BYZANTIUM 1057-1204

  v2.1 Updated 19 January 2013

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KOMNENOS, EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185. 4

ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059. 4

ALEXIOS I 1081-1118. 20

IOANNES II 1118-1143. 31

MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183. 46

ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185. 52

Chapter 2.                DOUKAS, EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078. 59

A.         ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913. 59

B.         EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078. 71

KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078. 71

Chapter 3.                DIOGENES, EMPEROR 1068-1071. 76

ROMANOS IV 1068-1072. 77

Chapter 4.                BOTANEIATES, EMPEROR 1078-1081. 81

NIKEFOROS III 1078-1081. 81

Chapter 5.                ANGELOS, EMPERORS 1185-1195. 83

A.         ORIGINS.. 84

B.         EMPERORS 1185-1195. 88

ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204. 88

Chapter 6.                MOURZOUFLOS, EMPEROR 1204. 100

ALEXIOS V 1204. 100

Chapter 7.                FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS. 101

A.         BRYENNIOS, 1078. 102

B.         MELISSENOS, 1078. 106

C.        BRANAS, 1186. 108

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Komnenos family of emperors succeeded in 1057 after Isaakios Komnenos defeated the imperial army of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, the unpopular successor appointed by Empress Theodora.  Years of corruption and outside aggression had depleted the empire of economic resources and territory.  The recovery process was initiated during Emperor Isaakios's brief reign.  During the interlude between his abdication in 1059 and the accession of Emperor Alexios I in 1081, the Doukas, Diogenes and Botaneiates families provided emperors.  These were unsuccessful times for the empire, which was attacked by the Norman rulers of Apulia in the west and the Seljuk Turks in the east, and in addition suffered incompetent internal government.   Emperor Alexios resumed the process of reconstruction.  He carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the bureaucracy, and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families: in descending order of precedence, sébastos, protosébastos, panhypersébastos, sébastohypertatos, pansébastohypertatos, and protopansébastohypertatos.  The grand admiral of the fleet became megas dux, and the two domestikoi of the west and the east received the title megas domestikos.  He also created the office of logothetis ton sekreton, in charge of all civil administration of the empire.  The themes (regional provinces) were reduced in size and importance.  The governors of the themes were henceforth all called dux, and their deputies katepan.  The title strategos disappeared.  Aiming to humiliate the senatorial class, Emperor Alexios also removed the need for acclamation by the senate after the election of the emperor[1]

 

The successors of Emperor Manuel Komnenos were unable to maintain their grip on power.  Emperor Manuel's young son Alexios fell under the influence of his mother, a Latin princess from Antioch.  Emperor Andronikos I, the last Komnenos emperor, is remembered for his cruel excesses in attempting to suppress opposition and in 1185 he was overthrown by Isaakios Angelos.  Unfortunately for the future of the empire, the Angelos rulers proved to be corrupt and profligate.  The Fourth Crusade in the early years of the 13th century was used by the western allies as a pretext to conquer Byzantium.  In March 1204, the crusaders and the Venetians agreed to partition the empire: one quarter of its territory would be allocated to the newly created Latin empire of Constantinople, while the remainder would be divided equally between the leaders of the crusade and Venice.  Venice renounced direct sovereignty over its share, which included Epirus, Acarnania, Etolia and Peloponnesos, but took direct possession of Durazzo and Ragusa on the Adriatic coast, the ports of Koron and Modon in Peloponnesos, and Adrianople.  The crusaders took control of Constantinople 13 April 1204, massacring a large part of the population. 

 

The Byzantine primary sources so far consulted in the preparation of the present document, which covers the period 1057 to 1204, include the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos[2], the History of Ioannes Kinnamos[3], the History of Nikeforos Briennios[4], the History of Niketas Choniates[5], the Alexeiad of Anna Comnena[6], the History of Ephræmius[7], the History of Ioannes Zonaras[8], and the Annales of Georgios Akropolitos[9].  The extracts are quoted from the Latin translations, in the case of sources in the nineteenth century Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ series, rather than the original Greek (unless a conflict is obvious), because it is assumed that more users of Medieval Lands will be familiar with Latin than Greek (also because the compiler´s knowledge of the Greek language is limited).  The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[10] has also been consulted, especially for seals.  References in western primary sources to the Byzantine emperors and their families have also been incorporated.  General historical information has been extracted and incorporated from secondary sources.  As will be seen, there remain many relationships which have not yet been confirmed, particularly among the later generations of the younger branches of the Komnenos family.  These have been reproduced in this document from the relevant tables in Europäische Stammtafeln[11], but the suspicion remains that some of the relationships shown were originally based on speculation, although final confirmation of this will have to await the identification and checking of more sources. 

 

An earlier version of this document was reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions and corrections where indicated ("MB" in the footnotes).  I am grateful for his helpful collaboration. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KOMNENOS, EMPERORS 1057-1059, 1081-1185

 

 

ISAAKIOS I 1057-1059

 

1.         NIKEFOROS Komnenos (-[1026]).  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios II appointed "missus Nicephorus Comnenus protospatharius" as governor of Vaspurakan after dismissing "Basilium patricium Argyrum"[12].  Sturdza suggests that he was the son of Manuel "Erotikos" Komnenos by a supposed first marriage[13], but no primary source evidence has been found to support this[14].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), recalled "Nicephorum Comnenum…qui Aspracaniæ præfectus…subegerat" to Constantinople and blinded him without just cause[15].

 

 

1.         MANUEL "Erotikos" Komnenos, son of --- (-before 1025).  A Thracian soldier, originally from Comne near Adrianople.  He became a general in the army of Emperor Basileios II and received lands from him in the Castamon district of Paphlagonia, where he built the castle known as Castra Komnenon[16].  Cedrenus names "in Paphlagoniam Castamonem" as "domus Isaacii Comneni" but does not state that it was built by his father[17].  The Alexeiad names "Manuel, father of the previous emperor Isaakios Komnenos and his brother Ioannes (who was my grandfather on the paternal side)" when recording that he was "promoted supreme commander of all the east by the then emperor Basileios"[18].  Cedrenus records that "Manuelum Eroticum, nobili genere orto" fought in the war against Bardas Skleros, dated to [978][19].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that Manuel entrusted his sons to the emperor (Basileios II) when dying[20]m ([1005]) ---.  The name of Manuel's wife is not known.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that she had been dead for a long time when her husband entrusted their sons to the emperor[21].  Manuel Komnenos & his wife had three children:

a)         ISAAKIOS Komnenos ([1005/10]-Studion monastery 1061).  Nikeforos Bryennios names "maiori natu Isaacio…iunior Ioannes" as the two sons of "Comneni Manuelis"[22].  There is little indication about his date of birth but the chronology of the descendants of his brother Ioannes suggests that Isaakios may have been born in [1005/10].  The Alexeiad names "Manuel, father of the previous emperor Isaakios Komnenos and his brother Ioannes (who was my grandfather on the paternal side)" when recording that he was "promoted supreme commander of all the east by the then emperor Basileios"[23].  Domestikos 1042-[1054/57].  He led the troops which crushed the revolt of the generals of Asia.  Cedrenus records that Empress Theodora sent "magistro Isaacio Comneno" to fight the Turks after her accession (in 1055)[24].  Cedrenus names "magister Isaacius Comnenus, magister Catacalo Ambustus" as leaders of the noble party in the army who opposed the succession of Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos, adding that the latter had abrogated the appointment of "Catacalo Ambustus" as magister and "dux Antiochiæ" and replaced him by "Michaelum patruelem suum"[25].  Isaakios was acclaimed Emperor ISAAKIOS I on the plain of Gunaria in Paphlagonia 8 Jun 1057.  Cedrenus records the acclamation 8 Jun "indictione 10" of Isaakios Komnenos as emperor[26].  He defeated the imperial army at Hades near Nikaia 20 Aug 1057.  Isaakios's army marched on Constantinople, and Emperor Mikhael VI abdicated before Isaakios entered the city 1 Sep 1057, and was crowned there the same day by Patriarch Mikhael Keroularios.  Despite a short reign, he succeeded in consolidating the military position of the empire.  He practised all kinds of economy to restore financial stability, confiscating assets which had previously been distributed by his predecessors.  The process included the confiscation of property donated to the church which led Isaakios into conflict with the Patriarch, culminating in the latter being sent into exile 8 Nov 1058.  Isaakios abdicated 25 Dec 1059, due to illness, in favour of Konstantinos Doukas, President of the Senate, having first offered the throne to his younger brother Ioannes who refused it.  He became a monk at the monastery of Studion.  m EKATERINA of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN VLADISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Marija --- (-convent of Myrelaion after 1061).  Her parentage is deduced by reading Cedrenus, who names "Aarone Duca magistro magistro, fratre uxoris Comneni"[27] (although the origin of his being named "Doukas" has not been ascertained), together with Nikeforos Bryennios who records that "Isaacio" married "maxima natu filiarum Samuelis regis Bulgarorum…Aecatharinæ"[28].  It is chronologically improbable for Ekaterina to have been the daughter of Tsar Samuil, whose marriage is recorded in 970 (see BULGARIA).  It is supposed therefore that she was the daughter of Samuil's successor, Ivan Vladislav, and that "Aarone Duca" named by Cedrenus was Ivan Vladislav´s son.  She brought a substantial dowry to her husband[29].  Skylitzes records that advice from "Æcaterina Augusta" helped her husband decide on his abdication and that she "eiusque filia Maria" were tonsured "in palatiis Myrelæi" (the convent of Myrelaion), adding in a later passage that Empress Ekaterina adopted the monastic name HELENA[30].  Her death date is estimated from Psellos recording that "the empress" (whom he does not name) "a most remarkable woman, descended from a very noble family" was present with their daughter at her husband's deathbed[31].  Mikhael Glykas names "imperatrix Haecaterina cum Maria filia" when recording that they both became nuns "in mansionem Myrelæi" (in [1059])[32].  Emperor Isaakios I & his wife had two children:

i)          MANUEL Komnenos (-[1042/57]).  Mikhael Glykas names "Manuelus et Maria" as the children of Emperor Isaakios[33].  Skylitzes names "Manuel et Maria" as the children of Emperor Isaakios[34]m ---, daughter of --- Helios protospatharios & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         MARIA Komnene.  Mikhael Glykas names "imperatrix Haecaterina cum Maria filia" when recording that they both became nuns "in mansionem Myrelæi" (in [1059])[35].  Her parentage is confirmed by Psellos recording that "the empress" was present with their daughter at her husband's deathbed[36].  Skylitzes records that advice from "Æcaterina Augusta" helped her husband decide on his abdication and that she "eiusque filia Maria" were tonsured "in palatiis Myrelæi"[37]

b)         daughter ([1012]-).  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from the Alexeiad naming "Dokeianos, nephew of the former emperor Isaakios Komnenos and cousin of Alexios" when recording his approval of the humane treatment accorded to Roussel after the latter's rebellion was crushed, dated to 1073[38]m ([1031]) MIKHAEL Dokeianos, son of --- (-killed in battle Adrianople 1050).  Patrikios protospathariosBestiarios.  Prefect [Katepan] of Italy. 

c)         IOANNES Komnenos ([1015]-12 Jul 1067).  Nikeforos Bryennios names "maiori natu Isaacio…iunior Ioannes" as the two sons of "Comneni Manuelis"[39].  His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad which describes Emperor Isaakios Komnenos as brother-in-law of Anna Dalassena, an earlier passage naming him Ioannes[40]

-        see below

 

 

IOANNES Komnenos, son of MANUEL Erotikos Komnenos & his wife --- ([1015]-12 Jul 1067).  Nikeforos Bryennios names "maiori natu Isaacio…iunior Ioannes" as the two sons of "Comneni Manuelis"[41].  His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad which describes Emperor Isaakios Komnenos as brother-in-law of Anna Dalassena, an earlier passage naming him Ioannes[42]Patrikios.  Skylitzes records that Emperor Isaakios created "Joannem fratrem et Catacalon Combustum curopalatas" and "fratrem suum magnum domesticum" after his accession, in 1057[43].  His brother abdicated in his favour 25 Dec 1059, but Ioannes refused the throne[44].  He became a monk as IOANNES.  Nikeforos Bryennios records the death of "Ioannes...Comnenus curopalates" which occurred "nec multo post" the death of Emperor Konstantinos X Doukas [dated to 23 May 1067][45].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 12 Jul of "feu kyr Jean, le...beau-père de ma Majesté"[46]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 12 Jul of "Ioannou monaxou kai patros tou basileos"[47]

m ([1042]) ANNA Dalassena, daughter of ALEXIOS Kharon Prefect of Italy & his wife --- Dalassena (-1 Nov [1100/02], bur Pantopopte).  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioanni" and "filia Charonis Alexii…Anna", recording that her mother was "genus a Dalassenis"[48].  The Alexeiad names "Anna Dalassena, the mother of the Komneni" when recording that she arranged the marriage of "the grandson of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest son"[49].  An undated seal records “Anne Dalassène curopalatissa[50].  Despoina 1048/57.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Anna...cum filiis" were banished "in insulam principis dictam" [Prinkipo], dated to [1072][51].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[52].  Regent of Byzantium 1081 and 1094-1095.  An undated seal records “Anne Dalassène la mère du basileus[53].  She became a nun at Pantopopte convent which she founded.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 1 Nov of "ma...despoina, la belle-mère de ma Majesté"[54]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 1 Nov of "Annas monaxes tes metros tou basileos"[55]

Ioannes Komnenos & his wife had eight children:

1.         MANUEL Komnenos (-killed in battle Bithynia 17 Apr [1070/early 1071]).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[56].  The Alexeiad records that "Isaakios and Alexios had an elder brother Manuel, the first-born of all the children [of] Ioannes Komnenos" and that he was appointed "commander-in-chief of the whole of Asia" by Emperor Romanos Diogenes[57].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Manuel" was invested as "curopalates, dux summus Orientalium" by Emperor Romanos but was captured by the Turks "cum duobus sororem suarum viris, Melisseno et Taronita"[58]ProtoproedrosKuropalates [1068].  Protostrator and strategos autokrator in Anatolia 1067/71.  His death is dated from the Alexeiad recording that the mother of the future Emperor Alexios I prevented her son from campaigning with Emperor Romanos Diogenes because "she was mourning the recent death of her eldest son Manuel"[59].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 17 Apr of "Manouel sebastou kai adelfou tou basileos"[60]m ([1068]) --- Diogene, relative of ROMANOS Diogenes, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  The name of Manuel's wife is not known.  Manuel Komnenos & his wife had one child:

a)         [ANNA] Komnene (1069-).  The Alexeiad records that "Anna Dalassena, the mother of the Komneni" arranged the marriage of "the grandson of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest son"[61].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Betrothed (1081) to --- [Botaneiates], grandson of Emperor NIKEFOROS III Botaneiates, son of ---. 

2.         MARIA Komnene ([1045]-[18 Aug] ----).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Maria, Eudocia et Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[62].  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…maior…natu [filia] Maria" and "Taronitæ Michaeli"[63].  Her origin is also deduced from the Alexeiad naming "Mikhael" as the husband of the niece of the Komnenoi brothers, although the text does not name her or her daughter[64].  The relationship is clarified in a later passage which records that "Taronites…had married the emperor's sister Maria"[65].  She became a nun as ANNA.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 18 Aug of "kyras Marias tis autadelfou tou basileos"[66].  This entry is assumed to relate to Maria, sister of Emperor Alexios I, but it is not an ideal match as it is surprising that it does not record her monastic name.  m (1062) MIKHAEL Taronites, son of --- & his wife --- [Aneme] (-[12 Mar] after [1094]). 

3.         ISAAKIOS Komnenos ([1047]-[1102/Nov 1104]).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[67].  The Alexeiad names "Isaakios and Alexios" when recording that they had "an elder brother Manuel, the first-born of all the children [of] Ioannes Komnenos" and states that Isaakios became "duke of Antioch after being elected by lot"[68].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Anna...cum filiis" were banished "in insulam principis dictam" [Prinkipo], dated to [1072][69].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[70]Domestikos in Anatolia 1073.  He was captured fighting the Seljuk Turks in [1073] after Roussel de Bailleul and his troops mutinied[71].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Isaacium Comnenum Alexii fratrem" was declared "ducem Antiochiæ", after the death of “protoprohedro Iosepho Trachaneota duce Antiochiæ” when “eius filius magister Catacalo” was unable to control riots in the town, dated to [1074][72]Dux of Antioch from 1074 to 1078.  Sébastos: Nikeforos Bryennios records that the emperor awarded the title "sebasti" to "Comnenum...frater huius Isaacius Comnenus", dated to [1078][73].  1078.  The Alexeiad records that he was granted the new title of sébastokrator by his brother Emperor Alexios I in 1081, combining the words sébastos and autokrator, in order to give him precedence over their brother-in-law Nikeforos Melissenos[74].  Governor of Constantinople [1081/82].  He became a monk as IOANNES.  A notice in the Parisinus graecus 880 records that Isaakios Komnenos became a monk under the name Ioannes[75].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 19 Feb of "Ioannou monaxou tou sebastokratoros kai adelfou tou basileos"[76].  Zonaras records that "sebastocrator" died "paullo amplius uno...anno" after his mother, having become a monk[77].  The date of Isaac´s death can be assessed more precisely from a letter from Theophylaktos Archbishop of Bulgaria addressed to a “caesar”, identified by Papachryssanthou as Nikephoros Melissenos whose death is dated to 17 Nov 1104[78]m ([1072/73]) [IRENA], daughter of --- [of Georgia] & his wife --- (-5 May [1103/05]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, soon after Emperor Mikhael VII married "Iberorum principis filiam Mariam", “huius patruelem Alaniæ rectoris filiam Irenen” married “curopalatissæ filio maiori[79].  It is assumed that her marriage took place soon after her husband was recalled from exile: Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[80].  The Alexeiad records that Isaakios married the cousin of Empress Maria but does not name her[81].  She is named “Eirene” in Byzantine sources, but it is not known whether this was her original Georgian name.  A seal dated to [1074/78] names "Eirene protoproedrissa daughter of the ruler of Alania"[82].  The primary source which confirms her precise parentage has not yet been identified.  The Empress Maria is recorded in other primary sources as the daughter of Bagrat IV King of Georgia, probably by his second wife Borena of Ossetia.  The relationship "cousin", specified by the Alexeiad, could indicate that Irena was more distantly related than first cousin, and in any case the connection could either be through the empress's maternal or paternal families.  The question is further complicated by the second wife of Theodoros Gabras and Irena, wife of Isaakios Komnenos, being described as daughters of two brothers.  As shown in the document GEORGIA, the primary sources so far consulted only name one brother of King Bagrat, Demetre.  It is therefore more probable that the relationship between Irena and Empress Maria was through the family of the latter's supposed mother, who is described in the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) as the daughter of the Ossetian king.  The primary sources so far consulted name only one brother of the Empress Maria's supposed mother, Durghulel, but this does not exclude there having been other brothers who are unrecorded.  Until further information emerges from other primary sources, it is felt that further speculation on Irena's precise parentage would not be helpful.  She became a nun as XENE.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 5 May of "Eirenes tis sebastokratoresas kai syzygos tou autadelfou tou basileos"[83].  There appears to be no other candidate to whom this entry could apply, although it is surprising that Eirene was not recorded with her monastic name Xene.  Isaakios Komnenos & his wife had ten children:

a)         [ANNA] Komnene.  The poet Theodore Prodromos states that Isaakios's eldest daughter married a grandson of the cæsar Ioannes Doukas[84].  She is named Anna by Sturdza[85], but presumably this is an informed guess as it is the name which would normally have been given to Isaakios's eldest daughter in line with contemporary family naming patterns among Byzantine nobility (being the name of her paternal grandmother)[86].  An alternative possibility is that the oldest daughter, Anna, died young and that the wife of Doukas was the oldest surviving daughter.  The name and precise parentage of her husband are not known.  Polemis assumes that he was an otherwise unknown son of Konstantinos Doukas since he assumes that the brothers of Empress Eirene, sons of Andronikos Doukas, would not have married a niece of their sister's husband[87].  He is named Ioannes by Sturdza[88], but the basis for this is not known.  m [---] Doukas, son of [KONSTANTINOS Doukas & his wife ---]. 

b)         IOANNES Komnenos ([1073]-[1106]).  The Alexeiad names "Ioannes the son of Isaakios the sebastocrator…Duke of Dyrrachium" when recording that the emperor instructed him to watch for the arrival of Hugues "Magnus" Comte de Vermandois[89].  He was appointed dux of Durazzo in 1092 by his uncle Emperor Alexios I.  The Alexeiad records that he was accused of involvement in a plot against his uncle, dated to 1092[90].  The Alexeiad records that "John the sebastocrator's son" was defeated in Dalmatia, that the emperor "sent a considerable force to help him but Bolkan very craftily made inquiries about peace negotiations…[and] provided the hostages Alexius had demanded", dated to end 1104 from the context[91]Protosébastos 1105.  same person as…?   IOANNES Komnenos .  A transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, lists the individuals named below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[92].  There is doubt regarding the identity of this couple, as explained below. 

-        see below

c)         ALEXIOS Komnenos (-after 1143).  The Alexeiad records that "the second son of the sebastocrator Isaakios" was appointed governor of Durazzo, naming him "Alexios, the emperor's nephew" in a later passage[93]Dux of Durazzo [1106]-1108.  Pansébastos 1134/1143.  m ZOE, daughter of ---.  Alexios´s wife is recorded as Zoe[94].  She died after treatment by a magician[95].  Alexios & his wife had [two possible children]: 

i)          [IOANNES Komnenos .  Magdalino names him as son of Alexios, and names his wife, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified[96]m EUDOKIA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.] 

ii)         [MARIA Komnene .  Magdalino names her as possible daughter of Alexios, and names her husband, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified[97]m MIKHAEL Branas, son of ---.] 

d)         [MARIA] Komnene (-after 1091).  The Alexeiad records the betrothal of "Gabras's son Gregory" to one of the (unnamed) daughters of "the sebastocrator Isaakios Komnenos" and states that the betrothal was terminated after the second marriage of Theodoros Gabras to the cousin of Isaakios's wife, which meant that the marriage was thereby prohibited under ecclesiastical law[98].  Sturdza names her Maria[99], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Betrothed ([1091]) to GREGORIOS Gabras, son of THEODOROS Gabras dux of Trebizond, who later married Maria daughter of Emperor Alexios I. 

e)         KONSTANTINOS Komnenos (-after 1147).  Theophylact of Ohrid sent a letter addressed to Konstantinos dux of Berroia, son of “sebastokrátoros” [Isaakios][100]PansébastosMegas drongarios [1136/43]-[1147].  An undated seal records “Constantin Comnène sébaste et grand drongaire[101].  The record of the synods held 20 Aug, 1 Oct and 30 Oct 1143 names “(1) tou pansebástou sebastou kai megalou droungaríou kirou Konstantínou tou Komnenou (2) tou makariotátou pansebástou sebastou archiepiskópou Boulgarías...” as civil judges appointed by the emperor[102].  Stiernon analyses the order in which the names of members of the Komnenos family appear in various primary source documents, establishes that the order follows a pattern which depends on the titles held by the individuals in question, and concludes that Konstantinos in the 30 Oct 1143 document was “sans incertitude aucune” the same person as Konstantinos the addressee of the letter sent by Theophylact of Ohrid[103].  Stiernon refers to the seal of “sébaste et grand drongaire Constantin Comnène” dated to the synod which deposed Cosmas II Attikos, which he dates to 1147[104]m ---.  The name of Konstantinos´s wife is not known.  Marina Loukaki points out the improbability that she was --- Antiochena Euphorbena, daughter of --- who is referred to in a poem of consolation of the “Manganeios” Prodromos, dated to the second half of the 12th century, for the wife “--- Forbini” and the daughter, wife of “Konstantios...sebastou” son of “Komnenon...Isaakiou...sebastou” and descendant of “sebastokratorounti”, of “--- Antiochos” who had died during a naval expedition[105].  She highlights that the text refers to her father-in-law as Isaakios sébastos not as Isaakios sébastokrator, which is the title normally assigned in documentation to the father of Konstantinos Komnenos who died after 1147, and that Konstantinos is described as descendant of “sebastokratorounti” not as his son.  She also highlights the apparent chronological difficulty with this co-identity, although she concedes that the poem is difficult to date precisely.  The chronological difficulty is emphasised by the reference in the poem to the brother-in-law of Konstantinos as an adolescent or young man at the time of his father´s death (see the document BYZANTIUM NOBILITY), assuming that it is dated correctly to the second half of the 12th century.  Darrouzés provides a different interpretation of the passage when he summarises the poem to indicate that Konstantinos was “fils d´Isaac...sébaste...né du sébastocrator[106].  The issue remains undecided as the phraseology of poems such as this one may be dictated by poetical considerations of language and meter rather than strict factual accuracy.  Konstantinos Komnenos & his wife had [three] children:

i)          IOANNES Komnenos.  He is attested as son of Konstantinos in a contemporary letter[107]Sébastos.  Monk. 

ii)         STEFANOS Komnenos (-after 1156).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  PansébastosMegas drongarios.  Member of the Synod 26 Jan 1156.  m ([1147/51]) EVDOKIA Axuchina, daughter of IOANNES Axuches [megas domestikos] & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Stefanos Komnenos & his wife had [four] children:

(a)       KONSTANTINOS Komnenos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

(b)       [EIRENE Komnene ([1155]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1170]) ISAAKIOS Komnenos Batatzes, son of THEODOROS Batatzes,  sébastohypertatos, dux of Cilicia & his wife Eudoxia Komnene.  Blinded 1182.] 

(c)       [son (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.]   

(d)       [son (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

iii)        [ISAAKIOS Komnenos .  Magdalino, following Varzos, names him as son of Konstantinos, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified[108].] 

f)          ADRIANOS Komnenos (-[13 May 1157/10 Feb 1164]).  PansébastosHe became a monk as IOANNES.  Metropolitan of Ochrid [1139/20 Aug 1143]-[13 May 1157/10 Feb 1164].  The record of the synods held 20 Aug, 1 Oct and 30 Oct 1143 names “(1) tou pansebástou sebastou kai megalou droungaríou kirou Konstantínou tou Komnenou (2) tou makariotátou pansebástou sebastou archiepiskópou Boulgarías...” as civil judges appointed by the emperor[109].  A manuscript list of archbishops of Bulgaria (undated) records “Ioannes monachos o Komnenos, o en tois kosmikois Adrianos pansébastos sebastós...nios...sebastokrátoros kirou Isaakíou tou Komnenou...[110]He is recorded as present at a synod dated 13 May 1157[111]After quoting and analysing documentation which names ecclesiastical appointees during the relevant period, Stiernon dates the death of archbishop Ioannes to [13 May 1157/10 Feb 1164], adding that “en raison de la chronologie de Jean Comnène né bien avant 1104...je situerais la fin de son épiscopat à une date plus proche de 1157 que de 116[4][112]m ([1110]) ---.  The name of Adrianos's wife is not known.  Adrianos Komnenos & his wife had one child:

i)          THEODORA Komnene ([1110]-).  Gautier records her parentage and marriage[113]m ANDRONIKOS Kontostefanos, son of [ISAAKIOS Kontostefanos & his wife ---] (-1156 or after). 

g)         SOFIA Komnene (-after 1108).  Gautier records that Sofia, daughter of Isaakios, married “un sebaste Dokeianos” and that she became a nun as SUZANNA after the death of her husband[114].  1108.  m NIKOLAOS Dokeianos, son of ---.  Sébastos

h)         EVDOKIA Komnene (-after 1108).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1108.  m NIKEFOROS Botaneiates, son of ---.  

i)          son (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1108. 

4.         EVDOKIA Komnene ([1050]-8 Nov ----).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Maria, Eudocia et Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[115].  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…Eudocia…secundo genita [filia]" and "Melisseno Nicephoro"[116].  The Alexeiad names Nikeforos Melissenos as the brother-in-law of Emperor Alexius but does not name his wife[117].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 8 Nov of "Eudokias tes aytadelfou tou basileos kai kaisarises"[118]m (before Sep 1067) NIKEFOROS Melissenos, son of --- (-shortly after 1107[119]). 

5.         THEODORA Komnene ([1053]-after [1094/95]).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Maria, Eudocia et Theodora" as the three daughters of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[120].  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage, after her father's death "matris voluntate", of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…postrema Theodora [filia]" and "Constantino Diogenis iam imperatoris filio"[121].  The Alexeiad names "Theodora, the emperor's sister…widow of Diogenes's murdered son" when recording her reaction to an imposter pretending to be her husband who had been killed in Antioch[122].  The text names the son "Leon" but it is clear from the context that it must refer to Konstantinos, who was killed when his half-brother Leon was still an infant.  She became a nun as XENAm ([1068/71]) KONSTANTINOS Diogenes, son of Emperor ROMANOS Diogenes & his first wife [Anna] Alusiane [of Bulgaria] (-killed in battle Antioch [1074]). 

6.         ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1056/57]-15 Aug 1118).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[123].  His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad naming "Ioannes Komnenos, my grandfather on my father's side"[124].  He succeeded 4 Apr 1081 as Emperor ALEXIOS I, after obliging Nikeforos Botaneiates to abdicate.   

-        see below

7.         ADRIANOS Komnenos ([1058/63]-19 Apr 1105).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[125].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Anna...cum filiis" were banished "in insulam principis dictam" [Prinkipo], dated to [1072][126].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[127].  The Alexeiad names Adrianos as brother of Emperor Alexios, recording that the latter granted him the title "Most Illustrious Protosébastos" at the time of his accession in 1081[128].  An undated seal records “Adrien Comnène protosébaste[129].  Leader against the Normans 1083.  Megas domestikos [1087/97].  An undated seal records “Adrien Comnène protosébaste et grand domestique de tout l´Occident[130]Panhypersébastos.  He became a monk as IOANNES.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 19 Apr of "Ioannou monaxou meyalou domestikou tou adelfou tou basileos"[131].  A manuscript records the death 19 Apr 1105 of “Adrianus...Joannes monachus[132]m (after Oct 1081) ZOE Doukaina porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa (1062-28 Aug before 1136).  The Alexeiad names "the Porphyrogenita Zoe" as daughter of Empress Eudoxia, suggesting that her mother planned to marry her to Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates after the latter's accession in 1078[133].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.    The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "28 Aug, Porphyrogenita Zoe"[134].  She was named "Anna" in a poem concering the ancestors of Giorgios Palaiologos.  Magdalino and Cheynet both assume that this was her monastic name, but it may be a mistake resulting from confusion with her sister of the same name[135].  Adrianos Komnenos & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [ALEXIOS Komnenos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.]  m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios Komnenos & his wife had [one] child: 

i)          [--- Komnene ([1100/05]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXIOS Doukas Palaiologos, son of GEORGIOS Palaiologos & his wife Anna Doukaina ([1095/1100]-after 1143).]   

8.         NIKEFOROS Komnenos ([1060/65]-18 Jul, after Jan 1120 or [1137/43]).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[136].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Anna...cum filiis" were banished "in insulam principis dictam" [Prinkipo], dated to [1072][137].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[138].  The Alexeiad names Nikeforos as youngest brother of Emperor Alexios, recording that the latter installed him as "Great Drungarius of the Fleet" and awarded him the title sébastos at the time of his accession in 1081[139].  An undated seal records “Nicéphore Comnène sébaste[140].  He issued a decision in favour of the monastery of Lavra dated Jan 1120, recorded in an act dated Aug 1181[141].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 18 Jul of "Nikeforou sebastou kai adelfon tou basileos"[142]m ---.  Theophylaktos of Ohrid refers to Nikeforos Komnenos and Adrianos Komnenos as brothers-in-law ("γαμβρός") of Gregorianos Pakourianos[143].  As Adrianos´s wife is already recorded (see above), this could mean that Nikeforos´s wife was Gregorianos´s sister.  Alternatively, Gregorianos could have been married to an otherwise unrecorded sister of both Adrianos and Nikeforos.  The name of the wife of Nikeforos is not known.  Nikeforos & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALEXIOS KomnenosSébastos: an undated seal records “Alexis Comnène sébaste, fils de Nicéphore Comnène[144]

 

 

A transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, lists the individuals named below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[145].  There is doubt regarding the identity of this couple, whom Polemis refuses to identify.  The source quoted by Polemis, a saint's life, states that an unnamed daughter of Mikhael Doukas married Ioannes, a nephew of Emperor Alexios I[146].  However, Emperor Alexios had two known nephews named Ioannes, Ioannes Komnenos and Ioannes Taronites, so it is not certain to whom this refers.  Another possibility is that "Ioannes" was a monastic name which, if correct, could refer to Adrianos Komnenos, brother of Emperor Alexios I, his wife Zoe Doukaina being referred to as Anna in one source (see above). Magdalino, following Varzos, and Cheynet in Etudes Prosopographiques both propose that the named individuals were descendants of Adrianos[147].  However, the fact that one of the couple's sons was named Adrianos suggests that this hypothesis is incorrect, as sons were rarely named after their fathers in Byzantine noble families.  Magdalino, after Varzos and Cheynet, names the wife of Ioannes, son of Isaakios, as Maria[148].  

