 1347-1375, STEFAN III 1375-1413, LUDWIG VII 1413-1443, LUDWIG VIII 1443-1445. 73

FRIEDRICH 1375-1393, HEINRICH IV 1393-1450, LUDWIG IX 1450-1479, GEORG 1479-1503. 77

LUDWIG IX 1450-1479, GEORG 1479-1503. 80

E.       DUKES of BAVARIA-MUNICH, DUKES of BAVARIA.. 82

JOHANN II 1375-1397, WILHELM III 1397-1435, ADOLF 1435-1440. 82

ERNST I 1397-1438, ALBRECHT III 1438-1460, JOHANN IV 1460-1463, SIGMUND 1460-1503. 83

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Bavaria was the only one of the four original provinces of Germany to maintain an autonomous existence within part of its original territory throughout the medieval and into the modern period.  Formed as a Frankish protectorate by the Merovingians, and ruled by the dukes of the Agilolfing family, Bavaria was more or less independent from the mid-7th century.  The Carolingians were less tolerant of this situation and invaded Bavaria in 724, 743 and 749[1].  Charles I King of the Franks finally conquered the duchy of Bavaria in 788, forcing the abdication of the last Agilolfing Duke Tassilo II.  Bavaria was incorporated into the Frankish kingdom as a province, and was a sub-kingdom of the Carolingian Frankish empire from 814. 

 

After more than two centuries as a province in the Frankish empire, the Luitpolding family reasserted Bavarian autonomy in the early 10th century, by which time the central power of the Carolingians was in significant decline.  Luitpold, the earliest known definite ancestor of the family, was related to Emperor Arnulf (although the precise relationship is unknown) who installed him in Bavaria in [895/98].  Some contemporary sources attribute the title dux to Luitpold and his son Arnulf, although others refer to them as comes.  It is clear that the title dux was not at first formally recognised by the central authority of the kings of Germany as the early dukes are consistently referred to as comes in imperial diplomas until after the accession of King Otto I in 936.  The deposition of Duke Eberhard in 938 by King Otto marked a temporary decline in the region's authority on a national level.  Nevertheless, the internal position of the Bavarian dukes remained strong and unified, enabling them to maintain considerable influence over the counties within their duchy and claim reversionary rights in the estates of families which became extinct[2].  This is typified by the duke's role as commander of the tribal levy, in which even troops supplied to the king of Germany by the Bavarian bishops formed part of the ducal forces[3]

 

Between the mid-940s and 1180, the dukes of Bavaria belonged to seven different dynasties.  Ducal appointment remained in the hands of the king/emperor who used it both as a means of rewarding service and strengthening his personal control over the province.  The latter objective was in practice only achieved when the king/emperor retained the duchy within his own hands, as was the case with Heinrich II, Heinrich III and Heinrich IV (through his mother) at various different times in the 11th century.  The installation of imperial relatives as dukes provided no guarantee of pliability, as Emperor Otto I found with his rebellious nephew Duke Heinrich II. 

 

The territory of the early marches in Bavaria remained under the control of the duke, who was the suzerain of the Markgrafen, which contrasted with the situation in Saxony.  The march of the "Bayerischen Nordgau" was established by King Otto I in the early 940s along the border with Bohemia.  The Ostmark, which later evolved into the margraviate of Austria, was formed in 976 by Emperor Otto II along the frontier with Hungary, although Markgrafen in the "Pannonian March" are recorded about a century earlier (see the document AUSTRIA).  The "Kärntner Mark", which later developed into the Steiermark or Styria, was also established in the late 10th century, although the precise date is uncertain.  Lastly, the march of Istria, which was able to establish greater autonomy because of its geographic distance from the central authority, was formed in north-east Italy in the early 11th century[4] (see the document CARINTHIA for the Kärtner Mark and the march of Istria). 

 

All the counties in Bavaria were fiefs of the duke, contrasting once more with the situation in Saxony.  Jordan asserts that there is no record in the 12th century of a count in Bavaria being appointed by the crown[5], although it is clear that there must have been some crown land in Bavaria as Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" enfeoffed Heinrich "der Löwe" with numerous imperial fiefs when he installed him as duke of Bavaria in 1156[6].  Regensburg, always the residence of the dukes of Bavaria, became an imperial free city in the 13th century. 

 

Religious administration in Bavaria centred on the archbishopric of Salzburg, established by the Carolingians in 785.  The bishoprics within the province were Freising, Passau and Regensburg, all dating from the mid-8th century.  In addition, the bishoprics of Eichstätt and Augsburg in Bavaria, also founded around the same time, fell within the archiepiscopal province of Mainz.  Heinrich II King of Germany established the bishopric of Bamberg in 1007 as an exempt see, outside any archiepiscopal province and responsible direct to the Pope, presumably as a means of increasing imperial control in Bavaria over both church and lay authorities. 

 

The original territory of Bavaria was significantly reduced when Carinthia was separated as a separate duchy in 976.  The march of Austria remained a fiefdom of the duchy of Bavaria until 1156, when it was elevated to the status of a separate duchy in order to compensate Heinrich II Markgraf of Austria for the loss of Bavaria when Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" returned it to the Welf family[7].  In 1180, after Emperor Friedrich I deprived Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Bavaria and Saxony of his titles, he further partitioned Bavaria, creating Otto von Wittelsbach as duke in the Bavarian heartland and transforming the margraviate of Styria into a separate duchy[8]

 

Although by then its territory was truncated, the Wittelsbach duchy consolidated its position and remained a powerful force in regional and international politics until the fall of the German Empire after the First World war. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES of BAVARIA, AGILOLFING families

 

 

There is considerable uncertainty about the early dukes of Bavaria, not only their relationship to each other but even their names and order of succession.  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus", Theodo II, "Garibaldus rex", Tassilo [I] dux, Theodo III "quem sanctus Ruodbertus baptizavit", Theodebertus, Theodo IV "qui cum filiis sanctum Corbiniacum locavit Frisinge", Theodaldus dux, Grimoaldus dux "fratris filius", Hugpertus dux, Udilo dux "cum Theodone frater", Thassilo dux II "cum filio eius Theodone"[9].  This listing is not consistent with earlier sources.  The following attempts to highlights the differences but inevitably remains an incomplete assessment.  As noted in the Introduction to the present document, the Carolingians conquered Bavaria in 788 and reduced it to a province in the Frankish empire. 

 

 

THEODO I -514, THEODO II 514-

 

THEODO, son of --- (-514).  THEODO I Duke of Bavaria.  The death in 514 of "Theodo dux Baioariæ" is recorded in the Excerpta Altahensia[10]

Theodo I had one child: 

1.         THEODO (-after 520).  He succeeded his father in 514 as THEODO II Duke of Bavaria.  The succession in 514 of "Theodo filius eius [=Theodo dux Baioariæ]" is recorded in the Excerpta Altahensia[11].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record that the Roman army was defeated by "Theodone secundo" at Oettingen in 520[12]

 

 

GARIBALD I [555]-[591]

 

1.         GARIBALD (-[591])GARIBALD I Duke of Bavaria.  The Salzburg Annals record that "Gerbaldus Bawariæ regnum accepit" in 598[13], although this is inconsistent with the dates attributed in other sources to Duke Tassilo I (see below).  The references in primary sources to his wife imply that Garibald was already duke of Bavaria at the time of his marriage.  m (after 555) as her third husband, WALDRADA, widow (firstly) of THEODEBALD I King of the Franks, repudiated wife (secondly) of CLOTAIRE I King of the Franks, daughter of WACCHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha of the Gepides.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Wisigarda…secundæ Walderada" as the two daughters of Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Waldrada married "Scusuald regis Francorum" and later "Garipald"[14].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Waldrada" as Wacho's second daughter by his second wife, specifying that she married "Chusubald rex Francorum"[15].  Paulus Diaconus names "Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Walderada married "Cusupald alio regi Francorum" and later "Garipald"[16].  Gregory of Tours names Vuldetrada as the wife of King Theodebald[17]Herimannus names "Wanderadam" wife of "Theodpaldus rex Francorum" when recording her second marriage to "Lotharius rex patris eius Theodeberti patruus"[18].  According to Gregory of Tours, King Clotaire "began to have intercourse" with the widow of King Theodebald, before "the bishops complained and he handed her over to Garivald Duke of Bavaria"[19], which does not imply that King Clotaire married Waldrada.  Duke Garibald & his wife had three children: 

a)         GUNDOALD (-murdered 612).  Fredegar records that "Gundoaldus" invaded part of the kingdom of Guntram King of the Franks in Nov [584][20].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that the Burgundians and Austrasians entered "paygo Suessionico cum Gundoaldo et Wintrione" and were defeated at "Brinnacum villam" and fled after the battle, dated to soon after the accession (in 592) of Childebert II as king in Burgundy[21].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name "Gundoaldo" as son of "Garibaldo rege Baiorionem" when recording that he and his father fled to Authari King of the Lombards in 593[22].  Duke of Asti: the Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Theudelenda frater…Gundoald" accompanied his sister to Italy and was installed as "ducem in civitatem Astense" by his brother-in-law King Authari[23].  Fredegar records the death of Gundoald "shot with an arrow while he was relieving nature"[24].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Gunduald…germanus Theudelindæ reginæ…dux in civitate Astensi" was killed by an arrow[25]m ---, a Lombard.  Fredegar records the marriage of "Gundoaldus" and "de gente nobile Langobardorum…uxorem", naming their two sons "Gundeberto et Chairiberto"[26].  Gundoald & his wife had two children: 

i)          GUNDEBERT .  Fredegar names "Gundeberto et Chairiberto" as the two sons of Gundoald & his wife[27]

ii)         CHARIBERT (-after [628]).  Fredegar names "Gundeberto et Chairiberto" as the two sons of Gundoald & his wife[28].  He supported his cousin Gundberga Queen of the Lombards in her dispute with her husband[29].  This dispute must have taken place in 628 at the earliest, assuming that the queen remained in exile for three years and her husband's accession took place in 625.  same person as…?  ARIBERT (-Ticino 661, bur Basilica of the Saviour, Ticinum).  Paulus Diaconus records that Rodoald King of the Lombards was succeeded by "Aripert, filius Gundoaldi, qui fuerat germanus Theudelindæ reginæ"[30].  If this is correct, King Aribert was the first cousin, on her mother's side, of Queen Gundberga, the wife of at least two of King Aribert's predecessors.  Primary sources report the activities of Queen Gundberga in detail, suggesting that she may have been a person of sufficient influence at the Lombard court to have engineered the succession of her relative.  However, the relationship is not corroborated in other identified sources, all of which are silent on the origin of King Aripert.  He succeeded in 652 as ARIPERT King of the Lombards

-         KINGS of the LOMBARDS

b)         THEODELINDIS.  Her first betrothal is recorded by Fredegar who specifies that "Ago rex" married "Grimoaldi et Gundoaldi germanam…Teudelendæ ex genere Francorum" who had been betrothed to "Childebertus"[31].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Theudelenda filia Garipald et Walderade de Baiuaria" as the wife of "Autarine filio Claffoni"[32].  Paulus Diaconus records the betrothal of "Flavius…rex Authari" and "Garibaldi…regis…Theudelindam suam filiam" and their subsequent marriage "Idus Maius"[33].  The Salzburg Annals name "Gerbaldi regis filiam Theodelingam" when recording her marriage to "Otharius rex Lombardorum"[34].  The marriage of "Theodolindum filiam Gerwaldi regis Baioariorum" to "Otharius rex Longobardorum" is recorded in the Excerpta Altahensia[35].  Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of her first husband, "Theudelinda" wisely chose "Agilulfum ducem Taurinatium" as her husband and king of the Lombards[36].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record her second marriage to "Aigilulfus rex Lombardum"[37].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Theudelenda filia Garipald et Walderade de Baiuaria" married secondly "Acquo" who installed himself as king[38].  The Chronicle of Andreas of Bergamo names "Teudelinda filia Garibaldi Baioariorum rex" as the wife first of Autari and then of Agilolf[39]Betrothed to CHILDEBERT II King of the Franks in Austrasia, son of SIGEBERT I King of the Franks & his wife Brunechildis of the Visigoths (570-[2/28] Mar 596).  m firstly (before [590]) as his second wife, AUTHACHAR [Authari] King of the Lombards, son of KLEPH King of the Lombards & his wife --- (-5 Sep 590).  m secondly (late 590 or after) [as his second wife,] AGILOLF King of the Lombards, son of --- (-615). 

c)         daughter .  Paulus Diaconus records that "Euin dux Tridentinorum" married "filiam Garibaldi Baioariorum regis"[40]m EVIN --- (-[590/96]).  Paulus Diaconus records that "Euin Tridentinus dux" was given "Tridentinum territorium" after it was devastated by "duce Francorum Chramnichis" whom he defeated "in loco qui Salurnis dicitur"[41].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Euin dux Tridentinus" led the army of King Authari when he invaded Istria[42].  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Euin…duce in Tridentu" and that "Gaidoaldus" was installed as his successor[43].  This text immediately precedes the report of the death of Childebert II King of the Franks which is dated to 596. 

 

 

TASSILO I [591]-609, GARIBALD II 609-

 

1.         TASSILO, son of --- (-609).  TASSILO I Duke of Bavaria 591.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Tassilo" was ordained as "Baioarium rex" by "Childeberto rege Francorum"[44].  This passage is included in the text after the accession of Agilulf King of the Lombards, which is dated to [590], but before the report of the death of Evin Duke of Trentino.  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record that "Tassilo dux" reigned in Bavaria in 593[45]m ---.  The name of Duke Tassilo's wife is not known.  Duke Tassilo I & his wife had one child: 

a)         GARIBALD (-640).  Paulus Diaconus names "Tassilone duce Baiorariorum, filius eius Garibaldus" when recording that he was defeated by the Slavs "in Agunto" after his father died[46]GARIBALD II Duke of Bavaria 609.  

 

 

1.         CHRODOALD, son of --- (-murdered [625/26]).  Fredegar records that "ex procerebus de gente nobile Aygolfingam nomen Chrodoaldus" fell into disfavour with King Dagobert I "through the instrumentality of Bishop Arnulf" as he "was for ever greedily seizing the property of others … [and] as proud and insolent as could be", and that he was killed in the 41st year of the reign of King Clotaire II by "Berthar homo Scarponiensis"[47].  It is not known how Chrodoald was related to the Agilolfing family of the Dukes of Bavaria, if at all.  m (before 609) --- of the Franks, daughter of [SIGEBERT I King of the Franks & his wife Brunechildis of the Visigoths].  The Vita Columbani names "Chrodoaldus…regi Theuderico fideli" and his wife "amitam Theudeberti regis"[48].  Chrodoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         FARA (-killed in battle 641).  Dux in Austrasia.  Fredegar records that "Faram filio Chrodoaldo" rebelled against King Sigebert, helped by Radulf Duke of Thuringia, but was killed[49]

 

 

1.         --- .  Duke of Bavaria.  The identity of this Bavarian duke is not known, assuming that the report of Paulus Diaconus is accurate.  m --- of Friulia, daughter of GISULF II Duke of Friulia & his wife Romilda --- (before 610-).  Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which[50]

 

 

THEODO III [640], THEODO IV, THEODEBERT [670]

 

1.         THEODO, son of --- .  THEODO III Duke of Bavaria 640.  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name (in order) "Theodo…Theodo [et] Theodebertum" as Dukes of Bavaria[51].  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus", Theodo II, "Garibaldus rex", Tassilo [I] dux, Theodo III "quem sanctus Ruodbertus baptizavit"…[52].  Presumably "sanctus Rudobertus" refers to Ruotbert who was the first Abbot and Bishop of Salzburg from 696 to 717.  If this is correct, this baptism cannot refer to Duke Theodo III, the dates being more consistent with Duke Theodo V (see below).  Some corroboration for the baptism of a duke Theodo is provided by the Excerpta Altahensia, which records the baptism in 580 of "Theodonem ducem"[53].  In this case the date of the baptism is much earlier than the likely dates of Duke Theodo III, and falls during the reign of Duke Garibald I.  Clearly there is something fundamentally wrong with the chronology. 

 

 

1.         THEODO, son of --- .  THEODO IV Duke of Bavaria.  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name (in order) "Theodo…Theodo [et] Theodebertum" as Dukes of Bavaria, this being the second Theodo[54].  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus", Theodo II, "Garibaldus rex", Tassilo [I] dux, Theodo III "quem sanctus Ruodbertus baptizavit", Theodebertus, Theodo IV "qui cum filiis sanctum Corbiniacum locavit Frisinge"…[55], which appears to ignore this Duke Theodo IV.  Theodo IV had one child: 

a)         LANTPERT .  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name "Lantpertus" as son of the second "Theodo", recording that he killed "sanctum Emmaramum"[56]

 

 

1.         THEODEBERT, son of --- .  THEODEBERT Duke of Bavaria.  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name (in order) "Theodo…Theodo [et] Theodebertum" as Dukes of Bavaria, recording that "Aspirandus et…Liuprandus" fled to "Theodebertus dux" in 670[57].   

 

 

THEODO V -718, THEODEBERT 718-724, GRIMOALD 718-728, THEODOALD 718, HUGOBERT 724-739

 

[Two] siblings: 

1.         THEODO, son of --- (-11 Dec 718)THEODO V Duke of Bavaria.  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus"…Theodebertus, Theodo IV "qui cum filiis sanctum Corbiniacum locavit Frisinge"…[58].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record that "Theodo dux" led Bavaria in 712, specifying that he and his son Grimoald placed "sanctum Corbinatium in castro Frisinge"[59].  The Salzburg Annals record that "Theodo dux Bawarie" attacked Rome in 716, and died in 718[60].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 718 of "Theodo dux"[61].  The necrology of Nonnberg records the death "3 Id Dec" of "Theodo dux"[62]m [FOLCHAID, daughter of ---].  A listing of Dukes of Bavaria in the necrology of Salzburg St Peter names "Folchaid" next to "Theoto", other similar paired entries in the same source being shown to refer to husband and wife[63].  Duke Theodo V & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         THEODEBERT [Dietbercht] (-724).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records that "Theobaldus et Grimoaldus filii eius" succeeded "Theodo dux" in 718[64].  He succeeded his father in 718 as THEODEBERT joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brothers.  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus"… Theodo IV "qui cum filiis sanctum Corbiniacum locavit Frisinge", Theodaldus dux, Grimoaldus dux "fratris filius"…[65], which appears to ignore this duke Theodebert.  In Rhätien, at Botzen.  m ELINHAST, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms the name of Duke Theodebert's wife has not so far been identified.  Duke Theodebert & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUNTRUD .  Paulus Diaconus records the marriage of "Guntrut filiam Teutperti Baioariorum ducis" and "Liutprand rex"[66]m LIUTPRAND King of the Lombards, son of ANSPRAND King of the Lombards & his wife Theodorada --- (-[late 743/early 744], bur Basilica of Hadrian). 

b)         GRIMOALD (murdered 728).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records that "Theobaldus et Grimoaldus filii eius" succeeded "Theodo dux" in 718[67].  He succeeded his father in 718 as GRIMOALD joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brothers.  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name "Grimoaldi et Theodualdi duces" as sons of "Theodo dux", recording that they were joint dukes in 723, Grimoald ruling alone after the death of his brother[68].  in Ober-Bayern, at Freising.  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 729 of "Grimoaldus dux Bavarie"[69]m as her second husband, PILITRUDE, widow of his brother THEODOALD, daughter of ---.  A listing of Dukes of Bavaria in the necrology of Salzburg St Peter names "Pilidruth" next to "Crimolt", indicating that she was presumably his wife[70].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "matrona quondam…Beletrude et nepta sua Sunnichilde" were captured and taken to Austrasia by Charles "Martel" in [724/25][71].  Duke Grimoald & his wife had one child: 

i)          HUGOBERT (-739).  The primary source which confirms that Hugobert was the son of Grimoald has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 724 as HUGOBERT Duke of Bavaria.  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus"…Theodo IV "qui cum filiis sanctum Corbiniacum locavit Frisinge", Theodaldus dux, Grimoaldus dux "fratris filius", Hugpertus dux...[72].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record that "Hucpertus dux" reigned in Bavaria in 733[73].  The Salzburg Annals record the death in 739 of "Hucbertus dux Bawarie", and that he was succeeded by Odilo[74]m CHROTHRUDIS, daughter of ---.  A listing of Dukes of Bavaria in the necrology of Salzburg St Peter names "Rattrud" next to "Hucperht", indicating presumably that she was his wife[75].  She became abbess of Nonnberg after the death of her husband[76]

c)         THEODOALD (-after 718).  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ name "Grimoaldi et Theodualdi duces" as sons of "Theodo dux", recording that they were joint dukes in 723[77].  He succeeded his father in 718 as THEODOALD joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brothers.  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus"…Theodo IV "qui cum filiis sanctum Corbiniacum locavit Frisinge", Theodaldus dux, Grimoaldus dux "fratris filius", Hugpertus dux[78].  Im Nordgau, at Passau.  m firstly WALTRUDE, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names Waltrude as first wife of Duke Theodoald has not so far been identified.  m secondly as her first husband, PILITRUDE, daughter of ---.  The primary source which identifies Pilitrude as second wife of Duke Theodoald has not yet been identified.  She married secondly her first husband's brother Grimoald

d)         [--.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          SUANACHILDIS [Suanhilde] (-after 17 Sep 741).  The precise parentage of Suanachildis is not known.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "matrona quondam…Beletrude et nepta sua Sunnichilde" were captured and taken to Austrasia by Charles "Martel" in [724/25][79].  Einhard names "Swannhilde neptem Odilonis ducis Baioariorum" as the mother of Grifo[80].  The precise relationship between Suanhilde and Pilitrude, who was the wife in turn of the brothers Grimoald and Theodoald, has not been identified.  She instigated the marriage of her stepdaughter to Odilo Duke of Bavaria according to the Continuator of Fredegar[81].  After the death of her husband, she incited her son to rebel against her stepsons.  She was defeated and sent to the monastery of Chelles, Seine-et-Marne"Karlus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa Clippiacum in pago Parisiaco" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 17 Sep 741, subscribed by "Radberti comitis, Raygaubaldi comitis, Salaconis comitis, matrone Sonechildis, Grifonis filii sui"[82]m (725) as his second wife, CHARLES “Martel” maiordomus of Austrasia and Neustria, son of PEPIN "le Gros" or "d'Herstal" & his second wife Chalpais [Alpais] ([690]-Quierzy-sur-Oise, Aisne 22 Oct 741, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis). 

2.         [---- .  m ---.]  [Two possible children:]

a)         [ODILO (-18 Jan 748, bur Hostenhoven, Kloster Gengenbach).  The parentage of Odilo is not known.  Einhard names "Swannhilde neptem Odilonis ducis Baioariorum" as the mother of Grifo[83].  As shown above, the Continuator of Fredegar names "matrona quondam…Beletrude et nepta sua Sunnichilde"[84].  Reading these two sources together, the impression is that Odilo may have been a brother of Dukes Grimoald and Theodald.  However, all sources so far identified only name the latter two as the sons of Duke Theodo.  It is assumed that Odilo was not the brother or son of Duke Hugobert, whom he succeeded, as such a relationship is not mentioned in any of the contemporary sources so far identified.  It appears more likely that Odilo was related more remotely to his predecessors, but the precise relationship can only be guessed at.  He succeeded in 739 as ODILO Duke of Bavaria.  The Salzburg Annals record that Odilo succeeded as Duke of Bavaria in 739 following the death of "Hucbertus dux Bawarie"[85].] 

-        see below

b)         [THEODO (-after 739).  The mid-13th century Series Ducum Bavariæ lists, in order, the dukes from 514 as Theodo "dux primus"…Hugpertus dux, Udilo dux "cum Theodone frater"…[86].  This the only source so far identified which names this supposed brother of Duke Odilo.] 

 

 

ODILO 739-748, TASSILO II 748-788

 

ODILO, son of --- (-18 Jan 748, bur Hostenhoven, Kloster Gengenbach).  The parentage of Odilo is not known.  Einhard names "Swannhilde neptem Odilonis ducis Baioariorum" as the mother of Grifo[87].  The Continuator of Fredegar names "matrona quondam…Beletrude et nepta sua Sunnichilde"[88].  Reading these two sources together, the impression is that Odilo may have been a brother of Dukes Grimoald and Theodald.  However, as shown above, all sources so far identified only name the latter two as the sons of Duke Theodo.  It is assumed that Odilo was not the brother or son of Duke Hugobert, whom he succeeded, as such a relationship is not mentioned in any of the contemporary sources so far identified.  It appears more likely that Odilo was related more remotely to his predecessors, but the precise relationship can only be guessed at.  He succeeded in 739 as ODILO Duke of Bavaria.  The Salzburg Annals record that Odilo succeeded as Duke of Bavaria in 739 following the death of "Hucbertus dux Bawarie"[89].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ also record that "Oudilo dux" succeeded "Hucpertus dux"[90].  He married his wife without the permission of her brothers[91].  His brother-in-law Carloman invaded Bavaria, and Odilo was forced to recognise Frankish suzerainty in 744.  The Annales Metenses record the death in 749 of "dux Odilo"[92].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "XV Kal Feb" of "Otilo dux"[93]

m (741) CHILTRUDIS [Hiltrude], daughter of CHARLES "Martel" maiordomus of Austrasia and Neustria [Carolingian] & his first wife Chrothrudis --- (-754, bur Hostenhoven, Kloster Gengenbach).   The Continuator of Fredegar names "Chiltrudis" as daughter of Charles "Martel", stating that her "wicked stepmother" incited her to joined Odilo of Bavaria whom she married without the permission of her brothers[94].  After the death of her husband, she was captured by Grifo who usurped the throne from her son[95].  After her son was restored, Hiltrude became regent in Bavaria during his minority. 

Duke Odilo & his wife had one child:

1.         TASSILO ([742]-11 Dec or 5 Jan after 794)Herimannus names "Tassilonem" son of "sororis suæ [=Pipinus] Hiltrudis filium"[96].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the birth in 742 of "Tassilo [II] dux"[97].  The Annales Metenses record the succession of "Tassilo filius eius [=dux Odilo]" after the death of his father in 749[98].  After the death of Tassilo's father, Grifo, brother of Pepin maiordomus of the Franks, invaded Bavaria where he was recognised as Duke but was deposed by his brother who installed his nephew as TASSILO II Duke of Bavaria[99].  Duke Tassilo swore vassalage to Pepin King of the Franks at Compiègne in 757[100].  Tassilo deserted King Pepin in Aquitaine in 763, returning to Bavaria[101].  The Salzburg Annals record that Tassilo subjugated Carinthia in 772[102].  He eventually surrendered to King Charles in 787 and renewed his oath of vassalage[103].  He rebelled again in 788, making contacts with the Avars who attacked the Franks, but was obliged by the king to be tonsured[104].  He entered the monastery of Jumièges, and finally renounced his duchy at the synod of Frankfurt in 794[105].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "III Id Dec" of "Thessalo dux fundator cœnobii huius"[106].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "Non Jan" of "Tassilo dux et m"[107]m LIUTBERGA [Liutpirc] of the Lombards, daughter of DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards & his wife Ansa --- (-after 788).  Einhard names "Liutberga…filia Desiderii regis Langobardorum" as the wife of "Tassilonem ducem"[108].  The wife of "Tassilonis ducis" is called "filia Desiderii regis" by Einhard[109].  Named as the wife of Duke Tassilo in the Royal Frankish Annals, which describe her as "his rancorous wife … a woman hateful to God".  She and her daughters became nuns when her husband was deprived of his duchy in 788[110].   Duke Tassilo & his wife had four children:  

a)         THEODO (8 Oct ---- -after 788).  The necrology of Walderdorff records the birth "VIII Id Oct" of "Theotoni filio Tassiloni ducis"[111].  The Salzburg Annals record that Tassilo baptised his son in Rome in 772, but do not name the son[112].  Named son of Tassilo in the Royal Frankish Annals, his father gave him as hostage to Charles I King of the Franks in 787[113].  His father appointed him as joint Duke of Bavaria in 777.  He was tonsured with his father in 788104, and became a monk in cloister of St Maximin 788. 

b)         THEOTBERT .  The primary source which names Theotbert as son of Duke Tassilo has not so far been identified.  Monk 788. 

c)         daughter .  The primary source which refers to the two daughters of Duke Tassilo has not so far been identified.  Nun at Chelles. 

d)         daughter .  The primary source which refers to the two daughters of Duke Tassilo has not so far been identified.  Nun at Laon. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    MARKGRAFEN in BAVARIA 9th CENTURY

 

 

The following two individuals are referred to in primary sources as Markgrafen in Bavaria.  The precise extent of their jurisdiction is not known, but the title implies rule over a "March".  It is possible that this Bavarian March is the same as the March of Pannonia, over which Markgrafen are recorded during the 870s to 890s (see the document AUSTRIA). 

