FRANKS, merovingian nobility

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                MAIORES DOMUS of the KINGDOM of AUSTRASIA (also in NEUSTRIA from 688) 5

A.         Family of ADALGISEL. 5

B.         FAMILY of PEPIN "de Landen" 6

C.        FAMILY of WULFOALD.. 9

D.        FAMILY of ARNULF. 9

E.         RAGAMFRED.. 27

Chapter 2.                MAIORES DOMUS of the KINGDOM of BURGUNDY. 28

Chapter 3.                MAIORES DOMUS of the KINGDOM of NEUSTRIA. 31

Chapter 4.                OTHER MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY. 38

A.         DUCES of AUVERGNE.. 38

B.         DUCES of CHAMPAGNE.. 39

C.        DUCES of GASCONY.. 41

D.        DUCES of TRANSJURANIA.. 42

E.         OTHER DUCES FRANCORUM, 6th to 8th CENTURIES.. 44

F.         MEROVINGIAN COUNTS, 6th CENTURY.. 52

G.        MEROVINGIAN COUNTS, 7th CENTURY.. 53

H.        MEROVINGIAN COUNTS, 8th CENTURY.. 67

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document sets out the families of Merovingian Frankish nobility from the 6th to the mid-8th centuries.  Later Frankish nobles (those recorded for the first time after approximately 770) are shown in the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY. 

 

The families of the maiores domus of the three Merovingian kingdoms of Austrasia, Burgundy and Neustria are set out in chapters 1, 2 and 3 of this document.  During Merovingian times, the "maior domus" was the head of the royal household.  A maior domus in Austrasia was appointed for the first time in [Dec 633/Jan 634], when King Dagobert I named his infant son Sigebert as king of Austrasia, the maior domus acting in the capacity of regent.  Maiores domus are recorded in the kingdom of Burgundy between the 580s and [643], when the kingdom was ruled by the Merovingian Franks.  The earliest reference so far found to a maior domus in the kingdom of Burgundy is Fredegar's record of the death of Warnachar [I] in [600/01][1].  On the death of Warnachar [II] in 627, the Burgundian nobles decided to have no further maior domus but to be ruled directly by the king[2], although Queen Nantechildis appointed Flaochad as maior domus of Burgundy in 642.  He is the last recorded maior domus in Burgundy.  The earliest reference so far identified to a maior domus in the kingdom of Neustria dates from the last decade of the 6th century. 

 

The traditional view of the maiores domus at the Merovingian courts is that they assumed a dominant role in the kingdoms of Austrasia and Neustria, and relegated the kings to a subservient position, which justified the general nickname "les rois fainéants" which has often been applied to these monarchs.  This appears to over-simplify the situation.  It is true that after the death of King Childebert III in 711 the throne passed to a series of weak kings, whose accession was manipulated by different factions of nobles in the two kingdoms, until in 751 maior domus Pépin [III] "le Bref" declared himself King of the Franks with Papal approval and ended the Merovingian kingdom.  However, before 711, charter evidence suggests that the role of the maior domus in administration of the Merovingian state may not have been so dominant as may appear from the description of events recorded in contemporary or near-contemporary chronicles such as Fredegar (and his Continuators) and the Liber Historiæ Francorum.  For example, no maior domus is named in any of the surviving charters of Kings Dagobert I, Clotaire III, Dagobert II or Clovis III.  Only one of the seven surviving charters of King Childeric II names his maior domus Wulfoald, and only one of the twelve surviving charters of King Theoderic III names three of his past maiores domus as well as his current maior domus Berchar.  Even as late as the reign of King Childebert III (who succeeded in 695), the names of his maiores domus Pépin [II] and Pépin’s son Grimoald only appear in four of the thirteen surviving charters.  It is accepted that there is no way of knowing what proportion the surviving charters represent of the total amount of documentation produced at court.  In addition, charters do not necessarily provide conclusive proof, as they mainly relate to day-to-day administrative activities in religious and judicial areas.  However, the numbers are striking and suggest that the traditional view deserves some reassessment, at least in relation to the period before the early 8th century. 

 

Contemporary documentation includes references to numerous other Merovingian nobles, with the title dux, comes, or an administrative title which refers to their role at court.  These other nobles are shown in Chapter 4 of this document. 

 

From the late 6th to the late 7th centuries, the primary sources name numerous Merovingian nobles with the title dux.  A territorial attribution is applied to some of these individuals, but the majority are not linked to any specific area of the Frankish kingdom.  More than twenty duces without specified territories have been identified.  In addition, duces are named in Auvergne, Champagne, Gascony and Transjurania (part of the kingdom of Burgundy) during the 7th century, although the documentation does not reveal whether the individuals who successively held these titles were related or not.  It is suggested that the Merovingian duces were primarily military appointees, in line with the Roman tradition, and that their jurisdiction over local areas, if any, was limited to military purposes.  If this is correct, these nobles were not “dukes”, in the sense in which the term was applied in later centuries to indicate the highest level of nobility immediately below the king and above the counts.  This hypothesis appears corroborated by the relative absence of duces from surviving Merovingian charters, which suggests that the duces fulfilled little formal role at court.  Most of the mentions of these nobles are found in chronicles, in the record of military exploits.  Nor does it appear that the early Merovingian duces were regional rulers, like contemporary dukes of neighbouring regions such as Bavaria and Alemannia, whose appointments conferred a large degree of local autonomy in the territories which they administered.  If this had been the case, one would have expected to find their names in contemporary charters relating to property in the territories over which they presided.  An isolated example of a ducal appointment which apparently did include territorial jurisdiction is provided in Fredegar (Continuator) which records that Pépin [II] maior domus of Neustria and Austrasia invested his son Drogo as dux in Champagne in [688/90][3], and dux of the Burgunds after 697.  However, this should not provide a basis for assuming that the 6th and earlier 7th century ducal appointments involved territorial attribution.  Few references to Merovingian duces have been found after the mid-7th century.  It is suggested that the practice of appointing duces declined with the rise in power of the maiores domus in the Merovingian Frankish kingdoms, and that the maior domus assumed greater personal control over military affairs to avoid the emergence of rival power bases in the army. 

 

After the decline in the number of references to duces, observed from the mid-7th century, those surviving Merovingian charters which include lists of subscribers or witnesses mainly name individuals who are described as “viri inlustri” (or similar epithets) without noble titles.  This can be observed particularly in the charters of Kings Clotaire III, Theoderic III, Clovis III, and Childebert III, who reigned between 657 and 711, although it is recognised that the number of these subscribed charters are too few (nine out of the total 46 in the MGH compilation for this period[4], without including the charters classified as spurious) to reach definite conclusions about prevailing noble titles. 

 

The first charter which names an individual with the title “comes” is dated 635[5].  However, this is an isolated example and it is not until 693 that we find a surviving charter which names several nobles with the unqualified title “comes[6], although an official with the title “comes palatii“ is first recorded in a charter dated 653[7].  From the early 8th century, the presence in charters of nobles with the title “count” is relatively frequent, especially in charters issued by the maior domus.  This suggests that, by this time, the body of counts had established themselves as part of the inner circle of nobles at court, in contrast to the position of the duces in the 6th and 7th centuries.  However, the documentation includes no geographical epithets applied to these counts.  In addition, all charters dated before the Carolingian period identify specific locations which are the subject of the grant or donation only by reference to the relevant pagus not a county.  It is therefore not at all clear whether these Merovingian “counts” were local rulers of “counties”, in the sense of fulfilling a role in local administration, or whether the titles were mainly honorific.  More than a hundred such counts have been identified.  Only in very few cases has it been possible to establish family relationships between these individuals, or between the 7th and 8th century Merovingian nobility and later nobility in either the West Frankish kingdom (see the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY) or East Frankish kingdom (see GERMANY EARLY NOBILITY), although many of the names of the early Merovingian nobles are repeated among the later Frankish nobility. 

 

The known court titles include comes palatii, grafio, domesticus, and referendarius, presumably in descending order of precedence as shown by the charter dated 28 Feb 693 of King Clovis III, which names individuals in each category in this order[8].  One interesting point relates to the nature of the appointment of the "comes palatii" at the Merovingian court.  Presumably these officials were assigned important administrative duties, although their precise nature cannot be identified from the available sources.  However, in contrast to the maiores domus, large numbers of successive comes palatii are named in the royal charters.  The same person rarely appears more than twice, which suggests that their appointments may have been short-term, the post possibly being held in rotation by senior nobility at court.  In addition, in charters which list several named nobles, the comes palatii is not generally named first in the list, suggesting that the office-holder enjoyed no position of precedence.  In the 7th century the documentation indicates that the comes palatii held a subordinate position at court compared to the maior domus.  However, it appears that their position may have evolved over time, possibly replacing that of the maior domus after the accession of the Carolingian dynasty.  For example, Wicbert is recorded as the only comes palatii of Pépin I King of the Franks between 752 and 759[9]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    MAIORES DOMUS of the KINGDOM of AUSTRASIA (also in NEUSTRIA from 688)

 

 

 

A.      Family of ADALGISEL

 

 

1.         ADALGISEL (-after [648]).  He was appointed maior domus of Austrasia in [Dec 633/Jan 634].  According to Fredegar, Adalgisel and Cunibert Bishop of Köln were chosen to control the kingdom of Austrasia after King Dagobert I appointed his infant son Sigebert as King of Austrasia in [Dec 633/Jan 634][10].  Fredegar records that "Adalgyselus ducis et Aenovales comex Sogiontinsis" led the army of King Sigebert against Radulf Duke of Thuringia, and that "Innowales comex" was killed in battle[11].  It is assumed that Adalgisel ceased to be maior domus before [639] when Fredegar records Pépin [I] as maior domus in Austrasia.  The following charters suggest that Adalgisel survived the end of his period in power, although it is not certain that they relate to the same person.  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" made a donation by charter dated to [644] on the advice of "…Bobonis, Adalgisili"[12].  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" made a donation to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated to [648] on the advice of "…Fulcoaldi, Bobonis, Adregisili, item Bobonis…"[13].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…Gundoino duce et Hodone domestico" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy on the advice of "Grimoaldo, Fulcoaldo, Adregisilo, Bobone ducibus, Chlodulfo, Ansegisilo, Gariberto domesticis" by charter dated 6 Sep 667[14], although the date suggests that this charter must refer to a different Adalgisel.  In any case, there is some question about the authenticity of this charter as the presence of "Grimoaldo", in a document dated ten years after the death of the only known Duke Grimoald, suggests that the text may have been subject to some alteration. 

