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west asia & north africa (1)

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                ORIGINS. 2

Chapter 2.                UMAYYAD DYNASTY. 4

Chapter 3.                IDRISSID DYNASTY in MOROCCO. 12

Chapter 4.                FATIMID DYNASTY in EGYPT. 13

Chapter 5.                ABBASID CALIPHS of BAGHDAD. 19

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document sets out the families of Arab rulers from the 7th to 11th centuries, which claimed descent from the Prophet Mohammed.  Later Arab and Turkish rulers in western Asia and north Africa, from about the 11th century, are shown in the separate document WEST ASIA & NORTH AFRICA (2). 

 

This document is incomplete as insufficient primary sources have been consulted to confirm the relationships.  The principal Arabic sources so far consulted in the compilation of the document are: the Chronicle of Ibn-el Kouthya, in French translation[1], and the extracts of the chronicles of Abu'l-Feda, also known as Bar Hebræus[2], and Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle[3] in their French translations included in the 19th century compilation Receuil des historiens des croisades, although they translate no material dealing directly with events before the end of the 11th century.  Translations of further Arabic sources are being identified and studied as they come to light. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ORIGINS

 

 

1.         ABDULLAH .  The Anales Toledanos name “Abdalla…fillo de Mutalif” and recite his supposed descent from Noah[4]

a)         MOHAMMED (570-632).  The Anales Toledanos record that “Mafomat…fillo de Abdalla” was born in Mecca[5]m firstly KHADIJA, daughter of ---.  m secondly AISHA, daughter of ABU BAKR.  Mohammed & his first wife had three children:

i)          RUQAYYA m OTHMAN bin Affan al-Quraishi, son of --- ([571/72]-murdered 16 Jun 656).  He succeeded as Caliph in 644. 

ii)         KULTHUM m OTHMAN bin Affan al-Quraishi, son of --- ([571/72]-murdered 16 Jun 656).  He succeeded as Caliph in 644. 

iii)        FATIMA m her father’s first cousin, ALI, son of ALI Talab (-murdered 27 Jan 661).  He succeeded as Caliph in 656. 

2.         ALI Talab . 

a)         ALI (-murdered 27 Jan 661).  First cousin of Mohammed.  He succeeded in 656 as Caliph.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "le gendre de Mahmed" succeeded after "les Hagaréniens tuèrent leur roi Othman" and became "maître de Babylone et de la Syrie" while "Maui régna sur l'Egypte"[6].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "un serviteur de Maui" killed "Ali"[7]m FATIMA, daughter of MOHAMMED & his first wife Khadija.  Two children: 

i)          Al HASAN (-670)

-         Chapter 3. IDRISSID DYNASTY in MOROCCO

ii)         Al HUSSEIN (-680).  Murdered. 

-         Chapter 4. FATIMID DYNASTY in EGYPT

3.         ABBAS

a)         ABDULLAH ibn Abbas (-Taif [687/90]).  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Abd-Allah…l´Interprète du Coran, fils d´El-Abbas oncle paternal du Prophète[8]

-        Chapter 5. ABBASSID DYNASTY in BAGHDAD

 

 

1.         ABU Bakr ([570/71]-23 Aug 634).  He was chosen as leader of the Muslim community after the death of Mohammed in 632, and is considered as the first Caliph.  He completed the conquest of Arabia with the expulsion of the Persians from Bahrein[9]

a)         AISHA m as his second wife, MOHAMMED, son of ABDULLAH (570-632). 

 

 

1.         OMAR ([583]-Nov 644).  He succeeded Abu Bakr as Caliph in 634.  His army defeated Theodoros, brother of Emperor Heraclius, at Gabatha [Ajnadain] south-west of Jerusalem, before capturing Damascus in Aug 635.  He defeated a Christian army 20 Aug 636 at the River Yarmuk south-east of the Sea of Galilee, captured Jerusalem and Antioch in 638[10].  The Arabs defeated a Persian army at Kadesiah in 637, capturing present-day Irag, and at Nekhavend after which the Iranian plateau was conquered.  Egypt was invaded in Dec 639.  Alexandria capitulated in Nov 642, was briefly recaptured by the Christians, but was restored to the Muslims in 645[11]

 

 

1.         OTHMAN bin Affan al-Quraishi ([571/72]-murdered 16 Jun 656).  He succeeded Omar as Caliph in 644.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "les Hagaréniens tuèrent leur roi Othman"[12]m firstly RUQAYYA, daughter of MOHAMMED.  m secondly KULTHUM, daughter of MOHAMMED. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    UMAYYAD DYNASTY

 

 

 

1.         ABD SHAMS ibn Abd Manaf al-Quraishi .  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Escim et Abdiscelmiz” as the sons of “Abdilmelef”, and lists his alleged ancestors through 25 generations back to through the prophet Abraham[13].  One child: 

a)         UMAYYA ibn Abd Shams .  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Humeia” as the son of “Abdiscemiz frater de Escim[14].  Two children: 

i)          HARB ibn Umayya .  One child: 

(a)       ABU SUFYAN ibn Harb .  Umayyad chief, member of the Quraysh tribe and a distant cousin of Mohammed.  He was one of the leading opponents of the new religion in the early days.  Two children: 

(1)       MUAWIYA (-680).  He was appointed Governor of Syria.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "le gendre de Mahmed" succeeded after "les Hagaréniens tuèrent leur roi Othman" and became "maître de Babylone et de la Syrie" while "Maui régna sur l'Egypte"[15].  He succeeded in 660 as Caliph, the first of the Umayyad dynasty, with his capital at Damascus.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "un serviteur de Maui" killed "Ali" and that "toute la nation arabe se soumit à Maui" who transferred "le siege de l'empire…d'Athrab à Damas" and ruled for 20 years[16].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Moawiah, fils d'Abou-Sofyan" was the first of his family to rule in Baghdad, but that authority passed to "aux enfants de Merwan, ses cousins paternal" instead of his own descendants[17].  The Ummayad Caliphate was tolerant of Christians, encouraged commercial activity and the development of Hellenistic culture[18].  One child: 

a.         YAZID (-683).  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Izid son fils" succeeded after the death of "Maui chef des Arabes", but reigned only 4 years[19].  He succeeded his father as Caliph YAZID I.  A bitter civil war followed his death, which resulted in the caliphate being seized by his second cousin Marwan.  One child: 

(i)         son .  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that, after the death of Yazid, "Moukhther" rebelled "à Babylone et se prétendait prophète", "Aptela" reigned "à Athrab", while Damascus was held by "le fils d'Izid"[20]

(2)       ZIAD bin Abu .  Ziadites, who briefly controlled Egypt in the late 9th century. 

ii)         ABU al-As .  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Abilaz” as the son of “Humeia[21].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[22].  One child: 

(a)       al-HAKEM .  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Accam” as the son of “Abilaz[23].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[24].  One child: 

(1)       MARWAN (-685).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Maroan” as the son of “Accam[25].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[26].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd-el-Melik b. Merwan b. Hakam" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[27].  Following the death of his second cousin Caliph Yazid I in 683, he started a bitter civil war with the supporters of the first Umayyad dynasty, emerging victorious in 684 as Caliph MARWAN I, thus founding the second Umayyad dynasty sometimes known as the Marwanids. 