 

 

 

A.      MARKGRAF in BAVARIA (ENGELDEO)

 

 

ENGELDEO [890]-895

 

1.         ENGELDEO, son of --- (-after 895).  King Carloman granted property "in pago Tonageuue in comitatu Engildeo" to the priest Iob by charter dated 3 Dec 878[114].  "Arnolfus…rex" granted property "in pago Nordgouue…in comitatu sui senioris in loci Phuncina" to "Engildeonis comitis…vassallo Gotahelmi" by charter dated 889[115].  "Arnolfus…rex" granted property "in pago Quinzingouue in comitatu Hunolfi" to Kloster St Emmeram by charter dated 21 Mar 890 which names "Engildeo comes, Odalrich comes, Meginhart comes, Chunipercht comes, Kerolt comes, Rumolt comes, Geio comes"[116]Markgraf [in Bavaria] [890/95].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Engildieo marchensis Baioariorum" was deprived of his honours in 895, and in his place that "Liutboldus nepos regis" was appointed[117].  "Arnolfus…rex" returned land in "pago Nortgowe in comitatu Cheldionis", previously taken by "Hildigardis neptis nostra et Engeldichd comes…et Sigo vicarius eius", to "Megingozo vasallo…Erkenboldi episcopi" by charter dated 5 May 895[118]

 

 

B.      MARKGRAF in BAVARIA (LUITPOLD)

 

 

LUITPOLD 895-907

 

LUITPOLD, son of --- ([850/60]-killed in battle near Pressburg 4 Jul 907).  The question of Luitpold's origin is discussed in the document GERMANY EARLY NOBILITY.  His birth date is estimated from the estimated date of his [supposed] first marriage.  Markgraf [in Bavaria]: the Annales Fuldenses record that "Engildieo marchensis Baioariorum" was deprived of his honours in 895, and in his place that "Liutboldus nepos regis" was appointed[119].  The Annales Fuldenses record disputes between "duos fratres gentis Marahensium, Moymirum ac Zuentibaldum" in 898, which prompted Emperor Arnulf to send "marchiones suos, Liutboldum et Arbonum comitem" to Moravia to protect the Bavarians[120].  "Arnolfus imperator augustus" gave property in "Charentariche in comitatu ipsius consanguinei nostri [Liutbaldi]…Gurca…et…in Gurcatala et in alia loco qui dicitur Zulszah" to "viro progenie bonæ nobilitatis exorto Zuentibolch…Liutbaldi…propinqui ac illustris nostri marchionis vassallo" at the request of "Iringi et Isangrimi…comitum nostrorum" by charter dated 31 Aug 898[121].  "Arnolfus imperator augustus" granted to "viro progenie bonæ nobilitatis Zuentibolch…Liutbaldi…propinqui ac illustris nostri marchionis vassallo" property "in Charentariche in comitatu ipsius consanguinei nostri" by charter dated 19 Jan 901 on the proposal of "Liutbaldi…comitis et…propinqui nostri"[122]

-        see below, Chapter 3

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES of BAVARIA (LUITPOLDINGE)

 

 

BERTHOLD 938-947, HEINRICH III 985-989

 

LUITPOLD, son of --- ([850/60]-killed in battle near Pressburg 4 Jul 907).  His birth date is estimated from the estimated date of his [supposed] first marriage.  Markgraf [in Bavaria]: the Annales Fuldenses record that "Engildieo marchensis Baioariorum" was deprived of his honours in 895, and in his place that "Liutboldus nepos regis" was appointed[123].  The Annales Fuldenses record disputes between "duos fratres gentis Marahensium, Moymirum ac Zuentibaldum" in 898, which prompted Emperor Arnulf to send "marchiones suos, Liutboldum et Arbonum comitem" to Moravia to protect the Bavarians[124].  "Arnolfus imperator augustus" gave property in "Charentariche in comitatu ipsius consanguinei nostri [Liutbaldi]…Gurca…et…in Gurcatala et in alia loco qui dicitur Zulszah" to "viro progenie bonæ nobilitatis exorto Zuentibolch…Liutbaldi…propinqui ac illustris nostri marchionis vassallo" at the request of "Iringi et Isangrimi…comitum nostrorum" by charter dated 31 Aug 898[125].  "Arnolfus imperator augustus" granted to "viro progenie bonæ nobilitatis Zuentibolch…Liutbaldi…propinqui ac illustris nostri marchionis vassallo" property "in Charentariche in comitatu ipsius consanguinei nostri" by charter dated 19 Jan 901 on the proposal of "Liutbaldi…comitis et…propinqui nostri"[126].  [Duke] of Bavaria: the Annales Ducum Bavariæ record that "Arnulfus [rex]" left the duchy of Bavaria to "Leupoldo cuidam nobili" in 899[127].  "Ludovuicus…rex" donated property to Kloster St Florian by charter dated 19 Jan 901 on the proposal of "Liutbaldi…comitis et…propinqui nostri"[128].  It is possible that Luitpold ruled as Duke of Bohemia in 903, as shown by the charter dated 24 Jun 903 under which "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster St Gallen in which among "fidelium nostrum" was listed "Luitpold dux Boemanorum"[129], although it is possible that "Boemanorum" was a copyist's error for "Baiorariorum" as this appears to be the only reference to Luitpold ruling in Bohemia.  "Hludowicus…rex" granted property to the church of Freising by charter dated 30 Nov 903 in which among "fidelium nostrum" was listed "Liutboldi illustris comitis et cari propinqui nostri"[130].  "Hludowicus…rex" granted property "in valle…Liupinatal in comitatu eiusdem Otacherii" to "Otacharii…comitis nostri filio Arpo" after consulting "fidelium nostrorum Luitpoldi, Arponis, Iringi, Cumpoldi et Paponis comitum" by charter dated 10 Mar 904[131].  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed an exchange of properties between Kloster Fulda and Kloster Echternach after consulting "fidelium nostrorum comitum vero Kebeharti, Luitpoldi, Burcharti, Eginonis, Liutfredi, Iringi et Cunpoldi" by charter dated 19 Mar 907[132]Regino records that "Liutbaldus dux occisus est" in 907 fighting the Hungarians[133]

[m firstly ([875/85] or before) ---.  There is no direct indication of a first marriage of Duke Luitpold.  However, considering the likely birth date of his eldest son Arnulf, the mother of the latter must have been born in [860/70].  If this is correct, a marriage in 913 between the widow of Duke Luitpold, then beyond child-bearing age, and Konrad I King of Germany would seem surprising.] 

m [secondly] as her first husband, KUNIGUNDE, sister of Graf ERCHANGER [Ahalolfinger], daughter of --- (-after 7 Jun 914, bur Kloster Lorsch).  Her two marriages are confirmed by the Annales Alamannicorum which record the marriage in 913 of "sororem [Erchangeri] Liupoldi relictam" with the king[134].  Her second husband arranged their marriage in an unsuccessful attempt to ally himself with her brother and with Arnulf Duke of Bavaria[135].  "Chuonradus…rex" granted rights to Kloster Lorsch by charter dated 7 Jun 914 which names "coniugis nostre Chunigunde regine"[136].  She married secondly (913) Konrad I King of Germany [Konradiner]. 

Luitpold & his [first] wife had one child: 

1.         ARNULF ([875/85]-14 Jul 937, bur Regensburg St Emmeram)Regino records that "filius suus [=Liutbaldus dux] Arnulfus" succeeded his father as dux in 907[137].  The Salzburg Annals name "Liupoldus dux, pater Arnolfi ducis"[138].  His birth date range is estimated based on the likelihood that Arnulf must have been adult and established in his career when he was accepted as his father's successor in 907, but must be considered approximate.  He referred to himself in 908 as ARNULF Duke of Bavaria in a charter confirming an exchange of land between Drakolf Bishop of Freising and Konrad chor-bishop of Freising[139]

-        see below

Luitpold & his [second] wife had one child: 

2.         BERTHOLD (-23 Nov 947, bur Kloster Niederaltaich).  Liutprand names "Bertaldus Bagoariorum dux" as brother of "Arnulfi ducis"[140].  It seems more likely that Berthold was the son of Duke Luitpold by his wife Kunigunde, bearing in mind that the latter's brother was also named Berthold.  Judging from the known dates of Berthold's career, it would not be surprising if he was born several years after his [half-]brother Arnulf, whose birth date is estimated in [875/85] as shown above.  He was installed as BERTHOLD Duke of Bavaria in 938 by Otto I King of Germany after the rebellion and expulsion of his nephew Eberhard, marking a decline in Bavarian autonomy which was symbolised by King Otto appointing Herolt as the new archbishop of Salzburg in 939[141].  "Otto…rex" gave Abtei Moosburg to the bishopric of Freising at the request of "ducis…Perchtoldi…Bavariensis regionis principum" by charter dated 29 May 940[142].  "Otto…rex" gave property "in pago Ufgovve in comitatu Marchvvardi iuxta rivum Fuchtebah" to "comiti Marchvvardo [vassallo ducis Perchtoldi]" by charter dated 13 Jul 940 at the request of "ducis nostri Perchtoldi, simul et Kerungi ac Hiltiboldi comitum"[143].  "Otto…rex" granted property to "nostri servum Reginpreht" at the request of "ducis…Perehtoldi et Hiltibaldi comitis cuidam…comiti…Cadelahc" by charter dated 22 Sep 942[144].  The Annalium Ratisponensium Supplementum records the death in 949 of "Perchtoldus dux Noricorum"[145].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "IX Kal Nov" of "Perchtoldus dux"[146]m BIELETRUD, daughter of --- (-after 29 Sep 976).  "Otto…imperator augustus" returned property "in pagis Swanifelden, Norekawe, Solezgawe" to "nobili matrone Biledrut" which had been confiscated from "maritus eius Berchtoldus dux" owned by him "tempore Arnolfi ducis", by charter dated 29 Sep 976[147].  She founded the convent of Bergen.  Duke Berthold & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         HEINRICH (-5 Oct 989, bur [Niederaltaich]).  "Henricus Minor, filius Bertoldi" is named in the Annalista Saxo, when recording his installation as Duke of Bavaria in 983[148].  Still a minor on his father's death, he was passed over in the succession to Bavaria when Otto I King of Germany established his own brother Heinrich as Duke[149].  He was appointed HEINRICH I Duke of Carinthia in 976 by Otto II King of Germany who had abstracted both Carinthia and the Italian marches from the duchy of Bavaria to create this new duchy.  "Otto…imperator augustus" freed "clericum nomine Reginbato" at the request of "Heinricus Karentanorum dux" by charter dated 6 Apr 977[150].  He supported Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria in his rebellion against his cousin Emperor Otto II.  Together, they expelled Bishop Pilgrim from Passau, but were besieged there, put on trial at Magdeburg in 978, and imprisoned[151].  After his release, he was installed as HEINRICH III Duke of Bavaria at Verona in 983[152], but deprived of Bavaria in [early 985] when the duchy was returned to Heinrich I "der Zänker" as part of the terms of settlement of the latter's rebellion against King Otto III[153].  Heinrich was restored as Duke of Carinthia as part of this settlement[154].  "Heinricus dux Karintanorum…uxoris sue Hiltigardæ" donated property "in villa Vfhouun…aliam in villa sancti Georgii" [Aufhofen, St Georg] to Brixen cathedral by charter dated to [985][155].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 989 of "Heinrichus dux"[156].  The Altahense Annales record the death in 989 of "Heinricus dux Karintanorum"[157]m HILDEGARD, daughter of --- (-6 Aug after 989).  "Heinricus dux Karintanorum…uxoris sue Hiltigardæ" donated property "in villa Vfhouun…aliam in villa sancti Georgii" [Aufhofen, St Georg] to Brixen cathedral by charter dated to [985][158].  The death of Hiltigard, widow of Heinrich III Duke of Bavaria, is recorded at Bamberg Cathedral on 6 Aug[159]

b)         [KUNIGUNDE .  Wegener refers to the donation by Babo Burggraf von Regensburg and his wife Mechtild to St Emmeram dated [1000/05] for their souls and that of his wife's brother "Perahtold", which also names her mother Kunigunde[160], speculating that Kunigunde was the daughter of Berthold Duke of Bavaria.  m ULRICH Graf von Schweinachgau, son of ---.] 

 

 

ARNULF 908-937, EBERHARD 937-938

 

ARNULF, son of LUITPOLD Markgraf in Bavaria & his [first] wife --- ([875/85]-14 Jul 937, bur Regensburg St Emmeram)Regino records that "filius suus [=Liutbaldus dux] Arnulfus" succeeded his father as dux in 907[161].  The Salzburg Annals name "Liupoldus dux, pater Arnolfi ducis"[162].  His birth date range is estimated based on the likelihood that Arnulf must have been adult and established in his career when he was accepted as his father's successor in 907, but must be considered approximate.  He referred to himself in 908 as ARNULF Duke of Bavaria in a charter confirming an exchange of land between Drakolf Bishop of Freising and Konrad chor-bishop of Freising[163].  "Chuonradus…rex" made donations by charter dated 5 Mar 912 with the consent of "fidelium nostrorum comitum vero Sigihardi, Arnolfi, Erchangarii, Odalrici, Perchtoldi, Chuonradi, Herimanni, Luitfredi atque Iringi"[164], which shows not only that Arnulf was not titled "dux" in official national documents but also that he was considered second in importance among the nobility in the realm at that time, assuming that the order of the names is of significance.  He had the power to distribute bishoprics in his territory, although the right passed to the king of Germany on his death[165].  He was expelled from Bavaria by his stepfather Konrad I King of Germany in 915 but soon returned[166].  A reaffirmation of his rule by the Bavarians in 919 is recorded in the 12th century copies of the Salzburg Annals, which imply that he may have been appointed to rule as king in a wider German context, presumably as a rival to Heinrich I King of Germany[167].  He submitted to King Heinrich in 921[168].  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed donations to Kloster Kempten by charter dated 30 Jun 929 at the request of "comitum Arnolfi et Heberhardi"[169].  This charter appears to refer to Arnulf and his son, although it is surprising that Arnulf is not referred to with the title "dux".  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 937 of "Arnolt dux"[170].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "II Id Jul" of "Arnolfi ducis Baioariorum"[171]

m ---.  The name and origin of Duke Arnulf's wife are not known.  Wegener[172] speculates that she was --- of Friulia, daughter of Eberhard Duke of the March of Friulia [Unruochingi], ostensibly for onomastic reasons on the basis of the transmission of the names Eberhard and Judith into the family, used first for Duke Arnulf's children.  This daughter is, however, not listed among the children of Duke Eberhard set out in the cartulary of Cysoing abbey[173], although she may be identical to one of the unnamed daughters.  From a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that the wife of Arnulf Duke of Bavaria was the daughter of Duke Eberhard.  The latter's children must have been born between [840] and [860], whereas Duke Arnulf's children were probably born between [905] and [920], suggesting that their mother was born in [880/90]. 

Duke Arnulf & his wife had seven child: 

1.         EBERHARD ([905/10]-after 938).  The Annales ex Annalibus Ivravensibus Antiquis records that "Longobardi" accepted "Eparhardum filium Arnolfi ducis" as their lord in 934 and that his father confirmed his succession in Bavaria in 935[174].  His birth date range is based on the assumption that he was adult when accepted as his father's heir in 935.  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed donations to Kloster Kempten by charter dated 30 Jun 929 at the request of "comitum Arnolfi et Heberhardi"[175].  This charter appears to refer to Arnulf and his son, although it is surprising that Arnulf is not referred to with the title "dux".  He succeeded his father in 937 as EBERHARD Duke of Bavaria.  Pope Leo VII addressed a letter dated 938 to "Eberhardo duci Bawariorum"[176].  After Duke Eberhard defied him in some way, Otto I King of Germany invaded Bavaria twice in 938, deposed Eberhard and forced him into exile after the second expedition[177].  

2.         ARNULF (-killed in battle near Regensburg 22 Jul 954).  The Annales Sangallenses record that "Adalbert filius Perehctoldi et Arnolfus filius Arnolfi ducis" were killed in 954[178].  He is named as son of Arnulf in 6 Feb 954[179].  Pfalzgraf in Bavaria 947.  He rebelled against Otto I King of Germany in 954, aiming to re-establish his family's position in Bavaria but was killed in the first siege of Regensburg[180].  The necrology of churches of Freising records the death "XI Kal Aug" of "Arnolt com"[181], which is assumed refers to Pfalzgraf Arnulf.  m ---.  The name of Arnulf's wife is not known.  Arnulf & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         BERTHOLD von Reisensburg ([930]-after 21 Jul 976).  The Annales Sancti Emmerammi record that "Perahtold filius Arnulphi" was expelled "de Norica" in 951[182].  His birth date is estimated from his adult career starting in 951, but bearing in mind the likely birth date range of his father based on the estimated birth date of his oldest paternal uncle in [905/10].  The Vita S Oudalrici names "Perehtoldus, filius Arnulfi, de castello Risinesburc" when recording that he fought the Hungarians in [Aug 955][183].  "Otto…imperator augustus" returned property "quod vocatur Metama" previously donated by "Peretoldus Arnoulfi filius" to Kloster Metten by charter dated 21 Jul 976 "per petiticionem Heinrici sanctæ Auguste civitatis episcopi et Liutpaldi marchionis"[184]m ---.  The name of Berthold's wife is not known.  Berthold & his wife had [one possible] child: 

i)          [FRIEDRICH [I] "Roch" (-Jerusalem before 1020, bur Jerusalem).  According to Wegener, Graf Friedrich [I] was the son of Berthold von Reisensburg[185].  He bases this on "Berthold" witnessing several exchanges of property in the oberen Isar dated [990/99], and equating him with Berthold von Reisensburg.  Several points can be made about this theory.  Firstly, it seems surprising that such an illustrious connection with the Luitpoldinger Dukes of Bavaria would not have been mentioned by the various contemporary sources which relate the early history of the Grafen von Diessen.  Secondly, the estimated birth date of Berthold von Reisensburg is restricted to the limited period [929/31], bearing in mind the known dates of his own career and the likely birth date of his father.  His last known mention is dated 976.  Another burst of activity fourteen years after this date, when he would have been in his sixties, would be surprising.  Thirdly, judging from the 976 entry, Berthold von Reisensburg appears to have fallen into disgrace with Emperor Otto III.  There is no record of his return to favour.  It is therefore likely that his descendants (if any) fell into obscurity.  Fourthly, it is surprising that Berthold von Reisensburg would not have been described as comes even in entries relating to the period after his disgrace, as he would presumably have continued to claim and use the title. 

-         GRAFEN von DIESSEN.]

b)         [daughter .  The wife of Graf Meginhard is shown by Wegener as the daughter of Pfalzgraf Arnulf but he quotes no primary source to support this assertion[186]m MEGINHARD Graf an der Mangfall [Pilgrimiden], son of --- (-after 987, bur Benediktbeuern Monastery).] 

3.         HERMANN (-954 or after).  The Vita S Oudalrici names "Heremannum fratrem Arnolfi" when recording that he was captured in 954 when returning from Ulrich Bishop of Augsburg[187]

4.         HEINRICH .  "Otto…rex" donated property "in loco Crapofelt [in regno Carentino]" previously inherited by "Heinricus Arnolfi filius" to Salzburg church at the request of "fratris nostri…Heinrici" by charter dated 10 Dec 953[188]

5.         JUDITH ([915/25][189]-29 Jun after 974).  The wife of "Henrici ducis, fratris primi Ottonis" is called "filia Arnoldi ducis quondam Bawariæ", but not named, in the Annalista Saxo[190].  Widukind records the marriage of "filia ducis Arnulfi" to "dominus Heinricus"[191].  The mother of the wife of "Purchardo duce Alamannorum" was "filiam materteræ" of "Heinricus filius Purchardi comitis" who was installed as Bishop of Augsburg in 973, according to the Vita Oudalrici[192].  After the death of her husband, she was suspected of a relationship with Abraham Bishop of Freising but was exonerated by the Bishop, who sang the mass at her burial[193].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property "salinam…Hal…in pago Salzburggeuue et in comitatu Uuillihelmi comitis" to "domnæ Iuditæ fratris nostri beatæ memoriæ Heinrici ducis viduæ" by charter dated 27 Apr 973[194].  She was imprisoned when her son rebelled in [974/75], and obliged to enter the convent of Niedermünster at Regensburg[195].  The necrology of the Lower Monastery in Regensburg records the death "III Kal Jul" of "Ievta ducissa fundatrix inferioris monasterii"[196].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "III Kal Jul" of "Judita vidualis nonna"[197]m ([937/40]) HEINRICH, son of HEINRICH I King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde [Immedinger] ([Dec 919/22 Apr 922]-Regensburg 1 Nov 955, bur Regensburg St Emmeram).  Duke of Lotharingia [940].  He was installed as HEINRICH I Duke of Bavaria in 947 by his older brother[198].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "Kal Nov" of "Heinricus dux Baioaria hic sepultus"[199]

6.         LUDWIG .  Judith Duchess of Bavaria donated property held by her brother Ludwig until his death to St Emmeram dated [972/74][200]

7.         daughter .  The origin of the wife of Graf Burkhard, mother of Heinrich Bishop of Augsburg, is confirmed by the Vita Oudalrici recording that the wife of "Purchardo duce Alamannorum" was "filiam materteræ [Heinrici episcopi]"[201], the wife of Burkhard III Duke of Swabia being Hedwig of Bavaria, daughter of Heinrich I Duke of Bavaria & his wife Judith of Bavaria [Luitpoldinger].  m BURKHARD, Graf.  947/55.  Graf Burkhard & his wife had one child: 

a)         HEINRICH (-killed in battle near Cotrone 13 Jul 982).  "Heinricus filius Purchardi comitis" was installed as Bishop of Augsburg in 973 in succession to Ulrich [von Dillingen], according to the Vita Oudalrici which also specifies that the wife of "Purchardo duce Alamannorum" was "filiam materteræ"[202].  He rebelled against Emperor Otto II in [976/77], together with his cousin Heinrich Duke of Carinthia and Heinrich Duke of Bavaria [Ottonen].  The rebels were captured at Passau in 978 by the king's forces, deposed and banished[203].  He was killed in battle against a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria during the Italian campaign of Emperor Otto II[204]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DUKES of BAVARIA, SAXON KINGS of GERMANY [OTTONEN]

 

 

HEINRICH I 947-955, OTTO 976-982

 

1.         OTTO, son of HEINRICH I King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde --- (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg cathedral).  Associate King of Germany, with his father, 930.  He was elected OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany 7 Aug 936.  Crowned Emperor at Rome 2 Feb 962. 

a)         LIUDOLF (930-Piomba 6 Sep 957, bur St Alban, near Mainz).  Graf.  Duke of Swabia 950-954. 

i)          -         other children: see GERMANY

ii)         OTTO (954-Lucca 31 Oct 982, bur Aschaffenburg St Peter and Alexander).  Duke of Swabia 973.  His uncle King Otto II installed him as OTTO Duke of Bavaria in [976], after confiscating Bavaria from his cousin Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria[205]

2.         HEINRICH ([Dec 919/22 Apr 922]-Regensburg 1 Nov 955, bur Regensburg St Emmeram).  Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[206].  "Henrici ducis, fratris primi Ottonis" is named in the Annalista Saxo[207].  "Henricus…rex" granted property to Paderborn cathedral by charter dated 9 May 935 which names "Heinrici æquivoci ac filii nostri et Hadeuui filiæ nostræ" by charter dated 9 May 935[208].  He was captured by Eberhard Duke of Franconia in 938 and "held in chains".  He took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine in 939, together with Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia [Hainaut][209].  After the latter was drowned, Heinrich was installed as HEINRICH Duke of Lotharingia in [940].  He was installed as HEINRICH I Duke of Bavaria in 947 by his older brother[210].  He was expelled from Regensburg by his nephew Liudolf Duke of Swabia, during the course of the latter's rebellion against his father, but restored by his brother King Otto in [955][211].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "Kal Nov" of "Heinricus dux Baioaria hic sepultus"[212]m ([937/40]) JUDITH of Bavaria, daughter of ARNULF Duke of Bavaria [Luitpoldinger] & his wife --- (-29 Jul after 974).  The wife of "Henrici ducis, fratris primi Ottonis" is called "filia Arnoldi ducis quondam Bawariæ", but not named, in the Annalista Saxo[213].  Widukind records the marriage of "filia ducis Arnulfi" to "dominus Heinricus"[214].  The mother of the wife of "Purchardo duce Alamannorum" was "filiam materteræ" of "Heinricus filius Purchardi comitis" who was installed as Bishop of Augsburg in 973, according to the Vita Oudalrici[215].  After the death of her husband, she was suspected of a relationship with Abraham Bishop of Freising but was exonerated by the Bishop, who sang the mass at her burial[216].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in orientali Francia in pago Tubergouue in comitatu Gerungi, Sunderenhof, Baldoluesheim" to "domna Iuditæ" [duchess of Bavaria] by charter dated 11 Feb 961[217].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property "salinam…Hal…in pago Salzburggeuue et in comitatu Uuillihelmi comitis" to "domnæ Iuditæ fratris nostri beatæ memoriæ Heinrici ducis viduæ" by charter dated 27 Apr 973[218].  She was imprisoned when her son rebelled in [974/75], and obliged to enter the convent of Niedermünster at Regensburg[219].  The necrology of the Lower Monastery in Regensburg records the death "III Kal Jul" of "Ievta ducissa fundatrix inferioris monasterii"[220].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "III Kal Jul" of "Judita vidualis nonna"[221].  Duke Heinrich & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         GERBERGA ([940]-13/14 Nov 1001).  Thietmar names Gerberga as sister of Heinrich II Duke of Bavaria, recording that she was Abbess of Gandersheim[222].  "Otto…imperator augustus" made a donation of property "Sehusa…in pago Ambergeuue et in comitatu Rotuuigi comitis" to Kloster Gandersheim by charter dated 7 Jun 974, naming "nepti nostra Gerburga eiusdem cenobii abbatissa"[223].  Abbess of Gandersheim 949, 956.

b)         HEDWIG (-26 Jul 994).  The mother of the wife of "Purchardo duce Alamannorum" was "filiam materteræ" of "Heinricus filius Purchardi comitis" who was installed as Bishop of Augsburg in 973, according to the Vita Oudalrici[224].  "Otto…rex" donated land "Scaleia…in pago Brisggouue in comitatu Birhtilonis" to the church at Worms by charter dated 18 Jun 990 on the petition of "Hadeuige ducis nostræ…consanguineæ"[225].  The Annales Einsidlenses record the death in 994 of "Hadewig dux"[226].  "Otto…rex" confirmed a donation of "villis Bosinga, Messinga, Ancencimbra, Harthusa, Vrsilinga in pago Para et in comitatu Hiltibaldi comitis" to Kloster St Gregor, Petershausen by "bone memorie domine Hadewige ducis" by charter dated 4 Nov 994[227].  "Otto…rex" donated property "Nuzbach…in pago Mordenouua et in comitiatu Cuononis comitis" to Kloster Waldkirch naming "bone memorie Burghardi Alemannorum ducis…sueque contectalis Haduuuige" by charter dated 22 Dec 994[228]m BURKHARD III Duke of Swabia, son of BURKHARD II Duke of Swabia & his wife --- (-12 Nov 973, bur Reichenau Island).  Widukind names "Suavi quibus præfuit Burghardus" as husband of "filia fratris regis"[229]

c)         HEINRICH (951-Gandersheim 28 Aug 995, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche[230]).  "Heinricus Bawariorum duxfilius Henrici ducis, fratris primi Ottonis" is named in the Annalista Saxo, when recording his capture in 975[231].  He succeeded his father in 955 as HEINRICH II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria

-        see below

d)         [BRUNO (-after 22 Jul 976).  "Otto…imperator augustus" donated property to the church of Passau by charter dated 22 Jul 976 in which he names "Bruno…nepos noster"[232].  Bruno's parentage is not known but it is possible that he was the son of Heinrich I Duke of Bavaria.] 

e)         [POPPO .  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave property "villam Stocheim…in pago Grapfeld in comitatu Ottonis" to the church of Würzbürg by charter dated 6 Dec 979 at the request of "nepus noster Poppo"[233].  Poppo's parentage is not known but it is possible that he was the son of Heinrich I Duke of Bavaria.] 