 

 

1.         URO .  Domesticus.  Fredegar names "Otto quidam filius Urones domestici", who was "baiolos Sigyberto" as an adolescent[15]m ---.  The name of Uro’s wife is not known.  Uro & his wife had one child: 

a)         OTTO (-murdered [643/44]).  Fredegar records that "Otto quidam filius Urones domestici", who was "baiolos Sigyberto" as an adolescent, challenged the succession of Grimoald as maior domus in 640, and was killed by "Leuthario duci Alamannorum" in the 10th year of the reign of King Sigebert[16]

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of PEPIN "de Landen"

 

 

PEPIN [I] "le Vieux" or "de Landen", son of --- (-[640]).  Adviser of King Dagobert I 622.  He was banished to Orléans in 629.  He was appointed maior domus in Austrasia in 639; according to Fredegar he was loved by the Austrasians "for his concern for justice and his goodness"[17].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Pippino duce" as united with "Sighiberto" in governing the kingdom and having been retained by his younger brother "Chlodovecho"[18].  According to Fredegar, Pépin died about a year after King Dagobert[19].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 647 of "Pippinus filius Karlomanni, maior domus Lotharii"[20]

m ITTA [Ittaberga], daughter of --- (592-652).  The Annales Metenses name "matertera ipsius [Pippini]…virgo Domino consecrate Geretrudis" and record that she founded the monastery "in loco…Nivella cum genitrice sua Itaberga"[21].  The Annales Xantenses record that "Itta relicta Pippini" founded the abbey of Nivelles in 650[22].  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) names “duarum filiarum...unam...Beggam, alteram...Gertrudem” as the children of “Dux Pipinus Regni Francorum” and his wife “Yduberga[23].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 657 of "Beata Itta mater sancte Gerthrudis"[24]

Pépin [I] & his wife had three children: 

1.         BEGGA (-[693, 698 or 709]).  The Annales Xantenses name "Begga" as the second daughter of Pépin and record her marriage with "Anchisus dux egregius filius Arnulfi epicopi Mettensium"[25].  Her position in this source as junior to her sister Gertrudis may be due to the latter’s standing as a religious figure.  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) names “duarum filiarum...unam...Beggam, alteram...Gertrudem” as the children of “Dux Pipinus Regni Francorum” and his wife “Yduberga[26].  Sigebert's late 11th century Chronica records in 649 that "Ansigisus filius sancti Arnulfi" had married “Begga soror Grimoaldi[27].  Settipani highlights that other events in the same paragraph of Sigebert can be dated to [643/44], but also that Werner has dated the marriage to [630/40] (Settipani adds “sans bonne raison à notre sens”)[28].  Both estimates appear to be little more than guesswork.  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Pippinus…principes Francorum…sanctæ Beggæ matris eius"[29].  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) records that Begga retired to “monasterio germanæ suæ Gertrudis[30].  This event can be dated to [689/97] if it is correct, as reported by Ghesquière, that a biography of St Gertrude records that Begga retired to her monastery 33 years after her sister died (her death is recorded variously between [656/64])[31].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 698 of "Sancta Begga mater Pippini ducis"[32].  The Annales Laubienses record the death in 709 of “Begga sanctæ Gertrudis germana[33]m ([643/44]) ANSEGISEL, son of ARNOUL Bishop of Metz & his wife [Doda] (-killed [655/65]). 

2.         GRIMOALD ([615]-Paris beheaded 657).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Grimoaldo filius eius [=Pippino]" when recording that he succeeded his father as maior domus[34], dated to [640].  Fredegar records that the succession of Grimoald was challenged by "Otto quidam filius Urones domestici", and only assured after Otto was killed "in the tenth year of Sigebert's reign"[35].  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" names "Grimoaldo maiores domus" in his charter dated to [644][36].  A charter dated to [650] of "Grimoaldus dux" purports to record his donation to the monastery of Stablo and Malmédy[37].  He tried to usurp the throne after the death in 656 of King Sigebert III, installing his son as king.  He was captured by the Neustrians, angry over his interference in the royal succession, tortured and executed.  m ---.  The name of Grimoald's wife is not known.  Grimoald & his wife had two children: 

a)         CHILDEBERT (-662).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that maior domus Grimoald installed "filium suum" as king after the death of King Sigibert III, having exiled "filium eius [=Sighiberto rege] parvolum…Daygobertum"[38].  Settipani summarises the debate on Childebert's paternity, highlighting that 8th century sources could be interpreted as indicating that Childebert, son of King Sigebert, was adopted by Grimoald[39].  If this is correct, it is not certain why the Liber Historiæ Francorum is apparently so clear in its statement about Childebert’s paternity.  He succeeded in 656 as CHILDEBERT (III) King of the Franks.  He appears to have continued as king despite Grimoald's capture and execution by the Neustrians in 657. 

b)         WULFETRUDIS ([639/40]-23 Nov 669 bur Nivelles).  Abbess at Nivelles 658.  The Vita Geretrudis records the persecution of "sacra puella Vulfetrudis…ex antiquo Francorum genere"[40].  The source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

3.         GERTRUDIS (-17 Mar [656/64]).  The Annales Xantenses name "Gerthrudem virginem sanctam" as the first daughter of Pépin[41], although the order of seniority may be due to the precedence accorded in the text to persons of religion.  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) names “duarum filiarum...unam...Beggam, alteram...Gertrudem” as the children of “Dux Pipinus Regni Francorum” and his wife “Yduberga[42].  Co-founder, with her mother, of the abbey of Nivelles, where she was abbess in [644].  The Annales Metenses name "matertera ipsius [Pippini]…virgo Domino consecrate Geretrudis" and record that she founded the monastery "in loco…Nivella cum genitrice sua Itaberga"[43].  The Cronica Hohenburgensis names "beata Gerdrudis virgo filia Pipini ducis, soror Grimoaldi" as "Nivelensis cenobii mater"[44].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Pippinus…principes Francorum…Gerdrudis materteræ eius"[45].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records the death in 656 of “Sancta Gertrudis[46].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 664 of "Sancta Gerthrudis"[47]

 

 

 

C.      FAMILY of WULFOALD

 

 

1.         WULFOALD (-[676]).  Dux in Austrasia.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericum…alium fratrem eius [Chlotharii regis]" reigned in Austrasia with "Vulfoaldo duce", the latter supporting him when Childeric succeeded as King of the Franks after his brother Theoderic III was deposed, but that Wulfoald fled back to Austrasia after the murder of King Childeric[48].  "Childericus rex Francorum" donated property to the monastery of St Peter and St Paul "supra fluvium Vigore" by charter dated 4 Jul 673, subscribed by "Vulfaudi maioris domus, Amalrici"[49].  Wulfoald arranged the return from exile in Ireland of Dagobert in [2 Apr/1 Jul] 676, in opposition to King Theoderic III and Ebroin maior domus of Neustria.  The Gesta Francorum names "Wolfaldi ducis", specifying that he was succeeded as maior domus in Austrasia by Pépin[50]

 

 

 

D.      FAMILY of ARNULF

 

 

ARNOUL [Arnulf], son of [ARNOLD & his wife ---] ([580/85]-Remiremont 18 Jul [640], bur Remiremont, later transferred to Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul).  The origins of Arnulf are unknown.  The Vita Sancti Arnulfi names "Arnulfus episcopus prosapia genitus Francorum" but gives no further details of his ancestry[51].  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Arnulfus…ex nobilissimo fortissimoque Francorum stemmate ortus", with no further information on his parentage, as ninth bishop of Metz and "palatii moderator"[52].  A 9th century genealogy names "beatum Arnulfum episcopum" as the son of Arnold[53].  Settipani points out that this genealogy forms part of a series compiled at Metz, from the late 8th century onwards, which glorify the ancestry of the Carolingian dynasty by establishing descent from the early Merovingians as well as from a family of Roman senatorial origin[54].  Further confusion is added by the Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis which names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[55], the alleged senatorial and Merovingian ancestry appearing to provide the basis for the 9th century genealogy although the latter assigns the descent to what appears to be a different Arnold.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis makes no family connection between Arnulf and his predecessor bishops.  Another genealogy from the 8th/9th century names "Buotgisus" as father of "Arnulfum…episcopum urbis Metensium", although the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ in which this is published cites another source which names "Burtgisus, qui a multis cognominatur Arnoaldus" although the dating of the latter is unclear[56].  Arnulf entered the service of Theodebert King of Austrasia, becoming intendant of the royal domains.  Together with Warnachar, maior domus of the palace of Burgundy, he helped King Clotaire II defeat King Sigebert II and the latter's great-grandmother Queen Brunechildis in 613[57].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Pippinus…principes Francorum…paterni avi eius Arnulfi", specifying that he was "primo maior domus regis post Mettensis episcopus"[58], although no other document has yet been identified which indicates that Arnulf held the position of maior domus in Austrasia.  He was elected Bishop of Metz, dated to [613]: the Vita Sancti Arnulfi records that "Arnulfum domesticum adque consiliarium regis" was appointed as bishop of Metz[59].  Arnulf retired to the monastery of Remiremont, Vosges, dated to [629].  A charter dated 20 Feb 691 of "Pippinus filius Ansegisili quondam necnon…matrone mea Plectrudis" donating property to the church of St Arnulf at Metz specifies that "domnus et avus noster Arnulphus" was buried in the church[60].  A list of bishops of Metz records "Arnulfus" as 29th bishop, that he held the position for 10 years, and that he died "XVII Kal Sep"[61].  Sigebert's late 11th century Chronica records the death of "Sanctus Arnulfus ex maiore domus Mettensium episcopus, et ex episcopo solitarius" in 640[62]

m [DODA], daughter of --- (-after [640]).  The Vita Sancti Arnulfi records that Arnulf married "inclitam et nobilissimam...puellam" but gives no further details about her[63].  The 11th century Vita Chlodulfi Episcopi names “mater…Chlodulfi Doda[64].  Settipani suggests that this source is “de médiocre valeur[65].  Sigebert's late 11th century Chronica records that "Doda mater...Clodulfi" retired to Trier as a nun, based on the same source[66]

