ENGLAND, kings 1066-1603

  v3.0 Updated 27 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                KINGS of ENGLAND 1066-1135 (NORMANDY) 2

Chapter 2.                KING of ENGLAND 1135-1154 (BLOIS) 31

Chapter 3.                KINGS of ENGLAND 1154-1485 (ANJOU) 36

A.         KINGS of ENGLAND 1154-1399. 36

B.         EARLS of LANCASTER, descendants of EDMUND "Crouchback", son of King HENRY III 84

C.        HOUSE of LANCASTER, descendants of JOHN of GAUNT. 89

D.        HOUSE of YORK, descendants of EDMUND of LANGLEY.. 96

E.         BEAUFORT. 106

Chapter 4.                KINGS of ENGLAND (TUDOR) 110

A.         ORIGINS.. 110

B.         KINGS of ENGLAND 1485-1603. 115

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The genealogy of the kings of England after the Norman Conquest of 1066 is so well known that it needs little introduction.  What is surprising is that, despite the multiplicity of sources and vast amount of collective study effort, there are still areas where doubt persists.  Notable among these are:

  • the order of birth of the children of King William I and the betrothals of some of his daughters. 
  • the precise number and identity of the illegitimate children of King Henry I. 

Both of these issues are among those which are discussed in this document. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of ENGLAND 1066-1135 (NORMANDY)

 

 

 

GUILLAUME de Normandie, illegitimate son of ROBERT II Duke of Normandy & his mistress Herlčve --- (Château de Falaise, Normandy [1027/28]-Rouen, Prioré de Saint-Gervais 9 Sep 1087, bur Caen, Abbé de Saint-Etienne).  Guillaume of Jumičges records that “Roberto Duce...Willelmum filium suum” was born “apud Falesiam[1].  His birth date is estimated from William of Malmesbury, according to whom Guillaume was born of a concubine and was seven years old when his father left for Jerusalem[2], and Orderic Vitalis, who states that he was eight years old at the time[3].  Deville suggests that Guillaume´s birthdate can be fixed more precisely to [mid-1027], taking into account that his father Robert occupied Falaise immediately after the death of his father Duke Richard II (23 Aug 1026), not wishing to accept the authority of his older brother Duke Richard III, but that Robert´s stay was short as the two brothers were reconciled soon after, it being reasonable to suppose that Robert´s relationship with Guillaume´s mother occurred soon after his arrival at Falaise[4].  According to Orderic Vitalis, Alain III Duke of Brittany was appointed his guardian during his father's absence in 1035[5].  He succeeded his father in 1035 as GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy.  He helped Henri I King of France defeat Geoffroy II "Martel" Comte d'Anjou at Mouliherne in [1045/55][6]It appears that Edward "the Confessor" King of England acknowledged Guillaume as successor to the English throne on several occasions, maybe for the first time during his visit to England in 1051 which is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[7].  Comte de Maine in 1063, after he conquered the county.  In [1064/65], Duke Guillaume interceded with Guy de Ponthieu Comte d'Abbeville to secure the release of Harold, son of Godwin, from captivity in Normandy, in return for Harold's acknowledgement of Guillaume as successor to the English crown (according to the portrayal of the event in the Bayeux tapestry).  Harold's visit to Normandy, and swearing allegiance to Duke William, is recorded by William of Jumičges[8].  According to Eadmer of Canterbury, the reason for his visit was to negotiate the release of his brother Wulfnoth and nephew Haakon, both of whom had been hostages in Normandy since 1051.  On his deathbed, King Edward "the Confessor" bequeathed the kingdom of England to Harold.  Duke Guillaume branded Harold a perjurer and appealed to Pope Alexander II for support.  After receiving a papal banner in response to his request, William gathered a sizable army during summer 1066 in preparation for invasion.  After some delay due to unfavourable weather conditions, the army set sail for England from Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme 28 Sep 1066[9].  William defeated and killed King Harold at Hastings 14 Oct 1066[10], marched north to Canterbury, then west to Winchester where he captured the royal treasury.  He proceeded to London where he was crowned 25 Dec 1066 as WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England at Westminster Abbey, possibly by Ealdred Archbishop of York who may have officiated because of doubts concerning the validity of the appointment of Stigand as Archbishop of Canterbury.  The latter had received his pallium in 1058 from Pope Benedict X, later regarded as anti-Pope, an appointment which had not been regularised by Pope Alexander II.  Orderic Vitalis records that King William was crowned again at Winchester by “cardinales Romanć ecclesić...Alexander papa...vicarious: Ermenfredum pontificem Sedunorum et duos canonicos cardinales”, dated to 1070[11].  After taking several years to subdue the whole country, he imposed the Norman feudal structure and rule everywhere with methodical and harsh persistence.  The minute description of the country contained in the Domesday Book, completed in 1086, enabled King William to create an effective tax base   Orderic Vitalis records the death “V Id Sep Rotomagi” 1087 of “Guillelmus Nothus rex Anglorum” and his burial “in ecclesia sancti Stephani...Cadomi[12].  He died from wounds received at the siege of Mantes, having been injured internally after being thrown against the pommel of his saddle[13], leaving Normandy to his eldest son Robert and England to his second surviving son William.  Florence of Worcester records the death "Id Sep V" of King William and his burial "Cadomi in ecclesia S Stephani Protomartyris"[14].  The Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris records that "Willelmus…Roberti filius" was buried "Cadomi in ecclesia beati Stephani" which he had built[15]

m (Eu, Cathedral of Notre Dame [1050/52]) MATHILDE de Flandre, daughter of BAUDOUIN V "le Pieux/Insulanus" Count of Flanders & his wife Adela de France ([1032]-Caen 2 Nov 1083, bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandrić Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Rodbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[16].  Guillaume of Jumičges records that Duke Guillaume married “Balduinum Flandrić comitem...filiam regali ex genere descendente...Mathilde[17].  Orderic Vitalis records the marriage of “Willermus Normannić dux” and “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[18].  She founded the abbey of la Trinité at Caen, as confirmed by an undated manuscript which records the death "pridie nonas julias" of "abbatissam Mathildem" in the 54th year in which she held the position and names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cśnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[19].  Her husband appointed Mathilde as his regent in Normandy when he left to invade England, and again after he returned to England after visiting Normandy in 1067: Orderic Vitalis records that, when King William returned to England, 6 Dec 1067, he appointed “Mathildi conjugi suć filioque suo Rodberto adolescenti” to govern Normandy (“principatum Neustrić”), adding that the king took with him “Rogerium de Monte-Gomerici” whom he had appointed as “tutorem Normannić...cum sua conjuge” when he had left for England for the first time[20].  Florence of Worcester records that "comitissa Mahtilda de Normannia" came to England 23 Mar [1068] and was crowned "die Pentecostes [11 May]" by Aldred Archbishop of York[21].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Mathildem conjugem suam” came to England in 1068 and was crowned queen “die Pentecostes anno II regni prćfati regis” by the archbishop of York[22].  Orderic Vitalis records that King William sent “Mathildem” back to Normandy in light of the rebellions in England and to preserve intact “provincić...cum Rodberto puero” [referring to their eldest son], dated to 1069[23].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IV Non Nov" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[24].  Orderic Vitalis records the death “III Non Nov” [1083] of “Mathildis regina Anglorum” and her burial “cśnobium Sanctć Trinitatis...apud Cadomum[25].  Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Nov" in [1083] of "regina Mahtilda" in Normandy and her burial at Caen[26]

King William I & his wife had ten children:

1.         ROBERT de Normandie (Normandy [1052/54]-Cardiff Castle [3] Feb 1134, bur Gloucester Cathedral[27]).  Guillaume of Jumičges records that Duke Guillaume and his wife “Balduinum Flandrić comitem...filiam regali ex genere descendente...Mathilde” had “filios quatuor Robertum...Willelmum...Richardum...et Henricum”, adding that Robert succeeded to “ducatum Normannić[28].  Orderic Vitalis names “Rotbertum...et Ricardum, Willermum et Henricum” as the sons of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[29].  William of Malmesbury names Robert as eldest son of King William I[30].  "Roberti filii sui Normannorum comitis, Richardi filii sui…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 1067 under which "Willelmus…dux Normannorum…Anglorum rex" confirmed rights to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[31].  After unsuccessfully aspiring to govern Normandy and Maine during the lifetime of his father, Robert rebelled in 1079 and went into exile in Flanders: Orderic Vitalis records the rebellion of Robert, son of King William I, and his departure from Normandy accompanied by “Rodbertus de Bellismo et Guillelmus de Britolio, Rogerius Ricardi de Benefacta filius, Rodbertus de Molbraio et Guillelmus de Molinis, Guillelmus de Ruperia”, dated to [1077/78], and their journeys during five years of exile[32].  William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis both state that he was assisted in his rebellion by Philippe I King of France and that he wounded his father in battle at Gerberoy[33].  He succeeded his father in 1087 as ROBERT “Curthose” Duke of Normandy, his nickname due, according to William of Malmesbury and Orderic Vitalis, to his short stature which he presumably inherited from his mother who was also reputed to have been very short[34].  Orderic Vitalis records, that after the death of his father, “Rodbertus...filius eius” succeeded as “Normannorum dux et Cennomannorum princeps” but that he was “torpori et ignavić subjectus” and never governed as he should[35].  He joined the contingent of Robert II Count of Flanders on the First Crusade in Sep 1096, together with Etienne Comte de Blois, after pledging the duchy of Normandy to his brother King William for 10,000 marks of silver in order to fund the expedition[36].  Albert of Aix records the arrival in Constantinople of "Robertus Normannorum comes, Stephanus Blesensis, Eustachius frater prćdicti Ducis", dated to early 1097 from the context[37].  Following the capture of Jerusalem, Robert left Palestine to return to Europe in Sep 1099[38].  On returning to Normandy in Autumn 1100, he recovered his duchy without opposition[39].  He landed at Portsmouth in 1102 aiming to displace his brother King Henry I as king of England, but was persuaded to return to Normandy on payment of 3,000 marks[40].  His brother King Henry invaded Normandy and defeated Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai[41], declaring himself duke of Normandy 28 Sep 1106.  King Henry took Robert in captivity back to England, where Robert remained in prison for the rest of his life.  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1134 of "Robertus dux Normannorum filius Willermi regis…primogenitus" and his burial at Gloucester[42].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death at Cardiff in [1134] of "Rotbertus frater regis Heinrici quondam comes Normannić" and his burial in Gloucester[43]

-        DUKES of NORMANDY

2.         RICHARD de Normandie (Normandy [1054 or 1056]-1075 or 1081, bur Winchester Cathedral).  Guillaume of Jumičges records that Duke Guillaume and his wife “Balduinum Flandrić comitem...filiam regali ex genere descendente...Mathilde” had “filios quatuor Robertum...Willelmum...Richardum...et Henricum”, adding that Richard died “iuvenis[44].  Orderic Vitalis names “Rotbertum...et Ricardum, Willermum et Henricum” as the sons of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[45].  William of Malmesbury records that he was the second son of King William I[46].  "The next-born after Robert" according to Orderic Vitalis[47] who, from the context of this passage appears to be taking into account daughters as well as sons in his list of the king's children although, critically for deciding the birth order of the older children, he omits Cecilia in this section.  "Roberti filii sui Normannorum comitis, Richardi filii sui…" subscribed the charter dated Apr 1067 under which "Willelmus…dux Normannorum…Anglorum rex" confirmed rights to the abbey of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire[48].  Duc de Bernay, in Normandy.  According to William of Malmesbury, he "contracted a disorder from a stream of foul air while hunting deer in the New Forest"[49].  Florence of Worcester records that "Willelmi iunioris germanus Ricardus" was killed in the New Forest long before, when recording the death of his brother King William II[50].  Orderic Vitalis recounts that "when a youth who had not yet received the belt of knighthood, had gone hunting in the New Forest and whilst he was galloping in pursuit of a wild beast he had been badly crushed between a strong hazel branch and the pommel of his saddle, and mortally injured" dying soon after[51].  Guillaume de Jumičges records a similar, but less specific, story, saying that Richard was hunting, knocked himself against a tree, fell ill and died from his injury[52]

3.         ADELISA de Normandie ([1055]-7 Dec, 1066 or after)Guillaume of Jumičges records that Duke Guillaume betrothed “Heraldum” to “Adelizam filiam suam” after rescuing Harold from “Widonis Abbatisvillć comitis” and bringing him back to Normandy[53].  Orderic Vitalis names “Adelizam et Constantiam, Ceciliam et Adalam” as the daughters of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[54].  In another passage, the same source names the daughters “Agatham et Constantiam, Adelizam, Adelam et Ceciliam[55], and in a third place “Agathen ac Adelizam, Constantiam, Adalam et Ceciliam[56].  Orderic Vitalis records the betrothal of Adelaide and Harold, listing her after Agatha and before Constance in his description of the careers of the daughters of King William[57] (although in another passage he names Agatha as the daughter who was betrothed to Harold[58]).  The sources are contradictory regarding the name of the daughter who was betrothed to Harold, as well as the timing of her death.  The only near certainty is that it would presumably have been the oldest available daughter who was betrothed to Harold.  Matthew Paris does not name her but lists her fourth among the daughters of King William, while distinguishing her from the fifth daughter betrothed to "Aldefonso Galicić regi"[59].  Guillaume de Jumičges records that the (unnamed in this passage) daughter who was betrothed to Harold was the third daughter and that she died a virgin although she was of an age to marry[60].  Orderic Vitalis says that Adelaide "a most fair maiden vowed herself to God when she reached marriageable age and made a pious end under the protection of Roger of Beaumont"[61].  The daughter betrothed to Harold was alive in early 1066, according to Eadmer of Canterbury[62] who says that Duke Guillaume requested King Harold, soon after his accession, to keep his promise to marry his daughter.  This is contradicted by William of Malmesbury[63], who says that her death before that of Edward "the Confessor" was taken by King Harold II as marking absolution from his oath to Duke Guillaume.  She died as a nun at Préaux[64].  A manuscript of la Trinité de Caen names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cśnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[65], which, if the order of names is significant, indicates that Adelaide was older than her two named sisters.  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VII Id Dec" of "Adeliza filia regis Anglorum", stating that her father made a donation for her soul[66].  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death of "Adelina filia regis Anglorum", undated but listed among deaths at the end of the calendar year[67]Betrothed ([1064/65]) to HAROLD Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]), who succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England

4.         MATHILDE de Normandie (-26 Apr ----).  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "VI Kal Mai" of "Mathildis filia Willelmi regis Anglorum"[68].  She is not named as a daughter of King William by either William of Malmesbury or Orderic Vitalis.  There is no basis for assessing her order of birth among the other known daughters of the king.  An undated manuscript names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cśnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey [69]

5.         CECILIA de Normandie (-Caen 3/13 Jul [1126/27], bur Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity).  Orderic Vitalis names “Adelizam et Constantiam, Ceciliam et Adalam” as the daughters of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[70].  In another passage, the same source names the daughters “Agatham et Constantiam, Adelizam, Adelam et Ceciliam[71], and in a third place “Agathen ac Adelizam, Constantiam, Adalam et Ceciliam[72].  She is named first in his list of King William's daughters by William of Malmesbury and by Matthew Paris[73].  In another passage, Orderic Vitalis, in his list of the king's children which appears to place both the sons and daughters together in birth order[74], unfortunately omits Cecilia, rendering it particularly difficult to decide if she was older or younger than her brother Richard.  Guillaume de Jumičges names Cecile as eldest daughter, stating that she was a nun at the convent of Holy Trinity at Caen[75].  A manuscript at Caen names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cśnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[76], which, if the order of names is significant, indicates that Cecilia was younger than her sisters Adelaide and Mathilde.  Her parents offered her as an oblate to the nunnery of the Holy Trinity, Caen (founded by her mother) 18 Jun 1066[77], probably in part to obtain divine blessing for her father´s project to invade England.  Orderic Vitalis records that at Fécamp in 1075 King William I entered “Ceciliam...filiam suam” as a nun at Caen, adding that she later succeeded "Mathilde abbatissa" (who had been abbess for 47 years) and governed as abbess for nearly 14 years until she died “III Id Jul” 1127[78].  Her tutor was Arnoul de Choques who later became Chancellor to her brother Robert "Curthose" Duke of Normandy, and subsequently Patriarch of Jerusalem[79].  She succeeded her sister Mathilde as abbess of la Trinité de Caen in [1113][80].  The Chronicon S. Stephani Cadomensis records the death in 1126 of "Cecilia Abbatissa, Willelmi Regis filia"[81]

6.         GUILLAUME de Normandie ([1056/60]-killed in the New Forest 2 Aug 1100, bur Winchester Cathedral[82]).  Guillaume of Jumičges records that Duke Guillaume and his wife “Balduinum Flandrić comitem...filiam regali ex genere descendente...Mathilde” had “filios quatuor Robertum...Willelmum...Richardum...et Henricum”, adding that William succeeded to “regno Anglić[83].  Orderic Vitalis names “Rotbertum...et Ricardum, Willermum et Henricum” as the sons of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[84].  William of Malmesbury records that he was the third son of King William I[85].  He left his father's deathbed in Normandy in Sep 1087 to rush to England to claim the throne, succeeding as WILLIAM II “Rufus” King of England, crowned at Westminster Abbey 26 Sep 1087.  Florence of Worcester records that King William was crowned "VI Kal Oct" of King William at Westminster Abbey[86].  His reign was characterised by bitter rivalry with his brother Robert in Normandy, even harsher imposition of Norman rule in England than by his father, and growing resentment of his ways among the nobility.  Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Aug" of King William in the New Forest, killed by an arrow shot by "quodam Franco Waltero cognomento Tirello" [châtelain de Poix et de Pontoise], and his burial "Wintoniam in Veteri Monasterio in ecclesia S Petri"[87].  Orderic Vitalis records that he was killed while hunting, maybe murdered, by an arrow shot by Walter Tirel[88].  According to Orderic Vitalis, he "never had a lawful wife but gave himself up insatiably to obscene fornications and repeated adulteries"[89].  The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death "II Non Aug" of "Guillelmus rex Anglorum filius Guillelmi regis"[90]

7.         CONSTANCE de Normandie (Normandy [1057/1061]-13 Aug 1090, bur Church of St Melans near Rhedon).  Orderic Vitalis names “Adelizam et Constantiam, Ceciliam et Adalam” as the daughters of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[91].  In another passage, the same source names the daughters “Agatham et Constantiam, Adelizam, Adelam et Ceciliam[92], and in a third place “Agathen ac Adelizam, Constantiam, Adalam et Ceciliam[93].  Named first in his list of the daughters of King William I by Matthew Paris[94].  Guillaume of Jumičges names Constance as second daughter, naming her husband "Alanno Fergant comiti minoris Britannić filio...Hoelli" and specifying that she died childless[95].  Orderic Vitalis records that King William I arranged the marriage of "Constantiam filiam suam" and “Alanno Ferganno” at Caen[96].  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cśnobii records the marriage in 1086 of "Alanus" and "Constantiam filiam Regis Anglorum Guillelmi"[97].  The Chronicon Kemperlegiensis records the marriage in 1087 of "Alanus Hoëli Consulis filius" and "Constantiam Guillelmi Regis Anglorum filiam"[98].  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the marriage in 1088 of "Alanus" and "Constantiam filam Regis Guillelmi Anglorum"[99].  Orderic Vitalis records that she was married in Bayeux[100].  William of Malmesbury lists her as second daughter after Cecilia, adding that "she excited the inhabitants [of Brittany] by the severity of her justice to administer a poisonous potion to her"[101].  Orderic Vitalis, on the other hand, says that she "did everything in her power to further the welfare of her subjects" and "was deeply grieved when she died"[102].  "Alanus dux Britannorum et Constantia uxor eius" donated property to the priory of Livré by charter dated 31 Jul 1089[103].  The Chronicon Britannico Alter records the death in 1090 of "Constantia Alani coniux…sine liberis"[104].  The Chronicon Universum in the cartulary of Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé records the death in 1090 of "Constantia comitissa filia regis Anglorum"[105]m (Bayeux [1086/88]) as his first wife, ALAIN IV “Fergant” Duke of Brittany, son of HOËL V Comte de Cornouaille, de Léon et de Nantes & his wife Havise heiress of Brittany (-13 Oct 1119).   

8.         AGATHE de Normandie (-before 1074, bur Bayeux Cathedral).  Orderic Vitalis names “Agatham et Constantiam, Adelizam, Adelam et Ceciliam” as the daughters of King William and his wife[106].  According to William of Malmesbury, an unnamed daughter of King William was "affianced by messengers" to King Alfonso[107].  Orderic Vitalis identifies Agatha as the daughter who was betrothed to Harold (see above): he records that “Agatha regis filia”, who had previously been betrothed to “Heraldo”, was betrothed to “Amfurcio regi Gallecić” but died before the journey and was buried “in ecclesia sanctć Marić...in urbe Bajocensi[108].  Matthew Paris places her as the fifth daughter (unnamed) betrothed to "Aldefonso Galicić regi", but different from the daughter betrothed to Harold[109].  Orderic says that she died en route to Spain, her body being brought back to Bayeux for burial[110].  The betrothal to Alfonso must have been a short-lived arrangement as he married his first wife in 1069[111]Betrothed (by proxy Caen, Abbey of Holy Trinity [before 1069]) to ALFONSO VI King of Galicia and Leon, son of FERNANDO I King of Castile & his wife Infanta dońa Sancha de Léon (Compostela [1037]-Toledo 30 Jun 1109, bur Sahagún, León, San Mancio chapel in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo).  He succeeded in 1072 as ALFONSO VI King of Castile.  [Betrothed ([after 1069]) to SIMON du Vexin, son of RAOUL III “le Grand” Comte de Valois & his first wife Aelis de Bar-sur-Aube (-[30 Sep/1 Oct] 1080 Rome, bur 1082 Rome St Peter).  The Vita Simonis records a ficitional speech of William I King of England in which he offers his (unnamed) daughter's hand to Simon, specifying that she had previously been betrothed to "regis Hispaniarum Anfursi et Roberti principis Apulić"[112].  The supposed betrothal to Robert of Apulia (which would have to refer to Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia) is unrecorded in the numerous other sources dealing with his life and is probably pure fantasy.  This does not instil confidence with respect to the historical accuracy of the whole passage, but if it is correct the daughter in question would presumably have been Agatha who was probably the daughter of King William betrothed to "Amfursio regi Gallicić" (see above).  Count Simon resigned his county in 1077, became a monk and went on pilgrimage to Rome where he died[113].] 

9.         ADELA de Normandie (Normandy [1066/67]-Marigney-sur-Loire 8 Mar 1138, bur Abbey of Holy Trinity, Caen).  Orderic Vitalis names “Adelizam et Constantiam, Ceciliam et Adalam” as the daughters of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[114].  In another passage, the same source names the daughters “Agatham et Constantiam, Adelizam, Adelam et Ceciliam[115], and in a third place “Agathen ac Adelizam, Constantiam, Adalam et Ceciliam[116].  She is named third in his list of the daughters of King William I by Matthew Paris[117], but this appears unlikely in view of Adela's child-bearing until her husband's death in 1102.  Her birth date is estimated bearing in mind that marriage frequently took place in early adolescence at the time, and also because Adela clearly continued to bear children until her husband's death.  Orderic Vitalis records the betrothal “apud Bretolium” of “Stephanus Blesensis palatinus comes” and “Guillelmo rege...Adelam eius filiam” and their marriage “apud Carnotum”, dated to 1081[118].  Orderic Vitalis records that she encouraged her husband to join the First Crusade and did not hide her shame when he deserted from Antioch in 1098[119].  Regent of Blois 1102-1107, after the death of her husband.  She became a nun at the Cluniac priory of Marigney-sur-Loire in [1122].  The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VIII Id Mar" of "Adela comitissa"[120], and in another manuscript the death "VIII Id Mar" of "Adela nobilis Blesensium comitissa regis Anglorum Willelmi filia"[121]m (Betrothed Breteuil, Chartres 1081) ETIENNE [Henri] de Blois, son of THIBAUT III Comte de Blois & his [first/second wife Gersende de Maine/Gundrada ---] (-killed in battle Ramleh 19 May 1102).  He succeeded his father in 1089 as ETIENNE Comte de Blois, de Chartres, de Châteaudun, de Sancerre et de Meaux. 

a)         ETIENNE de Blois (Blois [1096/97]-Dover 25 Oct 1154, bur Faversham Abbey, Kent).  Orderic Vitalis records that “Stephanus Blesensis palatinus comes” and his wife had “filios quatuor: Guillelmum et Tedbaldum, Stephanumque et Henricum”, adding that Etienne received “comitatum Moritolii in Normannia et multos in Anglia...honores” from “Henrici regis avunculi sui[122].  After the death of his uncle Henry I King of England, he crossed at once to England before his rival, King Henry's daughter Maud, and had himself crowned as STEPHEN King of England at Westminster Abbey 22 Dec 1135. 

-        see below, Chapter 2

-        other children: COMTES de BLOIS

10.      HENRY of England ([Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068]-Saint-Denis le Ferment, Foręt d’Angers near Rouen 1/2 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire).  Orderic Vitalis names “Rotbertum...et Ricardum, Willermum et Henricum” as the sons of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[123].  He succeeded his brother 3 Aug 1100 as HENRY I “Beauclerc” King of England

-        see below

 

 

HENRY of England, son of WILLIAM I "the Conqueror" King of England & his wife Mathilde de Flandre ([Selby, Yorkshire Sep 1068]-Château de Lyon-la-Foręt, near Rouen 1 Dec 1135, bur Reading Abbey, Berkshire[124]).  Orderic Vitalis names “Rotbertum...et Ricardum, Willermum et Henricum” as the sons of “Willermus Normannić dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum[125].  Guillaume of Jumičges records that Duke Guillaume and his wife “Balduinum Flandrić comitem...filiam regali ex genere descendente...Mathilde” had “filios quatuor Robertum...Willelmum...Richardum...et Henricum”, adding that Henry succeeded his brothers “tam Regi, quam Duci[126].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Mathildem conjugem suam” gave birth to “filium...Henricum” within one year of her coronation in May 1068[127].  Comte de Coutances:  Orderic Vitalis records that “Henricus Clito Constantiniensis comes” visited England to request “terram matris suć” from his brother King William II, dated to [1088][128]Guillaume of Jumičges records that ”Henricus” reconquered “comitatum Constantiniensem”, which had been taken from him, with the help of “Richardi de Revers et Rogerii de Magna-villa...Hugo comes Cestrensis[129].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Henricus clito” governed “Abrincas et Cćsarisburgum et Constantiam atque Guabreium” [Avranches, Cherbourg, Coutances, Gavray][130].  Seigneur de Domfront 1092: Orderic Vitalis records that “Henricus Guillelmi regis filius” captured “Danfrontem oppidum” in 1092[131].  He succeeded his brother 3 Aug 1100 as HENRY I “Beauclerc” King of England, taking prompt action to ensure his succession by taking control of the royal treasure at Winchester.  Florence of Worcester records that "iunior frater suus Heinricus" succeeded King William II and was crowned "Non Aug" in Westminster Abbey[132].  Orderic Vitalis records that he was crowned at Westminster Abbey 5 Aug 1100[133].  He married the niece of the last Saxon claimant to the throne of England to appease the English.  After consolidating his position in England, he crossed the Channel to subdue Normandy in 1105[134].  He defeated his brother Robert at Tinchebrai and declared himself Duke of Normandy 28 Sep 1106.  Henry turned his attention to strengthening the position of the crown in the newly united country, creating the Exchequer to improve control over finances, and ensuring that his own supporters filled the potentially powerful positions of county sheriffs.  However, tensions increased with the barons, setting the scene for the civil war which followed Henry's death, his male heir having drowned in the White Ship disaster in 1120.  The Chronicć Sancti Albini records the death "1135 III Non Dec" of "Henricus rex Anglić"[135].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Non Dec" in [1135] and his burial at Reading[136].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "IV Non Dec" of "Henricus rex Anglorum"[137].  William of Newburgh records the burial of King Henry I "apud Radingam in monasterio"[138]

m firstly (Westminster Abbey 11 Nov 1100) EADGYTH of Scotland, daughter of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his wife Margaret of England (1079-Palace of Westminster 1 May 1118, bur Westminster Abbey[139]).  Orderic Vitalis records that their mother sent Eadgyth and her sister Mary to be brought up by her sister Christina, nun at Romsey Abbey[140].  Florence of Worcester records the marriage of King Henry and "regis Scottorum Malcolmi et Margaretć reginć filiam Mahtildem" and her coronation as queen in a passage dealing with events in late 1100[141].  She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage.  Orderic Vitalis records that King Henry I married “Mathildem quć prius dicta est Edith[142].  Crowned Queen Consort 11 or 14 Nov 1100.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Kal Mai" of "Matildis Anglorum regina"[143].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "Kal Mai " at Westminster of "Mahthildis regina Anglorum", and her burial at Westminster Abbey[144]

m secondly (Royal Chapel, Windsor Castle 29 Jan or 2 Feb 1121) ADELISA de Louvain, daughter of GODEFROI V "le Barbu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Comte de Louvain & his first wife Ida de Chiny Ctss de Namur ([1103/06]-Afflighem Abbey 23/24 Mar or 23 Apr 1151, bur Afflighem Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "IV Kal Feb" [1121] of King Henry and "Atheleidem filiam Godefridi ducis Lotharingć puellam virginem" and her coronation as queen "III Kal Feb"[145].  Orderic Vitalis names her and her father[146].  William of Newburgh records the second marriage of King Henry I and "filiam ducis Lotharingie", noting that the marriage was childless[147].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantić Heredum Francić names (in order) "Alaida…Anglorum regina…comitissa de Cleves Ida…[et] Clarissia virgo" as the three daughters of "Godefridus Cum-barba"[148].  The Balduini Ninovensis Chronicon records the marriage of "Henricus rex Anglorum" and "Athelam filiam Godefridi ducis Lotharingie" in 1121[149].  She was crowned Queen Consort at Westminster Abbey 30 Jan or 3 Feb 1121.  The Continuatio Chronici Afflegemiensis records that “Godefridus cum barba Dux Lotharingić…filia…Aleidis” married “Regi Anglić” in 1121[150].  The castle and honour of Arundel was settled on Queen Adelisa after her first husband died.  She married secondly ([1136/Sep 1139]) William d’Aubigny [de Albini], who was created Earl of Arundel soon after his marriage.  Robert of Torigny records that "Willermi de Albinaio quem vocant comitem de Arundel" married "Aelizam reginam relictam Henrici senioris regis Anglorum"[151].  Adelisa became a nun at Affleghem Abbey, near Aalst in Brabant in 1149/50.  The Annals of Margan record the death in 1151 of “Adelidis, regina secunda Henrici regis[152].  The Continuatio Chronici Afflegemiensis records that “Godefridus cum barba Dux Lotharingić…filia…Aleidis” died “IX Kal Mai” and was buried at Afflighem after the death of her second husband[153]The necrology of Lyre monastery records the death "25 Mar" of "Adelicia regina"[154]

Mistress (1): ---, a woman from Caen.  The name of King Henry's first mistress is not known.  Her origin is assumed because her son is styled "Robertus de Cadomo " by Orderic Vitalis.  A possible family connection of hers is suggested by the undated charter, arranged with charters dated 1127/28 in the compilation, under which Henry I King of England confirmed an exchange of property between the abbot of Fécamp and "Nigello filio Willelmi, nepote Roberti comitis Gloecestrie filii mei", "Nigellus" donating property "in villa Fiscanni habuit et avus et pater eius"[155].  The wording of the document is incompatible with "Willelmi" being another son of King Henry I.  The relationship with Robert Earl of Gloucester must presumably therefore be established through Robert´s mother.  The alternatives appear to be that William, father of Nigel, was the son of Robert´s mother by a later marriage (and therefore uterine half-brother of Earl Robert), that William´s wife was her daughter by a later marriage (uterine half-sister of Earl Robert), or that the word nepos denotes a more remote blood relationship and that Nigel was the first or second cousin of Earl Robert.  Another relative of Robert Earl of Gloucester was Christiana, who married, as his first wife, William FitzAlan.  Orderic Vitalis records that "William fitz Alan castellan and vicecomes of Shrewsbury" married "a niece of Robert Earl of Gloucester"[156].  "William Fitz Alan" donated the fishery of Upton-upon-Severn to Haughmond abbey by undated charter, witnessed by "Walter his brother, Christiana his wife…"[157]

Mistress (2): EDITH, daughter of ---.  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Walterus de tribus Minetis" holding land of "Edith matris comitisse de Ptico" in Devonshire[158]

Mistress (3): ANSFRIDE, widow of ANSKILL, daughter of --- (-bur Abingdon Abbey).  The Chronicle of Abingdon names "Anskillus" and "uxore Anskilli iam defuncti…filio eius…Willelmo" adding that "fratrem regis Henricum" was father of her son "Ricardum", in a later passage naming her "Ansfrida" when recording her death and the donation of the mill at Langford by "Willelmus filius eiusdem…de Anskillo marito suo" for her burial at Abingdon[159].  Her husband was a knight, tenant of Abingdon Abbey, who died following a few days of harsh treatment after being imprisoned by King William II. 

[Mistress (4): ---.  The Complete Peerage suggests that the mother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland was Sibyl Corbet[160], who is shown below as Mistress (5).  As explained more fully below under her daughter Queen Sibyl, this suggestion is not ideal from a chronological point of view.  In summary, Sibyl Corbet´s son, Renaud Earl of Cornwall, was probably not born before [1110] considering that his marriage is dated to [1141].  If that is correct, the only way in which he could have had the same mother as the queen of Scotland would be if the latter was a young girl at the time of her marriage.  In addition, the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY D-K), which appears incompatible with Sibyl also having been the mother of Queen Sibyl.  On the other hand, "Robert Corbet" witnessed charters in Scotland which are dated to the reign of King Alexander and the early years of the reign of his brother King David (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY A-C).  If Robert Corbet had been Queen Sibyl´s maternal grandfather or her maternal uncle, this could account for his presence at the Scottish court at the time.] 

Mistress (5): SIBYL Corbet, daughter of ROBERT Corbet of Alcester, co Warwick & his [first] wife --- ([1090/95]-after 1157).  The Complete Peerage deduces her parentage, relationship with King Henry, and her marriage from a charter, dated to [1163/75], under which her son "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubić" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Alizić Corbet, materterć meć" which he had granted to "Willielmo de Boterells in Cornubia, patri…predicti Willielmi" on his marriage, witnessed by "Nicholao filio meo…Herberto filio Herberti, Baldwino et Ricardo nepotibus meis, Willelmo de Vernun, Willielmo fratre meo…Hugone de Dunstanvill…"[161].  She married ([1115/25]) Herbert FitzHerbert.  The [1125/35] birth date range estimated for her son Herbert, born from this marriage, indicates that she married after her relationship with the king.  The Pipe Roll of 1157 records a payment to "the mother of Earl Reginald" from an estate at Mienes, Sussex[162]

Mistress (6): EDITH, daughter of ---.  Symeon of Durham names "Rodberto filio Edć et Henrici regis notho"[163]The Complete Peerage[164] identifies her as the probable daughter of Forn Sigurdson Lord of Greystoke, Cumberland.  If this is correct, she married Robert de Oilly of Hook Norton, constable of Oxford Castle, son of Nigel [III] de Oilly of Hook Norton, Oxfordshire & his wife Agnes --- (-1142).  The suggestion is presumably based on the undated charter under which “Robertus Henrici regis filius” donated property to Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire, with the consent of "Henrici de Oleio fratris mei[165].  However, “Editha, Roberto de Oilly conjugali copula juncta” donated property to Thame Abbey, for the souls of “Henrici et Gilberti filiorum meorum”, by undated charter witnessed by “Fulco de Oilly, Fulco Luval, Henrico filio Roberti filii Aumari[166].  If Edith, wife of Robert de Oilly, was the same person as the mother of King Henry´s son Robert, it is unclear why she would not have named her son Robert in this charter. 

Mistresses (7) - (12): ---.  The names of these mistresses of King Henry are not known. 

Mistress (13): NEST of South Wales, wife of GERALD FitzWalter of Windsor custodian of Pembroke Castle, daughter of RHYS ap Tewdwr Prince of South Wales & his wife Gwladus ---.  Giraldus Cambrensis names "Henricus…regi Henrici primi filius…ex nobili Nesta, Resi filii Theodori filia" in South Wales[167].  She was abducted by Owain son of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn from castle Ceanrth Bychan in 1109. 

Mistresses (14): ---.  The name of this mistress of King Henry is not known. 

Mistress (15): ISABELLE de Beaumont, daughter of ROBERT de Beaumont Comte de Meulan, Earl of Leicester & his wife Isabelle de Vermandois ([1102/07]-).  Guillaume de Jumičges records one illegitimate daughter of King Henry I as daughter of "Elizabeth sorore Waleranni comitis Mellenti"[168].  She married Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare Earl of Pembroke.  Guillaume de Jumičges records that "Giselbertus filius Gisleberti" married “sororem Waleranni comitis Mellenti...Elizabeth” by whom he had “filium primogenitum...Richardum[169].  Henry II King of England confirmed the donations to the nuns of Saint-Saens by "Isabel comitissa qui fuit uxor Gilleberti comitis" by charter dated to [1172/1182][170]

King Henry I & his first wife had [three] children:

1.         [daughter (Winchester Jul/Aug 1101-died young).  According to Weir, a legitimate daughter of King Henry's was born in late Jul or early Aug 1101[171].  She names her Euphemia.  The primary source which confirms the birth of a child at that time has not yet been identified.  It is possible that there is confusion with the birth of the king's daughter Matilda, probably born in the following year.  All the contemporary chronicles so far consulted state that the king had only two children by his first marriage.  The name Euphemia appears improbable.  The earliest reference to this name so far found among noble families in the British Isles is the mother of Robert de Brus Lord of Annandale (who died in 1191), her precise parentage being unknown although she is recorded as neptis of Guillaume "le Gros" Comte d'Aumâle and Lord of Holderness (who died in 1179).  The name is not found among the immediate ancestors of the legitimate children of King Henry, and it is unclear why the king would have given a non-family name to his eldest daughter.] 

2.         MATILDA (Winchester or London 1102-Abbaye de Notre-Dame des Prčs, near Rouen 10 Sep 1167, bur Abbaye du Bec, Normandy, later moved to Rouen Cathedral).  Orderic Vitalis names “Guillelmum Adelinum, et Mathildem imperatricem” as the children of King Henry I and his wife Matilda[172].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the birth "secundo anno regni" of "filiam…Matildis"[173].  According to Weir[174], she was christened Adelaide but adopted the name Matilda on her first marriage.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The chronology of Matilda´s first marriage is complicated.  Negotiations for the marriage started in 1109: Henry of Huntingdon records that ambassadors were sent by “Henrico imperatore Romano” to request “filiam regis” in marriage for “domini sui”, that they were received in the English court “ad Pentecosten”, and that “filia regis” was given (“data”) to “imperatori” in the following year, dated to [1109/10] from the context[175].  The English king's presence in London at that time is confirmed by the Regesta Regum Anglorum which lists three charters dated 13 June 1109 “Pentecost” issued at Westminster in King Henry's name[176].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 1109 that “before Whitsuntide” King Henry I returned to England from Normandy and “held his court at Westminster” where “the contracts were completed and the oaths sworn for the marriage of his daughter to the emperor” and in 1110 that “before Lent, the king sent his daughter oversea with innumerable treasures and gave her in marriage to the emperor[177].  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Anglorum Henricus” granted “filiam suam...in conjugem" to "Heinrico regi Teutonicorum", dated to 1110 from the context[178].  In a later passage, the same source records that "Matildis filia regis Anglorum” who was “Heinrico, Romanorum imperatori...desponsata" was consecrated empress "VIII Id Jan" (6 January) at Mainz, dated to 1114 from the context[179].  The Continuatio of the Gesta Ducum Normannorum records that “Henricus quintus rex et quartus imperator Romanorum et Alemannorum” requested in marriage the daughter of the king of England who was brought to his kingdom, that the couple were betrothed (“desponsavit”) in Utrecht at Easter, and that Matilda was consecrated queen in Mainz “in festivitate sancti Iacobi” (25 July) by the archbishop of Köln.  Matilda was then carefully brought up (“studiose nutriri precepit”) by Bruno archbishop of Trier, including learning the German language and customs, until the time for her marriage (“tempus nuptiarum”)[180].  Orderic Vitalis records that "Henricus rex Anglorum" gave “Mathildem filiam suam...in uxorem” to “Imperatori”, that “Rogerius filius Ricardi [identified as Roger FitzRichard de Clare] cognatus regis, cum nobili comitatu in Anglia” escorted her to Germany, and that her dowry was 10,000 marks, undated but dated to [1110] from the context[181].  The dating is confirmed approximately by a later passage in the same source, recording the death of Emperor Heinrich, which states that he married Matilda three years after succeeding his father (who died in August 1106)[182].  Another passage records that “Henricus rex” gave “Mathildem filiam suam...in conjugium” to “Karolo [error for Henrico] Henrici filio Imperatori Alemannorum”, that she was led to her husband by “Burchardus prćsul Cameracensium”, in the presence of “Rogerius...filius Ricardi, aliique plures ex Normannis comitati[183].  This last passage is dated to [1109] from the context.  However, Burchard was not appointed bishop of Cambrai until 1114: the Annales Cameracensis record that “domnus Burgardus” was elected [as bishop] in 1114[184].  The Annals of Winchester record that “rex” sent “filiam suam Matildem” for betrothal (“desponsandam”) to “imperatori Henrico” with 5,000 marks of silver in 1110, adding that she was only 8 years and 15 days old[185].  The Annals of Winchelcombe, Gloucestershire record in 1114 that “Matildis filia regis Anglorum Henrici” married (“desponsatur...sponsam suscepit”) “Anglici regis filiam” and that the dowry was agreed (“more dotavit”) in Utrecht at Easter[186].  Simeon of Durham records in 1110 that "rex Anglorum Henricus" gave “filiam suam” in marriage (“in conjugem dedit”) to “Henrico imperatori”, adding that he sent her from Dover “usque ad Witsand” at the start of “Quadragesimć...IV Id Apr[187].  The same source records in 1114 that "Mathildis filia regis Anglorum Henrici" was married (“desponsata”) to “Henrico Romanorum imperatori” and was consecrated empress at Mainz “VIII Id Jan[188].  The Annales Hildesheimensis record a synod held “Non Mar” in 1110 by Pope Paschal who sent legates to Ličge (“Leodium ad regem”) and that there (“ibi”) “rex” received as wife (“sponsam suscepit”) “Anglici regis filiam” and that he granted her dower in accordance with the customs of the kingdom (“regio more dotavit”) in Utrecht at Easter[189].  The same source records in 1114 that Matilda married (“desponsatur”) “Henrico Romanorum imperatori[190].  The Annales Sancti Disibodi record in 1109 that “Rex” was betrothed (“desponsata”) to “filia regis Anglorum” and in 1114 that “Imperator” passed Christmas at “Babinberg” and married (“nuptias fecit”) at Mainz “post epiphaniam[191]Matilda was crowned empress again in 1117 with her husband at St Peter’s Basilica, Rome.  Her second marriage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis[192].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the second marriage of "filiam suam…viduam" to "Gaufrido comiti Andegavić"[193].  Matilda asserted the right to succeed after the death of her father and fought King Stephen in a civil war in which she was finally defeated 1 Nov 1141.  Robert of Torigny records the death "1167…IV Id Sep Rothomagi" of "matris suć [Henrici regis] Mathildis imperatricis" and her burial "Becci"[194].  The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "II Id Sep" of "Mathildis imperatrix filia Henrici regis uxor Goffredi comitis"[195]m firstly (betrothed Utrecht Easter 1110[196], Mainz 6 Jan 1114) Emperor HEINRICH V, son of Emperor HEINRICH IV & his first wife Berthe de Savoie (1081-Utrecht 23 May 1125, bur Speyer Cathedral).  m secondly (Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou 17 Jun 1128) GEOFFROY d’Anjou, son of FOULQUES V Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Aremburge de Maine (24 Aug 1113-Château du Loire 7 Sep 1151, bur Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1129 as GEOFFROI V “le Bel/Plantagenet” Comte d’Anjou.  He was proclaimed Duke of Normandy 19 Jan 1144.  Matilda & her second husband had three children: 

a)         HENRI d’Anjou (Le Mans, Anjou 5 Mar 1133-Château de Chinon 6 Jul 1189, bur Abbaye de Fontevrault).  William of Tyre names him and records his parentage[197].  The Chronicć Sancti Albini records the birth "1133 III Non Mar" of "Henricus"[198].  Comte de Touraine et de Maine 1151.  He succeeded his father in 1151 as HENRI Comte d’Anjou, Duke of Normandy.  He became Duke of Aquitaine by right of his wife 18 May 1152.  He landed in England in Jan 1153 and obliged King Stephen to recognise him as his heir, from which time Henry governed England as Justiciar.  He was recognised as HENRY II King of England after the death of Stephen 25 Oct 1154, crowned in Westminster Abbey 19 Dec 1154.   

-        see below, Chapter 3.A.  KINGS of ENGLAND 1154-1399

b)         other children: - see ANJOU

3.         WILLIAM (Winchester 5 Aug 1103-drowned off Barfleur, Normandy 25 Nov 1120).  Orderic Vitalis names “Guillelmum Adelinum, et Mathildem imperatricem” as the children of King Henry I and his wife Matilda[199].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the birth "tertio regni anno" of "Willelmum"[200].  "David comes" made donations to the monks of Durham by undated charter, witnessed by "Mathildis Reginć et Willelmi filii sui"[201].  William of Malmesbury records that he was designated Duke of Normandy in 1120, and swore allegiance as such to Louis VI "le Gros" King of France[202].  He drowned following the sinking of the “Blanche Nef [White Ship]”, according to William of Malmesbury after returning to the ship in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue his half-sister Mathilde Ctss du Perche[203].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester names "Willelmus regis filius, Ricardus frater eius…" among those drowned in the sinking of the White Ship[204]m (Betrothed near Alençon late Feb 1113, Lisieux, Normandy Jun 1119[205]) ALICE [Isabelle] d’Anjou, daughter of FOULQUES V Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Eremburge Ctss du Maine (Anjou [1110/11][206]-Fontevrault Abbey 1154, bur [Fontevrault Abbey]).  Her parentage is specified by Orderic Vitalis, who calls her "Matilda"[207].  William of Tyre also names her, specifying that she was her father's second daughter[208], although it is more probable that he would have betrothed his older daughter to the son of the king of England.  Orderic Vitalis records that her marriage was arranged, at "Petra Peculata" near Alençon in late Feb 1113, as part of the alliance between her father and her future father-in-law[209].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that Henry I King of England arranged the marriage of "filio suo Willelmo" and "comite Andegavensi…filia eius"[210].  She adopted the name MATILDA on her marriage.  Orderic Vitalis records that she became a nun at Fontevraud Abbey "ten years after her marriage"[211] and was elected abbess in 1150[212].  Her recent arrival as a nun at Fontevraud is confirmed by the charter dated 2 Feb 1129 under which "Conanus Britannie comes" donated property to the abbey of Fontevraud after finding that "meam cognatam Fulconis comitis Andegavensis filiam noviter ibi factam monacham"[213]

King Henry I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

4.          ROBERT de Caen ([1090]-Bristol 31 Oct 1147, bur Priory of St James, Bristol)Orderic Vitalis records him as "Robert the king's son"[214].  According to the Gwentian Chronicle, Robert was the king´s son by "Nest, daughter of Rhys son of Tewdwr, who was afterwards the wife of Gerald of Pembroke Castle"[215], but this appears unlikely from a chronological point of view.  He was created Earl of Gloucester in [Jun/Sep] 1122. 

-        EARLS of GLOUCESTER

King Henry I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2): 

5.          MATHILDE (-drowned off Barfleur, Normandy 25 Nov 1120).  She is named as daughter of King Henry I by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that the king "built up [her husband's] power by greatly augmenting his estates and wealth in England"[216].  Orderic also specifies that the king arranged her marriage at the same time as that of her half-sister Juliane[217]The Genealogić Scriptoris Fusniacensis refers to, but does not name, the wife of "Rotaldus comes" as "filiam regis Anglie", specifying that she had daughters[218].  Her father gave her lands in Wiltshire as her dowry[219].  "Rotrocus comes et Beatrix mater eius atque Mathildis uxor comitis" subscribed the charter dated to [1105/07] under which "Guillermus de Loiscel" made donations to Saint-Denis de Nogent[220].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester names "…filia regis comitissa de Perceio…" among those drowned in the sinking of the White Ship[221].  William of Malmesbury also records that she drowned in the sinking of the “Blanche Nef [White Ship]”[222]m (1103) as his first wife, ROTROU [I] Comte du Perche, son of GEOFFROY Comte du Perche & his wife Béatrix de Roucy (-killed in battle Rouen [20 Jan/23 Apr] or 6 May 1144). 

King Henry I had [three] illegitimate children by Mistress (3): 

6.          RICHARD (before 1101-drowned off Barfleur, Normandy 25 Nov 1120)The Chronicle of Abingdon names "Anskillus" and "uxore Anskilli iam defuncti…filio eius…Willelmo" adding that "fratrem regis Henricum" was father of her son "Ricardum"[223].  He is named "Richard the king's son" by Orderic Vitalis, who describes his capture by the forces of Louis VI "le Gros" King of France in 1119 at Andely[224].  He was present with his father at the siege of Evreux and at the battle of Brémule 20 Aug 1119[225].  Orderic Vitalis records that he "pleaded his sister's cause" with their father concerning the siege of Breteuil[226].  He raised the siege of Breteuil in Sep 1119, and was betrothed to the daughter of its defender in the following year.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester names "Willelmus regis filius, Ricardus frater eius…" among those who drowned in the sinking of the White Ship[227].  William of Malmesbury also records that Richard drowned in the sinking of the “White Ship”[228].   Weir[229] states that King Henry I had a legitimate son named Richard, also drowned in the White Ship disaster, who was "Queen Matilda's son [according to] both Robert of Gloucester and the Saxon Chronicle".  In the case of the latter, Chronicle E[230] refers to "two of the king's sons, William and Richard, being drowned", but does not specify who was their mother.  The Chronicle of Gervase records the birth of "alium quoque…filium Ricardum", which from the context refers to a legitimate son of King Henry by his first marriage[231].  However, Gervase makes it clear that this was the same son Richard who was later drowned in the White Ship.  According to William of Malmesbury[232], Queen Matilda "satisfied with a child of either sex … ceased having issue".  Orderic Vitalis also names only two legitimate children of King Henry[233].  While both Malmesbury and Orderic mention no children who may have died in infancy, it is unlikely that they would not have named another legitimate son who survived into young adulthood, particular if he too drowned in the White Ship incident which is otherwise described in such detail.  It is therefore assumed that the only son of King Henry's who was named Richard was this illegitimate son.  Betrothed (1120) to AMICE de Gaël, daughter of RAOUL de Gaël Seigneur de Montfort et de Breteuil & his wife --- (-after Apr 1168).  She is named by Orderic Vitalis, who names her father and records that he arranged her betrothal, with Breteuil, Glos and Lire as her dowry[234].  She later married Robert de Beaumont Comte de Meulan Earl of Leicester

7.          JULIANE.  She is named as the daughter of King Henry I by Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that the king arranged her marriage[235].  According to The Complete Peerage[236], it is "not unlikely that she was the daughter of Ansfride" as her presumed full brother Richard interceded with King Henry on her behalf in 1119[237].  After her husband's rebellion in 1119, the king (her father) besieged her in Breteuil castle, from where she "was forced to leap down from the walls…and fell shamefully with bare buttocks into the depths of the moat", and fled to her husband at Pacy[238].  She and her husband were later pardoned.  Orderic Vitalis records that she became a nun at Fontevraud Abbey[239]m (1103) EUSTACHE de Pacy, illegitimate son of GUILLAUME de Breteuil & his mistress --- (-1136). 

8.          FOULQUESThe Chronicle of Abingdon records that "Willelmus filius eiusdem…de Anskillo marito suo" donated Langford mill to Abingdon for the burial of "Ansfrida", witnessed by "Fulcone filio regis et Ricardo pedagogo"[240].  The inference is that Foulques was also Ansfride´s son by the king.  According to The Complete Peerage, he probably became a monk at Abingdon Abbey or died young[241]

King Henry I had two illegitimate children by Mistress (4) or Mistress (5): 

9.          SIBYL (-Island of the Women, Loch Tay, Perthshire 12/13 Jul 1122, bur Island of the Women, Loch Tay).  William of Malmesbury records the marriage of Alexander to the unnamed illegitimate daughter of King Henry, but adds "there was…some defect about the lady either in correctness of manners or elegance of person"[242], which appears to imply mental retardation.  Her name is confirmed by various charters, including the charter dated to [1120] under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum filius Regis Malcolmi et Reginć Margaretć et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglić" made grants[243]The Complete Peerage[244] suggests that she was the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, both because of her name and also because of the possible co-identity between "…Willelmo fratre reginć…", who witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[245], and  "…Willielmo fratre meo…" who witnessed the charter dated to [1163/75] under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubić" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Alizić Corbet, materterć meć"[246].  However, this co-identity is not ideal from a chronological point of view.  William, brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall, died after 1187.  If he was the same person as the brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland, he could only have been a child when he subscribed the Scottish charters in which he is named.  In addition, as noted below, it is possible that William, brother of Earl Renaud, may have been his uterine brother, in which case it is unlikely that he would have been chosen to accompany the queen to Scotland.  Another factor is that the birth of Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Sibyl Corbet by her marriage, is estimated to [1125/35] (see the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY D-K), which means that he could only have been Sibyl´s half-brother if she had been a child when she married the king.  On the other hand, "Robert Corbet" witnessed charters in Scotland which are dated to the reign of King Alexander and the early years of the reign of his brother King David (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY A-C).  If that Robert Corbet had been Queen Sibyl´s maternal grandfather or her maternal uncle, this could account for his presence at the Scottish court at the time.  "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey by charter dated to [1114/15][247].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death in 1122 "apud Lochtay cellam canonicorum de Scona" of "Sibilla…regine Scocie uxor regis Alexandri, filia Henrici Beuclerk regis Anglie"[248].  m (before [1114/15]) ALEXANDER I “the Fierce” King of Scotland, son of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his second wife Margaret of England ([1077/78]-Stirling Castle 23, 25 or 27 Apr 1124, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). 