-         see below

 

 

MARWAN, son of al-HAKEM (-685).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Maroan” as the son of “Accam[28].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[29].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd-el-Melik b. Merwan b. Hakam" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[30].  Following the death of his second cousin Caliph Yazid I in 683, he started a bitter civil war with the supporters of the first Umayyad dynasty, emerging victorious in 684 as Caliph MARWAN I, thus founding the second Umayyad dynasty sometimes known as the Marwanids.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that the Arabs chose "un vieillard" who reigned for one year[31]

Four children: 

1.         ABD-el-MALIK ibn Marwan (-705).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Abdelmelic” as the son of “Maroan[32].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[33].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Aptelmelek fils de Merouan" succeeded[34].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd-el-Melik b. Merwan b. Hakam" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[35].  He succeeded his father in 685 as Caliph ABD al-MALIK.  He completed the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem 691.  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Aptelmelek" made peace with Emperor Justinian II, under which the latter agreed to send "mille tahégans, un esclave et un cheval" each year and the island of Cyprus would be shared between the Arabs and the Byzantines, but that Justinian raided Cyprus and broke the treaty[36].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that the Arabs defeated the Byzantines "à Pouschérig" in 694[37].  Five children: 

a)         WALID ([667/68]-25 Feb 715).  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Velith" succeeded "Aptelmelek" and reigned for 9 years[38].  He succeeded his father in 705 as Caliph WALID I.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Tharik, fils de Ziad" invaded Andalucía "sous le règne de Walid, fils d'Abd-el-Malek khalife de Damas" and that the caliph ratified the treaty signed by Tarik with "les fils de Witiza"[39]The Ajbar Machmua records the death A.H. 96 (16 Sep 714/4 Sep 715) of "Al-Walid de edad de 46 años, habiendo nacido durante el califado de Moawiya"[40]Three children: 

i)          ABBAS .  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Hicham, fils d'Abd-el-Malek" assigned the place of "son frère Maslama" in the State Council to "son frère El-Abbas, fils de Walid"[41]

ii)         YAZID (-744).  He succeeded his cousin in 744 as Caliph YAZID III

iii)        AMR .  One child: 

(a)       ABD al-MALIK .  One child: 

(1)       HABIB (-after 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "Habib ben Abdo-l-Melic ben Amr ben al-Walid" among those who escaped to Ifrikiya, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[42]

b)         SULEYMAN (-3 Oct 717).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Soleiman" as brother of Caliph Walid, when recording that he tried unsuccessfully to persuade "Mouça fils de Noçair", who had arrived after the conquest of Spain, to delay his arrival in Damascus until after the death of the caliph, revenging himself after his accession by requiring Musa to pay a large fine and ordering the death of his son Abd el-Aziz[43].  The Chronicle of Michael the Syrian records that "Souliman" succeeded "Velith" and reigned for 2 years, during which time the Arabs conquered "la Galatie"[44].  He succeeded his brother in 715 as Caliph SULEYMAN.  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Suleyman Ibn Abd El-Malik" died "ten nights before the end of Safar" in A.H. 99 (3 Oct 717)[45].  Two children: 

i)          AYUB .  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Aiyub Ibn Suleyman" interceded with his father Caliph Suleiman to spare the life of "Musa Ibn Nosseyr"[46]

ii)         ABD al-WAHID (-murdered 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "Abdo-l-Wahid ben Çuleiman, Algamr ben Yecid" among those who escaped, in a later passage naming "Abdo-l-Wahid" among those who were persuaded to return with false promises of safety and beheaded, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[47]

c)         YAZID (-29 Jan 724).  Ibn-el Kouthya records the accession of "Yezid fils d'Abd-el-Malek" as caliph[48].  He succeeded as Caliph YAZID II.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Caliph Yazid appointed "Biebr, fils de Safouan" as viceroy in Africa[49].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that Caliph Yazid died "four nights before the end of shaban of the year 105" (29 Jan 724)[50].  Two children: 

i)          WALID (-744).  He succeeded his uncle in 743 as Caliph WALID II.  Two children: 

(a)       al-ASI (-after 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "los dos hijos de Al-Walid ben Yecid, Al-Asi y Muça" among those who escaped to Ifrikiya, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[51]

(b)       MUSA (-after 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "los dos hijos de Al-Walid ben Yecid, Al-Asi y Muça" among those who escaped to Ifrikiya, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[52]

ii)         al-GAMR (-murdered 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "Abdo-l-Wahid ben Çuleiman, Algamr ben Yecid" among those who escaped, in a later passage naming "Al-Gamr ben Yecid" among those who were persuaded to return with false promises of safety and beheaded, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[53]

d)         HISHAM (-743).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "khalife Hicham, fils d'Abd-el-Malek"[54].  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Iscem” as the son of “Abdelmelic[55].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[56].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Hicham b. Abd-el-Melik b. Merwan b. Hakam" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[57].  He succeeded in 724 as Caliph HISHAM at Damascus.  Ibn-el Kouthya records the accession of "Hicham, fils d'Abd-el-Malek" as caliph after Yazid[58].  During his reign, the caliphate lost control of Morocco as a result of various Berber uprisings.  He launched a military expedition against the Berbers, led by Kulthum bn Iyad, which was defeated on the River Sebou in northern Morocco [Sep/Oct] 741.  Konstantinos V Emperor of Byzantium defeated the Umayyads, reconquering northern Syria including Germanicea in 746, and routing their fleet at Alexandria the following year.  These victories contributed to the weakening of the Umayyad dynasty, which was supplanted by the Abbassids in 750 following a lengthy civil war.  Four children: 

i)          MUAWIYA (-[741/43]).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Mavia” as the son of “Iscem[59].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[60].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Moawiyya b. Hicham b. Abd-el-Melik…" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[61].  The Ajbar Machmua records that the father of Abd al-Rahman died before his own father, when Abd al-Rahman was ten years old[62]m RAH [Reddah], from the Nafza Berbers.  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib names the mother of “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as “Rah ou Reddah, captive berbère originaire du Maghreb[63]The Ajbar Machmua records that Abd al-Rahman, after fleeing from the Abbasids, sought refuge "en Sabra con los de Nefza, que eran sus tios, porque su madre pertenecia a esta tribu"[64].  Seven children: 

(a)       ABAN (-[750]).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", captured "Aban ben Moawiya" and cut one of his hands and one of his feet, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[65]

(b)       ABD al-RAHMAN ([731]-7 Oct 788, bur Córdoba).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Abderrhaman” as the son of “Mavia[66].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd er-Rahman ed-Dakhil b. Moawiyya b. Hicham b. Abd-el-Melik…" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[67].  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib names the mother of “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as “Rah ou Reddah, captive berbère originaire du Maghreb[68].  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-rahman hijo de Moavia…" was born "en un lugar conocido por Diar-Haçina de Damaxco" A.H. 113 (731), adding that his father died when he was still "pequeño de años"[69].  One of the few survivors of the Umayyad dynasty after the Abbasid revolution 750, he fled to North Africa seeking refuge with his mother's Berber family: the Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", adding that "el emir Abdo-l-Rahman ben Moawiya" was able to escape, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750), stating in a later passage that Abd al-Rahman was 17 years old at the time[70].  He sent Badr, his chief supporter, to make contact with the Umayyad supporters in Andalucía.  He crossed to Almuñecar in early Autumn 755, marching on Córdoba next Spring where he defeated the Qaysi army and entered the capital in May 756.  Ibn-el Kouthya records the installation in Andalucía of "Abd-errahman, fils de Moawia, fils de Hicham"[71].  He was proclaimed ABD al-RAHMAN I Emir of Córdoba 14 May 756, founding the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba. 

-         EMIRATE of CÓRDOBA

(c)       FULANO .  The Ajbar Machmua names "Fulano" as younger brother of Abd al-Rahman, recording that he also had a vision of the arrival of the Abbasids after the death of their father[72]

(d)       WALID .  One child: 

(1)       MOGUIRA .  The Ajbar Machmua records the records the rebellion of "su sobrino Moguira ben Al-Walid ben Moawiya" against Abd al-Rahman Emir of Córdoba, undated but recorded in a passage just before the death of the emir[73]

(e)       UMM al-ASBAG .  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", adding that "el emir Abdo-l-Rahman ben Moawiya" was able to escape and instructed "su hijo Abo Ayob y sus dos hermanas Umm Al-Asbag y Amat-er-Rahmen" to join him later, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750), in a later passage specifying that Umm al-Asbag was "hermana uterina" of Abd al-Rahman[74].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Abd er-Rahman sent "Moawia-ben-Saleh du Hadramaut" to Hadramaut to bring "ses deux sœurs germains" back to Córdoba but they refused[75]

(f)        AMAT al-RAHMAN .  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", adding that "el emir Abdo-l-Rahman ben Moawiya" was able to escape and instructed "su hijo Abo Ayob y sus dos hermanas Umm Al-Asbag y Amat-er-Rahmen" to join him later, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[76].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Abd er-Rahman sent "Moawia-ben-Saleh du Hadramaut" to Hadramaut to bring "ses deux sœurs germains" back to Córdoba but they refused[77]

