BYZANTIUM, NOBILITY

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.                SOME EARLY BYZANTINE NOBILITY. 3

A.         EIGHTH CENTURY.. 3

B.         TENTH CENTURY.. 5

C.        ELEVENTH CENTURY.. 6

Chapter 2.                ANEMAS. 9

Chapter 3.                APOKAVKOS. 12

Chapter 4.                ASANES. 14

Chapter 5.                AXUCHOS. 21

Chapter 6.                CHRYSELIOS. 23

Chapter 7.                DALASSENOS. 24

Chapter 8.                DASIOTES. 28

Chapter 9.                DOKEIANOS. 29

Chapter 10.              EUFORBENOS. 30

Chapter 11.              GABRAS. 33

Chapter 12.              IASITES. 37

Chapter 13.              KALAMANOS. 39

Chapter 14.              KAMATEROS. 40

Chapter 15.              KAMYTZES. 44

Chapter 16.              KARANTENOS. 46

Chapter 17.              KASTAMONITES. 46

Chapter 18.              KEROULARIOS. 49

Chapter 19.              KONTOSTEFANOS. 50

Chapter 20.              MAKREMBOLITES. 55

Chapter 21.              MAVROZOMES. 57

Chapter 22.              METOCHITES. 58

Chapter 23.              MOUSELE. 59

Chapter 24.              MOUZALON. 60

Chapter 25.              PEGONITES. 63

Chapter 26.              PETRALOIFAS. 65

Chapter 27.              PHILANTHROPENOS. 67

Chapter 28.              PHOTIOS. 69

Chapter 29.              RALLIS [RAOUL], ROGERIOS. 71

Chapter 30.              STRATEGOPOULOS. 78

Chapter 31.              SYNADENOS. 79

Chapter 32.              SYRGIANNES. 85

Chapter 33.              TARCHANEIOTES. 86

Chapter 34.              TARONITES. 94

Chapter 35.              TORNIKES. 101

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The main noble families of the Byzantine Empire which did not achieve imperial status are set out in this document.  It does not provide an exhaustive analysis of all such families but highlights those which married into the imperial family or into royal and noble families in neighbouring countries.  Extracts from many Byzantine sources have been incorporated into this document, as discussed in the Introductions to the three documents which set out the Byzantine imperial families.  The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[1] has also been consulted, especially for Skylitzes and Skylitzes Continuatus (the original texts of which have not been seen) and seals.  References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have been incorporated where identified.  General historical information has been extracted and incorporated from secondary sources.  However, relatively little is known about the lives and careers of the Byzantine nobility.  The genealogies are in many cases fragmentary as documentary proof of relationships is sparse.  The practice of adopting family names of relatives who did not belong to the paternal line creates other difficulties in tracing these family lines.  By the 14th and 15th centuries, this led to the accumulation of four or even five family names making it extremely hard to recognise the agnatic line. 

 

I am grateful to Morris Bierbrier for reviewing an earlier version of this document and adding comments where indicated. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    SOME EARLY BYZANTINE NOBILITY

 

 

A.      EIGHTH CENTURY

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         KONSTANTINOS "Podopaguros" (-executed Constantinople 766).  Theophanes names "primus Constantinus patricius et publici cursus quondam logotheta, quem Podopagurum cognominavit, secundus eius frater Stategius patricius et excubitorum domesticus…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, adding that "fratres quidem duos Constantinum…et Strategium" were beheaded "in Cynegio"[2]m ---.  The name of Konstantinos´s wife is not known.  Konstantinos & his wife had one child: 

a)         STRATEGIOS .  Theophanes records that "Strategium Podopaguri filium…insanientem…adolescentum" was held in "monasterium…Dalmatarum"[3]

2.         STATEGIOS (-executed Constantinople 766).  Theophanes names "primus Constantinus patricius et publici cursus quondam logotheta, quem Podopagurum cognominavit, secundus eius frater Stategius patricius et excubitorum domesticus…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, adding that "fratres quidem duos Constantinum…et Strategium" were beheaded "in Cynegio"[4]

 

3.         ANTIOCHOS (-after 766).  Theophanes names "…tertius Antiochus…logothetæ et Siciliæ ducis…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, and may have been one of those blinded and exiled[5]

 

4.         DAVID (-after 766).  Theophanes names "…quartus David spatharius..et Opsicii comes…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, and may have been one of those blinded and exiled[6]

 

5.         THEOFILAKTOS (-after 766).  Theophanes names "…quintus Theophylactus Iconiensis protospatharius et Thraciæ dux…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, among those condemned to death but blinded and exiled[7]

 

6.         CHRISTOFOROS (-after 766).  Theophanes names "…sextus Christophorus Himerio patricio spatharius assignatus…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, and may have been one of those blinded and exiled[8]

 

7.         THEOFILAKTOS (-after 766).  Theophanes names "…octavus Theophylactus candidatus Marianaci deputatus…" among the leading nobles involved in a rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos V, and may have been one of those blinded and exiled[9]

 

 

 

B.      TENTH CENTURY

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS "Libos" (-killed in battle Achelous river 20 Aug 917).  Protospatharios.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "protospatharius Constantinus, Libis filius, nunc proconsul, patricius et magnus hetæriarcha" when recording his daughter´s marriage and that he appointed his son-in-law as governor of Taron[10]Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon VI invited "Κωνσταντίνου του Λιβός" to assist at the inauguration of "his monastery", the ceremony being interrupted by a strong wind called "λέψ"[11].  Symeon Magister records that the "λέψ" storm occurred in June in the twenty-second year of the emperor´s reign, although he does not mention either Konstantinos or the inauguration[12].  Adontz proposes that Konstantinos derived his nickname from this event[13].  Although different Greek consonants are used in the two words "Λιβός" and "λέψ" in this passage, a later extract names him "Κωνσταντίνος ο Λίψ" (see below).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Κωνσταντίνου του Λιβός" participated in the rebellion of Konstantinos Doukas (in 913) but escaped[14]Theophanes Continuatus names "Κωνσταντίνος ο Λίψ" among those killed in battle against the Bulgarians at "Acheloum flumen" dated to 20 Aug "indictione quinta"[15]m ---.  The name of Konstantinos´s wife is not known.  Konstantinos & his wife had two children: 

a)         daughter .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Apoganem Cricoricii Taronis principis fratrem" married "protospatharius Constantinus, Libis filius, nunc proconsul, patricius et magnus hetæriarcha…filiam", his father-in-law having been appointed governor of Taron[16]m ([900]) as his second wife, APOGANEM, son of --- of Taron & his wife --- (-[900]). 

b)         BARDAS (-after [961/62]).  Cedrenus records that "Basilios Volucris magister" led a revolt against Emperor Romanos II in the second year of his reign ([961/62]), with "patricium Paschalium, patricium Bardam Libis filium [Βάρδαν τόν του Λιβός] et Nicolaum Chalcutzam"[17].  The chronology suggests that Bardas must have been younger than his sister, whose marriage is dated to [900] (although it is possible that she was still a child at that date). 

 

 

 

C.      ELEVENTH CENTURY

 

 

1.         ANDRONIKOSDoux of Lydia.  m ---.  The name of Andronikos´s wife is not known.  Andronikos & his wife had one child: 

a)         MONGOS .  Cedrenus records that, after returning to Constantinople in Jan 1024, Emperor Basileios II sent forces "in Chatzariam" commanded by "duce Mongo Andronici duce Lydi filio" who, with the help of "Sphengo fratre Bladimeri, eius qui Basilii imperatoris sororem in matrimonio habebat" (not yet identified), subjugated the region and captured "principe eius Georgio Szulo" (also not yet identified)[18]

 

 

2.         NIKOLAOS (-after 1025).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), appointed "Nicolaum" as "famulorum cubiculi principem, scholarum domesticum et accubitorem"[19]

 

3.         NIKEFOROS (-after 1025).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), appointed "Nicephorum" as "protovestiarium"[20]

 

Four brothers: 

1.         NIKETAS (-[1034]).  Doux of Antioch.  Cedrenus records that "frater Constantinus" succeeded on the death of "Niceta Antiochiæ in Syria præfecto", dated to [1034] from the context[21]

2.         KONSTANTINOSDoux of Antioch.  Cedrenus records that "frater Constantinus" succeeded on the death of "Niceta Antiochiæ in Syria præfecto", dated to [1034] from the context[22]

3.         GEORGIOS .  Cedrenus records that "fratrum reliquus Georgius fit protovestiarius, Simeone…monasticam vitam ingresso" when "frater Constantinus" succeeded "Niceta Antiochiæ in Syria præfecto", dated to [1034] from the context[23]

4.         SIMEON (-after [1032]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), appointed "Simeonem" as "drungarium vigiliæ"[24].  Cedrenus records that "fratrum reliquus Georgius fit protovestiarius, Simeone…monasticam vitam ingresso" when "frater Constantinus" succeeded "Niceta Antiochiæ in Syria præfecto", dated to [1034] from the context[25]m ---, daughter of KONSTANTINOS & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who  names "Simeonem…scholarum domesticum" and "Constantini soceri sui", dated to [1032][26]

 

 

5.         EUSTATHIOS (-after [1029/32]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios appointed "Eustathium patricium Daphnomelum" as governor of "Ionium…apud Eilisson castellum…caput…totius Bulgariæ", dated to 1017[27].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), appointed "Eustathius" as "magnæ soliditatis ducem"[28].  Cedrenus records that "Eustathius patricius ac dux Daphnomelus" was exiled on suspicion of involvement in the conspiracy allegedly led by Konstantinos Diogenes, dated to [1029/32][29]

 

6.         SPONDYLIS (-after [1032]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), appointed "Spondylen quemdam eunuchum" as "Antiochiæ ducem"[30].  Cedrenus records that "Potho Argyro" captured an Arab prisoner who was taken in chains to Antioch but released by "Spondyles Antiochiæ dux", dated to [1032][31]

 

7.         NIKETAS (-after 1025).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), appointed "Nicetam e Pisidia oriundum" as "ducem…Iberiæ"[32]

 

8.         MIKHAEL BurtzesMagisterm ---.  The name of Mikhael´s wife is not known.  Mikhael & his wife had three children: 

a)         KONSTANTINOS Burtzes (-[1025 or after]).  Patrikios.  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), blinded "Constantinum patricium, magistri Michaeli Burtzæ filium"[33]

b)         MIKHAEL THEOGNOSTOS Burtzes (-after [1029/32]).  Cedrenus records that "Michaelus Theognostus et Samuelus, magistri Michaeli Burtzæ filii" were exiled on suspicion of involvement in the conspiracy allegedly led by Konstantinos Diogenes, dated to [1029/32][34]

c)         SAMOUIL Burtzes (-after [1057]).  Cedrenus records that "Michaelus Theognostus et Samuelus, magistri Michaeli Burtzæ filii" were exiled on suspicion of involvement in the conspiracy allegedly led by Konstantinos Diogenes, dated to [1029/32][35].  Cedrenus names "Samuel patricius Burtzes" on campaign in Adrianople against the Pechenegs, dated to [1050][36].  Cedrenus names "Romanus Sclerus, Burtza, Botaneiates, Basilii Argyrii filii" among the supporters of Isaakios Komnenos, in 1057[37].  m ---.  The name of Samouil´s wife is not known.  Samouil & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [THEOGNOSTOS Burtzes (-after [1073/75]).  Skylitzes names "proconsul Theognostus Burtzes" at the time of the Bulgarian revolt of Konstantin Bodin of Duklja, dated to [1073/75][38].  His parentage has not been confirmed but from a chronological point of view he may have been the son of Samouil, named after his paternal uncle.] 

 

 

9.         KONSTANTINOS Khages (-after [1034]).  Cedrenus records that "Cibyrræotarum dux Constantinus Chages" commanded a fleet against "Saraceni Afri et Siculi", dated to [1034] from the context[39].  Cedrenus records that "Constantinus Chages patricius" conquered "Cypriis" which had been lost by "Theophilus Eroticus Cypri prætor" for Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachus, dated to after [1042] from the context[40]same person as…?  KONSTANTINOS Kaballarios (-killed in battle [1043]).  Cedrenus records that "Constantinus Caballarius Cibyrræotarum dux" was killed in battle, dated to [1043] from the context[41]

 

10.      ANASTASIOSLogothetam ---.  The name of Anastasios´s wife is not known.  Anastasios & his wife had one child: 

a)         MIKHAEL (-after 1059).  Cedrenus records that "Stephanus qui et Boisthlabus" occupied "Illyricos…montes" and defeated "Michaele patricio Anastasii logothetæ filio, tum Dyrrachii præfecto" who was sent by Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachus, dated to after [1042] from the context[42].  Cedrenus records that "magister Michaelus Anastasii filius, patricius Theodorus Chryselius, patricius Christophorus Pyrrhus, omnes sodalitatum duces" supported Patriarch Kirularios in his dispute with Emperor Isaakios Komnenos, dated to [1058][43]

 

11.      EUTHYMIOSm ---.  The name of Euthymios´s wife is not known.  Euthymios & his wife had two children: 

a)         NIKEFOROS .  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus et Michael, Euthymii filii" were accused of rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos X Monomachos and that Nikeforos was exiled, dated to [1050][44]

b)         MIKHAEL .  Cedrenus records that "Nicephorus et Michael, Euthymii filii" were accused of rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos X Monomachos, dated to [1050][45]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    ANEMAS

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Anemas (-after [1000]).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Konstantinos Anemas spatharios and episkeptites of Armeniakon"[46]

 

Brother [and sister], whose parents are not known: 

2.         --- Anemasm ---.  --- Anemas & his wife had four children:  

a)         MIKHAEL Anemas .  The Alexeiad records the revolt against Emperor Alexios I by "the four…Anemas (Mikhael, Leo, --- and ---)…brothers", recording in a later passage that Mikhael was released from imprisonment after the intercession of the empress[47].  In another passage, "Ioannes, the emperor's nephew, son of his eldest sister" is referred to as "a cousin on the paternal side of the rebel [Mikhael Anemas]"[48]

b)         LEON Anemas .  The Alexeiad records the revolt against Emperor Alexios I by "the four…Anemas (Mikhael, Leo, --- and ---)…brothers"[49]

c)         --- Anemas .  The Alexeiad records the revolt against Emperor Alexios I by "the four…Anemas (Mikhael, Leo, --- and ---)…brothers"[50]

d)         --- Anemas .  The Alexeiad records the revolt against Emperor Alexios I by "the four…Anemas (Mikhael, Leo, --- and ---)…brothers"[51]

3.         [daughter .  The Alexeiad names "Ioannes, the emperor's nephew, son of his eldest sister" as "a cousin on the paternal side of the rebel [Mikhael Anemas]"[52], which suggests that the paternal grandmother of Ioannes Taronites must have been a paternal aunt of the Anemas brothers.  m --- Taronites, son of ---.] 

 

4.         IOANNES Anemas (-after [1100]).  Three seals dated to [1100] name "Ioannes Anemas"[53]

 

5.         NIKOLAOS Anemas .  Theophylact of Ohrid sent a letter addressed to Nikolaos Anemas, official in Bulgaria[54]

 

6.         PANKRATIOS Anemas .  Two documents at Lavra names Pankratios Anemas, in Thessaloniki, dated to the late 11th century[55]

 

7.         MANUEL Anemas, son of --- (-[1146/47]).  It is not known how Manuel Anemos was related to the previous family group, if at all.  From a chronological point of view, it is likely that there were two intervening generations between the four brothers Anemos shown above and Manuel.  Panhyperprotosebastypértatosm THEODORA Komnene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary ([1116]-12 May 1157[56]).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “tis kaisarisses kyras Marias, tis kyras Annes, tis kyras Theodoras, kai tis kyras Eudokias”, after “tou sebastokratoros kyrou Manouel tov filtaton mou thigateron”, implying that all four were his daughters[57].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun after her husband died.  Manuel Anemas & his wife had at least four children:

a)         ALEXIOS Komnenos Anemas.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ANNA Dukoblastos, daughter of ---.  Her name Anna is recorded in a poem by Proedros, in which she is called Dukoblastos without giving any parentage.  According to Sturdza[58], she was Anna Komnene Doukaina, daughter of Andronikos Komnenos & his wife Evdokia Doukaina.  The primary source on which this is based is not known.  Alexios and his wife are not named in the documentation of the church of St Mary Pammakaristos (which names other members of the family of Andronikos Komnenos), suggesting that the hypothesis may not be correct.  It is assumed that the parentage suggested by Sturdza is no more than a guess[59].  According to Sturdza[60], this couple were the ancestors of the Komnenoi-Anemoi family.   

b)         --- Komnene Anema.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m IOANNES Angelos, son of MIKHAEL Angelos & his wife ---.  Pansébastos and sébastos.  1157/66. 

c)         [--- Komnene Anema.  As noted below, Stiernon argues that the most logical conclusion from the poem by Lampros, quoted below, is that the mother of Andronikos Lapardas´s wife was the niece of Emperor Manuel I and the daughter of Theodora Komnene[61]m ---.  The name of her husband is not known.  One possible child:]   

i)          [THEODORA Komnene (-after 1186).  Theodoros Balsamon records that “Comnenam dominam Theodoram...Lapardæ...domini Andronici conjux” was tonsured by Emperor Andronikos I[62].  A poem by Lampros records the donation made by “Theodoras...Komnenes...profyrothalous engonys Theodoras, es pappos Alexios ausonokrator, pater de blastos porfyras Ioannes, autokrator tropaia myria drasas, synaimos anax Manouel Romes Neas...e tov Lapardan ex eponymou genous sebastov Andronikov...[63].  Stiernon argues that the most logical conclusion from this passage is that the wife of Andronikos Lapardas was the great-niece of Emperor Manuel I, granddaughter of Theodora Komnene[64].  According to Kerbl, her betrothal to King Béla must have taken place after the murder of Emperor Andronikos I, with whom King Béla III did not enjoy close relations[65].  It was presumably arranged by Andronikos's successor Emperor Isaakios II Angelos.  Theodora became a nun in 1186.  m ANDRONIKOS Lapardas, son of --- (-[1183/85]).  SébastosThe record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...sebasto et domestico vestiario...regis et chartulario domino Andronico Lombardo...[66].  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Andronicus Lampardas et Nicephorus Petralipha" in a campaign in Hungary[67].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Andronicus principis chartularius, cognomento Lampardas" took part in the campaign against the Hungarians led by Ioannes Doukas, dated to Jul 1167[68].  Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii Iohannes et Andronicus...Macroducas Constantinus et Lapartas Andronicus" among those who witnessed the defeat at Myriokephalon, dated to 17 Sep 1176[69].  He was blinded by Emperor Andronikos I, and entered the monastery of Pantepopte.  Niketas Choniates records that "Andronico Lapardæ" was arrested and blinded[70]Betrothed (after Sep 1185)  to BÉLA III King of Hungary, son of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    APOKAVKOS

 

 

1.         LEON Apokavkos .  He was appointed strategos (governor) of the theme of ---: an undated seal (possibly dated to the 10th/11th century) records “Léon Apokaukos protospathaire et stratège[71]

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ALEXIOS Apokavkos (-murdered Constantinople 11 Jun 1345).  Befriended by Ioannes Kantakouzenos, he was one of the followers of the young co-Emperor Andronikos and supported the latter's rebellion against his grandfather Emperor Andronikos II in [1321][72].  After the accession of Emperor Andronikos III in 1328, Alexios Apokavkos was appointed controller of the imperial secretariat, treasury and the revenue[73]Mezason 1320-1341.  Megas dux 1341-1345.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Apocauchus" was declared "magnus dux" following the coronation of Emperor Ioannes V in 1341[74].  After the death of Emperor Andronikos III in 1341, and during the temporary absence of Ioannes Kantakouzenos on campaign in Thrace, Alexios Apokavkos plotted to seize power by convincing the emperor's widow that Kantakouzenos was her enemy and engineering his own appointment as prefect of Constantinople[75].  During the civil war which followed the latter's declaration as Emperor Ioannes VI in 1341, the Zealots at first succeeded in breaking the power of the aristocrats whom they evicted from Thessaloniki.  However, with Turkish military help Kantakouzenos succeeded in taking control in Thrace by end-1343.  The assassination of Alexios Apokavkos hastened the fall of the dowager empress's party[76]m firstly ---, daughter of --- Disypatos & his wife ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Apochaucus" married firstly "Disypati ministri S. Sophiæ filia"[77]m secondly ([1341]) ---, cousin of Georgios Khumnos, daughter of ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Apochaucus" married secondly "Chumnum magnum stratopedarcham…consobrinam", in a passage dated to 1341[78].  Alexios Apokavkos & his first wife had seven children: 

a)         IOANNES Apokavkos (-murdered Thessaloniki [Jul] 1345).  Nicephoras Gregoras refers to "Apocauci ex prima uxore filius", when recording that he was appointed governor of Thessaloniki [in 1344/45][79].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "magni ducis filius Ioannes Apocauchus…magnus primicerius et præfectus Thessalonicæ" proposed to surrender Thessaloniki after hearing of the death of his father but was killed, in a passage dated to [1346][80]m --- Batatzaina, daughter of IOANNES Batatzes megas stratopedarchos, epitrope of Thessaloniki & his wife ---.  Nicephoras Gregoras refers to "Ioanne Batatze…filia" as the wife of "Apocauco filium suum" who had been governor of Thessaloniki[81]

b)         MANUEL Apokavkos .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Manuel Apocauchus, magni ducis filius…urbis præfectus" recording that he fled the city for "Bucellum", in a passage dated to [1344][82].  His father appointed him governor of Adrianople in 1342, but he defected to Ioannes Kantakouzenos in 1344[83]

c)         daughter .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Gabalas...logotheta" had long been betrothed to "magnus dux [=Apokavkos] filiam suam" but that her father postponed the marriage with excuses about the corpulence of the bridegroom because he hoped to marry her to Emperor Ioannes V, dated to 1341[84]Betrothed (before Jul 1341) to IOANNES Gabalas, son of ---. 

d)         daughterHer parentage and first marriage are confirmed by Nicephoras Gregoras who names "Andronico Paleologo, qui Apocauci gener erat", when recording that he drowned [in 1344][85].  Nicephoras Gregoras records the second marriage of "Alexii Apocauci filiam…Andronico Palaeologo antehac nuptam" and "Irenem imperatricis [frater]…Ioannes"[86]m firstly ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos [Angelos-Epirus] & his wife --- (-drowned 1344).  Protostrator.  Megas stratopedarchos 1342.  m secondly (1347) IOANNES Asanes, son of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Komnenos Asanes & his wife --- Tarchanaiotissa (-1355 or after).  Sébastokrator 1345/55.  Governor of Constantinople 1350.  Despot and Governor of Peritherion 1355. 

e)         daughter .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Apochaucum…una filiaram" and "filio…patriarcha", dated to 1341[87]m ([1341]) --- Kalekas, son of --- IOANNES Kalekas Patriarch & his wife ---. 

f)          daughter .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Apochaucum…filiam" and "filium Zampeæ…e Sabaudia…Artotum", dated to 1341[88].  It is assumed that "Zampea" came to Constantinople in the suite of Empress Anna, formerly Jeanne de Savoie, at the time of her marriage to Emperor Andronikos III in 1326, although it is unlikely that this was her original name.  m ([1341]) ARTAUD, son of --- & his wife [Zampea] ---. 

g)         daughter .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that Empress Anna betrothed "Apochauci magni ducis filia” to “Tomprotitzae", an earlier passage recording that "Mpalice Carbonæ princeps” had sent “Theodorum et Tomprotitzam fratres" with troops to Constantinople, dated to 1346[89].  Estangüi Gómez says that this daughter was “certainement la même que celle autrefois promise à Gabalas”, but his statement appears to be based only on the favourable chronology[90]m ([1346]) DOBROTIĊ [Bulgar chief], son of ---. 

2.         IOANNES Apokaukos .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Ioannes et Nicephorus magni ducis fratres", in a passage dated to [1362][91]

3.         NIKEFOROS Apokaukos .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Ioannes et Nicephorus magni ducis fratres", in a passage dated to [1362][92]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    ASANES

 

 

IVAN ASEN Mytzes of Bulgaria, son of IVAN Mico [Mytzes] Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife [Tamara] Asenina of Bulgaria (-before 1302).  Pachymeres names "Mytzæ primogenitor Ioanni" when recording his betrothal[93].  He was installed in 1278 by Emperor Mikhael VIII, who was concerned with the deteriorating stability in Bulgaria, as IVAN ASEN III Mytzes Tsar of the Bulgarians.  With a Byzantine army he besieged Trnovo in Autumn 1278.  The city opened its gates to him in Feb 1279, during Ivajlo's absence fighting the Tatars, and he was recognised as Tsar[94].  His forces pursued Ivajlo, besieging him in the fortress of Silistria.  To increase his power base, he married his sister to a leading Trnovo boyar[95].  He was expelled in 1280 by Ivajlo, and fled to the Tatars and then to Constantinople.  Pachymeres records that "Asani" was awarded the title "despot" in Byzantium [in 1284][96].  Pachymeres names "propriam germanam Irenen, Asanis viduam" when recording that Emperor Andronikos II sent her by fast ship to "Cyzicum", a passage is probably dateable to [1302] which sets Ivan Asen's date of death[97]

m (Betrothed [1263], 1278) EIRENE Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina of Nikaia ([1255/58]-).  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Mytzæ primogenitor Ioanni" and "primogenita…imperatoris filia…Irenæ", dated from the context to the early part of her father's reign, a later passage recording the couple's marriage[98].  Pachymeres names "propriam germanam Irenen, Asanis viduam" when recording that Emperor Andronikos II sent her by fast ship to "Cyzicum"[99].  Her marriage was agreed as part of the 1263 agreement between Ivan's father and Emperor Mikhael VIII under which the former surrended Mesembria to Byzantium[100]

Tsar Ivan Asen III & his wife had ten children, who adopted the surname Asanes/Asanina in Byzantium.   

1.         [--- Asanina .  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Michaeli Ioannis Ducæ Occiduorum…sebastocratoris filio" to "filiam ex Asane natam"[101].  The dating of this betrothal is unclear from the text, but it presumably predated Mikhael's capture and imprisonment in Constantinople.  The identity of the daughter of Tsar Ivan Asen is not known, but she was probably either Maria or Theodora, daughters of the Tsar known from other sources.  Betrothed ([1283, contract broken 1283/84]) to MIKHAEL Doukas Angelos of Neopatras, son of IOANNES Doukas Komnenos Angelos Lord of Thessaly & his wife --- (-murdered Constantinople 1307).] 

2.         MARIA Asanina .  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Rontzerius" and "Mariæ Asnais filiæ"[102].  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records the marriage of "le frère Roger" and "la nièce de l´empereur de Lantzaura"[103].  Her first marriage was arranged by her maternal uncle Emperor Andronikos II when he requested help from the Catalan Company to defend Asia Minor from the Turks[104].  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records that she gave birth to a son at Constantinople "qui vivait encore quand j´ai commencé ce livre" (the chronicle is dated to shortly after 1328)[105].  The primary source which confirms her possible second marriage has not yet been identified.  m [firstly] ([Sep] 1303) ROGER de Flor [von Blum], son of RICHARD [von] Blum & his wife --- [of Brindisi] (Brindisi[106] --- -murdered near Adrianople 5 Apr 1305).  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner names "Richard de Flor", falconer of Emperor Friedrich II who arranged his marriage to "une fille d´un honourable homme de la cité de Brindes", their sons "l´aîné Jacques de Flor, et le plus jeune…Roger de Flor", his death in battle at Tagliacozzo in support of Conradin King of Sicily, when his older son was four years old and his younger son one, and Roger´s departure aboard a Templar vessel when still a child[107].  He was appointed Vice-Admiral of Sicily by Federigo I King of Sicily [Aragon] and became leader of the Catalan Grand Company.  As his services were no longer required in Sicily after the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, he turned his attention eastwards[108].  Emperor Andronikos II requested the Catalan Company for military help against the Turks.  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records that "le frère Roger" was appointed "mégaduc de l´empereur", and later cæsar[109].  Roger de Flor was the last person to bear this title[110].  The support soon turned to disaster when, after relieving the siege of Philadelphia in 1304, the Catalan Company pillaged the whole region killing Byzantines and Turks without distinction.  Roger de Flor was killed by an Alan commander while visiting the camp of co-Emperor Mikhael IX, after which the Catalan Company plundered Thrace and defeated the Byzantines at Apros[111].  [m secondly --- Arenos .] 

3.         THEODORA Palaiologina Asanina.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Manuelem Tagarin magnum stratopedarcham…vili et obscuro genere ortum" married "Theodoram Asaninem, imperatoris consobrinam"[112]m (before 1321) MANUEL Tagaris megas stratopedarchos (-after 1329).  

4.         MIKHAEL Palaiologos Komnenos AsanesIoannes Kantakouzenos names "Asaninam...Michaelis Asanis, filiorum Asanis despotæ primogeniti" when recording the death of his wife[113]A supporter of Emperor Andronikos II.  Byzantine military leader in Macedonia 1327/28.  He defected 1328 to Stefan Uroš III Tsar of Serbia, handing him Prosek.  Megas konstavlosm --- (-[1342]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Asaninam [...uxorem] Michaelis Asanis, filiorum Asanis despotæ primogeniti" was killed, dated to 1342[114]  

5.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Komnenos Asanes (-after 1355)Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "fratres eius Constantinum et Isaacium magnum ducem", which appears to refer back to "Andronicum Asanem magni domestici socerum", dated to 1341[115]In 1316, Emperor Andronikos II appointed him governor of Mistra, styled "captain of the land and castles in the Peloponnesos", and succeeded in taking the castles of Akova and Karytaina from the Franks and captured the grand constable Bartolomeo Ghisi[116].  Military leader [1316]-[1342].  Governor of Thrace 1341/43.  He was imprisoned by Alexios Apokavkos in 1343/44, taken to Constantinople before 1347, but released by Ioannes Kantakouzenos.  m --- Tarchanaiotissa, daughter of MIKHAEL Doukas Glabas Tarchaneiotes & his wife Maria Palaiologina Branaina.  Andronikos Asanes & his wife had four children:

a)         MANUEL Komnenos Raoul Asanes.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Manueli Asani, Andronici filio cognate suo", referring to Emperor Andronikos III[117].  Nicephoras Gregoras refers to "imperatrice Irene Cantacuzena" and "de duobus illius fratribus", in a later passage naming "eius fratri Manueli Asani" and recording that he was granted "Didymotichi præfecturam"[118].  Military leader in Thrace 1329/30 and 1341/55.  Arrested for treason [1335/41], he was freed by Ioannes Kantakouzenos.  Strategos of Didymoteichos 1342.  Governor of Bizye, Thrace 1344.  Megas primikerios before 1345.  Sébastokrator 1345/[1354].  Despot [1354]/1355.  m ([1321]) ANNA Komnene Doukaina Palaiologina Synadene, daughter of THEODOROS Synadenos & his wife ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Manuele Asane, fratre uxoris magni domestici" married "protostrator…Annam filiam", dated to [1321] from the context[119].  She was arrested in Constantinople in 1342.  Manuel & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANDRONIKOS Asanes ([1327/34]-).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andronico Asane, ex fratre uxoris genitor…Manuele Asane" ("uxoris" referring to the wife of Emperor Ioannes VI) stating that he was "adolescentulum", in a passage dated to [1342][120]Panhypersébastos 1352.  He took part in the synod of Palamos.  Sébastokrator and military leader of the Kantakuzenoi in Bizye, Thrace.

b)         IOANNES Asanes.  Nicephoras Gregoras names "imperatricis Irenes fratrem Ioannem" and recording that he was granted "Melinici…præpositum"[121].  Arrested in Thrace 1335/41.  Governor of Melenikon 1342.  Governor of Morrha, Thrace 1343.  Military leader 1345.  Sébastokrator 1345/55.  Governor of Constantinople 1350.  Despot and Governor of Peritherion 1355.  m (1347) as her second husband, --- Apokavke, widow of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Angelos, daughter of ALEXIOS Apokavkos & his wife ---.  Nicephoras Gregoras records the second marriage of "Alexii Apocauci filiam…Andronico Palaeologo antehac nuptam" and "Irenem imperatricis [frater]…Ioannes"[122].  Ioannes & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [ANNA Asanina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was named in 1374 as cousin of Empress Helena.  m IOANNES Palaiologos Kontostefanos, son of --- (-before May 1386).  Megas primikerios 1369/73.]

c)         EIRENE Asanina (-[1363/79]).  Nicephoras Gregoras refers to "imperatrice Irene Cantacuzena" and "de duobus illius fratribus"[123]Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andronicum Asanem magni domestici socerum", dated to 1341, and in a later passage “Andronico Asane Cantacuzeni socero”, dated to 1343[124]She became a nun as EVGENIA in 1354 in the convent of St Martha.  m (before 1320) IOANNES Palaiologos Angelos Komnenos Kantakouzenos, son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife Theodora Angelina Palaiologina ([1294/95]-Mistra 15 Jun 1383).  He was declared co-Emperor IOANNES VI in 1341, crowned Emperor in 1346.

d)         HELENE Asanina (-young).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

6.         ISAAKIOS Palaiologos Asanes (-before Oct 1351)Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "fratres eius Constantinum et Isaacium magnum ducem", which appears to refer back to "Andronicum Asanem magni domestici socerum", dated to 1341[125]Megas duxPanhypersébastos 1341/51.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Isaacius…Asanes" was declared "panhypersebastus" following the coronation of Emperor Ioannes V in 1342[126].  Leader of State Commerce in Constantinople 1345.  He opposed Ioannes Kantakouzenos.  m firstly (before 1320) ARACHANTLAN, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her origin and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was probably a Mongol.  She adopted the name THEODORA in Byzantium.  m secondly ---.  The name of Isaakios's second wife is not known.  Isaakios Asanes & his second wife had four children:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Asanes.  “Megas Primikerios Andronikos Asanes” is named in a source dated 1383[127].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas primerkerios 1351/1383.  m ---.  The name of Andronikos's wife is not known.  Andronikos Asanes & his wife had [one possible child]:

i)          [daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  It is possible that she was the daughter of Manuel Asanes (see above)[128].  1383.  m --- Raoul, son of ---.]   

b)         MIKHAEL Asanes (-Morea before 1383).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was arrested with his father in 1342.  He took part in the Synod of Palamas in 1351.  His cousin Emperor Ioannes V appointed him and his brother Andreas as joint Governors of Morea in late 1355, but was obliged to withdraw their appointments due to local opposition and confirm Manuel Kantakouzenos in their place[129]m ---.  The name of Mikhael's wife is not known. 

c)         EIRENE Asanina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1346/51]) --- Philanthropenos, son of ---.  

d)         ANDREAS Asanes (-after [1373/74]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His cousin Emperor Ioannes V appointed him and his brother Mikhael as joint Governors of Morea in late 1355, but was obliged to withdraw their appointments due to local opposition and confirm Manuel Kantakouzenos in their place[130].  He was probably in Constantinople in 1373/74.  