 

1.         IOANNES Komnenos, son of [ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia] m ANNA Doukaina, daughter of [MIKHAEL Doukas & his wife ---].  A transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, lists the individuals named below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[149].  There is doubt regarding the identity of this couple, as discussed above.  Ioannes Komnenos & his wife had four children (named in the transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[150]):

a)         EVDOKIA Komnenem ALEXIOS Tarchanaiotes, son of ---. 

b)         ANDRONIKOS KomnenosTheir names appear in the list after m EVDOKIA Doukaina, daughter of ---.  [Andronikos Komnenos & his wife had one child:]

i)          [ANNA Komnene Doukaina.  Sturdza records Anna as daughter of Andronikos Komnenos and his wife, and names her husband[151].  The primary source on which this is based is not known, as this couple is not named in the documentation of the church of St Mary Pammakaristos referred to above.  Her name Anna is recorded in a poem by Proedros, in which she is called Dukoblastos without giving any parentage.  It is assumed that the parentage suggested by Sturdza is no more than a guess[152].  m ALEXIOS Komnenos Anemas, son of MANUEL Anemas & his wife Theodora Komnene.] 

c)         ALEXIOS Komnenos.  Sébastos.  Betrothed ([1148/51]) to EIRENE Axuchina, daughter of IOANNES Axuches megas domestikos & his wife ---.  m EIRENE Synadene, daughter of ---.  Alexios Komnenos & his wife had one child:

i)          ADRIANOS Komnenosm ANNA Kontostephanina, daughter of ---. 

d)         ADRIANOS Komnenos.  The name Adrianos suggests that this family could not have been children of Adrianos Komnenos, brother of Emperor Alexios, as sons were never named after their fathers in Byzantium.  However, it is not impossible that Adrianos was this person´s monastic name. 

 

 

The connection between the following individuals and the main Komnenos family is not known.  The possibility should not be ignored that their descent from the Komnenos family was through the female line. 

 

1.         [BARBARA] Komnene (-1125).  Baumgarten cites one secondary source confirming Barbara Komnene as third wife of Grand Prince Sviatopolk II[153].  The Translatio Manus Sancti Stephani, included in Orlieb's Zwiefaltensis Chronicon, records the marriage of "Bolezlai Boloniorum…ducis" and "ex nobilissimis principibus Grecorum filiam suam cuidam tradidit in matrimonium regi Rutenorum", the editor of the compilation consulted identifying "rex Rutenorum" as "Swiatopolk Michael princeps Kiewensis, cuius coniux altera filia aut cognate fuit imperatoris Alexii"[154].  Neither source specifies her precise parentage.  Sturdza refers to her as the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, brother of Emperor Alexios I, although he does not name her[155].  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  There must be some doubt whether her name can be correct as it is rare among Byzantine families[156]m ([1103]) as his third wife, SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev, son of IZIASLAV I Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Gertrud of Poland (1050-16 Apr 1113). 

 

2.         EVDOKIA Komnene.  The primary source which confirms her possible marriage has not yet been identified.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[157], Evdokia was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos cæsar, son of Emperor Alexios I, but the basis for this is not known.  [m KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Doukas Komnenos, son of ---]. 

 

3.         [HELENA] [Komnene] (-[1183]).  Baumgarten cites one secondary source which discusses "the probability" that the second wife of Prince Iurii was of Byzantine origin, suggesting her possible name on a subsequent page[158].  Although the date of Iurii's second marriage is not known, the general chronology suggests that his wife may have belonged to the Komnenos family if she was indeed of Byzantine origin.  Sturdza states[159] that she was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos cæsar, son of Emperor Alexios I, but the primary source on which this might be based has not yet been identified.  m as his second wife, IURII Vladimirovich of Kiev, son of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich "Monomach" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- (-15 May 1158).  Prince of Rostov-Suzdal 1125-1157.  He succeeded in 1149 as IURII "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev

 

 

ALEXIOS I 1081-1118

 

ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos kuropalates and domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1056/57]-15 Aug 1118).  Nikeforos Bryennios names (in order) "Manuel, Isaacius, Alexius, Adrianus, Nicephorus" as the five sons of "Ioanni" and his wife Anna[160].  His parentage is confirmed by the Alexeiad naming "Ioannes Komnenos, my grandfather on my father's side"[161].  His birth date is estimated from the Alexeiad recording that he was "only fourteen years old" when he wished to campaign with Emperor Romanos Diogenes "against the Persians"[162], assumed to refer to the campaign against the Seljuks which culminated in the battle of Manzikert in 1071.  On the other hand, Zonaras records that Emperor Alexios lived "annos LXX fere aut circiter"[163].  Chalandon suggests that the age indicated by Zonaras “[offre] plus de chances d´avoir été connu exactement et tirant en outre plus de vraisemblance des événements”, pointing out that otherwise Alexios would have commanded troops at the age of 22 which he says “me paraît peu probable[164].  However, the age given by Zonaras does not appear consistent with the chronology of the family of his parents, particularly because Alexios appears to have been their sixth child.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Anna...cum filiis" were banished "in insulam principis dictam" [Prinkipo], dated to [1072][165].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[166]Proedros 1074.  Stratopedarchos.  Appointed dux and megas domestikos 1078 by Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates.  Sébastos 1079.  An undated seal records “Alexis Comnène sébaste et domestique de l´Occident[167].  An undated seal records “sebaston ede s domestikon meg Alexion men ton Komnenon deiknyo[168].  Following a Doukas/Komnenos family council at Tzurullon in Thrace, Alexios invaded Constantinople.  He succeeded 4 Apr 1081 as Emperor ALEXIOS I, after rebelling against Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates who was obliged to abdicate.  Faced with an empire weakened by the loss of most of Asia Minor as well as its Italian possessions, in economic ruin, and with a depleted army and navy, Emperor Alexios set about the slow process of reconstruction and restoring the power of Byzantium.  He allied himself with Venice to prevent Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia from capturing Durazzo.  He granted Venice duty-free trade throughout the empire and the right to establish colonies under its own administration, as a reward for having defeated the Norman fleet in 1081.  The setback for the Normans was short-lived as Durazzo fell to Robert "Guiscard" in Oct 1081, although it was recaptured in 1085 by Byzantium[169].  In 1085, Emperor Alexios agreed a treaty with the Seljuks under which Nikomedia and parts of the Anatolian coast were returned to Byzantium, although Chaka, a rival Turkish leader, captured the islands of Lesbos, Chios, Samos and Rhodos in the 1080s[170].  Emperor Alexios also allied himself with the Kumans [Polovtsy] to beat the Pechenegs at Mount Lebounion 29 Apr 1091.  The emperor suppressed rebellions led by Theodoros Gabras in 1092[171] and Nikeforos Diogenes in 1094[172].  Good relations were restored with the papacy in Sep 1089 when, at the Council of Melfi, Pope Urban IV lifted the papal excommunication on the emperor[173].  After the armies of the First Crusade arrived in Constantinople, their relations with Emperor Alexios I were tense.  Albert of Aix records that the emperor gave "filium suum Johannem" as hostage to guarantee the army´s safe passage through imperial territory, dated to end 1096[174].  Godefroi de Bouillon [Duke of Lower Lotharingia] finally swore allegiance to the emperor on Easter Sunday in 1097, agreeing that the emperor should become overlord of any new principalities founded in the Levant by the crusaders and that any land captured which had previously belonged to the empire should be handed back to Byzantium[175].  Building on the crusading army's capture of Nikaia, Alexios recaptured Smyrna, Ephesus and Sardes from the Turks.  After the fall of Antioch 3 Jun 1098, Bohémond of Apulia refused to acknowledge the emperor as his overlord in breach of the earlier agreement and declared himself Prince of Antioch.  The threat to Byzantine interests posed by this new principality on its borders provoked Emperor Alexios to attack.  Bohémond left his nephew Tancred as regent in Antioch and returned to Europe to prepare a larger-scale campaign against Byzantium.  Alexios defeated him at Avlona on the Adriatic coast in Oct 1107, and forced Bohémond to recognise his suzerainty in 1108.  Emperor Alexios carried out a major reorganisation of the administration of the empire, aimed at lightening the old bureaucracy and introduced a range of new titles which he distributed to the numerous potential challengers from his own and other ex-imperial families (see Introduction).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 15 Aug of "tou eusebos basileusavtos kyrou Alexiou tou Komneneou kai ktetoros tis autis monis"[176].  Zonaras records that Emperor Alexios lived "annos LXX fere aut circiter", reigned for 37 years, 4 months "et dies aliquot", and died “anno mundi 6626[177]

m firstly ([1075]) --- Argyre, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife --- (-before Oct 1077).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Alexium Comnenum" married "filia Argyri…viri nobilis" as his first wife[178]

m secondly (betrothed before Oct 1077, [1078]) EIRENE Doukaina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas & his wife Maria Troiane ([1066]-19 Feb [1133]).  The Alexeiad records that Eirene, mother of Anna Komnene, was "kinswoman" of the Doukas family and "legal wife of my [Anna Komnene's] father" but does not name her parents[179].  This passage follows soon after the text which names Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of their sister"[180].  The omission of Eirene from this list of brothers and sister suggests that she was not the daughter of Andronikos Doukas.  In another passage, the Alexeiad records that Anna "on my mother's side [was] related to the Doukas"[181].  Any doubts about her parentage are resolved in a further passage which records that, at the time of the Komnenoi rebellion in 1081, the future Emperor Alexios left "his wife, fifteen years old at the time…in the 'lower' palace with her sisters and mother and the Cæsar, her grandfather on the paternal side", and in yet another passage which explicitly states that she was "a daughter of Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son"[182].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Alexium Comnenum" married "primogenitam…filiarum" of Andronikos[183].  The Alexeiad records that she was crowned empress "on the seventh day after the public proclamation" of her husband's accession[184].  She supported her daughter's attempt to have the latter's husband Nikeforos Briennios succeed her husband as emperor, but retired to a convent after her husband died.  There is some confusion relating to the date of death of Empress Eirene.  Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie” and adds that “tu as fait disparâitre deux fils en même temps, cruel Telkine, la vie d´Andronic et la vigueur d´Isaac. L´un erre aux extrémités de l´Anatolie, mort vivant...l´autre est parti dans l´occident ténébreux de l´Hadès[185]The latter part of the passage appears to refer to the death of Andronikos and the exile of Isaakios, both events dated to [1130/31].  This suggestion appears confirmed by the song composed by Mikhael Italicos after the death of Andronikos which records that “Irène Doukaina et le césar Nicéphore Bryennios” accompanied his body from the Asian bank back to Constantinople[186].  Prodromos also records that Empress Eirene was present at the funeral of Gregorios Kamateros which he says was foretold by the appearance of a comet, dated to 1126 or 14 Aug 1132 (the latter date being favoured by Gautier as he points out that the passage follows a reference to the summer being very dry, which was apparently the case in 1132)[187].  The typikon of Isaakios Komnenos (dated [1151/52]) records that Empress Eirene died “à la première indiction dix-neuvième jour de février”, identified by Gautier as the first year of the indiction (=[1137/38]) during which the monastery of Kosmoteira was founded ([1151/52]), and adds in the same sentence that “mon père et basileus a quitté ce monde le quinzième [jour] d´août, cinquième jour[188].  However, the Alexeiad confirms that the empress died before her son-in-law Nikeforos Bryennios (dated to [1136/37], see below), when recording the deaths (in that order) of "the great Alexius...the Empress Irene...the Caesar [her husband]", but gives no further indication to enable the events to be dated[189].  In addition, the obituary of the typikon of Kosmoteira (dated Oct 1136) records “tes makariotates despoines kai metros tes basileias mou”, the word “makariotates” being applied in the source to the individuals named who were deceased at the time (μακαρίτης = deceased)[190].  Chalandon concludes that the typikon of Isaakios Komnenos could not therefore refer to the indiction which started in 1137/38, excludes the previous indiction which started in 1122/23 because of the later sources which name the empress as living after that date, and suggests as a solution a transcription error in the typikon which should refer to the eleventh year of the previous indiction [1132/33][191]. Gautier highlights the anomaly in the typikon of Isaakios Komnenos which (as noted above) in the same sentence uses the indiction year for the empress´s death but the day of the week to date the death of her husband, suggests another transcription error whereby (in the case of the empress) a word indicating the first day of the week (Sunday) was misread as “indiction”, and adds that 1133 was the only year around that time when 19 Feb fell on a Sunday[192].  Gautier concludes that, in light of all these considerations, 1133 is the best possibility for the date of the empress´s death, but notes that the speculations concerning the transcript of the typikon of Isaakios Komnenos cannot now be checked against the original manuscript as it no longer survives[193]

Emperor Alexios I & his second wife had nine children:

1.         ANNA Komnene Doukaina (1/2 Dec 1083-[1149/54]).  Niketas Choniates names "Anna…primogenita…Cæsarissa appellata" as daughter of "Alexius Comnenus imperator" and wife of "Nicephoro Bryennio"[194].  In the Alexeiad, Anna records her own birth 1 Dec "in the seventh indiction...at dawn (it was a Saturday)"[195]  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 2 Dec 1083 of “porfyrogennitos kyra Anna[196].  Zonaras records that "Anna" was betrothed to "Constantino filio reginæ Mariæ Alanæ" who died before the marriage, and afterwards married "filio natu maiori Nicephori Bryennii"[197].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète et césarissa kyra Anne" on the date of her death[198]A prolific writer and historian, she was the author of a history of her father The Alexeiad, which in its preface records her as "Anna daughter of the Emperor Alexius and the Empress Irene, born and bred in the Purple"[199]  She and her mother tried to persuade her father to leave the throne to her husband.  After her brother succeeded, she led an unsuccessful rebellion against him[200].  She became a nun at Kecharitomenes convent after the death of her husband in [1136/37].  Betrothed (1084, contract broken Dec 1090) to KONSTANTINOS Doukas porphyrogenetos co-Emperor, son of Emperor MIKHAEL VII "Parapinakes" & his wife Maria of Georgia (-[1092/97]).  m (1097) NIKEFOROS Bryennios, son of NIKEFOROS Bryennios dux of Durazzo & his wife --- (-Constantinople [1136/38]). 

2.         MARIA Komnene (19 Sep 1085-after [1153]).  The Alexeiad records the birth of a second daughter before a son was born to Emperor Alexios, but does not name her[201].  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 19 Sep 1085 of “porfyrogennitos kyra Maria[202].  The Alexeiad records the betrothal of "Gabras's son Gregory" to "one of my sisters" after his first betrothal was terminated[203].  Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters, stating that Maria married "Gabræ…Theodori sebasti et martyris filio", the marriage being annulled for consanguinity, and afterwards married "Phorbeni Catacalonis filium Nicephorum"[204].  In a later passage, the Alexeiad records that Nikeforos, son of Konstantinos Euphorbenos, "afterwards became my brother-in-law when he married my younger sister Maria Porphyrogenita"[205].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Marie" on the date of her death[206]Georgios Tornikes metropolitan of Ephesus refers to Maria as living, dated to [1153][207]m firstly (annulled) GREGORIOS Gabras, son of THEODOROS Gabras dux of Trebizond & his wife ---.  m secondly ([1100]) NIKEFOROS Euphorbenos, Katakalon son of KONSTANTINOS Euphorbenos & his wife --- (-[15 Aug 1118/1120]).  Panhypersébastos, sébastokrator

3.         IOANNES Komnenos Doukas (13 Sep 1087-in Cilicia 8 Apr 1143).  Named "Ioannem Imperatoris filium" by William of Tyre in 1097, when he recounts that he was briefly given to the crusading army as a hostage[208].  He succeeded his father in 1118 as Emperor IOANNES II

-        see below

4.         EVDOKIA Komnene (14 Jan 1089-before [1130/31]).  The Alexeiad names "Porphyrogenita Eudocia" as the third daughter of Emperor Alexios[209].  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 14 Jan 1089 of “porfyrogennitos kyra Eudoxia[210].  Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters, stating that Evdokia married "Iasitæ Constantini filium", that her mother was irritated by her son-in-law´s superior attitude, made her become a nun and expelled “Iasitam” from the palace[211].  Nun at the convent of Kecharitomenes.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) records that Empress Eirene placed "ma...fille la porphyrogénète et moniale kyra Eudocie" in the monastery[212]The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Eudocie" on the date of her death[213]The Alexeiad records the presence of "Porphyrogenita Eudocia his third daughter" at the death of Emperor Alexios (who died 15 Aug 1118)[214].  Kouroupou and Vannier dates the death of Evdokia after her entry in the monastery "quelques années plus tard, après août 1118"[215].  Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie” and adds that “tu as fait disparâitre deux fils en même temps, cruel Telkine, la vie d´Andronic et la vigueur d´Isaac. L´un erre aux extrémités de l´Anatolie, mort vivant...l´autre est parti dans l´occident ténébreux de l´Hadès[216], which suggests that Evdokia died some time after [1120] (estimated date of death of Andronikos´s son) and [1130/31] (estimated date of death of Andronikos).  m (separated [1110]) MIKHAEL Iasites, son of KONSTANTINOS Iasites & his wife --- (15 Mar, after 1117). 

5.         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (18 Sep 1091-[1130/31]).  Niketas Choniates names "Andronicum" as second son of "Alexius Comnenus imperator"[217].  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 18 Sep 1091 of “porfyrogennitos kyr Andronikos[218]Sebastokrator.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes provides for the future commemoration of "[le] fils de ma Majesté le porphyrogénète et sébastocrator kyr Andronic" on the date of his death[219]Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie” and adds that “tu as fait disparâitre deux fils en même temps, cruel Telkine, la vie d´Andronic et la vigueur d´Isaac. L´un erre aux extrémités de l´Anatolie, mort vivant...l´autre est parti dans l´occident ténébreux de l´Hadès[220]The latter part of the passage appears to refer to the death of Andronikos and the exile of Isaakios, both events dated to [1130/31].  This suggestion appears confirmed by the song composed by Mikhael Italicos after the death of Andronikos which records that “Irène Doukaina et le césar Nicéphore Bryennios” accompanied his body from the Asian bank back to Constantinople[221]m [firstly] (betrothed 20 Aug 1104) [IRINA Volodarovna of Tmutorokan, daughter of VOLODAR Rostislavich Prince of Peremysl & his wife [Anna] of Pomerania] (-[before 1120]).  The Primary Chronicle records that the daughter of Volodar was taken to Tsargrad 20 Jul 1104 to become the wife of the son of Emperor Alexios[222].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...bru de ma Majesté, la sébastocratorissa kyra Irène" on the date of her death[223]Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...[224].  If this poem is factually correct, Irina probably died before [1120], the estimated date of death of her son.  [m secondly ANNA, daughter of ---.  A poem records "un sébastocrator et porphrogénète Andronic et son épouse la sébastocratorissa Anne" which Kouroupou and Vannier suggest may refer to Andronikos Komnenos and a second wife[225].]  Andronikos Komnenos & his [first] wife had one child: 

a)         ALEXIOS Komnenos (-[1120]).  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified.  Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...[226].  The phrase “l´enfant d´Andronic” suggests that Alexios was the only child at the time.  Kouroupou and Vannier date his death to [1120][227]

Andronikos Komnenos & his [first/second] wife had three children: 

b)         MARIA Komnene (-3 Feb ----).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 3 Feb of "Maria e thygater toy porfyrogenetou kai sebastokratoros kyrou Andronikoy"[228]

c)         ANNA Komnene (-22 Jul ----).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 22 Jul of "Annas tis thygatros tou sebastokratoros tou porfyrogenetou"[229].  This entry does not name the sebastokrator, who could have been either Andronikos or his brother Isaakios.  However, Isaakios is already recorded with a daughter named Anna (see below), which means that Andronikos must have been the father of Anna named in the list of obituaries. 

d)         IOANNES Doukas (-after 6 Mar 1166).  The reference to his brother Alexios above suggests that Ioannes was born after his brother died, maybe to his father´s suggested second wife.  If Ioannes was his father´s son by his [first] wife, he was presumably their youngest child.  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...patruele...nostri regis domino Joanne Duca filio...Porphyrogeniti et sebastocratoris domini Andronici...patrui...eius...[230]Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannes Andronici sebastocratoris filius…adolescens…protovestiarii primum" was installed as protosébastos[231]Protobestiarios

6.         ISAAKIOS Komnenos (16 Jan 1093-after 1152).  Niketas Choniates names "Isaacium" as third son of "Alexius Comnenus imperator"[232].  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 16 Jan 1093 of “porfyrogennitos kyr Is[aakios][233]Cæsar.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes provides for the future commemoration of "[le] fils de ma Majesté le porphyrogénète et césar kyr Isaac" on the date of his death[234]Sebastocrator [1122].  Claimant to the imperial throne 1129/1143.  Stratopedarchos.  An undated seal records that “Isaac Comnène Ducas basiléopator, sébastocrator et sratopédarque[235].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that, immediately after the report of the death of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch (dated to Feb 1130), “la même année Jean empereur des Grecs s´avança pour combattre les Turcs...[et au même temps] son frère et quelques-uns de ses grands formèrent un complot contre lui...son frère s´enfuit près de l´emir Ghazi [qui]...l`envoya près de Gabras, à Trébizonde[236].  The identification of “son frère” as Isaakios appears confirmed by a poem by Prodromos, addressed to Empress Eirene, which lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie” and adds that “tu as fait disparâitre deux fils en même temps, cruel Telkine, la vie d´Andronic et la vigueur d´Isaac. L´un erre aux extrémités de l´Anatolie, mort vivant...l´autre est parti dans l´occident ténébreux de l´Hadès[237], the last two events of which appear to refer to the death of Andronikos and the exile of Isaakios.  m EIRENE, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Isaakios Komnenos & his wife had six children:

a)         IOANNES Komnenos Tzelepes (after 1114-[1145]).  Niketas Choniates names "Iohannes Isaacii sebastocratoris filius" when recording his marriage[238].  He deserted to the Turks, converted to Islam in 1140, married the daughter of the Seljuk Sultan as his second wife[239], and became a noted scholar.  m firstly (1131) --- (-before 1140).  The name of Ioannes's first wife is not known.  m secondly (1140) --- of Rum, daughter of MASUD I Seljuk Sultan of Rum & his wife --- Danişmend.  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Iohannes Isaacii sebastocratoris filius" and "Masuti filiam"[240].  Ioannes Komnenos & his first wife had one child:

i)          ISAAKIOS Komnenos (-under torture 1184[241]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Usurper. 

Ioannes Komnenos & his second wife had one child:

ii)         SULEIMAN Shah.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Founder of the Qonya branch (see TURKS).  Mohammed the Conqueror Sultan of Turkey claimed to be descended from him, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

b)         [ANNA Komnene .  Stiernon analyses the relationships between the imperial family and individuals who are recorded as gambros of the emperor and concludes that, in the case of Ioannes Arbantenos who is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, his wife could not have been the niece of the emperor but must have been the daughter of a sebastokrator, one of the emperor´s paternal uncles Andronikos or Isaakios[242].  On balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios.  The death of Andronikos's daughter named Anna is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family.  Stiernon concludes that “il y a...grande vraisemblance que Jean Arbantenos ait épousé une fille du sebastokrator Isaac[243].  A poem of Nikolaos Kallikles names her “Anne[244].  If the wife of Ioannes Arbantenos was the daughter of Isaakios, her marriage date shows that she must have been one of his older children.  Her husband is the only named “gambros” of the emperor who is named in the obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator, his name following those of the children of the emperor´s son Manuel.  This suggests that none of the other nieces of the emperor was married at the time.  m (before Oct 1136) IOANNES Arbantenos, son of --- (-after 1166).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “o ep avepsia gambros tis basileias mou, o pansebastos sebastos kyris Ioannes o Arbantinos[245]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto et genero...regis nostri Joanne Arbantino...[246]Pansebastos.] 

c)         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos ([1123/24]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 1183 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I

-        see below, after Emperors MANUEL I & ALEXIOS II

d)         [[MARIA] Komnene.  Her husband is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, but his wife could have been the daughter either of Andronikos or Isaakios, brothers of Emperor Ioannes II[247].  On balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios.  The death of Andronikos's daughter named Maria is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family.  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m IOSEPHOS Bryennios, son of --- (-after 1166).  Monomachos, pansebastos.] 

7.         THEODORA Komnene (15 Jan 1096-).  Zonaras names "Maria, Eudocia, Theodora" as the three other daughters[248].  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 15 Jan 1096 of “porfyrogennitos kyra Theodora[249].  Niketas Choniates names "Theodoram Alexii avi Manuelis filiam" as wife of "Constantinum Angelum"[250].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Théodora" on the date of her death[251]m (before [1110]) KONSTANTINOS Angelos, son of MANUEL Angelos & his wife --- (-after Jul 1166). 

8.         MANUEL Komnenos (Feb 1097-16 May ----).  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth Feb 1097 of “porfyrogennitos kyr Manouel[252].  Niketas Choniates names "natu minimum Manuelem" as fourth son of "Alexius Comnenus imperator", in a later passage describing his military expeditions to Syria[253], which confirms that he survived at least into early adulthood.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 16 May of "Manouel o nios tov basileov"[254]

9.         ZOE Komnene (Mar 1098-[29 Aug or 17 Sep] ----).  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth Mar 1098 of “porfyrogennitos kyra Zoe[255].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 17 Sep of "kyra Zoe e porfyrogenetos kai thygater tov basileon"[256].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 29 Aug of "Zoes tis thygatros tou basileos tis prrfyrogenetou"[257].  It is not known which of these entries refers to Zoe.  Another possibility is that there were two daughters named Zoe, the earlier of whom died before the birth of the second and both of whom died young. 

 

 

IOANNES II 1118-1143

 

IOANNES Komnenos Doukas, son of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (13 Sep 1087-in Cilicia 8 Apr 1143).  The Alexeiad records the birth of a son to Emperor Alexios "in the eleventh indiction", but does not name him[258].  A manuscript, which lists the children of Emperor Alexios I, records the birth 13 Sep 1097 of “porfyrogennitos kai protos kyr Ioannis[259].  Named "Ioannem Imperatoris filium" by William of Tyre in 1097, when he recounts that he was briefly given to the crusading army as a hostage[260].  His father declared him heir in 1092, depriving Konstantinos Doukas, and crowned him co-emperor in the same year.  Albert of Aix records that the emperor gave "filium suum Johannem" as hostage to guarantee the crusading army´s safe passage through imperial territory, dated to end 1096[261].  On his father's death in 1118, he was acclaimed by the senate and the army as Emperor IOANNES II, despite attempts by his mother and older sister Anna to persuade his father to leave the throne to Anna's husband Nikeforos Bryennios[262].  He launched his first campaign against the Turks in Spring 1119, capturing Laodicea and Sozopolis from the Seljuks as well as attacking the Danishmends in the east[263].  He attempted unsuccessfully to deprive the Venetians of the commercial privileges which had been granted in 1082, and after Venetian attacks in the Aegean he was obliged to confirm these privileges in 1126.  Pope Pascal II planned to install him as western Emperor, in opposition to Emperor Heinrich V[264].  He defeated the Petcheneg invasion in 1122, obliged Serbia to accept Byzantine suzerainty in 1123, and defeated the Hungarians after their invasion in 1128.  He renewed his attacks on the Danishmend Turks in 1130, defeated the Seljuks in Asia Minor, recaptured Cilician Armenia in 1137 and besieged Antioch in Aug 1137[265].  He allied himself with the Holy Roman Empire and Pisa in 1136, with a view to containing any expansion by Roger II King of Sicily.  The emperor launched a new expedition destined for Antioch in 1142, but died en route in Cilicia after wounding himself with a poisoned arrow during a boar hunt [266]

m ([1104/05]) [PIROSKA] of Hungary, daughter of [LÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary & his wife Adelheid von Rheinfelden] ([1085/90]-13 Aug 1134).  Zonaras records that "filium regem", referring to Ioannes, married "Ungrorum principis filia"[267].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "Ioannes Imperator" and "Irenam, Vladislai filiam", referring to "Vladislao Hungariæ regi"[268].  Unfortunately, this apparently straight-forward statement cannot be accepted at face value without further analysis.  The problem is that the same paragraph of Kinnamos's text also names "Almus et Stephanus" as the two sons of "Vladislæ Hungariæ regi", stating that "Stephanus" succeeded his father and "Almus" fled to "imperatorem".  This report of events in Hungary in the late 11th/early 12th centuries is inconsistent with other primary sources relating to the Hungarian kings, which name no King Stephen/István at that time, identify Kálmán and Álmos as the sons of King Géza I (and nephews of King László I), and suggest that Álmós's rebellion against his half-brother King Kálmán must have taken place after the estimated date of the marriage of Emperor Ioannes.  The marriage of Emperor Ioannes took place during the reign of King Kálmán.  It appears to have been agreed as part of the arrangements to obtain Byzantine acceptance of Hungarian territorial conquests along the Dalmatian coast[269].  Kálmán had poor relations with his predecessor László, who had wished to by-pass him in the Hungarian succession.  The question is therefore whether Kálmán would have maintained László's children at court and included them in his "pool" of marriageable princesses.  The passage in question is found in the earliest part of the narrative of Kinnamos, whose work is dated to the early part of the second half of the 12th century, so several decades after the events.  Some inaccuracies in these early sections of his work would therefore not be surprising.  Nevertheless, there are chronological difficulties assigning the emperor´s wife to other potential parents among the Hungarian royal family.  Her birth date range of [1085/90] is estimated from her having given birth to her first child in early 1106, her husband's own birth date, and also that she continued to bear children until 1119.  It is therefore unlikely that she was the daughter of Géza I King of Hungary (who died in 1077) and sister of King Kálmán.  King Kálmán's birth is estimated in [1065], and his first recorded marriage took place in 1097.  It is therefore not impossible that he married earlier and that the emperor´s wife was his daughter by an otherwise unrecorded first marriage.  The primary source which confirms her supposed original Hungarian name "Piroska" has not yet been identified.  Daniel Cornides states that "Ladislao regi Hungariæ, filiam Pyriscam imperatricem Constantinopolitanam" is named in "annales domestici, a Thuroczio vulgati, P. II c. 63", but in a later passage clarifies that "Ladislai Thurotzy" names "nuptam Græcorum imperatori…Pyriscam seu Pyroscam" as the daughter of King Géza I based on "ex Tomo I antiquæ lectionis ab Henrico Canisio Noviomagi anno 1601 publicato"[270].  Cornides cites no primary source which provides the basis for the name in either of his chapters which deal with [Piroska].  This suggests that this original Hungarian name is dubious.  [Piroska] adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium, as shown by the extract from Ioannes Kinnamos quoted above.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes provides for the future commemoration of "[le] fils de ma Majesté le porphyrogénète et basileus kyr Jean...[et] de la...bru de ma Majesté la despoina Irène son épouse" on the dates of their deaths[271]She became a nun as XENA and was canonised by the Greek Orthodox church.  The synaxarium of St Sofia records the death 13 Aug of Empress Eirene[272].  The year of her death is established by the Chronicle of Michael the Syrian which records that “en l´an 1445” [Sep 1133/Aug 1134], while on campagne to retake Kastamouni which had been captured by the emir of Melitene, “l´empereur Jean...reçut la nouvelle que sa femme était morte et que son fils, qui était destiné à régner, était malade” and returned to Constantinople[273].  Her children included at least one set of twins. 