Arnulf & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         CHLODULF ([610]-8 May [697], bur Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul).  The Vita Sancti Arnulfi records that Arnulf and his wife had two sons but gives no further details[67].  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names (in order) "duos filios Anschisum et Chlodolfum" as sons of Arnulf "iuventutis suæ tempore ex legitimi matrimonii copula" but does not name their mother[68].  A 9th century genealogy names "Flodolfum et Anschisum" as the children of "domnus Arnulfus"[69].  The Vita Chrodegangi Episcopi Mettensis names "primogenitus…Clodulfus" as one of the two sons of "Arnulfum sanctum"[70].  The Annales Xantenses names "Clodulfus" as son of "Arnulfus" when recording that he became bishop after his father died[71].  Chlodulf’s birth date is estimated from his being born before his father’s appointment as bishop in [613], but bearing in mind his own date of death which is estimated to [697].  Desiderius of Cahors wrote to “Chlodulfo...vir inluster” by letter dated to [630/55][72], which Settipani dates more precisely to [643/47][73]Domesticus at the royal palace: “…necnon et domesticorum Flodulfi, Ansigisili, Bettelini, Gariberti” consented to a donation to the monastery of Stabulo and Malmédy by King Sigebert III in a charter dated to [648][74].  He was elected Bishop of Metz, dated to 657.  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…Gundoino duce et Hodone domestico" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy on the advice of "Grimoaldo, Fulcoaldo, Adregisilo, Bobone ducibus, Chlodulfo, Ansegisilo, Gariberto domesticis" by charter dated 6 Sep 667[75].  The document is presumably misdated: not only "Grimoaldo" is named ten years after the attested death of the only known Duke Grimoald, but also Chlodulf is not named as bishop although his election to the bishopric of Metz is dated to 657.  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Pippinus…principes Francorum…Clodulfi Mettensis episcopi…patruus ipsius"[76].  A list of bishops of Metz records "Chlodulfus" as 32nd bishop, holding the position for 40 years and 20 days, and his death "VIII Id Mai"[77]m [CHILDA [Hilda], daughter of ---.  Settipani states that, according to “la tradition de Los”, the body of St Amour was transferred to the church by "Hilda, femme du noble Clodolfus"[78].  It has not yet been possible to trace the source on which this statement is based.  No other reference to the name of Chlodulf's wife has been found.]  Chlodulf & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [AUNULF (-before 16 Dec 714).  He is named only in a charter of Emperor Otto I dated 30 Apr 948, which confirms the donation to the church of Metz of property “in villas Hrectio et Littemala” [Russon near Tongres] which had previously belonged to "Clodulfus major domus", and which “filio suo Aunulfo” had bequeathed to [his first cousin] Pépin [II] on his deathbed [which suggests that he died without direct heirs][79].] 

b)         [MARTIN .  A 9th century genealogy names "Martinum" as the son of "Flodulfus", son of "beatus Arnulfum", specifying that he killed Ebroin at "Ercriaco palatio" and was later elected a bishop[80].  A charter dated 15 May 653, classified as spurious in the collection, of "Sigisbertus…Francorum rex" purports to record his donation to the monastery "sancti Matthiæ in prædio sancti Petri Trevericæ" and names "consanguinei nostri domini Martini filii Clodulphi filii Arnulphi ducis, ducis Austriæ Mosellanicæ ac Moselant", who is also named among the subscribers of the document[81].] 

2.         ANSEGISEL ([612]-killed [655/65]).  The Vita Sancti Arnulfi records that Arnulf and his wife had two sons but gives no further details[82].  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names (in order) "duos filios Anschisum et Chlodolfum" as sons of Arnulf "iuventutis suæ tempore ex legitimi matrimonii copula" but does not name their mother[83].  A 9th century genealogy names "Flodolfum et Anschisum" as the children of "domnus Arnulfus"[84].  The Vita Chrodegangi Episcopi Mettensis names "Anchisæ" as second son of "Arnulfum sanctum"[85].  His birth date is estimated on the basis that Ansegisel was younger than his brother Chrodulf, but also born before his father’s nomination as bishop in [613].  Domesticus at the royal palace: “…necnon et domesticorum Flodulfi, Ansigisili, Bettelini, Gariberti” consented to a donation to the monastery of Stabulo and Malmédy by King Sigebert III in a charter dated to [648][86].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…Gundoino duce et Hodone domestico" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy on the advice of "Grimoaldo, Fulcoaldo, Adregisilo, Bobone ducibus, Chlodulfo, Ansegisilo, Gariberto domesticis" by charter dated 6 Sep 667[87].  The document is presumably misdated as explained above under Ansegisel’s brother Chlodulf.  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) records that “Duci magno Ansegiso” adopted “Gonduinum” like his own child, but that “Gonduinus” killed “Ducem[88].  Settipani dates Ansegisel’s death to [655/65][89].  More specifically, he suggests that Gundoen was related to Otto, who had challenged the succession of Ansegisel’s brother-in-law Grimoald as maior domus and had been killed as a result, and concludes that Ansegisel’s murder was part of a wider vendetta led by a rival family.  If that is correct, according to Settipani, the death can be dated more precisely to [662], following the overthrow of King Childebert (III) who was Grimoald’s son and Ansegisel’s nephew[90]m ([643/44]) BEGGA, daughter of PEPIN [I] "l'Ancien" or "de Landen", maior domus of King Clotaire II & his wife Itta --- (-[693, 698 or 709]).  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) names “duarum filiarum...unam...Beggam, alteram...Gertrudem” as the children of “Dux Pipinus Regni Francorum” and his wife “Yduberga[91].  Sigebert's late 11th century Chronica records in 649 that "Ansigisus filius sancti Arnulfi" had married “Begga soror Grimoaldi[92].  Settipani highlights that other events in the same paragraph of Sigebert can be dated to [643/44], but also that Werner has dated the marriage to [630/40] (Settipani adds “sans bonne raison à notre sens”)[93].  Both estimates appear to be little more than guesswork.  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Pippinus…principes Francorum…sanctæ Beggæ matris eius"[94].  The Vita Beggæ (dated to [1080/90]) records that Begga retired to “monasterio germanæ suæ Gertrudis[95].  This event can be dated to [689/97] if it is correct, as reported by Ghesquière, that a biography of St Gertrude records that Begga retired to her monastery 33 years after her sister died (her death is recorded variously between [656/64])[96].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 698 of "Sancta Begga mater Pippini ducis"[97].  The Annales Laubienses record the death in 709 of “Begga sanctæ Gertrudis germana[98].  Ansegisel & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         PEPIN [II] "le Gros" or "d'Herstal" ([645/50]-Jupille, near Liège 16 Dec 714, bur Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul).  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Anschisus" as father of "Pippinum"[99].  "Pippinus filius Ansegisili quondam necnon…matrone mea Plectrudis" donated property to the church of St Arnulf at Metz by charter dated 20 Feb 691[100].  He defeated his adversaries at Tertry, Somme in Jun 687 before becoming maior domus of Austrasia in [688/90]. 

-        see below

b)         [DODA [Chrothechildis/Rotilde] (-692 or after).  Settipani "[croit] exacte" the theory of Maurice Chaume according to which Doda, wife of King Theoderic III, was the daughter of Ansegisel[101].  The primary source evidence which provides the evidence for this theory has not yet been identified.  As noted above, Doda was the possible name of Ansegisel’s mother, based only on a later source.  "Theudericus rex Francorum" donated property at the request of "regine nostre Chrodochilde…et…Berchario maiorem domos nostre" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 30 Oct 688[102].  "Chrotechildis regina" is named as mother of King Chlodovech III in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[103].  She was regent for her son King Chlodovech III until 692.  The epitaph of King Theoderic III and his wife bore the inscription "rex Theodericus…cum coniuge  Doda", assumed to be another name by which Rotilde was known[104]m THEODERIC III King of the Franks in Neustria, son of CLOVIS II King of the Franks in Neustria & his wife Bathildis --- ([651]-[2 Sep 690/12 Apr 691], bur Arras, basilique Saint-Vaast).] 

3.         [WALACHO [Walchisus] .  The Domus Carolingiæ Genealogia names (in order) "Flodulfum, Walchisum et Anschisum" as sons of "Arnulfum episcopum", specifying that Walchisus was father of "Wandregisilum confessorem Domini"[105].  The Vita S. Wandregisili records that “Walchisus” was “consobrinus…Pippini…Principis Francorum[106].  Monlezun suggests that Walacho and Walchisus were the same person.  The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  In any case, the chronology appears to be too extended, particularly in light of the death of his supposed son-in-law Eudes Duke of Aquitaine, for Walacho to have been the son of Arnoul.  Until further information comes to light, this connection should be viewed with caution.]  m ---.  The name of Walacho/Walchisus’s wife is not known.  Walacho/Walchisus & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         WANDREGISEL [Wandrille] (-21 Apr 665).  The Vita S. Wandregisili names “Walchisusconsobrinus…Pippini…Principis Francorum” as father of “Wandregisilus cognomento Wando[107].  The Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium names "Wandregisilus" as the first abbot of Fontanelle and in a later passage specifies that he was son of "Walchisus…patruus Pippini ducis Francorum filii Anchisi"[108].  The Vita Ansberti names "princeps Pipinus Ansegisili filius" as "consobrinus…beati patris Wandragisili"[109].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 665 of "Sanctus Wandregisilus"[110].  The Vita S. Wandregisili records the death “menso quarto, die primo et vicesimo…annus…665” aged 96 of “Beatus Wandregisilus[111], although his age must be considerably exaggerated if his parentage is correctly shown here. 

b)         [WALTRUDE .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the document AQUITAINE DUKES) names "Valtruda, Valchigisi ducis de nostra progenie filia" as wife of "Eudo Aquitanie dux"[112]m EUDES Duke of Aquitaine, son of [BOGGIS Duke of Aquitaine & his wife Oda ---] (-[735]).] 