7.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Asanes (-after 1342).  “Konstantinou pais...Myson basileos Asan” is named in a poem[131].  Military leader 1328.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "duce Constantino Asano" as one of the supporters of Emperor Andronikos II in his conflicts with his grandson[132]Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "fratres eius Constantinum et Isaacium magnum ducem", which appears to refer back to "Andronicum Asanem magni domestici socerum", dated to 1341[133]He opposed Ioannes Kantakouzenos, and was placed under house arrest by Apokavkos in 1342.  m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos Asanes & his wife had one child: 

a)         MIKHAEL Komnenos Tornikes Palaiologos Asanes (-[1355])Mikhael tou Asan...Konstantinou pais” is named in a poem[134].  Governor of Lesbos 1342/55.  m (before 1330) EIRENE Komnene Kantakouzene Palaiologina Synadene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Synadenos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1342.  Mikhael Asanes & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [IOANNES Doukas Angelos Palaiologos Raoul Laskaris Tornitzes Philanthropenos Asanes.  In Morea during the first half of the 15th century.]  m [--- Tsamplakonissa, daughter of DEMETRIOS Tsamplakos megas stratopedarchos & his wife Evdokia Palaiologina].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

8.         MANUEL Asanes (-after 1345).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Manuel Asanes Irenes imperatoris patruus"among the supporters of Serbia, dated to 1345[135]

9.         Three other children .  The primary source which confirms their parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

Three brothers and one sister, parents not known.  According to Trapp[136], they were cousins of Emperor Manuel II. 

1.         IOANNES Asanes (-Eubœa 20 Jun 1386).  Archon at Constantinople 1371.  Arrested.  He became a teacher on Eubœa.  m ---, sister of --- Laskaris Palaiologos, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Ioannes Asanes & his wife had two children: 

a)         HELENE Asanina Palaiologina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  [1400].  m MANUEL Raoul Melikes.  In Morea 1439/40. 

b)         daughter. 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Asanes (-[1415]).  In Italy 1369/1370.  Melograph 1385/1415.  Senator 1409. 

3.         son. 

4.         THEODORA Asanina (-1/21 May 1398).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m BARTOLOMEO [III] Ghisi Lord of 1/3 Negroponte, Eubœa, Tinos and Mykonos, son of GIORGIO [II] Ghisi & his wife Simona d'Aragón (-[18 Sep 1383/24 Jul 1390]).  Marshall of the Principality of Achaia.  He was appointed member of the High Council of the Republic of Venice in 1383, in compensation for Venice having bought the suzerainty over Eubœa from Jacques des Baux titular Emperor of Constantinople[137]

 

 

The relationship between the following family groups and the other members of this family is unknown:

1.         ISAAKIOS Asanes .  1400.  m ---.  The name of Isaakios's wife is not known.  Isaakios & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Asanina .  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Georgios Phrantzes who records an incident during the siege of Patras, dated to 29 Mar 1429, when he rescued Konstantinos Palaiologos [the future Emperor Konstantinos XI] but was captured after falling from his horse, a thoroughbred which "ameras" [the emir, unspecified] had given to “Isaacio Asani” who had later given it to “Georgio Philanthropeno genero [γαμβρω] suo” who, in turn had given it to “Comneno consobrino [ανεψιω], Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”, adding that the latter “Galatam fugientem” [fleeing to Galata] had been captured by Phrantzes’s brother (who had been granted the horse as a reward)[138]m GEORGIOS Doukas Philanthropenos, son of --- (-[1452]). 

 

2.         DEMETRIOS Asanes.  Governor of Corinth 1444.  Governor of Muchlion in the Peloponese 1456/58, which he surrendered to the Turks.  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Demetrius Asanes" surrendered "Mochlium" to the Ottomans in 1458[139].  He presumably survived his three sons, according to the letter of consolation sent to him after their deaths (see below).  m ---.  The name of Demetrios's wife is not known.  Demetrios Asanes & his wife had four children:

a)         IOANNES Asanes .  On Rhodos.  Ioannes Dokeianos sent a letter of consolation to Demetrios Asan for the loss of his three sons, an unnamed first son, "Alexios", both of whom "died contending for the fatherland", and a third who "died…martyr to a principled decision" who "left behind children and a widow"[140]

b)         ALEXIOS Asanes (-killed in battle against the Turks).  Ioannes Dokeianos sent a letter of consolation to Demetrios Asan for the loss of his three sons, an unnamed first son, "Alexios", both of whom "died contending for the fatherland", and a third who "died…martyr to a principled decision" who "left behind children and a widow"[141]

c)         THOMAS Asanes (bur Naples).  Ioannes Dokeianos sent a letter of consolation to Demetrios Asan for the loss of his three sons, an unnamed first son, "Alexios", both of whom "died contending for the fatherland", and a third who "died…martyr to a principled decision" who "left behind children and a widow"[142].  The son who died and left a widow and children may have been Ioannes or Thomas.  [m ---.] 

d)         MARIA Asanina (-after 1460).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  After the death of her husband, she was taken to Constantinople where she was courted by Georgios Amiroutzes, former minister of David Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond whom he had betrayed, who "dropped down dead, a dice-box in his hand"[143]m firstly FRANCO Acciaiuoli, son of ANTONIO [II] Acciaiuoli & his wife Maria Giorgi (-murdered 1460).  m secondly (bigamously 1463) GEORGIOS Amiroutzes (-Constantinople after 1469).  Philosopher and Theologist.  Protobestiarios in Trebizond [1458]/61, megas logothetes.  He took part in the council of Florence.  He was the teacher of Sultan Mohammed II in 1461. 

 

3.         MANUEL Laskaris Palaiologos Asanes.  Governor of Imbros [1438/39]-1444. 

 

4.         MARIA Palaiologina Tsamplakinissa Asanina (-in Trebizond after 1447).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1440/46]) IOANNES Gabras Prince of Gothia, son of ALEXIOS Gabras Prince of Gothia & his wife --- (-in Trebizond after 1447). 

 

5.         ALEXANDROS Asanes.  The Pope promised him help to retake Imbros in 1458/59.  

 

6.         PAULOS Asanes.  Ambassador to Sultan Murad II 1437.  Governor of Constantinople 1438/40.  He fled with his daughters to the Peloponese 1441.  m ---.  The name of Paulos's wife is not known.  Paulos Asanes & his wife had three children:

a)         MATHAIOS Palaiologos Asanes (-29 Mar 1467).  On Lemnos and in Morea 1449.  He defeated the Turks at Leontarion in 1452.  Governor of Corinth 1454/58, which he surrendered to the Turks.  Georgios Phrantzes records that "duces fortissimo, Matthaeus Asanes, frater uxoris Demetrii despotæ, filius Pauli Asanis…et Nicephorus Lucanes" surrendered to the Ottomans in 1458[144].  He was in the service of the Turks in 1458, holding the salt monopoly.  He was banished to Didymoteichon for fraud.  m --- Eudaimonoioanne, daughter of GEORGIOS Eudaimonoioannes, mesaxon in Morea & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Matthaios & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         THEODORA Asanina (-[1470/71]).  Her origin is confirmed by Georgios Phrantzes who names "Matthaeus Asanes, frater uxoris Demetrii despotæ, filius Pauli Asanis"[145].  Georgios Phrantzes records the death in autumn "anni 6979" of "Demetrius despota Adrianopoli…monachus David appellatus" and "eiusdem uxor, regina, non multo post"[146]m (Jun 1441) as his second wife, DEMETRIOS Palaiologos, despot, Governor of Selymbria, son of Emperor MANUEL II & his wife Jelena Dragaš of Serbia ([1407/08]-Adrianople 1470). 

c)         SIMONIS Palaiologina Asanina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  She was a nun as SYMPHROSYNE in 1452/62. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    AXUCHOS

 

 

1.         IOANNES Axouchos.  He was a Turk, taken prisoner in 1097[147]Sébastos 1118.  Megas domestikos.  m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Axouchos & his wife had five children:

a)         EIRENE Axouchina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.  Betrothed ([1148/51]) to ALEXIOS Komnenos sébastos, son of IOANNES Komnenos dux of Dyrrachium & his wife Anna Doukaina. 

b)         EVDOKIA Axouchina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1147/51]) STEPHANOS Komnenos, son of KONSTANTINOS Komnenos & his wife [Antiochena Euforbena] (-after 1156).  PansébastosMegas drongariosMember of the Synod 26 Jan 1156. 

c)         ALEXIOS Axouchos (-after 1170).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Dux of Cilicia.  Protostrator, Pansébastos.  He became a monk after the death of his wife.  m MARIA Komnene, daughter of co-Emperor ALEXIOS Komnenos & his [first wife Dobrodjeja [Evpraxia] of Kiev] (-1167).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father and that Alexios left one daughter who married "magni domestici Alexius"[148].  She died insane[149].  A seal dated to [1157/67] names "Maria porphyrogennetos…daughter of Alexius Komnenos the pious porphyrogennetos basileus and wife of Alexios the protostrator"[150].  She died insane[151].  Alexios Axouchos & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          IOANNES Komnenos Axouchos (-1201)PansébastosThe record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Manuel Kamytzes protostrator...Jean Comnène pansebaste sebaste [fils du protostrator]...”, “Jean Comnène” being identified by Stiernon not as the son of Manuel Kamytzes but the son of Alexios Axouchos[152]He conspired against Emperor Alexios III and was proclaimed emperor at Santa Sophia 31 Jul 1200.  He was killed by his soldiers.  m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Axouchos & his wife had [one possible child]: 

(a)       [--- Axouchina.  The name of Emperor Alexios's wife is not known.  Kuršankis argues that she was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Axouchos, mainly because of the name Axouchos was included in the names of the couple's first son[153].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[154], her name was Theodora.  There appears to be no basis for this except that Emperor Alexios's wife had a granddaughter of this name, although it is not certain that she was the couple's eldest granddaughter (the Byzantine practice being to name the eldest granddaughter after the paternal grandmother)[155]m ALEXIOS I Megas Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond, son of MANUEL Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife --- of Georgia (Constantinople 1182-Trebizond 1 Feb 1222).] 

ii)         three other children .  The primary source which confirms their parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    CHRYSELIOS

 

 

1.         IOANNES Chryselios ([940]-after [1005]).  Given the probable marriage date of his daughter, it is unlikely that Ioannes was born much later than [940].  Cedrenus records that Byzantium installed "Chryselio" as governor of Durazzo after "Asotæ Taronitæ filio" delivered the city and that he and "duobus suis filiis" were installed as patrikios, dated to [1005][156].  Werner Ehrlich von Ehrnfeld has highlighted the chronological difficulty with the statements in Cedrenus, revolving around the fact that Ioannes would have succeeded the husband of his granddaughter Miroslava [of Bulgaria] as governor of Durazzo[157].  The difficulty could be solved if the dating of all events in Cedrenus was inaccurate, which is possible, but at least ten years would need to be shaved off the events to make the appointment of Ioannes likely.  Another possibility is that Ioannes, referred to by Cedrenus, was a brother not the father of Agathe Chryselie.  m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Chryselios & his wife had [two] children:

a)         [THEODOROS ChryseliosArchon of Durazzo.]  m --- of Bulgaria, daughter of NIKOLAOS [Kumet] & his wife Ripsime ---.  Theodoros Chryselios & his wife had [two possible children]: 

i)          [KOSARA] Chryselie .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[158], Kosara was the daughter of Theodoros Chryselios Archon of Durazzo, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It appears likely that the name "Kosara" is merely a deformation of "Chryselie" and that the name of Ivan Vladimir´s wife is in fact unknown.  According to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, she was the daughter of Samuil Tsar of the Bulgarians[159], but this source appears to confuse her with Samuil´s daughter Miroslava.  m ([998]) IVAN VLADIMIR Knez of Duklja, son of PETRISLAV Knez of Duklja [Montenegro] & his wife --- (-murdered Prespa 22 May 1016, bur Krajina).] 

ii)         [--- Chryselie .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records the rebellion of "a certain Toparch named Cursilius" and his defeat by Voislav Knez of Duklja, and his escape to the "plain by the city of Skodra" where he died[160].  This event can be dated from the context of the Chronicle to [1020/40], which is probably too late for it to refer to Theodoros Chryselios.] 

b)         AGATHA Chryselie.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage date is estimated by Adontz on the assumption that her son Gavriil Radomir was adult in 986[161]m ([970]) SAMUIL Kometopulos, son of NIKOLA Kumet & his wife Ripsimia [Hripseme] of Armenia (-Prilep 6 Oct 1014).  He was crowned SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians in 997. 

 

 

2.         NIKOLAOS Chryselios (-after [1033]).  Cedrenus records that "patricius Nicolaus Bulgarus, cognomento Chryselius" held "castellum…Percrin" against "Alimus Saracenus…et eius filium", dated to [1033][162]

 

3.         THEODOROS Chryselios (-after 1058).  Cedrenus records that "magister Michaelus Anastasii filius, patricius Theodorus Chryselius, patricius Christophorus Pyrrhus, omnes sodalitatum duces" supported Patriarch Kirularios in his dispute with Emperor Isaakios Komnenos, dated to [1058][163]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    DALASSENOS

 

 

The main source for this family is Cheynet and Vannier[164]

 

 

1.         IOANNES Dalassenos (-after [1005]).  A seal dated to [1005] names "Ioannes Dalassenos, protospatharios and strategos"[165]

 

 

1.         DAMIANOS Dalassenos (-killed near Apamea 19 Jul 998).  Dux of Antioch 995.  m ---.  The name of Damianos´s wife is not known.  Damianos & his wife had [six] children: 

a)         KONSTANTINOS Dalassenos (-after 1042).  Zonaras records that Emperor Konstantinos VII decided to summon "patricium Constantinum Dalassenum…ex Armeniaca provincia" to marry one of his daughters and declare him his heir, but changed his mind before he arrived[166].  Cedrenus records the same event[167].  Zonaras records that "Dalassenus" was exiled to "insulam Platem" by Emperor Mikhael IV, dated to [1035/38][168].  Cedrenus records that "Joannes" (brother of Emperor Mikhael IV) imprisoned "Dalassenum…Theophanem quoque patricium fratrem eius et alterum eius fratrem patricium Romanum, et patruelem Adrianum" in "anno mundi 6547, indictione 7"[169].  He was released in 1042.  m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos Dalassenos & his wife had [two] children:

i)          --- Dalassene (-after [1035/38]).  Psellus records that Konstantinos Doukas's first wife was "the daughter of the great Constantine Dalassenus"[170].  Zonaras names "Dalassenus" and "Constantinus Ducas eius gener" when recording that the latter was imprisoned by Emperor Mikhael IV[171]m as his first wife, KONSTANTINOS Doukas, son of --- ([1006/07]-22 May 1067).  He succeeded in 1059 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS X.  No children. 

ii)         [--- Dalassene.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Skylitzes who names "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris uxoris frater" (assuming that "frater" should be interpreted as meaning brother-in-law)[172].  It should be noted that an alternative interpretation is that the passage refers to Samuil´s sister [Anna] who was married to Emperor Romanos IV.  She and her husband are not referred to by Cheynet and Vannier[173]m SAMOEL Alusianos., son of ALUSIAN of Bulgaria & his wife ---.] 

b)         THEOFILAKTOS Dalassenos (-after 1039).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios II appointed "Theophylactum Damiani Dalasseni filium" as army commander in Abkhazia after Nikeforos Phokas was killed[174].  Skylitzes names Theofilaktos as brother of Konstantinos Dalassenos[175]Prospatharios 1022.  A seal dated to [1025] names "Theophylaktos Dalassenos, katepano of Vaspurakan"[176].  An undated seal records “Théophylacte Dalassène protospathaire et stratège[177].  A seal dated to [1025] names "Theophylaktos Dalassenos anthypatos patrikios vestes and doux of Antioch"[178].  Cedrenus records that "Joannes" (brother of Emperor Mikhael IV) imprisoned "Dalassenum…Theophanem quoque patricium fratrem eius et alterum eius fratrem patricium Romanum, et patruelem Adrianum" in "anno mundi 6547, indictione 7"[179]

c)         ROMANOS Dalassenos (-after 1039).  Cedrenus records that "Joannes" (brother of Emperor Mikhael IV) imprisoned "Dalassenum…Theophanem quoque patricium fratrem eius et alterum eius fratrem patricium Romanum, et patruelem Adrianum" in "anno mundi 6547, indictione 7"[180]Katepan of Iberia. 

d)         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          ADRIANOS Dalassenos .  A seal dated to [1120] names "Adrianos Dalassenos"[181].  Cedrenus records that "Joannes" (brother of Emperor Mikhael IV) imprisoned "Dalassenum…Theophanem quoque patricium fratrem eius et alterum eius fratrem patricium Romanum, et patruelem Adrianum" in "anno mundi 6547, indictione 7"[182].  This text suggests that Adrianos was the son of another unnamed brother who is unrecorded elsewhere. 

e)         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          DAMIANOS Dalassenos (-killed [1030/39]).  He was the nephew of Konstantinos Dalassenos, so presumably the son of either Theofilaktos, Romanos Dalassenos or their other unnamed brother[183]

f)          daughter .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          daughter .  m --- (-[1029/30] or after).  Zonaras records that Emperor Romanos Argyros imprisoned "Constantinum Diogenem neptis ex sorore maritum" on suspicion of treachery but does not name him[184]

 

 

1.         --- Dalassena .  Her parental family is confirmed by Nikeforos Bryennios who records the marriage of "Ioanni" and "filia Charonis Alexii…Anna", stating that her mother was "genus a Dalassenis"[185]m ALEXIOS Kharon.  Prefect of Italy.  Alexios & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANNA Dalassena (-1 Nov [1100/02], bur Pantopopte).  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioanni" and "filia Charonis Alexii…Anna", stating that her mother was "genus a Dalassenis"[186].  The Alexeiad names "Anna Dalassena, the mother of the Komneni" when recording that she arranged the marriage of "the grandson of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest son"[187].  An undated seal records “Anne Dalassène curopalatissa[188].  Despoina 1048/57.  Regent of Byzantium 1081 and 1094-1095.  An undated seal records “Anne Dalassène la mère du basileus[189].  She became a nun at Pantopopte convent which she founded.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 1 Nov of "ma...despoina, la belle-mère de ma Majesté"[190]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 1 Nov of "Annas monaxes tes metros tou basileos"[191]m ([1042]) IOANNES Komnenos, son of MANUEL Erotikos Komnenos & his second wife --- ([1015]-12 Jul 1067). 

 

2.         THEODOROS Dalassenos (-after [1080]).  A seal dated to [1061] names "Theodoros Dalassenos, magistros"[192].  A seal dated to [1058] names "Theodoros Dalassenos, vestarches and strategos of Opsikion"[193].  Two seals dated to [1062/63] name "Theodoros Dalassenos, proedros et dux"[194].  A seal dated to [1080] names "Theodoros Dalassenos, magistros"[195]

 

3.         DAMIANOS Dalassenos (-after 1090).  Doux of Skopje.  Skylitzes records that Emperor Mikhael VII Doukas appointed "Damianus Dalassenus" as "Scopiis ducis" in succession to "Nicephorus Carantenus", dated to [1073][196].  An undated seal records “Damien Dalassène anthypatos et stratège[197]

 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Dalassenos (-[after 1100]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Konstantinos Dalassenos, protospatharios"[198].  A seal dated to [1075] names "Konstantinos Dalassenos, proedros et doux"[199].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Konstantinos Dalassenos Doukas"[200]

 

5.         THEOFILAKTOS Dalassenos (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Theophylaktos Dalassenos"[201]

 

6.         NIKEFOROS Dalassenos (-after [1112]).  A seal dated to [1112] names "Nikeforos Dalassenos"[202].  An undated seal records “Nicéphore Dalassène dishypatos et stratège[203]

 

7.         THEODOROS Dalassenos (-after [1200]).  Three seals dated to [1199] name "Theodoros Dalassenos, sebastos and eparchos"[204].  A seal dated to [1200] names "Theodoros Dalassenos, sebastos"[205]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    DASIOTES

 

 

1.         THEODOROS Dasiotes (-Iconium [1143/44]).  He died in prison.  m (1139) as her first husband, MARIA Komnene, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa] ([1126]-).  Niketas Choniates names "Maria…Andronici sebastacrator…filia" as wife of "Dasiotes"[206].  Theodoros Dasiotes & his wife had one child: 

a)         EIRENE Komnene Dasiotissa.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXIOS Palaiologos Doukas, son of ---.  The connection between this individual and either the Palaiologos or Doukas families has not been found. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    DOKEIANOS

 

 

1.         ROMANOS Dokeianos .  A seal dated to [1035] names "Romanos Dokeianos, spatharokandidatos and tourmaches"[207]

 

2.         NIKEFOROS Dokeianos (-9 Jan [1040]).  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Nichiforus catepani, qui et Dulchiano" arrived in Feb 1039, but that "prædictus Dulchianus" expelled rebels in 1040[208]Lupus Protospatarius records that "Dulchianus" fought the Normans in 1041 and fled to Bari[209].  The Annales Barensis record that "Nichiforus qui et Dulchiano, catepanus in civitate Ascolo" died 9 Jan 1040[210]m ---.  The name of Nikeforos's wife is not known.  Nikeforos & his wife had one child: 

a)         [MIKHAEL Dokeianos (-killed in battle Adrianople [1050]).  The Annales Barensis record that "Michael protospatarius et catepanus, qui et Dulkiano iunior" came "a Sicilia in Lombardia" in 1041[211].  This suggests that Mihael was the son of Nikeforos, whose death is recorded in the previous paragraph in the same source, but this is not without doubt.  Patrikios protospathariosBestiarios.  Prefect [Katepan] of Italy.  Cedrenus records that "Michaelus protospatharius Doccanus, homo ineptus" was appointed by Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos to succeed "Georgius Maniaces magister" as commander in Italy, dated to after [1042] from the context[212].  Cedrenus records that "Michael patricius Doceianus" was killed in battle in Adrianople fighting the Pechenegs, dated to [1050][213].  He died in battle fighting the Pechenegs.]  m ([1031]) --- Komnene, daughter MANUEL Erotikos Komnenos & his second wife --- ([1012]-).  Her origin is deduced from the Alexeiad naming "Dokeianos, nephew of the former emperor Isaakios Komnenos and cousin of Alexios" when recording his approval of the humane treatment accorded to Roussel after his rebellion was crushed, dated to 1073[214].  Mikhael Dokeianos & his wife had one child: 

i)          son (-after 1073).  The Alexeiad records that "Dokeianos, nephew of the former emperor Isaakios Komnenos and cousin of Alexios" approved of the humane treatment accorded to Roussel after his rebellion was crushed, dated to 1073[215]

 

3.         EUSTATHIOS Dokeianos .  A seal dated to [1060] names "Eustathios Dokeianos, spatharokandidatos epi tou Chrysotriklinou and komes of the arithmos"[216]

 

4.         STEFANOS Dokeianos .  A seal dated to [1073] names "Stephanos Dokeianos, protospatharios tagmatophylax and vestiarites"[217]

 

5.         THEODOROS Dokeianos .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Theodoros Dokeianos, patrikios"[218].  Nikeforos Bryennios names "per Paphlagoniam…Doceani Theodori vir nobilis…sanguineque Alexio coniuncti" (referring to Emperor Alexios I), explaining that "hic filius erat sororis patris illius"[219]

 

6.         [NIKOLAOS] Dokeianos, son of ---SébastosGautier records that Sofia, daughter of Isaakios, married “un sebaste Dokeianos[220].  The primary source which confirms his name has not been identified.  Magdalino and Cheynet name him Theodoros, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified[221]m SOPHIA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia.  Gautier records that Sofia, daughter of Isaakios, married “un sebaste Dokeianos” and that she became a nun as SUZANNA after the death of her husband[222].  1108.  Nikolaos Dokeianos & his wife had two children: 

a)         ISAAKIOS Dokeianos .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         EIRENE Dokeiana .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  EUFORBENOS

 

 

1.         ALEXANDROS Euforbenos .  The Alexeiad names "Alexander Euphorbenus" among those who fought in Illyricum for Emperor Alexios I[223]

 

2.         GEORGIOS Euforbenos .  The Alexeiad records that "George Euphorbenus" was appointed as a general by Emperor Alexios I and "sent by sea to Distra" to fight "the Scyths"[224]

 

3.         --- Euforbena .  Her family origin and marriage are confirmed by a poem of consolation of the “Manganeios” Prodromos, dated to the second half of the 12th century, for the wife “--- Forbini” of “--- Antiochos” who had died during a naval expedition[225]m --- Antiochos, son of ---.  Two children: 

a)         STEFANOS Antiochos .  His parentage is confirmed by a poem of consolation of the “Manganeios” Prodromos, dated to the second half of the 12th century, for the wife “--- Forbini” and the daughter of “--- Antiochos” which names the couple´s son “Stefanos”, implying that he was an adolescent or young man at the time[226]

b)         --- Antiochena Euforbena .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a poem of consolation of the “Manganeios” Prodromos, dated to the second half of the 12th century, for the wife “--- Forbini” and the daughter, wife of “Konstantios...sebastou” son of “Komnenon...Isaakiou...sebastou” and descendant of “sebastokratorounti”, of “--- Antiochos” who had died during a naval expedition[227]m KONSTANTINOS Komnenos, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastos & his wife ---.  Marina Loukaki points out the improbability that he was Konstantinos Komnenos, son of Isaakios Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia (-after 1147).  She highlights that the poem of consolation quoted above refers to Konstantinos´s father as Isaakios sébastos not as Isaakios sébastokrator, which is the title normally assigned in documentation to the father of Konstantinos Komnenos who died after 1147[228].  She also highlights the apparent chronological difficulty with this co-identity, although she concedes that the poem is difficult to date precisely.  The chronological difficulty is emphasised by the reference in the poem to the brother-in-law of Konstantinos as an adolescent or young man at the time of his father´s death (see above), assuming that it is dated correctly to the second half of the 12th century.  Darrouzés provides a different interpretation of the passage when he summarises the poem to indicate that Konstantinos was “fils d´Isaac...sébaste...né du sébastocrator[229].  The issue remains undecided as the phraseology of poems such as this one may be dictated by poetical considerations of language and meter rather than strict factual accuracy. 

 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Katakalon Euforbenos (-after Sep 1108).  The Alexeiad records that Emperor Alexios ordered Konstantinos Euforbenos (also referred to in the text as “Catacalon”) to Adrianople to attack the Cumans who had retired there, dated to [1095][230].  The Alexeiad records Konstantinos Euforbenos as in charge of the island of Cyprus[231].  The Alexeiad records that Konstantinos Euforbenos took part in the campaign against Bohémond I Prince of Antioch near Durazzo, dated to Sep 1108[232]m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos Euforbenos & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKEFOROS Katakalon Euforbenos (-[15 Aug 1118/1120]).  The Alexeiad names Nikeforos as son of Konstantinos Euforbenos when recording his participation in the same campaign as his father against the Cumans[233].  Panhypersébastos.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes provides for the future commemoration of "[le] gendre de ma Majesté le panhypersébaste kyr Nicéphore" on the date of his death[234].  Sébastokrator.  The date of his death is estimated from a poem by Prodromos, addressed to Empress Eirene, which lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie[235], given the death of the emperor 15 Aug 1118 and the death of the son of sebastokrator Andronikos estimated to [1120].  m ([1100]) as her second husband, MARIA Komnene, previously wife of GREGORIOS Gabras, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his first wife Eirene Doukaina (19 Sep 1085-after 1136).  The Alexeiad records the betrothal of "Gabras's son Gregory" to "one of my sisters" after his first betrothal was terminated[236].  Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters, stating that Maria married "Gabræ…Theodori sebasti et martyris filio", the marriage being annulled for consanguinity, and afterwards married "Phorbeni Catacalonis filium Nicephorum"[237].  The Alexeiad records that Nikeforos, son of Konstantinos Euforbenos, "afterwards became my brother-in-law when he married my younger sister Maria Porphyrogenita"[238].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Marie" on the date of her death[239]Georgios Tornikes metropolitan of Ephesus refers to Maria as living, dated to [1153][240]Nikeforos Euforbenos & his wife had three children: 

i)          ALEXIOS Komnenos EuforbenosThe record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...patruele...nostri regis domino Alexio Comneno filio pansebasti...[241]

ii)         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos Euforbenos .  Governor of Cilicia 1162.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Andronico Euphorbeno principis cognato" as Governor of Cilicia[242]

iii)        IOANNES Euforbenos (-10 Dec ----).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 10 Dec of "Ioannes o nios tes porfyrogenetou kyras Marias"[243]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  GABRAS

 

 

The main source for this family is Bryer[244]

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Gabras (-979). 

 

2.         MIKHAEL Gabras (-1040 or after).  Cedrenus records that "Michael Gabras, Theodosius Mesanietes" were blinded, accused of rebelling against Emperor Mikhael IV, dated to [1041] from the context[245]

 

3.         LEON Gabras .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Leon Gabras, imperial spatharokandidatos and ship's captain"[246]

 

4.         THEODOROS Gabras (-after 2 Oct 1098)Doux of Trebizond.  The Alexeiad records that "Theodore Gabras…from Chaldea, an aristocrat" was made "duke of Trapezus"[247].  An undated seal records “Théodore Gavras duc[248]m firstly  ---.  m secondly ([1091]) --- [of Georgia], daughter of --- [of Georgia] & his wife ---.  The Alexeiad records the second marriage of Theodoros Gabras to "an Alan of noble blood", commenting that "she and the sebastocrator's wife were daughters of two brothers", which resulted in the termination of the betrothal of Theodoros's son Gregorios as his projected marriage was thereby prohibited under ecclesiastical law[249].  The precise identity and parentage of Theodoros's second wife is not known.  Theodoros Gabras & his first wife had one child:

a)         GREGORIOS Gabras .  Zonaras names "Gabræ…Theodori sebasti et martyris filio", when recording his marriage[250]Betrothed ([1091]) [MARIA] Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia (-after 1091).  The Alexeiad records the betrothal of "Gabras's son Gregory" to one of the (unnamed) daughters of "the sebastocrator Isaakios Komnenos" and states that the betrothal was terminated after the second marriage of Theodoros Gabras to the cousin of Isaakios's wife, which meant that the marriage was thereby prohibited under ecclesiastical law[251].  Sturdza identifies the daughter as Maria[252], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m (annulled) as her first husband, MARIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his first wife Eirene Doukaina (19 Sep 1085-after [1153]).  The Alexeiad records the birth of a second daughter before a son was born to Emperor Alexios, but does not name her[253].  The Alexeiad records the betrothal of "Gabras's son Gregory" to "one of my sisters" after his first betrothal was terminated[254].  Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters, stating that Maria married "Gabræ…Theodori sebasti et martyris filio", the marriage being annulled for consanguinity, and afterwards married "Phorbeni Catacalonis filium Nicephorum"[255].  She married secondly ([1100]) Nikeforos Euforbenos.  In a later passage, the Alexeiad records that Nikeforos, son of Konstantinos Euforbenos, "afterwards became my brother-in-law when he married my younger sister Maria Porphyrogenita"[256].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Marie" on the date of her death[257]Georgios Tornikes metropolitan of Ephesus refers to Maria as living, dated to [1153][258]

5.         [--- Gabrasm ---.] 

a)         KONSTANTINOS Gabras .  He may alternatively have been the son or brother of Theodoros Gabras[259]ProtosébastosDux of Trebizond. 

