BOSNIA & HERCEGOVINA

  v2.0 Updated 30 January 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            BANS of BOSNIA. 3

A.       BANS of BOSNIA (12th CENTURY) 3

B.       BANS of BOSNIA (KOTROMANIĆ) 5

STJEPAN Kotroman 1290-[1302], STJEPAN Kotromanić 1318-1353, STJEPAN DABIŠA 1391-1395, GRUBA 1395-1398. 6

VLADISLAV Kotromanić 1353-1354. 10

STJEPAN TVRTKO I 1353-1391, STJEPAN TVRTKO II 1404-1443. 11

STJEPAN OSTOJA 1398-1418, STJEPAN 1418-1420, STJEPAN TOMAŠ 1443-1461, STJEPAN 1461-1463. 14

C.      VOJVODES of BOSNIA (KOSAČA) 17

D.      VOJVODES of BOSNIA (RADENOVIĆ) 21

Chapter 2.            HERCEGOVINA (formerly ZAHUMLJE, HUM) 22

A.       KNEZ of ZAHUMLJE (VJIŠEVIĆI) 22

B.       KNEZ of HUM (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY of SERBIA) 23

C.      KNEZ of HUM.. 27

D.      DUKES of SAINT-SAVA (KOSAČA) 28

Chapter 3.  ŽUPANS of DOLNJI KRAJI (LOWER BOSNIA) and DUKES of SPLIT. 32

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The rulers of Bosnia are shown in Chapter 1 of this document.  No information has been found on rulers, if any, of Bosnia before the late 12th century.  It is assumed that the territory was at that time under the jurisdiction of the kingdom of Croatia.  Bosnia had been nominally annexed by Hungary in 1102, when King Kálmán annexed Croatia.  After the Byzantines defeated the Hungarians at Zemun in 1167, Bosnia was recognised as part of the Byzantine empire.  After [1180/81], when Hungary occupied Dalmatia and southern Croatia, it also claimed Bosnia.  In 1185, Emperor Isaakios II recognised Hungary's claim to Bosnia, although there is no evidence that the Hungarians occupied any part of the territory at the time[1].  The first known Ban of Bosnia was Kulin.  Between his death in [1204] and the accession of Matija Ninoslav as Ban in [1232] the names of the rulers of Bosnia are unknown.  Another gap in our knowledge of Bosnian rulers follows the death of Matija Ninoslav in [1250] and the late 1280s when the sons of Uban Prijezda (possible first cousin of Matija) are recorded as Bans of Bosnia, although it is probable that the territory was controlled by Hungary during this period and had no independent rulers. 

 

Ban Stjepan Kotromanić asserted full Bosnian independence by 1330, freeing the territory from both Hungarian and Serbian control.  Europäische Stammtafeln suggests possible family relationships between Stjepan and other early bans of Bosnia[2].  However, no indication has been found that the title was at that time hereditary within the same family.  It is possible that the different Bans were chiefs of local clans who asserted temporary dominance over each other from time to time and that they were not related at all.  Stjepan Tvrtko was crowned king of Bosnia in 1377, although it appears that the title was derived only from his claim to the kingdom of Serbia (where he was never able to assert control) and that there was never a separate recognition of Bosnia as a kingdom.  A royal crown was finally granted to Bosnia by the papacy in 1461, but this was only two years before the final Ottoman occupation.  After the extinction in the male line of the family of the kings of Bosnia in 1463, the title was claimed both by the Counts of Celje [Cilly] (see the document CROATIA) and the Přemyslid Dukes of Troppau (see SILESIA), both of whom were descended from the Bosnian kings in the female line. 

 

The rulers of Hercegovina are shown in Chapter 2 of this document.  The territory neighbouring Bosnia which was later known as Hercegovina developed along different lines from Bosnia.  Rulers of Hercegovina are first recorded in the early 10th century, when the territory was known as “Zahumlje”.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the Romans dominated "Zachlumorum terræ" which was colonised by Emperor Diocletian, but later subjugated by "Abaribus".  The same source names "proconsulis et patricii Michaelis Busebutze Zachlumorum principis filii" as ruler of "Zachluma", presumably in the early 10th century, the titles accorded to him showing that Zahumlje must have been under Byzantine suzerainty at the time[3].  The first dynasty of Hercegovinan rulers became extinct in the mid-11th century, after which the territory fell to Serbia.  Miroslav, brother of Stefan Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, was installed as Grand Knez in the late 1160s, when the territory was known as “Hum”.  His probable descendants ruled Hercegovina until Bosnian conquered the territory in [1326].  A third dynasty came to power in [1358] when Vojislav Vojinović was installed as Knez of Hum by Serbia, but the family lost control in 1373.  Sandalj Hranić Kosača was installed as Knez of Zahumlje and Grand Voivode of Bosnia after 1418.  His nephew of the same name assumed the title "Herceg" of Hum and later that of Duke of St Sava, in honour of the Serbian saint, a title which apparently gave rise to the territory's last name Hercegovina, which means simply “the duke's lands”[4].  Hercegovina was finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1481, although the title "Duke of St Sava" was borne by the family's descendants well into the 16th century. 

 

Primary sources for Bosnia and Hercegovina are sparse.  Serbian and Bosnian charters, dated between the late 12th and late 15th centuries, are collected in the mid-19th century Monumenta Serbica[5]. The documents are written in Serbian, but are headed by a brief description in Latin which includes some genealogical details.  It is possible that more information is included in the body of the documents but these have not been studied due to the language difficulties.  

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    BANS of BOSNIA

 

 

 

A.      BANS of BOSNIA (12th CENTURY)

 

 

1.         SLAVOGAST (-after [1154]).  Ban of Bosnia.  "Dessa magnus comes terre Zachulmie" donated "ecclesiam s. Pancratii" to "monasterio Iacromensi" by charter dated to [1151], confirmed by "Banus Slauogast cum filiis et omnibus Zachulmie nobilibus" by charter dated 1 Dec [1154][6]

 

2.         BORIS (-after [1156]).  Ban of Bosnia.  "Banus Boritius" confirmed donations of "ecclesiæ s. Pancratii" to "Iacromensis monasterii" by charter dated 7 Aug [1156][7].  A charter dated 1209 of Endre II King of Hungary confirmed the possessions of the Knights Templar, including "villam…Erdel" originally granted by "banus Boricius de Bozna…ex concessione regis Stephani" and confirmed by "…pater noster Bela rex…eiusdem Boricii nepotes"[8]

 

3.         KULIN (-[1204]).  Ban of Bosnia.  A charter dated 1180 issued by "Theobaldus…Alexandro PP III sanctæ sedis missus" names "Culin magno bano Bosniæ"[9].  He maintained good relations with Dubrovnik, issuing a charter in 1189 allowing the town's merchants to trade in Bosnia duty free[10]: “Kulin, Bosnæ banus” made peace with “Ragusio, comite Gervasio” concerning the Ragusan merchants in Bosnia, dated 29 Aug 1189[11].  "Vulcanus…Diocliæ et Dalmatiæ rex" accused "Bacilinus [Ban Culinus] cum uxore sua et cum sorore sua, quæ fuit defuncti Mirosclavi Chelmensis" of heresy in a letter written to Pope Innocent III dated Sep 1199[12].  This resulted in the Pope removing Bosnia from the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the archbishop of Dubrovnik and transferring it to the bishopric of Bar, which was restored as an archbishopric.  Hungary attempted to foment opposition within Bosnia with a view to assuming overlordship, but Kulin reaffirmed his loyalty to the Pope at a church council which he called 6 Apr 1203 at Bolino Polje.  The name of his successor is not known[13]m ---.  The name of Kulin´s wife is not known.  Kulin & his wife had one child: 

a)         son .  Fine records that the son of Kulin visited Hungary to confirm the Bolino Polje resolutions, and suggests that he may have succeeded his father as Ban of Bosnia[14].  The primary sources on which this information is based have not yet been identified. 

4.         daughter (-after 1199).  The date range of her marriage covers the period during which Kulin is known to have been Ban of Bosnia, and after the time when Miroslav was installed as Grand Knez of Hum by his brother.  It is very approximate.  She lived at her brother's court after the death of her husband[15].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m ([1180/90]) MIROSLAV Grand Knez of Hum, brother of STEFAN Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, son of ZAVID & his wife --- (-[1198]). 

-        see below, Chapter 2.B.  KNEZ of HUM (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY of SERBIA)

 

 

 

B.      BANS of BOSNIA (KOTROMANIĆ)

 

 

1.         COTROMANUS, son of --- .  He is named in Europäische Stammtafeln as comes of István III King of Hungary in 1163[16], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

 

2.         RADONJA .  Knez 1249.  Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that Radonja, Ugrin and Matija Ninoslav were brothers and that they were grandsons of Cotromanus[17].  The basis for this hypothesis is not known. 

 

3.         UGRIN .  Knez.  Ban of Mačva-Bosnia 1249-[1279/80].  Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that Radonja, Ugrin and Matija Ninoslav were brothers and that they were grandsons of Cotromanus[18].  The basis for this hypothesis is not known. 

 

4.         MATIJA NINOSLAV STJEPAN (-after Mar 1249).  Ban of Bosnia.  A charter dated 10 Oct 1233 confirmed that Pope Gregory IX received "Ninosclavum ducem Bosnæ et terræ eius" under his protection[19].  Despite this, the Pope in 1234 called on the Hungarians to crusade against "heretics" in Bosnia.  The campaign actively began in 1235 and resulted in Hungarian occupation of a large part of Bosnia, until they were obliged to withdraw in the face of the Mongol threat in 1241.  The Dominicans, who followed in the Hungarians´ wake, erected a cathedral in Vrhbosna [Sarajevo] and the Dominican Ponsa was appointed bishop of Bosnia and Hum[20].  “Matthaeus Ninoslav, Bosnæ magnus banus” confirmed the privileges given by “Kulino bano” to “Joanni Dandulo, Ragusii comiti” by charter dated to [1234/40][21].  “Matthaeus Ninoslav, Bosnæ magnus banus” promised eternal peace with Ragusa by charter dated 22 Mar 1240[22].  “Matthaeus Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus banus” promised peace with Ragusa by charter dated Mar 1249[23].  After years of pressure from Hungary, the Pope reassigned ecclesiastical control of the Bosnian church from the archbishop of Dubrovnik to the Hungarian archbishopric of Kalocsa in 1252, but this marked the end of Catholic influence in Bosnia as the newly appointed Bishop of Bosnia resided in Djakovo in Slavonia[24].  The names of Ninoslav's successors as Bans of Bosnia are not known[25]

 

5.         UBAN PRIJEZDA (-1287 after 8 May).  Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that Uban Prijezda was the grandson of Cotromanus, descended from a different son from Radonja, Ugrin and Matija Ninoslav[26].  The basis for this hypothesis is not known.  From Zemunik/Zemljanik.  A charter dated 10 Oct 1233 issued by Pope Gregory IX confirmed the allegiance to the church of "Urbanum dictum Priesda, cognatum ducis Ninoslavi"[27].  Although he is alleged to have ruled over Bosnia as the vassal of Hungary, all the territory he is documented as controlling was to the north of the Banate of Bosnia and to the west of the Banate of Mačva[28].  He was granted the county of Novska by Béla IV King of Hungary before 1255[29]m ---.  The name of Uban Prijezda´s wife is not known.  Uban Prijezda & his wife had four children: 

a)         PRIJEZDA (-[1295]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Zupan of Zemunik 1267.  Ban of Bosnia 1287-[1295].

b)         STJEPAN Kotroman (-[1314]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Ban of Upper and Lower Bosnia 1290-[1299/1302]. 