 

 

PEPIN [II] "le Gros" or "d'Herstal", son of ANSEGISEL & his wife Begga ([645/50]-Jupille, near Liège 16 Dec 714, bur Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul).  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Anschisus" as father of "Pippinum"[113].  "Pippinus" declares himself "filius Ansegisili" in his charter dated 20 Feb 691, which also names "matrona mea Plectrudis"[114].  The estimated birth date attributed to Pépin [II] is consistent with the general chronology of this family, but can only be approximate.  The Annales Xantenses name "Pippinus" as son of "Anchisus dux" when recording that he succeeded on the death of his father in 685[115], although this is misdated.  "Pipinum secundum" is named as son of Ansegisel and Begga in the Chronicon Sancti Huberti[116].  Duke in Austrasia [676/80]: the Liber Historiæ Francorum records that, after the death of "Vulfoaldo de Auster", "Martinus et Pippinus iunior filius Anseghiselo quondam…duces" were dominant in Austrasia ("decedentibus regibus, dominabantur in Austria") and led the Austrasian army against "Theudericum regem et Ebroinum" but were defeated at "loco…Lucofao", adding that "Martinus" found refuge at Laon where he was later killed by emissaries from Ebroin while "Pippinus" escaped[117].  The passage can be dated to [676/80].  Civil war with Neustria broke out, until Pépin defeated the Neustrians at Tertry, Somme in Jun 687 before becoming maior domus of Austrasia in [688/90].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that he became maior domus of Neustria in 688 after the murder of maior domus Berchar[118].  "Pippinus filius Ansegisili quondam necnon…matrone mea Plectrudis" donated property to the church of St Arnulf at Metz by charter dated 20 Feb 691[119].  "Childebertus rex Francorum" names "Pippino maiorem domus nostro" in his charter dated 14 Mar 697[120].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that he defeated Radbod Duke of the Frisians at Duurstede in [692/97][121].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Pippinus" after ruling for 27 years[122].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records the death in 714 of “Pippinus senior Princeps Francorum et Dux, Præfectus Palatii et Major-domus” and the accession of “Carolus dictus Martellus in loco patris[123].  The Annales Metenses record the death "XVII Kal Ian 714" of "Pippinus princeps"[124]

m firstly ([670/75]) PLECTRUDIS, daughter of HUGOBERT & his wife [Irmina ---] (-after 717, bur Köln, St Maria im Kapitol).  "Pippinus" names "matrona mea Plectrudis, filia Huogoberti quondam" in his two charters dated 13 May 706[125].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Pippino…uxor nobilissima…Plectrudis" but does not give her origin[126].  After the death of her husband, she "took everything under her control" according to Fredegar (Continuator)[127].  The Monumenta Epternacensia records that "Raginfredum maiorem domus" married "Plectrudem"[128], but this is not corroborated by other sources.  She was regent for her grandson Theodebald, but opposed by her stepson Charles "Martel" whom she imprisoned.  Charles escaped, and defeated the forces of Plectrudis at Vinchy, near Cambrai, 28 May 717.  She founded St Maria im Kapitol at Köln. 

[m] secondly (bigamously) CHALPAIS [Alpais], sister of DODO, daughter of ---.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that Pépin had "filium ex alia uxore…Carlo" but does not name the child’s mother[129].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that Pépin married another wife ("aliam duxit uxorem") "nobilem…Chalpaida" by whom he had "filium…Carlo"[130].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "puellam nobilem…Alpaidem" as second wife of Pépin, specifying that she was "soror…Dodonis qui domesticus Pippini principis erat"[131].  The mid-12th century Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Alpade, sorore Dodonis, qui sanctum Lambertum episcopum Leodinensem martyrisavit" as second wife of Pépin[132].  Settipani does not support the theory that Alpais was the sister of Bertrada, mother of Charibert, whose daughter married Pépin King of the Franks, the hypothesis being based on King Pépin and his wife inheriting property from their respective fathers[133].  The Chronicle of St Bèze records that "Dodone comite" killed "sanctus Lambertus Tungrorum Episcopus"[134]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Pépin's mistress is not known. 

Pépin & his first wife had two children:

1.         DROGO (-24 Mar 708, bur Metz, Abbaye de Saint-Arnoul[135])The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "maioris Drocus…minoris Grimoaldus" as the two sons of "Pippino [et]…uxor nobilissima…Plectrudis", specifying that Drogo accepted "ducatum Campaniæ"[136].  "Drogo et Grimoldus" are named as sons of Pépin and his wife Plectrudis in the Gesta Fontanellensium[137].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Drogo…et Grimoaldus" as sons of Pépin and "legitima sua coniunx Plictrudis", specifying that Drogo was "dux…Campanensium"[138].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that his father invested Drogo as dux in Champagne in [688/90][139], and dux of the Burgunds after 697.  This is the only example so far identified of a late 7th century creation of a dux apparently assigned to govern a particular territory.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Drocus filius Pippini"[140].  The Annales Metenses record the death of Drogo in 708 and his burial "iuxta Mettensem urbem in basilica beati Arnulfi confessoris"[141].  The Obituaire of Saint-Arnoul de Metz includes "IX Kal Apr Drogo dux"[142]m (after 688) ADALTRUDIS, daughter of [BERCHAR maior domus in Neustria & his wife Anstrudis].  Her origin is confirmed by the charter of "Childebertus rex Francorum" dated 14 Mar 697 which names "Drogus…socer suos…Bercharius…coniuge sui Adaltrute"[143].  On the other hand, the Annales Metenses name "Austrudem filia Warattonis quondam…maioris domus derelictam Bertarii" as wife of "Drogonem primogenitum suum [Pippini]"[144].  The Gesta Fontanellensium also names Adaltrudis, wife of Drogo, as "filia Warattonis [et] Ansfledis coniugis eius"[145], but the 697 charter is probably a more reliable source as, if it is correctly dated, it was written only a few years after the death of Berchar.  Drogo & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         ARNOUL (before 700-after 723).  "Arnulfus dux filius Drogonis" donated his part in "villa Bollane" to "monasterium Efternacum" by charter dated dated to [715/16][146].  His birth date is estimated by Settipani on the assumption that he was no longer a minor at the time of this first recorded mention[147].  A charter dated 25 Jun 715, classified as spurious in the collection, purports to record the donation by "Hugo sacerdos et germanus meus…Arnulfus dux nec non Pippinus et Godefridus" to the church of Metz which names "genitorem nostrum…Drogonem…avus noster Pippinus", subscribed by "Milonis, Widonis comitis, Remberti comitis, Lamtberti comitis, Warnarii comitis"[148].  In 723, Arnoul conspired with his brothers against their uncle Charles "Martel".  [m ---.  If Arnoul had children (see below), the name of his wife is not known.]  Possible children: 

i)          [children .  It is possible that Arnoul left descendants in Upper Lotharingia: a bull of Pope Leo IX, son of Hugues d'Egisheim in Alsace, mentions Arnoul as his ancestor, and names Arnoul's father and three brothers[149].] 

b)         HUGO (-Jumièges Apr 730, bur Jumièges).  The Annales Metenses name "Drogoni…filium…Hugonem" and record that he was brought up by "matrona Ansfredis avia sua relicta uxor Warattonis"[150].  Assuming that the reference to Ansfredis is correct, she was the great-grandmother of Hugo not his grandmother, if the origin of Hugo's mother is correctly identified above.  He is named as son of Drogo and Adeltrude in the Gesta Fontanellensium[151].  A charter dated 25 Jun 715, classified as spurious in the collection, purports to record the donation by "Hugo sacerdos et germanus meus…Arnulfus dux nec non Pippinus et Godefridus" to the church of Metz which names "genitorem nostrum…Drogonem…avus noster Pippinus", subscribed by "Milonis, Widonis comitis, Remberti comitis, Lamtberti comitis, Warnarii comitis"[152].  Abbé de Saint-Denis, Jumièges et Fontenelle.  Elected Bishop of Rouen 719, and Bishop of Bayeux and Paris 723.  He supported Charles "Martel" and was rewarded with the abbacy of St Wandrille in 723, and the abbacies of Jumièges, La Croix and Saint-Leufroy[153]

c)         PEPIN (-after 723).  A charter dated 25 Jun 715, classified as spurious in the collection, purports to record the donation by "Hugo sacerdos et germanus meus…Arnulfus dux nec non Pippinus et Godefridus" to the church of Metz which names "genitorem nostrum…Drogonem…avus noster Pippinus", subscribed by "Milonis, Widonis comitis, Remberti comitis, Lamtberti comitis, Warnarii comitis"[154].  Pépin revolted with his brothers Arnoul and Godefroi against their uncle Charles "Martel" in 723. 

d)         GODEFROI (-after 723).  A charter dated 20 Feb 691, classified as spurious in the collection, purports to record the donation of "Godefridus dux filius Drogonis" to Metz St Arnulf[155], although it is unlikely that Godefroi was born at that date.  A charter dated 25 Jun 715, classified as spurious in the collection, purports to record the donation by "Hugo sacerdos et germanus meus…Arnulfus dux nec non Pippinus et Godefridus" to the church of Metz which names "genitorem nostrum…Drogonem…avus noster Pippinus", subscribed by "Milonis, Widonis comitis, Remberti comitis, Lamtberti comitis, Warnarii comitis"[156].  Godefroi revolted with his brothers Arnoul and Pépin against their uncle Charles "Martel" in 723.  Settipani suggests that Godefroi was the father of Humbert Comte de Bourges, who died after 778[157]

e)         [son (-1723).  The Annales Petaviani record that "duo filii Drogonis" rebelled in 723 and that one died[158].  It is uncertain whether the son who died is one of Drogo’s sons who are named above or a different person.] 