 

 

1.         --- Gabras (-after 1121).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Balak petit-fils d'Ortok" defeated and captured "Gafras le Grec" in A.H. 514 (1120/21)[260].  He may be the same person as Theodoros Gabras, see above. 

 

2.         KONSTANTINOS GabrasA seal dated to [1135] names "Konstantinos Gabras, protonobelissimos"[261]A seal dated to [1150] names "Konstantinos Gabras"[262]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Gabras (-after 1170)Sébastos.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Michael cognomento Gabras" was granted "sebasti honore cum Chaluphe"[263]m ([1152/53]) as her second husband, EVDOKIA Komnene, widow of ---, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aideiadissa].  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam", adding that Evdokia became the mistress of her cousin Andronikos Komnenos (later Emperor Andronikos I) after the death of her husband[264].  This must refer to a first marriage which is unrecorded elsewhere, as her marriage to Mikhael Gabras is recorded subsequent to her affair with Andronikos Komnenos.  In a later passage, Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Eudocia Comnenia Andronici amica" and "Michæle…Gabra"[265].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Michael cognomento Gabras" married "ex fratre Manuelis neptim"[266]

 

4.         KATAKALON Gabras .  A seal dated to [1175] names "Katakalon Gabras"[267]

 

5.         IOANNES Gabras .  A seal dated to [1200] names "Ioannes Gabras sebastos"[268]

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

1.         BASILEIOS Gabrasm ---.  The name of Basileios's wife is not known.  Basileios & his wife had one child: 

a)         STEFANOS Gabras .  Prince of Crimea-Gothia.  He went to Moscow in 1391/1403.  He became a monk as SIMONm ---.  The name of Stephanos's wife is not known.  Stephanos & his wife had two children: 

i)          ALEXIOS Gabras (-killed in battle Balaklava [1444/47]).  Prince of Gothia.  m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios Gabras & his wife had [three possible children]: 

(a)       MARIA of Gothia.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the marriage in Nov 1429 of "the empress lady Maria…from Gothia, the daughter of Alexios from Theodoro" and "the pious despot…Lord David the Grand Komnenos"[269].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that David married the daughter of the ruler of Gothia[270].  [According to the 16th century historian Theodore Spandounes, writing in 1538, Emperor David married Helena, a sister of Eirene, whom he once calls Helena, of Serbia and Georgios Kantakouzenos.  He does not specify her parents[271], but logic would dictate that she would have been Helene Kantakouzene, daughter of Theodoros Palaiologos Kantakouzenos & his wife ---.  He recounts that, after the death of her husband and sons, she was condemned to pay a fine of 15,000 ducats or face the same fate[272].  The money was paid, but Helena put on sackcloth, built a hovel from straw beside the corpses outside the city walls, and secretly dug their graves with her own hands, dying a few days after completing the task.  The earlier Masarelli Vatican manuscript does not mention her because it specifies that the empress of Trebizond who was Eirene's sister was Theodora, David's mother[273].  Since David could not have married his aunt, it follows that Spandounes has confused the emperors in Trebizond.  Spandounes's stories relating to Helene therefore must relate to Emperor David's known wife Maria, if indeed there is any truth in them at all.]  m ([Nov] 1429) DAVID Megas Komnenos, son of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (-beheaded Constantinople 1 Nov 1463).  He succeeded in [1458/59] as DAVID Emperor in Trebizond

(b)       IOANNES Gabras (-in Trebizond after 1447).  Prince of Gothia.  m ([1440/46]) MARIA Palaiologina Tsamplakinissa Asanina, daughter of --- (-in Trebizond after 1447).  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ALEXIOS Gabras (-young). 

(c)       OLUBEI .  Prince of Gothia. 

-         PRINCES of THEODORO and GOTHIA[274]

ii)         GREGORIOS Gabras .  He went to Moscow with his father.  Ancestor of the families Chovrin and Golovin[275]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  IASITES

 

 

1.         LEON Iasites .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Leon Iasites, magistros vestes and strategos of Boukellarion"[276].  A seal dated to [1075] names "Leon Iasites, anthypatos patrikios vestes and komes of the stable"[277]

 

2.         THEODOROS Iasites .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Theodoros Iasites"[278]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Iasites (-after [1050]).  Mikhael Glykas records that "Iasita dux" captured the rebel Leon Tornikios (in 1047)[279].  A seal dated to [1048] names "Michael Iasites magistros and doux of Antioch"[280].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Michael Iasites magistros vestes and doux of all the West"[281]

 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Iasites (-after 1094).  A seal dated to [1072] names "Konstantinos Iasites protoproedros and epi ton deeseon"[282].  A seal dated to [1090] names "Konstantinos Iasites"[283].  "Constantin Iasitès curopalate" was present at the synod held at end-1094 at the Blachernes palace[284]m ---, daughter of KONSTANTINOS sébastos & his wife ---.  Kouroupou and Vannier record that the mother of Mikhael Iasites was "une fille du sébaste Constantin, neveu du patriarche Michel Cérulaire" but do not cite the primary source on which this information is based[285].  Konstantinos Iasites & his wife had one child: 

a)         MIKHAEL Iasites (-15 Mar, after 1117).  Mikhael Iasites is named in the mansucript Vaticanus graecus 169[286].  He became a monk as ATHANASIUS.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 15 Mar of "Athanasiou monaxou tou Iasitou kai gambrou tou Basileos"[287]m (separated [1110]) EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (14 Jan 1089-before [1130/31]).  The Alexeiad names "Porphyrogenita Eudocia" as the third daughter of Emperor Alexios[288].  Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters, stating that Evdokia married "Iasitæ Constantini filium"[289].  Nun at the convent of Kocharitomenes.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) records that Empress Eirene placed "ma...fille la porphyrogénète et moniale kyra Eudocie" in the monastery[290]The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Eudocie" on the date of her death[291]The Alexeiad records the presence of "Porphyrogenita Eudocia his third daughter" at the death of Emperor Alexios (who died 15 Aug 1118)[292].  Kouroupou and Vannier dates the death of Evdokia after her entry in the monastery "quelques années plus tard, après août 1118"[293].  Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie” and adds that “tu as fait disparâitre deux fils en même temps, cruel Telkine, la vie d´Andronic et la vigueur d´Isaac. L´un erre aux extrémités de l´Anatolie, mort vivant...l´autre est parti dans l´occident ténébreux de l´Hadès[294], which suggests that Evdokia died some time after [1120] (estimated date of death of Andronikos´s son) and [1130/31] (estimated date of death of Andronikos).  Mikhael Iasites & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          ALEXIOS Iasetes ([1112/15]-17 Mar ----).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 17 Mar of "Alexiou tou viou tes porfyrogennetou kyras Eudokias"[295]

ii)         [--- .  Nikolaos Kallikles dedicated a poem to "une porphyrogénète Eudocie, mère d´au moins deux enfants", who may have been the wife of Mikhael Iasites according to Kouroupou and Vannier rather than the daughter of Emperor Iohannes II[296].] 

 

5.         ADRALESTOS Iasites (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1095] names "Adralestos Iasites"[297].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Adralestos Iasites"[298]

 

6.         NIKEFOROS Iasites .  A seal dated to [1117] names "Nikeforos Iasites, protospatharios and strategos"[299]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  KALAMANOS

 

 

1.         KÁLMÁN, son of [BORIS KONRAD of Hungary & his wife Anna Doukaina] ([1137/1145]-after 1173).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He is assumed to have been born when his father was living in Constantinople.  He adopted the name KONSTANTINOS Doukas Kalamános in Byzantium[300], where he settled.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Constantino Ciliciæ duce, quem Calamanum iuvenem vocabant"[301]He became a General in the Byzantine army and was awarded the title sébastos by Emperor Manuel I. In 1163, Constance Pss of Antioch appealed to Konstantinos Kalamános, Byzantine Governor of Cilicia, for military support to maintain her position in Antioch[302].  General Kalamános joined forces with Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, Raymond III Count of Tripoli and Hugues de Lusignan to relieve the siege of the castle of Krak by Nur ed-Din in 1163[303].  He joined the same group in Aug 1164 to relieve another attack on Harenc, but was captured in an ambush at Artah, together with the other leaders, and taken bound to Aleppo, although Kalamános was released almost immediately in return for 150 silken robes[304].  He was appointed Governor of Cilicia in 1167, and also charged with the mission of ending the relationship between Andronikos Komnenos (his predecessor as Governor of Cilicia) and Philippa, sister of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, although Philippa refused his proposal of marriage[305].  He suppressed the revolt of Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] who had attacked Byzantine garrisons after accusing Andronikos Komnenos, while Governor, of complicity in the murder in 1165 of his brother Stephané[306].  He was captured in Armenia in 1172/73, after which he was probably succeeded as Governor of Cilicia by Isaakios Doukas (later emperor in Cyprus)[307].  It is not clear whether General Kalamános was captured on two separate occasions, or whether the two occasions described above were two versions of the same event which, if the latter is correct, would have to be re-dated.  A seal dated to [1175] names "Kalamanos"[308].  His descendants were the Kalomanoi family in Byzantium. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 14.  KAMATEROS

 

 

1.         EPIFANIOS Kamateros (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1080] names "Epiphanios Kamateros , eparchos"[309].  A seal dated to [1080] names "Epiphanios Kamateros"[310].  A seal dated to [1090] names "Epiphanios Kamateros"[311].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Epiphanios Kamateros"[312]

 

2.         THEODOROS Kamaterosm MARIA, daughter of ---.  Theodoros Kamateros is named as husband of Maria, dated to late 11th/early 12th century[313]

 

3.         BASILEIOS Kamateros .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Basileios Kamateros, ktematinos"[314].  1088.  Basileios Kamateros magistros and krites signed on behalf of his son Gregorios a copy of an administrative document regarding the registration of a grant to Patmos[315]m ---.  The name of Basileios's wife is not known.  Basileios & his wife had one child: 

a)         GREGORIOS Kamateros (-after 1126 or after 14 Aug 1132).  Basileios Kamateros magistros and krites signed on behalf of his son Gregorios a copy of an administrative document regarding the registration of a grant to Patmos[316].  An undated seal records “Grégoire Camatéros[317].  Prodromos records that Empress Eirene was present at the funeral of Gregorios Kamateros which he says was foretold by the appearance of a comet, dated to 1126 or 14 Aug 1132 (the date favoured by Gautier as he points out that the passage follows the reference to the summer being very dry, apparently the case in 1132)[318]m EIRENE Doukaina, daughter of [MIKHAEL] Doukas & his wife ---.  Gregorios Kamateros & his wife had four children: 

i)          ANDRONIKOS Doukas Kamateros (-executed 1185)Drongarios of the fleet.  Pansébastos sébastosThe record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Leone Camytere...pansebasto sebasto et magno drungario domino Andronico Camatero...pansebasto sebasto et protonotario domino Basilio Camatero...protonobilissimo et eparcho Michaele Camatero...[319]He was executed on the orders of Emperor Andronikos I.  m --- Kantakouzene, daughter of ---.  The name of Andronikos's wife is not known.  Her family origin is confirmed by a seal dated to [1175] names "Basileios sebastos, Kamateros on his father's side and Kantakouzenos on his mother's"[320].  Andronikos & his wife had four children: 

(a)       EUPHROSYNE Doukaina Kamaterina (-1211).  Niketas Choniates names "Euphrosyna" as wife of Emperor Alexios[321].  Her parentage is confirmed by Niketas Choniates naming "fratri eius Camatero Basilio", referring to Euphrosyne, in a later passage[322].  She escaped to Arta in Epirus and found refuge at the court of Mikhael Angelos[323]Ephræmius records the death of "Euphrosyne regina" and her burial at Arta[324]m ([1170/80]) ALEXIOS Komnenos Angelos, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos & his wife Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa (-imprisoned in Nikaia after 1211).  He deposed his younger brother 8 Apr 1195 at Kypsela while on campaign against Bulgaria, succeeding as Emperor ALEXIOS III

(b)       IOANNES KamaterosThe record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Leone Camytere...pansebasto sebasto et magno drungario domino Andronico Camatero...pansebasto sebasto et protonotario domino Basilio Camatero... protonobilissimo...Canicelei præside domino Joanne Camatero...protonobilissimo et eparcho Michaele Camatero...[325]

(c)       BASILEIOS Kamateros (-after 1182).  A seal dated to [1165] names "protonobelissimos Basileios of the family of Kamateros"[326].  The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...protonobilissimo et eparcho Basilio Camatero...[327]. The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Leone Camytere...pansebasto sebasto et magno drungario domino Andronico Camatero...pansebasto sebasto et protonotario domino Basilio Camatero... protonobilissimo...Canicelei præside domino Joanne Camatero...protonobilissimo et eparcho Michaele Camatero...[328]A seal dated to [1175] names "Basileios sebastos, Kamateros on his father's side and Kantakouzenos on his mother's"[329].  A seal dated to [1175] names "Basileios Kamateros, protonobelissimos and eparchos"[330].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Basilium quondam, cognomento Camaterum" was sent by Emperor Manuel I to negotiate a marriage with "Raimundo Antiochiæ principi filiæ…Maria"[331].  Niketas Choniates names "fratri eius Camatero Basilio"[332], referring to Euphrosyne (Doukaina Kamaterina), wife of Emperor Alexios III.  Logothete.  He was blinded in 1182 and banished to Russia.  A seal dated to [1199] names "Basileios born from the glorious family of the Doukai and the Kamateroi, brother-in-law of the emperor of the Ausonians"[333]

(d)       THEODORA Kamaterinam MIKHAEL Stryphnos .  Megas dux. 

ii)         MIKHAEL Kamateros .  [The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Leone Camytere...pansebasto sebasto et magno drungario domino Andronico Camatero...pansebasto sebasto et protonotario domino Basilio Camatero...protonobilissimo et eparcho Michaele Camatero...[334].]  same person as…?  MIKHAEL KamaterosAn undated seal, dated to the "Epoque des Anges", records “Michel Camatéros, protoproèdre, juge et exisotes tes Dyseos [contrôleur de la division de l´Occident]”[335]

iii)        THEODOROS Kamateros

iv)       IOANNES Kamateros .  Logothete. 

 

 

2.         [--- Kamateros .  The identity of the father of Isaakios Doukas Emperor in Cyprus is not known.  According to Sturdza[336], he was Andronikos Doukas Kamateros (see above), although, if this is correct, his absence from the other records which name Andronikos's known children would be surprising.  Rüdt-Collenberg[337] excludes his belonging to the Kamateros family, which Niketas Choniates described as "neither elegant nor well-off"[338] while the family of Isaakios was "excellent" according to the same source, although it is not clear whether he was referring to Isaakios's paternal or maternal ancestors.  Rüdt-Collenberg also highlights[339] the speculation of R. P. L. Stiernon of Paris that Isaakios may have been the illegitimate son of Emperor Manuel I by Eirene Komnene, but this is pure conjecture.  m [--- Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos & his first wife Theodora Kamaterina.  Niketas Choniates[340] describes Isaakios, Emperor in Cyprus, as the nephew of Theodora Komnene, wife of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem, therefore presumably the son of an otherwise unknown sister or half-sister of Theodora assuming that "nephew" is used is in its strict meaning.  She is named Eirene in Europäische Stammtafeln[341], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.] 

 

 

1.         LEON Kamateros (-after 1166).  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Leone Camytere...pansebasto sebasto et magno drungario domino Andronico Camatero...pansebasto sebasto et protonotario domino Basilio Camatero...protonobilissimo et eparcho Michaele Camatero...[342]

 

2.         IOANNES Kamateros (-after 1208).  Georgios Akropolites names "Ioannes…Camaterus" as Patriarch of Constantinople at the time the city was captured by the Latins in 1204, recording that he retired to Didymoteichos (in Thrace) and refused to crown Theodoros Laskaris as emperor, but resigned as patriarch to give way for "Michael Auctorianus"[343]

 

3.         BASILEIOS Kamateros (-1186 or after).  Greek patriarch 1182-1186. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 15.  KAMYTZES

 

 

1.         EUSTATHIOS Kamytzes (-before Oct 1136).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Eustathios Kamytzes, sebastos"[344].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Eustathios Kamytzes, protonobelissimos"[345].  The Alexeiad records that "Gregorios Gabras" confided in "George Dekanos, Eustathius Kamytzes and Michael the cup-bearer usually called pincerna" that he planned to escape to join his father[346].  The Alexeiad records that "Eustathius Kamytzes" was made military commander of Lampe, dated to 1098 from the context[347].  The Alexeiad records that "Eustathius Kamytzes" was governor of Nikaia, dated to 1113 from the context[348]. Sébastos.  Zonaras names "Camytze Eustathio duce"[349].  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantokrator (dated Oct 1136) commemorates “o sebastos Eustathios o Kametzes[350]

 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Kamytzes (-after [1167]).  Two seals dated to [1140] name "Konstantinos Kamytzes, sebastos"[351].  A seal dated to [1167] names "Konstantinos sebastos…from the Kamytzes family"[352]

 

3.         LEON Kamytzes .  1166. 

 

 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Kamytzes, son of --- (-after [1201/02])Protostratos.  He commanded Emperor Alexios's campaign in Bulgaria against Ivanko, was captured, and sent to Kalojan Tsar of the Bulgarians as a gift.  Georgios Akropolites records that "protostrator Camytzes" was captured in battle "Philippopolim Beroemque"[353].  Ransomed by his son-in-law, together they sought revenge against Emperor Alexios who had refused to reimburse the ransom.  They seized Prilep and raided Thessaly, establishing a semi-independent principality, but Chrysos abandoned Kamytzes and expelled him after being offered a new bride by the emperor[354]m ([1160]) MARIA Angelina, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Angelos, Sébastohypertatos & his wife Theodora Komnene.  Prodromos records that “Konstantinou...Kamnytziou” married “ex Theodoras Metros Komnenes Komnene pais Maria[355][A seal dated to [1200] names "Manuel protostrator, Kamytzes on his father's side, and on his mother's side cousin of Komnenodoukas who is ruler of the Ausonians"[356].  If Stiernon correctly identifies Manuel Kamytzes as the son of Konstantinos Kamytzes (see below), this reference applies to Maria Angelina.]  Konstantinos Kamytzes & his wife had two children: 

a)         MANUEL Kamytzes (-after [1200]).  Protostrator.  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Manuel Kamytzes protostrator...”, Manuel being identified by Stiernon as the son of Konstantinos Kamytzes and his wife Maria Angelina[357]A seal dated to [1200] names "Manuel protostrator, Kamytzes on his father's side, and on his mother's side cousin of Komnenodoukas who is ruler of the Ausonians"[358]m ---.  The name of Manuel´s wife is not known.  Manuel & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALEXIOS Kamytzes (-after Feb 1190).  The Historia de Expeditione Friderici records that Emperor Isaakios II sent “domnum Michaelem filium patrui sui sevostratoris Ioannis Duca et domnum Michaelem filium alterius patrui eius domni Alexii Angeli et Manuel consobrinum imperii eius filium stratovasilum et domnum Alexium filium consobrini eius protostratoris Manuel Camizi et tertium Manuel sevaston Monomachii filium Uriennii Ioseph et pansevaston acolithon Eumathium Philocalim” as hostages to Emperor Friedrich I, dated to Feb 1190[359]

b)         daughterm ([1197], repudiated [1201]) as his second wife, DOBROMIR Hrs [Chrysos], son of --- (-murdered [1209/11]).  A Vlach fighting for Bulgaria, he occupied the fortress of Prosek overlooking the Vardar river in 1197.  After Emperor Alexios was unable to dislodge him, he was offered General Kamytzes's daughter as a bride[360].  After helping his father-in-law to escape from Bulgarian captivity in [1201], he repudiated his wife after the emperor offered him his granddaughter as a new bride[361]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 16.  KARANTENOS

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Karantenos (-after [1032]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Romanos appointed "Constantinum Carantenum, sororis suæ maritum" as doux of Antioch in succession to "Spondyles Antiochiæ dux", dated to [1032][362]m --- Argyre, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who records that Emperor Romanos sent "sororis suæ maritum Constantinum patricium Carantenum" with an army to Syria, dated to [1029/32][363].  Konstantinos & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKEFOROS Karantenos (-[1071/72]).  Cedrenus names "Nicephoro patricii Nauplii præfecto, Caranteni filio" when recording his military victory against "Saraceni", dated to [1032][364]PatrikiosStrategos of Nauplion.  Skylitzes records "Nicephorus Carantenus" as "Scopiis ducis", dated to [1071/72][365].  The same passage refers to Nikeforos´s successor "Damianus Dalassenus", suggesting that Nikeforos died around this time. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 17.  KASTAMONITES

 

 

1.         NIKETAS Kastamonites .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Niketas Kastamonites"[366].  A seal dated to [1084] names "Niketas Kastamonites kouropalates"[367].  A seal dated to [1084] names "Niketas Kastamonites kouropalates and doux"[368].  The Alexeiad names "Nicetas Castamonites" as leader of an expeditionary force[369].  The Alexeiad names "Nicetas Castamonites" among those who joined the rebellion led by the Anemas brothers against Emperor Alexios I[370]

 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Kastamonites (-after [1075]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Konstantinos Kastamonites, vestes"[371]

 

3.         MIKHAEL [Kastamonites] (-after [1084]).  A seal dated to [1084] names "Michael Ka---, patrikios krites of the hippodrome and chartoularios of the charitable foundations"[372]

 

4.         NIKEFOROS Kastamonites (-after [1110]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Nikeforos Kastamonites, proedros and honorary droungarios of the fleet"[373].  A seal dated to [1110] names "Nikeforos Kastamonites, kouropalates"[374].  A seal dated to [1125] names "Nikeforos Kastamonites"[375]

 

5.         --- Kastamonitesm [--- Antiochena, daughter of --- Antiochos & his wife ---.  Her family origin and marriage are confirmed by an undated seal which names “Theodorou Kastamonitou mitrothen Antiochou“, assuming, as suggested by Marina Loukaki, that this person was Theodoros Kastamonites who is named below[376].]  Two children: 

a)         THEODOROS Kastamonites, megas logothetis.  An undated seal names “Theodorou Kastamonitou mitrothen Antiochou[377]

b)         ---.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          EUPHROSYNE Kastamonitissa (-killed in battle against Dyrrhacchion [1185/95]).  Niketas Choniates names "matrem Isaacii Angeli Euphrosynam"[378].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  m (before 1155) ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene (-after 1185).  A military leader in Asia Minor 1176/83. 

 

6.         DEMETRIOS Kastamonites (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Demetrios Kastamonites"[379]

 

7.         LEON Kastamonites (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Leon Kastamonites"[380]

 

8.         NIKEFOROS Kastamonites (-after [1175]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Nikeforos Kastamonites"[381].  A seal dated to [1150] names "Nikeforos Kastamonites patrikios"[382].  A seal dated to [1175] names "Nikeforos Kastamonites, protokouropalates"[383]

 

9.         EUSTATHIOS Kastamonites .  Eustathios Kastamonites is among those who signed the document of the sekreton of the sea handing over a new ship to the monastery of Patmos, dated to the late 12th/early 13th centuries[384]

 

10.      IOANNES Kastamonites (-after [1200]).  A seal dated to [1200] names "Ioannes, sebastos and eparchos, descended from the family of Kastamonites"[385]

 

11.      KONSTANTINOS Kastamonites (-after [1180]).  A seal dated to [1180] names "Konstantinos Kastamonites"[386]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 18.  KEROULARIOS

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Keroularios (-after 1058).  Cedrenus records that "Michaele Cerulario et Joanne Macrempolita" rebelled against Emperor Mikhael IV, dated to [1040/41] from the context[387].  Cedrenus records that "Michaelus Cerularius" who had been exiled as a monk by "orphanotrophus" was appointed patriarch "indictione 11…die Annuntiationis festo"[388].  Cedrenus records that "magister Michaelus Anastasii filius, patricius Theodorus Chryselius, patricius Christophorus Pyrrhus, omnes sodalitatum duces" supported Patriarch Kirularios in his dispute with Emperor Isaakios Komnenos, dated to [1058][389]

2.         --- .  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         NIKEFOROS .  Cedrenus names "Patriarcha" and "Nicephorum…et Constantinum fratres, patrueles suos" at the time of Patriarch Keroularios´s dispute with Emperor Isaakios Komnenos, adding that they were seized to persuade the patriarch to surrender, dated to [1058][390]

b)         KONSTANTINOS .  Cedrenus names "Patriarcha" and "Nicephorum…et Constantinum fratres, patrueles suos" at the time of Patriarch Keroularios´s dispute with Emperor Isaakios Komnenos, adding that they were seized to persuade the patriarch to surrender, dated to [1058][391].  sébastos.  m ---.  The name of Konstantinos´s wife is not known.  Konstantinos & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter m --- Iasetes, son of ---. 

3.         daughter .  Her family origin is confirmed by the Historia of Mikhael Attaliota which records that "vestiarius Constantinus Ducas" married "neptis patriarchæ [Kerularii]"[392]m IOANNES Makremobilites, son of --- (-after 1040).   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 19.  KONTOSTEFANOS

 

 

This family is dealt with by Henri Grégoire and J. Darrouzes[393]

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Kontostefanos (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Konstantinos Kontostephanos patrikios and strategos"[394]

 

2.         MIKHAEL Kontostefanos (-after [1056]).  A seal dated to [1055] names "Michael Kontostephanos, magistros and doux of Antioch"[395].  A seal dated to [1056] names "Michael Kontostephanos, magistros and doux of Antioch"[396]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ISAAKIOS Kontostefanos (-after [1108]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Isaacium Contostephanum" was saved from capture by "Palaeologum [Georgius]" during the military expedition against the rebel “Melissenus Nicephorus”, dated to end-1080[397].  The Alexeiad names "Isaakios Kontostephanos, the thalassocrator…his brother Stephanos" who were guarding "the Lombardy strait" against possible attack by Bohémond I Prince of Antioch, dated to [1108][398]

2.         STEPHANOS Kontostefanos (-after [1108]).  A seal dated to [1090] names "Stephanos Kontostephanos"[399].  A seal dated to [1090] names "Stephanos Kontostephanos, nobelissimos and doux"[400].  The Alexeiad names "Isaakios Kontostephanos, the thalassocrator…his brother Stephanos" who were guarding "the Lombardy strait" against possible attack by Bohémond I Prince of Antioch, dated to [1108][401]

 

 

3.         STEPHANOS Kontostefanos (-killed in battle Corfu 1149)PanhypersébastosMegas dux.  A seal dated to [1139] names "Stephanos Kontostephanos, despotes"[402].  Ioannes Kinnamos names "sororium [γαμβρόν]…Stephanum… Contostephanum" (referring to Emperor Manuel I) as commander of the fleet which was delayed in the Italian expedition, but was mortally wounded at Kerkyra and told "Andronicum…qui filiorum erat ultimus" to proceed[403]m ([1125]) ANNA Komnene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary ([1110]-).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “tis kaisarisses kyras Marias, tis kyras Annes, tis kyras Theodoras, kai tis kyras Eudokias”, after “tou sebastokratoros kyrou Manouel tov filtaton mou thigateron”, implying that all four were his daughters[404].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified, although Niketas Choniates names "Stephano Contostephano sororio" of Emperor Manuel I[405].  Stephanos Kontostefanos & his wife had four children: 

a)         IOANNES Kontostefanos (-after 1166).  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Ioannes et Andronicus ex Contostaphanorum gente", in a passage dealing with the early years of the reign of Emperor Manuel I[406]Sébastos.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannem Contostephanum" was sent to Palestine to "Balduinum regem" (Baudouin III King of Jerusalem, so dated to before 1163)[407].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannem Contostephanum sebastum et Theophylactum virum Italum" were sent by Emperor Manuel I to negotiate a marriage with "puella Tripoli in Phoenicia, gente quidem Latina"[408].  A seal dated to [1165] names "Ioannes, Kontostephanos from his father but Komnenos from his mother"[409].  A seal dated to [1165] names "Ioannes, Kontostephanos whose mother was a Komnene"[410]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...consobrinis...nostri regis Contostephanis domino Joanne et domino Alexio... pansebasto sebasto domino Joanne Contostephano...[411]m THEODORA, daughter of IOANNES Rogerios Dalassenos & his wife Maria Komnene.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Ioannes & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [ANDRONIKOS Kontostefanos (-Elegmi monastery 23 Feb 1209).  His epitaph describes him as a grandson of a megas dux, presumably a grandson of Stephanos Kontostefanos.  He became a monk as ANTONIOS.] 

b)         ALEXIOS Kontostefanos (-1176).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Alexium Contostephani filium ex sorore nepotem" was sent by Emperor Manuel I to Hungary[412]Strategos in Hungary.  A seal dated to [1150] names "Alexios Kontostephanos"[413].  A seal dated to [1165] names "Alexios Kontostephanos, Komnenos on his mother's side"[414]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...consobrinis...nostri regis Contostephanis domino Joanne et domino Alexio...[415]He became a monk as ANTONIOSm ---.  She is described as the daughter of a logothete.  The couple died childless. 

c)         ANDRONIKOS Kontostefanos (-after 1182).  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Ioannes et Andronicus ex Contostaphanorum gente", in a passage dealing with the early years of the reign of Emperor Manuel I[416]Megas dux 1144/56.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "sororium [γαμβρόν]…Stephanum… Contostephanum" (referring to Emperor Manuel I) as commander of the fleet which was delayed in the Italian expedition, but was mortally wounded at Kerkyra and told "Andronicum…qui filiorum erat ultimus" to proceed[417].  Niketas Choniates names "magnus…dux Andronicus Contostephanus"[418].  A seal dated to [1165] names "Andronikos Kontostephanos, who on his mother's side descends from the family of the Komnenoi"[419].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Andronico Contostephani filio" was invested with "magni ducis dignitatem" and sent on a mission to Hungary[420].  Grand drongarios of the fleet.  His fleet helped Amaury I King of Jerusalem at the unsuccessful siege of Damietta in late 1169[421].  He was blinded with his four sons in 1182 by Emperor Andronikos I.  m --- [Doukaina], daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Andronikos & his wife had four children: 

i)          four sons, blinded in 1182.  The primary source which confirms their parentage has not yet been identified. 

d)         EIRENE Komnene.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" married "ex fratre vel sorore Manuelis neptim"[422].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m NIKEFOROS Bryennios, son of --- (-after 1166). 

 

4.         ANDRONIKOS Kontostefanos (-1156 or after)m THEODORA Komnene, daughter of ADRIANOS Komnenos & his wife --- ([1110]-).  Gautier records her parentage and marriage[423].  Andronikos Kontostefanos & his wife had [four or more] children:

a)         IOANNES Kontostefanos (-after 1166).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastos.  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...consobrinis...nostri regis Contostephanis domino Joanne et domino Alexio... pansebasto sebasto domino Joanne Contostephano...[424]

b)         ALEXIOS Kontostefanos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Alexis Contostéphane pansébaste sebaste et chartulaire...”, whom Stiernon identifies as Alexios, son of Stefanos Kontostefanos (see above)[425].  However, if the death of the latter is correctly dated to 1176 (as shown above, but no primary source has yet been identified which confirms this date), it is more likely that Alexios who is named in Sep 1191 was the son of Andronikos Kontostefanos and his wife Theodora Komnene.  m [MARIA Doukaina, daughter of ---].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

c)         --- Kontostefanina .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

5.         EVDOKIA Kontostefanina (-after [1175]).  A seal dated to [1175] names "Eudokia Kontostephananina, sebaste and megale drougaraia"[426]

 

6.         ISAAKIOS Kontostefanos (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Isaakios Kontostephanos"[427]

 

7.         NIKEFOROS Kontostefanos .  Nikeforos Kontostefanos established a praktikon at the orders of Emperor Alexios I in order to settle a dispute[428].  Nikeforos Kontostefanos doux of Crete and gambros of the emperor (Alexios I) was requested to exempt a ship from taxes for the monastery of Patmos[429]

 

 

1.         ANDRONIKOS Kontostefanos (-[1196/97]).  Niketas Choniates names "imperatricis cognatis Andronico Contostephano"[430], presumably referring to his family relationship with Euphrosyne (Doukaina Kamaterina), wife of Emperor Alexios III, although the precise connection has not yet been identified.  He became a monk as AKAKIOSm as her first husband, EIRENE Komnene Angelina, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS III & his wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina (-after 1203).  Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[431]Ephræmius records that "filiarum…Irene natu maior" married "Andronico…de Contostephanis"[432].  Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Irenem" and "Alexio Paleologo"[433].  She married secondly Alexios Komnenos Palaiologos, and went into exile in 1203. 