-        see below

c)         VUK .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   1287.

d)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   [m (before 1287) [RADOSLAV], eldest son of STJEPAN comes de Vodiča Ban of Dalmatia.] 

 

 

STJEPAN Kotroman 1290-[1302], STJEPAN Kotromanić 1318-1353, STJEPAN DABIŠA 1391-1395, GRUBA 1395-1398

 

STJEPAN Kotroman, son of UBAN PRIJEZDA Ban in northern Bosnia & his wife --- (-[1314]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Ban of Upper and Lower Bosnia 1290-[1299/1302].  His territory was attacked in [1299] by the Šubić family of Bribir, Paul [I] Šubić being referred to as Ban of Bosnia in 1299.  Stjepan Kotroman appears to have fought the Šubići in 1302 on the banks of the Drina, although the outcome is not known[30].  As Paul [I] Šubić is referred to as "Ban of All Bosnia" in 1305, it is likely that Stjepan Kotroman was defeated.  From [1312] to [1314], Stjepan was a vassal of the Nemanjiden family of Serbia and of the Counts of Bribir[31]

m (after 1283) JELISAVETA of Serbia, daughter of STEFAN DRAGUTIN King of Serbia & his wife Katalin of Hungary (-1331).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Regent of Bosnia until Apr 1314, after which she fled with her son to Dubrovnik[32]

Stjepan & his wife had six children: 

1.         STJEPAN Kotromanić (-28 Sep 1353, bur Visoko, Franciscan monastery).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   After his father's death, he fled with his mother to Dubrovnik[33].  He was Ban of Bosnia in the central Visoko-Zenica area in 1318[34].  He appears to have enjoyed good relations with the Šubići until 1322 when civil war broke out within the Šubić family, during which time Kotromanić supported Károly II King of Hungary.  Stjepan Kotromanić added Soli and Usora to his territories in 1324, which had been previously held by his maternal grandfather[35].  Ban of Upper and Lower Bosnia 1322-1353.  He annexed most of Hum in 1326, forcing out the Branivojevići brothers who had assumed control during the period of confusion which followed the death of King Milutin of Serbia[36].  By 1330, Kotromanić had more than doubled the size of Bosnia and had asserted full de facto independence from its neighbours[37].  “Stephanus, Bosnæ banus” confirmed peace with Ragusa by charter dated 23 Oct 1332[38].  In 1337, the Pope called on Nelipac of Knin and the Šubići of Bribir to help the Franciscans in their work in Bosnia, accusing the Ban and the nobles of aiding "heretics", although Kotromanić appears to have forestalled any potential crusade with help from the king of Hungary who forbade any attack on Bosnia.  Fine suggests that this action was triggered by Nelipac to advance his own ambitions, as the Franciscans only became active in Bosnia in [1339/40] after having been well received by Ban Kotromanić[39].  In 1342 the Franciscans established their Vicariat of Bosnia, which became a base for their activities in south-eastern Europe, and Ban Kotromanić converted to Catholicism by 1347[40].  Tsar Stefan Dušan of Serbia invaded Bosnia in 1350, aiming to regain control of Hum, but Ban Kotromanić avoided confrontation by retiring to the mountains[41].  He opened Bosnia's silver and lead mines, which led to economic development and increased commercial contacts with the coast[42]Betrothed (1319, Papal dispensation 4o 18 Jul 1319) to --- von Ortenburg, daughter of MEINHARD I Graf von Ortenburg [in Carinthia] & his wife ---.  Pope John XXII issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Stephano, Stephani bani Bosnensis filio" and "filia Meinhardi comitis de Orthenborch", who were "in quarto gradu consanguinitatis coniuncta", dated 18 Jul 1319[43]m (Jun 1324) ELŹBIETA, daughter of KAZIMIERZ of Kujavia Prince of Inowraclaw and Gnesen [Piast] & his wife --- ([1315/20]-after 22 Aug 1345).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Stjepan Kotromanić & his wife had two children: 

a)         son (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b)         JELISAVETA ([1340]-in prison Novigrad near Zadar, Dalmatia shortly before 16 Jan 1387).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Her father refused a proposal from Tsar Stefan Dušan of Serbia for her marriage to his son, following the Serbian invasion of Bosnia in 1350[44].  Regent in Hungary and Poland on the death of her husband.  She was taken prisoner with her daughter Maria by Jan Horvat after visiting Djakovo in late 1386, and taken to a castle in Novigrad near Zadar where she was strangled in front of her daughter[45]m (Krakow 20 Jun 1353) as his second wife, LAJOS I King of Hungary and Poland, son of KÁROLY I King of Hungary & his third wife Elźbieta of Poland (4/5 Mar 1326-Tarnow/Tyrnau 10/11 Sep 1382, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame). 

2.         VLADISLAV Kotromanić (-1354).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Co-Regent of Bosnia [1323-1331].  Regent of Bosnia end 1353-early 1354. 

-        see below

3.         NINOSLAV Kotromanić .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   1310/14.  m ---.  The name of Ninoslav´s wife is not known.  Ninoslav & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [MARIJA ([1333]-27 Apr 1403, bur Bad Überkirchen).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (before 26 Apr 1352) ULRICH Graf von Helfenstein (-murdered 12 May 1372).] 

4.         son .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   1331. 

5.         KATELINA (-before 1355).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (before 1338) NIKOLA Zupan of Zahumlje, son of BOGDAN Zupan of Hum [Nemanjić] & his wife ---. 

6.         MARIJA .  A charter dated 26 Apr 1352 names "Ludovicus Nyklynum filium Laurentii et fratrem eius" who married "Mariam sororem domini Stephani ducis Boznensis…domino Helsenneerio" at "civitatem Pazzowye"[46].  It is unclear from this text whether "Ludovicus" or his brother was the husband of Maria.  It is assumed that the marriage took place well before the date of the charter as, at that time, any sister of Ban Stjepan would have been old for marriage.  m (Passau) ---. 

 

 

1.         STJEPAN Dabiša (-7 Sep 1395).  Fine suggests that Stjepan Dabiša was related to Tvrtko but says that the precise relationship is not known[47]Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that he was an illegitimate son of Ninoslav Kotromanić[48], but it is not known whether this is any more than a guess.  He is first mentioned in 1358.  He succeeded in 1391 as STJEPAN DABIŠA King of Bosnia, maybe chosen because he was elderly and weak, but possibly also because he was the oldest member of the family[49].  “Rex Bosnæ Stephanus Dabiša” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans, with the consent of “ipsius uxore Helena”, by charter dated 17 Jun 1392, witnessed by "vojvoda Hrvoje, vojvoda Usoræ Vlatko, comes Stipoje Hrvatinić, comes Radosav Prebinić, comes Dobrosav Divošević, tepačija Batalo, comes Gojak Dragosalić, župan Tvrdislav Tuica, comes Vlčihna Vlatković, comes Voisav Voevodić, comes Vlkac Nartičić, župan Radoje Radosalić, župan Juraj Tihčinović, comes palatinus Stanac Priekušić"[50].  The Bosnian state held together as the nobles decided that it was in their interests to cooperate with each other.  Under threat from Zsigmond King of Hungary, King Dabiša accepted Hungarian suzerainty in 1393, renounced the Croatian/Dalmatian kingship which had been claimed by his predecessor, and returned to the parts of Croatia and Dalmatia conquered by King Tvrtko to Hungary[51]m JELENA Gruba [of the Nikolići of Hum] (-after 5 Mar 1399).  “Rex Bosnæ Stephanus Dabiša” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans, with the consent of “ipsius uxore Helena”, by charter dated 17 Jun 1392[52].  After her husband's death in 1395, the Bosnian nobles elected her as GRUBA Queen of Bosnia.  “Helena, Bosnæ regina, Stephani Dabišæ uxor” abolished customs taxes imposed on the Ragusans “in Maslina prope Ston et in Slano” by charter dated 13 May 1397[53].  She was deposed in 1398 in favour of Ostoja.  Stjepan Dabiša & his wife had one child: 

a)         STANA .  “Stephanus Dabiša, Bosnæ rex” granted “pagum Velijake” to “filiæ Stanæ ad vitam” and after her death to “Georgio Radivojević et posteris eius” by charter dated 26 Apr 1395[54]m DJURADJ Radivojević Knez in Krajina Makareka (-after 23 Feb 1408). 

 

 

VLADISLAV Kotromanić 1353-1354

 

VLADISLAV Kotromanić, son of STJEPAN Kotroman Ban of Bosnia & his wife Jelisaveta of Serbia (-1354).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Co-Regent of Bosnia [1323-1331].  Regent of Bosnia end 1353-early 1354.  It is not known why his son succeeded as Ban of Bosnia in 1353 instead of Vladislav[55]

m (Klis 1338 before 17 Aug) JELENA Subić, daughter of JURAJ [II] Subić Count of Bribir & his wife --- (-after 10 Apr 1378).  "Tvrtko banus Bosnæ…cum…iuvene Vuk fratre…ac…domina Helena genetrice" confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 1 Sep 1355[56].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  "Laurentius Celsi dux Venetiarum" declared "Tvrtkum totius Bossine banum comitem Wolf eius fratrem et Helenam eorum genetricem" as citizens of Venice by charter dated 7 Sep 1364[57].  Pope Gregory IX confirmed the donation by "Tuertko banus Boznen…cum…Stephano eius fratre iuniore bano Boznen nec non…Helena ipsorum banorum genetrice" to "ecclesiæ cathedrali sanctorum Petri et Pauli" by bull dated 31 Oct 1374[58].  “Stephanus Tvrtko, Bosnæ rex…cum matre Helena et coniuge Dorothea” confirmed the privileges granted previously to the Ragusans by “Bosnæ et Serbiæ regibus” by charter dated 10 Apr 1378[59]

Vladislav & his wife had three children: 

1.         STJEPAN Tvrtko ([1338]-10 Mar 1391).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He succeeded his uncle in 1353 as Ban of Bosnia.  "Tvrtko banus Bosnæ…cum…iuvene Vuk fratre…ac…domina Helena genetrice" confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 1 Sep 1355[60].  He was crowned STJEPAN TVRTKO I King [Kralj] of Bosnia

-        see below

2.         STJEPAN Vuk (-after 31 Oct 1374).  "Tvrtko banus Bosnæ…cum…iuvene Vuk fratre…ac…domina Helena genetrice" confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 1 Sep 1355[61].  Knez [1353-1369].  "Laurentius Celsi dux Venetiarum" declared "Tvrtkum totius Bossine banum comitem Wolf eius fratrem et Helenam eorum genetricem" as citizens of Venice by charter dated 7 Sep 1364[62].  He was installed as Ban of Bosnia in 1366 in place of his older brother after a rebellion by the nobility, but made peace with his brother in 1367 and surrendered the Banate in return for being confirmed in his own holdings.  He went into exile later in the year, unsuccessfully sought outside help to regain his position, and eventually concluded a more permanent peace in 1374[63].  He converted to Roman Catholicism in 1367[64].  Pope Urban V requested Lajos King of Hungary to protect "Stephanum banum Bosnæ iuniorem", persecuted by "frater, senior banus", by letter dated 14 Dec 1369[65].  Pope Gregory IX confirmed the donation by "Tuertko banus Boznen…cum…Stephano eius fratre iuniore bano Boznen nec non…Helena ipsorum banorum genetrice" to "ecclesiæ cathedrali sanctorum Petri et Pauli" by bull dated 31 Oct 1374[66]

3.         KATARINA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   1377/96.  Her son, Herman [II] Count of Celje, inherited the kingdom of Bosnia by treaty 2 Sep 1427[67]m (1362) HERMAN [I] Count of Celje [Cilly], son of FREDERIC [I] Count of Celje [Cilly] & his wife Diemut von Wallsee (-21 Mar 1385). 