 

 

HEINRICH II 955-976/985-995, HEINRICH IV 995-1004/1009-1017

 

HEINRICH of Bavaria, son of HEINRICH Duke of Bavaria & his wife Judith of Bavaria [Luitpoldinger] (951-Gandersheim 28 Aug 995, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche[234]).  "Heinricus Bawariorum duxfilius Henrici ducis, fratris primi Ottonis" is named in the Annalista Saxo, when recording his capture in 975[235].  He succeeded his father in 955 as HEINRICH II "der Zänker" Duke of BavariaRegino records the death of "Heinricus frater regis" in 955 and that the king gave "cuius filius Heinrico…ducatum et marcam"[236].  He rebelled against his cousin Emperor Otto II in 974 and attempted to seize the throne, but was captured and imprisoned at Ingelheim.  He escaped, after which Emperor Otto confiscated Bavaria from him in [976], awarding it to his cousin Otto Duke of Swabia[237].  Ex-Duke Heinrich fled to Bohemia, taking refuge with Duke Boleslav who had supported his rebellion[238].  He returned to Bavaria, rebelled again with Heinrich Bishop of Augsburg and Heinrich Duke of Carinthia [Luitpoldinger].  The rebels drove Bishop Pilgrim from Passau, where they were besieged by Emperor Otto's forces and captured[239].  Duke Heinrich II was put on trial at Magdeburg in 978, and placed in the custody of Folkmar Bishop of Utrecht[240].  He was released in [early 984] after the accession of Otto III King of Germany, but conspired against him in an attempt to have himself elected king[241].  Although he won support in Bavaria, he was opposed by Konrad I Duke of Swabia and conceded at Rohr 29 Jun 984[242].  He was restored as Duke of Bavaria as part of the terms of the settlement in [early 985][243].  Duke of Carinthia 989.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 995 of "Heiricus dux"[244].  The Notæ Sancti Emmerammi records the death in 995 of "dux Hainricus pater Hainrici imperatoris"[245].  Thietmar records the death of Duke Heinrich on 28 Aug at Gandersheim, and his burial there[246].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "28 Aug" of "Heinricus dux"[247]

m (before 972) GISELA of Upper Burgundy, daughter of CONRAD I "le Pacifique" King of Upper Burgundy [Welf] & his first wife Adela --- ([955/60]-21 Jul 1007, bur Regensburg).  Herimannus names "Gisela, Counradi regis Burgundiæ filia" wife of "Heinricus dux Baioariæ" and mother of Emperor Heinrich II[248].  Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to her eldest son in [976], which also suggests that she must have been King Conrad's daughter by his first marriage, although no direct proof has so far been found to indicate that this is correct.  Many contemporary sources confuse Gisela with her niece of the same name, daughter of her half-sister Gerberga & the latter's second husband.  For example, the Chronicle of St Bénigne de Dijon names "sororem regis [Rodulfi Burgundie] Gislam" as wife of "Chonradum" and mother of "tertium Henricum"[249].  It is not known why this report is repeated so frequently in other chronicles, for simple chronology demonstrates that it cannot be correct.  She was exiled to Merseburg after the trial of her husband in 978[250].  According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Gisila imperatrix, mater sancti Heinrici imperatoris obit VII Kal Martii"[251].  Thietmar records the death of "our king's…mother…Gisela" on 21 Jul and her burial at Regensburg, dated to 1007 from the context[252].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "21 Jul" of "domna Gisela mater Heinrici imperatoris"[253].  The necrology of Magdeburg records the death "21 Jul" of "Gisla filia Chuonradi regis"[254]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Heinrich's mistress is not known. 

Duke Heinrich & his wife had four children: 

1.         HEINRICH (6 May [973]-Pfalz Grona 3 Jul 1024, bur Bamberg cathedral).  He is named as son of Duke Heinrich in the Annalista Saxo, when recording his coronation as king of Germany[255].  The necrology of Merseburg records "6 May" as "natalis dies heinrici imperatoris"[256].  He succeeded his father in 995 as HEINRICH IV Duke of Bavaria.  He was elected as HEINRICH II "der Heilige" King of Germany at Mainz 7 Jun 1002, crowned at Aachen 8 Sep 1002.  He challenged the succession in Italy of Arduino Marchese di Ivrea, who had been crowned as king of Italy at Pavia 15 Feb 1002, and entered Trento in Spring 1004 to claim the throne himself.  Heinrich was crowned king of Italy at Pavia 14 Apr 1004.  He resigned the duchy of Bavaria, appointing his brother-in-law Henri Comte de Luxembourg as duke in 1004, although he retook the title from 1009-1017.  King Heinrich II invaded Flanders in 1007 to recapture the march of Valenciennes and also captured Gent.  Count Baudouin subsequently arranged an alliance with the emperor who, in 1012, helped him install a new Bishop of Cambrai, enfeoffed him with the islands of Zeeland and, in 1015, with Valenciennes.  He left Italy after destroying the town of Pavia in reprisal for a revolt which broke out there.  He returned to Italy in Autumn 1013, Arduino took refuge in one of his castles without fighting, and Heinrich was crowned Emperor at Rome 14 Feb 1014.  The emperor invaded Flanders again in 1020, supported by Robert King of France[257].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "III Id Iul" of "Heinricus dux Baioarie imperator"[258].  Canonised 1046.  m (early Summer 1000) KUNIGUNDE de Luxembourg, daughter of SIEGFRIED Graf [Luxembourg] & his wife Hedwig --- (-Bamberg 3 Mar 1033, bur Bamberg cathedral).  The Annalista Saxo names "domnam Cunigundam, felicis memorie virginem" as wife of Heinrich, specifying that she was sister of "Teoderici Metensi episcope et Heinrich postmodum ducis Bawarici"[259].  Rodulfus Glaber refers to the wife of Emperor Heinrich II as "filiam Siefredi Saxonum ducis"[260].  There is little indication of the date of Kunigunde's marriage apart from Thietmar's references to her which show that they were already married when her husband was elected king[261].  She founded Kaufungen convent in 1017.  The Annales Herbipolenses minores record the death in 1038 (maybe a transcription error for 1033 rather than a date error) of "sancta Kunegundis imperatoris" and her burial at Bamberg[262].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "V Non Mar" of "Chunigunt imperatrix"[263].  Canonised 29 Mar 1200.  Heinrich had [one possible illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]: 

a)         [AISHA (-after 1 Oct 1027).  "Gullielmus comes filius Guidi quondam etiam comitis et Aicha…comitissa jugales, filia quondam D. Henrici Regis" donated property to "monasterio…Grassani" by charter dated 1 Oct 1027 "in castro Focario"[264].  The only "Henrici Regis" who was "quondam" in 1027 was Emperor Heinrich II, King of Germany and King of Italy.  No other record has been found of him having any children, either legitimate or illegitimate.  In addition, if he was Guglielmo´s father-in-law it is unclear why he would not have been called "Henrici imperatoris" in the document, as he had been crowned emperor in 1014, unless the reference was to his kingship of Italy.  Unless this information is corroborated by other sources which might emerge, it is suggested that it should be treated with considerable caution.  m GUGLIELMO Conte [di Focario], son of GUIDO Conte di Focario & his wife --- (-after 1 Oct 1027).] 

2.         BRUNO (-Regensburg 24 May 1029, bur Augsburg St Moritz).  Wipo names "episcopus Bruno, frater Heinrici imperatories"[265].  Imperial Chancellor 1005-1006.  Canon at Hildesheim cathedral.  The Notæ Sepulcrales Babenbergenses record the installation of "Bruno episcopus Augustensis, frater sancti Heinrici imperator in die septem fratrem"[266].  Bishop of Augsburg 1006.  He founded St Moritz at Augsburg.  Wipo, in his description of the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, says that Bruno's "[good] character …[was] obscured by the hate with which he opposed his brother" Emperor Heinrich[267]

3.         GISELA ([985]-Passau 7 May 1065, bur Passau Kloster Niedernburg)Herimannus names "Gisela, huius soror [=Heinricus imperator]" as wife of "Stephano regi Ungariorum"[268].  The Annalista Saxo states that "mater ipsius [Stephanus Ungariorum rex] Gisla" was sister of "Heinrici inperatoris Babenbergensis", when recording her husband's death[269], but clearly the text misstates "mater" for "uxor".  This marriage was agreed by Gisela's brother Duke Heinrich IV and István's father to confirm the Hungarian/Bavarian alliance[270].  According to the legends of St Stephen, she founded Veszprém Cathedral and the convent of Veszprémvölgy[271].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Kysla regina" sent "comitem Sebus" to blind Vazul, whom her husband wished to appoint as his successor after the death of their son Imre, and have moulten lead poured into his ears[272].  Bak suggests that Queen Gisela was blamed because of anti-German feeling in the Hungarian court[273].  According to another Hungarian chronicle, Queen Gisela took council from "an evil man named Buda" concerning her husband's plan to name his nephew Vazúl as his heir and sent Buda's son Egiruth to do the deed[274].  After her husband died, she was robbed of her possessions by her husband's successor and left Hungary, becoming Abbess of Niedernburg.  m (996) ISTVÁN of Hungary, son of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his first wife Sarolta of Transylvania (Esztergom [969/75]-Buda 15 Aug 1038, bur Székesfehérvár).  He succeeded his father in 997 as Prince of Hungary.  He was crowned ISTVÁN I King of Hungary in 1000.

4.         BRIGIDA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  Nun at St Paul's, Regensburg.  Abbess of Andlau. 

Duke Heinrich II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

5.          ARNULF (-17 Nov [1018/19]).  Thietmar names Arnulf, brother of Emperor Heinrich II, when recording his installation as Archbishop of Ravenna in 1014[275].  Thietmar records that the health of "Arnulf the king's brother…was seriously damaged by his own people who gave him a drink laced with poison"[276]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DUKES of BAVARIA (LUXEMBOURG)

 

 

HEINRICH V 1004-1009/1017-1024, HEINRICH VII 1042-1047

 

1.         HEINRICH de Luxembourg, son of SIEGFRIED Graf [Luxembourg] & his wife Hedwig --- (-1026).  "Sygefridus comes" reached an agreement with Heinrich Archbishop of Trier by charter dated 17 Sep 964 which names "coniunx mea Hadewige, filiusque noster Henricus"[277].  The Annalista Saxo names "Teoderici Metensi episcope et Heinrich postmodum ducis Bawarici" as brothers of "domnam Cunigundam, felicis memorie virginem", wife of Emperor Heinrich II[278]Herimannus names "Theoderico Metense episcopo et Heinrico Baioriæ duce Fridericoque comite" as brothers of "Adalbero clericus, reginæ Cunigundis germanus", when recording their rebellion against Emperor Heinrich II and deprival of Heinrich's title of Duke of Bavaria in 1008[279].  Vogt of St Maximin at Trier.  His brother-in-law Heinrich II King of Germany appointed him in 1004 as HEINRICH V Duke of Bavaria but resumed the title himself in 1009.  According to Gade, this was due to a dispute over the archbishopric of Trier to which Duke Heinrich was manoeuvring to appoint his brother Adalbert, Prior of St Paul's, the move being was opposed by King Heinrich who feared that too much power would accrue to the Luxembourg family[280].  Henri was reappointed Duke in 1017, but lost the title after the death of Emperor Heinrich II in 1024.  Thietmar records that "the empress…enthroned her brother Heinrich as duke of Bavaria" in 1018[281].  As "Hezzilo Duke of Bavaria", brother of Empress Kunigunda, he is recorded as the latter's adviser in Wipo's description of the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024[282].  He lost the title after the election of King Konrad II in 1024.  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1026 of "Heinricus dux Bavarie frater sancte Chunigundis"[283].  The necrology of Ranshofen records the death "III Kal Mar" of "Heinricus dux frater Chunigundis imperatricis"[284]

2.         FRIEDRICH (-6 Oct 1019).  Graf im Moselgau.  Children: 

a)         HEINRICH (-14 Oct 1047, bur Trier St Maximin).  According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Heinricus, filius fratris Chunigundis imperatricis, obit II Idus Octobris"[285], although it does not specify the name of his father.  He succeeded his uncle as Comte de [Luxembourg] in 1026 as well as in his other properties in Moselgau and Bidgau[286].  Vogt of St Maximin at Trier.  He was installed in 1042 as HEINRICH VII Duke of Bavaria by Heinrich III King of Germany.  The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death in 1047 of "Henrichus dux"[287].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1048 of "Heinricus dux Bavarie filium fratris sancte Chunigundis" in the 23rd year as duke "a suis consiliaris strangulator"[288].  The necrology of Ranshofen records the death "II Id Oct" of "Henricus filius fratris Chunigundis imperatricis"[289]

b)         - other children: see LUXEMBOURG

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    DUKES of BAVARIA (WAIBLINGE KINGS of GERMANY)

 

 

HEINRICH VI 1027-1042/1047-1049, HEINRICH VIII 1053-1054, KONRAD II 1054-1055, AGNES 1056-1061

 

1.         HEINRICH, son of KONRAD II King of Germany & his wife Gisela of Swabia (28 Oct 1017-Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer cathedral).  "Cunradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property to the church of Paderborn by charter dated 7 Apr 1027, naming for the first time "filii nostri Heinrici"[290].  Wipo names "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" when recording his first marriage in 1036[291].  He was installed in 1027 as HEINRICH VI "der Schwarze" Duke of Bavaria, until 1042 when he granted the duchy to Graf Heinrich [Luxembourg].  Crowned HEINRICH III King of Germany at Aachen 14 Apr 1028.  Duke of Swabia 1038-1045.  He resumed possession of the Duchy of Bavaria on the death of Duke Heinrich VII in 1047 until 1049 when he installed Konrad Graf von Zütphen as Duke.  He was crowned Emperor at Rome 25 Dec 1046.  m secondly (Ingelheim 20 Nov 1043) AGNES de Poitou, daughter of GUILLAUME "le Grand" Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME III Comte de Poitou] & his third wife Agnès de Mâcon [Bourgogne-Comté] ([1025]-Rome 14 Dec 1077, bur Rome, St Peter's).  She was Regent during the minority of her son from 1056, when she also installed herself as AGNES Duchess of Bavaria until 1061 when she appointed Otto von Northeim as Duke. 

a)         HEINRICH ([Goslar] 11 Nov 1050-Liège 7 Aug 1106, bur Speyer cathedral).  His father installed him as HEINRICH VIII Duke of Bavaria in 1053, until 1054.  Crowned Associate King of Germany at Aachen 17 Jul 1054, he succeeded his father in 1056 as HEINRICH IV King of Germany.  Crowned Emperor at Rome 31 Mar 1084.   

b)         KONRAD ([Sep/Oct] 1052-10 Apr 1055).  He was installed as KONRAD II Duke of Bavaria in 1054 when his older brother was crowned associate King of Germany. 

c)         other children: - see GERMANY

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    DUKE of BAVARIA (ZÜTPHEN)

 

 

KONRAD I 1049-1053

 

1.         KUNO [Konrad], son of LUDOLF Vogt von Brauweiler [Ezzonen] & his wife Mathilde von Zütphen (-Hungary [15 Dec] 1055, bur Köln St Maria ad gradus).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Heinricum et Cunonem" as the two sons of Ludolf & his wife, specifying that one [=Kuno] was installed as Duke of Bavaria[292].  He was installed as KONRAD I Duke of Bavaria in 1049 by Heinrich III King of Germany.  He was deprived of the duchy in 1053 when the king installed his son as Duke.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1055 of "Cuono dux"[293]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    DUKE of BAVARIA (GRAFEN von NORTHEIM)

 

 

OTTO 1061-1070

 

1.         OTTO von Northeim, son of BENNO Graf & his wife [Eilika ---] (-11 Jan 1083).  The Annalista Saxo names "Otto dux de Northeim, genere Saxo, dux autem Bawarie" as son of "Bennonis de Northeim", naming his mother in a later passage[294].  Graf von Northeim.  He was installed as OTTO Duke of Bavaria in 1061 by Agnes de Poitou, Regent of Heinrich IV King of Germany.  He was a vigorous opponent of King Heinrich, who accused him of an assassination plot, deposed him as Duke of Bavaria, confiscated his lands in the Harz area, and outlawed him in 1070[295].  He allied himself with Magnus Billung Duke in Saxony, but was forced to submit to King Heinrich and placed in custody until 1072, when all his crown fiefs were returned to him apart from the duchy of Bavaria[296].   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    DUKES of BAVARIA (WELF)

 

 

WELF I 1070-1077/1096-1101, WELF II 1101-1120, HEINRICH IX 1120-1126, HEINRICH X 1126-1138, HEINRICH XII 1156-1180

 

WELF IV, son of ALBERTO AZZO II Conte di Luni [Este] & his first wife Kunigunde von Altdorf [Welf] ([1030/40]-Paphos Cyprus 9 Nov 1101, bur Cyprus, removed to Weingarten, near Lake Constance).  The Annalista Saxo names "Welfum seniorum" son of "Azoni marchioni de Langobardia de castris Calun et Estin" (called "Welphus filius Azzonis marchionis Italorum" in an earlier passage[297]) and his wife "Cunizam"[298].  After the death of his maternal uncle Welf III, he was summoned from Italy by his maternal grandmother to inherit the Welf family properties in Swabia and Bavaria[299].  He was installed in 1070 as WELF I Duke of Bavaria by Heinrich IV King of Germany.  Duke Welf supported Rudolf von Rheinfelden, anti-king of Germany, and was deposed as Duke of Bavaria in 1077 by Heinrich IV.  "Heinricus…rex" granted property of "Welfo dux dum erat dux…in pago Passir…in comitatu Gerungi et in comitatu Friderici" to the church of Brixen by charter dated 1078[300].  "Dux Gewelfo eiusque…uxor Iudita" donated property to Kloster Weingarten, with the consent of "filiorum suorum Gwelfonis et Heinrici", dated 12 Mar 1094[301].  He sought to reassert his position in northern Italy against Emperor Heinrich IV by arranging, through Pope Urban II, the marriage of his son to the powerful landowner Matilda Ctss of Tuscany.  In 1095, Welf IV was reconciled with the emperor, who regranted him the duchy of Bavaria[302].  He undertook an expedition to Italy after the death of his father in 1097 to assert his position in the inheritance over his half-brothers[303].  Albert of Aix records that "Willelmus comes et princeps Pictaviensium, de sanguine et origine Henrici tertii imperatoris Romanorum" crossed Hungary peacefully with "duce Bawariorum Welfone et…comitssa…Ida de marchia Osterrich", entered the territory of the Bulgars in which "duce Bulgarorum Guz" refused their passage into Adrianople, but that Guillaume captured "ducem Bulgarorum" who was forced to allow the pilgrims to continue, undated but in a passage adjacent to text which records events in 1101[304].  Albert of Aix records that, after their army was dispersed in Asia Minor by the Turks, Duke Welf eventually reached Jerusalem to complete his pilgrimage but died in Cyprus on the return journey[305].  Ekkehard records the death of Welf Duke of Bavaria and his burial in Cyprus[306].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "V Id Nov" of "Welf dux senior hic sepultus"[307], which suggests that his body was moved after its first burial in Cyprus. 

[m firstly ---.  According to Jordan, the first wife of Duke Welf I was "the descendant of an unknown Italian line" but he cites no primary source in support of the statement[308].  No other reference to this alleged first marriage has been found.] 

m [firstly/secondly] (divorced 1070) as her first husband, ETHELINDE von Northeim, daughter of OTTO I Graf von Northeim Duke of Bavaria & his wife Richenza of Swabia [Ezzonen].  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum Crassum comitem…Sifridum de Boumeneburh et Cononem comitem de Bichlinge et tres filias, ex quibus unam nomine Ethilindam accept Welpho dux Bawarie et postquam eam repudiavit duxit eam Herimannus comes de Calverla" as children of Otto von Northeim & his wife[309].  Her husband repudiated her after the disgrace of her father, whom Heinrich IV King of Germany deprived of the duchy of Bavaria[310].  She married secondly Hermann Graf von Calvelage.  The Annales Stadenses refers to the four daughters of Otto, specifying that "tertia fuit uxor Hermanni de Calvela, que genuit Ottonem et Heinricum comites de Ravenesberch" without naming her[311]

m [secondly/thirdly] ([1071]) as her second husband, JUDITH de Flandre, widow of TOSTIG Godwinson Earl of Northumbria, daughter of BAUDOUIN IV Count of Flanders & his second wife [Eléonore] de Normandie ([1033]-[5] Mar 1094, bur St Martin Monastery).  The Annalista Saxo names "Iudhita…amita Rodberti comitis de Flandria ex cognatione beati Ethmundi regis" as husband of "Haroldi" (in error for Tostig) but correctly names her second husband "Welphus filius Azzonis marchionis Italorum"[312].  The Genealogia Welforum names "filiam comitis Flandrie, reginam Anglie, Iuditam nomine" as wife of Welf[313].  Florence of Worcester says that Judith was "daughter of Baldwin Count of Flanders" but does not specify which Count Baldwin nor is this clear from the context[314].  According to the Vita Ædwardi Regis, she was the sister of Count Baudouin V[315].  Alberic de Trois Fontaines asserts that Judith was one of the children of Baudouin V Count of Flanders & his wife Adela de France[316], but there are other clear errors in his listing of this couple's children so the statement should be viewed with caution.  Judith is also listed as the daughter of Count Baudouin V (after Mathilde) in a manuscript whose attribution to Orderic Vitalis is disputed, which also shows her first marriage[317].  The date of her first marriage is confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which records that "earl Godwine" fled after the Council of 9 Sep 1051 "with Tostig and his wife who was a kinswoman of Baldwin of Bruges"[318].  Judith moved to Denmark after her first husband was killed.  "Dux Gewelfo eiusque…uxor Iudita" donated property to Kloster Weingarten, with the consent of "filiorum suorum Gwelfonis et Heinrici", dated 12 Mar 1094[319].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death "1094 IV Non Mar" of "Iuditha uxor ducis Welfonis Baioariæ" and her burial "apud monasterium…Sancti Martini" built by her husband[320].  The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "III Non Mar" of "Iudinta regina Anglie, filia marchionis de Este uxor Welfonis nostri fundatoris"[321], exaggerating her status resulting from her first marriage and confusing her paternity.  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "III Non Mar" of "Judita dux regina Anglie"[322], also exaggerating her status resulting from her first marriage. 

Duke Welf & his [second/third] wife had two children:

1.         WELF [V] ([1073]-Burg Kaufering 24 Sep 1120, bur Weingarten).  The Annalista Saxo names "dux Welpho, ducis Bawarie Welphonis filius" as husband of "Machtildis filia Beatricis ex Bonifacio marchione de Langobardia".  A later passage names his mother and specifies that he was the older son and died childless[323].  He bore the title "dux et marchese" in a 27 Jun 1090 document at Mantua in which he is named before his wife[324].  "Dux Gewelfo eiusque…uxor Iudita" donated property to Kloster Weingarten, with the consent of "filiorum suorum Gwelfonis et Heinrici", dated 12 Mar 1094[325].  He returned to Bavaria after separating from his wife in 1095[326].  He succeeded his father in 1101 in his Bavarian and Swabian estates, and was appointed as WELF II Duke of Bavaria by Emperor Heinrich IV.  He was a strong supporter of Emperor Heinrich V, accompanying him on many expeditions to Italy[327].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Welf Pinguis dux hic sepultus"[328]m (in secret mid-1089, separated summer 1095[329]) as her second husband, MATILDA Signora di Canossa Ctss of Tuscany, widow of GODEFROI III "le Bossu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, daughter and heiress of BONIFAZIO Marchese of Tuscany, Signor di Canossa & his second wife Beatrix of Upper Lotharingia ([Mantua] 1046-Bondeno de' Roncovi 24 Jul 1115, bur Monastery of San Benedetto di Polirone, transferred 1633 to St Peter's Rome).  The Annalista Saxo names "Machtildis filia Beatricis ex Bonifacio marchione de Langobardia" as husband of "dux Welpho, ducis Bawarie Welphonis filius"[330].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the marriage in 1089 of "dux Mathildis filia Bonifacii marchionis, sed vidua Gotefridi ducis" and "Welfoni duci filio Welfonis ducis"[331].  The Annales Cremonenses record the death in 1115 of "comitissa Matildis"[332].  The Cronica of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona records the death in 1115 of "comitissa Matildis" and her burial "aput ecclesiam sancti Benedicti inter Padum et Lironem quam Teutaldus avus construxerat et Bonifacius pater eius ampliaverat"[333]

2.         HEINRICH ([1074]-Ravensburg 13 Dec 1126, bur Weingarten).  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 1126 of "Heinricus dux Bawarie…filius Welphonis ducis…[et] Iudhitam"[334].  He succeeded his brother in 1120 as HEINRICH IX "der Schwarze" Duke of Bavaria

-        see below

 

 

HEINRICH 1120-1126, WELF VI 1139-1191

 

HEINRICH, son of WELF I Duke of Bavaria & his [second/third] wife Judith de Flandre ([1074]-Ravensburg 13 Dec 1126, bur Weingarten).  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 1126 of "Heinricus dux Bawarie…filius Welphonis ducis…[et] Iudhitam"[335].  "Dux Gewelfo eiusque…uxor Iudita" donated property to Kloster Weingarten, with the consent of "filiorum suorum Gwelfonis et Heinrici", dated 12 Mar 1094[336].  On the death of his father-in-law in 1106, he inherited extensive territories in Saxony around Lüneburg and in the Bardengau[337].  He was appointed to succeed his brother in 1120 as HEINRICH IX "der Schwarze" Duke of Bavaria.  He initially supported the candidacy of his son-in-law Friedrich Duke of Swabia to succeed Emperor Heinrich V as King of Germany in 1125, but eventually supported the election of Lothar von Süpplingenberg, presumably on the understanding of his son's marriage to Lothar's only daughter, which took place in 1127[338].  The enmity of the Staufen family which this created was to have far-reaching consequences in Germany for the rest of the century.  Duke Heinrich became a monk at Weingarten shortly before his death[339].  The Historia Welforum records that Duke Heinrich became a monk shortly before he died "in castro Ravenspurch"[340].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "12 Dec" of "Henricus dux"[341].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "Id Dec" of "Heinricus dux et m n c …pater Welfonis, hic sepultus"[342]

m WULFHILD of Saxony, daughter of MAGNUS Duke of Saxony [Billung] & his wife Sofia of Hungary (-Altdorf 29 Dec 1126, bur Weingarten).  The Annalista Saxo names "Wifhildem et Eilicam" as the two daughters of Duke Magnus & his wife, specifying that Wulfhild married "Heinrico duci, filio Welfi ducis senioris de Bawaria"[343].  The Historia Welforum records that Wulfhild died at Altdorf "decimo sexton die post mortem mariti" and was buried "in monasterio sancti Martini"[344].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "29 Dec" of "Wlfhild ducissa"[345].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "IV Kal Jan" of "Wuolfhildis ducissa hic sepulta"[346]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Heinrich's mistress is not known. 

