BURGUNDY KINGDOM, kings

  v2.1 Updated 12 December 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                KINGS of BURGUNDY 411-534. 4

GUNDAHAR, GUNDIOC -473, GODEGISEL 473-500, CHILPERICH 473-486, GONDEMAR 473-486. 5

GUNDOBAD 473-516, SIGISMOND 516-523, GONDEMAR II 524-534. 9

Chapter 2.                KINGS of UPPER BURGUNDY 888-1032 (WELF) 14

RUDOLF I 888-912. 15

RUDOLF II 912-937. 19

CONRAD I 937-993, RUDOLF III 993-1032. 21

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Burgundians, by legend, originated in Scandinavia.  Groups of Burgundians settled east of the river Rhine where their homeland was destroyed by the Huns in [435].  They migrated south and the Romans granted them "Sapaudia", north of Lake Geneva, in the 440s[1].  The Burgundian kingdom which they established extended its rule to the area south of Lake Geneva, including over the territory which later became Provence.  Gingins-la-Sarra observes that the kingdom corresponded approximately to the six Roman provinces of Grande Séquanaise (main town, Besançon), Alpes Graïes et Pennines (Moutier), Lyonnaise I (Lyon), Viennoise (Vienne), and Alpes Maritimes (Embrun), except for the coastal parts of the last two which were already occupied by the Visigoths.  Vienne was its capital city[2]

 

According to Gregory of Tours, Gundioc King of the Burgunds was "of the family of King Athanaric [of the Goths]"[3].  A descent in the male line seems unlikely considering the probable migration pattern of the Goths from south-eastern Europe into south-western France via Italy, compared with that of the Burgunds from northern Europe.  As pointed out below, it is possible that one of the early Burgundian kings married a Gothic princess after establishing their final settlement around Lake Geneva.  The Burgundian kings were converted to Christianity before the Merovingian Frankish kings, the conversion of the latter being started by Clotilde of Burgundy who married King Clovis I.  Following short-lived alliances between the Franks and the Burgundians against the Visigoths[4], King Chlodomir started the Frankish conquest of Burgundy in 523.  It was completed by his brother King Childebert I in 534[5]

 

Although the Burgundian land was incorporated into the realm of the Merovingian Frankish kings, it retained its identity as a separate kingdom and was initially allocated to King Gontran as the major part of his territories.  Between 603 and 627, maiores domus of the palace of the kingdom of Burgundy are recorded, indicating a degree of separate administration.  The Merovingian kings of Burgundy are shown in the document MEROVINGIAN KINGS and the Burgundian maiores domus in MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY.  Fredegar records that, after the death in 627 of maior domus Warnachar, King Clotaire II assumed direct control over Burgundy[6], although Burgundy is mentioned separately as part of the kingdom to which King Theoderic III succeeded in 673.  Pepin "le Gros", maior domus of Austrasia and Neustria, appointed his son Drogo as dux of the Burgunds after 697.  Under the Merovingians, Burgundy was divided into the three patriciats of Cisjurania, Transjurania and Viennoise, each ruled by a patrice.  Pepin King of the Franks replaced the patrice by missi dominici, who each administered several local pagi, and whose appointments were revocable at will by the sovereign[7]

 

After the Carolingian succession, evidence from the Royal Frankish Annals suggests that Burgundy was a compliant part of the Frankish kingdom: troops from Burgundy are recorded as taking part in the conquest of northern Spain in 778 and quelling the Bohemian rebellion in 806[8], although the fact that the Burgunds are given a separate mention in the text indicates that they must have retained a degree of local national identity.  The Annals record "nobles from Burgundy" as taking part in the assembly held in Frankfurt by Emperor Louis I in 823 but give no further details[9]

 

The first sign of a split between northern and southern Burgundy, which became firmly established in subsequent Burgundian history, occurred when Emperor Charlemagne allocated territories between his sons Charles and Louis in 806.  Under this arrangement, the former received northern Burgundy as part of his allocation while the latter was given southern Burgundy and Provence, together with other lands[10]

 

The whole of the ancient kingdom of Burgundy was included in the newly created kingdom of Lotharingia, allocated to and named after Emperor Lothaire, under the Treaty of Verdun which was agreed with his brothers in 843.  Under the division of territories after Emperor Lothaire's death in 855, Transjuranian or northern Burgundy, Provence and Lyon were allocated to his son Charles.  On the latter's death in 863, those parts which consisted of the ecclesiastical provinces of Aix, Arles, Belley, Embrun and Tarentaise fell to his older brother King Lothaire II[11].  During the rule of King Charles and King Lothaire II, Transjuranian Burgundy was administered by Hucbert, of the Bosonid family (see the document PROVENCE), and after his death by Konrad, from the Swabian Welf family to whom King Louis II had granted Geneva, Lausanne and Sion (see SWABIAN NOBILITY). 

 

Taking advantage of the weakness of central Carolingian rule after Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/the Fat" was deposed in 887, the nobility of Transjurania proclaimed Rudolf, son of the Swabian Konrad, as king of "Upper Burgundy" in 888.  His territory consisted of Savoy to the south of Lake Geneva, Franche-Comté to the north and west, and Valais and Jura in present-day Switzerland.  King Rudolf was unable to revive the previous kingdom of Lotharingia as he could not gain control of Lorraine and Alsace.  Meanwhile, the kingdom of "Lower Burgundy", including Provence and the areas to the north as far as Upper Burgundy, had been formed by the successors of Hucbert.  The two kingdoms were combined in 930 when Ugo King of Italy ceded Lower Burgundy to Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy, who established Arles as the capital of the united kingdom, which was thereafter sometimes referred to in primary sources as the "kingdom of Arles".  King Rudolf III, in an attempt to curb the power of the local nobility, increased the temporal power of the church in his kingdom by granting the counties of Tarentasia, Vaud, Valais and Vienne to their local bishops. 

 

On his death without children in 1032, King Rudolf III bequeathed the kingdom of Burgundy to Emperor Konrad II, who had married one of his nieces.  Konrad was crowned king of Burgundy at Payerne, near Lake Neuchâtel in present-day Switzerland, in 1033[12].  The Burgundian nobility thereby passed under the suzerainty of the kings of Germany, although the kingdom of Burgundy remained outside the territory of the Holy Roman Empire.  This transfer of suzerainty to Germany, whose kings had always experienced difficulties in imposing centralised administration over their already extensive and diverse territories, presented the local Burgundian nobility with an opportunity to consolidate its power.  The Counts Palatine of Burgundy became particularly influential, as demonstrated by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" who considered local Burgundian affairs sufficiently important to marry their heiress in 1156.  In addition, the financial position of the Counts Palatine was secured by their acquisition of the rich salt mines in the area of Salins in the Franche-Comté.  Other local nobility which prospered were the Counts of Maurienne, who eventually became counts and later dukes of Savoy (see the document SAVOY) and the Dauphins de Viennois (see BURGUNDY KINGDOM NOBILITY).  Emperor Friedrich was crowned king of Burgundy at Arles in 1178 in a symbolic attempt to lay claim to the territory of the whole of the ancient kingdom.  The king/emperor ruled in Burgundy through his Rektor, a position which became hereditary in the family of the Dukes of Zähringen (see SWABIAN NOBILITY) from 1138 to 1218. 

 

The county of Burgundy passed into the sphere of influence of the Capetian kingdom of France after the marriage in 1307 of its heiress to the future Philippe V King of France, although it retained its separate administrative existence until 1383 when it was consolidated into the extensive territories of Philippe II "le Hardi" Duke of Burgundy [Valois].  The county of Burgundy was among the territories which passed to the Habsburg family as a result of the marriage in 1477 of Marie, daughter and heiress of Charles Duke of Burgundy, to the future Emperor Maximilian I. 

 

The history of Burgundy is further complicated by the existence of the geographically and politically separate duchy of Burgundy, located to the west of the county of Burgundy (now Franche-Comté), whose course of development was entirely separate from the Burgundian kingdom (see the two documents BURGUNDY DUCHY, Dukes and Nobility). 

 

This document sets out the kings of the first kingdom of B urgundy in Chapter 1, and the kings of the Welf kingdom in Chapter 2. 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of BURGUNDY 411-534

 

 

 

GUNDAHAR, GUNDIOC -473, GODEGISEL 473-500, CHILPERICH 473-486, GONDEMAR 473-486

 

[GUNDAHAR, son of --- (-after [436]).  Gundobad King of Burgundy, in the Lex Gundobada, names as his predecessors "Gebicam, Godomarem, Gislaharium, Gundaharium, patrem quoque nostrum et patruum"[13].  It is assumed that this passage should be interpreted as referring to four named individuals and the king´s unnamed father and paternal uncle.  The precise relationship with the four named individuals is unknown.  It is even possible that there was no family relationship at all.  Assuming for the moment that they were related, it is probable that the four are named in chronological order, starting from Gebica as the earliest predecessor.  If this hypothesis is correct, Gundahar could have been King Gundobad´s grandfather.  However, it is also possible that the four named individuals were contemporaries and not successors, maybe leaders of different Burgundian sub-groups which were later united under the common leadership of King Gundobad´s father after the Burgundians were settled by the Romans near Lake Geneva.  Such a situation would recall the likely reality of Frankish leadership at the time the Franks first moved into Gaul (further discussed in the document MEROVINGIAN KINGS), and there appears no reason to suppose that the Burgundian model would in that respect have been any different.  If that is correct, the regal title accorded in modern secondary sources to early Burgundian leaders would in practice have reflected few of the attributes which were subsequently linked to kingship.  As can be seen there are many uncertainties relating to Gundahar, although he is known to history as GUNDAHAR [King] of the Burgundians.  From a chronological point of view, it is probable that the rule of Gundahar was contemporary with the Burgundians´ first crossing into territory west of the River Rhine.  Sécretan suggests that the Burgundian settlements at that time extended from Mainz to Strasbourg, with their capital at Worms[14].  However, it is unlikely that the Burgundians imposed any form of centralised administration on this territory.  There is little evidence to suggest that any of the so-called barbarian peoples organised themselves into states, and imposed their authority on the indigenous populations, when they first migrated into western Europe.  In this respect, Jordanes´s History of the Goths makes an interesting comment when naming “...Burgundiones...” among those who provided soldiers to the Roman army (“Franci, Sarmatæ, Armoriciani, Liticiani, Burgundiones, Saxones, Ripari, Olibriones, quondam milites Romani”)[15].  This passage suggests that the case of the Burgundians was similar to that of the other peoples who lived on the periphery of Roman jurisdiction and who provided many of the military volunteers who served in the Roman army with the later prospect of acquiring Roman citizenship.  Idatius records that the rebellion of “Burgundiones” was suppressed by “Romanis duce Aetio”, dated to 436 from the context[16].  The Burgundians were defeated and dispersed by the Huns.  The dating of events involving the early Burgundians presents extreme difficulties, the near contemporary primary sources rarely specifying dates.  Sécretan discusses the different theories which place the Burgundian defeat by the Huns, and their dispersal into Gaul, anywhere between 436 and the mid-450s[17]

m ---.  The name of King Gundahar´s wife is not known. 