 

2.         ANNA Kontostefanina.  She is named as wife of Adrianos in a tomb inscription at the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii[434]m ADRIANOS Komnenos, son of ALEXIOS Komnenos sébastos & his wife Eirene Synadene.   

 

3.         THEODOROS Kontostefanos (-killed in battle Antioch 1152).  Sébastos.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Theodorus Contostephanus…sebastorum dignitatem" was killed in battle in Antioch[435]

 

 

1.         THEODOROS Kontostefanos (-after [1248]).  Protosébastos.  Georgios Akropolites names "…Contostephanus protosebastus…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[436].  Georgios Akropolites records that "Theodorum Contostephanum" was invested with "protosebasti dignitate", in [1248] from the context of the passage[437]

 

 

1.         IOANNES Palaiologos Kontostefanos (-before May 1386).  Megas primikerios 1369/73.  m ANNA Asanina, daughter of [IOANNES Asanes sébastokrator & his wife --- Apokavke] (after [1347]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was named in 1374 as cousin of Empress Helena. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 20.  MAKREMBOLITES

 

 

1.         GEORGIOS Makrembolites (-after [1040]).  A seal dated to [1040] names "Georgios Makrembolites, spatharokandidatos and krites of Chaldia"[438]

 

2.         THEODOROS Makrembolites (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Theodoros Makrembolites, protospatharios and domestikos of Optimaton"[439]

 

3.         IOANNES Makrembolites (-after 1040).  Cedrenus records that "Michaele Cerulario et Joanne Macrempolita" rebelled against Emperor Mikhael IV, dated to [1040/41] from the context[440]m --- Keroularie, daughter of ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Her family origin is confirmed by the Historia of Mikhael Attaliota which records that "vestiarius Constantinus Ducas" married "neptis patriarchæ [Kerularii]"[441].  Ioannes Makrembolites & his wife had one child:

a)         EVDOKIA Makrembolitissa (-1096).  Psellus names "Eudocia" as wife of Emperor Konstantinos[442].  The Historia of Mikhael Attaliota records that "vestiarius Constantinus Ducas" married "neptis patriarchæ [Kerularii]"[443].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nikeforos Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[444].  Regent of Byzantium for her son Emperor Mikhael VII 1067.  Although her husband on his deathbed made her swear she would never remarry[445], she married secondly his successor.  Psellus records the second marriage of "Eudocia" and "Romanus, the son of Diogenes"[446].  On the overthrow of Emperor Romanos IV, she ruled jointly with her son, but was soon overthrown and confined to a convent.  m firstly (before 1050) as his second wife, KONSTANTINOS Doukas, son of --- ([1006/07]-22 May 1067).  He succeeded in 1059 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS X.  m secondly (1 Jan 1068) as his second wife, ROMANOS Diogenes, son of --- Diogenes & his wife --- Argyre (-Prote Monastery Summer 1072).  On his marriage, he immediately succeeded as Emperor ROMANOS IV

 

4.         DEMETRIOS Makrembolites (-after [1097]).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Demetrium quondam Macrembolitem" went as ambassador to the crusader leaders, in [1097][447]

 

5.         MARIA Makrembolitissa (-after [1075]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Maria Makrembolitissa kouropalatissa"[448].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Maria Makrembolitissa kouropalatissa"[449]

 

6.         THEODOROS Makrembolites (-after [1085]).  A seal dated to [1073] names "Theodoros Makrembolites, protovestes and krites of Opsikion"[450].  A seal dated to [1085] names "Theodoros Makrembolites, magistros"[451].  Two seal dated to [1100] name "Theodoros Makrembolites"[452]

 

7.         IOANNES Makrembolites (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1090] names "Ioannes Makrembolites"[453].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Ioannes Makrembolites"[454]

 

8.         SYMEON Makrembolites (-after [1107]).  A seal dated to [1107] names "Symeon Makrembolites, kouropalates"[455].  A seal dated to [1115] names "Symeon Makrembolites"[456]

 

9.         THOMAS Makrembolites (-after [1115]).  A seal dated to [1115] names "Thomas Makrembolites"[457]

 

10.      LEON Makrembolites (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Leon Makrembolites"[458]

 

11.      MIKHAEL Makrembolites (-after [1150]).  Two seals dated to [1150] name "Michael Makrembolites"[459]

 

12.      THEODOROS Makrembolites (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Theodoros Makrembolites, metropolitan of Methymna"[460]

 

13.      IOANNES Makrembolites (-after [1150]).  Two seals dated to [1125] name "Ioannes Makrembolites"[461].  A seal dated to [1150] names "Ioannes Makrembolites, droungarious of the vigla"[462].  A seal dated to [1150] names "Ioannes Makrembolites"[463]

 

14.      --- Makrembolites (-after 1166).  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...magno...protoasecretis Macrembolita...[464]

 

15.      EUMATHIOS Makrembolites (-after [1175]).  Two seals dated to [1175] name "Eumathios Makrembolites"[465]

 

16.      MIKHAEL Makrembolites (-after [1275]).  A seal dated to [1275] names "Michael Makrembolites…wife Eirene"[466]m EIRENE, daughter of ---.  A seal dated to [1275] names "Michael Makrembolites…wife Eirene"[467]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 21.  MAVROZOMES

 

 

1.         IOANNES Mavrozomes (-after ([1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Ioannes Maurozomes"[468]

 

2.         PAULOS Mavrozomes (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Paulos Maurozomes"[469]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Mavrozomes .  A seal dated to [1175] names "Michael…Maurozomes"[470]

 

4.         THEODOROS MavrozomesStrategosm ---.  The name of Theodoros's wife is not known.  Theodoros Mavrozomes & his wife had one child: 

a)         MANUEL Mavrozomes Komnenos .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He resisted the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople in 1204, briefly founding an independent lordship in the Meander valley[471]m ---.  The name of Manuel's wife is not known.  Manuel Mavrozomes & his wife had two children:

i)          --- Komnenos Mavrozomes .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He converted to Islam and became Emir KOMNENOS Beglebeg 1220-1228. 

ii)         daughter.  Her marriage is confirmed by Niketas Choniates who names "Iconii Sultano Caichoaroe" and "Manueli Maurozomæ illius socero"[472]m (1203) KAI KHUSRAW I Seljuk Sultan of Rum, son of KILIC ARSLAN II Seljuk Sultan of Rum. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 22.  METOCHITES

 

 

1.         THEODOROS Metochites (-Mar 1332[473]).  He was appointed megas logothetis by Emperor Andronikos II.  He remained loyal to Andronikos II during the rebellion of the latter's grandson co-Emperor Andronikos, but his assets were confiscated and he was sent into exile after the young emperor entered Constantinople in 1328.  He was allowed to return and lived as a monk in the monastery of the Chora[474]m ---.  The name of Theodoros's wife is not known.  Theodoros Metochites & his wife had five children: 

a)         EIRENE Metochitissa.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Ioannem" and "Metochites magnus logotheta Irenen filiam"[475]m (soon after 1305/06) IOANNES Komnenos Palaiologos, panhypersébastos, Governor of Thessaloniki, son of KONSTANTINOS Doukas Palaiologos & his wife Eirene Raoulaina ([1291]-Skopje 1327). 

b)         DEMETRIOS Angelos Metochites .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Governor of Strumitza 1326.  Megas stratopedarches 1355. 

c)         NIKEFOROS Metochites .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas logothetes 1355-57. 

d)         MIKHAEL Metochites .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Governor of Melenikon 1326. 

e)         ALEXIOS Metochites .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas domestikos 1355-1369. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 23.  MOUSELE

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ALEXIOS Mousele (-842 or after, bur Chrysopolis, Bythinia, Monastery of Anthemios).  The emperor installed him as stratelates and dux of Sicily but he was accused of betraying the Christian cause to the Arabs and of plotting to take the throne.  He was brought back to Constantinople, beaten and imprisoned[476]Theophanes Continuatus records that he retired to Chrysopolis and founded the monastery of Anthemios[477]Betrothed ([836/37]) to MARIA, daughter of Emperor THEOPHILOS & his wife Theodora --- ([837/38]-before 842, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes Continuatus names (in order) "Thecla et Anna Anastasiaque et Pulcheria et Maria" as the five daughters of Emperor Theophilus and his wife[478]Theophanes Continuatus records that "quinque filias…ex illis natu minimam…Mariam" married "ex Crenitarum gente, Armenius patria, Alexius cognomento Moseles", who was invested as "patricii primum ac proconsulis…tum…etiam magister, ac demum cæsar" by his father-in-law[479].  As Maria must have been a young child at the time of this recorded marriage, it is possible that the ceremony was one of betrothal only.  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Maria, filia Theophili" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[480]

2.         THEODOSIOS Mousele (----, bur Chrysopolis, Bythinia, Monastery of Anthemios).  Theophanes Continuatus names "eius germanus Theodosius", referring to Alexios Mousele, and that he was installed as patrikios and buried in the monastery founded by his brother[481].  Betrothed to

 

3.         --- Mousele m --- Lekapene, daughter of Emperor ROMANOS I Lekapenos  & his [first] wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who names "magistri Romani Moselis, prognati a Romano sene", dated to [962] from the context[482].  One child: 

a)         ROMANOS Mousele .  Cedrenus names "magistri Romani Moselis, prognati a Romano sene", dated to [962] from the context[483]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 24.  MOUZALON

 

 

1.         LEON Mouzalon (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Leon Mouzalon spatharios and imperial notarios"[484]

 

2.         EUGENIOS Mouzalon (-after [1075]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Eugenios Mouzalon, krites"[485]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Mouzalon (-[after 1090]).  Two seals dated to [1085] name "Michael Mouzalon"[486]

 

4.         THEOFANO Mouzalonissa (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1088] names "Theophano Mouzalonissa archontissa of Russia"[487].  Schlumberger assumes that “archontissa” indicates that Theofano was the wife of a Russian prince, citing as another example of use of the title a reference to St Olga, wife of Igor son of Rurik, as "archontissa tes Rosias", but he remarks that he had not identified the husband of Theofano[488].  Baumgarten identifies her husband, but he only cites the same passage in Schlumberger in support[489].  It has not been ascertained whether Baumgarten´s identification is based on another (primary) source or was an informed guess in light of Oleg´s reported stay in Rhodos (see above) and after eliminating other possible candidates in the Rurikid dynasty.  m (Rhodos [1081/83]) as his first wife, OLEG MIKHAIL Sviatoslavich "Gorislavich", son of SVIATOSLAV II Iaroslavich Prince of Chernigov, Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- von Dithmarschen ([1058]-1 Aug 1115). 

 

5.         NIKOLAOS Mouzalon (-1152).  Patriarch of Constantinople.  Ioannes Kinnamos records the appointment of "Nicolaum…cognomine Muzalonem" as patriarch, despite opposition after resigning the priesthood in Cyprus, and his resignation after Emperor Manuel I did not support him[490]

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known: 

1.         GEORGIOS Mouzalon (-murdered Sosandra Sep 1258).  He was the personal friend and favourite of Theodoros II Emperor at Nikaia who appointed him megas domestikos, megas stratopedarchos, and protobestiarios, as well as regent for his infant son.  Georgios Akropolites records that "Bulgarorum Georgios Muzalo" was appointed "magni domestici", and in a later passage "protosebasti et protovestiarii magnique stratopedarchæ"[491].  Emperor Theodoros was much influenced by his personal friend Georgios Muzalon whom he created mega domestikos and appointed as regent for his infant son[492].  He was murdered during the uprising led by Mikhail Palaiologos, which followed his appointment as regent.  m (1256) as her first husband, THEODORA Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos & his wife Eirene Komnene Palaiologina ([1240]-6 Dec 1300).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Theodoram e Cantacuzanorum gente, Palaeologi neptam ex sorore" and "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum"[493].  She married secondly (1261) Ioannes Raul Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas.  Pachymeres records that "Ioannem…Raulem, protovestiarii Raulis filium" married "vidua protovestiarii Muzalonis…Theodora, neptis…imperatoris Palaeologi, eius sororis Eulogiæ ex Cantacuzeno filia" (in [1261/62])[494].  She became a nun as KYRIAKE

2.         ANDRONIKOS Mouzalon .  Georgios Akropolites records that "Georgium Muzalonem…fratrem illius Andronicum" was appointed "protovestiaritem magni domestici" by Emperor Theodoros II[495].  Pachymeres records that "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum…fratrem minorem Andronicum" was created "magnum domesticum"[496]m as her first husband, --- Raulaina, daughter of ALEXIOS Raul & his wife --- Batatzaina.  Pachymeres records that "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum…fratrem minorem Andronicum" married "Cloista Raulis filia"[497].  She married secondly Andronikos Palaiologos.  Pachymeres records that "Andronicum alium Palaeologum ex Occidente" married "vidua Andronici Muzalonis…magnum domesticum…protostratorem"[498]

3.         --- Muzalon .  Pachymeres records that "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum…tertium…horum fratrem" was "prothieracarium sive summum accipitrariæ venationis" and was appointed "regii aucupii præfectum"[499]

 

 

4.         THEODOROS Mouzalon (-1294).  Pachymeres records that "eius amita Eulogia...et Theodoro Muzalone" persuaded Emperor Andronikos II to break relations with Rome and depose the catholic patriarch Ioannes XI Beccos, dated to early 1283[500]Protobestiarios, logothetis.  He became a monk.  m (after 1282) --- Kantakouzene, daughter of ---.  Pachymeres records that "Theodorus Muzalo" married "filiam Cantacuzeni"[501].  Theodoros & his wife had one child: 

a)         EUDOKIA .  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "[filiam] magnum logothetam Muzalonem" and "fratri suo Theodoro", that the marriage did not proceed on grounds of consanguinity, but that "filiam…protovestiarii" married "Constantino proprio filio…despotæ"[502]Betrothed (contract broken before 28 Jun 1293) to THEODOROS Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos, son of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (-after 1310).  m (22 May 1295) as his first wife, KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his first wife Anna of Hungary ([1278/81]-[1334/35]). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 25.  PEGONITES

 

 

1.         NIKETAS [Nikephoros] Pegonites (-after [1033]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios II appointed "Nicephoro patricio Pegonita" as governor of Durazzo after Ivan Vladislav Tsar of the Bulgarians was killed (in 1018)[503].  A seal dated to [1018] names "Niketas Pegonites patrikios and strategos of Dyrrachion"[504].  Cedrenus records that "patricius Niceta Pegonites" captured "castellum…Percrin" and killed its commander "Alimus Saracenus…et eius filium", dated to [1033][505].  Psellos´s epitaph to "Ερήνην καισάρισσαν" alludes to her father as "pégè…nikè" and records his military successes against the Bulgarians names Leon Pegonites as father of Eirene, wife of Ioannes Doukas[506].  Kouroupou and Vannier suggest that the passage refers to "le patrice Nicétas Pègonitès, stratège de Dyrrachion et vainqueur en 1018 du tsar bulgare Jean Vladislav"[507]

 

2.         LEON Pegonites (-after [1025]).  A seal dated to [1025] names "Leon Pegonites, protospatharios and strategos of Presthlavitza"[508]same person as…?  LEON Pegonites .  General .  Psellos´s epitaph to "Ερήνην καισάρισσαν" alludes to her father as "pégè…nikè" and records his military successes against the Bulgarians names Leon Pegonites as father of Eirene, wife of Ioannes Doukas[509].  The Prosopography of the Byzantine World interprets this passage as indicating Leon Pegonites[510]m ---.  The name of Leon´s wife is not known.  Leon Pegonites & his wife had [one child]:

a)         [EIRENE Pegonitissa (-8 Sep [1060/65]).  Psellos´s epitaph to "Ερήνην καισάρισσαν" alludes to her father as "pégè…nikè" and records his military successes against the Bulgarians names Leon Pegonites as father of Eirene, wife of Ioannes Doukas[511].  The Prosopography of the Byzantine World interprets this passage as indicating Leon Pegonites[512].  Kouroupou and Vannier suggest that it refers to "le patrice Nicétas Pègonitès, stratège de Dyrrachion et vainqueur en 1018 du tsar bulgare Jean Vladislav"[513].  A seal dated to before 24 Nov 1059 (when her husband was appointed cæsar by his brother) records "Irène Pègonitissa, magistrissa, vestarchissa et doukaina"[514].  Psellos, in his epitaph to "Ερήνην καισάρισσαν", records that she refused to bear the insignia of "cæsarissa" after her husband was appointed cæsar because of her serious illness[515].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 8 Sep of "Eirene…agias despoines e kaisárissa"[516].  Kouroupou and Vannier suggest that her death "semble [être] antérieure à la naissance de sa petite-fille Irène en 1066"[517]m ([1045]) IOANNES Doukas caesar, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas protospatharios and strategos & his wife --- (-[1088]).] 

 

3.         THEODOROS Pegonites (-after [1067]).  A seal dated to [1050] names "Theodoros Pegonites, patrikios and strategos"[518].  A seal dated to [1060] names "Theodoros Pegonites, patrikios anthypatos vestes and katepano of Paradounavon"[519].  A seal dated to [1067] names "Theodoros Pegonites magistros and doux of Edessa"[520]

 

4.         LEON Pegonites (-after [1075]).  A seal dated to [1075] names "Leon Pegonites"[521].  A seal dated to [1100] names "Leon Pegonites"[522]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 26.  PETRALOIFAS

 

 

This family descended from a Norman, Peter of Alife[523].  This origin is confirmed by Niketas Choniates who refers to "quatuor fratres Petraliphæ, ex Francica gente oriundi"[524]

 

 

1.         ALEXIOS Petraloifas.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that Emperor Manuel I sent "Alexium Petraloepham" to Asia with troops and money at the request of "Clitziesthlan" (Sultan Kilij Arslan), but the latter used him to force the surrender of cities then refused to hand them over to him[525]The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...sebasto et domestico vesiario...regis domino Alexio Petralipha...[526]m ANNA Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Dalassenos Rogerios [Jean Roger] & his wife Maria Komnene.  A seal dated to [1125] names "Anna Komnene, daughter of the kaisarissa and of the…despotes kaisar"[527].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Alexios Petraliphas & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Petraphoilas-Komnenos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m HELENA of Bohemia, daughter of FRIEDRICH Duke of Bohemia & his wife Elisabeth of Hungary.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium. 

 

2.         NIKEFOROS Petraloifas .  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Andronicus Lampardas et Nicephorus Petralipha" in a campaign in Hungary[528].  Panteleemon names Nikeforos Komnenos Petraloifas sebastocrator as grandson of Maria, dated to the late 12th/early 13th century[529]

 

 

1.         THEODOROS Petraloifasm ---.  The name of Theodoros's wife is not known.  Theodoros Petraliphos & his wife had two children:

a)         [THEODOROS] Petraloifasm ---.  The name of [Theodoros]'s wife is not known.  [Theodoros] Petraliphos & his wife had one child:

i)          --- Petraloifaina.  Georgios Akropolites records that "Sthlavus Asani regis affinis" married "Petraliphæ Theodori Comneni uxoris fratris filia" after the death of his first wife[530]m ([1216]) as his second wife, ALEXII SLAV, son of --- & his wife [--- of Bulgaria] (-after 1230).  Voivode of Melnik. 

b)         MARIA Doukaina Komnene Petraloifaina.  Her parentage is indicated by Georgios Akropolites who records that "Sthlavus Asani regis affinis" married "Petraliphæ Theodori Comneni uxoris fratris filia"[531]m (before 1210) THEODOROS Komnenos Doukas Angelos, Lord of Corinth, Navplion and Argos, son of IOANNES Konstantinos Doukas Angelos & his [first/second] wife Zoe --- (-in prison in Nikaia shortly after 1253).  He succeeded his half-brother in 1215 as Lord of Epirus.  He declared himself Despot and autokrator in the Kingdom of Thessaloniki in 1224.  He was crowned as THEODOROS I Emperor of the Romans in [1225]. 

 

2.         THEODORA Antiochitissa Petraloifaina .  A seal dated to [1200] names "Theodora Antiochitissa Petraliphena"[532]

 

 

1.         IOANNES Petraloifas.  Georgios Akropolites names "…Petraliphas magnus chartularius…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[533]m HELENA, daughter of ---.  Ioannes Petraliphos & his wife had three children: 

a)         THEODORA Doukaina Petraloifaina Basilissa (bur Arta)Her parentage is indicated by Georgios Akropolites who names "Petraliphas…uxoris Michaelis frater"[534]Ephræmius names "Theodora Michaelis coniux" when recording that she attended the marriage of her son Nikeforos[535].  Her husband banished her in favour of his mistress but restored her to favour[536].  After attending her son's marriage to the daughter of Theodoros II Emperor in Nikaia in 1256, she was kept a hostage and only released after her husband surrendered Durazzo to Nikaia[537].  She became a nun, known as Holy Theodora of Arta, and was the subject of a hagiography by the 13th century monk Job (Melias Iasites)[538]m ([1230], divorced Easter [1252/56]) MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus, despot, illegitimate son of MIKHAEL Komnenos Doukas Lord of Epirus & his mistress --- ([1205]-[1267/68]). 

b)         THEODOROS Petraloifas .  Georgios Akropolites names "Petraliphas…uxoris Michaelis frater" in a passage after the text recording his marriage[539].  Georgios Akropolites records that "Theodorus…Petraliphas, uxoris Michaelis defectoris frater" escaped from Emperor Mikhael VIII[540]m ([1250/55]) --- Tornikaine, daughter of DEMETRIOS Tornikes & his second wife ---.  Georgios Akropolites records the marriage of "Theodorus Petraliphas" and "filiam Demetrii Tornicii Comneni", dated to the early 1250s from the context[541]

c)         MARIA Petraloifaina.  After arriving at Corfu, she murdered her husband[542]m (1266) as his [second][543] wife, PHILIPPE Chinard (-murdered 1266).  A Frank from Cyprus.  Admiral of Sicily.  He was named Governor of Corfu by Manfred King of Sicily after the latter captured the island in [1258].  After King Manfred was killed at Benevento in 1266, Mikhael [II] Lord of Epirus permitted Philippe Chinard to remain as ruler of Corfu and arranged his marriage to his sister-in-law[544]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 27.  PHILANTHROPENOS

 

 

1.         ALEXIOS Philanthropenos.  Georgios Akropolites names "Philantropeno Alexio Duca" recording that he was "in custodiam Achridanæ regionis ab imperatore relicto" under Emperor Theodoros II[545].  Pachymeres names "Alexius Philanthropenus protostrator", stating that he was designated "dux magnus" but did not use the title as "frater germanus Lascaris senioris Augusti"  was still alive, in a passage dated to [1263][546].  Admiral of the Fleet (megas dux) 1273.  Protostrator 1259-1273.  m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios Philanthropenos & his wife had one child:

a)         --- Philanthropene.  Pachymeres records that "Alexius Philanthropenus protostrator…filia" married "Michaelem Martha imperatoris sorore natum", in a passage dated to [1263][547].  Her origin and marriage are confirmed by Pachymeres who names "protovestiarii Tarchaniotæ secundus natu filius, Alexius Philanthropenus dictus ex avo materno"[548]m MIKHAEL Tarchaneiotes, son of NIKEFOROS Tarchaneiotes & his wife Maria Palaiologina (-1284).  Megas domestikos. 

 

 

1.         GEORGIOS Philanthropenos.  Archon of Lemnos, megas hetairiarches

 

2.         --- Philanthropenos (-after 1333).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "pincerna Philanthropeno", in a passage dated to 1333[549]

 

3.         --- Philanthropene .  Pachymeres records that "Michael cognomento Malum, primum a secretia antea creatum" married "nobili virgini…ex Philanthropenorum stirpe" in [1261/62][550]m ([1261/62]) MIKHAEL Malos, son of ---. 

 

4.         --- Philanthropenos m ([1346/51]) EIRENE Asanina, daughter of ISAAKIOS Palaiologos Asanes & his second wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

5.         MIKHAEL Philanthropenos (-after [Dec 1350]).  An imperial ordinance guaranteed the possession of various properties “en Chalcidique, dont les parèques du megas stratopedarches Michael Philanthropenos [noted as exadelfos of Emperor Ioannes V] dans la commune de Karkara” to “Demetrios Kokalas”, dated to [Dec 1350][551]m ---.  The name of Mikhael´s wife is not known.  See below, for the suggestion that she was Theodora Palaiologina. 

 

6.         --- Philanthropenos .  Estangüi Gómez states that, while her name indicates that Theodora married “un membre de la famille Philanthropenos”, the identification of her husband “demeure incertaine”, although he notes a suggestion suggestion that he may have been Mikhael Philanthropenos who is named in the source dated to [Dec 1350] (see above)[552].  Estangüi Gómez also comments that her husband “ait pu appartenir à la branche des Philanthropenoi kaisares de Thessalie”, naming “Alexios Angelos Philanthropenos [1378-1389]” and “Manoul Angelos Philanthropenos [1392-1394]” although he states that neither of these individuals was recorded as claiming a family relationship with the imperial family[553]m THEODORA Palaiologina, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos [Angelos] & his wife --- (-after Dec 1379).  

 

7.         ALEXIOS Angelos Philanthropenos (-[1389/93]).  Governor of Thessaly 1378-79.  Cæsar 1382-1389.  m MARIA Radoslava, daughter of RADOSLAV Chlapen & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Alexios & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [MANUEL Angelos Philanthropenos (-after 1420).  Governor of Thessaly 1392-1393.  Rival emperor 1392-1394.  Manuel was sent as ambassador to Hungary in 1395/96[554].  Emperor Manuel II sent “Hemanuel Filatropino consobrinus de l’empereur Grec” as ambassador to Hungary in 1420[555].]  m ---.  The name of Manuel's wife is not known.  Manuel & his wife had two children: 

i)          MIKHAEL Philanthropenos (-[1427]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         ANNA Philanthropena Kyra .  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor Manuel who was a widower" married "Philanthropenos´s daughter the Lady Anna" after she was brought back from Constantinople by his sister "the empress lady Eudokia"[556].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "the emperor of Trebizond…Germanoli" was married to "a relation of the Emperor of Constantinople", in 1404[557]m (after 14 Sep 1395) as his second wife, MANUEL III Emperor in Trebizond, son of ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (16 Dec 1363-5 Mar 1412, bur Theoskepastos). 

iii)        [GEORGIOS Doukas Philanthropenos (-[1452]).  His possible parentage is indicated by the passage from Georgios Phrantzes, quoted below, which names “Comneno...Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”, who has been identified as the possible son of Manuel III Emperor in Trebizond by his second wife Anna Philanthropena (who would have been Georgios’s sister), as his “consobrino [ανεψιω]”.  The question has been explored fully in a recent article by Thierry Ganchou[558].  Mesazon 1430-1439.]  m --- Asanaina, daughter of ISAAKIOS Asan & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Georgios Phrantzes who records an incident during the siege of Patras, dated to 29 Mar 1429, when he rescued Konstantinos Palaiologos [the future Emperor Konstantinos XI] but was captured after falling from his horse, a thoroughbred which "ameras" [the emir, unspecified] had given to “Isaacio Asani” who had later given it to “Georgio Philanthropeno genero [γαμβρω] suo” who, in turn had given it to “Comneno consobrino [ανεψιω], Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”, adding that the latter “Galatam fugientem” [fleeing to Galata] had been captured by Phrantzes’s brother (who had been granted the horse as a reward)[559].  Georgios & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MANUEL Philanthropenos (-killed Constantinople 29 May 1453).  His parentage and death are confirmed by a plea dated 24 Jun 1457 addressed by “Hemanuel Giagarius Paleologus, Constantinopolitanus” to Pope Calixtus III which names his “cognatus...miles Hemanuel Philemtropinus, fils d...militem et baronem Imperii Constantinopolitani Georgium Philantropinum...et époux de sa sœur” who was killed during the attacked on Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453[560]m ---, sister of Manuel Giagarius Palaiologos, daughter of ---.  Her family origin and marriage are indicated by a plea dated 24 Jun 1457 addressed by “Hemanuel Giagarius Paleologus, Constantinopolitanus” to Pope Calixtus III which names his “cognatus...miles Hemanuel Philemtropinus, fils d...militem et baronem Imperii Constantinopolitani Georgium Philantropinum...et époux de sa sœur” who was killed during the attacked on Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453[561].  

 

8.         ALEXIOS Philanthropenos Lascaris .  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Alexius Philanthropenus Lascaris" was present at the coronation of Emperor Konstantinos XI at Mistra in Jan 1449[562].   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 28.  PHOTIOS

 

 

1.         ZACHARIAS PhotiosSymeon Magister names "Zacharias" as father of "Sergii spatharii"[563]m ---.  The name of Zacharias's wife is not known.  Zacharias & his wife had two children: 

a)         SERGIOS Photios (-before 855)Symeon Magister names "Zacharias" as father of "Sergii spatharii"[564]m EIRENE, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by Theophanes Continuatus names "Kalomaria…et Sophia ac Irene" as the three sisters of Empress Theodora, recording that Eirene married "Irenes matris Photii (eius qui postea patriarcha fuit) fratri"[565].  Sergios & his wife had five children:

i)          --- Photios (-886).  Symeon Magister names "Sergii spatharii" as father of "Photius" the patriarch[566].  Patriarch of Constantinople 858. 

ii)         TARASIOSPatrikios.  Tarasios is named as brother of Patriarch Photios in several of the letters of the latter[567]m ---.  The name of Tarasios's wife is not known.  Tarasios & his wife had --- children: 

(a)       daughter .  One of the letters of Patriarch Photios was written to his brother Tarasios when the latter's daughter died[568]

(b)       sons and daughters .  A letter of Patriarch Photios record that his brother Tarasios had surviving sons and daughters[569]

iii)        KONSTANTINOS .  Konstantinos protospatharius is named as brother of Patriarch Photios in three of the letters of the latter[570]

iv)       THEODOROS .  Theodoros is named as brother of Patriarch Photios in three of the letters of the latter[571]

v)        SERGIOS .  Sergios protospatharius is named as brother of Patriarch Photios in six of the letters of the latter[572]

vi)       [son/daughter] .  [m ---.] 

(a)       SERGIOSSymeon Magister names "Sergium…frater magistri Thomæ, Photii patriarchæ nepos", dated to after the appointment of Theophylaktus as Patriarch (933)[573].  Although Sergios and his brother Thomas are recorded as nephews of Patriarch Photios, the identity of their parents is not known. 