Duke Heinrich & his wife had seven children: 

1.         HEINRICH ([1108]-Quedlinburg 20 Oct 1139, bur Königslutter).  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as children of Duke Heinrich & his wife Wulfhild[347].  He succeeded his father in 1126 as HEINRICH X "der Stolze" Duke of Bavaria.  His father-in-law installed him as administrator of the lands previously held by Matilda of Tuscany, after conceding papal ownership of them in return for a usufruct[348].  His father-in-law invested him as HEINRICH Duke of Saxony in 1137 shortly before his death. 

a)         HEINRICH ([1132/33]-Braunschweig 6 Aug 1195, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  He succeeded in 1142 as HEINRICH "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony, and in 1156 as HEINRICH XII Duke of Bavaria.  He lost Saxony and Bavaria 1180, but kept his territories in Braunschweig.  

-        DUKES of SAXONY

2.         KONRAD (-Bari 17 Mar 1126, bur Molfetta).  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Counradum, Heinricum, Guelfonem" as the three sons of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde", specifying that Konrad "in clericum ordinatus" and became a monk at "Clarevallense monasterium", visited Jerusalem, and died on his return journey at Bari where he was buried[349].  Cistercian monk.

3.         SOPHIE (-10 Jul before 1147).  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem" as the four daughters of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde", specifying that Sophie married firstly "Bertoldus dux de Zaringen" and secondly "Leopaldus marchio de Stira"[350].  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" children of Duke Heinrich & his wife Wulfhild, specifying that Sophie (named second in the list of daughters) married firstly "Bertoldus dux de Zaringe" and secondly "marchio Liuppoldus de Stire"[351].  The Genealogia Zaringorum names "Sophya soror Heinrici ducis Saxonie" as wife of "Berchtoldus", specifying that they were childless and that she married secondly "comiti de Stire"[352].  "Leupoldus marchio de Steyern" granted property to "ministeriali meo Rudigero", with the support of "mee coniugis Sophie", by charter dated to [1128][353].  She became a nun at Admont after her second husband died.  A charter dated to [1135] exchanges of property between "Uuolfker sacerdos" and "domine Sophie marchionisse et filio eius Otacro marchioni"[354].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1138, which records the foundation of Kloster Reun, lists donations by "domina Sophia marchionissa…cum filio marchione Otakro" for the souls of "filii ac filiarum Otakri…marchionis, Elisabeth ac Margarethe"[355].  The necrology of Admunt records the death "VI Id Jul" of "Sophya ex marchionissa cv"[356].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "V Id Jul" of "Suophia com de Stira hic sepulta"[357]m firstly BERTHOLD III Herzog von Zähringen, son of BERTHOLD II Herzog von Zähringen [Baden] & his wife Agnes von Rheinfelden (-killed in battle near Molsheim 3 Dec 1122, bur St Peter im Schwarzwald).  m secondly ([1122/23]) LEOPOLD “der Starke” Markgraf of Styria, son of OTAKAR II Markgraf of Styria & his wife Elisabeth of Austria [Babenberg] (-24 Oct 1129). 

4.         JUDITH (after 1100-22 Feb [1130/31], bur Walburg im Heiligen Forst, Alsace).  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem" as the four daughters of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde", specifying that Judith married "Friderico Suevorum duci"[358].  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as children of Duke Heinrich & his wife Wulfhild, specifying that one of the daughters (mentioned first in the list of daughters, but not named) married "Fridericus dux Suevorum"[359]m ([1119/21]) as his first wife, FRIEDRICH II “der Einäugige” Duke of Swabia, son of FRIEDRICH I Duke of Swabia [Staufen] & his wife Agnes of Germany (1090-Alzey 4 or 6 Apr 1147, bur Walburg Abbey). 

5.         MATHILDE (-16 Feb or 16 Mar [1183], bur Kastl).  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem" as the four daughters of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde", specifying that Mathilde married firstly "Theopaldo filio Theopaldi marchionis de Voheburch" and secondly "Gebehardo de Sulzbach"[360].  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as children of Duke Heinrich & his wife Wulfhild, specifying that "Quarta Machtildis nomine" married firstly "Thieppoldo iuniori, filio Thieppoldi marchionis senioris" and secondly "Gebehardus filius Beringeri comitis de Sulzbach"[361]m firstly ([1128]) DIEPOLD [IV] Markgraf von Vohburg, son of DIEPOLD [III] von Giengen Markgraf von Vohburg & his first wife Adelajda of Poland (-[1128]).  m secondly (contract 24 Oct 1129) GEBHARD [III] Graf von Sulzbach, son of BERENGAR [I] Graf von Sulzbach & his second wife Adelheid von Wolfratshausen [Diessen] (-28 Oct [1188], bur Kastl). 

6.         WELF [VI] ([16 Dec 1114/15 Dec 1116]-Memmingen 14/15 Dec 1191, bur Steingaden).  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as the children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild[362].  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Counradum, Heinricum, Guelfonem" as the three sons of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde"[363].  After the death of his older brother Heinrich in 1139, Welf led the opposition to Konrad III King of Germany in Bavaria, although he was defeated at Weinsberg in 1140[364].  He founded Kloster Steingaden in 1147.  He joined the Second Crusade with King Konrad in 1147, and took part in the 25 Oct 1147 defeat at Dorylaeum[365].  When King Konrad agreed an alliance with Emperor Manuel I against Roger II King of Sicily, Welf agreed to support the Sicilians[366].  Welf was heavily defeated at Flochberg near Nördlingen in Feb 1150 and reached a peace settlement with King Konrad in 1151[367].  In 1152, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany invested Welf as Duke of Spoleto and Marchese of Tuscany, and with Sardinia and the lands formerly held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, as a means of acquiring Welf support after his election[368].  Vogt von Zwiefalten 1152.  Von Ravensburg 1152.  Short of money, Welf gradually returned his Italian lands to Emperor Friedrich I, and from 1173 ceased to use his Italian titles.  Welf VI also agreed to make Emperor Friedrich his successor in the Welf lands around Ravensburg[369].  The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "dux Guelfo VI fundator monasterii Staingadensis"[370].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XVIII Kal Jan" of "Welfo dux, Welfonum ultimus filius Heinrici ducis"[371]m (before Jan 1133) UTA von Calw Herzogin von Schauenburg, daughter of GOTTFRIED I Graf von Calw Pfalzgraf am Rhein & his wife Liutgard von Zähringen (-1196).  The Annales Sindelfingenses name (in order) "Uotam [uxorem Welphoni de Spoleto] et Lutgardam" as daughters of "Uotæ"[372].  The Historia Welforum names "filiam Gotefridi…palatine de Kalwe, Outam" as wife of "Guelfo…frater…Heinrico duce"[373].  She founded Kloster Allerheiligen in 1192.  Duke Welf & his wife had one child: 

a)         WELF [VII] (-Siena 12 Sep 1167, bur Steingaden).  The Annales Sindelfingenses name "Welphonem iuniorem" as son of "Welphoni de Spoleto" and his wife Uta, specifying that he besieged Tübingen "1165 VIII Id Sep"[374]Duke of Spoleto 1160.  He died of malaria while fighting on Emperor Friedrich I's Italian expedition of 1167[375].  The Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica records the death in 1167 of "Welfo filius Welfonis" during the emperor's Italian campaign[376].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "II Id Sep" of "Welf dux iunior"[377]

7.         WULFHILD (-18 May after 1156).  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem" as the four daughters of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde", specifying that Wulfhild married "Roudolfus Bregantinus comes"[378].  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as the children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild, specifying that "terciam nominee Wifhildem" married "Rodolfus comes de Bregence"[379].  Nun at Wessobrunn 1155.  m as his second wife, RUDOLF Graf von Bregenz, son of ULRICH [X] Graf von Bregenz & his wife Bertha von Rheinfelden (-27/28 Apr 1160). 

Duke Heinrich had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

8.          ADALBERT (-1144).  Abbot of Corvey.  The Annalista Saxo records that "Adalbero frater Heinrici ducis" succeeded as Abbot of Corvey in 1138[380].  It is assumed that "Heinrici ducis" refers to Heinrich X [Welf] who was duke of Bavaria and Saxony at that date.  Adalbert is unlikely to have been the legitimate son of Duke Heinrich IX as he is not named as such in other sources (see above) which appear to provide an exclusive list of the duke's children by his wife Wulfhild. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  DUKES of BAVARIA (BABENBERG)

 

 

LEOPOLD 1139-1141, HEINRICH XI 1143-1156

 

Brothers: 

1.         LEOPOLD, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria & his second wife Agnes of Germany (-Niederalteich 18 Oct 1141, bur Heiligenkreuz).  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis names "Liupoldus" third son of "Liupoldus marchio Austrie" and "Agnetem imperatoris Heinrici IV filiam", specifying that he was made Duke of Bavaria and was buried "apud Sanctam Crucem"[381].  He succeeded his father in 1136 as LEOPOLD IV Markgraf of Austria.  Konrad III King of Germany invested him as LEOPOLD Duke of Bavaria in 1139 after depriving Heinrich "der Stolze" [Welf] of the duchy. 

2.         HEINRICH (1112-from a fall from a horse 13 Jan 1177, bur Vienna Schottenkloster).  Pfalzgraf bei Rhein 1140-1141.  He succeeded his brother in 1141 as HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria.  He was appointed HEINRICH XI Duke of Bavaria in 1143, after retaining the duchy in his own hands for more than a year after his brother's death[382].  He was deprived of the duchy of Bavaria in 1156 by Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in favour of the Welf Duke Heinrich "der Löwe", in order to terminate the German kings' longstanding dispute with the Welf family[383].  He was created Duke of Austria 8 Sep 1156 at Regensburg. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  DUKES of BAVARIA (WITTELSBACH)

 

 

 

A.      DUKES of BAVARIA 1180-1294

 

 

OTTO I 1180-1183, LUDWIG I 1183-1231

 

OTTO von Wittelsbach, son of OTTO [IV] von Scheyern Pfalzgraf von Wittelsbach & his wife Heilika von Pettendorf (-Pfullendorf 11 Jul 1183, bur Scheyern).  The Chronicon Schirense names "Otto palatinus comes" as brother of "Chounradus…Magentinus episcopus", specifying that he was buried at Scheyern[384].  Graf von Wittelsbach 1147.  Pfalzgraf von Wittelsbach 8 May 1149.  Vogt of Freising Cathedral 1158.  Vogt von Weihenstephan 1160.  Graf im Kelsgau 1161.  "Amalrico patriarcha (Hierosolymis)" confirmed a donation of property "prædium Othmanshart et Liuchenthal" to the Knights Templars by "Othoni palatino majori, per manum Friderici, palatini comitis, fratris eius", by charter dated 27 Apr 1168[385].  He was created OTTO I Duke of Bavaria, by imperial order at Altenburg 16 Sep 1180, after Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" deprived Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Bavaria and Saxony of his titles, although the territory of the duchy was split with the Markgrafschaft von Steiermark [Styria] being made into a separate duchy[386].  The Annales Schaftlarienses record the death of "Otto dux" in 1183[387]The necrology of Windberg records the death "V Id Jul" of "Otto dux Bawarie"[388].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeram records the death "V Id Jul" of "Otto dux Baiorie"[389].  The necrology of Undensdorf records the death "V Id Jul" of "Otto dux Bavarie"[390]

m ([1156/58] or before) AGNES van Looz, daughter of LOUIS [I] Comte de Looz, Graf von Rieneck & his wife Agnes von Metz (-26 Mar 1191, bur Scheyern).  Wegener cites a source dated [1156/58] which names "Otto pal. comes" and his wife Agnes[391].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  The necrology of Scheftlarn records the death "VII Kal Apr" of "Agnes ducissa"[392].  The necrology of Undensdorf records the death "VII Kal Apr" of "Agnes ducissa Bavarie"[393].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "VII Kal Mar" of "Agnes ducissa"[394]

Duke Otto & his wife had [ten] children: 

1.         [OTTO von Wittelsbach (-7 Aug [1178], bur Ensdorf).  The necrology of Undensdorf records the death "VII Id Aug" of "Otto filius palatini"[395].  It is not certain that this refers to a daughter of Otto I Duke of Bavaria, as he is only one of several possible "palatini".] 

2.         [ULRICH von Wittelsbach (-29 May ----).  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Oalricus filius palatini"[396].  It is not certain that this refers to a daughter of Otto I Duke of Bavaria, as he is only one of several possible "palatini".] 

3.         [AGNES von Wittelsbach (-13 Jan ----).  The necrology of Undensdorf records the death "Id Jan" of "Agnes filia palatini"[397].  It is not certain that this refers to a daughter of Otto I Duke of Bavaria, as he is only one of several possible "palatini".] 

4.         HEILIKA (-9 Oct [1200]).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Heilkam" as second of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie" and her husband "Dietricus comes de Wasserburch"[398].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "VII Id Oct" of "Heilca com de Wasserburg"[399]m (before 1178) DIETRICH Graf von Wasserburg und Viechtenstein, son of ENGELBERT Graf von Wasserburg [Diessen] & his wife Hedwig von Formbach (-25 Jan [1206]).  

5.         AGNES (-[1200]).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ refers to, but does not name, the third of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie" as wife of "Heinricus comes de Pleien" and their son "Chunradum comitem"[400].  Wegener refers to a donation to Berchtesgaden by Gräfin Agnes von P and her son Chounrad for the soul of Graf Heinrich and his son Otto dated 1197[401]m (before 1177) HEINRICH Graf von Plain und Hardegg, son of LIUTOLD [I] Graf von Plain & his wife Uta von Peilstein (-30 Oct [1196]).

6.         daughter (bur Neresheim).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ refers to, but does not name, the fifth of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie" as wife of "Albertus comes de Diligen" and their children "Hartmannum comitem et Richsam uxorem Alberti comitis de Bogen et --- uxorem Rapotonis comitis palatini Bawarie"[402]m ADALBERT [III] Graf von Dillingen, son of HARTMANN [III] Graf von Dillingen & his wife Richenza von Lenzburg (-15 Feb 1214, bur Neresheim).  

7.         RICHARDIS (-Roermond 21 Sep 1231, bur Roermond).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ refers to, but does not name, the fourth of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie" as wife of "Otto comes de Gelre", specifying that they had three sons[403].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Otto…grave van Gelre" married "des graven docter van Gullick…Richgerda"[404], which misstates her origin.  Her name is further confirmed by the charter dated 1250 under which her grandson "Otto…comes Gelrensis" names "avia mea domina Richardis…avi mei Ottonis comitis"[405].  "Otto…comes Gelrensis…cum uxore nostra Richarda" granted customs privileges to Kloster Altenburg by charter dated to [1188][406].  Abbess of the Munster Abbey at Roermond.  m ([1185]) OTTO I Graaf van Gelderland en Zütphen, son of HENDRIK Graaf van Gelderland & his wife Agnes von Arnstein (-22 Oct 1207, bur Kloster Kamp).

8.         ELISABETH (-Kloster Biburg [1189/90]).  Wegener quotes the Chronicon Reichenbach which records the death of "Perhtoldus filius Diepoldi marchionis…VIII Kal Jun" without heirs, recording that his Mark was inherited by "Ludovici ducis Bavariæ" whose sister he had married[407]m as his first wife, BERTHOLD [II] Markgraf von Vohburg, son of BERTHOLD [I] Markgraf von Vohburg & his wife --- (-25 May 1204).

9.         LUDWIG von Wittelsbach (23 Nov 1173-murdered on the Kelheimer Bridge 14/15 Sep 1231, bur Scheyern).  The Chronicon Schirense names "Ludwicum…parvulum" as heir of "Otto palatinus comes"[408].  Wegener cites a source dated [20 Jul] 1183 which names Agnes as a widow with her son Ludwig[409].  He succeeded his father in 1183 as LUDWIG I Duke of Bavaria.  "Ludevicus…tocius Bauwarie dux" confirmed the donation to Augsburg St Ulrich made by "consanguineus noster Otto palatinus comes de Witilispach" by charter dated 24 Jan 1204[410].  On the death of Pfalzgraf Heinrich II [Welf] in 1214, Duke Ludwig claimed to succeed as LUDWIG Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  "Ludewicus…palatinus comes Reni et dux Bavarie" donated property to Kloster Schönau by charter dated 1214[411].  Ludwig was challenged as Pfalzgraf by Heinrich's father, formerly Pfalzgraf Heinrich I, who had given up the Pfalzgrafschaft in favour of his son.  On the death of Pfalzgraf Heinrich I in 1227, Duke Ludwig was unchallenged as Pfalzgraf but resigned the position to his son Otto.  After the murder of Engelbert von Berg Archbishop of Köln in 1223, Duke Ludwig was appointed regent in Germany for Heinrich VII King of Germany [Hohenstaufen] although King Heinrich seized personal control in 1228[412].  The necrology of Windberg records the death "XVIII Kal Oct" of "Luduycus dux Bavarie"[413].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVIII Kal Oct" of "Ludwicus dux Bawarie"[414]m (end-Oct 1204) as her second husband, LUDMILA of Bohemia, widow of ADALBERT [IV] Graf von Bogen, daughter of FRIEDRICH Duke of Bohemia & his wife Elisabeth of Hungary ([1170]-5 Aug 1240, bur Seligenthal).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Ludmilam" as daughter of "Fridericus dux Boemie", her first husband "Albertus comes de Bogen" and her second husband "Ludwicus dux Bawarie"[415].  The De Advocatis Altahensibus names "Ludmila" as wife of "Adalbertum comitem"[416].  "Ludomia ducissa Bawarie" founded Kloster Seligenthal (near Landshut), with the consent of "filio meo Ottone…duce Bawarie et palatino comite Reni", for the souls of "maritorum meorum defunctorum…Ludewici ducis Bawarie et Adelberti comitis de Bogen" and "filiorum meorum…ducis et Adelberti comitis", by charter dated 1232[417].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "Non Aug 1240" of "domina Ludemia ducissa fundatrix nostra"[418].  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "Non Aug" of "Ludmilla avia fundatoris nostri"[419].  Duke Ludwig & his wife had one child: 

a)         OTTO von Bayern (Kelheim 1206-Landshut 29 Nov 1253, bur Scheyern).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Ottonem…palatinum comitem Rheni ducem Bawarie" as son of "Ludwicus dux Bawarie" and his wife Ludmilla[420].  Pfalzgraf bei Rhein 1228.  He succeeded his father in 1231 as OTTO II "der Erlauchte" Duke of Bavaria

-        see below

10.      SOPHIE (-10 Jul 1238, bur Eisenack St Katharina Kloster).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Sophiam" as first of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie", although the order appears inaccurate in view of Sophie's marriage date, and her husband "Hermannus langravius Thuringie"[421].  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[422].  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "1238 VI Id Iul" of "Sophia mater Heinrico lantgravii" and her burial at Eisenach "in ecclesia beate Catharine"[423].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "VI Id Jul" of "Sophia lantgravia"[424]m (1196) as his second wife, HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia, son of LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Judith [Jutta] von Staufen (-Burg Friedenstein bei Gotha 25 Apr 1217, bur Schloß Friedenstein).

 

 

OTTO II 1231-1253, LUDWIG II 1253-1294, HEINRICH I 1253-1290

 

OTTO von Bayern, son of LUDWIG I Duke of Bavaria, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his wife Ludmila of Bohemia (Kelheim 1206-Landshut 29 Nov 1253, bur Scheyern).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Ottonem…palatinum comitem Rheni ducem Bawarie" as son of "Ludwicus dux Bawarie" and his wife Ludmilla[425].  Pfalzgraf bei Rhein 1228.  He succeeded his father in 1231 as OTTO II "der Erlauchte" Duke of Bavaria.  "Ludomia ducissa Bawarie" founded Kloster Seligenthal (near Landshut), with the consent of "filio meo Ottone…duce Bawarie et palatino comite Reni", for the souls of "maritorum meorum defunctorum…Ludewici ducis Bawarie et Adelberti comitis de Bogen" and "filiorum meorum…ducis et Adelberti comitis", by charter dated 1232[426].  He joined the Bohemian/Austrian alliance against Emperor Friedrich II in 1236 following imperial imposition of direct rule over Austria.  Duke Otto and Wenzel I King of Bohemia withdrew from the diet at Eger in Jun 1239, resolving to elect an anti-King of Germany[427].  Duke Otto allied himself with Konrad IV King of Germany against Heinrich Raspe anti-King of Germany, confirmed by his daughter's marriage in Sep 1246 to the king, and withstood anti-King Heinrich's subsequent incursion into Bavaria[428].  He continued as an active supporter of King Konrad after the election of Willem II Count of Holland as anti-king, although he was prevented from participating in the conflicts of Mar 1251 by threats against Bavaria by Wenzel I King of Bohemia[429].  Duke Otto repulsed an attempted invasion of Bavaria by Siegfried Archbishop of Mainz whom he defeated at Nördlingen[430].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "III Kal Dec" of "Otto dux Bauarie"[431]

m (Worms May 1222) AGNES von Braunschweig, daughter of HEINRICH Herzog von Braunschweig, ex-Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his first wife Agnes von Staufen ([1201]-16 Nov 1267, bur Scheyern).  The Notæ Sancti Emeranni record the marriage of "Otto dux Bawarie" and "filiam Heinrici palatine Rheni"[432].  The Altahenses Annales name "Agnes ducissa Bawarie" when recording the birth of her son Ludwig[433].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Agnes ducissa Bauarie"[434].  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Agnes ducissa mater fundatoris nostri"[435].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Agnnes ducissa Wabarie"[436].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Nov" of "Agnetis coma palatina Reni ducissa Bawarie"[437]

Duke Otto & his wife had five children: 

1.         ELISABETH von Bayern (Landshut [1227]-9/10 Oct 1273, bur Kloster Stams).  "Otto…Comes Palatini Reni Dux Bawarie" exchanged property with the abbot of Niederaltaich, naming "Ludovico filio nostro…et Heinrico fratre suo et sororibus suis Elysabet, Sophya et Agnete", by charter dated 17 Oct 1244[438].  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in 1246 of "Chunradus filius Friderici imperatoris" and "Elysabeth filiam Ottonis ducis Bawarie"[439].  Konrad's marriage to "filiam ducis Bavariæ" is recorded by Matthew of Paris in 1248[440].  Her first marriage was arranged by her future husband to gain Bavarian support against the papal party after his defeat at Frankfurt against Heinrich Raspe anti-King of Germany[441].  The Altahenses Annales record the second marriage "in octava sancti Mychaelis aput Monacum" of "Meinhardus comes Goricie" and "Elysabeth sororem Ludwici et Heinrici ducem Bawarie relictam Chunradi regis"[442].  She founded Kloster Stams.  The necrology of Königsfelden records the death "VII Id Oct" of "domina Elizabecht quondam regina Romanorum, mater domine Elizabeht Romanorum regine fundatricis nostre"[443].  The necrology of Stams records the death "VI Id Oct" of "domina Elizabeth regina prima fundatrix monasterii"[444].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "VI Id Oct" of "Elisabeth com de Tyrol"[445]m firstly (Vohburg 1 Sep 1246) KONRAD IV King of Germany Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his second wife Yolande de Brienne Queen of Jerusalem (Andria 25 Apr 1228-near Lavello, Apulia 21 May 1254, bur Messina Cathedral).  m secondly (Munich 6 Oct 1259) MEINHARD II Graf von Tirol [MEINHARD IV Graf von Görz], son of MEINHARD I Graf von Tirol [MEINHARD III Graf von Görz] & his wife Adelheid von Tirol (Landshut [1227]-Greifenbach, Tirol 1 Nov 1295, bur Kloster Stams).  He succeeded in 1286 as Meinhard II Duke of Carinthia.