[King Gundahar & his wife] had [two or more] children: 

1.         [GUNDIOC [Gondion] (-473).  According to Gregory of Tours, Gundioc King of the Burgunds (whom he names as the father of the four sons who are named below) was "of the family of King Athanaric [of the Goths]"[18].  On the other hand, Gundobad King of Burgundy, in the Lex Gundobada, names "Gebicam, Godomarem, Gislaharium, Gundaharium, patrem quoque nostrum et patruum"[19], suggesting a direct line of Burgundian ancestors.  Sécretan suggests that the two reports can be reconciled if Gundioc married the sister of Ricimer[20].  He succeeded as GUNDIOC King of the Burgundians.  The Romans installed the Burgundians in Sapaudia, north of Lake Geneva, dated to 443 or 447[21].  The dating difference suggests that the migration into the area may have been a gradual process.  The Burgundians were expelled from land around Lyon in 458 by Emperor Majorian, but Gundioc became magister militum in Gaul during the reign of Emperor Severus 461-465[22].  Burgundian troops helped the Romans to defend Clermont against the Visigoths in 471 and 472[23].  King Gundioc divided his territories between his four sons.  m ---.  The name of King Gundioc´s wife is not known.  As noted above, Sécretan suggests that she may have been the sister of Ricimer[24].  The name of King Gundioc´s third son Chilperich suggests that his mother may have been related to the Merovingian Franks.  King Gundioc had four children: 

a)         GUNDOBAD [Gondebaud] (-516).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds[25].  He succeeded his father in 473 as GUNDOBAD King of Burgundy, with his capital at Geneva. 

-        see below

b)         GODEGISEL (-500).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds, recording that Gundobad murdered his brother Godogisel[26].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus"[27].  He succeeded his father in 473 as GODEGISEL King of Burgundy, based at Besançon.  Gregory of Tours records that Godegisel ruled jointly with his brother Gundobad "over the territory round the Rhône and the Saône and the province of Marseille", but defected to support Clovis King of the Franks when the latter attacked Burgundy, and afterwards established himself as ruler at Vienne[28].  The same source records that King Godegisel was killed when his brother attacked Vienne[29].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Godegaselo" conspired against "fratrem suum Gundobagaudum" in 500[30]

c)         CHILPERICH (-murdered 486).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds[31].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus", recording that Gundobad killed his brother Chilperich[32].  He succeeded his father in 473 as CHILPERICH King of Burgundy, at Lyon.  He became magister militum in Gaul during the reign of Emperor Glycinius, exercising authority between Lyon and Geneva[33]m ---.  The name of Chilperich´s wife is not known.  Gregory of Tours records that Chilperich's wife was drowned by her brother-in-law King Gundobad, after he tied a stone around her neck[34].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the same event[35].  King Chilperich had four children:

i)          son (-murdered 486).  Gregory of Tours records that the two sons of Chilperich died at the same time as their father[36]

ii)         son (-murdered 486).  Gregory of Tours records that the two sons of Chilperich died at the same time as their father[37]

iii)        SEDELEUBE [Chroma] ([481]-).  Gregory of Tours names "Chroma" as the elder daughter of Chilperich, records that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, and that Chroma became a nun[38].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum also records that "filia…senior…Chrona" was sent into exile after her parents were murdered[39].  Fredegar names "Sædeleuba" as the older daughter of Chilperich[40].  Fredegar records that "Sideleuba regina" had founded the church at Geneva to which the body of St Victor was taken[41].  Presumably this refers to the daughter of Chilperich King of Burgundy as no other reference to this name has been found.  However, the text implies that Sedeleube was married to, or was the widow of, a king at the time, no other reference having been identified in Fredegar to an unmarried daughter of a monarch being referred to as "regina".  If this is correct, the identity of her husband is not known.  It is not known which of her names was her baptismal and which her ecclesiastical name.  [m --- King of ---.] 

iv)       CHROTECHILDIS [Clotilde/Rotilde[42]] ([480]-Tours, monastery of Saint-Martin 544 or 548, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours names "Clotilde" as the younger daughter of Chilperich, recording that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, but that the latter accepted a request for her hand in marriage from Clovis King of the Franks[43].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that, after the murder of her parents, "filia…iunior…Chrotchilde" was kept in Burgundy where she attracted the attention of Chlodoveo King of the Franks[44].  Fredegar states that Clotilde was driven into exile to Geneva by her uncle, after he allegedly murdered her father, and that King Clovis requested her hand in marriage as a means of controlling Gundobad's power[45].  Gregory of Tours records Clotilde's lack of success in converting her husband to Christianity until the fifteenth year of his reign, when he and his people were baptised by St Rémy Bishop of Reims[46].  Gregory of Tours records that Queen Clotilde became a nun at the church of St Martin at Tours after her husband died[47].  Clotilde was canonised by the Catholic church, her feast day is 3 Jun[48]m (492) as his second wife, CLOVIS I [Chlodovech] King of the Franks, son of CHILDERICH I King of the Franks & his wife Basina ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]). 

d)         GONDEMAR (-murdered 486).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds[49].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus"[50].  He succeeded his father in 473 as GONDEMAR I King of Burgundy, based at Vienne.  He was murdered by his brother Gundobad. 

2.         [son(s) .  The existence of a paternal uncle or uncles of Gundobad King of Burgundy is confirmed in his Lex Gundobada, which refers to predecessors "...patrem quoque nostrum et patruum"[51].] 

 

 

GUNDOBAD 473-516, SIGISMOND 516-523, GONDEMAR II 524-534

 

GUNDOBAD [Gondebaud], son of GUNDIOC King of the Burgundians & his wife --- (-516).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) "Gundobad, Godegisel, Chilperic and Gundomar" as the four sons of Gundioc King of the Burgunds[52].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundeveus rex Burgundionum…ex genere Athanaric regis" and his four sons "Gundobadus, Godeghiselus, Chilpricus et Godmarus"[53].  He succeeded his father in 473 as GUNDOBAD King of Burgundy, with his capital at Geneva.  He put to death his three brothers and conquered their lands.  Clovis King of the Franks, allied with Godegisel, attacked Gundobad in [500][54].  Gregory of Tours records that Gundobad ruled jointly with his brother Godegisel "over the territory round the Rhône and the Saône and the province of Marseille", but was put to flight by Clovis King of the Franks after his brother defected, and took refuge in Avignon[55].  After making an initial payment of tribute to the Franks, he rebelled, stormed Vienne where his brother Godegisel was killed, and reasserted his independence[56].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 516 of "rex Gundobagaudus"[57]

m CARATENA, daughter of --- (-[506], bur Lyon St Michel).  An epitaph to "Caretenes religiosiæ reginæ", referring to her burial "Lugduni in basilica sancti Michahelis", is included in the compilation of the works of Avitus Bishop of Vienne[58].  It is not clear from the edition consulted whether this epitaph was the bishop's own composition: clearly not all the epitaphs included could have been written by him as some relate to individuals whose deaths are recorded elsewhere in the second half of the 6th century.  If the epitaph is contemporary with Bishop Avitus, then it presumably refers to the wife of King Gundobad, to whom Avitus wrote many times, although this is not specified in the text.  It can safely be assumed that she was Catholic.  The text does not reveal any indication of the date of her death, although "506" is added in the margin of the edition without any indication of the basis. 