Emperor Ioannes II & his wife had eight children: 

1.         ALEXIOS Komnenos (Balabista in Macedonia [Dec 1106/Jan 1107]-Attalia late summer 1142, bur Constantinople).  The Alexeiad records the birth at Balabista of "the first of the sons of the Basileus Iohannes the porphyrogenitus with a twin sister" while their father returned to Thessaloniki, where he attended a ceremony in honour of St Demetrius (feast day 25 Jan), after campaigns in the Balkans, dated to late 1106 or early 1107[274].  Twin with his sister Maria.  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father[275].  He was crowned co-emperor in 1119.  He died with his father while they were campaigning in the east against the Turks[276].  Niketas Choniates records that "primogenitus imperatoris filius Alexius" died "ex acuta febri" at Attalia, dated to 1142[277].  William of Tyre records the campaign at “Attaliam...provinciæ Pamphyliæ metropolis” in which “dominus imperator duo de filiis eius Alexius...primogenitus et natu secundus Andronicus” both died, adding that the emperor ordered “natu tertiam Isaacium” to return their bodies to Constantinople where they were both buried[278]m ---.  The identity of the wife or wives of Alexios Komnenos has not yet been established satisfactorily from the primary sources so far consulted.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[279], Alexios married firstly (1122) Dobrodjeja Mstislavna of Kiev, daughter of Mstislav I Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden, and secondly Kata of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT IV King of Georgia & his wife ---, the source adding that the first wife was also called Eupraxia and the second wife Eirene, presumably their Orthodox baptismal names.  Sturdza gives the same two wives, except that he names Alexios's first wife Irena[280].  Baumgarten does not show this marriage to Alexios Komnenos, instead stating that "Irena [Dobrodeja]", daughter of Grand Prince Mstislav, married "Andronikos Komnenos", citing Byzantine primary sources in support[281].  Chalandon states that, “d´après des Annales de Goustin” [which have not yet otherwise been identified], Alexios married “la fille [unnamed] du prince russe Mstislav, le fils de Vladimir, qui en 1122 aurait été envoyée à Byzance pour y épouser le fils de Jean Comnène[282].  Gautier cites two Russian sources (one of which appears to be the same as the one cited by Chalandon) as the basis for Alexios´s marriage to “Dobrodeja (Eupraxie?)[283].  Concerning the alleged second marriage, the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Davit sent "sa fille Cata en Grèce pour épouser le fils de l'empereur" in 1116[284].  As explained more fully in the Introduction to the document GEORGIA, this late source cannot be considered entirely reliable.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records more generally that King Davit "made marriage alliances with the kings of Greece and Shuan giving his daughters to them"[285].  If the marriage is correctly dated to 1116, "the emperor" then reigning was Alexios I and so presumably one of his sons would have been the bridegroom (the wife of Emperor Alexios's son Isaakios is not identified in primary sources).  There is nothing in the text of either versions of the Georgian Chronicle which suggests that Kata married Alexios.  Until more precise information emerges from other primary sources, it is considered more prudent to leave the identity of Alexios's wife as uncertain.  Alexios Komnenos & his wife had one child:

a)         MARIA Komnene (-1167).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father and that Alexios left one daughter who married "magni domestici Alexius"[286].  A seal dated to [1157/67] names "Maria porphyrogennetos…daughter of Alexius Komnenos the pious porphyrogennetos basileus and wife of Alexios the protostrator"[287].  She died insane[288]m ALEXIOS Axuches dux of Cilicia, son of --- (-after 1170).  Protostrator, Pansébastos

2.         MARIA Komnene (Balabista in Macedonia [Dec 1106/Jan 1107]-[1144/45])The Alexeiad records the birth at Balabista of "the first of the sons of the Basileus Iohannes the porphyrogenitus with a twin sister" while their father returned to Thessaloniki, where he attended a ceremony in honour of St Demetrius (feast day 25 Jan), after campaigns in the Balkans, dated to late 1106 or early 1107[289].  Twin with her brother Alexios.  A poem records that “tov Dalassenou” decorated an icon representing Theotokos with jewels of “tis syzygou autou tis porfyrogennitou kyras Marias tis Komnenes” who was “glorifi[ée] de la couronne de son grand-père, de son père et de son frère[290].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "filiam natu maximum Ioannis imperatoris" married "Rogerius Cæsar", when recording her serious illness and that she died during the first expedition of Emperor Manuel I against Masud (dated to [1144/45])[291].  A poem records that “tov Dalassenou” mourned the death of “iporfyranthes syzygos mou Maria...[292]m (before Oct 1136) IOANNES Dalassenos Rogerios, son of ROGER the Norman & his wife --- (-after 1152).  Cæsar

3.         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (Balabista in Macedonia [1108]-at sea Autumn 1142, bur Constantinople)Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father[293]Sébastokrator.  William of Tyre records the campaign at “Attaliam...provinciæ Pamphyliæ metropolis” in which “dominus imperator duo de filiis eius Alexius...primogenitus et natu secundus Andronicus” both died, adding that the emperor ordered “natu tertiam Isaacium” to return their bodies to Constantinople where they were both buried[294].  A poem by Mikhael Italikos records that Andronikos died at sea while returning to Constantinople with the body of his brother Alexios[295]m ([1124]) EIRENE [Aineiadissa], daughter of --- (-[1150/51]).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Nun at the convent of Pantokratoros in 1144.  Andronikos Komnenos & his wife had six children: 

a)         MARIA Komnene ([1126]-).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam"[296].  Niketas Choniates names "Maria…Andronici sebastocrator…filia" as wife of "Dasiotes"[297].  Her second marriage is indicated by Ioannes Kinnamos who records that "Ioannes cognomento…Cantacuzenus" married "Andronici sebastocratoris filiam"[298].  As the marriages of Maria's known sisters Theodora and Evdokia are recorded in other sources (see below), it is assumed that Kinnamos is referring to a second marriage of Maria in this passage, unless Andronikos Komnenos had a fourth daughter who is otherwise unrecorded.  m firstly (1139) THEODOROS Dasiotes, son of --- (-Iconium [1143/44]).  He died in prison.  m secondly ([1145/50]) IOANNES Kantakouzenos, son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife --- (-killed in battle Myriokephalon 17 Sep 1176).  Pansébastos

b)         IOANNES Doukas Komnenos ([1128]-killed in battle Myriokephalon shortly after 17 Sep 1176).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left sons "Ioannem et Alexium"[299].  He was appointed protosébastos and protobestarios in 1148.  Dux of Cyprus 1155.  Cyprus was attacked in 1156 by Renaud Prince of Antioch and Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] who devastated the island.  Ioannes was captured and taken prisoner to Antioch[300]The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...eius...consobrinis filiis...sebastocratoris domini Andronici...protosebasto et protovestiario domino Joanne Comneno eiusque fratre domino Alexio Comneno...[301]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...regi...nepotibus eius filiius...fratris...suæ porphyrogeniti et sebastocratis domini Andronici id est protovestiario domino Joanne et domino Alexio Comnenis...[302]Sébastokratoronthes 1170.  Strategos of Sardika.  m ([1146]) --- Taronitissa, daughter of [IOANNES] Taronites [III] & his wife --- ([1125/30]-after 1176).  An anonymous poem records the marriage of Ioannes Komnenos and his wife "from the family of a pansebastos…the glory of the Taronites…on her paternal side issued from a branch of the same trunk…as she descends…from the race of the Komnenoi"[303].  According to Rüdt-Collenberg, she was the daughter or granddaughter either of Ioannes Taronites [I] or of his brother Gregorios (sons of Mikhael Taronites)[304].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[305], she was the possible daughter of Mikhael Taronites [II].  Jean Claude Chuat first proposed that she was the daughter of Ioannes Taronites [III][306].  This affiliation appears to satisfy all the requirements of the text of the anonymous poem quoted above.  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that she was an adolescent or young adult at the time of her marriage.  She became a nun as MARIA after her husband died.  Ioannes Doukas Komnenos & his wife had two children:

i)          MARIA Komnene (1154-before Oct 1217).  She is named with her father by William of Tyre when he records her marriage with King Amaury[307].  Caffaro records that "rex Amarricus" married secondly after separating from his first wife "Maria neptis imperatoris Manuelis, filiam Iohannis protosauasto…nepos imperatoris Manuelis ex fratre suo" and that they had "filiam unam…Ysabella"[308].  Amaury King of Jerusalem sent ambassadors to Constantinople in [1164/65] to ask the emperor for the hand of an imperial princess but received no answer until they landed at Tyre with Maria Komnene in Aug 1167.  Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "una filiarum protosebasti" and the brother of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem[309].  She was given Nablus as her dower[310].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "la reyne Marie…niece de l'empereur Manuel" as wife of "Belleem de Ybelin"[311].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "relictam regis Almarici…que fuit de Grecia" married "Bethuliani de Guibelin"[312].  "Hugo…rex Cipri" confirmed the grant to the church of Nicosia by "Philippus de Ybellino" for the soul of "domine Marie regine, matris sue" by charter dated Oct 1217[313]m firstly (Tyre 29 Aug 1167) as his second wife, AMAURY I King of Jerusalem, son of FOULQUES King of Jerusalem Comte d'Anjou & his second wife Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem (1136-11 Jul 1174).  m secondly ([1177]) BALIAN of Ibelin, son of BALIAN of Ibelin Lord of Rama & his wife Helvis of Rama ([1142/43]-[1193/94]).  Lord of Nablus, by right of his wife.  Lord of Rama and Mirabel. 

ii)         [ALEXIOS Komnenos (-1187).  Niketas Choniates records that "Comnenus Alexius, Manuel imperatoris ex fratre nepos" rebelled against Emperor Andronikos[314].  The primary source which confirms his parentage more specifically has not yet been identified, but he may have been the son of Ioannes Doukas Komnenos.  He could not have been the son of Ioannes´s brother Alexios, because of the Byzantine convention whereby sons were not normally named after their fathers, and no other son of one of the emperor´s brothers is known to have had sons.  With Norman help, he was proclaimed emperor in Thessaloniki.  Imprisoned and blinded 7 Nov 1185, he died in prison.] 

c)         THEODORA Komnene (-2 Jan 1184, bur Vienna Schottenkloster).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam"[315].  The Annales Mellicenses in 1149 record the marriage of "dux Heinricus, filius Liupaldi marchionis" and "filiam…fratris regis Grecorum Theodora"[316].  It is likely that Theodora, daughter of Andronikos, married Markgraf Heinrich as Andronikos's brother Isaakios is recorded with a daughter named Theodora and his brother Alexios is only recorded as having one child.  The marriage was arranged by Konrad III King of Germany, her husband's half-brother, while he was staying with Emperor Manuel I recuperating from ill-health.  The marriage took place during a second visit after King Konrad had left Palestine and was on his way home to Germany[317].  She was invested jointly with her husband with the march of Austria in 1156[318].  She adopted the name GERTRUD in Austria.  The Annales Mellicenses in 1185 record the death of "Theodora que et Gerdrudis ducissa"[319].  The Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera records the death "1184 IV Non Ian" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie"[320].  The necrology of Seccovi records the death "IV Non Jan" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie"[321].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IV Non Jan" of "Theodora ux Heinrici ducis"[322]m (betrothed early 1148, [Sep] 1148) as his second wife, HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria & his second wife Agnes of Germany [Staufen] (1112-13 Jan 1177, bur Vienna Schottenkloster).  Markgraf Heinrich was installed as Duke of Austria in 1156. 

d)         EVDOKIA Komnene.  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam", adding that Evdokia became the mistress of Andronikos Komnenos after the death of her husband[323].  This must refer to a first marriage which is unrecorded elsewhere, as her marriage to Mikhael Gabras is recorded subsequent to her affair with Andronikos Komnenos.  Europäische Stammtafeln[324] suggests that Evdokia married firstly ([1140/42], divorced 1149) Thoros II Lord of the Mountains, but there seems to be no basis for this.  Rüdt-Collenberg says that "a first marriage with a Byzantine princess, mentioned by Tchamitch for the years 1140-1142, is more than doubtful"[325].  In any case, assuming that the report by Niketas Choniates is correct, Evdokia's first marriage was ended by the death of her husband, not divorce.  In a later passage, Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Eudocia Comnenia Andronici amica" and "Michæle…Gabra"[326].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Michael cognomento Gabras" married "ex fratre Manuelis neptim"[327]m firstly --- (-1150 or before).  The identity of Evdokia's first husband is not known.  Mistress ([1150/52]) of her cousin ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, who later succeeded as Emperor ANDRONIKOS Im secondly ([1152/53]) MIKHAEL Gabras, son of --- (-after 1170).  Sébastos. 

e)         ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1136]-murdered 1183).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left sons "Ioannem et Alexium"[328].  He was captured by Egyptians in Cyprus in 1158 and taken to Cairo, but sent back unharmed to Constantinople[329]The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...eius...consobrinis filiis...sebastocratoris domini Andronici...protosebasto et protovestiario domino Joanne Comneno eiusque fratre domino Alexio Comneno...[330]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...regi...nepotibus eius filiius...fratris...suæ porphyrogeniti et sebastocratis domini Andronici id est protovestiario domino Joanne et domino Alexio Comnenis...[331]ProtostratorProtosébastos 1176.  Protobestarios and sébastokratoronthes.  He was the lover of dowager Empress Maria, and headed her Regency Council 1180-1182.  Niketas Choniates names "protosebastus et protovestiarius Alexius Comnenus, Manuelis patruelis" when recording that he was adviser to Emperor Alexios with the latter's mother[332].  Unpopular because of his reliance on Latin advisers, he was captured by rioters, but released by Andronikos Komnenos (later Emperor Andronikos I) only to be blinded and murdered by him later.  m MARIA Doukaina, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  MistressMARIE of Antioch, widow of Emperor MANUEL I, daughter of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1145-murdered 27 Aug 1182).  Alexios Komnenos & his wife had two children:

i)          ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He died after falling from his horse. 

ii)         son (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

4.         ANNA Komnene ([1110]-).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “tis kaisarisses kyras Marias, tis kyras Annes, tis kyras Theodoras, kai tis kyras Eudokias”, after “tou sebastokratoros kyrou Manouel tov filtaton mou thigateron”, implying that all four were his daughters[333].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified, although Niketas Choniates names "Stephano Contostephano sororio" of Emperor Manuel I[334]m ([1125]) STEFANOS Kontostefanos, son of --- (-killed in battle Corfu 1149).  PanhypersébastosMegas dux

5.         ISAAKIOS Komnenos ([1115]-[1154/74]).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that the first two died before their father[335].  In an earlier passage, Niketas Choniates names "Isaacius…Manuelis frater sebastocrator"[336].  William of Tyre records the campaign at “Attaliam...provinciæ Pamphyliæ metropolis” in which “dominus imperator duo de filiis eius Alexius...primogenitus et natu secundus Andronicus” both died, adding that the emperor ordered “natu tertiam Isaacium” to return their bodies to Constantinople where they were both buried[337].  He was passed over by his father who nominated his younger brother Manuel as his successor.  m firstly (1134) THEODORA, daughter of --- (-[1144]).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly (1146) EIRENE Diplosynadene, daughter of --- Synadenos & his wife --- Synadene.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Isaakios Komnenos & his first wife had five children:

a)         ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1134/35]-before Oct 1136).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantokrator (dated Oct 1136) commemorates “tou potheinotatou mou ekgonou kyrou Alexiou, tou paidos tou peripothetou mou niou, tou sebastokratoros kyrou Isaakiou[338].  A poem by Prodromos commemorates “la mort des enfants du sebastocrator Porphyrogennète Isaac” named “Alexis” et “Jean” who both died young[339]

b)         IOANNES Komnenos ([1134/36]-before [1136/37]).  A poem by Prodromos commemorates “la mort des enfants du sebastocrator Porphyrogennète Isaac” named “Alexis” et “Jean” who both died young[340]

c)         --- Komnene.  Niketas Choniates records that "Isaacius" was "Isaacii sebastocratoris, quem fratre fuisse Manuelis, ex filia nepos"[341].  Her name is not known.  She is named Eirene in Europäische Stammtafeln[342], but it appears that this is not based on any primary source[343]m ---.  The identity of the father of Isaakios Doukas is not known.  According to Sturdza, he was Andronikos Doukas Kamateros, drongarios of the fleet[344], who was executed in 1185 on the orders of Emperor Andronikos I.  Rüdt-Collenberg excludes his belonging to the Kamateros family[345], which Niketas Choniates described as "neither elegant nor well-off"[346] while the family of Isaakios was "excellent" according to the same source, although it is not clear whether he was referring to Isaakios's paternal or maternal ancestors.  Rüdt-Collenberg also highlights the speculation of R. P. L. Stiernon of Paris that Isaakios may have been the illegitimate son of Emperor Manuel I by Eirene Komnene[347], but this is pure conjecture.  One child: 

i)          ISAAKIOS Doukas ([1155/60]-murdered [end 1195/early 1196]).  Niketas Choniates records that "Isaacius" was "Isaacii sebastocratoris, quem fratre fuisse Manuelis, ex filia nepos"[348].  The birth date range of Isaakios is estimated by Rüdt-Collenberg on the basis of Isaakios being described as "admodum juvenis" on his appointment as Governor of Cilicia by Nephytos[349].  He proclaimed himself ISAAKIOS Despot [of Cyprus] in 1184, and assumed the title Emperor in 1185, adopting the name "Komnenos" to justify his pretention. 

-         see CYPRUS

d)         [--- Komnene.  Niketas Choniates records that "Macroducæ Constantini" married "materteram Isaacii" (referring to Isaakios Doukas, later Emperor in Cyprus)[350].  If matertera in this passage is interpreted strictly, Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos.  However, Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Constantino Ducas" married "imperatoris ex sorore neptim"[351], which indicates that Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of one of Emperor Manuel I´s sisters.  It is not known which version might be correct.  m (before 1166) KONSTANTINOS Doukas "MakroDoukas", son of --- (-murdered 30 May 1185).  Pansébastos, panhypersébastos.] 

e)         MARIA Komnene ([1144]-1190).  Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal of "Fredericus Conradi Alemannorum principis ex fratre nepos" and "Mariam Isaacii sebastocratoris filiam"[352].  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Bladisthlabum" as the two brothers of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas", stating that István married "Mariam…imperatoris neptem, Isaacio sebastocratore natam"[353].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "Geizæ…fratres…Stephanus" and "ex fratre neptem…Mariam, Isaacii sebastocratoris filiam"[354].  Her marriage was arranged by her uncle Emperor Manuel I while her husband was staying in Constantinople.  Betrothed (1153) to FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany, son of FRIEDRICH II "der Einäugige" von Staufen Duke of Swabia & his first wife Judith of Bavaria (1122-drowned Göks or Saleph River, Asia Minor 10 Jun 1190).  Crowned Emperor at Rome 18 Jun 1155.  m (1156) ISTVÁN of Hungary, son of BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary & his wife Jelena of Serbia (-murdered 11 Apr 1165).  After his brother's death, he and his brother István were supported by Emperor Manuel I against their nephew King István III.  He succeeded his brother 1163 as ISTVÁN IV King of Hungary.   

Isaakios Komnenos & his second wife had two children:

f)          THEODORA Komnene ([1146]-).  William of Tyre names her, specifies that her father Isaakios was the brother of the emperor, and that she was 13 years old when she married[355], indicating that she must have been born from her father's second marriage assuming that the dates relating to his first and second wives are correct as shown above.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "imperatoris ex fratre neptis" as the wife of "Balduinus…Palestinæ rex", when recording her husband's death[356].  Her marriage was arranged after King Baudouin sent a mission to Constantinople in Summer 1157 to request a bride from the imperial family.  She had a dowry of 100,000 golden hyperperi, and in return was given Acre as her dower.  She arrived at Acre from Constantinople in Sep 1158[357].  After her husband's death, she retired to Acre where she met Andronikos Komnenos, to whom Amaury I King of Jerusalem had recently given the fief of Beirut[358], and lived with him as his mistress at Beirut from 1167.  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l´empereur Emmanuel" left Cilicia for Acre where he met "la fille de son frère veuve du roi de Jérusalem" with whom he committed adultery, and went together "à Harran" where their child was born[359].  Niketas Choniates names "Theodora Comnenia, Isaacii sebastocratoris filia" as mistress of "Comnenus Andronicus imperatoris Manuelis patrueli"[360].  Emperor Manuel demanded the recall of Andronikos, but the couple fled to Damascus and sought refuge with Nur ed-Din.  Thereafter they lived together in various locations in the Muslim world until Andronikos was given a castle in Paphlagonia where they settled.  When they left Palestine, King Amaury I confiscated Acre[361]m (Jerusalem [Oct] 1158) BAUDOUIN III King of Jerusalem, son of FOULQUES Comte d'Anjou King of Jerusalem & his wife Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem (1131-poisoned Beirut 10 Feb 1163).  Mistress: (1167-1185) of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife --- ([1123/24][362]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185).  He succeeded in 1183 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I

g)         EVDOKIA Komnene .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  There does not seem to be any proof to link Evdokia, daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, with these two Italian marriages[363], which are referred to in Sturdza[364].  [m firstly (Rome 1170) ODONE Frangipani, son of --- (-[1176]).  A Roman lord and Guelf leader.  m secondly (1179) GUELFO [Paganello] di Porcaria, from Siena.] 

6.         THEODORA Komnene ([1116]-12 May 1157[365]).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “tis kaisarisses kyras Marias, tis kyras Annes, tis kyras Theodoras, kai tis kyras Eudokias”, after “tou sebastokratoros kyrou Manouel tov filtaton mou thigateron”, implying that all four were his daughters[366].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun after her husband died.  m MANUEL Anemas, son of --- (-[1146/47]).  Panhyperprotosebastypértatos

7.         MANUEL Komnenos (Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ Pantocrator).  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Manuel…liberorum Ioannis minimus"[367].  He succeeded his father in 1143 as Emperor MANUEL I

-        see below

8.         EVDOKIA Komnene ([1119]-).  The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “tis kaisarisses kyras Marias, tis kyras Annes, tis kyras Theodoras, kai tis kyras Eudokias”, after “tou sebastokratoros kyrou Manouel tov filtaton mou thigateron”, implying that all four were his daughters[368].  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the seal dated to [1163] which names "Andronikos Komnenos, (son) of Eudokia, a branch sprung from a purple-born root, nephew of the basileus Manuel, son of Theodoros Batatzes"[369].  Her marriage is also indicated by Ioannes Kinnamos who names "Theodorum Batatzem sororium sum", referring to Emperor Manuel I[370]m THEODOROS Batatzes, son of --- (-killed in battle Neocæsarea 1176).  He took part in the invasion of Cilicia in 1158 with his brother-in-law Emperor Manuel and occupied Tarsus[371]Sébastohypertatos.  General.  Dux of Cilicia. 

 

 

The precise relationships between the following individuals and the main Komnenos family is not known.  The possibility should not be ignored that their descent from the Komnenos family was through the female line. 

 

1.         THEODORA Komnene.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Erine, niesce de l'empereour Manuel" as wife of "Beymont" son of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers", stating that her husband expelled her and her daughter "en Romanie" after the death of Emperor Manuel[372].  The parentage of Theodora is not known.  According to Sturdza[373], she was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos, son of sébastocrator Andronikos Komnenos (older brother of Emperor Manuel I) but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  William of Tyre records that "dominus Boamundus Antiochiæ princeps" repudiated "domina Theodora uxore sua, domini imperatoris neptis" and married "quandam Sibyllam, maleficiis utentem, ecclesiastica severitate contempta"[374].  Runciman speculates that this occurred after Bohémond learnt of the death of Emperor Manuel I, which is recorded in the previous passage of William of Tyr who does not make the connection between the two events[375].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Gautier" son of "Gremont le seignor de Bessan" married secondly "Latomena"[376].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names the second wife of Gauthier de Bethsan as "une dame de Romanie, qui avoit nom Thodore Lathoumena"[377].  It is not clear from these sources that the second wife of Bohemond III Prince of Antioch was the same person as the second wife of Gauthier of Bethsan.  m [firstly] ([1175/77], divorced 1180) as his second wife, BOHEMOND III Prince of Antioch, son of RAYMOND [de Poitiers] Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch ([1144]-[20 Mar/1 Oct] 1201).  [m secondly (after 1180) as his second wife, GAUTHIER of Bethsan, son of GREMONT [I] Lord of Bethsan & his wife Marguerite of Beirut.  1210.] 

 

2.         EVDOKIA [Komnene] ([1160/64]-[Nov 1202/Jun 1204]).  The parentage of Evdokia is not known.  The Annales Pisani (probably written [1182]) records that "l'Imperatore Emanuel" sent his envoys to arrange the betrothal of "una sua nepote…al fratello del Re di Aragona" (Raymond Bérenger III Comte de Provence), the projected marriage aimed at thwarting the influence of the Emperor Friedrich "Barbarossa" through an alliance with Emperor Manuel I, but the betrothal was terminated by Emperor Friedrich as suzerain over the Comté de Provence, the emperor proposing "Goglielmo di Mompellieri" [Guillaume [VIII]] as a suitable alternative[378].  A less specific narrative is provided by the later (and probably more dubious) Historia de Don Jaime I which records that “nuestro abuelo el rey don Alfonso” opened negotiations “con el emperador de Constantinopla” to marry “la hija de este soberano”, that the king had married “doña Sancha hija del emperador de Castilla”, that not knowing about this marriage “el de Constantinopla” sent “su hija al rey de Aragon”, that her entourage learnt of the king´s marriage on arriving at Montpellier, where “Guillermo de Montpeller” arranged to marry her himself[379].  The Historia Albigensium of Guillaume de Puylaurens refers to the mother of Marie de Montpellier, wife of Pedro II King of Aragon, as “Græcam...neptem Emmanuelis imperatoris Constantinopolitani[380].  The absence of information concerning Evdokia in Byzantine sources suggests that she was probably not the emperor´s daughter (especially as she would have been “porfyrogenneta”) but a more distant relation, assuming that she was a member of the imperial family.  According to Sturdza, she was the daughter of Alexios Komnenos, son of sébastocrator Andronikos Komnenos (older brother of Emperor Manuel I) but he provides no indication of the primary source (if any) on which this speculation is based[381].  Barzos suggests that she was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, son of Emperor Ioannes II, writing that "if Eudokia [K. 143, according to his numbering] were not the daughter of Isaakios [K. 78], then she would be a daughter of Ioannes [K. 128] [son of Andronikos Komnenos sébastocrator]"[382].  However, there appear to be too many unknown factors in the genealogy of the Komnenos family for arguments by elimination to be reliable.  Pope Innocent III wrote to “Willelmo domino Montispessulani”, dated [after 7 Sep] 1202, about his marital difficulties[383].  She became a Benedictine nun at Aniane.  Betrothed ([1176/78], broken 1178) to RAYMOND BERENGER III Comte de Provence, Infante de Aragón, son of RAMÓN BERENGUER IV Count of Barcelona & his wife Petronilla Queen of Aragon ([1158]-murdered Montpellier 5 Apr 1181).  m ([1178/79], divorced Apr 1187) as his first wife, GUILLAUME [VIII] Seigneur de Montpellier, son of GUILLAUME [VII] Seigneur de Montpellier & his wife Mathilde de Bourgogne [Capet] (-[Nov/Dec] 1202). 

 

3.         THEODORA [Komnene] .  Niketas Choniates names "Comnenus Alexius, nothus Manuelis filius ex nepte Theodora"[384].  The precise paternity of this supposed niece of Emperor Manuel is not known.  According to Sturdza, she was the daughter of Evdokia (sister of Emperor Manuel) and her husband Theodoros Vatatzes, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It may be based only on speculation, after eliminating all the other brothers and sisters of the emperor whose daughters named Theodora are recorded elsewhere.  However, as noted above, there appear to be too many unknown factors in the genealogy of the Komnenos family for arguments by elimination to be reliable.  Theodora may have later married strategos Nikeforos Katuphes[385], but this is not certain as Magdalino and Cheynet both show the name of his wife as not known[386]Mistress: of her maternal uncle, Emperor MANUEL I, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary (Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ Pantocrator). 

 

4.         DAVID Komnenos (-after [1183/85]).  Niketas Choniates names "Davidis Comnenis præfecti urbis [Thessalonicæ]", commenting that he was "ignavus"[387]

 

5.         IOANNES Komnenos "Crassus" (-[1200]).  Niketas Choniates records the rebellion of "quidam ex Comnenia familia…Iohannes…Crassi cognomentum" against Emperor Alexios III, and his capture and murder[388]

 

 

MANUEL I 1143-1180, ALEXIOS II 1180-1183

 

MANUEL Komnenos, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary (Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ Pantocrator[389]).  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Manuel…liberorum Ioannis minimus"[390].  Niketas Choniates names Manuel as son of Emperor Ioannes[391].  His date of birth is assumed from the elogy addressed to him by Mikhael Italicos which states “au moment où le basileus ton père ceignait le pouvoir, tou tu sortais du sein maternel[392]Sébastokrator 1122.  Named successor after the death of his two oldest brothers in 1142, he succeeded his father in 1143 as Emperor MANUEL I.  A successful administrator, his reign marked a further step in the revival of Byzantine power.  He was much influenced by western ways, introducing western customs and western advisers to his court at Constantinople, to the displeasure of the Greeks.  After confirming his alliance with Germany by his first marriage, he was isolated when his brother-in-law Emperor Konrad III joined the Second Crusade later in 1146.  He attempted to require homage from the Crusade's leaders, as his grandfather had from the leaders of the First Crusade.  At the same time, Roger II King of Sicily captured Corfu, Corinth and Thebes (1147), but with Venetian help Emperor Manuel recapture Corfu in 1149.  Taking advantage of Roger's death in 1154, Manuel I launched an attack on Norman Italy and captured large parts of Apulia.  His ambition to recreate a single universal empire was thwarted by Guillaume I King of Sicily who recaptured all the lost territory and defeated the emperor at Brindisi in 1156.  On the other hand, Manuel had more success in the east, submitting Armenia and Antioch to his suzerainty in [1158/59][393].  He also succeeded in conquering Dalmatia, and part of Croatia, Bosnia and Srem from Hungary by 1167, although this resulted in increased tension with Venice whose interests were threatened[394].  On 12 Mar 1171, all Venetians in Byzantium were arrested and their assets confiscated.  Venice counter-attacked and captured Khios and Lesbos.  These costly wars on several fronts ended by weakening the state.  In a final push against the Turks in Asia Minor, Emperor Manuel was defeated in 1176 at Myriokephalon by Kilij Arslan Sultan of Ikonium/Konya, a major setback for the Byzantine war machine[395].  A devotee of astrology, he had the horoscopes of all the members of his family prepared[396].  He became a monk as MATHAIOS in 1180.  Niketas Choniates records the death of Emperor Manuel "mense Septembri"[397]

m firstly (Jan 1146) BERTHA von Sulzbach, daughter of BERENGAR I Graf von Sulzbach & his second wife Adelheid von Wolfratshausen (-28 Sep [1159/60]).  As the sister-in-law of Konrad III King of Germany, her marriage was arranged to seal the Byzantine/German alliance in 1140.  Otto of Freising refers to the proposed marriage of the sister of King Konrad's wife to the son of Emperor Ioannes, in a letter from the king to the emperor which he quotes in full in the Gesta Friderici[398].  However, after the death of Manuel's older brothers and Manuel's accession as emperor, Bertha was no longer considered of sufficiently noble birth to be his bride.  The marriage was further delayed when Manuel made additional dowry demands (including Apulia, territory of Roger II King of Sicily[399]).  In 1145, Emperor Konrad III declared Bertha his adopted daughter and the marriage proceeded[400].  Bertha adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium[401].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IV Kal Sep" of "Berhta imperatrix Grecorum"[402].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the death of "imperatrix Irene" without male children, undated but dateable from the context to the late 1150s[403]

Betrothed ([1159/60]) to MELISENDE of Tripoli, daughter of RAYMOND II Count of Tripoli [Toulouse] & his wife Hodierne of Jerusalem (-after 1162).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannem Contostephanum sebastum et Theophylactum virum Italum" were sent to negotiate a marriage with "puella Tripoli in Phoenicia, gente quidem Latina"[404].  She was nominated by Baudouin III King of Jerusalem in 1159 as a prospective bride when the emperor asked the king to choose a wife for him from among the princesses of Outremer.  However, Manual repudiated the betrothal in [Jul] 1161, apparently after being told that there were doubts about Mélisende's legitimacy based on her mother's known quarrel with her father[405]

m secondly (25 Dec 1161) MARIE of Antioch, daughter of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1145-murdered 27 Aug 1182).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont et Marguerite" as the two children of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers" & his wife, stating that "Marguerite" married "l'empereour Manuel"[406].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Basilium quondam, cognomento Camaterum" was sent to negotiate a marriage with "Raimundo Antiochiæ principi filiæ…Maria"[407].  After her mother Constance Pss of Antioch appealed to Emperor Manuel, following Baudouin III King of Jerusalem's decision to set aside her rights to rule in Antioch in favour of her son Bohémond, the emperor sent ambassadors to Antioch to negotiate a marriage with her daughter Marie.  Marie set sail for Constantinople in Sep 1161, and was married the following December[408].  After the death of her husband in 1180, she was required to become a nun (as XENA) as a condition for being appointed regent for her son[409].  She became the mistress of Alexios Komnenos, with whom she shared the regency, becoming unpopular because of her Catholic background and their reliance on Latin advisers.  Andronikos Komnenos accused her of soliciting help from Hungary, and ordered her imprisonment.  After Andronikos forced her son Emperor Alexios to order her death, she was strangled and her body thrown into the sea. 

Mistress (1): his niece, THEODORA [Komnene], daughter of ---.  Niketas Choniates names "Comnenus Alexius, nothus Manuelis filius ex nepte Theodora"[410].  The precise paternity of this niece of Emperor Manuel is not known.  According to Sturdza, she was the daughter of Evdokia (sister of Emperor Manuel) and her husband Theodoros Vatatzes, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It may be based only on speculation, after eliminating all the other brothers and sisters of the emperor whose daughters named Theodora are recorded elsewhere.  However, as noted above, there appear to be too many unknown factors in the genealogy of the Komnenos family for arguments by elimination to be reliable.  Theodora may have later married Nikeforos Katuphes, but this is not certain as Magdalino and Cheynet both show the name of his wife as not known[411]

Mistress (2): ---.  The identity of Emperor Manuel´s second mistress is not known. 

Emperor Manuel I & his first wife had two children:

1.         MARIA Komnene (Mar 1152-poisoned Jul 1182).  Niketas Choniates records the betrothal of "Iazæ filio Belæ" and "imperator…Mariam filiam"[412].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal between "Belam qui post Stephanum Geizæ filius" and "Mariæ filiæ suæ" (Emperor Manuel I)[413].  Niketas Choniates records the proposed betrothal between "Maria filia [Manuelis]" and "Guilielmus Siciliæ rex"[414].  The Annals of Romoald record that Emperor Manuel sent ambassadors to King Guillaume II shortly after his accession proposing this marriage to his only daughter, and in a later passage refer to the betrothal of "filiam suam Zura Mariam" in 1172[415].  This betrothal was proposed by her father in [1166/67] while Maria was still betrothed to Béla of Hungary, to gain support for his plan to be crowned emperor by the Pope.  There is some doubt about how far the negotiations proceeded.  If the betrothal did take place, it was terminated by Maria's father[416].  Niketas Choniates records the marriage between "Maria filia [Manuelis]" and "filius Montisferrati marchionis, adolescenti"[417].  William of Tyre names Maria and gives her parentage, when recording her marriage[418].  Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1180 of "Manuel imperator Constantinopolitano…filiam suam natam ex priore uxore sua" and "Rainerio filio Willelmi principis Montis Ferrati"[419].  She and her husband became the focus of opposition to the regency of the dowager Empress Maria.  She was put to death with her husband by Emperor Andronikos I.  Betrothed firstly (1163, contract broken 1169) to BÉLA of Hungary, son of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest).  Under the peace treaty signed 1164 between his brother István III King of Hungary and Emperor Manuel, Béla was confirmed as Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia, and sent to Constantinople (where he adopted the name ALEXIOS) as King István's acknowledged successor[420].  Emperor Manuel granted him the title despot, betrothed him to his daughter Maria and acknowledged him as his heir in Byzantium.  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...despota...genero...eius domino Alexio...regi...[421]In 1169, when the emperor's own son Alexios was born, Béla was demoted from despot to cæsar[422].  The betrothal was terminated, although Béla remained in Constantinople as a member of the imperial family until 1172, when he succeeded his brother as BÉLA III King of HungaryBetrothed secondly ([1166/67]) to GUILLAUME II King of Sicily, son of GUILLAUME I "le Mauvais" King of Sicily & his wife Infanta doña Margarita de Navarra (1155-17 Nov 1189).  m (Feb 1180) RANIERI di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] (1163-poisoned [19/31] Aug 1182).  William of Tyre names him and his father, when recording his marriage, specifying that he was "adolescens" at the time[423].  The Cronica of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona records the marriage of "Wilielmi marchioni [filium] Rainerium" and "Emanuel imperator Constantinopolitanus…filiam suam"[424].  He adopted the name IOANNES in Byzantium.  He was granted the title cæsar by his father-in-law in 1180 along with extensive estates in Thessaloniki[425].  After the death of Emperor Manuel in 1180, Ranieri and his wife became the focus of opposition to the regency of her stepmother, dowager Empress Maria.  Andronikos Komnenos ordered their murder after seizing power as co-emperor in May 1182.   