2.         LUDWIG von Bayern (Heidelberg 13 Apr 1229-Heidelberg 2 Feb 1294, bur Kloster Fürstenfeld).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1229 Id Apr" of "Agnes ducissa Bawarie filium…Ludwicus"[446].  "Otto…Comes Palatini Reni Dux Bawarie" exchanged property with the abbot of Niederaltaich, naming "Ludovico filio nostro…et Heinrico fratre suo et sororibus suis Elysabet, Sophya et Agnete", by charter dated 17 Oct 1244[447].  He succeeded his father in 1253 as LUDWIG II "der Strenge" joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Heinrich I.  After joint rule became unworkable, he and his brother agreed a division of the family's territories in 1255, under which Ludwig became Duke of Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern) and Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  "L…comes palatinus Rheni, dux Bawarie" supported the candidature of "Rikardum comitem Cornubie, fratrem regis Anglie" as king of Germany by charter dated 26 Nov 1256[448].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record that Duke Ludwig founded "abbaciam in Furstenfeld ordinis Cisterciensis" in 1263[449].  Rudolf I King of Germany appointed Duke Ludwig to preside over the implementation of his policy of return to the empire of all properties unlawfully appropriated since the deposition of Emperor Friedrich II in 1245, promulgated at the Diet of Nürnburg 19 Nov 1274[450].  Duke Ludwig objected to his brother's claim to an electoral vote, confirmed in a 29 May 1276 agreement between the two designed to settle some of their differences[451].  The Notæ Altahenses record the death "1294 IV Non Feb" of "Ludwicus dux Bawarie"[452].  The Ratisponensis Annales record the death "1294 apud Haidelberch Kal Feb" of "Ludwicus comes palatinus Reni dux Bawarie"[453]m firstly (2 Aug 1254) MARIE de Brabant, daughter of HENRI II Duke of Brabant & his first wife Maria von Staufen (-beheaded Donauwörth 1256, bur Donauwörth Heiliges Kreuz Stift).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names (in order) "Mechtildim comitissam Atrebatensem et Sancti Pauli, Mariam comitissam palatinam Reni, Beatricem lantgraviam Thuringie postea comitissam Flandrie, et Margaretam sanctiomonialem, postea abbatissam in Valle Ducis" as the daughters of "Henricus secundus et quintus dux Brabancie" and his first wife Marie[454].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Maria" as second of the four daughters of "Henricus…secundus dux" and his wife Maria, and her husband "duci Bavarie", specifying that he "impie et crudeliter" killed her[455].  The Annales Mellicenses in 1256 record that "Lodwicus Reni comes palatinus" had "Mariam uxorem suam, filiam ducis Brabancie" beheaded by her jailers "apud Werdam"[456].  The Continuatio Lambacensis clarifies that she was killed because of her adultery[457].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record that Duke Ludwig beheaded his wife "Mariam ducissam Brabancie" in "castro Werde Suevico"[458].  The necrology of Freising Weihenstephan records the death "XV Kal Feb" of "Maria palatine Reni decollate a sponse eius Ludovico palatino Reni"[459]Betrothed (Bacharach 26 Nov 1256) to --- of Cornwall, daughter of RICHARD Earl of Cornwall & his second wife Sancha de Provence (-after 26 Nov 1256).  "L…comes palatinus Rheni, dux Bawarie" confirmed his betrothal "cum filia fratris…regis Anglie", or in case of impossibility "cum filia sororis eiusdem", by charter dated 25 Nov 1256[460].  This betrothal was arranged to confirm Duke Ludwig's agreement to support the candidature of Richard Earl of Cornwall as king of Germany, her dowry being 12,000 marks[461].  Duke Ludwig´s support for Earl Richard is confirmed in a charter dated 26 Nov 1256[462].  It is assumed that this daughter, concerning whom no other record has yet been found, was born from her father´s second marriage, as daughters from his first marriage would probably have been considered to old for betrothal at that date.  m secondly (24 Aug 1260) ANNA von Glogau, daughter of KONRAD I Duke of Glogau [Piast] & his first wife Salomea of Poland [Piast] ([1250/52]-25 Jun 1271, bur Fürstenfeld).  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in 1260 of "Ludwicus palatinus Rehni dux Bawarie" and "Annam filiam Chunradi ducis Polonie"[463].  The Notæ Diessenses record the death "1271 VI Kal Iul" of "Anna ducissa Bawarie"[464].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record that the mother of Duke Ludwig died "1271 V Kal Iun" and was buried at Fürstenfeld[465]m thirdly (Aachen 24 Oct 1273) MECHTILD von Habsburg, daughter of RUDOLF I King of Germany Graf von Habsburg & his first wife Gertrud [Anna] von Hohenberg [Zollern] (Rheinfelden [1253]- Munich 22 or 23 Dec 1304, bur Fürstenfeld Cistercian Convent).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "rex Rudolfus filiam suam…Mechthildam" as third wife of Duke Ludwig[466].  This third marriage was arranged to secure Duke Ludwig’s support for her father’s election as King of Germany, with a dowry of 10,000 marks.  The Hermanni Altahenses Annales record that "1302…in vigilia Iohannis baptiste Rudolfus" captured "Mechtildem matrem suam, relictam Ludwici ducis…et Conradum de Oteling" at "castro Schilperg" and took them to Munich where Konrad von Oteling was beheaded "in die sancte Margarete…propter quondam infamiam"[467].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record the death "1304 10 Kal Ian" of "Mechthildis mater Rudolfi et Ludovici" and her burial at Fürstenfeld[468].  The Notæ Diessenses record the death "1305 11 Kal Ian" of "Methildis ducissa Bawaie"[469].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XII Kal Jan" of "domina Mehtildis uxor Ludwici ducis Bawarie"[470].  Duke Ludwig II & his second wife had three children:

a)         MARIA von Bayern (1261-, bur Marienberg near Boppard).  The primary source which confirms her existence has not so far been identified.  Meisterin at Marienberg near Boppard.

b)         AGNES von Bayern (-21 Oct 1269, bur Fürstenfeld).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "Agnetem et Ludovicum" as children of Duke Ludwig & his second wife[471].  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "XII Kal Nov" of "Agnes filia fundatoris nostri, tunc collata est ecclesia in Pfeffing"[472]

c)         LUDWIG von Bayern (13 Sep 1267-at a tournament at Nürnberg 23 Nov 1290, bur Fürstenfeld).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1267 Id Sep" of "Ludwico duci filius…Ludwicus"[473].  He was killed in a tournament.  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record that Duke Ludwig was killed "apud civitatem Nurenberg in hastiludio per Kraftonen de Hohenloch" and buried at Fürstenfeld next to his mother[474].  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "IX Kal Dec" of "Ludwicus filius fundatoris nostri"[475]m (contract Fraulautern 27 Nov 1287, Mainz 7 Jan 1288) as her first husband, ISABELLE de Lorraine, daughter of FERRY III Duke of Lorraine & his wife Marguerite de Champagne Infanta de Navarra (1272-11 May 1335, bur Vaudémont).  The marriage contract between "domino Lodwico…comite palatino Reni duce Bawarie…Lodwico filio suo primogenito" and "Fridericus…dux Lotringie et marchio…Elyzabet filiam" is dated 27 Nov 1287[476].  The primary source which confirm her second marriage has not so far been identified.  She married secondly (Feb 1306) Henri [III] Comte de Vaudémont

          Duke Ludwig II & his third wife had five children:

d)         RUDOLF von Bayern ([4] Oct 1274-[11/13] Aug 1319).  The Annales Basilienses record that "filia regis Rudolfi, ducissa Bavarie" gave birth to a son "circa IV Non Oct" in 1274[477].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "Rudolfum…primogenitus…et Ludovicum ducem iuniorem" as sons of Duke Ludwig & his third wife[478].  The Ratisponensis Annales name "primogenitus Rudolfus" as one of the two sons of "Ludwicus comes palatinus Reni dux Bawarie"[479].  He succeeded his father in 1294 as RUDOLF I Duke of Bavaria and Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, with the Electorship.  He associated his brother with the Government 1300 or 1304, and partitioned his Bavarian territories with him 1310, becoming Duke of Upper Bavaria.  In 1313, Rudolf I became sole Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, with the Electorship.  However, his brother deprived him of this in 1314 and forced him to abdicate in his favour 1317.  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "Id Aug" of "Rudolfus dux filius fundatoris nostri"[480]

-        PALATINATE of the RHINE

e)         MECHTILD von Bayern (end-1275-Lüneburg 28 Mar 1319, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  A charter dated 28 Feb 1287 records the agreement between "domino Lodwico comiti palatino Reni et duci Bawarie" and "Otto…dux de Braunswich et Luneburch" regarding the marriage of the latter with "una filiarum" of the former[481].  The Papal legate issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Ottoni duci de Loeunenburch" and "Mæchtildi nate…Lodowici comitis palatini Reni et Bawarie ducis", despite their 4o consanguinity, dated 29 Mar 1287[482].  The marriage contract between "dominus Lodwicus…comes palatinus Reni, dux Bawarie…Mæhthildem filiam suam antiquiorem" and "Otto Brunswicensis et Lunenburgensis dux" is dated 19 Apr 1287[483]m (Papal dispensation 4o Würzburg 29 Mar 1287, [24 Apr/7 Aug] 1288) as his second wife, OTTO II "der Strenge" Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, son of JOHANN I Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg & his wife Liutgard von Holstein (-9/10 Apr 1330, bur Lüneburg).

f)          AGNES von Bayern ([1276/78]-22 Jul 1345).  Her origin is confirmed by the charter dated 21 Aug 1323 under which "Ludowicus…Romanorum Rex" granted rights to "Sophie…sororis nostre Agnetis, relicte quondam Henrici Marchionis Brandenburgensis, filie"[484].  The primary source which confirms her name and her first marriage has not so far been identified.  m firstly (Donauwörth 15 Jan 1290) HEINRICH Landgraf von Hessen, son of HEINRICH I "das Kind" Landgraf Herr von Hessen & his first wife Adelheid von Braunschweig (-23 Aug 1298, bur Marburg).  m secondly ([Nov 1298/19 May 1303], Papal dispensation Anagni 19 May 1303) HEINRICH I "Ohneland" Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of JOHANN I Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his second wife Jutta von Sachsen [Askanier] (1260-14 Feb 1318).

g)         ANNA von Bayern .  The primary source which confirms her existence has not so far been identified.  Nun at Ulm. 

h)         LUDWIG von Bayern ([Feb/Mar] 1282-Puch bei Fürstenfeldbruck 11 Oct 1347, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "Rudolfum…primogenitus…et Ludovicum ducem iuniorem" as sons of Duke Ludwig & his third wife[485].  His brother associated him with the Government 1300 or 1304 as LUDWIG IV "der Bayer" joint Duke of Upper Bavaria and joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (the single electoral vote being held jointly), and partitioned his Bavarian territories with him 1310.  In 1313, Ludwig became sole Duke of Bavaria.  Elected LUDWIG King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Oct 1314, crowned at Aachen 25 Nov 1314.  He deprived his brother Rudolf I of the Palatinate 1314, and forced him to abdicate in his favour 1317 from which time Ludwig governed all the territories alone.  Crowned King of Italy at Milan 31 May 1327.  Crowned Emperor LUDWIG at Rome 17 Jan 1328. 

-        see below, Part C.  DUKES OF BAVARIA

3.         HEINRICH von Bayern (Landshut 19 Nov 1235-Burghausen 3 Feb 1290, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  "Otto…Comes Palatini Reni Dux Bawarie" exchanged property with the abbot of Niederaltaich, naming "Ludovico filio nostro…et Heinrico fratre suo et sororibus suis Elysabet, Sophya et Agnete", by charter dated 17 Oct 1244[486].  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1235 XIII Kal Dec" of "Agnes ducissa Bawarie filium…Heinricus"[487].  He succeeded his father in 1253 as HEINRICH I joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Ludwig II.  After joint rule became unworkable, he and his brother agreed a division of the family's territories in 1255, under which Ludwig became Duke of Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern). 

-        see below, Part B.  DUKES of LOWER BAVARIA

4.         SOPHIE von Bayern (Landshut end-1236-Schloß Hirschberg 8/9 Aug 1289, bur Eichstätt Dominican Kloster).  "Otto…Comes Palatini Reni Dux Bawarie" exchanged property with the abbot of Niederaltaich, naming "Ludovico filio nostro…et Heinrico fratre suo et sororibus suis Elysabet, Sophya et Agnete", by charter dated 17 Oct 1244[488].  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in 1258 of "Gebhardus comes de Hirzperch" and "Sophiam ducem [Bawarie] sororem"[489].  The Gesta Episcoporum Eichstetensium names "comes Gebhardus…in Hirzperch filius sororis…Ludowici et Heinrici fratrem ducum Bavarie"[490].  The necrology of Oberaltaich records the death "V Id Aug" of "Sophia coma de Hirzperch"[491].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Id Aug" of "Sophia de Hirzberch"[492]m (1258) as his second wife, GEBHARD IV Graf von Hirschberg, son of GEBHARD [II] Graf von Hirschberg & his [second] wife Agnes [von Truhendigen] (-Schloß Hirschberg 27 Feb 1275, bur Eichstätt Dominican Kloster). 

5.         AGNES von Bayern (-Munich 7 Dec [1306], bur Kloster Seligenthal).  "Otto…Comes Palatini Reni Dux Bawarie" exchanged property with the abbot of Niederaltaich, naming "Ludovico filio nostro…et Heinrico fratre suo et sororibus suis Elysabet, Sophya et Agnete", by charter dated 17 Oct 1244[493]

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of LOWER BAVARIA 1180-1340

 

 

HEINRICH I 1255-1290, OTTO III 1290-1312, LUDWIG III 1290-1296, STEFAN I 1290-1310, HEINRICH II 1310-1339, OTTO IV 1310-1334, HEINRICH III 1312-1333, JOHANN I 1339-1340

 

HEINRICH von Bayern, son of OTTO II "dem Erlauchten" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Agnes von Braunschweig (Landshut 19 Nov 1235-Burghausen 3 Feb 1290, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  "Otto…Comes Palatini Reni Dux Bawarie" exchanged property with the abbot of Niederaltaich, naming "Ludovico filio nostro…et Heinrico fratre suo et sororibus suis Elysabet, Sophya et Agnete", by charter dated 17 Oct 1244[494].  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1235 XIII Kal Dec" of "Agnes ducissa Bawarie filium…Heinricus"[495].  He succeeded his father in 1253 as HEINRICH I joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Ludwig II.  After joint rule became unworkable, he and his brother agreed a division of the family's territories in 1255, under which Ludwig became Duke of Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern).  "Henricus…dux Bawarie" confirmed the agreement which settled the disputes with his brother by charter dated 5 Sep 1255[496].  He claimed the title Pfalzgraf bei Rhein in Dec 1256, and in 1271 requested Pope Gregory X to confirm his right to an electoral vote.  While there is no evidence about the response he received, Duke Heinrich did act as the seventh elector in the election of Rudolf von Habsburg as King of Germany in 1273, although his brother Duke Ludwig II registered his non-recognition of his brother's right 29 May 1276[497].  He founded the Cistercian Order near Passau 1276.  The Notæ Altahenses record the death "1290 III Non Feb" of "Heinricus dux Bawarie"[498].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "III Non Feb" of "Heinricus dux Bauarie sen"[499].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "III Non Feb" of "Heinricus dux Babarie"[500].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "II Non Feb 1290" of "dominus Heinricus dux Bawarie et com pal Reni ligt bei uns begraben"[501]

m (1250) ELISABETH of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & his wife Maria Laskarina of Nikaia (1236-24 Oct 1271, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage of "Heinricus filius O. ducis Bavarie" and "Elisabeth filia Bele regis Ungarie"[502].  The Altahenses Annales record the death "1271 IX Kal Nov" of "Elizabeth ducissa Bawarie"[503].  The necrology of Tegernsee records the death "IX Kal Nov" of "Elysabeth ducissa Bawarie filia regis Ungarie"[504].  The necrology of Windberg records the death "IX Kal Nov 1271" of "Elysabet ducissa Bawarie"[505].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IX Kal Nov 1271" of "domina Elizabet filia regis Ungarie ducissa Bawarie"[506]

Duke Heinrich & his wife had ten children: 

1.         AGNES von Niederbayern (Jan 1254-Kloster Seligenthal 29 Oct or 1 Nov 1315, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IV Kal Nov 1315" of "domina Agnetis, soror dominorum Ott, Steph, Elizabeth"[507].  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "Kal Nov" of "Agnetis germanæ ducum Bavarie Othonis et Stephani"[508]

2.         AGNES von Niederbayern (17 Jul 1255-[10 May] 1260, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The primary source which confirms her existence has not so far been identified.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VI Id Mai" of "Agnes palatina Reni"[509], but it is not clear that this entry links to the second daughter of Heinrich I Duke of Lower Bavaria. 

3.         AGNES von Niederbayern (Landshut 29 Oct 1256-[16 Nov] 1260, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The primary source which confirms her existence has not so far been identified.  [The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Agnes coma palatina Reni, ducissa Bawarie"[510], but this entry links to Agnes, wife of Otto II Duke of Bavaria.] 

4.         ELISABETH von Niederbayern ([12] Mar 1258-Kloster Seligenthal 8 or 10 Aug 1314, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1258 in secundo vespera sancti Gregorii" of "Elysabeth ducissa Bavare filiam…Elyzabeth"[511].  The Altahenses Annales record that "Elisabeth virgo, filia Heinrici ducis Bawaria, 13 annum" became a nun "in monasterio Landshut" in 1270[512].  Nun at Kloster Seligenthal.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VI Id Aug 1314" of "domina Elizabet, domini Heinrici ducis Bawarie filia, monialis et professa huius domus, ligt bei uns begraben"[513].  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "IV Id Aug" of "Elizabethæ primogenitæ filiæ Henrici ducis Bavariæ sanctimonialis in Landshuta"[514]

5.         OTTO von Niederbayern (11 Feb 1261-Landshut 9 Sep 1312, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1261 in proxima nocte post sancta Scolastice virginis" of "domina Elysabeth ducissa Bauwarie filium…Ottonem"[515].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Ottonem, Stephanum, Ludwicum" as the three sons of "Henricus dux"[516].  He succeeded his father in 1290 as OTTO III joint Duke of Lower Bavaria.  He emerged as a rival candidate for the throne of Hungary, supported by the Hungarian nobility after the departure of Wenzel of Bohemia, and was elected at Székesfehérvár 6 Dec 1305 as BÉLA V King of Hungary.  He was captured in 1308 by supporters of Charles Robert and released only when he agreed to abandon his claim[517].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1312 of "Otto dux Bavarie…filium Henricum"[518].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "V Id Sep" of "Otto rex Ungarie et dux Bauarie"[519].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Id Sep 1313" of "dominus Otto rex Ungarie et dux Bawarie"[520]m firstly (Vienna Jan 1279) KATHARINA von Habsburg, daughter of RUDOLF I King of Germany Graf von Habsburg & his first wife Gertrud [Anna] von Hohenberg [Zollern] (1256-Landshut 4 Apr 1282, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Chronicon Colmariense records the betrothal in 1276 of a daughter of King Rudolf I to "filius ducis Bavariæ" but does not name either of them[521].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged after her future father-in-law swore allegiance to her father in 1276, with a dowry of 40,000 marks.  The support of Lower Bavaria was decisive in Rudolf I’s struggle with Otakar Přemysl II King of Bohemia over Austria.  The alliance broke down shortly after the marriage took place, the dowry being underpaid by 3,000 marks[522].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "II Non Apr" of "Katharina filia regis Romanorum"[523]m secondly (Straubing 18 May 1309) as her first husband, AGNES von Glogau, daughter of HEINRICH I Duke of Glogau [Piast] & his wife Mechtild von Braunschweig-Lüneburg ([1293/96]-25 Dec 1361 bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Chronicon Osterhoviense records the marriage in 1308 of "dominus Otto rex Ungarie" and "filiam ducis Glowie…Elyzabet", although a later passage names her "Agnete…ducissa Gloavie"[524].  She married secondly (1319) Alram Graf von Hals.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VIII Kal Jan 1361" of "domina Agnes regina Ungarie et ducissa Bawarie"[525].  Duke Otto & his first wife had two children:

a)         HEINRICH von Niederbayern (b and d Vienna 1280, bur Heiligenkreuz).  The Continuatio Weichardi de Polhaim records the successive births in 1280 in Vienna of two sons to "Ottonem, filium Heinrici ducis Bavarie" and his wife "Katherina, filia regis Romanorum", and their death, but does not name them[526]

b)         RUDOLF von Niederbayern (b and d Vienna 1280, bur Heiligenkreuz).  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

          Duke Otto & his second wife had one child:

c)         HEINRICH von Niederbayern (Schloß Natternberg 28 Aug 1312-Schloß Natternberg 18 Jun 1333, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Chronicon Osterhoviense names "Heinricum" as son of "dominus Otto rex Ungarie dux Bawarie" and his wife "filiam ducis Glowie…Elyzabet"[527].  He succeeded his father in 1312 as HEINRICH III "der Natternberger" Duke of Lower Bavaria.  He divided Lower Bavaria with his first cousins Dukes Heinrich II and Otto IV 1331, and became Duke of Lower Bavaria in Deggendorf.  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1334 of "Henricus dux Bawarie filius Ottonis regis Ungarie et ducis Bawarie" without heirs and his burial at Landshut[528].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIV Kal Jul 1333" of "dominus Hainricus dux iunior Bawarie"[529].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XIV Kal Jul" of "Heinricus dux Bauarie fil Ottonis regis Ungarorum"[530]m ([4 Jul 1326/21 Sep 1328]) as her first husband, ANNA of Austria, daughter of FRIEDRICH I "dem Schönen" Duke of Austria & his wife Infanta doña Isabel de Aragón (1318-Vienna 14 Dec 1343, bur Vienna St Klara).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not so far been identified.  She married secondly (29 Sep 1336) Johann Heinrich Graf von Görz.  The Necrologium Austriacum records the death "1343 XIX Kal Ian" of "Anna filia Friderici regis Romanorum coma de Goertz", specifying that she entered "ordinem S Clare in Wienna" after the death of her husband, and her burial there[531].  She became a nun in 1340 at the Convent of St Klara in Vienna, later Abbess. 

6.         HEINRICH von Niederbayern (1262-16 Sep 1280, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1262 in vigilia St Mathye" of "domina Elysabeth ducissa Bawarie filium…Heinricus"[532].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XVI Kal Oct" of "Heinricus iun dux Bauarie"[533].  The necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert records the death "XVII Kal Oct" of "Hainricus fil Hainrici ducis Bavarie"[534].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Sep" of "Heinricus filius ducis Bawarie"[535]

7.         SOPHIE von Niederbayern ([1264]-4 Feb 1282, bur Kloster Vessra).  The Notæ Altahenses record the marriages "1277 VI Id Nov" of "filias Heinrici ducis Bavariæ Caterinam et Sophiam" with "Fridericus marchio de Lantsperch et Boppo filius comitis de Henneberch"[536].  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "IX Kal Mai" of "Sophiæ coma de Heneberg, filiæ Heinrici ducis Bavariæ"[537]m (Landshut 8 Nov 1277) POPPO [VIII] Graf von Henneberg, son of HERMANN [I] Graf von Henneberg & his wife Margareta of Holland (-4 Feb 1291, bur Kloster Vessra). 

8.         KATHARINA von Niederbayern (9 Jun 1267-Seilgenthal 9 Jan [1310], bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1267 V Id Iun" of "Elisabet ducissa Bawarie…filiam…Katerina"[538].  The Notæ Altahenses record the marriages "1277 VI Id Nov" of "filias Heinrici ducis Bavariæ Caterinam et Sophiam" with "Fridericus marchio de Lantsperch et Boppo filius comitis de Henneberch"[539].  "Katherina…quondam Friderici Misnens. orient et de Landsperg Marchionis relicta" issued a charter relating to her paternal inheritance dated 1303, which names "Ottoni et Stephano Com. Palat. Reni et Ducibus Bawarie fratribus nostris", refers to a projected marriage between "Domini Ducis…filium et Elisabeth filiam nostrum"[540].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Id Jan" of "Katherina marchgraevinne von Meichsen, herzog Heinrichstochter von Beiren"[541]m (8 Nov 1277) FRIEDRICH "Tuta" Markgraf von Meissen in Landsberg, son of DIETRICH "der Weise" von Meissen im Osterland, Landsberg und Groitzsch & his wife Helene von Brandenburg (-killed Hirschstein 16 Aug 1291, bur Weissenfels St Klara).  No surviving issue. 

9.         LUDWIG von Niederbayern (9 Feb 1269-Landshut 13 May 1296, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Ottonem, Stephanum, Ludwicum" as the three sons of "Henricus dux"[542].  He succeeded his father in 1290 as LUDWIG III joint Duke of Lower Bavaria.  The Hermanni Altahenses Annales record the death "in Landshut 1296 in festo Penthecostes" of "Hainricus dux frater Ottonis et Stephani" and his burial in Landshut[543], the name "Hainricus" presumably being an error for "Ludwicus".  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "XVII Kal Jun" of "Ludovici ducis Bavariæ filii Heinrici ducis"[544].  

10.      STEFAN von Niederbayern (14 Mar 1271-Landshut 21/22 Dec 1310, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1271 II Id Mar" of "Elizabeth ducissa Bawarie filium…Stephanus"[545].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Ottonem, Stephanum, Ludwicum" as the three sons of "Henricus dux"[546].  He succeeded his father in 1290 as STEFAN I "der Ältere" joint Duke of Lower Bavaria.  Bishop-elect of Salzburg 1290.  Canon at Passau Cathedral 1290-1292.  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "XI Kal Jan" of "Stephanus dux Bauarie"[547].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XII Kal Jan" of "Stephanus dux Bauarie"[548].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Moosburg records the death "XII Kal Jan" of "Stephanus dux Bavarie"[549].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XII Kal Jan 1310" of "dominus Stephanus dux Bawarie"[550].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1309 of "Stephanus dux Bavarie"[551].  He died of plague.  m (1299) JUTTA von Schweidnitz, daughter of BOLKO I Duke of Jauer und Schweidnitz [Piast] & his wife Beatrix von Brandenburg ([1285/87]-Landshut 14/15 Sep 1320, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Hermanni Altahenses Annales record the marriage in 1297 of "Stephanus dux Bavarie frater Ottonis ducis" and "filiam Pulkonis de Polan"[552].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "XVIII Kal Oct 1319" of "Geuta ducissa Bauarie"[553].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVII Kal Oct 1320" of "domina Iutta, domini Polk ducis Polonie filia, ducissa Bawarie"[554].  Duke Stefan & his wife had eight children: 

a)         AGNES von Niederbayern (1301-Seligenthal 7 Dec 1316, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  Nun at Seligenthal.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VII Id Dec" of "domina Agnes soror illustris ducis Hainrici Bawarie"[555]

b)         BEATRIX von Niederbayern (1302-Landshut 29 Apr 1360, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  Regent of Görz 1323-1326 and 1335-1338.  Regent of Treviso 1338.  Her marriage is deduced from the necrology of Seligenthal which records the death "XVI Kal Apr" of "dominus Iohannes com de Görtze, filius domine Beatricis nobilis ducisse Bawarie"[556].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "II Kal Mai 1340" of "domina Beatrix ducissa Bavarie et coma de Goerzen"[557], although the year appears incorrect.  m ([1322]) HEINRICH III Graf von Görz, son of ALBRECHT II Graf von Görz & his first wife Euphemia von Glogau [Piast] (-Görz 24 Apr 1323).

c)         FRIEDRICH von Niederbayern .  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

d)         JUDITH von Niederbayern .  The primary source which confirms her existence has not so far been identified. 

e)         HEINRICH von Niederbayern (29 Sep 1305-Landshut 1/2 Sep 1339, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names "Henricum et Ottonem" as the two sons of "Stephanus dux Bavarie"[558].  He succeeded his father in 1310 as HEINRICH II joint Duke of Lower Bavaria.  He divided Lower Bavaria with his cousin Duke Heinrich III and his brother Duke Otto IV 1331, becoming Duke of Lower Bavaria in Landshut.  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that "dux H. de Bawarie" suffered from leprosy[559].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1339 of "Henricus dux Bawarie frater Ottonis" at Landshut and his burial there[560].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "IV Non Sep 1339" of "Hainricus dux Bauarie Sabarie maritus da Margarete ducisse"[561].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IV Non Sep 1339" of "Heinricus dux Bawarie com palatinus Reni"[562].  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "Kal Sep 1339" of "Heinrici ducis terræ Bavariæ filii Stephani ducis aged 38"[563]m (Betrothed 1322, Straubing 12 Aug 1328) MARGARETA of Bohemia, daughter of JAN King of Bohemia [Luxembourg] & his first wife Elisabeth [Eliska] of Bohemia [Přemyslid] (8 Jul 1313-Prague 11 Jul 1341, bur Königsaal).  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the betrothal in 1322 of "Iohannes Rex…Margaretham maiorem filiam suam" and "Henrico duci Bauariæ"[564].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "V Id Jul 1341" of "Margareta ducissa Bauarie ux di Hainrici ducis"[565].  The necrology of Windberg records the death "V Id Jul 1340" of "Margareta ducissa Bawarie"[566].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Id Jul 1341" of "domina Margareta ducissa Bawarie, dominus Iohannis regis Bohemie filia"[567].  Duke Heinrich II & his wife had two children: 

i)          JOHANN von Niederbayern (29 Nov 1329-Landshut 19/20 Dec 1340, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names "Henricus dux Bawarie frater Ottonis…filium Iohannem"[568].  He succeeded his father in 1339 as JOHANN I "das Kind" Duke of Lower Bavaria in Landshut.  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records that "puero illius Iohanne" was ten years old when "Henricum Ducem Bavariæ" died, but that he died poisoned[569].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "XIV Kal Jan" of "Iohannes fil di Hainrici ultimus dux inferioris Babarie"[570].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIII Kal Jan 1340" of "dominus Iohannes ultimus hæres et dux Bawarie"[571]m (Munich 18 Apr 1339) [MARGARETA von Bayern], daughter of Emperor LUDWIG IV King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his second wife Marguerite de Hainaut [Avesnes] Ctss de Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland (1325-1374).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the marriage "XIV Kal Maii in Monacho" of "dux H. de Bawariefilio suo" and "filiam predicti Ludewici" [which refers to Emperor Ludwig IV Duke of Bavaria], dated to 1339 from the context, adding in a later passage that it was not possible to obtain the Papal dispensation for the marriage[572].  The name of the daughter in question is not specified, but Margareta was the emperor´s oldest unmarried daughter at the time. 

ii)         HEINRICH von Niederbayern  (end-1330-bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

Duke Heinrich II had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

iii)         EBERHARD .  28 Jan 1338.  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

f)          ELISABETH von Niederbayern (1306-Vienna 25 Mar 1330, bur Neuberg Cistercian Kloster).  The necrology of Königsfelden records the death "II Kal May 1331" of "domina Elizabet ducissa Austrie relicta quondam ducis Ottonis"[573], implying, it appears incorrectly, that her husband predeceased her.  The Necrologium Austriacum records the death "1330 in die annunciacionis S Marie virginis" of "Elyzabeth ducissa Austrie conthuralis Ottonis ducis Austrie et filia Stephani ducis Babarie" and her burial "in Novo Monte"[574].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VIII Kal Apr" of "domina Elizabeth iunior, inclita ducissa Bawarie et Austrie"[575], although the reason for her being called "iunior" in this entry is not clear.  m (Straubing 15 May 1325) as his first wife, OTTO von Habsburg, son of ALBRECHT I Duke of Austria, King of Germany & his wife Elisabeth von Görz-Tirol (Vienna 23 Jul 1301-Vienna 26 Feb 1339, bur Vienna Augustinerkirche, transferred to Neuberg im Mürztal, Cistercian Monastery).  He succeeded in 1330 as OTTO Duke of Austria and Steiermark.  Duke of Carinthia 1335.