King Gundobad & his wife had three children:

1.         SIGISMOND (-murdered 523, bur Agaune).  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica names "filius eius Sigismundus rex" when recording that he succeeded after the death of his father[59].  Gregory of Tours names Sigismond as son of Gundobad, when recording his succession to his father, specifying that he founded the monastery of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune[60], dated to 515[61].  He was co-regent in Burgundy from [501].  He supported the Byzantine emperor and was awarded the title patricius[62].  He converted to Catholicism and visited Pope Symachus in Rome[63].  He succeeded his father in 516 as SIGISMOND King of Burgundy.  He issued his law-book, Liber Constitutionem, at Easter 517[64].  Gregory of Tours records that Chlodomer King of the Franks invaded Burgundy and captured King Sigismond, who was held prisoner near Orléans but murdered with his wife and children after his brother Gondemar defeated the Franks, their bodies being thrown down a well at Saint-Péravy-la-Colombe in the Orléannais[65].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Sigimundus rex Burgundionum" was betrayed to the Franks by the Burgundians in 523 and became a monk in France, before being thrown into a well with his wife and children[66]m firstly ([494/96]) OSTROGOTHO of the Ostrogoths, illegitimate daughter of THEODERIC "the Great" King of the Goths in Italy & his concubine --- ([475/80]-before [520]).  Gregory of Tours refers to the first wife of Sigismond as the daughter of Theodoric King of Italy, but does not name her[67].  Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[68].  Her father arranged her marriage as part of his negotiations for an alliance with the Burgundians.  According to Settipani[69], this marriage took place soon after Theoderic arrived in Italy.  Wolfram suggests[70] that Theodoric's alliance with the Burgundians was settled in 496.  m secondly --- (-murdered 523).  Gregory of Tours records that Sigismond's second wife incited her husband to kill her stepson but does not name her[71].  Gregory of Tours records that King Sigismond was murdered with his wife and children after his brother Gondemar defeated the Franks[72].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that the wife and children of "Sigimundus rex Burgundionum" were thrown into a well[73].  King Sigismond & his first wife had two children: 

a)         SIGERIC (-murdered 522).  Gregory of Tours names Sigeric as son of Sigismond and his first wife, specifying that he was maltreated by his stepmother who incited his father to have him strangled[74].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica names "Segericus filius Sigimundi regis" when recording that he was unjustly killed in 522 by his own father[75]

b)         [SUAVEGOTHA] (495 or later-[after 549]).  Gregory of Tours records that Theoderich King of the Franks married the daughter of Sigismond but does not name her[76].  Gregory does not name the mother of King Theoderich´s wife, but chronologically it is probable that she was born from King Sigismond's first marriage, which is also suggested by the root "-gotha" in her first name.  Her name is suggested by Flodoard´s history of the church of Reims, dated to the mid-10th century.  This source records that "Suavegotta regina" bequeathed one third of "ville Virisiaci" by testament to the church of Reims during the bishopric of Bishop Mapinius, subject to the life interest of "Teudichildi prefate regine filie", adding that the latter later confirmed the donation during the bishopric of Bishop Egidius[77].  The identification of "Suavegotha regina" as King Theoderich´s wife depends on the identification of "Teudchildi" as his daughter which, as explained in more detail in the document MEROVINGIAN KINGS, is uncertain.  The link cannot therefore definitively be made between "Suavegotha" and the daughter of Sigismond King of Burgundy.  Nevertheless, the chronology for such a link is favourable, as the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores edition of Flodoard dates Mapinius´s bishopric to "ca 549-573" and Egidius´s to "ca 573-590"[78]m ([507/16]) as his second wife, THEODERICH, son of CLOVIS I [Chlodovech] King of the Franks & his [first wife/concubine] --- ([485]-end 533, bur Metz).  He succeeded his father in 511 as THEODERICH I King of the Franks, based at Reims. 

King Sigismond & his second wife had [one/two] children:

c)         --- (-murdered 523).  Gregory of Tours records Sigismond's imprisonment "with his wife and sons" by Chlodomer King of the Franks, and their murder with their father[79].  As he implies in an earlier passage that Sigeric was Sigismond's only son by his first marriage, it is assumed that the text means that the king had at least one son by his second marriage.  This appears corroborated by the Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica which records that the wife and children of "Sigimundus rex Burgundionum" were thrown into a well[80]

2.         GONDEMAR (-541).  Gregory of Tours names Gondemar as brother of King Sigismond when recording that he fled following the invasion of Burgundy by Chlodomer King of the Franks but "mobilised the Burgunds and won back his kingdom"[81], succeeding as GONDEMAR II King of Burgundy.  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Godemarus frater Sigimundi" succeeded as king of Burgundy in 524[82].  He defeated and killed Chlodomer King of the Franks at Vézeronce, Viennois after the latter invaded Burgundy for a second time[83].  Gregory of Tours records that Childebert King of the Franks and his brother King Clotaire launched a third attack on Burgundy, besieged Autun and occupied the whole kingdom, deposing King Gondemar II[84], dated to 534. 

3.         daughter (-young before 516).  Avitus Bishop of Vienne wrote a consolatory letter to King Gundobad on the death of his (unnamed) daughter[85]

4.         [GUNTHEUCA [Gondioque] .  Gregory of Tours names Guntheuca as widow of Chlodomer King of the Franks and records her second marriage with his brother Clotaire, but does not give her origin[86].  Settipani suggests, for onomastic reasons only, that she may have belonged to the Burgundian royal family which, if correct, means that for chronological consistency she may have been the daughter of either King Gundobad or his brother Godogisel[87].  However, Gregory makes no mention of this in his lengthy description of King Chlodomer's campaigns in Burgundy, an omission which seems surprising if the king´s wife was related to his opponents.  m firstly ([514] or 521) CHLODOMER King of the Franks, son of CLOVIS I King of the Franks & his second wife Clotilde of Burgundy ([494/95]-killed in battle Vézeronce 21 Jun 524).  m secondly ([524]) as his first wife, CLOTAIRE I King of the Franks, son of CLOVIS I King of the Franks & his second wife Clotilde of Burgundy ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard).]    

 

 

The names of the following individuals suggest that they may have been related to the early kings of Burgundy, but the relationship, if any, has not been established. 

1.         GODOGISEL (-after 573).  Gregory of Tours records that Sigebert King of the Franks sent "Duke Godegisel and Duke Guntram Boso" to lead the army against Theudebert, son of Chilperich King of the Franks, and that during the course of the campaign Theudebert was killed[88].  There is no indication about who they were, or whether they were related to each other, but both names suggest a close connection with the family of the previous kings of Burgundy. 

 

2.         GUNTRAM BOSO (-killed 587).  Gregory of Tours records that Sigebert King of the Franks sent "Duke Godegisel and Duke Guntram Boso" to lead the army against Theudebert, son of Chilperich King of the Franks, and that during the course of the campaign Theudebert was killed[89].  There is no indication about who they were, or whether they were related to each other, but both names suggest a close connection with the family of the previous kings of Burgundy.  Gregory records that Guntram Boso advised Merovech, son of King Chilperich, to seek refuge in the church of St Martin at Tours after his marriage in 576, but reports suspicion that he was among those who later betrayed Merovech[90].  Gregory records that "Count Guntram Boso" arrested Bishop Theodore but was later seized by King Guntram's forces[91], dated to [582/83] from the context.  According to Gregory of Tours, he was disgraced and his property in Clermont-Ferrand confiscated after it was alleged that his servants had been involved in grave-robbing[92].  He was killed after being found guilty of crimes by King Childebert, his wife and sons being sent into exile[93].  Fredegar records his death after a passage dealing with the 28th year of King Guntram[94]m ---, daughter of SEVERUS & his wife ---.  Gregory of Tours names Severus, who was accused of plotting against King Chilperich, as the father-in-law of Guntram Boso[95].  Guntram Boso had children: 

a)         daughters .  Gregory of Tours records that Guntram Boso had left his daughters for safety at Tours but "carried [them] off by force" to Poitiers where he left them at St Hilary's church[96], the event being dated to late 577 from the context. 

b)         son .  Gregory records that the young son of "Count Guntram Boso" was given as a hostage to King Gontran in return for his father's release[97], dated to [582/83] from the context. 

 

3.         GUNDOVALD (-after 575).  Gregory of Tours records that "Duke Gundovald" protected Childebert after his father Sigebert King of the Franks was killed in 575 and ensured his accession as king[98].  There is no indication about who Gundovald may have been but his name suggests a close connection with the family of the previous kings of Burgundy. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of UPPER BURGUNDY 888-1032 (WELF)

 

 

 

CONRAD, son of CONRAD [Welf] Comte de Paris & his wife --- (-876).  His parentage is deduced from Regino who names "Ruodolfus filius Chuonradi, nepos Huggonis abbatis"[99], the latter being recorded in the Miraculis Sancti Germani as "Hugo" one of the sons of "Chuonradus princeps", the patron of the church of Saint-Germain at Auxerre[100].  He helped save Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks after the invasion of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.  Comte d'Auxerre.  He fell into disgrace in 861, and passed into the service of the sons of Emperor Lothaire.  He received from King Louis II the territories of Geneva, Lausanne and Sion.  Marquis of Transjurania (which later evolved into the kingdom of Burgundy) in Dec 864 after he killed comte Hubert [Bosonide][101]

m WALDRADA, daughter of ---.  Louis III "le Bègue" King of the West Franks confirmed the property of the abbey of Saint-Germain d'Auxerre, including property "villam…Modolaius" and the church built there donated by "Conradus comes…mulieris suæ Vadraldæ", by charter dated 29 Jan 877[102]

Marquis Conrad & his wife had [three] children:

1.         RUDOLF (-25 Oct 911)Regino names "Ruodolfus filius Chuonradi, nepos Huggonis abbatis" when recording his occupation of the land between "Iurum et Alpes Penninas…at apud sanctum Mauritium"[103].  He was proclaimed as RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy in Jan 888. 