(g)       YAHYA (-murdered 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", naming "Yahya ben Moawiya ben Hixem" among those who fled but were persuaded to return after a false assurance of safety and killed, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[78]

ii)         SULEYMAN (-murdered 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", but spared the life of "Çuleiman ben Hixem", in a later passage naming "Çuleiman ben Hixem" among those who were persuaded to return with false promises of safety and beheaded, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[79]

iii)        --- .  One child: 

(a)       ABD el-GHAFAR .  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "son cousin Abd-el-Ghaffar, gouverneur de Libla" rebelled against Abd er-Rahman at Córdoba[80]

iv)       ABDA (-murdered 750).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", cut the throat of "Abda, hija de Hixem ben Abdo-l-Melic" after she refused to reveal the location of the treasure and jewels, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[81]

e)         MASLAMA (-[738/41]).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Maçlama ben Abdo-l-Melic" welcomed Abd al-Rahman, then aged 10, after the death of his father, during a vision about the arrival of the Abbasids, but that Maslama had in fact died two years earlier[82]

2.         ABD el-AZIZ .  Two child: 

a)         OMAR (-720).  He succeeded in 717 as Caliph OMAR II at Damascus.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Caliph "Omar, fils d'Abd-el-Aziz" appointed "Al-Sameh, fils de Malek le Khaulani" as wali in Spain at the same time as appointing "Ismail ben Abd-Allah seigneur des Beni-Makhzoum" as viceroy in Africa[83]

b)         CHOZAI (-after 755).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "Chozay ben Abdo-l-Aziz ben Meruan y Abdo-l-Melic ben Omar ben Meruan" among those who escaped to Ifrikiya after the death of Caliph Marwan II, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[84].  The Ajbar Machmua records the arrival in Spain of "Abdo-l-Melic ben Omar ben Meruan, llamado Al-Meruani, y Chozay ben Abd-l-Aziz ben Meruan, con sus hijos y hijas", from the context dated to [755/56][85]

3.         MOHAMMED .  One child: 

a)         MARWAN (-750).  He succeeded in 744 as Caliph MARWAN II.  Last Ommayid Caliph, the Umayyad dynasty was swept from power by the Abbasids.  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Meruan ben Mohammad" was deposed by "los Benul-Abbas", died A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750), and his head sent to "As-Saffah, y despues a Abo-l-Abbas"[86]

4.         OMAR .  One child: 

a)         ABD al-MALIK (-after 755).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", and names "Chozay ben Abdo-l-Aziz ben Meruan y Abdo-l-Melic ben Omar ben Meruan" among those who escaped to Ifrikiya after the death of Caliph Marwan II, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750)[87].  The Ajbar Machmua records the arrival in Spain of "Abdo-l-Melic ben Omar ben Meruan, llamado Al-Meruani, y Chozay ben Abd-l-Aziz ben Meruan, con sus hijos y hijas", from the context dated to [755/56][88].  One child: 

i)          ABD-ALLAH .  The Ajbar Machmua names "Abd-Allah, wali de Moron" as the son of "Al-Meruani", when recording that father and son supported Abd al-Rahman in his invasion of Spain in [755][89]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    IDRISSID DYNASTY in MOROCCO

 

 

The Aghlabides of Kairouan (ruled 801-909), Zirides of Algeria (ruled 971-1167), Almoravides in North Africa (1061-1163), and Almohades in North Africa (1147-1269) all claimed descent from Hasan, son of Ali and his wife Fatima.

 

 

Al HASAN, son of ALI & his wife Fatima (-670)

1.         ….

a)         IDRISS (-791).  He fled westwards in 786 after a failed rebellion against the Abassids.  He founded the Dynasty of the Idrissids in Morocco 788.  m KENZA, a Berber.  One child: 

i)          Moulay IDRISS (791-828).  Morocco was divided between his 10 sons. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    FATIMID DYNASTY in EGYPT

 

 

Between 870 and 904, Egypt temporarily freed itself from the domination of the Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad and was ruled by the Tulunid dynasty, who descended from Ahmed Ibn Tulun, the son of a Turkish slave.  After their overthrow, the Abbasids reasserted control until 945 when Ikhshid governor of Egypt established a dynasty which ruled in Egypt and Syria until 969, when it was overthrown by the Fatemid dynasty.  The Fatimid monarch in Egypt was accepted as the true caliph by Shia Muslims after the Baghdad caliphate fell under the influence of Turkish invaders from Central Asia[90]

 

 

Al HUSSEIN, son of ALI & his wife Fatima (-680).  Murdered. 

m --- daughter of the last Sassanid King. 

One child: 

1.         MOHAMMAD .  As noted below, Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Muhammad Obaid Allah, surnamed al-Mahdi" and several different versions of his possible descent from al-Hussein: "the author of the History of Kairawan says that he was the son of al-Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Jaafar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib", "another historian calls him Obaid Allah the son of Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Jaafar as before…", "a third states that his grandfather Ismail was the son of Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ahmad…", as well as other versions, concluding that "the most exact investigators reject Obaid Allah´s pretensions" to descent from "al-Husain the son of Ali"[91].  This descent is evidently uncertain. 

 

 

1.         ABU MOHAMMED OBAID ALLAH al-Mahdi (Salamiya, Syria or Kufa [872/79]-Aug 909).  He claimed descent from Ali and Fatima, daughter of the prophet.  He founded the Fatemid dynasty in Kairouan in 908.  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Muhammad Obaid Allah, surnamed al-Mahdi", recording several different versions of his ancestry: "the author of the History of Kairawan says that he was the son of al-Hasan Ibn Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Jaafar Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib", "another historian calls him Obaid Allah the son of Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Jaafar as before…", "a third states that his grandfather Ismail was the son of Ali Ibn al-Husain Ibn Ahmad…", as well as other versions, concluding that "the most exact investigators reject Obaid Allah´s pretensions" to descent from "al-Husain the son of Ali"[92].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records the birth of Obaid Allah al-Mahdi "in the town of Salamiya" A.H. 259 (872/73) "or by other accounts in the year 260 or 266, but some say that he was born at Kufa", and his death "7th Zu ´l-Hijja" A.H. 296 (Aug 909)[93].  One child: 

a)         ABU al-KASIM MOHAMMED [Nizar] al-Kaim (Salamiya [Mar/Apr] 893-18 May 946).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu ´l-Kasim Muhammad called also Nizar…the son of Abu Mohammed Obaid Allah surnamed al-Mahdi…[who] bore the title al Kaim", his birth "at Salamiya…in the month of Muharram" A.H. 280 (Mar/Apr 893) "some say in 282 others…in 277", , and his death "13th Shawwal" A.H. 334 (18 May 946)[94].  One child: 

i)          ABU TAHIR ISMAIL al-Mansur (Kairouan 914-Mar 953).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu ´t-Tahir Ismail surnamed al-Mansur…son of Kaim Ibn al-Mahdi prince of Ifrikiya…[his] grandfather al-Mahdi Obaid Allah", his birth "at Kairawan" A.H. 302 (914), his reign of seven years and six days, and his death "[at] al-Mansuriya…29th Shawwal" A.H. 341 (Mar 953)[95].  One child: 

(a)       ABU TAMIM MAADD al-Moez (al-Mahdiya 27 Sep 931-Cairo 20 Dec 975)Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Tamim Maadd surnamed al-Moizz li-Din Illah…the son of al-Mansur son of al-Kaim, son of al-Mahdi Obaid Allah", his birth "at al-Mahdiya…11th Ramadan" A.H. 319 (27 Sep 931) and his death "at Cairo 15th or as some say 13th of the second Rabi" A.H. 365 (20 Dec 975)[96]

-         see below.   

 

 

ABU TAMIM MAADD al-Moez, son of ABU TAHIR ISMAIL al-Mansur (al-Mahdiya 27 Sep 931-Cairo 20 Dec 975).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Tamim Maadd surnamed al-Moizz li-Din Illah…the son of al-Mansur son of al-Kaim, son of al-Mahdi Obaid Allah", his birth "at al-Mahdiya…11th Ramadan" A.H. 319 (27 Sep 931) and his death "at Cairo 15th or as some say 13th of the second Rabi" A.H. 365 (20 Dec 975)[97].  Great grandson of Obeid, he overthrew the Ikshid dynasty in Egypt in 969, and in the following year conquered southern Syria centred on Damascus. 