2.         [ANNA] Komnene ([1154]-1158).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Irena imperatrix" was mother of two daughters "quarum natu maior…vixit, altera…obiit, quartum ætatis annum agens"[426].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

Emperor Manuel I & his second wife had one child:

3.         ALEXIOS Komnenos (Constantinople 10 Sep 1169-murdered 24 Sep 1183).  William of Tyre names him and specifies his parentage when recording his marriage when aged 13[427].  Niketas Choniates records the succession of "filius Alexius" after the death of "Manuele Comneno"[428].  He succeeded his father in 1180 as Emperor ALEXIOS II, under the regency of his mother.  The victim of the manoeuvres of Andronikos Komnenos, the latter overthrew the council of regency, obliged Alexios to order his mother's death, and accept himself as co-emperor.  The senate voted the deposition of Alexios, who was strangled a few days later, his body thrown into the Bosphorus.  m ([2 Mar] 1180) as her first husband, AGNES de France, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de Champagne ([1171/72]-[1220 or after 1240]).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of King Louis VII and his third wife as "imperatricem Grecorum quam duxit Alexius filius Manuelis"[429].  Her birth is dated to 1171 by Sommerard, but he cites no corresponding primary source[430].  According to Niketas Choniates, she was 11 years old at the time of her second marriage (see below), which would place her birth in [1172].  William of Tyre records the marriage "in palatio domini Constantini senioris…Trullus" of "Manuele Constantinopoleos imperatore…filio…impuberi vix annorum tredecim Alexio" and "Francorum regis domini Ludovici filiam vix annorum octo Agnetem", dated to 1180 from the context[431].  Benedict of Peterborough records that "Lodovicus rex Francorum Agnetem filiam suam quam Ala regina Francorum…peperat" was sent to Constantinople in 1179 to marry "Alexio filio Manuelis imperatoris Constantinopolis"[432].  She adopted the name ANNA on her marriage.  Benedict of Peterborough records the death of her first husband and her second marriage to his successor[433].  She married secondly (1184) as his second wife, Emperor Andronikos I.  Niketas Choniates records that Andronikos married "Annam imperatoris Alexii sponsam, regis Francorum filiam", stating that she was only eleven years old[434].  She married thirdly (1204) Theodoros Branas Duke of Adrianople.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that in 1193 "Livernas…prenominatus" lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem illam, quam habere debuit Alexius Manuelis filius" without marrying her, and in a later passage in 1205 that "Livernas", who had lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem…absque legalibus nuptiis", married her and married their daughter to "Nargaldo de Torceio, Guidonis de Dampetra consobrino"[435].  Robert de Clari records in Sep 1203 that "le sereur le roi de Franche" was alive and married to "li Vernas"[436].  The text also provides a clue to Alberic´s reference to "Livernas", indicating that it was the old French definite article combined with a corruption of the name "Branas".  No primary source has yet been identified which records when Agnes died.  According to Sommerard, she died in 1220, after the marriage of her daughter[437].  Kerrebrouck states that she died in 1240[438].  Neither of these authors cites the primary sources on which they base their statements.  

Emperor Manuel I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

4.          ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1152/63]-after 1188).  Niketas Choniates names "Comnenus Alexius, nothus Manuelis filius ex nepte Theodora"[439].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Polycarpe fils aîné de Manuel empereur de Grèce" fell in love with Thamar Queen of Georgia (in the late 1170s), commenting that "Andronic" arrested him and killed him when he succeeded to the throne[440].  No other record has been found of a son of Emperor Manuel of this name, but it is possible that it refers to Alexios.  Sébastokrator.  He revolted against Emperor Andronikos I in 1184 and was blinded.  He was recalled by Emperor Isaakios II, made cæsar, then arrested and required to become a monk at Mount Papykios[441]m (Summer 1183) EIRENE Komnene, illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS I & his mistress Theodora Komnene.  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "filiam Irenen [Andronici] ex consobrina Theodora Comnena" and "Alexio, Manuelis ex incesto concubitu…filio"[442]. 

Emperor Manuel I had [one] illegitimate child by Mistress (2):

5.          [--- Komnene  (-after 1201).  Her supposed origin is deduced from a single primary source as follows.  The eulogy written by Euthymios Tornikes for his father Demetrios, dated 1201, refers to "λογοθέτου γηνη… σου νυμφη" ("the wife of the logothetes, his daughter-in-law") and adds that the lady in question was "η εχ της πρώτης χαι Βασιλιχης των Κομνηνων χρυσέας σειρας η ανδρεια χαι σωφρων" ("descended from the first and imperial series of gold of the Komnenos, brave and wise")[443].  It is highly probable that the text refers to the wife of Konstantinos Tornikes, who is referred to as "dromi logothetam Constantinum Tornicem" by Niketas Choniates (see above)[444].  Varzos interprets the phrase "imperial series of gold of the Komnenos" as meaning that the wife of Konstantinos Tornikes was "one who emanated from Emperors Alexios, Ioannes and Manuel Komnenos", in other words from the direct line of the three Komnenos emperors[445].  If this interpretation is correct, descent from any one or two of these emperors would not constitute a "series", nor would descent from Emperor Andronikos I who counted only Emperor Alexios among his direct ancestors.  This would necessarily mean that the lady in question was the daughter or granddaughter (the chronology would support either case) of Emperor Manuel I, evidently illegitimate if she was his daughter.  However, it is not known whether such a poetic turn of phrase in this type of eulogy should be interpreted so literally.  It should also be noted that Varzos´s interpretation does not appear to consign a meaning to the word "πρώτης" ("first").  m KONSTANTINOS Tornikes, son of DEMETRIOS Tornikes & his wife --- Malakissa (-killed in Bulgaria [1205/06]).] 

 

 

ANDRONIKOS I 1183-1185

 

ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife --- ([1123/24][446]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He lived at the court of the Prince of Galich.  Governor [strategos and autokrator] of Cilicia 1150-1153.  Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] routed his army at Mamistra in 1151 after unsuccessfully attempting to recapture the town from him[447].  Duke of Niš and Braničevo 1153.  Claimant to the throne of Byzantium 1154/55.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the visit to Giorgi III King of Georgia (therefore dated to after 1157, the date of his accession) of "Andronic Comnène, cousin germain, par son père, de manuel le Grand…accompagné de sa femme…de ses fils et de ceux de sa sœur"[448].  Thoros of Armenia blamed Andronikos for the murder of his half-brother Stephané in 1162 and attacked the Byzantine garrisons at Mamistra, Anazarbus and Vahka in reprisal[449].  He was reappointed governor of Cilicia in 1166.  After a visit to Antioch he started an affair with Theodora, sister of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, and was evicted from Antioch.  He was replaced as governor of Cilicia in 1167 by Konstantinos Kalamanos [Hungary].  He offered his services to Amaury I King of Jerusalem who gave him the fief of Beirut.  He met his cousin Theodora Komnene, widow of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem, at Acre and she came to live with him at Beirut[450]Strategos of Paphlagonia 1180/82.  Marching on Constantinople with troops from Paphlagonia, he overthrew the regency of Empress Marie and Alexios Komnenos and obliged Emperor Alexios II to accept him as co-emperor 16 May 1182.  To gain popularity he ordered the massacre of the Latins, including the papal legate who was beheaded.  He ordered the murder of Emperor Alexios II and usurped the throne in Sep 1183, succeeding as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I.  Once emperor, he aimed to rid the empire of the foreign Latin influence, weaken the aristocracy and land-owners, and eliminate corruption.  Béla III King of Hungary invaded Byzantine territory in 1183, occupied Beograd and Braničevo and, after forming an alliance with Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, sacked Niš and Sardika (Sofija), later moving into Thrace[451].  Against the threat from the Normans who had captured Durazzo, Corfu and Thessaloniki, Andronikos allied himself with Venice.  Andronikos ruled with unequalled cruelty, the people of Constantinople eventually revolted against him and proclaimed Isaakios Angelos as emperor.  Andronikos tried to escape disguised as a monk, but was captured and tortured by his successor, and eventually mangled to death by a mob in Constantinople.  His fall represented a victory for the aristocracy which was to consolidate its power further under his successors from the Angelos family. 

m firstly ---.  The name of Andronikos's first wife is not known.  A clue is provided by "George" being called the brother of Andronikos's wife in 1183.  However, there is no indication who this George may have been or which wife (or mistress) of Andronikos was referred to.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[452], she may have been the sister of Giorgios Palaiologos pansébastos, but this is presumably nothing more than a guess.  According to Sturdza[453], the first wife of Andronikos Komnenos was Helena of Georgia, daughter of Demetre I King of Georgia, but this does not seem to be based on a factual source. 

m secondly (1184) as her second husband, ANNA [Agnès] de France, widow of Emperor ALEXIOS II, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de Champagne ([1171/72]-[1220 or after 1240]).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of King Louis VII & his third wife as "imperatricem Grecorum quam duxit Alexius filius Manuelis"[454].  Her birth is dated to 1171 by Sommerard, but he cites no corresponding primary source[455].  According to Niketas Choniates, she was 11 years old at the time of her second marriage (see below), which would place her birth in [1172].  William of Tyre records the marriage "in palatio domini Constantini senioris…Trullus" of "Manuele Constantinopoleos imperatore…filio…impuberi vix annorum tredecim Alexio" and "Francorum regis domini Ludovici filiam vix annorum octo Agnetem", dated to 1180 from the context[456].  Benedict of Peterborough records that "Lodovicus rex Francorum Agnetem filiam suam quam Ala regina Francorum…peperat" was sent to Constantinople in 1179 to marry "Alexio filio Manuelis imperatoris Constantinopolis"[457].  She adopted the name ANNA on her first marriage.  Benedict of Peterborough records the death of her first husband and her second marriage to his successor[458].  Niketas Choniates records that Andronikos married "Annam imperatoris Alexii sponsam, regis Francorum filiam", stating that she was only eleven years old[459].  She married thirdly (1204) Theodoros Branas Duke of Adrianople.  Her third marriage is deduced from Villehardouin naming "Theodore Branas, a Greek who was married to the king of France's sister" when recording that Apros was restored to him in 1205[460].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that in 1193 "Livernas…prenominatus" lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem illam, quam habere debuit Alexius Manuelis filius" without marrying her, and in a later passage in 1205 that "Livernas", who had lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem…absque legalibus nuptiis", married her and married their daughter to "Nargaldo de Torceio, Guidonis de Dampetra consobrino"[461].  Robert de Clari records in Sep 1203 that "le sereur le roi de Franche" was alive and married to "li Vernas"[462].  The text also provides a clue to Alberic´s reference to "Livernas", indicating that it was the old French definite article combined with a corruption of the name "Branas".  No primary source has yet been identified which records when Agnes died.  According to Sommerard, she died in 1220, after the marriage of her daughter[463].  Kerrebrouck states that she died in 1240[464].  Neither of these authors cites the primary sources on which they base their statements. 

Mistress (1): (1150/52) EVDOKIA Komnene, widow of ---, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa].  Niketas Choniates names "Alexius, Andronicus et…Isaacius" as the three brothers of Emperor Manuel, stating that Andronikos left daughters "Mariam, Theodoram et Eudociam", adding that Evdokia became the mistress of Andronikos Komnenos after the death of her husband[465].  This must refer to a first marriage which is unrecorded elsewhere, as her marriage to Mikhael Gabras is recorded subsequent to her affair with Andronikos Komnenos.  She married secondly ([1152/53]) Mikhael Gabras.  In a later passage, Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Eudocia Comnenia Andronici amica" and "Michæle…Gabra"[466].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Michael cognomento Gabras" married "ex fratre Manuelis neptim"[467]

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Andronikos's second mistress is not known. 

Mistress (3): (1166/67) PHILIPPA of Antioch, daughter of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch ([1148]-1178).  Niketas Choniates records that Philippa, sister of Empress Maria, was mistress of Andronikos Komnenos[468].  Andronikos Komnenos met her while visiting Antioch in his capacity of governor of Cilicia.  She married (after 1166) as his second wife, Honfroy [II] Lord of Toron, Constable of Jerusalem. 

Mistress (4): (1167/85) THEODORA Komnene, widow of BAUDOUIN III King of Jerusalem, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his second wife Eirene Diplosynadene ([1146]-).  Niketas Choniates names "Theodora Comnenia, Isaacii sebastocratoris filia" as mistress of "Comnenus Andronicus imperatoris Manuelis patrueli"[469].  After her husband's death, she retired to Acre where she met Andronikos Komnenos, to whom Amaury I King of Jerusalem had recently given the fief of Beirut, and lived with him as his mistress at Beirut from 1167.  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l´empereur Emmanuel" left Cilicia for Acre where he met "la fille de son frère veuve du roi de Jérusalem" with whom he committed adultery, and went together "à Harran" where their child was born[470].  Emperor Manuel demanded the recall of Andronikos, but the couple fled to Damascus and sought refuge with Nur ed-Din.  Thereafter they lived together in various locations in the Muslim world until Andronikos was given a castle in Paphlagonia where they settled[471].   

Emperor Andronikos I & his first wife had three children:

1.         MANUEL Komnenos (before 1152-1185 or after).  Niketas Choniates names "Iohannes et Manuel" as the two sons of "Andronici" when recording that "protosebastus" put them in chains during the reign of Emperor Alexios but were released from prison[472].  In a later passage, Niketas Choniates clarifies that Manuel was the older brother: "Manuel primogenitus Andronici"[473]Sebastokrator 1182.  Blinded and imprisoned 1185.  m [--- of Georgia], daughter of [GIORGI III King of Georgia & his wife Burdukan of Ossetia].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[474] and Sturdza[475], the wife of Manuel Komnenos was the daughter of Davit IV King of Georgia.  The primary source on which this speculation is based has not yet been identified, but the hypothesis is chronologically impossible in view of King Davit´s death which is recorded in 1125.  An alternative indication of her parentage is provided by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that her son "Lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos…marching out from Iberia due to the zeal and labour of his paternal aunt Thamar…took control of Trebizond in Apr 1204 aged 22"[476].  It is impossible that "Thamar", presumably indicating Queen Thamar of Georgia, was Alexios´s paternal aunt.  However, if the passage (the original Greek has not been seen) could correctly be translated as "maternal aunt", it is possible that Manuel´s wife was the queen´s younger sister, maybe the same person as the unnamed younger sister who is referred to in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) and about whose fate nothing further is revealed in the primary sources which have been consulted (see GEORGIA).  Manuel Komnenos & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos (Constantinople [1181/82]-Trebizond 1 Feb 1222)Niketas Choniates names "David…et Alexius fratres, Manuele Andronici Romanorum tyranny filio nati" when recording that they governed "alter Ponti Heracleam et Paphlagoniam…alter Alexius Oenæum et Sinopem urbes et ipsam Trapezuntam"[477].  He founded the empire in Trebizond, declaring himself Emperor ALEXIOS I in Apr 1204.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos…marching out from Iberia due to the zeal and labour of his paternal aunt Thamar…took control of Trebizond in Apr 1204 aged 22"[478].  This passage suggests that, following the overthrow of his father, Alexios had been brought up at the Georgian court where he had sought refuge. 

-        EMPERORS in TREBIZOND

b)         DAVID Komnenos ([1184]-killed in battle Sinope 13 Dec 1214).  Niketas Choniates names "David…et Alexius fratres, Manuele Andronici Romanorum tyranny filio nati" when recording that they governed "alter Ponti Heracleam et Paphlagoniam…alter Alexius Oenæum et Sinopem urbes et ipsam Trapezuntam"[479].  He escaped to Georgia with his brother on the overthrow of their grandfather.  With Georgian military support, he conquered Herakleia and, after advancing westwards, Sinope, Kastamouni and Paphlagonia[480].  He became a vassal of the Latin Empire of Constantinople in 1214, but was defeated by Theodoros Laskaris Emperor of Nikaia who annexed Sinope later in 1214[481], although it was seized by the Seljuk Sultan of Iconium soon afterwards. 

2.         IOANNES Komnenos ([1158/59]-murdered 1185).  Niketas Choniates names "Iohannes et Manuel" as the two sons of "Andronici" when recording that "protosebastus" put them in chains during the reign of Emperor Alexios but were released from prison[482].  In an earlier passage, Niketas Choniates names "Iohanne" as the son of Andronikos Komnenos by his legitimate wife and states that he was taken to Emperor Manuel at Constantinople[483].  His father declared him heir to the imperial throne in 1183. 

3.         MARIA Komnene (before 1160-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (after 1184) THEODOROS Synadenos, son of ---. 

Emperor Andronikos I had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1):   

4.          [ALEXIOS Komnenos ([1150/52]-).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexis, un de ses proches parents, un neveu paternal de l'empereur de Grèce, qui se trouvait pour lors dans notre pays" as an unsuccessful candidate for Queen Thamar's hand in marriage (in the late 1170s)[484].  Alexios, son of the future Emperor Andronikos I, is the only known member of the Komnenos family who fits this description.  He fled Constantinople in 1185.] 

5.          [EIRENE Komnene ([1150/52]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  It is highly unlikely that she married Nikeforos Palaiologos, dux in Trebizond. The alleged marriage first appears in Rüdt-Collenberg who does not cite any sources[485].]

Emperor Andronikos I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2):

6.          daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (before 1184) ROMANOS ---, a Slav.  He was a former slave according to Sturdza[486].  Governor of Durazzo. 

Emperor Andronikos I had two illegitimate children by Mistress (4): 

7.          EIRENE Komnene (Harran after 1168-)Niketas Choniates names "Alexio et Irene" as two children of Andronikos Komnenos by his mistress Theodora who were taken to Emperor Manuel I at Constantinople[487].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l´empereur Emmanuel" left Cilicia for Acre where he met "la fille de son frère veuve du roi de Jérusalem" with whom he committed adultery, and went together "à Harran" where their child was born[488].  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "filiam Irenen [Andronici] ex consobrina Theodora Comnena" and "Alexio, Manuelis ex incesto concubitu…filio"[489].  m (Summer 1183) ALEXIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator, illegitimate son of Emperor MANUEL I & his mistress Theodora --- ([1152/63]-after 1188).  He was blinded by his father-in-law in 1184. 

8.          ALEXIOS Komnenos (1170-).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexio et Irene" as two children of Andronikos Komnenos by his mistress Theodora who were taken to Emperor Manuel I at Constantinople[490]. 

 

 

The relationship between Isaakios Komnenos and the Komnenos family shown above is not known.  He was clearly a close relation as shown by his title sébastokrator, which was only given to sons, brothers, paternal uncles and great-uncles of the emperor under the system of titles introduced by Emperor Alexios I. 

1.         ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of --- (-in prison Trnovo, soon after 1196)Sébastokrator 1195.  General.  He led his father-in-law's campaign in Bulgaria in 1196 but was defeated on the Struma River, captured and sent to Trnovo where he soon died in prison[491]m (before 1190) as her first husband, ANNA Komnene Angelina, daughter of ALEXIOS Angelos [later Emperor ALEXIOS III] & his wife Euphrosyne Doukas Kamateros ([1175/80]-1212).  Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[492]Ephræmius records that "filiarum…iunior…Anna" married "Comnenorum…Isaacio, qui apud Moesos obiit in vinculis"[493].  She married secondly (1199) Theodoros Komnenos Laskaris, who later succeeded as THEODOROS I Emperor of Nikaia.  Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Annam" and "Theodoro Lascaro, adolescenti"[494].  Isaakios Komnenos & his wife had one child:

a)         THEODORA Angelina Komnene.  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Isaacii sebastocratoris…filiæ eius Theodoræ" and "Ibancus", clarifying in a later passage that she was "immatura ætate" and naming "matris eius Annæ viduæ"[495].  She was a hostage in Constantinople [1197/99].  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "neptem Theodoram, pridem Ibanco desponsam" and "Chrysum"[496]m firstly ([1196/97]) IVANKO, son of --- [Bulgaria] (-murdered early 1200).  After he murdered Ivan Asen I Tsar of Bulgaria in 1196, and temporarily took control of Trnovo, Ivanko escaped to Constantinople, where he was offered the emperor's granddaughter as a bride[497].  He adopted the name ALEXIOS on his marriage.  Byzantine military leader.  Prince in Central Thrace early 1199.  He revolted against Emperor Alexios III and defeated the Byzantine troops sent to attack him.  He was murdered after agreeing a meeting with the emperor[498]m secondly ([1201/02]) as his third wife, DOBROMIR Hrs [Chrysos], Lord of Prosek, son of --- (-murdered [1209/11]).  He was also known as "Dobromir Strez", the Slav version of his Greek name "Chrysos".  Previously son-in-law of General Konstantinos Kamytzes[499], whom he had helped escape from Bulgarian captivity, he abandoned his father-in-law and repudiated his second wife after Emperor Alexios offered him his granddaughter as a new bride[500].  Sébastokrator

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DOUKAS, EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS, Anti-Emperor 913

 

 

ANDRONIKOS DoukasDomestikos 904.  Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Ducem…Androniki"[501].  He converted to Islam before 908[502]

m ---.  The name of Andronikos's wife is not known. 

Andronikos Doukas & his wife had two children:

1.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-Jun 913).  His parentage is confirmed by Georgius Monachus Continuatus which names "Gregoram legionum domesticum Iberitzem" as "consocerum" of "Ducem…Androniki"[503]DomestikosTheophanes Continuatus records that "Constantino Duci scholarum domestico" rebelled after the death of Emperor Alexander in 913[504]m --- Iberitzaina, daughter of GREGORAS Iberitzes & his wife ---.  Theophanes Continuatus records that "uxorem [Constantini]" was sent "in illius domum in Paphlagonia" with "eiusque filium Stephanum"[505].  Her parentage is suggested by Theophanes Continuatus which records that "Gregoras Constantini socero" sought refuge in "in sanctam dei Sophiam…ecclesiam"[506].  The identity of her father is confirmed by Georgius Monachus Continuatus which names "Gregoram legionum domesticum Iberitzem" as "consocerum" of "Ducem…Androniki"[507].  Cedrenus names "Constantinus Ducas Andronicus filius" and "magistri Gregoræ Iberitzæ soceri sui"[508].  She was sent to Paphlagonia with her son Stefanos in 913.  Konstantinos Doukas & his wife had two children:

a)         GREGORAS Doukas (-Constantinople Jun 913).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Gregoras Ducis filius" (referring to "Constantino Duci") and "Michael eius consobrinus" were killed in a street fight[509]

b)         STEFANOS DoukasTheophanes Continuatus records that "uxorem [Constantini]" was sent "in illius domum in Paphlagonia" with "eiusque filium Stephanum"[510]

2.         --- Doukasm ---.  One child: 

a)         MIKHAEL Doukas (-Constantinople Jun 913).  Theophanes Continuatus records that "Gregoras Ducis filius" (referring to "Constantino Duci") and "Michael eius consobrinus" were killed in a street fight[511]

 

 

It is not known how Andronikos Doukas and the brothers Konstantinos and Ioannes Doukas were related to the preceding family.  However, Psellos indicates that there is a connection when he names "the Duke Constantine….[descended]…from the celebrated Dukas…Andronicus and Constantine who are the object of much attention in the writings of historians", when recording that Konstantinos was chosen to succeed Emperor Isaakios I[512].  He may have originated from Paphlagonia, where the family owned estates along the River Meander near Nikomedia.  The family also owned land in Macedonia[513]

 

1.         ANDRONIKOS DoukasProtospatharios and strategos.  A seal dated to [1030/50] names "Andronikas Doukas protospatharios and strategos of Great Preslav"[514]

 

 

Two brothers and one sister, parents not known: 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas ([1006/07]-22 May 1067).  Psellos names "the Duke Constantine….[descended]…from the celebrated Dukas…Andronicus and Constantine who are the object of much attention in the writings of historians", when recording that he was chosen to succeed Emperor Isaakios I[515]Bestarches 1057.  President of the Senate.  He succeeded in 1059 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS X. 

          -        see below, Part B

2.         IOANNES Doukas (-12 May [1088]).  Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos "promoted his brother John to the dignity of cæsar"[516].  In 1073, he was proclaimed emperor at Amorium by Roussel de Bailleul (commander of the Norman mercenaries), who had mutinied against Emperor Mikhael VII, and marched on Constantinople.  Emperor Mikhael sought help from the Seljuks, promising them east Anatolia, and they surrounded Roussel's forces on Mount Sophon in Cappadocia[517].  Ioannes became a monk as IGNATIOS in 1076.  The Alexeiad records that "the Cæsar Ioannes, his paternal uncle" advised Emperor Mikhael Doukas to retire to a monastery after he was deposed[518].  Imperial counsellor in 1081.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 12 May of "Ignatiou monaxou kaisaros kai pappou tis ayias despoinis"[519]m ([1045]) EIRENE Pegonitissa, daughter of [LEON/NIKETAS] Pegonites, General & his wife --- (-8 Sep [1060/65]).  Psellos´s epitaph to "Ερήνην καισάρισσαν" alludes to her father as "pégè…nikè" and records his military successes against the Bulgarians names Leon Pegonites as father of Eirene, wife of Ioannes Doukas[520].  The Prosopography of the Byzantine World interprets this passage as indicating Leon Pegonites[521].  Kouroupou and Vannier suggest that it refers to "le patrice Nicétas Pègonitès, stratège de Dyrrachion et vainqueur en 1018 du tsar bulgare Jean Vladislav"[522].  A seal dated to before 24 Nov 1059 (when her husband was appointed cæsar by his brother) records "Irène Pègonitissa, magistrissa, vestarchissa et doukaina"[523].  Psellos, in his epitaph to "Ερήνην καισάρισσαν", records that she refused to bear the insignia of "cæsarissa" after her husband was appointed cæsar because of her serious illness[524].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 8 Sep of "Eirene…agias despoines e kaisárissa"[525].  Kouroupou and Vannier suggest that her death "semble [être] antérieure à la naissance de sa petite-fille Irène en 1066"[526].  Ioannes Doukas & his wife had two children:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Doukas (-14 Oct [1077]).  The Alexeiad names "Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son" as the father of Empress Eirene[527].  Co-emperor 1067-1070. 

-        see below

b)         KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-[1075/76]).  Mikhael Glykas refers to "Iohanni Cæsari…filiis…Constantinus…filius alter…Andronicus"[528].  Psellos records that Emperor Mikhael VII appointed "the cæsar's younger son" as commander-in-chief of his army in 1071, and that he defeated ex-Emperor Romanos IV on his approach to Constantinople[529]ProtoproedrosProtostrator 1073.  m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos Doukas & his wife had one child:

i)          [--- Doukas.  As noted below, the poet Theodore Prodromos states that a grandson of the cæsar Ioannes Doukas married the eldest daughter of Isaakios Komnenos[530].  His name and precise parentage are not known.  Polemis assumes that he was an otherwise unknown son of Konstantinos Doukas since he assumes that the brothers of Empress Eirene, sons of Andronikos Doukas, would not have married a niece of their sister's husband[531].  He is named Ioannes by Sturdza[532], but the basis for this is not known.  m [ANNA] Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia.  The poet Theodore Prodromos states that Isaakios's eldest daughter married a grandson of the cæsar Ioannes Doukas[533].  She is named Anna by Sturdza[534], but presumably this is an informed guess as it is the name which would normally have been given to Isaakios's eldest daughter in line with contemporary family naming patterns among Byzantine nobility (being the name of her paternal grandmother)[535].  An alternative possibility is that the oldest daughter, Anna, died young and that the wife of Doukas was the oldest surviving daughter.]  --- Doukas & his wife had one child:

(a)       ZOE Doukaina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1120.  m GEORGIOS Botaneiates, son of ---. 

3.         MARIA .  A seal dated to [1042/67] names "Maria nun and…sister of Konstantinos despotes"[536]

 

 

ANDRONIKOS Doukas, son of IOANNES Doukas, cæsar & his wife Eirene Pegonitissa (-14 Oct [1077]).  The Alexeiad names "Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son" as the father of Empress Eirene[537].  Mikhael Glykas refers to "Iohanni Cæsari…filiis…Constantinus…filius alter…Andronicus"[538].  Co-emperor 1067-1070.  Commander of the imperial fleet in 1068, he fled from the battle scene at Manzikert in Aug 1071 and deliberately spread the rumour that the battle was lost, which eventually it was[539]Protoproedros, protobestiarios.  An undated seal records “Andronic Ducas protoproèdre, protovestiaire et domestique des scholes de l´Orient[540].  Psellos records that "Andronicus, the elder of the cæsar's sons, was given command of the imperial armies"[541]Domestikos of the Orient 1073.  He became a monk as ANTONIOS.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "protovestiarius...Andronicus" died soon after the betrothal of "Comnenum Alexium" to his oldest daughter Eirene[542].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 14 Oct of "le...père de ma Majesté, le protoproèdre et grand duc des Scholes d´Orient, kyr Andronic Doukas, qui s´appela...kyr Antoine"[543]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 14 Oct of "Antoniou monaxou tou patros tes ayias despoines"[544]

m ([before 1061]) MARIA Troiane, daughter of TROJAN [Troianos] of Bulgaria & his wife --- (-21 Nov [1089/1110]).  Her parentage is confirmed by Nikeforos Bryennios who records that "uxor Andronici" was "genus a Samuele…Bulgarorum rege, e cuius filio Troianne nata ipsa erat", adding that "materna vero ei prosapia referebatur ad Contostephanos, Aballantes et Phocadas"[545].  The Alexeiad records that "the daughter-in-law of the Cæsar Ioannes…protovestiaria" was imprisoned "in the nunnery of Petrion near the Sidera" when the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates was discovered, referring to her as "kinswoman" of Anna Dalassena and, in a later passage, stating that she "was of Bulgarian descent"[546].  Protobestiaria.  She became a nun as XENE.  She received a letter from Leon ex-metropolitan of Chalcedonia dated to 1089/[1094/95][547].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 21 Nov of "la...princesse et mère de ma Majesté, kyra Marie, qui fut appelée...kyra Xénè"[548]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 21 Nov of "Xenes monaxes tes metros tes ayias despoines tes protobestiarisses"[549]

Andronikos Doukas & his wife had five children:

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas (1061-9 Jan [1110] or before).  The Alexeiad names Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of their sister"[550].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 9 Jan of "[le]...frère de ma Majesté, le prôtostratôr Michel Doukas"[551]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 9 Jan of "Mixael monaxou kai adelfou tes ayias despoines [toy protosebastou protostratoros]"[552]m [EUPHROSYNE], daughter of ---.  The name of Mikhael Doukas's wife is not known.  The synodikon of the monastery of Iviron records "protosébaste Michel et…[la] protosébastè Euphrosyne" who Kouroupou and Vannier suggest may have been Mikhael Doukas (who is named protosébastos in the list of obituaries quoted above) and his wife[553].  Mikhael Doukas & his wife had four children:

a)         KONSTANTINOS Doukas .  Theophylact of Ohrid sent three letters addressed to Konstantinos, son of Mikhael[554]Sébastos.  1118. 

b)         THEODOROS Doukas.  His parentage is recorded in various documents[555]Pansébastosm ([1125]) THEODORA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is recorded in various documents[556].  Theodoros & his wife had one child: 

i)          EUPHROSYNE .  Her parentage and marriage are recorded in various documents[557]m NIKOLAS Mavrokatakalon, son of ---.    

c)         [ANNA] Doukaina.  The source quoted by Polemis, a saint's life, states that an unnamed daughter of Mikhael Doukas married Ioannes, a nephew of Emperor Alexios I[558].  A transcript of tomb inscriptions from the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii, published by Peter Schreiner in Dumbarton Oaks Studies, lists the individuals named below as descendants of the church's founders Ioannes Komnenos and Anna Doukaina[559], although it is not clear that this refers to the same couple.  m IOANNES Komnenos, son of MIKHAEL Doukas & his wife --- (-[1106]).  He was appointed dux of Durazzo in 1092 by his uncle Emperor Alexios I.  Protosébastos 1105. 

d)         [EIRENE Doukaina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m GREGORIOS Kamateros, son of BASILEIOS Kamateros & his wife --- (-after 1126 or after 14 Aug 1132).  Sébastos.] 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-10 Sep after 1081).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 10 Sep of "Konstantinou sebastou kai adelfou tes ayias despoines"[560].  His death can be assumed after 1081 as his brother-in-law Emperor Alexios I must have awarded him the title sébastos after his accession. 

3.         STEFANOS Doukas (-10 Sep after 1081).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 20 Oct of "Stefanou sebastou kai aytadelfou tes ayias despoines"[561].  His death can be assumed after 1081 as his brother-in-law Emperor Alexios I must have awarded him the title sébastos after his accession. 