-        see below

2.         ADELAIS (-after 14 Jul 929).  "Adeleth…comitissa" donated property "villam Poligniacum in comitatu Warasco" to Autun naming "filii mei Hugonis comitis" by charter dated 24 Apr 922, subscribed by "Hugo comes, Rodulphus comes, Boso comes" and witnessed by "Wallonis comitis…"[104].  Her origin is deduced by her being named as sister of "Rodulfi regis" (Rudolf I King of Burgundy) in the latter's 10 Jun 888 charter[105], as well as in her own 14 Jan 929 grant to Cluny, the 929 charter also naming "Richardi principis domni mei"[106].  After her husband died, she retired to a monastery.  She transferred the monastery of Roman-Moutier to the monastery of Cluny by charter dated 14 Jul 929[107]m ([887/88]) RICHARD Comte d'Autun, son of comte BUVINUS [Bouvin] & his wife --- d'Arles (-1 Jan 921, bur Sens, abbaye de Sainte-Colombe).  He was later known as RICHARD "le Justicier" Duke of Burgundy

3.         [---.  m ---.]  [One possible child:]

a)         [ADELAIS.  According to Poupardin[108], Adelais wife of Louis King [of Provence] was the daughter of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy.  Presumably this is based on the two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943 under which "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy[109].  The potential problem with this hypothesis is the apparently impossible marriage of King Louis with his own niece.  Possible solutions would be either that Adelais was the daughter of King Rudolf by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage, that King Rudolf's known wife Willa was not the daughter of Boson King [of Provence], or that Adelais was more remotely related to the king, as tentatively shown in the present document.  The problem is discussed fully by Settipani[110].  Another problem is that “consanguineus” in the 943 charters could indicate a much more remote relationship than second cousin.  The estimated date for her marriage is based on its having taking place during the ex-emperor's period of exile in Vienne, before his recall to Italy, at a time when he would not have been considered a great marriage prospect by more prominent prospective fathers-in-law.  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted property at Tressin, Viennois to "fideli nostro Girardo" at the request of "coniux nostra Adalaida" by charter dated 18 Jan 915[111]m ([Jun 902/905]) LOUIS "l'Aveugle" King [of Provence], ex-King of Italy, ex-Emperor LOUIS III, son of BOSON King [of Provence] & his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian]  (before 882-Arles 5 Jun 928).] 

 

 

RUDOLF I 888-912

 

RUDOLF, son of CONRAD II [Welf] Comte d'Auxerre & his wife Waldrada --- (-25 Oct 911)Regino names "Ruodolfus filius Chuonradi, nepos Huggonis abbatis" when recording his occupation of the land between "Iurum et Alpes Penninas…at apud sanctum Mauritium"[112].  He succeeded his father in the latter's territories, with the title "marchio".  Emperor Karl III "der Dicke" granted property "in comitatu Waldense" to "vassallo Rudolfi…marchionis" by charter dated 15 Feb 885[113].  He was proclaimed RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy at the abbey of Saint-Maurice in Valais in Jan 888 by the nobility of the ancient duchy of Transjurania, his territory consisting of Savoie, Valais, Jura, Franche-Comté and adjacent Swiss territories[114].  He attempted to have himself recognised as king in Lotharingia and was crowned at Toul in Spring 888 by Arnaud Bishop of Toul, but by Jun 888 he was obliged to leave Lorraine and Alsace unconquered[115]Herimannus records the death in 912 of "Roudolfus rex Burgundiæ"[116].  The Annales Lausannenses record the death "911 VIII Kal Nov" of "Ruodolfus rex"[117]

m ([880/85]) as her first husband, WILLA, daughter of --- (-before 924).  She is named "Willa regina" in the grant to Cluny by "Adeleydis comitissa soror Rodulfi" dated 14 Jun 929[118].  Her marriage date is estimated from King Rudolf being recorded as having children in 888[119], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified and in any case it is not certain that Willa was the mother of those children.  Her origin is unknown.  Chaume[120] and Hlawitschka[121] suggest that she was Willa, daughter of Boson King [of Provence], the former considering that she was the daughter of King Boson's second marriage while the latter prefers his first wife as her mother.  Settipani considers that, if Willa was the daughter of King Boson, it is likely that she was the daughter of his first marriage because of the existence of King Rudolf´s children in 888[122], although as noted above this argument is of little use if Willa was not their mother.  Willa's suggested Burgundian origin appears based mainly on the fact that Conrad I King of Burgundy called Charles-Constantin Comte de Vienne "consanguineus noster" in two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943[123], the relationship being explained if Willa's suggested Burgundian origin was correct.  However, such a relationship would also be confirmed if the Comte de Vienne was the son of King Louis [de Provence] by Adelais, whose Burgundian origin is suspected but not certain (see above), rather than the Byzantine princess about whose marriage with King Louis there is much uncertainty (see the document PROVENCE). As suggested above, a completely different possibility is that Willa was King Rudolf's second wife (which Chaume assumes), the king's children having been born from an unrecorded earlier marriage.  This would be more consistent with Willa's second marriage in 912, when her second husband would have been about 30 years old, while Willa would have been over 50 if her first children had been born in the early 880s.  In conclusion, there is too much uncertainty to speculate sensibly on Willa´s origin.  Willa married secondly (912) as his first wife, Hugues d'Arles Comte de Vienne, who later succeeded as Ugo I King of Italy.  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…et uxoris quondam meæ Willæ…et præsentis conjugis meæ Hildæ atque fratrum et sororum mearum" in a donation by charter dated 924[124].  Her date of death is fixed by this charter dated 924. 

King Rudolf I & his wife had four children:

1.         RUDOLF (-[end] 937)Herimannus names "Roudolfus filius eius [=Roudolfus rex Burgundiæ]" when recording his accession[125].  He succeeded his father in 912 as RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy

-        see below

2.         LUDWIG (-after 929).  He is named "Ludowico nepote [meo]" in the grant of "Adeleydis comitissa" to Cluny dated 14 Jun 929[126].  Graf im Thurgau 928.  [m [firstly] ---.  If it is correct that Ludwig married one of the daughters of Edward King of Wessex, it is chronologically impossible for her to have been the mother of his supposed daughter Willa.]  [m [secondly] EADGIFU, daughter of EDWARD King of Wessex & his third wife Eadgifu ([921/23]-).   This marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[127] but seems chronologically unlikely if King Rudolf's children were born between 880 and 900.  According to William of Malmesbury, Eadgifu married "Louis Prince of Aquitaine"[128], who has not been identified.  Another possibility is that Ludwig Graf im Thurgau was the "Duke near the Alps" who, according to William of Malmesbury[129], married Ælfgifu, daughter of Edward King King of Wessex & his second wife Ælfleda.]  Louis & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         HEINRICH .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  943/63.  Comte de Vaud. 

b)         [WILLA ([905/07]-after [967/86]).  The Vita of archbishop Thibaut names "coniugem…Burgundionis regis nepotem…Wiltermam" as wife of Hugues and mother of the archbishop[130].  Her name indicates that, assuming that this source correctly records her relationship to the kings of Burgundy, she was almost certainly a descendant of King Rudolf I and his wife of the same name.  If this is correct, "neptis" could be interpreted either as granddaughter (in relation to King Rudolf I) or as niece (in relation to King Rudolf II).  Chronologically this is also consistent with Willa´s estimated birth date range, which is based on the birth of her two children before 927 and her husband's own estimated birth date range.  In either case, she must have been the daughter of Ludwig of Burgundy or of one of his sisters.  Both of Ludwig's known or supposed sisters are excluded as they are each already recorded as having a daughter named Willa, neither of whom could have been the husband of Hugues de Troyes.  It is of course possible that Willa, wife of Hugues, was the daughter of another sister who is unrecorded elsewhere.  "Hugo comes et coniux mea Wila necnon et filius eius Boso" donated property to Montiéramey by charter dated Apr [927], signed by "Hugonis comitis, Wilæ uxoris eius, Bosonis filii eius, Warnerii ipsorum filii"[131].  Willa and her sons Thibaut and Hubert are named in a charter dated to [967/86][132]m (before 927) HUGUES de Troyes, son of [WARNER [Garnier] Vicomte de Sens & his wife Teutberga d'Arles] ([900/05]-before 948).] 

3.         [WILLA (-after 936).  Willa is named "uxore…Boso Tusciæ provinciæ marchio regis frater" by Liutprand, without giving her origin, when he records the marriage of her daughter Willa in 936[133].  According to Jean-Noël Mathieu, she was the daughter of Rudolf I King of Burgundy, basing this on the fact that she was sent to Burgundy when she was separated from her husband in 936[134], which is recorded by Liutprand[135], but there are presumably other plausible explanations for her destination.  m (repudiated 936) BOSO de Vienne, son of THEOTBALD Comte d'Arles & his wife Berta of Lotharingia [Carolingian] ([885]-after 936).  Comte d'Avignon et Vaisin 911-931.  Comte d'Arles 926-931.  Marchese of Tuscany 931.] 

4.         WALDRADA (-[10 Feb] ----).  "Waldradam sororem suam [=rex Rodulfus]" is named as wife of "Bonefatio comiti" by Liudprand[136].  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Valdrada comitissa"[137], which may refer to the wife of Bonifacio.  m ([921/17 Jul 923]) BONIFAZIO Marchese, Conte di Bologna, son of HUCBALD Conte in Bologna and Romagna & his wife --- (-[Jul/Dec] 953).  He was installed as Duke and Marchese of Spoleto in 945. 