Two children: 

1.         ABU al-MANSUR NIZAR al-Aziz (al-Mahdiya 11 May 975-14 Oct 1017).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu ´l-Mansur Nizar al-Obaidi entitled al-Aziz billah…the son of al-Moizz son of al-Mansur son of al-Kaim, son of al-Mahdi", his birth "14th Muharram…at al-Mahdiya in the province of Ifrikiya" A.H. 344 (11 May 975) and his death "28th Ramadan" A.H. 386 (14 Oct 996)[98].  In Spring 975, Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces captured Damascus, Tiberias, Nazareth, Acre, Caesarea, Beirut and Sidon from the Fatimid dynasty[99].  Aziz conquered Aleppo in 987.  The Fatimid monarch in Egypt was accepted as the true Caliph by Shia Muslims after the Baghdad Caliphate fell under the influence of Turkish invaders from Central Asia[100].  Two children: 

a)         HAKIM (-[murdered] 1021).  He was the son of a Christian mother.  Caliph.  He persecuted the Christians 1004-1014, ordering the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 1009.  He proclaimed himself divine in 1016, but persecuted Muslims as well, forbidding the Ramadan fast and pilgrimage to Mecca.  He disappeared in 1021, probably murdered by his sister Sitt al-Malik[101].  Two children: 

i)          ABU HASHIM ALI al-Zahir (Cairo Jun 1005-Jun 1036).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Hashim Ali…surnamed az-Zahir li-Izaz Din illah", his birth "at Cairo…10th Ramadan" A.H. 395 (Jun 1005), his succession "after the disappearance of his father…27th Shawwal" A.H. 411 (Feb 1021), and his death "15th Shaaban" A.H. 427 (Jun 1036)[102]

ii)         al-ZAHIR .  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary names "az-Zahir li-Izaz Din-Illah, son of al-Hakim, son of al-Aziz, son of al-Moizz li-Din Illah", when recording his son[103]

-         see below

2.         ABU ALI TAMIN ([948/49]-Egypt Apr 985).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Ali Tamun…son of al-Moizz Ibn al-Mansur Ibn al-Kaim Ibn al-Mahdi", his reputed birth A.H. 337 (948/49), his death "in the month of Zu ´l-Kaada…in Misr" A.H. 374 (Apr 985)[104]

 

 

al-ZAHIR, son of al-HAKIM .  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary names "az-Zahir li-Izaz Din-Illah, son of al-Hakim, son of al-Aziz, son of al-Moizz li-Din Illah", when recording his son[105]

One child: 

1.         ABU TAMIM MAADD al-Mustansir Billah (2 Jul 1029-6 Jan 1095).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Tamim Maadd surnamed al-Mustansir Billah…the son of az-Zahir li-Izaz Din-Illah, son of al-Hakim, son of al-Aziz, son of al-Moizz li-Din Illah", his birth "16th of the second Jumada" A.H. 420 (2 Jul 1029) and his death "18th Zu ´l-Hijja" A.H. 487 (6 Jan 1095)[106].  He was recognised as caliph in Baghdad in 1058.  The Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah conquered large parts of Syria in 1075/76.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 487 (1094/95) of "El-Mostancer Billah", having occupied the caliphate of Egypt for 60 years and 4 months, and the accession of "son fils El-Mostali-Billah"[107]Caliph.  Two children: 

a)         ABU al-KASIM AHMAD al-Mostali (Cairo Aug 1076-Egypt Dec 1101).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu ´l-Kasim Ahmad surnamed Al-Mustali…son of al-Mustansir Ibn az-Zahir…", his birth "at Cairo 20th Muharram" A.H. 469 (Aug 1076) of "al-Mustali"[108].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 487 (1094/95) of "El-Mostancer Billah", having occupied the caliphate of Egypt for 60 years and 4 months, and the accession of "son fils El-Mostali-Billah"[109]Caliph.  Abul-Feda records that "les troupes du khalife égyptien" captured Jerusalem from "Ilhghazi et Sokman…fils d'Ortok" in A.H. 489 (1096)[110].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Mosta'li-Bi-Amr-Illah khalife d'Egypte" died in A.H. 495 (1101/02) and was succeeded by "son fils El-Asmir-Bi-Akkam-Illah" who was aged 5 years, one months and some days[111].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records the death "at Misr 16th Safar" A.H. 495 (Dec 1101) of "al-Mustali"[112].  One child: 

i)          El ASMIR Bi-Akkam-Illah ([1095/96]-murdered 5 Oct 1130).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Mosta'li-Bi-Amr-Illah khalife d'Egypte" died in A.H. 495 (1101/02) and was succeeded by "son fils El-Asmir-Bi-Akkam-Illah" who was aged 5 years, one months and some days[113]Caliph.  He fell under the influence of his grand vizier al-Afdal[114].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "le 2 de doulcada" in A.H. 524 (5 Oct 1130) of "le khalife d'Egypte, Amer Bi-akham-Allah", specifying that he had been killed by "quelques Bathéniens" and was aged 34[115].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Amer-bi-Ahkam-Illah, le khalife alide qui régnait en Egypte" was assassinated "par des Baténiens" in "le mois de doul-ka'ada" in A.H. 524 (Oct/Nov 1130), without children, and the accession of "El-Hafed Abd-el-Medjid" but waited until one of the wives of his predecessor gave birth before installing him as caliph[116]

b)         ABUL KASSIM .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle names "l'émir Aboul-Cassem, fils de Mostanser Billah" when recording the accession of his son as caliph[117].  One child: 

i)          ABU al-MAIMUN ABD al-HAMID al-Hafiz (Ascalon mid-May 1074-Oct 1149).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu ´l-Maimun Abd al-Hamid, surnamed al-Hafiz…son of Muhammad Ibn al-Mustansir…", his birth "at Askalon in the month of Muharram" A.H. 467 (Sep 1074) "or 13th Ramadan" A. H. 468 and his death "5th of the latter Jumada" A.H. 544 (Oct 1149) "some say 543"[118].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son cousin Aboul-Maymoun Abdalmadjyd, fils de l'émir Aboul-Cassem, fils de Mostanser Billah" succeeded on the death of "le khalife d'Egypte, Amer Bi-akham-Allah", specifying that he took the title "Hafedh Lidin-Allah" and was born at Ascalon "au milieu du mois de ramadan" in A.H. 466 (mid-May 1074)[119].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Amer-bi-Ahkam-Illah, le khalife alide qui régnait en Egypte" was assassinated "par des Baténiens" in "le mois de doul-ka'ada" in A.H. 524 (Oct/Nov 1130), without children, and the accession of "El-Hafed Abd-el-Medjid" but waited until one of the wives of his predecessor gave birth before installing him as caliph[120].  Abul-Feda records the death of "Abou Ali, fils d'El-Afdal", vizir of "El-Hafed-li-Din-Illah l'alide" whom he had imprisoned, in A.H. 526 (1131/32) and the appointment by the caliph of "son fils Hacem" as vizir[121].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "au mois de djoumada second" in A.H. 526 (Oct 1149) of "le khalife d'Egypte Al-Hafedh Lidyn-allah", aged 77 years[122].  Four children: 

(a)       HASHIM (-murdered 1135).  Abul-Feda records the death of "Abou Ali, fils d'El-Afdal", vizir of "El-Hafed-li-Din-Illah l'alide" whom he had imprisoned, in A.H. 526 (1131/32) and the appointment by the caliph of "son fils Hacem" as vizir[123].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le khalife d'Egypte Hafedh Lidyn-Allah…son fils Hassan…héritier présomptif" was poisoned in A.H. 529 (1135)[124]

(b)       ABU al-MANSUR ISMAIL al-Zahir (Cairo 1133-murdered [Mar/Apr] 1154).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu ´l-Mansur Ismail surnamed az-Zahir, son of al-Hafiz Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Mustansir Ibn az-Zahir Ibn al-Hakim Ibn al-Aziz Ibn al-Moizz Ibn al-Mansur Ibn al-Kaim Ibn al-Mahdi", his birth "at Cairo…15th second Rabi (some say the first)" A.H. 527 (1133) and his death "30th Muharram" A.H. 549 (Apr 1154) murdered by "his favourite Nasr son of his vizir Abbas"[125].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son fils Abou-Mansour Ismael, qui prit le titre de Al-Dhafer-bi-amr-allah" on the death in A.H. 526 (Oct 1149) of "le khalife d'Egypte Al-Hafedh Lidyn-allah"[126].  He succeeded his father as Caliph.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Al-Dhafer-Billah souverain de l'Egypte" was murdered "au mois de moharram" in A.H. 549 (Mar 1154)[127].  Abul-Feda records the assassination "au mois de moharrem" in A.H. 549 (Mar/Apr 1154) of "Ed-Dafer-Billah l'Alide" at "Hamadan", his murder arranged by his vizir Abbas, whose son Nasar was his lover[128].  One child: 