(b)       THOMAS .  Magister.  Symeon Magister names "Sergium…frater magistri Thomæ, Photii patriarchæ nepos", dated to after the appointment of Theophylaktus as Patriarch (933)[574].  Although Sergios and his brother Thomas are recorded as nephews of Patriarch Photios, the identity of their parents is not known. 

b)         [LEON] PhotiosSymeon Magister, in an uncompleted sentence, records that "Zacharias…rursus Leonem βασι…habuit filium…"[575].  It is not clear whether the word "" was the start of another clause which recounted the contacts which Zacharias's son Leon had with an unnamed emperor or whether Zacharias's son himself was the emperor named Leon.  The latter sounds unlikely as, if correct, it is surprising that the fact does not seem to be mentioned in any other source.  It also appears chronologically difficult to sustain with any known Emperor Leon: if it is correct, as shown above, that Zacharias's other son's wife was the sister of the husband of one of the sisters of Empress Theodora, the brothers must have been born in the late 8th or early 9th century.] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 29.  RALLIS [RAOUL], ROGERIOS

 

 

The main source for this family is Fassoulakis[576]

 

 

1.         RAOUL "Peau-de-Loup", son of [DAGOBERT & his wife ---] .  A Norman by origin, the Alexeiad records that Robert Guiscard Duke of Calabria and Apulia sent him as ambassador to Constantinople in 1080, with the mission of objecting to the termination of the betrothal of the Duke's daughter to Konstantinos Doukas, son of Emperor Mikhael VII[577].  He remained in Constantinople in the service of the Emperor[578].  Ancestor of the Raoul family.  m ---.  The name of Raoul's wife is not known.  Raoul & his wife had one child: 

a)         HUMBERTOS

2.         ROGER .  The Alexeiad records "Raoul's brother Roger deserted to the Romans" and informed them of the war plans of Robert "Guiscard"[579].  [same person as...?  KONSTANTINOS Rogerios (-before Oct 1136).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantokrator (dated Oct 1136) commemorates “o sebastos kyris Konstantinos o Rogeres[580]Stiernon notes that “selon [Marguerite] Mathieu qui reprend une hypothèse de Mme Wittek” Konstantinos Rogerios was the father of Ioannes Rogerios Dalassenos[581].]  m --- [Dalassene], daughter of ---.  Her family origin is suggested in order to explain the name Dalassenos used by her son.  Roger & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         JEAN Roger (-after 1152).  He was known either as IOANNES Rogerios or as IOANNES Dalassenos in Byzantium.  This co-identity is confirmed by the various sources in which his wife is recorded as quoted below.  Stiernon notes that the former name is used (as quoted below) only in narrative sources written by third parties, whereas Ioannes refers to himself as “Dalassenos” in all the sources which originated from him[582].  Pretender to the imperial throne in 1143.  Caesar.  A seal records “tov Dalasenon despototen Ioannev tov eutyche kaisara Parthene skepois[583].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that his brother-in-law Emperor Manuel I proposed "Ioannes…Cæsar…Rogerium Cæsarem" as a husband for the recently widowed Constance Pss of Antioch in 1150, but Constance rejected him[584].  Governor of Strumitsa 1152.  m (before Oct 1136) MARIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary ([Dec 1106/Jan 1107]-[1144/45]).  The Alexeiad records the birth at Balabista of "the first of the sons of the Basileus Iohannes the porphyrogenitus with a twin sister" while their father returned to Thessaloniki, where he attended a ceremony in honour of St Demetrius (feast day 25 Jan), after campaigns in the Balkans, dated to late 1106 or early 1107[585].  Twin with her brother Alexios.  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “tis kaisarisses kyras Marias, tis kyras Annes, tis kyras Theodoras, kai tis kyras Eudokias”, after “tou sebastokratoros kyrou Manouel tov filtaton mou thigateron”, implying that all four were his daughters[586].  A poem records that “tov Dalassenou” decorated an icon representing Theotokos with jewels of “tis syzygou autou tis porfyrogennitou kyras Marias tis Komnenes” who was “glorifi[ée] de la couronne de son grand-père, de son père et de son frère[587].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "filiam natu maximum Ioannis imperatoris" married "Rogerius Cæsar", when recording her serious illness and that she died during the first expedition of Emperor Manuel I against Masud (dated to [1144/45])[588].  A poem records that “tov Dalassenou” mourned the death of “i porfyranthes syzygos mou Maria...[589].  Ioannes Rogerios & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          ANDRONIKOS (-after 1166)The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...consobrino...nostro regis domino Andronico Cæsaris filio...[590].  [same person as...?  ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (-after Sep 1191).  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Andronic Comnène pansébaste sébaste, Alexis Comnène pansébaste frère du précédent...pansebaste sebaste Andronic Rogerios, chef des primiciers et des stratiotes de la garde palatine des Blachernes[591].  Stiernon notes that Andronikos and his brother Alexios could have been either the sons of “Théodore Batatzès ou de Jean Roger[592].  However, Runciman states that Andronikos Komnenos Batatzes, son of Theodoros Batatzes, led the Byzantine army into Paphlagonia in 1176 with the aim of restoring Dhu'l Nun and was killed at the siege of Niksar (Neocæsarea) in Sep 1176, his head being sent as a trophy to the Sultan[593].  This leaves Andronikos, son of Ioannes Rogerios Dalassenos as the only candidate for Andronikos who is named in Sep 1191.m EIRENE Doukaina, daughter of ---.  A seal names “Doukofyous Eirenes Komnenos Andronikos i xynezygi autokratountos Manouel adelfopais ex porfyranthous basilissis Marias[594]

ii)         [ALEXIOS Komnenos (-after Sep 1191).  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Andronic Comnène pansébaste sébaste, Alexis Comnène pansébaste frère du précédent...pansebaste sebaste Andronic Rogerios, chef des primiciers et des stratiotes de la garde palatine des Blachernes[595].  Stiernon notes that Andronikos and his brother Alexios could have been either the sons of “Théodore Batatzès ou de Jean Roger[596].  However, Runciman states that Andronikos Komnenos Batatzes, son of Theodoros Batatzes, led the Byzantine army into Paphlagonia in 1176 with the aim of restoring Dhu'l Nun and was killed at the siege of Niksar (Neocæsarea) in Sep 1176, his head being sent as a trophy to the Sultan[597].  This leaves Andronikos, son of Ioannes Rogerios Dalassenos as the only candidate for Andronikos who is named in Sep 1191.

iii)        [ANNA Komnene.  A seal, dated to [1125] in PBW, names "Anna Komnene, daughter of the kaisarissa and of the…despotes kaisar"[598].  Stiernon argues convincingly that this seal refers to a daughter of Ioannes Rogerios Dalassenos and his wife Maria Komnene, although the identification is not beyond all doubt[599].  If this is correct, the seal must be dated to a couple of decades later than [1125].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXIOS Petraloifas, son of ---.] 

iv)       THEODORA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m IOANNES Kontostefanos, son of STEPHANOS Kontostefanos & his wife Anna Komnene (-after 1166). 

b)         [KONSTANTINOS Rogerios (-before Oct 1136).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantokrator (dated Oct 1136) commemorates “o sebastos kyris Konstantinos o Rogeres[600]Stiernon notes that “selon [Marguerite] Mathieu qui reprend une hypothèse de Mme Wittek” Konstantinos Rogerios was the father of Ioannes Rogerios Dalassenos[601].

 

 

1.         ALEXIOS RogeriosThe record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...sebasto et domestico vestiario...regis domino Alexio Rogerio...[602]

 

2.         ANDRONIKOS Rogerios (-after Sep 1191).  Stiernon suggests that this Andronikos Rogerios was probably not the same person as Andronikos Rogerios, son of Ioannes Rogerios Dalassenos, who is named above, mainly because the sources quoted below do not refer to his imperial descent and also because of the apparent presence of both individuals at the Sep 1191 synod (see below, and discussed further above)[603]Sebastos.  An undated seal names “sebaston Andronikon ex Rogerion[604].  A verse written by Theodoros Balsamon records “kyr Andronikou Rogeriou...sebastos” as the founder of the monastery of Theotokos Chrysokamariotissa[605].  Pansebastos sebastos.  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Andronic Comnène pansébaste sébaste, Alexis Comnène pansébaste frère du précédent...pansebaste sebaste Andronic Rogerios, chef des primiciers et des stratiotes de la garde palatine des Blachernes[606]

 

 

1.         NIKETAS Raoul (-after [1125]).  A seal dated to [1125] names "Niketas Raoul, nobelissimos"[607]

 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Raoul Doukas (-after 1195).  Pansebastos, sebastos.  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Constantin Raoul pansebaste, sebaste...[608]Niketas Choniates names "Branas Theodorus, Georgius Palaeologus, Raul Constantinus, Cantacuzenus Michael et alii complures improbi et leves homini, imperatori sanguine iuncti…" as those involved in the conspiracy to depose Emperor Isaakios II in 1195[609].  The precise relationships ("imperatori sanguine iuncti") between the conspirators and the emperor have not yet been traced.  An undated seal records “Constantin Raoul Ducas sébaste[610]

 

3.         MANUEL Raoul (-after [1200]).  A seal dated to [1200] names "Manuel Raoul"[611]

 

 

1.         ALEXIOS Raoul (-[1258])Protobestiarios 1242/1256.  Georgios Akropolites names "…Raulus Alexius protovestiarius…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[612].  Hegemon in Thessaloniki 1253, deposed 1256 by Emperor Theodoros II.  m --- Batatzaina, daughter of --- Batatzes & his wife ---.  Her origin and marriage are referred to by Pachymeres who records that the "avia paterna […coniux protovestiarii Raulis Alexii]" of "coniux Porphyrogeniti" was "Strategopulinæ neptis ex fratre", clarifying that "Strategopulinæ" was born "ex fratre imperatoris dignitate sebastocratore", and that "eius vero avia" (which presumably refers back to "avia paterna") was "…ex ipsius altero germano"[613].  The passage appears to indicate that the wife of Alexios Raoul was the child of another brother of Emperor Ioannes III.  If this is correct, "neptis", in relation to "Strategopulinæ", must be interpreted as "cousin" rather than "niece".  The chronology of the various families involved suggests that the wife of Alexios Raoul belonged to the same generation of the Batatzes family as the wife of Konstantinos Strategopoulous, although if this is correct "neptis" must mean "first cousin" rather than "second cousin".  It should be emphasised that the passages in Pachymeres are complex and it is uncertain that the interpretation set out here is the only possible one.  In a recent article, Estangüi Gómez adopts the same interpretation of this passage in Pachymeres[614].  Georgius Akropolites names "protovestiario Alexio, Raulo neptis marito", referring to Emperor Ioannes III[615].  Alexios Raoul & his wife had [six] children: 

a)         --- Raoulaina .  Pachymeres records that "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum…fratrem minorem Andronicum" married "Cloista Raulis filia"[616].  Pachymeres records that "Andronicum alium Palaeologum ex Occidente" married "vidua Andronici Muzalonis…magnum domesticum…protostratorem"[617]m firstly ANDRONIKOS Mouzalon, son of ---.  m secondly ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of MIKHAEL Palaiologos & his wife --- (-1279). 

b)         IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas Raoul (-[1273/74])Georgios Akropolites names "Ioannem Raulum, primum protovestiarii Raulis filium" as one of the supporters of Emperor Mikhael VIII[618].  Pachymeres records that "Ioannem…Raulem, protovestiarii Raulis filium" was created "protovestiarium" by Emperor Mikhael VIII (in [1261/62])[619].  He served the emperor in his campaigns to reincorporate Epirus and Thessaly into the empire[620]m ([1261/62]) as her second husband, THEODORA Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzene, widow of GEORGIOS Mouzalon, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos & his wife Eirene Komnene Palaiologina ([1240]-6 Dec 1300).  Pachymeres records that "Ioannem…Raulem, protovestiarii Raulis filium" married "vidua protovestiarii Muzalonis…Theodora, neptis…imperatoris Palaeologi, eius sororis Eulogiæ ex Cantacuzeno filia" (in [1261/62])[621].  She became a nun as KYRIAKE.  Ioannes Raoul & his wife had [three possible children]: 

i)          ALEXIOS Raoul (-1303)Megas StratopedarchosMegas domestikosm firstly --- Tarchaneiotissa, daughter of MIKHAEL Tarchaneiotes & his wife ---.  Pachymeres names "Tarchaniotæ gener Alexius Raul"[622]m secondly --- [Angelina], daughter of [MIKHAEL Komnenos Angelos "Kutrules" Despot & his [first] wife [Anna Komnene Palaiologina].  Alexios Raoul's wife is recorded as the daughter of "Despot Mikhael Angelos".  It appears more likely from a chronological point of view that she was the daughter of Mikhael "Kutrules", although she would presumably have been very young at the time of the marriage.  It is improbable that she was the daughter of Mikhael [II] Lord of Epirus, whose children would have been born in the range [1235/45].  Alexios & his [first/second] wife had [one possible child]: 

(a)       --- Raoul (-1345 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas stratopedarchos.  1294-1345.  m HELENA, daughter of IOANNES Doukas Angelos & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  He & his wife had one child: 

(1)       EIRENE .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         [ANNA Raoulaina .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1302.  She became a nun as ANTONIAm --- Strategopoulos

c)         ISAAKIOS Raoul (-[1303] or after).  Pachymeres records that "protostrator Palaeologus Andronicus, pincerna Raul Manuel, frater huius Isaacius, et quartus protostratoris ex fratre nepos Palaeologus Ioannes" opposed Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches, were imprisoned (in [1278]), in a later passage recording that "fratres duos Raulis filios Manuelem et Isaacium" were blinded[623]

d)         MANUEL Raoul (-[1280] or after).  Pinkernes.  Pachymeres records that "protostrator Palaeologus Andronicus, pincerna Raul Manuel, frater huius Isaacius, et quartus protostratoris ex fratre nepos Palaeologus Ioannes" opposed Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches, were imprisoned (in [1278]), in a later passage recording that "fratres duos Raulis filios Manuelem et Isaacium" were blinded[624]

e)         --- Raoul .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1258. 

f)          [son .  The name of the father of Konstantinos's wife is not known, although as noted below he must have been the son of Alexios Raoul and his wife --- Batatzaina.  Presumably he was one of the sons who are named above.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          EIRENE Raoulaina ([1265/70]-).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Porphyrogenito" to "[uxorem] ex Raulis stirpe"[625].  In a later passage, Pachymeres clarifies her parentage when he records that the "avia paterna" of "coniux Porphyrogeniti" was "Strategopulinæ neptis ex fratre"[626].  Her birth date is estimated from her marriage in [1291].  If correct, it suggests that her father must have been one of his parents´ youngest children.  m ([1285/88]) KONSTANTINOS Doukas Palaiologos, son of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (after 1260-5 Mar 1306).  He became a monk as ATHANASIOS

 

 

1.         ALEXIOS Raoul (-1345 or after).  Megas archon.  1296-1345.  m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios & his wife had one child: 

a)         IOANNES Raoul .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

2.         ISAAKIOS Raoul (-1328 or after).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Raulem Isaacium" during the conflict between Emperor Andronikos II and his grandson, recording that he was among those at Edessa with their wives and children[627].  [m ---.  The name of Isaakios's wife is not known.] 

 

3.         MANUEL Raoul (-1338). 

 

4.         ALEXIOS Raoul (-1366 or after).  Megas domestikos.  1345-1366.  m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios & his wife had

a)         --- Raoulaina .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m --- Angelos, son of STEPHANOS Kalothetos & his wife ---. 

 

5.         MANUEL Raoul (-1391 or after).  1354-1391.  

 

6.         --- Raoulm --- Asanina, daughter of [ANDRONIKOS] Palaiologos Asanes & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1383.   

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known. 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Rallis.  1406/1409. 

2.         DEMETRIOS Rallis.  He took refuge in Rome in 1487[628]m TOMASA Boccali, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Demetrios Rallis & his wife had one child: 

a)         MANUEL Rallis.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

3.         IOANNIS Rallis.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m --- Dragaš, daughter of KONSTANTIN Dragaš [Serbia], authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhes & his first wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Ioannis Rallis & his wife had three children: 

a)         THOMAS Rallis.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was one of the leaders, with his brother, of the revolt in Peloponnesus against the Turks in 1458/60, and the defence of the fortress of Modon[629]

b)         GEORGIOS Rallis.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  In Corfu 1460.  Georgios Phrantzes names "Georgios Raul avunculus" of "Nicolai Melisseni qui gener meus futurus erat"[630]m PHILIPPA Kantakouzene, daughter of GEORGIOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos & his wife --- Palaiologina.  The Masarelli Vatican names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that the first named Philippa married Georgios Ralli[631].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had five daughters, of whom “l´aînée se maria au seigneur Georges Rhallis[632].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Georgios Raulus…gener eius", referring to "Giorgios Palaiologos"[633].  Georgios Rallis & his wife had two children: 

i)          MARIA Rallina.  The Masarelli Vatican names (in order) Maria and Angelina as the two daughters of Georgios Rallis & his wife, stating that Maria married Ioannes[634]m IOANNES Rallis

ii)         --- Angelina .  The Masarelli Vatican names (in order) Maria and Angelina as the two daughters of Georgios Rallis & his wife, stating that Angelina married Nikolaos Ralli[635]m NIKOLAOS Rallis

c)         MARIA Rallina .  Her parentage is indicated by Georgios Phrantzes who names "Georgios Raul avunculus" of "Nicolai Melisseni qui gener meus futurus erat"[636]m NIKEFOROS Melissenos

 

 

 

 

Chapter 30.  STRATEGOPOULOS

 

 

1.         IOANNES Strategopoulos (-after [1216]).  A seal dated 24 May 1216 or 1217 names "Ioannes Strategopoulos…sebastos"[637]

 

2.         ALEXIOS Strategopoulos (-after 1259).  Georgios Akropolites names "duces militum Alexium Strategopulum, Michaelem Palaeologum magni domestici filium, Ioannem Macrenum, Gudelum Tyrannum" among those who negotiated with "Michaelem despotam", dated to the early 1250s from the context[638].  A seal dated to [1255] names "Alexios Strategopoulos from the Komnenos family"[639].  His family relationship with the Komnenoi has not yet been identified.  Georgios Akropolites records that "Strategopulum Alexium et Constantinum Tornicem" were "magni primicerii" under Emperor Ioannes III[640].  Georgios Akropolites records that Emperor Mikhael VIII invested "Strategopulum Alexium" as "magnum domesticum"[641]m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios & his wife had one child: 

a)         KONSTANTINOS Strategopoulos .  Georgios Akropolites names "Strategopulos Alexius…filium Constantinum", recording that he was blinded[642].  Pachymeres records that "Constantino Strategopulo" was blinded by "Ioannis Ducæ olim imperatoris fratre…filio"[643]m --- Batatzaina, daughter of ISAAKIOS Doukas Batatzes sébastokrator & his wife ---.  Pachymeres records that "Strategopulina", wife of "Constantino Strategopulo", was "ex Ioannis Ducæ olim imperatoris fratre nata", a later passage clarifying that her father was "fratre imperatoris dignitate sebastocratore" which appears to indicate Isaakios Batatzes[644].   

 

3.         MIKHAEL Strategopoulos .  Pachymeres names "Michael Strategopulus", specifying that he was later granted the dignity protostrator[645]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 31.  SYNADENOS

 

 

The Synadenos family originated in Synnada (Σύνναδα) whose site is now occupied by the modern Turkish town of Şuhut, which was located near Akroïnos (the present-day Afyonkarahisar province) in the south-eastern part of eastern Phrygia[646].  A major study of the family was undertaken by Christian Hannick and Gudrun Schmalzbauer in the Jahrbuch der Oesterreichischen Byzantinistik[647]


1.         --- Synadenos .  An undated seal (dated by Schlumberger to “IX-X siècle”) records “Synadeno[648]

 

2.         FILETOS Synadenos (-after [1000/06]).  “Philetos Synadenos” wrote letters from Tarsos, while exiled there, dated to [1000-06][649]

 

3.         NIKEFOROS Synadenos (-after [1038]).  A seal dated to [1038] names "Nikeforos Synadenos, patrikios anthypatos and strategos of Cappadocia"[650]

 

 

1.         BASILEIOS Synadenos (-after [1050]).  Strategos of Durazzo.  Cedrenus records that "Basilius Synadenus Dyrrachii præfectus" was accused of plotting with "Petrus quidam Bulgarus, cognomento Deleanus" and imprisoned, dated to [1040] from the context[651].  [The Gesta Roberti Wiscardi records that Emperor Mikhael V, after his succession so dated to 1041, sent "Sinodianus" on a mission to Apulia[652].  Hannick & Schmalzbauer suggest that this unidentified Synadenos may have been Basileios[653].]  A seal dated [1050] names "Basileios protospatharios and strategos of Dyrrachion tou Synadenou"[654]m ---.  The name of Basileios's wife is not known.  Basileios & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Synadene .  Eustathios records the betrothal of the grandson of Maria Kastorissa, by his grandmother, and the daughter of Basileios Synadenos, and that he annulled it on the application of the groom who said that he had not signed the agreement and that he was only 20 years old, dated to [1033][655]Betrothed ([1033]) to ---, grandson of Maria Kastorissa, son of --- ([1012/13]-). 

 

 

1.         THEODOULOS Synadenos (-after [1065]).  A seal dated to [1065] names "Theodoulos Synadenos, vestarches"[656]m --- Botaneiatissa, sister of Emperor NIKEFOROS III, daughter of --- Botaneiates & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Skylitzes who records that Nikeforos Botaneiates married "sororis suæ filiam Synadenen, Theodulo Synadeno genitam" to "crali Ungariæ"[657].  Theodulos Synadenos & his wife had [two] children:

a)         --- Synadene.  Skylitzes records that Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates married "sororis suæ filiam Synadenen, Theodulo Synadeno genitam" ("τήν αεψιάν αυτου ο βασιλευς") the daughter of Theodoulos Synadenos ("την Συναδηνην, θυγατέρα ουσαν Θεοδουλου του Συναδηνου") to "crali Ungariæ" ("τω κράλη Ουγγρίας είς γυναικα") and that she returned to Byzantium after her husband died[658].  The passage does not name the Hungarian king in question.  Kerbl says that Horvát suggested that her husband was Lambert, son of Béla I King of Hungary[659], although it is unclear how Lambert could have been described as "krali" of Hungary as no other record has been identified that he ever reigned as king.  Kerbl also cites Wertner as the first source which proposed that her husband was Géza of Hungary[660].  The narrative of Skylitzes Continuatus ends during the reign of Emperor Nikeforos (who reigned from 1078 until his forced abdication in 1081).  This suggests that the husband of --- Synadene must have died before that date, which supports his identification as King Géza.  However, it is not impossible that the text was written some years later, and that her return to Constantinople was mentioned because it was of recent date at the time of writing.  Nevertheless, it is unlikely that her husband was King László I (who appears to be the only other realistic candidate) whose marriage to Adelheid von Rheinfelden appears to be certain (as discussed in the document HUNGARY KINGS).  The remaining potential difficulty is with the date of the marriage.  Wertner suggested that the marriage took place in [Oct 1073/Oct 1074][661].  Nikeforos Botaneiates (later Emperor Nikeforos III) was Byzantine military commander along the Danube, adjacent to Hungarian territory, from 1064 to before 1067 when he was reassigned as governor of Antioch[662].  Kerbl therefore assesses this as the more likely period during which the marriage took place[663].  However, if it is correct, as stated by Skylitzes, that --- Synadene returned to Byzantium after her husband's death, it is probable that she had no surviving children.  If she had had children, it is reasonable to expect that she would have remained with them to protect their interests, especially as the chronology suggests that King Géza's son Kálmán could not in any case have been her son and would therefore have had a superior claim to the throne than any half-brothers.  If this is correct, all of King Géza's children must have been born from his first marriage, which would date his second marriage to --- Synadene to the early 1070s at the earliest.  m ([1066/75]) as his second wife, GÉZA of Hungary, son of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife Ryksa of Poland ([1044/45]-25 Apr 1077).  He succeeded his cousin in 1074 as GÉZA I King of Hungary

b)         [NIKEFOROS Synadenos (-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081).  The Alexeiad names "a certain Synadenos of Levantine origin…a family relative of Nikeforos" when recording that Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates planned to name him as his successor, but does not specify the precise relationship[664].  If, as indicated above, the wife of Theodoulos Synadenos was the sister of Emperor Nikeforos, it is likely that he was the father of Nikeforos Synadenos, although this is not beyond all doubt.  The Alexeiad records the death of "Nikeforos surnamed Synadenos" fighting Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081[665]Betrothed to ZOE porphyrogeneta Doukaina, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa (1062-before 1136).]

 

 

Two possible brothers: 

1.         [ALEXANDROS Synadenos (-after [1074]).  Skylitzes names "Alexander et Cabasilas Synadeni" among "principes in Oriente", dated to [1074][666].] 

2.         [KABASILAS Synadenos (-after [1074]).  Skylitzes names "Alexander et Cabasilas Synadeni" among "principes in Oriente", dated to [1074][667].] 

 

 

1.         IOANNES Synadenos (-after 1094).  "Ioannou kouropalatou tou Synadenou" was present at the synod held at end-1094 at the Blachernes palace[668]

 

2.         MIKHAEL Synadenos (-after [1100]).  A seal dated to [1100] names "Michael Synadenos"[669]

 

3.         EIRENE Synadene .  Hannick & Schmalzbauer record that “Eirene Synadene” married “pansebastos Manuel...Boteneiat[es][670]m MANUEL Botaneiates, son of --- Botaneiates & his wife --- (-after [1125]). 

 

4.         ELENE Synadene .  An undated seal (dated by Schlumberger to “époque des Comnènes”) records “Synadene Elenen[671]

 

5.         THEOFILOS Synadenos .  An undated seal (dated by Schlumberger to “époque des Comnènes”) records “Theo[fil]o to Se[na]deno[672]

 

6.         ANNA Synadene .  An undated seal (dated by Schlumberger to “époque des Comnènes”) records “Anna ti Sinadine[673]

 

 

1.         EIRENE Diplosynadene, daughter of --- Synadenos & his wife --- Synadene .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1146] as his second wife, ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary ([1115]-[1154/74]). 

 

2.         ANDRONIKOS Synadenos (-[1180])Strategos of Durazzo.  Dux of Cyprus.  Strategos of Niš.  Strategos of Trebizond.  A poem records the epitaph of Andronikos Synadenos “...Archais de lamprais kosmikais epiprepei eis yin Epidámnou te kai nison Kyprou stratigetei...to Niso... Syndei de kai Sólyma ti Konstantinou, ton riga pros sytseuksiv elkusas gamoy....adelfopaida tou basileos...Arxei d´ep autois kai Trapezountos télos”, where he died having become a monk as ATHANASIOS[674]m ZOE Angelina, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene.  Her marriage is confirmed by a poem which records the epitaph of Andronikos Synadenos “...Archais de lamprais kosmikais epiprepei eis yin Epidámnou te kai nison Kyprou stratigetei...to Niso... Syndei de kai Sólyma ti Konstantinou, ton riga pros sytseuksin elkusas gamoy....adelfopaida tou basileos...Arxei d´ep autois kai Trapezountos télos[675]

 

3.         EIRENE Synadene.  She is named as wife of Alexios in a tomb inscription at the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii,[676]m (after 1151) ALEXIOS Komnenos sébastos, son of IOANNES Komnenos dux of Dyrrachium & his wife Anna Doukaina. 

 

4.         THEODOROS Synadenos.  Hannick & Schmalzbauer say that nothing is known about Theodoros Synadenos apart from his marriage[677]m (after 1184) MARIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS I & his first wife [--- Palaiologina] (before 1160-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Hannick & Schmalzbauer record that “Theodoros Synadenos” married “der Tochter des Andronikos I. Komnenos, Maria[678].  However, in the same paragraph they confuse this Maria with Maria, daughter of Andronikos Komnenos sébastokrator and his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa], in consequence stating that Theodoros Synadenos must have died before 1143 in view of the supposed second marriage of his widow.  It is therefore unclear whether there is doubt about the identity of this daughter of Emperor Andronikos. 

 

 

1.         --- Synadenos (-after 1205).  Nicetas Choniates records “adolescentem...Synadenum” among the followers of David Komnenos who were captured by Theodoros Laskaris at the siege of Nicomedia in 1205[679]

 

 

Two siblings: 

 

1.         --- Synadenos (-after [1224/25]).  Ephraimus records the rebellion of “Andronicos...patruelis filiuo Nestongo” against Emperor Ioannes III in Nikaia, supported by “fratrem Isacium atque Tarchaniotam Synadenum et Phlamulium et Macrinum”, dated to [1224/25][680]

2.         --- Synadene .  Georgios Akropolites names "Synadenus Tarchaniota sororis illius maritus, Stasenus" among those who helped "Nestongus Andronicus imperatoris consobrinus" in his rebellion against "imperator Ioannes", soon after his accession from the context of the passage therefore dated to [1224/25][681]m --- Stasenos, son of ---. 

 

 

1.         IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Angelos Synadenos (-6 Feb before [1310/28]).  Pachymeres names "magnus stratopedarcha Synadenus Ioannes" as one of the leaders of the army, dated from the context to the middle part of the reign of Emperor Mikhael III[682]Megas Stratopedarchos 1276/83.  He was one of the generals sent to relieve the siege of Berat in 1280[683].  He became a monk as IOAKEIMm THEODORA Palaiologina, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Doukas Palaiologos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene Komnene Laskarina Kantakouzene Branaina (after 1268-).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that the mother of "Theodoros Synadenus protostrator" was the daughter of "fratre Michaelis primi imperatoris Palaeologi"[684].  She founded the convent of the bebaias elpidos.  In the foundation document, Theodora states that she was a widow with one daughter and two young sons.  She became a nun as THEODULE.  Ioannes Synadenos & his wife had three children: 

a)         EUFROSYNE .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun. 

b)         THEODOROS Komnenos Doukas Synadenos Palaiologos (-after 1342).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Protostrator.  He held a command in Thrace until 1320 when Emperor Andronikos II posted him to the Serbian frontier.  He was one of the followers of the young co-Emperor Andronikos and supported the latter's rebellion against his grandfather Emperor Andronikos II in [1321][685].  After the accession of Emperor Andronikos III in 1328, he was appointed prefect of Constantinople[686].  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "Theodorus Synadenus", at the time of the potential succession crisis triggered by the serious illness of Emperor Andronikos III in 1330, pressured ex-Emperor Andronikos II to become a monk under the name "Antonium", followed by a sworn document under which the ex-emperor renounced all future imperial pretensions[687].  In 1338 he was arrested in Arta by rebel supporters of Nikeforos Orsini of Epirus and, after the rebellion was crushed by Emperor Andronikos III, appointed governor of Thessaloniki in 1340[688].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "protostrator Synadenus Thessalonicæ præfectus", in a passage dated to [1341][689].  He at first supported Ioannes Kantakouzenos during the civil war which followed the death of Emperor Andronikos, but was driven out of Thessaloniki by the Zealot rebellion against the aristocracy in 1342[690]m  EUDOKIA Muzakiaina, daughter of THEODOROS Doukas Muzakios & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Theodoros & his wife had two children: 

i)          THEODORA Synadene .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as THEODOSIAm [GEORGIOS Synadenos Astras megas stratopedarches, son of --- (-1365).  Estangüi Gómez discusses his son Mikhael Astras who married the probable niece of Theodora Palaiologina Philanthropena (see the document ALBANIA)[691].]. 

ii)         ANNA Komnene Doukaina Palaiologine Synadene (-after 1342).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Manuele Asane, fratre uxoris magni domestici" married "protostrator…Annam filiam", dated to [1321] from the context[692].  She was arrested in Constantinople 1342.  m ([1321]) MANUEL Komnenos Raoul Asanes, son of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Komnenos Asanes [Bulgaria] & his wife --- Tarchaneiotissa. 

c)         IOANNES Synadenos Komnenos Doukas PalaiologosIoannes Kantakouzenos names "Ioannem Palaeologum magnum contostaulum, protostratoris fratrem"[693].  His name suggests that he must have born posthumously, sons never normally being named after their fathers in Byzantine nobility.  Megas kontostavlos 1321/22.  m firstly THOMAIS Komnene Doukaina Laskarina Kantakouzene, daughter of [MIKHAEL] Kantakouzene & his wife --- (-11 Feb ----).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as XENEm secondly EIRENE Laskarina Komnene Doukaina Palaiologina, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Ioannes & his first wife had [three possible children]: 

i)          [ANNA Synadene Kantakouzene .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m MIKHAEL Komnenos Laskaris Bryennios Philanthropenos .] 

ii)         [EIRENE Komnene Kantakouzene Palaiologina SynadeneThe primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1342.  m (before 1330) MIKHAEL Komnenos Tornikes Palaiologos Asanes [Bulgaria], son of KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Asanes & his wife --- Tornikine (-[1355]).  Governor of Lesbos 1342/55.] 

iii)        [EUFROSYNE Doukaina Palaiologina .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m KONSTANTINOS Komnenos Raoul Palaiologos . 

2.         [KONSTANTINOS Doukas Synadenos .]  m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARTHA Synadene .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m --- Thrakesinos

 

 

 

 

Chapter 32.  SYRGIANNES

 

 

1.         --- Syrgiannes (-before 1321).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "barbaro Sytzigan…Syrgiannes nuncupatus", stating that he was baptised and that "pater…apud Comanos" had been made "nobilissimus" by Emperor Ioannes Batatzes and that "maternum genus e sanguine imperatoris"[694].  Nicol suggests that the Syrgiannes family may have been of Mongol descent[695].  The connection, through his mother, with any of the imperial families has not yet been identified.  However, if it is assumed that he was born before his wife, it is likely that his mother would not have been born later than 1240 at the latest, at any rate during the time when the Mongols were still marauding in Europe and before any recorded matrimonial alliance between the Mongol rulers and Christian families.  Megas domestikosMegas stratopedarchosm EVGENIA Palaiologina Kantakouzene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos & his wife Eirene Komnene Palaiologina ([1255]-after 1329).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Eugenia Palaeologina monacha, e sorore Michaelis primi Palaeologi imperatoris progenita"[696]Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "mater eius…consobrina mea", "eius" apparently refers to "Syrgiannes", while "mea" appears to refer to "magnus domesticus" who is the speaker in this section of the text and is identified with the author, the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos[697].  She became a nun.  --- Syrgiannes & his wife had two children: 

a)         --- Syrgiannes Palaiologos Philanthropenos ([1290]-murdered 23 Aug 1334).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos refers to "Syrgiannem iunior"[698].  He was one of the followers of the young co-Emperor Andronikos and supported the latter's rebellion against his grandfather Emperor Andronikos II in [1321], but in [1324] was accused of plotting to murder the old emperor and imprisoned[699].  After the accession of Emperor Andronikos III in 1328, he was released and appointed governor of Thessaloniki where he intrigued with the Emperor's mother, Empress Maria [Rita], who adopted him.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Syrgiannes" was imprisoned by Emperor Andronikos II but released by "iunior [Andronico]"[700].  In 1333, he was captured and taken to Constantinople, but escaped and fled to Serbia from where he attacked Kastoria with Serbian troops.  He was murdered by Sphrantzes Palaiologos whom the Emperor had sent to quell the rebellion[701]m MARIA Doukaina Palaiologina, daughter of ---. 

b)         THEODORA Syrgiannaina (-[30 Jun 1347/1349]).  Nicephoras Gregoras records the second marriage of "defuncti imperatoris consobrinus Guido Armenius" and "Syrgiannis filiam", after the death of his first wife, and that the couple had children[702].  She was adopted by Empress Maria [Rita][703].  The retrospective dispensation issued by Pope Clement VI for the marriage of "Guy de Lusignan rex Armeniæ" and "Theodora Syrgianes" is dated 12 Apr 1344[704]m ([1330/32], Papal dispensation 12 Apr 1344) as his second wife, GUY de Lusignan, son of AMAURY of Cyprus Lord of Tyre & his wife Zabel of Armenia (-murdered 17 Apr 1344, bur Adana, transferred to Tarsus[705]).  He succeeded in 1342 as CONSTANTINE II King of Armenia

 

2.         --- .  Megas stratopedarchos.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "uno enim magistro avunculo nostro Angelo magno stratopedarcha", "nostro" apparently referring both to "magnus domesticus" who is the speaker in this section of the text and is identified with the author, the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos [706].  This person has not yet been identified, and the precise relationships are not known. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 33.  TARCHANEIOTES

 

 

This family probably came from Tarchanaion in Thrace and is known from the 11th century[707].  Giovanni Stefanelli reports that it was a tradition in the Tarcagnota family, residents of Mondragone (Caserta) in southern Italy from the 18th century until the end of the 19th century, that they were descended from the Tarchaneiotes family of Byzantium[708].  The suggestion was that the family descended from Paulos Tarchaneiotes who reportedly fled to Italy after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and whose son Giovanni, born in Gaeta, was the author of Delle Storie del Mondo fino all'anno 1513, first published in Venice in 1562 or 1598.  Giovanni Stefanelli also reports that the first known member of the family was Georgios Tarchaneiotes, catepan in Italy in 999.  This information has not been confirmed by primary sources. 