10.       WILLIAM (-after [1129/33]).  "…Willelmus frater regine…" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[249].  "Willelmus frater reginć…" witnessed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[250].  ["Willelmus filius regis" donated "terra…Grenta de Stoca" to Bath St Peter by charter dated 28 Jun 1121, subscribed by "Patricius de Caurz, Hubertus de Sancta Susanna, Winebaldus de Baalun, Alexander de Alnoth, Reinaldus de Dunstanvilla, Giffardus de Salforda…"[251].  It is not certain that the donor was the same William as the brother of the queen of Scotland, although the presence of the latter in Scotland would not exclude him having land interests in Wiltshire.]  "…Willelmo fratre reginć…" witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[252].  Maybe Constable of Scotland until about 1122.  It is assumed that he was born within the same timeframe as his sister, on the assumption that the king´s relationship with their mother was relatively short-lived.  As discussed above under his sister Sibyl, William has been identified as the brother of Renaud Earl of Cornwall who is recorded as alive in 1187.  This appears difficult to sustain from a chronological point of view.  In any case, as discussed more fully below, it is more likely that William, brother of Earl Renaud, was the earl´s uterine brother, his mother´s son by her marriage to Herbert FitzHerbert.  "William the king´s son" subscribed a charter of Robert de Tosny dated [1129/33][253]

King Henry I had [four] illegitimate children by Mistress (5): 

11.       RENAUD [de Dunstanville] ([1110/15]-Chertsey, Surrey 1 Jul [1175], bur Reading Abbey)Guillaume de Jumičges names "Rainaldus, Robertus, Gislebertus" as three illegitimate sons of King Henry I, adding that they were “adhuc iuvenes sine casamero[254].  He is named as son of King Henry by Orderic Vitalis[255].  The Chronicle of Gervase names "fratre suo Reginaldo comite Cornubić" as one of the main supporters of Matilda[256]The Complete Peerage deduces his mother´s identity from the charter, dated to [1163/75], under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubić" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Alizić Corbet, materterć meć" which he had granted to "Willielmo de Boterells in Cornubia, patri…predicti Willielmi" on his marriage, witnessed by "Nicholao filio meo…Herberto filio Herberti, Baldwino et Ricardo nepotibus meis, Willelmo de Vernun, Willielmo fratre meo…Hugone de Dunstanvill…"[257].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his marriage in [1141].  According to Domesday Descendants[258], "de Dunstanville" was a label only attributed to him by Orderic Vitalis.  He inherited large areas of land in Cornwall, by right of his wife on his marriage and was created Earl of Cornwall in [Apr 1141] by his half-sister Maud, after successfully leading a rebellion in her favour in the West Country[259].  The title was later fully recognised by King Stephen. 

-        EARLS of CORNWALL

12.       [WILLIAM (-after 1187).  "…Herberto filio Herberti…Willielmo fratre meo…" subscribed the charter, dated to [1163/75], under which "Reginaldus, Henrici Regis filius, comes Cornubić" granted property to "Willielmo de Boterell, filio Alizić Corbet, materterć meć" which he had granted to "Willielmo de Boterells in Cornubia, patri…predicti Willielmi" on his marriage[260].  Military fee certifications in the Red Book of the Exchequer, in 1166, record that "Willelmus frater comitis Reginaldi" held half of one knight´s fee from "Roberti filii Regis" in Devon[261].  Benedict of Peterborough records that Henry II King of England granted the kingdom of Limerick to "Hereberti filio Hereberti, et Willelmo fratri comitis Reginaldi, et Joellano de la Pumerai nepoti eorum" at a council in Oxford in May 1177, but that "Herbertus et Willelmus, fratres Reginaldi comitis Cornubić, et Joellanus de Pumeria nepos eorum" declined it at a council at Marlborough 3 Jun 1177[262].  None of the primary sources so far consulted conclusively indicates whether William was the full brother of Earl Renaud or his uterine half-brother by their mother´s marriage to Herbert FitzHerbert.  However, the order in which the individuals are named in the documents quoted above suggests that William was younger than Herbert, in which case it is more likely that he was the uterine brother of the earl.  The question has been confused by the possible co-identity between William, brother of Earl Renaud, and Willliam brother of Sibyl Queen of Scotland.  However, as discussed above, the chronology is unfavourable for this co-identity to be correct.  m ALICE, daughter of ---.  "Willelmus de Marisco frater Reginaldi comitis Cornubie" names his wife Alice in a charter[263].] 

13.       [GUNDRED.  The 1129/30 Pipe Roll records "Gunderede sorori Ragin. de Dunestanvilla" accounting for land in Wiltshire[264]According to C. Phillips[265], this connection with Wiltshire makes it more likely that "Ragin. de Dunstanvilla" was a member of the Wiltshire Dunstanville family rather than the Earl of Cornwall.  If that is correct, Gundred was not the daughter of King Henry I.  This conclusion is also supported by the birth date ranges estimated for the earl of Cornwall ([1110/15], see above) and his uterine brother Herbert FitzHerbert ([1125/35], see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY D-K), which render it unlikely that they would have had a sister who is recorded as a land-holder in 1130.  "…Reinaldus de Dunstanvilla…" subscribed a charter dated 28 Jun 1121 under which "Willelmus filius regis" donated "terra…Grenta de Stoca" to Bath St Peter[266].  The Dunstanville family is shown in the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY D-K.

14.       [ROHESE (-[1176])The parentage of Rohese is uncertain.  Renaud Earl of Cornwall granted Roseworthy manor in Cornwall to his sister "Rohesia de Pomeria" in a charter[267].  The wife of Henry de la Pomerai was therefore the daughter of Sibyl Corbet, either the king´s daughter or Rohese, daughter of Herbert FitzHerbert who later married Sibyl.  m (1146 or before) HENRY [I] de la Pomerai, son of JOSCELIN de la Pomerai & his wife Emma --- (-[1156/64]).] 

King Henry I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (6): 

15.       ROBERT FitzEdith [FitzRoy] (-31 May [1172]).  Symeon of Durham names "Rodberto filio Edć et Henrici regis notho"[268]Guillaume de Jumičges names "Rainaldus, Robertus, Gislebertus" as three illegitimate sons of King Henry I, adding that they were “adhuc iuvenes sine casamero[269].  Landowner in Devon 1130: the 1129/30 Pipe Roll includes a record accounting for "terra Rob fil Reg" in Devon[270]He supported his half-sister Empress Matilda during the civil war[271]Robertus Henrici regis filius” donated property to Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire, with the consent of "Henrici de Oleio fratris mei”, by undated charter[272].  "Robertus filius Regis Henrici" donated "duos ferlingos in manerio meo Calvalegić juxta Cobbalegiam" to Exeter St Nicholas, with the consent of "Matillidis de Abrinco uxoris meć", by charter dated 1162[273].  The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Robertus filius Regis lix l xvii s i d, et de novo i m" in Devonshire in [1167/68][274].  It is uncertain whether his year of death is accurate as the 1176/77 Pipe Roll names "Robertus filius Regis" in Devonshire[275].  [m firstly ---.  It should be noted that, assuming the hypothesis concerning the identity of the wife of Robert FitzEdith is correct as outlined below, Mathilde d´Avranches would have been considerably younger than her husband.  As noted above, Robert is recorded as a land-owner in the 1129/30 Pipe Roll, while the same document records elsewhere that Mathilde´s father was still married to his first wife at that time.  This age difference points to an earlier, otherwise unrecorded, first marriage of Robert which (if it did take place) was presumably childless.]  m [secondly] (before 1162) as her second husband, MATHILDE d´Avranches, widow of [GEOFFROY de Crimes/GUILLAUME de Curcy], daughter of ROBERT d´Avranches & his second wife Matilda Avenell"Robti filii Henrici Regis" confirmed the donation of "totam vineam quam Robtus fil Baldewini et Ricardus frater eius" to Exeter St Nicholas, with the consent of "Matillidis filić Roberti de Avrenchis et heredis Ricardi filii Baldewini", undated[276].  The heirship of Mathilde to “Ricardi filii Baldewini” (who was a member of a younger branch of the Brionne/Eu family, see the document NORMANDY NOBILITY) was through her maternal grandmother, who is recorded as a sister of the brothers Robert and Richard.  "Robertus filius Regis Henrici" donated "duos ferlingos in manerio meo Calvalegić juxta Cobbalegiam" to Exeter St Nicholas, with the consent of "Matillidis de Abrinco uxoris meć", by charter dated 1162[277].  The parentage of the wife of Robert FitzEdith is confirmed by a claim, dated 1222, which is recorded by Bracton: "Matillis de Curteney" sued "Robertum de Curtenay" concerning "manerium de Ocumptona", "Robertus" claiming that the land was "hereditas Matillidis de Aueregnes" who had "duas filias…Hawisiam matrem suam primogenitam […filia Gaufridi de Crimes primi viri Matillidis de Auerenches] et…Matillidem", while the claimant Matilda asserted that she had the land in question "ex dono Roberti filii Regis patris eiusdem Matillidis et secundi viri predicte Matillidis de Auerenches"[278].  A different parentage is indicated by the Fundationis et Fundatorum Historia of Ford Abbey which records that “domina Alicia uxor domini Randolphi Avenell filia sua…unicam filiam…Matildam” married “Roberto filio regis Henrici primi notho” after the death of her first husband “Roberto de Abrincis id est de Averinges”, and died “IX Kal Oct 1173[279].  Matilda, daughter of Ranulf Avenell, was the mother of Mathilde d´Avranches.  The two charters quoted above indicate that this supposed second marriage of Matilda is not correct.  The identity of Mathilde´s first husband is uncertain.  Bracton´s report of the 1222 lawsuit which is quoted above identifies him as "Gaufridi de Crimes primi viri Matillidis de Auerenches".  However, another claim recorded by Bracton, also dated 1222, identifies him differently: "Matillis de Curtenay" claimed against "Robertum de Curtenay" concerning "manerium de Chamelegha", the defendant stating that "Robertus filius Regis…Matillidem de Auerenches uxorem suam" held the land which was inherited by "Hawisie filie sui matri eiusdem Roberti de Curtenay que fuit filia Willelmi de Curcy viri eiusdem Matillidis"[280].  No other information has yet been found which would resolve this inconsistency.  Another outstanding point concerns the date of death of Matilda Avenell, as wife of Robert FitzEdith, as reported in the Ford Abbey document.  It is assumed that the date does in fact refer to Matilda Avenell and not to Mathilde d´Avranches, although the point is not beyond all doubt.  If that is correct, no indication has been found of the date of death of Mathilde d´Avranches.  Robert & his [second] wife had one child: 

a)         MATILDA (-1224)The Fundationis et Fundatorum Historia of Ford Abbey names “Matildam” as the daughter of “Roberto filio regis Henrici primi notho” and his wife “Roberto de Abrincis id est de Averinges”, adding that she married “Reginaldo de Courtenay…filio suo Willielmo de Courtenay[281].  Dame du SapBracton records a claim, dated 1222, by "Matillis de Curteney" (1) against "Robertum de Curtenay" concerning "manerium de Ocumptona", which records that "Robertus" claimed that the land was "hereditas Matillidis de Aueregnes" who had "duas filias…Hawisiam matrem suam primogenitam […filia Gaufridi de Crimes primi viri Matillidis de Auerenches] et…Matillidem", the claimant Matilda replying that she had the land in question "ex dono Roberti filii Regis patris eiusdem Matillidis et secundi viri predicte Matillidis de Auerenches", and (2) against "Reginaldum de Curtenay" concerning "manerium de Chaunelega"[282].  Bracton records a claim, also dated 1222, by "Matillis de Curtenay" against "Robertum de Curtenay" concerning "manerium de Chamelegha" which states that "Robertus filius Regis…Matillidem de Auerenches uxorem suam" held the land which was inherited by "Hawisie filie sui matri eiusdem Roberti de Curtenay que fuit filia Willelmi de Curcy viri eiusdem Matillidis", and names "Matillidem de Abrincis et Matillidem de Curtenay filiam eius"[283].  m GUILLAUME de Courtenay, son of RENAUD Seigneur de Courtenay & his first wife [Helvise de Donjon] (-before 1190). 

King Henry I had [seven] illegitimate children by Mistresses (7) to (12): 

16.       [daughter Orderic Vitalis records that King Henry I married "Helić Sancto Sidonio" to "filiam de pellice sibi natam" and granted him "Arcacensem comitatum"[284].  This passage echoes the earlier reference in the same source to the marriage of Hélie de Saint-Saëns to the illegitimate daughter of Robert III Duke of Normandy, brother of King Henry, and the grant to him of Arques[285].  It is possible that Orderic has been confused about this supposed second marriage, especially as in the former passage he emphasises that Hélie was always loyal to Duke Robert, and that the second passage does not refer to a second marriage.  m [as his second wife,] HELIE de Saint-Saëns, son of LAMBERT de Saint-Saëns & his wife --- (-after 1128).] 

17.       MATILDA (-after 1128)Guillaume de Jumičges names Mathilde as illegitimate daughter of King Henry I and her husband "Conano comiti minoris Britannić"[286].  Her marriage is referred to by Orderic Vitalis[287], in a later passage recording that the betrothal occurred before the alliance was agreed between Henry I King of England and Louis VI King of France, which is dated to 1113[288].  "Alanus, Hoelli filius, comes totius Britannie et princeps" donated property to the abbey of Redon with the consent of "suorum filiorum Conani et Gaufridi, necnon et uxoris suć Hermengardis et uxoris filii sui Conani, Mahalt" by charter dated 1112[289].  "Mathilda comitissa et Haduisa soror comitis Conani" signed the undated charter Duke Conan III donated a fishery to the abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel[290].  "Ermengardis mater mea et uxor mea Matildis…" signed the charter dated 1128 under which Duke Conan III confirmed the possessions of the monks of Saint-Melaine de Rennes[291].  m (1112 or before) CONAN III "le Gros" Duke of Brittany, son of ALAIN IV “Fergant” Duke of Brittany & his second wife Ermengarde d’Anjou (-17 Sep 1148). 

18.       ALIX [Aline] (-24 Apr, before 1141)Guillaume de Jumičges records that one illegitimate daughter of King Henry I married "Matthćo filio Burchardi de Montemorenceio"[292].  Duchesne dates the marriage to 1126 but cites no source which provides the basis for this statement[293].  The necrology of Saint-Victor, Paris records the death "VIII Kal Mai" of "Alina uxor Mathei de Montemorenciaco"[294].  m (1126) as his first wife, MATHIEU [I] de Montmorency, son of BOUCHARD [III] Sire de Montmorency & his first wife Agnčs de Beaumont-sur-Oise (-1160).  He succeeded his father as Sire de Montmorency in [1130/32].  Constable of France. 

19.       CONSTANCE [Mathilde] (-after 1173).  Robert of Torigny names "Mathildem filiam notham primi Henrici regis Anglorum" as wife of "Roscelini vicecomitis Cenomannensis"[295].  Orderic Vitalis records the marriage of Roscelin Vicomte du Mans and Constance illegitimate daughter of King Henry I[296]"Rosselinus vicecomes Cenomannus…et Richardus filius eius" donated property to Cluny, with the support of "Constantia vicecomitissa", by charter dated 1173[297].  m ROSCELIN Vicomte de Beaumont, son of RAOUL Vicomte de Beaumont & his wife --- de Laval (-[1176]).

20.       MATILDA .  The Chronicon Valassense records the donation to the monastery by "imperatricem [Matildis]" on the advice of "soror sua Mathildis abbatissa Monasterii Villaris"[298].  Abbess of Montvilliers. 

21.       GILBERT (-after 1142).  Guillaume de Jumičges names "Rainaldus, Robertus, Gislebertus" as three illegitimate sons of King Henry I, adding that they were “adhuc iuvenes sine casamero[299]. 

22.       WILLIAM de Tracy (-after Dec 1135).  Guillaume de Jumičges names "Willelmus de Traceio" as one illegitimate son of King Henry I, adding that he died soon after his father[300].  The Chronique de Normandie, based on le Roman de Rou, records that "Guillaume de Tracy", seventh illegitimate son of King Henry I, died soon after his father[301].  [m ---.  The name of William's wife is not known.  William & his wife had one possible child]: 

a)         [GRACE de Tracy The primary source which confirms the name and parentage of the wife of John de Sudeley has not been identified.  Indeed, it is not even certain that his two sons were born from the same marriage: their adoption of the different names Sudeley/Tracy may indicate different mothers.  Secondary sources commonly show John´s wife as Grace de Tracy, daughter of William de Tracy, an illegitimate son of Henry I King of England.  This appears to be the assumption of many writers, for example The Complete Peerage[302].  Frank Barlow comments that "William [de Tracy], the second son of John de Sudeley…chose to take his name from the family of his mother, Grace daughter and heir of William (I) de Tracy, lord of Bradninch in Devon and illegitimate son of King Henry I"[303].  However, I have not yet found any writer who provides a precise primary source citation, which can be checked, to confirm this marriage.  Her existence has been doubted by Professor Nicholas Vincent, who states that he could "find no reliable evidence to suggest that the royal bastard fathered a daughter named" Grace and suggests that Grace "seems to have been invented, perhaps in comparatively recent times, to explain certain irregularities in the Sudeley descent, and to justify the claims of the Hanbury-Tracy family of Toddington in Gloucestershire to be descended both from the blood royal of Henry I and from William de Tracy, the murderer of Thomas Becket"[304].  Until more information comes to light, it appears safer to note John de Sudeley´s wife as unknown, and show Grace in square brackets in the present document.  m (before 1129) JOHN de Sudeley, of Sudeley Castle and Toddington co Gloucester, son of HAROLD de Ewias, Lord of Ewias, co Hereford & his wife --- (-before 1166).] 

King Henry I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (13): 

23.       HENRY ([1105/09]-killed in battle 1157).  Giraldus Cambrensis names "Henricus…regi Henrici primi filius…ex nobili Nesta, Resi filii Theodori filia" in South Wales[305].  He was killed during King Henry II’s invasion of Anglesey[306]m ---.  The name of Henry's wife is not known.  Henry & his wife had two children: 

a)         MEILER FitzHenry (-1220, bur Great Connall, co. Kildare)The Expugnatio Hibernica names "Roberto Barrensi" and "Meilerius" as "Stephanidćque alter ex fratre, alter ex sorore nepotes"[307].  He took a leading part in the invasion of Ireland and became one of the most powerful Anglo-Irish lords[308]James Grace´s Annales Hibernić (probably dated to [1537/39]) record in 1220 the death of “Meilerus filius Henrici”, noting that he built “monasterium de Connall” where he was buried[309].  m [secondly?] ---, niece of HUGH de Lacy Lord of Meath, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Meiler & his wife had one child: 

i)          MEILER ---.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         ROBERT FitzHenry (-after 1180).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Living in Leinster about 1180, died soon afterwards.  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "Henrici filius Robertus, Meilerii frater"[310]m ---.  The name of Robert's wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had one child: 

i)          HENRY .  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "Henrici filius Robertus, Meilerii frater"[311]

King Henry I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (14):  

24.       daughter Guillaume de Jumičges records one illegitimate daughter of King Henry I as wife of "Willelmo Goieto"[312].  m GUILLAUME [III] Goët de Montmirail, son of GUILLAUME [II] Goët Seigneur de Montmirail et de Château-du-Loir & his wife Eustachie --- (before 1080-).  He succeeded his father in [1117] as Seigneur de Montmirail. 

King Henry I had one illegitimate daughter Mistress (15):   

25.       ISABELGuillaume de Jumičges records one illegitimate daughter of King Henry I as daughter of "Elizabeth sorore Waleranni comitis Mellenti", adding that she was unmarried at the time of writing[313].  She lived with her mother.  The Chronique de Normandie, based on le Roman de Rou, records that "Ysabelle, fille le Conte Gallerant de Meullent", seventh illegitimate daughte of King Henry I, did not marry[314]She witnessed two charters for her half-brother Richard FitzGilbert de Clare Earl of Pembroke, with her mother[315].   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KING of ENGLAND 1135-1154 (BLOIS)

 

 

ETIENNE de Blois, son of ETIENNE Comte de Blois & his wife Adela of England (Blois [1096/97]-Dover 25 Oct 1154, bur Faversham Abbey, Kent[316]).  Orderic Vitalis records that “Stephanus Blesensis palatinus comes” and his wife had “filios quatuor: Guillelmum et Tedbaldum, Stephanumque et Henricum”, adding that Etienne received “comitatum Moritolii in Normannia et multos in Anglia...honores” from “Henrici regis avunculi sui[317].  Orderic Vitalis records that he was created Comte de Mortain by Henry I King of England "after Guillaume Comte de Mortain was captured at Tinchebrai" (1106)[318].  He was invested with Séez, Alençon, Le Męle-sur-Sarthe and Almenčches with La Roche-Mabille by his brother Comte Thibaut IV, after the latter was invested with these lands by Henry I King of England who had confiscated them from Robert de Bellęme[319].  It is difficult to date this event accurately.  Robert de Bellęme's territories were confiscated in 1112, but the passage in Orderic follows a description of the rebellion of Robert Giroie which is assumed to have taken place in Jul [1119].  Comte de Boulogne, de iure uxoris, before 1125.  "Stephanus comes Bolonie et Morethonii et Mathildis comitissa" confirmed the possessions of the abbey of Samer by charter dated 1141 (presumably misdated because of the donors´ titles), subscribed by "…Eustachius de Fielnes, Willelmus et Rogerus fratres sui…"[320].  After the death of his uncle Henry I King of England, Stephen crossed at once to England[321] before his rival, King Henry's daughter Matilda, and had himself crowned as STEPHEN King of England at Westminster Abbey 22 Dec 1135.  His first cousin Matilda continued to dispute the succession.  During the civil war which ensued, Stephen was deposed and imprisoned by Matilda 7-10 April 1141, but restored to the throne 1 Nov 1141.  He was crowned a second time at Canterbury Cathedral 1141, and a third time at Lincoln Cathedral 1146.  Robert of Torigny records the death "1154 VIII Kal Nov" as "Stephanus rex Anglorum" and his burial "in monasterio Fasseham"[322].

m (before 1125) MATHILDE Ctss de Boulogne, daughter of EUSTACHE [III] Comte de Boulogne & his wife Mary of Scotland ([1103/05]-Hedingham Castle, Essex 2/3 or 30 May or 3 Jul 1151, bur Faversham Abbey[323]).  Her parentage is recorded by Orderic Vitalis[324].  The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium names Mathilde as daughter of "Eustachius, frater Balduini regis Iheruslame" and his wife "Mariam filiam regis Scotić", also recording her marriage with "Stephano, filio Stephani Blesensis comitis"[325].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the coronation "XI Kal Apr 1136…apud Westmonasterium" of "uxor regis Stephani"[326].  She and her husband founded the Benedictine Abbey of Faversham in Kent, which was first colonised by the Cluniac house of Bermondsey[327].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1152 of "Matildis uxor Stephani regis Anglorum" and in a later passage her burial "in monasterio Fasseham", recording that she had founded the abbey[328].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the death "V Non Mai 1152" of "Matildis regina" and her burial "apud Faversham"[329]

Mistress (1): ([1115/20]) DAMETA, a Norman woman, daughter of ---.  Her son granted her the manor of Chelsea for an annual rent of Ł4[330]same person as…?  DAMETA, daughter of ROBERT & his second wife Felicia ---.  She is named and her parentage given by Orderic Vitalis[331].  There is no proof that this co-identity is correct.  However, the chronology is favourable and no other person with this name has yet been found in the primary sources consulted during the preparation of this document. 

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Stephen's second mistress is not known. 

King Stephen & his wife had five children: 

1.         BAUDOUIN de Blois ([1126]-Tower of London [1136/37], bur Priory of Holy Trinity, Aldgate Without, London).  William of Newburgh records his burial, together with that of his sister Mathilde, as "children of King Stephen and Queen", quoting the records of Holy Trinity[332].  The reference to his parents as king and queen indicates that he died after his father's accession, but his relative absence from other sources suggests that the event occurred soon after this.  King Stephen donated property to Holy Trinity Priory, London, for the souls of "Mathildis filie mee et Bald[wini] filii mei", by charter dated to [1139/46][333]

2.         EUSTACE de Blois ([1127/31]-Bury St Edmund’s 10 or 16 Aug 1153, bur Faversham Abbey, Kent[334]).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Eustacium et Guilelmum" as the two sons of "rex Anglorum Stefanus"[335].  Recorded as son of King Stephen by Matthew Paris, who specifies that he did homage to Louis VI King of France in 1137 as Duke of Normandy[336], but Geoffroy "Plantagenet" Comte d'Anjou conquered Rouen and the whole Duchy in Jan 1144.  He was installed as EUSTACHE [IV] Comte de Boulogne at Christmas [1146/47].  The Gesta Stephani Regis records that King Stephen knighted "Eustachium filium suum", dated from the context to [1147][337].  Maybe created an earl by his father in 1147, possibly Earl of Huntingdon[338], although this would have been at the same time that the title was held by Simon de Saint-Lis.  He was crowned associate king of England in 1152 by Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury.  Robert of Torigny records the death "1153 mense Augusto circa octavus sancti Laurentii" of "Eustachius filius Stephani regis Anglorum", and in a later passage his burial "in monasterio Fasseham"[339]m (Paris Feb 1140) as her first husband, CONSTANCE de France, daughter of LOUIS VI King of France & his wife Adélaďde de Savoie ([1128]-Reims 16 Aug after 1177).  The Genealogić Scriptoris Fusniacensis refers to the sister of King Louis as wife firstly of "Eustachieus comes Bolonie" and secondly of "comiti de Sancto Egidio", specifying that she had children by the latter, but does not name her[340].  The De Genere Comitum Flandrensium, Notć Parisienses names "filiam unam [Ludovicum regem Grossum] nomine Constantiam"[341].   Her brother Louis VII arranged her first marriage to symbolise his support for Stephen King of England against his cousin Empress Matilda and her husband Geoffroy Comte d'Anjou.  William of Newburgh records the betrothal of Eustache, son of King Stephen, and "regi Francorum…sororem eius Constantiam"[342].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage in Feb [1140] of "regis Anglie Stephani…filius" and "Francorum regis sororem"[343].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the marriage "mense Februario 1140" of "Eustachius filius regis Stephani" and "sororem regis Francia Lodovici Constantiam"[344].  Her marriage is recorded by Matthew Paris, who specifies that she was sister of Louis VII King of France[345].  She married secondly (10 Aug 1154, separated 1166) as his first wife, Raymond V Comte de Toulouse.  Her brother arranged her second marriage to cement his alliance with Toulouse against Henri d'Anjou Duke of Normandy [later Henry II King of England] who had just allied himself with Aragon.  Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem confirmed a sale of property, with the consent of "…Constantić sorori regis Francić et S. Egidii comitissć", by charter dated [Sep/Dec] 1177[346].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XVII Kal Sep" of "Constantia filia Ludovici regis"[347]

3.         WILLIAM de Blois ([1132/37]-11 Oct 1159, bur hospital of Montmorillon, Poitou).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Eustacium et Guilelmum" as the two sons of "rex Anglorum Stefanus"[348].  His parentage is recorded by Matthew Paris[349].  Earl of Warenne and Surrey, Lord of Pevensey and Norwich [1148/49], de iure uxoris[350].  He succeeded his brother in 1153 as GUILLAUME Comte de Boulogne.  He was disinherited from the throne of England by his father in Nov 1153 under the treaty confirming the succession of Henry Plantagenet, although under its terms he was allowed to hold all lands which his father had held before becoming king, including the counties of Mortain and Boulogne, and the honors of Eye and Lancaster[351].  He succeeded his father in 1154 as Comte de Mortain.  He surrendered Pevensey, Norwich and other strongholds in England and Normandy to King Henry II in 1157.  He was knighted by Henry II at Carlisle in 1158[352].  Robert of Torigny records that "Guillelmus comes Moritonii" died "1159 mense Octobris" while returning from serving in the Toulouse campaign, that he died without children and that King Henry II retained his county[353].  Ralph de Diceto´s Ymagines Historiarum record in 1159 that “Gulielmus comes Bolonić filius regis Stephani” died “in reditu Tolosć[354]m (before 6 Nov 1153, maybe before [1148/49]) as her first husband, ISABELLE de Warenne, daughter & heiress of WILLIAM [III] de Warenne Earl of Surrey & his wife Ela de Ponthieu (-[12 Jul 1203], bur Chapter House, Lewes).  Robert of Torigny records that "filiam tercii Guillermi de Warenna" married "Guillermus filius Stephani regis"[355].  Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1164 of "Hamelinus naturalis frater regis Henrici" and "comitissam de Guarenna, relictam Willelmi comitis Moritoni filii Stephani regis, …filia tercii Willermi comitis de Guarenna"[356].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  She married secondly ([Apr] 1164) [as his second wife,] Hamelin d’Anjou, illegitimate son of Geoffroy V Comte d’Anjou. 

4.         MATHILDE de Blois ([1133/34]-before 1141, bur Priory of Holy Trinity, Aldgate Without, London).  Daughter of King Stephen, Orderic Vitalis records her betrothal when she was "two years old" but does not name her[357].  The Chronicon Valassense names "comes Mellenti Gualerannus" and "uxore sua regis Stephani familia"[358].  William of Newburgh records her burial, together with that of her brother Baudouin, as "children of King Stephen and Queen" and wife of "comitis de Medlint", quoting the records of Holy Trinity[359].  King Stephen donated property to Holy Trinity Priory, London, for the souls of "Mathildis filie mee et Bald[wini] filii mei", by charter dated to [1139/46][360]Betrothed (Easter 1136303) WALERAN de Beaumont Comte de Meulan, son of ROBERT de Beaumont Comte de Meulan, Earl of Leicester & his second wife Elisabeth de Vermandois (1104-Préaux 9/10 Apr 1166 bur Préaux). 

5.         MARIE de Blois ([1136]-Montreuil 1182, bur Montreuil)She is named as daughter of King Stephen by Matthew Paris, when he records her marriage[361].  As noted below, it seems possible that she was the same daughter of King Stephen who was betrothed to Hervé II "le Breton" Vicomte de Léon but there is no proof of this.  She became a novice at Lillechurch Priory, Kent, later transferred to Romsey Abbey, Hampshire where she became a nun between 1148 and 1155.  She was elected Abbess of Romsey in 1155.  She succeeded her brother in 1159 as MARIE Ctss de Boulogne.  Her future husband abducted her from her convent in [1160] and forced her to marry him.  Pope Alexander III wrote to Henri Archbishop of Reims, dated 18 Dec 1161, regarding the abduction and marriage of "M. filius…comitis Flandrensis" and "monialem…abbatissam", but the document does not name the abbey from which she was abducted[362].  After the annulment of her marriage, she became a nun at the Benedictine nunnery of St Austrebert near Montreuil.  m (before 1160, annulled 1169/70) as his first wife, MATHIEU de Flandre [Lorraine], son of THIERRY I Count of Flanders & his second wife Sibylle d'Anjou ([1137]-killed in battle Driencourt 25 Dec 1173, bur Abbaye de Saint-Josse).  He succeeded in 1160 as MATTHIEU Comte de Boulogne, in right of his wife. 

King Stephen had [three] illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

6.          GERVAIS de Blois ([1115/20]-1160, bur Westminster Abbey).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1147/53], under which King Stephen confirmed a donation to the Knights Templars by "Bernardus Baillol", witnessed by "G[ervasio] abate Westmonast[erii] filio meo"[363]The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His father appointed him abbot of Westminster after [23 Sep 1136/1138][364], ordained 17 Dec 1138 by Alberic, the Papal legate[365], presumably after the necessary dispensation regarding his illegitimacy which would otherwise have prevented him from holding religious office.  His uncle Henry, Archbishop of York, proposed him as one of the three candidates for the see of Lincoln in 1148.  Henry II King of England deposed him as abbot in 1157/58[366]

7.          [ALMARIC.  Given-Wilson and Curteis (which does not cite primary sources) report that he and his brother Raoul were described as brothers of Abbot Gervais when witnessing charters, but they may have been his uterine brothers[367].  The corresponding primary source has not yet been identified.] 

8.         [RAOUL.  Given-Wilson and Curteis (which does not cite primary sources) report that he and his brother Almaric were described as brothers of Abbot Gervais when witnessing charters, but they may have been his uterine brothers[368].  The corresponding primary source has not yet been identified.] 

King Stephen had one possible illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2): 

9.          [--- (-after [1141])The Gesta Stephani Regis records that "comes…Herveus gener regis" was driven from Devizes, dated to [1140/41][369]It is possible that this daughter of King Stephen was Marie de Blois, the king´s legitimate daughter, to whom Hervé may have been betrothed as a child before she became a nun.  It is evident from the early betrothal of her older sister Mathilde that the king was eager to arrange marriages for his daughters with his supporters soon after his accession.  There is therefore no guarantee that Hervé’s wife was of the usual marriageable age (12 or older) at the time of the marriage.  m ([1135/40]) as his second wife, HERVE [I] Vicomte de Léon, son of GUIHOMAR [II] Vicomte de Léon & his wife --- (1168).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of ENGLAND 1154-1485 (ANJOU)

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of ENGLAND 1154-1399

 

 

HENRI d’Anjou, son of GEOFFROY "le Bel/Plantagenet" Comte d'Anjou et de Maine & his wife [Empress] Matilda [Maud] of England (Le Mans, Anjou 5 Mar 1133-Château de Chinon 6 Jul 1189, bur Abbaye de Fontevrault[370]).  William of Tyre names him and records his parentage[371].  The Chronicć Sancti Albini records the birth "1133 III Non Mar" of "Henricus"[372].  Comte de Touraine et de Maine 1151.  He succeeded his father in 1151 as HENRI Comte d’Anjou, Duke of Normandy.  He became Duke of Aquitaine by right of his wife 18 May 1152.  He landed in England in Jan 1153 and obliged King Stephen to recognise him as his heir, from which time Henry governed England as Justiciar.  He was recognised as HENRY II King of England after the death of King Stephen 25 Oct 1154, crowned in Westminster Abbey 19 Dec 1154[373] and at Worcester end [1158][374].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1189 that “Henricus rex Anglorum” died “aput Chinun” and was buried “aput Fontem Ebraldi[375].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "II Non Jul" in [1189] of "Heinricus rex filius imperatoris" and his burial "ad Fontem-Ebraldi"[376].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "apud castrum Kinonis versus Cenomannum Non Iul 1189" of "rex Henricus" and his burial "in abbatia Fontis Ebraldi"[377]

m (Poitiers or Bordeaux Cathedral 18 May 1152) as her second husband, ELEONORE Dss d'Aquitaine, divorced wife of LOUIS VII King of France, daughter of GUILLAUME X Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME VIII Comte de Poitou] & his first wife Eléonore de Châtellerault (Nieul-sur-Autize, Vendée or Château de Belin, Guyenne or Palais d’Ombričre, Bordeaux 1122-Abbaye de Fontevrault 1 Apr 1204, bur Abbaye de Fontevrault).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Alienor Guilielmi filia comits Pictavorum et Aquitanie ducis" as wife of "regi Francie Ludovico"[378].  She succeeded her father 9 Apr 1137 as Dss d’Aquitaine, Ctss de Poitou, Ctss de Saintonge, Angoumois, Limousin, Auvergne, Bordeaux et d'Agen.  She was crowned Queen Consort of England with her husband 19 Dec 1154 at Westminster Abbey.  She supported the revolt of her sons against their father in 1173, was captured and imprisoned in the château de Chinon, later at Salisbury until 1179.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "XII Kal Apr" [1204] of "regina Alienor" and her burial "ad Fontem Ebraldi"[379].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the burial of "uxor [regis Henrici] regina Alienordis" in the same abbey as her husband[380]

Mistress (1): ([1150/51]) IKENAI, daughter of ---.  Walter Mapes names "Ykenai" as mother of Geoffrey Bishop of York[381].  She and her son arrived at King Henry's court soon after his accession[382]

Mistress (2): ([1168]) ALIX de Porhoët, daughter of EUDES de Porhoët ex-Duke of Brittany & his first wife --- .  Given-Wilson & Curteis states that “Eudo de Porhoët, ex-count of Brittany” claimed in 1168 that the English king, while holding his daughter as a hostage for peace, had made her pregnant ‘treacherously, adulterously and incestuously; for the king and Eudo´s wife were the offspring of two sisters’” (referring to two daughters of King Henry I, one legitimate the other illegitimate, named Matilda)[383].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

Mistress (3): ([1173/76]) ROSAMOND Clifford, daughter of WALTER de Clifford & his wife Margaret --- (-[1175/76], bur Godstow nunnery).  “Walterus de Clifford” donated property to Dore abbey, Herefordshire, with the consent of "Margaretć uxoris meć", for the souls of "…filiorum et filiarum nostrarum et Osberti filii Hugonis", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Waltero de Clifford juvene et Rosamunda sorore sua…"[384].  The Chronicon Johannis Bromton abbatis Jornalensis (as cited by Eyton) records that Rosamond Clifford became "openly and avowedly the paramour of the king" after he imprisoned Queen Eleanor following the rebellion of his sons in 1173[385].  Eyton adds that "for an indefinite time previously she had been secretly domiciled at Woodstock" but he does not cite the primary source on which he bases this statement[386].  It is not known whether he draws the conclusion from the Chronicon Johannis Bromton (the original of which has not yet been consulted).  Eyton also suggests that the start of the king´s relationship with Rosamond can be dated to [1154] and that the king´s known illegitimate children Geoffrey Archbishop of York and William Longespee, later Earl of Salisbury, were Rosamond´s sons[387].  However, as can be seen below, Geoffrey´s birth is estimated to [1151] and William´s to [1176], which is inconsistent with their being full brothers.  In any case, as noted above, the name of Geoffrey´s mother is reported as Ikenai.  The uncertain chronology of the family of Walter [I] de Clifford appears to be the key to resolving the question of when Rosamond´s relationship with the king started.  As discussed in the document UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY A-C in relation to the possible parentage of Walter [I]´s wife Margaret, it appears likely that their children were born after [1140] and, in the case of their son Walter [II], probably considerably later than this date.  Rosamond´s appearance, with her brother Walter, as witness to the undated Dore abbey charter quoted above suggests that she was the only remaining unmarried daughter with her parents at the time, which in turn suggests that she was younger than her sisters.  If this is correct, her birth could be as late as [1150/60], which would render Eyton´s hypothesis untenable.  Further discussion of this problem will have to wait until more indications about the family chronology come to light.  The Chronicon Johannis Bromton abbatis Jornalensis states that Rosamond died ("sed illa cito obiit")[388], his wording implying that her death occurred soon after the king´s relationship with her started, suggesting the period [1174/76].  “Walterus de Clifford” donated property to Godstow nunnery in Oxfordshire, for the souls of "uxoris meć Margaretć de Clifford et filić nostrć Rosamundć", by undated charter[389].  “Osbertus filius Hugonis” donated property to Godstow nunnery in Oxfordshire, at the request of “domini Walteri de Clifford” for the souls of "uxoris suć Margaretć et…Rosamundć filić suć", specifying that they were buried at Godstow, with the consent of "Hugonis fratris mei", by undated charter witnessed by "Waltero de Clifford, Ricardo filio suo et Lucia filia sua…"[390].  Rosamond´s corpse was removed from its burial place on the orders of Hugh Bishop of Lincoln[391].  She was known as "Fair Rosamond", although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

Mistress (4): IDA, daughter of ---.  William Longespee refers to his mother as "comitissa Ida, mater mea" and "Ida comitissa, mater mea" in two charters[392].  She is identified as the wife of Roger Bigod Earl of Norfolk.  This identification is based on a list of hostages captured at the battle of Bouvines in 1214 which includes "Rad[ulfus] Bigot frater comitis Salesbir[iensis]"[393]

Mistress (5): NESTA, wife of RALPH Bloet, daughter of ---.  Robert de Graystane´s early 14th century History of the Church of Durham records the election as bishop of Durham in 1213 of “Morganus frater Regis Johannis et Galfridi archiepiscopi Eboracensis, prćpositusque Beverlacensis”, that his appointment was blocked by Rome because he was born “spurius...Henricus pater eius” to “uxore...militis...Radulphi Bloeth”, and that the Pope offered to confirm the election if he declared that the king was not his father, which he refused to do[394]

Mistresses (6) - (9): ---.  The names of these mistresses of King Henry are not known. 

King Henry II & his wife had eight children:

1.         WILLIAM (Poitiers or in Normandy 17 Aug 1153-Wallingford Castle, Berkshire Apr or Jun 1156, bur Reading Abbey).  Robert of Torigny records the birth "1153 mense Augusto circa octavus sancti Laurentii" of "filius Henrico ducis Normannorum et uxore sua Alienor comitissa Pictavensi…Willermus"[395].  Ralph de Diceto´s Ymagines Historiarum record in 1153 that “Alienor Duci Normannić” gave birth to “Willielmum[396].  The Chronicć Sancti Albini records the birth "1153 XVI Kal Sep" of "Guillelmus…filius Henrici ducis"[397].  Robert of Torigny records that "Henricus rex" required his nobles to swear an oath of fidelity "1155 IV Id Apr…apud Warengefort" to "Willermo primogenito suo" or in case of his premature death to "Henrico fratri suo"[398].  His birth is recorded by Matthew Paris[399], as are his death and burial place[400].  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1156 of "Guillermus primogenitus filius Henrici regis Anglorum" and his burial "Radingis"[401]

2.         HENRY (Bermondsey Palace 28 Feb 1155-Château de Martel, Turenne 11 Jun 1183, bur Le Mans Cathedral, Anjou, later removed to Rouen Cathedral).  The Chronicć Sancti Albini records the birth "1155 II Kal Mar…Londonić" of "Hainricus, regis Hainrici filius"[402].  Robert of Torigny records the birth "Lundonić pridie Kal Mar 1155" of "filius Henrico regi Anglorum ex uxore sua regina Alienor…Henricus"[403].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1155 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filium...Henricum[404].  Ralph de Diceto´s Ymagines Historiarum record the birth “Lundonić pridie Kal Mar feria ii” of “filius Henrico regis Anglorum ex regina Alienor...Henricus” and his baptism by “Ricardus Lundoniensis episcopus[405].  He was crowned King of England in his father’s lifetime 14 Jun 1170.  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1170 that “Henricus filius regis Henrici” was consecrated as king “a Rogero archiepiscopo XIV Kal Jul[406].  He was also styled Duke of Normandy, Comte d'Anjou et de Maine.  After this he was known as “the Young King [rex iunior]”[407].  He was crowned again 27 Aug 1172 at Winchester Cathedral.  He rebelled against his father in 1173.  He attempted to take Aquitaine from his brother Richard in 1183 but died from dysentery during the retreat[408].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1183 that “Rex filius regis” died “aput Marcel in Turonia” and was buried “Rothomagi[409].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1183 XIII Kal Iun" of "iunior Heinricus rex Anglorum…in castro Martellum versus Gerundam" and his burial in the same place[410].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "III Id Jun" in [1183] of "Heinricus rex filius" and his burial "Senomannis"[411].  The Chronicle of Gervase records that Henry the Young King was first buried "Cenomanensem" and later moved to "Rothomagum"[412]m (Betrothed 1158, 1160, Newburgh, Normandy 2 Nov 1172) as her first husband, MARGUERITE de France, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his second wife Infanta dońa Constanza de Castilla ([1157]-Acre 1197).  Robert of Torigny records arrangements for the betrothal in 1158 of "filium suum [Henrici regis] Henricum" and "filiam regis Francorum Margaritam"[413].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1158 that “...archdiaconus Cantuarensis...Thomas regis Cancellarius” arranged the betrothal of “Henricus primogenitus regis Anglorum” and “Margaritam filiam regis Francorum”, in a later passage recording the marriage of “filium regis Anglorum septennum” and “filiam regis Francorum triennem[414].  Robert of Torigny records the betrothal "apud Novum Burgum" in 1160 of "Henrico filio Henrici regis Anglorum" and "Margarita filia Ludovici regis Francorum"[415].  Ralph de Diceto´s Ymagines Historiarum record in 1160 that “Henricus rex Anglić” arranged the betrothal of “Margaritam filiam regis Francorum”, who was living in his household, to “Henrico filio suo” with “castellum de Gisors” as dowry, it being agreed that she would be cared for by the Knights Templar until the marriage took place[416].  Ctss de Vexin, with the Château de Gisors, as her dowry.  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1172 that “Rotro Rothomagensis archiepiscopus” consecrated “Margaritam filiam regis Francorum” as “reginam Anglić[417].  Matthew Paris records her coronation as queen 27 Aug 1172 at Winchester Abbey[418].  She married secondly ([1185/86]) Béla III King of Hungary.  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1186 that “Margarita soror regis Francorum” married “Bela regi Hungarić[419].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Margareta soror regis Philippi" as widow of "iunior Henricus rex Anglorum" and records her second marriage to "Hungarorum regi Bela"[420].  Her father-in-law arranged her second marriage so he could retain her dowry.  The Chronicle of Ernoul records the arrival of "une reine en Hongrie…veve sans hoir" at Tyre [in 1197] and her death eight days later, specifying that she was the sister of the mother of Henri Comte de Champagne King of Jerusalem and had been "feme…le jouene roi d'Englietere…et suer…le roi Phelippe de France"[421].  Henry & his wife had one child: 

a)         WILLIAM (Paris 19 Jun 1177-Paris 22 Jun 1177).  Benedict of Peterborough records that "circa clausum Pentecosten Margareta…" gave birth to "filium…Willelmus" but that he died three days later in Paris where he had been born[422]

3.         MATILDA (Windsor Castle Jun 1156-Brunswick 28 Jun 1189, bur Brunswick Cathedral).  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1156 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filiam...Matildem[423].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the 1165 treaty of alliance between Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany and her father[424].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1167 that “Matildis filia regis” married “Henrico duci Saxonico[425].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the marriage in 1168 of "Matildis filia regis Anglie" and "dux Saxonum Henrico"[426].  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "Megthildem filiam Henrici regis Anglorum" as second wife of "Heinricus dux"[427].  The Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses record that "ecclesia Sancti Blasii episcopi" was founded in 1173 and in a later passage record the death in 1188 of "domina nostra Mechtildis fundatrix"[428].  The Chronicon Montis Serreni records that "soror Rikardi Regis Anglie" wife of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" was buried "in mon. sancti Blasii"[429]m (betrothed 1165, Minden Cathedral 1 Feb 1168) as his second wife, HEINRICH “der Löwe” Duke of Saxony [HEINRICH XII Duke of Bavaria], son of HEINRICH X "der Stolze" Duke of Bavaria and Duke of Saxony & his wife Gertrud von Süpplingenburg ([1128/30]-Braunschweig 6 Aug 1195, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  Heinrich was dispossessed of his German lands in summer 1180.  He submitted at the general assembly at Erfurt in Nov 1181, was restored to his allodial lands around Brunswick and Lüneburg, but exiled for three years.  He sought refuge with his father-in-law in England, before returning to Germany in 1185[430].  When Emperor Friedrich I was preparing to leave on crusade in late 1189, Heinrich refused to accompany him and chose to go into exile in England once again[431]

4.         RICHARD (Beaumont Palace, Oxford 8 Sep 1157-Chalus 6 Apr 1199, bur Fontevrault Abbey[432]).  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1157 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filium aput Oxeneford...Ricardum[433].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium Ricardum" to "Alienor regina" at Oxford in [1157][434].  Duke of Aquitaine in 1172.  He was among the first to follow the call of Pope Gregory VIII in Oct 1187 to join a new crusade to relieve Jerusalem, but his departure was delayed by a rebellion of his vassals in Poitou, a quarrel with Raymond V Comte de Toulouse, and Richard joining Philippe II King of France in Jan 1189 in an offensive against his own father[435].  He succeeded his father as RICHARD I " Cśur-de-lion " King of England, crowned 2 Sep 1189 at Westminster Abbey[436].  After his accession, he sold royal estates to raise funds for the crusade, left England in Dec 1189, and met King Philippe of France at Vézelay 4 Jul 1190 for their joint departure for Palestine[437].  He conquered Cyprus in May 1191, following the belligerent reception given by "Emperor" Isaakios Komnenos Dukas after he landed there, defeating the self-styled emperor at Tremithus[438].  He landed at Acre 8 Jun 1191, the town finally capitulating to the siege 12 Jul 1191[439].  After the departure from Palestine in early Aug 1191 of Philippe II King of France, King Richard took full command of the crusading army and of negotiations with Saladin[440].  After massacring his Muslim prisoners, he left Acre 22 Aug 1191 and defeated Saladin at Arsuf in Sep 1191[441].  After signing a five year peace treaty with Saladin 2 Sep 1192, King Richard sailed for England 9 Oct 1192 but was shipwrecked near Aquileja.  He continued his journey by land through Austria, but was captured and cast into prison by Leopold IV Duke of Austria.  The duke signed an agreement with Emperor Heinrich VI at Würzburg concerning the conditions for King Richard's transfer to the emperor, and handed him over 29 Mar 1193.  Emperor Heinrich released Richard 2 Feb 1194 on payment of a large ransom and after he had sworn an oath of allegiance for England and all its possessions[442].  He was crowned King of England a second time 17 Apr 1194 at Winchester Cathedral[443].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "VIII Id Apr" [1199] "in Aquitania castello de Calez" of King Richard after having been wounded by "Bertranno de Gurdum" and his burial "ad Fontem-Ebraudi"[444].  The Historia brevi Comitum Andegavensium records that King Richard was wounded by an arrow "in obsidione castri Lemovicensis vicecomitis…Corlucum", died soon after, and was buried "in cśnobio Fontis Ebraldi"[445].  Roger of Hoveden provides a detailed account of Richard´s death[446].  Arbellot studied the primary sources which record the circumstances surrounding the death of King Richard (he quotes extracts from 32 different sources) in an article published in 1879 and classifies Roger of Hoveden´s report as “plutôt une légende qu´une page d´histoire[447]Betrothed (by peace treaty 30 Sep 1174, betrothed 21 Sep 1177) to ALIX de France, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his second wife Infanta dońa Constanza de Castilla ([4 Oct] 1160-after 1200).  Robert of Torigny records the death in 1160 of "Constantia regina Francić" while giving birth to a daughter[448].  She is named Adelaide by Kerrebrouck[449], but he cites no primary source on which this is based.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "reginam Margaretam Anglie et comitissam Aaliz" as childen of King Louis VII & his second wife, specifying that Alix married "Guilelmus comes de Pontivo"[450].  This highlights the general confusion between this daughter and King Louis VII's supposed daughter Alix by his third wife.  Roger of Hoveden records that the betrothal of King Louis's daughter to Richard of England was first proposed in 1161, when Richard's older brother Henry was betrothed to her sister Marguerite[451].  Chronologically, this can only refer to the king's daughter by his second marriage.  This appears to be confirmed by the Chronicle of Gervase which records the betrothal in 1169 of "Ricardus…filius regis Anglć" and "filiam regis Francić quam habuit de filia regis Hispanorum"[452].  Ctss de Bourges 1174, as her dowry.  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal "XI Kal Oct 1177" of "rex Anglie…Ricardus comes Pictavić filius eius" and "regi Francić…filiam" as part of the peace agreement between the two kings[453].  It is assumed that this refers to the same daughter, although the primary source which confirms this beyond doubt has not yet been identified.  If this is correct, she was presumably the same daughter who later married the Comte de Ponthieu.  Until further information comes to light, it is assumed that Alix/Adelaide who was betrothed to Richard, and who later married the Comte de Ponthieu, was the daughter who was born in 1160, and that King Louis had no daughter of this name by his third marriage.  Alix was brought up in England after her betrothal.  Benedict of Peterborough records that the betrothal of "Alesia soror eius [Philippi regis Francić]" and Richard was renewed in 1189, commenting that the king of England "in custodia habet"[454].  Richard refused the marriage after his accession to the throne.  Kerrebrouck states that King Richard arranged her betrothal to his younger brother John in early 1193[455], but the primary source which confirms this information has not been identified.  She returned to France in Aug 1195.  Ctss d'Eu, Dame d’Arques in 1195, as her dowry for her marriage.  m (Chapel of St George, Limassol, Cyprus 12 May 1191) Infanta dońa BERENGUELA de Navarra, daughter of don SANCHO VI King of Navarre & his wife Infanta dońa Sancha de Castilla ([1163/65]-23 Dec 1230, bur Abbaye de l’Espan (Piété Dieu), Mans, transferred 1821 to Le Mans Cathedral).  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Berenguela Reina d´Ingalterra, D. Blanca, D. Constança que murio en Arouca" as the daughters of "Sancho Rey de Navarra"[456].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "IV Id Mai" in Cyprus in [1191] of King Richard and "Berengariam filiam regis Navarrć"[457].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Berengariam" wife of "rex Anglorum Richardus" as sister of "Blancham sororis regis Navarreorum"[458].  Matthew Paris names her and calls her daughter of the king of Navarre, when he records her marriage in Cyprus[459].  The marriage was arranged by King Richard's mother[460].  Berenguela arrived with Queen Eléonore at Naples in early 1191 and stayed with her future husband's sister Joanna, dowager Queen of Sicily.  She and Queen Joanna sailed with King Richard's fleet to Palestine and landed at Limassol, Cyprus in Apr 1191[461].  She was crowned Queen of England by the Bishop of Evreux immediately after her marriage[462].  She sailed from Acre for France 29 Sep 1191 with her sister-in-law Queen Joanna[463].  The Annals of Burton record that, after the death of her husband, King John granted Queen Berengaria “in vita sua…civitatem Baiocensem…et duo castella in Andegavia” as well as an annual pension of “mille marcas sterlingorum[464].  The Rotulus Cancellarii records "Berengaria Regina" owing in Devonshire, dated [27 May 1201/26 May 1202][465].  The necrology of Le Mans Cathedral records the death "X Kal Jan 1230" of "Berengaria regina quondam uxor Richardi…regis Anglorum"[466].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "X Kal Jan 1230" of "regina Berengaria domna Cenomanensis relicta…regis Anglie Richardi"[467].  The Annals of Waverley record that “Berengaria quondam regina Anglić” founded “quandam abbatiam de ordine Cisterciensi in pago Cenomannensi…Pietatem Dei” adding that she was buried there[468].  [Mistress (1): JEANNE de Saint-Pol, daughter of ---.  Weir names “Joan de St Pol (?)” as mother of “Fulk (?)”, [possible] illegitimate son of King Richard I[469].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.  No contemporary named “Jeanne de Saint-Pol” has been identified in the family of the Comtes de Saint-Pol (see NORTHERN FRANCE NOBILITY).  Until more data comes to light, it is suggested that this information should be treated with caution.]  Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Richard's second mistress is not known.  King Richard I had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

a)         [FOULQUESWeir names “Joan de St Pol (?)” as mother of “Fulk (?)”, [possible] illegitimate son of King Richard I[470].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.  Until more data comes to light, it is suggested that this information should be treated with caution.] 