 

 

STJEPAN TVRTKO I 1353-1391, STJEPAN TVRTKO II 1404-1443

 

STJEPAN Tvrtko, son of VLADISLAV Kotromanić Knez [of Bosnia] & his wife Jelena Subić ([1338]-10 Mar 1391).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He succeeded his uncle in 1353 as Ban of Bosnia.  "Tvrtko banus Bosnæ…cum…iuvene Vuk fratre…ac…domina Helena genetrice" confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 1 Sep 1355[68].  The nobles asserted their autonomy after his accession, splitting the strong state which his uncle had established into separate units.  In 1357, Lájos King of Hungary compelled Ban Stjepan Tvrtko to surrender most of western Hum as a belated dowry for his marriage to Kotromanić's daughter, in return for recognising him as ruler of Bosnia and Usora as the vassal of Hungary.  King Lájos invaded northern Bosnia in 1363, but Ban Tvrtko successfully defended himself against these incursions[69].  "Laurentius Celsi dux Venetiarum" declared "Tvrtkum totius Bossine banum comitem Wolf eius fratrem et Helenam eorum genetricem" as citizens of Venice by charter dated 7 Sep 1364[70].  After a rebellion in 1366 in favour of his younger brother, Tvrtko sought refuge at the Hungarian court but was restored in 1367 after making peace with his brother.  “Tvrtko, Bosnæ banus” confirmed the privileges granted by "bane Stephano patruo suo" to the Ragusans by charter dated 1 Jun 1367[71].  Allied with Lazar Hrebljanović, he defeated Nikola Altomanović, nominal Knez of Hum, in 1373 and acquired his lands in western Hum[72].  Pope Gregory IX confirmed the donation by "Tuertko banus Boznen…cum…Stephano eius fratre iuniore bano Boznen nec non…Helena ipsorum banorum genetrice" to "ecclesiæ cathedrali sanctorum Petri et Pauli" by bull dated 31 Oct 1374[73].  He was crowned STJEPAN TVRTKO I King [Kralj] of Bosnia and Serbia at Mileševo 26 Oct 1377, deriving his kingship rights from his claim to the Serbian throne although he never established any role for himself in Serbia[74].  “Stephanus Tvrtko, Bosnæ rex…cum matre Helena et coniuge Dorothea” confirmed the privileges granted previously to the Ragusans by “Bosnæ et Serbiæ regibus” by charter dated 10 Apr 1378, in the presence of "župan Branko Pribinić, comes palatinus Vlkosav Stefković, Dobrašin Stefanović, vojevoda Vlatko Vlković, comes Vlkašin Milatović, comes Priboje Mostnović, župan Bielijak Seković"[75].  On the death of Djuradj Balšić in 1379, Stjepan Tvrtko annexed the coastal land along the Gulf of Kotor except the town of Kotor itself[76].  Tvrtko supported Jan Horvat Ban of Mačva in his rebellion against Maria Queen of Hungary, invaded Hungarian Dalmatia in 1387, and conquered large parts of Dalmatia and Croatia.  “Stephanus Tvrtko, Bosnæ rex” agreed a treaty with the Ragusans “contra omnes, excepta Hungariæ regina Maria” by charter dated 9 Apr 1387[77].  In 1390, he started to call himself King of Croatia and Dalmatia[78].  On Tvrtko's death, he was succeeded by [his cousin] Stjepan Dabiša, but Hrvoje Vukčić emerged as the strongest local figure, replacing Tvrtko as overlord in Dalmatia and Croatia with the approval of Ladislas King of Sicily, who was then a claimant to the Hungarian throne[79]

[m firstly ---.  The chronology of the family of Stjepan Tvrtko´s wife Doroteja suggests that it is unlikely that she was the mother of his son Stjepan Tvrtko II.  Europäische Stammtafeln states that he was illegitimate[80], but the basis for this is not known.] 

m [secondly] ([1376/84]) DOROTEJA, daughter of IVAN STRACIMIR of Bulgaria Prince of Vidin & his wife Anna [Slava] Bassarab of Wallachia (-before Aug 1390).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Lájos King of Hungary retained her and her sister at the Hungarian court after her father was restored in Vidin in 1370, later arranging her marriage[81].  “Stephanus Tvrtko, Bosnæ rex…cum matre Helena et coniuge Dorothea” confirmed the privileges granted previously to the Ragusans by “Bosnæ et Serbiæ regibus” by charter dated 10 Apr 1378[82]

Stjepan Tvrtko I & his [first wife] had one child:

1.         STJEPAN Tvrtko (-Nov 1443).  His parentage is confirmed by the various documents which name him “Tvrtko Tvrtković, Bosnæ rex”, see below.  Citizen of Venice 1404[83].  He was elected in 1404 to succeed as STJEPAN TVRTKO II King of Bosnia, supported in particular by Hrvoje Vukčić, the deputy of Lászlo King of Hungary in Croatia and Dalmatia[84].  The Ragusians accepted “regem Bosnæ Stephanum Tvrtko Tvrtković” among the Ragusian nobles and granted him “domum in urbe et terram in Primorje” by charter dated 22 Sep 1405[85].  Hungarian raids on Bosnia continued, aimed at restoring Ostoja who continued to receive the support of King Zsigmond, culminating in the battle of Dobor in Usora in Sep 1408 at which Zsigmond defeated the Bosnian nobility[86].  King Stjepan Tvrtko II was deposed in favour of Ostoja by the end of 1409.  He was proclaimed king of Bosnia by the Ottomans in 1414, but after their victory over Hungarian troops near Lašva in Aug 1415 they abandoned him and transferred their support to Ostoja[87].  He was restored once more in Jul 1420, with the support of Sandalj Hranić Kosača and the Ottomans, was crowned in Aug 1421 and established himself at Visoko[88].  “Tvrtko Tvrtković, Bosnæ rex” confirmed donations made by “vojevoda Sandalj” by charter dated 16 Aug 1420[89].  “Stephanus Tvrtko Tvrtković, Bosnæ rex” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans granted by “patre Tvrtko et ab Ostoja” by charter dated 18 Aug 1421[90].  Faced with the prospect of further Ottoman attacks, he made an alliance with Hungary in [1425/26].  The Ottomans considered this a mark of defiance and forced Tvrtko to submit to Ottoman suzerainty in 1426, although they had withdrawn from Bosnia by Aug 1426.  Tvrtko turned to Hungary for help, but the Hungarians insisted that he accept Herman Count of Cilli as his heir to Bosnia, to which he agreed despite active opposition from Bosnian nobles[91].  Hungary intervened to support Tvrtko against Radivoj, who had declared himself rival king and controlled eastern Bosnia and Hum, but Tvrtko retreated to the Hungarian court in late 1434, although he returned to Bosnia in Apr 1435[92].  He was forced back to Hungary in 1436 by further Ottoman raids, but after secret negotiations to accept Ottoman suzerainty once more returned to Bosnia as king in mid-1436[93]Betrothed (9 Apr 1428) to DOROTTYA Garay, daughter of JÁNOS Garay Ban of Usora & his wife Jadwiga of Kujavia [Piast].  This marriage was arranged to confirm Tvrtko's alliance with Hungary[94]

2.         [STJEPAN Ostoja (-Sep 1418).  He is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[95] as the possible son of King Stjepan Tvrtko I, but according to Fine his precise relationship to the family is not known[96].  He was elected in 1398 by the Bosnian nobility as STJEPAN OSTOJA King of Bosnia after Queen Gruba was deposed.] 

-        see below

3.         JELENA (-[2 Feb 1434/7 Mar 1435]).  Heiress of Bosnia.  m (before 23 Mar 1423) as his third wife, PRZEMKO Duke of Troppau, son of NIKOLAUS II Duke of Troppau [Přemyslid] & his third wife Jutta von Falkenberg [Piast] (-28 Sep 1433). 

 

 

STJEPAN OSTOJA 1398-1418, STJEPAN 1418-1420, STJEPAN TOMAŠ 1443-1461, STJEPAN 1461-1463

 

1.         STJEPAN Ostoja, son of --- (-Sep 1418).  He is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[97] as the possible illegitimate son of King Stjepan Tvrtko I, but according to Fine his precise relationship to the family is not known[98].  He was elected in 1398 by the Bosnian nobility as STJEPAN OSTOJA King of Bosnia after Queen Gruba was deposed.  “Stephanus Ostoja, Bosnæ rex” waived debts of the Ragusans to “Stephani Tvrtko regis” by charter dated 20 Nov 1398[99].  He declared his support for Ladislas King of Sicily as claimant to the Hungarian throne[100].  “Stephanus Ostoja rex Bosnæ cum uxore regina Kujava” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 5 Feb 1399[101].  After Pavle Radišić, a member of the Bosnian royal family who had presumably been involved in an unsuccessful plot to seize the throne, had fled to Dubrovnik, Ostoja attacked Dubrovnik's territory after it failed to return the fugitive.  To strengthen his position, in 1403 Ostoja accepted the suzerainty of Zsigmond King of Hungary who was gaining ground against Ladislas in the Hungarian civil war.  These displays of independence on the part of Ostoja caused the Bosnian nobles to depose him in [Apr/May] 1404, whereupon he fled to the Hungarian court where he received support for an invasion which recaptured Bobovac, where he ruled as puppet king installed by Zsigmond[102].  He was restored in 1409, and recognised as king once more by Zsigmond in [1410/11].  The Ragusans paid tribute to “Bosnæ regi Ostojæ” and received him and “filium eius Stephanum et stirpem virilem” into the nobility of Ragusa by charter dated 31 Dec 1410[103].  He was supported by the Ottomans after their victory over Hungarian troops near Lašva in Aug 1415[104]m firstly [VITAČA], daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (before 5 Feb 1399, repudiated 1415) KUJAVA, daughter of --- (-after 15 Dec 1434).  “Stephanus Ostoja rex Bosnæ cum uxore regina Kujava” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 5 Feb 1399[105]m thirdly (before Oct 1416) as her second husband, JELENA Nelipić, widow of HRVOJE Vukčić Duke of Split Grand Voyvode of Bosnia, sister of IVANIĆ Knez of Cetin and Ban of Croatia, daughter of --- (-[Mar 1422]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.   Stjepan Ostoja & his second wife had one child:

a)         STJEPAN Ostojić (-before Apr 1422).  The Ragusans paid tribute to “Bosnæ regi Ostojæ” and received him and “filium eius Stephanum et stirpem virilem” into the nobility of Ragusa by charter dated 31 Dec 1410[106].  He succeeded his father in 1418 as STJEPAN King of Bosnia.  Sandalj Hranić Kosača refused to recognise his accession and with Ottoman help ousted him from power in Jul 1420, restoring Stjepan Tvrtko II in his place[107].  