 

 

RUDOLF II 912-937

 

RUDOLF, son of RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Willa [de Vienne] (-[end] 937)Herimannus names "Roudolfus filius eius [=Roudolfus rex Burgundiæ]" when recording his accession[138].  He succeeded his father in 912 as RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy.  He was invited to Italy by the magnates of north-west Italy who opposed King Berengario's use of Hungarian mercenaries, and in 922 was elected as RUDOLF I King of Italy.  He defeated King Berengario at Firenzuola in 923 and forced the ex-king´s retreat to Verona.  However, the Italians rebelled against Rudolf in 925 and offered the crown to Hugues Comte d'Arles[139].  Ugo King of Italy ceded the kingdom of Lower Burgundy, including Provence, to King Rudolf II in 930, after which Arles became the capital of the united kingdom, which was sometimes referred to in primary sources as the kingdom of Arles[140].  Flodoard records the death of "Rodulfus, Iurensis ac Cisalpinæ Galliæ rex" and the succession of his "filius parvus Chonradus" at the end of his passage for 937[141]

m ([922]) as her first husband, BERTA of Swabia, daughter of BURKHARD II Duke of Swabia & his wife Regelinda im Zürichgau [Eberhardinger] (-after 2 Jan 966).  Liutprand names "Bertam Suevorum ducis Bruchardi filiam" as wife of "Rodulfus rex Burgundionibus"[142].  "Berta matre nostra" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[143].  She married secondly as his fourth wife, Ugo King of Italy[144].  Luitprand records the marriage of "Burgundionum rex Rodulfus…viduam Bertam" to King Ugo[145]

King Rudolf II & his wife had [five] children:

1.         [JUDITH .  "Juditte filie Rodulfe regis" witnessed the grant of "Adeleydis comitissa" to Cluny dated 14 Jun 929[146].  Settipani assumes that this indicates that she was the daughter of Raoul King of France, who was the donor's son, but this is not beyond doubt.  The charter in fact refers to three individuals named "Rodulfi regis": the donor's brother Rudolf I King of Burgundy, her nephew Rudolf II King of Burgundy, and her son.  The last named is referred to in the witness list, in a later position than the entry naming Judith, as "augusti Rodulfi regis", which suggests that he may have been a different "Rodulfi regis" from the one who was Judith's father.  If Judith had been the daughter of Rudolf I King of Burgundy, it is most likely that she would have been named "soror Rodulfe regis" in the subscription, referring to her living brother.  The most likely possibility is that she was the daughter of Rudolf II King of Burgundy, presumably his oldest child and the only one who at the date of the charter was considered old enough to have witnessed the document.]

2.         CONRAD ([922/25]-Vienne 19 Oct 993, bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice)Herimannus names "Roudolfus filius eius [=Roudolfus rex Burgundiæ]" when recording his accession[147].  He succeeded his father in 937 as CONRAD I  "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy

-        see below

3.         BOUCHARD (-[23 Jun 957/959]).  "Bertha…Regina" names "filiis meis Conrado…rege…et Rodolpho duce" in a donation "pro anima domini mei Rodulphi Regis et…filii mei Burchardi episcopi…" by charter dated 1 Apr 961[148].  He was elected Archbishop of Lyon before 949. 

4.         ADELAIS of Burgundy ([928/33]-Kloster Selz , Alsace 16 Dec 999, bur Kloster Selz).  Luitprand names "Adelegidam" as daughter of Rudolf and his wife Berta, when recording her marriage to "regi Lothario"[149].  Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in 950.  She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century.  Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec 950, ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr 951 and "afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger" according to Thietmar[150].  Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep 951, although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug 951 to Reggio[151].  King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep 951, proclaimed himself King of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband.  The Annalista Saxo records "Adelheidam reginam" as "coniuge rege Lothario" when she married Otto[152].  Flodoard refers to "uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis" when recording her second marriage[153].  She was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb 962[154].  "Aleidis sororis" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[155].  "Adelheidis imperatrix cum filia Athelheidhe abbatissa in Italiam profecta est propter quasdam discordias inter se et filium factas", although it is unclear to whom "filia Athelheidhe" refers unless this is an error for her daughter Mathilde[156].  She replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in 991[157].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "999 XVII Kal Ian" of "Adalheid imperatrix"[158]m firstly (947 before 27 Jun) LOTHAR King of Italy, son of UGO King of Italy & his second wife Hilda --- ([926/28]-Turin 22 Nov 950).  m secondly (Pavia [Oct/Nov] 951) as his second wife, OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany, son of HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde --- (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg Cathedral).  He was crowned Emperor at Rome 2 Feb 962. 

5.         RUDOLF (-after 8 Apr 962).  According to Carutti, Rudolf was born posthumously but he cites no primary source on which this assertion is based[159].  "Otto…rex" gave property in "Cholumbra et Hitinheim" which previously belonged to "Guntramnus in Hillisazaas" to "fideli nostro Rudolfo" by charter dated 14 Apr 959[160], the identity of the donee as the brother of Empress Adelheid being confirmed by the charter of Heinrich IV King of Germany dated 4 Dec 1049 which records that "Rodulfus dux, frater supradictæ imperatricis [Adelaidis]" was the previous owner of "duas cortes in Alsatia, Ethinehim et Columbra", specifying that he had acquired the properties from "primo et maximo Ottone"[161].  "Bertha…Regina" names "filiis meis Conrado…rege…et Rodolpho duce" in a donation "pro anima domini mei Rodulphi Regis et…filii mei Burchardi episcopi…" by charter dated 1 Apr 961[162].  "Ruodolfo fratre nostro" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[163].  "Henricus…rex" confirmed prior concessions by "duce Rudolfo" of property in "Columbra et Hittinheim…in Alsatia…in comitatu Odonis comitis" to Kloster Peterlingen by charter dated 21 Oct 1003, specifying that this property previously belonged to "Guntramnus"[164].  Duke[165].   

 

 

CONRAD I 937-993, RUDOLF III 993-1032

 

CONRAD, son of RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Berta of Swabia ([922/25]-Vienne 19 Oct 993, bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice).  He is named "Chuonradus rex filio Rodulfi" in his charter dated 23 Apr 943[166].  He succeeded his father in 937 as CONRAD I "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy.  The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the death "XIV Kal Nov" of "regis Conradi" and his burial at Vienne[167]

m firstly ADELANE, daughter of --- ([935/40]-[23 Mar 963/[964]).  "Adelane regine" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 23 Mar 963[168] but is not mentioned in his charter dated 8 Apr 962[169].  This suggests that she married after the latter date, but this would leave insufficient time for the birth of her supposed two children.  Her birth date range is estimated based on the estimated birth date range of her daughter Gisela.  Her origin is not known but Jackman suggests[170] that Adela was sister of "Konrad Duke of Alsace". 

m secondly ([964]) MATHILDE de France, daughter of LOUIS IV "d'Outremer" King of the Franks & his wife Gerberga of Germany (end-943-26/27 Jan [981/992], bur Vienne, cathédrale Saint-Maurice).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "rex Francorum Lotharius…sororem suam Mathildem" and "Conradus rex Burgundie"[171].  "Mathilde et Alberada" are named as daughters of "Gerberga" in the Continuator of Flodoard, which specifies that Mathilde was mother of "Rodulfus rex et Mathildis soror eius"[172].  Her brother, Lothaire King of the West Franks, arranged this marriage to strengthen his position in south-eastern France.  Her dowry consisted of the counties of Lyon and Vienne[173].  The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the death "VI Kal Dec" of "Mathildis uxor regis Conradi" and her burial at Vienne[174]

Mistress (1): ([965/70]) ALDIUD, wife of ANSELM, daughter of ---.  The identity of King Conrad´s mistress is ascertained as follows.  Firstly, as noted below, the Chronicon Hugonis names the king´s illegitimate son, archbishop of Lyon, as "Burchardus, Rodulfi regis frater, Conradi ex concubina filius"[175].  Secondly,  Burchard´s mother´s name is confirmed as Aldiud by a charter dated 14 Feb 1005, which records that her son "Burchardum Lugdunensem archiepiscopum" donated property "in loco Oponlongis infra comitatum Ottingen" which he had "ex patre matris suæ Aldiud quod rex Chuonradus ei præbuit" to Anselm Bishop of Aosta[176].  Thirdly, the name of the father of Anselm Bishop of Aosta is confirmed as Anselm in the charter of Rudolf III King of Burgundy for Romainmotier dated [1001/02], which was witnessed by "…Anselmus episcopus Augustensis…Anselmus pater Anselmi episcopi…"[177].  Fourthly, a charter dated 1 Nov 1002, noted by Rivaz in his compiled index of Burgundian charters, confirms that Anselm Bishop of Aosta and Burchard Archbishop of Lyon were brothers: "Burchard archévêque de Lyon et abbé de Saint-Maurice" granted property "dans les comtés de Valais et de Vaud" to "Gauslin", with the consent of "Anselme son frère évêque d'Aoste et prévôt de ladite abbaye"[178].  Fifthly, Anselm and Aldiud were also parents of Burchard Archbishop of Vienne and Udalrich his advocatus, as shown by a charter dated 19 Aug [1019] of "Burchardus sancta Viennensis archiepiscopus et Udolricus frater meus et advocatus meus" which granted property "in pago Genevensi…in villa Marischa…a circio Lemani lacus" made "pro remedio animarum…genitore nostro Anselmo sive pro genetrice nostra Aaldui"[179].  The conclusion therefore is that the only way in which Burchard Archbishop of Lyon could have been the brother of the three brothers Anselm, Burchard and Odalric is if they shared the same mother, who gave birth to them by different fathers.  Aldiud´s relationship with the early counts of Savoy is indicated by Rodolfus Glauber who describes Burchard, son of Count Humbert "aux Blanches Mains", as nepos of Aldiud's illegitimate son[180].  This relationship is explained by Count Humbert's wife being the legitimate daughter of Anselm and Aldiud.  The Chronicon Hugonis specifies that Burchard was appointed archbishop (dated to 978) when still a child[181].  This presumably dates Aldiud´s relationship to the King Conrad to [965/70], which was probably before she married Anselm. 