King Richard I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2): 

b)         PHILIPPE (-after 1201).  His father gave him the castle of Cognac, installing him as Seigneur de CognacCourlieu records "Philippes sieur de Cognac et Merpin, qui espousa Amélie ničce de Nobilie dame de Iarnac" living "en Engoumois" at the end of the 12th century but does not cite the corresponding primary sources[471].  Roger of Hoveden records in 1199 that "Philippus filius Ricardi regis Anglić nothus", to whom the king had granted "castellum et honorem de Cuinac", killed "vicecomitem de Limoges" in revenge for his father´s death[472].  He sold his English lordship to King John in 1201[473]m AMELIE [de Jarnac], daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Courlieu records "Philippes sieur de Cognac et Merpin, qui espousa Amélie ničce de Nobilie dame de Iarnac" living "en Engoumois" at the end of the 12th century but does not cite the corresponding primary sources[474].  

5.         GEOFFREY (23 Sep 1158-Paris 19 Aug 1186, bur Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris).  Robert of Torigny records the birth "1158 IX Kal Oct" of "filius Henrico regi Anglorum…Gaufredus"[475].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1158 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filium...Gaufridum[476].  He was proclaimed Duke of Brittany in 1169 by his father.  Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond de iure uxoris shortly after 6 Sep 1181.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "in civitate Paris XIV Kal Sep" of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius"[477].  He was trodden to death by a horse during a tournament in Paris.  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1186 that “Gaufridus dux Britannić filius regis Anglorum” was buried “Parisius in ecclesia majore[478]m (Betrothed 1168, Jul 1181) as her first husband, CONSTANCE de Bretagne, daughter of CONAN IV Duke of Brittany & his wife Margaret of Scotland ([1161]-[Nantes] 3/4 Sep 1201, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, Abbaye de Notre-Dame).  She is named by Matthew Paris, who also states her parentage when recording her betrothal[479].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Constantiam comitis Conani filia" as wife of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius", specifying that she married [thirdly] "Guido frater vicecomitem de Tuart"[480].  She succeeded her father in 1171 as CONSTANCE Dss of Brittany.  Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1182 of "Gaufredus dux Britannić filius regis Henrici" and "filiam Conani comitis Britannić"[481].  She married secondly (3 Feb 1188, repudiated 1198) Ranulf "de Blundeville" Earl of Chester.  The Annales Cestrienses record in 1188 that “Rannulphus comes Cestrie” was knighted “in die circumcisionis domini apud [Cadomum]” by King Henry II who also granted him “relictam [Galfridi filii sui]...comitissam Britannie filia Alani comitis Britannie...Constancia et toto comittatu de Richemund” whom he married “in die Sancte Werburge...III Non Feb apud ---[482].  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundić records that "Constantia filia Conani" married secondly "Ranulphus Comes Cestrić", stating that he divorced her because of her adultery and that the marriage was childless[483].  Living apart from her second husband, he captured her at Pontorson in 1196 and imprisoned her at his castle at Beuvron.  She was liberated in Summer 1198, and repudiated her marriage.  She married thirdly (Oct 1199) as his first wife, Guy de Thouars, who was chosen in 1203 as Guy Duke of Brittany.  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundić records that "Constantia filia Conani" married thirdly "Guidoni de Thoarcio"[484].  The Annals of Burton record the death in 1201 of “Constantia mater Arthuri comitis Britannić[485].  The Genealogia Comitum Richemundić records the death in 1201 of "Constantia filia Conani" and her burial "apud Begar"[486].  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "III Non Sep" in 1201 of "Constantia Ducissa Britannić"[487].  Another Chronicon Britannicum records the death "pridie non Sep" in 1201 of "Constantia comitissa, Conani filia, mater Arturi"[488].  The Chronicon Ruyensis Cśnobii records the death in 1201 of "Constantia Comitissa apud Nannetum"[489].  She died in childbirth.  Duke Geoffroy & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         ELEONORE de Bretagne (1184-Corfe Castle, Dorset or Bristol 10 Aug 1241, bur Bristol, St James, transferred to Amesbury convent).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Arturum iuvenum et filiam unam Alienordem" as children of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius" & his wife[490].  She is named daughter of "Galfridi comitis Britannić" by Matthew Paris[491].  She was known as "la Brette".  Her betrothal was agreed as part of the terms for the release of Richard I King of England from the custody of Emperor Heinrich VI in Feb 1194, together with the betrothal of her fiancé's younger brother to the daughter of "Emperor" Isaakios Dukas Komnenos[492].  The two brides left for Vienna from Normandy in Dec 1194 in the charge of Baudouin de Béthune, but turned back when they learnt of the death of Leopold V Duke of Austria[493].  Eléonore was imprisoned in England by King John, who feared her marriage as she was the rightful heir to the throne of England.  She was therefore unable to succeed her brother as Dss of Brittany.  She was styled Countess of Richmond from 27 May 1208.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in [1241] of "Alienor filia Galfridi comitis Britannić soror Arturi"[494].  The Annales Londonienses record the death "apud Bristowe" in 1241 of "Alienora quondam comitis Britannić filia, in custodia diuturni carceris strictissime reservata", commenting that she was the true heir to England[495].  Her death is recorded by Matthew Paris[496].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “IV Id Aug” in 1241 of “Alienora de Britannia consanguinea domini regis Henrici Anglić”, her burial “in ecclesia Sancti Jacobi Bristollis” and her transfer “circa festum sancti Nicholai VI regia apud Ambresburiam[497]Betrothed (Feb 1194) to FRIEDRICH of Austria, son of LEOPOLD V Duke of Austria & his wife Ilona of Hungary (-Palestine on crusade 16 Apr 1198, bur Heiligenkreuz).  He succeeded his father in 1195 as FRIEDRICH I "der Katolische" Duke of Austria

b)         [MATILDA (1185-young).  Weir names “Matilda...born in 1185, and died young” as the second child of Geoffrey[498].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.] 

c)         ARTHUR de Bretagne (posthumously Nantes 29 Mar 1187-murdered Rouen or Cherbourg 3 Apr 1203, bur Notre Dame des Prés, Rouen or Abbaye de Bec, Normandy).  Benedict of Peterborough records that "filia sororis regis Scotić Willelmi comitissa Brittanić" gave birth "in nocte Dominicć Resurrectionis apud Namnetisis in Britanniam" to "filium…Arturum"[499].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1187 that “Constantia comitissa Britannić” gave birth “die Paschć” to “filium...Arturum[500].  His birth is recorded by Matthew Paris, who specifies that he was born posthumously but does not give the precise date[501].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Arturum iuvenum et filiam unam Alienordem" as children of "Gaufridus dux Britannie comes Richemontis filius Henrici regis Anglie natu tertius" & his wife[502].  He succeeded from birth as ARTHUR I Duke of Brittany.  His uncle Richard I King of England declared him his heir in England and in his territories in France in 1190[503].  On Richard's death 6 Apr 1199, Arthur, who was in Brittany, led a force into Anjou and Maine, where he was recognised by the barons as the rightful heir.  He styled himself Duke of Brittany, Comte d'Anjou and Earl of Richmond from 18 Apr 1199.  He did homage to Philippe II "Auguste" King of France but, offended by the latter, fled to his uncle John who received him kindly.  Warned of John's intentions, he escaped to Angers but was captured by the king at Mirebeau and sent to Falaise.  He was murdered on the orders of King John.  Betrothed (11 Nov 1190) to --- of Sicily, daughter of TANCRED King of Sicily & his wife Sibilla ---.  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal in 1190 of "Arturum ducem Britannić" and "unam de filiabus regis Tancredi"[504].  This betrothal was arranged as part of the treaty signed between Richard I King of England and Tancred King of Sicily, concerning the inheritance of Tancred's predecessor Guillaume II King of Sicily, whose widow was King Richard's sister[505].  The agreement between “Tancredo...Regi Sicilić” and “Ricardus...Rex Anglić...”, dated 1190, includes the betrothal of “Arthurum...ducem Britannić...nepotem nostrum et hćredem si forte sin prole nos obire contigerit” and “filiam vestram” [referring to King Tancred][506]Betrothed (Apr 1202) to MARIE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE II "Auguste" King of France & his third wife Agnes von Andechs-Merano (after 1197-15 Aug 1238, bur Louvain, église Saint Pierre).  The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified. 

6.         ELEANOR (Domfront, Normandy 13 Oct 1162-Burgos 25 Oct 1214, bur Cistercian monastery Santa María la Real “de las Huelgas” near Burgos).  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1162 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filiam...Alienor[507].  Her birth is recorded by Matthew Paris “apud Rothomagum[508].  Her first betrothal was arranged as part of the treaty of alliance between Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" and her father in 1165[509], but was broken off in [1169] when the emperor formed an alliance with the king of France[510].  Her betrothal to "Aldefonso regi Castellć" is recorded by Matthew Paris in 1168[511].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1169 that “Alienor filia regis” married “Adelfunso regi Castellć[512].  Robert of Torigny records the marriage in 1170 of "Alienor filia Henrici regis Anglorum" and "Amfurso imperatore", commenting that he was not yet fifteen years old[513].  Alfonso VIII King of Castile "cum uxore mea Alionor regina et cum filiabus meis Berengaria et Sancia Infantissis" exchanged property with the Templars by charter dated 26 Jan 1183[514].  The Crónica Latina records that “el rey de Castilla” married “la hija del…rey Enrique, dońa Leonor” and that his father-in-law had promised him Gascony[515].  The Annales Compostellani record the death “II Kal Nov” in 1214 of “Regina Alienor uxor Aldefonsi Regis Castellć[516]The Anales Toledanos record the death “viernes el postrimo dia de Octubre” in 1214 of “la Reyna Dońa Lionor, muggier del Rey D. Alfonso[517].  Betrothed (1165) to FRIEDRICH von Staufen, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" & his second wife Béatrice Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne (Pavia 16 Jul 1164-[28 Nov 1168/1170]), bur Lorch).  He was installed as Duke of Swabia in 1167.  m (Betrothed [1168/69], Burgos Sep, before 17, 1177) don ALFONSO VIII King of Castile, son of don SANCHO III King of Castile & his wife Infanta dońa Blanca de Navarra (Soria 11 Nov 1155-Gutiérre Múńoz near Arévalo 6 Oct 1214, bur Cistercian monastery Santa María la Real “de las Huelgas” near Burgos). 

7.         JOAN (Château d’Angers, Anjou Oct 1165-Fontevrault Abbey in childbirth 4 Sep 1199, bur Fontevrault Abbey).  Robert of Torigny records the birth "1165…mense Octobris" of "filiam [reginć Alienorć]…Johanna"[518].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1165 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filiam...Johannam[519].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1177 that “Johanna filia regis Anglić” married “Willelmo regi Sicilić[520].  Matthew Paris records her first marriage in 1176, and refers to her second marriage in a later passage[521].  Her first marriage is also recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator)[522].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage in [1177] of "Johanna filia regis Anglić" and "Willelmo regi Sicilić"[523].  The marriage contract between “Willielmus...Rex Sicilić...” and “Johannam puellam regii...filiam Henrici...Regis Anglorum” is dated Feb 1177[524].  She was crowned Queen of Sicily 13 Feb 1177 at Palermo Cathedral.  After the death of her first husband, she was kept in confinement by his successor King Tancred.  After her brother Richard I King of England (who was travelling through Italy on his way to join the Third Crusade in Palestine) demanded her release, she was sent to join him at Messina.  The English king captured Messina to force Tancred to negotiate terms over the inheritance of King Guillaume[525].  Berenguela of Navarre, future bride of her brother King Richard, stayed with Joanna after landing in Naples in early 1191.  They sailed together for Palestine with King Richard's fleet, landing at Limassol, Cyprus in Apr 1191[526].  Bar Hebrćus records that the peace negotiations with between the Franks and the Muslims in Palestine in A.H. 587 (Oct 1191) included a proposal for "son frčre el-Malec el-Adel" (referring to Salah-ad-Din) to marry "la sśur du roi d'Angleterre" (which must refer to Joanna as the only living sister of King Richard I who was not married at the time), but that the proposal was rejected because the priests imposed the requirement of his conversion to Christianity[527].  Joanna sailed from Acre for France 29 Sep 1191 with her sister-in-law Queen Berengaria[528].  Her second marriage was arranged by her brother Richard I King of England as part of the peace terms negotiated with Raymond VI Comte de Toulouse in 1196[529].  The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the betrothal in 1196 of "soror regis Ricardi Johanna quć et regina exstiterat Sicilić" and "comiti Sancti Ćgidii"[530].  The Annals of Margan record the betrothal “apud Rothomagum” in 1196 of “Johanna relicta Willelmi regis Apulia” and “comiti Sancti Egidii[531]The Thalamus de Montpellier records the marriage in 1196 "el mes duchoire" of "R. coms de Tolosa" and "la regina Johanna"[532]She took the veil on her deathbed.  The necrology of the Prieuré de Collinances records the death "4 Sep" of "Johanna regina Sicilie"[533].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that Joan died in 1199 after her brother King Richard and was buried "dans l´église de Fontevrault"[534].  Roger of Hoveden records the death "in Normannia apud Rothomagum" in Sep 1199 of "Johanna uxor Raimundi comitis de Sancto Egidio, quondam regina Sicilić, soror…Johannis regis Anglić" and her burial "ad abbatiam Frontis Ebraudi"[535].  The Clypeus Nascentis Fontebraldensis Ordinis records that a living child was removed from Joan´s body after she died and lived long enough to be baptised, but died and was buried at the church of Notre-Dame de Rouen[536]m firstly (Palermo Cathedral 13 Feb 1177) GUILLAUME II King of Sicily, son of GUILLAUME I King of Sicily & his wife Infanta dońa Margarita de Navarra (1155-17 Nov 1189).  m secondly (Rouen Oct 1196) as his third wife, RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND V Comte de Toulouse & his wife Constance de France (27 Oct 1156-Toulouse 2 Aug 1222). 

8.         JOHN (Beaumont Palace, Oxford 24 Dec 1166 or 1167-Newark Castle, Lincolnshire 18/19 Oct 1216, bur Worcester Cathedral).  Robert of Torigny records the birth "1167…in vigilia Natalis Domini" of "Johannis filius regis Anglorum"[537].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1166 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filium...Johannem[538].  He succeeded his brother Richard I in 1199 as JOHN King of England

-        see below

King Henry II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

9.          GEOFFREY ([1151]-monastery of Notre Dame du Parc, near Rouen 18 Dec 1212, bur Notre Dame du Parc).  William of Newburgh names "Gaufrido regis filio naturali" when recording his appointment as Bishop of Lincoln[539]He was brought up in the Royal household with his legitimate half-brothers and sisters.  Archdeacon of the diocese of Lincoln.  He was appointed Bishop of Lincoln in Apr 1173, until 1181.  He was loyal to the King in 1173 when Henry’s legitimate sons rebelled against him.  Chancellor of England 1181-1189, resigning on the request of King Richard I after their father’s death.  He was elected Archbishop of York 10 Aug 1189.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "Galfridus Henrici regis filius" was elected archbishop of York in [1189][540]He was ordained as a priest Sep 1189, required by King Richard in return for his confirmation as Archbishop.  Consecrated as Archbishop 18 Aug 1191 by the Bishop of Tours.  He was forced into definitive exile in France in 1207[541]

King Henry II had one possible illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

10.       [--- (1168-).  Given-Wilson & Curteis states that “Eudo de Porhoët, ex-count of Brittany” claimed in 1168 that the English king, while holding his daughter as a hostage for peace, had made her pregnant ‘treacherously, adulterously and incestuously; for the king and Eudo´s wife were the offspring of two sisters’” (referring to two daughters of King Henry I, one legitimate the other illegitimate, named Matilda)[542].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.] 

King Henry II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (4): 

11.       WILLIAM Longespee (1176-Salisbury 7 Mar 1226, bur Salisbury Cathedral)The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that Richard I King of England arranged the marriage of "Willelmus comes Saresberiensis filius comitis Patricii…filiam" and "Wilelmo fratri suo notho cum comitatu" in [1196][543]He is described as "avunculus" of Richard Earl of Cornwall, Comte de Poitou by Matthew Paris[544].  Earl of Salisbury 1196 by right of his wife. 

-        EARLS of SALISBURY

King Henry II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (5): 

12.       MORGAN ([1180/89]-after 1213).  Robert de Graystane´s early 14th century History of the Church of Durham records the election as bishop of Durham in 1213 of “Morganus frater Regis Johannis et Galfridi archiepiscopi Eboracensis, prćpositusque Beverlacensis”, that his appointment was blocked by Rome because he was born “spurius...Henricus pater eius” to “uxore...militis...Radulphi Bloeth”, and that the Pope offered to confirm the election if he declared that the king was not his father, which he refused to do[545]Provost of Berkeley, Yorkshire 1201.  Elected Bishop of Durham in 1213.

King Henry II had four possible illegitimate children by Mistresses (6) - (8): 

13.       [MATILDA (-before 1202, bur Barking).  Dugdale´s Monasticon names "Maud natural daughter of King Henry II" as successor of “Mary the sister of Thomas Becket archbishop of Canterbury” as abbess of Barking[546].  He does not provide the date of her appointment but states that her predecessor became abbess in 1173.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Barking, Essex.  A manuscript (presumably dated to the 15th century) records the burials of the abbesses of Barking and includes "Dame Maud la file le Roy Henry qe gist en la chapele de Salue[547].]  . 

14.       [HUGH of Wells ([before 1154]-1235).  Bishop of Lincoln 1186.  Given-Wilson & Curteis state that “Hugh of Avalon, bishop of Lincoln from 1186, was thought by some to be the bastard son of Henry II, so generously did the king treat the young Carthusian monk” and adds that “if, as is extremely doubtful, the unsubstantiated allegation has any truth in it, Hugh would have been born to a mistress of Henry´s younger days, before his arrival in England in 1154[548].  The primary source which records the allegations has not been identified.] 

15.       [RICHARD .  Given-Wilson & Curteis lists “Richard” among the “doubtful” illegitimate children of King Henry II[549].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.] 

16.       [JULITA (-29 Jan ----).  The necrology of Saint-Pčre-en-Vallée records the death “IV Kal Feb” of "Lulita [Julita in MS B] filia regis Anglorum[550].  The identity of her father is unspecified in the necrology.  The only English kings whose deaths are recorded in the same source are William I, Henry II and Richard I, of whom Henry II is the most likely candidate to be Julita´s father.] 

 

 

JOHN, son of HENRY II King of England & his wife Eléonore Dss d'Aquitaine (Beaumont Palace, Oxford 24 Dec 1166 or 1167-Newark Castle, Lincolnshire 18/19 Oct 1216, bur Worcester Cathedral[551]).  The primary sources are contradictory regarding John´s year of birth.  Robert of Torigny records the birth "1167…in vigilia Natalis Domini" of "Johannis filius regis Anglorum"[552].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1166 that “Alienor regina” gave birth to “filium...Johannem[553].  Matthew Paris records that “Alienor Anglorum regina” gave birth to “filium…Johannes”, stating neither the place nor the precise date but the passage is located in the middle of text which records events in 1166[554].  The Annals of Burton record the birth of “Regina…Johannem filium suum” in 1166[555].  The Annals of Dunstable record the birth of “Alienor…filium Johannem” at the end of the paragraph dealing with events in 1165 and immediately before the start of the paragraph for 1167, although it is likely that 1166 was intended as the text includes no separate entry for that year[556].  John was designated King of Ireland in 1177.  Created Comte de Mortain 1189.  His lands were placed under interdict by Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury because of his first marriage[557].  He succeeded his brother Richard I in 1199 as JOHN King of England, crowned London 27 May 1199[558] and again 8 Oct 1200 with his second wife at Westminster Abbey[559].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the coronation "VI Kal Jul" at Westminster Abbey in [1199] of "Johannes dominus Hibernić"[560].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "XV Kal Nov" [1216] of King John and his burial "Wignornić"[561].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “apud Newerk in crastino Sanctć Lucić virginis” in 1216 of “Johannes rex Anglić[562]

Betrothed (Auvergne 1173 before 2 Feb) to ALIX de Maurienne, daughter of HUMBERT III Comte de Maurienne & his third wife Klementia von Zähringen ([1166]-1174).  The marriage contract between "Johanni filio Henrici…regis Anglić" and "Humbertus comes Mauriensis et marchio Italić…filia…primogenita…Aalis" is dated 1173[563].  Ralph de Diceto´s Ymagines Historiarum record in 1173 the betrothal of “Henricus rex Anglić, Johanni filio suo cognomento sine terra” and “septenni filiam primogenitam Humberti comitis de Moriana...ex relicta Henrici Saxonis ducis[564].  Her parentage is specified by Matthew Paris when he records this betrothal.  Although he does not give her first name, he calls her "filia primogenita"[565].  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal of "Humbertus comes de Mauriana…Aalis filiam suam majoram" and "rex…Johannis filii sui iunioris" at "Alvernium…Montem Ferratum" in 1173 before 2 Feb, and the agreement whereby John would inherit the county of Maurienne if Humbert had no sons by his wife[566]

m firstly (Betrothed 1176, Marlborough Castle 29 Aug 1189, divorced before 30 Aug 1199) as her first husband, ISABEL [Avise] Countess of Gloucester, daughter of WILLIAM FitzRobert Earl of Gloucester & his wife Havise de Beaumont ([before 1176]-14 Oct or [18 Nov] 1217, bur Canterbury Cathedral Church).  An anonymous continuation of the Chronicle of Robert of Mont-Saint-Michel records (in order) "Comitissa Ebroicensis…uxor Guillelmi Comitis de Clara, tertia…in manu Dei et domini Regis" as the three daughters left by "Guillelmus Comes Glocestrić" when he died[567].  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Mabiliam comiti de Evereis in Normannia nuptam…Amiciam…Isabellam” as the three daughters of “comes Willielmus” and his wife, adding that Isabel married “Henricus rex…Johanni filio suo[568].  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal in 1176 of "Johannem filium regis minimum" and "Willelmus filius Roberti filii regis Henrici primi comes Gloucestrić…filiam ipsius comitis" and the agreement whereby John would inherit the county of Gloucester[569].  Her marriage is recorded by Matthew Paris, who specifies that it took place despite the prohibition of Baldwin Archbishop of Canterbury on the grounds of consanguinity, although he does not name her[570].  Benedict of Peterborough records the marriage in 1189 of "Johannes frater ducis [Normannić]" and "filiam comitis Gloucestrić" at "Marlebegam IV Kal Sep"[571].  The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records that "comes Johannes frater eius [rege Ricardo]" married "filiam comitis Glocestrić"[572].  The primary source which confirms her name as Isabelle has not yet been identified.  She was recognised as Ctss of Gloucester in her own right from her marriage in [1189].  Matthew Paris records that the king divorced "uxorem suam Hawisam comitis Glovernić filić" [in 1200 from the context] because “affines erant in tertio gradu consanguinitatis[573].  The Annales Londonienses record the divorce in 1200 of King John and "Hawysiam filiam comitis Glovernić", stating that they were "in tertio gradu consanguinitatis"[574].  King John appears to have kept her as a state prisoner after their divorce, but retained her title even after her nephew Amaury de Montfort was installed as Earl of Gloucester in 1199[575].  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the second marriage of “Isabellam” and “Galfrido de Mandevile comiti Essexić”, and her third marriage to “Huberto de Burgo justiciario Anglić[576].  Her lands and title were confiscated on the death of her second husband, who died a rebel.  She married secondly ([16/26] Jan 1214) as his second wife, Geoffrey de Mandeville Earl of Essex, and thirdly ([Sep] 1217) as his second wife, Hubert de Burgh, who was created Earl of Kent in 1227.  The Annals of Waverley record the death in 1217 of “Isabel comitissa Gloucestrić[577].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Johannam comitissam Gloucestrić” died “paucos dies” after her marriage to “Hubertus de Burgo justiciarius Anglić” and was buried “apud Cantuarium[578]

Betrothed (early 1193) to ALIX de France, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his second wife Infanta dońa Constanza de Castilla ([4 Oct] 1160-after 1200).  Kerrebrouck states that Richard I King of England arranged the betrothal of Alix, to whom he had earlier been betrothed himself, to his younger brother John in early 1193[579], but the primary source which confirms this information has not been identified.  She returned to France in Aug 1195. 

m secondly (Bordeaux Cathedral 24 Aug 1200) as her first husband, ISABELLE d’Angoulęme, daughter of AYMAR “Taillefer” Comte d’Angoulęme & his wife Alix de Courtenay ([1187]-Fontevrault Abbey 31 May 1246, bur Fontevrault Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "IX Kal Sep" [1200] of King John and "Isabellam filiam Engolisimi comitis" and their coronation together "VIII Id Oct" in London[580].  Matthew Paris records that the king "consilio regis Francorum" married “Isabel filiam comitis Engolismi...Hugo cognomento Brunus comes Marchić” in 1200 and her consecration as queen “dominica proxima ante festum Sancti Dionisii apud Westmonasterium” [8 Oct], in a later passage specifying that King John arrived at Dover from France “VIII Id Oct” before their joint coronation at Westminster[581].  She succeeded her father in 1202 as Ctss d’Angoulęme, but was not formally recognised as such until Nov 1206.  She married secondly (10 Mar/22 May 1220) Hugues [XI] de Lusignan Comte de la Marche.  Her origin is confirmed in the charter dated 1224 under which "Ugo de Leziniaco comes Marchić et Engolismć et Ysabella uxor eius…regina Anglić" confirmed rights granted by "bonć memorić Ademaro comite Engolismć patre eiusdem dominć Ysabellć" to Vindelle[582].  Matthew Paris records her death, when he specifies that she was the wife of Hugues Comte de la Marche[583]

Mistress (1): --- de Warenne, daughter of HAMELIN d´Anjou Earl of Surrey & his [second] wife Isabel de Warenne of Surrey (-[killed 1200]).  According to Given-Wilson & Curteis[584], one of the mistresses of King John was the "sister of William de Warenne" but the authors do not specify which sister she was.  The Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester names "Richard fiz le rei…Ion" and  "the erles daughter of Wareine" his mother[585].  The Annales Cestrienses record in 1200 that “W. de Waren meunch fil Regis” was killed[586].  Christie suggests that one possibility is that “meunch” in this source may represent a contraction of “mater Richardi”, another possibility being that it represents “avunculus” and that the entry refers to the death of William de Warenne (although if that is correct, the date makes little sense)[587]

Mistress (2): CLEMENTIA, daughter of ---.  The Annals of Tewkesbury names “reginć Clemencić” as the mother of “domina Johanna Wallić, uxor Lewelini, filia regis Johannis” when recording her daughter´s death[588].  Weir names “Henry Pinel” as Clementia´s husband[589].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified.  The suspicion is that it relates to a possible identification of Clementia herself as “Clementia wife of Henry Pinel” but that there is no basis for saying definitively that the husband of King John´s mistress was Henry Pinel. 

Mistress (3): HAWISE, daughter of ---.  Given-Wilson & Curteis name “Hawise” as the mother of King John´s son Oliver, adding that “she had some claim to land in Kent and it is possible that she was a Tracy[590].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified. 

Mistress (4): SUSANNA, daughter of ---.   Given-Wilson & Curteis record that she was given a "tunic and super-tunic" in 1213[591].  The primary source which confirms her name and relationship with King John has not yet been identified. 

Mistresses (5) - (12): ---.  The names of the other mistresses of King John are not known. 

King John & his second wife had five children:

1.         HENRY (Winchester Castle 1 Oct 1207-Palace of Westminster 16 Nov 1272, bur Westminster Abbey).  Matthew Paris records that "Isabel Anglorum regina" gave birth “in die sancti Remigii” 1207 to “Johanni regi filium suum primogenitum...Henricus[592].  He succeeded his father 28 Oct 1216 as HENRY III King of England.   

-        see below.  

2.         RICHARD (Winchester Castle 5 Jan 1209-Berkhamstead Castle, Herts 2 Apr 1272, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire).  The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the birth in 1209 of "Ricardus secundus filius regis"[593].  Matthew Paris records that "Isabel Anglorum regina" gave birth in 1208 to “Johanni regi filium legitimum...Ricardum[594].  He was designated Comte de Ponthieu before 14 Aug 1225, and created Earl of Cornwall 30 May 1227.   

-        EARLS of CORNWALL

3.         JOAN of England (22 Jul 1210-Havering-atte-Bower, Essex 4 Mar 1238, bur Tarrant Crawford Abbey, Dorset[595]).  The Annals of Worcester record the birth “die Sanctć Marić Magdalenć” in 1210 of “regi filia Johanna[596].  King John confirmed the proposed marriage of "Johannam filiam suam genitam de Ysabell uxore sua, filia com Engolism" to "Hugonis de Lysuinan fil H com Marchie" by charter dated 29 Sep 1214[597].  Matthew Paris records her marriage, specifying that she was the sister of King Henry III[598].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “regi Scotić” married “rege…sororem suam” in 1221, specifying that she was eleven years old at the time and had previously been betrothed to “Hugoni Brun[599].  The marriage contract between “Alexando...Regi Scotić” and “Rex...Johannam primogenitam sororem nostram” is dated 15 Jun 1220[600].  The Annales Londonienses record the death in 1238 of "Johanna regina regis Scotić, soror regis Anglorum" while on a visit to her brother in England and her burial "IV Non Mar"[601].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “apud Haveringes III Non Mar” of “regina Scotić soror regis Anglić” and her burial “apud Tarentune monialium[602]Betrothed (29 Sep 1214) to HUGUES [XI] de Lusignan Comte de la Marche, son of HUGUES [X] "le Brun" Sire de Lusignan, Comte de la Marche & his first wife --- (-1249 after 15 Jan, bur Abbaye de Valence).  He succeeded in 1220 as Comte d'Angoulęmem (contract 15 Jun 1220, York Minster 18 or 25 Jun 1221) as his first wife, ALEXANDER II King of Scotland, son of WILLIAM I “the Lion” King of Scotland & his wife Ermengarde de Beaumont (Haddington, East Lothian 24 Aug 1198-Isle of Kerrara, Bay of Oban 6 Jul 1249, bur Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire). 

4.         ISABELLA of England (1214-Foggia near Naples 1 Dec 1241, bur Bari).  Matthew Paris records her marriage, specifying that she was the sister of King Henry III[603].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Fredericus imperator Alemannić” married “Ysabellam filiam Johannis regis Anglić” in 1235, her dowry being 30,000 marcs of silver[604].  The Annales Erphordenses record the marriage "1235 XVII Kal Aug" at Worms of "sororem Regis Anglie" and the emperor[605].  Her marriage was arranged by her future husband to drive a wedge between England and the Welf faction in Germany, long time allies[606].  She was granted the castle of Monte Sant'Angelo by her husband on her marriage, and crowned empress 20 Jul 1235 at Worms Cathedral.  After her marriage, her husband confined her to one of his castles in Sicily where she was guarded by eunuchs.  The Annales Londonienses record the death in 1241 of "Isabella imperatrix, soror regis Anglić"[607].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “circa festum sancti Nicholai” in 1241 of “Johanna imperatrix” and her burial “apud Barensem urbem[608].  She died in childbirth[609]m (Betrothed London Feb 1235, Worms Cathedral 15 or 20 Jul 1235) as his third wife, Emperor FRIEDRICH II, son of Emperor HEINRICH VI & his wife Constanza of Sicily (Iesi, Ancona 26 Dec 1194-Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, Foggia 13 Dec 1250, bur 25 Feb 1251 Palermo cathedral). 

5.         ELEANOR of England (1215-convent of the sisters of St Dominic, near Montargis 13 Apr 1275).  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Willelmus Marscallus junior” married “sororem Henrici regis Anglić” in 1225, recorded as the first event in that year[610].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage in 1224 of “soror regis Henrici” and “juveni Marescallo[611].  She is recorded as "Pembrocensis comitissa" (not named), sister of Isabella, by Matthew Paris[612].  He names her as daughter of King John in a later passage which records her second marriage with "Simon de Monteforti", specifying that she was "relictam Willelmi Marescalli comitis de Penbrochia"[613].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage “XIX Kal Feb in parvula capella regis apud Westmonasterium” of “soror regis Anglić uxor quondam junioris Marscalli” and “Symoni de Monteforti[614].  The Annales Cambrić record that "Simon de Monteforti" married "Alienoram comitissam Penbrok" in 1238[615].  She became a nun after the death of her first husband, taking a vow of perpetual celibacy.  This was not a canonical impediment to her second marriage, her second husband obtaining Papal absolution in Rome for the marriage[616].  She retired once more as a nun at Montargis (a cell of the abbey of Fontevraud) after her second husband was killed[617].  A writ dated 3 Jun "3 Edw I", following the death of "Eleanor countess of Leicester late the wife of William Marescal earl of Pembroke" related to "Kemesing manor...Neubiri manor" held in dower by the deceased from her first husband, adjudged to “Roger le Bygot earl of Norfolk and marshal of England one of the heirs of Walter le Marescal brother and heir of the said William...Roger de Mortuo Mari and Maud his wife, Eudo la Zuche and Milicent his wife, John de Hastingges and Humphrey de Boun heirs of Eva de Breuhus a sister and heir of the said Walter...Agnes de Vescy, Emery de Rupe Cauardi and Maud his wife, William de Mohun, John de Mohun, Agatha de Mortuo Mari and John de Boun heirs of Sibyl de Ferrariis another sister and heir of the said Walter...William de Valencia and Joan his wife an heir of the said Walter[618]m firstly (23 Apr 1224) as his second wife, WILLIAM Marshal Earl of Pembroke, son of WILLIAM Marshal Earl of Pembroke & his wife Isabel de Clare Ctss of Pembroke (Normandy [1190]-6 Apr 1231, bur 15 Apr 1231 Temple Church, London).  No children.  m secondly (King’s Chapel, Palace of Westminster 7 Jan 1238525) SIMON de Montfort, son of SIMON de Montfort Earl of Leicester & his wife Alice de Montmorency (1208-killed in battle Evesham 4 Aug 1265, bur Evesham).  He left in England for Rome in 1238, while his wife remained at Kenilworth[619]

King John had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

6.          RICHARD FitzJohn [Fitzroy] (-[1245/46])The Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester names "Richard fiz le rei…Ion" and  "the erles daughter of Wareine" his mother[620].  King John granted "terram…Roes de Dover uxorem suam…castro illo de Chilleha" to "Ric filio nostro" by order dated 11 Jul 1214[621].  "William Briwere" was ordered to deliver to "Richard the king´s son all the lands which fell to Rose his wife hereditarily"[622].  He was a captain in King John's army during the baronial revolt.  He fought the invasion of Louis de France in 1217[623].  Lord of Chilham, Kent, de iure uxorisHenry III King of England granted exemptions to "Ricardo filio Regis" in respect of "castrum suum de Chileham" dated 21 Jun 1217[624].  Bracton notes a claim, dated 1227, by "Ricardus filius Reg et Roysia uxor eius" against "Robertum filium Walteri" for land "in Lesnes" of which "Roysia de Douera avia ipsius Roysie" was seised[625].  Henry III King of England granted "to Richard de Dovor his cousin…the custody of the lands which belonged to Geoffrey de Costentyn in Ireland" by charter dated 11 Jun 1244[626].  Matthew Paris records the deaths of "Ricardi filii Rogeri [maybe error for "Regii"] de Chilham, Ricardi de Dover filii eius" among those who died in 1245[627]m (before 11 Jul 1214) as her first husband, ROHESE de Dover, daughter and heiress of FULBERT de Dover of Chilham, Kent & his wife Isabel Briwere ([1204/05]-[1264/65]).  King John granted "terram…Roes de Dover uxorem suam…castro illo de Chilleha" to "Ric filio nostro" by order dated 11 Jul 1214[628].  Bracton records a claim, dated 1230, by "Matillis de Lucy, Ricardus filius Reginaldi [error for "Regis", probably incorrectly extended to Reginaldi from Regi?] et Roysa uxor eius" against "Robertum Yellestede" concerning "terre…in Neutona", which records the claimants´ ancestry "Galfrido…filio et heredi suo…et de predicto Galfrido…Herberto…filio et heredi suo et de predicto Herberto Matillidi et Royse sororibus" and "de predicta Roysa…Foberto filio suo et de predicto Foberto isti Royse…filie et heredi suo"[629].  She married secondly (after 14 Jul 1250) William de Wilton.  The Pipe Rolls record in 1258 that "Willelmus de Wilton" married "Roesiam de Douor que fuit uxor Ricardi de Chileham"[630].  A writ following the death of "Richard de Dovor and Rose his wife" names "Richard son of Richard de Dovor, aged 21 on the eve of the Purification" as heir[631].  Richard & his wife had three children: 

a)         RICHARD of Chilham (-after 2 Dec 1247).  Matthew Paris records the deaths of "Ricardi filii Rogeri de Chilham, Ricardi de Dover filii eius" among those who died in 1245[632].  Lord of Chilham.  m (before 2 Dec 1247) as her third husband, MATILDA Ctss of Angus, widow firstly of JOHN Comyn Earl of Angus, secondly of GILBERT de Umfreville Earl of Angus, daughter and heiress of MALCOLM Earl of Angus & his wife Mary Berkeley.  Her third marriage is confirmed by letters close dated 2 Dec 1247 under which Henry III King of England granted four bucks from Eleham Park to "the countess of Angus, the wife of Richard of Dover"[633]Lord Richard & his wife had two children: 

i)          RICHARD of Chilham (1 Feb [1246/47]-[1265/66])A writ following the death of "Richard de Dovor and Rose his wife" names "Richard son of Richard de Dovor, aged 21 on the eve of the Purification next" as heir[634].  Lord of Chilham.  m as her first husband, JOAN de Grey, daughter of SIMON de Grey & his wife ---.  She married secondly as his second wife, Gilbert de Pecche

ii)         ISABEL of Chilham (after 1245-18 Mar 1292)The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  She was heiress of her brother at Chilham.  "Alexander de Balliol and Isabella his wife…going to Scotland" appointed attorneys for their affairs in England[635].  Leland quotes a manuscript which records the death "XV Kal Apr…apud Chilham" in 1292 of "Domina Isabella de Dovora comitissa de Assele" and her burial "Cantuar: in ecclesia Christi"[636].  A charter dated 1 May 1292 ordered the valuation of the assets of "the late Isabella countess of Athol to her husband Alexander de Balliol"[637].  m firstly (before 1265) as his second wife, DAVID of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl, son of JOHN of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl & his wife Ada Hastings Ctss of Atholl (-Carthage 6 Aug 1270).  He died while on Crusade in Tunisia.  m secondly (shortly after 7 Nov 1270) ALEXANDER Balliol of Cavers, co Roxburgh, son of HENRY Balliol & his wife Lora [Lauretta] de Valoignes (-[19 Apr 1310/Jun 1311]).  Lord of Chilham, by right of his wife. 

b)         ISABEL (-7 Jul [1276/77], bur Abbey of St Augustine, Bristol)The Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester names "Richard fiz le rei…Ion" and  "the erles daughter of Wareine" his mother, adding that "Sire Morisse of Berkeleye" married his daughter[638]The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  King Henry III granted her certain manors 10 Aug 1264 "out of compassion for the poverty of his niece"[639]m (before 12 Jul 1247) MAURICE de Berkeley "the Resolute" feudal Lord of Berkeley, son of THOMAS Lord of Berkeley & his wife Joan de Somery (1218-4 Apr 1281, bur Bristol St Augustine).

c)          LORETTE (-after 1248).  In the Complete Peerage, she is described as the daughter of "Royce, daughter and heiress of Robert of Dover" who granted the manor of Luddington in 1248 to her daughter and son-in-law[640]An assize of last presentation brought by the king in 1261 against "William Marmion and Lauretta" shows that "Lauretta was the daughter of Richard FitzRoy"[641]m (1248) WILLIAM Marmion, son of ROBERT Marmion & his wife Avice de Tanfield (-27 Jul 1275).] 

King John had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2): 

7.          JOAN (-30 Mar 1237)King John confirmed "castrum de Ellesmara" to "Lewelino principi Norwallie in maritagium cum Johanna filia nostra" by charter dated 16 Apr 1205[642].  Her husband sent her to make peace with the king her father in 1211 when the latter was attacking North Wales.  She was legitimated in 1226: Pope Honorius III gave dispensation to “Joan wife of Leuwelin prince of North Wales, daughter of king John declaring her legitimate, but without prejudice to the king or realm of England”, dated 29 Apr 1226[643].  She and her son David did homage to King Henry III in 1229[644]The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "William Bruse was hanged by Llywelyn son of Iorewerth, having been caught in the chamber of the prince with the princess Jannet, daughter of King John and wife of the prince" in 1230[645].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1237 of "domina Johanna filia regis Anglić et uxor Lewilini principis Wallić" and her burial "apud Haber"[646].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death “III Kal Apr” in 1236 of “domina Johanna Wallić, uxor Lewelini, filia regis Johannis et reginć Clemencić[647].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Dame Joan daughter of king John and the wife of Llywelyn son of Iorwerth" died in Feb 1237 "at the court of Aber and was buried in a new cemetery on the side of the strand which Howel bishop of Llanelwy had consecrated"[648].  m (1205) as his second wife, LLYWELLYN ap Iorwerth Fawr ("the Great") Prince of North Wales, son of IORWERTH Drwyndwyn ("flat nose") Prince of Gwynedd & his wife Marared of Powys ([1173]-1240). 

King John had one illegitimate son by Mistress (3): 

8.          OLIVER (-killed at siege of Damietta 1219, bur Westminster Abbey).  The 13th century Histoire des ducs de Normandie et des rois d´Angleterre names "Oliviers li fils le roi Jehan de bas"[649]He fought against Louis of France during the latter's invasion in 1216/17.  He was granted the castle of Tonge, the manor of Erdington and the estate of Hamedon by his half-brother King Henry III.  Henry III King of England granted "terris Petri filii Herberti" to "fratri nostro Olivero filio Regis" dated 20 Mar 1217[650].  He joined the Fifth Crusade in 1218[651]The Historia Damiatina by Oliverus Scholasticus records the deaths in 1218 at Damieta of "comes de Marcha et comes de Bar et filius eius, frater Guillelmus de Carnoto magister militić templi, Herveus de Virsione, Iterius de Tacci, Oliverus filius regis Anglie"[652]

King John had [eleven] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

9.          GEOFFREY FitzRoy (-1205).  An order of King John dated 14 Oct 1200 names "Gaufr filii nostri"[653].  He held the honour of Perche.  He headed a band of mercenaries who were embarking for Poitou from Dartmouth in 1205[654]King John issued an order dated 26 Apr 1205 to "filius noster Gaufredus et Sauarci de Maloleon et Martin Algeis seń ńr Wascoń"[655]

10.       [OSBERT Giffard .  Given-Wilson & Curteis name “Osbert Giffard” as an illegitimate son of King John, adding that he “is easily confused with a contemporary of the same name and goes almost unrecorded[656].  Wrottesley quotes Sandford´s Genealogical History of the Kings and Queens of England which names “Osbert Giffard another base son of King John, to whom his said father in the 17th year of his reign commanded the Sheriff of Oxfordshire to deliver 20 of land of the estate of Thomas de Arden in that county[657].  The corresponding document which records the command has not been found (it may be in the Close Rolls for the reign of King John, which have not yet been consulted) so it has not been possible to verify whether it specifies the king´s relationship to Osbert Giffard.  Without that document, the proof of Osbert´s existence is therefore sparse.  Wrottesley assumes that the following document refers to the king´s illegitimate son:  "Osbto Giffard" witnessed the charter dated 4 Jul 1216 under which King John granted land to "Salom fil Lesholm de Dovr"[658].  Numerous other documents from King John´s reign name an Osbert Giffard and there appears to be no basis for assuming that the 4 Jul 1216 refers to a different person who was the king´s son.  Matthew Paris records the death in 1245 of "Osberti Giffard", without specifying his parentage[659].  Presumably this entry refers to the other Osbert Giffard (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY).] 

11.       [GILBERT de Bolum (-after 1245).  Matthew Paris records the death in 1245 of "Osberti Giffard, Walteri filii Gilberti de Bolum, fratris eius"[660].  This text suggests that Gilbert de Bolum was the brother of Osbert Giffard.  If Osbert´s parentage is correctly stated in the present document, Gilbert could have been another illegitimate son of King John (unless they were uterine brothers only).  However, it is possible that this document refers to the other Osbert Giffard who was a member of the main Giffard family (see UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY).]  m ---.  The name of Gilbert´s wife is not known.  Gilbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         WALTER (-1245).  Matthew Paris records the death in 1245 of "Osberti Giffard, Walteri filii Gilberti de Bolum, fratris eius"[661]

12.       JOHN (-[1242]).  Given-Wilson & Curteis name John as an illegitimate son of King John and add that he was “perhaps a clerk at Lincoln, where he was being supported by the custodians of that see in 1201”[662].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified.  Weir names him “John FitzJohn or Courcy...a knight” and states that he died in 1242[663]King John sent "fidelem nostrum Regin de Pontibus" to “abbati Belli Loci fri Alan Martell et Magro Arii” to return “de equis nostris de Ricardo filio nostro et de Johanna filia nostra...cum Andr et Elya de Bello Campo et de filio nostro Johe” by charter dated 19 Jun 1214[664]

13.       EUDO FitzRoy (-after 1240).  King Henry III granted “terram...in Audebir que fuit Willelmi de Abrincis” to “Eudoni filio regis” dated 21 Apr 1233[665]

14.       HENRY Fitzroy (-after 16 Sep 1242).  Henry III King of England conscripted "…Henricus filius Regis…" for service "in Wasconiam" dated 17 Mar 1226[666].  He received land in Cornwall and married a minor heiress[667]"Henry the king´s brother" was granted "land late of Henry de la Vaugoz, a Norman…in the soke of Waltham", dated 16 Jul 1230[668].  King Henry III forgave "Henrico filio Regis" scutage from "honore de Gloucestrie de comitatu Devonensi" held "in dotem Eve uxoris sue", dated 16 Sep 1242[669]m EVE, daughter of --- (-after 16 Sep 1242).  King Henry III forgave "Henrico filio Regis" scutage from "honore de Gloucestrie de comitatu Devonensi" held "in dotem Eve uxoris sue", dated 16 Sep 1242[670]

15.       BARTHOLOMEW (-after 28 May 1253).  Pope Innocent IV granted dispensation to “Bartholomew of the order of Friars Preachers, papal chaplain, brother of King Henry, being an illegitimate son of King John to minister in orders”, dated 28 Dec 1252[671].  Pope Innocent IV appointed “Bartholomew a Friar Preacher, the king´s kinsman to be a papal chaplain”, dated 28 May 1253[672]

16.       [RICHARD .  Constable of Wallingford Castle 1216. Given-Wilson & Curteis say that he "might possibly have been a different man from the lord of Dover"[673].  On the other hand, he may have been the same person as Richard Earl of Cornwall who was later frequently associated with Wallingford Castle.  Henry III King of England issued a notice to "Ricardo filio Regis, fratri suo et Engelardo de Cigony" respecting a grant to "Radulfo Harang" dated 10 May 1217[674].  It is not known whether this entry relates to Richard of Chilham or to this Richard.]

17.       [MATILDA (-after 1247, bur Barking).  Dugdale´s Monasticon names "Maud natural daughter of King John" was appointed abbess of Barking in 1247[675]A manuscript (presumably dated to the 15th century) which lists the abbesses of Barking "depuis la fundacion del Hospital de Illeford" names “Matildis filia regis” as successor of “Mabilia de Bosham[676]An earlier primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Barking, Essex.  A manuscript (presumably dated to the 15th century) records the burials of the abbesses of Barking and includes "Dame Maud la file le Roy John qe gist en la chapele de Salue[677].

18.       [ISABELLA la Blanche .  Given-Wilson & Curteis name “Isabel la Blanche” as a “doubtful” illegitimate child of King John[678].  The primary source which confirms her possiible parentage has not yet been identified.] 

19.       [--- .  Assuming that “nepos” in the source quoted below can be translated as “nephew”, one of Andrew´s parents was an illegitimate child of King John.]  m ---.  One child: 

a)         ANDREWHenry III King of England ordered "albiorum austurcum...de Swathed et leporariam...apud Lenn", donated to the king by "Andreas nepos regis" [in forgiveness of debts], to be granted to “Rannulfo Britoni”, dated 6 Aug 1231[679]

20.       [son .  The precise parentage of Roger, named below, has not been traced.  It is assumed that “nephew” in the extract quoted below is a translation of “nepos”.  Although the imprecision of that term is notorious, the mention of both King Henry and of his brother Richard in order to define the relationship does suggest that one of his parents may have been their sibling, presumably illegitimate, otherwise the mention of both would seem superfluous in the document.  As Roger himself is recorded as being illegitimate, it appears more likely that his relationship with the royal family was on his father´s side of the family as the king´s sister having an illegitimate child would surely have been an event of such scandalous proportions at the time as to have justified reporting in chronicles.  Mistress (1) ---.  The name of this mistress is not known.  --- had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

a)         ROGER de Meulan (-16 Dec 1295, bur Lichfield Cathedral).  Pope Gregory IX granted dispensation to “Roger clerk nephew of the king and of Richard earl of Cornwall, already dispensed on account of illegitimacy, to be promoted to a bishopric if he be canonically elected thereto”, dated 24 Dec 1240[680].  Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield [1256/57].  The Annals of Burton record the election “II Kal Feb” 1256 of “dominum Rogerum de Meuleng Lichfeldensis canonicum et domini regis nepotem” as bishop of Coventry and Lichfield[681]Matthew Paris records the election in 1257 of "magistrum Rogerum de Molend domini regis nepotem" as bishop of Lichfield[682]The Annals of Dunstable record the death in 1295 of “Rogerus Coventrensis episcopus” and his confirmation to Dunstable of “ecclesiam de Bradeburne” in 1296[683]

 

 

HENRY, son of JOHN King of England & his second wife Isabelle Ctss d'Angoulęme (Winchester Castle 1 Oct 1207-Palace of Westminster 16 Nov 1272, bur Westminster Abbey).  Matthew Paris records that "Isabel Anglorum regina" have birth “in die sancti Remigii” 1207 to “Johanni regi filium suum primogenitum...Henricus[684].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "die S Remigii" [1207] of "filium…Henricus" to "regina Isabel"[685].  He succeeded his father 28 Oct 1216 as HENRY III King of England.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the coronation "apud Bristowe…V Kal Nov" [1216] of King Henry[686].  Crowned Gloucester Cathedral 28 Oct 1216[687], and again Westminster Abbey 17 May 1220.  The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the coronation in 1220 "die Pentecostem…XVI Kal Jun" of King Henry at Westminster[688].  He formally renounced the duchy of Normandy under the Treaty of Paris Dec 1259.  King Henry planned grandiose schemes to increase England's influence in Europe, through installing his younger son as king of Sicily and with his brother as king of Germany, but failed in their successful implementation.  His reign was bedevilled by domestic difficulties with the English barons, triggered partly by his inability to control his wife's relations whose establishment in England he encouraged.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "die S Eadmundi Cantuar. archiepiscopi" 16 Nov 1272 of King Henry III and his burial at Westminster[689]

Betrothed (before 19 Oct 1226) to YOLANDE de Bretagne, daughter of PIERRE Duke of Brittany & his first wife Alix de Thouars Dss of Brittany (in Brittany end 1218-château de Bouteville 10 Oct 1272, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, église abbatiale de Notre Dame).  A letter of King Henry III dated 19 Oct 1226 confirms his betrothal to "Jolentam filiam Petri ducis Brittannić et comitis Richemundić"[690].   

m (Betrothed 22 Jun 1235, Canterbury Cathedral 14 Jan 1236) ELEONORE de Provence, daughter of RAYMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence & his wife Béatrice de Savoie (Aix-en-Provence [1223]-Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 24/25 Jun 1291, bur Amesbury Abbey).  A charter dated 22 Jun 1235 records the marriage agreement between "Henricus III Anglić Rex" and "Amedeo IV Sab. Com. ac Willelmo electo Valentino fratribus…nepte, sororis illorum, comitissć Provincić, filia"[691].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "Id Jan" [1236] in Canterbury of King Henry III and "Alienoram filiam comitis Proventić" and their joint coronation in London "XIII Kal Feb"[692].  Her marriage is recorded by Matthew Paris, who also states her parentage, and her coronation as Queen Consort 19/20 Jan 1236 at Westminster Abbey[693].  Her marriage signalled the establishment of close ties between the English court and the house of Savoy, the foreign immigrants becoming increasingly unpopular in England and contributing to the difficulties experienced by King Henry III with his barons.  The testament of "Beatricis relictć Raimundi Berengarii comitis Provincić", dated 14 Jan 1264, confirms her previous testaments appointing "Reginarum filiarum suarum Margarethć Francić et Alienorć Anglić…" as her heirs[694].  She became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 7 Jul 1284.  The Annales Londonienses record the death "in crastino Sancti Johannis Baptistć" in 1291 of "Elianora mater regis Edwardi" and her burial "apud Ambresbury in festo nativitate beatć Virginis"[695]

King Henry III & his wife had [nine] children:

1.         EDWARD (Palace of Westminster 17 Jun 1239-Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland 8 Jul 1307, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "XIV Kal Jul" [1239] of "Edwardum filium suum primogenitum" to "Alienor regina Anglić"[696].  His birth is recorded by Matthew Paris[697].  He succeeded his father in 1272 as EDWARD I “Longshanks” King of England

-        see below

2.         MARGARET (1 Oct 1240-Cupar Castle, Fife 26/27 Feb 1275, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  The Annales Londonienses record the birth "in die Sancti Leodegarii" in 1240 of "filiam…Margareta" to "regina Anglić"[698].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth “Kal Oct” in 1240 of “regi Anglić filia…Matilda[699].  Her birth is recorded by Matthew Paris[700].  Matthew Paris also records her marriage, as well as the splendour and extravagance of the marriage banquets[701].  The Annals of Burton record the marriage “die Natalis Domini apud Eboracum” in 1251 of “rex Scotić, filius regis Alexandri, puer parvulus ix annorum” and “Margaretam filiam regis Henrici Anglić…eiusdem ćtatis[702].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the marriage “apud Eboracum…circa festum beati Stephani” in 1251 of “dominus rex…filiam suam primogenitam” and “regi Scotić[703].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "apud Eboracum" in 1252 of "Henricus rex Margaretam filiam suam" and "regi Scotić"[704].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1275 of "Margareta regina Scotie et Beatrix comitissa Britannić, filić Henrici"[705].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "IV Kal Mar apud castrum de Cupro" of "Margareta regina Scocie, soror…regis Anglie" and her burial "Dunfermling iuxta regem Dauid"[706]m (York Minster 26 Dec 1251593) as his first wife, ALEXANDER III “the Glorious” King of Scotland, son of ALEXANDER II King of Scotland & his second wife Marie de Coucy (Roxburgh 4 Sep 1241-between Burntisland and Kinghorn, Fife 16 or 19 Mar 1286, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). 