Stjepan Ostoja had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

b)         RADIVOJ of Komothyn (-murdered Jun 1463).  He was legitimated 29 May 1445 by the Pope[108].  He lived at the Ottoman court until late 1430.  He was supported by Radoslav Pavlović as a rival claimant to the throne in 1431, received the support of Sandalj Hranić Kosača, declared himself king and effectively took control of eastern Bosnia and Hum[109].  Despite Tvrtko II's temporary withdrawal to the Hungarian court in late 1434, Radivoj did not press his advantage, presumably due to lack of popular support[110].  He was murdered by the Ottomans[111]m (before 19 Jun 1449) as her first husband, KATHARINA von Velike, daughter and heiress of NIKOLA von Velike& his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.   She married secondly (before 1470) Johann Szencsei in Slavonia.  Radivoj & his wife had three children: 

i)          TRVITKO (-murdered Turks 1463).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He was murdered by the Ottomans[112]

ii)         DJURADJ (-after 1455).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

iii)        MATIJA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   1465. 

c)         STJEPAN TOMAŠ Ostojić (-murdered 10 Jul 1461).  His parentage is confirmed by the document which names him “Stephanus Thomas Ostocić, Bosnæ rex”, see below.  He succeeded in 1443 as STJEPAN TOMAŠ King of Bosnia.  Stefan Vukčić Kosača refused to accept his accession, triggering civil war which persisted until 1446, when peace was sealed by his daughter's marriage to the king[113].  He converted to Catholicism by 1446.  “Stephanus Thomas Ostocić, Bosnæ rex, Paulo, Marco et Georgio, filiis vojevodæ Ivaniš Dragišić” donated “urbem Ključ” by charter dated 22 Aug 1446[114].  In 1448, Stefan Vukčić Kosača declared his separation from Bosnia by dropping the title "Vojvoda of Bosnia" and eventually calling himself "Herceg of Saint Sava".  Fighting broke out between him and Bosnia in [1449/50].  The Ottomans increased their attacks, annexing parts of eastern Bosnia, including Vrhbosna [Sarajevo] in 1451.  Stjepan Tomaš seized Sřebrnica and other Serbian towns after the death of Lazar Despot of Serbia in 1458, but made peace with Lazar's widow in 1459 when the marriage was arranged between her daughter and his son[115]m firstly (repudiated 1445, marriage annulled in Rome[116]) VOJAČA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (Apr 1446) KATARINA, daughter of STEFAN Vukčić Kosača & his first wife Jelena Balša (1424-Rome 25 Oct 1478, bur Ara Coeli).  A charter records the death of “Catharina, Bosnæ regina” 25 Oct 1478[117].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Stjepan Tomaš & his first wife had three children:

i)          STJEPAN Tomasević (-beheaded Jajce Jun 1463).  His parentage is confirmed by the document which names him as “Stephanus Tomašević, Bosnæ rex”, see below.  He was created Despot on his marriage, presumably by his mother-in-law although she had no right to grant this title which, according to long tradition, could only by granted by an emperor.  He and his wife escaped to Bosnia after Smederevo was captured by the Ottomans 20 Jun 1459 and the Serbian state was annexed[118].  He succeeded his father in 1461 as STJEPAN King of Bosnia.  “Stephanus Tomašević, Bosnæ rex” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 23 Nov 1461[119].  He sought outside help against the Ottomans from the Pope, and also requested a royal crown, which he received from the Papal legate in Nov 1461[120].  The Ottomans invaded Bosnia in 1463 and captured the king, who was brought before the Sultan and beheaded[121]m (Smederevo 1 Apr 1459) JELENA Branković, daughter of LAZAR Branković Despot of Serbia & his wife Helene Palaiologina (1447-in Hungary after 1498).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript manuscript names (in order) Maria, Militzia and Irene as the children of Lazar & his wife, stating that Maria married the king of Bosnia and had issue[122].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Maria…la seconda…Miliza…la terza et ultima Erina" as the three daughters of "Lazaro Despoto" and his wife, adding that "Maria" married "rè Stephano di Bossina"[123].  She adopted the name MARIJA on her marriage.  She fled to the coast after Bosnia was annexed by the Ottomans[124].  According to Runciman, Queen Marija was taken into the harem of a Turkish general[125]

ii)         son (-aged 14 before 1460).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

iii)        son .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

Stjepan Tomaš & his second wife had two children:

iv)       ZILMUNT (1456-).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He was captured by the Ottomans in Jun 1463 and taken to Constantinople, where he converted to Islam.  He served as Sanjak-Beg at Karas in Asia Minor in 1487[126].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Zilmunt had descendants although no details are given[127]

v)        STIPANA [Katharina] (1460-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   She was captured by the Turks in Jun 1463 and became a Moslem[128]

 

 

 

C.      VOJVODES of BOSNIA (KOSAČA)

 

 

VUK, Kosača. 

m ---.  The name of Vuk´s wife is not known. 

Vuk & his wife had two children: 

1.         VLATKO Vuković (-1392).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Bosnian governor of Croatia 1388[129].  He controlled a district of Hum east of the Neretva River.  He occupied Konavli in 1392.  

2.         HRANJA .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Vojvode of Bosniam ANKA, daughter of --- (-after 1410).  “Sandalj vojevoda” promised protection to “matrem suam Anka” by charter dated 1410[130].  Hranja & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         SANDALJ Hranić Kosača (-15 Mar 1435)Vojvode of Bosnia.  He inherited his uncle's properties.  He acquired the land from Nevesinje to the coast when he captured Radič Sanković.  The Ragusians accepted “comitem Vukac et fratrem eius Sandalj et eorum masculam progeniem” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe et terram in Primorje” by charter dated 3 Jul 1405[131].  He refused to recognise the accession of Stefan Ostojić as King of Bosnia in 1418, and with Turkish help ousted him from power, restoring Tvrtko II in his place[132]Grand Vojvode of Bosnia, Knez of Zahumlje[133].  “Sandalj Hrasić, vojevoda bosnensis, et fratres Vlkac et Vlk” granted the Ragusans “suam partem župæ Konavlje” by charter dated 24 Jun 1419[134].  The Ragusians accepted “Bosnæ vojevodem Sandalj et consanguineous eius, knez Vukac, knez Vuk et Stephanum, filium knez Vukac” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe” by charter dated 29 Jun 1419[135]m firstly ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (Jun 1396) JELENA, daughter of --- (-after 17 Feb 1403).  The Ragusians accepted a deposit of “duorum millium aureorum” from “Helena uxore vojevodæ Sandalj” by charter dated 17 Feb 1403[136]m thirdly (Mar 1405, divorced 1411) KATARINA Hrvatinić, daughter of VUK Vukčić Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia (-after 1421).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m fourthly (after 8 Dec 1411) as her second husband, JELENA Lazarević, widow of DJURADJ [II] Stracimirović Balšić Lord of Zeta, daughter of LAZAR Hrebljanović Knez of Serbia & his wife Milica --- ([1365/70]-Mar 1443).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  Her birth date range is estimated on the birth of her first son (by her first marriage) in 1387.  The Ragusians accepted a deposit of “duorum millium ducatorum aureorum” from “Helena, vojevodæ Sandalj uxore” by charter dated 16 Feb 1423[137].  The testament of “Helenæ viduæ vojevodæ Sandalj” is dated 25 Nov 1442[138]

b)         VUKAĆ Hranić (-Jun 1432).  Knez.  Patrician of Ragusa 1405/1420.  The Ragusians accepted “comitem Vukac et fratrem eius Sandalj et eorum masculam progeniem” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe et terram in Primorje” by charter dated 3 Jul 1405[139].  Patrician of Venice 1423[140]

-        see below

c)         VUK Hranic (-Feb 1425).  Knez.  Patrician of Ragusa 1405/1420.  “Sandalj Hrasić, vojevoda bosnensis, et fratres Vlkac et Vlk” granted the Ragusans “suam partem župæ Konavlje” by charter dated 24 Jun 1419[141].  The Ragusians accepted “Bosnæ vojevodem Sandalj et consanguineous eius, knez Vukac, knez Vuk et Stephanum, filium knez Vukac” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe” by charter dated 29 Jun 1419[142].  Patrician of Venice 1423[143]

d)         [144][YELCHOm firstly LEONARDO Baša di Cattaro .  m secondly ---.] 

 

 

VUKAĆ Hranić, son of HRANJA Vojvode of Bosnia & his wife Anka --- (-Jun 1432).  Knez.  Patrician of Ragusa 1405/1420.  The Ragusians accepted “comitem Vukac et fratrem eius Sandalj et eorum masculam progeniem” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe et terram in Primorje” by charter dated 3 Jul 1405[145].  “Sandalj Hrasić, vojevoda bosnensis, et fratres Vlkac et Vlk” granted the Ragusans “suam partem župæ Konavlje” by charter dated 24 Jun 1419[146].  The Ragusians accepted “Bosnæ vojevodem Sandalj et consanguineous eius, knez Vukac, knez Vuk et Stephanum, filium knez Vukac” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe” by charter dated 29 Jun 1419[147].  Patrician of Venice 1423[148]

m KATHARINA, daughter of --- (-after 1452).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  

Vukać & his wife had two children: 

1.         STEFAN Vukčić Kosača (-22/23 May 1466).  The Ragusians accepted “Bosnæ vojevodem Sandalj et consanguineous eius, knez Vukac, knez Vuk et Stephanum, filium knez Vukac” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe” by charter dated 29 Jun 1419[149]Vojvode of Bosnia.  He succeeded his uncle in his territories along the River Neretva and from Onogošt [Nikšić] to the coast.  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus Vojeveda, filius fratris vojevodæ Sandalj” accepted his part of money deposited by “mango vojevoda Sandalj” by charter dated 18 Sep 1438[150].  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, et filii Vladisav et Vlatko” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated 7 May 1440[151].  He invaded upper Zeta as far as the Morača River in 1441, and Stefan Crnojević was obliged to hand over his son as hostage[152].  He refused to accept the election of Stjepan Tomaš as King of Bosnia in 1443, triggering the civil war which persisted until 1446, when peace was sealed by his daughter's marriage to the Bosnian king[153].  Under pressure from Venice along the coast, and faced with the restoration in 1444 of Djuradj Vuković as Despot of Serbia (including Zeta) and his recognition by Sultan Murad, Stefan Vukčić renounced his ambitions in Zeta, surrendering upper Zeta to Djuradj[154].  He dropped his title "Vojvode of Bosnia" in 1448, assuming the title "Herceg [Duke] of Hum and the Coast", changing it again in 1449 to "Herceg of Saint Sava"[155] in recollection of the Serbian saint, son of Stefan Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia who became a monk adopting the name Sava and was first archbishop of the independent church in Serbia. 