4.         EIRENE Doukaina ([1065/66]-[19 Feb 1123]).  The Alexeiad records that Eirene, mother of Anna Komnene, was "kinswoman" of the Doukas family and "legal wife of my [Anna Komnene's] father" but does not name her parents[562].  This passage follows soon after the text which names Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of their sister"[563].  The omission of Eirene from this list of brothers and sister suggests that she was not the daughter of Andronikos Doukas.  In another passage, the Alexeiad records that Anna "on my mother's side [was] related to the Doukas"[564].  Any doubts about her parentage are resolved in a further passage which records that, at the time of the Komnenoi rebellion in 1081, the future Emperor Alexios left "his wife, fifteen years old at the time…in the 'lower' palace with her sisters and mother and the Cæsar, her grandfather on the paternal side", and in yet another passage which explicitly states that she was "a daughter of Andronikos, the Cæsar's eldest son"[565].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Alexium Comnenum" married "primogenitam…filiarum" of Andronikos[566].  The Alexeiad records that she was crowned empress "on the seventh day after the public proclamation" of her husband's accession[567].  She supported her daughter's attempt to have the latter's husband Nikeforos Briennios succeed her husband as emperor, but retired to a convent after her husband died.  There is some confusion relating to the date of death of Empress Eirene.  There is some confusion relating to the date of death of Empress Eirene.  Prodromos, in a poem addressed to the empress, lists (in chronological order) the deaths which had occurred in her family: “la protection des Romains, Alexis...un gendre très célèbre...Nicéphore...l´enfant d´Andronic...mais son épouse décéda auparavant...la prophyrogénète Eudocie” and adds that “tu as fait disparâitre deux fils en même temps, cruel Telkine, la vie d´Andronic et la vigueur d´Isaac. L´un erre aux extrémités de l´Anatolie, mort vivant...l´autre est parti dans l´occident ténébreux de l´Hadès[568]The latter part of the passage appears to refer to the death of Andronikos and the exile of Isaakios, both events dated to [1130/31].  This suggestion appears confirmed by the song composed by Mikhael Italicos after the death of Andronikos which records that “Irène Doukaina et le césar Nicéphore Bryennios” accompanied his body from the Asian bank back to Constantinople[569].  Prodromos records that Empress Eirene was present at the funeral of Gregorios Kamateros which he says was foretold by the appearance of a comet, dated to 1126 or 14 Aug 1132 (the latter date being favoured by Gautier as he points out that the passage follows a reference to the summer being very dry, which was apparently the case in 1132)[570].  The typikon of Isaakios Komnenos (dated [1151/52]) records that Empress Eirene died “à la première indiction dix-neuvième jour de février”, identified by Gautier as the first year of the indiction (=[1137/38]) during which the monastery of Kosmoteira was founded ([1151/52]), and adds in the same sentence that “mon père et basileus a quitté ce monde le quinzième [jour] d´août, cinquième jour[571].  However, the Alexeiad confirms that the empress died before her son-in-law Nikeforos Bryennios (dated to [1136/37], see below), when recording the deaths (in that order) of "the great Alexius...the Empress Irene...the Caesar [her husband]", but gives no further indication to enable the events to be dated[572].  In addition, the obituary of the typikon of Kosmoteira (dated Oct 1136) records “tes makariotates despoines kai metros tes basileias mou”, the word “makariotates” being applied in the source to the individuals named who were deceased at the time (μακαρίτης = deceased)[573].  Chalandon concludes that the typikon of Isaakios Komnenos could not therefore refer to the indiction which started in 1137/38, excludes the previous indiction which started in 1122/23 because of the later sources which name the empress as living after that date, and suggests as a solution a transcription error in the typikon which should refer to the eleventh year of the previous indiction [1132/33][574].  Gautier highlights the anomaly in the typikon of Isaakios Komnenos which (as noted above) in the same sentence uses the indiction year for the empress´s death but the day of the week to date the death of her husband, suggests another transcription error whereby (in the case of the empress) a word indicating the first day of the week (Sunday) was misread as “indiction”, and adds that 1133 was the only year around that time when 19 Feb fell on a Sunday[575].  Gautier concludes that, in light of all these considerations, 1133 is the best possibility for the date of the empress´s death, but notes that the speculations concerning the transcript of the typikon of Isaakios Komnenos cannot now be checked against the original manuscript as it no longer survives[576]m (betrothed before Oct 1077, [1078]) as his second wife, ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos, kuropalates and domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1048/57]-15 Aug 1118).  He succeeded in 1081 as Emperor ALEXIOS I

5.         ANNA Doukaina (-[1110/35]).  The Alexeiad names Anna as the wife of Georgios Palaiologos, her origin being deduced from the text stating that "the protovestiaria" was his mother-in-law and making it clear that the couple married before the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates[577].  It is likely that she was older than her brother Ioannes, who was described in the same source as "only a young boy" around the same time.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...sœur de ma Majesté, la pansébaste sébaste kyra Anna Doukaina" on the date of her death[578]m (before 1081) GEORGIOS Palaiologos, son of NIKEFOROS Palaiologos & his wife [--- Kurtikina] ([1110/36]). 

6.         IOANNES Doukas (-5 Jan [1116/1136]).  The Alexeiad names Ioannes as grandson of "the Cæsar Ioannes…only a young boy", but does not name his father, when recording that he was living with his grandfather on the latter's estate at Moroboundos at the time of the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates[579].  His parentage is confirmed from a later passage in the Alexeiad which names Mikhael and Ioannes as grandsons of "the Cæsar Ioannes" and "Georgios Palaiologos the husband of their sister"[580].  He was appointed cæsar 1089.  Megas dux before 1090 and after [1092/93].  Dux of Durazzo 1090/92.  He became a monk as ANTONIOS.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "[le]...frère de ma Majesté, le pansébaste sébaste kyr Jean Doukas, qui s´est appelé...kyr Antoine" on the date of his death[581]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 5 Jan of "o monaxos kyr Antonios sebastos autadelfos tes ayias neon despoines o Doukas"[582]

7.         THEODORA Doukaina ([1070]-[20/21] Feb [1110] or before).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "mimimam natu [filiarum] Theodoram" devoted herself to God "ab ipsa prima infantia"[583].  She became a nun as EIRENE.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 20 Feb of "la...sœur de ma Majesté...kyra Théodora, qui fut appelée...kyra Irène"[584]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 21 Feb of "Eirenes monaxes tes pantimou autadelfou tes ayias despoines"[585]

 

 

It is not known how the following individuals were related to the main Doukas family, if at all. 

 

1.         ANNA Doukaina, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXIOS Komnenodoukas Palaiologos, son of ---.  1166. 

 

2.         EVDOKIA Doukaina, daughter of ---.  She is named as wife of Andronikos in a tomb inscription at the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos, now Fethiye Camii,[586]m ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos [dux of Durrazzo] & his wife Anna Doukaina. 

 

3.         MARIA Doukaina, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa] ([1136]-murdered 1183).  Head of the Regency Council 1180-1182. 

 

4.         ANNA Doukaina.  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising records that Boris, while in Greece, married "consanguineam sibi imperatoris Kaloioannis" but does not specify her name or her precise parentage[587].  Odon de Deuil records that "Boris qui réclamait ses droits héréditaires sur [le] royaume [de Hongrie]" had married "l´empereur de Constantinople…une nièce"[588].  According to Sturdza[589], she was the daughter of Konstantinos Doukas sébastos, son of Mikhael Doukas protostator and sébastos, but the basis for this is not known.  According to Kerbl[590], her marriage probably took place before the death of Emperor Ioannes II with whom Boris enjoyed good relations.  She became a nun as ARETEm BORIS KONRAD of Hungary, son of KÁLMÁN King of Hungary & his second wife Ievfemia Vladimirovna of Kiev ([1113]-killed in battle [1155/56]).  Panhypersébastos.  Pretender to the throne of Hungary 1131/55.    

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-Constantinople 8 Apr 1179).  Duke of Split: the dating clause of a charter dated Apr 1171, issued by “Spalatini”, records "dominantis Constantini ducis ducatus anno primo"[591]The dating clause of a charter dated 1171, issued “sub tempore...imperatoris nostri Manuelis”, records "in civitate nostra Spalatina et in toto regno Dalmacie et Chroacie imperante Constantino sebasto"[592].  Governor of Croatia and Dalmatia: the dating clause of a charter dated 1174, issued “tempore...Manuelis”, records "in civitate nostra Spalatina preminente Constantino seuasto"[593].  An obituary records the death 8 Apr 1179 of “Constantinus Ducas Sebastus”, specifying that Emperor Manuel I had sent him to defend Ancona, that later he had been appointed “Duce...ad præfecturam Diocleæ, Dalmatiæ --- Dyrrachii --- et Spalatri”, but that he had died of pleurisy seven days after returning to Constantinople[594]

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas "Makrodoukas" (-murdered 30 May 1185)Niketas Choniates names "Macroducas Constantinus"[595].  Pansébastos, panhypersébastosThe record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...genero...regis domino Constantino Duca...[596]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto et genero...regis nostri domino Constantino Duca...[597]Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii Iohannes et Andronicus...Macroducas Constantinus et Lapartas Andronicus" among those who witnessed the defeat at Myriokephalon, dated to 17 Sep 1176[598].  He was stoned to death at the Manganes on the orders of Emperor Andronikos I.  m (before 1166) [--- Komnene], daughter of [ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his first wife Theodora ---].  Niketas Choniates records that "Macroducæ Constantini" married "materteram Isaacii" (referring to Isaakios Doukas, later Emperor in Cyprus)[599].  If matertera in this passage is interpreted strictly, Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos.  However, Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Constantino Ducas" married "imperatoris ex sorore neptim"[600], which indicates that Konstantinos´s wife was the daughter of one of Emperor Manuel I´s sisters.  It is not known which version might be correct.  Konstantinos Makrodoukas & his wife had [two possible children]: 

a)         [ZOE Doukas.  According to Sturdza[601], the wife of Ioannes Angelos was Zoe, daughter of Konstantinos Doukas Makrodoukas & his wife Anna Komnene, but there appears to be no proof that this person ever existed.  The source for Ioannes's wife being named Zoe goes back to an author in 1643 but no further[602].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[603], Ioannes married twice, both his wives possibly being named Zoe.  The speculation concerning his two marriages may result from the apparent chronological anomaly of his son Theodoros being born when his father must have been in his fifties or sixties.  If Ioannes was married twice, and if the marriage to Zoe Doukas is correct and her parentage as shown in Sturdza, it is likely that she was Ioannes's second wife and the mother of Theodoros as her own mother would have been born in [1134/44].  m [as his second wife,] IOANNES Konstantinos Doukas Angelos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene (-[1200]).  Sébastokrator.] 

b)         ISAAKIOS Makrodoukas (-executed 1185).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m as her first husband, MARGIT of Hungary, daughter of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (posthumously 1162-before 1208).  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "dux Geyza…soror eius" married in Greece but does not name her[604].  The primary source which confirms her name and the precise identity of her first husband has not yet been identified.  Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[605], but the source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  She married secondly (after 1186) András Gespan of Somogy.  Isaakios Makrodoukas & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANDRONIKOS Makrodoukas.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He lived in Hungary. 

 

 

 

B.      EMPERORS 1059-1068, 1071-1078

 

 

KONSTANTINOS X 1059-1067, MIKHAEL VII 1071-1078

 

KONSTANTINOS Doukas, son of --- ([1006/07]-22 May 1067)Bestarches 1057.  President of the Senate.  Proedros in Asia Minor[606].  Zonaras names "Dalassenus" and "Constantinus Ducas eius gener" when recording that the latter was imprisoned by Emperor Mikhael IV[607].  Psellos names "the Duke Constantine….[descended]…from the celebrated Dukas…Andronicus and Constantine", when recording that he was chosen to succeed Emperor Isaakios I[608].  He was nominated as his successor by Emperor Isaakios I and succeeded in 1059 on the latter's abdication as Emperor KONSTANTINOS X.  He reduced the armed forces as a means of controlling the over-powerful army, a fatal move for the empire which was under threat in the west from the Normans of Calabria and in the east from the lawlessness which followed the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad[609].  Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan intensified raids on Byzantine territory, destroying the former Armenian capital Ani in 1064, and by 1066 was in full control of Armenia[610].  Emperor Konstantinos devoted his time to civil administration[611].  Psellos records that Emperor Konstantinos "had lived slightly over sixty years" when he died[612].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Ducas" died after reigning for nine years[613]

m firstly --- Dalassene, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Dalassenos, General & his wife --- (-after 1039).  Psellos records that Konstantinos's first wife was "the daughter of the great Constantine Dalassenus"[614].  Zonaras names "Dalassenus" and "Constantinus Ducas eius gener" when recording that the latter was imprisoned by Emperor Mikhael IV[615]

m secondly (before 1050) EVDOKIA Makrembolitissa, niece of Patriarch MIKHAEL Keroularios, daughter of IOANNES Makrembolites & his wife --- (-1096).  Psellos names "Eudocia" as wife of Emperor Konstantinos[616].  The Historia of Mikhael Attaliota records that "vestiarius Constantinus Ducas" married "neptis patriarchæ [Kerularii]"[617].  Nikeforos Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[618].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Regent for her son Emperor Mikhael VII 1067.  Psellos records that her husband on his deathbed made her swear she would never remarry[619], but she married secondly (1 Jan 1068) Romanos Diogenes, who immediately succeeded as Emperor Romanos IV.  Psellos records the second marriage of "Eudocia" and "Romanus, the son of Diogenes"[620].  On the overthrow of Emperor Romanos, she ruled jointly with her son, but was soon overthrown and confined to a convent. 

Emperor Konstantinos X & his second wife had seven children.  Psellos records that they were born "not only before his accession to the throne but afterwards"[621]

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas (-[1090]).  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelum, Andronicum et Constantinum purpurigenam" as the sons of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[622].  Nikeforos Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[623].  Psellos names Mikhael as eldest child of Konstantinos and his wife[624].  He succeeded his father in 1067 as Emperor MIKHAEL VII "Parapinakes", under the regency of his mother.  After her remarriage in 1068, Emperor Mikhael was demoted to co-emperor to her second husband Emperor Romanos IV.  The Seljuk Turks raided Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ in 1070[625].  During Emperor Romanos's imprisonment by the Seljuks which followed the battle of Manzikert in Aug 1071, Mikhael VII manoeuvred himself back into power with the support of the Varangian guards[626].  Despite pressure to banish his mother, he at first ruled as co-emperor with her, but finally confined her to a convent and ruled alone from 24 Oct 1071.  The Seljuks, considering their agreement with Emperor Romanos IV null and void after his overthrow, invaded Byzantium.  In 1073, Emperor Mikhael's uncle Ioannes Doukas was proclaimed emperor at Amorium by Roussel de Bailleul (commander of the Norman mercenaries), who had mutinied against Emperor Mikhael VII, and marched on Constantinople.  Emperor Mikhael sought help from the Seljuks, promising them the cession of east Anatolia, and they surrounded Roussel's forces on Mount Sophon in Cappadocia[627].  Emperor Mikhael made friendly contact with Pope Gregory VII and also betrothed his son to the daughter of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in 1074[628], although the contract was broken after Mikhael's abdication.  Faced with external crises, as well as internal crises triggered by high inflation, he was forced to abdicate in 1078 by Nikeforos Botaneiates who succeeded as emperor.  He became a monk at Studion monastery.  Metropolitan of Ephesus.  m (after 1071, repudiated) as her first husband, MARTHA of Georgia, daughter of BAGRAT IV King of Georgia & his second wife Borena of Ossetia (-after 1090).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Empress Theodora requested King Bagrat to send "sa fille Martha" to be brought up as her daughter, but that by the time she arrived in Constantinople the empress had died (in 1056), and her subsequent marriage to "l'empereur de Grèce"[629].  She was known as MARIA in Byzantium.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that Emperor Mikhael married Maria, daughter of Bagrat King of Georgia.  Zonaras names "Maria Alana" as the wife of Emperor Mikhael[630].  She was repudiated by her first husband when he became a monk, and married secondly (1 Apr 1078) Nikeforos Botaneiates, Governor of Anatolia, who had been crowned Emperor Nikeforos III 1 Jan 1078.  The Alexeiad records that "Botaneiates had established himself on the throne immediately after the deposition of Mikhael Doukas, and…won the hand of the Empress Maria"[631].  She became a nun as MARTHA.  Emperor Mikhael VII & his wife had one child:

a)         KONSTANTINOS Doukas (-12 Aug [1094/97]).  Psellos names "Constantine, the son of the Emperor Michael Ducas" when recording that he saw him "when he was a tiny baby"[632].  He was appointed co-emperor by his father in 1074, but abdicated with the latter in 1078.  Emperor Alexios I Komnenos declared him his heir and appointed him co-emperor in 1081, but transferred the succession to his own son in 1092.  The Alexeiad records that Konstantinos welcomed Emperor Alexios at Pentegostis near Serres during the emperor´s campaign against Serbia, dated to early 1094[633].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 12 Aug of "Konstantinou porfyrogenitou kai gambrou ton basileov"[634].  Although the marriage of Konstantinos Doukas to the emperor's daughter did not take place, it is assumed that this entry refers to him as there is no other record of the emperor having a son-in-law of this name.  Betrothed firstly (Aug 1074, contract broken 1078) to [OLYMPIAS] of Apulia, daughter of ROBERT "Guiscard/Weasel" Duke of Apulia & his second wife Sichelgaita di Salerno (-after 1090).  The Annals of Romoald record the betrothal of an unnamed daughter of Robert "Guiscard" and "imperatorem Constantinopolem" in 1076[635].  The Alexeiad records that Emperor Mikhael Doukas "promised his own son Konstantinos in marriage to the daughter of this barbarian Robert", in a later passage stating that "the lady's name was Helena"[636].  Skylitzes records the betrothal of "Robertus…filiam…Helenam" and "suo filio Constantino" (referring the son of Emperor Mikhael VII), dated to [1073/75][637].  Amatus also records this betrothal[638].  She is named Olympias by Houts, who does not cite the source on which this is based[639].  She lived in Constantinople after her betrothal and was baptised into the Greek Orthodox church as HELENA.  Orderic Vitalis says that two of the daughters of Robert "Guiscard" were living in Constantinople, and that they remained there after the accession of Emperor of Alexios I (in 1081), performing light service at court before being sent back to Sicily[640].  After the betrothal was broken, she was placed in a convent.  She eventually returned to Italy after the death of her parents, and settled at her uncle's court at Palermo.  Betrothed secondly (1084, contract broken Dec 1090) to ANNA Komnene Doukaina, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (1/2 Dec 1083-[1149/54]).  Zonaras records that "Anna" was betrothed to "Constantino filio reginæ Mariæ Alanæ" who died before the marriage, and afterwards married "filio natu maiori Nicephori Bryennii"[641]

2.         ANNA Doukaina (before 1057-after 1075).  Mikhael Glykas names "Annam, Theodoram et Zoen" as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[642].  Psellos names "Arete" as the older daughter of Konstantinos born before his accession, commenting that "she dedicated her life to the service of God" and "she is still with us"[643].  She became a nun as ARETE

3.         THEODORA Doukaina (before 1059-after 1075).  Mikhael Glykas names "Annam, Theodoram et Zoen" as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[644].  Psellos records that the younger daughter of Konstantinos born before his accession "had already been betrothed"[645].  The primary source which confirms the name of her betrothed has not yet been identified.  It is not certain that this daughter was the same person as Theodora who later married the Doge of Venice.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Betrothed (1059 or before) ---.  m (after 1071) [as his second wife,] DOMENICO Silvio Doge of Venice, son of --- (-after 1084). 

4.         son (-[late 1059/early 1060]).  Psellos records that "the second boy lived only a short time after his father became emperor and then died"[646]

5.         ANDRONIKOS Doukas ([1057]-after 1081).  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelum, Andronicum et Constantinum purpurigenam" as the sons of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[647].  Nikeforos Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[648].  Psellos records that "Michael and the younger son Andronicus" were born before their father's accession[649].  Psellos writes that "Andronicus, brother of the Emperor Michael Ducas…is just past his boyhood"[650].  He was crowned co-emperor by his brother Emperor Mikhael VII after the latter assumed sole rule in Oct 1071.  m (1068) --- of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife [Ryksa] of Poland.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium. 

6.         KONSTANTIOS Doukas (1060-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081).  Mikhael Glykas names "Michaelum, Andronicum et Constantinum purpurigenam" as the sons of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[651].  Nikeforos Bryennios names "eius coniuge Eudocia, cum Michaele, Andronico et Constantino filiis" as survivors of "Ducas"[652].  Psellos records that "the sun had not yet completed its yearly cycle after Constantine's promotion when another child was born"[653].  Psellos names "Constantine…a child" as one of the two sons with his mother after their father died, commenting that his older brother Mikhael "used to sit on the imperial throne beside his brother Constantine"[654].  Co-emperor 1067-1078.  He was confined to a monastery after his brother's abdication by the latter's successor Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates[655].  The Alexeiad records the death of "Constantius the son of the former emperor Konstantinos Doukas…born…in the Porphyra" while fighting Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081[656]

7.         EIRENE Doukaina .  Theodoros Skoutariotes names “Zoe, Eirene, Theodora and Anna” as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos X Doukas and his wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa[657]

8.         ZOE Doukaina (1062-28 Aug before 1136).  Mikhael Glykas names "Annam, Theodoram et Zoen" as the daughters of Emperor Konstantinos & his wife[658].  The Alexeiad names "the Porphyrogenita Zoe" as daughter of Empress Eudoxia, suggesting that her mother planned to marry her to Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates after the latter's accession in 1078[659].  She was named "Anna" in a poem concering the ancestors of Giorgios Palaiologos.  Magdalino and Cheynet both assume that this was her monastic name, but it may be a mistake resulting from confusion with her sister of the same name[660].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  The list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family records the death "28 Aug, Porphyrogenita Zoe"[661]Betrothed to NIKEFOROS Synadenos, son of THEODULOS Synadenos & his wife --- Botaneiatissa (-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081).  m (after Oct 1081) ADRIANOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1060/65]-19 Apr 1105).  He was created protosébastos by his brother Emperor Alexios I in 1081.  Leader against the Normans in 1083.  Megas domestikos [1087/97].  Panhypersébastos.  He became a monk as IOANNES

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DIOGENES, EMPEROR 1068-1071

 

 

 

1.         THEODOTOS Diogenes .  A seal dated to [1000] names "Theodotos Diogenes, imperial protospatharios and strategos of Cyprus"[662]

 

2.         ADRALESTOS Diogenes .  Two seals dated to [1025] and [1035] respectively name "Adralestos Diogenes, imperial protospatharios and strategos of Morava" and "Adralestos Diogenes patrikios and strategos"[663]

 

3.         BAASAKIOS Diogenes .  A seal dated to [1040] names "Baasakios Diogenes, anthypatos patrikios and katepano of Thessalonike"[664]

 

4.         PANKRATIOS Diogenes .  Two seals dated to [1050] name "Pankratios Diogenes strategos" and "Pankratios Diogenes, protospatharios and strategos of Cappadocia"[665]

 

 

ROMANOS IV 1068-1072

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Diogenes (-[1032]).  He originated from Cappadocia.  Cedrenus records that "Constantinum Diogenem" succeeded "Theophylacto Botaneita" in "prætura Thessalonicensi", dated to early 1015 from the context, and that Emperor Basileios II sent him "in regionem Moglenorum" to defeat Gavriil Radomir Tsar of the Bulgarians[666].  Zonaras records that "Constantinus Diogenes Sirmii præfectus qui et Bulgariæ dux appellatus est" brought Bulgaria under Byzantine control, dated from the context to around the time of the death of Emperor Basileios II (1025)[667].  He was appointed katepan or military governor of Thessaloniki: an undated seal records “Constantin protoproèdre anthypatos...patrice...catépan de Thessalonique...Diogène[668].  Other sources accord the title dux to Konstantinos Diogenes.  Cedrenus records that "Thessalonicensium duce Constantino Diogene" defeated "Joannis et eius patruelem" [Ivan Vladislav Tsar of the Bulgarians] 9 Jan "indictione 15"[669].  Zonaras records that "Constantinum Diogenes", who had escaped "in Illyricum", was recaptured, dated to [1032] from the context[670].  Cedrenus records that "Constantinus Diogenes…Sirmii præfectus…ac Thessalonicæ dux" was sent to Thrace where he threw himself from a tower[671].  Psellos records that he "had been arrested on a charge of attempted revolution during the reign of Romanus Argyrus and had committed suicide by hurling himself over a precipice"[672]m --- Argyre, daughter of --- Argyros & his wife ---.  Zonaras refers to "vestacharum dignitate…a Duca Sardicæ dux", indicating the future Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes, whose father married "Romani Argyri neptem ex fratre"[673].  It should be noted that this passage does not state clearly that this wife of Konstantinos was the mother of Emperor Romanos.  It is possible that Romanos was born from another marriage, his mother being less well-connected as she is not referred to directly in the text.  Cedrenus records that the wife of "Constantinus Diogenes" was "fratre imperatoris nata"[674].  Konstantinos & [his wife] had one child:

a)         ROMANOS Diogenes (-Prote Monastery Summer 1072).  Mikhael Glykas names "imperator Romanus Vestarches, Constantini Diogenis filius"[675].  Skylitzes records that "Romanus Constantinus Diogenis filius…patricius" was created "dux Sardices…bestarches" by Emperor Konstantinos Doukas[676].  Having rebelled against Empress Evdokia after the death of Emperor Konstantinos X Doukas in 1067, Psellos implies that the empress was subsequently obliged to marry him to preserve her position[677].  He succeeded in 1 Jan 1068 as Emperor ROMANOS IV after marrying Empress Evdokia.  After the conquest of Armenia, the Seljuk Turks intensified their raids into Byzantine territory, as far as Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ in 1070[678].  Emperor Romanos was defeated by the Seljuks 20 Nov 1068, and again at Manzikert 19 Aug 1071 where he was captured.  In the same year, Bari, the last Byzantine possession in southern Italy, fell to the Normans.  Although Emperor Romanos was freed by the Seljuks after promising monetary tribute, he had been overthrown during his imprisonment by his stepson Emperor Mikhael VII Doukas.  When he regained Constantinople, he was defeated and fled to Cilicia to regroup his forces, but was defeated once more.  He was forced to become a monk, but was afterwards betrayed and blinded, dying soon afterwards from his injuries at the monastery on the island of Prote.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Diogenem" was blinded and sent "in monasterium...in Prota insula" where he died soon afterwards from his injuries[679]m firstly ([1045/50]) [[ANNA] Alusiane, daughter of ALUSIAN [of Bulgaria] & his wife --- ([1030]-before 1065).  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from Skylitzes who names "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris uxoris frater"[680], although it is curious to note that she is still referred to as "imperatoris uxoris" in a passage which refers to events after her husband´s accession and second marriage and therefore after her death.  It should be noted that an alternative interpretation is that the passage refers to the wife of Samuil.  The date for this marriage is estimated from the couple's son Konstantinos Diogenes leaving two known children when he was killed in battle in 1074.]  m secondly (1 Jan 1068) as her second husband, EVDOKIA Makrembolitissa, widow of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X, daughter of IOANNES Makrembolites & his wife --- (-1096).  Psellos records the second marriage of "Eudocia" and "Romanus, the son of Diogenes"[681].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  On the overthrow of Emperor Romanos IV, she ruled jointly with her son, but was soon overthrown and confined to a convent.  Emperor Romanos IV & his first wife had [three] children:

i)          KONSTANTINOS Diogenes (-killed in battle Antioch [1074]).  His parentage is confirmed by Nikeforos Bryennios who names him "Constantino Diogenis iam imperatoris filio" when recording his marriage[682].  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "sororis eius Constantinus imperatoris Diogenis filius" was killed in battle in Antioch[683]m ([1068/71]) THEODORA Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1053]-after [1094/95]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage, after her father's death "matris voluntate", of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…postrema Theodora [filia]" and "Constantino Diogenis iam imperatoris filio"[684].  The Alexeiad names "Theodora, the emperor's sister…widow of Diogenes's murdered son", when recording her reaction to an imposter pretending to be her husband who had been killed in Antioch[685].  The text names the son "Leon" but it is clear from the context that it must refer to Konstantinos, who was killed when his half-brother Leon was still an infant.  She became a nun as XENA.  Konstantine Diogenes & his wife had [one] child:

(a)       [ANNA Diogene.  Her possible parentage and marriage are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[686], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m UROŠ Grand Župan of Serbia, nephew of VUKAN Župan of Raška, son of --- ([1080]-after 1130).] 

ii)         [son .  Amatus refers to the emperor (unnamed) giving "his son in marriage to the daughter of the King of the Turks" in order to obtain his release and that of Roussel[687].  Although not specified in the text, it is assumed that this relates to the release of Emperor Romanos IV following the battle of Manzikert in Aug 1071, in which case the son in question was unlikely to have been Konstantinos who was then already married.  It is not known which of the emperor's sons this passage might refer to, but it presumably must have been a son by his first marriage as his sons by his second marriage were still infants at the time.  The accuracy of this report is doubtful, especially in light of the report of Alp-Arslan requesting the emperor's daughter in marriage for his son, in a late Persian source (see below), which suggests that the whole episode may have been garbled or romanticised by one or both of the sources.  If Amatus is accurate, it does not necessarily follow that the marriage took place as the bridegroom would have had to convert to Islam.  [m ([1071/72]) --- Seljuk, daughter of ALP ARSLAN Seljuk Sultan.] 

iii)        [daughter .  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Alp-Arslan" defeated and captured "le roi de Roum Ormanus", presumably referring to the battle of Manzikert, requesting "sa fille en mariage pour son fils Malek-Arslan"[688].  The accuracy of this report is doubtful, especially in light of the report of Alp-Arslan requesting the emperor's son in marriage for his daughter, in Amatus (see above), which suggests that the whole episode may have been garbled or romanticised by one or both of the sources.  If the late Persian source is accurate, the difference in religion would not necessarily have prevented the marriage from taking place as other primary sources show that the sultans of the various dynasties often married Christian wives (see the document WEST ASIA and NORTH AFRICA (2)).  m (after 19 Aug 1071) MALIK Shah, son of Seljuk Sultan ALP ARSLAN.  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1072.]   

Emperor Romanos IV & his second wife had two children:

iv)       LEON Diogenes ([1068/70]-killed in battle [1087/89]).  The Alexeiad names "the sons of the former emperor Romanos Diogenes, Leon and Nikephoros" when recording that they supported Giorgios Palaiologos against Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081, clarifying in a later passage that they were the sons of Empress Eudoxia[689].  Emperor Mikhael VII banished him and his brother Nikeforos to the monastery of Kyperudes with their mother.  Emperor Alexios I Komnenos rehabilitated the brothers, and installed Leon as ruler in Sparta[690].  The Alexeiad records that "Leo, Diogenes's son" was mortally wounded fighting the Scythians[691]

v)        NIKEFOROS Diogenes ([1069/72]-after 1094).  The Alexeiad names "the sons of the former emperor Romanos Diogenes, Leon and Nikephoros" when recording that they supported Giorgios Palaiologos against Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081, clarifying in a later passage that they were the sons of Empress Eudoxia[692].  Emperor Alexios I installed Nikeforos as governor of the island of Cyprus[693].  He rebelled against Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in 1094 and was blinded and banished[694]

 

 

1.         --- Diogene, relative of ROMANOS Diogenes.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1068]) MANUEL Komnenos, kuropalates, son of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena (-killed in battle Bithynia [1070/early 1071]). 

 

 

1.         LEON Diogenes (-murdered 15 Aug 1116).  His parentage is unknown.  He fled to Russia where he was accepted as a son of Emperor Romanos IV, although an imposter[695]m MARIA Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR I Vsevolodich Monomakh Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife [Gytha of England] (-1146).  Baumgarten cites Russian primary sources which confirm this couple's marriage[696]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    BOTANEIATES, EMPEROR 1078-1081

 

 

1.         ANDREAS Botaneiates .  An undated seal, dated to the 9th century, records “André Botaniate, spathaire impérial et anthypatos[697]

 

2.         THEOFYLAKTOS Botaneiates (-[1015]).  Cedrenus records that "Theophylacto Botaneita" was appointed as doux of Thessaloniki after "Davidum Arianitum" by Emperor Basileios II, dated to [1015] from the context[698]

 

 

NIKEFOROS III 1078-1081

 

Two children whose parents are not known:

1.         NIKEFOROS Botaneiates ([1020]-after 1081).  His possible origin is suggested by Skylitzes who names "Botaniates ex nobilibus a Phoca oriundus" when recording his rise to power in [1077/78][699].  Any relationship between the Phokas and Botaneiates families has not yet been traced.  Cedrenus names "Romanus Sclerus, Burtza, Botaneiates, Basilii Argyrii filii" among the supporters of Isaakios Komnenos, in 1057[700].  Skylitzes records that "magister Basilius Apocapes et magister Nicephorus Botaniates" campaigned against the Pechenegs in Bulgaria and were captured, dated to [1059/60][701].  He was military commander in the Danube area in 1064[702].  Governor of Antioch in 1067[703].  Although he enjoyed good relations with Romanos Diogenes, on the latter's accession as Emperor Romanos IV the relationship cooled.  After Emperor Mikhael VII succeeded in 1071, Nikeforos Botaneiates returned to favour and was appointed kuropalates and strategos of the theme of Anatolikon[704].  He rebelled against Emperor Mikhael VII, was acclaimed emperor 7 Jan 1078, gained the support of Suleiman Seljuk Sultan, and marched on Constantinople where a revolt broke out in his support against the unpopular government of the emperor.  He entered Constantinople 24 Mar 1078, and was crowned Emperor NIKEFOROS III the same day by the Patriarch.  He married the wife of his predecessor, who had retired to a monastery, to gain legitimacy.  He was faced by the rebellion of Nikeforos Bryennios, governor of Durazzo, and of Basilacius in Thessaly.  The Turkish garrison of Nikaia also rose in revolt.  He was excommunicated by Pope Gregory, and Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia landed at Avlona and marched towards Durazzo.  This was followed by the revolt of Nikeforos Melissenos, whose alliance with Sultan Suleiman enabled the latter to capture Bythinia and establish himself as Sultan at Nikaia[705].  Finally, Alexios Komnenos rebelled and forced Nikeforos's abdication 4 Apr 1081.  According to the Alexeiad, he had planned to name Nikeforos Synadenos, his nephew, as his successor[706].  He retired to become a monk.  m firstly ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly BEBDENE, daughter of ---.  Skylitzes Continuatus names Bebdene as the first wife of Emperor Romanos III[707]Augustam thirdly (bigamously 1 Apr 1078) as her second husband, MARIA of Georgia, repudiated wife of Emperor MIKHAEL VII, daughter of BAGRAT IV King of the Abkhazis and Kartvelians [Georgia] & his [first/second] wife [Helena Argyre/Borena of Osetia] (-after 1090).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that Emperor Mikhael married Maria, daughter of Bagrat King of Georgia.  She was repudiated by her first husband when he became a monk.  The Alexeiad records that "Botaneiates had established himself on the throne immediately after the deposition of Mikhael Doukas, and…won the hand of the Empress Maria"[708].  She became a nun as MARTHA.  Emperor Nikeforos III & his first wife may have had children, although this seems questionable if it is correct that the emperor planned to nominate his nephew as his successor:

a)         [---.  m ---.] 

i)          --- [Botaneiates] .  The Alexeiad records that "Anna Dalassena, the mother of the Komneni" arranged the marriage of "the grandson of Botaneiates and the daughter of Manuel her eldest son"[709]Betrothed (1081) to --- Komnene, daughter of MANUEL Komnenos, kuropalates, & his wife --- Diogene (1069-). 