g)         OTTO von Niederbayern (3 Jan 1307-Munich 14 Dec 1334, bur Seligenthal).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names "Henricum et Ottonem" as the two sons of "Stephanus dux Bavarie"[576].  He succeeded his father in 1310 as OTTO IV joint Duke of Lower Bavaria.  He divided Lower Bavaria with his cousin Duke Heinrich III and his brother Duke Heinrich II 1331, becoming Duke of Lower Bavaria in Burghausen.  He succeeded his cousin Duke Heinrich III in 1333 in Deggendorf.  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "Otto dux Bauarie"[577].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIX Kal Jan 1335" of "dominus Otto dux Bawarie"[578]m (before 3 Mar 1324) RICHARDIS von Jülich, daughter of GERHARD [V] Graf von Jülich & his wife Elisabeth de Brabant (1314-7 Mar 1360, bur Seligenthal).  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "Non Mar 1360" of "nobilis domina Richardis ducissa Bawarie comitissa palatina Reni"[579].  Duke Otto IV & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALBRECHT von Niederbayern ([1332]-young).  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

h)         LUDWIG von Niederbayern .  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

 

 

 

C.      DUKES of UPPER BAVARIA 1304-1340, DUKES of BAVARIA

 

 

LUDWIG IV 1304-1347, LUDWIG V 1347-1361, STEFAN II 1347-1375, LUDWIG VI 1347-1351, WILHELM I 1347-1388, OTTO V 1347-1351

 

LUDWIG von Bayern, son of LUDWIG II "der Strenge" joint Duke of Bavaria & his third wife Mechtild von Habsburg ([Feb/Mar] 1282-Puch bei Fürstenfeldbruck 11 Oct 1347, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "Rudolfum…primogenitus…et Ludovicum ducem iuniorem" as sons of Duke Ludwig & his third wife[580].  His brother associated him with the government in 1300 or 1304 as LUDWIG IV joint Duke of Upper Bavaria and joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (the single electoral vote being held jointly), and partitioned his Bavarian territories with him in 1310.  In 1313, Ludwig became sole Duke of Bavaria.  Elected LUDWIG "der Bayer" King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Oct 1314, crowned at Aachen 25 Nov 1314.  The nickname is a survival of the term of address "Ludovicus Bavarus" used by Pope John XXII to indicate his non-recognition of Ludwig's election as king of Germany[581].  He deprived his brother Rudolf I of the Palatinate in 1314, and forced him to abdicate in his favour in 1317 from which time Ludwig governed all the territories alone.  After several years of war with his rival in Germany, Ludwig defeated and captured Friedrich of Austria at Mühldorf, near the River Inn, in 1322.  Ludwig was actively opposed by Pope John XXII who accused him of assuming the German throne without papal confirmation, excommunicated him and placed the whole of Germany under an interdict in 1324[582].  In 1325, he finally recognised Friedrich as joint-king.  He was crowned King of Italy at Milan 31 May 1327, despite further moves against him by the Pope in Avignon, and was received enthusiastically by the people in Rome where he was crowned Emperor LUDWIG IV on 17 Jan 1328.  He called himself Ludwig IV as Emperor, although he was in fact the fifth Emperor Ludwig.  Pope John XXII declared the coronation void and excommunicated him again, while Ludwig declared the Pope deposed and installed the Spiritual Franciscan Nicholas V as anti-Pope[583].  In 1329, he agreed the Convention of Pavia with his nephews Rudolf II and Ruprecht I under which the latter jointly received the Palatinate while Ludwig IV continued as sole ruler of Upper Bavaria.  Ludwig's anti-papal position received support in Germany from 1338, when the electors declared in his favour at Obstgaten near Rhens on 16 Jun 1338, issuing a treaty for the preservation of imperial and electoral prerogatives[584].  In 1338, Ludwig recognised the claim of Edward III King of England to the French throne and prepared for war with France, though eventually adopted a position of neutrality in the dispute[585].  He succeeded his relative Johann “das Kind” in 1340 as Duke of Lower Bavaria, thus joining all the Bavarian territories once more.  Ludwig alienated his ecclesiastical supporters in 1342 when he arranged the divorce of Margareta "Maultasch" Gräfin von Tirol from her first husband and her remarriage to his son Ludwig.  He was declared deposed 11 Jul 1346, and Charles de Luxembourg was chosen as his successor.  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1347 of "Ludwicus imperator"[586].  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "II Non Oct" of "Ludovici marchionis, Superoris Bavariæ ducis"[587].  The necrology of Diessen records the death "V Id Oct 1347" of "Ludwicus imperator Romanorum filius ducis Ludwici Bawarie, fundator in Etal"[588].  He died during a bear hunt when he had a stroke and fell from his horse[589]

m firstly ([14 Oct 1308/1311]) BEATRIX von Schweidnitz, daughter of BOLKO I Duke of Jauer und Schweidnitz [Piast] & his wife Beatrix von Brandenburg ([1290]-Munich 24 Aug 1322, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record the marriage of "ducis Polonie filia Beatrice" and Duke Ludwig[590]

m secondly (Köln 25 Feb 1324) MARGUERITE de Hainaut, daughter of GUILLAUME III "le Bon" Comte de Hainaut, WILLEM III Count of Holland & his wife Jeanne de Valois (1311-Le Quesnoy 23 Jun 1356, bur Valenciennes).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that "dominus Ludewicus et rex Anglie et marchio Iuliacensis" had married "tres…sorores…fillies comitis Hannonie sive Hollandie"[591].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the marriage in 1324 of "Rex Ludwicus" and "filiam Comitis Holandiæ"[592].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records the marriage "apud Aquisgranum" of "Wilhelmus comes Hollandie…Margaretam filiam suam" and "Ludovico duci Bavarie, imperatori Romanorum"[593].  She succeeded her brother in 1345 as MARGUERITE II Ctss de Hainaut, MARGARETA Ctss of Holland and Zeeland.  She abdicated 7 Dec 1354. 

Emperor/Duke Ludwig & his first wife had five children:

1.         MECHTILD (after 21 Jun 1313-Meissen 2 Jul 1346, bur Kl Altzelle).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the marriage in 1328 in Nürnberg of "marchio Fredericus iunior" and "filis regis Romanorum Mechtildis"[594].  The Annales Veterocellenses record the death "1346…die Processi et Marthinieni" of "Mechtidis marchionissa"[595]m (Nürnberg early May 1323) FRIEDRICH von Meissen, son of FRIEDRICH I "der Freidige" Markgraf von Meissen & his second wife Elisabeth von Lobdeburg-Arnshaugk (Gotha 1310-Wartburg 18 Nov 1349, bur Altzelle).  He succeeded his father in 1323 as FRIEDRICH II "der Ernsthafte" Markgraf von Meissen

2.         LUDWIG (Jul 1316-Zorneding 17/18 Sep 1361, bur Munich).  He was installed in 1324 by his father as LUDWIG Markgraf von Brandenburg: "Ludowicus…Romanorum Rex" granted "Marchia Brandenburgensis ac Archicameratus imperii…cum Ducatibus Stetinensi et Deminensi, terra Stargardensi, comitatu Wernigerode" which lapsed on the death of "quondam Woldemari Marchionis Brandenburgensis" to "Ludouico filio nostro primogenito" by charter dated 24 Jun 1324[596].  Duke of Carinthia and Graf von Tirol 1340.  He succeeded his father in 1347 as LUDWIG V "der Brandenburger" joint Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories 1349, he kept Upper Bavaria.  He abdicated in Brandenburg 1351 in favour of his younger half-brother Ludwig VI.  The necrology of Marienberg at Schuls records the death "XV Kal Oct 1361" of "dominus Ludwicus marchio Brandenburgensis dominus Tyrollis"[597].  The necrology of Diessen records the death "XIV Kal Oct 1361" of "Ludwicus dux Bawarie et marchio Brandeburgo filius Ludwici imperatoris"[598].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIV Kal Oct 1361" of "Ludwicus markgrafius, dux Bawarie, com palatinus Reni, ist bei uns begraben"[599]m firstly (contract 13 Jul 1323, Vordingborg Castle Dec 1324) MARGRETE of Denmark, of CHRISTOFFER II King of Denmark & his wife Euphemia of Pomerania-Wolgast ([1305]-Berlin [19 Mar/31 May] 1340, bur Berlin Church of the Franciscan Order).  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the betrothal in 1323 of "Ludwicus Rex filio suo prinogenito" and "Cristafori Regis Daciæ filiam"[600].  The marriage contract between "Ludouicum, marchionum Brandenburgensem, primogenitum…Ludouici Romanorum Regis" and "Christoforus…Danorum Saluorumque Rex, Dux Estonie…Margaretham filiam nostram" is dated 13 Jul 1323, witnessed by "…filium nostrum dominum Erycum"[601].  The Chronicon Elwacense in 1323 records that "rex Ludwicus marchiam Brandenburgensem filio suo contulit" and his marriage to "filiam regis Daciæ"[602]m secondly (Schloß Tirol 10 Feb 1342) as her second husband, MARGARETA "Maultasch" von Görz Gräfin von Tirol, divorced wife of JOHANN HEINRICH Markgraf of Moravia, daughter of HEINRICH II Duke of Carinthia & his wife Anna of Bohemia [Přemyslid] ([1318]-Vienna 3 Oct 1369, bur Vienna Minoriten zum Heiligen Kreuz).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the divorce in Nov 1341 of "filia ducis Heinrici Carinthie sive comitis Tyrolis" and "Iohanni filio Iohannis regis Bohemie" and her marriage "in die sancte Scholastice" in Feb 1342 to "marchioni Brandenburgensi"[603].  This marriage was agreed by her future father-in-law King Ludwig IV after he arranged her divorce from her first husband[604].  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records that "Karolus…fratrem suum Iohannem…Comitis Tyrolis" repudiated his wife, after she conspired against him with her illegitimate son Albert, and that she married "Ludwico, filio Bauri, Marchionis Brandeburgensi"[605].  The burials of Minoritenkirche, Vienna records the death in 1369 of "Margareta marchionissa de Tyrolis in Athaso"[606].  Duke Ludwig V & his first wife had one child:

a)         MATTHIAS .

Duke Ludwig V & his second wife had two children:

b)         HERMANN (1343-after 1360).

c)         MEINHARD (Landshut 9 Feb 1344-Schloß Tirol 13 Jan 1363, bur Meran).  He succeeded his father in 1361 as MEINHARD Duke of Upper Bavaria, and as MEINHARD III Graf von Tirolm (Passau 4 Sep 1359) as her first husband, MARGARETA of Austria, widow of MEINHARD Duke in Bavaria in Oberbayern, daughter of ALBRECHT II “der Weise” Duke of Austria & his wife Jeanne de Ferrette (Vienna 1346-Brno 14 Jan 1366, bur Brno Kloster St Thomas).  She married secondly (Vienna Feb 1364) as his third wife, Johann Heinrich of Bohemia Markgraf of Moravia.

3.         daughter (end Sep 1314-). 

4.         ANNA ([1316]-Kastl 29 Jan 1319, bur Kastl). 

5.         STEFAN (Autumn 1319-Landshut 19 May 1375, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names "Stephanus et Albertus" as sons of "Ludwicus imperator"[607].  He succeeded his father in 1347 as STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" joint Duke of Bavaria

-        see below, Part D. DUKES of BAVARIA.

Emperor/Duke Ludwig & his second wife had ten children: 

6.         MARGARETA (1325-1374).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the marriage "XIV Kal Maii in Monacho" of "dux H. de Bawariefilio suo" and "filiam predicti Ludewici" [which refers to Emperor Ludwig IV Duke of Bavaria], dated to 1339 from the context, adding in a later passage that it was not possible to obtain the Papal dispensation for the marriage[608].  The name of the daughter in question is not specified, but Margareta was the emperor´s oldest unmarried daughter at the time.  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the marriage in 1350 of "rex Ungarie Karolus…frater suus iunior" and "sororem ducum Bawarie, filiam Ludewici"[609].  [m firstly (Munich 18 Apr 1339) JOHANN von Nieder-Bayern, son of HEINRICH II Duke of Lower Bavaria in Landshut & his wife Margareta of Bohemia (29 Nov 1329-Landshut 19/20 Dec 1340, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  He succeeded his father in 1339 as JOHANN I "das Kind" Duke of Lower Bavaria in Landshut.]  m [secondly] (Ofen Jan 1351) ISTVÁN of Hungary Duke in Transylvania, son of KÁROLY II King of Hungary [Anjou-Capet] & his third wife Elźbieta of Poland (26 Dec 1332-9 Aug 1354, bur Székesfehérvár).  Duke of Slavonia 1352.  m [thirdly] (before 13 Aug 1358) GERLACH von Hohenlohe in Uffenheim, son of LUDWIG von Hohenlohe & his wife Elisabeth von Nassau-Weilburg (before 1344-after 27 Jan 1392).  

7.         ANNA ([1326]-3 Jun 1361, bur Fontenelles).  Nun at Fontenelles near Valenciennes.

8.         LUDWIG (Rome 7 May 1328-Berlin 17 May 1365, bur Berlin Church of the Franciscan Order).  He succeeded in 1347 as LUDWIG VI "der Römer" joint Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories 1349, he kept Upper Bavaria jointly until 1351 when he succeeded on the abdication of his older half-brother Ludwig V as Markgraf von Brandenburg.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Mai" of "Ludwicus iunior dux Bawarie"[610]m firstly ([Krakow 1 Jan 1345]/[25 Jul 1345]) KUNIGUNDE of Poland, daughter of KAZIMIERZ III "the Great" King of Poland & his first wife Anna [Aldona] of Lithuania (before 16 May 1335-Berlin 26 Apr 1357, bur Berlin Church of the Franciscan Order).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that "comes Hannonie et Hollandie…soror…[et] dominum Ludewicum de Bawaria…filio…primogenito" married "rex Cracovie filiam"[611].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the renewed alliance between her father and the Wittelsbach Markgraf of Brandenburg[612]m secondly (contract Pritzwalk 25 Jun 1357, Feb 1360) as her first husband, INGEBORG von Mecklenburg, daughter of ALBRECHT II "der Große" Herzog von Mecklenburg & his first wife Eufemia Eriksdatter of Sweden ([1340]-after 25 Jul 1395, bur Itzehoe).  She married secondly (before 1374) as his second wife, Heinrich II "der Eiserne" Graf von Holstein-Schauenburg

9.         ELISABETH (1329-Stuttgart 2 Aug 1402, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that "aliam…filiam [Ludewici]" married "filius Canis dominus Verone", dated to 1350 from the context[613].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Domini Canis primogeniti" married "Domino Ludovico tunc Imperatore…filiam suam nomine Imperatricem", adding that they had "unica proles…fœmina"[614].  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis (Continuatio) records that "filio Mastini Veronensis" married "Ludewicus…sororem, quondam Ludewici principis filiam"[615].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Canemsignorium" proposed to marry "Dominam cognatam viduam" after the death of her husband but that she refused[616]m firstly (Verona 22 Nov 1350) CANGRANDE [II] della Scala, son of MASTONO [II] Signor di Verona & his wife Taddea da Carrara (-murdered Verona 14 Dec 1359, bur Verona Santa Maria Antica).  He succeeded in 1351 as Signor di Verona.  m secondly (contract Donauwörth 26 Apr 1362, Stuttgart 1362) ULRICH Erbgraf von Württemberg, son of EBERHARD II "dem Greinen" Graf von Württemberg & his wife Elisabeth von Henneberg-Schleusingen ([1342]-killed in battle near Döffingen 23 Aug 1388, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche). 

10.      WILHELM (Frankfurt-am-Main 12 May 1330-Le Quesnoy 15 Apr 1388, bur Valenciennes).  He succeeded in 1347 as WILHELM I joint Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories in 1349, he kept Lower Bavaria jointly.  He succeeded his mother in 1349 as WILLEM V Count of Holland and Zeeland, but she retook control of these territories in 1350.  Willem took up arms against his mother, finally forcing her to yield 7 Dec 1354.  Count Willem’s succession in Holland was, according to his father’s wishes, joint with his brother Albrecht.  However, the Dutch refused to accept this and in practice Willem governed alone.  As a result of a further partition in 1353, he received Straubing jointly with his brother Albrecht.  He was confirmed 26 Feb 1357 as GUILLAUME V Comte de Hainaut, following the death of his mother.  He became insane in [1356/57], and was detained at the château du Quesnoy in 1358. 

-        COMTES de HAINAUT.  

11.      ALBRECHT (Munich 25 Jul 1336-The Hague 13 Dec 1404, bur The Hague).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names "Stephanus et Albertus" as sons of "Ludwicus imperator"[617].  He succeeded as ALBRECHT I joint Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories in 1349, he kept Lower Bavaria jointly.  He succeeded his mother 1349 as ALBERT Count of Holland and Seeland, jointly with his brother Willem.  However, the Dutch refused to accept this and in practice Willem governed alone.  As a result of a further partition in 1353, he received Straubing jointly with his brother Wilhelm.  Named Protector of Hainaut, Holland and Seeland in 1358, on behalf of his brother who had become insane.  Emperor Karl IV invested him with the Counties of Holland, Seeland, Friesland and Hainaut, but this remained unrecognised by the population.  He only succeeded on the death of his brother in 1389 as ALBERT Count of Holland, Seeland, ALBERT Comte de Hainaut

-        COMTES de HAINAUT

12.      OTTO (Munich 1340 or 1342-Schloß Wolfstein an der Isar 15/16 Nov 1379, bur Seligenthal).  He succeeded in 1347 as OTTO V "der Faule" joint Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories in 1349, he kept Upper Bavaria jointly which he renounced 1351 in favour of his brother Ludwig V who in return renounced Brandenburg in his favour (minor until 1360).  He ruled alone in Brandenburg in 1365, the territory being ceded to the emperor in 1373.  Duke of Lower Bavaria 1375-1376.  The necrology of Scheftlarn records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Otto marchio Brandburc"[618].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVII Kal Dec 1379" of "dominus Otto marggrafius com palatinus Reni et dux Babarie, ist bei uns begraben"[619]m (Prague 19 Mar 1366) as her second husband, KATHARINA of Bohemia, widow of RUDOLF IV Duke of Austria, daughter of Emperor KARL IV King of Germany, King of Bohemia & his first wife Blanche [Marguerite] de Valois (Prague Aug 1342-Perchtoldersdorf 26 Apr 1395, bur Vienna St Stefan).  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records the marriage in 1353 of "Rudolfus Dux Austriæ" and "Katherina, filia Domini Karoli"[620].  The Necrologium Austriacum refers to the wife of Duke Rudolf as "kayser Karls tochter des vierten"[621].  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records the marriage "feria quinta ante Iudica" in 1366 of "Dominus Imperator filiam suam seniorem…ex Domina Blancza…Katherinam, relictam olim Rudolfi Ducis Austriæ" and "Ottoni Marchioni Brandenburgensi"[622]

13.      BEATRIX (1344-25 Dec 1359).  The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium records the death in 1359 of "rege Suecie Erico…uxor sua Beatrix, primogenitus suus" and names "pater suus Magnus rex Suecie"[623]m (before 25 Oct 1356) ERIK XII Magnusson King of Sweden, son of MAGNUS II King of Sweden and Norway & his wife Blanche de Namur ([1339]-20 Jun 1359).

14.      AGNES (Munich 1345-Munich 11 Nov 1352, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau). 

15.      LUDWIG (early Oct 1347-1348, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).

 

 

 

D.      DUKES of BAVARIA, DUKES of BAVARIA-INGOLSTADT, DUKES of BAVARIA-LANDSHUT

 

 

STEFAN II 1347-1375, STEFAN III 1375-1413, LUDWIG VII 1413-1443, LUDWIG VIII 1443-1445

 

STEFAN von Bayern, son of Emperor LUDWIG IV "der Bayer" King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his first wife Beatrix von Schweidnitz [Piast] (Autumn 1319-Landshut 19 May 1375, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names "Stephanus et Albertus" as sons of "Ludwicus imperator"[624].  He succeeded his father in 1347 as STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" joint Duke of Bavaria.  He and his brothers partitioned their territories 1349, he kept Lower Bavaria jointly.  As a result of a further partition in 1353, he received Landshut.  He inherited Upper Bavaria 1363 from his nephew Meinhard, also claiming Tirol which he was forced to concede to Austria in 1369.  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death in 1375 of "Stephanus dux"[625].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIV Kal Mai 1375" of "Stephanus dux Bawarie com palatinis Reni"[626]

m firstly (27 Jun 1328) ISABELLA of Sicily, daughter of FEDERIGO II King of Sicily [Aragon] & his wife Eléonore of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] ([1310]-Landshut 21 Mar 1349, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis records the death in 1349 of "filia regis Cecilie uxor Stephani ducis Bavarie"[627].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XII Kal Apr 1349" of "domina Elisabeth ducissa Bawarie filia regis Sycilie"[628]

m secondly (Landshut 14 Feb 1359) MARGARETA von Nürnberg, daughter of JOHANN II Burggraf von Nürnberg & his wife Elisabeth von Henneberg (-19 Sep 1377).  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis records that "Stephani ducis Bavarie" married "filiam burggravii de Nürenberg" after the death of his first wife[629].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIII Kal Oct 1377" of "nobilis domina Margareta ducissa Bawarie, filia domini purggrafii de Nurenperga"[630]

Duke Stefan II & his first wife had four children: 

1.         STEFAN ([1337]-Niederschönenfeld 26 Sep 1413, bur 1430 Ingolstadt Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Stephanus, Fridericus, Iohannes" as the three sons of "Stephanus dux"[631].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Moosburg records the death "II Non Dec" of "Fridricus dux Bavarie" and names "Stephani et Iohannis fratrum eius"[632].  He succeeded his father in 1375 as STEFAN III joint Duke of Bavaria.  When he and his brothers partitioned the territories 1392, he kept Ingolstadt.  The necrology of Seonense records the death "VII Kal Oct 1413" of "Stephanus dux"[633]m firstly ([13 Oct 1364/1367]) TADDEA Visconti, daughter of BERNABÒ Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala (-28 Sep 1381, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death in Oct 1381 of "Domina Thaddæa filia Domini Bernabovis et uxor Principis Leopoldi [error for Stefani] Ducis Bavariæ et Comitis Rheni"[634].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IV Kal Oct 1381" of "domina Thadaea filia de Mediolano ducissa Babarie"[635]m secondly (Köln 16 Jan 1401) as her second husband, MYNTA ELISABETH von Kleve, widow of REINOLD van Valkenburg, daughter of ADOLF I Graf von Kleve & his wife Margareta von Jülich ([1378]-after 2 Jul 1430).  Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Stefan's mistress is not known.  Duke Stefan III & his first wife had three children:

a)         LUDWIG ([20 Dec 1365/1369]-in prison Burghausen 1/2 May 1447, bur Raitenhaslach).  He succeeded his father in 1413 as LUDWIG VII "der Bärtige" Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt.  Comte de Mortain 1416, as part of the dowry of his second wife.  Deposed and imprisoned by his son 1443.  m firstly (Paris 1 Oct 1402) as her second husband, ANNE de Bourbon, widow of JEAN de Berry Comte de Montpensier, daughter of JEAN I de Bourbon Comte de la Marche et de Vendôme & his wife Catherine Ctss de Vendôme et de Castres (-Paris Sep 1408, bur Paris, église des Jacobins).  Betrothed (Paris 1409, contract broken before 1410) to Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra, daughter of don CARLOS III "el Noble" King of Navarre & his wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Pamplona 1385-Santa María de Nieva 3 Apr 1441, bur Tudela, église des Cordeliers).  She succeeded her father in 1425 as BLANCA I Queen of Navarrem secondly (Paris, Hôtel Saint-Pol 1 Oct 1413) as her second husband, CATHERINE d'Alençon, widow of PIERRE d'Evreux Infante de Navarra Comte de Mortain, daughter of PIERRE II Comte d'Alençon & his wife Marie Chamaillart (Verneuil-sur-Avre, Eure [1380]-Paris, Hôtel d’Auxerre 25 Jun 1425, bur Paris, Abbaye Sainte-Geneviève).  The necrology of Vauvert records the death "VII Kal Jul" of "domine Katherina de Alençonio ducissa in Bavaria filia ducis Alençonii quondam uxor…principis domini Petri de Navarra"[636]Mistress (1): CANETTA Schweller, daughter of ---.  Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Duke Ludwig's second mistress is not known.  Duke Ludwig VII & his first wife had two children:

i)          LUDWIG (Paris 1 Sep 1403-Ingolstadt 7 Apr 1445, bur Ingolstadt Unsere Liebe Frau).  Graf zu Graisbach.  He deposed his father and succeeded him in 1443 as LUDWIG VIII "der Höckrige" Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadtm (Ingolstadt 20 Jul 1441) as her first husband, MARGARETA von Brandenburg, daughter of FRIEDRICH I Elector of Brandenburg & his wife Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut ([1410]-Landshut 27 Jul 1465, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  She married thirdly (1446) Martin von Waldenfels zu Wartenfels (-before 7 May 1472).  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Kal Aug 1465" of "domina Margaretha uxor et vidua principis Ludowici iunioris Bavarie, dise fürstin ist bei uns begraben"[637]

(a)       child ([1442]-).

(b)       KATHARINA ([1443]-after 1446).

ii)         JOHANN (b and d Paris 1404, bur Paris St Jacques).

Duke Ludwig VII & his second wife had two children:

iii)        JOHANN (Paris 6 Feb 1414-young, bur Paris St Jacques).

iv)        daughter (b and d Paris ----).

Duke Ludwig VII had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):  

v)          WIELAND von Freyberg (1400-1439)m (1438) AMELEY von Wertheim.

Duke Ludwig VII had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

vi)         JEANNE bâtarde de Bavièrem (contract Dijon 8 Jun 1442, Besançon 1442) JEAN de Salins Seigneur de Nevy de Villers-Robert de Frontenay et de l'Abergement (-1486).

b)         ELISABETH ([1369/70]-Paris 24 or 30 Sep 1435, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  She was known as ISABEAU de Bavière in France.  Appointed President of the Council of Regency 26 Apr 1403 during the periods of insanity of her husband.  She proclaimed herself regent in 1408.  She was kidnapped by her brother-in-law Philippe Duke of Burgundy 2 Nov 1417 and imprisoned at Blois and later Tours.  The necrology of Vauvert records the death "Kal Oct" of "domina Ysabella de Bavaria regina Francie"[638]m (Cathedral of Amiens 17 Jul 1385) CHARLES VI "le Bien-Aimé" King of France, son of CHARLES V "le Sage" King of France & his wife Jeanne de Bourbon (Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 3 Dec 1368-Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 21 Oct 1422, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

c)         son (1377-).

Duke Stefan had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

d)         JOHANNES der Moosburger (-1409).  Bishop of Regensburg 1384.

2.         FRIEDRICH ([1339]-Budweis 3 or 4 Dec 1393, bur Seligenthal).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Stephanus, Fridericus, Iohannes" as the three sons of "Stephanus dux"[639].  He succeeded his father in 1375 as FRIEDRICH joint Duke of Bavaria.  When he and his brothers partitioned the territories in 1392, he kept Landshut

          -        see below

3.         JOHANN ([1341]-Munich 8 Aug 1397, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Liber Anniversariorum of Moosburg records the death "II Non Dec" of "Fridricus dux Bavarie" and names "Stephani et Iohannis fratrum eius"[640].  He succeeded his father in 1375 as JOHANN II joint Duke of Bavaria.  When he and his brothers partitioned the territories 1392, he kept Munich

          -        see below, Part E. DUKES of BAVARIA-MUNICH

4.         ELISABETH (-Milan 17 Jan 1382, bur Milan, Church of San Giovanni di Conci).  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1367 in Milan of "Dominus Marcus natus…Domini Barnabovis Vicecomitis" and "Dominam Elisabet filiam…Principis Domini Stephani, Palatini Comitis et Ducis Bavariæ"[641].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Mediolani" in 1382 of "Dominus Marcus Vicecomes filius…Domini Bernabovis" and one month later of "uxor dicti Domini Marci, soror Domini Ducis Bavariæ" also in Milan[642].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 17 Jan 1382 of "Domina Elisabeth…uxor…quondam Domini Marci et filia quondam…Principis Domini Stephani Palatini Comitis Rheni et Ducis Bavariæ" and her burial "in ecclesia Sancti Johannis in Conca"[643].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Jan 1382" of "Elisabeth filia Friderici ducis Babarie" [presumably an error for Stefan][644]m (Milan 1367) MARCO Visconti, son of BERNABÒ Visconti Signor of Milan & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala (-Milan 3 Jan 1382, bur Milan, Church of San Giovanni di Conci).