 

 

1.         GREGORIOS Tarchaneiotes (-after Feb 1000).  He was appointed katepan or military governor of Italy: a seal attached to a charter dated Feb 1000 records “Grégoire Tarchaniote protospathaire impérial et catépan d´Italie[709]

 

2.         IOSEPH Tarchaneiotes (-Antioch 1074).  A seal dated to [1038] names "Joseph Tarchaneiotes, anthypatos and strategos"[710].  Skylitzes names "Josepho magistro Tarchaniotæ" during his account of the Asia Minor campaign of Emperor Romanos Diogenes, dated to [1071/72][711].  He was appointed protoproedros and doux of Antioch: an undated seal records “Joseph aproedro [=protoproedros] et duc d´Antioch[712].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Isaacium Comnenum Alexii fratrem" was declared "ducem Antiochiæ", after the death of “protoprohedro Iosepho Trachaneota duce Antiochiæ” when “eius filius magister Catacalo” was unable to control riots in the town, dated to [1074][713]m ---.  The name of Ioseph's wife is not known.  Ioseph & his wife had one child: 

a)         KATAKALON Tarchaneiotes .  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Isaacium Comnenum Alexii fratrem" was declared "ducem Antiochiæ", after the death of “protoprohedro Iosepho Trachaneota duce Antiochiæ” when “eius filius magister Catacalo” was unable to control riots in the town, dated to [1074][714].  Three seals dated to [1085] name "Katalon Trachaneiotes"[715].  A seal dated to [1085] names "Katalon Trachaneiotes, kouropalates"[716].  The Alexeiad records that "Tarchaniotis Catacalon" commanded "Macedonians and Thracians" in a military expedition, dated to [1078][717]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Tarchaneiotes (-after [1083]).  Two seals dated to [1075] name "Michael Tarchaneiotes, patrikios and protanthypatos"[718].  A seal dated to [1083] names "Michael Tarchaneiotes, patrikios"[719]

 

4.         BASILEIOS Tarchaneiotes .  A seal dated to [1040] names "Basileios Tarchaneiotes, anthypatos patrikios and strategos"[720].  A seal dated to [1045] names "Basileios Tarchaneiotes, vestarches and katepano"[721].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Basileios Tarchaneiotes, magistros and doux"[722].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Basileios Tarchaneiotes, magistros"[723].  Skylitzes names Basileios Tarchaneiotes, strategos of the west, in connection with a campaign dated to 1057[724]

 

5.         GREGORIOS Tarchaneiotes (-after [1120]).  A seal dated to [1083] names "Gregorios Tarchaneiotes, protoproedros"[725].  A seal dated to [1120] names "Gregorios Tarchaneiotes"[726].  A seal dated to [1120] names "Gregorios Tarchaneiotes, nobelissimos"[727]

 

6.         ALEXIOS Tarchaneiotesm EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos, dux of Dyrrachium & his wife Anna Doukaina.  She is named as wife of Alexios in a tomb inscription at the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii,[728].  Alexios Tarchaneiotes & his wife had two children: 

a)         IOANNES Komnenos Tarchaneiotes.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         ANNA Komnene.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m NIKEFOROS Artabasdos

 

7.         MIKHAEL Tarchanaiotes (-after [1133]).  A seal dated to [1133] names "Michael Tarchaneiotes, (proto)nobelissimos"[729]

 

8.         KONSTANTINOS Tarchaneiotes (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1200] names "Konstantinos Trachaneiotes"[730]

 

9.         IOANNES Tarchaneiotes (-after [1165]).  A seal dated to [1165] names "Ioannes Tarchaneiotes, sebastos"[731]

 

10.      MAKARIOS Tarchaneiotes (-after [1185]).  A seal dated to [1185] names "Makarios Tarchaneiotes, [layman/lawyer]"[732]

 

11.      KONSTANTINOS Tarchaneiotes .  A seal dated to [1200] names "Konstantinos Trachaneiotes, stratelates"[733]

 

12.      BASILEOS Tarchaniotes .  An undated seal, dated to the 12th/13th century, records “Basile Tarchaniote magistros[734].  

 

13.      IOANNES Tarchaneiotes (-after [1208]).  A seal dated to [1208] names "Ioannes Tarchaneiotes"[735]

 

 

1.         HELENA Tarchaneiotissa .  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "suam sororem Helenam" (referring to "Tarchaneiotes") was betrothed to "fratris Nicephori filio" at the instigation of "matrem Bryenniorum curopalatissam Annam"[736]m --- Bryennios, son of --- Bryennios & his wife ---. 

 

2.         IOANNES Tarchaneiotes .  A seal dated to [1250] names "Ioannes Tarchaneiotes"[737].  Three seals dated to [1267] name "Ioannes Tarchaneiotes"[738].  Two seals dated to [1275] name "Ioannes…lord Tarchaneiotes"[739]

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Tarchaneiotesm --- Philanthropene, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Mikhael & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKEFOROS Tarchaneiotes .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Georgios Akropolites names "…Nicephorus Tarchaniota…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[740]Megas domestikos 1260. 

-        see below

 

 

NIKEFOROS Tarchaneiotes, son of MIKHAEL Tarchaneiotes & his wife --- .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Georgios Akropolites names "…Nicephorus Tarchaniota…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[741]Megas domestikos 1260. 

m firstly ---, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Aprenos & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

m secondly ([1237]) MARIA Palaiologina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, megas domestikos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina ([1216]-).  Georgios Akropolites records the marriage of "Tzuruli custodia…Nicephore Tarchaniotæ…postmodum magnus domesticus" and "magni domestici Palaeologi…primum illius filiam Maria"[742]Ephræmius records that "dux…Nicephorus…Tarchanaiotarum genitus familia…domestici magni" married "Andronici genete Palaeologi…maiorem filiam Mariam"[743].  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the Codinus Curopalates which records that Emperor Mikhael VIII awarded the title protovestiarius to "Michaelem Tarchaniotam sororis suæ filium"[744].  She became a nun before 1266 as MARTHA.  Pachymeres names "Marthæ, sororis Michælis" as mother of "Ioannes Tarchaniota consobrinus imperatoris…trium filiorum natu minimus"[745]

Nikeforos Tarchaneiotes & his first wife had one child: 

1.         --- Tarchaneiotissa .  Pachymeres names "Theodosia et Nostongissa" as the two sisters of "Ioannes Tarchaniota consobrinus imperatoris"[746].  In another passage, the same source clarifies that "Nestongonissa" was "Theodosia…sorore…ex alio parente"[747].  As Pachymeres states elsewhere that Theodora/Theodosia was the daughter of Maria Palaiologina, "Nestongonissa" must have been the daughter of Nikeforos Tarchaneiotes by his first marriage (unless she was illegitimate).  This is further clarified in yet another passage in the same source which states explicity that "Nostongonissa" was "ex priori coniuge a Tarchaniota genita"[748]m --- Nestongos

Nikeforos Tarchaneiotes & his second wife had four children:

2.         THEODORA Tarchaneiotissa.  Pachymeres records that "Theodoram Marthæ filiam sororis Palaeologi, e magno domestico Tarchaniota genitam" married "Balanidiotæ", having previously married "viro nobili Basilio Caballarii filio"[749].  Pachymeres names "Theodosia et Nostongissa" as the two sisters of "Ioannes Tarchaniota consobrinus imperatoris"[750].  She became a nun as THEODOSIAm firstly BASILEIOS Kaballariosm secondly (before 1266) --- Baladionites megas stratopedarchos

3.         MIKHAEL Tarchaneiotes (-1284).  Pachymeres names "adolescentulos…Michael Andronicus et Ioannes" as the brothers of "Theodoram ex alteram sorore sua Martha genitam", wife of "Basilius Caballarius"[751].  [Pachymeres names "Cantacuzenos Michael" among those who fought in Monemvasia in the early years of the reign of Emperor Mikhael VIII, stating that he was later made "magnus conostaulus", the same passage naming "illiusque patrueles Tarchaniotas" as another who fought in the same campaign[752].  It is not known to which of the Tarchaneiotes brothers this refers.  His precise relationship with Mikhael Kantakouzenos is also unknown.]  The Codinus Curopalates records that Emperor Mikhael VIII awarded the title protovestiarius to "Michaelem Tarchaniotam sororis suæ filium"[753]Megas domestikos.  He was one of the generals sent to relieve the siege of Berat in 1280[754].  In 1283, he led another expedition into Thessaly in the course of which he died of malaria[755]m --- Philanthropene, daughter of ALEXIOS Philanthropenos & his wife ---.  Pachymeres records that "Alexius Philanthropenus protostrator…filia" married "Michaelem Martha imperatoris sorore natum", in a passage dated to [1263][756].  Her origin and marriage are confirmed by Pachymeres who names "protovestiarii Tarchaniotæ secundus natu filius, Alexius Philanthropenus dictus ex avo materno"[757].  Mikhael Tarchaneiotes & his wife had three children: 

a)         --- Tarchaneiotes .  Pachymeres refers to "protosebasti (frater…Philanthropeni)"[758]Protosébastos

b)         --- Tarchaneiotissa .  Pachymeres names "Tarchaniotæ gener Alexius Raul"[759]m (1284) as his first wife, ALEXIOS Raoul, son of [IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas Raul & his wife Theodora Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzene] (-1303).  Megas domestikos

c)         ALEXIOS Philanthropenos Tarchaneiotes ([1270]-[1336]).  Pachymeres names "protovestiarii Tarchaniotæ secundus natu filius, Alexius Philanthropenus dictus ex avo materno" when recording that Emperor Andronikos II appointed him commander in Nymphaion and Lydia during his Turkish campaign [in the early 1290s][760].  He advanced into the emirate of Menteshe and recaptured Melanoudion.  He rebelled in 1295 and was proclaimed emperor by his troops.  He was arrested by Cretan troops and blinded about Christmas 1295[761].  He was pardoned in 1324 by Emperor Andronikos II and sent to relieve the Turkish blockade of Philadelphia[762]m --- Akropolitissa, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Akropolites & his wife ---.  Her family origin is confirmed by Pachymeres who names "Acropolita Melchisedech" as "patruus" of the wife of "Philanthropeno"[763].  Alexios & his wife had one child: 

i)          MIKHAEL Philanthropenos Tarchaneiotes (1296-).  Pachymeres refers to "Philanthropenus" and "uxorem cum filio"[764]

4.         ANDRONIKOS Tarchaneiotes (-1283).  Pachymeres names "adolescentulos…Michael Andronicus et Ioannes" as the brothers of "Theodoram ex alteram sorore sua Martha genitam", wife of "Basilius Caballarius"[765]Megas kontostavlos.  He allied himself with his father-in-law to challenge Emperor Mikhael VIII.  He died of the plague.  m --- [Angelina], daughter of IOANNES Doukas Komnenos [Angelos] Lord of Thessaly & his wife ---.  Pachymeres records that "Nicephoro…fratri…eius notho Ioanni…filia" married "Tarchanaiotæ Andronico August nepote e sorore Martha"[766].  Her marriage was arranged by her future husband's uncle, Emperor Mikhael VIII, as part of his policy of establishing close relations with her father[767], although this backfired after the marriage when her husband supported her father against the emperor. 

5.         IOANNES Tarchaneiotes.  Pachymeres names "adolescentulos…Michael Andronicus et Ioannes" as the brothers of "Theodoram ex alteram sorore sua Martha genitam", wife of "Basilius Caballarius"[768].  Pachymeres names "Marthæ, sororis Michælis" as mother of "Ioannes Tarchaniota consobrinus imperatoris…trium filiorum natu minimus"[769]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         MANUEL Tarchaneiotes (-killed in battle Pelekamon 10 Jun 1329).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Manuel Tarchaniota et Nicephorus Cantacuzenus, ambo cognate magni domestici", referring to the future Emperor Ioannes VI, were killed, in a passage dated to [1329][770].  The precise relationship between Manuel Tarchaneiotes and the emperor is not known. 

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas Glabas Tarchaneiotes (-before 1315)Kuropalates megas papias pinkernes [1273].  Megas konostaulosProtostrator [1292].  Strategos of the theme of Thrace 1292.  Pachymeres records that "Michaele…Glabam, e familia Tarchaniotarum, protostratorum" led the imperial army against the Bulgarians, dated to [1306/08] from the context[771].  He became a monk.  His exploits were celebrated in verse by Manuel Philes, court poet at Constantinople[772]m MARIA Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Branaina, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Mikhael Tarchaneiotes & his wife had two children: 

a)         [ANNA] Tarchaneiotissa.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ANDRONIKOS Komnenos Branas Doukas Angelos Palaiologos sébastos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Doukas Palaiologos sébastokrator & his wife Eirene Komnene Laskarina Kantakouzene Branaina (-[28 Jan 1310/46]). 

a)         --- Tarchaneiotissa.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Komnenos Asanes, son of IVAN ASEN III Mytzes Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (-after 1355). 

 

 

2.         MANUEL Tarchaneiotes (-after 1342).  Nicephoras Gregoras names "[dux]…Manuel…Tarchaneiotes, qui cognatione iunctus erat imperatori" (referring to Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos)[773].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Manuelem Tarchanaiotam qui et Curtizes appellebatur", in a passage dated to [1341][774]

 

 

3.         KONSTANTINOS Tarchaneiotes .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "protostratorem…Tarchanaiotam, imperatoriis triremibus præfectum" as one of the "Didymotichi præfecti", in a passage dated to [1351][775].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Constantinus Tarchaniota imperatoriarum triremium dux", in a passage dated to [1352][776].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Tarchanaiota protostrator" as one of the "Didymotichi præfecti", in a passage dated to [1352][777]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 34.  TARONITES

 

 

Descendants of the Bagratuni house of Armenia, the principality of Taron was annexed by Byzantium after the death of Ashot Bagratuni in [967/68][778].  Rüdt-Collenberg also discusses this reported descent from the first dynasty of kings of Armenia[779]

 

 

ASHOT Bagratuni, illegitimate son of GREGORIOS Prince of Taron & his mistress --- (-[967/68]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asotium nothum Taronitæ filium" was taken to Constantinople and granted the title protospatharios[780].  He succeeded as Prince of Taron.  On his death, his sons were unable to withstand Byzantine pressure, the principality of Taron was annexed by Byzantium, and Ashot´s family settled in Constantinople[781]

m ---.  The name of Ashot´s wife is not known. 

Ashot & his wife had two children: 

1.         GREGORIOS Taronites [I] (-killed in battle [995]).  Cedrenus records that "Gregorius et Pancratius fratres germani…Taron" joined Emperor Nikeforos Phokas who invested them with "patricia dignitate", dated to [968/69] from the context[782]Patrikios.  A 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, names Bagration and Gregorios as the two sons of "Taronites"[783]MagistrosDux of Thessaloniki.  Cedrenus records that "præfectus Gregorius" was killed during the Bulgarian war, dated to [995] from the context[784]m ---.  The name of Gregorios´s wife is not known.  Gregorios & his wife had two children: 

a)         ASHOT Taronites .  Cedrenus records that "præfectus Gregorius" sent "Asoten filium suum" to the war in Thessaloniki against Samuil Tsar of the Bulgarians, dated to [995] from the context[785].  Cedrenus records that "Asotæ Taronitæ filio" was named governor of Durazzo by his father-in-law when he married[786].  He betrayed the city to Byzantium in 1005, he and his wife leaving for Constantinople[787] where he became magistrosm ([998]) MIROSLAVA, daughter of SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Agatha Chryselie (-after [1016]).  Cedrenus records the marriage between "Samuelus…filiam suam" and "Asotæ Taronitæ filio", after falling in love while the latter was held captive by her father[788].  She is named "Miroslava" by Mikhael Bishop of Devol[789].  Superior of the convent of Elena [1016]. 

b)         EIRENE Taronitissa .  A 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, names Eirene as daughter of Gregorios and wife of Romanos Taronites patrikios, adding that they were parents of Theofilaktos[790]m ROMANOS Taronites, son of [BAGRAT Bagratuni & his wife ---]. 

2.         BAGRAT Taronites (-after 975).  Cedrenus records that "Gregorius et Pancratius fratres germani…Taron" joined Emperor Nikeforos Phokas who invested them with "patricia dignitate", dated to [968/69] from the context[791]Patrikios.  A 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, names Bagration and Gregorios as the two sons of "Taronites"[792].  Eustathios Romanos names Pancratios Taronites patrikios[793]m HELENA Lekapene, daughter of MIKHAEL Lekapenos magistros & his wife --- ([940/45]-).  Eustathios Romanos names Helena as wife of Pancratios Taronites[794].  Her parentage is confirmed by a 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, which names Helena and Sophia as the two daughters of Mikhail magistros and adds that Helena married "Pankratio Taronites"[795].  Given the chronology of this family, Helena could not have been born much before [940].  Bagrat & his wife had one child: 

a)         AGATHA Taronitissa .  Her parentage is confirmed by a 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, which names Agatha as daughter of "Pankratio Taronites" and his wife, and adds that she was mother of Theofano[796]m ---.  One child: 

i)          THEOFANO .  Her parentage is confirmed by a 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, which names Agatha as daughter of "Pankratio Taronites" and his wife, and adds that she was mother of Theofano[797].  Eustathios Romanos names Theofano as granddaughter of Pancratios Taronites[798]

 

 

1.         GREGORIOS Taronites [II] (-after [1050]).  Gregorios´s parentage is not known.  However, it would be chronologically consistent if he was the son of Ashot Taronites (see above).  A seal dated to [1020] names "Gregorios Taronites, patrikios"[799].  Cedrenus records that "Gregorius…patricius Taronita" was wrapped in a bull´s skin and sent to "orphanotrophum" as punishment for rebellion, dated to [1041] from the context[800].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Gregorios Taronites, magistros vestarches krites and doux of Optimaton"[801]

 

2.         --- Taronites .  His identity and parentage are not known.  It is possible that he was the same person as Gregorios Taronites [II] (see above).  m [--- Aneme, daughter of --- Anemos & his wife ---].  The Alexeiad names "Ioannes, the emperor's nephew, son of his eldest sister" as "a cousin on the paternal side of the rebel [Mikhael Anemas]"[802], which suggests that the paternal grandmother of Ioannes Taronites must have been a paternal aunt of the Anemas brothers.  --- Taronites & his wife had two children: 

a)         MIKHAEL Taronites [I] (-[12 Mar] after [1094]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Manuel" (Comnenos) was captured by the Turks "cum duobus sororem suarum viris, Melisseno et Taronita"[803].  The Alexeiad records, in a passage dateable to 1081, that "Taronites who add married the emperor´s sister Maria" was created protosébastos and protovestarios by Emperor Alexios I, and "not long afterwards…promoted to the rank of panhypersébastos with the right to sit with the Cæsar"[804].  The Codinus Curopalatis records that Emperor Alexios awarded the title panhypersébastos to "Michaelem Taronitem sororis coniugem"[805].  The Alexeiad records that "Michael Taronites, his sister´s husband" was "also sent into exile" by the emperor, in a passage dateable to [1093/93], and his assets confiscated for alleged involvement in the plot of Nikeforos Diogenes against Emperor Alexios I[806].  The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "12 Mar, monk Michael Eumathius"[807], which Morris Bierbrier suggests may refer to Mikhael Taronites[808]m (1062) MARIA Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos, kuropalates and domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1045]-[18 Aug] ----).   Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Maria, Eudocia et Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[809].  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…maior…natu [filia] Maria" and "Taronitæ Michaeli"[810].  Her origin is also deduced from the Alexeiad naming "Mikhael" as the husband of the niece of the Komnenoi brothers, although the text does not name her or her daughter[811].  The relationship is clarified in a later passage in the same source which records that "Taronites…had married the emperor's sister Maria"[812].  She became a nun as ANNA.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 18 Aug of "kyras Marias tis autadelfou tou basileos"[813].  This entry is assumed to relate to Maria, sister of Emperor Alexios I, but it is not an ideal match as it is surprising that it does not record her monastic name.  Mikhael Taronites & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          ANNA Taronitissa.  The Alexeiad names "Mikhael" as the husband of the niece of the Komnenoi brothers who sent him to Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates to accompany him to a monastery at the time of their rebellion in 1081, noting that he "afterwards became logothete of the secreta"[814].  The passage does not name his wife or her parents.  m (1079) MIKHAEL Keroularios, grand nephew of the MIKHAEL Keroularios, son of ---. 

ii)         IOANNES Taronites [I] (-after 1107).  The Alexeiad names Ioannes Taronites as nephew of Emperor Alexios, when recording that he was sent to guard Beroë, dated to [1094/95][815].  The record of the trial of Leon of Chalcedonia, dated to 1086, names sébastos Ioannes Taronites fifth in the list of members of the senate[816].  A seal dated to [1090] names "Ioannes Taronites"[817].  Theophylact of Ohrid names Ioannes Taronites, doux of Skopje, son of Maria[818].  The Alexeiad records that Emperor Alexios sent "John the emperor´s nephew, son of his eldest sister and a cousin on the paternal side of the rebel" to crush the rebellion of his cousin Gregorios Taronites, dated to [1103][819]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Taronites & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MIKHAEL Taronites [II] .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

iii)        [GREGORIOS Taronites [IV] (-after 1118).  ProtovestiariosNiketas Choniates names "Gregorio Taronitæ protovestiario" during the reign of Emperor Ioannes II[820].  It is unlikely that this was the same person as the rebel Gregorios Taronites [III] (see below).  It is possible therefore that he was another son of Mikhael Taronites but the primary source which confirms this beyond doubt has not yet been identified.] 

iv)       [son ([1065/70]-).  His parentage is not known with certainty.  However, if the hypothesis concerning the ancestry of the wife of Ioannes Doukas Komnenos is correct (see below), she must have been descended from a son of Mikhael Taronites [I].  Assuming her birth date is correctly estimated as shown below, it would be chronologically consistent for her paternal grandfather to have been the son of Mikhael.  If it is correct, as shown below, that her father was Ioannes Taronites [III], her grandfather would not have been Ioannes Taronites [I], son of Mikhael Taronites [I], given the Byzantine convention of not normally naming sons after their fathers.  It is possible that he was the same person as the possible son named above as Gregorios Taronites [IV].  m ---.]  One child: 

(a)       [IOANNES Taronites [III] ([1095/1105]-after 1147).  Pansebastos sebastos.  "τού πανσεβάστου σεβαστού τού δικαιοδότου κάι επάρχου Ιωάννου τού Ταρωνίτου" is named in the 1147 synod which deposed Patriarch Kosmas[821]The poem quoted below states that the wife of Ioannes Doukas Komnenos was "from the family of a pansebastos…".  No record has yet been found of another member of the Taronites family with the title pansebastos at that time, which suggests that Ioannes was probably her father.  The same poem indicates that the wife of Ioannes Doukas Komnenos was descended from Maria Komnene, wife of Mikhael Taronites [I].  Assuming that it is correct that her father was pansebastos Ioannes Taronites [III], it is unlikely that he was the son of Mikhael´s son Ioannes Taronites [I] given the Byzantine convention of not normally naming sons after their fathers.  It is likely therefore that he was the son of Gregorios, or of another of Mikhael´s sons who is not otherwise known from the records.]  m ---.  One child: 

(1)       [--- Taronitissa ([1125/30]-after 1176).  An anonymous poem records the marriage of Ioannes Komnenos and his wife "from the family of a pansebastos…the glory of the Taronites…on her paternal side issued from a branch of the same trunk…as she descends…from the race of the Komnenoi"[822].  According to Rüdt-Collenberg, she was the daughter or granddaughter either of Ioannes Taronites [I] or of his brother Gregorios (sons of Mikhael Taronites)[823].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[824], she was the possible daughter of Mikhael Taronites [II].  Jean Claude Chuat first proposed that she was the daughter of Ioannes Taronites [III][825].  This affiliation appears to satisfy all the requirements of the text of the anonymous poem quoted above.  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that she was an adolescent or young adult at the time of her marriage.  She became a nun as MARIA after her husband died.  m ([1146]) IOANNES Doukas Komnenos protosébastos, son of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa] ([1128]-killed in battle Myriokephalon shortly after 17 Sep 1176).] 

b)         son .  His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad which records that Emperor Alexios sent "John the emperor´s nephew, son of his eldest sister and a cousin on the paternal side of the rebel" to crush the rebellion of his son Gregorios Taronites[826]m ---.  One child: 

i)          GREGORIOS Taronites [III] (-after [1106]).  [A seal dated to [1063] names "Gregorios Taronites, magistros"[827].  It is possible that this refers to Gregorios Taronites [II], see above.]  A seal dated to [1075] names "Gregorios Taronites"[828].  Three seals dated to [1100] name "Gregorios Taronites"[829].  Two seals dated to [1100] name "Gregorios Taronites, protonobelissimos and doux"[830].  Theophylact of Ohrid names Gregorios Taronites as "nephew" of Mikhael Taronites[831].  He rebelled against Emperor Alexios I in 1103.  The Alexeiad records that Gregorios Taronites was appointed "Duke of Trapezus" in succession to "Dabatenus", whom Gregorios imprisoned[832].  The same source records that Emperor Alexios sent "John the emperor´s nephew, son of his eldest sister and a cousin on the paternal side of the rebel" to "give him sound advice", that Gregorios was captured, taken to Constantinople where "his period of incarceration was…prolonged" but where he was ultimately pardoned[833]

 

3.         IOANNES Taronites [II] ([before 1060]-after 1107).  The Alexeiad records that Emperor Alexios appointed "John Taronites" as eparch at Chirovachi, adding that he was "an aristocrat who from early childhood had been under the emperor´s protection and for a long time served him as an under-secretary" (in a passage dealing with events dateable to 1107)[834].  Alice Leroy-Molinghen emphases the unlikelihood that this passage refers to Ioannes Taronites [I], son of Mikhael Taronites [I] (see above), as the Alexeiad does not specify that Emperor Alexios´s secretary was the emperor´s nephew, in contrast to the other passage in which Ioannes Taronites [I] is named[835].  The existence of two individuals named Ioannes Taronites is confirmed by the record of the trial of Leon of Chalcedonia, dated to 1086, in which sébastos Ioannes Taronites (Ioannes Taronites [I]) is named fifth in the list of members of the senate, while Ioannes Taronites "προτοκουροπαλάτου και επι των δεήςεων" (Ioannes Taronites [II]) is named eighteenth in the list[836].  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was adult when named in this list.  If his birth date was considerably before 1060, he may have been the younger brother of Mikhael Taronites [I].  Protokouropalates

 

4.         THEODOROS Taronites .  Theodoros Taronites, imperial notarios, is among those who signed the document of the sekreton of the sea handing over a new ship to the monastery of Patmos, dated to the late 12th/early 13th centuries[837]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 35.  TORNIKES

 

 

This family was studied by J. Darrouzes[838]

 

 

Two [probable] brothers: 

1.         NIKOLAOS Tornikios, son of [TORNIK [Tornikios] of Taron & his wife ---] (-after 963).  [The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Tornicio patricio" bequeathed his lands to the emperor and left "uxoremque et filium" under his protection after his death[839].]  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Konstantinos VII used "Torniciis" to arrest the sons of Emperor Romanos Lekapenos after inviting them for dinner, dated to 27 Jan 945[840].  Cedrenus names "Nicolao et Leone Torniciis" when recording the same incident[841]. The De Ceremoniis of Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos records that "Nicolaus Tornicius" was charged with expelling Bardas Phokas from the church of St Sophia in 963[842].  

2.         [LEON Tornikios (-after 945).  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Konstantinos VII used "Torniciis" to arrest the sons of Emperor Romanos Lekapenos after inviting them for dinner, dated to 27 Jan 945[843].  Cedrenus names "Nicolao et Leone Torniciis" when recording the same incident[844].  Neither source specifies that Nikolaos and Leon were brothers but this is implied from the text.] 

 

 

Probable descendants of either Nikolaos or Leon Tornikios: 

 

1.         --- Tornikes (-1017 or after).  Lupus Protospatarius records that "Turnichi catepani" was appointed in Bari in [1017] and fought and defeated "Mele et Normannis Leo Patiano"[845].  It appears that he either died later that year, or was recalled to Constantinople, as another katepan is named in Bari later in the following year in the same source. 

 

2.         MIKHAEL Tornikes (-after [1050]).  A seal dated to [1035] names "Michael Tornikios asekretis and krites of Seleukeia"[846].  A seal dated to [1038] names "Michael Tornikios protospatharios krites of the hippodrome and strategos of Samos"[847].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Michael Tornikes, protospatharios and krites of the hippodrome and of Anatolikon"[848]

 

3.         [--- Tornikaina .  The name and origin of the wife of Theodosios Monomachos is not known.  A clue is provided by Psellus who records that "the emperor [Konstantinos IX] had a second cousin on the maternal side…Leo, a member of the Tornician family…who lived in Adrianopolis"[849]Zonaras names "Leone Tornicio…materno imperatoris cognato"[850]m THEODOSIOS Monomachos, son of ---.] 

 

4.         LEON Tornikes (-after Sep 1047).  Psellus records that Euprepia, sister of Emperor Konstantinos IX, was courted by her second cousin on her mother's side ("εξανέψιος"), Leon Tornikios, a military magnate in Macedonia whom her brother appointed as governor of Iberia [in Georgia] to remove him from Constantinople and terminate their affair.  Zonaras names "Leone Tornicio…materno imperatoris cognato" and "soror imperatoris Euprepia"[851]The word "cognato" is too imprecise to trace the exact relationship between Leon Tornikes and the emperor.  Psellos records that he rebelled, was proclaimed emperor in Sep 1047, and besieged Constantinople but was captured and blinded[852].  Cedrenus records the rebellion of "patricii Leonis Tornicii" strategos of Iberia against Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos, supported by "Joanne Batatze…Theodoro Strabomyta, Polye, Marianoque Brana, Occidentalium legionem ducibus et sibi sanguine propinquis", adding that "Batatzæ" was "consanguineus…Tornicii" and that they were blinded together[853].  The relationship between Ioannes Batatzes and Leon Tornikios has not been traced.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the rebellion of “un patrice…Thornig, originaire d´Anternabolis” against Emperor Konstantinos IX in “l´année 496 [10 Mar 1047/8 Mar 1048]”[854].   Leon was eventually forced to become a monk.  m --- Batatzaina, daughter of GEORGIOS Batatzes & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the Anonymi Barensis Chronicon which names Ioannes Batatzes as consocruneo of Leon Tornikios[855]

 

5.         ROMANOS Tornikes (-after [1050]).  Two seals dated to [1050] name "Romanos Tornikes, protospatharios and symponos"[856].  A seal dated to [1050] names "Romanos ---, protospatharios and symponos"[857]

 

6.         GEORGIOS Tornikes (-after [1063]).  A seal dated to [1063] names "Georgios Tornikes, protospatharios and exaktor"[858]

 

7.         PETROS Tornikes (-after 1078).  The Alexeiad records that "a Macedonian…Petros…Tornicius" fought against the rebel Nikeforos Bryennios[859]

 

8.         ANTONIOS Tornikes .  An undated seal, dated to the 11th/12th century, records “Antoine Tornice[860]

 

9.         NIKETAS Tornikes (-after [1120]).  A seal dated to [1120] names "Niketas Tornikes"[861]

 

10.      IOANNES Tornikes (-after [1150]).  A seal dated to [1150] names "Ioannes Tornikes"[862]

 

11.      MIKHAEL Tornikes (-after [1167]).  A seal dated to [1167] names "Michael Tornikes sakellarios"[863]

 

 

1.         --- Tornikesm ---, niece of THEOFILAKTOS of Ohrid, daughter of ---.  Her family origin and marriage are confirmed by a letter written by Theofilaktos of Ohrid, whose death is estimated to after 1107, requesting exemption from military service for "Τορνίκιον" the husband of his niece ("γαμβρόν έπ αδελφιδη")[864].  Three children: 

a)         GEORGIOS Tornikes (-after [1146/56]).  Metropolitan of Ephesus.  Georgios Tornikes wrote from Constantinople to "Andronikos Komnenos" in favour of "the writer´s brother Demetrios, who was at Branitsova", dated to [1146/56][865]

b)         DEMETRIOS Tornikes (-[Jan] 1201 or 1202).  Metropolitan of Ephesus.  Georgios Tornikes wrote from Constantinople to "Andronikos Komnenos" in favour of "the writer´s brother Demetrios, who was at Branitsova", dated to [1146/56][866].  