3.         BEATRIX (Bordeaux 25 Jun 1242-London 24 Mar 1275, maybe bur Reading Abbey, probably transferred to Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  The Annales Londonienses record the birth "apud Burdegalam" in 1242 of "filiam…Beatrice" to "regina Alienora"[707].  Her birth is recorded by Matthew Paris[708].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage in 1260 of "Johannes filius comitis Britannić" and "Beatricem filiam regis Anglić"[709].  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage “apud Westmonasterium” in 1259 of “Johannem filium et hćredum comitis Britannić” and “Beatriciam filiam regis[710].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1275 of "Margareta regina Scotie et Beatrix comitissa Britannić, filić Henrici"[711]m (contract 13 Oct 1260, église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint Denis Nov 1260, Westminster Abbey [25 Dec] 1260) JEAN de Bretagne [Dreux-Capet] Earl of Richmond, son of JEAN I Duke of Brittany & his wife Blanche de Champagne Infanta de Navarra (4 Jan 1239-Lyon 16 Nov 1305, bur Ploërmel, Morbihan, église Notre Dame du couvent des Carmes).  Accompanied King Louis IX on the Second Crusade.  He succeeded his father in 1286 as JEAN II Duke of Brittany

4.         EDMUND “Crouchback/Gibbosus” (London 16 Jan 1245-Bayonne 5 Jun 1296, bur Westminster Abbey).  He is named as son of King Henry III by Matthew Paris in 1254[712].  Created Earl of Leicester 26 Oct 1265, in succession to Simon de Montfort, and Earl of Lancaster 30 Jun 1267. 

-        see below, Part B.  EARLS of LANCASTER.   

5.         [RICHARD (-bur Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Margareta, Edmundus, Beatrix, Ricardus apud Westmonasterium, Katerina...Johannes apud Westmonasterium, Willelmus qui sepultus est in Templo, Henricus qui jacet apud Westmonasterium” as children of King Henry III[713].  Inaccuracies are noted elsewhere in this document, so its historical value is difficult to assess.  The existence of the children Richard, William and Henry has not been corroborated in other primary source documents, although, as noted below, one record for the death of King Henry´s daughter Katherine does confirm the existence of at least two other children who died young.] 

6.         JOHN (Winchester Dec [1250]-31 Aug [1252], bur Westminster Abbey).  Flores Historiarum record the birth “in adventu domini apud Wyntoniam” of “regi Henrico filius...Johannes”, dated to 1250 from the context, adding that he survived “non duobus annis”, died “ultimo die mensis Augusti” (no year specified), and was buried “in Westmonasterio[714].  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Margareta, Edmundus, Beatrix, Ricardus apud Westmonasterium, Katerina...Johannes apud Westmonasterium, Willelmus qui sepultus est in Templo, Henricus qui jacet apud Westmonasterium” as children of King Henry III[715]

7.         KATHERINE (Palace of Westminster 25 Nov 1253-Windsor Castle [3] May 1257 [or 12 Apr 1261], bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annales Londonienses record the birth in 1253 of "Katerina filia regis Henrici"[716].  The Annals of Worcester record the birth “nocte Cecilić” in 1253 of “regina…filiam…Katerina[717].  Matthew Paris records that “regina Anglić Alienora” gave birth “Londoniis...die sanctć Katerinć” to “filiam...Katerina”, dated to 1253 from the context[718]Flores Historiarum record that “Alianora regina Anglić” gave birth “Londoniis die sanctć Katerinć” to “filiam...Katerina”, dated to 1253 from the context[719].  "Alexander le Parker and Amice his wife" were granted "land in Old Wyndesor" in "reward of the good service rendered by the said Amice in the education of Katharine the king´s daughter" dated 11 Apr 1255[720].  Matthew Paris records the death “circa Inventionem sanctć Crucis” of “filia domini regis Katerina”, adding that she was "muta et inutilis, sed facie pulcherrima", dated to 1257 from the context[721].  One manuscript of Flores Historiarum records, inserted over an erasure, the death 12 Apr of “domina Katerina quasi octennis filia regis Henrici tertii” and her burial “apud Westmonasterium cum fratribus suis”, dated to 1261 from the context[722].  The contradiction between these two reports of the date of death of Katherine is difficult to understand.  Matthew Paris´s chronicle ends with his death in 1259, which indicates that his report of Katherine´s death in 1257 could not have represented a misdating for 1261.  However, the age of the deceased in the 1261 report (“quasi octennis”) is consistent with Katherine´s reported birth in 1253, which suggests that it is unlikely to refer to another otherwise unrecorded daughter whom it had misnamed. 

8.         son(s) (-bur Westminster Abbey).  His or their existence is confirmed by one manuscript of Flores Historiarum which records, inserted over an erasure, the death 12 Apr of “domina Katerina quasi octennis filia regis Henrici tertii” and her burial “apud Westmonasterium cum fratribus suis”, dated to 1261 from the context[723].  The only record so far found of another infant son of King Henry III who was buried in Westminster abbey relates to John (see above).  This report in Flores Historiarum therefore indicates there was at least one other son who was buried in the same place. 

9.         [WILLIAM (-bur Temple).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Margareta, Edmundus, Beatrix, Ricardus apud Westmonasterium, Katerina...Johannes apud Westmonasterium, Willelmus qui sepultus est in Templo, Henricus qui jacet apud Westmonasterium” as children of King Henry III[724].  Inaccuracies are noted elsewhere in this document, so its historical value is difficult to assess.  The existence of the children Richard, William and Henry has not been corroborated in other primary source documents, although, as noted below, one record for the death of King Henry´s daughter Katherine does confirm the existence of at least two other children who died young.] 

10.      [HENRY (-bur Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Margareta, Edmundus, Beatrix, Ricardus apud Westmonasterium, Katerina...Johannes apud Westmonasterium, Willelmus qui sepultus est in Templo, Henricus qui jacet apud Westmonasterium” as children of King Henry III[725].  Inaccuracies are noted elsewhere in this document, so its historical value is difficult to assess.  The existence of the children Richard, William and Henry has not been corroborated in other primary source documents, although, as noted below, one record for the death of King Henry´s daughter Katherine does confirm the existence of at least two other children who died young.] 

 

 

EDWARD, son of HENRY III King of England & his wife Eléonore de Provence (Palace of Westminster 17 Jun 1239-Burgh-on-Sands, Cumberland 8 Jul 1307, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the birth “XIV Kal Jul…Londonić apud Westmonasterium” of “filius…Eadwardus” to “regi Henrico Anglić filio regis Johannis…de regina sua Alienora filia comitis de Provencia[726].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "XIV Kal Jul" [1239] of "Edwardum filium suum primogenitum" to "Alienor regina Anglić"[727].  Matthew Paris records that Edward was installed as Duke of Gascony in 1252, after the territory was subdued by Simon de Montfort[728].  Henry III King of England granted “totam terram Vasconie” to “Eudoardo primogenito filio nostro” by charter dated 8 Jun 1252[729].  He was created Earl of Chester 14 Feb 1254.  Taken prisoner with his father at the battle of Lewes 14 May 1264 by the rebel barons under Simon de Montfort, he managed to escape 26 May.  As a means of making peace, he delivered the earldom of Chester to Simon de Montfort 24 Dec 1264, though it was restored to Edward after the battle of Evesham 4 Aug 1265.  He left England in summer 1270 intending to join Louis IX King of France in Tunisia.  On learning of the king's death after arriving in Africa, Edward wintered in Sicily with King Charles and the following spring sailed for Palestine, landing at Acre 9 May 1271, but he had insufficient resources to make any headway against the Mameluk Sultan Baibars and signed a peace agreement with the Sultan at Caesarea 22 May 1272[730].  An attempt was made on his life 16 Jun 1272 when an Assassin stabbed him with a poisoned dagger, the after effects of which left Edward seriously ill for several months, and left Acre for England 22 Sep 1272[731].  He succeeded his father in 1272 as EDWARD I “Longshanks” King of England, when he was in Sicily returning from the Crusade.  He arrived back in England in Aug 1274, and was crowned 19 Aug 1274 at Westminster Abbey.  A strong king, he increased the power of the crown during his reign at the expense of the barons, probably setting the scene for the problems faced by his weaker son Edward II. 

Betrothed (1247) to [MARIE] de Brabant, daughter of HENRI II Duke of Brabant & his first wife Maria von Staufen (-beheaded Donauwörth 1256, bur Donauwörth Heiliges Kreuz Stift).  The betrothal of one of the daughters of Duke Henri II to Edward of England is recorded by Matthew Paris[732].  It is not certain that Marie was the daughter in question.  However, she is the most likely candidate as her two older sisters were already married and her younger half-sister was only an infant at the time. 

m firstly (Betrothed 1253, Burgos 18 Oct 1254) Infanta dońa LEONOR de Castilla, daughter of FERNANDO III “el Santo” King of Castile & his second wife Jeanne de Dammartin-Ponthieu (1240-Harby, Nottinghamshire 29 Nov 1290, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "circa translationem beati Edwardi regis apud Boures" in 1254 of "Edwardus filius regis Henrici" and "Alienoram iuvenculam…sororem regis Hispannić"[733].  This marriage was first proposed in 1253 in connection with settlement of the Spanish claim to Gascony, according to Matthew Paris who refers to her as "sororem suam uterinani" in reference to "rex Hispanić" but does not give her name[734].  She accompanied her husband on crusade 1270/72.  Crowned Queen 19 Aug 1274 at Westminster Abbey.  She succeeded her mother in 1279 as Ctss de Ponthieu et de Montreuil.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "IV Kal Dec apud Herdeby in comitatu Lincolniensi" of "Alienora regina Anglić domini regis consors"[735]

m secondly ([Betrothed 12 May 1299] contract Montreuil 19 Jun 1299, Canterbury Cathedral 8 or 9 Sep 1299) MARGUERITE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE III King of France & his second wife Marie de Brabant (1275-Marlborough Castle, Wiltshire 14 Feb 1318, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis names "Ludovicum comitem Ebroicić civitatis, Margaretamque reginam Anglić ac Blancham ducissam Austrić" as the three children of King Philippe III and his second wife, recording in a later passage the marriage of Marguerite "apud Cantuariam" in 1299[736]Edward I King of England appointed “Amadeum comitem Sabaudić consanguineum nostrum” as proxy for the marriages between “nos et Margaretam sororem...regis Francić...ac inter Edwardum filium nostrum et Isabellam...regis Francić filiam” by charter dated 12 May 1299[737].  The Annals of Worcester record the marriage “Sep…IV Id…in ecclesia Cantuarensi” in 1299 of “Edwardus rex” and “Margareta soror Philippi Regis Francić[738].  A charter dated 27 Sep 1299 lists the dower assigned by King Edward to “Margaretam sororem...regis Francić” in England[739].  King Edward II issued a charter dated 18 Apr 1318 to “Thomć comiti Norffolcić et marescallo Anglić et Edmundo de Wodestok fratribus nostris...executoribus testamenti bonć memorić Margaretć nuper reginć Anglić matris nostrć[740]

King Edward I & his first wife had sixteen children:

1.         KATHERINE ([1261/64]-5 Sep 1264).  The Liberate Rolls record the order of cloths of gold “for the use of Katherine the deceased daughter of Edward the king´s firstborn” dated Oct 1264[741].  The necrology of Canterbury Christ Church records the death 5 Sep of “Katherine daughter of King Edward[742]

2.         JOAN (Paris or Abbeville, Ponthieu early 1265-before 7 Sep 1265, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Close Rolls record the order for a gold cloth for the tomb of “Johanne filie Edwardi primogeniti regis nuper defuncte et in ecclesia Westmonasterii sepulti” dated 7 Sep 1265[743]

3.         JOHN [of Winchester] ([Windsor or Winchester] 10 Jul 1266-before 8 Aug 1271, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Cronica Maiorum et Vicecomitum Londoniarum records that “uxor domini Edwardi” gave birth “II Id Jul...apud Windleshores” to “filium suum primogenitum”, dated to 1266 from the context[744].  The Annales Cambrić record the death in 1271 of "Johannes filius Edwardi primogenitus" and his burial "apud Westmonasterium", stating that he was "in custodia domini regis Alemannić" (presumably indicating his paternal uncle Richard Earl of Cornwall)[745].  The Annals of Osney record the death “apud Walingeford circa gulam Augusti” in 1271 of “dominus Johannes primogenitus domini Edwardi” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium[746].  The Chronicle of John de Oxenedes records the burial “VI Id Aug...apud Westmonasterium” of “dominus J. de Wincestria primogenitus domini Ćdwardi domini Henrici regis Anglić primogeniti”, dated to 1271 from the context[747]

4.         HENRY (Windsor Castle 13 Jul [1267/68]-Merton, Surrey or Guildford Castle, Surrey 14 Oct 1274, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Liberate Rolls record a payment to “Aymenin yeoman of Eleanor wife of Edward the king´s son” for bringing news to the king “about her childbearing”, dated 6 May 1268[748].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the burial at Westminster "XIII Kal Nov" 20 Oct [1274] of "dominus Henricus domini Edwardi filius"[749].  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the death “circa festum Sancti Calixti Papć” in 1274 of “Henricus filius regis Edwardi secundo genitus” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium…X Kal Nov[750].  The Chronicle of John de Oxenedes records the burial “apud Westmonasterium XIII Kal Nov” of “dominus Henricus domini Ćdwardi filius”, dated to 1273 from the context[751]Betrothed (1 Sep 1273) to JEANNE de Champagne, Infanta dońa JUANA de Navarra, daughter of ENRIQUE I King of Navarre [HENRI III Comte de Champagne] & his wife Blanche d'Artois [Capet] (Bar-sur-Seine 14 Jan 1273-Château de Vincennes 31 Mar or 2 Apr 1305, bur Paris église des Cordeliers).  A charter dated 1 Sep 1273 records the agreement between "Edbbardus…rex Anglie" and "Henricus…rex Navarre, Campanie et Brie, comes palatinus" for the marriage of "Henricus rex…Johannam filiam nostrum et heredem" and "Henrico filio primogenitor et heredi…Edbbardi regis Anglie"[752]. 

5.         ELEANOR (Windsor Castle before 17 Jun 1269-Ghent 12 Oct 1297, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Wyndleshores" of "filiam…Alienoram" to "Alienora uxor domini Eadwardi regis primogeniti"[753].  The Chronicle of John de Oxenedes records that “Alianora uxor domini Ćdwardi domini regis primogeniti” gave birth “apud Wyndleshores” to “filiam...Alianoram”, dated to 1269 from the context[754].  The Patent Rolls include an order dated 17 Jun 1269 granting a reward to “John de Beaumes yeoman of Eleanor consort of Edward the king´s son for bringing the good news of the birth of her daughter Eleanor[755].  The marriage contract between “Edwardus...rex Anglić...filiam suam majorem” and “infans Petrus...regis Aragonum primogenitus” is dated 8 Oct 1272[756].  Despite the error of name, it is likely that this betrothal relates to the king´s known eldest son Alfonso, whom Eleanor later married, rather than an otherwise unrecorded older son named Pedro: no case has been found in the family of the kings of Aragon where the oldest son of the king was named after his father.  A charter dated 19 Jun 1281 confirmed the marriage contract between “rex...filić nostrć” and “rege Aragonić...primogeniti sui[757].  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records that Edward I King of England sent "Jean d´Agrilli" to Barcelona to negotiate the marriage of his daughter to Alfonso III King of Aragon, dated to 1286, and records the betrothal later the same year[758].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "apud Bristoll vigilia S Matthaći Apostoli" 20 Sep [1293] of "Alienora regis Anglić flia primogenita" and "domino Henrico comitis de Baroduc"[759].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records the marriage in 1294 of "comes de Barri" and "filiam primogenitam Eduardi regis Anglorum"[760].  [Poull gives no death date for Eleanor, but says that she returned to England after her husband died and that 8 May 1304 her father started negotiations for her marriage with Robert, son of Othon Comte Palatin de Bourgogne & his wife Mathilde Ctss d'Artois[761].  This seems unlikely to be correct as Robert de Bourgogne was born in 1300, so was over 30 years younger than Eleanor.  It appears more probable that these marriages negotiations refer to the king´s daughter of the same name who was born to his second marriage (see below).]  m firstly (Betrothed [1286], by proxy Westminster Abbey 15 Aug 1290, not consummated) ALFONSO III "el Liberal" King of Aragon, son of PEDRO III "el Grande" King of Aragon & his wife Constanza of Sicily [Hohenstaufen] (Valencia 4 Nov 1265-Barcelona 18 Jun 1291, bur Barcelona Franciscan Monastery).  m secondly (Bristol 20 Sep 1293) HENRI III Comte de Bar, son of THIBAUT II Comte de Bar & his second wife Jeanne de Toucy (1259-Naples Sep 1302). 

6.         daughter ([Acre], Palestine [May] 1271-Palestine 29 May [1271/72], bur [Bordeaux Dominican Priory]).  The Cronica Maiorum et Vicecomitum Londoniarum records that “due filie” were born to Edward “in Terra Sancta”, adding that “quarum una mortua est et altera venit cum eo et cum regina usque in Vasconiam”, dated to 1271 from the context[762].  Assuming that the two daughters were not twins, the birth of the older daughter would be placed in 1271.  Queen Eleanor provided a gold cloth for the anniversary of her daughter 29 May at the Dominican priory in Bordeaux where the child was buried[763].  This burial could refer to this unnamed daughter, whose body would have been transported back from Palestine, or to another otherwise unrecorded daughter. 

7.         JOAN "of Acre" (Acre, Palestine Spring 1272-Clare Manor, Suffolk 23 Apr 1307, bur 26 Apr 1307 Priory Church of the Austin Friars, Clare, Suffolk).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth at Acre in [1272] of "filiam…Johannam" to "Alienor uxor domini Eadwardi"[764].  The Annales Hospitalis Argentinenses record that "comes Hartmannus [filius reginć uxoris Rudolfi Regis]" was betrothed to "filia regis Anglie"[765].  This betrothal was arranged by King Rudolf to exploit Anglo/French rivalry.   Two charters dated 1276 record negotiations for the marriage between “dominus rex Alemanić...filium suum Hartmannum” and “filiam regis Anglić Johannam[766].  A charter dated Dec 1278 records the agreement that the marriage between “R. Romanorum rex...Hartmannum comitem de Habspurg et de Kyburg, Alsatić langravium natum suum” and “Johannć...Edwardi...regis Anglić...filić”, already betrothed, should be celebrated[767].  The marriage was postponed.  The dispensation for the marriage of “Gileberto comiti Glovernić et Hertfordić” and “Johanna nata...Edvardi regis Anglić”, dated 16 Nov 1289, records the 2o and 3o affinity between the parties illustrated by the 2o and 3o consanguinity between “Aliciam natam quondam...Hugonis comitis Marchić” [the bridegroom´s first wife] and “prćdictam Johannam[768].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "ultimo die mensis Aprilis apud Westmonasterium" of "Gilbertus de Clare comes Glovernić" and "dominam Johannam dicta de Acra…filium regis Anglić"[769].  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the marriage of “Gilbertus secundus” and “Johanna de Acres, filia regis Edwardi primi[770].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Edwardus rex…Johannam filiam suam secundo genitam” married “Gilberto comiti Glovernić” in 1290[771].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “comitissa Glovernić, filia domini regis” married “cuidam militia sine assensu regio” in 1296[772].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage more precisely has not yet been identified.  Her second marriage was clandestine.  The king, her father, did not know that Joan was already married when he agreed 16 Mar 1297 her marriage to Amédée Comte de Savoie.  He confiscated Joan's lands 3 Jul 1297 when he found out about the marriage, but pardoned her 2 Aug 1297[773].  A manuscript history of the foundation of Dunmow Priory records the death in 1307 of “Johanna de Acres comitissa de Clare” and her burial “in ecclesia fratrum S. Augustini apud Clare[774]Betrothed to HARTMANN von Habsburg Graf von Kiburg, son of RUDOLF I Graf von Habsburg King of Germany & his first wife Gertrud [Anna] von Hohenberg [Zollern] (Rheinfelden 1263-drowned between Breisach and Strasbourg 21 Dec 1281, bur Basel Münster).  m firstly (Papal dispensation 16 Nov 1289, Westminster Abbey 30 Apr 1290) as his second wife, GILBERT de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford "the Red Earl", son of RICHARD de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford & his second wife Maud de Lacy (Christchurch, Hampshire 2 Sep 1243-Monmouth Castle 7 Dec 1295, bur 22 Dec 1295 Tewkesbury).  m secondly (secretly early 1297 or [12 May/3 Jul] 1297) as his first wife, RALPH de Monthermer, son of --- (-5 Apr 1325, bur Salisbury, Grey Friars church).  He was a member of the household of her first husband.  He was imprisoned by the King at Bristol when he learned of his marriage, but pardoned at Eltham 2 Aug 1297[775].  He used the title Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, in right of his wife, but does not seem to have been so created. 

8.         ALFONSO (Bayonne or Bordeaux or in Maine 24 Nov [1273]-Windsor Castle 19 Aug 1284, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Baunam in Gasconia…subsequente diem S Clemente" 24 Nov [1273] of "filius…Aldephonsum" to "domino Edwardo"[776].  The Chronicle of John de Oxenedes records the birth “apud Baunam in Guasconia nocte subsequente diem Sancti Clementis” of “domino Ćdwardo...filius...Aldephonsum”, dated to 1273 from the context[777].  The Annals of Waverley records the birth “apud Baionam in Vasconia…Novembri…in vigilia beatć Katerinć virginis” in 1275 of “domina Alianora regina Anglić filium…Alfonsus[778].  The probable birth dates of the other children of King Edward I suggest 1273 as the more likely birth date of Alfonso.  He is said to have been designated Earl of Chester in 1284[779].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death "apud Windleshores die S Magni Martyris" 19 Aug [1284] of "dominus Aldephonsus domini regis Anglić filius"[780].  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the death “XIV Kal Sep” in 1284 of “dominus Alfonsus filius domini regis Anglić” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium die Sabbati proxima post festum Sancti Bartholomći[781].  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “...Alicia quć moritur ćtate XII an. et jacet apud Westmonasterium...” among the children of King Edward I[782].  No other primary source record has been found of a daughter of the king named Alice.  The age at death suggests that the entry may be an error for Alfonso (who is otherwise omitted from the list).  Betrothed (5 Jul 1281) to MARGARETA of Holland, daughter FLORIS V Count of Holland & his wife Beatrix de Flandre (-after 12 Aug 1284).  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke names (in order) "Theodricum, Florencium, Wilhelmum, Ottonem, Wilhelmum, Florencium et Iohannem Hollandie comitem, Beatricem, Machtildim, Elizabeth et Margaretam Anglie reginam" as children of Count Floris & his wife[783], the reference to “Anglie reginam” being explained by her betrothal.  Floris V Count of Holland betrothed "Margaretam filiam nostram" to “domino Edwardo...regi Anglie...domino Alfonso eius filio” by charter dated 5 Jul 1281[784].  Floris V Count of Holland agreed the dowry for the marriage of "Edwardi regis Anglorum...dominum Alfonsum dicti domini regis primogenitum" and “Margaretam filiam nostram” by charter dated 12 Aug 1283, which also provides for the marriage between “Johannis filii nostri” and “eius filiam[785]

9.         ISABELLA (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire or Windsor Castle or Marlborough Castle, Wiltshire [12/15] Mar 1274- ----, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annals of Worcester record the birth “XVIII Kal Apr” in 1274 of “Edwardo regi Anglić filiam…Ysabellam[786], although the date is too close to the recorded birth of her older brother Alfonso for 1274 to be the correct year of Isabella´s birth.  The Annals of Winchester record the birth “XVIII Kal Apr…apud Wyndesore” in 1275 of “Alianora regina domino Edwardi regi Anglić…filiam…Isabellam[787].  It is uncertain which date “XVIII Kal Apr” is intended to indicate.  If the date of Margaret´s birth is recorded correctly in 1275 as shown below, Isabella must have been born in 1274 not 1275. 

10.      MARGARET (Windsor Castle 11 Sep [1275]-1318 or after 11 Mar 1333, bur Brussels, Saints Michael and Gudula).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth in 1275 at Windsor of "filiam…Margaret" to "Alienora uxor regis, regina Anglić"[788].  A charter dated 6 Jan 1278 (O.S.?) records negotiations for the marriage between “E....roi d´Engleterre...vestre fille” and “Johan. duk de Lother. et Braibant...mon fiz[789].  The marriage contract between “Johan...duc de Lother. et de Braibant...Johan nostre eisne fiz” and “Edw...roi d´Engleterre...Margarete fille le roi” is dated Jan 1278 (O.S.?)[790].  The Annales Halesiensibus record the marriage "1290 XVII Id Iul" of "Margaretam filiam regis" and "Iohannes filius et heres ducis Brabantie"[791].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VI Id Jul" at Westminster of "Johannes filius et hćres Johannis ducis Brabantić" and "Margaretam filiam regis Anglie"[792].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "VII Id Iul" in 1290 of "domina Margareta…regis Anglić filia" and "Johanni filio ducis Brabantić"[793].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records that "Johannes secundus…dux Lotharingie, Brabancie et Lymburgie marchioque Sacri Imperii" married "Margaretam filiam Eduardi primi regis Anglie"[794]m (contract Jan 1278 or 1279, Westminster Abbey 8 Jul 1290) JEAN de Brabant, son of JEAN I Duke of Brabant & his second wife Marguerite de Flandre (27 Sep 1275-Château de Tervueren 27 Oct 1312, Brussels Saints Michael and Gudula).  He succeeded his father in 1294 as JEAN II Duke of Brabant.

11.      BERENGARIA (Kennington Palace, Surrey 1 May [1276 or 1277]-young).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth in 1276 of "filiam…Berengariam" to "Alienor regina"[795].  The Annals of Winchester record the birth “Kal Mai…apud Kenyngtone” in 1276 of “Alianora regina domino Edwardi regi Anglić…filiam…---[796].  The Chronicle of John de Oxenedes records that “Alianora regina” gave birth to “filiam...Berengarium”, dated to 1276 from the context[797].  If the birth of Margaret is correctly recorded in 1275 as shown above, Berengaria must have been born prematurely if born in 1276.  An alternative possibility is that the year was incorrectly recorded and should have been 1277. 

12.      MARY (Windsor Castle 12 Mar or 22 Apr 1279-Amesbury Abbey before 8 Jul 1332, bur Amesbury Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "vigilie S Gregorii apud Windleshores" 11 Mar [1279] of "filiam…Mariam" to "Alienora regina Anglie"[798].  The Chronicle of John de Oxenedes records that “Alianora regina Anglić” gave birth “vigilia sancti Gregorii apud Windleshorem” 1279 to “filiam...Mariam[799].  The Annals of Worcester record the birth “IV Id Mar” of “regina Anglić…filiam apud Woodstock…vocata est ---[800].  She became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire 15 Aug 1285.  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records that "Maria filia regis Anglić" became a nun at Amesbury "die Nativitatis beatć Marić" 8 Sep[801].  A charter dated 2 Jan 1292 records that “rex...filić nostrć Marić” became a nun “apud Ambresburiam[802]

13.      ELIZABETH (Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire Aug 1282-Quendon, Essex [5] May 1316, bur Walden Abbey, Essex).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "apud Rothelan" in 1282 of "filiam…Elizabetham" to "Alienora regina Anglić"[803].  Floris V Count of Holland agreed the dowry for the marriage of "Edwardi regis Anglorum...dominum Alfonsum dicti domini regis primogenitum" and “Margaretam filiam nostram” by charter dated 12 Aug 1283, which also provides for the marriage between “Johannis filii nostri” and “eius filiam[804].  The marriage contract between "Edwardum...regem Anglie...filie sue Elizabethe" and “dominum Florentium comitem Hollandie...Johannis filii sui primogeniti” is dated 1285[805].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Jan and "Elizabeth…Eduardi regis filia", recording in a later passage that she returned to England after her husband died and married (secondly) "comes Erffordie"[806].  The dispensation for the marriage of “Humfrido comiti Herefordensi” and “Elizabetć natć...Edvardi regis Anglić...relictć quondam Johannis comitis Hollandić” is dated 10 Aug 1302[807].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "in festo Sanctć Katerinć…apud Caversham juxta Redyng" in 1302 of "Margareta filia regis Anglić, comitissa Hoylandić et Salondić" and "domino Humfrido de Bohun comiti Herefordić"[808].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Humfredus octavus de Bohun, comes Herefordić et Essex, constabularius Anglić et dominus Breconić” married “Elizabetham filiam regis Edwardi filii regis Henrici tertii”, adding that she was buried “apud Waldene[809].  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records the birth “apud Quenden” of “qućdam filia” to “Humfridus de Bohun” and his wife “Elizabethć…regis Anglić Edwardi…filić” during whose birth her mother died, and in a later passage her burial at Waldon[810]m firstly (Betrothed 1285, Ipswich Priory Church, Suffolk 18 Jan 1297) JAN I Count of Holland and Zeeland, son of FLORIS V Count of Holland & his wife Béatrice de Flandre [Dampierre] (before 12 Aug 1283-10 Nov 1299).  m secondly (Papal dispensation 10 Aug 1302, Westminster Abbey 14 Nov 1302) HUMPHREY [VIII] de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, son of HUMPHREY [VII] de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex & his wife Mathilde de Fiennes ([1276]-killed in battle Boroughbridge 16 Mar 1322, bur York, church of the Friars Preachers).  He succeeded his father in 1298 as Earl of Hereford and Essex, Constable of England. 

14.      EDWARD "of Caernarvon" (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "die S Marci Evangelistć" 25 Apr [1284] at Caernarvon of "domini regi Anglić filius…Eadwardus"[811].  He succeeded his father in 1307 as EDWARD II King of England.   

-        see below

15.      [BEATRIX (-young).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “...Beatrix quć moritur puella, Blanchia quć moritur puella” at the end of a list of children of King Edward I[812].  Inaccuracies are noted elsewhere in this document, so its historical value is difficult to assess.  The existence of these daughters Beatrix and Blanche has not been corroborated in other primary source documents.] 

16.      [BLANCHE (-young).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “...Beatrix quć moritur puella, Blanchia quć moritur puella” at the end of a list of children of King Edward I[813].  Inaccuracies are noted elsewhere in this document, so its historical value is difficult to assess.  The existence of these daughters Beatrix and Blanche has not been corroborated in other primary source documents.] 

King Edward I & his second wife had three children:

17.      THOMAS "of Brotherton" (Brotherton, Yorkshire 1 Jun 1300-[4 Aug/20 Sep] 1338, bur Abbey of Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk).  The Annals of Worcester record the birth “IV Non Jun…in manerio de Brothertone” in 1300 of “Margareta regina…filium…Thomas[814].  He was created Earl of Norfolk 16 Dec 1312, and Marshal of England 10 Feb 1316.   

-        EARLS of NORFOLK

18.      EDMUND "of Woodstock" (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 5 Aug 1301-executed outside Winchester Castle 19 Mar 1330, bur Winchester, Church of the Friars Minor, later transferred to Westminster Abbey).  The Annals of Worcester record the birth “Non Aug…apud Wodestok” in 1301 of “regina [filium]…Edmundum[815].  Summoned to Parliament 1320 as Lord Woodstock.  Appointed Keeper of Kent, Dover Castle and the Cinque Ports 16 Jun 1321.  He was created Earl of Kent 28 Jul 1321.   

-        EARLS of KENT

19.      ELEANOR ([1302/04]-Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire before 28 Aug 1310).  King Edward I appointed “Johannis de Cabilone domini de Arlay et...Johannis de Baar et Ottonis de Grandisono militum” as proxies for the marriage between “Robertum (bonć memorić Ottonis quondam Burgundić et Attrabati comitis defuncto et...dominć Matill. Burgundić et Attrabati comitissć nuper uxoris ipsius comitis filium et hćredem” and “Alianoram filiam nostram” is dated 8 May 1304[816].  It is unclear whether the negotiations proceeded as far as a betrothal.  Edward I King of England confirmed the dowry of “nostre...file Alianore” by charter dated 31 Aug 1306[817].  King Edward I requested papal dispensation for the marriage between “Alianoram filiam nostram” and “filium...quondam comitis Burgundić...” dated 4 Oct 1306[818].  The Issue Roll for Michaelmas 4 Edward II records payments to “Robert de Haustede junior knight” for the burial of “the Lady Eleanor the king´s sister at Beaulieu” dated 28 Aug, and to “Henry de Ludgareshale” dated 20 Nov[819].  [Betrothed (after 8 May 1304) to ROBERT de Bourgogne, son of OTTO de Chalon Comte de Bourgogne & his wife Mathilde Ctss d’Artois (1300-[21/30] Sep 1317, bur Paris Franciscan Church).] 

 

Many modern secondary sources indicate that John Botetourt, was an illegitimate son of Edward I King of England, based on a Hailes abbey chronicle which names him as such[820].  Michael Prestwich comments that "in general terms, the Hailes chronicle is a reliable source", but highlights that Botetourt´s name is "in a genealogical table" in the chronicle and "appears to be written over an erasure".  He concludes that "there is nothing in Botecourt´s career to suggest that he was an illegitimate son of the king" and that "in the absence of any corroborative evidence, it is difficult to credit the evidence of the genealogical table"[821].  According to The Complete Peerage, the parentage of John Botetourt is unknown[822].  His parentage was studied by F. N. Craig, who sets out evidence which indicates that he was the son of Guy Botetourt of Ellingham, Norfolk, his predecessor in the manors of Ellingham, Uphall and Upton[823]

 

 

EDWARD "of Caernarvon", son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta dońa Leonor de Castilla (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the birth "die S Marci Evangelistć" 25 Apr [1284] at Caernarvon of "domini regi Anglić filius…Eadwardus"[824].  He succeeded his mother in 1290 as Comte de Ponthieu et de Montreuil.  Created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 7 Feb 1301.  Created Duke of Aquitaine in May 1306.  He succeeded his father in 1307 as EDWARD II King of England.  Crowned in Westminster Abbey 24/25 Feb 1308.  The barons, weakened by the strong rule of Edward's father, took the opportunity to regain their position under the new king of weaker character.  A crisis was triggered immediately after his accession due to the unpopularity of his favourite Piers Gaveston.  Edward was obliged to accept a committee of Lords Ordainers to control his excesses, remove his own advisers and impose reforms.  Gaveston was captured, tried and beheaded near Warwick 19 Jun 1312.  Edward's first cousin Thomas Earl of Lancaster led the discontented barons, but lacked the ability to push through the reforms which were needed.  Political confusion increased, but the various baronial factions found common cause in opposition to the king's new favourite Hugh Despenser the younger.  The Earl of Lancaster, by now in open rebellion, was captured and beheaded at his castle in Pontefract.  The other rebellious barons were defeated at Boroughbridge in 1322.  But Edward lacked the leadership to push his advantage.  Matters came to a head with the queen's affair with Roger Mortimer of Wigmore.  The couple attracted baronial support to overthrow the king, who fled to Wales Oct 1326.  His son Edward was appointed "Keeper of the Realm" by an extraordinary council at Bristol 26 Oct 1326.  He was deposed 20 Jan 1327 by a Parliament convened without his authority, and he formally abdicated in favour of his son 25 Jan 1327.  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records in graphic detail the king´s privations while imprisoned and the brutality of his murder[825]

Betrothed (Papal dispensation 16 Nov 1289, Birgham Jul 1290) to MARGARET Queen of Scotland "the Maid of Norway", daughter of ERIK II King of Norway & his wife Margaret of Scotland (Tönsberg before 9 Apr 1283-on board ship off Orkney [26 Sep] 1290, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  The dispensation for the marriage of “Edwardo nato...Edvardi regis Anglić” and “Margareta nata...Erici Norwegić regis, neptis...regis Scotić”, dated 16 Nov 1289, records the 3o consanguinity between the parties[826].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the betrothal between "Edward I king of England…Edward his son and heir" and "Margaret the daughter of the king of Norway…the true heiress of Scotland" in 1290[827].  This betrothal was agreed under the Treaty of Birgham in Jul 1290 which confirmed that Scotland would retain its independence after the marriage took place[828].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester confirms the betrothal of "Margareta filia Irici regis Norwegić…" and "Eadwardo regis Eadwardi filio" when recording her death[829]

Betrothed (31 Jul 1291) to BLANCHE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE III "le Hardi" King of France & his second wife Marie de Brabant (1278-Vienna 14 Mar 1306, bur Vienna, Minoritenkirche). 

Betrothed (contract 7 Jan 1297) to PHILIPPINE de Flandre, daughter of GUY Count of Flanders & his second wife Isabelle de Luxembourg Ctss of Namur (-Paris 1304).  The Annals of Worcester record the betrothal of “Edwardum filium regis” and “filiam comitis Flandrić” as part of the treaty agreed between England and Flanders “die Purificationis beatć Marić” (2 Feb) in 1296[830].  The Chronique Normande names "Philippe" as the daughter of "conte en Flandres…Guy de Dampierre" by his second wife "fille au conte de Luxembourg", adding that she was betrothed to "le roy d´Angleterre…Edouart son filz"[831].  The marriage contract between “Edward...Edward nostre...fiuz” and “Guy conte de Flandres et marchis de Namur...Phelippe fille au dit conte” is dated 7 Jan 1296 (O.S.)[832].  Philippe IV King of France obliged her father to abandon the betrothal after summoning him to Paris and imprisoning him for four months with two of his sons.  Philippine was sent to Paris for her education[833]

m (contract 12 May 1299, betrothed 20 May 1303, Boulogne-sur-Mer 22 Jan 1308) ISABELLE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE IV "le Bel" King of France & his wife dońa Juana I Queen of Navarre (Paris 1292-Castle Rising, Norfolk or Hertford Castle 21 Nov 1358, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  Edward I King of England appointed “Amadeum comitem Sabaudić consanguineum nostrum” as proxy for the marriages between “nos et Margaretam sororem...regis Francić...ac inter Edwardum filium nostrum et Isabellam...regis Francić filiam” by charter dated 12 May 1299[834].  The betrothal contract between “Ed. filz du roi d´Angleterre” and “Isabel fille du roi de France” is dated 20 May 1303[835].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "apud Boloniam…in festo Conversionis Sancti Pauli" in 1308 of "rex Edwardus" and "Isabellam filiam regis Francić Philippi"[836]The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in Jan 1308 "apud Boloniam supra mare" of "Eduardus Anglić rex" and "filiam unicam regis Francić Philippi...Isabellam"[837]The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the marriage “apud Boloniam...V Kal Feb” of “rex Edwardus” and “Isabellam filiam...regis Francie[838].  She was crowned Queen of England with her husband [23/25] Feb 1308.  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the return of the couple to England 5 Feb and their coronation “VII Kal Mar...apud Westmonasterium[839].  Her relationship with her husband steadily deteriorated over the years, culminating in her flight to France to seek the protection of her brother Philippe V King of France.  In 1325, Roger [V] de Mortimer Lord Mortimer became her lover, and together they plotted her husband's overthrow.  She was declared head of the Council of Regency by Parliament on the deposition of her husband.  However, her rule was unpopular.  She signed an unfavourable treaty with France and recognised Robert Bruce as king of Scotland for the first time.  In addition, Mortimer alienated the barons with his territorial ambitions.  Her son seized power, had Mortimer arrested after a Great Council meeting at Nottingham 19 Oct 1330 and condemned him to death.  Isabelle thereafter lived in retirement.  Froissart records that Isabelle went to "Ostrevant en Haynau en un chastel…Buignicourt dont messires Nicoles d´Aubrecicourt estoit sires"[840].  The Chronicon Anglić records the death “die Sancti Rufi martyris” of “domina mater regis Edwardi domina Ysabella” and her burial “in ecclesia Fratrum Minorum Londoniis”, dated to 1357 from the context[841]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Edward's mistress is not known. 

King Edward II & his wife had four children:

1.         EDWARD "of Windsor" (Windsor Castle 13 Nov 1312-Sheen Palace, near Richmond, Surrey 21 Jun 1377, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the birth “die sancti Bricii confessoris apud Wyndesore” 1312 of “ex Isabella regina...tercius Edwardus[842].  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1327 as EDWARD III King of England

-        see below

2.         JOHN "of Eltham" (Eltham Manor House, Kent before 24 Aug 1316-Perth 13 Sep 1336, bur Westminster Abbey).  A charter dated 24 Aug 1316 records prayers said on the orders of King Edward II for “Isabellam reginam Anglić consortem nostram...Edwardum de Wyndesore primogenitum nostrum et Johannem de Eltham postnatum nostrum[843].  Froissart names "Jehans de Eltem" as second son of King Edward II and his wife, adding that he "morut jones"[844].  Warden of the City and Tower of London in Oct 1326: the Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records that “domini Iohannis Deltham pueri ix annorum filii regis” was appointed “Londoniarum...custodem civitatis et turris”, dated to 1326 from the context[845].  King Edward III wrote to “Alfonso...Castellć...regi” and to “Marie dame de Biscay” regarding the proposed marriage between “fratrem nostrum germanum Johannem de Eltham” and “filiam dompni Johannis quondam domini de Biskae” dated 28 Mar 1328[846].  Created Earl of Cornwall [16/31] Oct 1328.  Guardian of the Realm May-Jun 1329, and Apr 1331.  According to the Complete Peerage, he was killed by his brother King Edward III[847].  Negotiations took place in 1336 for John´s marriage to Jeanne, heiress of Brittany: Edward III King of England appointed “Willielmi d´Aubeneye militis et Joannis Caupegorge” as proxies to negotiate the marriage between “Joannem comitem Cornubić fratrem nostrum” and “Johannam filiam Guidonis de Britannia neptem et hćredem [Johanne Duce Britannić consanguineo nostro]” by charter dated 31 Dec 1335[848].  No indication has been found that the negotiations resulted in a betrothal.  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the death “in mense Octobris apud Berewyk” 1336 of “domini Ioannis Deltham comitis Cornubie germani regis” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium[849].  The Chronicon Anglić records the death in 1336 “apud villam [Sancti] Johannis in Scotia” of “dominus Johannes de Eltham frater regis Edwardi quondam comes Cornubić[850]Betrothed (contract 28 Sep 1334, [Papal dispensation Oct 1334]) to MARÍA de la Cerda dame de Lunel, daughter of FERNANDO de la Cerda de Castilla & his wife Juana Nuńez Seńora de Lara ([1319]-Paris 13 Mar 1375, bur Paris, église des Jacobins).  The marriage contract between “Johannes...regis Anglić filius comes Cornubić et germanus regis Anglić nunc regnantis” and “domicellam Mariam de Ispania filiam bonć memorić Ferdinandi de Ispania domini de Lara” is dated 28 Sep 1334[851].  There is some confusion about the identity of John´s proposed bride.  The Complete Peerage records a papal dispensation dated Oct 1334 for him to marry “Mary da. of Fernando IV King of Castile and Leon by Constanza da. of Diniz King of Portugal[852].  No primary source is cited and the document has not yet been traced.  The dating suggests that the dispensation was for the same proposed marriage as in the marriage contract dated 28 Sep 1334.  No other reference has been found to a daughter of Fernando IV King of Castile named María.  Until further information comes to light, it is suggested that there is some error in the Complete Peerage report of this dispensation. 

3.         ELEANOR (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 18 Jun 1318-Deventer Abbey, Gelre 22 Apr 1355, bur Deventer Abbey).  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "dye Rennaldus…grave van Gelre" married secondly "Helionora, conick Eduerts van Enghelants dochter"[853].  Froissart records that the second daughter (unnamed) of King Edward II and his wife married "au duch de Guerle"[854].  A series of documents relates to the marriage of "Reignaldo comiti Ghelrensi" and "sorore regis Anglić" including arrangements for the eventual succession of any future children born from the marriage[855].  The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that "Alyenora, hertich Rennolts wedue" died in 1355 and was buried "toe Groenendaell" with her husband[856]m (Nijmegen May 1332) as his second wife, REINALD II Graaf van Gelre, son of REINALD I Graaf van Gelre & his second wife Marguerite de Flandre ([1295]-Arnhem 12 Oct 1343, bur Arnhem). 

4.         JOAN (Tower of London 5 Jul 1321-Hertford Castle 7 Sep 1362, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage at Berwick 17 Jul 1328 of "David filius et heres regis Roberti de Bruce" and "sororem Eadwardi de Windesour, filiam Eadwardi de Carnarvan paulo ante defuncti"[857].  Froissart names "Ysabel" as older daughter of King Edward II and his wife, adding that she married "au jone roy David d´Escoce, filz au roi Robert de Brus" and recording their marriage at Berwick in a later passage[858].  Crowned Queen Consort of Scotland with her husband at Scone Abbey.  m (Berwick-upon-Tweed 17 Jul 1328) as his first wife, DAVID Earl of Carrick, son of ROBERT I King of Scotland & his second wife Elizabeth de Burgh (Dunfermline Palace, Fife 5 Mar 1324-Edinburgh Castle 22 Feb 1371, bur Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh).  Created Earl of Carrick by his father 1328.  He succeeded his father in 1329 as DAVID II King of Scotland.    

King Edward II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

5.          ADAM ([1305/10]-[18/30] Sep 1322, bur Tynemouth Priory).  Wardrobe accounts dated 6 Jun/18 Sep 1322 record that “Ade filio domini regis bastardo” was provided with equipment for the Scottish campaign, accompanied by his tutor Hugh Chastilloun; he “died during the campaign of unknown causes, and was buried at Tynemouth priory 30 Sep 1322, his father paid for a silk cloth with gold thread to be placed over his body[859]

 

 

EDWARD "of Windsor", son of EDWARD II King of England & his wife Isabelle de France (Windsor Castle 13 Nov 1312-Sheen Palace, near Richmond, Surrey 21 Jun 1377, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the birth “die sancti Bricii confessoris apud Wyndesore” 1312 of “ex Isabella regina...tercius Edwardus[860]The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the birth "circa Natale Domini" in 1312 of "Eduardo regi Anglić ex conjuge Izabella...filius...Eduardus"[861]He was created Earl of Chester 24 Nov 1312.  Created Comte de Ponthieu et de Montreuil 2 Sep 1325, and Duke of Aquitaine 10 Sep 1325.  Elected Keeper of the Realm at an extraordinary council held in Bristol 26 Oct 1326, after his father fled to Wales.  He was proclaimed EDWARD III King of England 25 Jan 1327, under the joint regency of his mother and her lover Roger Mortimer Earl of March.  Crowned 1 Feb 1327 at Westminster Abbey: the Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the coronation 1 Feb, 1327 from the context, “apud Westmonasterium” of “Edwardum Edwardi primogenitum quindecim circiter annorum adolescentem[862].  He overthrew the regents 20 Oct 1330 and assumed personal rule.  He formally assumed the title King of France Jan 1340.  As a mark of his love of chivalry, he founded the Order of the Garter in 1348.  His reign was marked by a successful constitutional balance and the maintenance of generally good relations with the barons.  A contemporary memorandum records the death 21 Jun 1377 “in manerio suo de Shene” of “dominus Edwardus [rege Anglić et Francić][863].  The Annals of Bermondsey record the death “1377…21 Jun” of “rex Edwardus tertius” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium[864]

[Betrothed ([1320]) to MARGUERITE de Hainaut, daughter of GUILLAUME III "le Bon" Comte de Hainaut [WILLEM III Count of Holland] & his wife Jeanne de Valois (24 Jun 1310-Le Quesnoy 23 Jun 1356, bur Valenciennes).  King Edward II requested papal dispensation for the marriage between “Edwardum filium nostrum primogenitum” and “Margaretam filiam...domini W. Hanonić, Holandić et Selandić comitis ac domini Frisić” by charter dated 5 Nov 1320[865].  King Edward II wrote to “domino W, Hanonić, Hollandić et Selandić comiti ac domino Frisić” requesting his intervention with papal representatives concerning the marriage (“super contrahendo matrimonio”) between “Edwardum filium nostrum primogenitum” and “--- filiam vestram” by charter dated 30 Mar 1321[866].  It is uncertain whether a betrothal was agreed following negotiations for this proposed marriage.] 

m (1326, Papal dispensation 30 Aug 1327, by proxy Valenciennes 28 Oct 1327, York Minster 24 Jan 1328) PHILIPPA de Hainaut, daughter of GUILLAUME V “le Bon” Comte de Hainaut Count of Holland & his wife Jeanne de Valois (Valencienne or Mons [1313/14]-Windsor Castle 15 Aug 1369, bur Westminster Abbey).  The question of Philippa´s birth date has been studied by Bert M. Kamp who concluded that she was born "about 1314", bearing in mind the series of documents which indicate the earlier negotiations for the betrothal of her future husband to her oldest sister Marguerite[867].  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that "dominus Ludewicus et rex Anglie et marchio Iuliacensis" had married "tres…sorores…fillies comitis Hannonie sive Hollandie"[868].  Froissart records the marriage in "1327" [presumably O.S.] of "li jones rois Edouwars" and "Phelippe de Hainnau" in "l´eglise cathedral, que on dist de Saint Guillaume", adding that the king was 17 years old and "la joine roine sus le point de quatorze ans"[869].  Assuming that the last passage should be interpreted as meaning that Philippa was nearly, but not yet, 14 years old, it would place her birth in late January or early February 1314.  However, the text may not be totally reliable as King Edward would only have been 16 years old at the time of the marriage if his birth is correctly stated as 13 Nov 1312 as shown below.  The papal dispensation for the marriage between “Edvardo regi Anglić” and “Philippć natć...Guillielmi comitis Hanonić” is dated 30 Aug 1327[870].  She was crowned Queen 2 or 20 Feb 1328 at Westminster Abbey, and again 18 Feb or 4 Mar 1330 at Westminster Abbey.  The Chronicon Anglić records the death “in dia Assumptionis Beatć Marić” of “domina Philippa regina Anglić” and her burial “apud Westmonasterium”, dated to 1369 from the context[871]

Mistress (1): ([1363/74]) ALICE Perrers née ---, widow of [JOHN] [Janyn] Perrers, daughter of --- (-1400).  “Johan de Kendale de Londres taillour” complained that “monseigneur William Wyndesore et Alice sa femme” had wrongfully withheld money from the price of cloth bought by Alice “en Grascherchestrate de Londres al feste de Nativite de Seint Johan le Baptiste lan de regne seigneur Edward xxxiiii” [24 Jun 1360][872].  “Johan de Kendale” requested the king to order “Alice Perers” to pay for cloth bought by “Janyn Perers iadiz baroun la dite Alice qi executrice ele” in “lan...seigneur Edward vostre aiel xxxiiii” [1360][873].  She was the king's mistress from [1363] until his death.  The Chronicon Anglić records that the king fell in love “adhuc vivente regina” with “in Anglia...mulier impudica, meretrix procacissima...Alicia cognomento Perrys, genere infima...cujusdam de villa de Henneye fuerat filia...pellice cujusdam [Lumbardi]” (with other uncomplimentary descriptions of her character)[874].  After King Edward III's death, she was tried for corruption, banished and her goods forfeited.  She married secondly ([10 Dec 1374/Apr 1376]) William de Wyndesore, Governor of Ireland, who was summoned to Parliament from 1381 whereby he is held to have become Lord Wyndesore[875].  The Chronicon Anglić records that “Alicia cognomento Perrys” was found in 1376 to have married “domino Willelmo de Windeshore qui tunc in Hibernia morabatur”, the king declaring that he knew nothing of the marriage[876].  The will of "Alice widow of William Wyndesor Knight", dated 15 Aug 1400, chose burial “in the parish church of Upmynster”, bequeathed property to “Joane my younger daughter my manor of Gaynes in Upminster...Jane and Joane my daughters all my other manors...which John Wyndsore or others have by his consent usurped”, and appointed “Joane my youngest daughter...” among her executors[877]

King Edward III & his wife had thirteen children:

1.         EDWARD "of Woodstock" (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 15 Jun 1330-Palace of Westminster 8 Jun 1376, bur Canterbury Cathedral, Kent).  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the birth 15 Jun 1330 “apud Wodestok” of “regi...primogenitus dominus Edwardus de Wodestok[878].  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “XVII Kal Jun” 1330 of “regi Edwardo primogenitus suus Edwardus ex regina sua[879].  Created Earl of Chester 18 May 1333, and Duke of Cornwall 3 Mar 1337.  He was created Prince of Wales 12 May 1343.  Known as the Black Prince.  Created Prince d’Aquitaine 19 Jul 1362 (which he resigned 28 Dec 1375 due to ill health).  Created Lord of Vizcaya and Castro Urdiales [in Castile] by Pedro I "el Cruel" King of Castile 23 Sep 1366.  The Chronicon Anglić records the death “VI Id Jun” of “princeps Wallić dux Cornubić et comes Cestrić Edwardus de Wodstock domini regis Edwardi tertii...primogenitus”, dated to 1376 from the context[880].  The Annals of Bermondsey record the death “apud Westmonasterium Dominica in festo Sanctć Trinitatis…8 Jun” in 1376 of “Edwardus princeps Wallić, primogenitus Edwardi regis tertii” and his burial “apud Cantuarium[881]Betrothed ([1340], contract terminated before Nov 1345) to MARGUERITE de Brabant, daughter of JEAN III Duke of Brabant & his wife Marie d'Evreux (9 Feb 1323-1368, bur Lille Saint-Pierre).  The marriage contract between “Edward...Roi d´Engleterre...nostre eisne filz Ducs de Cornewall” and “Johan Ducs de Lothringe, Brabantie et de Lemburgie et Markys de Seynt Empyre nostre...cousyn...damoisele Magaret file nostre dit cousyn” is dated 3 May 1340[882].  King Edward III requested papal dispensation for the marriage between “Johannem ducem Brabantić consanguineum nostrum...--- filiam dicti ducis Brabantić” and “Edwardum ducem Cornubić filium nostrum” by charter dated 30 Oct 1340[883].  King Edward III requested papal dispensation for the marriage between “Johannem ducem Brabantić consanguineum nostrum...filiam dicti ducis Brabantić” and “Rex...primogenitum nostrum Edwardum principem Wallić et comitem Cestrić”, as well as the marriage between “Johannem ducem Brabantić consanguineum nostrum...primogenitum dicti ducis” and “Rex...Isabellam filiam nostram” by charter dated 26 Oct 1344[884].  The marriage contract must have been terminated before Nov 1345 when negotiations started for Prince Edward´s marriage to one of the daughters of the king of Portugal[885]m (Papal dispensation 10 Sep 1361, St Stephen’s Chapel, Palace of Westminster or Canterbury Cathedral or Windsor Castle 10 Oct 1361) as her third husband, JOAN Ctss of Kent, Baroness Woodstock and Baroness Wake, widow of THOMAS de Holand of Broughton, Buckinghamshire Lord Holand, daughter of EDMUND Earl of Kent & his wife Margaret Baroness Wake (29 Sep 1328-Wallingford Castle, Berkshire 7, 8 or 21 Aug 1385, bur 29 Jan 1386 Greyfriars Church, Stamford, Lincolnshire, probably later transferred to London).  The papal dispensation for the marriage between “Edwardi regis Anglić...filii...Edwardi de Wodestok principis Wallić dicti regis primogeniti” and “Johannć comitissć Cantić” is dated 10 Sep 1361[886].  A charter dated 10 Oct 1361 records the marriage between “domini Edwardi principis Wallić...Edwardi regis Anglić primogeniti” and “Johannć comitissć Cantić” is dated 10 Sep 1361[887].  The Chronicon Anglić records the marriage of “Edwardus princeps Wallić” and “Johannam comitissam Cancić relictam domini Thomć de Holand”, adding that she had been separated “olim...a comite Sarisburić”, dated to 1361 from the context[888].  She was known as the Fair Maid of Kent.  Mistress (1): EDITH de Willesford, daughter of --- (-after 8 May 1385).  Weir names “Edith de Willesford” as the mother of Edward´s son Roger de Clarendon[889].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.  Mistress (2): --- .  The name of Edward's second mistress is not known.  Mistress (3): ---.  The name of Edward's third mistress is not known.  Edward Prince of Wales & his wife had two children: 

a)         EDWARD (Angoulęme 27 Jan 1365-Bordeaux Jan 1372, bur Bordeaux, later transferred to Church of the Austin Friars, London).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “apud Angelismum” of “Edwardo principi Wallić et Aquitanić...filius...Edwardus”, adding that he died “anno ćtatis suo septimo”, dated to 1365 from the context[890]

b)         RICHARD (Bordeaux [6] Jan 1367-Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire, probably murdered 6 Jan or 14 Feb 1400, bur King’s Langley Church, Hertfordshire, transferred 1413 to Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “apud Burdegalium” of “domino Edwardo principi Wallić et Aquitannić...Ricardus filius suus secundus”, dated to 1366 from the context[891].  Created Prince of Wales, Earl of Cornwall and Earl of Chester 20 Nov 1376.  He succeeded his grandfather in 1377 as RICHARD II King of England.  Crowned at Westminster Abbey 16 Jul 1377.  Deposed 19 Aug 1399 by his cousin Henry of Bolingbroke, he formally abdicated 29 Sep 1399.  m firstly (contract 2 May 1381, St Stephen’s Chapel, Palace of Westminster 14, 20 or 22 Jan 1382) ANNA of Bohemia, daughter of Emperor KARL IV, King of Germany and Bohemia & his fourth wife Elisabeth von Pommern (Prague 11 May 1366-Sheen Palace, near Richmond, Surrey 7 Jun 1394, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicon Bohemicum Anonymi records the birth in 1366 of "primogenita Anna Regina Anglić"[892].  A charter dated 26 Dec 1380 records negotiations for the marriage between “dominam Annam natam quondam...Karoli nuper Romanorum Imperatoris et regis Bohemić” and “Rex[893].  The contract for the marriage between “domina Anna...Romanorum et Bohemić regis soror” and “Richardo eregi Anglić et Francić” is dated 2 May 1381[894].  She was crowned Queen 22 Jan 1382 at Westminster Abbey.  The Annals of Bermondsey record the death “1394…7 Jun” of “Anna regina Anglić uxor regis Ricardi secundi” and her burial “apud Westmonasterium[895].  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records the death “in festo Pentecostes...in manerio de Schene juxta Braynfort super Thamesiam” 1394 of “domina Anna Anglie regina” and her burial “in crastino ad Vincula Sancti Petri[896].  She died of the plague.  m secondly (contract Paris 9 Mar 1396, by proxy Sainte-Chapelle, Palais Royal, Paris 12 Mar 1396, Calais Saint-Nicolas 1 Nov 1396, not consummated) as her first husband, ISABELLE de France, daughter of CHARLES VI King of France & his wife Elisabeth [Isabelle] von Bayern-Ingolstadt (Palais du Louvre, Paris 9 Nov 1389-Château de Blois 13 Sep 1409, bur Blois, Abbaye de Saint Laumer, later removed to Paris, église des Célestins).  The marriage contract between “[le] Roy d´Angleterre” and “[le roy de France] nostre...niece” is dated 9 Mar 1396[897].  The Annals of Bermondsey record the marriage “1396…circa festum Omnium Sanctorum apud Caleys” of “Isabella regina regi Ricardo” and her coronation “8 Jan…apud Westmonasterium[898].  Her first marriage sealed the four-year peace with England concluded by her father in 1395.  Imprisoned after the deposition of her husband, she returned to France in Aug 1401.  She married secondly (contract 5 Jun 1406, Compičgne, Oise 6 Jun 1407) as his first wife, Charles d'Orléans Comte d'Angoulęme, who succeeded in 1407 as Duc d'Orléans. 