2.         --- Botaneiatissa.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Skylitzes who records that Nikeforos Botaneiates married "sororis suæ filiam Synadenen, Theodulo Synadeno genitam" to "crali Ungariæ"[710]m THEODULOS Synadenos, son of ---. 

 

 

1.         LEON Botaneiates .  A seal dated to [1050] names "Leon Botaneiates, protospatharios and strategos of Dyrrachion"[711]

 

2.         EUSTRATIOS Botaneiates .  Two seals dated to [1067] name "Eustratios Botaneiates, patrikios anthypatos and strategos of Zebele"[712]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         NIKEFOROS Botaneiatesm EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Irena of Georgia.  1108.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Nikeforos Botaneiates & his wife had one child:

a)         ISAAKIOS Botaneiates.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         GEORGIOS Botaneiates.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ZOE Doukaina, daughter of [IOANNES] Doukas & his wife Anna Komnene.  1120.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.    

 

3.         MANUEL Botaneiates .  A seal dated to [1125] names "Manuel Botaneiates sebastos"[713]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    ANGELOS, EMPERORS 1185-1195

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

[MANUEL] Angelos.  He was "of modest origins"[714].  From Philadelphia.  Patrikios 1078/81[715]

m ---.  The name of [Manuel]'s wife is not known. 

[Manuel] Angelos & his wife had four children:

1.         KONSTANTINOS Angelos (-after Jul 1166).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pansébastohypertatos.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "[le] gendre de ma Majesté le pansébastohypertate kyr Constantin" on the date of his death[716]Sébastohypertatos [1147].  [717].  He was commander of the imperial fleet in Sicily in 1145.  Military commander 1149/66[718].  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Constantinum cognomento Angelum, avunculum suum" as Emperor Manuel I's military commander, dated to [1154][719].  Niketas Choniates records that Emperor Manuel I appointed "avunculo suo Constantino Angelo Philadelphiense et Basilio Tripsycho" to repair the town of "Zeugmino" which had been captured, dated to [Jun/Jul 1166][720]m (before [1110]) THEODORA Komnene, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (15 Jan 1096-).  Niketas Choniates names "Theodoram Alexii avi Manuelis filiam" as wife of "Constantinum Angelum"[721].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...fille de ma Majesté, la porphyrogénète kyra Théodora" on the date of her death[722]Konstantinos Angelos & his wife had [nine] children:

a)         IOANNES Doukas Angelos (-[1200]).  Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii, Iohannes et Andronicus"[723].  His birth date is estimated from the estimated marriage date of his parents, which means that he must have already been an old man when appointed sébastokrator in 1186.  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “Jean Doukas sebastocrator...”, identified by Stiernon as the son of Konstantinos Angelos and his wife Theodora Komnene[724]Pretender to the imperial throne 1199.  Governor of Epirus and Thessaly[725]

-        LORDS of EPIRUS

b)         ALEXIOS Komnenos Angelos (-9 Sep, 1166 or after).  The foundation inscription of the church of St Panteleimon at Nerezi near Skopje, dated Sep 1164, records "kyr Alexis Comnène fils de la porphyrogénète Théodora"[726]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...patruelibus...nostri regis filiis...patrui...eius pansebasti...domini Constantini Angeli, domino Joanne, domino Alexio, domino Andronico, domino Isaacio...[727]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 9 Sep of "Alexios nios tes porfyrogennetou kyras Theodoras"[728]m ---.  The name of Alexios's wife is not known.  Alexios Angelos & his wife had one child:

i)          MIKHAEL Angelos (-after Feb 1190).  The Historia de Expeditione Friderici records that Emperor Isaakios II sent “domnum Michaelem filium patrui sui sevostratoris Ioannis Duca et domnum Michaelem filium alterius patrui eius domni Alexii Angeli et Manuel consobrinum imperii eius filium stratovasilum et domnum Alexium filium consobrini eius protostratoris Manuel Camizi et tertium Manuel sevaston Monomachii filium Uriennii Ioseph et pansevaston acolithon Eumathium Philocalim” as hostages to Emperor Friedrich I, dated to Feb 1190[729]

c)         ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos (-after 1185).  Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii Iohannes et Andronicus...Macroducas Constantinus et Lapartas Andronicus" among those who witnessed the defeat at Myriokephalon, dated to 17 Sep 1176[730]

-        see below, Part B

d)         MARIA Angelina.  Prodromos records that “Konstantinou...Kamnytziou” married “ex Theodoras Metros Komnenes Komnene pais Maria[731][A seal dated to [1200] names "Manuel protostrator, Kamytzes on his father's side, and on his mother's side cousin of Komnenodoukas who is ruler of the Ausonians"[732].  If Stiernon correctly identifies Manuel Kamytzes as the son of Konstantinos Kamytzes (see the document BYZANTIUM NOBILITY), this reference applies to Maria Angelina.]  m ([1160]) KONSTANTINOS Kamytzes, son of --- (-after [1201/02]).   

e)         EVDOKIA Angelina .  Stiernon records that Evdokia Angelina married “Goudelios Tzikandilès[733]m GOUDELIOS Tsykandeles, son of --- (-after 1166).  The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...sebasto domino Gudelio Tzicandile...[734]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Gudelio Tzicandile...[735]

f)          ZOE Angelina.  Her marriage is confirmed by a poem which records the epitaph of Andronikos Synadenos “...Archais de lamprais kosmikais epiprepei eis yin Epidámnou te kai nison Kyprou stratigetei...to Niso... Syndei de kai Sólyma ti Konstantinou, ton riga pros sytseuksiv elkusas gamoy....adelfopaida tou basileos...Arxei d´ep autois kai Trapezountos télos[736]m ANDRONIKOS Synadenos, son of --- (-1180).  He became a monk as ATHANASIOS

g)         ISAAKIOS Angelos .  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...patruelibus...nostri regis filiis...patrui...eius pansebasti...domini Constantini Angeli, domino Joanne, domino Alexio, domino Andronico, domino Isaacio...[737]1170.  Military governor/strategos of Cilicia.  m ---.  The name of Isaakios's wife is not known.  Isaakios Angelos & his wife had one possible child:

i)          [KONSTANTINOS Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Dux of Crete 1185/92.  Strategos of Philippopolis 1192.  Emperor Isaakios II Angelos appointed him to head an army to invade Bulgaria in [1193], but Konstantinos revolted, hoping to acquire the imperial throne[738].  He was blinded by Emperor Isaakios[739].] 

h)         [--- Angelos .  The reference to “stratovasilum” in the source quoted below is difficult to explain.  From the context, it should refer to the father of “Manuel consobrinum imperii”, but it is in the accusative not the genitive case.  m ---.  [One child:] 

i)          [MANUEL Angelos (-after Sep 1191).  The Historia de Expeditione Friderici records that Emperor Isaakios II sent “domnum Michaelem filium patrui sui sevostratoris Ioannis Duca et domnum Michaelem filium alterius patrui eius domni Alexii Angeli et Manuel consobrinum imperii eius filium stratovasilum et domnum Alexium filium consobrini eius protostratoris Manuel Camizi et tertium Manuel sevaston Monomachii filium Uriennii Ioseph et pansevaston acolithon Eumathium Philocalim” as hostages to Emperor Friedrich I, dated to Feb 1190[740].  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “...Manuel Ange...”, whom Stiernon identifies as “cousin germain de l´empereur[741].] 

2.         NIKOLAOS Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Nicolaus cognomento Angelus" as one of the military commanders of Emperor Manuel I during campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor[742].  1148. 

3.         IOANNES Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Ioannes Angelus" as one of the military commanders of Emperor Manuel I, in command of French and Alan reinforcements, of Italian allies and mercenaries at Brindisi (with "Bassavilla"), and sent to relieve Zeugminon[743].   

4.         MIKHAEL Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastos 1147.  Protonobilissimos hyperstatosThe record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...protonobilissimo...domino Michaele Angelo...[744].

 

 

1.         daughter.  Her parentage is not known.  Europäische Stammtafeln[745] places her as a possible daughter of Isaakios Angelos, youngest son of Konstantinos Angelos (see above), but the basis for this is not known.  m ([1189]) --- Batatzes, son of ---. 

 

 

It is not known how the following persons were related to the main Angelos family or to each other, if at all. 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Angelosm ---.  The name of Mikhael's wife is not known.  Mikhael Angelos & his wife had one child:

a)         IOANNES Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pansébastos and sébastos.  1157/66.  m --- Komnene Aneme, daughter of MANUEL Anemas  Panhyperprotosebastypértatos & his wife Theodora Komnene.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

2.         IOANNES Komnenos Angelos (-1259).  His parentage is not known.  Dux of Thrakesion 1235-[1236/37].  Megas primikerios 1255.  Protostrator of the west 1255/59.  He became a monk as KALLINIKOSm ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  She may have been EVDOKIA, assuming that then undated seal, dated to the 13th century, records “Eudoxias Evdokian skepois me [ten] sen oiketen sebastokratorisan ek basi[leon] klad[ov][746], refers to her daughter as suggested below.  Ioannes Angelos & his wife had two children:

a)         [GEORGIOS] Komnenos Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas primikerios 1259.  1262. 

b)         EVDOKIA Angelina ([1222]-[1253]).  Georgius Akropolites names "Eudocia Angeli Ioannis filia" as widow of "sebastocratoris filius Ioannes" recording that she died around the time of her daughter's marriage, dated to the early 1250s from the context of the passage[747].  [An undated seal, dated to the 13th century, records “Eudoxias Evdokian skepois me [ten] sen oiketen sebastokratorisan ek basi[leon] klad[ov][748].  It is possible that this seal refers to the wife of Ioannes Doukas Batatzes as no other Evdokia has been identified whose husband bore the title sebastokrator.]  m IOANNES Doukas Batatzes, son of ISAAKIOS Doukas Batatzes, sébastokrator, pansébastos sébastos & his wife --- (-[1240]). 

 

3.         THEODOROS Komnenos Angelos.  Senator 1286.  Megas domestikos 1287/1302. 

 

 

 

B.      EMPERORS 1185-1195

 

 

ISAAKIOS II 1185-1195 & 1203-1204, ALEXIOS III 1195-1203, ALEXIOS IV 1203-1204

 

ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene (-after 1185)The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...patruele...regis nato ex...patruo...regis, pansebasto...domino Constantino Angelo, domino...Joanne Duca; fratre eiusdem...nepote...regis domino Andronico Duca...[749].  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...patruelibus...nostri regis filiis...patrui...eius pansebasti...domini Constantini Angeli, domino Joanne, domino Alexio, domino Andronico, domino Isaacio...[750]A military leader in Asia Minor 1176/83.  Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii Iohannes et Andronicus...Macroducas Constantinus et Lapartas Andronicus" among those who witnessed the defeat at Myriokephalon, dated to 17 Sep 1176[751]

m (before [1155]) EUPHROSYNE Kastamonitissa, niece of THEODOROS Kastamonites, megas logothetis, daughter of --- (-killed in battle against Dyrrhacchion [1185/95]).  Niketas Choniates names "matrem Isaacii Angeli Euphrosynam"[752].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

Andronikos Angelos & his wife had [nine] children:

1.         KONSTANTINOS Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  It is assumed that Konstantinos was his parents' oldest son, named after his paternal grandfather in line with Byzantine naming practices.  Blinded 1183.  Sébastokrator 1185. 

2.         IOANNES Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastokrator[753]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Angelos & his wife had two children:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Hostage to Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in 1189[754]

3.         ALEXIOS Komnenos Angelos (before [1155]-monastery of Hyakinthos, Nikaia after 1211, bur monastery of Hyakinthos[755]).  Niketas Choniates names "Isaacius et Alexius" as sons of "Andronicus Angelus"[756].  He deposed his younger brother 8 Apr 1195 at Kypsela while on campaign against Bulgaria, succeeding as Emperor ALEXIOS III.  He immediately called off the campaign and returned to Constantinople, but Bulgarian raids continued, marked by their capture of Serres, and Alexios was forced to send troops under his son-in-law Isaakios Komnenos who was defeated on the Struma River[757].  Emperor Alexios continued the abuses of his predecessor, attempting to buy support with large land gifts, overtaxing the poor, and selling offices, all resulting in a terminal weakening of the empire.  Alexios III was obliged to agree an enormous annual tribute to Heinrich VI Emperor of Germany, who threatened an invasion to avenge the overthrow of Emperor Isaakios II, but was unable to raise sufficient funds through his special "German" tax.  Emperor Heinrich was planning an attack but died before the preparations were complete[758].  Pope Innocent III began pressing for a full-scale crusade to the east after his election in 1198, but this Fourth Crusade was used as a pretext by the western allies to conquer Byzantium.  Arriving at Constantinople 24 Jun 1203, the city fell to the army of the crusaders 17 Jul 1203.  What may be an eye-witness account of the sack of Constantinople is included in the Novgorod Chronicle[759].  Emperor Alexios fled the city with most of the state treasury and the Byzantine crown jewels, and his brother Isaakios II was restored as emperor.  Isaakios made his way to eastern Thessaly where his wife's family had large estates.  He allied himself with Leon Sguros, who had captured Thebes and large parts of Attika and Beotia, and to whom he gave his daughter Evdokia[760].  He was captured by Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, newly installed as king of Thessaloniki, during his campaign in Thessaly and held for ransom which was paid by Mikhael Komnenos Doukas Despot of Epirus[761].  He escaped and made his way to the court of the Seljuk Sultan of Iconium[762].  Together they attacked the new empire of Nikaia, ruled by Alexios's son-in-law, by whom he was captured in Spring 1211 and imprisoned in the monastery of Hyakinthos where he later died[763]m ([1170/80]) EUPHROSYNE Doukaina Kamaterina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Kamateros & his wife --- Kantakouzene (-Arta 1211).  Niketas Choniates names "Euphrosyna" as wife of Emperor Alexios[764].  Her parentage is confirmed by Niketas Choniates naming "fratri eius Camatero Basilio", referring to Euphrosyne, in a later passage[765].  She escaped to Arta in Epirus and found refuge at the court of Mikhael Angelos[766]Ephræmius records the death of "Euphrosyne regina" and her burial at Arta[767].  Emperor Alexios III & his wife had three children: 

a)         EIRENE Komnene Angelina (-after 1203).  Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[768]Ephræmius records that "filiarum…Irene natu maior" married "Andronico…de Contostephanis"[769].  Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Irenem" and "Alexio Paleologo"[770].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Palaeologo, qui despotæ dignitate…" married "imperatoris Alexii…filiarum illius…prima Irene"[771].  She went into exile in 1203.  m firstly as his second wife, ANDRONIKOS Kontostefanos, son of STEFANOS Kontostefanos, panhypersébastos, megas dux & his wife Anna Komnene (-[1196]).  Mega drongariosm secondly (1199) as his second wife, ALEXIOS Komnenos Palaiologos, son of --- Doukas Palaiologos & his wife Eirene Komnene Kantakouzene (-[1201/04]).  He was awarded the title despot in 1199. 

b)         ANNA Komnene Angelina ([1175/80][772]-1212, bur monastery of Hyakinthos[773]).  Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[774]Ephræmius records that "filiarum…iunior…Anna" married "Comnenorum…Isaacio, qui apud Moesos obiit in vinculis"[775].  Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Annam" and "Theodoro Lascaro, adolescenti"[776].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodoro Lascari" married "imperatoris Alexii…filiarum illius…secunda Anna"[777]m firstly (before 1190) ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of --- (-in prison Trnovo, soon after 1196).  Sébastokrator 1195.  General.  He led his father-in-law's campaign in Bulgaria in 1196 but was defeated on the Struma River, captured and sent to Trnovo where he soon died in prison[778]m secondly (early 1199) as his first wife, THEODOROS Laskaris, son of --- Laskaris & his wife --- ([1175]-Nov 1221, bur monastery of Hyakinthos).  After escaping Constantinople following its fall to the crusading army in Apr 1204, he established himself in Nikaia where he was crowned THEODOROS I Emperor in Nikaia in 1208. 

c)         EVDOKIA Komnene Angelina (-after 1208).  Niketas Choniates names "Eudociam" as third daughter of Emperor Alexios when recording her marriage to "Neemania filii"[779].  Her first marriage was arranged to seal the Byzantine/Serbian peace treaty of 1190[780].  After her first husband accused her of adultery, she was expelled from Serbia, on foot with only the clothes on her back, and sought refuge in Zeta with her brother-in-law Vukan who provided her with the means to return to Constantinople[781].  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Euphrosyna imperatoris…filia Eudocia" and "imperatoris Alexeii"[782].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ducas Alexius" (referring to Alexios Doukas Mourzouflos) married "imperatoris Alexii filiam Eudociam, filiarum illius postremam", commenting that "impuberem" she had married "crali Serviæ"[783].  Villehardouin records the marriage of "Emperor Murzuphlus" and "the daughter of Emperor Alexius" but does not name her[784]Ephræmius records that "Eudociam filiam" married "Sguro", recalling that her previous husbands had been "principi…Triballorum Stephano, qui repudiatam remisit in patriam…[et] Murtzuflo Ducæ"[785].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Alexius imperator…Eudocia filia" married "Corinthum…Sguro illius regionis dynastæ"[786]m firstly (1191, repudiated [1201/02]) STEFAN of Serbia, son of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana ---  (-24 Sep 1227).  He was granted the title sébastokrator by his wife's uncle Emperor Isaakios II.  He succeeded in 1196 on the abdication of his father as STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia.  He was crowned STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia in [1217].  m secondly (1204 after 12 Apr) ALEXIOS Doukas Mourzouflos, son of --- (-murdered Nov 1204).  He was installed [Jan/Apr] 1204 as Emperor ALEXIOS V.  m thirdly (1204) LEON Sguros Archon of Navplion, son of --- (-1208).  After the establishment of the Latin Empire of Constantinople in 1204, he captured Thebes and large parts of Attika and Beotia.  He formed an alliance with ex-Emperor Alexios III, sealed by his marriage to the latter's daughter.  He was expelled by the advancing armies of Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, who was expanding the territory of his newly founded kingdom south into Thessaly[787].  He took an active part in the defence of Corinth, whose siege was to last five years, but committed suicide by leaping on horseback from Acrocorinth when he lost hope of defending the city[788]

4.         [MIKHAEL] Angelos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Blinded 1184. 

5.         THEODOROS Angelos.  Niketas Choniates records that "Angelum Theodorum adolescentem pene adhuc imberbem" was blinded [in 1184][789]

6.         ISAAKIOS Angelos ([1155]-Constantinople in prison [28 Jan/12 Apr] 1204).  Niketas Choniates names "Isaacius et Alexius" as sons of "Andronicus Angelus"[790].  As leader of the aristocrats against whom Emperor Andronikos I had struggled, he succeeded in 1185 on the latter's downfall as Emperor ISAAKIOS II.  He immediately attacked the Normans, his general Alexios Branas defeating them at Mosynopolis and Dimitritsa 7 Nov 1185, which resulted in their expulsion from Thessaloniki, Durazzo and Corfu[791].  Isaakios also made peace with Béla III King of Hungary, sealed by the emperor's second marriage with the king's daughter.  In 1186, he was faced with the rebellion of Alexios Branas, who had been sent to quell the Bulgarian rebellion of the brothers Ivan Asen and Teodor but, having penetrated rebel territory, used the army for his own interests and led it to Adrianople where he was proclaimed emperor.  Branas marched on Constantinople, but was put to flight and killed by loyal forces[792].  Emperor Isaakios led his army personally against Bulgarian rebels, successfully driving them across the Danube.  This was followed by further campaigns in Sep 1187 and 1188, but the emperor was forced to recognise Bulgarian independence under a peace treaty signed in 1188[793].  Tensions developed with Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa", leader of the Third Crusade, who had received a warm welcome in Serbia and had crossed into Byzantine territory at Braničevo.  Anxious to protect his interests, Isaakios signed a treaty of alliance with Saladin, which worsened the situation.  After taking Philippopolis [Plovdiv] and Adrianople, as well as threatening Constantinople, Emperor Friedrich forced Emperor Isaakios to give him provisions and ships to cross into Asia Minor[794].  In Sep 1190, Byzantine troops defeated the Serbs at the Morava River, but although the Byzantines regained Niš, Beograd and northern Macedonia including Skopje, under the ensuing peace treaty, they were obliged to recognise Serb independence and Nemanja's right to rule Zeta, southern Dalmatia, Trebinje and Hum[795].  In retaliation for Bulgarian raids on Philippopolis, Sardika [Sofija] and Adrianople, Emperor Isaakios attacked Bulgaria but was heavily defeated in [1194] near Arcadiopolis[796].  The reign of Emperor Isaakios saw a major weakening of Byzantium and was marked by a rapid revival of corruption and administrative abuses, especially increased taxes to establish his luxurious court[797].  He was deposed 8 Apr 1195 by his older brother Alexios while preparing a further campaign against Bulgaria, and blinded.  He was restored as emperor 17 Jul 1203 when the crusading army captured Constantinople and his brother Alexios III had fled, his son being named as co-emperor.  Isaakios was deposed end-Jan 1204 in an anti-Latin revolt which broke out in Constantinople, and imprisoned once more.  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[798]m firstly (before [1181]) [EIRENE] Tornikaina, daughter of DEMETRIOS Tornikes & his wife --- Malakissa (-[18 Nov] [1183/85]).  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[799].  Bearing in mind the estimated date of death of Emperor Isaakios (see above), it is possible that 18 Nov commemorates the death of [Eirene], although it is also possible that the date commemorates some other family event.  There remains some doubt about whether "Eirene" can have been the name of Isaakios's first wife as the original baptismal name of her daughter, "Maria regina", is also recorded as Eirene, the Byzantine naming practice not normally being to name children after their parents.  One possibility is that [Eirene] died while giving birth to Eirene/Maria, as naming a child after a parent appears to have been acceptable practice in those circumstances.  If that is correct, it is unlikely that [Eirene] died later than [1184] considering her daughter´s first marriage in 1192.  Her relationship with the Tornikes family is indicated by a document at Patmos which names Konstantinos Tornikes as uncle ("θείου") of Emperor Alexios IV, dated to Dec 1203[800].  While the passage would not exclude Konstantinos being the husband either of a maternal or paternal aunt of the emperor, or indeed a more remote relation as the word "θείος" could indicate a family relationship which is more distant than "uncle", Don Stone and Charles Owens, in their detailed analysis of all the relevant sources, argue convincingly that the most likely interpretation is that Konstantinos Tornikes was Emperor Alexios´s maternal uncle[801]m secondly (1185) as her first husband, MARGIT of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1175-after 3 Mar 1229).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[802].  She brought Beograd, Braničevo and probably Niš as part of her dowry[803].  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of Emperor Isaakios and "Belæ Hungariæ regis filiam", commenting that she was only ten years old at the time[804].  The special wedding tax levied to finance her elaborate nuptial ceremonies may have contributed to attracting support for the rebellion in Bulgaria by the brothers Ivan Asen and Tedor[805].  She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium.  Villehardouin records that the wife of Emperor Isaakios, and stepmother of his son, was "the king of Hungary's sister", in a later passage naming her "the Empress Marie"[806].  She married secondly (May 1204) as his second wife, Bonifazio I Marchese di Monferrato, who wished thereby to advance his claim to be installed as emperor of the new Latin Empire of Constantinople[807].  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "Bonifacius marchio" and "Margaritam imperatricem condam Ysachii, sororem Aimerici regis Ungari"[808].  Villehardouin records the marriage of "the Marquis Boniface de Montferrat" and "the lady who had been the Emperor Isaac's wife…the king of Hungary's sister"[809].  Georgius Akropolites records that "rex Thessalonicæ" married "Mariam Ungaram", widow of "imperatori Isaacio"[810].  She married thirdly (after Sep 1207) Nicolas de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes.  She was regent of Thessaloniki in 1207.  Pope Gregory IX confirmed that "[Margaretha] soror…regis Ungarie" acquired "terram…ulterior Sirmia" by bull dated 3 Mar 1229[811].  Emperor Isaakios III & his first wife had [four] children: 

a)         EUPHROSYNE (-[1 Oct] ----).  Niketas Choniates records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio", of whom "filiam natu maiorem monacham fect"[812].  A nun.  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[813].  The wording of this entry suggests that Euphrosyne predeceased her sister. 

b)         ALEXIOS Angelos ([1180/83]-murdered Constantinople 1204 after 28 Jan).  Niketas Choniates records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio"[814].  It is assumed that Alexios was still an infant when his mother died, but there is little basis for being more precise about his age.  Imprisoned with his father when the latter was overthrown, he escaped in 1201 and fled to the court of his brother-in-law Philipp von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia who promised support for his claim to the Byzantine throne[815], maybe on the basis that he would be Alexios's successor[816].  Alexios joined the crusading army at Zara in Dalmatia 25 Apr 1203, promised large sums of money to the leaders and committed to submit the Orthodox church to Rome if he regained the throne[817].  He was accepted as emperor at Durazzo, and sailed on to Constantinople where they arrived 24 Jun 1203[818].  The city fell to the crusaders 17 Jul 1203 and Emperor Alexios fled.  Ex-Emperor Isaakios II was restored, with Alexios crowned as ALEXIOS IV co-Emperor at St Sofia 1 Aug 1203[819].  Unable to make the payments promised to the crusaders as ex-Emperor Alexios III had looted the state treasury, Alexios announced new taxes and confiscated large quantities of ecclesiastical plate to be melted down[820].  An anti-Latin revolt broke out in Constantinople.  The mob elected Nikolaos Kanabos as emperor[821], although he refused to accept the honour, and when Alexios Mourzouflos invaded the palace he was installed as emperor.  Alexios IV was imprisoned and strangled[822] by Alexios Mourzouflos[823].  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[824].  As noted below, under Alexios´s half-brother Manuel, it is likely that "Manuel" in this entry is an error for Alexios.  Betrothed (1194) to IEVFEMIA Glebovna of Chernigov, daughter of GLEB Sviatoslavich Prince of Bielgorod and Chernigov & his wife [Anastasia] Riurikovna of Ovrutsch. 

c)         [daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Before 1185.  Nun.  same person as …?  ANNA .  According to Fennell[825], the second wife of Roman Prince of Galicia was the daughter of Emperor Isaakios by his first wife.  He says that she was "energetic and enterprising" and that she is named in the Lavrentevskiy Chronicle.  Anna has not been identified in Byzantine sources so far consulted, but it is not impossible that she was the same person as this unnamed daughter.  m ([1196/1200]) as his second wife, ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Volynia, son of MSTISLAV II Iziaslavich "Chabry" Prince of Volynia and Kiev & his wife Agniesk of Poland (after 1160- killed in battle Zawichost 19 Jun 1205).  He succeeded as Prince of Galich in 1199, and as ROMAN Grand Prince of Kiev in 1199.] 

d)         EIRENE Angelina ([1180/84]-Hohenstaufen 27 Aug 1208, bur Kloster Lorsch).  Niketas Choniates records that Emperor Alexios had "ex priore coniuge…filiabus duabus et uno filio", of whom "[filiam] alteram" married "Siciliam regis Tangris filio"[826].  On the basis of her first marriage in 1192, it is unlikely that Eirene was born much later than 1184 at the latest.  One possibility is that her mother died while giving birth to Eirene, which, as discussed further above, would provide the best explanation for mother and daughter having had the same names in apparent contradiction with Byzantine naming practices.  If this is correct, she would of course have been her parents´ youngest child.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica in 1191 record the marriage at Brindisis of "Ysacho Constantinopolitano imperatorie de Urania filia sua" and Roger elder son of Tancredo[827].  The Annales Casenses record the marriage in 1193 of "filiam imperatoris Constantinopolitani" and "Roggerus filio suo [=Tancredi]"[828].  She was among those taken as prisoners by Emperor Heinrich VI King of Germany when he invaded Sicily in 1194.  Niketas Choniates records that "Irene Isaacii imperatoris filia" was abducted from Sicily and married to "notho fratri Alemanniæ Philippo"[829].  Her second marriage is recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator), who names her father without naming her[830].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records the marriage of "Tanachredus Tanachredi filius viduam, Constantinopolitani imperatoris filiam" and "Philippus Romanorum imperatoris germanus"[831].  She adopted the name MARIA on her second marriage.  The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[832]m firstly (Brindisi [Jul/Aug] 1192) ROGER joint King of Sicily, son of TANCREDO King of Sicily & his wife Sibila di Medania ([1180]-24 Dec 1193).  Created Duke of Apulia by his father in 1193.  m secondly (betrothed 2/3 Apr 1195, [Bari] 25 May 1197) PHILIPP von Hohenstaufen Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany & his second wife Béatrice de Bourgogne [Comté] ([1172]-murdered Bamberg 21 Jun 1208, bur Speyer Cathedral).  He was elected PHILIPP King of Germany in 1198.  He supported the claim to the Byzantine throne of his brother-in-law Alexios Angelos, who had sought refuge at his court in 1201[833].  He and Alexios promised the leaders of the Fourth Crusade enormous sums in return for helping to remove Emperor Alexios III[834].  He was murdered by Otto von Wittelsbach. 

Emperor Isaakios III & his second wife had two children:

e)         MANUEL Angelos ([after 1192]-[1212]).  [The necrology of Speyer cathedral records the death "VI Kal Sep" of "Maria regina Philippi regis contectalis, nata de Grecia" and the donations which she made to found the anniversaries "in octava Martini [18 Nov]…patris eius et matris eius…Ysaac et matre Herina" and "fratris…eius et sororis eius tercia die post festum Michahelis [1 Oct]…Manuel fratre, Effrosina sorore"[835].  At first sight, it appears that "Manuel" who is commemorated would be donor´s half-brother of that name.  However, it seems suprising that Eirene/Maria would commemorate her half-brother and not her full brother Emperor Alexios IV.  In addition, the entry quoted below appears to indicate that Manuel died after his half-sister Eirene/Maria, while it is clear from the wording of the Speyer entry that her relatives for whom she founded the anniversaries were already deceased at the time.  It therefore appears more probable that "Manuel" in the Speyer entry is in fact an error for "Alexios".]  It is unlikely that Manuel could have been born before 1192 bearing in mind the birth date of his mother.  He joined in the attack on Theodoros Laskaris, Emperor at Nikaia, in Spring 1211 and was captured.  An inscription found at Nikaia recording the death of "πρίγκιψ Μανουήλ" in 1212 aged 35 has been linked to Manuel Angelos, despite the obvious inconsistency in the age[836]

f)          IOANNES "Kaloioannes" Angelos (-before 13 Jan 1254).  Pope Honorius III wrote to "nobili viro Johanni nato…Margarite quondam imperatricis Constantinopolitane" requesting him to keep his promise to campaign against the Bosnian heretics, dated 15 Jan 1227[837].  Hungarian under-Lord in Syrmia 1235/42.  Obergespan of Kö 1235.  "Iohannes filius quondam Iursac Imperatoris Constantinopolitani" gave commitments to the papal legate in Hungary by charter dated 22 Sep 1235[838].  Obergespan of Bács 1240/42.  m MATHILDE von Vianden, daughter of HEINRICH [I] Graf von Vianden & his wife Marguerite de Courtenay.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the dispensation issued by Pope Innocent IV for the marriage of "Anselmum de Keu ac Mariam natam Matildis dominæ de Posaga, natæ comitissæ Viennensis" dated 15 Aug 1253, and the marriage licence for "Maria, nate quondam Calojohanni" dated 13 Jan 1254, the documents naming "imperatore Constantinopolitano, eiusdem Matildis avunculo"[839].  Ioannes & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          [HELENA [Jelena] (-Shkodra 8 Feb 1314).  “Helena, Serbiæ regina” confirmed the possessions of Ragusa by charter dated 1289[840].  The biography of Archbishop Danilo states that "she was of a French family" and a continuator of the work that "the family was of royal or imperial blood"[841].  Fine says less specifically that Jelena was "of Catholic and French origin, probably of the Valois family"[842].  A Hungarian origin is suggested by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungariæ regis generum (γαμβρόν)"[843].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[844], she was related to the kings of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], and was sister of Marie wife of Anseau de Chaurs/Cayeux (Captain General in Albania of Charles I King of Naples and Sicily).  Charles I King of Sicily and Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] addressed (the sisters) "Jelena and Maria de Chau" as "consanguinea nostra/cognata nostra/affinis nostra"[845].  McDaniel identifies "Marie de Chau" as the wife of "Anselm de Keu"[846], who can be identified as Anseau [IV] de Cayeux.  If this is correct, she was the daughter of Ioannes "Kaloiannes" Angelos and his wife Mathilde von Vianden.  McDaniel provides a trail of primary sources which appears convincing.  However, one big question remains: if he is correct, why did contemporary primary sources make so little of Queen Jelena´s direct male line descent from the Angelos imperial family and from the Hungarian kings through her paternal grandmother?  m ([1250]) STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia, son of STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia & his third wife Anna Dandolo (-1 May 1280, bur Sopoćani).] 

ii)         MARIA Angelina (-after 1285).  Pope Innocent IV issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Anselmum de Keu ac Mariam natam Matildis dominæ de Posaga, natæ comitissæ Viennensis" dated 15 Aug 1253, and the marriage licence for "Maria, nate quondam Calojohanni" dated 13 Jan 1254, the documents naming "imperatore Constantinopolitano, eiusdem Matildis avunculo"[847].  Pope Alexander IV confirmed the marriage of "nobili viro Anselmo domino de Keu et Marie uxori eius" dated 15 Jan 1255[848].  "Marie de Kaieu jadis fame monseigneur Ansel de Kaieu, grant baron et camberlenc de l ´empiere de Costantinoble, et Anseaus, leur fils" donated property to the monks of Dommartin by charter dated Jun 1277[849].  McDaniel dates her last documented appearance to 1285[850]m (Papal dispensation 15 Aug 1253, licence 13 Jan 1254) as his [fourth] wife, ANSEAU [V] de Cayeux, son of --- ([1195/1205]-[13 May 1273/Mar 1276]). 