 

 

FRIEDRICH 1375-1393, HEINRICH IV 1393-1450, LUDWIG IX 1450-1479, GEORG 1479-1503

 

FRIEDRICH von Bayern, son of STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" joint Duke of Bavaria & his first wife Isabella of Sicily [Aragón] ([1339]-Budweis 3 or 4 Dec 1393, bur Seligenthal).  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Stephanus, Fridericus, Iohannes" as the three sons of "Stephanus dux"[645].  He succeeded his father in 1375 as FRIEDRICH joint Duke of Bavaria.  When he and his brothers partitioned the territories in 1392, he kept Landshut.  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ records the death "1393…die sancte Barbare in civitate Pudweis regione Bohemie" of "Fridericus Wavarie"[646].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "III Non Dec" of "Fridricus dux Bauarie"[647].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Moosburg records the death "II Non Dec" of "Fridricus dux Bavarie" and his donation of property "in Prukperkeh"[648].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "II Non Dec 1393" of "dominus Fridericus dux Bavarie com palatinus Reni, ist bei uns begraben"[649].  

m firstly (contract 11 Dec 1342, 1360) ANNA von Neuffen, daughter of BERTHOLD V von Neuffen Graf von Marstetten und Graisbach (Summer 1327-15 Oct 1380, bur Seligenthal).  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Nov 1380" of "domina Anna, uxor domini Friderici, ducis Bawarie et filia comitis de Neiffen et ducissa Bawarie"[650]

m secondly (Landshut 2 Sep 1381, by proxy 9 Apr 1382) MADDALENA Visconti, daughter of BERNABÒ Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala (Milan [12 Aug 1367]-Burghausen, Bavaria 17 Jul 1404, bur Kloster Raitenhaslach).  A charter dated 9 Apr 1382 notifies the marriage by proxy between "dominum Federichum Bavarie ducem" and "Magdalenam natam…Bernabos Vicecomes"[651].  The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death of "d a Magdalena ducissa Bauarie ux di Friderici principis et ducis Bauarie, da Magdalena ducissa filia eius"[652]

Duke Friedrich & his second wife had five children:

1.         ELISABETH (1383-Schloß Ansbach 13 Nov 1442, bur Heilsbronn)m (Schongau am Lech 18 Sep 1401) FRIEDRICH VI Burggraf von Nürnberg, son of FRIEDRICH V Burggraf von Nürnberg & his wife Elisabeth von Meissen ([6 Aug/26 Nov] 1371-Schloß Kadolzburg 20 Sep 1440, bur Kloster Heilsbronn).  He was created FRIEDRICH I Markgraf and Elector of Brandenburg by Imperial Order in 1415. 

2.         MARGARETA (1384-young, bur Raitenhaslach).  The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death of "da Margareta ducissa Bauarie filia di Friderici principis et ducis Bauarie sepultus ante altare"[653]

3.         HEINRICH (1386-Landshut 30 Jul 1450, bur Seligenthal).  The Liber Anniversariorum of Moosburg records the death "II Non Dec" of "Fridricus dux Bavarie" and names "Hainrici præfati…filii"[654].  He succeeded his father in 1393 as HEINRICH IV "der Reiche" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut.  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "III Kal Aug 1450" of "Hainricus dux Bauarie"[655].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "III Kal Aug 1450" of "dominus Heinricus dux Bavarie com palatinus Reni ligt bei uns begraben"[656]m (dispensation 12 Nov 1409, Landshut 25 Nov 1412) MARGARETA of Austria, daughter of ALBRECHT IV "das Weltwunder" Duke of Austria & his wife Johanna [Sophia] von Bayern (Vienna 26 Jun 1395-Burghausen am Obb 24 Dec 1447, bur Raitenhaslach).  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "IX Kal Jan 1447" of "Margaretha ducissa Wauarie ux di Hainrici hic sepulta"[657].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IX Kal Jan 1447" of "domina Margareta uxor domini Heinrici ducis de Bavarie, de Austria et ducissa Bavarie"[658]Mistresses (1-3): ---.  The name of Duke Heinrich's mistress or mistresses is not known.  Duke Heinrich IV & his wife had seven children: 

a)         JOHANNA (1413-Mosbach 20 Jul 1444, bur Mosbach Stiftskirche)m (Burghausen 15 Jan 1430) OTTO I Pfalzgraf von Mosbach, son of RUPRECHT III Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog in Bayern & his wife Elisabeth von Nürnberg (Mosbach 24 Aug 1390-Kloster Reichenbach 5 Jul 1461, bur Kloster Reichenbach).

b)         ALBRECHT (Burghausen 1414-1 Jan 1416, bur Raitenhaslach).  The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death "Kal Ian 1416" of "Albertus dux Bauarie fil di Heinrici principis et ducis Bauarie…hic sepultus"[659]

c)         FRIEDRICH (1415-Burghausen 7 Jun 1416, bur Raitenhaslach).  The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death "VII Id Jun 1416" of "Fridricus dux Bauarie fil di Hainrici principis et ducis Bauarie…hic sepultus"[660]

d)         LUDWIG (Burghausen 23 Feb 1417-Landshut 18 Jan 1479, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  He succeeded his second cousin in 1445 as Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, and his father in 1450 as LUDWIG IX "der Reiche" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut

          -        see below

e)         ELISABETH (1419-Landshut 9 Dec 1450 or 1 Jan 1451, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche).  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "V Id Dec" of "da Elizabet filia ducis Hainrici ex comis de Wirttenberg"[661].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Non Jan 1451" of "nobilis Elizabeth de Wirttenberg filia Hainrici ducissa Bawarie"[662]m (Stuttgart 8 Feb 1445) as his second wife, ULRICH V "der Vielgeliebte" Graf von Württemberg-Stuttgart, son of EBERHARD IV "der Jüngere" Graf von Württemberg & his wife Henriette Ctss de Montbéliard (1413-Leonberg 1 Sep 1480, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche).

f)          MARGARETA (1420-Seligenthal young, bur Seligenthal).  Nun at Seligenthal. 

g)         SOPHIE (-22 Apr ----).  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "X Kal Mai" of "Sophia filia Heinrici ducis Bauarie"[663].  It is not certain that Sophie was the daughter of Duke Heinrich IV.  However, three of his known children are recorded in the necrological records of the same monastery, as are he and his wife.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IX Kal Mai" of "Sophia filia ducis Bawarie"[664]

Duke Heinrich IV had three illegitimate children by his Mistresses:

h)         GEORG von Zangbergm firstly AMALIE Neislinger.  m secondly MAGDALENE von Weichs.

i)           HEINRICH von Zangbergm URSULA von Weylemit (-1497).

(a)        APPOLONIA von Zangberg .

(b)        MARGARETA von Zangberg .  Either Margareta or her older sister m ULRICH von Haslang.

ii)          --- von Zangbergm URBAN Kärgl (-[1509]).

i)           ELISABETH von Zangberg .  Nun.

j)           BARBARA von Zangberg .  Nun. 

4.         MAGDALENA (1388-17 Dec 1410, bur Raitenhaslach).  The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death of "da Magdalena ducissa Bauarie ux di Friderici principis et ducis Bauarie, da Magdalena ducissa filia eius"[665].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XVI Kal" of "da Magdalena sor di Heinrici principis Bauarie"[666]m ([11/24] May 1404) as his first wife, JOHANN MEINHARD VII Graf von Görz, son of MEINHARD VI & his second wife Utelhild von Mätsch ([1378/80]-before 22 May 1430).

5.         JOHANN ([1390]-Schloß Burghausen 20 Dec 1396, bur Raitenhaslach).  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XIII Kal Jan" of "Iohannes dux Bauarie"[667]

 

 

LUDWIG IX 1450-1479, GEORG 1479-1503

 

LUDWIG von Bayern, son of HEINRICH IV "der Reiche" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut & his wife Margareta of Austria (Burghausen 23 Feb 1417-Landshut 18 Jan 1479, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  He succeeded his second cousin in 1445 as Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, and his father in 1450 as LUDWIG IX "der Reiche" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut.  Founded the University of Ingolstadt 1472.  The necrology of Unteraltaich records the death "XV Kal Feb 1479" of "Ludovicus dux Bavariæ"[668]

m (Landshut 21 Mar 1452) AMALIA von Sachsen, daughter of FRIEDRICH II "dem Sanftmütigen" Elector of Saxony & his wife Margareta of Austria (Meissen 13 Apr 1435-Rochlitz 19 Nov 1502, bur Meissen Cathedral). 

Duke Ludwig IX & his wife had four children: 

1.         ELISABETH ([1453]-1457, bur Seligenthal). 

2.         GEORG (Landshut 15 Aug 1455-Ingolstadt 1 Dec 1503, bur Seligenthal).  He succeeded his father in 1479 as GEORG "der Reiche" Duke of Bavaria in Landshut und Ingolstadt.  The necrology of Seonense records the death "Kal Dec 1503" of "Ieorgius dux Bauarie"[669].  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "Kal Dec 1503" of "Georgii ducis Bavariæ com Palatini Rheni"[670]m (Landshut 15 Nov 1475) JADZWIGA of Poland, daughter of KAZIMIERZ IV "the Great" King of Poland & his wife Elisabeth Adss of Austria (Cracow 21 Sep 1457-Burghausen 18/19 Feb 1502, bur Raitenhaslach).  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "regali ex progenie potentis Casimiri Polonie regis filia Hedwigis…Georgii Bavariæ ducis comitisque rheni quondam conthoralis"[671].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "XII Kal Mar 1502" of "Hedwigis ducissa Bauarie"[672]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Georg's mistress is not known.  Duke Georg & his wife had five children: 

a)         LUDWIG (end 1476-1500, bur Seligenthal).

b)         RUPERT (1477-young, bur Seligenthal). 

c)         WOLFGANG ([1482]-young, bur Seligenthal).

d)         ELISABETH (1478-Landshut 15 Sep 1504, bur Seligenthal)m (Heidelberg 10 Feb 1499) her first cousin, RUPRECHT Pfalzgraf, son of PHILIPP Elector Palatine & his wife Margareta von Bayern (Heidelberg 14 May 1481-Landshut 20 Aug 1504, bur Seligenthal).

e)         MARGARETA (1480-Neuburg an der Donau 6 Jan 1531, bur Neuberg Church of the Benedictine Order).  Member of the Benedictine Order 1504.  Abbess at Neuburg an der Donau 1509-1521.

Duke Georg had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

f)          LEONHARD Perbinger (-1540)m MARGARETA Sickenhauser (-1545).

i)           ONUPHRIUS Perbinger (-1575)m MARIA Vogt (-1575).

(a)        ONUPHRIUS Perbinger ([1550]-[1585])m BARBARA Lockenburger.

(1)        PAUL Perbingerm KATHARINA Mayr.

a.          KATHARINA ELEONORE Perbingerm GEORG CHRISTIAN von Sickenhausen.

(2)        SUSANNE Perbingerm FRIEDRICH Esswurm.

ii)          daughterm WOLF Halbwache.

iii)         KATHARINA Perbingerm PANKRAZ Prey.

3.         MARGARETE (Amberg 7 Nov 1456-Heidelberg 24/25 Jan 1501, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist)m (Amberg 17 Apr 1474) PHILIPP Pfalzgraf, son of LUDWIG IV Kurfürst von der Pfalz & Marguerite de Savoie (14 Jul 1448-Germersheim 28 Feb 1508, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  He succeeded his father in 1476 as PHILIPP "der Aufrichtige" Elector Palatine.  The necrology of Unteraltaich records the death "V Kal Mar 1508" of "dux Philippus comes palatinus Rheni" adding that "hic Georgii ducis Bavarie sororem habuit uxorem"[673]

4.         ANNA (b and d 1462, bur Seligenthal).

 

 

 

E.      DUKES of BAVARIA-MUNICH, DUKES of BAVARIA

 

 

JOHANN II 1375-1397, WILHELM III 1397-1435, ADOLF 1435-1440

 

JOHANN von Bayern, son of STEFAN II "mit der Hafte" joint Duke of Bavaria & his first wife Isabella of Sicily [Aragón] ([1341]-Munich 8 Aug 1397, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  The Liber Anniversariorum of Moosburg records the death "II Non Dec" of "Fridricus dux Bavarie" and names "Stephani et Iohannis fratrum eius"[674].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ names (in order) "Stephanus, Fridericus, Iohannes" as the three sons of "Stephanus dux"[675].  He succeeded his father in 1375 as JOHANN II joint Duke of Bavaria.  When he and his brothers partitioned the territories 1392, he kept Munich

m ([Oct/Nov] 1372) KATHARINA von Görz, daughter of MEINHARD VI Graf von Görz & his first wife Katharina von Pfannberg (1350-31 May 1391, bur Seligenthal).  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "X Kal Jul 1391" of "domina Kartarina ducissa Babarie, filia comitis de Dierol…ligt bei uns begraben"[676]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Duke Johann's mistress is not known. 

Duke Johann & his wife had three children: 

1.         ERNST (1373-Munich 2 Jul 1438, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  He succeeded his father in 1397 as ERNST I joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his uncle Duke Stephan III.  Duke of Bavaria in Munich 1402.   

          -        see below

2.         WILHELM (Munich 1375-Munich 12 or 21 Sep 1435, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  He succeeded in 1397 as WILHELM III joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Ernst and his uncle Stephan III.  Duke of Bavaria in Munich 1402.  Protektor of the Council of Basel 1431-1433.  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "XI Kal Oct" of "dux Wilhelmus de Monaco"[677].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Oct 1433" of "dominus Wilhelmus II dux Bawarie com palatinus Reni"[678], although the year appears to be incorrect.  m (Basel 11 May 1433) as her first husband, MARGARETA von Kleve, daughter of ADOLF II Duke of Kleve & his second wife Marie de Bourgogne [Valois-Capet] (23 Feb 1416-Stuttgart 20 May 1444, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche).  She married secondly (Stuttgart 29 Jan 1441) as his first wife, Ulrich V "der Vielgeliebte" Graf von WürttembergMistresses (1-5): ---.  The names of Duke Wilhelm's mistresses are not known.  Duke Wilhelm III & his wife had two children: 

a)         ADOLF (Munich 7 Jan 1434-Munich [26 May/4 Oct] 1440, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  He succeeded his father in 1435 as ADOLF Duke of Bavaria-Munich

b)         WILHELM (posthumously Munich 25 Sep 1435-Munich 16 Oct 1435, bur Straubing Karmelitenkirche). 

Duke Wilhelm IV had five illegitimate children by Mistress (1)-(5): 

c)          KONRAD von Egenhofenm firstly BARBARA Schymel.  m secondly DOROTHEA von Adelzhofen.

d)         WILHELM von Egenhofen (-[1471/2])m BARBARA Rüdolf.  Mistress (1): MARGARETA von Germering, daughter of ---.  Wilhelm had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

i)           KUNTZL .

e)         MAGDALENE von Egenhofenm firstly GEORG Püttrich.  m secondly CHRISTOPH Lung.

f)          DIEMUT von Egenhofen (-1452).

g)         KONRAD von Egenhofen .

3.         SOPHIE (1376-Pressburg 26 Sep 1425, bur Pressburg Cathedral).  Crowned Queen of Bohemia 15 Mar 1400.  m (Prague 2 May 1389) as his second wife, WENZEL IV King of Bohemia, son of Emperor KARL IV King of Germany, King of Bohemia & his third wife Anna von Schweidnitz und Jauer [Piast] (Nürnberg 26 Feb 1361-Neuschloß bei Kunratitz 16 Aug 1419, bur Prague St Veit's Cathedral).  No issue.

Duke Johann had [one illegitimate child] by Mistress (1): 

4.          [JOHANN Grünwalder (1393-Vienna 1452, bur Freising).  Cardinal.  Bishop of Freising.  The Gesta Episcoporum Frisingensium record that "Iohannes Gruenwalder, decretorum doctor, filius ducis Stefani de Bavaria, illegitime tamen natus…minor annis esset" was a candidate for the bishopric of Freising in 1422, when "Nicodemus de la Scala" was chosen as bishop, and elected Bishop in 1443.  It appears chronologically unlikely that Johann Grünwalder was the son of either of the Dukes Stefan of Bavaria, but the primary source which identifies him as the son of Duke Johann has not so far been identified.  He died in Vienna in 1452 and was buried at Freising[679].] 

 

 

ERNST I 1397-1438, ALBRECHT III 1438-1460, JOHANN IV 1460-1463, SIGMUND 1460-1503

 

ERNST von Bayern, son of JOHANN II Duke of Bavaria & his wife Katharina von Görz (1373-Munich 2 Jul 1438, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  He succeeded his father in 1397 as ERNST I joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his uncle Duke Stephan III.  Duke of Bavaria in Munich 1402.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "Kal Jul 1438" of "dominus Ernestus dux Bavarie com palatinus Reni"[680]

m (Pfaffenhofen/Ilm 26 Jan 1395) ELISABETTA Visconti, daughter of BERNABÒ Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Beatrice [Regina] della Scala (-Munich 2 Feb 1432, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  "Johannes Galeaz dux Mediolani…comes Virtutum" ordered the payment of the dowry to "ducis Ernesti" for his marriage ot "sororis nostre domine Elixabet ducisse Bavarie" by charter dated 23 Jan 1396[681].  The necrology of Scheftlarn records the death "IV Non Feb 1432" of "Elysabeth ducissa coniunx Ernesti ducis Bawarie"[682]

Mistress (1)ANNA Kräzl, daughter of ---. 

Duke Ernst & his wife had three children: 

1.         ALBRECHT (Munich 23 Mar 1401-Munich 27 or 29 Feb 1460, bur Andechs).  He succeeded his father in 1438 as ALBRECHT III "der Fromme" Duke of Bavaria-Munich.  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "III Kal Mar" of "Albertus dux de Monaco"[683]m (Munich [6 Nov 1435/22 Jan 1437]) as her first husband, ANNA von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen, daughter of ERICH Herzog von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen & his wife Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Göttingen (1415-Nannhofen 14 Oct 1474, bur Andechs).  She married secondly (Munich Feb 1463, divorced 1467) as his first wife, Friedrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, who succeeded in 1482 as Friedrich II Herzog von Braunschweig-CalenbergMistress (1): ---.  Mistress (2)-(4): ---.  The names of Duke Albrecht's mistresses are not known.  Duke Albrecht III & his wife had nine children: 

a)         JOHANN (Munich 1437-Haidhausen 1463, bur Andechs).  He succeeded his father in 1460 as JOHANN IV joint Duke of Bavaria-Munich, jointly with his brothers Sigmund and Albrecht IV.

b)         ERNST (Munich 1438-Straubing 1460, bur Straubing).

c)         SIGMUND (1439-Schloß Menzing 25 Feb 1501, bur Munich).  He succeeded his father in 1460 as SIGMUND joint Duke of Bavaria-Munich, jointly with his brother Johann IV and Albrecht IV.  Abdicated 1467.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Kal Mar" of "Sigismundus de Monaco dux Superiorisque Bauarie"[684]Mistress (1): MARGARETA Pfättendorferin, daughter of ---.  Mistress (2): MARGARETA von Freyberg, daughter of ---.  Duke Sigmund had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

i)           HANS von Pfättendorf .

ii)          SIEGMUND von Pfättendorf (-after 1 Oct 1502).

Duke Sigmund had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

iii)         MARGARETA (-1506)m firstly HANS Hundt (-1495).  m secondly CHRISTOPH Pienzenauer.

d)         ALBRECHT (24 Dec 1440-Straubing 1445, bur Straubing Karmelitenkirche).

e)         MARGARETA (1 Jan 1442-Mantua 14 Oct 1479, bur Mantua San Andrea)m (Mantua 10 May 1463) FEDERIGO Gonzaga di Mantua, son of LODOVICO III Marchese di Mantua & his wife Barbara von Brandenburg (25 Jun 1441-Mantua 14 Jul 1484, bur Mantua San Andrea).  He succeeded his father 1478 as FEDERIGO I Marchese di Mantua

f)          ELISABETH (2 Feb 1443-Leipzig 1484, bur Leipzig Dominican Kloster St Paul)m (Leipzig 19 Nov 1460) ERNST Erbprinz von Sach sen, son of FRIEDRICH II "dem Sanftmütigen" Elector of Saxony & his wife Margareta of Austria (Meissen 24 Mar 1441-Colditz 26 Aug 1486, bur Meissen Cathedral).  He succeeded in 1464 as ERNST I Elector of Saxony.

g)         ALBRECHT (Munich 15 Dec 1447-Munich 10 Mar 1508, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  Canon at Augsburg cathedral 1459-1468, resigned.  Priest at Habach 1461.  Canon at Köln cathedral 1461-1466, resigned.  He succeeded his father in 1460 as ALBRECHT IV "der Weise" joint Duke of Bavaria-Munich

                   -        DUKES of BAVARIA

h)         CHRISTOPH (6 Jan 1449-Rhodos 8 Aug 1493, bur Rhodos St Antony).  Co-Regent of Bavaria 1468-1485.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Kal Feb" of "Cristofferus dux Inferioris Superiorisque Bavarie" while on pilgrimage to Jerusalem[685]

i)          WOLFGANG (1 Nov 1451-Landsberg am Lech 16 or 24 May 1514, bur Andechs).  Canon at Passau cathedral [1458], at Augsburg cathedral 1458-1463, and at Köln cathedral 1461.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVII Kal Jun 1514" of "Wolfgangus de Monaco dux Superioris [et] Inferioris Bavarie"[686]

          Duke Albrecht III had two illegitimate daughters by Mistress (1):

j)           MARGARETAm ([4 May 1516]) MICHAEL Mayr.  Mundkoch to the Duke.  

k)          BARBARA (Munich 9 Jun 1454-Munich 24 Jun 1474, bur Munich St Klara, transferred 1809 to Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  Nun at Munich St Klara.

Duke Albrecht III had illegitimate sons by Mistresses (2)-(4).

l)           ALBERTUS de Bavaria (-1508).  Canon and doctor of jurisprudence.

m)        JOHANNES Neuhauser (-1516).  Canon.

n)         SYBILLA Newfarnerm (before 18 --- 1444) HANS Hartlieb (-1468).

2.         BEATRIX ([1403]-Neumarkt 12 Mar 1447, bur Gnadenberg)m firstly (Ortenburg 31 May 1424) as his second wife, HERMAN [III] Count of Celje [Cilly], son of HERMAN II Count of Cilli [Celje], Ban of Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia & his wife Anna von Schaunberg ([1380]-Stain bei Radmannsdor 30 Jul 1426, bur Neustift).  m secondly (Riedenburg 7 Sep 1428) as his second wife, JOHANN Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt, son of RUPRECHT III Pfalzgraf bei Rhein Herzog in Bavaria King of Germany & his wife Elisabeth von Nürnberg (Neunburg vorm Wald [1383]-Kastl, Oberpfalz 13 Mar 1443, bur Neunburg vorm Wald St Georg).

3.         ELISABETH (-Heidelberg 5 Mar 1468, bur Kloster Höningen)m firstly (Mainz 14 Feb 1430) as his second wife, ADOLF II Duke of Jülich Graf von Berg und Ravensberg, son of WILHELM VII Duke of Jülich and Berg & his wife Anna Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein (-Köln 14 Jul 1437, bur Köln St Martin).  m secondly (Worms 4 Oct 1440) HESSO Landgraf von Leiningen, son of --- (-Munich 8 Mar 1467, bur Kloster Höningen).

Duke Ernst had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

4.          MATTHEISS .

5.          HANS .

6.          OSANN .  

 

 



[1] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 57. 

[2] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 12. 

[3] Jordan (1986), p. 129. 

[4] Jordan (1986), p. 129. 

[5] Jordan (1986), p. 130. 

[6] Jordan (1986), p. 130. 

[7] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), pp. 140 and 150. 

[8] Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), p. 232. 

[9] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[10] Excerpta Altahensia 590, MGH SS IV, p. 36. 

[11] Excerpta Altahensia 590, MGH SS IV, p. 36. 

[12] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 520, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[13] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 598, MGH SS IX, p. 767. 

[14] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[15] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[16] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[17] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin), IV.9, p. 202. 

[18] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 553, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[19] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 203. 

[20] Fredegar, IV 2, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 124. 

[21] Liber Historiæ Francorum 36, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 304 and 306. 

[22] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 593, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[23] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[24] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134, "ad ventrem purgandum in faldaone sedebat, sagitta saucius moritur". 

[25] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.40, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[26] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134. 

[27] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134. 

[28] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134. 

[29] Fredegar, IV, 51, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[30] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.48, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[31] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 133. 

[32] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[33] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 109. 

[34] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 600, MGH SS IX, p. 767. 

[35] Excerpta Altahensia 590, MGH SS IV, p. 36. 

[36] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 113. 

[37] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 590, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[38] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[39] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[40] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.10, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 97. 

[41] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 97. 

[42] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 108. 

[43] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.10, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 120. 

[44] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 117. 

[45] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 593, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[46] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.39, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[47] Fredegar, IV, p. 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 146. 

[48] Vita Columbani I.22, MGH SS rer Merov IV, p. 95. 

[49] Fredegar, IV, 87, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 164. 

[50] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. 

[51] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 652, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[52] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[53] Excerpta Altahensia 590, MGH SS IV, p. 36. 

[54] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 652, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[55] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[56] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 652, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[57] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 652 and 670, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[58] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[59] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 712, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[60] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 716 and 718, MGH SS IX, p. 768. 

[61] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 718, MGH SS XXV, p. 625. 

[62] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Erentrudis Nonnbergensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 61. 

[63] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Petri Salisburgensis, 'Ordo Ducum Defunctorum cum Conjugibus et Liberis', Salzburg Necrologies, p. 26. 

[64] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 718, MGH SS XXV, p. 625. 

[65] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[66] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.44, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 179-80. 

[67] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 718, MGH SS XXV, p. 625. 

[68] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 712 and 723, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[69] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 729, MGH SS XXV, p. 625. 

[70] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Petri Salisburgensis, 'Ordo Ducum Defunctorum cum Conjugibus et Liberis', Salzburg Necrologies, p. 26. 

[71] Fredegar (Continuation), 12, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 175. 

[72] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[73] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 733, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[74] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 739, MGH SS IX, p. 768. 

[75] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Petri Salisburgensis, 'Ordo Ducum Defunctorum cum Conjugibus et Liberis', Salzburg Necrologies, p. 26. 

[76] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 169. 

[77] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 712 and 723, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[78] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[79] Fredegar (Continuation), 12, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 175. 

[80] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[81] Fredegar (Continuator), 25, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 180. 

[82] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 14, p. 101. 

[83] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[84] Fredegar (Continuation), 12, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 175. 

[85] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 739, MGH SS IX, p. 768. 

[86] Series Ducum Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 73. 

[87] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[88] Fredegar (Continuation), 12, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 175. 

[89] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 739, MGH SS IX, p. 768. 

[90] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 735, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[91] Fredegar (Continuator), 25, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 180. 

[92] Annales Metenses 749, MGH SS I, p. 330. 

[93] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[94] Fredegar (Continuator), 25, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 180. 

[95] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 748, p. 39. 

[96] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 749, MHG SS V, p. 99. 

[97] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 742, MGH SS XXV, p. 625. 