(1)       El-FAIZ bi-NASER Illah ABU'L-KASIM EISSA ([1148/49]-1160).  Abul-Feda records that vizir Abbas installed "El-Faizbi-Nasar-Illah Abou'l-Kacem Eissa…[qui] n'avait que cinq ans" as caliph after the death of his father in A.H. 549 (Mar/Apr 1154), adding that the vizir fled in a palace revolution[129].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 555 (1160) of "El Faiz-bi-Nasr-Illah khalife d'Egypte"[130]

(c)       YUSUF (-murdered [Mar/Apr] 1160). Abul-Feda records that "vizir…Abbas" killed "deux frères du khalife Ioussef et Djébrail" in A.H. 555 (1160)[131].  Abul-Feda records that vizir Abbas killed "les princes Youssof et Djibrail…deux frères d'Ed Dafer" after the death of the caliph in A.H. 549 (Mar/Apr 1154)[132].  One child: 

(1)       ABU MOHAMMED ABD ALLAH El Aded (May 1151-13 Sep 1171).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Muhammad Abd Allah…[…al-Aadid…the last Obaidite sovereign of Egypt] son of Yusuf Ibn al-Hafiz…", his birth "20th Muharram" A.H. 546 (May 1151) and his death "12th Muharram" A.H. 567 (Sep 1171)[133].  Abul-Feda records that "Abou Mohammed Abd-Allah, fils de l'émir Youssouf et petit-fils d'El-Hafed", who had just reached the age of puberty, was proclaimed caliph by "Es-Saleh Ibn Rozzic" after the death in A.H. 555 (1160) of "El Faiz-bi-Nasr-Illah khalife d'Egypte" and took the title "El-Aded-li-Din-Illah"[134].  Abul-Feda records that "Salah ed-Din" deposed El Aded in A.H. 566 (1170/71), proclaimed the caliphate of Baghdad in Egypt, and that the ex-caliph died "le 10 moharrem" (13 Sep 1171), the last caliph in Egypt[135]m ---, daughter of Es SALEH Ibn Rozzic.  Abul-Feda records that "Abou Mohammed Abd-Allah, fils de l'émir Youssouf et petit-fils d'El-Hafed… El Faiz-bi-Nasr-Illah" married the daughter of "Es-Saleh Ibn Rozzic" after being proclaimed caliph in A.H. 555 (1160)[136]

(d)       JEBRAIL (-murdered [Mar/Apr] 1154).  Abul-Feda records that vizir Abbas killed "les princes Youssof et Djibrail…deux frères d'Ed Dafer" after the death of the caliph in A.H. 549 (Mar/Apr 1154)[137]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    ABBASID CALIPHS of BAGHDAD

 

 

All the dynasties which ruled in western Asia recognised the authority of the caliphs at Baghdad, who formally invested the rulers and received tribute from them.  However, by the mid-10th century the caliph's own territory was reduced to the city of Baghdad itself and the surrounding districts.  The ruling caliphs were weak and entrusted the government of their lands to their grand vizirs.  Their authority in Egypt was challenged by the Fatimid dynasty whose rulers were recognised as sole caliph by the Shiites.  In Baghdad, the caliphs continued to rule only because of the protection of the Seljukid sultans.  The Mongols captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the caliph and his family. 

 

 

ABDULLAH ibn Abbas, son of ABBAS (-Taif [687/90]).  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Abd-Allah…l´Interprète du Coran, fils d´El-Abbas oncle paternal du Prophète[138]

One child: 

1.         ALI ibn Abdullah ([Jan 661]-[732/40]).  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Ali…le père des khalifes, fils d´Abd-Allah…l´Interprète du Coran[139].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Muhammad Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn Hashim al-Hashimi, grandfather to the khalifs as-Saffah and al-Mansur…the youngest son of his father", his birth "according to al-Wakidi…17th of Ramadan" A.H. 40 (Jan 661) "but other dates are assigned to his birth" and his death "at as-Sharat" A.H. 117 (735) or "A.H. 118…[or] in the month of Zu ´l-Kaada, Khalifa Ibn Khaiyat in A.H. 114 and a fourth in A.H. 119"[140].  One child: 

a)         MOHAMMED ibn Ali .  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Mohammed…Es-Seddjad, fils d´Ali…le père des khalifes[141]

-        see below

 

 

MOHAMMED ibn Ali, son of ALI ibn Abdullah .  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Mohammed…Es-Seddjad, fils d´Ali…le père des khalifes[142]

Three children: 

1.         IBRAHIM (-747). 

2.         ABU al-ABBAS as-Saffah ABDULLAH (-754).  He defeated the Ummayad Caliphs of Damascus 750, succeeding as Caliph ABUL-ABBAS, first Caliph of the Abbasid Dynasty, based at Baghdad.  Konstantinos V Emperor of Byzantium temporarily recaptured Melitena and Theodosiopolis in 752.  The transfer of the capital of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad by the Abbasids reduced the pressure felt by Byzantium from their Arab neighbours.  The Abbasid dynasty was less tolerant of Christians, promoted Persian rather than Hellenistic culture, but took a greater interest in intellectual matters than its predecessor Ummayad dynasty, with scientists and mathematicians encouraged to establish themselves in Baghdad[143].

3.         Al-JAFAR Al-MANSUR (-775).  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Abd-Allah Abou Djafer…El-Mansour, fils de Mohammed…Es-Seddjad[144].  He succeeded his brother in 754 as Caliph Al-JAFAR Al-MANSUR.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son frère Al-Mansour" succeeded after the death of "Alsaffah, le premier des Abbassides qui regna"[145].  He attempted to regain control of Andalucía in 763 through al-Ala bin al-Mughith al-Yahsubi, his representative from Beja in southern Portugal, but Abd al-Rahman defeated and killed the latter at Carmona.  Two children: 

a)         JAFAR .  One child: 

i)          ZUBEIDA (-[Jun/Jul] 831).  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes names “Omm-Djafar-Zobeideh, fille de Djafar, fils aîné du khalife al-Mansour” as mother of "Al-Amin Mohammed"[146].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Zubaida surnamed Omm Jaafar…daughter of Jaafar the son of Abu Jaafar al-Mansur Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn Hashim…the mother of Muhammad al-Amin, the son of Harun ar-Rashid", her marriage A.H. 165 (781/82), and her death "at Baghdad in the month of the first Junada" A.H. 216 (Jun/Jul 831)[147]m ([781/82]) her first cousin, Caliph HARUN al-RASHID, son of Caliph MOHAMMED al-MAHDI. 

b)         MOHAMMED ibn Mansur al-MAHDI (-785).  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes names “Mohammed…El-Mehdi fils d´Abd-Allah Abou Djafer…El-Mansour[148].  He succeeded his father in 775 as Caliph MOHAMMED al-MAHDI.  [m] (x) SHIKLA [Shakla], daughter of ---.  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Ishak Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi…", brother of Caliph Harun al-Rashid and son of "Shikla or Shakla (who was a negress)"[149].  Mohammed had three children by unknown wives or concubines: 

i)          ABU ABDULLAH MUSA ibn Mahdi al-HADI (-786).  He succeeded his father in 785 as Caliph ABU ABDULLAH MUSA al-HADI

ii)         HARUN al-RASHID (-809).  He succeeded his brother in 786 as Caliph HARUN al-RASHID.  Arab incursions into Byzantine territory followed the suspension by Emperor Nikephoros in 803 of the payment of annual tribute to the Caliphate, but he was forced to make peace with Harun al-Rashid in 806 and restore the payments[150].  Caliph Harun encouraged Emperor Charles I "Charlemagne" in his interest in the Christian holy places in Jerusalem, and permitted Frankish foundations in the city[151].  Civil war followed the Caliph's death, lasting until al-Mamun's entry into Baghdad in 819.  m (a) ([781/82]) ZUBEIDA, daughter of JAFAR (-[Jun/Jul] 831).  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes names “Omm-Djafar-Zobeideh, fille de Djafar, fils aîné du khalife al-Mansour” as mother of "Al-Amin Mohammed"[152].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Zubaida surnamed Omm Jaafar…daughter of Jaafar the son of Abu Jaafar al-Mansur Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Abd Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn Hashim…the mother of Muhammad al-Amin, the son of Harun ar-Rashid", her marriage A.H. 165 (781/82), and her death "at Baghdad in the month of the first Junada" A.H. 216 (Jun/Jul 831)[153]m (b) MARAGLE, daughter of ---.  Harun al-Rashid & his wife (a) had two children: 

(a)       JAFAR (-young). 