7.         EIRENE Angelina.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannes cognomento…Cantacuzenus" married "Andronici sebastocratoris filiam"[851].  Niketas Choniates records that "Iohannes Cantacuzenus" married "imperatoris sororem"[852]m (before 1170, dispensation [1185/86]) IOANNES Kantakouzenos, son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife --- (-after 1186).  He was blinded in 1183 by Emperor Andronikos.  Appointed cæsar in 1185.  He was a military commander in Bulgaria, but was dispossessed and his title confiscated. 

8.         THEODORA Angelina (-after 1195).  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Conradi…Montisferrati domini filius" and "Imperatoris Isaacius…sorore Theodora"[853].  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "sororem suam [Ysachii] Hermem" and "Conrado marchionis filio"[854].  After she was repudiated, she became a nun at Dalmatios convent.  m (early 1187, abandoned [May/Jun] 1187) as his second wife, CORRADO di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] ([1145/47]-murdered Tyre 28 Apr 1192). 

9.         [daughter .  It is not known which of the above daughters may have been the mother of Theodora or whether her mother was a different daughter altogether.  m ---.] 

a)         [THEODORA ([1180/85]-Kahlenberg 22/23 Jun 1246, bur Kloster Neuburg).  Theodora is shown as the possible daughter of Ioannes Angelos in Europäische Stammtafeln[855].  However, the Continuatio Admuntensis clarifies that she was "Constantinopolitani imperatoris ex filia neptem", specifying that her marriage was celebrated in Vienna[856].  The Annales Mellicenses record the marriage in 1203 of "Liupoldus dux Austriæ et Styriæ" and "Theodoram filiam regis Grecorum"[857], but this is unlikely to be correct.  She became a nun at Kahlenberg.  The necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert records the death "II Kal Jun" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie et Styrie"[858].  The necrology of Lilienfeld records the death "XI Kal Jul" of "Theodora ducissa ux fundatoris ni Leupoldi"[859].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IX Kal Jul" of "Theodora ducissa Austrie et Stirie sor na"[860]m (1203) LEOPOLD VI Duke of Austria and Styria, son of LEOPOLD V Duke of Austria [Babenberg] & his wife Ilona of Hungary ([1176/77]-San Germano 28 Jul 1230, bur Lilienfeld).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    MOURZOUFLOS, EMPEROR 1204

 

 

ALEXIOS V 1204

 

1.         ALEXIOS Doukas Mourzouflos, son of --- (-murdered Nov 1204).  He was awarded the title protobestiarios by Emperor Alexios IV, and became leader of the nationalists in Constantinople[861].  During the course of the anti-Latin revolt which broke out in Constantinople, Alexios Mourzouflos invaded the palace and was proclaimed 5 Feb 1204 as Emperor ALEXIOS V .  He imprisoned ex-Emperor Alexios IV and caused him to be strangled[862].  The crusaders took control of Constantinople 13 Apr 1204, massacring a large part of the population.  Emperor Alexios V fled with his wife to his father-in-law at Mosynopolis in Thrace[863], but was blinded in his bath on the orders of the latter in the presence of his wife.  He succeeded in escaping, but was captured by Italian soldiers of the Latin Emperor Baudouin I who condemned him to be thrown alive from the top of the column of Theodosius in Constantinople[864]m firstly ---.  The name of Alexios's first wife is not known.  Niketas Choniates records that Alexios Mourzouflos was "homo a pubertate libidinosus et salax" and had repudiated "duas iuvenculas uxores per iniuriam"[865]m secondly ---, daughter of --- Philokales, logothetes ton sekreton & his wife ---.  Niketas Choniates names "Philocalio socero suo" commenting that he was removed from the office of "logothetæ secretorum"[866]m thirdly (1204 after Apr 12) as her second husband, EVDOKIA Komnene Angelina, repudiated wife of STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS III & his wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina (-after 1208).  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Euphrosyna imperatoris…filia Eudocia" and "imperatoris Alexeii"[867].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ducas Alexius" (referring to Alexios Doukas Mourzouflos) married "imperatoris Alexii filiam Eudociam, filiarum illius postremam", commenting that "impuberem" she had married "crali Serviæ"[868].  Villehardouin records the marriage of "Emperor Murzuphlus" and "the daughter of Emperor Alexius" but does not  name her[869].  She married thirdly (Larissa [end 1204/05]) Leon Sguros Archon of Navplion. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    FAMILIES of ANTI-EMPERORS

 

 

 

A.      BRYENNIOS, 1078

 

 

1.         --- BryenniosKuropalatesm ANNA, daughter of --- (-after [1077/78]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "suam sororem Helenam" (referring to "Tarchaneiotes") was betrothed to "fratris Nicephori filio" at the instigation of "matrem Bryenniorum curopalatissam Annam", dated to at or just before the time of her son's rebellion from the context[870].  --- Bryennios & his wife had two children: 

a)         NIKEFOROS Bryennios (-after 1078).  Cedrenus names "ducem patricium Nicephorum Bryennium…ethnarcham" on campaign against the Pechinegs, dated to [1050][871].  Cedrenus records that Emperor Mikhael VI Stratiotikos recalled "Bryennium" from exile and appointed him strategos of "Cappadocibus" and sent him to fight the Turks "cum imperio Macedonicis legionibus", in [1056/57][872].  Skylitzes names "magistrum Nicephorum Bryennium" during his account of the Asia Minor campaign of Emperor Romanos Diogenes, dated to [1071/72][873].  The Alexeiad records that Nikeforos Bryennios was appointed "duke of Dyrrachium" by Emperor Mikhael Doukas and planned a revolt against the emperor[874].  He repressed the Slav revolt of 1072.  He declared himself Emperor NIKEFOROS at Adrianople in Nov 1077, marched on Constantinople and was acclaimed emperor 7 Jan 1078.  The Alexeiad records his defeat by Alexios Komnenos, then domestikos of the Scholai, near Kalaura[875].  m ---.  The name of Nikeforos's wife is not known.  She may have been MARIA, daughter of ---, as an undated seal records “Maria Magistrise e Bryenise[876], while Emperor Nikeforos is recorded with the title magister before his elevation to the imperial throne. 

b)         IOANNES Bryennios (-after 1078).  The Alexeiad records that "Ioannes Bryennios, the general's brother" commanded part of the army of Nikeforos Bryennios at the defeat near Kalaura[877]m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

i)          --- Bryennios .  Nikeforos Bryennios refers to "fratris Nicephori filio" when recording his betrothal[878]Betrothed ([1077/78]) to HELENA Tarchanaiotissa, daughter of --- Tarchanaiotes & his wife ---.  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "suam sororem Helenam" (referring to "Tarchaneiotes") was betrothed to "fratris Nicephori filio" at the instigation of "matrem Bryenniorum curopalatissam Annam", dated to at or just before the time of her son's rebellion from the context[879].    

 

 

As shown below, Nikeforos Bryennios is reported in the Alexeiad as "descended from the Bryennii", indicating the brothers Nikeforos and Ioannes shown above.  Although the birth dates of the brothers Nikeforos and Ioannes, and of Nikeforos junior, cannot be estimated with any reasonable degree of accuracy, it appears unlikely that there would be more than one generation between the two family sub-groups.  The marriage date of Nikeforos junior suggests that it is more likely that he was the grandson rather than the son of one of the brothers.  If, on the contrary, he was the son normal Byzantine naming practices (where a son is not named after his father) suggest that he would have been the son of Ioannes. 

 

1.         NIKEFOROS Bryennios (-Constantinople [1136/38]).  The Alexeiad names "the Cæsar Nicephorus…descended from the Bryennii" as the husband of Anna when recording that he campaigned in Syria with her brother Emperor Ioannes[880]PanhypersébastosCæsar.  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes provides for the future commemoration of "[le] gendre de ma Majesté kyr Nicéphore le césar" on the date of his death[881]Supported by his wife and mother-in-law, he claimed the imperial throne on the death of his father-in-law.  The Alexeiad records that "my husband...went on campaign with my brother the Emperor John, when he led an army...against the Syrians and again reduced the city of Antioch" and adds that at the same time Nikeforos wrote his history of the Emperor Alexios but was prevented from completing the work by illness before he returned to Constantinople and died[882].  Runciman dates the siege of Antioch by Emperor Ioannes to Aug 1137[883], which therefore suggests that Nikeforos Bryennios died around that time.  m (1097) ANNA Komnene Doukaina, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Doukaina (1/2 Dec 1083-[1149/54]).  Niketas Choniates names "Anna…primogenita…Cæsarissa appellata" as daughter of "Alexius Comnenus imperator" and wife of "Nicephoro Bryennio"[884].  Zonaras records that "Anna" was betrothed to "Constantino filio reginæ Mariæ Alanæ" who died before the marriage, and afterwards married "filio natu maiori Nicephori Bryennii"[885].  A prolific writer and historian, she was the author of a history of her father The Alexeiad, which in its preface records her as "Anna daughter of the Emperor Alexius and the Empress Irene, born and bred in the Purple"[886]  She and her mother tried to persuade her father to leave the throne to her husband.  After her brother succeeded, she led an unsuccessful rebellion against him[887].  She became a nun at Kecharitomenes convent after the death of her husband in [1136/37].  Nikeforos Bryennios & his wife had six children:

a)         EIRENE Doukas (-after [1149/54]).  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...petite-fille de ma Majesté, kyra Irène Doukaina, la fille de la porphyrogénète et césarissa kyra Anne" on the date of her death[888].  The position of Eirene in the list of commemorations, ahead of the empress´s own daughters, suggests that she was her oldest (maybe only) grandchild at the time. 

b)         ALEXIOS Bryennios Komnenos (-[30/31] Mar after [1161/67]).  Niketas Choniates names "Alexio Comneno, Bryennii Cæsaris filio, consobrino Manuelis, magni ducis"[889]Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Alexio, imperatoris Alexii ex filia nepote" was granted "magni ducis…dignitate"[890].  Mega Dux 1156.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Alexium…imperatoris Alexii ex Anna filia nepotem…magnus dux…et Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" were sent to Antioch for the betrothal of Emperor Manuel I to Maria of Antioch in 1161[891].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death [30/31] Mar of "Alexiou tou viou tes porfyrogennetou kyras Annas"[892]m ([1122]) [---, daughter of DAVIT II King of Georgia.  Kouroupou and Vannier record that Theodoros Prodromos composed an epithalame on his marriage "célébrées en mème temps que celles de son frère Jean Doukas avec deux princesses venues du Caucase…arrivées à Constantinople…en août 1118…les mariages…repoussés en raison de campagnes militaires jusqu´en 1122" and add that "l´épouse d´Alexis, qui se prénommait peut-être Kata, était une fille du roi David II de Géorgie"[893].  This person has not been identified in the family of the kings of Georgia.]  Alexios Bryennios Komnenos & his wife had two children: 

i)          ANDRONIKOS Komnenos.  Niketas Choniates names "Andronicum Comnenum…Alexii filius, nati ex Bryennio Cæsare et Anna filii Alexii, primi ex Comnenia familia imperatoris", when recording his bid for the throne[894].  Claimant to the imperial throne.  He was blinded by Emperor Isaakios II Angelos. 

ii)         DAVID .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         IOANNES Doukas (-after 1166).  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno... patruele...nostri regis domino Joanne Duca filio...Cæsaris Bryennii...[895]m firstly ([1122]) THEODORA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly ---.  The name of Ioannes's second wife is not known.  Ioannes & his first wife had one child: 

i)          NIKEFOROS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

Ioannes & his second wife had four children: 

ii)         NIKEFOROS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

iii)        ANDRONIKOS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

iv)       ALEXIOS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

v)        MANUEL .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

d)         ANDRONIKOS Bryennios (-21 Sep ----).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 21 Sep of "Andronikos o nios tes porfyrogennitou kai kaisarises Annas"[896]

e)         KONSTANTINOS Bryennios (-30 Oct ----).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 30 Oct of "Konstantiniou niou tes porfyrogenetou kyras Annas tes kaisarises"[897]

f)          MARIA (-18 Apr [before 1149/54]).  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 18 Apr of "mneme Marias tis thygatros tis kaisarises kyras [Annas] tis porfypogenetou"[898].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (supplementary part, dated to [1120/30]) provides for the monastery to be governed by "...ma...petite-fille kyra Irène Doukaina, la fille de la prophyorgénète kyra Anne.  Quand elles seront décédées, ce patronage reviendra à l´autre fille de la porphyrogénète kyra Anne..."[899]It is probable that she predeceased her mother as Giorgios Tornikes refers only to the mourning of her sister Eirene when her mother died[900]

 

 

1.         NIKEFOROS Bryennios (-after 1166).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Alexium…imperatoris Alexii ex Anna filia nepotem…magnus dux…et Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" were sent to Antioch for the betrothal of Emperor Manuel I to Maria of Antioch in 1161[901]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...sebasto domino Nicephoro Bryennio...[902]m EIRENE Komnene, daughter of STEFANOS Kontostefanos & his wife Anna Komnene (after [1125]-).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Nicephorum ex Bryenniorum familia" married "ex fratre vel sorore Manuelis neptim"[903].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

 

2.         IOSEPHOS Bryennios (-after 1166).  Pansébastos.  The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto et genero...regis nostri domino Josepho Bryennio...[904]m MARIA Komnene, daughter of [ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene ---].  Her husband is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, but his wife could have been the daughter either of Andronikos or Isaakios, brothers of Emperor Ioannes II[905].  On balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios.  The death of Andronikos's daughter named Maria is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family.  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

 

3.         THEOFILAKTOS BryenniosStrategos (governor) of Hellada.  An undated seal records “Théphylacte Bryenne stratège de Hellade[906]

 

 

 

B.      MELISSENOS, 1078

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Melissenos .  He was appointed strategos of Anatolikon by Emperor Konstantinos V in 766/67 in reward for his support of iconoclasm[907].  He marched against Banakas of Isauria in 772 but was heavily defeated[908]m ---, sister of Empress Evdokia, third wife of Emperor Konstantinos V, daughter of ---.  Mikhael Melissenos & his wife had one child: 

a)         THEODOTOS Melissenos.  Genesius records that "Theodoto…filio Michaelis patricii, generis Melisseni, cui cognomentum erat Cassiteras" was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Leon V[909].  Ostrogorsky dates his appointment to 1 Apr 815[910]

 

 

1.         NIKEFOROS Melissenos (-17 Nov 1104[911]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that "Manuel" (Comnenos) was captured by the Turks "cum duobus sororem suarum viris, Melisseno et Taronita"[912].  He declared himself Emperor NIKEFOROS at Nikaia end 1080, and obtained the support of Suleiman Sultan of the Seljuk Turks for his claim.  The Alexeiad records that Nikeforos Melissenos declared himself emperor but that, when he heard of the Komnenoi revolt against Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates, he negotiated a truce with them because "we are related" (although the precise relationship is not stated), and was rewarded with the rank cæsar and the governorship of Thessaloniki[913].  He was appointed cæsar (which, subsequent to the creation in favour of Alexios's brother Isaakios of the new title sebastokrator, was no longer the highest honour in the empire) in 1082 by Emperor Alexios I Komnenos[914], rewarding him for his part in the rebellion which overthrew Emperor Nikeforos Botaneiates.  Governor of Thessaloniki 1082-early 1091.  The anonymous Epitome Chronographica records the death 17 Nov 1104 of Nikephoros Melissenos[915]m (before Sep 1067) EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1050]-8 Nov ----).  Nikeforos Bryennios records the marriage of "Ioannes…Comnenus curopalates…Eudocia…secundo genita [filia]" and "Melisseno Nicephoro"[916].  The Alexeiad names Nikeforos Melissenos as the brother-in-law of Emperor Alexius but does not name his wife[917].  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 8 Nov of "Eudokias tes aytadelfou tou basileos kai kaisarises"[918].  Nikeforos Melissenos & his wife had one child:

a)         IOANNES Komnenos Melissenos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Parakoimomenosm ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Melissenos & his wife had one child:

i)          ALEXIOS Komnenos Melissenos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megadux

 

 

1.         --- Melissenos .  Georgius Akropolites records that "Michael despota" send legates to the emperor "Xerum metropolitam Naupacti, Maliassenum sororis suæ generum, et Lampetem"[919]m ---, daughter of [--- Sphrantzes/KONSTANTINOS Chabaron] & his wife Maria Angelina of Epirus. 

 

 

1.         LEO MelissenosSébastokratorm ---.  The name of Leo's wife is not known.  Leo & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKEFOROS Melissenos [Melissourgos] (-1429).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He owned estates in Messenia.  m ---.  The name of Nikeforos's wife is not known.  Nikeforos & his wife had one child: 

i)          NIKOLAOS Melissenos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He fled from Constantinople to Corfu, and then to Crete where he became a priest[920]Betrothed: to TAMARA Sphrantzes, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified.  She was abducted when Constantinople was captured by the Turks in 1453 and died in a harem some years later[921]

 

 

 

C.      BRANAS, 1186

 

 

1.         MARIANOS Branas (-after 1047).  An undated seal records “Mareano Branas protospathaire, hypatos et stratège[922].  Cedrenus records that "Joanne Batatze…Theodoro Strabomyta, Polye, Marianoque Brana, Occidentalium legionem ducibus et sibi sanguine propinquis" supported "patricii Leonis Tornicii" strategos of Iberia in his rebellion against Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos, dated to [1047][923]

 

2.         DEMETRIOS Branas .  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Demetrius cognomento Branas" as a naval commander, in a passage dealing with the early years of the reign of Emperor Manuel I[924]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Branas .  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Michael cognomento Branas" as "ad Naisum, quæ metropolis est urbium Dacicarum…provinciæ prefectura", appointed by Emperor Manuel I[925]

 

4.         ALEXIOS Branas, son of --- (-1186)Pansébastos, sébastosThe record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto domino Alexio Brana...[926]He led the army of Emperor Isaakios II Angelos against the Normans, defeating them at Mosynopolis and Dimitritsa 7 Nov 1185, which resulted in their expulsion from Thessaloniki, Durazzo and Corfu[927].  He also led the Byzantine army against the Bulgarian rebellion of the brothers Ivan Asen and Teodor in 1186, but having penetrated rebel territory he used the army for his own interests and led it to Adrianople where he was proclaimed Emperor ALEXIOS.  He marched on Constantinople, but was put to flight and killed[928]m ANNA Komnene Batatzaina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos Batatzes & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Alexios Branas & his wife had two children:

a)         EVDOKIA Komnene Branaina.  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Johannem sebastocratorem patruum suum [Isaacii imperatoris]…filio suo" and "Brana…filiam"[929]m ([1187]) ISAAKIOS Komnenos Doukas, son of IOANNES Doukas Angelos & his wife --- (-killed in battle Constantinople 1203). 

b)         THEODOROS Branas.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Niketas Choniates names "Branas Theodorus, Georgius Palaeologus, Raul Constantinus, Cantacuzenus Michael et alii complures improbi et leves homini, imperatori sanguine iuncti…" as those involved in the conspiracy to depose Emperor Isaakios II in 1195[930].  The precise relationships ("imperatori sanguine iuncti") between the conspirators and the emperor have not yet been traced.  Leader of the Greeks at Philippopolis, he opposed Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria in 1205.  The people of the city agreed to submit to Henri, regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, for protection.  In turn, Henri arranged for Venice (which had claims over Adrianople) to appoint Theodoros Branas as Lord of Adrianople and Didymoteichon.  He is referred to as cæsar and Komnenos in the grant[931].  He was besieged once more at Adrianople by the Bulgarian Tsar in 1206[932]m (1204) as her third husband, ANNA [Agnès] de France, widow firstly of Emperor ALEXIOS II and secondly of Emperor ANDRONIKOS I, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his third wife Alix de Champagne ([1171/72]-[1220 or after 1240]).  Her third marriage is deduced from Villehardouin naming "Theodore Branas, a Greek who was married to the king of France's sister" when recording that Apros was restored to him in 1205[933].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that in 1193 "Livernas…prenominatus" lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem illam, quam habere debuit Alexius Manuelis filius" without marrying her, and in a later passage in 1205 that "Livernas", who had lived with "sororem regis Francorum, imperatricem…absque legalibus nuptiis", married her and married their daughter to "Nargaldo de Torceio, Guidonis de Dampetra consobrino"[934].  Robert de Clari records in Sep 1203 that "le sereur le roi de Franche" was alive and married to "li Vernas"[935].  The text also provides a clue to Alberic´s reference to "Livernas", indicating that it was the old French definite article combined with a corruption of the name "Branas".  No primary source has yet been identified which records when Agnes died.  According to Sommerard, she died in 1220, after the marriage of her daughter[936].  Kerrebrouck states that she died in 1240[937].  Neither of these authors cites the primary sources on which they base their statements.  Theodoros Branas & his wife had one child:

i)          --- Branaina (-before 1239).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of "sororem regis Francorum imperatricem" marrying "Nargaldo de Toceio, Guidonis de Dampetro consobrinus", in a later passage recording that she was "filia Livernes et sororis regis Francie"[938]m as his first husband, NARJOT de Toucy Seigneur de Bazarne, son of NARJOT [II] Sire de Toucy & his wife Agnès de Dampierre-sur-l'Aube (-1241).  Regent of the Latin Empire of Constantinople 1228-1231 and 1238-1239. 

 

 

1.         EIRENE Komnene Laskarina Branaina (-[1271]).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Branæ filiam" and "alterum…fratrum Constantinum…cæsarem" (referring to the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)[939].  An undated seal records “Irène Comnène cæsarissa femme du césar du nom d´Ange[940].  She became a nun as MARIAm ([1259/60]) KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Doukas Palaiologos, sébastokrator, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, megas domestikos, dux of Thessaloniki & his first wife Theodora Palaiologina (-1271). 

 



[1] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 50. 

[2] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellus (Penguin Books) ("Psellos"). 

[3] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[4] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[5] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[6] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books). 

[7] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[8] Büttner-Wobst, T. (ed.) (1897) Ioannes Zonaras, Tome III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[9] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[10] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007). 

[11] ES II 174-179. 

[12] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus Tomus Prior, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 198. 

[13] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[14] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[15] Cedrenus II, col. 214. 

[16] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol 1, p. 55. 

[17] Cedrenus II, col. 354. 

[18] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335. 

[19] Cedrenus II, col. 151. 

[20] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17. 

[21] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17. 

[22] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17. 

[23] Alexeiad, Book 11, p. 335. 

[24] Cedrenus II, col. 342. 

[25] Cedrenus II, col. 358. 

[26] Cedrenus II, col. 354. 

[27] Cedrenus II, col. 354. 

[28] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[29] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. 

[30] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzæ curopalatæ ("Skylitzes"), col. 375. 

[31] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos (Penguin Books) ("Psellos"), p. 324. 

[32] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Michael Glycas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Glykas") IV, p. 604. 

[33] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 603. 

[34] Skylitzes, col. 375. 

[35] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 604. 

[36] Psellos, p. 324. 

[37] Skylitzes, col. 375. 

[38] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37. 

[39] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17. 

[40] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73. 

[41] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 1, p. 17. 

[42] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 122, and Book 2, p. 73. 

[43] Skylitzes, col. 370. 

[44] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. 

[45] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[46] Gautier, P. 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), 71, p. 124, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1985_num_43_1_2170> (21 Dec 2012). 

[47] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes dans le typikon liturgique du monastère du Christ Philanthrope (ms. Panaghia Kamariotissa 29)', Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), pp. 46 and 65, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2005_num_63_1_2305> (21 Dec 2012). 

[48] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[49] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83. 

[50] Schlumberger, G. (1884) Sigillographie de l´Empire Byzantin (Paris), p. 650. 

[51] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 22, p. 50. 

[52] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[53] Schlumberger (1884), p. 650. 

[54] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 124. 

[55] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 51. 

[56] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[57] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.   

[58] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32. 

[59] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31. 

[60] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 60. 

[61] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83. 

[62] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[63] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[64] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 103. 

[65] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112. 

[66] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 68. 

[67] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[68] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.   

[69] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 22, p. 50. 

[70] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[71] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 66, and Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 2, p. 58. 

[72] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 28, p. 96. 

[73] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber IV, 29, p. 157. 

[74] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111. 

[75] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 56, citing Stiernon, L. 'Notes de prosopographie et de titulature byzantines`. 2. Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène sébastes', Revue des Etudes Byzantines 21 (1963), p. 180. 

[76] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 55. 

[77] Zonaras XVIII, 24, p. 746. 

[78] Papachryssanthou, D. U. ‘La date de la mort du sébastocrator Isaac Comnène et de quelques événements contemporains’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 21 (1963), pp. 250-1, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1963_num_21_1_1312> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 126, col. 377 b ep. 12. 

[79] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[80] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[81] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 79. 

[82] "Eirene 65" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2932. 

[83] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 61. 

[84] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London, Athlone Press), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[85] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[86] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[87] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[88] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[89] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 314. 

[90] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 264. 

[91] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379. 

[92] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[93] Alexeiad, Book 12, pp. 379 and 388. 

[94] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), p. 221, citing Grumel Regestes, no. 1010 [not yet consulted]. 

[95] ES II 174. 

[96] Magdalino, P. (2002) The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 (Cambridge), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[97] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[98] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265. 

[99] Sturdza (1999), p. 247. 

[100] "Konstantinos 31" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 563.2, and Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de titulaire et de prosopographie byzantines: Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 21 (1963), p. 192, quoting Meursius, Patrologia Graeca, Tome 126, co. 488C-489A [available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1963_num_21_1_1306> (21 Dec 2012)]

[101] Schlumberger (1884), p. 641. 

[102] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), p. 180, quoting Grumel, V. Regestes, n. 1011-1014

[103] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), pp. 192-6. 

[104] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), p. 197, citing Schlumberger, G. (1884) Sigillographie de l´Empire byzantin (Paris), p. 640, no. 10 (which, according to Stiernon, misdates the synod in question to 1154). 

[105] Loukaki, M. ‘Contribution à l´étude de la famille Antiochos’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 50 (1992), p. 197, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1992_num_50_1_1857> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Mioni, E. (1973) Bibliothecæ divi Marci Venetiarum Codices Graeci Manuscripti, III (Rome), no. 65, Marcianus XI 22, f. 74v-76v, p. 122 [not yet consulted]. 

[106] Darrouzès, J. ‘Notice sur Grégoire Antiochos (1160 à 1196). I. Son œuvre. II. Sa carrière. III. La fondation du monastère Saint-Basile’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 20 (1962), p. 76, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1962_num_20_1_1281> (21 Dec 2012). 

[107] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[108] Magdalino (2002), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[109] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), p. 180, quoting Grumel, V. Regestes, n. 1011-1014 [not yet consulted]. 

[110] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), p. 180, quoting Paris. gr. 880 (anc. Maz. Reg. 1994), fol. 402. 

[111] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), p. 186, citing Grumel, V. Regestes, m 1043 [not yet consulted]. 

[112] Stiernon ‘Adrien (Jean) et Constantin Comnène, sébastes’ (1963), pp. 184-92. 

[113] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), p. 222, citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), p. 154 [not yet consulted]. 

[114] Gautier ‘Le synode des Blachernes (fin 1094)’ (1971), p. 222, citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 146 bis, and 47 [not yet consulted]. 

[115] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[116] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[117] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111. 

[118] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 52. 

[119] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[120] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[121] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[122] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296. 

[123] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[124] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.   

[125] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[126] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 22, p. 50. 

[127] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[128] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112. 

[129] Schlumberger (1884), p. 639. 

[130] Schlumberger (1884), p. 639. 

[131] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 61. 

[132] Montfaucon, B. de (1708) Palæographia Græca (Paris), p. 47, quoting Codex Regius membranaceus num. 2476, fol. 41. 

[133] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108. 

[134] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. 

[135] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet, J.-C. and Vannier, J.-F. (1986) Études prosopographiques (Paris), both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[136] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[137] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 22, p. 50. 

[138] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[139] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 112. 

[140] Schlumberger (1884), p. 644. 

[141] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 66, citing Lemerle, P., Guillou, A. Svoronos, N. (1970) Actes de Lavra, I (Paris), no. 65, l. 14, 15, 77 [not yet consulted]

[142] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 65. 

[143] Theophylaktos of Ohrid, cited in PBW Gregorios 108.  

[144] Schlumberger (1884), p. 639. 

[145] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[146] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[147] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[148] Magdalino (2002), Varzos, K. (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 2 vols. (Thessaloniki, Kentron Byzantinon erevnon), and Cheynet (1986), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[149] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[150] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[151] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[152] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2006. 

[153] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII siècles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 11, citing "Œuvres de Cyrille Evêque de Tourov" p. IX  [not yet consulted]

[154] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon, MGH SS X, p. 90, and footnote 7.   

[155] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[156] Only three examples are noted in PBW (2006.2). 

[157] ES II 175. 

[158] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Karamzine II note 405, and p. 27 [not yet consulted]

[159] Sturdza (1999), p. 275. 

[160] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[161] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 73.   

[162] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 31. 

[163] Zonaras XVIII, 29, p. 764. 

[164] Chalandon, F. (1900) Essai sur le règne d´Alexis I Comnène (Paris), p. 23. 

[165] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 22, p. 50. 

[166] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[167] Schlumberger (1884), p. 639. 

[168] Schlumberger (1884), p. 640. 

[169] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 282. 

[170] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 76-7. 

[171] Alexeiad, Book 8, pp. 266-8. 

[172] Alexeiad, Book IX, p. 281. 

[173] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 102-3. 

[174] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber II, Cap. XV, p. 310. 

[175] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 149-52. 

[176] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 67. 

[177] Zonaras XVIII, 29, p. 764. 

[178] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 107. 

[179] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2. 

[180] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90. 

[181] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53. 

[182] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110. 

[183] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[184] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109. 

[185] Gautier, P. ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), Revue des études byzantines, Tome 27 (1969), p. 250, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1969_num_27_1_1423> (21 Dec 2012), citing Majuri, A. ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’, Rendiconti della r. Acad. dei Lincei. Cl. Scienze mor. stor. e filol. 5/17 (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]

[186] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 249, citing Baroccianus gr. 131, ff. 228v-229v [not yet consulted]. 

[187] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 246, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 531 and 534 [not yet consulted]. 

[188] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), pp. 245-6, quoting Petit, L. ‘Typikon du monastère de la Kosmoteira près d´Aenos (1152)’, Bulletin de l´Institut archéologique russe à Constantinople 13 (1908), p. 65 [not yet consulted]. 

[189] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 514. 

[190] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 238. 

[191] Chalandon, F. (1912) Jean II Comnène et Manuel I Comnène (New York), p. 15 footnote 2. 

[192] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 247. 

[193] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 245, footnote 17, and p. 247. 

[194] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 2, p. 8. 

[195] Alexeiad, Book 6, 8, p. 196. 

[196] Schreiner, P. ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[197] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738. 

[198] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[199] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 17. 

[200] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 208-9. 

[201] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 197. 

[202] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[203] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 266. 

[204] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[205] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 301. 

[206] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[207] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), p. 36, footnote 31, citing Darrouzès, J. (1970) Georges et Dèmètrios Tornikès. Lettres et discours (Paris), p. 308 [not yet consulted]

[208] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) II.XII, p. 89. 

[209] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511. 

[210] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[211] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[212] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), p. 32. 

[213] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[214] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 511. 

[215] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 58. 

[216] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]

[217] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23. 

[218] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[219] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 120. 

[220] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]. 

[221] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 249, citing Baroccianus gr. 131, ff. 228v-229v [not yet consulted]. 

[222] Cross, S. H. and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, O. P. (trans. & eds.) (1973) The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text (Cambridge, Massachusetts) ("Russian Primary Chronicle") 1104, p. 202. 

[223] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[224] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]

[225] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 55, citing Lampros (ed.) 'Codex marcianus 524', NE 8 (1911), no. 220, p. 145 [not yet consulted]

[226] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]. 

[227] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 55

[228] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 55. 

[229] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 66. 

[230] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[231] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 17, p. 127. 

[232] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, p. 23. 

[233] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[234] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 120. 

[235] Schlumberger (1884), pp. 368 and 641. 

[236] Chabot, J. B. (ed. & trans.) (1905) Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris), Tome III, Livre XVI, Chap. IV, p. 230. 

[237] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]

[238] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72. 

[239] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219. 

[240] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72. 

[241] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[242] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines. Sébaste et Gambros’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 23 (1965), p. 239, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1965_num_23_1_1349> (21 Dec 2012)

[243] Stiernon ‘Sébaste et Gambros’ (1965), p. 240. 

[244] Stiernon ‘Sébaste et Gambros’ (1965), p. 239, citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), p. 139 [not yet consulted]

[245] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 241. 

[246] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[247] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[248] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 739. 

[249] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[250] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126. 

[251] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[252] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[253] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 5, 11 and 12, pp. 23, 52 and 56. 

[254] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 64. 

[255] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[256] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 49. 

[257] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 68. 

[258] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 197. 

[259] Schreiner ‘Eine Beschreibung der Pammakaristoskirche’ (1971), Anhang, Die Geburstdaten der Kinder des Kaisers Alexios I, p. 248, quoting manuscript “Cod. Mosqu. 149 Vlad. (=53 Savva)”. 