-        DUKES of SAINT SAVA

2.         TEODORA (-Apr 1450).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Her marriage was arranged by her uncle Sandalj Hranić Kosača to confirm his recognition of Tvrtko II as restored King of Bosnia[156].  “Radosav vojevoda, uxor eius Theodora et filius Ivaniš” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated 19 Aug 1439[157]m ([1421/22]) RADOSLAV Pavlović Grand Vojvoda of Bosnia, Zupan of Konarlje, son of PAVEL Radenović & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

D.      VOJVODES of BOSNIA (RADENOVIĆ)

 

 

1.         PAVEL Radenovićm ---.  Pavel & his wife had one child: 

a)         RADOSLAV Pavlović (-[1441/42]).  “Radosav Pavlović, filius knez Pauli Radenović” confirmed donations made by “vojevoda Sandalj” by charter dated 3 Nov 1420[158]Grand Vojvode of Bosnia, Zupan of Konarlje.  The Ragusans confirmed friendship with “Bosnæ vojevoda Radosav Pavlović” by charter dated 3 Nov 1420[159].  “Radoslav Pavlović, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda et filius [eius] knez Ivaniš” agreed friendship with the Ragusans by charter dated 31 Dec 1427[160].  “Radoslav Pavlović, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated Feb 1439[161]m ([1421/22]) TEODORA, daughter of VUKA Ranić & his wife --- (-Apr 1450).  “Radosav vojevoda, uxor eius Theodora et filius Ivaniš” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated 19 Aug 1439[162].  This marriage was arranged by her uncle Sandalj Hranić Kosača to confirm his recognition of Tvrtko II as restored King of Bosnia[163].  Radoslav & his wife had three children: 

i)          IVANIŠ .  “Radoslav Pavlović, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda et filius [eius] knez Ivaniš” agreed friendship with the Ragusans by charter dated 31 Dec 1427[164]Vojvode of Bosnia.  The Ragusans made grants to “filiis Radosavi Pavlović, vojevodæ Ivaniš et comitibus Petro et Nicolao” by charter dated 10 Dec 1442[165].  “Ivaniš, chlmensis vojevoda, et cognati” made a treaty with the Ragusans against “herceg Stephanum Vukčić” by charter dated 25 Mar 1452[166].  “Ivaniš, chlmensis vojevoda, et cognati eius” accepted “provisionem” from Ragusa by charter dated 25 Mar 1458[167]

ii)         PETAR .  The Ragusans made grants to “filiis Radosavi Pavlović, vojevodæ Ivaniš et comitibus Petro et Nicolao” by charter dated 10 Dec 1442[168]Vojvode of Bosnia.  “Vojevoda Petrus et knewz Nicolaus, filii vojevodæ Radosav” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 15 Jul 1454[169]

iii)        NIKOLA .  The Ragusans made grants to “filiis Radosavi Pavlović, vojevodæ Ivaniš et comitibus Petro et Nicolao” by charter dated 10 Dec 1442[170].  “Vojevoda Petrus et knewz Nicolaus, filii vojevodæ Radosav” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 15 Jul 1454[171]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    HERCEGOVINA (formerly ZAHUMLJE, HUM)

 

 

The early development of the territory which later became known as Hercegovina is discussed in the Introduction to the present document. 

 

 

 

A.      KNEZ of ZAHUMLJE (VJIŠEVIĆI)

 

 

VYŠ [Vyšeslav], son of ---.  Knez of Zahumlje

m ---.  The name of Vyš´s wife is not known. 

Vyš & his wife had one child: 

1.         MIHAIL Vjišević (-after 940).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "proconsulis et patricii Michaelis Busebutze Zachlumorum principis filii" as ruler of "Zachluma", stating that the territory included the towns of "Stagnum, Mocriscis, Iosle, Galumaenic et Dobriscic"[172]Knez of Zahumlje.  The titles accorded to Mihail show that Zahumlje must have been under Byzantine suzerainty during his reign.  m ---.  The name of Mihail´s wife is not known.  Mihail & his wife had two children: 

a)         DRAGISLAV .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Knez of Zahumlje. 

b)         BOLESLAV .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Zupan of Zahumlje. 

 

 

1.         STEFAN Vojislav .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, he was the son of either Dragislav Knez of Zahumlje or his brother Boleslav Zupan of Zahumlje[173]Knez of Zahumlje and Trebinje [1036]-after 1042, in Ston/Stagno.  Leader of the Serbian rebellion in Primorje 1036/1040.  m ---.  The name of Stefan´s wife is not known.  Stefan & his wife had one child: 

a)         son .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Baptised [1037/41].  same person as …?  LJUTOVID (-killed in battle [1052/54]).  Knez of Zahumlje and Trebinje.  He led troops from Bosnia and Raška, with Byzantine support, against Stefan Dobroslav Knez of Duklja in 1042 but suffered a major defeat, whereupon Duklja annexed most of Zahumlje[174].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Gojislav of Duklja defeated "Prince Lutovid" who fled[175]Strategos of Zahumlje, hypatos and protospatarios, as the vassal of Byzantium.  He founded the Benedictine monastery on the island of Locrum 1054[176]

 

2.         DOMANEC .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, he was the possible son of Ljutovid[177].  Knez of Trebinje 1054/55.  He was killed by Radoslav of Duklja. 

 

3.         DESA .  "Dessa Dioclie, Terbunie et Zacholmie dux" donated "insulam Melite" to the monastery of St Maria in Pulsano by charter dated 1150[178].  "Dessa magnus comes terre Zachulmie" donated "ecclesiam s. Pancratii" to "monasterio Iacromensi" by charter dated to [1151], confirmed by "Banus Slauogast cum filiis et omnibus Zachulmie nobilibus" by charter dated 1 Dec [1154][179]

 

 

 

B.      KNEZ of HUM (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY of SERBIA)

 

 

MIROSLAV of Serbia, brother of STEFAN Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, son of ZAVID & his wife --- (-[1198]).  Miroslav names his father as Zavid in a gospel which he wrote[180]. He was installed as Župan in part of Serbia in [1166].  He was expelled, along with his two brothers, by their third brother Nemanja in [1167/68][181].  He made peace with his brother Nemanja after their brother Tihomir was killed, and was installed as Grand Knez of Hum (formerly Zahumlje, later Hercegovina), with his capital at Ston, which may have been the area over which he was Župan from [1166][182]  After the murder in 1180 of Rainer Archbishop of Split, probably by pirates based at the mouth of the Neretva River, the Pope demanded that Miroslav, as the area's overlord, punish the offenders.  The dispute escalated when Miroslav refused and expelled the Catholic Bishop from Ston, after which he allowed Orthodox priests to take over various Catholic church buildings[183].  His attack on the island of Korčula was repelled in 1184, with help from Dubrovnik, against which Nemanja declared war[184].  “Stephanus Nemanja, Serbiæ magnæ županus et fratres Stracimir et Miroslav” made peace with “Ragusio, comite Gervasio”, dated 27 Sep 1186[185].  From [1190], Miroslav appears to have shared control of Hum with his nephew Rastko, although he held at least the region of the Lim River with Bijelo Polje.  “Ragusini, Gervasio comite” made a treaty with “comite Miroslavo, fratre Stephani Nemanja, Serbiæ magni župani”, dated 17 Jun 1190[186].  After Miroslav's death, Hungary claimed Hum but it is not clear whether it was able to take control[187]

m ([1180/90]) --- of Bosnia, sister of KULIN Ban of Bosnia, daughter of --- (-after 1199).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   The date range of this marriage covers the period during which Kulin is known to have been Ban of Bosnia, after Miroslav's installation as Grand Knez of Hum by his brother.  It is very approximate.  She lived at her brother's court after the death of her husband[188]

Miroslav & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         TOLJEN .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   [189]Betrothed (27 Jul 1189, 24 Apr 1190) to --- von Andechs-Merano, daughter of BERTHOLD VI Duke of Merano Marchese di Istria & his wife Agnes von Wettin.  This betrothal was arranged by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbaross a" while he was passing through Serb territory as leader of the Third Crusade to seal good relations with the Serbs.  It appears that the marriage never took place[190].  The primary source which corroborates the betrothal has not yet been identified.  m ---.  Toljen & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [191][TOLJEN (-1239).  Knez of Hum [1227]-[1237/39], possibly in succession to his [supposed] uncle Petar[192].]

2.         [PETAR (-after 1225).  He may have succeeded his [supposed] father in western Hum and expelled his brother Andrej, but his jurisdiction was confined to the area between the Neretva and Cetina Rivers by Stefan Grand Župan of Serbia [1216].  He acquired his brother's territories around Popovo and coastal Hum in [1218][193].  He is referred to as Knez of Hum 1222-1225, when he was elected Prince of Split[194].] 

3.         ANDREJ ([1180/90]-after [1249], bur [Ston]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He may have succeeded his father in eastern Hum, but was expelled by his [supposed] brother Petar and sought refuge in Serbia.  Stefan Grand Župan of Serbia intervened on his behalf, but he regained control over Popovo and coastal Hum, while Stefan appears to have installed his son Radoslav in other parts of Hum.  His [supposed] brother Petar is found in control of Andrej's territories in [1218][195].  Roman Catholic[196]Veliki-Knez of Hum, possibly in succession to his [supposed] first cousin Toljen, but he was only active in western Hum.  He allied himself with Split and with Ninoslav of Bosnia against the Šubići, who were active in Split and supported by Hungary, and the town of Trogir[197]m ---.  Andrej & his wife had five children: 

a)         BOGDAN (-after 1252).  He succeeded his father in [1249] as Župan of Hum, jointly with his brothers[198]m ---.  The name of Bogdan´s wife is not known.  Bogdan & his wife had one child: 

i)          TOLJEN .  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split names "Tollenum…nepos comiti Petri de Chulmia" when recording that he raided Split, dated to [1235/40] from the context[199]m ---.  The name of Toljen´s wife is not known.  Toljen & his wife had one child: 

(a)       PETAR Toljenović .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He revolted against Bosnian control but was captured and executed. 

b)         DJORDJE .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He succeeded his father [1249] as Župan of Hum, jointly with his brothers[200].  1280.

c)         RADOSLAV (-after 22 May 1254).  He succeeded his father in [1249] as Župan of Hum, jointly with his brothers, though Radoslav received the largest share[201].  “Radoslav, chlmensis županus, filius comitis Andreæ chlmensis” swore peace with Ragusa by charter dated 22 May 1254[202].  He maintained close relations with Dubrovnik and improved relations with Hungary, declaring himself vassal to Béla IV King of Hungary in 1254[203].  Following an earthquake in the Hum capital of Ston, the Orthodox bishop of Hum moved to the church of St Peter and St Paul built on the Lim River near the Serbian border in the 1250s[204].  Lord of Imota/Imoški. 

d)         VUKOSLAVA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m BARBO di Crossio [Krušic/de Cruce] patrician of Dubrovnik.

e)         DRAGOSLAVA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m DRAGO de Mare .  