2.         GRIMOALD (-murdered Liège Apr 714).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "maioris Drocus…minoris Grimoaldus" as the two sons of "Pippino [et]…uxor nobilissima…Plectrudis"[159].  "Drogo et Grimoldus" are named as sons of Pépin and his wife Plectrudis in the Gesta Fontanellensium[160].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Drogo…et Grimoaldus" as sons of Pépin and "legitima sua coniunx Plictrudis"[161].  His father named him maior domus in Neustria[162] in [695], and in Burgundy in [700].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that, after the death of "Chlodoveus rex puer" and the succession of "Childebertus frater eius", "Grimoaldus Pippini principis filius iunior" was made "in aula regis Childeberti maiorum domus"[163].  The passage can be dated to [676/80].  "Childeberthus rex Francorum" names "Grimoaldo maiorum domus nostri" in his charter dated 25 Feb 702[164].  His father created him dux in Champagne and dux of the Burgunds in 708.  The Annales Metenses record that, after the death of Drogo, "Pippino genitore suo" appointed "germanus eius Grimoaldus" to succeed "in principatum"[165].  "Childebercthus rex Francorum" names "Grimoaldo maiorem domus nostri…Gairinus quondam loce ipsius Parisiace comis…Sigofredus comis palatie nostre" in his donation to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 13 Dec 710[166].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that Grimoald was murdered by Rantgar, a pagan Frisian, at the tomb of St Lambert at Liège[167].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that Grimoald was murdered by "Rantgario gentile, filio Belial" at "basilica sancti Landeberti martyris Leudico"[168]m (711) THEODESINDIS, daughter of RATBOD Duke of the Frisians & his wife ---.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Theudesindam filiam Radbodi ducis" as wife of "Grimoaldus"[169].  Her marriage is referred to by the Continuator of Fredegar, which does not give her name[170].  Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis refers to the betrothal of "Grimoaldus" and "Rabbodonis ducis Fresionum…filiæ"[171].  The Chronicon Moissiacense names "Thudsindam filiam Radbodi ducis" as wife of "Grimaldus"[172].  The date of the marriage is provided by the Annales Metenses which record the marriage in 711 of "Grimoaldus" and "filiam Radboldi ducis Frisionum"[173]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Grimoald's mistress is not known.  Grimoald had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

a)         THEODALD ([707/08]-killed 741).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Grimoaldus…filium ex concubina Theudoaldo"[174].  The Annales Metense name "Grimoaldi filium eius parvulum ex concubina nata nomine Theodaldum" when recording his appointment as maior domus for King Dagobert II[175].  He was legitimate according to the Monumenta Epternacensia which names "Theodaldum, filium Grimoaldi…ex Theodesina filia regis Rabodi"[176].  After the death of his father, his grandfather Pépin chose Theodald as his heir although he was still a child.  His paternal grandmother appointed him maior domus in Austrasia in 714.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudoaldo" was appointed maior domus after "Ragamfredo" fled[177]He was opposed by his uncle Charles "Martel", but fled after the battle of Compiègne 26 Sep 715[178].  The Annales Alammanici record in 741 that "Theodaldus interfectus est"[179]

Pépin & his second [wife] had one child:

3.         CHARLES “Martel” ([690]-Quierzy-sur-Oise, Aisne 16 or 22 Oct 741, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  Fredegar (Continuator) records that Pépin married another wife ("aliam duxit uxorem") "nobilem…Chalpaida" by whom he had "filium…Carlo"[180].  He succeeded his father in 717 as maior domus in Austrasia. 

-        see below

Pépin had [one illegitimate son by Mistress (1)]:

4.          [CHILDEBRAND (-after 751, maybe after 762).  Childebrand is described as "germanus" of Charles "Martel" by the Continuator of Fredegar, in the part which Childebrand himself sponsored[181].  There are three possibilities for the precise parentage of Childebrand: (1) he was the illegitimate son of Pépin "le Gros" by an unknown mistress; (2) he was Pépin’s second son by his second [wife] Chalpais; or (3) he was the son of Chalpais by an earlier marriage.  Settipani discusses in detail the arguments in favour of each of these three cases[182].  Each case has its defender, but there appears no way of deciding which is the most likely, especially given the uncertain interpretation of relationship terms such as "germanus" in contemporary sources.  Count in Burgundy, Duke in Provence 737/39.  A charter dated Apr 754 records a claim by Fulchardus advocatus...Nivelongo comiti” before “Theoderico comiti” relating to property “in pago Augustidunense in villa Balgiaco...de villa Patriciaco” granted to “Hildebranno” by “Karolus[183].  Historian, he was the author of part of the continuations of the chronicle of Fredegar written during the reign of King Pépin (751-768).]  m ---.  The name of Childebrand’s wife is not known.  Childebrand & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIBELUNG ([705/20]-before 786).  The Continuator of Fredegar names Nibelung as son of Childebrand, specifying that he assumed his father's work on the chronicle after the latter died[184].  An approximate birth date range of [705/20] is assigned to Nibelung for the purposes only of narrowing the possible birth date ranges of his supposed descendants. 

-        CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY - DESCENDANTS of NIBELUNG

 

 

CHARLES “Martel”, son of PEPIN [II] "le Gros" or "d'Herstal" & his second [wife] Chalpais [Alpais] ([690]-Quierzy-sur-Oise, Aisne 16 or 22 Oct 741, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that Pépin had "filium ex alia uxore…Carlo" but does not name the child’s mother[185].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that Pépin married another wife ("aliam duxit uxorem") "nobilem…Chalpaida" by whom he had "filium…Carlo"[186].  The Chronicon Moissiacense names "Karolum" as son of "Pippinus præfatus princeps…ex alia uxore nomine Alpaigde"[187].  He was imprisoned by his father's first wife after his father died[188].  However, the Neustrians revolted against Plectrudis, Charles escaped, was at first defeated by the Neustrians, but won the battle of Amblève, near Liège, in 716.  He was victorious at Vinchy, near Cambrai, 28 May 717 after which Chilperic II King of Neustria fled with his maior domus, leaving Charles unchallenged to succeed as maior domus in Austrasia.  "Karolus" donated his part in "villa Bollane" to "monasterium Efternacum" by charter dated dated 23 Feb 717, which names "genitore meo Pippino"[189].  He conquered the Saxons in 718 and the Frisians in 719 when he captured Utrecht.  He conquered the Neustrians, together with their ally Eudes Duke of Aquitaine, in 719.  He released and recognised King Chilperic II, becoming maior domus in Neustria.  "Theudericus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of St Denis on the request of "Carlo maiorem domus nostro" by charter dated 1 Mar 723[190].  He defeated the Muslim invaders, under Abd-al-Rahman bin Abd Allah al-Ghafiqi [Governor of Andalucía], at Moussais near Poitiers 25 Oct 732.  The dating of the various Muslim incursions in southern France in the 720s/730s is discussed in the Histoire Générale de Languedoc[191].  He extended his authority to other French provinces: Hunald Duke of the Aquitanians swore allegiance to him in 736, he subjugated Burgundy and Provence in 736-738.  In 737, he omitted to nominate a successor on the death of King Theoderic IV, signalling the effective end of the Merovingian monarchy.  The continuation of the Annales Sancti Amandi record the death "741 Id Oct" of "Karolus dux Francorum"[192].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XVII Kal Nov" of "Karolus princeps"[193].  The Continuator of Fredegar records the same date for his death and his burial place[194]

m firstly CHROTHRUDIS, daughter of --- ([690]-725).  The Annales Laureshamenses record the death in 724 of "Hortrudis"[195].  The Annales Mosellani record the death in 725 of "Chrothrud"[196].  Settipani quotes a name list in the Liber confraternitatum augiensis which reads in part "Karolus maior domus, Pippin rex…Karolus imperator…Ruadtrud, Ruadheid, Svanahild regina, Bertha regina, Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina…"[197].  He makes the obvious links between "Karolus maior domus…Svanahild regina", "Pippin rex…Bertha regina" and "Karolus imperator…Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina", deducing that "Ruadtrud, Ruadheid" must also be linked logically to "Karolus maior domus" because of the order in which the names are listed.  The Annales Petaviani record the death in 725 of "Chrotrudis" but do not specify that she was Charles’s wife[198].  The primary source which specifically names the first wife of Charles "Martel" has not been identified. 

m secondly (725) SUANACHILDIS [Suanhilde], niece of ODILO Duke of Bavaria, daughter of --- (-after 17 Sep 741).  The precise parentage of Suanachildis is not known.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "matrona quondam…Beletrude et nepta sua Sunnichilde" were captured and taken to Austrasia by Charles "Martel" in [724/25][199].  Einhard names "Swannhilde neptem Odilonis ducis Baioariorum" as the mother of Grifo[200].  The precise relationship between Suanhilde and Pilitrude, who was the wife in turn of the brothers Grimoald and Theodoald, has not been identified.  She instigated the marriage of her stepdaughter to Odilo Duke of Bavaria according to the Continuator of Fredegar[201].  After the death of her husband, she incited her son to rebel against her stepsons.  She was defeated and sent to the monastery of Chelles, Seine-et-Marne"Karlus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa Clippiacum in pago Parisiaco" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 17 Sep 741, subscribed by "Radberti comitis, Raygaubaldi comitis, Salaconis comitis, matrone Sonechildis, Grifonis filii sui"[202]

Mistress (1): CHROTHAIS, daughter of ---.  Settipani quotes a name list in the Liber confraternitatum augiensis, quoted above under Chrothrudis first wife of Charles "Martel", concluding that "Ruadtrud, Ruadheid" must be linked logically to "Karolus maior domus" because of the order in which the names are listed[203]

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of the second mistress of Charles "Martel" is not known. 