Edward Prince of Wales had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

c)          ROGER de Clarendon ([1345/60]-executed Tyburn 1402).  The testament of Edward Prince of Wales, dated 7 Jun 1376, bequeathed “to Roger de Clarendon a silk bed” but does not specify any family relationship with the testator[899].  The Annales Ricardi Secundi et Henrici Quarti Regum Anglić record that “dominus Rogerus Claryndone miles filius ut dicebatur nothus quondam...Edwardi filii regis Edwardi tertii” was hanged in 1402[900]The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “dominus Rogerus Claryndone miles fraterque regis Ricardi spurius” was hanged “apud Tybornam Londoniis”, dated to 1402 from the context[901].  m MARGARET, daughter of [JOHN Fleming] & his wife --- (-Sep 1382).  Weir names “Margaret (d. 1382) daughter of John Fleming Baron de la Roche” as the wife of Edward´s son Roger de Clarendon[902].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

Edward Prince of Wales had [one illegitimate son by Mistress (2)]:

d)         [EDWARD ([1349]-young).  Weir records “Edward (b.c. 1349, d. young)” as an illegitimate son of Edward Prince of Wales[903].  The primary source which confirms that this information is correct has not been identified.] 

Edward Prince of Wales had [one illegitimate son by Mistress (3)]:

e)         [JOHN Sounder (-after 1382).  “John Sounder” is named as an illegitimate son of Edward Prince of Wales[904].  His supposed existence is based only on a passage in Froissart who refers to an illegitimate brother of the English king (at that time Richard II): Froissart records that, during the campaign in Portugal led by Edmund of Langley, dated to 1382, "un chevalier bastart frčre au roi d´Engletičre...messires Jehans Soutrée" led a rebellion of English troops at Vila Vicosa[905].  Given-Wilson & Curteis say that "there can be little doubt that [Froissart] was getting confused here and that it is John de Southeray [bastard son of King Edward III, see below] to whom he refers"[906].] 

2.         ISABELLA (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 16 Feb or [Mar] or 16 Jun [1332 or 1334]-[15 Mar/4 May] 1379 or [17 Jun/5 Oct] 1382, bur Greyfriars Church, Newgate, London).  The Chroniculum of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the birth in 1332 “apud Wodestoke” of “domina Isabella filia regis de Philippa regina Anglie[907].  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records that the king celebrating Christmas (1333 from the context) “apud Walingford cum regina pregnante” who later gave birth “apud Wodestok...filiam suam Isabellam[908].  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth of “regi filia Isabella”, dated to late 1333 or early 1334 from the context[909].  King Edward III requested papal dispensation for the marriage between “Johannem ducem Brabantić consanguineum nostrum...filiam dicti ducis Brabantić” and “Rex...primogenitum nostrum Edwardum principem Wallić et comitem Cestrić”, as well as the marriage between “Johannem ducem Brabantić consanguineum nostrum...primogenitum dicti ducis” and “Rex...Isabellam filiam nostram” by charter dated 26 Oct 1344[910].  A charter dated 13 Mar 1346 (O.S.) records the renewal of the contract for the marriage between “Loys contes de Flandres, de Nevers et de Rechest” and “Edward...Roi d´Engleterre...Ysabel ainsnee fille[911].  This betrothal must have been terminated soon afterwards as Louis II Count of Flanders married in the following June.  The contract for the marriage between “Rex...Isabellam primogenitam nostram” and “Bernardo Ezii domino de Lebreto...Bernardi Ezii filii senioris et hćredis dicti domini de Lebreto” is dated 1 May 1351[912].  It is unlikely that the name of the future bridegroom in this document can be correct.  The testament of "domini Johannis comitis Armaniaci", dated 18 Feb 1347, names Bernard Aiz as second son of Bernard Aiz [V] Sire d´Albret and Arnaud Amanieu [VIII] as his oldest son and heir[913].  It appears unlikely that the advisers of King Edward III (who was suzerain of Gascony including the Albret properties) would have been unaware of the identity of the heir to Albret.  It is equally unlikely that the king would have agreed the marriage of his oldest daughter to the second son of the sire d´Albret.  It is therefore more probable that the future bridegroom was Arnaud Amanieu [VIII] and that there is an error in the name inserted in the charter.  The Chronicon Anglić records the marriage “apud Wyndeshourc” of “Ingehamus dominus de Couuci” and “Isabellam filiam regis Edwardi tertii”, dated to 1365 from the context[914].  The History of the monastery at Soissons records that "Enguerandus dominus de Coucy" had "duas filias Mariam…et Philippam" from his first wife "filia Eduardi Anglić regis"[915].  She remained in England after her husband resigned his English honours in 1377.  “Ingelramus de Coucy et Isabella uxor eius amita nostra” swore allegiance to Richard II King of England by charter dated 15 Mar 1379[916]Betrothed ([1344], contract terminated before 1347) to HENRI de Brabant, son of JEAN III Duke of Brabant & his wife Marie d'Evreux (-29 Nov 1349, bur Terveuren).  Betrothed (before 1347, renewed 13 Mar 1347, terminated before 6 Jun 1347) to LOUIS II “de Mâle” Count of Flanders, son of LOUIS I Count of Flanders & his wife Marguerite de France Ctss d'Artois (Maldeghem/Mâle, near Bruges 25 Nov 1330-Saint-Omer 30 Jan 1383, bur Lille Saint-Pierre).  Betrothed (contract 1 May 1351) to [ARNAUD AMANIEU [VIII] d'Albret], son of BERNARD AIZ [V] Sire d'Albret & his second wife Mathe d'Armagnac (-1401).  m (Windsor Castle 27 Jul 1365) as his first wife, ENGUERRAND [VII] Seigneur de Coucy, son of ENGUERRAND [VI] Seigneur de Coucy [Guines] & his wife Katharina of Austria ([1339]-Bursa, Anatolia of plague 18 Nov 1397, bur Soissons, Abbaye de Villeneuve). 

3.         JOAN (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Feb] [1334/35]-Loremo, Bordeaux of the Black Death 2 Sep 1348, bur Loremo or Bordeaux or Bayonne Cathedral).  The Chronicon Anglić records in 1338 that “dominus rex...cum Philippa regina et duabus [filiabus] eorum” sailed for Flandedrs[917], which places the birth of Joan in [1334/35] assuming that the birth dates of the king´s other children are recorded accurately in the same source.  The marriage contract between “Rex...Johannć filić nostrć” and “Alberto...Duci Austrić, Tirolić et Karinthić, domino Carniolć, Marchić, ac Portusuaonis, comiti in Habepurth necnon Lantgrave Alsatić, dominoque Phirrettarum...Duci Friderico fratrueli vestro” and “Rex...Johannć filić nostrć” is dated 12 Jun 1341[918].  The marriage contract between “Alfonso...Castellć Rege...consanguineo nostro...primogenitum dicti regis” and “Rex...Johannam filiam nostram” by charter dated 2 Jan 1345[919].  King Edward III wrote a series of letters relating to the same betrothal dated 30 Aug 1345[920].  King Edward III appointed proxies to ratify the marriage contract between “rege Castellć...consanguineum nostrum primogenitum dicti regis” and “Johannam filiam nostram” by charter dated 17 Mar 1345 (O.S.)[921].  A charter dated 1 Jan 1348 notified “Alfonso...Castellć...Regi” of arrangements made for the journey of “Edwardus...[rex]...Johannam filiam nostram” to Gascony for her marriage to “primogenito vestro Petro[922].  The Chronicle of Geoffrey le Baker of Swinbrook records the death “apud Burdegalia in magna pestilencia” of “filia regis domina Iohanna” and her burial there[923].  A charter dated 15 Sep 1348 notified “Alfonso...Castellć...Regi” of the death of “Johannam filiam nostris...Burdegalis[924]Betrothed (contract 12 Jun 1341) to FRIEDRICH of Austria, son of OTTO Duke of Austria & his first wife Elisabeth von Bayern (10 Feb 1327-11 or 16 Dec 1344, bur Neuberg im Mürztal, Cistercian Monastery).  Betrothed (contract 2 Jan 1345) to Infante don PEDRO de Castilla y León, son of ALFONSO IX King of Castile & his second wife Infanta dona Maria de Portugal (Burgos 30 Aug 1334-murdered Montiel 22 Mar 1369, bur Seville Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1350 as PEDRO I "el Cruel" King of Castile

4.         WILLIAM "of Hatfield" (Hatfield, Yorkshire [1336]-Hatfield Yorkshire before 3 Mar 1337, bur York Minster).  The Chronicon Anglić records that “regina Anglić” gave birth “apud Hathfield” to “filium...Willelmus” who died “statim postea diem” and was buried “apud Eboracum”, dated to 1336 from the context[925].  His death “before 3 Mar 1337” is recorded in Weir[926], but the primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

5.         LIONEL "of Antwerp" (Antwerp 29 Nov 1338-Alba, Piémont 17 Oct 1368, bur Pavia, later removed to Clare Priory, Suffolk).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “apud Andwerp” of “regi Edwardo filius...Leonellus”, dated to 1338 from the context[927].  Guardian of England 1 Jul 1345-25 Jun 1346.  Earl of Ulster 1347, de iure uxoris.  Created Duke of Clarence 13 Nov 1362.  According to Buchon, the name “Clarence” derives from the port town of Klarentza, built near Andravida in the principality of Achaia to ensure communication between the newly established principality and western Europe, which was bequeathed by Mathilde de Hainaut titular princess of Achaia to her cousin Philippa de Hainaut, wife of King Edward III[928].  Chief Governor of Ireland 1 Jul 1361-1364, 1364-1365, and during 1367.  The Chronicon Anglić records the marriage of “Leonellus dux Clarencić regis Edwardi terii filius” and “filiam domini Galias domini Mediolani”, dated to May 1368 from the context, but adding that Lionel died “circa festum Nativitatis [Beatć Marić] proximo sequens[929].  The will of "Lionel Duke of Clarence", dated 3 Oct 1368 proved 8 Jun 1369, chose burial “in the church of the Friars Augustines of Clare in the county of Suffolk”, bequeathed property to “Violenta my wife...[930].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in 1368 "ad civitatem Albć" of "Domino Lionello Duci Clarencić filio Regis Anglić", and the transfer of his body "in Apulia"[931]m firstly (contract 5 May 1341, Tower of London 15 Aug 1342, and Reading Abbey 9 Sep 1342, consummated 1352) ELIZABETH de Burgh Ctss of Ulster, daughter and heiress of WILLIAM de Burgh Earl of Ulster & his wife Matilda of Lancaster ([Carrickfergus Castle, Ulster] 6 Jul 1332-Dublin [10 Dec] 1363, bur Clare Priory, Suffolk).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Elizabetha de Borow” as daughter and heiress of “Willelmo”, son of “Johannem de Borow comitem de Holvestre”, adding that she married “Leonellus filius secundus Regis Edwardi tertii[932].  She succeeded as Ctss of Ulster in 1333 on the murder of her father.  The marriage contract between “Elizabetham filiam et hćredem Willielmi de Burgo nuper comitis Ultonić defuncti” and “Rex...Leonello filio nostro” is dated 5 May 1341[933].  The will of "Elizabeth de Burg Lady of Clare", dated 25 Sep 1355, proved 3 Dec 1360, bequeathed property to “dame Elizabeth countess of Ulster, the debt which my son, her father, owed me at his death...my daughter Bardolf...Monsr John Bardolf and to my said daughter his wife...my joesne fille Isabel Bardolf to her marriage, Agnes her sister to her marriage...Monsieur William de Ferrers...Monsr Thomas Furnival...my daughter Countess of Athol...[934]m secondly (contracts 19 Jan 1367 and Westminster 15 May 1367, Milan, Santa Maria Maggiore 28 May 1368) as her first husband, VIOLANTE Visconti, daughter of GALEAZZO II Visconti Lord of Milan & his wife Blanche Marie de Savoie (1354-Pavia Nov 1386, bur Pavia San Agostino).  A charter dated 30 Jul 1366 records negotiations for the marriage between “domino Galachio domino Mediolanensi...Violantam filiam” and “Leonellum ducem Clarencić comitem Ultonić[935].  The contract for the marriage between “Galeaz vicecomes Mediolani...Violantem secundo-genitam nostram” and “dominum Leonelum ducem Clarencić secundo-genitum...domini regis” is dated 19 Jan 1367[936].  Another contract for the marriage between “Galeacii domini Mediolanensis...Violantem...filiam” and “dominum Leonellum ducem Clarencić” is dated 15 May 1367[937].  The Chronicon Anglić records the marriage of “Leonellus dux Clarencić regis Edwardi terii filius” and “filiam domini Galias domini Mediolani”, dated to May 1368 from the context, but adding that Lionel died “circa festum Nativitatis [Beatć Marić] proximo sequens[938].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in 1368 of "Galeaz vicecomes unicam filiam suam…Violantem juvenem" and "Domino Lionello Duci Clarencić filio Regis Anglić", adding that her dowry was "civitatem Albć et plura Castra Pedemontium…Montem-Vicum, Cunium, Carascum et Demontem et plura alia, cum etiam maximo thesauro" {Alba, Mondovi, Cuneo, Cherasco and Demonte} and that the marriage was consummated at Milan[939].  She married secondly (contract 15 Jun 1377, Pavia 2 Aug 1377) Secondotto Marchese di Monferrato (1361-murdered Langhirano, near Parma Dec 1378).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Aug 1377 of "Dominus Galeaz Vicecomes…Dominam Violantem eius filiam, uxorem quondam Domini Leonelli filii Regis Anglić" and "Marchioni Secundino Montis-ferrati"[940].  Benvenuto di San Giorgio quotes the marriage contract dated 15 Jun 1377 between "Jo. Galeaz vicecomes Mediolani comes Virtutum…filius…Galeaz vicecomitis Mediolani…imperialis vicarii generalis…D. Violantam ipsius D. comitis sororem genitam ex prćdicto…D. Galeaz" and "D. Secundottonis Marchionis Montis-ferrati"[941]She married thirdly (18 Apr 1381, Nov 1381) her first cousin, Lodovico Visconti Signore di Lodi (Sep 1358-18 Apr 1381).  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the marriage in Nov 1381 of "Dominus Comes Virtutem…Dominam Violantem sororem suam" and "Domino Ludovico filio…Domini Bernabovis"[942].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death "in civitate Papić" in Nov 1386 of "Domina Violans soror…domini comitis Virtutem et uxor Domini Ludovici filii quondam Domini Bernabovis Vicecomitis" and her burial "in ecclesia S. Augustini in cittadella Papić prope sepulturam Domini Galeaz patris sui"[943].  Lionel Duke of Clarence & his first wife had one child:

a)         PHILIPPA (Eltham Palace, Kent 16 Aug 1355-[21 Nov 1378/9 Feb 1381], bur Cork, Ireland, later transferred to Wigmore, Herefordshire).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Philippa” as only daughter of “Leonellus filius secundus Regis Edwardi tertii” and his wife Elizabeth, adding that she married “domino Edmundo comiti Marchić[944].  She succeeded her mother in 1363 as Ctss of Ulster.  A charter dated 5 Mar 1364 records that “filio nostro Leonello duci Clarencić...consanguineam nostram comitissam Marchić filiam ipsius ducis” was brought from Ireland to England[945].  The will of "Philippa de Mortimer Countess of March", dated 21 Nov 1378, proved 9 Feb 1381, chose burial “in the Conventual Church of the Holy Trinity in the Priory of Bustelesham Montagu...near the body of my...father”, bequeathed property to “Edmond my son[946]m (Queen’s Chapel, Reading Abbey before 5 Mar 1364) EDMUND [III] Mortimer Earl of March, son of ROGER [VI] de Mortimer Lord Mortimer Earl of March & his wife Philippa de Montagu (Llangoed, Llyswen, Breconshire 1 Feb 1352-Cork, Dominican Friary 27 Dec 1381, bur Cork, Dominican Friary, later transferred to Wigmore).  Earl of Ulster, Lord of Connaught, and Lord of Clare in Suffolk 1368, by right of his wife, having livery of her inheritance 24 Aug 1369 when she came of age.  Marshal of England, resigned 1376.  He sided with the Prince of Wales and the clergy, against John of Gaunt and the Barons.  Appointed to the Council of Regency on the accession of King Richard II.  Appointed King's Lieutenant in Ireland 22 Oct 1379, arriving in Ireland 15 May 1380.  

6.         JOHN "of Gaunt" (St Bavon’s Abbey, Ghent [Feb/Mar] 1340-[Leicester Castle or Ely Place, Holborn, London] ľ Feb 1399, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “apud Gandavum” of “regi Edwardo filius...Johannes”, dated to 1340 from the context[947].  Created Earl of Richmond 20 Sep 1342, surrendered 5 Jun 1372.  He was summoned to Parliament as Earl of Lancaster and Richmond 14 Aug 1361.  Created Duke of Lancaster 13 Nov 1362. 

-        see below, Part C.  HOUSE of LANCASTER

7.         EDMUND "of Langley" (Abbot’s Langley, Hertfordshire 5 Jun 1341-King’s Langley, Hertfordshire 1 Aug 1402, bur King’s Langley, Church of the Dominican Friars).  The Chronicon Anglić records that “Philippa regina Anglić” gave birth 5 Jun “apud Langley juxta Sanctum Albanum” to “filium...Edmundus”, dated to 1341 from the context[948].  Created Earl of Cambridge 13 Nov 1362.  Created Duke of York 6 Aug 1385. 

-        see below, Part D.  HOUSE of YORK

8.         BLANCHE (Tower of London [1342]-Tower of London [1342], bur Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicon Anglić records that “regina” gave birth “in turri Londoniarum” to “filiam...Blanchiam” who died “inter lactandum” and was buried “apud Westmonasterium”, dated to [1340/41] from the context[949].  Assuming that the births of the king´s other children are correctly dated in the same source, Blanche was more probably born in 1342, but this is not beyond doubt. 

9.         MARY (Waltham, near Winchester, Hampshire 10 Oct 1344-1362 after 25 Dec, bur Abingdon Abbey, Oxfordshire).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth of “Edwardo regi...filia...Maria” who later married “duci Britannić” but died “prćmature”, dated to 1344 from the context[950].  The Chronicon Britannicum records that “Johannes dux Britannić comes Montisfortis et Richemundić” married firstly “Mariam filiam regis Anglić[951]m (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire Summer 1361) as his first wife, JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany, son of JEAN IV Duke of Brittany & his wife Jeanne de Flandre ([Nov/Dec] 1339 or [30 Sep/8 Dec] 1340-Nantes 1/2 Nov 1399, bur Nantes Cathedral).

10.      MARGARET (Calais or Windsor Castle 20 Jul 1346-soon after 1 Oct 1361, bur Abingdon Abbey, Oxfordshire).  The Chronicon Anglić records that “regina” gave birth “III Kal Aug” to “filiam...Margaretam”, dated to 1346 from the context[952]m (Reading Abbey 19 May 1359) as his first wife, JOHN Hastings Earl of Pembroke, son of LAURENCE de Hastings Earl of Pembroke & his wife Agnes de Mortimer (Sutton Valence 29 Aug 1347-Picardy 1375, bur Hereford Church of the Friars Preachers). 

11.      THOMAS "of Windsor" (Windsor Castle Summer 1347-[1348]), bur King’s Langley Church, Hertfordshire).  The information relating to Thomas is recorded in Weir[953], but the primary sources on which it is based have not been identified. 

12.      WILLIAM "of Windsor" (Windsor Castle before 24 Jun 1348-before 5 Sep 1348, bur Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “...Willelmus de Wyndesore qui jacet Westmonasterio” at the end of a list of children of King Edward III[954].  The dates shown above are recorded in Weir[955], but the primary sources on which they are based have not been identified. 

13.      THOMAS "of Woodstock" (Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire 7 Jan 1356-murdered Prince’s Inn, Calais 8/9 Sep 1397, bur Pleshy, Essex, Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “VII Id Jan...apud Wodstok” of “regi Edwardo...filius...Thomas”, dated to [1355 O.S.] from the context[956].  Appointed Constable of England 10 Jun 1376, renewed after the accession of King Richard II 22 Jun 1377.  He was created Earl of Buckingham 16 Jul 1377.  He succeeded as Earl of Essex 22 Jun 1380, de iure uxoris after she came of age.  Duke of Aumâle from before 3 Sep 1385.  He was created Duke of Gloucester 6 Aug 1385.  He was foremost of the nobles who obtained the condemnation of Michael de la Pole Earl of Suffolk, the King's favourite, and the confiscation of his estates in Oct 1386.  King Richard II arrested him at Pleshy 11 Jul 1397, from where he was taken to Calais.  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records that “Thomas Wodestoke dux Gloucestrić” was killed “1397 V Non Oct…apud Callis” and buried at Westminster[957].  He was declared guilty of treason after his death, and his estates forfeited.  m (before 8 Feb 1376) ELEANOR de Bohun, daughter of HUMPHREY [X] de Bohun Earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton & his wife Joan FitzAlan ([1366]-Minoresses’ Convent, Aldgate, London 3 Oct 1399, bur Westminster Abbey).  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey names “Alianoram…et Mariam” as the two daughters of “Humfredus filius domini Willielmi de Bohun, comitis de Northampton” and his wife “dominam Joannam filiam comitis Arundellć”, adding that Eleanor was wife of “domino Thomć de Woodstock…regis Anglić Edwardi tertii filio, duci Gloucestrić et comiti Buckinghamić[958].  The will of "Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester, Countess of Essex", dated 9 Aug 1399, chose burial “in the church of the abbey of Westminster...near the body of my...husband Thomas Duke of Gloucester and seventh son of King Edward the Third”, bequeathed property to “my...mother the Countess of Hereford...my son Humphrey...my daughter Anne...my daughter Johanne...my daughter Isabel sister to the...Minoresses[959].  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records the death “1399 V Non Oct” of “Elianora ducissa Gloucestrić” and her burial at Westminster[960].  Thomas Duke of Gloucester & his wife had [five] children:

a)         HUMPHREY ([1381]-2 Sep 1399, bur Walden Abbey, Essex).  The will of "Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester, Countess of Essex", dated 9 Aug 1399, bequeathed property to “my...mother the Countess of Hereford...my son Humphrey...my daughter Anne...my daughter Johanne...my daughter Isabel sister to the...Minoresses[961].  Called Earl of Buckingham, but because of his father's attainder he never succeeded to the peerage.  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records the death “1399 IV Non Sep” of “Humfridus de Boun filius Thomć Woodstoke ducis Gloucestrić” and his burial at Walden[962]

b)         ANNE (Apr 1383-[16] Oct 1438, bur Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire).  The will of "Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester, Countess of Essex", dated 9 Aug 1399, bequeathed property to “my...mother the Countess of Hereford...my son Humphrey...my daughter Anne...my daughter Johanne...my daughter Isabel sister to the...Minoresses[963].  She was recognised as Ctss of Buckingham, Hereford and Northampton, Lady of Brecknock and Holderness, from 1399.  The will of "Anne Countess of Stafford, Bockingh, Herford and Northampton, and Lady of Breknoc", dated 16 Oct 1438, chose burial “in ye churche of L’Anthony byside Gloucestre”, appointed “my sones Thomas bysshop of Worcestre, Henry Erle of Eue, Will Bougchiers, John Bourghiers...” and required “my...sone Humfrey Erle of Stafford” to oversee execution of the will[964]m firstly ([1390], not consummated) THOMAS de Stafford Earl of Stafford, son of HUGH de Stafford Earl of Stafford & his wife Philippa de Beauchamp (1368 or before-Westminster 4 Jul 1392, bur Stone, Staffordshire).  m secondly (before 28 Jun 1398) her brother-in-law, EDMUND de Stafford Earl of Stafford, son of HUGH de Stafford Earl of Stafford & his wife Philippa de Beauchamp (2 Mar 1378-killed in battle Shrewsbury 21 Jul 1403, bur Stafford, Church of the Austin Friars).  He succeeded his brother in 1395 as Earl of Stafford.  Appointed Constable of England 21 Jul 1403.  m thirdly (before 20 Nov 1405) WILLIAM Bourchier, son of WILLIAM Bourchier & his wife Eleanor de Lovayne [Louvain] (-Troyes 28 May 1420, bur Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire).  He was appointed Constable of the Tower of London 26 Nov 1415.  Comte d'Eu 10 Jun 1419.

c)         JOAN (1384-16 Aug 1400, bur Walden Abbey, Essex).  The will of "Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester, Countess of Essex", dated 9 Aug 1399, bequeathed property to “my...mother the Countess of Hereford...my son Humphrey...my daughter Anne...my daughter Johanne...my daughter Isabel sister to the...Minoresses[965].  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey records the death in 1400 of “Johanna filia Thomć Woodstoke ducis Gloucestrić” and her burial at Walden[966]Betrothed ([20 May 1392]) to GILBERT Talbot, son of RICHARD Talbot Lord Talbot & his wife Ankaret Lestrange (1383-Rouen 19 Oct 1418).  He succeeded his father in 1396 as Lord Talbot.  He succeeded his mother 1 Jun 1413 as Lord Strange [of Blackmere].  He died at the siege of Rouen. 

d)         ISABELLA (12 Mar 1386-[Apr 1402]).  Weir names Isabella “born on 12 March 1385/6 and became a nun at the Minoresses´ Convent in Aldgate, London on 23 April 1399. She died in c. April 1402” as the daughter of Thomas Duke of Gloucester[967].  The primary sources on which these dates are based have not been identified.  Nun at the Minoresses’ Convent, Aldgate, London.  The will of "Eleanor Duchess of Gloucester, Countess of Essex", dated 9 Aug 1399, bequeathed property to “my...mother the Countess of Hereford...my son Humphrey...my daughter Anne...my daughter Johanne...my daughter Isabel sister to the...Minoresses[968]

e)         [PHILIPPA ([1389]-before 3 Oct 1399).  Weir names Philippa “born in c. 1389 and died before 3 Oct 1399” as the youngest child of Thomas Duke of Gloucester[969].  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Anna comitissa Staffordić.  [new line] Philippa.  Comes Staffordić” after “[Thomas dux Gloucestrić.][970].  Anne Countess of Stafford is clearly intended as one of the children of Thomas Duke of Gloucester.  However, the layout of the manuscript as printed is curious and the meaning of “Philippa.  Comes Staffordić” on a separate line is unclear.  It is uncertain whether the document should be interpreted as indicating that Philippa was another daughter of the duke.  Until more information comes to light, it is suggested that the existence of Philippa should be treated with caution.] 

King Edward had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):  

14.       JOHN de Southeray ([1364/65]-after 1383).  [Froissart records that, during the campaign in Portugal led by Edmund of Langley, dated to 1382, "un chevalier bastart frčre au roi d´Engletičre...messires Jehans Soutrée" led a rebellion of English troops at Vila Vicosa[971].  Read literally, this passage would refer to an illegitimate brother of King Richard II (see above).  However, Given-Wilson & Curteis say that "there can be little doubt that [Froissart] was getting confused here and that it is John de Southeray [bastard son of King Edward III] to whom he refers"[972].]  The “list of goods of John Southerey arrested among those of Alice Perrers” is undated[973]m (Jan 1377) MATILDA de Percy, daughter of HENRY de Percy Lord Percy & his first wife Mary of Lancaster.  Given-Wilson & Curteis state that John de Southeray was married in Jan 1377 to "Maud sister of Henry Lord Percy"[974].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

15.       JANE .  Given-Wilson & Curteis name "Joan Skerne" and “Jane Northland” as illegitimate children of King Edward III[975].  Weir names “Joan...married Robert Skerne of Kingston-upon-Thames, and perhaps had issue” and “Joan or Jane...married Richard Northland” as the two daughters[976].  The primary sources on which this information is based have not been identified.  The will of "Alice widow of William Wyndesor Knight", dated 15 Aug 1400, bequeathed property to “Joane my younger daughter my manor of Gaynes in Upminster...Jane and Joane my daughters all my other manors...which John Wyndsore or others have by his consent usurped”, and appointed “Joane my youngest daughter...” among her executors[977].  m RICHARD Northland, son of ---. 

16.       JOAN (-before Jan 1431).  Given-Wilson & Curteis name "Joan Skerne" and “Jane Northland” as illegitimate children of King Edward III[978].  Weir names “Joan...married Robert Skerne of Kingston-upon-Thames, and perhaps had issue” and “Joan or Jane...married Richard Northland” as the two daughters[979].  The primary sources on which this information is based have not been identified, although the following record does appear to corroborate that Joan was the daughter of the king who, it is supposed, is unlikely to have granted a nobleman´s marriage to her if there was no family relationship.  “Joan daughter of Alice Wyndesor” petitioned the king to recover from “John de Wyndesore” money due to her from the sale of the marriage of “the Earl of Nottingham” which had been granted to her by King Edward III, dated to [1393/94][980].  The “Earl of Nottingham” is identified as John de Mowbray Lord Mowbray who was granted the title 16 Jul 1377[981]The will of "Alice widow of William Wyndesor Knight", dated 15 Aug 1400, bequeathed property to “Joane my younger daughter my manor of Gaynes in Upminster...Jane and Joane my daughters all my other manors...which John Wyndsore or others have by his consent usurped”, and appointed “Joane my youngest daughter...” among her executors[982]m (after [1393/94]) ROBERT Skerne, son of --- (-Apr 1437).  Lawyer of Kingston-upon-Thames, lived at Down Hall, Kingston. 

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of LANCASTER, descendants of EDMUND "Crouchback", son of King HENRY III

 

 

EDMUND “Crouchback/Gibbosus”, son of HENRY III King of England & his wife Eléonore de Provence (London 16 Jan 1245-Bayonne 5 Jun 1296, bur Westminster Abbey).  According to Matthew Paris, after his uncle Richard Earl of Cornwall refused the kingdom of Sicily, the Pope offered it to King Henry who accepted it on behalf of his son Edmund[983].  Nominated King of Sicily by Pope Innocent IV 14 May 1254, in opposition to Manfred von Hohenstaufen, invested 18 Oct 1255[984], although he never arrived in the country and was absolved of all his obligations with respect to Sicily by the Pope 8 Aug 1264.  Created Earl of Leicester 26 Oct 1265, in succession to Simon de Montfort, and Earl of Lancaster 30 Jun 1267, although never referred to as Earl.  Appointed Steward of England for life 9 May 1269, renounced 20 Aug 1274.  He was on crusade in Palestine 1270-1272.  Comte de Champagne et de Brie, in right of his second wife, 1276.  Commander in Wales 8 Aug 1277.  He captured Llywellyn Prince of Wales in 1282, beheaded him and set up his head in the Tower of London.  He died during the siege of Bordeaux.  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the death "in Gasconiam contra gentes regis Francić...apud Baionam" in 1296 of "Emundus regis Anglić frater"[985]

m firstly (contract 6 Apr 1269, Westminster Abbey 8/9 Apr 1269) AVELINE de Forz, daughter of WILLIAM de Forz Lord of Holderness, titular Comte d'Aumâle & his wife Isabel de Reviers (Burstwick, Yorkshire 20 Jan 1259-Stockwell, Surrey 10 Nov 1274, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "VI Id Apr" of "Eadmundus filius Henrici regis" and "filiam et hćredem comitis Aubemarlić" at Westminster[986].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in 1274 of "Avelina uxor domini Eadmundi regis filii comitissa Aubermarlić"[987].  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the death “circa festum Sancti Martini” in 1274 of “uxor domini Edmundi fratris…regis nostri[988]

m secondly (before 3 Feb 1276, or [27 Jul/29 Oct] 1276) as her second husband, BLANCHE d'Artois, widow of ENRIQUE I King of Navarre [HENRI III Comte de Champagne], daughter of ROBERT I Comte d’Artois [Capet] & his wife Mathilde de Brabant (1248-Paris 2 May 1302, probably bur Minoresses Convent, Aldgate, London).  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage in 1275 of “dominus Edmundus frater domini regis Anglorum” and “dominam reginam Naverić[989]The Gesta Philippi Tertia Francorum Regis of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in 1275 of "comes Attrebati Robertus...sororem...relictam regis Navarrć Henrici" and "Edmundo fratri regis Anglić Edoardi"[990]William of Tyre (Continuation) states that she was sister of the Comte d'Artois when recording the death of her first husband and remarriage in 1276 with Edmund[991].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage in 1276 of "Eadmundus comes Lancastrić dominis regis frater" and "reginam Navarrć"[992]

Earl Edmund & his second wife had three children:

1.         THOMAS of Lancaster ([1277/80]-executed Pontefract, Yorkshire 22 Mar 1322, bur Pontefract, Priory of St John).  He succeeded his father 1296 as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, declared of full age 8 Sep 1298.  Sheriff of Lancashire 1298.  Styled Earl Ferrers (Derby) from 1301.  Created Steward of England 2 May 1308.  He was one of the most active of the Barons opposing King Edward II, and the influence of the latter's favourite Piers Gaveston.  Leader of the Lords Ordainers appointed to control the King, he lacked the real ability to enforce the reforms needed.  Earl of Lincoln 5 Feb 1311, and Earl of Salisbury, both in right of his wife, he renounced these Earldoms when he divorced his wife [1318].  His relations with Edward II continued to deteriorate.  In Aug 1321 Thomas forced the banishment of Edward's favourites, the Despensers father and son.  By then in open rebellion against the King, his goods in the city of London were confiscated 16 Feb 1322 and his castle at Pontefract besieged 15 Mar 1322.  He was beheaded there in the King's presence a few days later.  The Book of Lacock records that “comiti de Lancaster, Leicester et de Ferrers, Thomć” was captured “1321 XI Kal Apr”, taken to Pontefract, and condemned to death in his own castle[993].  He was rehabilitated posthumously by Parliament 3 Feb 1327, after the deposition of Edward II.  Edward III even asked Pope John XXII to canonise Thomas.  Betrothed (1290) to BEATRIX de Bourgogne Dame de Montréal, daughter of HUGUES de Bourgogne & his wife Marguerite de Salins Dame de Montréal ([1281]-1291).  The marriage contract between “Edmundum filium regis Anglić...Thoma dicti Edmundi primogenito” and “Beatrice nata quondam Hugonis filii ducis Burgundić”, is dated Jul 1290[994]m (on or before 28 Oct 1294, divorced [1318]) as her first husband, ALICE de Lacy, daughter of HENRY de Lacy Earl of Lincoln & his first wife Margaret Longespee Ctss of Salisbury ([Denbigh Castle] 25 Dec 1281-2 Oct 1348, bur Barlings Abbey, Birling, Kent).  The Book of Lacock names “Alesiam” as the daughter of “d´no Henrico de Lacy comiti Lincolnić” and his wife Margaret, adding that she married “comiti de Lancaster, Leicester et de Ferrers, Thomć[995].  A manuscript narrating the descent of Hugh Earl of Chester to Alice Ctss of Lincoln names “Edmundum…et filiam Aleseiam” as children of “Henricum Lacy comitem Lincolnić”, adding that Alice married “domino Thomć comiti Lancastrić et Leicestrić” and after his death “domino Ebuloni de Strange[996].  A manuscript history of the Lacy family names “Alicia” as daughter of “Henricus de Lacy comes Lincolnić”, adding that she married “Thomć filio comitis Lancastrić[997].  She succeeded her mother as Ctss of Salisbury before 16 Jun 1310, and her father 5 Feb 1311 as Ctss of Lincoln.  She married secondly (before 10 Nov 1324) Ebles Le Strange, the squire of the Earl of Surrey who had abducted her in 1317, triggering her divorce from her first husband.  She married thirdly (before 23 Mar 1336) Hugh de Frene, Lord Frene. 

2.         HENRY of Lancaster "Tortcol/Wryneck" (Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire [1281]-Leicester 22 Sep 1345, bur Newark Abbey, Leicester).  He was known as Lord of Monmouth from 20 Mar 1297.  He was summoned to Parliament as Lord Lancaster from 6 Feb 1299.  He used the title Earl of Lancaster from 26 Oct 1326, and was restored to that earldom 3 Feb 1327 on his brother's rehabilitation. 

-        see below

3.         JOHN of Lancaster (before May 1286-in France before 1327).  Seigneur de Beaufort [en Champagne] et de Nogent-Lartauld.  The precise path by which John inherited or was vested with these seigneuries has not been ascertained.  Beaufort had been held by Félicité de Rethel, daughter of Manassčs [IV] Comte de Rethel and wife of Jean de Thourotte (see CHAMPAGNE NOBILITY).  She died without issue in the mid-13th century.  The subsequent fate of the seigneurie de Beaufort has not been traced.  A “Renaud de Beaufort” is recorded in 1277: "Renaus de Biaufort chevalier" donated property to Chapelle-aux-Planches by charter dated Feb 1276 (O.S.)[998], but the document does not state that he was “dominus”.  "Jehans de Lancastre sires de Biaufort et Aalis de Joinville...sa...espouse" donated “une nostre maison...Plain Chasnoy” to Chapelle-aux-Planches by charter dated Jul 1312[999]m (before Jul 1312) as her second husband, ALIX de Joinville, widow of JEAN Seigneur d'Arcis-sur-Aube et de Chacenay, daughter of JEAN Seigneur de Joinville, Sénéchal de Champagne [historian of Louis IX King of France] & his second wife Alix de Reynel (-after Mar 1336).  "Jean seigneur de Joinville" confirm the marriage of "sa fille Alix" and "Jean d'Arcis et de Chacenay", with the consent of "ses fils Jean seigneur d'Ancerville et Anseau seigneur de Rimaucourt", giving "ses neveux Gautier de Vaucouleurs et Gui de Sailly" as guarantors for the dowry, by charter dated 14 Sep 1300[1000].  "Jehans de Lancastre sires de Biaufort et Aalis de Joinville...sa...espouse" donated “une nostre maison...Plain Chasnoy” to Chapelle-aux-Planches by charter dated Jul 1312[1001].  An Arręt of the Parlement de Paris dated 2 Jun 1323 ordered the seizure of the property of "Alix de Joinville dame de Beaufort"[1002].  "Aaliz de Jainville dame de Biaufort et d'Arsis" donated property to the abbey of la Chapelle-aux-Planches by charter dated 19 Apr 1336[1003]

 

 

HENRY of Lancaster "Tortcol/Wryneck", son of EDMUND "Crouchback" Earl of Lancaster and Leicester & his second wife Blanche d'Artois [Capet] (Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire [1281]-Leicester 22 Sep 1345, bur Newark Abbey, Leicester).  Known as Lord of Monmouth from 20 Mar 1297.  Summoned to Parliament as Lord Lancaster from 6 Feb 1299.  He was among the barons who forced King Edward II to agree to the appointment of the Ordainers, the leader of whom was his older brother.  Although he joined the confederacy against the Despencers in 1320, he took no part in the rebellion of his brother Thomas.  He was restored to the earldom of Leicester 29 Mar 1324.  In Sep 1326, he joined the queen's party and Roger Mortimer against the king.  He was sent to in pursuit of Edward, who had fled to Wales, captured him at Neath and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth castle until 4 Apr 1327.  Used the title Earl of Lancaster from 26 Oct 1326, restored to that earldom 3 Feb 1327 on his brother's rehabilitation.  Appointed Guardian of the young King Edward III on his accession.  He went blind some time in 1330.  He was a close friend and supporter of Edward III after the fall of Mortimer.  He succeeded his brother John as Seigneur de Beaufort et de Nogent.  The Chronicon Anglić records the death of “dominus Henricus comes Lancastre pater Henrici comitis de Derby” and his burial “Leycestrić in monasterio canonicorum”, dated to 1345 from the context[1004]

m (before 2 Mar 1297) MAUD Chaworth, daughter and heiress of PATRICK de Chaworth of Kidwelly & his wife Isabel Beauchamp (2 Feb 1282-before 3 Dec 1322, bur Mottisfont Priory).  Inquisitions after a writ dated 7 Jul "11 Edw I" following the death of "Patrick de Cadurcis...” name “Maud his daughter aged 1 at the feast of the Purification last is his next heir...Isabel his wife[1005]

Earl Henry & his wife had seven children: 

1.         HENRY "of Grosmont" (Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire [1300]-Leicester Castle 24 Mar 1361, bur Newark Abbey, Leicester).  His father granted him the Lordship of Kidwelly (inherited from his mother) 28 Sep 1333.  Created Earl of Derby 16 Mar 1337.  Succeeded his father 22 Sep 1345 as Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and Seigneur de Beaufort et de Nogent.  Created Seigneur de Bergerac 1 Jun 1347.  He was a founder knight of the Order of the Garter, his name being second on the list after the Prince of Wales.  Created Earl of Lincoln 20 Aug 1349, and Duke of Lancaster 6 Mar 1351.  Created Earl of Moray by David II King of Scotland 5 Apr 1359, but never so styled.  An active military man, he led campaigns in Scotland, Flanders, Brittany and France.  The will of "Henry Duke of Lancaster Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, Steward of England, Lord of Brigerak and Beaufort", dated 15 Mar 1360, chose burial “in the Collegiate Church of the Annunciation of our Lady at Leicester”, requested that “my wife Lady Isabell, our sisters and our brothers” to attend his funeral, and appointed “...our...sister Lady Wake, our...cousin of Walkynton...” among his executors[1006].  He died of bubonic plague.  m ([1337]) ISABEL Beaumont, daughter of HENRY Beaumont Lord Beaumont and Earl of Buchan & his wife Alice Comyn Ctss of Buchan (-Leicester 1361, bur Newark Abbey, Leicester).  The will of "Henry Duke of Lancaster Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, Steward of England, Lord of Brigerak and Beaufort", dated 15 Mar 1360, requested that “my wife Lady Isabell, our sisters and our brothers” to attend his funeral[1007].  Duke Henry & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         MAUD of Lancaster ([4 Apr 1339/1341]-in England 10 Apr 1362, bur Rijnsburg Abbey).  Co-heir of her father, she inherited the earldom of Leicester and the lordship of Kidwelly.  A charter dated 12 Nov 1351 refers to the proposed marriage between “nostram consanguineam Matildam...filiam primogenitam consanguinei nostri...Henrici ducis Lancastrić” and “nostri consanguinei...ducis Bavarrić...Willielmi[1008].  She returned to England to claim her inheritance, but succumbed to bubonic plague.  m firstly (1 Nov 1344) RALPH de Stafford, son of RALPH Lord Stafford [later created Earl of Stafford] & his second wife Margaret de Audley (-1347 or before).  No children.  m secondly (King’s Chapel, Palace of Westminster 1352) WILLEM V Count of Holland Duke of Bavaria, son of LUDWIG IV Duke of Bavaria King of Germany & his second wife Marguerite de Hainaut Ctss of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland (Frankfurt-am-Main 12 May 1330-Le Quesnoy 15 Apr 1388, bur Valenciennes).  He was confirmed 26 Feb 1357 as GUILLAUME V Comte de Hainaut, following the death of his mother.  He became insane in [1356/57], and was detained at the château du Quesnoy 1358.  No children.

b)         [[1009]son (-Kempsford, an infant).]

c)         BLANCHE of Lancaster (25 Mar 1345-Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire 12 Sep 1369, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London).  The Chronicon Anglić records the marriage “XIV Kal Jun...apud Radinggum” of “dominus Johannes de Gaunt filius regis E[dwardi] comes Rychemund” and “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrić”, dated to 1359 from the context[1010].  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” married firstly “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1011].  Co-heir of her father, she inherited the earldom of Lancaster, Pontefract castle as well as land in Lancashire and Cheshire.  She succeeded her sister to the other half of her father's property, including the earldom of Leicester, in 1362.  She is the subject of Chaucer's Boke of the Duchesse.  The Chronicon Anglić records the death of “Blanchia ducissa Lancastrić” and her burial “in ecclesia Sancti Pauli Londoniarum”, dated to 1369 from the context[1012].  She died of bubonic plague.  m (Reading Abbey 19 May 1359) as his first wife, JOHN of Gaunt Earl of Richmond, son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (St Bavon’s Abbey, Ghent [Feb/Mar] 1340-[Leicester Castle or Ely Place, Holborn, London] 3/4 Feb 1399, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London).  Created Earl of Richmond 20 Sep 1342, surrendered 5 Jun 1372.  Seigneur de Beaufort et de Nogent 1361, in right of his first wife.  Summoned to Parliament as Earl of Lancaster and Richmond 14 Aug 1361.  Created Duke of Lancaster 13 Nov 1362.   

2.         BLANCHE ([1305]-shortly before 12 Jul 1380, bur Stamford, Lincolnshire, Church of the Friars Minor).  The will of "Henry Duke of Lancaster Earl of Derby, Lincoln and Leicester, Steward of England, Lord of Brigerak and Beaufort", dated 15 Mar 1360, appointed “...our...sister Lady Wake, our...cousin of Walkynton...” among his executors[1013]m (before 9 Oct 1316) THOMAS Wake Lord Wake, son of JOHN Wake Lord Wake & his wife Joan --- ([20 Mar] 1298-30/31 May 1349, bur Haltemprice Priory, Yorkshire).  He supported Queen Isabella and Mortimer in their rebellion against King Edward II.  He was accused of supporting Edmund Earl of Kent (who had married Lord Wake's sister) when the latter was executed Mar 1329/0.  He was forced to flee the country and his lands confiscated, though returned to him in Dec 1330 when it was admitted that he had been wrongly accused.  No children.

3.         MATILDA ([1310]-[Bruisyard Abbey, Suffolk] 5 May 1377, bur Campsey Abbey, Suffolk).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk names “Matilda filia Henrici comitis Lancastrie filii Edmundi filii tercii Henrici regis Anglie...” as the wife of “Wyllelmy Borch comitis Ultonie” and mother of “Elizabetha Clarencie ducissa[1014].  She fled to England with her daughter after the murder of her first husband.  She became a canoness at the Augustine Abbey of Campsey, Suffolk, [8 Aug 1347/25 Apr 1348].  She transferred to the Poor Clares at Bruisyard Abbey, Suffolk 1364.  m firstly (Papal dispensation 1 May 1327, before 1330) WILLIAM de Burgh Earl of Ulster, son of JOHN de Burgh & his wife Elizabeth de Clare (in Ireland 17 Sep 1312-murdered Le Ford [Belfast] 6 Jun 1333).  He succeeded his grandfather in 1326 as Earl of Ulster.  He was murdered by John de Logan and some of the Mandevilles.  His death marked the end of Norman rule in Ireland.  m secondly (before 8 Aug 1343) [as his first wife,] RALPH de Ufford, son of ROBERT de Ufford Lord Ufford & his wife Cecily de Valoines (-Kilmainham, Ireland 9 Apr 1346, bur Campsey Abbey, Suffolk).  Justiciar of Ireland 1344-1346.

4.         JOAN ([1312]-7 Jul [1349], bur Byland Abbey, Yorkshire).  A manuscript record of the Mowbray family states that “Johannes filius [Johannis]” married “Johannam sororem domini Henrici primi ducis Lancastrić”, adding that she was buried “in Bellanda[1015]m (after 28 Feb 1327) as his first wife, JOHN de Mowbray Lord Mowbray, son of JOHN de Mowbray Lord Mowbray & his wife Aline de Braose (Hovingham, Yorkshire 29 Nov 1310-1361).  He succeeded his father as Lord Mowbray de iure when the latter was hanged in 1322.  However, his father's estates were confiscated for supporting the rebellion of Thomas Earl of Lancaster in his rebellion.  John de Mowbray was imprisoned in the Tower 26 Feb 1322.  His inheritance was restored on the accession of King Edward III.

5.         ISABEL ([1317]-after 1 Feb 1347).  Weir names “Isabella...born in c. 1317 and perhaps married Henry de la Dale in her youth.  She became a nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, beefore 6 Apr 1337, and was elected Prioress of Amesbury before 23 Mar 1344.  She died after 1 Feb 1347” as the daughter of Henry Earl of Lancaster[1016].  The primary sources on which this information is based have not been identified.  Nun at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire before 6 Apr 1337, elected Prioress of Amesbury before 23 Mar 1344. 

6.         ELEANOR ([1318]-Arundel Castle, Sussex 11 Jan 1372, bur Lewes Priory, Sussex).  While her first husband was still alive, she lived with her future second husband who had his first marriage[1017] annulled in order to marry her.  The will of "Richard Earl of Arundel and Surrey", dated 5 Dec 1375, chose burial “in...the priory of Lewes near to the tomb of Eleanor of Lancaster my wife[1018]m firstly (before Jun 1337) JOHN de Beaumont, son of HENRY de Beaumont[-de Brienne] Lord Beaumont Earl of Buchan [Constable of England] & his wife Alice Comyn Ctss of Buchan (-[10/25] May 1342).  He succeeded his father in 1340 as Lord Beaumont.  m secondly (Ditton Church, Stoke Poges, Bucks 5 Feb 1345, Papal dispensation 4 Mar 1345) as his second wife, RICHARD Fitzalan Earl of Arundel "Copped hat", son of EDMUND Fitzalan Earl of Arundel & his wife Alice de Warenne ([1313]-Arundel 24 Jan 1376, bur Lewes Priory, Sussex). 

7.         MARY ([1320/21]-1 Sep 1362, bur Alnwick, Northumberland).  A manuscript genealogy of the Percy family records that “Henricus primogenitus”, son of “Henricus” and his wife “Idoniam de Clifford”, married “Mariam filiam domini Henrici comitis Lancastrić[1019].  The testament of "Dominus Henricus de Percy Senior" is dated 13 Sep 1349 and makes bequests to "Henricus de Percy filius meus…Marić uxori eiusdem Henrici…Thomć de Percy filio meo…Rogero filio meo…"[1020]m (Tutbury Castle [Sep or before] 1334) as his first wife, HENRY Percy, son of HENRY de Percy Lord Percy & his wife Idonia de Clifford (Seamer [1320]-[18 May] 1368, bur Alnwick).  He succeeded his father in 1352 as Lord Percy. 