 

 

1.         NIKOLA .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[205], Nikola was the son of one of the three brothers Bogdan, Djordje or Radoslav.  However, this seems difficult to sustain chronologically, assuming the date of Nikola's marriage is correct.  It looks likely that there is a generation or two missing from the generally accepted genealogy.  According to Fine[206], Toljen and Nikola were sons of Petar, son of Andrej, although this contradicts the statement by the same author elsewhere concerning the succession of the brothers Bogdan, Djordje and Radoslav, sons of Andrej.  Serbian Župan of Zahumlje to [1326].  Stjepan Kotromanić Ban of Bosnia annexed most of Hum in 1326[207].  Nikola was allowed to retain the family holding of Popovo Polje[208]m (before 1338) KATELINA of Bosnia, daughter of STJEPAN Kotromanić Ban of Bosnia & his wife Jelisaveta of Serbia (-before 1355).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Nikola & his wife had two children: 

a)         VLADISLAV Nikolić .  Bosnian Knez in Zahumlje 1347.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Vladislav left descendants but no details are given[209]

b)         BOGIŠA Nikolić .  Bosnian Knez in Zahumlje 1347.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Bogiša left descendants but no details are given[210]

 

 

 

C.      KNEZ of HUM

 

 

1.         VOJIN .  Vojvoda of Gacko, as vassal of Stefan Uroš Dečanski Tsar of Serbia.  He plundered Dubrovnik's territory in Aug 1325, resulting in Venice banning trade with Serbia[211].  He was appointed cæsar by Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia[212]m ---.  The name of Voijin´s wife is not known.  Voijin & his wife had one child: 

a)         VOJISLAV Vojinović (-Sep 1363).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He held lands along Zeta's borders between Drina and the coast, including Užice, Gacko, Popovo, Polje, Konavli and Trebinje[213].  He was installed as Knez of Hum [1358] by Stefan Uroš IV Tsar of Serbia, he demanded that Dubrovnik transfer Ston to him and attacked Dubrovnik in 1359 and 1361[214].  By the time he died, he called himself "Stefan Vojislav Grand Prince of the Serbs, Greeks and the coastal lands"[215]m GOJISLAVA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   She succeeded her husband on his death, but was attacked by his nephew Nikola Altomanović. 

b)         ALTOMAN (-1359 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   His main residence was the mining town of Rudnik.  On his death, most of his lands were inherited by his brother Vojislav[216]m ---.  The name of Altoman´s wife is not known.  Altoman & his wife had one child: 

i)          NIKOLA Altomanović ([1334]-after 1373).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He attacked his uncle's widow after she succeeded to her husband's lands in 1363 and defeated her by 1368[217].  Lazar Hrebljanović seized Rudnik from him after he was defeated at Kosovo in 1369.  In the scramble for Serbian territories which followed the battle of Marica River in 1371, Nikola tried unsuccessfully to wrest Prizren from the control of the Balšići with whom he made peace in 1373[218].  Lazar Hrebljanović and Tvrtko Ban of Bosnia both attacked Nikola in 1373, forcing his surrender from the fortress of Užice, and blinded him after which he entered a monastery[219]

 

 

 

D.      DUKES of SAINT-SAVA (KOSAČA)

 

 

STEFAN Vukčić Kosača, son of VUKA Ranić & his wife --- (-22/23 May 1466).  The Ragusians accepted “Bosnæ vojevodem Sandalj et consanguineous eius, knez Vukac, knez Vuk et Stephanum, filium knez Vukac” among the Ragusian nobles and granted them “domum in urbe” by charter dated 29 Jun 1419[220].  Vojvode of Bosnia.  He succeeded his uncle in his territories along the River Neretva and from Onogošt [Nikšić] to the coast.  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus Vojeveda, filius fratris vojevodæ Sandalj” accepted his part of money deposited by “mango vojevoda Sandalj” by charter dated 18 Sep 1438[221].  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, et filii Vladisav et Vlatko” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated 7 May 1440[222].  He invaded upper Zeta as far as the Morača River in 1441, and Stefan Crnojević was obliged to hand over his son as hostage[223].  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, uxor eius Helena et filius Vladisav” accepted what “Helena uxor vojevodæ Sandalj” left by charter dated 1 Apr 1443[224].  He refused to accept the election of Stjepan Tomaš as King of Bosnia in 1443, triggering civil war which persisted until 1446, when peace was sealed by his daughter's marriage to the Bosnian king[225].  Under pressure from Venice along the coast, and faced with the restoration in 1444 of Djuradj Vuković as Despot of Serbia (including Zeta) and his recognition by Sultan Murad, Stefan Vukčić renounced his ambitions in Zeta, surrendering upper Zeta to Djuradj[226].  He dropped his title "Vojvode of Bosnia" in 1448, assuming the title "Herceg [Duke] of Hum and the Coast", changing it again in 1449 to "Herceg of Saint Sava"[227] in recollection of the Serbian saint, son of Stefan Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia who became a monk adopting the name Sava and was first archbishop of the independent church in Serbia.  According to Fine, it was this title Herceg which gave rise to the country's later name Hercegovina, meaning simply the duke's lands[228].  “Stephanus, herceg S. Sabbæ” acknowledged receipt of “trecentos aureos, fenus sex miliam aureorum” by charter dated 5 Jul 1450[229].  “Ivaniš, chlmensis vojevoda, et cognati” made a treaty with the Ragusans against “herceg Stephanum Vukčić” by charter dated 25 Mar 1452[230].  His son rebelled against him over the affair of the Sienese girl (see below) and conquered western Hum, but made peace in 1453.  “Stephanus herceg S. Sabbæ” pardoned “conjugi Helenæ et filio Vladisavo sociisque eius” by charter dated 19 Jul 1453[231].  After his son's second rebellion in 1462, the Ottomans invaded Hum, temporarily forcing Stefan Vukčić to flee to the coast.  The Ottomans withdrew, and Stefan returned end 1463.  He named his second son Vlatko as his successor, still angered by his son Vladislav. 

m firstly ([Nov/Dec] 1424, repudiated [1451/53], remarried 1453) JELENA Balša, daughter of BALŠA [III] Strasimirović Duke of Zeta & his wife Mara Thopia (-Oct 1453).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, uxor eius Helena et filius Vladisav” accepted what “Helena uxor vojevodæ Sandalj” left by charter dated 1 Apr 1443[232].  “Stephanus herceg S. Sabbæ” pardoned “conjugi Helenæ et filio Vladisavo sociisque eius” by charter dated 19 Jul 1453[233]

Betrothed (1455) to BARBARA von Liechtenstein, daughter of GEORG IV von Liechtenstein-Nikolsburg & his wife Hedwig von Pottendorf (-1463).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.  

m secondly (1455) VARVARA, daughter of DUCIA di Payro [del Balzo][234] & his wife --- (-Jun 1459).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

m thirdly (before 1460) CECILIA, a German from Barlat[235] (-after 1474).  “Caecilia, herceg Stephani vidua” is named in a charter dated 28 May 1467[236]

Stefan & his first wife had three children:

1.         KATARINA (1424-Rome 25 Oct 1478, bur Ara Coeli).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Her marriage was arranged to seal the peace agreed between her father and her future husband[237]m (Apr 1446) as his second wife, STEFAN TOMAŠ King of Bosnia, illegitimate son of STJEPAN OSTOJA King of Bosnia & his mistress --- (-murdered 10 Jul 1461)

2.         VLADISLAV ([1425]-[27 Oct 1487/1 Nov 1489]).  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, et filii Vladisav et Vlatko” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated 7 May 1440[238].  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, uxor eius Helena et filius Vladisav” accepted what “Helena uxor vojevodæ Sandalj” left by charter dated 1 Apr 1443[239].  He and his mother left court because of his father's relationship with a girl from Siena, brought by merchants with the aim of arranging her marriage to Vladislav.  In revenge, Vladislav conquered western Hum but made peace in 1453[240].  “Stephanus herceg S. Sabbæ” pardoned “conjugi Helenæ et filio Vladisavo sociisque eius” by charter dated 19 Jul 1453[241].  He rebelled again in 1462 after his father refused to grant him an appanage, seeking help from the Ottomans who invaded Hum, after which his father was obliged to grant Vladislav an appanage on the Lim River although this was conquered by the Ottomans in 1465.  “Vladisav, dominus regionis chlmensis” requested credit from Ragusa by charter dated 13 Oct 1465[242].  Vladislav left for the coast and soon emigrated to Hungary where King Mátyás granted him lands in Slavonia[243]m (Mar 1455) ANNA [Chierina/Kyra Ana] Kantakuzene, daughter of GEORGIOS Palaiologos Kantakuzenos & his wife --- Palaiologina (-after 1476).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Anna married Vladislav son of Stefan duke of Bosnia[244].  Vladislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         PETAR Balsa (-after 1511).  Herceg of Saint Savam QUIRINA, daughter of FRANCESCO Quirini, Archbishop of Sebenico and Lesina & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript states that the wife of "Balsa", son of Vladislav of Bosnia, was Quirino, a Venetian, and that they had one son and one daughter[245].  Petar & his wife had two children: 

i)          MATIJA Balsa (-[1533).  Herceg of Saint Savam IRINA Jaksić, daughter of ---.  Matija & his wife had two children: 

(a)       MIKLOS Balsa (-after 1556).  Herceg of Saint Savam ---.  The name of Miklos´s wife is not known.  Miklos & his wife had four children: 

(1)       IVAN

(2)       ANDRIJA

(3)       TOMAS

(4)       daughter .

(b)       daughter (-after 1552). 

ii)         VLADISLAV Hercegović (-after 1514).  A monk. 