[98] Annales Metenses 749, MGH SS I, p. 330. 

[99] RFA 748, p. 39. 

[100] RFA 757, p. 42. 

[101] RFA 763, p. 44. 

[102] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 772, MGH SS IX, p. 769. 

[103] RFA 787, p. 66. 

[104] RFA 788, pp. 66-7. 

[105] Reuter (1991), p. 57. 

[106] Necrologium Weltenbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[107] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[108] Einhardi Annales 786, MGH SS I, p. 173. 

[109] Einhard 11, p. 448. 

[110] RFA 788, pp. 66-7. 

[111] Fragmentum Walderdorffianum, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[112] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 772, MGH SS IX, p. 769. 

[113] RFA 787, p. 66. 

[114] D Kn 18, p. 310. 

[115] D Arn 52, p. 74. 

[116] D Arn 75, p. 112. 

[117] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 895, MGH SS I, p. 410. 

[118] D Arn 132, p. 197. 

[119] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 895, MGH SS I, p. 410. 

[120] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 898, MGH SS I, p. 413. 

[121] D Arn 162, p. 245. 

[122] D Arn 162, p. 245. 

[123] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 895, MGH SS I, p. 410. 

[124] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 898, MGH SS I, p. 413. 

[125] D Arn 162, p. 245. 

[126] D Arn 162, p. 245. 

[127] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 899, MGH SS XVII, p. 366. 

[128] D LK 9, p. 108. 

[129] D LK 20, p. 125. 

[130] D LK 28, p. 138. 

[131] D LK 31, p. 143. 

[132] D LK 53, p. 178. 

[133] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 907, MGH SS I, p. 614. 

[134] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 913, MGH SS I, p. 56. 

[135] Reuter (1991), p. 136. 

[136] D K I 23, p. 22. 

[137] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 907, MGH SS I, p. 614. 

[138] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 907, MGH SS IX, p. 771. 

[139] Reindel, K. (1953) Die bayerischen Liupoldinger 893-989 (Munich), p. 77, charter no. 48, cited in Reuter (1991), p. 130. 

[140] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.30, MGH SS III, p. 326. 

[141] Reuter (1991), p. 151. 

[142] D O I 30, p. 116. 

[143] D O I 33, p. 119. 

[144] D O I 49, p. 133. 

[145] Annalium Ratisponensium Supplementum 949, MGH SS XXX.2, p. 746. 

[146] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[147] D O II 142, p. 158. 

[148] Annalista Saxo 983. 

[149] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), p. 83, footnote 65. 

[150] D O II 151, p. 169. 

[151] Thietmar, p. 132, footnote 22. 

[152] Thietmar 3.24, p. 146, and Annalista Saxo 983. 

[153] Thietmar 4.8, p. 155. 

[154] Reuter (1991), p. 185. 

[155] Redlich, O. (ed.) (1886) Acta Tirolensia. Urkundliche Quellen zur Geschichte Tirols. Band I. Die Traditionsbücher der Hochstifts Brixen (Innsbruck) ("Acta Tirolensia Tome I, Brixen"), 7, p. 4.   

[156] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[157] Ekkehardi, Altahense Annales 989, MGH SS XVII, p. 363. 

[158] Acta Tirolensia Tome I, Brixen, 7, p. 4.   

[159] Wegener, W. (1965/67) Genealogischen Tafeln zur mitteleuropäischen Geschichte (Verlag Degener), p. 78, although he cites no primary source reference. 

[160] nQ 8, p. 217 n 280, cited in Wegener (1965/67), pp. 138 and 165. 

[161] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 907, MGH SS I, p. 614. 

[162] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 907, MGH SS IX, p. 771. 

[163] Reindel, K. (1953) Die bayerischen Liupoldinger 893-989 (Munich), p. 77, charter no. 48, cited in Reuter (1991), p. 130. 

[164] D K I 3, p. 3. 

[165] Thietmar 1.26, p. 86. 

[166] Reuter (1991), p. 136. 

[167] Salzburg Annals, MGH SS XXX, 742: "The Bavarians again submitted themselves freely to Duke Arnulf and made him to rule in the kingdom of the Teutons [in regno Teutonicorum]", quoted in Reuter (1991), p. 139. 

[168] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 921, MGH SS IX, p. 771. 

[169] D H I 19, p. 54. 

[170] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[171] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[172] Wegener (1965/67), p. 72, and ES I 9.  She is not mentioned in ES II 188A or Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch). 

[173] Ignace de Coussemaker (ed.) (1883) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Cysoing et de ses dependences (Lille), no. 1 and no. 6, quoted in Settipani (1993), p. 257 footnote 458.  . 

[174] Annales ex Annalibus Ivravensibus Antiquis 934 and 935, MGH SS XXX.2, p. 743. 

[175] D H I 19, p. 54. 

[176] Wegener (1965/67), p. 73. 

[177] Reuter (1991), p. 151. 

[178] Annales Sangallensis 954, MGH SS I, p. 79. 

[179] Wegener (1965/67), p. 76. 

[180] Reuter (1991), pp. 155-6. 

[181] Notæ Necrologicæ Ecclesiæ Maioris Frisingensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 79. 

[182] Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis minores 951, MGH SS I, p. 94. 

[183] Gerhardi Vita S Oudalrici Ep 12, MGH SS IV, p. 402. 

[184] D O II 133, p. 149. 

[185] Wegener (1965/67), p. 148. 

[186] Wegener (1965/67), pp. 78 and 129. 

[187] Gerhardi Vita S Oudalrici Ep 12, MGH SS IV, p. 402. 

[188] D O I 171, p. 252 

[189] Estimated birth date range based on the assumption that she was of a similar age to her husband and bearing in mind that she gave birth to her first known child in [940]. 

[190] Annalista Saxo 975. 

[191] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.36, MGH SS III, p. 447. 

[192] Gerhardi Vita S. Oudalrici I.28, MGH SS IV, p. 415. 

[193] Thietmar 2.41, p. 122. 

[194] D O I 431, p. 584. 

[195] Thietmar 3.5, p. 150. 

[196] Necrologium Monasterii Inferioris Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 273. 

[197] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[198] Thietmar 1.21, p. 83. 

[199] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[200] Wegener (1965/67), p. 77. 

[201] Gerhardi Vita S. Oudalrici I.28, MGH SS IV, p. 415. 

[202] Gerhardi Vita S. Oudalrici I.28, MGH SS IV, p. 415. 

[203] Reuter (1991), p. 176. 

[204] Reuter (1991), p. 177. 

[205] Thietmar 3.5, p. 150. 

[206] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430. 

[207] Annalista Saxo 975. 

[208] D H I 37, p. 71. 

[209] Thietmar 2.34, p. 117. 

[210] Thietmar 1.21, p. 83. 

[211] Thietmar 2.6 to 2.8, pp. 96-7. 

[212] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[213] Annalista Saxo 975. 

[214] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.36, MGH SS III, p. 447. 

[215] Gerhardi Vita S. Oudalrici I.28, MGH SS IV, p. 415. 

[216] Thietmar 2.41, p. 122. 

[217] D O I 220, p. 302. 

[218] D O I 431, p. 584. 

[219] Thietmar 3.5, p. 150. 

[220] Necrologium Monasterii Inferioris Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 273. 

[221] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[222] Thietmar 4.20, p. 165. 

[223] D O II 36, p. 47. 

[224] Gerhardi Vita S. Oudalrici 28, MGH SS IV, p. 415. 

[225] D O III 63, p. 469. 

[226] Annales Einsidlenses 994, MGH SS III, p. 144. 

[227] D O III 152, p. 562. 

[228] D O III 158, p. 569. 

[229] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ III.44, MGH SS III, p. 458. 

[230] Thietmar 4.20, pp. 165-6. 

[231] Annalista Saxo 975. 

[232] D O II 138, p. 155. 

[233] D O II 208, p. 236. 

[234] Thietmar 4.20, pp. 165-6. 

[235] Annalista Saxo 975. 

[236] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 955, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[237] Thietmar 3.5, p. 150. 

[238] Thietmar 3.7, p. 132. 

[239] Reuter (1991), p. 176. 

[240] Thietmar, p. 132, footnote 22. 

[241] Thietmar 3.26 and 4.1, pp. 148-50. 

[242] Thietmar 4.4, pp. 151-2, and 4.8, pp. 154-5. 

[243] Thietmar 4.8, p. 155. 

[244] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[245] Notæ Sancti Emmerammi III, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1098. 

[246] Thietmar 4.20, p. 166. 

[247] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[248] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 995, MHG SS V, p. 117. 

[249] Abbé E. Bougaud (ed.) (1875) Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon (Dijon), p. 188. 

[250] Thietmar, p. 132, footnote 22. 

[251] Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores Preface, MGH SS IV, p. 791. 

[252] Thietmar 6.29, p. 257. 

[253] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[254] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Magdeburg. 

[255] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[256] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[257] Nicholas, D. (1992) Medieval Flanders (Longman), p. 46. 

[258] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[259] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[260] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) III.1, p. 95. 

[261] Thietmar 5.19, p. 218. 

[262] Annales Herbipolenses minores 1038, MGH SS XXIV, p. 828. 

[263] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[264] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars I, col. 24. 

[265] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 2, MGH SS XI, p. 256. 

[266] Notæ Sepulcrales Babenbergenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 629. 

[267] Mommsen, T. E. and Morrison, K. F. (trans.) (1962) Imperial Lives and Letters of the Eleventh Century (New York), "Wipo, On the election and consecration of Conrad II (1024)", from "The Deeds of Conrad II (Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris)", reproduced in Hill, pp. 192-201.  . 

[268] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 995, MHG SS V, p. 117. 

[269] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[270] Macartney, C. A. (1962) Hungary: A Short History (Edinburgh University Press), 1, Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003). 

[271] Bak, János B. 'Queens as Scapegoats in Medieval Hungary', in Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 224 footnote 6.

[272] Kézai, S., Veszprémy, L. and Schaer, F. (eds. and trans.) (1999) Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum (CEP) 44, pp. 103-5. 

[273] Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225. 

[274] Domanovszky, A. (ed.) Chronici Hungarici compositio sæculi XIV, c. 69, SRH, I, 320, quoted in Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225. 

[275] Thietmar 7.2, p. 307. 

[276] Thietmar 7.67, p. 355. 

[277] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch I”), 220, p. 278, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[278] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[279] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1008, MHG SS V, p. 119. 

[280] Gade, J. A. (1951) Luxemburg in the Middle Ages (Leiden), p. 53.  This brother Adalbert is not given in . 

[281] Thietmar 8.18, p. 374. 

[282] Mommsen, T. E. and Morrison, K. F. (trans.) (1962) Imperial Lives and Letters of the Eleventh Century (New York), "Wipo, On the election and consecration of Conrad II (1024)", from "The Deeds of Conrad II (Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris)", reproduced in Hill, pp. 192-201.  . 

[283] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1026, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[284] Necrologium Genealogicum Ranshofense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 424. 

[285] Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores Preface, MGH SS IV, p. 791. 

[286] Gade (1951), p. 54. 

[287] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses 957, MGH SS XIII, p. 198. 

[288] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1048, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[289] Necrologium Genealogicum Ranshofense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 424. 

[290] D K II 82, p. 110. 

[291] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 35, MGH SS XI, p. 272. 

[292] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[293] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[294] Annalista Saxo 1057 and 1083. 

[295] Haverkamp (1988), p. 110. 

[296] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 62-3. 

[297] Annalista Saxo 1066. 

[298] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[299] Jordan (1986), p. 4. 

[300] D H IV 304, p. 400. 

[301] Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band IV (Stuttgart, 1883) ("Württembergisches Urkundenbuch"), Anhang, Zwei Weingartner Codices, I, p. VIII. 

[302] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 84. 

[303] Jordan (1986), p. 6. 

[304] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber VIII, Caps. XXXIV and XXXV, p. 579. 

[305] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VIII, Cap. XLIV, p. 583. 

[306] RHC, Historiens occidentaux V (Paris, 1895), Ekkehardi Abbatis Uraugiensis Hierosolymita (“Ekkehard”) XXVI, p. 32. 

[307] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[308] Jordan (1986), p. 4. 

[309] Annalista Saxo 1082. 

[310] Haverkamp (1988), p. 110. 

[311] Annales Stadenses 1105, MGH SS XVI, p. 318. 

[312] Annalista Saxo 1066. 

[313] Genealogia Welforum 9, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[314] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London), 1051, p. 152. 

[315] Barlow, F. (ed. and trans.) (1992) Vita Ædwardi Regis: The Life of King Edward who rests at Westminster (Oxford Medieval Texts), p. 38. 

[316] Alberic de Trois Fontaines Chronica, MGH SS XXIII, p. 792. 

[317] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. IV, Appendix I, p. 350. 

[318] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), D, 1052 [1051]. 

[319] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band IV, Anhang, Zwei Weingartner Codices, I, p. VIII. 

[320] Bernoldi Chronicon 1094, MGH SS V, p. 457. 

[321] Necrologium Raitenbuchense, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[322] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[323] Annalista Saxo 1076 and 1126. 

[324] Memorie Matilda, pp. 277-9, cited in Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Presses Universitaires de Nancy), p. 56. 

[325] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band IV, Anhang, Zwei Weingartner Codices, I, p. VIII. 

[326] Poull (1994), p. 58. 

[327] Jordan (1986), p. 6. 

[328] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[329] Genealogia Welforum, MGH, SS, t. XIII, p. 734. 

[330] Annalista Saxo 1076. 

[331] Bernoldi Chronicon 1089, MGH SS V, p. 449. 

[332] Annales Cremonenses 1115, MGH SS XXXI, p. 3. 

[333] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica 1115, MGH SS XXXI, p. 162. 

[334] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[335] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[336] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band IV, Anhang, Zwei Weingartner Codices, I, p. VIII. 

[337] Jordan (1986), p. 6. 

[338] Jordan (1986), p. 7. 

[339] Jordan (1986), p. 7. 

[340] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[341] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[342] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[343] Annalista Saxo 1070. 

[344] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[345] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[346] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[347] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[348] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[349] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[350] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[351] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[352] Genealogica Zaringorum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 736. 

[353] Zahn, J. (ed.) (1875) Urkundenbuch des Herzogthums Steiermark (Graz) ("Steiermark Urkundenbuch"), Band I, 120, p. 136. 

[354] Steiermark Urkundenbuch, Band I, 151, p. 155. 

[355] Steiermark Urkundenbuch, Band I, 175, p. 175. 

[356] Necrologium Admuntense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 287. 

[357] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[358] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[359] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[360] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[361] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[362] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[363] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[364] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 127, and Haverkamp (1988), p. 142. 

[365] Haverkamp (1988), p. 145. 

[366] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 132. 

[367] Haverkamp (1988), p. 147. 

[368] Haverkamp (1988), p. 222. 

[369] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 163. 

[370] Necrologium Raitenbuchense, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[371] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[372] Annales Sindelfingenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 300. 

[373] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 20, MGH SS XXI, p. 467. 

[374] Annales Sindelfingenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 300. 

[375] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159. 

[376] Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica, Fontes rerum Germanicarum III, p. 491. 

[377] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[378] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[379] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[380] Annalista Saxo 1138. 

[381] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis I 1106, MGH SS IX, p. 610. 

[382] Haverkamp (1988), p. 142. 

[383] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 140. 

[384] Chounradi, Chronicon Schirense 21, MGH SS XVII, p. 621. 

[385] Röhricht, R. ed. (1893) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) 446, p. 116. 

[386] Haverkamp (1988), p. 232. 

[387] Annales Schaftlarienses Maiores 1183, MGH SS XVII, p. 337. 

[388] Necrologium Windbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 383. 

[389] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[390] Necrologium Undensdorfense, Freising Necrologies, p. 172. 

[391] MB 9, 458, cited in Wegener (1965/67), p. 250. 

[392] Necrologium Scheftlariense, Freising Necrologies, p. 116. 

[393] Necrologium Undensdorfense, Freising Necrologies, p. 172. 

[394] Necrologium Weltenburgense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[395] Necrologium Undensdorfense, Freising Necrologies, p. 172. 

[396] Necrologium Weltenburgense, Freising Necrologies, p. 369. 

[397] Necrologium Undensdorfense, Freising Necrologies, p. 172. 

[398] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[399] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[400] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[401] QE 1, p. 352 n 196, cited in Wegener (1965/67), p. 123. 

[402] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[403] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[404] Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1860), vijfde deel, p. 110. 

[405] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1846) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band II (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 365, p. 193. 

[406] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 513, p. 360. 

[407] Wegener (1965/67), p. 190. 

[408] Chounradi, Chronicon Schirense 21, MGH SS XVII, p. 621. 

[409] MB 10, 401, cited in Wegener (1965/67), p. 250. 

[410] Wittmann, F. M. (ed.) (1857) Monumenta Wittelsbacensia, Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte des Hauses Wittelsbach, Erste Abteilung, Quellen zur bayerisches und deutschen Geschichte, Band V (Munich) ("Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I"), 1, p. 1. 

[411] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 6, p. 19. 

[412] Haverkamp (1988), p. 249. 

[413] Necrologium Windbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 383. 

[414] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[415] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[416] De Advocatis Altahensibus, MGH SS XVII, p. 374. 

[417] Monumenta Seeligenthalensis, Diplomatarium Miscellum I, Monumenta Boica Vol. XV, p. 443. 

[418] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[419] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[420] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[421] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[422] Rein, W. (ed.) (1863) Urkundenbuch, Geschichte und Beschreibung der thüringischen Klöster, I, Ichtershausen (Weimar) (“Ichtershausen”) 39, p. 79. 

[423] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[424] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[425] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[426] Monumenta Seeligenthalensis, Diplomatarium Miscellum I, Monumenta Boica Vol. XV, p. 443. 

[427] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), pp. 9-10. 

[428] Bayley (1949), p. 20. 

[429] Bayley (1949), pp. 28-9. 

[430] Bayley (1949), p. 31. 

[431] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[432] Notæ Sancti Emeranni, MGH SS XVII, p. 574. 

[433] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1229, MGH SS XVII, p. 391. 

[434] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[435] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[436] Necrologium Weltenburgense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[437] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[438] Monumenta Boica Vol. XI, LXXVI, p. 217. 

[439] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1246, MGH SS XVII, p. 394. 

[440] William of Malmesbury, III, 274, p. 254, and Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. V, 1248, p. 17.  

[441] Bayley (1949), p. 20. 

[442] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1258, MGH SS XVII, p. 399. 

[443] Necrologium Habsburgicum Monasterii Campi Regis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 357. 

[444] Necrologium Stamsense, Brixen Necrologies, p. 47. 

[445] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[446] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1229, MGH SS XVII, p. 391. 

[447] Monumenta Boica Vol. XI, LXXVI, p. 217. 

[448] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 64, p. 158. 

[449] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[450] Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), pp. 94-5. 

[451] Bayley (1949), p. 188. 

[452] Notæ Altahenses 1294, MGH SS XVII, p. 422. 

[453] Eberhardi Archidiaconi Ratisponensis Annales 1294, MGH SS XVII, p. 594. 

[454] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 65. 

[455] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[456] Annales Mellicenses 1256, MGH SS IX, p. 509. 

[457] Continuatio Lambacensis 1256, MGH SS IX, p. 559. 

[458] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[459] Necrologium Weihenstephanense, Freising Necrologies, p. 203. 

[460] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 63, p. 157. 

[461] Bayley (1949), p. 66. 

[462] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 64, p. 158. 

[463] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1260, MGH SS XVII, p. 399. 

[464] Notæ Diessenses 1271, MGH SS XVII, p. 325. 

[465] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[466] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[467] Hermanni Altahensis continuation tertia 1302, MGH SS XXIV, p. 56. 

[468] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[469] Notæ Diessenses 1305, MGH SS XVII, p. 325. 

[470] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[471] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[472] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[473] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1267, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[474] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[475] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[476] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 170, p. 425. 

[477] Annales Basileenses 1274, MGH SS XVII, p. 196. 

[478] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[479] Eberhardi Archidiaconi Ratisponensis Annales 1294, MGH SS XVII, p. 594. 

[480] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[481] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 163, p. 400. 

[482] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 164, p. 401. 

[483] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 165, p. 403. 

[484] Codex Brandenburgensis, Zweiter Haupttheil, Band 2, DCVI, p. 7. 

[485] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[486] Monumenta Boica Vol. XI, LXXVI, p. 217. 

[487] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1235, MGH SS XVII, p. 391. 

[488] Monumenta Boica Vol. XI, LXXVI, p. 217. 

[489] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1258, MGH SS XVII, p. 399. 

[490] Gesta Episcoporum Eichstetensium 3, MGH SS XXV, p. 592. 

[491] Necrologium Altahæ Superioris, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 224. 

[492] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[493] Monumenta Boica Vol. XI, LXXVI, p. 217. 

[494] Monumenta Boica Vol. XI, LXXVI, p. 217. 

[495] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1235, MGH SS XVII, p. 391. 

[496] Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I, 58, p. 136. 

[497] Bayley (1949), pp. 186-8. 

[498] Notæ Altahenses 1290, MGH SS XVII, p. 422. 

[499] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[500] Necrologium Weltenburgense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[501] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[502] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1244, MGH SS XVII, p. 394. 

[503] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1271, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[504] Necrologium Tegernseense, Freising Necrologies, p. 136. 

[505] Necrologium Windbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 383. 

[506] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[507] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[508] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[509] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[510] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[511] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1258, MGH SS XVII, p. 399. 

[512] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[513] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[514] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[515] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1261, MGH SS XVII, p. 402. 

[516] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1290, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[517] Fine , J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 209. 

[518] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1312, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[519] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[520] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[521] Chronicon Colmariense 1276, MGH SS XVII, p. 247. 

[522] Hamann, B. (1998) Die Habsburger, Ein biographisches Lexikon (Ueberreuter, Vienna), p. 232. 

[523] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[524] Chronicon Osterhoviense, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, pp. 564 and 569. 

[525] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[526] Continuatio Weichardi de Polhaim 1280, MGH SS IX, p. 810. 

[527] Chronicon Osterhoviense, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, p. 569. 

[528] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1334, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[529] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[530] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[531] Necrologium Austriacum Gentis Habsburgicæ Prius, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 123. 

[532] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1262, MGH SS XVII, p. 402. 

[533] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[534] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91. 

[535] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[536] Notæ Altahenses 1277, MGH SS XVII, p. 422. 

[537] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[538] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1267, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[539] Notæ Altahenses 1277, MGH SS XVII, p. 422. 

[540] Monumenta Garsensia, Codex Epistolaris XIV, Monumenta Boica Vol. I, p. 84. 

[541] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[542] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1290, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[543] Hermanni Altahensis continuation tertia 1296, MGH SS XXIV, p. 55. 

[544] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[545] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1271, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[546] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1290, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[547] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[548] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[549] Liber Anniversariorum Mosburgensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[550] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[551] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1309, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[552] Hermanni Altahensis continuation tertia 1297, MGH SS XXIV, p. 56. 

[553] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[554] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[555] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[556] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[557] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[558] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1309, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[559] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 31. 

[560] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1339, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[561] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[562] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[563] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[564] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput IX, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 131. 

[565] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[566] Necrologium Windbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 383. 

[567] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[568] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1339, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[569] Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon Ecclesiæ Pragensis, Caput XIV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 327. 

[570] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[571] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[572] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, pp. 31 and 32. 

[573] Necrologium Habsburgicum Monasterii Campi Regis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 357. 

[574] Necrologium Austriacum Gentis Habsburgicæ Prius, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 123. 

[575] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[576] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1309, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[577] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[578] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[579] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[580] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[581] Leuschner (1980), p. 109. 

[582] Leuschner (1980), p. 109. 

[583] Leuschner (1980), pp. 110-1. 

[584] Leuschner (1980), p. 112. 

[585] Leuschner (1980), pp. 113-4. 

[586] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1347, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[587] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[588] Necrologium Diessense, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 7. 

[589] Leuschner (1980), p. 114. 

[590] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[591] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 32. 

[592] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput XI, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 136. 

[593] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 74. 

[594] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1328, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 653. 

[595] Annales Veterocellenses 1346, MGH SS XVI, p. 44. 

[596] Codex Brandenburgensis, Zweiter Haupttheil, Band 2, DCXIII, p. 14. 

[597] Necrologia Montis St Mariæ, Chur Necrologies, p. 649. 

[598] Necrologium Diessense, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 7. 

[599] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[600] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput XI, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 135. 

[601] Codex Brandenburgensis, Zweiter Haupttheil, Band 2, DCII, p. 2. 

[602] Chronicon Elwacense 1323, MGH SS X, p. 40.  

[603] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 36. 

[604] Leuschner (1980), p. 114. 

[605] Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon Ecclesiæ Pragensis, Caput XIV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 329. 

[606] Notæ de Sepulchris Patrum Minorum S Crucem Vindobonæ, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 166. 

[607] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1347, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[608] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, pp. 31 and 32. 

[609] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 73. 

[610] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[611] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 36. 

[612] Knoll, P. W. (1972) The Rise of the Polish Monarchy: Piast Poland in East Central Europe 1320-1370 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London), pp. 182-3. 

[613] Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 73. 

[614] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XV, RIS XVI, col. 418. 

[615] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, Continuatio, p. 277. 

[616] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XV, RIS XVI, col. 421. 

[617] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1347, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[618] Necrologium Scheftlariense, Freising Necrologies, p. 116. 

[619] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[620] Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon Ecclesiæ Pragensis, Caput XIV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 358. 

[621] Necrologium Austriacum Gentis Habsburgicæ Alterum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 124. 

[622] Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon Ecclesiæ Pragensis, Caput XIV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 388. 

[623] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium, XV, p. 117. 

[624] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1347, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[625] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1375, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[626] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[627] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 274. 

[628] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[629] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 274. 

[630] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[631] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1375, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[632] Liber Anniversariorum Mosburgensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[633] Necrologium Seonense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 217. 

[634] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIII, RIS XVI, col. 774. 

[635] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[636] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chartreux de Vauvert, p. 701. 

[637] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[638] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chartreux de Vauvert, p. 704. 

[639] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1375, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[640] Liber Anniversariorum Mosburgensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[641] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXXIX, RIS XVI, col. 736. 

[642] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 546. 

[643] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CXLIV, RIS XVI, col. 775. 

[644] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[645] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1375, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[646] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1393, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[647] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[648] Liber Anniversariorum Mosburgensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[649] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[650] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[651] Osio, L. (ed.) (1864) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan) ("Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi"), Vol. I, CLXII, p. 226. 

[652] Monumenta Necrologica Raitenhslacensia, Liber defunctorum Genealogica - Appendix, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[653] Monumenta Necrologica Raitenhslacensia, Liber defunctorum Genealogica - Appendix, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[654] Liber Anniversariorum Mosburgensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[655] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[656] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[657] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[658] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[659] Monumenta Necrologica Raitenhslacensia, Liber defunctorum Genealogica - Appendix, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[660] Monumenta Necrologica Raitenhslacensia, Liber defunctorum Genealogica - Appendix, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[661] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[662] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[663] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[664] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[665] Monumenta Necrologica Raitenhslacensia, Liber defunctorum Genealogica - Appendix, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[666] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[667] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[668] Necrologium Monasterium Altahæ Inferioris, Passau Necrologies I, p. 27. 

[669] Necrologium Seonense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 217. 

[670] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[671] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[672] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[673] Necrologium Monasterium Altahæ Inferioris, Passau Necrologies I, p. 27. 

[674] Liber Anniversariorum Mosburgensis, Freising Necrologies, p. 105. 

[675] Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavariæ 1375, MGH SS XXV, p. 627. 

[676] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[677] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[678] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[679] Gesta Episcoporum Frisingensium Continuationes XIV et XV, MGH SS XXIV, p. 327. 

[680] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[681] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CCXVII, p. 311. 

[682] Necrologium Scheftlariense, Freising Necrologies, p. 116. 

[683] Necrologium Raitenhaslacense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 260. 

[684] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[685] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[686] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473.