Charles "Martel" & his first wife had three children:

1.         CARLOMAN ([705/10]-4 Dec 754, bur Vienne {Isère}).  Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death[204].  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Pipinum, Karlomannum, Griphonem et Bernardum" sons of "Karolus senior…ex regina"[205].  "Karlomanni filii eius" subscribed the charter dated 1 Jan 722 under which "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "castrum…Fethna sitam in pago Nifterlaco" to the monastery "infra muros Traiecto castro"[206].  He succeeded his father as maior domus, jointly with his brother Pépin.  They deprived their half-brother Grifo of his inheritance, and defeated him after he rebelled against them.  In the division of territories agreed with his brother, Carloman governed Austrasia, Alemannia, Thuringia and northern Alsace.  The brothers were faced with revolts in Frisia, Bavaria, Alemannia and Aquitaine.  As a symbolic assertion of their authority, they nominated Childeric III as [Merovingian] king in 743.  Einhard records that "Karlomannus" was in Saxony at "castrum Hohseoburg" and there accepted the surrender of "Theodericum Saxonem illius loci primarium" in 743[207].  "Childerichus rex Francorum" with "Karolomanno maiores domus, rectori palatio nostro" confirmed donations to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated Jul 744[208].  In 745, Carloman's brother Pépin appropriated the province of Alemannia for himself.  Carloman reasserted his authority with an expedition against the Alemans in 746, massacring the leaders who had betrayed him to his brother.  This triggered the defection of his other supporters, and Carloman relinquished power.  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records that “Carlomannus frater Pippini junioris” became a monk in 745 and that “Pippinus junior parvus frater eius” obtained the whole of “Principatum Francorum[209].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that, after 15 Aug 747, he left for Rome, where he built the monastery of St Sylvester on Monte Soracte before moving to the monastery of St Benedict at Monte Cassino where he became a monk[210].  He returned to France in 753 to oppose the request by Pope Stephen III (II) for Frankish help against the Lombards[211].  The Annales Moselleni record the death in 754 of "Karlamannus"[212]m ---.  The name of Carloman's wife is not known.  Carloman & his wife had [three or more] children:

a)         DROGO ([730/35]-after 753).  "Karlemannus maiorum domus filius quondam Karoli" made a donation of property including "villa…Levione…in pago Condustrinse…" to "monasterio Stabulaus seu Malmundario" dated 8 Jun [746], subscribed by "Drogone filio eius"[213].  He succeeded his father in 747 as maior domus.  His uncle Pépin set him aside in 753 and sent him to a monastery where he died soon after.  The Annales Petaviani (continuatio) record in 753 the death of "Karolomannus" and that "filii eius tonsi sunt"[214]

b)         other children.  The Annales Petaviani (continuatio) record in 753 the death of "Karolomannus" and that "filii eius tonsi sunt"[215]

2.         PEPIN [III] ([715]-Saint-Denis 24 Sep 768, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death[216].  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Pipinum, Karlomannum, Griphonem et Bernardum" sons of "Karolus senior…ex regina"[217].  He succeeded his father as maior domus jointly with his brother Carloman.  He succeeded in 751 as PEPIN “le Bref” King of the Franks

-        KINGS of the FRANKS (CAROLINGIANS)

3.         CHILTRUDIS [Hiltrude] (-754, bur Hostenhoven, Kloster Gengenbach).  The Continuator of Fredegar names "Chiltrudis" as daughter of Charles "Martel", stating that her "wicked stepmother" incited her to joined Odilo of Bavaria whom she married without the permission of her brothers[218].  After the death of her husband, she was regent in Bavaria for her son Duke Tassilo III.  The continuator of the Annales Petaviani record the death in 754 of "Chiltrudis"[219].  The Annales Moselleni record the death in 754 of "Hildtrud"[220]m (741) ODILO Duke of Bavaria [Agilolfinger], son of --- (-18 Jan 748, bur Hostenhoven, Kloster Gengenbach).  His brother-in-law Carloman invaded Bavaria, and Odilo was forced to recognise Frankish suzerainty in 744. 

Charles "Martel" & his [first/second wife/mistress] had two possible children:

4.         [LANDRADA .  Settipani quotes an Aquitaine necrology which lists "Willelmus…pater eius Theodericus, mater Aldana soror Hiltrudis et Landradæ"[221].  He suggests that "Hiltrudis" was the wife of Odilo Duke of Bavaria, and therefore that all three sisters were daughters of Charles "Martel".  The theory is attractive but not conclusive, as its validity depends on there being no other contemporary Hiltrudis, which is not provable.  If it is correct, there is no indication about the mother of Landrada and Aldana.  Hlawitschka highlights the case against the affiliation[222].  However, the evidence of the 25 May 765 charter, quoted below, suggests that Settipani’s hypothesis may be correct.]  same person as …?  LANDRADA .  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Chrodegangus antistes…ex pago Hasbaniensi oriundus, patre Sigramno, matre Landrada, Francorum ex genere primæ nobilitatis progenitus" as Bishop of Metz[223].  The co-identity between Landrada, wife of Sigramnus, and Landrada, supposed daughter of Charles "Martel" is suggested by the charter dated 25 May 765 under which "Grodegangus…archiepiscopus" [son of Sigramnus and Landrada] donated property "in pago Wormacensi…[et] in villa Dagosbesher…in Hostoven, Burdus, in villa Flamersheim ecclesiam" to Gorze, with the consent of "Pipini…Francorum regis, avunculi mei"[224]m SIGRAMNUS, son of ---. 

5.         [ALDANA .  Settipani quotes an Aquitaine necrology which lists "Willelmus…pater eius Theodericus, mater Aldana soror Hiltrudis et Landradæ"[225].  He suggests that "Hiltrudis" was the wife of Odilo Duke of Bavaria, and therefore that all three sisters were daughters of Charles "Martel".  The theory is attractive but not conclusive, as its validity depends on there being no other contemporary Hiltrudis, which is not provable.  If it is correct, there is no indication about the mother of Landrada and Aldana.  Hlawitschka highlights the case against the affiliation[226].  However, the evidence of the 25 May 765 charter, quoted above under Aldana’s supposed sister Landrada, suggests that Settipani’s hypothesis may be correct.  In addition, Einhard indicates that Theoderic [I] was related to Charles I King of the Franks when he records that in 782 King Charles sent his three missi "Adalgiso camerario et Geilone comite stabuli et Worado comite palati" to meet "in…Saxonis…Theodericus comes, propinquus regis"[227].  One possible relationship being between the king and Theoderic [I] would have been through his wife, if she had been the king's paternal aunt.  "Willelmus…comes" names "genitore meo Theuderico et genitrice mea Aldana" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[228]m THEODERIC [I] Comte d'Autun, son of --- (-before 804).] 

Charles "Martel" & his second wife had one child:

6.         GRIFO ([726]-killed in battle Saint Jean de Maurienne 753).  Einhard names "Karlomannum…et Pippinum atque Grifonem" as the three sons of "Karlus maior domus" when recording the latter's death, specifying that "Grifo…minor natu…matrem habuit Swannhilde neptem Odilonis ducis Baioariorum"[229].  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Pipinum, Karlomannum, Griphonem et Bernardum" sons of "Karolus senior…ex regina"[230].  "Karlus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa Clippiacum in pago Parisiaco" to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 17 Sep 741, subscribed by "Radberti comitis, Raygaubaldi comitis, Salaconis comitis, matrone Sonechildis, Grifonis filii sui"[231].  His father bequeathed to Grifo the central part of his territory, but his stepbrothers Carloman and Pépin deprived him of this inheritance and divided the land between themselves.  Grifo rebelled, incited by his mother, but was defeated at Laon and imprisoned by Carloman at Neufchâteau in the Ardennes[232].  He was released in 747 by his brother Pépin and fled to Saxony, where he raised an army although armed conflict was avoided[233].  The Annalium Petavianorum Continuatio records that “Grippo” fled “in Saxoniam” in 748 and returned from exile in 749[234].  He invaded Bavaria where he was recognised as duke in 748 in succession to Duke Odilo, but was deposed by Pépin who installed their nephew Tassilo III as duke.  According to the Royal Frankish Annals, in 748 Pépin granted Grifo the duchy of Mans and twelve counties in Neustria, although the source does not identify these counties more precisely[235].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that in 748 "germanus ipsius rege…Gripho" fled once more and allied himself with Waifar Duke of the Aquitanians[236].  Grifo rebelled yet again, in alliance with the Bretons.  He fled to Lombardy to join Aistulf King of the Lombards but was caught and killed while he was passing the Alps by "Theudoeno comite Viennense…et Frederico Ultraiurano comite"[237], two of Pépin's supporters.  His escape to Italy, capture and death at the hands of "Theodoino comite in valle Maurienna" is also recorded in the Annales Laurissenses[238]m ---.  The name of Grifo's wife is not known.  Grifo & his wife had [two possible] children: 

a)         [GRIFO .  Settipani refers to a commemorative name list from Remiremont in which the names "Griffo, Carolus" follow immediately after another "Griffo", which may indicate that the former were sons of the latter[239], although even if this is correct there is no proof that the latter Grifo was the same person as the son of Charles "Martel".] 

b)         [CHARLES .  Settipani refers to a commemorative name list from Remiremont in which the names "Griffo, Carolus" follow immediately after another "Griffo", which may indicate that the former were sons of the latter[240], although even if this is correct there is no proof that the latter Grifo was the same person as the son of Charles "Martel".]

Charles "Martel" had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

7.          BERNARD (before 732-787).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Pipinum, Karlomannum, Griphonem et Bernardum" as sons of "Karolus senior…ex regina"[241].  Comte. 

-        CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY - FAMILIES of ADALHARD and WALA

Charles "Martel" had two illegitimate sons by Mistress (2):

8.          HIERONYMUS (-after [782]).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Remigium et Geronimum" as sons of "Karolus senior…ex concubina"[242].  Comte.  Abbé de Saint-Quentin. 

-        CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY - FAMILY of HIERONYMUS

9.          REMIGIUS (-787).  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Remigium et Geronimum" as sons of "Karolus senior…ex concubina"[243].  Bishop of Rouen 755-771.  The Annales Moselleni record the death in 787 of "Remigius et Bernehardus"[244]

 

 

 

E.      RAGAMFRED

 

 

1.         RAGAMFRED [Ramfrid] (-731).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Raganfredo…domesticis" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[245].  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[246].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Ragamfredo" was appointed maior domus after Theodoald fled, and was reappointed by King Chilperic[247].  He was chosen to succeed as maior domus of Neustria after the defeat of Theudebald in 715[248].  The Annales Metenses names "Raginfredo maiore domus" of King Chilperic[249].  "Chilperichus rex Francorum" donated property at the request of "Raganfredo maiorim domus nostro" by charter dated 28 Feb 717[250].  King Chilperic II and maior domus Ragamfred were defeated by Charles "Martel" at Vinchy, Cambrésis 21 Mar [717][251].  "Chilperichus rex Francorum" granted the monastery "Fossatensi in pago Parisiaco" the right to appoint its own abbot by charter dated 24 Apr 717 which names "maioris domus nostru Raganfredi"[252].  He was defeated by Charles "Martel" at Vinchy in Sep 717 and fled[253].  The Annales Petaviani record the death in 731 of "Ragenfridus"[254]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    MAIORES DOMUS of the KINGDOM of BURGUNDY

 

 

 

1.         WARNACHAR [I] (-[600/01]).  Fredegar records that "Warnecharius maior domi Teuderici" died in the fourth year of the reign of King Theudebert II[255]

 

 