King Conrad I & his first wife had two children:

1.         CONRAD [Cuno] (-after 10 Aug 966).  "Chuonradus…rex et uxor sua Mattilt regina et filii eius Cuono" signed a charter dated 10 Aug 966[182].  As Cuno was probably older than an infant at the date of this charter, it is likely that he was born from his father´s first marriage, assuming the date of King Conrad´s second marriage is estimated correctly above.  According to Carutti, Conrad was born from his father´s second marriage but he cites no primary source on which this assertion is based[183]

2.         GISELA ([955/60]-21 Jul 1007)Herimannus names "Gisela, Counradi regis Burgundiæ filia" as wife of "Heinricus dux Baioariæ" and mother of Emperor Heinrich II[184].  Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to her eldest son in [976], which indicates that she must have been King Conrad's daughter by his first marriage, although no direct proof has yet been found to confirm that this is correct.  Thietmar records that Gisela was exiled to Merseburg after the trial of her husband in 978[185].  Many contemporary sources confuse Gisela with her niece of the same name, daughter of her half-sister Gerberga and the latter's second husband.  For example, the Chronicle of St Bénigne de Dijon names "sororem regis [Rodulfi Burgundie] Gislam" as wife of "Chonradum" and mother of "tertium Henricum"[186].  It is not known why this report is repeated so frequently in other chronicles, for simple chronology demonstrates that it cannot be correct.  According to the Preface of Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores, "Gisila imperatrix, mater sancti Heinrici imperatoris obit VII Kal Martii"[187].  Thietmar records the death of "our king's…mother…Gisela" on 21 Jul and her burial at Regensburg, dated to 1007 from the context[188].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "21 Jul" of "domna Gisela mater Heinrici imperatoris"[189].  The necrology of Magdeburg records the death "21 Jul" of "Gisla filia Chuonradi regis"[190]m (before 972) HEINRICH II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria, son of HEINRICH I Duke of Bavaria [Germany] & his wife Judith of Bavaria [Liutpoldinger] (951-Gandersheim 28 Aug 995, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche[191]). 

King Conrad I & his second wife had four children:

3.         MATHILDE .  "Rodulfus rex et Mathildis soror eius" are named as children of "Mathilde…filia…Gerberga" by the Continuator of Flodoard, which specifies that Mathilde was mother of Berta who was mother of "Geroldus Genevensis"[192].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names (in order) "Rodulphem regem Burgundie, Bertham, Guepam et Mathildam" as children of "Mathildis soror Lotharii regis Francie", specifying that Mathilde was mother of "Arnulphum comitem Flandrensem, Godefridum ducem, Gozelonem ducem, fratres"[193], which has no credibility.  Carutti identifies the husband of Mathilde as Hugo [IX] Graf von Egisheim, but he cites no primary source on which this hypothesis is based[194]m --- [de Genève], son of ---. 

4.         BERTHE de Bourgogne ([964/965]-16 Jan after 1010).  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum names "Berta filia Conradi regis Burgundiæ" as wife of "Odone comite Carnotensium"[195].  “Odo comes” restored “villam...Culturas” to Marmoutier, for the souls of “...domini Hugonis archiepiscopi, cujus ibi corpus...jacet”, by charter dated to [986], subscribed by “Berte comitissæ uxoris eius, majoris filii eius Teutboldi, filii eius Odonis adhuc in cunabulo[196].  Richer records that King Robert married "Berta Odonis uxor"[197].  Rodulfus Glauber names "Odo natus ex filia Chuonradi regis Austrasiorum, Berta nomine"[198].  "Hugonis ducis, Odonis comitis, Hugonis sanctæ Bituricensis archipræsulis, Letgardis comitissæ, Bertæ comitissæ, Gauzfridi vicecomitis…" subscribed the charter dated 985 under which "Robertus" donated property to "Sancti Petri Carnotensis", on the advice of "Odonem, simul cum sua matre Ledgarde, pariterque dominam meam Bertam, ipsius æque coniugem"[199].  “Berta...regina cum filiis meis Tetbaldo...episcopo nec non Odoni comitis” donated tonlieu over boats at Blois to Marmoutier by undated charter[200].  Pope Gregory V called on King Robert to repudiate his wife in 998 on grounds of consanguinity.  The request was repeated in 1001 by the court of Rome, Robert at first refused and the kingdom of France was excommunicated[201].  "Bertæ reginæ, Odonis comitis filii eius…" subscribed the charter dated 1004 under which "Gislebertus prepositus" recorded a donation[202].  The king, in reaction to the 1108 assassination of his favourite Hugues de Beauvais who had served Queen Berthe, visited Rome in 1008 in an unsuccessful attempt to divorce his third wife in order to take back Berthe[203].  "Odonis comitis, Ermengardis uxoris eius, Bertæ reginæ…" subscribed the charter dated after 1005 under which "comitem Odonem" donated property "in comitatu Dunensi…Boscus Medius" to "Sancti Petri"[204].  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "XVII Kal Feb" of "Berta mater Odonis comitis"[205]m firstly ([978/80]) EUDES I Comte de Blois, son of THIBAUT I "le Tricheur" Comte de Blois & his wife Luitgardis de Vermandois (-995).  m secondly ([late 996/early 997], divorced Sep 1001) as his second wife, ROBERT II King of France, son of HUGUES Capet King of France & his wife Adelais d’Aquitaine (Orléans ([27 Mar] 972-Château de Melun 20 Jul 1031, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

5.         GERBERGA (-7 Jul 1018).  Herimannus names "filiam Counradi regis Burgundiæ, Gerbirgam" as wife of "Herimannus dux"[206].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rodulfum II et sororem suam Gepam matrem imperatricis Gisile" as children of "Conradus rex Burgundie" and his wife Mathilde[207].  Wipo names "Herimannus dux Alamanniæ [et] Kerbirga filia Chuonradi regis de Burgundia" as the parents of "regis coniunx Gisela"[208].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "in villa Stohchusen in pago Locdorp ac comitatu Herimanni comitis" to Kloster Meschede by charter dated 29 Sep 997 by request of "Gerbirge comitisse"[209].  The necrology of Marchtalen records the death "Non Jul" of "Gerbirc ducissa"[210].  No direct record of her first marriage has so far been identified.  However, "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted privileges to Kloster Oedingen founded by "matrona Gerberga…in comitatu Herimanni eius filii" to the monks of the Marienkapelle at Aachen by charter dated 18 May 1000[211], and Thietmar names "Count Hermann son of Gerberga" when recording his dispute with Dietrich Bishop of Münster in 1016[212].  These two references relate to Hermann [II] Graf von Werl.  In addition, "Rodulfus et Bernhardus nati in…Werla" are named as brothers of Empress Gisela in the Annalista Saxo, although not specifying that they were her uterine brothers[213]m firstly HERMANN [I] Graf von Werl, son of [HEINRICH Graf im Lerigau & his wife ---] (-[985/86]).  m secondly ([986]) HERMANN [von Schwaben], son of KONRAD Duke of Swabia & his wife Richlint of Germany (-2/3 May 1003).  He was installed in 997 as HERMANN II Duke of Swabia

6.        RUDOLF (-5/6 Sep 1032, bur Lausanne Cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rodulfum II et sororem suam Gepam matrem imperatricis Gisile" as children of "Conradus rex Burgundie" and his wife Mathilde[214].  "Rodulfus rex et Mathildis soror eius" are named as children of "Mathilde…filia…Gerberga" in the Continuator of Flodoard[215].  He succeeded his father in 993 as RUDOLF III King of Burgundy.  Wishing to create a nobility without dynastic aspirations, he created an ecclesiastical aristocracy, investing the Archbishop of Tarentasia with the county of Tarentasia in 996, the Bishop of Lausanne with the county of Vaud, the Bishop of Sion with the county of Valais in 999, and the Archbishop of Vienne with the county of Vienne in 1023[216].  Rudolf III King of Burgundy donated property to Vienne Saint-Maurice, at the request of "Irmengarda regina, Burkardo Lugdunensi archiepiscopo fratre suo, nec non Burchardo Viennensi archiepiscopo", by charter dated 1 Aug 1011[217]Herimannus records the death in 1032 of "Roudolfus, ignavus Burgundiæ regulus" and succession of Emperor Konrad II to the kingdom of Burgundy[218].  On his death, he bequeathed the kingdom of Burgundy to Emperor Konrad II, husband of his niece Gisela of Swabia, although this was challenged by another nephew Eudes II Comte de Blois[219]m firstly (before 12 Jan 994) AGELTRUDA, daughter of --- (-[21 Mar 1008/18 Feb 1011]).  "Rudulfus rex" names "coniugis nostre Agildrudis" in a charter dated 12 Jan 994[220].  "Rodolfus rex" jointly with "Agiltrude regina coniuge nostra" transferred property by charter dated 6 Jun 1009[221].  Stasser suggests that she was Ageltruda di Capua, daughter of Pandolf I "Capiferreus/Ironhead" Prince of Capua & his wife Aloara ---[222].  He bases this hypothesis firstly on onomastics, highlighting that the name Ageltruda is found only among the Lombard families, and secondly on the possibility that the marriage was arranged by Emperor Otto II during his Italian expedition in 981.  "Rodolfus…rex" made a donation "pro redemptione anime…coniugis nostre Agiltrudis" by charter dated 18 Feb 1011[223]m secondly ([24 Apr/28 Jul] 1011) as her second husband, ERMENGARDE, widow of ---, daughter of --- (-25 or 27 Aug after 1057).  "Rodolfus…rex" gave "sponsæ meæ Irmingardi" the town and county of Vienne by charter dated 24 Apr 1011[224].  "Rodolfus…rex" names "Irmingarda regina coniuge nostra" in a charter dated 28 Jul 1011[225].  The Chronicon Hugonis names "Ermengardis" as wife of "Rodulfus rex", specifying that she was childless, but does not give her origin[226].  The fact that this was her second marriage is confirmed by Thietmar, who records that "King Rudolf's wife" commended to Emperor Heinrich II her two sons, stepsons of her husband, at a meeting at Strasbourg in 1016 but does not name them[227], read together with the charter dated 1019 in which "Ermengarda regina et filii mei Ugo et Willelmus" are named[228].  The problem with identifying Ermengarde´s first husband as Rotbald [III] Comte de Provence is discussed fully in the documents BURGUNDY KINGDOM NOBILITY and PROVENCE.  "Rodulfus rex" names "Irmingarda coniuge mea" in a charter dated 14 Jan 1029[229].  A possible indication of her origin is provided by the charter of "Ermengart regina" dated 1033 for the soul of "Rodulfi regis" under which she donated land "in pago Genevense" to Cluny[230], although it is impossible to confirm any relationship with the families of the Counts of Geneva whose earliest attested male progenitor is Gerold Count of Geneva who, if related to Ermengarde, would have belonged to a subsequent generation.  "Ermengardis regina" donated property "…loco sepulturo patris mei [et]…in villa Jalzinium" to Saint-André-de-Bas at Vienne "pro redemptione animis senioris mei Radulfi regis" by an undated charter[231].  "Ermengarda vidua regina, uxor quondam Rodulfi regis" made a donation by charter dated 20 Sep 1057[232].  The necrology of Savigny records the death "VIII Kal Sep" of "Ermengardis regina Vienne que dedit Tallueriensem"[233].  The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Ermengarda uxor Rodulphi regis" and her burial at Vienne[234]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Rudolf's mistress is not known.  King Rudolf had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