 

 

 

C.      HOUSE of LANCASTER, descendants of JOHN of GAUNT

 

 

JOHN "of Gaunt", son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (St Bavon’s Abbey, Ghent [Feb/Mar] 1340-[Leicester Castle or Ely Place, Holborn, London] 3/4 Feb 1399, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London).  The Chronicon Anglić records the birth “apud Gandavum” of “regi Edwardo filius...Johannes”, dated to 1340 from the context[1021].  Created Earl of Richmond 20 Sep 1342, surrendered 5 Jun 1372.  Seigneur de Beaufort et de Nogent 1361, by right of his first wife.  Summoned to Parliament as Earl of Lancaster and Richmond 14 Aug 1361.  Created Duke of Lancaster 13 Nov 1362.  "Jehans fils au...roy d´Engleterre duc de Lanquastre, conte de Richemont, de Derby, de Nicol et de Leicestre, seigneur de Beauffort, sénéchal d´Engleterre" granted protection to Chapelle-aux-Planches by charter dated 28 Oct 1364[1022].  Created Seigneur de Bergerac et de Roche-sur-Yonne 8 Oct 1370.  After his second marriage, he claimed the throne of Castile in right of his wife, assuming the title King of Castile and Leon before 6 Oct 1372.  He allied himself with Fernando I King of Portugal in July 1380 to pursue this claim, betrothing one of his nephews to Fernando's daughter, and agreed to invade Castile jointly.  He invaded Castile in July 1386 to enforce his claim, quickly overrunning Galicia.  He pushed further into Castile in March 1387, but was eventually obliged to withdraw and sign the Treaty of Bayonne in July 1388 (under which the marriage of Juan's older son to John of Gaunt's daughter was agreed).  Created Duke of Aquitaine 2 Mar 1390 by the English Parliament.  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1023].  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records the death “in crastino Sancti Blasii” of “dux Lancastrie” and his burial “in ecclesia Sancti Pauli Londonie”, dated to [1398/99] from the context[1024]

m firstly (Reading Abbey 19 May 1359) BLANCHE of Lancaster, daughter of HENRY Duke of Lancaster & his wife Isabel de Beaumont (25 Mar 1345-Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire of the Black death 12 Sep 1369, bur Old St Paul’s Cathedral, London).  The Chronicon Anglić records the marriage “XIV Kal Jun...apud Radinggum” of “dominus Johannes de Gaunt filius regis E[dwardi] comes Rychemund” and “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrić”, dated to 1359 from the context[1025].  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” married firstly “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1026].  Co-heir of her father, she inherited the earldom of Lancaster, Pontefract castle as well as land in Lancashire and Cheshire.  She succeeded her sister to the other half of her father's property, including the earldom of Leicester, in 1362.  She is the subject of Chaucer's Boke of the Duchesse.  The Chronicon Anglić records the death of “Blanchia ducissa Lancastrić” and her burial “in ecclesia Sancti Pauli Londoniarum”, dated to 1369 from the context[1027].  She died of bubonic plague. 

m secondly (Roquefort, Guyenne 21 Sep 1371) Infanta dońa CONSTANZA de Castilla, [illegitimate] daughter of PEDRO I “el Cruel” King of Castile & his mistress [first wife] dońa María de Padilla (Castrojerez [Jun/Jul] 1354-Leicester Castile 24 Mar 1394, bur Newark Abbey, Leicester).  Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that the king heard news in Jul 1354 of the birth of “una fija de Dońa Maria de Padilla...Dońa Constanza” in “la villa de Castro Xeriz”, adding that she later married “el Duque de Alencastre” and that their daughter “la Reyna Dońa Catalina...es agora muger del Rey Don Enrique[1028].  She succeeded her father 13 Mar 1369 as de iure Queen of Castile and Leon.  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” married secondly “Constanciam filiam regis Hispaniarum[1029]

m thirdly (Lincoln Cathedral [14/31] Jan 1396) KATHARINE Swynford, widow of HUGH Swynford of Coleby and Kettlethorpe, Lincolnshire, daughter of PAYN de Roët[1030] & his wife --- ([1350]-Lincoln 10 May 1403, bur Lincoln Cathedral).  She had been governess to John of Gaunt's daughters by his first wife, and became his mistress [1371/72].  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1031].  The register of John of Gaunt records the grant of “the wardship of the lands and heir to Sire Robert Deyncourt” to “Katharine Swynford for her and for her daughter Blanche” [presumably born from Katharine´s first marriage], dated Jan 1374[1032].  King Edward III confirmed the donation made by “filii nostri Johannis regis Castellć et Legionis ducis Lancastrić” of “in maneriis de Gryngeley et Wheteley” to “Katerina de Swynford” by charter dated 4 Mar 1377[1033].  Her children by John of Gaunt were legitimated 1 Sep 1396 by Pope Boniface IX and 9 Feb 1397 by charter of King Richard II, but excluded from the succession by the latter charter.  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1034]

Mistress (1): (before 1359?) MARIE de Saint-Hilaire, daughter of --- (-after 7 Apr 1399).  Froissart records “mareschal messire Thomas Moreaulx” married to “le duc Jehan de Lancastre...une de ses filles” who was “bastarde” born to “demoiselle Marie de Saint.Hyllaire, de Hainaut[1035].  King Edward III granted a pension to Marie de Saint-Hilaire in 1360[1036].  The Patent Rolls record that this pension was exchanged 19 Feb 1390 for “an annuity...charged on the issues of the counties of Cambridge and Huntingdon[1037].  The Patent Rolls record 7 Apr 1399 that Marie de Saint-Hilaire was in receipt of a pension from the duke of Lancaster “for the good and agreeable service she has rendered for a long time to our honoured lady and mother Philippe late Queen of England[1038]

John Duke of Lancaster & his first wife had [seven] children:

1.         PHILIPPA (Leicester Castle 31 Mar 1360-Odivelas near Lisbon 19 Jul 1415, bur Odivelas Abbey, later removed to Batalha Abbey).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Henricum regum IIII, Elezabetham comitissam Huntyndonie, Phelippam reginam Portingalie, Edwardum et Johannem qui moriuntur” as the children of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his first wife “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1039].  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1040].  She died of the plague.  m (Oporto Cathedral 11 Feb 1387) JOĂO I King of Portugal, illegitimate son of PEDRO I King of Portugal & his mistress dona Teresa Gille Lourenço (Lisbon 11 Apr 1358-Lisbon from the plague 14 Aug 1433, bur Batalla). 

2.         JOHN ([1362 or 1364]-young, bur Leicester St Mary’s Church).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Johannes qui moritur juvenis, Edwardus qui moritur juvenis, Philippa regina Portugalić, Elizabeth comitissa de Huntyndone, Henricus quartus, Johannes qui moritur juvenis” as the children of John of Gaunt by his first wife[1041]

3.         ELIZABETH (Burford, Shropshire before 21 Feb 1363-24 Nov 1425, bur Burford Church, Shropshire).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Henricum regum IIII, Elezabetham comitissam Huntyndonie, Phelippam reginam Portingalie, Edwardum et Johannem qui moriuntur” as the children of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his first wife “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1042].  She deserted her first husband, was seduced by her second husband, whom she hurriedly married as she was pregnant, and went to Spain in 1386 with her father.  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1043]m firstly (Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire 24 Jun 1380, annulled after 24 Sep 1383) as his first wife, JOHN Hastings Earl of Pembroke, son of JOHN de Hastings Earl of Pembroke & his second wife Anne de Mauny (11 Nov 1372-Woodstock 30/31 Dec 1389, bur Hereford, church of the Friars Preachers, transferred after Mar 1392 to church of the Grey Friars, London).  He succeeded his father in 1375 as Earl of Pembroke, and his mother in 1384 as Lord Mauny.  He was killed while practising for a tournament.  m secondly (Plymouth, Devon 24 Jun 1386) JOHN de Holand, son of THOMAS de Holand Earl of Kent & his wife Joan Ctss of Kent "the Fair Maid of Kent" (after 1350-executed Pleshy Castle, Essex 9 Jan 1400, bur Collegiate Church of Pleshy).  Created Earl of Huntingdon 2 Jun 1388, and Duke of Exeter 29 Sep 1397.  m thirdly (before 12 Dec 1400) JOHN Cornwall, son of JOHN Cornwall & his wife --- [niece of the Duke of Brittany] (born at sea in St Michael's Mount Bay, Cornwall-Ampthill 10/11 Dec 1443, bur Ludgate, cemetery of the Black Friars).  He fought in the French wars, at Agincourt in 1415 and at the siege of Rouen 1418.  Created Baron of Fanhope, in Herefordshire, 17 Jul 1432, and Baron of Milbroke, in Bedfordshire, 30 Jan 1441/2. 

4.         EDWARD ([1365]-1365, bur Leicester, St Mary’s Church).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Johannes qui moritur juvenis, Edwardus qui moritur juvenis, Philippa regina Portugalić, Elizabeth comitissa de Huntyndone, Henricus quartus, Johannes qui moritur juvenis” as the children of John of Gaunt by his first wife[1044].  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Henricum regum IIII, Elezabetham comitissam Huntyndonie, Phelippam reginam Portingalie, Edwardum et Johannem qui moriuntur” as the children of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his first wife “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1045]

5.         JOHN (before 4 May 1366-young, bur Leicester, St Mary’s Church).  A manuscript, maybe of Welsh origin and which names Henry VI at the end so can presumably be dated to his reign, names “Johannes qui moritur juvenis, Edwardus qui moritur juvenis, Philippa regina Portugalić, Elizabeth comitissa de Huntyndone, Henricus quartus, Johannes qui moritur juvenis” as the children of John of Gaunt by his first wife[1046].  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Henricum regum IIII, Elezabetham comitissam Huntyndonie, Phelippam reginam Portingalie, Edwardum et Johannem qui moriuntur” as the children of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his first wife “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1047]

6.         HENRY "of Bolingbroke" (Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire [3] Apr 1367-Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey 20 Mar 1413, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Henricum regum IIII, Elezabetham comitissam Huntyndonie, Phelippam reginam Portingalie, Edwardum et Johannem qui moriuntur” as the children of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his first wife “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1048].  He was declared HENRY IV King of England in Parliament 30 Sep 1399. 

-        see below

7.         [ISABELLA ([1368]-young).  Weir names Isabella “born in c. 1368 and died young” as the youngest child of John of Gaunt by his first wife[1049].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.] 

John Duke of Lancaster & his second wife had two children:

8.         KATHERINE (Hertford Castle [6 Jun 1372/31 Mar 1373]-Valladolid 2 Jun 1418, bur Toledo).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Katerinam post hereditariam reginam Hispaniarum” as the child of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his second wife “Constanciam filiam regis Hispaniarum[1050].  Her marriage was agreed in July 1388 under the Treaty of Bayonne, when her father renounced his claim to the throne of Castile.  Ayala´s Crónica de Juan I records the betrothal of “[el] Infante Don Enrique fijo primogénito del Rey Don Juan de Castilla” and “Dońa Catalina fijo [del]...Duque [de Alencastre é la Duquesa Dońa Costanza su muger]” as part of the peace arrangements agreed at Bayonne in 1388[1051].  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1052].  The testament of “don Henrique...Rey de Castilla...”, dated 24 Dec 1406, appointed as his heir “[el] Principe don Juan mi hijo” under the joint guardianship of “la Reyna dońa Catalina mi muger y el Infante don Fernando mi hermano[1053]An epitaph in Toledo Cathedral records the death 2 Jun 1418 at Valladolid of “la...reyna dońa Catalina de Castilla y Leon muger del...rey don Henrique, madre del...rey don Juan...hija del...principe don Juan primogenito del rey de Inglaterra, Duque de Guiana y Alencastre, y de la Infanta dońa Constança primogenita y heredera de los reynos de Castilla...” and her burial there 10 Sep 1419[1054]m (San Antolin, Fuenterrabia or Palencia Sep 1388, consummated Madrid Feb 1393) Infante don ENRIQUE de Castilla y León Principe de Asturias, son of JUAN I King of Castile & Infanta dońa Leonor de Aragón (Burgos 4 Oct 1379-Toledo 25 Dec 1406).  He succeeded his father in 1390 as ENRIQUE III King of Castile

9.         JOHN “of Gaunt” (Gent [Nov 1375]-young).  Kervyn de Lettenhove records that “la duchesse de Lancastre, au retour d´un pélerinage ŕ Saint-Adrien de Grammont” gave birth “ŕ Gand d´un fils qu´on appela Jean de Gand comme son pčre”, adding that he died young, but does not cite the primary source on which this information is based[1055].  Armitage-Smith dates the birth to [Nov 1375][1056]

John Duke of Lancaster & his third wife had four children, legitimated by their parents' subsequent marriage, named "Beaufort" after Beaufort-en-Champagne inherited by Duke John's first wife Blanche of Lancaster: 

10.      JOHN Beaufort ([1372/75]-Hospital of St Katherine by the Tower, London 16 Mar 1410, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1057].  Created Earl of Somerset 10 Feb 1397. 

-        see below, Part G.  BEAUFORT

11.      JOAN Beaufort ([1379]-Howden, Yorkshire 13 Nov 1440, bur Lincoln Cathedral).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1058].  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1059].  A mid-15th century manuscript records that "Radulphus dominus de Neuill et comes Westmorlandie" married "Johanna filia Johannis ducis Lancastrie uxor secunda"[1060].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Joan, wife firstly of Ferrers Baron of Ousley, and secondly of Ralph Earl of Westmoreland" as daughter of "John Duke of Lancaster" and mother (by her first husband) of "Baroness of Greystoke" and (by her second husband of "Cecily Duchess of York"[1061].  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1062]m firstly (before 30 Sep 1394) ROBERT Ferrers, son of ROBERT de Ferrers of Willisham & his wife Elizabeth Le Botiller ([1373]-before 29 Nov 1396).  m secondly (before 29 Nov 1396) as his second wife, RALPH de Neville Lord Neville, son of JOHN de Neville Lord Neville & his first wife Maud de Percy ([1364]-Raby Castle 21 Oct 1425, bur Staindrop, co Durham).  He was created Earl of Westmoreland 29 Sep 1397.   

12.      HENRY Beaufort (-Wolvesey Palace, Winchester 11 Apr 1447, bur Winchester Cathedral).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1063].  Dean of Wells Cathedral, Somerset 1397.  Bishop of Lincoln.  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1064].  He launched a crusade against the "heretic" Bohemians Jun 1429.  Bishop of Winchester 19 Nov 1404.  The will of "John Beaufort late Earl of Somerset, Chamberlain of England and Captain of Calais", dated 16 Mar 1409, proved 5 Apr 1410, bequeathed property to “Henry his brother...Bishop of Winchester” and appointed him and “Margaret his wife” as his executors[1065].  Nominated Cardinal-Priest of St Eusebius 24 May 1426.  The will of "Henry commonly called Cardinal of England, Bishop of Winchester", dated 20 Jan 1446, chose burial “in my church of Winchester”, bequeathed property to “Johanna wife of Edward Stradlyng Knight...Hans Nulles...[1066].  Under a second codicil dated 9 Apr 1447, proved 2 Sep 1447, "Henry Cardinal of England, and Bishop of Winchester" bequeathed property to “John Bastard of Somerset...William Swynford my nephew[1067].  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 11 Apr 1447 of “Henricus Beauford cardinalis Anglić[1068].  [Mistress (1): ALICE FitzAlan, wife of JOHN Cherleton Lord Cherleton, daughter of RICHARD FitzAlan Earl of Arundel & his first wife Elizabeth de Bohun.  She is said to have been the mother of Cardinal Beaufort´s supposed illegitimate daughter shown below[1069].  If this is correct, the chronology suggests that he would have been considerably younger than her.]  [Thomas had one possible illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):] 

a)         [JOAN (-after 20 Jan 1446).  The will of "Henry commonly called Cardinal of England, Bishop of Winchester", dated 20 Jan 1446, chose burial “in my church of Winchester”, bequeathed property to “Johanna wife of Edward Stradlyng Knight...Hans Nulles...[1070].  The prominent position of “Johanna” in this will suggests a close family relationship with the testator, maybe she was his illegitimate daughter.  m EDWARD Stradling of St Donat´s, Glamorgan, son of --- (-after 20 Jan 1446).] 

13.      THOMAS Beaufort (-East Greenwich Manor, Kent 31 Dec 1426, bur Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Suffolk).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1071].  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1072].  Appointed Deputy Marshal of England 6 Jun 1405.  Chancellor of England 31 Jan 1410-5 Jan 1412.  Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine for life 3 Mar 1412.  Created Earl of Dorset 5 Jul 1412, and Duke of Exeter 18 Nov 1416.  Created Comte d’Harcourt et Seigneur de Lillebonne 1 Jul 1418.  He was appointed a member of the council of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Protector of the Realm Dec 1422.  The will of "Thomas Duke of Exeter", dated 29 Dec 1426, proved 28 Jan 1427, chose burial “with Margaret my wife in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin annexed to the church of St Edmund´s Bury in the diocese of Norwich”, bequeathed property to “the Lady Johanna a nun in the church of St Clement´s beyond Temple Bar...the Lady Alice a nun at St Albany...my sister Joan Countess of Westmoreland...my brother Thomas Swynford...[1073]m (before 15 Feb 1404) MARGARET Neville, daughter of THOMAS Neville of Hornby, Lincolnshire & his wife Joan Furnivall ([Jan 1377] or [1383]-[1413/26] probably before 9 Apr 1424, bur Bury St Edmunds Abbey, Suffolk).  Her place of burial is confirmed by the will of [her husband] "Thomas Duke of Exeter", dated 29 Dec 1426, which chose burial “with Margaret my wife in the chapel of the Blessed Virgin annexed to the church of St Edmund´s Bury in the diocese of Norwich[1074].  The will of "Margaret Duchess of Exeter", proved 15 May 1458, chose burial “in the chapel of the college of St Katherine beside the Tower of London”, appointed “Thomas Tirrell Knt my executor and my nephew the Earl of Warwick supervisor[1075].  Thomas Duke of Exeter & his wife had one child:

a)         HENRY Beaufort (-young).  Weir names Henry “no dates are recorded. He died young” as the child of Thomas Beaufort and his wife[1076].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

John Duke of Lancaster had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

14.       BLANCHE ([1358/60?]-[1388/89])Froissart records “mareschal messire Thomas Moreaulx” married to “le duc Jehan de Lancastre...une de ses filles” who was “bastarde” born to “demoiselle Marie de Saint.Hyllaire, de Hainaut[1077].  The Register of John of Gaunt records 6 Mar 1381 that the Duke of Lancaster gave her silver ware on her marriage, and settled revenue from the manors of Snettisham and Fakenham, Norfolk on Blanche and her husband for life, dated 1 Jun 1382[1078].  The Patent Rolls record that a pardon for homicide was requested “at the supplication of Blanche wife of Thomas de Murrieux the king´s knight” dated 1 Aug 1383[1079]m ([6 Mar 1381) [Sir] THOMAS Morieux, son of THOMAS Morieux of Thorpe Morieux, Suffolk & his wife --- (-Galicia before 5 May 1387[1080]).  Constable of the Tower 1381. 

 

 

HENRY "of Bolingbroke", son of JOHN "of Gaunt" Duke of Lancaster & his first wife Blanche of Lancaster (Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire [3] Apr 1367-Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey 20 Mar 1413, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Henricum regum IIII, Elezabetham comitissam Huntyndonie, Phelippam reginam Portingalie, Edwardum et Johannem qui moriuntur” as the children of “Johannes Gaunt Dux Lancastrie et quartus filius Edward III” and his first wife “Blanchiam filiam Henrici ducis Lancastrie[1081].  Earl of Derby from 16 Jul 1377.  He was created Earl of Northampton and Earl of Hereford in right of his wife 22 Dec 1384.  He was created Duke of Hereford 29 Sep 1397.  He quarrelled with the Duke of Norfolk during 1398, which resulted in banishment of both dukes in Sep 1398.  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1082].  He succeeded his father 1399 as Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and Earl of Lincoln, returning to England Jun 1399 to claim his inheritance.  He was declared HENRY IV King of England in Parliament 30 Sep 1399, the day after King Richard II abdicated.  Crowned 13 Oct 1399 at Westminster Abbey.  As part of his plan to obtain international recognition following his accession, he proposed the double marriage of his oldest son Henry of Monmouth and youngest daughter Philippa to Erik VII King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and the latter's sister Katharina.  Although the marriage of Philippa and King Erik later went ahead, that of Henry of Monmouth was abandoned due to the Danish inability to recognise the hereditary right to the Danish throne of any children of the marriage, such right being incompatible with the Danish and Swedish constitutions which guaranteed the elective nature of the monarchies in the two countries[1083].  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Henricus quartus” died 20 Mar 1412 (O.S.) “apud Westmonasterium in camera abbatis” after reigning for 14 years “unde carnis putredine, oculorum ariffaccione, et interiorum egressione per quinque annos cruciatus” and was buried “Cantuarie[1084]

m firstly (Rochford, Essex or Arundel Castle, Sussex [20 Jul 1380/10 Feb 1381]) MARY de Bohun, daughter of HUMPHREY de Bohun Earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton & his wife Joan FitzAlan ([1369/70]-Peterborough Castle 4 Jun 1394, bur Leicester, St Mary’s Church, later removed to Trinity Hospital Leicester).  The History of the foundation of Walden abbey names “Alianoram…et Mariam” as the two daughters of “Humfredus filius domini Willielmi de Bohun, comitis de Northampton” and his wife “dominam Joannam filiam comitis Arundellć”, adding that Mary was wife of “Henrici comiti de Derbi, domini Johannes de Gant ducis Lancastrić filio[1085].  She was co-heiress of her father.  She died in childbirth. 

m secondly (by proxy Eltham Palace, Kent 3 Apr 1402, in person Winchester Cathedral 7 Feb 1402/3) as her second husband, Infanta dońa JUANA de Navarra, widow of JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany, daughter of CARLOS II King of Navarre & his wife Jeanne de France (Pamplona 1370-Dower House, Royal Manor of Havering-atte-Bower, Essex 9 Jul 1437, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  Regent of Brittany 1399-1402, until her second marriage.  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “ducis Brytanie relictam regisque Navarie sororem”, dated to 1403 from the context[1086].  Crowned 25/26 Feb 1403 at Westminster Abbey.  She was accused of conspiracy by her stepson Henry V King of England, imprisoned at Pevensey Castle, released in 1425 by King Henry VI. 

King Henry IV & his first wife had seven children:

1.         [EDWARD (Apr 1382-Apr 1382, bur [Monmouth Castle Chapel]).  Weir names Edward “born in April 1382 and died aged 4 days...perhaps buried at Monmouth Castle Chapel” as the oldest child of King Henry IV[1087].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.  Bearing in mind the likely birth date of King Henry´s first wife, 1382 does seem early for the birth of his first child, especially as there would then have been a gap of six years before the birth of further children.  Until more information comes to light, it is suggested that Edward´s existence should be treated with caution.] 

2.         HENRY "of Monmouth" (Monmouth Castle 9 Aug 1387-Château du Bois de Vincennes 31 Aug 1422, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth in 1387 of “Henricus V[1088].  A marriage was proposed between “le Duc de Bretaigne...Marie fille aisnée dudit Duc de Bretagne” and “Henry filz aisné et hoir de Monsieur le Comte de Derby filz et hoir [du] [Duc de Guienne et] Duc de Lancastre” (undated, classified in the compilation with other charters dated 1394/95)[1089].  No evidence has been found to indicate whether this proposal was confirmed as a betrothal.  Created Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester and Prince d’Aquitaine 15 Oct 1399.  Declared Duke of Aquitaine in Parliament 23 Oct 1399, and Duke of Lancaster 10 Nov 1399.  He succeeded his father in 1413 as HENRY V King of England.  Crowned 9 Apr 1413 at Westminster Abbey.  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Henricus quintus, suus ex filia comitis Herfordie primogenitus” was crowned 14 days after his father died “apud Westmonasterium[1090].  He defeated the French at Agincourt 25 Oct 1415.  Taking advantage of the divisions between the Orleanist and Burgundian parties in France, he allied himself with the latter.  He was named heir to the throne of France and Regent of France by the Treaty of Troyes 21 May 1420, signed by Charles VI King of France during one of his periods of insanity, sealed by King Henry's marriage with his daughter.  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 31 Aug 1422 “apud Boyse de Vincent juxta Parysium” of “rex Henricus V” and his burial “apud Westmonasterium[1091]m (contract Troyes 21 May 1420, Troyes Cathedral 2 Jun 1420) as her first husband, CATHERINE de France, daughter of CHARLES VI King of France & his wife Isabelle [Elisabeth] von Bayern-Ingolstadt (Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 27 Oct 1401-Bermondsey, Abbey of St Saviour 3 Jan 1438, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “dominus rex” requested “in Franciam...regem eciam et reginam ac eorum filiam Katerinam” as his wife and “regnum” after her father´s death[1092].  She married secondly (secretly [1425/28]) Owen Tudor.  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records that King Henry V´s widow married, after he died, “Owen Tyder a gentleman of Wales...who derived his pedigree from Cadwallider the last king of Brittons[1093].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the will of [her son] "Jasper Duke of Bedford and Earl of Pembroke", dated 15 Dec 1495, proved 2 Jul 1496, which ordered masses for the souls of “Katherine sometime Queen of England my mother, Edmund late Earl of Richmond my brother[1094].  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 3 Feb 1437 “apud Barmondsey” of “regina Katerina[1095].  She died in childbirth.  A manuscript calendar records the death “III Non Jan” of “queene Katerine[1096].  King Henry V & his wife had one child:

a)         HENRY (Windsor Castle 6 Dec 1421-murdered Tower of London 27 May 1471, bur Chertsey Abbey, Surrey, transferred 1485 to St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 5 Dec 1421 “apud Wyndesore” of “Henricus primogenitus Henrici V[1097].  Designated Duke of Cornwall at birth.  He succeeded his father in 1422 as HENRY VI King of England.  He succeeded his maternal grandfather as King of France in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Troyes 1420.  Crowned King of England 5/6 Nov 1429 at Westminster Abbey.  Crowned King of France 16 Dec 1431 at Notre-Dame de Paris, he was defeated and expelled from France.  He assumed personal rule in England 12 Nov 1437.  Deposed by Edward Duke of York 4 Mar 1461.  He was restored to the throne 30 Oct 1470, but deposed again 11 Apr 1471.  A manuscript calendar records the death “XII Kal Jun” in 1471 of “He´rici vi in t´re london[1098].  A manuscript records the death “in vigilia Ascensionis Dominice...in Turim London.” of “Henricus nuper rex” and his burial in “abbathiam de Cheltesye[1099]m (contract 22 May 1444, by proxy Nancy, Meurthe-et-Moselle Mar 1445, in person Titchfield, Hampshire 23 Apr 1445) MARGUERITE d’Anjou, daughter of RENÉ Duc d’Anjou Duc de Lorraine Titular King of Sicily and Jerusalem & his first wife Isabelle Dss de Lorraine (Pont-ŕ-Mousson, Meurthe-et-Moselle 24 Mar 1430-Château de Dampierre-sur-Loire, Maine-et-Loire 25 Aug 1482, bur Angers Cathédrale Saint-Maurice).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the marriage in 1444 “desponsata erat in abbatia de Tycchefeld in comitatu Suthampton” of “Henrici VI” and “dominam juvenem filiam regis Neapolis, Sicilić, et Jerusalem...Margaretć”, and her coronation “apud Westmonasterium” 30 May 1445[1100].  Crowned Queen of England 30 May 1445 at Westminster Abbey.  She returned to France definitively in Jan 1476.  A manuscript calendar records the death 3 Oct of “Margarete Regine[1101].  King Henry VI & his wife had one child:

i)          EDWARD (Palace of Westminster 13 Oct 1453-killed in battle Tewkesbury 4 May 1471, bur Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire).  A manuscript records the birth “III Id Oct...apud Westmonasterium” 1453 of “Edwardus princeps filius regis Henrici VI et Margarete regine[1102].  Duke of Cornwall from birth.  Created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 15 Mar 1454.  A manuscript calendar records the death 4 May of “Edwardi p´ncipis[1103].  A manuscript records names “Edwardus filius regine Margarete...” among those killed “juxta Tewkisberi[1104][1105]m (Château d’Amboise Aug or 13 Dec 1470) as her first husband, ANNE Neville, daughter of RICHARD Neville Earl of Warwick & his wife Anne Beauchamp Ctss of Warwick (Warwick Castle 11 Jun 1456-Palace of Westminster 16 Mar 1485, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records that “Anne dowghter to therle of Warwick was affyanced to prince Edward[1106].  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records that “the son of king Henry” had married “the lady Anne...youngest daughter of the earl of Warwick” and that, after he was killed, “Richard duke of Gloucester sought the said Anne in marriage[1107].  She married secondly Richard Duke of Gloucester, who later succeeded as King Richard III. 

3.         THOMAS of Lancaster (Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire or London 29 Sep 1388-killed in battle Baugé 22 Mar 1421, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth in 1388 of “Thomas dux Clarencić filius Henrici IV[1108].  Appointed Seneschal of England by his father 4 Oct 1399.  He was Chief Governor of Ireland 1401-1413.  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “dominus Thomas regis secundogenitus” left for Ireland “domandam rebellionem”, dated to 1401 from the context[1109].  He was created Duke of Clarence and Earl of Aumâle 9 Jul 1412.  He presided at the trial for treason of Richard Earl of Cambridge in 1415.  The will of "Thomas son of the King Duke of Clarence, Earl of Albemarle and Steward of England", dated 10 Jul 1417, proved 23 Nov 1423, chose burial “in Christ Church Canterbury at the feet of my...father”, bequeathed property to “Margaret my...consort...my...son Henry Earl of Somerset[1110].  Constable of the Army 1417, and Lieutenant General of the Army in France 1417-1421, during which he was in command at the siege and eventual capture of Rouen 19 Jan 1419.  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 22 Mar 1421 “in Francia ultra aquam de Loyre” of “Thomas dux Clarencić frater regis Henrici[1111].  He was killed by John de la Croise at the battle of Baugé in Anjou.  m (Papal dispensation 10 Nov 1411) as her second husband, MARGARET de Holand, widow of JOHN Beaufort Marquess of Somerset, daughter of THOMAS de Holand Earl of Kent & his wife Alice FitzAlan ([1381/85]-St Saviour’s Abbey, Bermondsey 30 Dec 1439, bur Augustine Monastery of St Saviour, London).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Margaret Countess of Somerset" as daughter of "Thomas Holand Earl of Kent"[1112].  The will of "John Beaufort late Earl of Somerset, Chamberlain of England and Captain of Calais", dated 16 Mar 1409, proved 5 Apr 1410, bequeathed property to “Henry his brother...Bishop of Winchester” and appointed him and “Margaret his wife” as his executors[1113].  The will of "Thomas son of the King Duke of Clarence, Earl of Albemarle and Steward of England", dated 10 Jul 1417, proved 23 Nov 1423, bequeathed property to “Margaret my...consort...my...son Henry Earl of Somerset[1114].  This document also confirms Margaret´s second marriage as “my...son Henry Earl of Somerset” was the testator´s stepson, his wife´s son by her first marriage.  Thomas Duke of Clarence had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

a)         JOHN de Clarence (-after 3 Jul 1431).  Weir names John de Clarence “a knight, and was sometimes known as the Bastard of Clarence” as the illegitimate child of Thomas Duke of Clarence[1115].  Presumably it is based on the following document: John Bastard of Clarence knight” complained of his poverty and asked the commons to ask the king to send him to serve in France, undated [reference included to Calendar of Patent Rolls which records the grant to the petitioner of the office of constable of Dublin Castle, dated 3 Jul 1431[1116]

4.         JOHN of Lancaster (20 Jun 1389-Rouen 15 Sep 1435, bur Rouen Cathedral).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth in 1389 of “Johannes dux Bedfordić[1117].  Made Constable of England 10 Sep 1403.  Created Duke of Bedford and Earl of Kendal 16 May 1414, and Earl of Richmond 24 Nov 1414.  Appointed Guardian of the Kingdom, during King Henry V's absences in France, 12 Aug 1415, 25 Jul 1417 and 10 Jun 1421.  Lord High Admiral 1421, until his death.  Made Regent of France Sep 1422, after the death of King Henry V.  Appointed Protector of the Kingdom 5 Dec 1422, for his nephew King Henry VI.  He commanded the English and Burgundians at the battle of Verneuil 17 Aug 1424.  Admiral of England, Ireland and Guyenne 26 Jul 1426.  The will of "John Duke of Bedford Governor and Regent of France", dated 10 Sep 1435, chose burial “in the church of the Blessed Mary of Rouen if he died in Normandy, if in Picardy in the church of the Blessed Mary of Morivele, and [if]...in England in the abbey...of Waltham in the diocese of London”, bequeathed property to “the...Princess Lady Jacobe his wife...Richard the bastard of Bedford his natural son[1118].  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 14 Sep 1434 “in villa Rotamagi” of “dux Bedfordić” and his burial there “in ecclesia Marić[1119]m firstly (by proxy Montbar 13 or 17 Apr 1423, contract Troyes 18 May 1423, in person Troyes Cathedral 14 Jun 1423) ANNE de Bourgogne, daughter of JEAN “Sans-Peur” Duke of Bavaria & his wife Marguerite de Hainaut (Arras [1404/05]-Hôtel de Bourgogne, Paris in childbirth 14 Nov 1432, bur Church of the Celestines, Paris, later transferred to the Chartreuse de Champnol, Dijon).  The necrology of the Celestins de Paris records the death "XVIII Kal Dec" of "domine Anne sororis…principis Phillippi ducis Burgundie et uxoris…principis Johannis ducis Bethfordis et comitis Kandalle"[1120]m secondly (Bishop’s Palace, Thérouanne 20 Apr 1433) JACQUETTE de Luxembourg, daughter of PIERRE de Luxembourg Comte de Saint-Pol & his wife Margherita del Balzo ([1416/17]-30 May 1472).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the marriage “die Sancti Botulphi...in villa de Tyrwene” 22 Apr 1433 of “dux Bedfordić” and “filiam domini de Seynt Pole[1121].  The testament of John Duke of Bedford, Governor and Regent of France, dated 10 Sep 1435, bequeathed property to “the ...princess Lady Jacobe his wife...Richard the bastard of Bedford his natural son”, and appointed “Louis Bishop of Terouenne Chancellor of France his uncle” among his executors[1122].  She married secondly ([6 Feb 1436/23 Mar 1437]) Richard Wydeville, who was created Lord de Ryvers 9 May 1448 and Earl Rivers 24 May 1466.  John Duke of Bedford & his first wife had one child:

a)         child (Paris Nov 1432-shortly after birth). Weir records “unnamed child...born in November 1432 in Paris and died shortly after its birth” as the only child of John Duke of Bedford and his wife[1123].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified. 

John Duke of Bedford had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

b)         RICHARD (-after 10 Sep 1435).  The testament of John Duke of Bedford, Governor and Regent of France, dated 10 Sep 1435, bequeathed property to “the ...princess Lady Jacobe his wife...Richard the bastard of Bedford his natural son[1124]

c)          MARY (-after 12 Aug 1457).  King Henry VI mandated the payment of a pension to “Marye daughter of oure...uncle late duc de Bedford” after she showed “losses...sith the dethe of Perys Mountferraunt lorde de la Sparre late her husbande, which was slayne in oure werres in oure duchie of Guyenn”, dated 12 Aug 1457[1125]m PIERRE de Montferrand Seigneur de Lesparre, son of --- (-beheaded Bordeaux 1454). 

5.         HUMPHREY of Lancaster (3 Oct 1390-Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk 23 Feb 1447, bur 4 Mar 1447 St Albans Abbey, Hertford).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth in 1390 of “Umfridus dux Gloucestrić[1126].  Appointed Lord Great Chamberlain of England 7 May 1413.  Created Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke 16 May 1414.  He fought at Agincourt 25 Oct 1415, was wounded and rescued by his brother King Henry V.  Appointed Keeper of the Realm and Deputy of the King, during the latter's absence 30 Dec 1419.  Appointed Regent of England May 1422.  He assumed the title Count of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut in right of his first wife.  He was a benefactor of Oxford University, from [1411] onwards presenting many books which were the foundation of the Bodleian library.  He was arrested at Bury St Edmunds, and died soon after.  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 23 Feb 1447 “in parliamento apud Bury” of “Hunfridus dux Gloucestrić avunculus Henrico VI[1127]m firstly (Hadleigh, Essex before 7 Mar 1423, divorced 13 Feb 1425, annulled by Papal Decree 9 Jul 1428) as her third husband, JACQUELINE de Hainaut, widow (firstly) of JEAN Dauphin de France, and divorced wife (secondly) of JEAN IV Duke of Brabant, daughter of GUILLAUME IV Comte de Hainaut [WILLEM IV Count of Holland] & his wife Marguerite de Bourgogne (The Hague 25 Jul 1401-Leijden or Teilingen 8 Oct 1436, bur The Hague).  Her previous marriage with Jean de Brabant was pronounced valid 9 Jan 1428 by Pope Martin V, her marriage with Humphrey being consequently annulled.  She married fourthly (secretly The Hague 1 Aug 1432, publicly St Maartensdijk 1 Mar 1434) Frank van Borselen Graaf van Ostervantm secondly (1428) ELEANOR Cobham, daughter of REGINALD Cobham of Sterborough, Kent & his first wife Eleanor Culpeper (-in prison Peel Castle, Isle of Man 1454, bur [Peel Castle]).  She became Humphrey’s mistress some time before their marriage.  She was convicted of practising witchcraft in 1441, did public penance in London, and was imprisoned at Chester Castle, Kenilworth Castle and (from 1446) in Peel Castle, Isle of Man where she died.  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records that “after mydsomer in the moneth of Juyn, Dame Alianore Cobham the duchesse of Glowcestre was arrested for coniectyng of the kinges deth with other certeyn persones” and was “afterward...dampned as a witch and an heretyke” and imprisoned in the Isle of Man[1128].  Humphrey Duke of Gloucester & his first wife had one child:

a)         stillborn child (1424).  Weir records “stillborn child...born in 1424” as the only child of Humphrey Duke of Gloucester and his wife[1129].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified. 

Humphrey Duke of Gloucester had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

b)         ARTHUR (-after 8 Jul 1447).  The Chronicle of Henry VI records that “Arteys”, natural son of Humphrey, was among those arrested with his father at Bury in Feb 1447[1130]

c)          ANTIGONE (-after Jun 1451).  Letters of legitimation were granted Jun 1451 by the French king to “Antigone fille naturelle de Humphrey duc de Gloucester et femme de Jean d´Amancier écuyer d´écurie du roi[1131]m firstly ([3 Jan 1435]) HENRY Grey Earl of Tancarville, son of JOHN Grey of Heton, Northumberland & his wife Joan Cherleton ([1418]-13 Jan 1450).  m secondly JEAN d’Amancier, son of --- (-after Jun 1451). 

6.         BLANCHE (Peterborough Castle Spring 1392-Hagenau, Neustadt, Alsace 22 May 1409, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “duas filias suas, unam regi Daci et alteram [filio] ducis Bavarie tunc imperatoris electi[1132].  The marriage contract between “Henrici Anglić Francićque regis ac domini Hibernić...filić suć senioris dominć Blanchić” and “Ruperti regis Romanorum...filii sui...Ludowici comitis Palatini Reni ac ducis Bavarić” is dated 7 Mar 1401[1133]m (contract 7 Mar 1401, Heidelberg [22 Jul] 1402) as his first wife, LUDWIG Pfalzgraf, son of RUPRECHT III "Klemb" Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern, King of Germany & his wife Elisabeth von Nürnberg [Hohenzollern] (23 Jan 1378-Heidelberg 30 Dec 1436, bur Heidelberg, Heiliges Geist). He succeeded his father in 1410 as LUDWIG III “der Bärtige” Elector Palatine and Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern. 

7.         PHILIPPA of Lancaster (Peterborough Castle 4 Jun 1394-convent of Vadstena, Lingkoping, Sweden 5 Jan 1430, bur convent of Vadstena).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “duas filias suas, unam regi Daci et alteram [filio] ducis Bavarie tunc imperatoris electi[1134].  Her marriage was proposed by her father in 1401 in order to obtain international recognition after his accession, together with the marriage of her oldest brother the future King Henry V to her husband's sister Katharina, although the latter project was abandoned[1135]m (Lund, Sweden 26 Oct 1406) [as his first wife,] ERIK VII King of Denmark and Norway, son of WARTISLAW VII Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern & his wife Marie von Mecklenburg-Schwerin ([1381]-Rügenwalde 1459 [after 4 Apr], bur Rügenwalde, Marienkirche). 

 

 

 

D.      HOUSE of YORK, descendants of EDMUND of LANGLEY

 

 

EDMUND "of Langley", son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (Abbot’s Langley, Hertfordshire 5 Jun 1341-King’s Langley, Hertfordshire 1 Aug 1402, bur King’s Langley, Church of the Dominican Friars).  The Chronicon Anglić records that “Philippa regina Anglić” gave birth 5 Jun “apud Langley juxta Sanctum Albanum” to “filium...Edmundus”, dated to 1341 from the context[1136].  Created Earl of Cambridge 13 Nov 1362.  Her served in the campaign in Brittany 1369, at the siege of Limoges Sep 1370.  Created Duke of York 6 Aug 1385.  Regent of England 29 Sep 1394-May 1395, 6 Aug 1395, and 27 Sep-Nov 1396, during the King's absences, and also in 1399 when his nephew Henry Duke of Lancaster landed, with whom he made peace.  The will of "Edmund Duke of York, Earl of Cambridge and Lord of Tyndale", dated 25 Nov 1400, chose burial “at Langley near to Isabel late my wife”, appointed “my...son of Rutland” among his executors[1137]

Betrothed (19 Oct 1364) to MARGUERITE de Flandre, widow of PHILIPPE I "de Rouvres" Duke of Burgundy, daughter of LOUIS III "de Mâle" Count of Flanders & his wife Marguerite de Brabant (Mâle near Bruges 1350, chr 13 Apr 1350-Arras 16 Mar 1405, bur Lille, église Saint-Pierre).  This betrothal was arranged under the Treaty of Dover 19 Oct 1364, but the French persuaded Pope Urban V to refuse a dispensation on grounds of consanguinity[1138].  A charter dated 20 Jul 1364 records negotiations for the marriage between “nostre...cousin le conte de Flandres...Margarete duchesse de Burgoigne file au dit conte” and “nostre...filz Esmon de Langele[1139].  The contract for the marriage between “Edward...roi Engleterre...messieur Esmon counte de Cantebrigg filz au dit roi” and “Loys counte de Flandres, duc de Brabant, counte de Nyvers et de Rechest et sire de Malynes...dame Margarete duchesse de Burgoigne sa fille[1140].  The Chronicon Anglić records the betrothal of “Edmundus de Langley filius regis Edwardi” and “filiam et heredem...comitis Flandrić”, adding that “rex Francić Karolus” blocked the marriage, dated to 1364 from the context[1141]

m firstly ([Hertford Castle] [1 Jan/30 Apr] 1372) Infanta dońa ISABEL de Castilla, [illegitimate] daughter of PEDRO I “el Cruel” King of Castile & his mistress [first wife] dońa María de Padilla (Tordesillas 1355-23 Dec 1392, bur 14 Jan 1393 King’s Langley, Hertfordshire, Church of the Dominican Friars).  Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records the birth “en Oterdesillas” in 1355 of “una fija de Dońa Maria de Padilla...Dońa Isabel, que casó despues con Mosen Aymon fijo del Rey Eduarte de Inglaterra...despues Duque de Yort[1142]A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “Edmundo Langley duci Ebor fratri...Johannis ducis Lancastrie” married “Henricus rex Hispaniarum...tertia filia[1143].  The will of "Isabel Duchess of York, Countess of Cambridge", proved 6 Jan 1392, chose burial “wheresoever my...husband and the king shall appoint”, bequeathed property to “the King...the Duke of Lancaster...Edward Earl of Rutland my son...Constance le Despencer my daughter...the duchess of Gloucester...Richard my son[1144].  

m secondly as her first husband, JOAN de Holand, daughter of THOMAS de Holand Earl of Kent & his wife Alice FitzAlan ([1380]-12 Apr 1434).  She married secondly ([1 Aug 1402/9 Aug 1404]) as his second wife, William Lord Willoughby d’Eresby, and thirdly (licence 6 Sep 1410, [Faxflete Chapel, Yorkshire]) as his second wife, Henry Le Scrope Lord Scrope (of Masham), and fourthly ([Nov 1415/27 Apr 1416]) as his first wife, Henry Bromflete Lord Vessy [Vesci].  The primary sources which confirm her parentage and four marriages have not been identified. 

Edmund Duke of York & his first wife had three children:

1.         EDWARD of Cambridge ([Norwich] 1373-25 Oct 1415, bur Fotheringhay).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Edmundum ducem Ebor...et Ricardum” as the children of “Edmundo Langley duci Ebor fratri...Johannis ducis Lancastrie” married and his wife “Henricus rex Hispaniarum...tertia filia”, adding that “Edmundum” was killed “in bello apud Agyncourt[1145].  Created Earl of Rutland 25 Feb 1390.  The will of "Isabel Duchess of York, Countess of Cambridge", proved 6 Jan 1392, bequeathed property to “the King...the Duke of Lancaster...Edward Earl of Rutland my son...Constance le Despencer my daughter...the duchess of Gloucester...Richard my son[1146].  Created Earl of Cork before 15 Jan 1395.  Appointed Constable of England 12 Jul and 9 Sep 1397-Sep 1399.  Created Duc d’Aumâle 29 Sep 1397, deprived of this 3 Nov 1399, restored 1 May 1414.  He succeeded his father in 1402 as Duke of York and Earl of Cambridge.  The will of "Edward Duke of York", dated 22 Aug 1415, proved 30 Nov 1415, chose burial “in the parochial church within my College of Fotheringay”, bequeathed property to “my...wife Philippa[1147]Betrothed ([5 Jul 1380]) to Infanta dona BRITES de Portugal, daughter of FERNANDO I King of Portugal & his wife dońa Leonor Téllez de Menezes (Coimbra end 1372-Madrigal after 1409).  A charter dated 5 Jul 1380 refers to the marriage between Dom Fernando...rey de Portugal et de Algarve...reynha dona Leonor miucha molhir...a iffante dona Beatriz nossa filha” and “Dom Joham rey de Castella et de Leon et duque de Lancasgtre et...dona Constanca sua molhir...o...conde de Cantabryxa ssen filho[1148].  Ayala´s Crónica de Juan I records in 1382 that “la Infanta Dońa Beatriz fija heredera del Rey Don Ferrando de Portogal” had been betrothed to “Eduarte fijo de Mosen Aymon” after “los Ingleses vinieron en Portogal[1149]This betrothal was arranged by Edward´s uncle John of Gaunt, as part of the alliance with Portugal agreed in Jul 1380, but nullified when the king of Portugal signed the Peace of Elvas with Castile in Aug 1382.  m ([27 Feb 1397/7 Oct 1398]) as her third husband, PHILIPPA de Mohun, widow firstly of WALTER FitzWalter Lord FitzWalter, and secondly of JOHN Golafre of Langley, Oxfordshire, daughter of JOHN de Mohun Lord Mohun & his wife Joan de Burghersh (-Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight 17 Jul 1431, bur Westminster Abbey).  The will of "Edward Duke of York", dated 22 Aug 1415, proved 30 Nov 1415, bequeathed property to “my...wife Philippa[1150].  The will of "Philippa Duchess of York and Lady of the Isle of Wight", dated 1430, proved 13 Nov 1431, chose burial “in the conventual church of Westminster”, bequeathed property to “my son Walter Lord Fitz-Walter...[1151]

2.         CONSTANCE ([1374]-28 Nov 1416, bur Reading Abbey).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records that “Thomam le Despencer et comitem Gloucestrić”, last child of “Edwardus…secundus, filius…Edwardi” and his wife, married “dominam Constantiam filiam domini Edmundi de Langley, filii regis Edwardi tertii et ducis Eboracensis”, adding in a later passage that Constance married secondly “domino Thomć comiti de Arundell” by whom she was mother of “filiam…Elianoram” who married “Hugoni domino de Audley” and had “filium…Jacobum[1152].  This last passage is inconsistent with other sources regarding the paternity of Constance´s daughter Eleanor and the identity of Eleanor´s husband.  It is not known whether it constituted a conscious effort to cover the tracks regarding her true parentage.  The will of "Isabel Duchess of York, Countess of Cambridge", proved 6 Jan 1392, bequeathed property to “the King...the Duke of Lancaster...Edward Earl of Rutland my son...Constance le Despencer my daughter...the duchess of Gloucester...Richard my son[1153].  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the death in 1417 of “domina Constancia, mater…dominć Isabellć” and her burial “apud monasterium de Reding 1420[1154]m ([16 Apr 1378/7 Nov 1389]) THOMAS le Despenser Lord Despenser, son of EDWARD le Despenser & his wife Elizabeth de Burghersh (1373-beheaded Bristol 13 Jan 1400, bur Tewkesbury Abbey).  Mistress: ([1405]) of EDMUND de Holand Earl of Kent, son of THOMAS de Holand Earl of Kent & his wife Alice FitzAlan of Arundel (6 Jan 1383-killed in battle Ile de Bréhat, Brittany 15 Sep 1408, bur Bourne Abbey, Lincolnshire). 

3.         RICHARD "of Conisburgh" (Conisburgh Castle, Yorkshire [Sep] [1375/76]-executed Southampton Green, Hampshire 5 Aug 1415, bur Southampton, Chapel of God’s House).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Edmundum ducem Ebor...et Ricardum” as the children of “Edmundo Langley duci Ebor fratri...Johannis ducis Lancastrie” married and his wife “Henricus rex Hispaniarum...tertia filia”, adding that “Ricardum” was beheaded “apud Southamptonam” by Henry V[1155].  The will of "Isabel Duchess of York, Countess of Cambridge", proved 6 Jan 1392, bequeathed property to “the King...the Duke of Lancaster...Edward Earl of Rutland my son...Constance le Despencer my daughter...the duchess of Gloucester...Richard my son[1156].  Ambassador to Denmark Aug-Dec 1406.  He was created Earl of Cambridge 1 May 1414.  He tried to take his brother-in-law Edmund Mortimer to Wales in 1415, to proclaim him king, but Edmund revealed the plot to King Henry V.  Richard was attainted and condemned to death, all his honours being forfeited.  m firstly ([May 1406], dispensation 10 Jun 1408) ANNE Mortimer, daughter of ROGER [VII] Mortimer Earl of March & his wife Eleanor Holand (27 Dec 1390-Sep 1411, bur King’s Langley Church, Hertfordshire).  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Annć et Alianorć” as the daughters of “Rogerus comes Marchić et Ultonić”, adding that Anne married “domino Ricardo comiti Cantabrigić[1157].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Eleanor Countess of the March, after wed to the Lord Powis [of] Charlton" as daughter of "Thomas Holand Earl of Kent" and mother of "Anne Countess of Cambridge" and of "Jocosa Lady Tiptoft, married John, Lord Tiptoft"[1158]m secondly ([1411/15]) as her second husband, MAUD Clifford, divorced wife of JOHN Neville Lord Latimer, daughter of THOMAS de Clifford Baron Clifford & his wife Elizabeth de Ros (-26 Aug 1446, bur Roche Abbey, Yorkshire).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriages has not been identified.  Richard Earl of Cambridge & his first wife had two children:

a)         ISABEL (1409-2 Oct 1484, bur Beeleigh Abbey, Maldon, Essex, later transferred to Little Easton Church, Essex).  A manuscript calendar records the death “VI Non Oct” in 1484 of “dńe Isabelle Comitisse Essex´, consortis Henrici Bourgchier, Comitis Essex[1159].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth Countess of Essex" as daughter of "Anne Countess of Cambridge" and mother of "William Lord Bouchier"[1160].  Her parentage is confirmed in another entry in the same source which records the death “II Id Aug” in 1458 of “Henrici Bourgchier, filii dńe Isabelle, Comitisse Essex´ et Sororis Rici Ducis Ebor[1161]m firstly (after Feb 1413, annulled before 1426) THOMAS Grey, son of THOMAS Grey of Heton & his wife --- ([1403/04]-before 1443).  m secondly (before 25 Apr 1426) HENRY Bourchier Comte d'Eu, son of WILLIAM Bourchier Comte d'Eu & his wife Anne of Gloucester ([1409]-4 Apr 1483, bur Beeleigh Abbey, Maldon, Essex, later transferred to Little Easton Church, Essex).  He was created Viscount Bourchier [before 14 Dec 1446], and Earl of Essex 30 Jun 1461. 

b)         RICHARD of York (21 Sep 1411-killed in battle Wakefield 30 Dec 1460, bur Pontefract, transferred 30 Jul 1476 to Collegiate Church of Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Ricardum ducem Ebor” as the child of “Ricardus comes Cantabrigie” and his wife “herede Marchie et Ulton[1162].  He succeeded his uncle in 1415 as Duke of York

-        see below

                                                                                                                                                                                          

 

RICHARD of York, son of RICHARD "of Conisburgh" Earl of Cambridge & his first wife Anne Mortimer (21 Sep 1411-killed in battle Wakefield 30 Dec 1460, bur Pontefract, transferred 30 Jul 1476 to Collegiate Church of Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Ricardum ducem Ebor” as the child of “Ricardus comes Cantabrigie” and his wife “herede Marchie et Ulton[1163].  He succeeded his paternal uncle in 1415 as Duke of York.  He succeeded his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer in 1425 as Earl of March, Lord Mortimer [of Wigmore] and Earl of Ulster.  Lieutenant General and Governor of France and Normandy 1436-1437 and 2 Jul 1440-1447.  Resigned the Earldom of March in favour of his eldest son Edward [Sep/Dec] 1445.  Lieutenant of Ireland 9 Dec 1447-Mar 1453, and 1 Dec 1454 until his attainder.  He assumed the surname "Richard Plantagenet" [1448].  Protector of the Realm during Henry VI's incapacity 3 Apr 1454-Feb 1455.  He assumed leadership of the Yorkist party, defeated and killed Edmund Beaufort Duke of Somerset at St Albans 22 May 1455, as well as taking the King prisoner.  He rebelled again in 1459, defeated the King at Blore Heath 23 Sep, but was forced to flee at Ludford 13 Oct.  He was attainted 20 Nov 1459 and forfeited all his titles and honours, the attainder and forfeiture were nullified Oct 1460.  After his son captured London 2 Jul 1460, he returned, claimed the crown and was restored to his honours.  A compromise was reached with the King 31 Oct 1460, under which Richard was recognised as Henry VI's heir, publicly proclaimed as such 9 Nov.  However, his army was routed at Wakefield where he was killed.  A manuscript calendar records the death “III Kal Jan” in 1460 of “Rici Ducis Ebor[1164]

m (before 18 Oct 1424) CECILY Neville, daughter of RALPH Neville Earl of Westmoreland & his second wife Joan Beaufort (Raby Castle, co Durham 3 May 1415-Berkhamstead Castle, Hertfordshire 31 May 1495, bur Collegiate Church of Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire).  A mid-15th century manuscript names "Johannam minorissam, Ricardum, Katherinam ducissam Norfolchie, Henricum mortuum, Thomam dominum de Seymour, Cuthbertum mortuum, Alienoram uxorem comitis Northumbrie, Robertum episcopum Dunelmie, Willelmum dominum de Fauconberge, Annam comitissam Staffordie, Johannem mortuum, Georgium dominum de Latymer, Ceciliam ducissam Eboraci, Edwardum dominum de Bergeny" as the children of "Radulphus dominus de Neuill et comes Westmorlandie" and his wife "Johanna filia Johannis ducis Lancastrie uxor secunda"[1165].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Joan, wife firstly of Ferrers Baron of Ousley, and secondly of Ralph Earl of Westmoreland" as daughter of "John Duke of Lancaster" and mother (by her first husband) of "Baroness of Greystoke" and (by her second husband of "Cecily Duchess of York…"[1166].  She became a Benedictine nun. 