1.         BERTOALD (-killed in battle near Etampes 603 after 11 Nov).  Maior domus in Burgundy 603.  Fredegar records that "Bertoaldus genere Francos" was installed as maior domus in the eighth year of the reign of King Theoderic II, commenting that he was "morebus mensuratus, sapiens et cautus, in prilio fortis, fidem cum omnibus servans"[256].  The king sent him to inspect the lands along the Seine to the Channel but he was attacked by Merovech, son of King Clotaire II, and fled to Orléans before being defeated and killed near Etampes[257]

 

 

1.         PROTADIUS (-murdered [606/07]).  Fredegar records that "Protadius patricius" succeeded as maior domus in Burgundy after the death of "Wandalmaro ducis in pago Ultraiorano et Scotingorum", in the ninth year of King Theoderic's reign, at the instigation of Queen Brunechilde[258].  In a later passage, Fredegar records that he was installed as maior domus in Burgundy in the tenth year of King Theoderic's reign, at the instigation of Queen Brunechilde[259].  According to Fredegar, he was "monstrously cruel, extorting the last penny for the fisc and with ingenuity filling the fisc and enriching himself"[260].  After supporting Queen Brunechilde in her incitement of King Theoderic to attack his brother King Theodebert, he was attacked at Quierzy by the forces of the former[261]

 

 

1.         CLAUDIUS (-[608/13]).  Maior domus of Burgundy in [607/08].  Fredegar records that "Claudius de genere Romanus" was appointed maior domus in the eleventh year of King Theoderic's reign.  He was "resolute and full of good advice…he took note of what had happened to his predecessors and behaved quietly", his one disadvantage being his "excessive corpulence, the result of overeating"[262]

 

 

1.         WARNACHAR [II] (-627[263]).  Fredegar records that he helped Queen Brunechilde secure the accession of King Sigebert II after the death of the latter's father in 613, but defected to King Clotaire II after discovering a plot to kill him[264].  In reward, King Clotaire confirmed his appointment as maior domus of Burgundy and swore that he should never be deposed from this office during his lifetime[265].  From this time, Warnachar exercised almost complete control in Burgundy and in [626/27] convoked a synod of bishops[266].  Fredegar records the death of "Warnacharius maior domi" in the 43rd year of the reign of King Clotaire II[267].  After his death, King Clotaire II assumed direct control over Burgundy and appointed no successor maior domus[268]m firstly ---.  m secondly BERTA, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Godin.  Fredegar records that, after the death of "Warnacharius maior domi", "filius eius Godinus" married his stepmother "Bertane", in the same year, after which he was forced to flee to Austrasia where he took refuge in the church of St Epure.  King Clotaire II permitted him to return on condition that he repudiated his wife, but afterwards ordered him to be killed[269].  Warnachar & his first wife had two children: 

a)         GODIN (-murdered near Chartres [627]).  Fredegar records that, after the death of "Warnacharius maior domi", "filius eius Godinus" married his stepmother "Bertane", in the same year, after which he was forced to flee to Austrasia where he took refuge in the church of St Epure.  King Clotaire II permitted him to return on condition that he repudiated his wife, but afterwards ordered him to be killed[270]m (627, repudiated [627]) as her second husband, his stepmother, BERTA, widow of WARNACHAR, daughter of ---. 

b)         daughter .  Fredegar records that "Arneberti duci", married to "Godini germanam", led the group sent by King Clotaire II to kill his brother-in-law[271]m ARNEBERT, son of ---. 

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         FLAOCHAD (-[643], bur Dijon Church of St Benigne).  Fredegar records that "Flaogatum genere Franco" was chosen as maior domus of Burgundy in [642] on the visit of Queen Nantechildis to Burgundy[272].  He was the enemy of the patrician Willebad which resulted in a bitter struggle in both Burgundy and Neustria[273].  Fredegar records his death from fever after the battle with Willebad, and his place of burial[274]m ([642]) RAGNOBERTA, niece of Queen NANTECHILDIS, daughter of ---.  Fredegar records that "Flaogatum" married "Nantilde regina…neptemque suam…Ragnoberta", apparently not arranged by the queen who was "plotting a different project which seems not to have been according to the will of God"[275].  Presumably this insinuates that Queen Nantechildis was Flaochad's mistress. 

2.         AMALBERT (-[after [15 Oct/10 Nov] 675]).  Fredegar records that "Amalbertus…germanus Flaochelo" supported his brother in the latter's dispute with Willebad[276].  The Chronicon Moissiacense records that "Ingobertus…et Amalbertus et reliqui maiores natu Francorum" rebelled against King Childeric II [in 675][277].  It is not known whether these two passages refer to the same Amalbert. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    MAIORES DOMUS of the KINGDOM of NEUSTRIA

 

 

 [Three] siblings: 

1.         GUNDOLAND (-[630/35]).  Maior domus of Neustria in [613].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundelandus nobilis" as successor of "Landericum" as "maiorum domus in aula regis, vir egregius et industrius"[278], undated but written after passages which recount events in 613.  The Vita Aldegundis names "Gundelandi et Landerici" as "avunculorum" of "beata virgo Aldegundis"[279].  The text could mean that Gundoland and Landeric were brothers, although other interpretations are possible.  The precise date of death of Gundoland is difficult to assess.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Gundolando maiorem domo" followed by the appointment by King Dagobert I of "Erchonoldo"[280], but this ignores the appointment of Aega who, according to Fredegar, was maior domus when King Dagobert died in 639[281]

2.         [LANDERIC [Landry] (-[613]).  The Vita Aldegundis names "Gundelandi et Landerici" as "avunculorum" of "beata virgo Aldegundis"[282].  The text could mean that Gundoland and Landeric were brothers, although other interpretations are possible.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Landerico" as a supporter of Queen Fredegonde at the battle of "Brinnacum villam", soon after the accession (in 592) of Childebert II as king of Burgundy[283]Maior domus in Neustria [604].  Fredegar records that "Clotharius" sent "filium suum Maeroeum et Landericum maioris domus" to lead his troops against Berthoald maior domus of Burgundy, in the ninth year of King Theoderic's reign, and that Merovech was captured while Landeric fled[284].  A later passage in the Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Gundelandus nobilis" as successor of "Landericum" as "maiorum domus in aula regis"[285].] 

3.         [BERTILA .  The Vita Aldegundis names "Gundelandi et Landerici" as "avunculorum" of "beata virgo Aldegundis"[286].  If "avunculus" is used in its strict sense, this means that Aldegund's mother was the sister of Gundoland and Landeric, although no doubt other interpretations are possible.  m WALDEBERT, son of ---.  Domesticus of King Clotaire II 626.  The Vita Aldegundis names "genitorem eius Waldebertum…genetricam ipsius Bertillanem" as parents of "beata virgo Aldegundis"[287].  Waldebert & his wife had two children: 

a)         WALDEDRUDA .  The Vita S. Waldetrudis names “pater Walbertus, mater…Bertilia” as parents of “beata Waldetrudis”, adding that she married “Madelgarius” but that they separated to enter the monastic life[288].  The Vita Aldegundis names "Waldedrudæ" as sister of "beata virgo Aldegundis" and "vir eius Madelgarius"[289]m MADELGARIUS, son of ---. 

b)         ALDEGUND .  The Vita Aldegundis names "genitorem eius Waldebertum…genetricam ipsius Bertillanem" as parents of "beata virgo Aldegundis"[290]

 

 

1.         AEGA (-Clichy 642).  Maior domus of Neustria when King Dagobert I died in 639, according to Fredegar he "ruled justly over the palace and the kingdom" and died of a fever at Clichy in the third year of the reign of King Clovis II[291].  The date of his appointment as maior domus is not known.  The Chronicon Moissiacense records the death "anno 3 regni Clodovei" of "Aega" at "Cligiacis villa" and the succession of "Hirchinaldus" in Neustria and "Flaucatus" in Burgundy[292]m ---.  The name of Aega's wife is not known.  Aega & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  Fredegar names "Ermenfredus" as the husband of "filiam Aegane", when recording that he killed "Chainulfo comiti in Albiodero" some days before his father-in-law died, was expelled and sought refuge in the church of Saint-Rémy at Reims[293]m ERMENFRED, son of ---.  He murdered maior domus Ebroin in [680][294]

 

 

1.         BERETRUDIS [Bertrada/Berthe], daughter of --- (-[618/19], bur Rouen Saint-Pierre).  Her relationship with the family of Erchinoald is recorded by Fredegar when he names "Erchynoaldus…consanguineus…de genetricis Dagoberti" as maior domus in Neustria after the death of Aega[295]m as his [first/second] wife, CLOTAIRE II King of the Franks, son of CHILPERIC I King of the Franks & his third wife Frédégonde (Spring 584-[18] Oct 629, bur Paris Church of St Vincent). 

---

The precise relationship between Beretrudis and Erchinoald is not known. 

2.         ERCHINOALD (-[657/58]).  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “Adabaldus Dux, et fratres eius Herchenaldus Major-domus Occidentalis Franciæ et Sigebertus Comes” as the sons of “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania” & his wife[296].  Fredegar names "Erchynoaldus…consanguineus…de genetricis Dagoberti" as maior domus in Neustria after the death of Aega[297].  On the other hand, the Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Erchonoldo" as maior domus of "Dagobertus rex" after the death of "Gundolando maiorum domo"[298].  According to the Continuator of Fredegar[299], Erchinoald died "at the same time", which appears from the context to refer to the death of King Clovis II.  However, the same paragraph also states (incorrectly) that King Clotaire III died "about this time" after reigning four years, so the chronology is confused or compressed.  A charter dated to [659] issued by "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" records a dispute between the church of Rouen and the abbey of St Denis about property previously belonging to "Erchenoaldo quondam maiorum domus…filius eius Leudesius"[300]m ---.  The name of Erchinoald's wife is not known.  Erchinoald & his wife had one child: 

a)         LEUDESIUS (-murdered [676]).  A charter dated to [659] issued by "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" records a dispute between the church of Rouen and the abbey of St Denis about property previously belonging to "Erchenoaldo quondam maiorum domus…filius eius Leudesius"[301].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Leudesio filio Erchonoldo" when recording his appointment as maior domus after the murder of King Childeric II (in 675)[302].  The Chronicon Ebersheimense names "Leudesius, quem Germani Leudericum vocant" as son of "Erchonaldus"[303].  He was expelled in [676] by Ebroin, who returned to Neustria, "decamping with the royal treasure" although this was recaptured at the villa Baizieux by Ebroin who later murdered Leudesius[304].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that Leudesius fled with King Theoderic III, captured by Ebroin at "Bacivo villa" and murdered[305]m ---.  The Cronica Hohenburgensis records the marriage of "Leudesius" and "uxorem de prosapia sancti Sygismundi regis Burgundie"[306].  The Chronicon Ebersheimense refers to her as "de prosapia Sigismundi et Gothmari regum Burgundie"[307].  Leudesius & his wife had one child: 

i)          ETICHO [Chadicho/Adalrico] (-after 4 Sep 677, maybe after 25 Jun 692).  The Cronica Hohenburgensis names "Athicum seu Adalricum" as son of "Leudesius" & his wife[308].  Duke of Alsace. 