a)         HUGUES (-31 Aug 1038).  The Gesta Episcoponum Lausannensium records the death "II Kal Sep" of "Hugo Lausannnensis episcopus, filius regis Rodulfi", specifying that he was elected Bishop of Lausanne in 1019, held the post for 19 years, and was buried next to his father in Lausanne Cathedral[235].  The Catalogi Abbatum Sancti Eugendi Iurensis names "Rudolfi regis Teutonum et in partibus Galliarum…per Burchardum fratrum suum archiepiscopum et per filium Hugonem Gebennensem episcopus et alium Hugonem Gebennensem episcopum et Rotbertum comitem Gebennensem" with the date 1020[236].  The  cartulary of Notre-Dame de Lausanne records the death "II Kal Sep" of "Hugo Lausannensis episcopus filius regis Rodulfi" after holding the bishopric for 19 years[237].  The necrology of Lausanne records the death 31 Aug of "dns Hugo episcopus Laus. filius regis Rodulphi"[238]. 

King Conrad I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

7.          BURCHARD ([965/70]-22 Jun 1030 or 1031).  The Chronicon Hugonis names "Burchardus, Rodulfi regis frater, Conradi ex concubina filius", specifying that he was made Archbishop of Lyon when still a child[239]As noted above, the identity of his mother is established by the charter dated 19 Aug [1019] under which "Burchardus sancta Viennensis archiepiscopus et Udolricus frater meus et advocatus meus" granted property "in pago Genevensi…in villa Marischa…a circio Lemani lacus" made "pro remedio animarum…genitore nostro Anselmo sive pro genetrice nostra Aaldui"[240].  He was elected Archbishop of Lyon in 978.  "Filii nostri Burcardi archiepiscopi" consented to a grant of "Chuonradus rex" dated 983[241]Provost of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune in 983.  Rivaz, in his compiled index of Burgundian charters. notes a charter dated 1 Nov 1002 under which "Burchard archévêque de Lyon et abbé de Saint-Maurice" granted property "dans les comtés de Valais et de Vaud" to "Gauslin", with the consent of "Anselme son frère évêque d'Aoste et prévôt de ladite abbaye"[242].  A charter dated 14 Feb 1005 records that "Burchardum Lugdunensem archiepiscopum" donated property "in loco Oponlongis infra comitatum Ottingen" which he had "ex patre matris suæ Aldiud quod rex Chuonradus ei præbuit", through "advocatorem suum Vuidonem", to "Anselmum Augustanum episcopum" in exchange for "terram S. Mauritii in valle Augustana"[243].  Rudolf III King of Burgundy donated property to Vienne Saint-Maurice, at the request of "Irmengarda regina, Burkardo Lugdunensi archiepiscopo fratre suo, nec non Burchardo Viennensi archiepiscopo", by charter dated 1 Aug 1011[244]. 

 

 

A relative of Rudolf III King of Burgundy, the precise relationship is unknown:

1.         KUNIZA .  She is recorded in Europäische Stammtafeln as neptis of RUDOLF III King of Burgundy[245] but the primary source on which this statement is based has not yet been identified.  1038.  m GERHARD [I] Graf von Egisheim, son of HUGO [VIII] Graf im Nordgau und zu Egisheim & his wife Heilwig --- (-killed in battle 1038). 

 

 

 



[1] Chronicle of 452, Chronica Minora 1, MGH, Auct. Ant., Tome IX, discussed in Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), pp. 8-9. 

[2] Gingins-la-Sarra, F. de (1851) Les Bosonides (Lausanne), p. 15. 

[3] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin), ("Gregory of Tours") II.28, p. 141. 

[4] Chronicle of 511, 689 and 690, cited in Wood (1994), p. 48. 

[5] Wood (1994), p. 52. 

[6] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 147. 

[7] Gingins-la-Sarra (1851), pp. 16-18. 

[8] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 778, p. 56, and 806, p. 85. 

[9] RFA 823, p. 112. 

[10] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum, Tome I, Divisio Imperio 806, p. 126. 

[11] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 269. 

[12] Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Presses universitaires de Nancy), p. 30. 

[13] Burgundionum Leges, Lex Gundobada, III, MGH LL III, p. 533. 

[14] Sécretan, E. ´Les premier royaume de Bourgogne´, Mémoires et documents publiés par la société d´histoire de la Suisse Romande, Tome XXIV (Lausanne, 1868), p. 9. 

[15] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 108. 

[16] Hydatii Lemici continuatio chronicorum Hieronymianorum, MGH Auct. ant. XI.1, 108, p. 23. 

[17] Sécretan ´Les premier royaume de Bourgogne´, pp. 13-22. 

[18] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[19] Burgundionum Leges, Lex Gundobada, III, MGH LL III, p. 533. 

[20] Sécretan ´Les premier royaume de Bourgogne´, p. 51. 

[21] Chronicle of 452, 128, cited in Wood (1994), p. 9. 

[22] Wood (1994), pp. 14-15. 

[23] Wood (1994), p. 17. 

[24] Sécretan ´Les premier royaume de Bourgogne´, p. 51. 

[25] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[26] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[27] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 253-4. 

[28] Gregory of Tours II.32, p. 145. 

[29] Gregory of Tours II.33, pp. 147-8. 

[30] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 500, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 234. 

[31] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[32] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 253-4. 

[33] Wood (1994), p. 15. 

[34] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[35] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 254. 

[36] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[37] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[38] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[39] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 254. 

[40] Fredegar, III 17, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 99. 

[41] Fredegar, IV, 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 129. 

[42] Settipani (1993), p. 57, footnote 68, points out that "Rotilde" is the correct form. 

[43] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[44] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 254. 

[45] Fredegar, III 17-20, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 99. 

[46] Gregory of Tours II.30 and 31, pp. 143-4. 

[47] Gregory of Tours II.43, p. 158. 

[48] Attwater, p. 89. 

[49] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[50] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 253-4. 

[51] Burgundionum Leges, Lex Gundobada, III, MGH LL III, p. 533. 

[52] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[53] Liber Historiæ Francorum 11, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 253-4. 

[54] Gregory of Tours II.27-43. 

[55] Gregory of Tours II.32, pp. 145-7. 

[56] Gregory of Tours II.33 and 34, pp. 147-8. 

[57] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 516, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 234. 

[58] Alcimi Ecdicii Aviti Viennensis episcopi Opera quæ superunt, MGH Auct ant VI.2, Epitaphium VI, p. 185. 

[59] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 516, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 234. 

[60] Gregory of Tours III.5, p. 165. 

[61] Wood (1994), pp. 51-2. 

[62] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 312. 

[63] Wolfram (1998), p. 313.  The conversion must have taken place before 514, when Pope Symachus died. 

[64] Wood (1994), p. 51. 

[65] Gregory of Tours III.6, pp. 166-7. 

[66] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235. 

[67] Gregory of Tours III.5, p. 165. 

[68] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[69] Settipani (1993), p. 61, footnote 97. 

[70] Wolfram (1998), p. 311. 

[71] Gregory of Tours III.5, p. 165. 

[72] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 166. 

[73] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235. 

[74] Gregory of Tours III.5, p. 165. 

[75] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 522, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 234. 

[76] Gregory of Tours III.5, p. 166. 

[77] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, II, 1, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 132. 

[78] MGH SS XXXVI, p. 132, footnotes 3 and 9. 

[79] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 166. 

[80] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235. 

[81] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 166. 

[82] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 524, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235. 

[83] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 167. 

[84] Gregory of Tours III.11, p. 171. 

[85] Alcimi Ecdicii Aviti Viennensis episcopi Opera quæ superunt, MGH Auct ant VI.2, Epistolæ ad Gundobadum regem, Liber I, V, p. 32. 

[86] Gregory of Tours III.6, pp. 166-7. 

[87] Settipani (1993), p. 66. 

[88] Gregory of Tours IV.50, p. 247. 

[89] Gregory of Tours IV.50, p. 247. 

[90] Gregory of Tours V.14 and V.18, pp. 267 and 283. 

[91] Gregory of Tours VI.24 and VI.26, pp. 352 and 354. 

[92] Gregory of Tours VIII.21, pp. 453-4. 

[93] Gregory of Tours IX.10, p. 492. 

[94] Fredegar, IV 8, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 125. 

[95] Gregory of Tours V.25, p. 290. 

[96] Gregory of Tours V.24, p. 289. 

[97] Gregory of Tours VI.24 and VI.26, pp. 352 and 354. 

[98] Gregory of Tours V.1, p. 254. 

[99] Reginonis Chronicon 888, MGH SS I, p. 598. 

[100] Ex Heirici Miraculis S. Germani 5, MGH SS XIII, p. 402. 

[101] Settipani (1993), p. 383 footnote 150. 