(b)       MOHAMMED ibn Harun al-AMIN (-murdered 813).  He succeeded his father in 809 as Caliph MOHAMMED Al-AMIN.  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that "Al-Amin Mohammed, fils de Haroun-er-Raschid et de Zobeideh" succeeded his father[154].  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that "Al-Amin" was killed in A.H. 198 by his half-brother´s forces[155]

Harun al-Rashid & his wife (b) had one child:

(c)       ABU JAFAR al-MAMUN ibn Harun (-833).  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that Caliph Harun al-Rashid assured the succession of "son fils Al-Mamoun" after his older half-brother[156].  He succeeded his brother in 813 as Caliph ABU JAFAR al-MAMUN.  From 830, Caliph Mamun resumed attacks on Byzantine territory, capturing Palermo in 831.  m ([825/26]) BURAN [Khadija], daughter of al-HASSAN bin Sahl (Baghdad Dec 807-Sep 884).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Buran…daughter of al-Hasan Ibn Sahl…said by some that her real name was Khadija and her surname Buran", her birth "2nd Safar…at Baghdad" A.H. 192 (Dec 807) her marriage "[to] khalif al-Mamun…at Fam as-Silh…Ramadhan" A.H. 210 (825/26) and her death "27th of the first Rabi" A.H. 271 (Sep 884)[157]

(d)       ABU ISHAK Al-MUTASIM ibn Harun (-[841/42]).  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that Caliph Al-Mamun named "son frère Motasem" as his successor[158].  He succeeded his brother in 833 as Caliph ABU ISHAK al-MUTASIM.  Caliph Mutasim launched a major campaign in Asia Minor in 838, taking Amorium 12 Aug 838.  Two children: 

(1)       HARUN Al-WATHIK ibn Mutasim (-[847/48]).  He succeeded his father in 842 as Caliph HARUN al-WATHIK.  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that "son fils Haroun-Al-Ouaciq" succeeded "Al-Motassem" in A.H. 227 (841/42), that after his accession "il combla de faveurs et de bienfaits ses cousins, les Talébites", and that he died in A.H. 233 (847/48)[159]

(2)       Al-MUTAWAKKIL Ala Allah JAFAR ibn Al-Mutasim (-[861/62]).  He succeeded his brother in 847 as Caliph JAFAR Al-MUTAWAKKIL.  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that "son frère Djafar al-Moutewakkel" succeeded "Haroun al-Ouaciq" in A.H. 233 (847/48), and that he was murdered by "son fils Al-Mountasir" in A.H. 247 (861/62)[160].  One child: 

a.         MOHAMMED Al-MUNTASIR ([862/63]).  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that "son fils Al-Mountasir" murdered "Djafar al-Moutewakkel" in A.H. 247 (861/62)[161].  He succeeded his father in 861 as Caliph MOHAMMED Al-MUNTASIR.  The Histoire des dynasties musulmanes records that "Al-Mountasir" died six months after succeeding in A.H. 248 (862/63)[162]

iii)        ABBASA .  Ibn Khaldun in his Prolégomènes recounts that “Abbasa sœur d´Er-Rechid…fille de Mohammed…El-Mehdi” had a love affair with “Djafer fils de Yahya fils de Khaled, affranchi de ce khalife” and became pregnant[163]

Mohammed had one child by his concubine (x): 

iv)       ABU ISHAQ IBRAHIM (Jul 779-Samarra, Iraq Jul 839).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Ishak Ibrahim Ibn al-Mahdi…", brother of Caliph Harun al-Rashid and son of "Shikla or Shakla (who was a negress)", born "about the first of Zu ´l-Kaada" A.H. 162 (Jul 779), who was proclaimed Caliph at Baghdad "Tuesday 25th Zu´l-Hijja" A.H. 201 (Jun 817) "during the absence of al-Mamun [his nephew] in Khorasan", commenting that al-Tabari records his reign lasting one year, eleven months and twelve days, and died "at Sarr-man-raa on Friday 7th Ramadan" A.H. 224 (Jul 839)[164]

 

 

1.         Nikephoros Phokas captured Crete in 961, Anazarbus and Marash in Germanicia, Asia Minor in 962.  After he succeeded as emperor in 963, he completed the conquest of Cilicia in 965, captured Cyprus in 966 and Antioch in 969[165].  In 974, following the defeat of the Fatimids in southern Syria by Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces, the caliph proclaimed jihad against the Christians[166]

2.         KAIM Biamr-AllahCaliph.  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Caim-Biamr-Allah khalife Abbaside" gave "le surnom de Rokn-ed-Din" to "Togrul-Beg Mohammed" after he defeated "le sultan Massoud le Gaznévide", and entered Baghdad in A.H. 447 (1055)[167].  The Tarikhi guzideh records that "Beçaciri" rebelled in A.H. 449 (1057) and imprisoned the caliph, who was released by Tughril-Beg[168].  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Rokn-ed-Din Togrul-Beg Mohammed" released "le khalife Caim" from "Bessassiri" and restored him to his throne[169].  One child: 

a)         SEIDEH .  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Togrul-Beg" married "la fille du khalife" in A.H. 455 (1063) in Rei, but that her husband died and the wedding was turned into a funeral[170].  The Tarikhi guzideh records the marriage of "la fille du khalife Seideh-Khatoun" and Tughril-Beg, adding that the marriage was not consummated and that she returned to Baghdad after her husband died[171]m (1063, non-consummated) ROKN ed-Din TOGHRUL Beg MOHAMMED Seljuk Sultan, son of MIKAÏL Ibn SALJUQ (-1063). 

 

 

1.         El MOKTADI Bi-Amr (-[1094/95]).  CaliphAbul-Feda records the death in A.H. 487 (1094/95) of "El-Moktadi-Bi-Amr, khalife de Baghdad", and the accession of "son fils El-Mostadher-Billah Ahmed"[172]m (b) ---, daughter of Seljuk Sultan ALP ARSLAN.  Her marriage is confirmed by the Tarikhi guzideh which records that, after the death of Sultan Malik Shah, his widow Turkan Khatun returned to "le khalife Moctadi…un fils qu'il avait eu de la sœur de Melic-Chah" in the hope of obtaining his support for the accession of her son Mohammed[173].  One child: 

a)         El MOSTADER Billah Abul-Abbas AHMED ([1078/79]-6 Aug 1118).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 487 (1094/95) of "El-Moktadi-Bi-Amr, khalife de Baghdad", and the accession of "son fils El-Mostadher-Billah Ahmed" aged 16 years and 2 months[174].  He succeeded his father in 1094 as Caliph.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 512 (1118/19) of "le khalife El-Mostadher-Billah" and the accession of "son fils El-Mostarched-Billah"[175].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death of "le khalife de Bagdad, Mostadher-Billah Aboul-Abbas Ahmed, fils de Motadhed-Billah…d'un mal au gosier" aged 41 years and 6 months "le 16 de rebi second" in A.H. 512 (6 Aug 1118)[176].  Three children: 

i)          El MOSTARSHED Billah Al-FADHL ([May/Jun] 1092-murdered Meraga 30 Aug 1135).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 512 (1118/19) of "le khalife El-Mostadher-Billah" and the accession of "son fils El-Mostarched-Billah"[177].  He succeeded his father in 1118 as Caliph.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son fils Mostarched-Billah Alfadhl" was proclaimed caliph after the death of "le khalife de Bagdad, Mostadher-Billah Aboul-Abbas Ahmed, fils de Motadhed-Billah…d'un mal au gosier" in A.H. 512 (6 Aug 1118)[178].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le khalife de Baghdad, Mostarsched Billah" was killed by the Assassins "le 17 de doulcada" in A.H. 529 (30 Aug 1135) at "la porte de la ville de Meraga", aged 43 years and 3 months[179].  One child: 