Richard Duke of York & his wife had thirteen children:

1.         JOAN (1438-1438).  Weir names “Joan...born in 1438 and died the same year” as the first child of Richard[1167].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

2.         ANNE (Fotheringhay Castle 10 Aug 1439-12 or 14 Jan 1476, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 10 Aug 1439 “apud Fodryngay” of “Anna ducissa Excestrić filia Ricardi ducis Eboraci et Cćcilić uxoris eius[1168].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Cecily Duchess of York" as mother of "Anne Duchess of Exeter, also wedded to Thomas Saint Leger", and her children "Anthony Saint Leger, Anne"[1169].  She may have died in childbirth.  m firstly (before 30 Jul 1447, divorced 12 Nov 1472) HENRY Holand Duke of Exeter, son of JOHN Holand Duke of Exeter & his first wife Anne Stafford (Tower of London 27 Jun 1430-drowned at sea Sep 1475).  m secondly ([1472/73]) THOMAS St Leger, son of --- (-beheaded Exeter [8] Nov 1483, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  Knighted.

3.         HENRY of York (Hatfield, Hertfordshire 10 Feb 1441-young).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 10 Feb 1441 “apud Hattefelde” of “Henricus primogenitus Ricardi ducis Eboraci[1170]

4.         EDWARD of York (Rouen 28 Apr 1442-Palace of Westminster 10 Apr 1483, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 28 Apr 1442 “apud Rothomagum” of “Edwardus filius secundus Ricardi ducis Eboraci et heres, rex Anglić et Francić”, adding that he was “conceptus...in camera proxima capellć palatii de Hatfelde[1171].  He succeeded as EDWARD IV King of England in 1461. 

-        see below

5.         EDMUND (Rouen 17 or 27 May 1443-killed in battle Wakefield 30 Dec 1460, bur Pontefract, later removed to Collegiate Church of Fotheringhay, Northamptonshire).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 17 May 1443 “apud Rothomagum” of “Edmundus iii filius Ricardi ducis Eboraci[1172].  Created Earl of Rutland 29 Jan 1446.  He was attainted 20 Nov 1459 and forfeited all his titles and honours, the attainder and forfeiture were nullified Oct 1460. 

6.         ELIZABETH (Rouen 22 Apr 1444-[7 Jan 1503/3 May 1504], bur Wingfield Church, Suffolk).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 22 Apr 1444 “apud Rothomagum” of “Elizabeth secunda filia Ricardi ducis Eboraci[1173].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth Duchess of Suffolk" as mother of "Edmond Earl of Suffolk, Humphrey, Elizabeth, Anne"[1174]m ([Aug] 1461) as his second wife, JOHN de la Pole Duke of Suffolk, son of JOHN de la Pole Duke of Suffolk & his wife Alice Chaucer (27 Sep 1442-[29 Oct 1491/27 Oct 1492], bur Wingfield). 

7.         MARGARET of York (Fotheringhay Castle 3 May 1446-Mechelen 16 Apr or 28 Nov 1503, bur Mechelen, Church of the Cordeliers).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 3 May 1446 “apud Fodryngay” of “Margareta filia tertia Ricardi ducis Eboraci[1175].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Cecily Duchess of York" as mother of "Margaret, wedded to Charles Duke of Burgundy"[1176].  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the marriage contract 1 Oct 1467 “apud Kyngistone super Thamesiam” between “domina Margareta soror regis Edwardi” and “domino Carolo duce Burgundić[1177]m (contract Kingston-upon-Thames 1 Oct 1467, by proxy Brussels 16 Feb 1468, in person Brussels 9 Jul 1468) as his third wife, CHARLES "le Hardi/le Téméraire" Duke of Burgundy, son of PHILIPPE III "le Bon" Duke of Burgundy & his third wife Infanta dońa Isabel de Portugal (Dijon 11 Nov 1433-killed in battle Nancy 5 Jan 1477, bur 1512 Bruges église de Notre-Dame). 

8.         WILLIAM (Fotheringhay Castle 7 Jul 1447-young).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 7 Jul 1447 “apud Fodryngay” of “Willelmus quartus filius Ricardi ducis[1178]

9.         JOHN (The Neyte, Westminster 7 Nov 1448-young).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 7 Nov 1448 “apud Neyte juxta Westmonasterium” of “Johannes v filius Ricardi ducis Eboraci[1179]

10.      GEORGE (Dublin Castle 21 Oct 1449-murdered Tower of London 18 Feb 1478, bur Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 21 Oct 1449 “in Hibernia” of “Georgius vi filius Ricardi ducis[1180].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Cecily Duchess of York" as mother of "George Duke of Clarence"[1181].  Created Duke of Clarence 28 Jun 1461.  Chief Governor of Ireland Feb 1462-Mar 1470.  He joined in the revolt against his brother King Edward IV in 1470, but changing sides assisted in the king's victory at Barnet 14 Apr 1471.  He was created Earl of Salisbury and Earl of Warwick 25 Mar 1472, de iure uxoris.  Great Chamberlain of England 20 May 1471.  He was accused of high treason, attainted 8 Feb 1478, and forfeited all his titles, honours and estates.  He is said to have been drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine.  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records that 18 Feb [1478] “George Duke of Clarence and brother unto kyng Edward [was] put to death withyn the Tower as prisoner. Drowned in Malvesay[1182]m (Calais, Notre Dame 11 Jul 1469) ISABEL Neville, daughter and co-heiress of RICHARD Neville Earl of Warwick and Salisbury & his wife Anne Beauchamp (Warwick Castle 5 Sep 1451-Warwick Castle 22 Dec 1476, bur Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire).  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records that “the duke of Clarence” married “the eldest daughter of the [earl of Warwick][1183].  She was alleged to have been poisoned by Ankarette Twynyho, one of her servants, who was hanged at Warwick for her murder.  The circumstances are set out in a petition to the king for a retrospective pardon submitted by her grandson Roger Twynyho in Feb 1478[1184].  George Duke of Clarence & his wife had four children:

a)         [ANNE] (on board ship off Calais 16 Apr 1470-died shortly after, bur Calais).  Weir names “Anne (?)...born on 16 Apr 1470 in a ship off Calais...either born dead or died soon after birth, and was buried at Calais” as the daughter of George, adding that “some sources state that the child born at sea in 1470 was a son[1185].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

b)         MARGARET (Farley Castle, near Bath 14 Aug 1473-beheaded Tower of London 28 May 1541, bur Royal Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula within the Tower).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Margaret who after maryed to Rychard Pole and Edward whom the king made erle of Warwicke” as the two children of George Duke of Clarence[1186].  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] records that "the Lady Margaret, dau. of the Duke of Clarence" married "Richard Pole, Knt"[1187].  Lady of the Chamber to Queen Catherine of Aragon 1509.  She managed to get her brother's attainder reversed in 1514, and was thereby restored as Ctss of Salisbury.  Governess of Princess Mary (later Queen Mary I) from before 13 May 1520 to shortly after 1 Oct 1533.  She was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Mar/May] 1539, attainted without trial 12 May 1539, and beheaded.  m (22 Sep 1494) RICHARD Pole, son of GEOFFREY Pole of Medmenham and Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire & his first wife Edith St John (-before 18 Dec 1505). 

c)         EDWARD (Warwick Castle 21 or 25 Feb 1475-beheaded Tower Hill, London 28 Nov 1499, bur Bisham Abbey, Berkshire).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Margaret who after maryed to Rychard Pole and Edward whom the king made erle of Warwicke” as the two children of George Duke of Clarence[1188].  Earl of Warwick from his baptism.  He succeeded his mother as Earl of Salisbury in Dec 1476, but never so styled.  He was said to have been declared heir apparent of the throne on the death 9 Apr 1484 of his first cousin Edward Prince of Wales.  On the accession of King Henry VII, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London where he remained for the rest of his life.  He succeeded his maternal grandmother in 1492 as Earl of Warwick.  He was charged with conspiracy and beheaded.  His honours were forfeited and he was attainted Jan 1504.

d)         RICHARD (Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire 6 Oct 1476-Warwick Castle 1 Jan 1477, bur Warwick Church by the Castle).  Weir names “Richard...born on 6 Oct 1476 at Tewkesbury Abbey...died 1 Jan 1477 at Warwick Castle...buried in Warwick Church, by the Castle” as the son of George[1189].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

11.      THOMAS ([1450/51]-young).  Weir names “Thomas...born in 1450/1 and died young” as the son of Richard Duke of York[1190].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified. 

12.      RICHARD (Fotheringay Castle 2 Oct 1452-killed in battle Bosworth Field, Leicestershire 22 Aug 1485, bur Greyfriars Abbey, Leicester).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 2 Oct 1452 “apud Fodryngay” of “Ricardus[1191].  Created Duke of Gloucester 1 Nov 1461.  Appointed Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine 12 Oct 1462.  Constable of England 17 Oct 1469.  He is said to have taken part in the murder of Edward Prince of Wales, whose widow he married.  Great Chamberlain of England, in succession to his brother George Duke of Clarence, 21 Feb 1478 the same day he was murdered.  Before dying, his brother appointed him Protector of the Kingdom and guardian of his family during the minority of King Edward V.  He proclaimed himself 26 Jun 1483 as RICHARD III King of England, having deposed his nephew.  Crowned 6 Jul 1483 at Westminster Abbey.  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records that 22 Aug [1485] “[at] the ffeeld of Bosworth...kyng Richard was slayne”, carried “upon an hors behynd a man all naked to Leyciter” where he was buried “in the ffreres[1192]m (Westminster Abbey 12 Jul 1472) as her second husband, ANNE Neville, widow of EDWARD Prince of Wales, daughter of RICHARD Neville Earl of Warwick & his wife Anne Beauchamp Ctss of Warwick (Warwick Castle 11 Jun 1456-Palace of Westminster 16 Mar 1485, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records that “the son of king Henry” had married “the lady Anne...youngest daughter of the earl of Warwick” and that, after he was killed, “Richard duke of Gloucester sought the said Anne in marriage[1193].  She probably died of tuberculosis.  King Richard III & his wife had one child:

a)         EDWARD (Middleham Castle, Yorkshire [Dec] 1473-Middleham Castle, Yorkshire 9 Apr 1484, bur Sheriff Hutton Church, Yorkshire).  Created Earl of Salisbury 15 Feb 1478.  He became Duke of Cornwall 26 Jun 1483 on his father’s accession to the throne.  He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 24 Aug 1483.  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records the death “at Middleham Castle” in 1484 of “Edward the king´s only son[1194]

King Richard III had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

b)         JOHN of Gloucester ([1470]-[murdered] [Nov 1499]).  Captain of Calais.  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records that the king´s “bastard son” was made “Capitayn of Caleys” after his father´s coronation[1195].  An order confirmed this appointment of “John de Pountfreit Bastard[1196].  “John de Gloucester bastard” was granted an annual rent from the manor of “Kyngestonlacy”, Dorset 1 Mar 1486[1197].  Buck records that “there was a base son of King Richard III made away, having beene kept long before in prison” after “the attempt of certaine Irishmen in the west and south parts, who would have got him into their power and made him their cheife”, dated by the author to “about the same time” as the arrest and death of George Earl of Warwick (in Nov 1499)[1198].  This passage may refer to John as no reference to another illegitimate son of King Richard III has been identified.  However, the original primary source on which the information is based has not been traced and the report has not otherwise been verified. 

c)          KATHERINE Plantagenet (-after 8 Mar 1485).  The Complete Peerage records that William Earl of Huntingdon “covenanted with the king to take Dame Katherine Plantagenet his daughter to wife before Michaelmas” dated 29 Feb 1484[1199].  The Complete Peerage records that the Patent Rolls include the grant of an annuity to “the king´s kinsman William Earl of Huntingdon and Katherine his wife” dated 8 Mar 1485[1200]m ([3 Mar/29 Sep] 1484) as his second wife, WILLIAM Herbert Earl of Pembroke, son of WILLIAM Herbert Earl of Pembroke & his wife Anne Devereux ([1455]-16 Jul 1491, bur Tintern Abbey).  He resigned the Earldom of Pembroke in 1479, and was created Earl of Huntingdon 4 Jul 1479. 

13.      URSULA (22 Jul 1455-young).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 20 Jul 1455 “apud ---” of “Ursula filia Ricardi ducis Eboraci[1201]

 

 

EDWARD of York, son of RICHARD Duke of York & his wife Cecily Neville (Rouen 28 Apr 1442-Palace of Westminster 10 Apr 1483, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the birth 28 Apr 1442 “apud Rothomagum” of “Edwardus filius secundus Ricardi ducis Eboraci et heres, rex Anglić et Francić”, adding that he was “conceptus...in camera proxima capellć palatii de Hatfelde[1202].  Questions about Edward's paternity were first raised during his reign and were repeated by his brother Richard who declared him illegitimate on 22 Jun 1483 prior to seizing the throne.  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records that “Cecyly king Edwards mother...being falsely accusyd of adultery, companyd...of that great injury which hir soon Richard had doon hir[1203].  The matter even found its way into Shakespeare's Richard III[1204].  It is suggested that his real father was an archer named Blaybourne.  Historian Dr Michael K. Jones revealed, in a UK television documentary[1205], evidence from the Rouen cathedral register which indicates that Richard Duke of York was on campaign in Pontoise from 14 Jul to 21 Aug 1441, the period when Edward would have been conceived.  This does not of course constitute proof that the duke's absence was continuous throughout the period.  In addition, there is no proof that Edward's mother stayed in Rouen throughout the time in question, so she could have joined her husband temporarily on campaign.  Created Earl of March [Sep/Dec] 1445.  After rebelling with his father, he was also forced to flee at Ludford 13 Oct 1459, arriving in Calais 2 Nov.  He was attainted 20 Nov 1459, forfeiting all his titles and honours.  He defeated the Lancastrians at Northampton 10 Jul 1460 and captured King Henry VI, whom they brought to London 16 Jul 1460.  His attainder and forfeiture were nullified Oct 1460.  He succeeded his father 1460 as Duke of York, Earl of Ulster and Earl of Cambridge.  He defeated the Earls of Pembroke and Wiltshire at Mortimer's Cross, near Wigmore, 2 or 3 Feb 1461, and marched on London where he was proclaimed EDWARD IV King of England by Parliament 4 Mar 1461.  Crowned 28 Jun 1461 at Westminster Abbey.  He was deposed in favour of King Henry VI 3 Oct 1470, but restored to the throne 11 Apr 1471.  A manuscript calendar records the death “IV Id Apr” in 1483 of “Rege Edwardi iiii[1206].  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records the death “at Westmynster” 9 Apr [1483] of “kyng Edward IV” and his burial at “Wyndesor[1207]

m (Manor of Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire 1 May 1464) as her second husband, ELIZABETH Wydeville, widow of JOHN Grey of Groby, daughter of RICHARD Wydeville Earl Rivers & his wife Jacquette de Luxembourg (Grafton Regis [1437]-St Saviour’s Abbey, Bermondsey 8 Jun 1492, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Queen Elizabeth" as daughter of "Richard Earl Rivers" and mother of "The Queen that now is" and of "Thomas Marquess of Dorset"[1208].  A manuscript records the marriage “in festo Apostolorum Philippi et Jacobi” of “rex Edwardus” and “Elizabetham filiam domini de Rivaye et ducisse Bedfordie[1209].  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records the marriage “privately” of “king Edward” and “the widow of a certain knight, Elizabeth...though she only had a knight for her father, had a duchess for her mother[1210].  She was crowned Queen 26 May 1465 at Westminster Abbey.  Her marriage was declared null and void 25 Jun 1483 by the Act of Parliament “Titulus Regius”, their children becoming illegitimate, but recognised as valid once more Oct 1485 by the first Parliament of King Henry VII. 

Mistress (1): ELEANOR Talbot, widow of THOMAS Butler [son of Ralph Boteler Lord Sudeley], daughter of JOHN Talbot Earl of Shrewsbury & his second wife Margaret Beauchamp (-30 Jun 1468).  The Memoirs of Philip de Comines record that the bishop of Bath “discovered to the duke of Gloucester that his brother king Edward” had married (before he married the queen), the bishop performing the ceremony “nobody was present but they two and himself[1211].  The declaration of nullity of the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Wydeville (25 Jun 1483 by the Act of Parliament “Titulus Regius”) was based on his alleged pre-contract of marriage with Eleanor Butler.  The Titulus Regius 23 Jan 1483 (O.S.) records that “King Edward was...maryed...to...Dame Elianor Butteler doughter of the old Earl of Shrewesbury, with whom the same King Edward had made a precontracte of matrimonie...bifore he made the...pretensed mariage with...Elizabeth Grey[1212]

Mistress (2): CATHERINE Clarington, daughter of ---.  Buck records that King Edward IV had “many mistresses...whereof the most famous was Catharine de Clarington, Elisabeth Wiatt alias Lucy, Jane Shore, the Lady Elianour Talbot” but he cites no primary sources on which he bases this information[1213]

Mistress (3): ELIZABETH Lucy [Wyatt/Waite], daughter of ---.  Buck records that King Edward IV had “many mistresses...whereof the most famous was Catharine de Clarington, Elisabeth Wiatt alias Lucy, Jane Shore, the Lady Elianour Talbot” but he cites no primary sources on which he bases this information[1214].  Thomas More´s biography of King Richard III (dated to [1513]) records that King Edward IV was betrothed to “Dame Elizabeth Lucy, whom the king had also not long before gotten with child”, although it is clear from the context that More is reporting the same incident which other earlier sources indicate involved Eleanor Talbot (see above)[1215].  No earlier primary source has been found in which Elizabeth Lucy/Wyatt is named, nor has any primary source been traced which identifies the mother(s) of King Edward´s three illegitimate children who are shown below. 

Mistress (4): JANE Shore, daughter of ---.  Buck records that King Edward IV had “many mistresses...whereof the most famous was Catharine de Clarington, Elisabeth Wiatt alias Lucy, Jane Shore, the Lady Elianour Talbot” but he cites no primary sources on which he bases this information[1216].  Thomas More´s biography of King Richard III (dated to [1513]) records that King Edward IV “had three concubines in whom three diverse qualities differently excelled: one the merriest, another the wiliest, the third the holiest harlot in his realm...the merriest was Shore´s wife [Jane][1217]

King Edward IV & his wife had ten children:

1.         ELIZABETH of York (Palace of Westminster 11 Feb 1466-Tower of London 11 Feb 1503, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record that “regina Elizabetha” gave birth Feb 1466 to “filiam primogenitam...Elizabetham[1218].  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records the birth 11 Feb [1466] of “Dame Elizabeth pryncesse and first child of kyng Edward[1219].  A manuscript calendar records the marriage “XV Kal Feb” in 1485 of “King Harry the vii…[and] the queen Elisabeth[1220].  She was crowned Queen of England 25 Nov 1487 at Westminster Abbey.  A manuscript calendar records the death “III Id Feb” in 1502 (O.S.) of “Quene Elisabeth in the towre of london[1221].  She died in childbirth.  m (Westminster Abbey 18 Jan 1486) HENRY Tudor, son of EDMUND Tudor Earl of Richmond & his wife Margaret Beaufort (posthumously Pembroke Castle 28 Jan 1457-Richmond Palace, Surrey 21 Apr 1509, bur Westminster Abbey).  Earl of Richmond from birth, deprived of the earldom before 12 Aug 1462.  He succeeded in 1485 as HENRY VII King of England, after defeating King Richard III at the battle of Bosworth.  Crowned 30 Oct 1485 at Westminster Abbey.  

-        see Chapter 4.B. KINGS of ENGLAND 1485-1603, HOUSE of TUDOR

2.         MARY (Windsor Castle 11 Aug 1467-Greenwich Palace, Kent 23 May 1482, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record that “regina Elizabetha” gave birth “apud Wyndesore” in Aug (1467 from the context) to “aliam filiam...Mariam[1222]

3.         CECILY (Palace of Westminster 20 Mar 1469-Quarr Abbey, Isle of Wight 24 Aug 1507, bur Quarr Abbey).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth Queen of England, Cecily Viscountess Welles, The Lady Anne, The Lady Katherine, wedded to the Earl of Devonshire´s son and heir, Madam Bridget, nun" as daughters of "King Edward the Fourth"[1223].  A manuscript records in 1468 that “regina Elizabeth” gave birth to “regi Edwardo terciam filiam[1224].  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records the betrothal of “James king of Scotts...his soone James” to “king Edward...Cecyl his dowghter[1225][1226]Betrothed (26 Oct 1474, contract broken 12 Oct 1482) to JAMES Stewart, son of JAMES III King of Scotland & his wife Margarethe of Denmark (17 Mar 1473-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  He succeeded his father in 1488 as JAMES IV King of Scotland[1227]m firstly (1485, divorced 1486[1228]) as his first wife, RALPH Le Scrope of Upsall, son of THOMAS Le Scrope Lord Scrope of Masham & his wife Elizabeth de Greystoke (after [1459]-17 Sep 1515, bur Rievaulx Abbey, Yorkshire).  A member of the household of King Richard III, he was pardoned by King Henry VII 6 Dec 1485[1229].  He succeeded his brother in [1512] as Lord Scrope of Masham.  m secondly ([25 Nov 1487/1 Jan 1488]) JOHN Welles Viscount Welles, son of LIONEL Welles Lord Welles & his second wife Margaret Beauchamp (-London, St Sithes Lane 9 Feb 1499, bur Westminster Abbey).  He was unable to succeed as Lord Welles due to the attainder of his predecessors.  He took part in the rebellion of the Duke of Buckingham against King Richard III in Oct 1483, escaped to Brittany, but attainted Jan/Feb 1483/4.  He returned to England with Henry Tudor, and became Lord Welles when his attainder and those of his predecessors in the title were reversed Nov/Dec 1485.  Created Viscount Welles before 8 Feb 1485/6.  m thirdly ([13 May 1502/Jan/Mar 1504]) THOMAS Kyme of Wainfleet and Friskney, Lincolnshire or of the Isle of Wight, son of ---. 

4.         EDWARD (The Sanctuary, Westminster Abbey [1/4] Nov 1470-[murdered] [Sep] 1483, bur [Westminster Abbey]).  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records the birth 3 Nov [1470] of “prince Edward the son of Kyng Edward IV, his fader then beying ffled into fflaunders...at Westmynster[1230].  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Edward prince of Wales and Richerd duke of Yorke” as the two sons of King Edward IV and his wife[1231].  Created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 25/26 Jun 1471, and Duke of Cornwall 17 Jul 1471).  Created Earl of March and Earl of Pembroke 8 or 18 Jul 1479.  He succeeded his father in 1483 as EDWARD V King of England.  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records the succession of “Edward his son...being abowte the age of xii yer undir the guydyng of his Uncle by the moders side...lord Marquys Dorset” after the death of his father[1232].  Parliament decided 25 Jun 1483 that his parents' marriage was null and void, owing to a pre-contract between his father and Lady Eleanor Butler.  He was deprived of the Crown because of this illegitimacy. 

5.         MARGARET (Windsor Castle 10 Apr 1472-11 Dec 1472, bur Westminster Abbey).  The primary source which confirms her birth and death has not been identified. 

6.         RICHARD "of Shrewsbury" (Dominican Friary, Shrewsbury, Shropshire 17 Aug 1473-[murdered] [Sep] 1483, bur [Westminster Abbey]).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Edward prince of Wales and Richerd duke of Yorke” as the two sons of King Edward IV and his wife[1233].  Created Duke of York 28 May 1474, Earl of Nottingham 12 Jun 1476, and Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Surrey and Warenne 7 Feb 1477.  Appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 5 May 1479.  After his father's death, he was taken to join his brother in the Tower of London 16 Jun 1483.  m (St Stephen’s Chapel, Palace of Westminster 15 Jan 1478) ANNE Mowbray Ctss of Norfolk, daughter of JOHN Mowbray Duke of Norfolk & his wife Elizabeth Talbot (Framlingham Castle, Suffolk 10 Dec 1472-Greenwich Palace shortly before 26 Nov 1481, bur Westminster Abbey). 

7.         ANNE (Palace of Westminster 2 Nov 1475-22 Nov [1511/12], bur Thetford Priory, Norfolk, later removed to Framlingham Church, Suffolk).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth Queen of England, Cecily Viscountess Welles, The Lady Anne, The Lady Katherine, wedded to the Earl of Devonshire´s son and heir, Madam Bridget, nun" as daughters of "King Edward the Fourth"[1234].  No surviving children.  m (Greenwich 4 Feb 1495) as his first wife, Lord THOMAS Howard, son of THOMAS Howard Earl of Surrey [later Duke of Norfolk] & his first wife Elizabeth Tylney (1473-Kenninghall, Norfolk 25 Aug 1554, bur 2 Oct 1554 Framlingham).  Lord High Admiral 4 May 1513-Jul 1525.  Created Earl of Surrey for life 1 Feb 1514, when his father was created Duke of Norfolk.  Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1520-1522.  Lord High Treasurer 4 Dec 1522-Feb 1547.  He succeeded his father 1524 as Duke of Norfolk.  He signed the letter to the Pope concerning King Henry VIII's divorce in 1529, and took an active part in the overthrow of Cardinal Wolsey.  Created Earl Marshal of England 28 May 1533.  He was found guilty of high treason and attainted 27 Jan 1547, his honours were forfeited.  He was released from prison and restored 3 Aug 1553 after the accession of Queen Mary I. 

8.         GEORGE "of Windsor" (Windsor Castle Mar 1477-Windsor Castle Mar 1479, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  The primary source which confirms his birth and death has not been identified.  Designated Duke of Bedford, but never so created. 

9.         KATHERINE (Eltham Palace, Kent 14 Aug 1479-Tiverton Castle, Devon 15 Nov 1527, bur 3 Dec 1527 Tiverton Parish Church).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth Queen of England, Cecily Viscountess Welles, The Lady Anne, The Lady Katherine, wedded to the Earl of Devonshire´s son and heir, Madam Bridget, nun" as daughters of "King Edward the Fourth"[1235]m (1495 Oct or before) WILLIAM Courtenay, son of EDWARD Courtenay Earl of Devon & his wife Elizabeth Courtenay ([1475] Greenwich 9 Jun 1511, bur London, Blackfriars).  He was styled Lord Courtenay.  He was created Earl of Devon 10 May 1511, although he died before his investiture. 

10.      BRIDGET (Eltham Palace, Kent 10 or 20 Nov 1480-[before 1513], bur Dartford Priory).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth Queen of England, Cecily Viscountess Welles, The Lady Anne, The Lady Katherine, wedded to the Earl of Devonshire´s son and heir, Madam Bridget, nun" as daughters of "King Edward the Fourth"[1236].  She became a nun at Dartford Priory, Kent [1487]. 

King Edward IV allegedly had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

11.       [EDWARD de Wigmore (-1468).  Weir names “Edward de Wigmore (d. in infancy 1468)” as the illegitimate son of King Edward IV by Eleanor Talbot[1237].  The primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.

King Edward IV had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

12.       ARTHUR Plantagenet ([1461/64]-Tower of London from a heart attack 3 Mar 1542, bur [Tower of London])The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “base gotten...Arthure” as the third son of King Edward IV[1238].  The Complete Peerage states that Arthur Plantagenet´s mother´s name ”is unknown; by some said to be the “Lady Elizabeth Lucy”, by others the notorious Jane Shore, and by others one Elizabeth Waite”, adding that “he himself being at first known as Arthur Waite” (no primary sources are cited which confirm any of these statements, except for the lease by “John Wayte” of the manor of Seggenworth, Hampshire to “Arthur Plantagenet Viscount Lisle, his kinsman[1239], which indicates Arthur´s relationship, presumably through his mother, to the Waite family)[1240].  King Henry VIII granted “the manors of Fysshewyke and Eccleston, Lanc...” to “Arthur Plantagenet and Elizabeth his wife late the wife of Edmund Dudley” dated 13 Nov 1511[1241].  Created Viscount Lisle 25 Apr 1523.  Vice-Admiral of England 1525.  Governor of Calais 1533-1540.  Imprisoned in the Tower on suspicion of treason 19 May 1540 until [end-Feb] 1541/2.  A prolific letter-writer, around 3,000 of whose letters were seized from his house in Calais[1242]m firstly (12 Nov 1511) as her second husband, ELIZABETH Grey, widow of EDMUND Dudley [Minister of King Henry VII], daughter of EDWARD Grey Viscount Lisle & his wife Elizabeth Talbot Baroness Lisle (-[1525/26], bur Jan 1538 Titchfield, Hampshire).  King Henry VIII granted “the manors of Fysshewyke and Eccleston, Lanc...” to “Arthur Plantagenet and Elizabeth his wife late the wife of Edmund Dudley” dated 13 Nov 1511[1243].  She succeeded her niece in 1519 as Baroness Lisle.  m secondly (before 20 Feb 1531) as her second husband, HONORA Grenville, widow of JOHN Basset, daughter of THOMAS Grenville & his first wife Isabel Gilbert ([1493/95]-Tehidy, Cornwall Apr 1566, bur 30 Apr 1566 Logan).  The Complete Peerage shows her parentage and marriages[1244].  Viscount Arthur & his first wife had three children: 

a)         BRIDGET .  Her parentage and marriage are shown in Burke´s Dormant and Extinct Peerages[1245].  The will of “Andrewe Dudley Knight”, dated 21 Jul 1556, proved 22 Nov 1559,  bequeathed property to “my sister Jobson and my sister Carden[1246]m WILLIAM Carden Knt, son of ---. 

b)         FRANCES .  Her parentage and marriage are shown in Burke´s Dormant and Extinct Peerages[1247]m firstly JOHN Basset, son of JOHN Basset & his wife Honora Grenville[1248]m secondly THOMAS Monck of Potheridge[1249], son of ---.

c)          ELIZABETH .  Her parentage and marriage are shown in Burke´s Dormant and Extinct Peerages[1250].  The will of “Andrewe Dudley Knight”, dated 21 Jul 1556, proved 22 Nov 1559,  bequeathed property to “my sister Jobson and my sister Carden[1251]m FRANCIS Jobson Knt, son of ---. 

13.       ELIZABETH ([1461/64]-)A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] records that "Thomas Lumley", son of "George Lord Lumley, wedded dau of Richard Thorneton", married "bastard daughter of King Edward IV"[1252].  m THOMAS Lumley, son of GEORGE Lord Lumley & his wife --- Thornton. 

14.       GRACE (-after 1492).  Given-Wilson & Curteis record that Grace, illegitimate daughter of King Edward IV, “was said to have been on the funeral barge of the dowager Queen Elizabeth Woodville in 1492” but does not cite the primary source on which this information is based[1253]  

 

 

 

E.      BEAUFORT

 

 

The legitimated children of John of Gaunt's third marriage were named after Beaufort [en Champagne], which had been inherited by his first wife Blanche of Lancaster. 

 

JOHN Beaufort, son of JOHN "of Gaunt" Duke of Lancaster & his third wife Katharine Swynford née Roët ([1372/75]-Hospital of St Katherine by the Tower, London 16 Mar 1410, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript records that “post mortem Constancie secunde uxoris”, “Johannes Gaunt” married “dominam Katerinam de Swynfurth” by whom “in diebus domine Blanchie prime uxoris sue” he had “Johannem Bowfurth comitem Somersissie, Johannam Bowfurth comitissam Westmorelandie, Henricum Bowfurth presbiterum cardinalem et episcopum Wyntonyensem...Thomam Bowforth ducem Exoniensem vel Exeter” who were legitimated by the Pope and called “Bowfurthes aut Faerborne[1254].  Froissart records that “monseigneur Jehon de Biaufort bastart de Lancastre” jousted at Saint-Inglevert in 1390[1255].  Created Earl of Somerset 10 Feb 1397, the day after his legitimation by Parliament, and Marquess of Dorset and Somerset 9 Sep 1397.  Appointed Constable of Dover castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports for life 5 Feb 1398.  He was the King's Lieutenant in Aquitaine 29 Aug 1398.  The will of "John son of the King of England, Duke of Lancaster", dated 3 Feb 1397, chose burial “in the cathedral church of St Paul, of London...beside my...late wife Blanch”, bequeathed property to “Dame Katherine del Staple...my...wife Katherine...my...brother the Duke of York...my...son Henry Duke of Hereford, Earl of Derby...my...daughter Philippa Queen of Portugal...my...daughter Katherine Queen of Castile and Leon...my...daughter Elizabeth Duchess of Exeter...my...son John Beaufort Marquis of Dorset...my...son the Bishop of Lincoln...my...son Thomas Beaufort...my...daughter their sister Countess of Westmoreland and Lady of Nevil...my...son John brother to...Henry...Mons. Thomas Swyneford...Mons Walter Blount...[1256].  He was degraded from the Marquessate 3 Nov 1399 following the accession of King Henry IV, and was known thereafter as Earl of Somerset.  Despite this, he was in favour with Henry IV and was appointed Chamberlain of England 7 Nov 1399, a post which he held until his death.  The will of "John Beaufort late Earl of Somerset, Chamberlain of England and Captain of Calais", dated 16 Mar 1409, proved 5 Apr 1410, bequeathed property to “Henry his brother...Bishop of Winchester” and appointed him and “Margaret his wife” as his executors[1257]

m (before 28 Sep 1397) as her first husband, MARGARET de Holand, daughter of THOMAS de Holand Earl of Kent & his wife Alice FitzAlan ([1381/85]-St Saviour’s Abbey, Bermondsey 30 Dec 1439, bur Augustine Monastery of St Saviour, London).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Margaret Countess of Somerset" as daughter of "Thomas Holand Earl of Kent"[1258].  The will of "John Beaufort late Earl of Somerset, Chamberlain of England and Captain of Calais", dated 16 Mar 1409, proved 5 Apr 1410, bequeathed property to “Henry his brother...Bishop of Winchester” and appointed him and “Margaret his wife” as his executors[1259].  She married secondly (dispensation 10 Nov 1411) Thomas of Lancaster Duke of Clarence.  The will of "Thomas son of the King Duke of Clarence, Earl of Albemarle and Steward of England", dated 10 Jul 1417, proved 23 Nov 1423, chose burial “in Christ Church Canterbury at the feet of my...father”, bequeathed property to “Margaret my...consort...my...son Henry Earl of Somerset[1260].  This document also confirms Margaret´s second marriage as “my...son Henry Earl of Somerset” was the testator´s stepson, his wife´s son by her first marriage. 

John Earl of Somerset & his wife had six children:

1.         HENRY Beaufort (chr 26 Nov 1401-25 Nov 1418).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1261].  He succeeded his father in 1410 as Earl of Somerset. 

2.         JOHN Beaufort ([Apr] 1404-27 May 1444, bur Wimborne Minster, Dorset).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1262].  He succeeded his brother in 1418 as Earl of Somerset.  He was taken prisoner at the battle of Baugé 22 Mar 1421, and not released until 1438 when he was exchanged for Charles d'Artois Comte d'Eu who had been captured at Agincourt.  Created Duke of Somerset and Earl of Kendal 28 Aug 1443.  After withdrawing to Rouen after taking the castle of Beaumont-le-Vicomte (Sarthe), he returned to England in disgrace in the Spring of 1444.  A manuscript calendar records the death “VI Kal Jun” in 1444 of “dńi Johis Som´s´ duc´[1263].  It is said that he committed suicide because of his failure in his campaign in France.  m ([1442]) as her second husband, MARGARET de Beauchamp, widow of OLIVER St John, daughter of JOHN [Lord] Beauchamp of Bletsoe, Buckinghamshire & his second wife Edith Stourton (-shortly before 3 Jun 1482, bur Wimborne Minster, Dorset).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Oliver Saint John, first husband, John Duke of Somerset, Lionel Lord Welles, last husband" as the three husbands of "Margaret Duchess of Somerset"[1264].  She married thirdly (settlement 20 Apr 1447) as his second wife, Lionel de Welles Lord Welles (-killed in battle Towton 29 Mar 1461, bur Methley).  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records that “the duchess lady Margaret relict of John the...duke of Somerset” was admitted “to be a sister of our chapter” and “induced her daughter the lady Margaret countess of Richmond...(who had been married...to the lord Henry the...son of the duke of Buckingham) to become a sister along with her[1265].  John Duke of Somerset & his wife had one child:

a)         MARGARET Beaufort (Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire 31 May 1443-Abbot’s House, Cheyney Gates, Westminster Abbey 29 Jun 1509, bur Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “II Kal Jun” in 1443 of “dńe Margarete filie…principis dńi Johis duce Som´setie[1266].  The will of "Humphrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham", dated 16 Aug 1460, bequeathed property to “my son Henry...my daughter Margaret Countess of Richmond his wife”, appointed “my wife...my brother of Canterbury” as executors[1267].  The Continuation of the History of Croyland records that “the duchess lady Margaret relict of John the...duke of Somerset” was admitted “to be a sister of our chapter” and “induced her daughter the lady Margaret countess of Richmond...(who had been married...to the lord Henry the...son of the duke of Buckingham) to become a sister along with her[1268].  She founded Christ's and St John's Colleges at Cambridge.  The will of "Margaret Countes of Richmond and Derby, moder to...King Henry VII", dated 6 Jun 1508, proved 17 Oct 1512, chose burial “in the monastery of Seynt Peter of Westm’r[1269].  A manuscript calendar records the death “xxix daie of June” in 1510 of “Ladie Marget douches of Somerset and mother to…King Henry the vii[1270]m firstly ([28 Jan/7 Feb] 1450, Papal dispensation 18 Aug 1450, annulled before 24 Mar 1453) as his first wife, JOHN de la Pole Duke of Suffolk, son of JOHN de la Pole Duke of Suffolk & his wife Alice Chaucer (27 Sep 1442-[29 Oct 1491/27 Oct 1492], bur Wingfield).  m secondly (Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire 1455) EDMUND Tudor, son of OWEN Tudor & his wife Catherine de France (Much Hadham Palace, Hertfordshire or Hadham, Bedfordshire [1430]-Carmarthen Castle 3 Nov 1456, bur Carmarthen, Church of the Grey Friars, later transferred to St David’s Cathedral, Wales).  He was created Earl of Richmond 23 Nov 1452 by his half-brother King Henry VI.  m thirdly (before 1464) HENRY Stafford, son of HUMPHREY Stafford Earl of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham & his wife Anne Neville of Westmoreland (-4 Oct 1471).  m fourthly (before Oct 1473) as his second wife, THOMAS Stanley Lord Stanley, son of THOMAS Lord Stanley & his wife Joan Goushill ([1435]-Lathom 29 Jul 1504, bur Burscough Priory, Lancashire).  Created Earl of Derby 27 Oct 1485. 

John Duke of Somerset had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

b)         JOHN bastard of Somerset (-after 1453).  Under a second codicil dated 9 Apr 1447, proved 2 Sep 1447, "Henry Cardinal of England, and Bishop of Winchester" bequeathed property to “John Bastard of Somerset...William Swynford my nephew[1271].  He was at Bordeaux in 1453 after the battle of Castillon.

c)          TACINE [Jacinta or Thomasine] ([1434]-after 1469).  A document which sets out the order of the funeral of William Lord Grey (of Wilton) (who was buried 22 Dec 1562) records “the greate-graundfather and greate-graundmother to the defuncte...Reygnolde lorde Grey and Thomasyn or Thasyna base daughter to John duke of Somerset[1272]m (before 6 Oct 1447) REGINALD Grey Lord Grey [of Wilton], son of RICHARD Grey Lord Grey & his first wife Blanche de la Vache (1421-22 Feb 1494, bur Bletchley, Buckinghamshire). 

3.         THOMAS Beaufort (1405-1432).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1273].  Comte du Perche. 

4.         EDMUND Beaufort ([1406]-killed in battle St Albans 22 May 1455, bur St Albans Abbey).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1274].  Created Duke of Somerset 31 Mar 1448. 

-        see below

5.         JOAN Beaufort (-Dunbar Castle 15 Jul 1445, bur Monastery of the Charterhouse, Perth).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1275].  The Julius B II Chronicle records the marriage in Feb 1424 of “James Styward kyng of Scotland” and “dame Joan the duchesse douhter of Clarence goten by her ffirst hosbond the Erle of Somersete[1276].  Crowned Queen of Scotland 2 or 21 May 1424 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  She was wounded in defending her first husband from his murderers.  m firstly (Priory Church of St Mary Overy, Southwark 2, 10 or 13 Feb 1424) JAMES I King of Scotland, son of ROBERT III King of Scotland & his wife Annabella Drummond (Dunfermline Palace, Fife 25 Jul 1394-assassinated Monastery of the Friars Preachers, Perth 21 Feb 1437, bur Perth, either Monastery of the Carthusians or Monastery of the Black Friars).  He was a prisoner in England since 1406.  m secondly (before 21 Sep 1439) JAMES Stewart “the Black Knight” of Lorne, son of JOHN Stewart Lord of Lorn & his wife Isabel of Argyl (-[1448]). 

6.         MARGARET Beaufort .  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1277]m (after 1421) THOMAS Courtenay Earl of Devon, son of HUGH de Courtenay Earl of Devon & his wife Anne Talbot (1414-Abingdon Abbey 3 Feb 1458). 

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following members of the Beaufort family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise indicated below. 

 

EDMUND Beaufort, son of JOHN Beaufort Earl of Somerset & his wife Margaret de Holand ([1406]-killed in battle St Albans 22 May 1455, bur St Albans Abbey).  A late 15th century/early 16th century manuscript names “Johamem aliter Henricum comitem Somersecie qui cito moritur, Thomam qui moritur, Edmundum ducem Somersecie, Joh[anname reginam Scotorum et Margaretam comitissam Devoni]” as the children of “Johannes Bowfurth comes Somersecie[1278].  He was taken prisoner at the battle of Baugé 22 Mar 1421, with his elder brother, still a prisoner 10 Mar 1426/7.  Created Comte de Mortain 22 Apr 1427.  Created Earl of Dorset 28 Aug 1442, Marquess of Dorset 24 Jun 1443.  He succeeded his brother 1444 as Earl of Somerset.  Appointed Lieutenant and Governor General of France in Summer 1447.  Created Duke of Somerset 31 Mar 1448.  He lost Rouen to Charles VII King of France Oct 1449, and Caen 24 Jun 1450.  Appointed Constable of England 11 Sep 1450.  A manuscript records that “dux de Somersheth et plures alii” were killed “XI Kal Jun...apud Sanctum Albanum” in 1455[1279]

m ([1431/35]) as her second husband, ELEANOR Beauchamp, widow of THOMAS de Ros Lord de Ros, daughter of RICHARD Beauchamp Earl of Warwick & his wife Elizabeth Berkeley (Wedgenock, Warwickshire 1407-Baynard’s Castle, London 6 Mar 1467).  She married thirdly Walter Rokesley (bur Croyland, Lincolnshire). 

Edmund Duke of Somerset & his wife had ten children:

1.         HENRY Beaufort ([Apr] 1436-beheaded Hexham, Northumberland 15 May 1464, bur Hexham Abbey).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Henry, Edmunde and John” as the three sons of “Edmonde duke of Sommersett[1280].  Earl of Dorset from 1448, until he succeeded his father 1455 as Duke and Earl of Somerset, Marquess of Dorset and Comte de Mortain.  He was severely wounded at the battle of St Albans 1455.  Appointed Captain of Calais 9 Oct 1459.  He commanded the victorious Lancastrian army at Wakefield 30 Dec 1460 and at St Albans 17 Feb 1461.  Defeated at Towton 29 Mar 1461, he fled to Scotland.  Attainted and forfeited his honours 4 Nov 1461, but restored 10 Mar 1463.  He was defeated and captured at the battle of Hexham, and beheaded the same day.

Mistress (1): JOAN Hill, daughter of ---.  Henry Duke of Beaufort had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

a)         CHARLES Somerset ([1460]-15 Apr 1526, bur St George's Chapel, Windsor).  Created Lord Herbert [1503].  Lord Chamberla in of the household of King Henry VII May 1508, and to King Henry VIII.  Created Earl of Worcester 1 Feb 1514.  m firstly (2 Jun 1492) ELIZABETH Herbert, daughter of WILLIAM Herbert Earl of Huntingdon & his first wife Mary Wydeville ([1475/76]-[29 Jan 1509/21 Mar 1513], bur St George's Chapel, Windsor).  m secondly ELIZABETH West, daughter of THOMAS West Lord La Warre & his first wife Elizabeth Mortimer.  m thirdly as her first husband, ELEANOR Sutton, daughter of EDWARD Sutton Lord Dudley & his wife Cecily Willoughby (-before 1549).  She married secondly as his second wife, Lord Leonard Grey (-executed Tower Hill 28 Jul 1541), created Viscount Grane 1536. 

-        DUKES of BEAUFORT

2.         EDMUND Beaufort ([1439]-beheaded Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire 6 May 1471, bur Tewkesbury Abbey Church).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Henry, Edmunde and John” as the three sons of “Edmonde duke of Sommersett[1281].  Styled Duke of Somerset after his brother’s death but never formally restored to the title.  Attainted of treason 21 Jan 1465.  He fought at the battle of Barnet 14 Apr 1471, proclaiming himself Duke of Somerset, but declared a rebel 27 Apr 1471.  He fled after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury, taking refuge in Tewkesbury Abbey from where he was apparently lured by a promise of a pardon.  A manuscript records names “dux de Somersete...” among those beheaded “juxta Tewkisberi[1282]

3.         JOHN Beaufort (-killed in battle Tewkesbury 4 May 1471, bur Tewkesbury Abbey).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Henry, Edmunde and John” as the three sons of “Edmonde duke of Sommersett[1283].  A manuscript records names “...dominus Johannes de Somersete...” among those killed “juxta Tewkisberi[1284]

4.         THOMAS Beaufort (-before 1463). 

5.         MARGARET Beaufort (-1474).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Margaret Countess of Stafford, after wedded to Richard Darell, Knt" as daughter of "Edmund Duke of Somerset, wedded the dau and heir of the Earl of Warwick", and names her child (by her first marriage) "Henry Duke of Buckingham" and her child (by her second marriage) "Margaret, wedd. the son and heir of Lord Audley"[1285]m firstly (1444) HUMPHREY Stafford Earl of Stafford, son of HUMPHREY Stafford Earl of Stafford, Duke of Buckingham & his wife Anne Neville of Westmoreland (1428-[1459]).  m secondly RICHARD Dayrell [Darell] of Lillingstone Dayrell, Buckinghamshire, son of ---. 

6.         ELEANOR Beaufort (-16 Aug 1501).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Alianor Countess of Wiltshire, after wedded to Robert Spencer" as daughter of "Edmund Duke of Somerset, wedded the dau and heir of the Earl of Warwick", and names her two daughters by her second marriage[1286].  No children by her first marriage.  m firstly (Woodsford, Dorset [Apr 1458]) as his second wife, JAMES Butler Earl of Wiltshire, Earl of Ormond, son of JAMES Butler [Le Botiller] Earl of Ormond & his first wife Joan Beauchamp ([24 Nov 1420]-beheaded Newcastle 1 May 1461).  He was created Earl of Wiltshire 8 Jul 1449, and succeeded his father 1452 as Earl of Ormond.  Chief Governor of Ireland 1435.  He was captured at Cockermouth by Richard Salkeld after the battle of Towton 29 Mar 1461, and taken to Newcastle where he was beheaded.  He was attainted in England 4 Nov 1461 and his English honours forfeited.  Attainted in Ireland Oct 1462, but this was annulled 1475.  m secondly (1470 or before) ROBERT Spencer of Spencercombe, Devon, son of --- (-after 1492). 

7.         ELIZABETH Beaufort (-before 1492).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Elizabeth, wedded to Sire Henry Fitz-Lewis" as daughter of "Edmund Duke of Somerset, wedded the dau and heir of the Earl of Warwick", and names her child "--- first wedded to the Earl of Rivers, after to George Neville the bastard"[1287]m HENRY Fitz-Lewis, son of ---. 

8.         MARY [Margaret] Beaufortm --- Burgh, son of ---. 

9.         ANNE Beaufort .  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Anna, wedd. to William Paston Esq" as daughter of "Edmund Duke of Somerset, wedded the dau and heir of the Earl of Warwick" and her children "William Paston, Agnes and Elizabeth, Talbot and Saville"[1288]m WILLIAM Paston of Norfolk, son of WILLIAM Paston & his wife Agnes Berry (1436-1496, bur London, Blackfriars Priory).  He was one of the beneficiaries under the will of John Fastolf (Shakespeare's Falstaff).  He lived at Warwick's Inn, Newgate. 

10.      JOAN Beaufort (-11 Aug 1518).  A manuscript pedigree dated to [1500] names "Jane first wedd. to the Ld Howth of Ireland, after to Fry" as daughter of "Edmund Duke of Somerset, wedded the dau and heir of the Earl of Warwick"[1289]m firstly ([Jun/Jul] 1478) as his second wife, ROBERT St Lawrence Lord of Howth, son of CHRISTOPHER St Lawrence Lord of Howth [in Ireland] & his wife Anne Plunkett ([1434/35]-London 1486, bur Blackfriars).  Lord Chancellor of Ireland 10 Jul 1483.  m secondly (1489) RICHARD Fry, son of --- (-before 19 Oct 1504). 

11.      ISABEL Beaufort (-31 Oct 1453, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  The Chronicle of John Stone records the death “in vigilia Omnium Sanctorum” 1453 of “Isabella filia domini Edmundi ducis de Somersete Lond” and her burial “in vigilia sancti Leonardi” at Canterbury Cathedral “in capella sancti Michaelis[1290]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of ENGLAND (TUDOR)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

CYNWRIG

1.         EDNYFED Fychan ("little/junior") ap Cynwrig (-1246).  Seneschal of Gwynedd.  m firstly GWENLLIAN, daughter of RHYS ap Gruffydd Prince of Deheubarth & his wife Gwenllian of Powys.  Robert Williams records that “Ednyved Vychan, chief counsellor and general of Llewelyn ab Iorwerth sovereign prince of Wales” married as his first wife “Gwenllian daughter of Rhys ab Gruffydd Prince of South Wales” [no source reference cited][1291]m secondly ---.  Ednyfed & his first wife had two children: 

a)         GRUFYDD ab Ednyfed .  Robert Williams names “Grufydd and Grono” as the two sons of “Ednyved Vychan, chief counsellor and general of Llewelyn ab Iorwerth sovereign prince of Wales” and his first wife “Gwenllian daughter of Rhys ab Gruffydd Prince of South Wales” [no source reference cited][1292]

b)         GORONWY ab Ednyfed (-1268).  Robert Williams names “Grufydd and Grono” as the two sons of “Ednyved Vychan, chief counsellor and general of Llewelyn ab Iorwerth sovereign prince of Wales” and his first wife “Gwenllian daughter of Rhys ab Gruffydd Prince of South Wales”, adding that “to the second he bequeathed the three manors of Penmynydd, Tre Castell and Arddreiniog” and that Gornonwy resided “Tre Castell, near Llanvaes” [no source reference cited][1293].  Seneschal of Gwynedd.  m MORFYOH, daughter of MEURYE Lord of Gwent & his wife ---.  Goronwy & his wife had one child: 

i)          TUDUR Hen (-9 Oct 1311, bur Bangor Monastery).  Robert Williams records that “Grono ab Ednyved” was succeeded by “his son Tudor commonly called Tudor Hęn ab Grono” who died 9 Oct 1311 and was buried at Bangor monastery [no source reference cited][1294]m ANGHARAD, daughter of ITHER Fychan & his wife ---.  Tudur & his wife had three children: 

(a)       GORONWY (-Dec 1331, bur Bangor Monastery).  Robert Williams records that “Tudor commonly called Tudor Hęn ab Grono” divided his lands “at his decease among his three sons Grono, Howel and Madog” and adds that Goronwy was buried at Bangor 11 Dec 1331 [no source reference cited][1295]m ---.  The name of Goronwy´s wife is not known.  Goronwy & his wife had one child: 

(1)       TUDUR Fychan ("little/junior") (-Tre Castell, Anglesey Sep 1367, bur Bangor Friary).  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...was a favourite of Edward III by whom he was knighted” [no source reference cited][1296]

-         see below

(b)       HOWEL .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor commonly called Tudor Hęn ab Grono” divided his lands “at his decease among his three sons Grono, Howel and Madog” and adds that Howel died without issue [no source reference cited][1297]

(c)       MADOG .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor commonly called Tudor Hęn ab Grono” divided his lands “at his decease among his three sons Grono, Howel and Madog” and adds that Madog became the first archdeacon of Anglesey and afterwards abbot of Conway, leaving his lands “to his own monastery of Conwy” [no source reference cited][1298]

 

 

TUDUR Fychan ("little/junior"), son of TUDUR Hen & his wife Angharad (-Tre Castell, Anglesey Sep 1367, bur Bangor Friary).  Bridgeman records that Tudur was the son of “Grono ap Tudor ap Grono ap Ednyved Vychan[1299].  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...was a favourite of Edward III by whom he was knighted”, lived at Tre Castell, where he died, and was buried “in the Friary at Bangor” 19 Sep 1367 [no source reference cited][1300]

m firstly MALLT, daughter of MADOC ap Iorwerth & his wife ---.  Bridgeman records that Tudur married firstly “Mallt daughter of Madoc ap Jorwerth ab Madic ap Ririd Flaidd of Penllyn[1301]

m secondly as her second husband, MARGARET, widow of WILLIAM ap Gruffydd de la Pole, daughter of THOMAS ap Llywellyn of Iscoed & his wife Eleanor ---.  Dwnn´s 1597 Visitations of Wales records that “Margett Thomas Llnn ab Owein” married “Tudor ab Grono, ancestor to Owen Tudyr[1302].  Bridgeman records that Margaret married firstly “William ap Griffith de la Pole Lord of Mawddwy in Powysland, by whom she had a son John[1303], and in another passage that Tudur married her as his second wife[1304]

Tudur Fychan & his first wife had [three or more] children:

1.         GORONWY .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...divided his estate among his five sons...Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd and Rhys” and that Goronwy “obtained Penmynydd for his share, where he lived and died” [no source reference cited][1305].  Bridgeman names “Grono Vychan and others” as the children of Tudur and his first wife “Mallt daughter of Madoc ap Jorwerth ab Madic ap Ririd Flaidd of Penllyn[1306]m ---.  The name of Goronwy´s wife is not known.  Goronwy & his wife had one child: 

a)         MORVYDD .  Robert Williams names “Morvydd” as the only daughter of Goronwy, adds that she married “William ab Gruffydd ab Gwilym (ab Gruffydd ab Heilyn ab Tudor ab Ednyved Vychan) of Penrhyn in the county of Caernarvon”, and lists the couple´s descendants until 1722 [no source reference cited][1307]m WILLIAM ap Gruffydd, son of GRUFFYDD ab Gwilym & his wife ---. 