3.         VLATKO Hercegović ([1426]-Island of Rab before Mar 1489).  “Stephanus, Bosnæ magnus vojevoda, et filii Vladisav et Vlatko” acknowledged receipt of money from the Ragusans by charter dated 7 May 1440[246].  He succeeded his father in 1466 as Herceg of Saint Sava, his older brother being by-passed in the succession.  “Vlatko, dux S. Sabbæ” sent envoys to Ragusa by charter dated Nov 1460[247].  It is not known whether this charter is incorrectly dated or whether it means that Vlatko bore the ducal title during the lifetime of his father.  The Ragusans promised credit to “filiis herceg Stephani, Vlatko et Stephano” by charter dated 13 Sep 1466[248].  Experiencing difficult relations with Hungary, he concluded a treaty with the Ottomans in 1470 and accepted their suzerainty, in return being granted Trebinje and Popovo Polje by Sultan Mohammed II (who took back these territories in 1473)[249].  He attacked the Ottomans in 1476 jointly with his brother-in-law Ivan Crnojević of Zeta, but the two soon quarrelled, after which he made peace with the Ottomans.  However, with the Ottoman capture of Novi [Herceg-Novi] in 1481, Hercegovina disappeared as a state.  Protected for a while by the Ottomans, he fled to the Venetian island of Rab in [1487][250]m firstly (1455 before 22 Mar, repudiated 1463) --- of Celje, illegitimate daughter of FREDERIC [II] Count of Celje [Cilly] & his mistress ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (1474) as her first husband, MARGHERITA di Marzano, daughter of MARIANO di Marzano Principe di Rossano, Duca di Sessa e di Squilacce & his wife Eleonora d'Aragona.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.   She married secondly ([1489/93]) Marco Loredano, Captain of the republic of Venice.  Vlatko & his second wife had two children: 

a)         MARIJA m ANTONIO Pesare

b)         JOVAN [Giovanni] Hercegović (-after 1546).  Herceg of Saint Sava.  Patrician of Venice[251]m [SOFIA Sossia, from Vicenza, or NEOPHYTA, daughter of ---].  Jovan & his wife had five children: 

i)          VIRGINIA (-after 1559)m firstly ---.  m secondly as his second wife, JEAN de Lusignan, illegitimate son of JACQUES II King of Cyprus & his mistress --- de Flètre (-Venice 29 Nov 1552). 

ii)         ISABELLAm (1545) POMPEO Avogadro

iii)        SAVAm (14 Apr 1544) PAOLO Boldú

iv)       VLATKOm TADDEA Belazij, daughter of CHR Belazij & his wife ---.  Vlatko & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GIOVANNI .  Lived in Dubrovnik.  m ISABELLA Zorzi, daughter of PAOLO Zorzi & his wife ---.  Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

(1)       VLATKO (-after 1570).  Lived in Dubrovnik.  m --- Loredano, daughter of PIETRO Loredano & his wife ---.  Vlatko & his wife had one child: 

a.         ELISABETAm (10 Feb 1615) ANGELO Zorzi

v)        FERANTEm (15 Dec 1564) FAUSTINA Erizzo, daughter of SEBASTIANO Erizzo & his wife --- Querini. 

Stefan & his second wife had three children: 

4.         son (1456-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

5.         MARA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (Jul 1469) as his second wife, JOVAN [Ivan] Crnojević, son of STJEPAN Crnojević Djurašević & his wife Mara Castriota (-early Jul 1490). 

6.         STEFAN Hercegović (Jun 1459-21 Jul 1517).  The Ragusans promised credit to “filiis herceg Stephani, Vlatko et Stephano” by charter dated 13 Sep 1466[252].  He went to Constantinople in [1473/74] and converted to Islam as Hersek Ahmed[253].  Grand Vizier of Sultan Selim 1503-1506 and 1510-1514[254]m (1482) FATIMA, daughter of Sultan BAYEZID II.  Stefan & his wife had two children: 

a)         MUSTAFA-Beg Hercekoglu .  He inherited Almosen[255]

b)         ALI-Beg Hercekoglu (-in Egypt).  He was a poet known as "Sicida".  Grand Chamberlain of Sultan Suleiman.  Sandžak-Beg of Rumelia[256]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.  ŽUPANS of DOLNJI KRAJI (LOWER BOSNIA) and DUKES of SPLIT

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following family have not yet been found, unless otherwise indicated below. 

 

 

Knez STEFAN "the Great", Zupan of Banica (or Dolnji Kraji) (-[1301]). 

m ---.  The name of Stefan´s wife is not known. 

Stefan & his wife had [three or more] children: 

1.         HRVATIN (-1305 or after).  Knez of Kljuc, Zupan of Banica[257].  Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] confirmed the possessions in "partes inferiores terræ Bozninensis" [Dolni Kraji (Lower Bosnia)] of "Hrivatino filiis et fratribus eius…consanguinei et cognati…Pauli bani Croatorum nec non Georgii et Mladini fratrum, comitum civitatum Dalmatiæ" by charter dated 14 Jun 1299[258]m ---.  The name of Hrvatin´s wife is not known.  Hrvatin & his wife had three children: 

a)         VUKOSLAV Hrvatinić (-after [1320/22]).  Zupan of Banica and Vrbanja.  m ---.  The name of Vukoslav´s wife is not known.  Vukoslav & his wife had three children: 

i)          VUK (-killed in battle before 1331).  Knez in Dolnji Kraji. 

ii)         VLATKO (-after [1353/63]).  Zupan of Banica.  m ---.  The name of Vlatko´s wife is not known.  Vlatko & his wife had one child: 

(a)       VUKOSLAV .  In Slavonia 1357[259]

iii)        PAVLE .  Zupan of Banica 1331/1367. 

b)         VUKAN (-1359 or after).  Knez of Dolnji Kraji 1323/1357.  Veliki-Vojvoda of Bosnia 1357/1359.  "Banus Tvrtko" granted "castrum Sokol in Pleva" to "Vukac Hrvatinić" for his service in the war again Lajos King of Hungary by charter dated 11 Aug 1366[260]m ---.  The name of Vukan´s wife is not known.  Vukan & his wife had six children: 

i)          HRVOJE Vukčić (-[21 Mar/26 Apr] 1416).  Lord of Donji Kraji.  He acquired control of Bosnia's Dalmatian holdings after the death of King Tvrtko in 1391, acting as the deputy for Ladislas King of Sicily (claimant to the Hungarian throne).  His main residence was at Jajce[261].  Appointed King Ladislas's deputy in Croatia, he led an uprising in favour of Ladislas in [1396/98][262].  He appears to have engineered the deposition of Ostoja King of Bosnia in favour of Tvrtko II in 1404[263].  He eventually submitted to King Zsigmond after King Ladislas sold Dalmatia to Venice in Jul 1409, on condition that he retained his position there but subject to Zsigmond's overlordship.  He became an honoured nobleman at the Hungarian court and was made a member of the newly established Dragon Order[264].  Lord of the island of Almissa[265]m as her first husband, JELENA Nelipić, sister of IVANIŠ Ban of Croatia, daughter of ---.  She married secondly (before Oct 1416) Stefan Ostoja King of Bosnia (-Sep 1418).  Hrvoje & his wife had one child: 

(a)       BALŠA Hercogović .  He succeeded his father briefly.  1416.  m ---.  The name of Balša´s wife is not known.  Balša & his wife had one child: 

(1)       KATARINAm Knez TRVTKO Borovinić1433/1436. 

(2)       DOROTEJA .  Heiress of Verbaz and Kozar in Bosnia.  1423/1448.  m firstly IVANIŠ Count de Blagay (-1442).  m secondly ([1446/48]) as his third wife, MARTON Frangepán Count of Veglia [Krk], Modruš and Zengg, son of MIKLÓS Frangepán Count of Veglia [Krk] and Modruš & his wife Dorottya Garay (-4 Oct 1479, bur Teracz Franciscan Monastery)

ii)         VUK Vukčić (-1401).  Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia 1391/1394.  Patrician of Zara 1392.  Citizen of Venice 1393[266]m ANKA, daughter of ---.  Vuk & his wife had one child: 

(a)       KATARINA .  According to Fine, her name was Jelena and she was married in 1396, indicating confusion with Sandalj's second wife[267].  Minor until 1405.  Betrothed (1401, contract broken 1405) to PAUL Knez of Corbavia.  This betrothal was broken due to third degree consanguinity[268]m (1405) as his third wife, SANDALJ Branić Kosače Grand Voivode of Bosnia and Zahumlje, son of HRANJA Vojvoda of Bosnia & his wife Anka --- (-Mar 1435)

iii)        DRAGISA Vukcić .  Knez of Zrida 1391/1401.  m ---.  The name of Dragisa´s wife is not known.  Dragisa & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IVANIŠ Dragisić (-after 22 Aug 1446).  Voivode in Dolnji Kraji.  m ---.  The name of Ivaniš´s wife is not known.  Ivaniš & his wife had one child: 

(1)       PAVLE .  Knez of Kjluc 1446

(2)       MARKO .  Voivode at Zemunik 1434.  Knez of Kjluč 1446. 

(3)       DJURADJ .  Knez of Kljuc.  1446. 

iv)       VOJSLAV Vukcić .  1388/1401.  m ---.  The name of Vojslav´s wife is not known.  Vojslav & his wife had one child: 

(a)       DJURADJ .  Voivode of Dolnji Kraji.  1399/1434.  He succeeded his cousin, acquiring a dominant role in Donji Kraji but had much less influence over affairs in Bosnia than his uncle[269]m ---.  The name of Djuradj´s wife is not known.  Djuradj & his wife had two children: 

(1)       PETAR .  Voivode in Dolnji Kraji.  1434/1452.  m ---.  The name of Petar´s wife is not known.  Petar & his wife had one child: 

a.         MATIJA .  Knez.  1476. 

(2)       DJURADJ .  Knez 1434. 

v)        daughter .  1404/1415.  m firstly VUKMIR Vukašinm secondly VUKMIR Zlatonosović

vi)       RESA Vukčić .  1393.  m BATALO Santić Gospodar of Toričan, Lašve and Sana.  1392/1400. 

c)         PAVLE .  Zupan of Zemunik [Zemaljnik].  1323/1345.  Descendants, the NELEPEC de DOBRA-KUČA, in Hungary[270]

2.         sons (-after 14 Jun 1299).  Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] confirmed the possessions in "partes inferiors terræ Bozninensis" [Dolni Kraji (Lower Bosnia)] of "Hrivatino filiis et fratribus eius…consanguinei et cognati…Pauli bani Croatorum nec non Georgii et Maldini fratrum, comitum civitatum Dalmatiæ" by charter dated 14 Jun 1299[271]

 

 



[1] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 17. 

[2] ES II 158. 

[3] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), 33, pp. 161-2. 

[4] Fine (1994), p. 578.  . 

[5] Miklosich, Fr. (ed.) (1858) Monumenta Serbica spectantia Historiam Serbiæ Bosnæ Ragusii (Vienna). 

[6] Academia scientiarum et artum Slavorum meridionalium (1892) Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb), Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, X and XII, pp. 2-3. 

[7] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, XIII, p. 3. 

[8] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, XXXIII, p. 6. 

[9] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, XVIII, p. 3. 

[10] Fine (1994), p. 18. 

[11] Monumenta Serbica, IV, p. 1. 

[12] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, XXVII, p. 5. 

[13] Fine (1994), pp. 45 and 47. 

[14] Fine (1994), p. 143. 

[15] Fine (1994), p. 45. 

[16] ES II 158. 

[17] ES II 158.   

[18] ES II 158.   

[19] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, XLI, p. 8. 

[20] Fine (1994), pp. 144-5. 

[21] Monumenta Serbica, XXX, p. 24. 