(a)       Er-RASHID-Billah ABU-JAFAR el-MANSUR (-after 1136).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son fils Abou-Djafar Almansour" was proclaimed caliph on the death of "le khalife de Baghdad, Mostarsched Billah" in A.H. 529 (30 Aug 1135) and took the title "Raschid Billah"[180].  He succeeded his father in 1135 as Caliph.  He was deposed in 1136. 

ii)         El MOKTAFI bi-Amr-Allah ABU-ABDULLAH MOHAMMED (9 Apr 1096-12 Mar 1160).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "ses deux frères, les émirs Abou-Abdallah Mohammed…et Abou-Thaleb Abbas" swore allegiance to "Mostarched-Billah Alfadhl" after his accession in A.H. 512 (6 Aug 1118), specifying that the former was later invested as caliph "sous le titre de Moctafy Bi-amr-Allah"[181]Caliph.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 555 (1160) of "El-Moktafi-li-Amr-Illah, khalife" after reigning for 24 years and three months, and the proclamation of "son fils Youssouf" as caliph with the title "El-Mostandjed-Billah"[182].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "le 2 de rebi premier" in A.H. 555 (12 Mar 1160) of "le khalife Al-Moktafi-Liamr-Allah Abou Abd-Allah Mohammed", adding that he was born "le 12 de rebi second" in A.H. 489 (9 Apr 1096) "d'une concubine, Abyssinienne d'origine, surnommé la dame des princes…Nozhet"[183].  [m] (a) THAWUS, daughter of ---.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle names "une concubine nommé Thawous" as mother of "le khalife Youssouf"[184].  Two children: 

(a)       El MOSTANJED Billah [Yusuf] (-20 Dec 1170)Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 555 (1160) of "El-Moktafi-li-Amr-Illah, khalife" after reigning for 24 years and three months, and the proclamation of "son fils Youssouf" as caliph with the title "El-Mostandjed-Billah"[185].  He succeeded his father in 1160 as Caliph

-         see below

(b)       KERMAN Khatun .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the marriage end-1158/early 1159 of Sultan Mohammed and "le khalife…sa fille Kerman-Khatoun" but that her husband was unable to consummate the marriage owing to his illness[186].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Arslan, fils de Thogril" married "la fille du khalife, Kerman-Khatoun" after his uncle was deposed in Sep 1160[187]m firstly (1159, non-consummated) Seljuk Sultan MOHAMMED, son of Seljuk Sultan MAHMUD (-Hamadan Jan 1159).  m secondly (Sep 1160) Seljuk Sultan ARSLAN SHAH, son of Seljuk Sultan TUGHRIL (-1175). 

iii)        ABU-TALIB ABBAS (-after Aug 1118).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "ses deux frères, les émirs Abou-Abdallah Mohammed…et Abou-Thaleb Abbas" swore allegiance to "Mostarched-Billah Alfadhl" after his accession in A.H. 512 (6 Aug 1118), specifying that the former was later invested as caliph "sous le titre de Moctafy Bi-amr-Allah"[188]

Caliph El-Moktadi & his wife (b) had one child: 

b)         son .  The Tarikhi guzideh records that Sultan Malik Shah wanted to transfer the caliphate from Baghdad to Isfahan and place on the throne the son of "le khalife Moctadi…qu'il avait eu de la sœur de Melic-Chah"[189]

 

 

El MOSTANJED Billah [Yusuf], son of Caliph El-MOKTAFI li-Amr-Illah (-20 Dec 1170).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 555 (1160) of "El-Moktafi-li-Amr-Illah, khalife" after reigning for 24 years and three months, and the proclamation of "son fils Youssouf" as caliph with the title "El-Mostandjed-Billah"[190].  He succeeded his father in 1160 as Caliph.  Abul-Feda records the death "9 rebla" in A.H. 566 (20 Dec 1170) of "El-Mostandjed-Billah le khalife" after being imprisoned in his bathroom, and the accession of "le fils d'El-Mostandjed…sous le titre d'El Mostadi bi-Amr-Illah"[191]

One child: 

1.         El-MOSTADI bi-Amr-Illah (-[1179/80]).  Abul-Feda records the death "9 rebla" in A.H. 566 (20 Dec 1170) of "El-Mostandjed-Billah le khalife" and the accession of "le fils d'El-Mostandjed…sous le titre d'El Mostadi bi-Amr-Illah"[192].  He succeeded his father in 1170 as Caliph.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 575 (1179/80) of "El-Mostadi bi Amr-Illah" after reigning nine years and seven months and the accession of "En-Nacer-li-Din-Illah fils du défunt"[193].  Two children: 

a)         En-NASER li-Din-Illah ([1149/50]-Oct 1225).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 575 (1179/80) of "El-Mostadi bi Amr-Illah" after reigning nine years and seven months and the accession of "En-Nacer-li-Din-Illah fils du défunt"[194].  He succeeded his father in 1179 as Caliph.  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de choual" in A.H. 622 (Oct 1225) of "le khalife En-Nacer li-Din-Illah, fils d'El Mostadi", aged 70, commenting that it was suspected that he had suggested to the Tartars the idea of invading the Muslim countries[195].  One chiild: 

i)          ABU NASER MOHAMMED Ed-DAHER bi-AMR-ILLAH (-1226).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Abou Nasr Mohammed" succeeded "le khalife En-Nacer li-Din-Illah, fils d'El Mostadi", taking the title "Ed-Daher bi-Amr-Illah", but adds that he occupied the caliphate for only nine months[196].  He succeeded his father in 1225 as Caliph.  Two children: 

(a)       El-MOSTANSER Billah ABU-JAFAR el-MANSUR (-[1242/43]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils ainé El-Mostancer-Billah" succeeded "Ed-Daher bi-Amr-Illah" in A.H. 623 (1226)[197].  He succeeded his father in 1225 as Caliph.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 640 (1242/43) of "le khalife El-Mostancer Billah Abou Djafer el-Mansour", after reigning for 17 years and one month[198].  One child: 

(1)       El-MOSTACEM Billah ABD-ALLAH (-murdered 27 Jan 1258).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Abd Allah…faible d'esprit" succeeded on the death in A.H. 640 (1242/43) of "le khalife El-Mostancer Billah Abou Djafer el-Mansour", and took the title "El-Mostacem Billah"[199].  He succeeded his father in 1242 as Caliph.  Abul-Feda records that "Houlagou roi des Tartares" captured Baghdad and killed "le khalife El-Mostacem Billah…le 20 de moharrem" in A.H. 656 (27 Jan 1258)[200].  Vardan's History records that "Hulgegu the brave took Baghdad" in [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259] and "killed the caliph Mustasr with his own hand"[201].  One child: 

a.         ABU BAKR (-murdered 27 Jan 1258).  Abul-Feda records that "Abou Bekr fils du khalife" commanded troops to suppress unrest between "les Chiites du faubourg et les Sonnites de la ville", but that the vizier invited the Tartars into Baghdad in A.H. 656 (27 Jan 1258)[202].  Abul-Feda records that "Houlagou roi des Tartares" proposed to marry his daughter to "Abou Bekr fils du khalife" before the massacre in A.H. 656 (27 Jan 1258)[203]

(b)       Ed-DAHER MOHAMMED .  Abul-Feda names "Ed-Daher Mohammed [fils] du khalife En-Nacer" when recording that his son was proclaimed caliph in [1260/61][204].  One child: 

(1)       El-MOSTANCER Billah ABUL KASIM AHMED (-killed [1260/61]).  Abul-Feda records that a band of Arabs arrived in Cairo in A.H. 659 (1260/61) with "un homme de couleur Ahmed…fils d'Ed-Daher Mohammed et petit-fils du khalife En-Nacer…oncle d'El Mostacem" who had escaped the Mongol massacre and took the title "El-Mostancer Billah avec le surnom Aboul-Kacem" and was proclaimed caliph, but was killed by the Tartars before he could reclaim Baghdad[205]

 

 

1.         AHMED El-HAKIM hi-AMR-Illah (-after [1261/62]).  Abul-Feda records that "vers la fin du mois de doul hiddja" in A.H. 660 (Nov 1262) "Beibars présenta à l'assemblée un member de la famille abbaside" and was recognised as "khalife…Ahmed…le titre d'El-Hakem hi-Amr-Illah"[206]

 

 



[1] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856). 