2.         others .  Bridgeman names “Grono Vychan and others” as the children of Tudur and his first wife “Mallt daughter of Madoc ap Jorwerth ab Madic ap Ririd Flaidd of Penllyn[1308].  It is not known whether these children included Ednyfed and Gwilym who are named below. 

Tudur Fychan & his [first/second] wife had two children:

3.         EDNYFED .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...divided his estate among his five sons...Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd and Rhys” [no source reference cited][1309]

4.         GWILYM .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...divided his estate among his five sons...Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd and Rhys” [no source reference cited][1310]

Tudur Fychan & his second wife had two children:

5.         MAREDUDD [Meredith] ap Tewdwr .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...divided his estate among his five sons...Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd and Rhys” and adds that Maredudd “committed a murder which obliged him to flee the country and live in exile” [no source reference cited][1311].  Bridgeman names Maredudd as the son of Tudur by his second wife[1312]m MARGRED [Margaret], daughter of DAFYDD Fychan ab Dafydd Llwyd & his wife ---.  Bridgeman records that Maredudd married “Margaret daughter of David Vychan ap David Llwyd of Anglesey” [no source reference cited][1313].  Maredudd & his wife had one child: 

a)         OWEN Tudor ([Plas Penmynydd, Wales] [1400]-executed Hereford 2 Feb 1461, bur Hereford, Church of the Grey Friars).  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...divided his estate among his five sons...Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd and Rhys” and that Maredudd was the father of “Owen Tudor, beheaded in 1461, the grandfather of Henry VII” [no source reference cited][1314].  Bridgeman says that Owen was born during his father´s “absence from home about the commencement of the fifteenth century” [no source reference cited][1315].  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records that “Owyn Tyder”, after the death of his wife, “was twice committed to warde by the duke of Glocester because he had been so presumptuous as by marriage with the younge Queene to intermixe his bloudd with the noble rase of kinges, and in the ende was beheaded[1316]m (secretly [1425/28]) as her second husband, CATHERINE de France, widow of HENRY V King of England, daughter of CHARLES VI King of France & his wife Isabelle [Elisabeth] von Bayern-Ingolstadt (Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 27 Oct 1401-Bermondsey, Abbey of St Saviour 3 Jan 1438, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “dominus rex” requested “in Franciam...regem eciam et reginam ac eorum filiam Katerinam” as his wife and “regnum” after her father´s death[1317].  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records that King Henry V´s widow married, after he died, “Owen Tyder a gentleman of Wales...who derived his pedigree from Cadwallider the last king of Brittons[1318].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the will of [her son] "Jasper Duke of Bedford and Earl of Pembroke", dated 15 Dec 1495, proved 2 Jul 1496, which ordered masses for the souls of “Katherine sometime Queen of England my mother, Edmund late Earl of Richmond my brother[1319].  A manuscript calendar records the death “III Non Jan” of “queene Katerine[1320].  The Annales of William Wyrcester record the death 3 Feb 1437 “apud Barmondsey” of “regina Katerina[1321].  She died in childbirth.  Owen Tudor & his wife had four children:

i)          [OWEN] ([Westminster 6 Nov 1429]-[Westminster 1502, bur Westminster Abbey]).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Edmonde, Jaspar and the thirde who was a monk of the order of St Benet” as the three sons of “Owen Tyder” and his wife[1322].  Weir names “Owen or Thomas or Edward...born on 6 Nov 1429 at the Palace of Westminster, and his perhaps identified with Edward Bridgewater, a monk at Westminster Abbey from 1468/9 to 1471/2. He died in 1502 at Westminster and was buried in Westminster Abbey” as the son of Owen Tudor and his wife[1323].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified. 

ii)         EDMUND Tudor (Much Hadham Palace, Hertfordshire or Hadham, Bedfordshire [1430]-Carmarthen Castle 3 Nov 1456, bur Carmarthen, Church of the Grey Friars, later transferred to St David’s Cathedral, Wales).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Edmonde, Jaspar and the thirde who was a monk of the order of St Benet” as the three sons of “Owen Tyder” and his wife[1324].  His parentage is confirmed by the will of [his brother] "Jasper Duke of Bedford and Earl of Pembroke", dated 15 Dec 1495, proved 2 Jul 1496, which ordered masses for the souls of “Katherine sometime Queen of England my mother, Edmund late Earl of Richmond my brother[1325].  Created Earl of Richmond 23 Nov 1452 by his half-brother King Henry VI.  m (Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire 1455) as her second husband, Lady MARGARET Beaufort, formerly wife of JOHN de la Pole Duke of Suffolk, daughter of JOHN Beaufort Earl of Somerset & his wife Margaret de Beauchamp (Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire 31 May 1443-Abbot’s House, Cheyney Gates, Westminster Abbey 29 Jun 1509, bur Westminster Abbey).  She founded Christ's and St John's Colleges at Cambridge.  She married thirdly (before 1464) Henry Stafford.  The will of "Humphrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham", dated 16 Aug 1460, bequeathed property to “my son Henry...my daughter Margaret Countess of Richmond his wife”, appointed “my wife...my brother of Canterbury” as executors[1326].  She married fourthly (before Oct 1473) as his second wife, Thomas Stanley Lord Stanley, who was created Earl of Derby in 1485.  A manuscript calendar records the death “xxix daie of June” in 1510 of “Ladie Marget douches of Somerset and mother to…King Henry the vii[1327].  Edmund Tudor & his wife had one son:

(a)       HENRY Tudor (posthumously Pembroke Castle 28 Jan 1457-Richmond Palace, Surrey 21 Apr 1509, bur Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “V Kal Feb” in 1456 (O.S.) of “dńi Henrici filii Emundi Comitis Richemondie ac dńe M´garete uxoris sue, filie Johis nup duce Somerset[1328].  He succeeded in 1485 as HENRY VII King of England

-         see Part B. KINGS of ENGLAND 1485-1603, HOUSE of TUDOR

iii)        JASPER Tudor ([1431]-21 Dec 1495, bur Keynsham).  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil names “Edmonde, Jaspar and the thirde who was a monk of the order of St Benet” as the three sons of “Owen Tyder” and his wife[1329].  Earl of Pembroke 1453.  Duke of Bedford 1485.  The will of "Jasper Duke of Bedford and Earl of Pembroke", dated 15 Dec 1495, proved 2 Jul 1496, chose burial “in the monastery of our Lady of Keynsham”, ordered masses for the souls of “Katherine sometime Queen of England my mother, Edmund late Earl of Richmond my brother[1330]m (before 1483) as her second husband, KATHERINE Wydeville, widow of HENRY Stafford Duke of Buckingham, daughter of RICHARD Wydeville Earl Rivers & his wife Jacquette de Luxembourg (-before 1515).  Jasper Tudor had one illegitimate daughter by an unknown mistress:

(a)        HELEN .  The Complete Peerage states that “Helen [Jasper Tudor´s] illegit. da. m William Gardiner citizen of London and was mother of Stephen the celebrated Bishop of Winchester” but cites no primary source[1331].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not been identified.  m WILLIAM Gardiner, son of ---. 

iv)       MARGARET [Katherine] (Bermondsey Jan 1437-young).  Weir names “Margaret or Katherine...born in January 1437 at the Abbey of St Saviour, Bermondsey, London, where she died shortly after her birth” as the daughter of Owen Tudor and his wife[1332].  The primary source which confirms this information has not been identified.  The Historie of England by Polydore Vergil records that Owen Tudor and his wife had “one daughter who was made a noonne” as the three sons of “Owen Tyder” and his wife[1333]

Owen Tudor had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

v)         DAVID Owen (Pembroke [1458/59]-before 15 May 1542, bur Easeborne).  His illegitimacy is indicated by his arms, as entered in the College of Arms, which include “overall a bendlett sinister argent[1334].  His estimated birth date is confirmed by the evidence of “David Owen of the county of Sussex, where he has dwelt forty years of thereabouts...born in the county of Pembroke in Wales, seventy years old or thereabouts” given in 1529, swearing his presence at the marriages of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York and of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon, in proceedings relating to Henry VIII´s proposed divorce from Catherine of Aragon[1335].  Read together, these two sources suggest that David was the illegitimate son of Owen Tudor.  This hypothesis appears to be confirmed by the codicil to his will, quoted below, which provides for a tomb to be built “at the Grey Freers in Hereford in Wales where his father ys buried”, which was the case with Owen Tudor.  The will of “Ser Davy Owen Knight”, dated 20 Feb 1529 (presumably O.S.), chose burial “in the cherche of the priory of Essebourne”, required masses of the souls of “King Henry VII, Edmund sometme Erle of Richemonde, Jasper Duke of Bedford, my fader and moder...my wiffes”, records “the Single Parke beying of my sonne Henry Owen”, requires “the image of my first wif” to be placed on his tomb, bequeathed property to “my sonne Harry Owen on the body of Anne my wife sister to Walter Devererres lord Ferrers of Chartee lawfully begotten...remainder to John Owen my seconde son...to remain to Herry Owen Knight my eldest sonne...remayne to Jasper Owen...remayne to Henry Owen his seconde brother...remayne to John Owen his yongar brother...William Owen my bastarde sobne...John Owen my sonne of the body of Anne my wiff suster to the said Walter Deverrers Lord Ferrers...Elizabeth my doughter [if] not maryed...my bastarde doughter Barbara...my said wife [Anne]...my doughter Anne Hopton...my son Jasper Owen...David Owen sonne of my sonne Henry Owen...[1336].  An undated codicil to the will of “David Owen Knight” donated money to “the prior of Saynt Mary Ovyries...whre his grandmother by his second wyfe lyeth”, required a tomb to be built “at the Grey Freers in Hereford in Wales where his father ys buried”, and a stone “leyed uppon his father in lawe John Bohon in the churche where he lyeth”, bequeathed property to “his cosyn the Lady Fitzwilliam...Davy Owen his godsone...the doughter of the sayd Henry Owen...the doughter of the said Jasper Owen his sonne[1337].  Nicolas records that the will was proved 15 May 1542[1338]m firstly (before 1492) MARY Bohun, daughter of JOHN Bohun of Midhurst & his wife Anne Arderne.  Her parentage and marriage are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[1339].  Her parentage is confirmed by the undated codicil to the will of “David Owen Knight” which provided for a stone to be “leyed uppon his father in lawe John Bohon in the churche where he lyeth[1340]m secondly [ANNE/ALICE] Blount, daughter of WILLIAM Blount of the Lords Mountjoy & his wife Margaret Echingham.  m thirdly ANNE Devereux, daughter of WALTER Devereux Lord Ferrers of Chartley & his [second wife Jane ---].  Her parentage and marriag are confirmed by the will of “Ser Davy Owen Knight”, dated 20 Feb 1529 (presumably O.S.), which bequeathed property to “my sonne Harry Owen on the body of Anne my wife sister to Walter Devererres lord Ferrers of Chartee lawfully begotten...my said wife [Anne]...[1341].  David & his first/second/third wife had children: 

-            OWEN FAMILY

6.         RHYS .  Robert Williams records that “Tudor ab Grono...divided his estate among his five sons...Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd and Rhys” [no source reference cited][1342]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of ENGLAND 1485-1603

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise indicated below. 

 

HENRY Tudor, son of EDMUND Tudor Earl of Richmond & his wife Margaret Beaufort (posthumously Pembroke Castle 28 Jan 1457-Richmond Palace, Surrey 21 Apr 1509, bur Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “V Kal Feb” in 1456 (O.S.) of “dńi Henrici filii Emundi Comitis Richemondie ac dńe M´garete uxoris sue, filie Johis nup duce Somerset[1343].  Earl of Richmond from birth, he lived at Pembroke Castle in the care of his uncle Jasper Earl of Pembroke until 30 Sep 1461, when the castle was surrendered to Lords Herbert and Ferrers of Chartley.  Deprived of the earldom of Richmond before 12 Aug 1462.  After the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury 4 May 1471, he fled with his uncle to Brittany.  They sailed to join the uprising against King Richard III in 1483, but were unable to land.  Attainted 25 Jan 1484, in his absence.  He sailed from Harfleur 1 Aug 1485, landing at Milford Haven.  He defeated Richard III at the battle of Bosworth Field 22 Aug 1485 and seized the crown as HENRY VII King of England.  Crowned 30 Oct 1485 at Westminster Abbey. 

m (Westminster Abbey 18 Jan 1486) ELIZABETH of York, daughter of EDWARD IV King of England & his wife Elizabeth Wydeville (Palace of Westminster 11 Feb 1466-Tower of London in childbirth 11 Feb 1503, bur Westminster Abbey).  The Annales of William Wyrcester record that “regina Elizabetha” gave birth Feb 1466 to “filiam primogenitam...Elizabetham[1344].  The Vitellius A XVI Chronicle records the birth 11 Feb [1466] of “Dame Elizabeth pryncesse and first child of kyng Edward[1345].  A manuscript calendar records the marriage “XV Kal Feb” in 1485 of “King Harry the vii…[and] the queen Elisabeth[1346].  Crowned Queen 25 Nov 1487 at Westminster Abbey.  A manuscript calendar records the death “III Id Feb” in 1502 (O.S.) of “Quene Elisabeth in the towre of london[1347].  She died in childbirth. 

King Henry VII & his wife had eight children:

1.         ARTHUR (St Swithun’s Priory, Winchester 20 Sep 1486-Ludlow Castle, Shropshire 2 Apr 1502, bur Worcester Cathedral).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “XII Kal Oct…in the morning afor´ oon of the clokk after mydenight” in 1486 of “prince Arthur at Winchester[1348].  Duke of Cornwall from birth.  Created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 29 Nov 1489.  A manuscript calendar records the death “IV Non Apr” in 1502 of “p´nceps Arthur, rege He´rici vii p´mogeďtus[1349]m (by proxy Manor of Bewdley, Worcestershire May 1499, by proxy Bewdley 19 May 1501, in person St Paul’s Cathedral, London 14 Nov 1501) as her first husband, Infanta dońa CATALINA de Aragón, daughter of FERNANDO V King of Aragon & his wife Isabel I Queen of Castile (Alcala de Henares 16 Dec 1485-Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire 7 Jan 1536, bur Peterborough Cathedral).  A manuscript calendar records the marriage “XVIII Kal Dec” in 1501 of “p´ncipe Arthuru p´mogeitu He´rici septi et dńam Katherina regis Hispanos filia[1350].  She married secondly her first husband’s younger brother, King Henry VIII

2.         MARGARET (Palace of Westminster 28 Nov 1489-Methven Castle, Perthshire 18 Oct 1541, bur Carthusian Monastery of St John, Perth).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “IV Kal Dec…at Westm´ at night aft´ the ix hour a q´rt” in 1489 of “my ladi M´garet the ii child to the King Harri the vii[1351].  Queen Regent of Scotland.  She died of palsy.  m firstly (by proxy Richmond Palace, Surrey 25 Jan 1502, in person Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh 8 Aug 1503) JAMES IV King of Scotland, son of JAMES III King of Scotland & his wife Margarethe of Denmark (17 Mar 1473-killed in battle Flodden Field, Northumberland 9 Sep 1513, bur [Sheen Abbey, Surrey]).  m secondly (Kinnoul Church 6 Aug 1514, divorced 11 Mar 1527) as his second wife, ARCHIBALD Douglas Earl of Angus, son of GEORGE Douglas Master of Angus & his wife Lady Elizabeth Drummond ([1490]-Tantallon Castle Jan 1557, bur Abernethy).  Member of the Council of Regency for James V King of Scotland 1517-1521, and 1523-1526.  High Chancellor of Scotland Aug 1527-1528, when a sentence of forfeiture was passed against him and he retired to England.  Returned to Scotland 1542, after the death of King James V.  He died of erysipelas.  m thirdly (before 2 Apr 1528) as his second wife, HENRY Stewart, son of ANDREW Stewart Lord Avondale & his wife Lady Margaret Kennedy ([1495/1500]-soon after 10 Oct 1551).  Created Lord Methven 17 Jul 1528.  Margaret & her first husband had six children: 

a)         other children: see SCOTLAND

b)         JAMES (Linlithgow Palace, Fife 15 Apr 1512-Falkland Castle 14 Dec 1542).  He succeeded his father 9 Sep 1513 as JAMES V King of Scotland

i)          MARY (Linlithgow Palace 7/8 Dec 1542-executed Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire 8 Feb 1587, bur Peterborough Cathedral, removed 1612 to Westminster Abbey).  She succeeded her father 14 Dec 1542 as MARY Queen of Scotland

(a)       JAMES CHARLES (Edinburgh Castle 19 Jun 1566-Theobalds Park, Herts 27 Mar 1625, bur Westminster Abbey).  He succeeded his mother 24 Jul 1567 as JAMES VI King of Scotland.  He succeeded Queen Elizabeth I 24 Mar 1603 as JAMES I King of England

-                 KINGS OF ENGLAND from 1603.

3.         HENRY (Greenwich Palace, Kent 28 Jun 1491-Whitehall Palace, London 28 Jan 1547, bur St George's Chapel, Windsor).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “IV Kal Jul” in 1491 of “Henricus 2us fi Henrici vii qui p´ea creatus e pinceps Wallie[1352].  He succeeded his father 22 Apr 1509 as HENRY VIII King of England

-        see below

4.         ELIZABETH (2 Jul 1492-Eltham Palace, Kent 7 Oct or 14 Nov 1495, bur Westminster Abbey). 

5.         MARY (Richmond Palace, Surrey or Palace of Westminster 18 Mar 1496-Westhorpe Hall, Suffolk [24/26] Jun 1533, bur 22 Jul Abbey Church, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, transferred to St Mary’s Church, Bury St Edmunds).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “XV Kal Apr” in 1495 (O.S.) of “Maria 3cia filia He´rici 7mi[1353].  Crowned Queen of France 5 Nov 1514 at St Denis Cathedral, Paris.  m firstly (contract London 7 Aug 1514, by proxy Greyfriars Church, Greenwich Palace 13 Aug 1514, by proxy Church of the Celestines Paris 2 Sep 1514, contract 14 Sep 1514, in person Abbeville Cathedral, Somme 9 Oct 1514) as his third wife, LOUIS XII King of France, son of CHARLES Duc d'Orléans & his third wife Maria von Kleve (Château de Blois 27 Jun 1462-Hôtel royal des Tournelles, Paris 1 Jan 1515, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  m secondly (secretly Chapel in the Palais de Cluny, Paris [4/20] Feb 1515 and 31 Mar 1515, publicly Greyfriars Church, Greenwich Palace 13 May 1515) as his third wife, CHARLES Brandon Duke of Suffolk, son of WILLIAM Brandon & his wife Elizabeth Bruyn ([1484]-The Palace, Guildford, Surrey 22 Aug 1545, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  Ambassador to the King of France Oct 1514-May 1515.  Earl Marshal 21 May 1524-20 May 1533.  Lord President of the Council Feb 1529/30, until his death.  Mary & her second husband had three children: 

a)         Lord HENRY Brandon (Bath Place, London 11 Mar 1516-1 Mar 1534).  Created Earl of Lincoln 18 Jun 1525.

b)         Lady FRANCES Brandon (Bishop’s Hatfield, Hertfordshire [or Westhorpe Hall, Suffolk] 16 Jul 1517-Charterhouse, Sheen, Surrey 21 Nov 1559, bur 5 Dec Westminster Abbey)m firstly ([Suffolk Place, Southwark, London] Mar or early May 1533) as his second wife, HENRY Grey Marquess of Dorset, son of THOMAS Grey Marquess of Dorset & his wife Margaret Medley née Wotton (17 Jan 1517-executed Tower Hill 23 Feb 1554, bur Royal Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London).  Created Duke of Suffolk 11 Oct 1551.  He was attainted for treason for his involvement in Wyatt’s rebellion against Queen Mary I and forfeited his titles and estates.  m secondly (9 Mar 1554) as his first wife, ADRIAN Stokes, son of --- ([1533]-3 Nov 1585).  He was his wife’s Master of Horse before their marriage.  According to The Complete Peerage, Queen Elizabeth I’s comment on learning of this marriage was “Has the woman so far forgotten herself as to marry a common groom?[1354].  Lady Frances & her first husband had five children:

i)          son (-young before 1537).

ii)         daughter (-young before 1537). 

iii)        Lady JANE Grey (Bradgate Manor, Leicestershire Oct 1537-executed Tower Green 12 Feb 1554, bur Royal Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London).  King Henry VIII left the crown of England by will to the descendants of his sister Mary, if his own children died without issue.  Duke of Northumberland, the Lord Protector of King Edward VII, persuaded the dying King to sign a document purporting to change his father’s will in favour of Jane.  She was proclaimed 10 Jul 1553 JANE Queen of England.  Deposed 19 Jul 1553.  m (Ely Place, Holborn or Durham House, Strand 21 May 1553) Lord GUILFORD Dudley, son of JOHN Dudley Duke of Northumberland & his wife Jane Guilford (1536-executed Tower Hill 12 Feb 1554, bur Royal Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London).

iv)       Lady KATHERINE Grey ([Dorset House, Westminster] Aug 1540-Cockfield Hall[1355], Yoxford, Suffolk 27 Jan 1568, bur 21 Feb Yoxford).  Imprisoned in the Tower following her marriage, she was transferred 21 Aug 1563 to her uncle John Grey’s house in Essex, on account of the plague in the Tower.  m firstly (Ely Place, Holborn or Durham House, Strand 21 May 1553, annulled 1554) HENRY Herbert Lord Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, son of --- (after 1538-1601).  m secondly (secretly Hertford House, Cannon Row, Westminster [Nov/Dec] 1560, declared “no marriage” 12 May 1561 by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the High Commission Court, declared valid 1608) as his first wife, EDWARD Seymour Earl of Hertford and Baron Beauchamp, son of EDWARD Seymour Duke of Somerset & his first wife Katherine Fillol (12 Oct 1537 or 22 May 1539-Netley, Hampshire 6 Apr 1621, bur Salisbury Cathedral).  According to the Complete Peerage, “he was of very small stature, and of timid and feeble character[1356].  Imprisoned in the Tower by Queen Elizabeth I when he married against her will.  He was transferred to his mother’s house in Middlesex 21 Aug 1563, on account of the plague in the Tower.  Released after the death of his first wife. 

v)        Lady MARY Grey (1545-the Barbican, by Red Cross Street, London 20 Apr 1578, bur either St Botolph’s, Aldersgate or Westminster Abbey).  A hunchback.  m (Water Gate Lodge, by the Palace of Westminster 10 or 12 Aug [1564/65]) THOMAS Keyes, son of --- (-1571).  Groom porter to Queen Elizabeth I. 

Lady Frances & her second husband had three children:

vi)       ELIZABETH Stokes (b and d 1554).

vii)      son (-young).

viii)     son (-young). 

c)         Lady ELEANOR Brandon ([1519/20]-Brougham Castle 27 Sep 1547, bur Skipton)m (contract Mar 1533, Suffolk Place, London, Summer 1537) as his first wife, HENRY Clifford Earl of Cumberland, son of HENRY Clifford Earl of Cumberland & his second wife Lady Margaret Percy (1517-Brougham Castle 2 Jan 1570, bur Skipton). 

6.         EDMUND (Greenwich Palace, Kent 21 Feb 1499-Old Palace, Bishop’s Hatfield, Hertfordshire 19 Jun 1500, bur 22 Jun Westminster Abbey).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “IX Kal Mar” in 1498 (O.S.) of “Edmunde the iii son of kinge Henry the vii[1357].  Duke of Somerset, but no enrolment of a patent of this creation found. 

7.         EDWARD (-young, bur Westminster Abbey). 

8.         KATHERINE (Tower of London 2 Feb 1503-Tower of London [18 Feb] 1503, bur Westminster Abbey).

King Henry VII had one possible illegitimate son[1358] by a Breton lady: 

9.          [ROLAND de Velville ([1471/85]-1535).  Born while Henry Tudor was in exile in Brittany.  Constable of Beaumaris Castle, Anglesey 1509-1535.]  m AGNES Griffith, daughter of GWILYM Fychan of Penrhyn [Chamberlain of North Wales] & his second wife Gwenllian daughter of Iowerth ap David (-1542).   

a)         daughterm TUDUR ap Robert Fychan of Berain, son of ---. 

 

 

HENRY, son of HENRY VII King of England & his wife Elizabeth of York (Greenwich Palace, Kent 28 Jun 1491-Whitehall Palace, London 28 Jan 1547, bur St George's Chapel, Windsor).  A manuscript calendar records the birth “IV Kal Jul” in 1491 of “Henricus 2us fi Henrici vii qui p´ea creatus e pinceps Wallie[1359].  Created Duke of York 31 Oct 1494.  He succeeded his brother as Duke of Cornwall 2 Apr 1502.  Created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester 18 Feb 1504.  He succeeded his father 22 Apr 1509 as HENRY VIII King of England.  Crowned 24 Jun 1509 at Westminster Abbey.  King of Ireland from 1542.  A manuscript calendar records the death “V Kal Feb” in 1546 (O.S.) of “the noble Prynce Henry the eight[1360]

m firstly (Greenwich Palace, Kent 11 Jun 1509, annulled 23 May 1533) as her second husband, Infanta dońa CATALINA de Aragón, widow of ARTHUR Prince of Wales, daughter of FERNANDO V King of Aragon & his wife Isabel I Queen of Castile (Alcala de Henares 16 Dec 1485-Kimbolton Castle, Huntingdonshire 7 Jan 1536, bur Peterborough Cathedral).  She probably died of cancer. 

m secondly ([York Place, London or Palace of Westminster 25 Jan 1533) ANNE Boleyn, daughter of THOMAS Boleyn Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond & his wife Lady Elizabeth Howard (Blickling Hall, Norfolk [1500/01]-executed Tower of London 19 May 1536, bur Royal Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London).  Created Lady Marquess of Pembroke in her own right 1 Sep 1532.  Crowned Queen 1 Jun 1533 at Westminster Abbey.  She was tried and found guilty of high treason 15 May 1536, and condemned to death.  Her marriage was declared invalid 17 May 1536. 

m thirdly (Whitehall Palace, London 30 May 1536) JANE Seymour, daughter of JOHN Seymour & his wife Margaret Wentworth ([Wulfhall, Savernake Forest, Wiltshire] [1509/10]-Hampton Court Palace in childbirth 24 Oct 1537, bur St George’s Chapel, Windsor).  A manuscript calendar records the death “xxiv Oct” in 1537 of “Quene Jane the wife of kinge Henry the viii[1361]

m fourthly (Greenwich Palace, Kent 6 Jan 1540, not consummated, annulled 9 Jul 1540) ANNA von Kleve, daughter of JOHANN III Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg & his wife Marie von Jülich und Berg (Düsseldorf 22 Sep 1515-Chelsea Old Palace, London 16/17 Jul 1557, bur Westminster Abbey). 

m fifthly (Oatlands Palace, Surrey 28 Jul 1540) KATHERINE Howard, daughter of Lord EDMUND Howard & his first wife Joyce Culpeper (Lambeth, London or Horsham, Sussex [1525]-executed Tower of London 13 Feb 1542, bur Royal Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, Tower of London).  Attainted for high treason. 

m sixthly (Hampton Court Palace 12 Jul 1543) as her third husband, KATHERINE Parr, widow firstly of EDWARD Burgh, and secondly of JOHN Neville Lord Latimer, daughter of THOMAS Parr of Kendal & his wife Maud Green (Kendal Castle, Westmoreland or Blackfriars, London [1512/14]-Sudely Castle, Gloucestershire in childbirth 7 Sep 1548, bur Sudely Castle Chapel).  She married fourthly ([Apr/May] 1547) Thomas Seymour Baron Sudely ([1508]-executed 1549). 

Mistress (1): ELIZABETH Blount, daughter of JOHN Blount of Kinlet, Shropshire & his wife Catherine Pershall of Knightley, Staffordshire ([1502]-[7 Feb 1539/15 Jun 1541]).  Maid of honour to Queen Katherine 1512-1514.  m firstly ([1519]) GILBERT Tailboys, son of GEORGE Tailboys of Kyme, Lincolnshire & his wife Elizabeth Gascoigne (-15 Apr 1532, bur Kyme).  Sheriff of Lincolnshire 1524-1526.  Knighted shortly before 10 Nov 1524.  Created Lord Tailboys (or Talboys) Nov 1529.  m secondly ([2 Jul 1532/12 Feb 1535]) as his first wife, EDWARD Clinton Lord Clinton, son of THOMAS Clinton Lord Clinton & his wife Joan Poynings (1512-London 16 Jan 1585, bur Lincoln Chapel, St George’s, Windsor).  Created Earl of Lincoln 4 May 1572. 

Mistress (2): JOAN Dobson or Dingley, daughter of ---. 

Mistress (3): ---.  The name of King Henry's third mistress is not known. 

Mistress (4): MARY Berkeley, daughter of ---.   

King Henry VIII & his first wife had six children:

1.         stillborn daughter (31 Jan 1509/10). 

2.         HENRY (Richmond Palace, Surrey 1 Jan 1511-Richmond Palace, Surrey 22 Feb 1511, bur Westminster Abbey).  Duke of Cornwall from birth.

3.         son (Richmond Palace, Surrey Nov 1513-Nov 1513, bur Westminster Abbey).  Duke of Cornwall from birth. 

4.         HENRY (b and d [same day] Nov 1514).  Duke of Cornwall from birth.

5.         MARY (Greenwich Palace 18 Feb 1516-St James’s Palace, London 17 Nov 1558, bur Westminster Abbey).  She was proclaimed MARY I Queen of England on the deposition of Queen Jane 19 Jul 1553.  Crowned 1 Oct or 30 Nov 1553 at Westminster Abbey.  She assumed the title of Queen of Spain 1556 on the accession of her husband as King of Spain.  Betrothed (contract 2 and 4 Oct 1518, marriage by proxy Greenwich 5 Oct 1518) to FRANÇOIS de France Dauphin de Viennois, son of FRANÇOIS I King of France & his first wife Claude de France (Château d'Amboise, Indre-et-Loire 28 Feb 1518-Château de Tournon, Ardčche 10 Aug 1536, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  m (Winchester Cathedral 25 Jul 1554) as his second wife, Infante don FELIPE of Spain Archduke of Austria, son of Emperor KARL V, CARLOS I King of Spain, Archduke of Austria & his wife Infanta dona Isabel de Portugal (Valladolid 21 May 1527-Escorial 13 Sep 1598, bur Escorial).  He succeeded his father 16 Jan 1556 as FELIPE II King of Spain

6.         daughter (and d 10 Nov 1518). 

King Henry VIII & his second wife had three children:

7.         ELIZABETH (Greenwich Palace, Kent 7 Sep 1533-Richmond Palace, Surrey 24 Mar 1603, bur Westminster Abbey).  She succeeded her half-sister 1558 as ELIZABETH I Queen of England.  Crowned 15 Jan 1559 at Westminster Abbey.

8.         stillborn child ([Aug/Sep] 1534). 

9.         stillborn son (Greenwich Palace,Kent 29 Jan 1536).

King Henry VIII & his third wife had one child:

10.      EDWARD (Hampton Court Palace 12 Oct 1537-Greenwich Palace 6 Jul 1553, bur Westminster Abbey).  Duke of Cornwall from birth.  He succeeded his father 1547 as EDWARD VI King of England.  Crowned 20 or 15 Feb 1547 at Westminster Abbey.  Betrothed (contract Angers 19 Jul 1551) to ELISABETH de France, daughter of HENRI II King of France & his wife Caterina de' Medici (Château de Fontainebleau 2 Apr 1546-Madrid 3 Oct 1568, bur Escorial). 

King Henry VIII had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

11.       HENRY FitzRoy (Blackmore, Essex 1519-Thetford 22 Jul 1536).  Created Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Earl of Nottingham 18 Jun 1525 at Bridewell, Kent.  Lord High Admiral 16 Jul 1525.  Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1529.  He died of consumption.  m (dispensation 28 Nov 1533, not consummated) Lady MARY Howard, daughter of THOMAS Howard Duke of Norfolk & his second wife Lady Elizabeth Stafford (-9 Dec 1557).  Lady-in-waiting to Queen Anne of Cleves 1540.   

King Henry VIII had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2): 

12.       ETHELREDA [Audrey] (-1555)m JOHN Harington, daughter of ---

King Henry VIII had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (3):

13.       [THOMAS Stukely ([1525]-1578)m ANNE Curtis, daughter of ---.] 

King Henry VIII had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (4): 

14.       [JOHN Perrot ([1527]-1592).] 

 

 

 



[1] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historić Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historić Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber VI, XII, p. 266. 

[2] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) III, 229, p. 217. 

[3] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. III, Book V, p. 87, and Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 77. 

[4] Deville, M. A. ´Observations sur l´époque de la naissance de Guillaume le Conquérant´, Mémoires de la Société des antiquaires de Normandie, 2e Série, 1er Volume (1837-39), p. 183. 

[5] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87. 

[6] Davis, R. H. C. and Chibnall. M. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The Gesta Guillelmi of William of Poitiers (Oxford), Book I, c. 11. 

[7] Garmonsway, G. N. (trans) (1972) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Dent), D, 1051. 

[8] William of Jumičges VII.13, discussed in Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 114. 

[9] Houts (2000), p. 105. 

[10] William's campaign is commemorated in an anonymous poem The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio of Guy Bishop of Amiens, F. Barlow (ed. and trans.) (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1999). 

[11] Le Prévost, A. (1845) Orderici Vitalis Historić Ecclesiasticć (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber IV, VI, p. 199. 

[12] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, I, p. 256. 

[13] Malmesbury, II, pp. 336-7, cited in Chibnall, Vol. IV, p. 79. 

[14] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), p. 20. 

[15] Giles, I. A. (ed.) (1845) Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris (London) Brevis Relatio de Origine Willelmi Conquestoris, p. 14. 

[16] Genealogica Comitum Flandrić Bertiniana, MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[17] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXI, p. 277. 

[18] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[19] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1866) Rouleaux des morts du IX au XV sičcles (Paris), pp. 181-2. 

[20] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 177. 

[21] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 2. 

[22] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, pp. 181-2. 

[23] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 188. 

[24] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 330.       

[25] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VII, IX, pp. 192-3. 

[26] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 17. 

[27] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London) (“Florence of Worcester (Continuation)”), 1134, p. 249, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 413. 

[28] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXI, p. 277. 

[29] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[30] William of Malmesbury, III, 274, p. 254, and Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthći Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“Matthew Paris”), Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[31] Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, LXXVIII, p. 203. 

[32] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, X, p. 380. 

[33] Malmesbury, 258, p. 243, and 389, p. 339, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, pp. 109-11. 

[34] Malmesbury, 389, p. 339, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 115. 

[35] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, I, p. 256. 

[36] Orderic Vitalis, Book IX, c. 4. 

[37] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber II, Cap. XXI, p. 314. 

[38] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin), Vol. 1, p. 298. 

[39] William of Malmesbury, 394, p. 345. 

[40] William of Malmesbury, 395, p. 345. 

[41] Florence of Worcester, 1106, p. 214. 

[42] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen) Tome I, 1134, p. 194. 

[43] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 94. 

[44] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXI, p. 277. 

[45] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[46] William of Malmesbury, III, 274, p. 254. 

[47] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 115.  On the same page, Orderic discusses King William's other children, in order, "next/porro" Agatha, followed by Adelaide and Constance.  He omits Cecilia in this section, so it is unclear whether he meant that Richard was born before or after her. 

[48] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire LXXVIII, p. 203. 

[49] William of Malmesbury, 275, p. 255. 

[50] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 45. 

[51] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 115. 

[52] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, IX, p. 296. 

[53] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285. 

[54] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[55] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 189. 

[56] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VII, II, p. 159. 

[57] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 115. 

[58] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, p. 391. 

[59] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[60] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXIV, p. 310. 

[61] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115. 

[62] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, cited in Houts (2000), p. 149. 

[63] William of Malmesbury, 238, p. 227. 

[64] According to Houts (2000), p. 295, Table 4, which identifies her with William's daughter Agatha who was betrothed to Alfonso VI King of Castile. 

[65] Delisle (1866), pp. 181-2. 

[66] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi sičcle, p. 25.       

[67] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 241.       

[68] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 239.       

[69] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1866) Rouleaux des morts du IX au XV sičcles (Paris), pp. 179 and 181. 

[70] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[71] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 189. 

[72] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VII, II, p. 159. 

[73] Malmesbury III.276, p. 255, and Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[74] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 115.  

[75] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXIV, p. 310. 

[76] Delisle (1866), pp. 181-2. 

[77] Malmesbury, p. 251, footnote 1.  The event is commemorated in the poem Jephthah, written [1075] by Fulcoius of Beauvais, see Houts (2000), p. 132. 

[78] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, II, p. 303. 

[79] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), p. 182. 

[80] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book  VII, p. 47, in which footnote 2 specifies that her predecessor died 6 Jul 1113. 

[81] Ex Chronico S. Stephani Cadomensis, RHGF XII, p. 780. 

[82] Florence of Worcester, 1100, p. 206, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 95. 

[83] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXI, p. 277. 

[84] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[85] William of Malmesbury, III, 274, p. 254. 

[86] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 20. 

[87] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 45. 

[88] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, pp. 289-95. 

[89] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 203. 

[90] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 240.       

[91] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[92] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 189. 

[93] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VII, II, p. 159. 

[94] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[95] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXIV, p. 310. 

[96] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XVII, p. 291. 

[97] Ex Chronico Ruyensis Cśnobii, RHGF XII, p. 563. 

[98] Ex Chronico Kemperlegiensis, RHGF XII, p. 562. 

[99] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF XII, p. 559. 

[100] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115. 

[101] William of Malmesbury, III.276, p. 255. 

[102] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, XVII, p. 291, translation Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. II, Book IV, p. 353. 

[103] La Borderie, A. de (ed.) (1888) Recueil d´actes inédites des ducs et princes de Bretagne (XI, XII, XIII sičcles) (Rennes), XXIII, p. 56. 

[104] Ex Chronico Britannico Altero, RHGF XII, p. 559. 

[105] Maître, L. & Berthou, P. de (eds.) (1904) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Sainte-Croix de Quimperlé, 2nd Edn. (Rennes, Paris) ("Quimperlé Sainte-Trinité"), Chronicon Universum, p. 105. 

[106] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 189. 

[107] William of Malmesbury, III.276, p. 256.  

[108] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, p. 391. 

[109] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 22.                               

[110] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 115. 

[111] Reilly, B. F. (1988) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI 1065-1109 (Princeton University Press), Chapter 3, p. 47, in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at <http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm> (7 Dec 2002). 

[112] Vita Simonis Comitis Crespeienses 7, MGH SS XV.2, p. 905. 

[113] Houts (2000), p. 185. 

[114] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[115] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 189. 

[116] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VII, II, p. 159. 

[117] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21. 

[118] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, p. 393. 

[119] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 325. 

[120] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi sičcle, p. 8.       

[121] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Obituaire du xii sičcle, p. 56.       

[122] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, pp. 393-4.  

[123] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[124] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, pp. 449-51. 

[125] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92. 

[126] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXI, p. 277. 

[127] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 182. 

[128] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, IV, p. 291. 

[129] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, IV, p. 294. 

[130] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XV, p. 350. 

[131] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XIX, p. 384. 

[132] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 46. 

[133] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 295. 

[134] Florence of Worcester, 1105, p. 213. 

[135] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronicć sancti Albini Andegavensis, p. 34.  

[136] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 95. 

[137] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 332.       

[138] Howlett, R. (ed.) (1884) (London) Historia rerum Anglicarum of William of Newburgh (“William of Newburgh”) I.III, p. 30. 

[139] Florence of Worcester (Continuation), 1118, p. 229. 

[140] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 273. 

[141] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 47. 

[142] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXII, p. 400. 

[143] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 316.       

[144] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 71. 

[145] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 75. 

[146] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 309. 

[147] William of Newburgh I.III, p. 29. 

[148] Genealogia Ducum Brabantić Heredum Francić 6, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[149] Balduini Ninovensis Chronicon 1121, MGH SS XXV, p. 527. 

[150] Continuatio Chronici Afflegemiensis, Spicilegium II, p. 777. 

[151] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 19. 

[152] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1864) Annales Monastici Vol. I, Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, Annales de Burton (London) Annales de Margan, p. 14. 

[153] Continuatio Chronici Afflegemiensis, Spicilegium II, p. 777. 

[154] RHGF XXIII, Ex Obituario Lirensis monasterii, p. 471. 

[155] Johnson, C. & Cronne, H. A. (ed.) (1956) Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. II, Appendix, CCXI, p. 362. 

[156] Eyton (1858), Vol. VII, p. 233. 

[157] Eyton (1858), Vol. VII, p. 285, citing Haughmond Chartulary, fo. 168, Tit. Preston. 

[158] Hunter, J. (ed.) (1833) Magnum rotulum scaccarii vel magnum rotulum pipć de anno 31 regni Henrici primi (London) ("Pipe Roll 31 Hen I (1129/30)"), Devonshire, p. 155. 

[159] Stevenson, J. (ed.) (1858) Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon (London), Vol. II, pp. 37 and 122. 

[160] CP XI Appendix D, p. 118. 

[161] CP XI Appendix D, p. 108 footnote a citing Cartć Antiquć, P. R. S., no. 38, the charter quoted in full in Eyton, R. W. (1858) Antiquities of Shropshire (London), Vol. VII, p. 157. 

[162] Eyton (1858), Vol. VII, p. 146. 

[163] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1855) The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham (London) (“Simeon of Durham”), Vol. II, p. 310, quoted in CP XI Appendix D, p. 108 footnote f. 

[164] CP XI Appendix D, p. 108. 

[165] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire, VI, p. 253. 

[166] Dugdale Monasticon V, Thame Abbey, Oxfordshire, III, p. 404. 

[167] Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerarium Kambrić, Rolls Series, p. 130, quoted in CP XI Appendix D, p. 110 footnote a. 

[168] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 307. 

[169] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXVII, p. 312. 

[170] Berger, E. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes de Henri II roi d´Angleterre et duc de Normandie (Paris) ("Actes Henri II"), Tome II, DLXXVI, p. 161. 

[171] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 47. 

[172] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXII, p. 400. 

[173] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1879) The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, Vol. I (London) (“Gervase”), p. 92. 

[174] Weir (2002), p. 59. 

[175] Arnold, T. (ed.) (1879) The History of the English by Henry Archdeacon of Huntingdon (London), Liber VII, 27, p. 237. 

[176] Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum, Vol. II, 912-14, p. 86. 

[177] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1109, 1110, p. 242. 

[178] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Tome II, p. 60. 

[179] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Tome II, p. 67. 

[180] Ex Roberti Gestis Ducum Normannorum, Liber VIII, 10, MGH SS XXVI, p. 9. 

[181] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. IV, Liber X, I, p. 8. 

[182] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. IV, Liber XI, XVIII, p. 221. 

[183] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. IV, Liber XI, XXXVIII, p. 296. 

[184] Annales Cameracenses, 1114, MGH SS XVI, p. 512. 

[185] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1865) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia (London), Annales de Wintonia, p. 43. 

[186] Ex Annales Winchecumbensibus, 1110 and 1114, MGH SS XVI, p. 481. 

[187] Surtees Society (1868) Symeonis Dunelmis Opera Collectanea (Durham) ("Symeonis Dunelmis"), Vol. II, Historia Regum, p. 241. 

[188] Symeonis Dunelmis, Vol. II, Historia Regum, p. 241. 

[189] Annales Hildesheimenses continuatio Paderbornensis, 1110, MGH SS III, p. 112. 

[190] Annales Hildesheimenses continuatio Paderbornensis, 1114, MGH SS III, p. 113. 

[191] Annales Sancti Disibodi, 1110 and 1114, MGH SS XVII, pp. 20 and 22. 

[192] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 391. 

[193] Gervase, p. 92. 

[194] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1167, p. 367. 

[195] Urseau, C. (ed.) Obituaire de la cathédrale d'Angers, Documents historiques sur l'Anjou Tome VII (Angers) (“L'Obituaire de la Cathédrale d'Angers”). 

[196] Robert de Torigny, Book VIII, c. 7, and Chibnall, p. 17. 

[197] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WTC”) XIV.I, p. 607. 

[198] Chronicć sancti Albini Andegavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 33.  

[199] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXII, p. 400. 

[200] Gervase, p. 92. 

[201] Lawrie, A. C. (1905) Early Scottish Charters: Prior to A.D. 1153 (MacLehose), XXIX, p. 23. 

[202] William of Malmesbury, 405, p. 353. 

[203] William of Malmesbury, 419, p. 364. 

[204] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 74. 

[205] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 225. 

[206] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 331, says he believes she was "12 years old in the summer she was married to a stripling". 

[207] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 229. 

[208] WT XIV.I, p. 607. 

[209] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 181. 

[210] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 71. 

[211] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 331. 

[212] Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. (2002) Domesday Descendants: A Prosopography of Persons Occurring in English Documents 1066-1166. II. Pipe Rolls to Cartć Baronum (Boydell) (“Domesday Descendants”), p. 131. 

[213] Bienvenue, J. M. (ed.) (2000) Grand Cartulaire de Fontevraud, Tome I (Poitiers) (“Fontevraud”) 99, p. 87. 

[214] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 335. 

[215] Archaeologia Cambrensis, The Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, Vol. X, Third Series (London, 1864), Supplement Brut y Tywysogion ("Gwentian Chronicle"), p. 93. 

[216] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 399. 

[217] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 41. 

[218] Genealogić Scriptoris Fusniacensis 14, MGH SS XIII, pp. 254-5. 

[219] Domesday Descendants, p. 236. 

[220] Souancé, Vicomte de & Métais, C. (eds.) (1899) Saint-Denis de Nogent-le-Rotrou 1031-1079 Histoire et Cartulaire (Vanne) (“Nogent-le-Rotrou”), XI, p. 39. 

[221] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 74. 

[222] William of Malmesbury, 419, p. 364. 

[223] Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Vol. II, pp. 37 and 12. 

[224] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 217. 

[225] CP XI Appendix D, 107. 

[226] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 279. 

[227] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 74. 

[228] William of Malmesbury, 419, p. 364. 

[229] Weir (2002), p. 48. 

[230] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1120.  

[231] Gervase, p. 92. 

[232] William of Malmesbury, 418, p. 362. 

[233] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 299. 

[234] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 295. 

[235] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 41. 

[236] CP XI Appendix D, 114. 

[237] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 279. 

[238] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 215. 

[239] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 279. 

[240] Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, Vol. II, p. 122. 

[241] CP XI Appendix D, p. 110. 

[242] William of Malmesbury, 400, p. 349. 

[243] Early Scottish Charters XXXVI, p. 28. 

[244] CP XI Appendix D, p. 118. 

[245] Early Scottish Charters XLIX, p. 43. 

[246] Eyton (1858), Vol. VII, p. 157, quoting Cartć Antiquć, P. R. S., no. 38. 

[247] Smythe, W. (1843) Liber Ecclesie de Scon, Munimenta Vetustiora Monasterii Sancte Trinitatis et Sancti Michaelis de Scon (Edinburgh) ("Scone"), 1, p. 1. 

[248] Turnbull, W. B. (1842) Extracta e Variis Cronicis Scocie, from the Ancient Manuscript in the Advocates Library at Edinburgh (Edinburgh) ("Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie"), p. 68. 

[249] Scone, 1, p. 1. 

[250] Early Scottish Charters XXXVI, p. 28. 

[251] Hunt, W. (ed.) (1893) Two Chartularies of the Priory of St Peter at Bath (London) ("Bath St Peter") 49, p. 51. 

[252] Early Scottish Charters XLIX, p. 43. 

[253] CP XI Appendix D, p. 111, citing Sloane MS. XXXI, 4, no. 10. 

[254] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 306. 

[255] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 511. 

[256] Gervase, p. 121. 

[257] CP XI Appendix D, p. 108 footnote a citing Cartć Antiquć, P. R. S., no. 38, and quoted in full in Eyton (1858), Vol. VII, p. 157. 

[258] Domesday Descendants, p. 441. 

[259] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 511, and Given-Wilson, C. and Curteis, A. (1988) The Royal Bastards of Medieval England (Routledge), p. 65. 

[260] CP XI Appendix D, p. 108 footnote a citing Cartć Antiquć, P. R. S., no. 38, and quoted in full in Eyton (1858), Vol. VII, p. 157. 

[261] Hall, H. (ed.) (1896) The Red Book of the Exchequer (Liber rubeus de Scaccario) (London) ("Red Book Exchequer"), Part I, Certificationes factć de feodis militum, p. 253. 

[262] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1847) Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the reigns of Henry II and Richard I 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough (London) (“Benedict of Peterborough”) Vol. I, pp. 163 and 172. 

[263] Eng. Hist. Review, Vol. LXII, p. 365, cited in CP XI Appendix D, p. 111 footnote i. 

[264] Pipe Roll 31 Hen I (1129/30), Wiltshire, p. 22.     

[265] Phillips, C. Some corrections and additions to the Complete Peerage, at <http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/cp/vol11.shtml> (30 Sep 2003).   

[266] Bath St Peter 49, p. 51. 

[267] Journal, R. Inst. Cornwall, Vol. 1, pp. 29-32, cited in CP XI Appendix D, p. 119 footnote f. 

[268] Simeon of Durham, Vol. II, p. 310, quoted in CP XI Appendix D, p. 108 footnote f. 

[269] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 306. 

[270] Pipe Roll 31 Hen I (1129/30), Devon, p. 152.     

[271] CP XI Appendix D, 109. 

[272] Dugdale Monasticon VI, Oseney Abbey, Oxfordshire, VI, p. 253. 

[273] Collectanea Topographica Genealogica, Vol. I, XLVI, List of charters in the cartulary of St Nicholas Priory, at Exeter, 341, p. 382. 

[274] Red Book Exchequer, Part I, Knights fees, p. 42. 

[275] Pipe Roll Society, Vol. XXVI (1905) The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 23rd year of King Henry II (London) ("Pipe Roll 23 Hen II (1176/77)"), Devonshire, p. 3. 

[276] Collectanea Topographica Genealogica, Vol. I, XLVI, List of charters in the cartulary of St Nicholas Priory, at Exeter, 151, p. 188. 

[277] Collectanea Topographica Genealogica, Vol. I, XLVI, List of charters in the cartulary of St Nicholas Priory, at Exeter, 341, p. 382. 

[278] Maitland, F. W. (ed.) (1887) Bracton´s Note Book, a Collection of Cases…annotated…by Henry of Bratton (London) ("Bracton´s Note Book"), Vol. II, 170, p. 137. 

[279] Dugdale Monasticon V, Ford Abbey, Devonshire I, p. 378. 

[280] Bracton´s Note Book, Vol. III, 1569, p. 450. 

[281] Dugdale Monasticon V, Ford Abbey, Devonshire I, p. 378. 

[282] Bracton´s Note Book, Vol. II, 170, p. 137. 

[283] Bracton´s Note Book, Vol. III, 1569, p. 450. 

[284] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. IV, Liber XI, XX, p. 232. 

[285] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, IX, p. 320. 

[286] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 307. 

[287] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. II, Book IV, p. 353. 

[288] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 181. 

[289] Aurélien de Courson, M. (ed.) (1863) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Redon en Bretagne (Paris) (“Redon”), CCCLXX, p. 323. 

[290] La Borderie (1888), XLII, p. 87. 

[291] La Borderie (1888), XXXI bis, p. 90. 

[292] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 307. 

[293] Duchesne, A. (1624) Histoire généalogique de la maison de Montmorency et de Laval (Paris), p. 97. 

[294] Duchesne (1624), Preuves, p. 41. 

[295] Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 3. 

[296] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, p. 45, cited in Robert de Torigny, Vol. II, p. 3 footnote 3. 

[297] Hoffman, G. (ed.) (1731) Nova scriptorum ac monumentorum collectio, Tome I, Sam. Guichenoni Bibliothecam Sebusianam et Paridis de Crassis diarium cur. rom (Leipzig) ("Bibliotheca Sebusiana"), Centuria I, XIV, p. 52. 

[298] Chronicon Valassense, p. 20. 

[299] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 306. 

[300] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 306. 

[301] Extrait de la Chronique de Normandie, RHGF XIII, p. 253. 

[302] CP XI Appendix D, p. 109, footnote l. 

[303] Barlow, F. (1990) Thomas Becket (Berkeley), p. 235. 

[304] Vincent, N. ´The Murderers of Thomas Becket´, Fryde, N. & Reitz, D. (eds.) (2003) Bischofsmord im Mittelalter, Murder of Bishops (Göttingen), p. 232. 

[305] Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerarium Kambrić, Rolls Series, p. 130, quoted in CP XI Appendix D, p. 110 footnote a. 

[306] CP XI Appendix D, 110. 

[307] Dimock, J. F. (ed.) (1867) Giraldi Cambrensis Opera, Vol. V, Topographia Hibernica, Expugnatio Hibernica (London) Expugnatio Hibernica I, IV, p. 235. 

[308] CP XI Appendix D, 110. 

[309] Butler, R. (ed.) (1842) Jacobi Grace, Kilkenniensis, Annales Hibernić (Dublin) (“Grace Annales Hibernić”), 1220, p. 28. 

[310] Expugnatio Hibernica II, X, p. 325. 

[311] Expugnatio Hibernica II, X, p. 325. 

[312] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 307. 

[313] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historić (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXIX, p. 307. 

[314] Extrait de la Chronique de Normandie, RHGF XIII, p. 253. 

[315] CP X Appendix H, 102. 

[316] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1154, p. 204. 

[317] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, pp. 393-4. 

[318] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book  V, p. 117, and Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 43. 

[319] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 197. 

[320] Haigneré, D. ´Quelques chartes de l´abbaye de Samer´, Mémoires de la société académique de Boulogne-sur-Mer, Tome XII, Cartulaires boulonnais I (Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1880), IV, p. 117. 

[321] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XIII, p. 455. 

[322] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1154, p. 287. 

[323] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1151, p. 188. 

[324] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 275. 

[325] Genealogica comitum Buloniensium MGH SS IX, p. 301. 

[326] Gervase, p. 93. 

[327] Domesday Descendants, p. 118. 

[328] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1152, p. 263, and 1154, p. 287. 

[329] Gervase, p. 112. 

[330] Given-Wilson & Curteis (1988), p. 95. 

[331] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 297. 

[332] William of Newburgh Historia, ed. Hearne, p. 705, quoted in CP XII/2 836, footnote m. 

[333] Johnson, C. & Cronne, H. A. (ed.) (1968) Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. III, 508, p. 190. 

[334] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1151, p. 190, which specifies that he died on the day of St Lawrence. 

[335] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1154, MGH SS XXIII, p. 842. 

[336] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1137, p. 166. 

[337] Sewell, R. C. (ed.) (1846) Gesta Stephani, Regis Anglorum et Ducis Normannorum (London) ("Gesta Stephani Regis") II, p. 130. 

[338] CP VI 644.