[22] Monumenta Serbica, XXXV, p. 28. 

[23] Monumenta Serbica, XXXIX, p. 32. 

[24] Fine (1994), p. 146. 

[25] Fine (1994), pp. 149 and 275. 

[26] ES II 158.   

[27] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, XL, p. 8. 

[28] Fine (1994), pp. 148 and 275. 

[29] ES II 158. 

[30] Fine (1994), pp. 275-6. 

[31] ES II 158. 

[32] According to a source dated 1601, whose reliability is unknown, cited in Fine (1994), p. 276. 

[33] According to a source dated 1601, whose reliability is unknown, cited in Fine (1994), p. 276. 

[34] Fine (1994), p. 276. 

[35] Fine (1994), p. 277. 

[36] Fine (1994), p. 266. 

[37] Fine (1994), p. 280. 

[38] Monumenta Serbica, LXXXV, p. 100. 

[39] Fine (1994), pp. 280-1. 

[40] Fine (1994), p. 281. 

[41] Fine (1994), pp. 322-3. 

[42] Fine (1994), p. 283. 

[43] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CXIV, p. 20. 

[44] Fine (1994), p. 323. 

[45] Fine (1994), p. 397, and Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', pp. 229-31. 

[46] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXIV, p. 31. 

[47] Although related to Tvrtko, the precise relationship is not known, see Fine (1994), p. 453. 

[48] ES I 158. 

[49] Fine (1994), pp. 453 and 455. 

[50] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCLXXIII, p. 51. 

[51] Fine (1994), p. 458. 

[52] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCLXXIII, p. 51. 

[53] Monumenta Serbica, CCXX, p. 229. 

[54] Monumenta Serbica, CCX, p. 224. 

[55] Fine (1994), p. 284. 

[56] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXVI, p. 32. 

[57] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXXVII, p. 33. 

[58] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCXVII, p. 40. 

[59] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCXXVIII, p. 43. 

[60] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXVI, p. 32. 

[61] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXVI, p. 32. 

[62] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXXVII, p. 33. 

[63] Fine (1994), p.  369-70. 

[64] ES II 158. 

[65] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CXCIX, p. 37. 

[66] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCXVII, p. 40. 

[67] ES II 158. 

[68] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXVI, p. 32. 

[69] Fine (1994), pp. 368-70. 

[70] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXXVII, p. 33. 

[71] Monumenta Serbica, CLIX, p. 176 and Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CLXXXVII, p. 33. 

[72] Fine (1994), p. 385. 

[73] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCXVII, p. 40. 

[74] Fine (1994), p. 386. 

[75] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCXXVIII, p. 43. 

[76] Fine (1994), p. 393. 

[77] Monumenta Serbica, CXCVII, p. 209. 

[78] Fine (1994), pp. 397-8. 

[79] Fine (1994), p. 398. 

[80] ES I 158. 

[81] Fine (1994), p. 367. 

[82] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCXXVIII, p. 43. 

[83] ES II 158. 

[84] Fine (1994), pp. 463-4. 

[85] Monumenta Serbica, CCXLV, p. 260. 

[86] Fine (1994), p. 465. 

[87] Fine (1994), pp. 468-9. 

[88] Fine (1994), p. 471. 

[89] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXXXIII, p. 304. 

[90] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXXX, p. 316. 

[91] Fine (1994), p. 472. 

[92] Fine (1994), pp. 475-6. 

[93] Fine (1994), p. 477. 

[94] Fine (1994), p. 473. 

[95] ES II 157.   

[96] Fine (1994), p. 459. 

[97] ES II 157.   

[98] Fine (1994), p. 459. 

[99] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXIV, p. 231. 

[100] Fine (1994), p. 459. 

[101] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCCXIV, p. 60. 

[102] Fine (1994), pp. 461-3. 

[103] Monumenta Serbica, CCLVI, p. 275. 

[104] Fine (1994), pp. 468-9. 

[105] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CCCXIV, p. 60. 

[106] Monumenta Serbica, CCLVI, p. 275. 

[107] Fine (1994), p. 471. 

[108] ES II 158. 

[109] Fine (1994), p. 474. 

[110] Fine (1994), p. 476. 

[111] ES II 158. 

[112] ES II 158. 

[113] Fine (1994), p. 577. 

[114] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLIII, p. 438. 

[115] Fine (1994), p. 581. 

[116] ES II 158. 

[117] Monumenta Serbica, CDXLIII, p. 519. 

[118] Fine (1994), p. 575. 

[119] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXCI, p. 485. 

[120] Fine (1994), pp. 583-4. 

[121] ES II 158. 

[122] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[123] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), p. 159. 

[124] Fine (1994), p. 584. 

[125] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), p. 182. 

[126] Fine (1994), p. 590. 

[127] ES II 158, which gives no details. 

[128] ES II 158. 

[129] ES III 178. 

[130] Monumenta Serbica, CCLV, p. 274. 

[131] Monumenta Serbica, CCXLIV, p. 257. 

[132] Fine (1994), p. 471. 

[133] ES III 178. 

[134] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVIII, p. 288. 

[135] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVII, p. 284. 

[136] Monumenta Serbica, CCXL, p. 251. 

[137] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXXXII, p. 321. 

[138] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLI, p. 415. 

[139] Monumenta Serbica, CCXLIV, p. 257. 

[140] ES III 178. 

[141] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVIII, p. 288. 

[142] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVII, p. 284. 

[143] ES III 178. 

[144] ES III 178. 

[145] Monumenta Serbica, CCXLIV, p. 257. 

[146] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVIII, p. 288. 

[147] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVII, p. 284. 

[148] ES III 178. 

[149] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVII, p. 284. 

[150] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXII, p. 396. 

[151] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXVI, p. 403. 

[152] Fine (1994), p. 532. 

[153] Fine (1994), p. 577. 

[154] Fine (1994), p. 534. 

[155] Fine (1994), p. 578. 

[156] Fine (1994), p. 471. 

[157] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXIV, p. 398. 

[158] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXXIV, p. 306. 

[159] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXXV, p. 308. 

[160] Monumenta Serbica, CCXCVI, p. 336. 

[161] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXIII, p. 397. 

[162] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXIV, p. 398. 

[163] Fine (1994), p. 471. 

[164] Monumenta Serbica, CCXCVI, p. 336. 

[165] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLIII, p. 420. 

[166] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXV, p. 451. 

[167] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXXXIII, p. 480. 

[168] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLIII, p. 420. 

[169] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXXII, p. 469. 

[170] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLIII, p. 420. 

[171] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXXII, p. 469. 

[172] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 33, pp. 161-2. 

[173] ES II 159 B. 

[174] Fine (1991), p. 206. 

[175] Sisic, F. (ed.), Stephenson, P. (trans. 1998) Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, Johannes Lucius (1666) De Regno Dalmatiæ et Croatiæ (Amsterdam) ("Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja"), XXXVIII. 

[176] ES II 159 B. 

[177] ES II 159 B. 

[178] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, IX, p. 2. 

[179] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, X and XII, pp. 2-3. 

[180] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[181] Fine (1994), p. 4. 

[182] Fine (1991), p. 244, and Fine (1994), p. 5. 

[183] Fine (1994), p. 20. 

[184] Fine (1994), p. 8. 

[185] Monumenta Serbica, III, p. 1. 

[186] Monumenta Serbica, V, p. 2. 

[187] Fine (1994), p. 52. 

[188] Fine (1994), p. 45. 

[189] ES II 160. 

[190] Fine (1994), p. 24. 

[191] ES II 160. 

[192] Fine (1994), p. 143. 

[193] Fine (1994), p. 54. 

[194] Fine (1994), p. 142. 

[195] Fine (1994), pp. 52-5. 

[196] ES II 160. 

[197] Fine (1994), p. 143. 

[198] Fine (1994), p. 143. 

[199] Karbić, D., Matijević Sokol, M. and Sweeney, J. R. (eds. trans.) (2006) Thomæ archidiaconi Spalatensis, Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (CEP) ("Thomas Archdeacon of Split") 32, p. 215. 

[200] Fine (1994), p. 143. 

[201] Radoslav was the eldest son according to Fine (1994), p. 143. 

[202] Monumenta Serbica, XLV, p. 44. 

[203] Fine (1994), p. 200. 

[204] Fine (1994), p. 201. 

[205] ES II 160. 

[206] Fine (1994), pp. 279 and 143 respectively. 

[207] Fine (1994), pp. 202 and 266. 

[208] Fine (1994), p. 279. 

[209] ES II 160, which gives no details. 

[210] ES II 160, which gives no details. 

[211] Fine (1994), p. 264. 

[212] Fine (1994), p. 310. 

[213] Fine (1994), p. 358. 

[214] Fine (1994), p. 360. 

[215] Fine (1994), p. 361. 

[216] Fine (1994), p. 373. 

[217] Fine (1994), p. 362. 

[218] Fine (1994), pp. 383-3. 

[219] Fine (1994), p. 385. 

[220] Monumenta Serbica, CCLXVII, p. 284. 

[221] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXII, p. 396. 

[222] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXVI, p. 403. 

[223] Fine (1994), p. 532. 

[224] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLIV, p. 423. 

[225] Fine (1994), p. 577. 

[226] Fine (1994), p. 534. 

[227] Fine (1994), p. 578. 

[228] Fine (1994), p. 578.  . 

[229] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLV, p. 441. 

[230] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXV, p. 451. 

[231] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXVIII, p. 457. 

[232] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLIV, p. 423. 

[233] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXVIII, p. 457. 

[234] ES III 178. 

[235] ES III 178. 

[236] Monumenta Serbica, CDIX, p. 501. 

[237] Fine (1994), p. 578. 

[238] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXVI, p. 403. 

[239] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXLIV, p. 423. 

[240] Fine (1994), p. 580. 

[241] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXVIII, p. 457. 

[242] Monumenta Serbica, CD-CDII, p. 495. 

[243] Fine (1994), pp. 585-7. 

[244] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[245] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[246] Monumenta Serbica, CCCXXXVI, p. 403. 

[247] Monumenta Serbica, CCCLXXXVIII, p. 483. 

[248] Monumenta Serbica, CDVII, p. 499. 

[249] Fine (1994), pp. 587-9. 

[250] Fine (1994), pp. 599-601. 

[251] ES III 178. 

[252] Monumenta Serbica, CDVII, p. 499. 

[253] ES III 178. 

[254] Fine (1994), p. 589. 

[255] ES III 178. 

[256] ES III 178. 

[257] ES III 177. 

[258] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, C, p. 18. 

[259] ES III 177. 

[260] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, CXC, p. 34 (text in Slavic script, not consulted). 

[261] Fine (1994), p. 455. 

[262] Fine (1994), p. 458. 

[263] Fine (1994), pp. 463-4. 

[264] Fine (1994), p. 465. 

[265] ES III 177. 

[266] ES III 177. 

[267] Fine (1994), p. 456. 

[268] ES III 177. 

[269] Fine (1994), p. 470. 

[270] ES III 177. 

[271] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actæ Bosnæ, C, p. 18.