-        see below

c)         LEON Tornikes (-after [Sep 1154]).  Georgios Tornikes names "his brother Leon, then in Athens as a civil or ecclesiastical functionary" in his seventh letter addressed to the Metropolitan of Athens, dated to [Sep 1154][867]

 

 

DEMETRIOS Tornikes, son of --- Tornikes & his wife --- (-[Jan] 1201 or 1202).  Georgios Tornikes wrote from Constantinople to "Andronikos Komnenos" in favour of "the writer´s brother Demetrios, who was at Branitsova", dated to [1146/56][868].  Niketas Choniates records the activities of "iudices, Monasteriotes Leo, Tornicius Demetrius et Constantinus Patrenus" during the revolution which brought Emperor Andronikos I to power in 1183[869].  "Pansebastos sebastos lord and oikeios [of] our…emperor and logothetes of the dromos lord Demetrios Tornikes" [πανσεβάστον σεβαστού χυρού χαι οιχειου τω…βασιλέι χαι λογοθέτου του δρόμου χυρου Δημητριουτου Τορνιχη] is named in a report of a synod convened by Emperor Isaakios II in Sep 1191[870].  Stone and Owens discuss the significance of the title "oikeios" [οιχειου] borne by Demetrios in this source, indicating a close member of the household or family of the emperor, concluding that it represents another pointer towards the marriage of his daughter to Emperor Isaakios[871].  A seal dated to [1200] names "Demetrios Tornikes"[872].  Euthymios Tornikes wrote a eulogy for the "pansébaste et…logothète Démétrios Tornikès"[873], dated to [28/31] Jan [1201 or 1202][874]

m --- Malakissa, sister of EUTHYMIOS Malakes, daughter of --- Malakes & his wife ---.  Euthymios Tornikes wrote a eulogy for the "hypertime de Néopatras (Euthymios Malakès)"[875], which confirms that the deceased was his uncle[876]

Demetrios & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Tornikes (-killed in Bulgaria [1205/06]).  Adontz quotes a letter from Mikhael Akominate addressed to Demetrios Tornikes which names his father Konstantinos and his grandfather Demetrios[877].  A seal dated to [1190] names "Konstantinos Tornikes, sebastos"[878].  The History of Niketas Choniates names "præfectus urbis Constantinus Tornicius" as head of the imperial guard which suppressed a riot in Constantinople in 1201[879].  Konstantinos Tornikes, uncle ("θείου") of Emperor Alexios IV, is named at Patmos, dated to 1203[880].  The History of Niketas Choniates records that "Dromi logothetam Constantinum Tornicem" was captured by the Bulgarians after the battle of Adrianople and later killed[881]m [--- Komnene], [illegitimate daughter or granddaughter of Emperor MANUEL I]  (-after 1201).  Her supposed origin is deduced from a single primary source as follows.  The eulogy written by Euthymios Tornikes for his father Demetrios, dated 1201, refers to "λογοθέτου γηνη… σου νυμφη" ("the wife of the logothetes, his daughter-in-law") and adds that the lady in question was "η εχ της πρώτης χαι Βασιλιχης των Κομνηνων χρυσέας σειρας η ανδρεια χαι σωφρων" ("descended from the first and imperial series of gold of the Komnenos, brave and wise")[882].  It is highly probable that the text refers to the wife of Konstantinos Tornikes, who is referred to as "dromi logothetam Constantinum Tornicem" by Niketas Choniates (see above)[883].  Varzos interprets the phrase "imperial series of gold of the Komnenos" as meaning that the wife of Konstantinos Tornikes was "one who emanated from Emperors Alexios, Ioannes and Manuel Komnenos", in other words from the direct line of the three Komnenos emperors[884].  If this interpretation is correct, descent from any one or two of these emperors would not constitute a "series", nor would descent from Emperor Andronikos I who counted only Emperor Alexios among his direct ancestors.  This would necessarily mean that the lady in question was the daughter or granddaughter (the chronology would support either case) of Emperor Manuel I, evidently illegitimate if she was his daughter.  However, it is not known whether such a poetic turn of phrase in this type of eulogy should be interpreted so literally.  It should also be noted that Varzos´s interpretation does not appear to consign a meaning to the word "πρώτης" ("first").]  Konstantinos & his wife had one child: 

a)         DEMETRIOS Tornikes Komnenos (-[1252]).  Adontz quotes a letter from Mikhael Akominate addressed to Demetrios Tornikes which names his father Konstantinos and his grandfather Demetrios[885].  Georgios Akropolites names "Demetrios Tornices, qui summam rerum publicarum administrabat…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[886]

-        see below

2.         [GEORGIOS Tornikes (-after 1201).  Metropolitan of Patras.  Darrouzès cites discourses made by Georgios Tornikes and other sources which suggest that he was probably the brother of Euthymios Tornikes[887].] 

3.         EUTHYMIOS Tornikes (-after 1222).  He is named in a document dated 13 Sep 1191 concerning the deposition of the patriarch Dositheos, last in a list of archontes of the patriarch therefore relatively junior in rank[888].  Euthymios Tornikes despotes and hypertimos, brother of Konstantinos, wrote a eulogy for Emperor Alexios III dated 1201[889].  Euthymios Tornikes wrote a eulogy for the "pansébaste et…logothète Démétrios Tornikès" in which one passage indicates that Euthymios was his son[890], dated to [28/31] Jan [1201 or 1202][891].  He was mentioned indirectly in a letter by the metropolitan of Naupaktos in a request to Theodoros Angelos in 1222[892]

4.         [EIRENE] (-[18 Nov] [1183/85]).  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[893].  This entry is discussed by Hiestand[894].  Bearing in mind the estimated date of death of Emperor Isaakios (see above), it is possible that 18 Nov commemorates the death of [Eirene], although it is also possible that the date commemorates some other family event.  There remains some doubt about whether "Eirene" can have been the name of Isaakios's first wife as the original baptismal name of her daughter, "Maria regina", is also recorded as Eirene, the Byzantine naming practice not normally being to name children after their parents.  One possibility is that [Eirene] died while giving birth to Eirene/Maria, as naming a child after a parent appears to have been acceptable practice in those circumstances. If that is correct, it is unlikely that [Eirene] died later than [1184] considering her daughter´s first marriage in 1192.  Her family relationship with the Tornikes family is indicated by a document at Patmos which names Konstantinos Tornikes as uncle ("θείου") of Emperor Alexios IV, dated to Dec 1203[895].  While the passage would not exclude Konstantinos being the husband either of a maternal or paternal aunt of the emperor, or indeed a more remote relation as the word "θείος" could indicate a family relationship which is more distant than "uncle", Don Stone and Charles Owens, in their detailed analysis of all the relevant sources, argue convincingly that the most likely interpretation is that Konstantinos Tornikes was Emperor Alexios´s maternal uncle[896]m (before 1181) as his first wife, ISAAKIOS Angelos, son of ANDRONIKOS Dukas Angelos & his wife Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa ([1155]-Constantinople in prison [28 Jan/12 Apr] 1204).  He succeeded in 1185 as Emperor ISAAKIOS II.] 

 

 

DEMETRIOS Tornikes Komnenos, son of KONSTANTINOS Tornikes & his wife --- Komnene (-[1252]).  Adontz quotes a letter from Mikhael Akominate addressed to Demetrios Tornikes which names his father Konstantinos and his grandfather Demetrios[897].  Georgios Akropolites names "Demetrios Tornices, qui summam rerum publicarum administrabat…" among the important nobles at the court of Emperor Ioannes Batatzes[898].  Georgios Akropolites records the death of "Demetrius Tornicius ", dated to the early 1250s from the context[899]

m firstly --- [Palaiologina], daughter of ---.  Georgios Akropolites records that "Demetrius Tornicius…Thessalonicæ magnus domesticus" married "magni domestici consobrinam" (referring to Mikhael Palaeologus, the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)[900].  The text does not state whether the relationship was through the male or female line of the family, so it is uncertain whether Demetrios´s wife was "Palaiologina" by birth. 

m secondly ---.  The name of Demetrios's second wife is not known. 

Demetrios & his second wife had [four] children: 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Tornikes.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Georgios Akropolites records that "Strategopulum Alexium et Constantinum Tornicem" were "magni primicerii" under Emperor Ioannes III[901].  Georgios Akropolites records that Emperor Ioannes III installed "Constantinus Tornices" as "magnus…primicerius" but that he was removed from the post by Emperor Theodoros II[902]m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos Tornikes & his wife had two children: 

a)         --- Tornikaine.   Pachymeres records the marriage of "Constantini Tornicii filiam" and "fratrem…Ioannes" (referring to the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)[903].  Her parentage is confirmed by Ephræmius which records that "sebastocrator…Ioannes cum Constantino socero Tornice" met the emperor at "Lampsaci"[904]Mistress of ---.  m ([1259]) as his second wife, IOANNES Komnenos Palaiologos sébastokrator, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos & his first wife Theodora Palaiologina (-[1273/74]).  Despot 1261/63.  --- Tornikaine had [one possible illegitimate child]: 

i)          [daughter (-before 1268[905]).  Pachymeres refers to "imperator…fratris…propriam coniugem" who had "filiam ex alio…naturalem sed illegitimam prolem" who married "Mepe Iberiæ Davidi"[906].  It is not clear from the passage which of Emperor Mikhael VIII's brothers is indicated.  If it refers to Ioannes, this was the daughter of his wife --- Tornikaine, assuming that the text is accurate.  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[907] as the daughter of Ioannes Palaiologos by his second marriage.  If the latter is correct, she must have been a child bride.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the wife of King Davit was "la reine, fille du grand Paléologue, souverain de Constantinople et de la Grèce"[908].  m as his first wife, DAVIT VI "Narin/the Clever" King of Imerati [Georgia], son of MUHAMMAD MUGHIS ud-Din Turkan Shah, of Erzerum & his wife Rusudan Queen of Georgia (-1292).]

b)         --- Tornikaine .  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Tornicii filiam secundogenitam" and "Ioanni filio despotæ Occidentis"[909].  The same source confirms this information in a later passage when it records that "Michaeli…despotæ…filii…quorum Ioannes" became "generum…sebastocratoris Tornicii"[910]m ([1262]) IOANNES Doukas, son of MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Theodora Doukaina Petroliphaina Basilissa (-[1281/89). 

2.         [IOANNES Tornikes .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastocrator.] 

3.         [ANDRONIKOS Tornikes (-1259).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

4.         --- Tornikaina .  Georgios Akropolites records the marriage of "Theodorus Petraliphas" and "filiam Demetrii Tornicii Comneni", dated to the early 1250s from the context[911]m ([1250/55]) THEODOROS Petraloifas, son of ---. 

 

 

1.         --- .  m ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that the mother of "magnus contostaulos Michael Tornices…imperatorem seniorem attingebat"[912].  One child: 

a)         MIKHAEL Tornikes .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "magnus contostaulos Michael Tornices"[913]

 

 

1.         ISAAKIOS Komnenos Doukas Tornikes (-8 Jan  ----).  He was possibly a grandson of Konstantinos Tornikes.  He became a monk as IOASSAPHm MARIA Komnene Branaina Laskarina Doukaina Palaiologina, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Doukas Palaiologos sébastokrator & his wife Eirene Komnene Laskarina Kantakouzene Branaina (-[16 Sep 1328/46]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as MARIAMNE.  Isaakios & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANDRONIKOS TornikesParakoimomenos kai oikeios of Emperor Andronikos II.  Megas chartularios 1322.  Protobestiarios 1324/1328.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andronicus Tornices et Manuel Lascaris" as supporters Emperor Andronikos II in his disputes with his grandson[914]Kephale of Boleron, Mosynopolis, Serrhes and Syrmia 1327.  He became a monk as ANTONIOSm [--- Tzamplakon, daughter of ALEXIOS Tsamplakon megas papias & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.]  Andronikos & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [ANNA Kantakouzene .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She is described as daughter of a parakoimomenosm DEMETRIOS Tornikes, son of ---.  1336/78.  Pinkernes.] 

 

 

1.         DEMETRIOS Tornikes.  1336/78.  Pinkernesm ANNA Kantakouzene, daughter of [ANDRONIKOS] Tornikes & his wife --- Tzamplakon.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

 



[1] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007). 

[2] Classen, J. (ed.) (1839) Theophanes Chronographia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[3] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6259/759, p. 685. 

[4] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[5] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[6] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[7] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[8] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[9] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6257/757, pp. 676-7. 

[10] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) 43, pp. 184-5. 

[11] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Theophanes Continuatus, VI, De Leonis Basilii filii, 25, p. 371. 

[12] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Symeon Magister, De Leonis Basilii filii, 20, p. 709.

[13] Adontz, N. (1965) Etudes arméno-byzantines (Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 223 (first published in Byzantion 1934, 1935, 1936)

[14] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, De Leonis Basilii filii, 4, p. 384. 

[15] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, De Leonis Basilii filii, 10, p. 389. 

[16] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, pp. 184-5. 

[17] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 75. 

[18] Cedrenus II, col. 198. 

[19] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[20] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[21] Cedrenus II, col. 246. 

[22] Cedrenus II, col. 246. 

[23] Cedrenus II, col. 246. 

[24] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[25] Cedrenus II, col. 246. 

[26] Cedrenus II, col. 223. 

[27] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[28] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[29] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[30] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[31] Cedrenus II, col. 223. 

[32] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[33] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[34] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[35] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[36] Cedrenus II, col. 331. 

[37] Cedrenus II, col. 351. 

[38] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzæ curopalatæ ("Skylitzes"), col. 447. 

[39] Cedrenus II, col. 247. 

[40] Cedrenus II, col. 282. 

[41] Cedrenus II, col. 286. 

[42] Cedrenus II, col. 275. 

[43] Cedrenus II, col. 363. 

[44] Cedrenus II, col. 331. 

[45] Cedrenus II, col. 331. 

[46] "Konstantinos 20324" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3144. 

[47] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books), Book 12, pp. 382 and 386. 

[48] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 387. 

[49] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 382. 

[50] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 382. 

[51] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 382. 

[52] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 387. 

[53] "Ioannes 20285" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 1623, 1624, 1625. 

[54] "Nikolaos 107" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 237.1, 243.1, 269.1. 

[55] Lemerle, P., Guillou, A. and Svoronos, N. (1970) Actes de Lavra. Première partie: Des origines à 1204, Archives de l'Athos V (Paris) 332.44-47, 333, 105-110, cited in PBW (2006.2). 

[56] Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 149. 

[57] Gautier, P. ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 27 (1969), p. 240, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1969_num_27_1_1423> (21 Dec 2012). 

[58] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 274. 

[59] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[60] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[61] Stiernon, L. 'Notes de titulature et de prosopographie Byzantines, Theodora Comnène et Andronic Lapardas sébastos', Revue des études byzantines, Tome 24 (1966), p. 94, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1966_num_24_1_1362> (21 Dec 2012). 

[62] Patrologia Græca, Vol. 137, col. 1131. 

[63] Stiernon Theodora Comnène et Andronic Lapardas sébastos' (1966), p. 92, quoting Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), p. 177. 

[64] Stiernon 'Theodora Comnène et Andronic Lapardas sébastos' (1966), p. 94.  

[65] Kerbl (1979), p. 150. 

[66] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[67] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 3, p. 260.  

[68] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 7, p. 271. 

[69] Niketas Choniates, De Manuele Comneno, Liber VI, 9, p. 233. 

[70] Niketas Choniates, De Andronico Comneno, Liber I, 1, p. 359. 

[71] Schlumberger, G. (1884) Sigillographie de l´Empire Byzantin (Paris), p. 335. 

[72] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 363. 

[73] Nicol (1972), p. 173. 

[74] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1828-1832) Cantacuzenus Vols I, II and III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ioannes Kantakouzenos") Vol. II, III, 36, p. 218. 

[75] Nicol (1972), p. 195. 

[76] Nicol (1972), pp. 206-7. 

[77] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 19, p. 120. 

[78] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 19, p. 120. 

[79] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1830-1855) Nicephorus Gregoras, Historiæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ Vols. I, II and III (Bonn) ("Nikeforos Gregoras") Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIV, 11, p. 740. 

[80] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 93, p. 568. 

[81] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIV, 11, p. 740. 

[82] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 78, p. 485. 

[83] Nicol (1972), pp. 201 and 206. 

[84] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 80, p. 493. 

[85] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIV, 6, p. 710. 

[86] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XVI, 1, p. 797. 

[87] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 17, p. 108. 

[88] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 19, pp. 123-4. 

[89] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 95, p. 585. 

[90] Estangüi Gómez, R. ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 66 (2008), p. 240, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2008_num_66_1_3035> (21 Dec 2012), p. 146, footnote 78. 

[91] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 50, p. 364. 

[92] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 50, p. 364. 

[93] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Pachymeres") Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 5, p. 350. 

[94] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 197. 

[95] Fine (1994), p. 198. 

[96] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 20, p. 57. 

[97] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 21, p. 421. 

[98] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 5, p. 350, and Liber VI, 6, p. 440. 

[99] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 21, p. 421. 

[100] Fine (1994), p. 177. 

[101] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 27, p. 72. 

[102] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 12, p. 396. 

[103] Buchon, J. A. (trans.) (1827) Chronique de Ramon Muntaner (Paris), Tome II, CXCXI, p. 131. 

[104] Nicol (1972), p. 136. 

[105] Ramon Muntaner, Tome II, CCXIII, p. 167.  

[106] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 212. 

[107] Ramon Muntaner, Tome II, CXCIV, p. 111. 

[108] Miller (1908), pp. 212-14. 

[109] Ramon Muntaner, Tome II, CXCXI and CCXII, pp. 131 and 164. 

[110] Miller (1908), p. 215. 

[111] Nicol (1972), p. 139-40. 

[112] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 18, p. 91. 

[113] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 50, p. 299. 

[114] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 50, p. 299. 

[115] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 19, p. 116. 

[116] Miller (1908), pp. 258-9, which specifies that he was killed in 1316 after governing the province for eight years, which is inconsistent with the death date shown in ES III 197. 

[117] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 7, p. 353. 

[118] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 16, pp. 624 and 626. 

[119] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 24, p. 125. 

[120] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 41, pp. 248-9. 

[121] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 1, p. 633. 

[122] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XVI, 1, p. 797. 

[123] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 16, p. 624. 

[124] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 17 and 68, pp. 111 and 421. 

[125] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 19, p. 116. 

[126] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 36, p. 218. 

[127] Trapp, E. ‘Beiträge zur Genealogie der Asanen in Byzanz’, Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik, Band 25 (Vienna, 1976), p. 168, quoting Miklosich, F. & Müller, J. (1862) Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi II (Vienna), p. 51. 

[128] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[129] Fine (1994), p. 328, and Trapp ‘Asanen’ (1976), p. 169, citing Hopf, C. (1867) Geschichte Griechenlands I (Leipzig), p. 384 [not yet consulted]. 

[130] Fine (1994), p. 328, and Trapp ‘Asanen’ (1976), p. 169, citing Hopf, C. (1867) Geschichte Griechenlands I (Leipzig), p. 384 [not yet consulted]. 

[131] Trapp ‘Asanen’ (1976), pp. 166-7, quoting Mercati, S. G. (1970) Collectanea Byzantina I (Bari), 38-41, p. 149. 

[132] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 56, p. 286. 

[133] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 19, p. 116. 

[134] Trapp ‘Asanen’ (1976), p. 169, quoting Mercati (1970), 37, p. 149. 

[135] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 87, p. 535. 

[136] Trapp, E. Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologisichen-Zeit, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[137] Sturdza (1999), p. 524. 

[138] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 4, p. 138. 

[139] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Georgios Phrantzes") Liber IV, 15, p. 387. 

[140] Lambros, S. P. Παλαιολόγεια και Πελοπονησιακά, Vol. I, p. 249, posted by Diana Gilliland Wright at <http:surprisedbytime.blogspot.com/2010/08/lost-sons.html> (4 Jan 2011). 

[141] Lambros, S. P. Παλαιολόγεια και Πελοπονησιακά, Vol. I, p. 249. 

[142] Lambros, S. P. Παλαιολόγεια και Πελοπονησιακά, Vol. I, p. 249. 

[143] Miller (1908), pp. 456-7. 

[144] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 387. 

[145] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 387. 

[146] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 449. 

[147] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[148] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Niketas Choniates"), Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, pp. 135-6. 

[149] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[150] "Maria 20117" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3040. 

[151] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[152] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines. A propos de trois membres de la famille Rogerios (XII siècle)’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 22 (1964), pp. 195-6, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1964_num_22_1_1324> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[153] Kuršankis, M. ´Autour des sources Géorgiennes de la foundation de l´empire de Trébizonde´, Archeion Pontou 30, pp. 112-3, cited by Williams, J. W. ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, Foundations Vol. 2, number 3 (Jan 2007), p. 173. 

[154] ES II 175. 

[155] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[156] Cedrenus II, col. 183. 

[157] Werner Ehrlich von Ehrnfeldt, in a private email to the author dated 8 March 2011.  

[158] ES II 159 A. 

[159] Sisic, F. (ed.), Stephenson, P. (trans. 1998) Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, Johannes Lucius (1666) De Regno Dalmatiæ et Croatiæ (Amsterdam), available at <http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/lpd.1.htm> (10 Jan 2007) (extract only), XXXVI. 

[160] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVIII. 

[161] Adontz, N. (1938) Samuel l´Arménien, roi des Bulgares (Mémoires publiés par l´Académie royale de Belgique), p. 51 (also published in Adontz, N. (1965) Etudes arméno-byzantines (Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon), pp. 347-409). 

[162] Cedrenus II, col. 235. 

[163] Cedrenus II, col. 363. 

[164] Cheynet, J.-C. and Vannier, J.-F. (1986) Etudes prosopographiques, Les Dalessenoi, pp. 75-115, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[165] "Ioannes 20165" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 546. 

[166] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXV (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), II, Liber XVII, X, col. 172. 

[167] Cedrenus II, col. 218. 

[168] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 183. 

[169] Cedrenus II, col. 254. 

[170] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos (Penguin Books) ("Psellos"), pp. 333-4. 

[171] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 183. 

[172] Skylitzes, col. 407. 

[173] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[174] Cedrenus II, col. 210. 

[175] "Theophylaktos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 404.52. 

[176] "Theophylaktos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 37. 

[177] Schlumberger (1884), p. 650. 

[178] "Theophylaktos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 512. 

[179] Cedrenus II, col. 254. 

[180] Cedrenus II, col. 254. 

[181] "Adrianos 20106" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1681. 

[182] Cedrenus II, col. 254. 

[183] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[184] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XI, col. 172. 

[185] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Nikeforos Bryennios") Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[186] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[187] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83. 

[188] Schlumberger (1884), p. 650. 

[189] Schlumberger (1884), p. 650. 

[190] Gautier, P. 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), 71, p. 124, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1985_num_43_1_2170> (21 Dec 2012). 

[191] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes dans le typikon liturgique du monastère du Christ Philanthrope (ms. Panaghia Kamariotissa 29)', Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), pp. 41 and 51, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2005_num_63_1_2305> (21 Dec 2012). 

[192] "Theodoros 126" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 55. 

[193] "Theodoros 126" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3841. 

[194] "Theodoros 126" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 55 and 3840. 

[195] "Theodoros 20256" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3843. 

[196] Skylitzes, col. 422. 

[197] Schlumberger (1884), p. 650. 

[198] "Konstantinos 20220" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1683. 

[199] "Konstantinos 20153" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 873. 

[200] "Konstantinos 20221" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1684. 

[201] "Theophylaktos 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1682. 

[202] "Nikeforos 20149" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1685. 

[203] Schlumberger (1884), p. 651. 

[204] "Theodoros 215" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 2842, 2838 and 3839. 

[205] "Theodoros 215" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 199. 

[206] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 68. 

[207] "Romanos 20148" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4373. 

[208] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 58. 

[209] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 58. 

[210] Annales Barenses 1040, MGH SS V, p. 54. 

[211] Annales Barenses 1040, MGH SS V, p. 54. 

[212] Cedrenus II, col. 277. 

[213] Cedrenus II, col. 331. 

[214] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37. 

[215] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37. 

[216] "Eustathios 20132" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4375. 

[217] "Stephanos 20217" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4376. 

[218] "Theodoros 20281" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4374. 

[219] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber II, 25, p. 92. 

[220] Gautier, P. ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ Revue des études byzantines, Tome 29 (1971), p. 222, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1971_num_43_1_1445> (21 Dec 2012), citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 146 bis, and 47. 

[221] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[222] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), p. 222, citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 146 bis, and 47. 

[223] Alexeiad, Book 12, pp. 390 and 414. 

[224] Alexeiad, Book 7, pp. 218 and 220. 

[225] Loukaki, M. ‘Contribution à l´étude de la famille Antiochos’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 50 (1992), p. 196, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1992_num_50_1_1857> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Mioni, E. (1973) Bibliothecæ divi Marci Venetiarum Codices Graeci Manuscripti, III (Rome), no. 65, Marcianus XI 22, f. 74v-76v, p. 122 [not yet consulted]. 

[226] Loukaki ‘Antiochos’ (1992), p. 196, quoting Mioni (1973), III, no. 65, Marcianus XI 22, f. 74v-76v, p. 122 [not yet consulted]. 

[227] Loukaki ‘Antiochos’ (1992), p. 197, quoting Mioni (1973), III, no. 65, Marcianus XI 22, f. 74v-76v, p. 122 [not yet consulted]. 

[228] Loukaki ‘Antiochos’ (1992), p. 197, quoting Mioni (1973), III, no. 65, Marcianus XI 22, f. 74v-76v, p. 122 [not yet consulted]. 

[229] Darrouzès, J. ‘Notice sur Grégoire Antiochos (1160 à 1196). I. Son œuvre. II. Sa carrière. III. La fondation du monastère Saint-Basile’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 20 (1962), p. 76, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1962_num_20_1_1281> (21 Dec 2012). 

[230] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. 

[231] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 359. 

[232] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. 

[233] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. 

[234] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 120. 

[235] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri, A. ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’, Rendiconti della r. Acad. dei Lincei. Cl. Scienze mor. stor. e filol. 5/17 (1908), pp. 541-4. 

[236] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 266. 

[237] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[238] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. 

[239] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[240] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), p. 36, footnote 31, citing Darrouzès, J. (1970) Georges et Dèmètrios Tornikès. Lettres et discours (Paris), p. 308. 

[241] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[242] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ioannes Kinnamos") Liber V, 9, p. 228. 

[243] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 53. 

[244] Bryer, A. 'The Gabras Family', Birmingham Historical Journal 12, pp. 164-87, cited by Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[245] Cedrenus II, col. 263. 

[246] "Leon 20249" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2815. 

[247] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265. 

[248] Schlumberger (1884), p. 342. 

[249] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265. 

[250] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[251] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265. 

[252] Sturdza (1999), p. 247. 

[253] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 197. 

[254] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 266. 

[255] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[256] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. 

[257] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[258] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), p. 36, footnote 31, citing Darrouzès, J. (1970) Georges et Dèmètrios Tornikès. Lettres et discours (Paris), p. 308. 

[259] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[260] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens Orientaux I, p. 341. 

[261] "Konstantinos 20110" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 184. 

[262] "Konstantinos 20110" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3926. 

[263] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226. 

[264] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[265] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173. 

[266] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226. 

[267] "Katakalon 20105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3927. 

[268] "Ioannes 20186" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 749. 

[269] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, 99, available at <http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael-panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008). 

[270] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[271] Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[272] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), pp. 159-60, cited in Nicol, D. M. (1994) The Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits 1250-1500 (Cambridge University Press), p. 123. 

[273] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[274] ES III 173, extinct in the male line after 1514. 

[275] ES III 173. 

[276] "Leon 20226" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3098. 

[277] "Leon 20226" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2560. 

[278] "Theodoros 20293" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4832. 

[279] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Michael Glycas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Glykas") IV, p. 597. 

[280] "Michael 111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3300. 

[281] "Michael 111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3301. 

[282] "Konstantinos 20271" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2290. 

[283] "Konstantinos 6010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 593. 

[284] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), 27, p. 251. 

[285] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 58, citing Vannier, J. F. 'Notes généalogiques byzantino-géorgiennes, ΕΥΨΥΧΙΑ', Mélanges offerts à Hélène Ahrweiler, Byzantina Sorbonensia 16 (Paris, 1998), pp. 673-6. 

[286] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 58, citing Dieten, J. A. van (1975) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia (Berlin), p. xxii, Vaticanus graecus 169, f. 2. 

[287] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 58. 

[288] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511. 

[289] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[290] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), p. 32. 

[291] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[292] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511. 

[293] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 58. 

[294] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4. 

[295] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 59. 

[296] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 59, citing Romano, R. (ed.) (1980) Kallikles (Naples), no. 27, p. 105 and no. 16, p. 91. 

[297] "Adralestos 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1729. 

[298] "Adralestos 20103" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1730. 

[299] "Nikeforos 20205" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4170. 

[300] Sturdza (1999), p. 293. 

[301] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 6, p. 216. 

[302] Runciman (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 365. 

[303] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 367. 

[304] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 369-70. 

[305] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1968) 'L'Empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), I, p. 130. 

[306] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 364. 

[307] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 130.   

[308] "Anonymus 20173" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1735. 

[309] "Epiphanios 20107" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3855. 

[310] "Epiphanios 20107" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1743. 

[311] "Epiphanios 20107" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1744. 

[312] "Epiphanios 20107" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1745. 

[313] "Theodoros 13104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Nesbitt, J. and J. Wiita, J. 'A Confraternity of the Comnenian Era', Byzantinische Zeitschrift 68 (1975), 144. 

[314] "Basileios 20190" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2026. 

[315] "Basileios 207" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 1, p. 339.219. 

[316] "Gregorios 141" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 1, p. 339.219. 

[317] Schlumberger (1884), p. 628. 

[318] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 246, citing Majuri, A. ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’, Rendiconti della r. Acad. dei Lincei. Cl. Scienze mor. stor. e filol. 5/17 (1908), pp. 531 and 534. 

[319] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[320] "Georgios 20140" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1793. 

[321] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 1, p. 601. 

[322] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642. 

[323] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 90. 

[324] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 7565, p. 306. 

[325] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[326] "Basileios 20178" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 186. 

[327] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[328] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[329] "Basileios 20178" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1750. 

[330] "Basileios 20178" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2836. 

[331] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 209. 

[332] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642. 

[333] "Basileios 20105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 89. 

[334] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[335] Schlumberger (1884), pp. 516 and 629. 

[336] Sturdza (1999), p. 277. 

[337] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 127. 

[338] Niketas Choniates, 14. 

[339] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 128, footnote 1. 

[340] Niketas Choniates, 376. 

[341] ES II 177.   

[342] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[343] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1837) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Georgius Akropolites") 6, p. 13. 

[344] "Eustathios 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1753. 

[345] "Eustathios 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4683. 

[346] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 267.   

[347] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 348.   

[348] Alexeiad, Book 14, p. 452.   

[349] Zonaras XVIII, 27, p. 756. 

[350] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[351] "Konstantinos 20111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 390, 397. 

[352] "Konstantinos 20111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1751. 

[353] Georgios Akropolites 12, p. 22. 

[354] Fine (1994), pp. 31-2. 

[355] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 133, Theodori Prodromi Operum Recensio, Art. LXXII, col. 1086. 

[356] "Manuel 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1752. 

[357] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[358] "Manuel 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1752. 

[359] MGH SS (New Series), Tome V, p. 65. 

[360] Fine (1994), p. 30. 

[361] Fine (1994), p. 32. 

[362] Cedrenus II, col. 223. 

[363] Cedrenus II, col. 222. 

[364] Cedrenus II, col. 231. 

[365] Skylitzes, col. 422. 

[366] "Niketas 20259" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4840. 

[367] "Niketas 108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3614. 

[368] "Niketas 108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3615. 

[369] Alexeiad, Book 7, p. 233.   

[370] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 382.   

[371] "Konstantinos 20106" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 148. 

[372] "Michael 20374" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3610. 

[373] "Nikeforos 20170" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2501. 

[374] "Nikeforos 20156" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1773. 

[375] "Nikeforos 20154" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1771. 