[2] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 1-165. 

[3] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 189-744. 

[4] Anales Toledanos II, España Sagrada XXIII, pp. 401-2. 

[5] Anales Toledanos II, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 401. 

[6] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) 'Extrait de la Chronique de Michel le Syrien', Journal Asiatique 4th series Tome XIII (Paris, 1848) ("Michel le Syrien"), p. 336. 

[7] Michel le Syrien, p. 337. 

[8] Slane, M. de (trans.) (1863) Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, première partie (Paris), Introduction, p. 26. 

[9] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin), Vol. 1, p. 15.  

[10] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 16-17. 

[11] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 18-19. 

[12] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) ' Extrait de la Chronique de Michel le Syrien', Journal Asiatique 4th series Tome XIII (Paris, 1848), p. 336. 

[13] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143C. 

[14] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143C. 

[15] Michel le Syrien, p. 336. 

[16] Michel le Syrien, p. 337. 

[17] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 564. 

[18] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 25-6. 

[19] Michel le Syrien, p. 338. 

[20] Michel le Syrien, p. 338. 

[21] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143C. 

[22] Fagnan, E. (trad.) (1904) Histoire de l´Afrique et de l´Espagne intitulée Al-Bayano’l-Mogrib (Alger) (“Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan”), Vol. II, p. 73. 

[23] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143C. 

[24] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[25] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[26] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[27] Fagnan, E. (trans. & ed.) (1893) Histoire des Almohades d´Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi (Algiers) ("Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi"), p. 50. 

[28] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[29] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[30] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[31] Michel le Syrien, p. 339. 

[32] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[33] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[34] Michel le Syrien, p. 339. 

[35] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[36] Michel le Syrien, p. 339. 

[37] Michel le Syrien, p. 340. 

[38] Michel le Syrien, p. 343. 

[39] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856) ("Ibn-el Kouthya"), pp. 430-31. 

[40] Lafuente, E. (ed. & trans.) (1867) Colección de obras arábicas de historia y geografía, Tome I (Madrid) ("Ajbar Machmua"), p. 41. 

[41] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 446. 

[42] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 58. 

[43] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 438. 

[44] Michel le Syrien, p. 343. 

[45] Jones, J. H. (ed. and trans.) (1858) Ibn Abd-el-Hakem's History of the Conquest of Spain (London, Goettingen) (“Ibn Abd-el-Hakem”), p. 29. 

[46] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 28. 

[47] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 57. 

[48] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 441. 

[49] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 440. 

[50] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 32. 

[51] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 58. 

[52] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 58. 

[53] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 57. 

[54] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 432. 

[55] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[56] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[57] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[58] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 441. 

[59] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[60] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[61] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[62] Ajbar Machmua, p. 59. 

[63] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[64] Ajbar Machmua, p. 62. 

[65] Ajbar Machmua, p. 55. 

[66] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[67] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[68] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[69] Fernández González, F. (trans) (1860) Historias de al-Andalus por Aben-Adhari de Marruecos, Tome I (Granada) ("Ibn Idhari"), p. 107. 

[70] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56-7 and 58. 

[71] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 455. 

[72] Ajbar Machmua, p. 59. 

[73] Ajbar Machmua, p. 106. 

[74] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56-7 and 61. 

[75] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 465. 

[76] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56-7. 

[77] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 465. 

[78] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56-7. 

[79] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56 and 57. 

[80] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 460-1. 

[81] Ajbar Machmua, p. 55. 

[82] Ajbar Machmua, p. 59. 

[83] Ibn-el Kouthya, p. 440. 

[84] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 58. 

[85] Ajbar Machmua, p. 91. 

[86] Ajbar Machmua, p. 55. 

[87] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 55 and 58. 

[88] Ajbar Machmua, p. 91. 

[89] Ajbar Machmua, p. 92. 

[90] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 34. 

[91] Slane, B. M. (trans.) (1842-72) Ibn Khallikan´s Biographical Dictionary (Paris) ("Ibn Khallikan"), Vol. II, p. 77. 

[92] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. II, p. 77. 

[93] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. II, pp. 78-9. 

[94] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 181. 

[95] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 218. 

[96] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 377. 

[97] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 377. 

[98] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 525. 

[99] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 31. 

[100] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 34. 

[101] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 35-6. 

[102] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. II, p. 340. 

[103] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 381. 

[104] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 279. 

[105] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 381. 

[106] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 381. 

[107] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[108] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 159. 

[109] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[110] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[111] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 7. 

[112] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 159. 

[113] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 7. 

[114] Runciman (1978), Vol 2, p. 13. 

[115] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 390. 

[116] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 19. 

[117] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 390. 

[118] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. II, p. 179. 

[119] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 390. 

[120] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 19. 

[121] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 19. 

[122] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 474. 

[123] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 19. 

[124] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 405. 

[125] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 222. 

[126] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 475. 

[127] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 491. 

[128] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 30. 

[129] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 30. 

[130] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[131] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[132] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 30. 

[133] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. II, p. 72. 

[134] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[135] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 41. 

[136] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[137] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 30. 

[138] Slane, M. de (trans.) (1863) Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, première partie (Paris), Introduction, p. 26. 

[139] Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, Introduction, p. 26. 

[140] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. II, p. 216. 

[141] Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, Introduction, p. 26. 

[142] Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, Introduction, p. 26. 

[143] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 29-9. 

[144] Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, Introduction, p. 26. 

[145] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 564. 

[146] Cherbonneau, A. (trans.) 'Traité de la conduite des rois, et Histoire des dynasties musulmanes', Journal Asiatique, 4.VII (Paris 1846), p. 328. 

[147] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 532. 

[148] Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, Introduction, p. 26. 

[149] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 17. 

[150] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot),, p. 224. 

[151] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 26-7. 

[152] Cherbonneau, A. (trans.) 'Traité de la conduite des rois, et Histoire des dynasties musulmanes', Journal Asiatique, 4.VII (Paris 1846) ("Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´"), p. 328. 

[153] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 532. 

[154] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, p. 327. 

[155] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, p. 336. 

[156] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, p. 329. 

[157] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 268. 

[158] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, p. 338. 

[159] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, pp. 141-2. 

[160] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, pp. 142-3. 

[161] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, p. 143. 

[162] Cherbonneau (1846) ´Histoire´, p. 147. 

[163] Les Prolégomènes d´Ibn Khaldoun, Introduction, p. 26. 

[164] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. I, p. 17. 

[165] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 30-1. 

[166] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 33. 

[167] Dumoret, J. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite de l'ouvrage intitulé Khelassat-oul-akhbar', Nouveau Journal Asiatique, XIII (Paris 1834) ("Khelassat-oul-akhbar"), p. 243. 

[168] Defrémery, M. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite du Tarikhi guzideh', Journal Asiatique, 4.XI (Paris 1848) ("Tarikhi guzideh"), Chapter 4.6, p. 428. 

[169] Khelassat-oul-akhbar, p. 244. 

[170] Khelassat-oul-akhbar, p. 244. 

[171] Tarikhi guzideh, Chapter 4.6, p. 430. 

[172] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[173] Tarikhi guzideh, Chapter 4.6, p. 462. 

[174] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[175] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[176] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 310. 

[177] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[178] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 311. 

[179] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 409. 

[180] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 409. 

[181] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 311. 

[182] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[183] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 519. 

[184] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 519. 

[185] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[186] Tarikhi guzideh, Chapter 4.6, p. 363. 

[187] Tarikhi guzideh, Chapter 4.6, p. 364. 

[188] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 311. 

[189] Tarikhi guzideh, Chapter 4.6, p. 462. 

[190] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[191] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 41. 

[192] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 41. 

[193] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 49. 

[194] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 49. 

[195] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 101. 

[196] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 101. 

[197] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 102. 

[198] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[199] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[200] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 136. 

[201] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey) 91, 707 A.E. [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259]. 

[202] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 136. 

[203] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 136. 

[204] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 147. 

[205] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 147. 

[206] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 148.