[260] WT II.XII, p. 89. 

[261] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XV, p. 310. 

[262] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 208. 

[263] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 210. 

[264] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. 

[265] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 212. 

[266] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 223-4. 

[267] Zonaras XVIII, 24, p. 748. 

[268] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber I, 4, p. 9. 

[269] Macartney, C. A. (1962) Hungary: A Short History (Edinburgh University Press), Chapter 3, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003). 

[270] Cornides, D. (1778) Regum Hungariæ qui seculo XI regnavere, genealogiam illustrat, pp. 45 and 47. 

[271] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 120. 

[272] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 247, citing Delehaye, H. (1902) Synaxarium Ecclesiæ Constantinopolitanæ (Brussels), pp. 897-90.. 

[273] Chabot (1905), Tome III, Livre XVI, Chap. V, p. 234. 

[274] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379. 

[275] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[276] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 222. 

[277] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 10, p. 51. 

[278] WT XV.XIX, p. 688. 

[279] ES II 177. 

[280] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[281] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Byzantina Chronika IX, pp. 418-46, and XI, pp. 73-98 [not yet consulted]

[282] Chalandon (1912), p. 13, citing Polnoe Sobranie russkich letopisej, Tome II (1843), Annales de Goustin, 1122 [not yet consulted]. 

[283] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 249, citing Gustynskaja letopis Polnoe sobranie russkik letopisej II (1843), 1122, p. 292, and Šachmatov, A. A. (ed.) (1923) Ipat’evskaja letopis, 1122 [not yet consulted]. 

[284] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 360. 

[285] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1991) Juansher's Concise History of the Georgians ("Georgian Chronicle (13th century)") (New York), 18, p. 110. 

[286] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, pp. 135-6. 

[287] "Maria 20117" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3040. 

[288] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[289] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379. 

[290] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines. A propos de trois membres de la famille Rogerios (XII siècle)’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 22 (1964), pp. 185-6, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1964_num_22_1_1324> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 21, 28, 29 [not yet consulted]. 

[291] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, pp. 36-8. 

[292] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), p. 185, quoting Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), pp. 21, 28, 29 [not yet consulted]

[293] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[294] WT XV.XIX, p. 688. 

[295] Chalandon (1912), p. 183, citing Papadimitriou (1905) Féodor Prodrom (Odessa), p. 193 [not yet consulted]. 

[296] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[297] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 68. 

[298] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109. 

[299] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[300] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 347-8.  

[301] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[302] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[303] Castellani 1890, RHC.  [Jean-Claude Chuat]

[304] Rüdt-Collenberg (1975), p. 125, footnote 30. 

[305] ES II 177. 

[306] Chuat, J. C. (2006) De Chemins en Jalons, Vol. II. Jalons vers l´antiquité (privately published by the author), pp. 21-2. 

[307] WT XX.I, p. 942. 

[308] Belgrano, L. T. (ed.) (1891) Annali Genovesi di Caffaro e de´ suoi continuatori, Vol. 1, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Genoa), Regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, p. 132. 

[309] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237. 

[310] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377. 

[311] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVII, p. 61. 

[312] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[313] Mas de Latrie, M. L. de (1855) Histoire de l'Ile de Chypre (Paris), Vol. 3, p. 608. 

[314] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 8, p. 384. 

[315] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[316] Annales Mellicenses 1149, MGH SS IX, p. 504. 

[317] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 270. 

[318] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 150. 

[319] Annales Mellicenses 1185, MGH SS IX, p. 505. 

[320] Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera 1184, MGH SS IX, p. 542. 

[321] Necrologium Seccoviense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 403. 

[322] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[323] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[324] ES II 177. 

[325] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), p. 50, citing presumably Tschamitchan, M. History of Armenia I/II (Calcutta, 1827). 

[326] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173. 

[327] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226. 

[328] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[329] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 348. 

[330] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[331] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[332] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 293. 

[333] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[334] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 103. 

[335] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[336] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 106. 

[337] WT XV.XIX, p. 688. 

[338] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 239. 

[339] Patrologia Græca, Vol. 133, Theodori Prodromi Operum Recensio, XLVII, col. 1066. 

[340] Patrologia Græca, Vol. 133, Theodori Prodromi Operum Recensio, XLVII, col. 1066. 

[341] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376. 

[342] ES II 177.   

[343] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[344] Sturdza (1999), p. 277. 

[345] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1968) 'L'Empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), p. 127. 

[346] Niketas Choniates Chronikon, ed. Bekker (Bonn, 1835), 14. 

[347] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 128, footnote 1. 

[348] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 376. 

[349] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 130, citing Nephytos 'Presbyter De Calamitatibus Cypri', Patrologia Græca, 135 (Paris, 1864), 4 [not yet consulted]

[350] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377. 

[351] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268. 

[352] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 1, p. 135. 

[353] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[354] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203. 

[355] WT XVIII.XXII, p. 857. 

[356] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237. 

[357] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 349-50. 

[358] WT XX.II, p. 943. 

[359] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 325. 

[360] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295. 

[361] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9. 

[362] ES II 175. 

[363] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[364] Sturdza (1999), p. 277. 

[365] Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 149. 

[366] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[367] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21. 

[368] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 240. 

[369] "Andronikos 17010" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3038. 

[370] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 10, p. 114. 

[371] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351. 

[372] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[373] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[374] WT XXII.V, p. 1069. 

[375] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 429. 

[376] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVII, p. 77. 

[377] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVI, p. 110. 

[378] Annali Pisani. Continuazione volgara, 1179, pp. 67-8, available at <http://dante.di.unipi.it/ricerca/html/anp.html> (25 Nov 2006). 

[379] Flotats, M. & Bofarull, A. de (trans.) (1848) Historia del rey de Aragón Don Jaime I (Valencia) Cap. I, pp. 15-16. 

[380] RHGF, Tome XIX, XI, p. 201. 

[381] Sturdza (1999), p. 276. 

[382] Varzos (1984), vol. II, p. 14, n. 19 .  [J.-C. Chuat]

[383] Patrologia Latina, Vol. 214, CXXVIII, col. 1130A. 

[384] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301. 

[385] Grume, V. Les Regestes du Patriarcat de Constantinople (Paris, 1932), Reg. 1162, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), Table I. 

[386] Magdalino (2002), and Cheynet (1986), both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[387] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 6, p. 386. 

[388] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 697. 

[389] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. 

[390] Ioannes Kinnamos I, 9, p. 21. 

[391] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII de Rebus Gesti Manuelis Comneni, 1, p. 66. 

[392] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 258, citing cod. Bononiensis gr. f. 64 r-v. 

[393] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351. 

[394] Fine (1991), pp. 242-43. 

[395] Runciman (1978), pp. 412-4. 

[396] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. 

[397] Niketas Choniates, Liber VII Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 286. 

[398] Mierow, C. C. (trans.) (2004) The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa (Columbia UP) ("Otto of Freising"), Gesta, I xxv, p. 55. 

[399] Although this obligation was subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Thessaloniki in end 1148, see Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press), p. 90. 

[400] Houben (2002), p.. 89. 

[401] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067. 

[402] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[403] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208. 

[404] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 208. 

[405] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 359. 

[406] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[407] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 209. 

[408] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358. 

[409] Sturdza (1999), p. 271. 

[410] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301. 

[411] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[412] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 167. 

[413] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 5, p. 215. 

[414] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 221. 

[415] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, pp. 436 and 439. 

[416] Parker, J. 'The Attempted Byzantine Alliance with the Sicilian Norman Kingdom (1166-7)', Greierson, P. and Perkins, J. W. (eds.) (1956) Studies in Italian Medieval History, presented to Miss E. M. Jamison, Papers of the British School at Rome Volume XXIV (New Series, Volume XI) (British School at Rome, London), pp. 86-93, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 403. 

[417] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 222. 

[418] WT XXII.IV, p. 1067. 

[419] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen) Vol. II, p. 87. 

[420] Fine (1991), pp. 239-40. 

[421] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[422] Fine (1991), p. 243. 

[423] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066. 

[424] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS XXXI, p. 173. 

[425] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 63. 

[426] Ioannes Kinnamos V, 1, p. 202. 

[427] WT XXII.IV, p. 1066. 

[428] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 1, p. 291. 

[429] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848. 

[430] Sommerard (1907), p. 204. 

[431] WT XXII.IV, pp. 1066-7. 

[432] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1847) Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the reigns of Henry II and Richard I 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough (London) (“Benedict of Peterborough”) I 1179, p. 230.   

[433] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.   

[434] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357. 

[435] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193 and 1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 870 and 885. 

[436] Lauer, P. (ed.) (1924) Robert de Clari, La conquête de Constantinople (Paris), LIII, p. 54 (information provided by Andrew Dalby). 

[437] Sommerard (1907), p. 305. 

[438] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 97. 

[439] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 4, p. 301. 

[440] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 417. 

[441] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[442] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337. 

[443] Stone, D. C. & Owens, C. R. ´[Eirene?], First Wife of Emperor Isaakios II Angelos, is a Probable Tornikina and Gateway to Antiquity´, Foundations, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Jan 2011), pp. 381-2, quoting Darrouzès, J. ‘Les discours d´Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 26 (1968), pp. 92 and 108, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1968_num_26_1_1400> (21 Dec 2012). 

[444] Niketas Choniates, Urbs Capta, p. 848. 

[445] Stone & Owens `[Eirene?]´, p. 382, quoting Varzos, K. (1984) He Genealogia ton Komnenon, 1, p. 476. 

[446] ES II 175. 

[447] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332. 

[448] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 396. 

[449] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5. 

[450] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 377-9. 

[451] Fine (1994), p. 6. 

[452] ES II 175. 

[453] Sturdza (1999), p. 275. 

[454] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1164, MGH SS XXIII, p. 848. 

[455] Sommerard (1907), p. 204. 

[456] WT XXII.IV, pp. 1066-7. 

[457] Benedict of Peterborough I 1179, p. 230.   

[458] Benedict of Peterborough I 1183, p. 234.   

[459] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 1, p. 357. 

[460] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) (“Villehardouin”), 18, p. 133. 

[461] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193 and 1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 870 and 885. 

[462] Lauer, P. (ed.) (1924) Robert de Clari, La conquête de Constantinople (Paris), LIII, p. 54 (information provided by Andrew Dalby). 

[463] Sommerard (1907), p. 305. 

[464] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 97. 

[465] Niketas Choniates, Liber III Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, p. 135. 

[466] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 173. 

[467] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 8, p. 226. 

[468] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, pp. 181-2. 

[469] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295. 

[470] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 325. 

[471] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9. 

[472] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323. 

[473] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 17, p. 348. 

[474] ES II 176. 

[475] Sturdza (1999), p. 280. 

[476] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, 1, available at <http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael-panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008). 

[477] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842. 

[478] Michael Panaretos 1. 

[479] Niketas Choniates, Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842. 

[480] Sturdza (1999), p. 278. 

[481] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), pp. 86-7. 

[482] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 11, p. 323. 

[483] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185. 

[484] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412. 

[485] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[486] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[487] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185. 

[488] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 325. 

[489] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 15, p. 337. 

[490] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 185. 

[491] Fine (1994), p. 28. 

[492] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. 

[493] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 6445, p. 263. 

[494] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. 

[495] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2 and 6, pp. 620 and 623. 

[496] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 709. 

[497] Fine (1994), p. 28-9. 

[498] Fine (1994), pp. 30-1. 

[499] Whose wife was Maria Angelina, paternal aunt of Emperor Alexios III. 

[500] Fine (1994), p. 32. 

[501] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867. 

[502] ES II 178. 

[503] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867. 

[504] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn)Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 2-4, pp. 381-84. 

[505] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383. 

[506] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 4, p. 384. 

[507] Georgii Monachi Vitæ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom), De Leone Basilii filii, 38, p. 867. 

[508] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 10. 

[509] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383. 

[510] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383. 

[511] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 3, p. 383. 

[512] Psellos, p. 326. 

[513] Sturdza (1999), p. 293. 

[514] "Andronikos 20128" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3390. 

[515] Psellos, p. 326. 

[516] Psellos, p. 342. 

[517] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7. 

[518] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 59.   

[519] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 63. 

[520] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, and "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2), citing 'πιτάφιος ες Ερήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz, E. and Drexl, F. (1936) Michaelis Pselli Scripta minora magnam partem adhuc inedita I (Milan), pp. 155-189, 159 [not yet consulted]

[521] "Leon 2103" in PBW (2006.2). 

[522] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47. 

[523] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, citing Cheynet, J. C. 'Le rôle des femmes de l`aristocratie d´après leurs sceaux', Sfragistika i istorija kul'tury. Sbornik naučnych trudov posvjaščennyi jubileju V. S. Šandrovskoi (St Petersburg, 2004), pp. 35 and 44 [not yet consulted]

[524] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, citing 'πιτάφιος ες Ερήνην καισάρισσαν', in Kurtz and Drexl (1936), p. 172 [not yet consulted]

[525] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 47. 

[526] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 47, citing Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai. A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London), pp. 64, 66 [not yet consulted]

[527] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110. 

[528] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2. 

[529] Psellos, pp. 360-1. 

[530] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[531] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[532] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[533] Theodore Prodromos, cited in Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[534] Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[535] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[536] "Maria 20115" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 2999. 

[537] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 110. 

[538] Mikhael Glykas IV, pp. 611-2. 

[539] Psellos, p. 365, footnote 1. 

[540] Schlumberger (1884), p. 335. 

[541] Psellos, p. 362. 

[542] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, pp. 106-7. 

[543] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[544] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 49. 

[545] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[546] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 85 and 87. 

[547] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 248, citing Ekkles. Alètheia 20 (1900), 36, p. 404, and Grumel Regestes 957. 

[548] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 124. 

[549] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 52. 

[550] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90. 

[551] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 124. 

[552] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 54. 

[553] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 54, citing Lefort, J., Oikonomides, N., Papachryssanthou, D. (ed.) (1990) Actes d´Iviron II (Paris), no. 142, p. 9 [not yet consulted]

[554] "Konstantinos 130" in PBW (2006.2), citing Theophylact of Ohrid 461.19, 549.20, 571.16. 

[555] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 54, citing Lampros (ed.) 'Codex marcianus 524', NE 8 (1911), nos. 54, 75, 218, 263, pp. 22, 39-40, 144, 155 [not yet consulted]

[556] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 54, citing Lampros (ed.) 'Codex marcianus 524', NE 8 (1911), nos. 54, 75, 218, 263, pp. 22, 39-40, 144, 155 [not yet consulted]

[557] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 54, citing Lampros (ed.) 'Codex marcianus 524', NE 8 (1911), nos. 54, 75, 218, 263, pp. 22, 39-40, 144, 155 [not yet consulted]

[558] Polemis (1968), cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[559] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[560] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 48. 

[561] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 50. 

[562] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 91-2. 

[563] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90. 

[564] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 53. 

[565] Alexeiad, Book 3, pp. 105 and 110. 

[566] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[567] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 109. 

[568] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 250, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 541-4 [not yet consulted]

[569] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 249, citing Baroccianus gr. 131, ff. 228v-229v. 

[570] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 246, citing Majuri ‘Anecdota Prodromea del Vat. gr. 305’ (1908), pp. 531 and 534 [not yet consulted]. 

[571] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), pp. 245-6, quoting Petit ‘Typikon du monastère de la Kosmoteira près d´Aenos (1152)’ (1908), p. 65 [not yet consulted]. 

[572] Alexeiad, Book 15, p. 514. 

[573] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 238. 

[574] Chalandon (1912), p. 15 footnote 2. 

[575] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 247. 

[576] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 245, footnote 17, and p. 247. 

[577] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 86-7. 

[578] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 124. 

[579] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 87. 

[580] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 90. 

[581] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 124. 

[582] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 53. 

[583] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[584] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 124. 

[585] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 56. 

[586] Schreiner, P. "Eine unbekannte Beschreibung der Pammakaristos-kirche (Fethiye Camii) und weitere Texte zure Topographie Konstantinopels," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971), pp. 217-48, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[587] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[588] Guizot, M. (1825) Histoire des croisades par Foulcher de Chartres, Histoire de la croisade de Louis VII par Odon de Deuil (Paris), Odon de Deuil, Livre II, p. 302. 

[589] Sturdza (1999), p. 293. 

[590] Kerbl (1979), p. 78. 

[591] Smičiklas, T. (ed.) (1904) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et Slavoniæ, Diplomatički Zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije i Slavonije (Zagreb), Vol. II ("Codex Diplomaticus Croatiæ, Vol. II (1904)"), 125, p. 129. 

[592] Codex Diplomaticus Croatiæ, Vol. II (1904), 126, p. 130. 

[593] Codex Diplomaticus Croatiæ, Vol. II (1904), 135, p. 138. 

[594] Montfaucon (1708), p. 47, quoting Codex Regius membranaceus num. 2476, fol. 18. 

[595] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233. 

[596] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[597] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[598] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI De Manuele Comneno, 9, p. 233. 

[599] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 4, p. 377. 

[600] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VI, 6, p. 268. 

[601] Sturdza (1999), pp. 208 and 277. 

[602] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[603] ES II 179. 

[604] Endlicher, S. L. (ed.) (1849) Rerum Hungaricarum, Monumenta Arpadiana (Sangalli), Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[605] ES II 154. 

[606] Sturdza (1999), p. 293. 

[607] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXV (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 183. 

[608] Psellos, p. 326. 

[609] Runciman (1978), pp. 55-8. 

[610] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

[611] Psellos, p. 331, footnote 2. 

[612] Psellos, p. 343. 

[613] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[614] Psellos, pp. 333-4. 

[615] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 183. 

[616] Psellos, p. 343. 

[617] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1853) Michael Attaliota, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Attaliota"), p. 56. 

[618] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[619] Psellos, p. 343, footnote 3. 

[620] Psellos, pp. 348-9. 

[621] Psellos, p. 334. 

[622] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606. 

[623] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[624] Psellos, p. 334. 

[625] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

[626] Psellos, p. 359. 

[627] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7. 

[628] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 68. 

[629] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 329-30. 

[630] Zonaras XVIII, 17, p. 714. 

[631] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37. 

[632] Psellos, p. 373. 

[633] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 67, citing Leib Alexiade II, p. 171 and Reinsch Alexias, p. 269 [not yet consulted]

[634] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 46 and 67. 

[635] Romoaldi Annales 1076, MGH SS XIX, p. 407. 

[636] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 53 and 57-8. 

[637] Skylitzes, col. 451. 

[638] P. N. Dunbar (trans.) G. A. Loud (rev.) (2004) Amatus of Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Boydell) ("Amatus") VII.26, p. 178. 

[639] Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 252 footnote 83. 

[640] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 15. 

[641] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738. 

[642] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607. 

[643] Psellos, p. 340. 

[644] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607. 

[645] Psellos, p. 340. 

[646] Psellos, p. 340. 

[647] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606. 

[648] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[649] Psellos, p. 340. 

[650] Psellos, p. 374. 

[651] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 606. 

[652] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 23. 

[653] Psellos, p. 340. 

[654] Psellos, pp. 345 and 346. 

[655] Psellos, p. 375, footnote 1. 

[656] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148. 

[657] Koukounas, N. (trans.) Theodoros Skoutariotes: from the Synopsis Chronika: The Emperors of the 11th Century, available at Fordham University Medieval Sourcebook <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/skoutariotes1.html> (29 Dec 2012). 

[658] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607. 

[659] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 108. 

[660] Magdalino (2002) and Cheynet (1986), both cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[661] REB 63 (2005), pp. 41-71. 

[662] "Theodotos 20108" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3677. 

[663] "Adralestos 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 287 and 4370. 

[664] "Baasakios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4371. 

[665] "Pankratios 20101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 773 and 4073. 

[666] Cedrenus II, col. 194. 

[667] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, X, col. 172. 

[668] Schlumberger (1884), p. 105. 

[669] Cedrenus II, col. 199. 

[670] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XII, col. 178. 

[671] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[672] Psellos, p. 350. 

[673] Zonaras XVIII, 10, p. 684.  

[674] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[675] Mikhael Glykas IV, p. 607. 

[676] Skylitzes, col. 393. 

[677] Psellos, p. 350. 

[678] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

[679] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 25, p. 55. 

[680] Skylitzes, col. 407. 

[681] Psellos, pp. 348-9. 

[682] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[683] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 29, p. 99. 

[684] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[685] Alexeiad, Book 10, p. 296. 

[686] ES III 181. 

[687] Amatus I.11, p. 48. 

[688] Dumoret, J. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite de l'ouvrage intitulé Khelassat-oul-akhbar', Nouveau Journal Asiatique, XIII (Paris 1834), p. 246. 

[689] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280. 

[690] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281. 

[691] Alexeiad, Book 7, p. 224. 

[692] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 144, and Book 9, p. 280. 

[693] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 281. 

[694] Alexeiad, Book 9, pp. 281-7. 

[695] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[696] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[697] Schlumberger (1884), p. 438. 

[698] Cedrenus II, col. 191. 

[699] Skylitzes, col. 458.  

[700] Cedrenus II, col. 351. 

[701] Skylitzes, col. 383. 

[702] Kerbl (1979), pp. 15-16. 

[703] Laurent, V. Chronologie, p. 246 (28), cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 18. 

[704] Kerbl (1979), p. 19. 

[705] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 68-9. 

[706] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 75. 

[707] "Bebdene 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes Continuatus 181.22-23. 

[708] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37. 

[709] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 83. 

[710] Skylitzes, col. 475. 

[711] "Leon 20113" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 241. 

[712] "Eustratios 20120" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3831 and 3832. 

[713] "Manuel 20136" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4445. 

[714] Sturdza (1999), p. 207. 

[715] ES II 179. 

[716] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 120. 

[717] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de prosopographie et de titulature byzantines: Constantin Ange (pan)sébastohypertate’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 19 (1961), pp. 210-13, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1961_num_19_1_1262> (21 Dec 2012). 

[718] ES II 179. 

[719] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 5, p. 177. 

[720] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126. 

[721] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 126. 

[722] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[723] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 233. 

[724] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-6, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[725] Sturdza (1999), p. 208. 

[726] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 48, citing Evans, A. J. 'Antiquarian Researches in Illyricum', Archeologia 69 (1985),pp. 95-7 [not yet consulted]

[727] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[728] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 48. 

[729] MGH SS (New Series), Tome V, p. 65. 

[730] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI De Manuele Comneno, 9, p. 233. 

[731] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 133, Theodori Prodromi Operum Recensio, Art. LXXII, col. 1086. 

[732] "Manuel 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1752. 

[733] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de prosopographie et de titulature byzantines: Constantin Ange (pan)sébastohypertate’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 19 (1961), p. 275, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1961_num_19_1_1262> (21 Dec 2012), citing Néos Hellènomnènôn, VIII (1911), pp. 123-4 [not yet consulted]. 

[734] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[735] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[736] Laurent, V. ‘Andronic Synadénos. La carrière d´un haut fonctionnaire byzantin au XII siècle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 20 (1962), p. 211, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1962_num_20_1_1291> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Ελληνομνήμων, VIII (1911), pp. 146-8 [not yet consulted]. 

[737] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[738] Fine (1994), pp. 27 and 32. 

[739] ES II 179. 

[740] MGH SS (New Series), Tome V, p. 65. 

[741] Stiernon ‘Trois membres de la famille Rogerios’ (1964), pp. 195-7, quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367 [not yet consulted]. 

[742] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 7, pp. 47 and 52. 

[743] Ioannes Kinnamos IV, 6, p. 148, IV, 11, p. 162 and V, 13, p. 238. 

[744] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[745] ES II 179. 

[746] Schlumberger (1884), p. 585. 

[747] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1837) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Georgius Akropolites") 51, p. 107. 

[748] Schlumberger (1884), p. 585. 

[749] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[750] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[751] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI De Manuele Comneno, 9, p. 233. 

[752] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 2, p. 365. 

[753] Sturdza (1999), p. 208. 

[754] ES II 179. 

[755] Gardner (1912), p. 115. 

[756] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319. 

[757] Fine (1994), pp. 27-8. 

[758] Fine (1994), p. 60. 

[759] Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London), 1204, pp. 43-8. 

[760] Fine (1994), pp. 63-4. 

[761] Fine (1994), p. 66. 

[762] Gardner (1912), p. 64. 

[763] Gardner (1912), p. 83. 

[764] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 1, p. 601. 

[765] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 2, p. 642. 

[766] Gardner (1912), p. 90. 

[767] Ephræmius 7565, p. 306. 

[768] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. 

[769] Ephræmius 6440, p. 263. 

[770] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. 

[771] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[772] Birth date range estimated from the birth of her daughter by her first marriage [before 1196]. 

[773] Gardner (1912), p. 115. 

[774] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. 

[775] Ephræmius 6445, p. 263. 

[776] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. 

[777] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[778] Fine (1994), p. 28. 

[779] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 7, p. 700. 

[780] Fine (1994), p. 26. 

[781] Fine (1994), p. 46. 

[782] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755. 

[783] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[784] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99. 

[785] Ephræmius 7295, p. 296. 

[786] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15. 

[787] Fine (1994), pp. 64-5. 

[788] Fine (1994), p. 64. 

[789] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Andronici Comneni, Liber 1, 3, p. 374. 

[790] Niketas Choniates, Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 9, p. 319. 

[791] Fine (1994), p. 9. 

[792] Fine (1994), p. 14. 

[793] Fine (1994), p. 15. 

[794] Fine (1994), p. 24-25. 

[795] Fine (1994), pp. 25-26. 

[796] Fine (1994), p. 27. 

[797] Fine (1994), p. 11. 

[798] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[799] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[800] "Konstantinos 216" in PBW (2006.2), citing Branouse, E. and Nystazopoulou-Pelekidou, M. (1980) Βυζαντιν γγραφα τς μονς Πάτμου 1. Ατοκρατορικά, 2. Δημοσίων λειτουργν (Athens) Vol. 2, p. 131.14. 

[801] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, pp. 349-69. 

[802] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[803] Fine (1994), p. 10. 

[804] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 4, p. 481. 

[805] Fine (1994), p. 11. 

[806] Villehardouin, 11, p. 82, and 12, p. 92.  

[807] Fine (1994), p. 63. 

[808] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1204, MGH SS XXXII, p. 25. 

[809] Villehardouin, 13, p. 96. 

[810] Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15. 

[811] Smičiklas, T. (ed.) (1905) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et Slavoniæ, Diplomatički Zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije I Slavonije (Zagreb), Vol. III, p. 305. 

[812] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549. 

[813] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[814] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549. 

[815] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112. 

[816] Sturdza (1999), p. 476. 

[817] Sturdza (1999), p. 477. 

[818] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 117-18. 

[819] Niketas Choniates, pp. 718-26, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119. 

[820] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 119. 

[821] Gardner (1912), p. 47. 

[822] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 120-1. 

[823] Sturdza (1999), p. 207. 

[824] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[825] Fennell, J. (1983) The Crisis of Medieval Russia 1200-1304 (Longman), p. 24. 

[826] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 1, p. 549. 

[827] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 325. 

[828] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 317. 

[829] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 2, 1, p. 635. 

[830] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator (“WTC”) XXIII.XVI, p. 24, and XXIV.IX, p. 118. 

[831] Continuatio Admuntensis 1194, MGH SS IX, p. 587. 

[832] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[833] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112. 

[834] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115. 

[835] Boehmer, F. (1868) Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 323. 

[836] Gardner (1912), p. 83. 

[837] Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatiæ, Dalamatiæ et Slavoniæ, Vol. III, p. 264. 

[838] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungariæ (Buda), Tome III.2, p. 351. 

[839] McDaniel, G. ´On Hungarian-Serbian Relations in the 13th Century: John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, Ungarn-Jahrbuch, Vol. 12 (1982/83), pp. 43-50, available at <http://www.feefhs.org/links/Serbia/jelena.html> (consulted 19 Jul 2010), quoting Berger, E. (ed.) (1897) Les Registres d´Innocent IV (Paris), Vol. 3, 6862, p. 289, and 7178, p. 351. 

[840] Miklosich, Fr. (ed.) (1858) Monumenta Serbica spectantia Historiam Serbiæ Bosnæ Ragusii (Vienna) ("Monumenta Serbica"), LIX, p. 56. 

[841] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing Makushev, V. ´Itallianskie arkhivy i khranisashchiesia v nikh materialy dlia slavianskoi istorii´, Sbornik Otdelelniia Russkogo Iazyka i Slovesnosti, VIII/4 (1871), pp. 30-33 [not yet consulted]

[842] Fine (1994), p. 220. 

[843] Georgius Akropolites 62, p. 134. 

[844] ES II 160. 

[845] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing (in his translation) Daničić, D. (ed.) (1866) Zivoti kraljeva i arhiepiskopa srpskih (Beograd), reprinted Variorum, London (1973), p. 58 lines 9-10, and 8.14 [not yet consulted]

[846] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´. 

[847] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, quoting Berger, E. (ed.) (1897) Les Registres d´Innocent IV (Paris), Vol. 3, 6862, p. 289, and 7178, p. 351 [not yet consulted]

[848] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, quoting Bourel de la Roncierre, M. (ed.) (1895) Les Registres d´Alexandre IV (Paris), Vol. 1, 48, p. 13 [not yet consulted]

[849] Prarond, E. (ed.) (1897) Le cartulaire du comté de Ponthieu, Mémoires de la société d'émulation d'Abbeville, Tome II (Abbeville) ("Ponthieu") CCXII, p. 277. 

[850] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing McDaniel, G. ´The House of Anjou and Serbia´, Vardy, S. B. (ed.) Louis the Great, King of Hungary and Poland (East European Mongraphs, Boulder) [not yet consulted]

[851] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109. 

[852] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 6, p. 489. 

[853] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 497. 

[854] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1185, MGH SS XXXII, p. 4. 

[855] ES II 179. 

[856] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 590. 

[857] Annales Mellicenses 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 506. 

[858] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91. 

[859] Necrologium Monasterii Campi Liliorum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 368. 

[860] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[861] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 120. 

[862] Gardner (1912), p. 48. 

[863] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 122. 

[864] Gardner (1912), p. 63, and Sturdza (1999), p. 207. 

[865] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755. 

[866] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 1, p. 749. 

[867] Niketas Choniates, Alexius Ducas Murzuflus, 3, p. 755. 

[868] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[869] Villehardouin, 14, p. 99. 

[870] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109. 

[871] Cedrenus II, col. 331. 

[872] Cedrenus II, col. 346. 

[873] Skylitzes, col. 422. 

[874] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 37-8. 

[875] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 39-40. 

[876] Schlumberger (1884), p. 626. 

[877] Alexeiad, Book 1, pp. 40-1. 

[878] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109. 

[879] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 67, p. 109. 

[880] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19. 

[881] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 120. 

[882] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 19. 

[883] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 212. 

[884] Niketas Choniates, Iohannes Komnenos, 2, p. 8. 

[885] Zonaras XVIII, 22, p. 738. 

[886] Alexeiad, Preface, p. 17. 

[887] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 208-9. 

[888] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 71, p. 122. 

[889] Niketas Choniates, Liber II Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 7, p. 125. 

[890] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 12, p. 165. 

[891] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210. 

[892] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 59. 

[893] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 59, citing Gautier Bryennios, pp. 340-54, Barzos Genealogia, p. 308, no. 4, and Toumanoff, C. (1990) Les dynasties de la Caucasie chrétienne de l´Antiquité jusqu´au XIXe siècle. Tables généalogiques et chronologiques (Rome), p. 136 [not yet consulted]

[894] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 556. 

[895] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[896] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 49. 

[897] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 41 and 50. 

[898] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 61. 

[899] Gautier 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' (1985), 80, p. 144. 

[900] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), p. 61, citing Darrouzès Georges et Demetrios Tornikès, pp. 220, 312-3, 317, "Eloge d´Anne Comnène par Georges Tornikès". 

[901] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210. 

[902] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[903] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 4, p. 210. 

[904] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[905] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006. 

[906] Schlumberger (1884), p. 627. 

[907] Classen, J. (ed.) (1839-41) Theophanes Chronographia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ Vols. I and II (Bonn) AM 6258. 

[908] Theophanes AM 6263. 

[909] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Theophylacti Simocattæ Historiarum, Genesius Regum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Genesius, Liber 1, De Leone Amalekita, p. 11. 

[910] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 232. 

[911] 17 Nov 1104 according to Sturdza (1999), p. 274. 

[912] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 11, p. 32. 

[913] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 92-4. 

[914] Alexeiad, Book 3, IV. 

[915] Papachryssanthou ‘La date de la mort du sébastocrator Isaac Comnène’ (1963), p. 251, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1963_num_21_1_1312> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Lambecius Biblioth. Caesar., (ed. altera), Lib. V, col. 537 [not yet consulted]. 

[916] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 6, p. 24. 

[917] Alexeiad, Book 3, p. 111. 

[918] Kouroupou & Vannier 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 52. 

[919] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98. 

[920] Sturdza (1999), p. 344. 

[921] Sturdza (1999), p. 344. 

[922] Schlumberger (1884), p. 626. 

[923] Cedrenus II, col. 295. 

[924] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 3, p. 33. 

[925] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 13, p. 70. 

[926] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[927] Fine (1994), p. 9. 

[928] Fine (1994), p. 14. 

[929] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 502. 

[930] Niketas Choniates, De Isaacio Angelo, III, p. 593. 

[931] Gardner (1912), pp. 72-3. 

[932] Fine (1994), p. 85. 

[933] Villehardouin, 18, p. 133. 

[934] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193 and 1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 870 and 885. 

[935] Lauer, P. (ed.) (1924) Robert de Clari, La conquête de Constantinople (Paris), LIII, p. 54 (information provided by Andrew Dalby). 

[936] Sommerard (1907), p. 305. 

[937] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 97. 

[938] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1205 and 1235, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 885 and 939. 

[939] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97. 

[940] Schlumberger (1884), p. 616.