[376] Loukaki ‘Antiochos’ (1992), p. 199, quoting Katsaros, B. (1988) Ιωάννης Kασταμονίτης (Thessaloniki), p. 116, and Seibt, W. (1978) Die byzantinischen Bleisiegel in Österreich, Vol. I. (Vienna), p. 249 [neither yet consulted]. 

[377] Loukaki ‘Antiochos’ (1992), p. 199, quoting Katsaros (1988), p. 116, and Seibt (1978), Vol. I., p. 249 [not yet consulted]. 

[378] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 2, p. 365. 

[379] "Demetrios 20118" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3928. 

[380] "Leon 20339" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4839. 

[381] "Nikeforos 20155" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1772. 

[382] "Nikeforos 20192" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3616. 

[383] "Nikeforos 20154" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1770. 

[384] "Eustathios Kastamonites" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 92.16, 122.13. 

[385] "Ioannes 20453" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2843. 

[386] "Konstantinos 222" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1774. 

[387] Cedrenus II, col. 263. 

[388] Cedrenus II, col. 283. 

[389] Cedrenus II, col. 363. 

[390] Cedrenus II, cols. 363 and 366. 

[391] Cedrenus II, cols. 363 and 366. 

[392] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1853) Michael Attaliota, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Attaliota"), p. 56. 

[393] Grégoire, H. Revue de l'instruction en Belgique 52 (1909), pp. 152-61, and Darrouzes, J. 'Demetrios and Georgios Tornikes', Lettres et Discours (1972), cited by Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[394] "Konstantinos 20335" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3365. 

[395] "Michael 20385" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4540. 

[396] "Michael 20385" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3775. 

[397] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber IV, 31 and 39, pp. 158 and 165. 

[398] Alexeiad, Book 13, p. 414. 

[399] "Stephanos 20185" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3737. 

[400] "Stephanos 20185" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2577. 

[401] Alexeiad, Book 13, p. 414. 

[402] "Stephanos 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 76. 

[403] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 4, p. 97, and Liber V, 6, p. 217. 

[404] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[405] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 103. 

[406] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33. 

[407] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 24, p. 199. 

[408] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208. 

[409] "Ioannes 392" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 81. 

[410] "Ioannes 392" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4053. 

[411] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[412] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 5, p. 211. 

[413] "Alexios 20117" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4002. 

[414] "Alexios 20119" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4054. 

[415] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[416] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33. 

[417] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 4, p. 97, and Liber V, 6, p. 217. 

[418] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 7, p. 313. 

[419] "Andronikos 20132" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4055. 

[420] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 6, p. 217. 

[421] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 384-8. 

[422] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210. 

[423] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), p. 222, citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), p. 154. 

[424] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[425] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[426] "Eudokia 20106" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2545. 

[427] "Isaakios 20111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3929. 

[428] "Nikeforos 132" in PBW (2006.2), citing Lefort, J., Oikonomidès, N., Papachryssanthou, D., Métrévéli, H., Kravari, V. (1985-1990) Actes d'Iviron, Actes de l'Athos XIV and XVI, (Paris), 2.228.7 . 

[429] "Nikeforos 150" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 110.1, 116.16. 

[430] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642. 

[431] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. 

[432] Ephræmius 6440, p. 263. 

[433] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. 

[434] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[435] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 15, p. 124. 

[436] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[437] Georgios Akropolites 48, p. 94. 

[438] "Georgios 20181" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 655. 

[439] "Theodoros 20220" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2736. 

[440] Cedrenus II, col. 263. 

[441] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1853) Michael Attaliota, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Attaliota"), p. 56. 

[442] Psellos, p. 343. 

[443] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1853) Michael Attaliota, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Attaliota"), p. 56. 

[444] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[445] Psellos, p. 343, footnote 3. 

[446] Psellos, pp. 348-9. 

[447] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 12, p. 67. 

[448] "Maria 20107" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 662. 

[449] "Maria 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 663. 

[450] "Theodoros 20131" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 671. 

[451] "Theodoros 20130" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 670. 

[452] "Theodoros 20132" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 672, 673. 

[453] "Ioannes 20177" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 656. 

[454] "Ioannes 20179" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 659. 

[455] "Symeon 20109" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 668. 

[456] "Symeon 20110" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 669. 

[457] "Thomas 20104" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 675. 

[458] "Leon 20127" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 661. 

[459] "Michael 20158" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 665, 666. 

[460] "Theodoros 20133" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 674. 

[461] "Ioannes 20178" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 657, 658. 

[462] "Ioannes 20176" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 653. 

[463] "Ioannes 20180" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 660. 

[464] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[465] "Eumathios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 651, 652. 

[466] "Michael 20159" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 667. 

[467] "Michael 20159" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 667. 

[468] "Ioannes 20591" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4500. 

[469] "Paulos 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1832. 

[470] "Michael 20250" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1833. 

[471] Sturdza (1999), p. 478. 

[472] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842. 

[473] Nicol (1972), p. 169. 

[474] Nicol (1972), pp. 167 and 169. 

[475] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 209. 

[476] Pseudo-Symeon, pp. 603-760, 630-2. 

[477] Theophanes Continuatus, III, Theophili Michaelis filii Imperium, 18, p. 108. 

[478] Theophanes Continuatus, III, Theophili Michaelis filii Imperium, 5, p. 90. 

[479] Theophanes Continuatus, III, Theophili Michaelis filii Imperium, 18, p. 107. 

[480] Reiske, J. J. (ed.) (1829) Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Book II, ch. 42, p. 645. 

[481] Theophanes Continuatus, III, Theophili Michaelis filii Imperium, 18, p. 109. 

[482] Cedrenus II, col. 78. 

[483] Cedrenus II, col. 78. 

[484] "Leon 20286" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3560. 

[485] "Eugenios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3559. 

[486] "Michael 20366" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3561, 3562. 

[487] "Theophano 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3467, and Schlumberger (1884), p. 368. 

[488] Schlumberger (1884), p. 433. 

[489] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII siècles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 20. 

[490] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 18, p. 83. 

[491] Georgios Akropolites 55 and 60, pp. 116 and 131. 

[492] Gardner (1912), pp. 201, 212 and 231. 

[493] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[494] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 108. 

[495] Georgios Akropolites 60, p. 131. 

[496] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[497] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[498] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[499] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[500] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 2, p. 14. 

[501] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 24, p. 484. 

[502] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 26, pp. 180-1. 

[503] Cedrenus II, col. 199. 

[504] "Leon 20216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3344. 

[505] Cedrenus II, col. 235. 

[506] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, and "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing 'πιτάφιος ες Ερήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159. 

[507] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47. 

[508] "Leon 20119" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 381. 

[509] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, and "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing 'πιτάφιος ες Ερήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159. 

[510] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2). 

[511] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, and "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing 'πιτάφιος ες Ερήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159. 

[512] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2). 

[513] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47. 

[514] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, citing Cheynet, J. C. 'Le rôle des femmes de l`aristocratie d´après leurs sceaux', Sfragistika i istorija kul'tury. Sbornik naučnych trudov posvjaščennyi jubileju V. S. Šandrovskoi (St Petersburg, 2004), pp. 35 and 44. 

[515] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, citing 'πιτάφιος ες Ερήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz and Drexl (1936), p. 172. 

[516] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 47. 

[517] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, citing Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai. A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London), pp. 64, 66. 

[518] "Theodoros 20238" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3797. 

[519] "Theodoros 20238" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3384. 

[520] "Theodoros 20238" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3276. 

[521] "Leon 20193" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1902. 

[522] "Leon 20193" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1903. 

[523] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[524] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 4, p. 110. 

[525] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VII, 1, p. 292. 

[526] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[527] "Anna 20111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3033. 

[528] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 3, p. 260. 

[529] "Nikeforos 175" in PBW (2006.2), citing Lemerle, P., Dagron, G., Ćirković, S. (1982) Actes de Saint-Pantéléèmon, Archives de l’Athos XII (Paris), p. 69.1 and 70.29. 

[530] Georgios Akropolites 24, p. 42. 

[531] Georgios Akropolites 24, p. 42. 

[532] "Theodora 20113" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4244. 

[533] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[534] Georgios Akropolites 49, p. 98. 

[535] Ephræmius 8655, p. 348. 

[536] Nicol (1994), p. 15. 

[537] Fine (1994), p. 160. 

[538] Nicol (1994), p. 16. 

[539] Georgios Akropolites 49, p. 98. 

[540] Georgios Akropolites 80, p. 177. 

[541] Georgios Akropolites 49, p. 97. 

[542] Sturdza (1999), p. 210. 

[543] Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] briefly appointed the son of Philippe Chinard as captain of Corfu in Jan 1267 after learning of Philippe's murder, see Miller (1908), p. 515.  This son must have been born from an earlier marriage, unless he was illegitimate. 

[544] Miller (1908), pp. 514-5. 

[545] Georgios Akropolites 59, p. 126. 

[546] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 16, p. 206. 

[547] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 16, p. 206. 

[548] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 9, p. 210. 

[549] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 29, p. 479. 

[550] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, pp. 109-10. 

[551] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 134, citing Lemerle, P., Guillou, A., Svoronos, N. & Papachryssanthou, D. (1979) Actes de Lavra, III, De 1329 à 1500, Archives de l´Athos 10 (Paris), no. 129. 

[552] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 134, Trapp, E. (1976-95) Prosopograhisches Lexicon der Palaiologenzeit (Vienna), no. 29774, entry Filanqrwphνός Miaήl

[553] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 134. 

[554] Ganchou, T. ‘A propos d’un cheval de race: un dynaste de Trébizonde en exil à Constantinople au début du Xve siècle’, Shukurov, R. (ed.) Mare et Litora, Essays Presented to Sergei Karpov for his 60th Birthday (Moscow, 2009), pp. 561-2, citing Ljubiç, S. (1874) Monumenta spectantia historiarum Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb), Tome IV, doc. 508, p. 359. 

[555] ‘Un cheval de race’ (2009), pp. 561-2, quoting Iorga, N. (1915) Notes et extraits pour servir à l’histoire des croisades au Xve siècle (Paris), I, p. 301. 

[556] Michael Panaretos 97. 

[557] Markham, C. R. (1859) Narrative of the embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the court of Timour at Samarcand 1403-1406 (London), p. 62. 

[558] Ganchou ‘Un cheval de race’ (2009), p. 561. 

[559] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 4, p. 138. 

[560] Ganchou ‘Un cheval de race’ (2009), p. 561, quoting Laurent, V. ‘Un agent efficace de l’Unité de l’Eglise à Florence, Georges Philanthropène’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 17 (1959), p. 95. 

[561] Ganchou ‘Un cheval de race’ (2009), p. 561, quoting Lauren ‘Georges Philanthropène’ (1959), p. 95. 

[562] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 205. 

[563] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Symeon Magister") (referred to as Pseudo-Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom), De Michaele et Theodora, 29, p. 668. 

[564] Symeon Magister (referred to as Pseudo-Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom), De Michaele et Theodora, 29, p. 668. 

[565] Theophanes Continuatus, IV, Michaelis Theophili filii Imperium, 22, p. 175. 

[566] Symeon Magister (referred to as Pseudo-Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom), De Michaele et Theodora, 29, p. 668. 

[567] Laourdas, B. and Westerink, L. G. (1983-85) Photius, Epistulæ 3 vols. (Leipzig), quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[568] Laourdas, B. and Westerink, L. G. (1983-85) Photius, Epistulæ 3 vols. (Leipzig) Ep. 234, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[569] Laourdas, B. and Westerink, L. G. (1983-85) Photius, Epistulæ 3 vols. (Leipzig) Ep. 234, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[570] Laourdas, B. and Westerink, L. G. (1983-85) Photius, Epistulæ 3 vols. (Leipzig) Ep. 135, 196, and 255, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[571] Laourdas, B. and Westerink, L. G. (1983-85) Photius, Epistulæ 3 vols. (Leipzig) Ep. 138, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[572] Laourdas, B. and Westerink, L. G. (1983-85) Photius, Epistulæ 3 vols. (Leipzig) Ep. 51, 55, 73, 145, 161, and 200, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[573] Symeon Magister (referred to as Pseudo-Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom), De Constantino Porphyrogenneto et Romano Lecapeno, 52, p. 750. 

[574] Symeon Magister (referred to as Pseudo-Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom), De Constantino Porphyrogenneto et Romano Lecapeno, 52, p. 750. 

[575] Symeon Magister (referred to as Pseudo-Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom), De Michaele et Theodora, 29, p. 668. 

[576] Fassoulakis, S. (1973) The Byzantine Family of Raoul-Ral[l]es, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[577] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 67-8.   

[578] Sturdza (1999), p. 383. 

[579] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 68.   

[580] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[581] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 187, citing Mathieu, M. ‘Cinq poésies byzantines des XI et XIII siècles’ Byzantion, Tome XXIII (1953-54), p. 139. 

[582] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 187. 

[583] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 185. 

[584] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 14, pp. 122-3, and 17, p. 178. 

[585] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379. 

[586] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[587] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 185-6, quoting Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 21, 28, 29. 

[588] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, pp. 36-8. 

[589] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 185, quoting Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 21, 28, 29. 

[590] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[591] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[592] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 197. 

[593] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 412. 

[594] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 192, quoting Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), 90, pp. 49-50. 

[595] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[596] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 197. 

[597] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 412. 

[598] "Anna 20111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3033. 

[599] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 187-91. 

[600] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[601] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 187, citing Mathieu, M. ‘Cinq poésies byzantines des XI et XIII siècles’ Byzantion, Tome XXIII (1953-54), p. 139. 

[602] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[603] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 195. 

[604] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 191, quoting Laurent, V. ‘Andronic Rogerios, fondateur du couvent de la Théotokos Chrysokamariotissa et son sceau inédit au type de l´offrande’, Bulletin de la section historique de l´Académie roumaine, XXVII (1946), p. 74. 

[605] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 192, quoting Horna, K. ‘Die Epigramme des Theodoros Balsamon’, Wiener Studien XXV (1903), “no. XXVIII du tiré à part”, pp. 27-8, and Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 133-4. 

[606] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[607] "Niketas 20122" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 454. 

[608] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[609] Niketas Choniates, De Isaacio Angelo, III, p. 593. 

[610] Schlumberger (1884), p. 654. 

[611] "Manuel 20128" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3930. 

[612] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[613] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 155. 

[614] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 130-1. 

[615] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 99. 

[616] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[617] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[618] Georgios Akropolites 77, p. 171. 

[619] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 108. 

[620] Nicol (1994), pp. 35-6. 

[621] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 108. 

[622] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 26, p. 69. 

[623] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 16, p. 459, and 24, p. 484. 

[624] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 16, p. 459, and 24, p. 484. 

[625] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 18, p. 153. 

[626] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 155. 

[627] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 54, p. 273. 

[628] Sturdza (1999), p. 383. 

[629] Sturdza (1999), p. 383. 

[630] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 16, p. 393. 

[631] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[632] Brayer, E., Lemerle, P., Laurent, V. ‘Le Vaticanus latinus 4789: histoire et alliances des Cantacuzènes aux XIV-XV siécle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 9 (1951) (“Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951)”), p. 75, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1951_num_9_1_1037> (21 Dec 2012).   

[633] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 19, p. 410. 

[634] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[635] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[636] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 16, p. 393. 

[637] "Ioannes 20390" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2392. 

[638] Georgios Akropolites 49, p. 97. 

[639] "Alexios 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3060. 

[640] Georgios Akropolites 57, p. 120. 

[641] Georgios Akropolites 77, p. 171. 

[642] Georgios Akropolites 75, p. 165. 

[643] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 154. 

[644] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, pp. 154-5. 

[645] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 17, p. 52. 

[646] Cheynet, J. C., Drew-Bear, T. & Sodini, J. P. ‘Une inscription d´Akroïnos datant de Constantin Porphyrogénète’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 62 (2004), pp. 215, 217, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2004_num_62_1_2292> (21 Dec 2012), and English-language Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synnada>. 

[647] Hannick, C. & Schmalzbauer, G ‘Die Synadenoi’, Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik, Band 25 (Vienna, 1976), pp. 125-61. 

[648] Schlumberger (1884), p. 705. 

[649] Hannick & Schmalzbauer ‘Die Synadenoi’ (1976), p. 127, citing Darrouzès, J. ‘Epistoliers byzantins du Xe siècle’, Archives de l´Orient Chrétien, 6 (Paris, 1960), pp. 249-59. 

[650] "Nikeforos 20200" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3833. 

[651] Cedrenus II, col. 259. 

[652] Mathieu, M. (1961) Guillaume de Pouille La geste de Robert Guiscard (Palermo), p. 120, available at <www.cesn.it/Cronisti/testi/Guglielmo_puglia.htm> (27 Jul 2008). 

[653] Hannick & Schmalzbauer ‘Die Synadenoi’ (1976), p. 128. 

[654] "Basileios 20111" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 240. 

[655] "Anonyma 12101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Zepos, I. and Zepos, P. 'Περα Εσταθίου το Ρωμαίου', Jus Graecoromanum vol.4 (Athens 1931) 17.19.

[656] "Theodoulos 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3866. 

[657] Skylitzes, col. 475. 

[658] Skylitzes, col. 475.  The Greek text is quoted in full in Kerbl (1979), pp. 2-3, from Tsolakes, E.T. Tsolakes συνέχεια τς Χρονογραφίας το ωάννου Σκυλίτση (Ioannes Skylitzes Continuatus), ταιρεία Μακεδονικν Σπουδν, Ιδρυμα Μελετν Χερσονήσου το Αμου 105, Thessalonike (1968), pp. 103-186, 185. 

[659] Kerbl (1979), p. 1, citing Horvát, I. (1834) Tudományos Gyüjtemény (Budapest), p. 95. 

[660] Kerbl (1979), p. 1, citing Wertner, M. (1892) Az Árpádok családi története (Nagy Becskerek), p. 186.   

[661] Kerbl (1979), p. 1, citing Wertner, M. (1892) Az Árpádok családi története (Nagy Becskerek), p. 186.   

[662] Laurent, V. Chronologie, p. 246 (28), cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 18. 

[663] Kerbl (1979), pp. 15-16 and 18-19. 

[664] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 75. 

[665] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148. 

[666] Skylitzes, col. 458. 

[667] Skylitzes, col. 458. 

[668] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), p. 217 and 23, p. 250. 

[669] "Michael 20166" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 717. 

[670] Hannick & Schmalzbauer ‘Die Synadenoi’ (1976), p. 130, citing Néos Hellènomnènôn, VIII (1911), p. 40 [not yet consulted]

[671] Schlumberger (1884), p. 704. 

[672] Schlumberger (1884), p. 704. 

[673] Schlumberger (1884), p. 704. 

[674] Laurent, V. ‘Andronic Synadénos. La carrière d´un haut fonctionnaire byzantin au XII siècle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 20 (1962), p. 211, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1962_num_20_1_1291> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Néos Hellènomnènôn, VIII (1911), pp. 146-8. 

[675] Laurent ‘Andronic Synadénos’ (1962), p. 211. 

[676] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[677] Hannick & Schmalzbauer ‘Die Synadenoi’ (1976), p. 131. 

[678] Hannick & Schmalzbauer ‘Die Synadenoi’ (1976), p. 131, citing Kyriakides, S. P. (1961) Eustazio di Tessalonica: La erpugnazione di Tessalonica, 28, pp. 230-1 [not yet consulted]

[679] Niketas Choniates, Urbs capta, 13, p. 828. 

[680] Maio, A. (1840) Ephraemius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), 7988, p. 322. 

[681] Georgios Akropolites 23, p. 40. 

[682] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 27, p. 411. 

[683] Nicol (1972), p. 70. 

[684] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 8, p. 37. 

[685] Nicol (1972), pp. 163-4. 

[686] Nicol (1972), p. 173. 

[687] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. I, IX, 10, pp. 441, 446. 

[688] Nicol (1972), pp. 186-7. 

[689] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 11, p. 77. 

[690] Nicol (1972), p. 200. 

[691] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 162, footnote 131. 

[692] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 24, p. 125. 

[693] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 27, p. 133. 

[694] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 2, p. 118. 

[695] Nicol (1972), p. 163. 

[696] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 22, p. 109. 

[697] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 334. 

[698] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 24, p. 122. 

[699] Nicol (1972), pp. 163 and 166. 

[700] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 329. 

[701] Nicol (1972), pp. 173 and 181. 

[702] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 15, p. 623. 

[703] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), p. 74, 179 ter

[704] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. ´Les dispenses matrimoniales accordées à l´Orient Latin selon les Registres du Vatican 1283-1385´, Mélanges de l´Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, Tome 89, no. 1, (1977), Tableau A, 91, p. 74. 

[705] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 74, 179. 

[706] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 333. 

[707] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[708] Giovanni Stefanelli of Mondragone, Caserta, in a private email to the author dated 13 Aug 2006. 

[709] Schlumberger (1884), p. 212. 

[710] "Joseph 20121" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3943. 

[711] Skylitzes, col. 422. 

[712] Schlumberger (1884), p. 311. 

[713] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96. 

[714] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96. 

[715] "Katakalon 61" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3951, 3953, 3954. 

[716] "Katakalon 61" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3952. 

[717] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 40. 

[718] "Michael 20394" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3948, 3949. 

[719] "Michael 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 176. 

[720] "Basileios 20265" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3944. 

[721] "Basileios 20265" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3945. 

[722] "Basileios 20265" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3736. 

[723] "Basileios 20265" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3946. 

[724] "Basileios 112" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 494.36. 

[725] "Gregorios 20156" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3955. 

[726] "Gregorios 20157" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3956. 

[727] "Gregorios 20157" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3957. 

[728] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[729] "Michael 20395" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3958. 

[730] "Konstantinos 20448" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4864. 

[731] "Ioannes 20539" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3860. 

[732] "Makarios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3961. 

[733] "Konstantinos 20384" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3950. 

[734] Schlumberger (1884), p. 705. 

[735] "Ioannes 20540" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3962. 

[736] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109. 

[737] "Ioannes 20534" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3879. 

[738] "Ioannes 20539" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3964, 3965, 3966. 

[739] "Ioannes 20332" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 1970, 3963. 

[740] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[741] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[742] Georgios Akropolites 36, p. 60. 

[743] Ephræmius 8255, p. 332. 

[744] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1839) Codinus Curopalates, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Berlin) ("Codinus Curopalates") II, p. 8. 

[745] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 12, p. 38. 

[746] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 12, p. 38. 

[747] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber IV, 18, p. 292. 

[748] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber IV, 19, p. 296. 

[749] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 12, p. 34. 

[750] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 12, p. 38. 

[751] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[752] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 16, p. 205. 

[753] Codinus Curopalates II, p. 8. 

[754] Nicol (1972), p. 70. 

[755] Nicol (1972), p. 122. 

[756] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 16, p. 206. 

[757] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 9, p. 210. 

[758] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 9, p. 214. 

[759] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 26, p. 69. 

[760] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 9, p. 210. 

[761] Nicol (1972), p. 132. 

[762] Nicol (1972), p. 166. 

[763] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 9, p. 214. 

[764] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 11, p. 226. 

[765] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[766] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber IV, 26, p. 308. 

[767] Sturdza (1999), p. 211. 

[768] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[769] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 12, p. 38. 

[770] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 8, p. 362. 

[771] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 28, p. 445. 

[772] Nicol (1972), p. 123. 

[773] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 16, p. 626. 

[774] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 10, p. 72. 

[775] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 26, p. 196. 

[776] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 30, p. 221. 

[777] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 32, p. 237. 

[778] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Byzantine Annexation of the Armenian Kingdoms in the Eleventh Century', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 189. 

[779] Rüdt-Collenberg (1979), p. 125, footnote 30, citing Adontz, N. 'Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance', Byzantion, IX, X, and XI. 

[780] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) 43, p. 184. 

[781] Garsoïan 'The Byzantine Annexation of the Armenian Kingdoms in the Eleventh Century' (2004), p. 189. 

[782] Cedrenus II, col. 107. 

[783] Adontz, N. (1965) Etudes arméno-byzantines (Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites: réponse au R. P. V. Laurent´, p. 339 (first published in Byzantion 1939).  

[784] Cedrenus II, col. 182. 

[785] Cedrenus II, col. 182. 

[786] Cedrenus II, col. 183. 

[787] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 195, and Cedrenus II, col. 183. 

[788] Cedrenus II, col. 183. 

[789] Prokić, V. B. (1906) Die Zusätze in der Handschrift des Iohannes Skylitzes (München), p. 29, s. 14, cited by Adontz (1938), p. 52. 

[790] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites´, p. 339. 

[791] Cedrenus II, col. 107. 

[792] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites´, p. 339. 

[793] "Pankratios 12101" in PBW (2006.02), citing Schmink, A. 'Vier eherechtliche Entscheidungen aus dem 11. Jahrhundert', Fontes Minores 3 (1979) 221-279, II, 11-12. 

[794] "Pankratios 12101" in PBW (2006.02), citing Schmink, A. 'Vier eherechtliche Entscheidungen aus dem 11. Jahrhundert', Fontes Minores 3 (1979) 221-279, II, 11-12, 17-18. 

[795] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites´, p. 339. 

[796] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites´, p. 339. 

[797] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites´, p. 339. 

[798] "Pankratios 12101" in PBW (2006.02), citing Schmink, A. 'Vier eherechtliche Entscheidungen aus dem 11. Jahrhundert', Fontes Minores 3 (1979) 221-279, II, 23-24. 

[799] "Gregorios 102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3746. 

[800] Cedrenus II, col. 263. 

[801] "Gregorios 20131" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2738. 

[802] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 387. 

[803] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32. 

[804] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV, p. 112. 

[805] Codinus Curopalates II, p. 7. 

[806] Alexeiad, Book 9, pp. 285-6. 

[807] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. 

[808] Private e-mail to the author, dated 14 Aug 2006. 

[809] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[810] Nikeforos Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[811] Alexeiad, Book 3, I, p. 103. 

[812] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV, p. 112. 

[813] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 68. 

[814] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 103. 

[815] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 298. 

[816] Leroy-Molinghen, A. ´Les deux Jean Taronite de l´Alexeiade´, Byzantion 14 (1939), p. 150, citing Montfaucon, B. de (1715) Bibliotheca Coisliana olim Segueriana (Paris), reproduced in Migne Patrologia Græca Tome CXXVII, pp. 972-3. 

[817] "Ioannes 20174" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 611. 

[818] "Konstantinos 130" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 191.13. 

[819] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 387. 

[820] Niketas Choniates, De Iohanne Comneno, 3, p. 13. 

[821] Leo Allatius (1648) De Ecclesiæ occidentalis atque orientalis perpetua consensione (Cologne), Tome II, chap. XII, col. 684, cited in Leroy-Molinghen, A. ´Les deux Jean Taronite de l´Alexeiade´, Byzantion 14 (1939), p. 152 note 5. 

[822] RHC (1881) Historiens Grecs (Paris), Tome II, pp. 288-93, 292. 

[823] Rüdt-Collenberg (1975), p. 125, footnote 30. 

[824] ES II 177. 

[825] Chuat, J. C. (2006) De Chemins en Jalons, Vol. II. Jalons vers l´antiquité (privately published by the author), pp. 21-2. 

[826] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 387. 

[827] "Gregorios 20131" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1971. 

[828] "Gregorios 20110" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 867. 

[829] "Gregorios 20132" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 1972, 1973, 3747. 

[830] "Gregorios 20142" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 1974, 3748. 

[831] "Gregorios 106" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 363.1. 

[832] Alexeiad, Book 12, VII, p. 386. 

[833] Alexeiad, Book 12, VIII, pp. 387-8. 

[834] Alexeiad, Book 13, I, p. 395. 

[835] Leroy-Molinghen, A. ´Les deux Jean Taronite de l´Alexeiade´, Byzantion 14 (1939), pp. 147-53. 

[836] Leroy-Molinghen, A. ´Les deux Jean Taronite de l´Alexeiade´, Byzantion 14 (1939), p. 150, citing Montfaucon, B. de (1715) Bibliotheca Coisliana olim Segueriana (Paris), reproduced in Migne Patrologia Græca Tome CXXVII, pp. 972-3. 

[837] "Theodoros 190" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 93.25. 

[838] Darrouzes, J. 'Demetrios and Georgios Tornikes', Lettres et Discours (1972) (not yet consulted), cited by Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2007. 

[839] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 190. 

[840] Theophanes Continuatus De Constantino Porphyrogenito 2, p. 437. 

[841] Cedrenus II, col. 58. 

[842] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Ceremoniis Aulæ Byzantinæ, I, 96, p. 435. 

[843] Theophanes Continuatus De Constantino Porphyrogenito 2, p. 437. 

[844] Cedrenus II, col. 58. 

[845] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 57. 

[846] "Michael 20381" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3697. 

[847] "Michael 20318" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3699. 

[848] "Michael 20318" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2780. 

[849] Psellos, p. 205. 

[850] Zonaras XVII, 23, p. 625. 

[851] Zonaras XVII, 23, p. 625. 

[852] Psellos, pp. 205-219. 

[853] Cedrenus II, cols. 295-6 and 298. 

[854] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris) ("Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier)"), I, LXXII, p. 82. 

[855] Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1724) Anonymi Barensis Chronicon, Rerum Italicarum scriptores V (Milan), p. 151, cited in PBW (2006.2). 

[856] "Romanos 20135" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 2858, 2859. 

[857] "Romanos 20134" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2857. 

[858] "Georgios 20150" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1986. 

[859] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 50.   

[860] Schlumberger (1884), p. 708. 

[861] "Niketas 20170" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1988. 

[862] "Ioannes 20639" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4867. 

[863] "Michael 20143" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 498. 

[864] "Anonymus 265" in PBW (2006.02), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 529.11 and 12. 

[865] Stone, D. C. & Owens, C. R. ´[Eirene?], First Wife of Emperor Isaakios II Angelos, is a Probable Tornikina and Gateway to Antiquity´, Foundations, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Jan 2011), p. 382, citing Darrouzès, J. (1970) Georges et Demetrios Tornikès, Lettres et discours, Introduction, texte, analyses, traduction et notes (Paris), pp. 13 & 107-8. 

[866] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 382, citing Darrouzès (1970), pp. 13 & 107-8. 

[867] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 382, citing Darrouzès (1970), pp. 13 & 216. 

[868] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 382, citing Darrouzès (1970), pp. 13 & 107-8. 

[869] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 16, p. 345. 

[870] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 365, quoting Verpeaux, J. ´Les "Oikeioi", notes d´histoire institutionnelle et sociale´, Revue des études byzantines 23 (1965), pp. 88-9. 

[871] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, pp. 365-6. 

[872] "Demetrios 20120" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4034. 

[873] Darrouzès ‘Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’ (1968), pp. 90-117. 

[874] Darrouzès, J. ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 23 (1965), p. 149, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1965_num_23_1_1346> (21 Dec 2012). 

[875] Darrouzès ‘Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’ (1968), pp. 73-89. 

[876] Darrouzès ‘ Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’ (1965), p. 152. 

[877] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 258. 

[878] "Konstantinos 20248" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1987. 

[879] Niketas Choniates, De Alexio Isaacii Angeli, III, p. 696. 

[880] "Konstantinos 216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 131.14. 

[881] Niketas Choniates, Urbs Capta, p. 848. 

[882] Stone & Owens `[Eirene?]´, pp. 381-2, quoting Darrouzès, J. ‘Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 26 (1968), pp. 92 and 108, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1968_num_26_1_1400> (21 Dec 2012). 

[883] Niketas Choniates, Urbs Capta, p. 848. 

[884] Stone & Owens `[Eirene?]´, p. 382, quoting Varzos, K. (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 1, p. 476. 

[885] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 258. 

[886] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[887] Darrouzès ‘ Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’ (1965), pp. 148-9 and 163-67. 

[888] Darrouzès ‘ Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’ (1965), p. 149, citing Edition A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, Αναλεκτα Ιεροσολυμιτικης σταχυολογίας, II, p. 370. 

[889] Darrouzès ‘Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’ (1968), pp. 53 and 56. 

[890] Darrouzès ‘Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’ (1968), pp. 90-117, 17, p. 106. 

[891] Darrouzès ‘ Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’ (1965), p. 149. 

[892] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 383, citing Darrouzès ‘ Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’ (1965), p. 154. 

[893] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[894] Hiestand, R. Jarhbuch für österreichischen Byzantinistik 47 (1997), pp. 199-208. 

[895] "Konstantinos 216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 131.14. 

[896] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, pp. 349-69. 

[897] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 258. 

[898] Georgios Akropolites 40, p. 71. 

[899] Georgios Akropolites 50, p. 100. 

[900] Georgios Akropolites 50, p. 100. 

[901] Georgios Akropolites 57, p. 120. 

[902] Georgios Akropolites 75, p. 165. 

[903] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97. 

[904] Ephræmius 9430, p. 377. 

[905] When her husband married his second wife. 

[906] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 21, p. 216. 

[907] ES III 198. 

[908] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 610. 

[909] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 108. 

[910] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[911] Georgios Akropolites 49, p. 97. 

[912] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 11, p. 54. 

[913] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 11, p. 54. 

[914] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 51, p. 263.