[102] L'abbé Lebeuf (1855) Mémoires concernant l'histoire civile et ecclésiastique d'Auxerre et de son ancient diocese (Auxerre) (“Histoire d´Auxerre”), IV, p. 25. 

[103] Reginonis Chronicon 888, MGH SS I, p. 598. 

[104] Autun I.10, p. 14. 

[105] Cluny I.33, p. 39. 

[106] Cluny I.379, p. 358. 

[107] Cluny I.379, p. 358. 

[108] Poupardin, R. (1901) Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (855-933?) (Paris), p. 206-7, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117. 

[109] Cluny, Tome I, 622, p. 579, and I.631, p. 588. 

[110] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117. 

[111] Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes des rois de Provence 855-928 (Paris) ("Recueil Actes Provence") 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 16, in Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-André-le-Bas de Vienne, Collection de cartularies dauphinois Tome I ("Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas"), p. 226. 

[112] Reginonis Chronicon 888, MGH SS I, p. 598. 

[113] D Karl 112, p. 178. 

[114] Marie José (1956) La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge (Paris, Albin Michel), pp. 27-8. 

[115] Settipani (1993), p. 380 footnote 118. 

[116] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 912, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[117] Annales Lausannenses 911, MGH SS XXIV, p. 780. 

[118] Cluny, Tome I, 379, p. 358. 

[119] Settipani (1993), p. 374. 

[120] Chaume, M. (1925) Les origines du duché de Bourgogne (Dijon), Vol 1, p. 382 note 3, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 374. 

[121] Hlawitschka, E. (1976) 'Die verwandschaftlichen Verbindungen zwischen dem hochburgundischen und dem niederburgundischen Köningshaus. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Geschichte Burgunds in der 1. Hälfte des 10. Jahrhunderts', Festschrift für Peter Acht (Munich), pp. 28-57. 

[122] Settipani (1993), p. 374. 

[123] Cluny, Tome I, 622, p. 579, and I.631, p. 588. 

[124] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[125] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 912, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[126] Cluny, Tome I, 379, p. 358. 

[127] ES III 736.  It is not clear what is the precise source for the information. 

[128] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) II, 126, p. 110.  He is described in Malmesbury II, 135, p. 119, as a descendant of Charles the Great.  Malmesbury, p. 119, footnote 1, identifies him with Louis King of Arles, son of Boso, but this is unlikely as King Louis died 5 Jun 928. 

[129] Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110. 

[130] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 173, quoting Manteyer, G. de (1899) Les origines de la Maison de Savoie en Bourgogne 910-1060 (Rome), Notes additionnelles (Paris, 1901), p. 265. 

[131] Giry, A. 'Etudes carolingiennes. Documents carolingiens de l'abbaye de Montiéramey', Etudes d'histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), no. 27, p. 135. 

[132] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 173, citing Giry, A. (ed.) (1896) Etudes carolingiennes, V. Documents carolingiens de l'abbaye de Montieramey (Paris), no. 31. 

[133] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.7, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[134] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 173. 

[135] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.11, MGH SS III, p. 319. 

[136] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.66, p. 300. 

[137] Obituaires de Lyon I, Eglise primatiale de Lyon, footnote 5 associating the entry with the daughter of Rudolf I King of Burgundy.   

[138] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 912, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[139] Wickham, C. (1981) Early Medieval Italy, Central Power and Local Society 400-1000 (London), p. 177. 

[140] Marie-José (1956), p. 28. 

[141] Flodoard 937, MGH SS III, p. 385. 

[142] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.60, p. 299. 

[143] Cluny, Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[144] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[145] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[146] Cluny, Tome I, 379, p. 358. 

[147] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 912, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[148] Diploma Berthæ Reginæ Burgundiæ VI, RHGF IX, p. 667. 

[149] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[150] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 2.5, p. 93.   

[151] Thietmar 2.5, pp. 93-4. 

[152] Annalista Saxo 951. 

[153] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 401. 

[154] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101. 

[155] Cluny, Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[156] Annalista Saxo 978. 

[157] Thietmar 4.15, p. 162. 

[158] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[159] Carutti, D. (1888) Il conte Umberto I e il re Ardoino (Rome), p. 12. 

[160] D O I 201, p. 280.   

[161] Cluny, Tome IV, 2977, p. 171. 

[162] Diploma Berthæ Reginæ Burgundiæ VI, RCGF 9, p. 667. 

[163] Cluny, Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[164] D H II 57, p. 68. 

[165] He is discussed in G. von Wyss 'Herzog Rudolf, der Sohn König Rudolf's II. von Burgund und der Königin Berta', Anzeiger für schweizerische Geschichte, ser. 2, 6 (1890-2), 357-62 [not yet consulted], cited in Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 110. 

[166] Cluny, Tome I, 627, p. 584. 

[167] Terrebasse, A. de (ed.) (1844) Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus (Vienne) ("De Allobrogibus") VI, p. 382. 

[168] Cluny, Tome II, 1152, p. 242. 

[169] Cluny, Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[170] Jackman (1997), p. 46. 

[171] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 986, MGH SS XXIII, p. 773. 

[172] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[173] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 322. 

[174] De Allobrogibus VI, p. 382. 

[175] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis I 972, MGH SS VIII, p. 367. 

[176] Carutti, D. (1889) Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, marchionum in Italia (Turin) ("Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ"), XXVI, p. 9.  

[177] Cibrario & Promis (1833), Documenti, p. 7. 

[178] Rivaz I, p. 24, citing Hist. Patriæ Monum., Ch. t. II, p. 84. 

[179] Chartarium Viennensium 47, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 256. 

[180] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) ("Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum") IV.26, p. 213. 

[181] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis I 972, MGH SS VIII, p. 367. 

[182] MGH, Schieffer, T. Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger (Munchen, 1977), 39, p. 153. 

[183] Carutti (1888), p. 13. 

[184] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 995, MHG SS V, p. 117. 

[185] Thietmar, p. 132, footnote 22. 

[186] Abbé E. Bougaud (ed.) (1875) Chronique de l'abbaye de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon (Dijon), p. 188. 

[187] Vitæ Heinrici et Cunegundis Imperatores Preface, MGH SS IV, p. 791. 

[188] Thietmar 6.29, p. 257. 

[189] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[190] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Magdeburg. 

[191] Thietmar 4.20, pp. 165-6. 

[192] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[193] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, pp. 383-4. 

[194] Carutti (1888), p. 13. 

[195] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 387. 

[196] Métais, C. (ed.) (1889/91) Marmoutier Cartulaire Blésois (Blois) (“Marmoutier (Blésois)”), I, IV, p. 8. 

[197] Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris), IV, supplementary notes following CVII, p. 308. 

[198] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum III.9, MGH SS VII, p. 64. 

[199] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres (Paris) ("Chartres Saint-Père"), Tome I, Liber Tertius, Cap. XVIII, p. 77. 

[200] Marmoutier (Blésois), I, V, p. 10. 

[201] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 62 footnote 42. 

[202] Lecesne, H. (ed.) (1874) Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Dunois ("Marmoutier-Dunois") III, p. 4. 

[203] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Mathilde, Reine de France inconnue', Journal des Savants (Oct-Dec 1971), pp. 241-60, 242 footnote 8. 

[204] Chartres Saint-Père I, Liber Quintus, Cap. V, p. 96. 

[205] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 5.       

[206] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 998, MHG SS V, p. 118. 

[207] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 986, MGH SS XXIII, p. 773. 

[208] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 4, MGH SS XI, p. 261. 

[209] D O III 254, p. 670. 

[210] Fragmenta Necrologii Marchtalensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 201. 

[211] D O III 363, p. 792. 

[212] Thietmar 7.49, p. 342. 

[213] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[214] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 986, MGH SS XXIII, p. 773. 

[215] Flodoard Addit codex 1 (inserted after 966), MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[216] Marie-José (1956), p. 28. 

[217] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XXXIV, p. 13. 

[218] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1030, MHG SS V, p. 121. 

[219] Marie-José (1956), p. 32. 

[220] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 76, p. 219. 

[221] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 93, p. 246. 

[222] Stasser, T. (2008) Où sont les femmes? (Oxford), p. 369. 

[223] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 96, p. 250. 

[224] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 98, p. 253. 

[225] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 100, p. 256. 

[226] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis I 955, MGH SS VIII, p. 364. 

[227] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 7.27, p. 326. 

[228] MGH, Schieffer, T. Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger (Munchen, 1977), 136, p. 311. 

[229] Cluny, Tome IV, 2812, p. 15. 

[230] Cluny, Tome IV, 2892, p. 95. 

[231] Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, 224, p. 168. 

[232] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 143, p. 323. 

[233] Obituaires de Lyon I, Abbaye de Savigny, p. 355.       

[234] De Allobrogibus VI, p. 388. 

[235] Cononis Gesta Episcoporum Lausannensium 9, MGH SS XXIV, p. 796. 

[236] Catalogi Abbatum Sancti Eugendi Iurensis, MGH SS XIII, p. 745. 

[237] Société d´histoire de la Suisse romande (1851) Cartulaire du chapitre de Notre-Dame de Lausanne ("Lausanne Notre-Dame"), p. 38. 

[238] Grémaud, J. (ed.) (1863) Nécrologe de l´église cathédrale de Lausanne, Mémoires et documents publiés par la société d´histoire de la Suisse romande Tome XVIII (Lausanne) ("Lausanne Necrology"), p. 178. 

[239] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis I 972, MGH SS VIII, p. 367. 

[240] Chartarium Viennensium 47, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 256. 

[241] Die Urkunden der Burgundischen Rudolfinger, 49, p. 176. 

[242] Rivaz I, p. 24, citing Hist. Patriæ Monum., Ch. t. II, p. 84. 

[243] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XXVI, p. 9. 

[244] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, XXXIV, p. 13. 

[245] ES I.2 200B.