-         ALSACE

3.         [--- .  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         GODO .  The Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium names "Erchinoaldo…nepote suo Godone" as founders of Fontanelle[309].  The precise relationship between Erchinoald and Godin is not known. 

 

 

1.         RADOBERT (-after 22 Jun 653).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" confirmed the privileges of the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 22 Jun 653, subscribed by "Radoberto maior domus…"[310].  This reference cannot be explained as Erchinoald was apparently still maior domus in Neustria in 653. 

 

 

1.         EBROIN (-murdered 681).  He was appointed to succeed Erchinoald as maior domus of Neustria in [658][311].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Ebroino" was appointed maior domus after the death of Erchinoald[312].  He was deposed by the Neustrian nobility, tonsured and sent to the monastery of Luxeuil in Burgundy[313].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum also records that Ebroin was tonsured and sent to "Luxovio monasterio in Burgundia"[314].  He returned to Neustria and killed maior domus Leudesius[315].  He defeated an attack by Pépin maior domus of Austrasia but was murdered by Ermenfred[316].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Ebroinus" was murdered by "Ermenfredo"[317].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records that “Ebroinus Princeps Francorum et Dux, Præfectus Palatii et Major-domus” was killed in 681[318]

 

It is possible that Ebroin and Warato were closely related, although if this is correct the precise relationship is not known.  This relationship is suggested by the successive ownership of property "villa…Latiniaco…in pago Meldequo", recited in a charter dated 30 Oct 688 as having belonged to "Aebroino, Warattune et Ghislemaro, quondam maioresdomos nostros" and reverted to the royal treasury after the death of "ipsius Warattune", before being donated to the abbey of St Denis by "Theudericus rex Francorum"[319]

2.         WARATO (-[686]).  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" with "Warratone, Baseno grafionibus, item Amalberto, Madelando seniscalcis et Weningo comite palatii" settled a dispute between the church of Rouen and the abbey of St Denis about property previously belonging to "Erchenoaldo quondam maiorum domus…filius eius Leudesius" by charter dated to [659][320].  He was appointed maior domus of Neustria in [680] by the remaining Neustrian nobility after the murder of Ebroin, and made peace with Pépin maior domus of Austrasia.  He was deposed by his son, but restored after the death of the latter[321]m ANSFLED, daughter of ---.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Waratto…matrona…Ansefledis", recording that she encouraged the assassination of "Bercharius"[322].  She arranged the assassination of her son-in-law maior domus Berchar in 688[323].  The Annales Metenses name "Drogoni…filium…Hugonem" and record that he was brought up by "matrona Ansfredis avia sua relicta uxor Warattonis"[324].  Assuming that the reference to Ansfred is correct, she was the great-grandmother of Hugo not his grandmother if the origin of Hugo's mother is correct as identified above.  Warato & his wife had two children: 

a)         GISELMAR (-[685]).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Warattone filius…Ghislemarus" when recording his succession as maior domus after deposing his father, and the latter's restoration after Ghislemar died[325].  He deposed his father and succeeded as maior domus of Neustria[326].  "Theudericus rex Francorum" donated property "villa…Latiniaco…in pago Meldequo" which had previously belonged to "Aebroino, Warattune et Ghislemaro, quondam maioresdomos nostros" and reverted to the royal treasury after the death of "ipsius Warattune" by charter dated 30 Oct 688[327]

b)         ANSTRUDIS .  The parentage of the wife of Berthechar is established by the Continuator of Fredegar which records that Ansefled arranged the assassination of her son-in-law maior domus Berchar in 688[328].  She is named in the Annales Metenses which record the marriage of "Austrudem filia Warattonis quondam…maioris domus derelictam Bertarii" and "Drogonem primogenitum suum [Pippini]"[329], which appears to confuse Anstrudis with her daughter.  m BERTHECHAR [Berchar], son of --- (-murdered 688).  He was appointed maior domus of the palace of Neustria in succession to his father-in-law in [686].  He alienated many Neustrians who deserted to join Pépin maior domus of Austrasia who defeated Berchar and King Theoderic at Tertry in 687.  "Theudericus rex Francorum" donated property at the request of "regine nostre Chrodochilde…et…Berchario maiorem domos nostre" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 30 Oct 688[330].  He was murdered at the instigation of his mother-in-law[331]

 

 

1.         BERTHECHAR [Berchar], son of --- (-murdered 688).  He was appointed maior domus of Neustria in succession to his father-in-law in [686].  The Annales Metenses record that, after the death of "Warattone", "gener ipsius Bertarius" was appointed maior domus by King Theoderic[332].  He alienated many Neustrians who deserted to join Pépin maior domus of Austrasia who defeated Berchar and King Theoderic at Tertry in 687.  "Theudericus rex Francorum" donated property at the request of "regine nostre Chrodochilde…et…Berchario maiorem domos nostre" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 30 Oct 688[333].  He was murdered at the instigation of his mother-in-law[334]m ANSTRUDIS, daughter of WARATO & his wife Ansefled ---.  The parentage of the wife of Berthechar is established by the Continuator of Fredegar which records that Ansefled arranged the assassination of her son-in-law maior domus Berchar in 688[335].  She is named in the Annales Metenses which record the marriage of "Austrudem filia Warattonis quondam…maioris domus derelictam Bertarii" and "Drogonem primogenitum suum [Pippini]"[336], which appears to confuse Anstrudis with her daughter.  Berthechar & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [ADALTRUDIS .  Her origin is determined from the charter of "Childebertus rex Francorum" dated 14 Mar 697 which names "Drogus…socer suos…Bercharius…coniuge sui Adaltrute"[337].  On the other hand, the Annales Metenses name "Austrudem filia Warattonis quondam…maioris domus derelictam Bertarii" as wife of "Drogonem primogenitum suum [Pippini]"[338].  The Gesta Fontanellensium also names Adaltrudis, wife of Drogo, as "filia Warattonis [et] Ansfledis coniugis eius"[339], but the 697 charter is probably a more reliable source as, if it is correctly dated, it was written only a few years after the death of Berchar.  m (after 688) DROGO dux in Champagne, son of PEPIN "le Gros" maior domus of Austrasia & his first wife Plectrudis (-24 Mar 708, bur Metz, Abbaye de Saint-Arnoul).] 

 

 

1.         [ODO] .  m [ODA], daughter of ---.  One child: 

a)         EBROIN (-after 720).  The Monumenta Epternacensia quotes the donation of property "in loco Nitro…in loco Haemmi…in villa nostra Meri" to "sancto Willibrordo" by "Ebroinus comes filius Oda quondam" for the soul of "coniugis meæ Theodelindæ" dated 720, subscribed by "Guntberechtus, Folchbrechtus, Godobrectus, Raedbrectus, Redualdo, Herifuso"[340].  It is not known how Ebroin may have been related, if at all, to the family of the maior domus of the same name who died in [680].  It should be noted that the transcription of the same charter which is published by Foppens records the donor as "Ebroinus comes filius Odo quondam"[341].  It cannot therefore be concluded with the certainty that the reference is to the donor’s father or his mother.  m THEODELINDA, daughter of ---.  The Monumenta Epternacensia quotes the donation of property "in loco Nitro…in loco Haemmi…in villa nostra Meri" to "sancto Willibrordo" by "Ebroinus comes filius Oda quondam" for the soul of "coniugis meæ Theodelindæ" dated 720[342]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    OTHER MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY

 

 

 

A.      DUCES of AUVERGNE

 

 

[Three] siblings, parents not known: 

1.         ADALGISEL [Grimo] (-636 or after).  The Vita S. Pauli Episcopi Virdunensis names “Grimo…qui et Adalgisilus, nepos Dagoberti Regis[343].  The precise relationship between Adalgisel and King Dagobert has not been identified.  The testament of "Adalgyselus qui et Grimo [diaconus]" dated "III Kal Ian anno XII regni Dagoberti regis" names "nepote meo Bobone duci…germana mea Ermengundis quondam dyacona" and is witnessed by "Magnoaldus, Ansemundus"[344]

2.         [--- .  The testament of "Adalgyselus qui et Grimo [diaconus]" dated "III Kal Ian anno XII regni Dagoberti regis" names "nepote meo Bobone duci…"[345], which if "nepos" is here used in the strict sense, means that one of Bobo's parents was the brother or sister of Adalgisel.]  m ---.  One child: 

a)         BOBO (-killed in battle after [644]).  The testament of "Adalgyselus qui et Grimo [diaconus]" dated "III Kal Ian anno XII regni Dagoberti regis" names "nepote meo Bobone duci…"[346].  Fredegar records that "Bovo dux Arvernus" led the army of King Sigebert against Radulf Duke of Thuringia and was killed in battle[347].  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" made a donation by charter dated to [644] on the advice of "…Bobonis, Adalgisili"[348].  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" made a donation to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated to [648] on the advice of "…Fulcoaldi, Bobonis, Adregisili, item Bobonis…"[349].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…Gundoino duce et Hodone domestico" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy on the advice of "Grimoaldo, Fulcoaldo, Adregisilo, Bobone ducibus, Chlodulfo, Ansegisilo, Gariberto domesticis" by charter dated 6 Sep 667[350], although the presence of "Grimoaldo" in the document ten years after the attested death of the only known Duke Grimoald suggests that the document may have been subject to some alteration. 

3.         ERMENGUND .  The testament of "Adalgyselus qui et Grimo [diaconus]" dated "III Kal Ian anno XII regni Dagoberti regis" names "…germana mea Ermengundis quondam dyacona"[351]

 

 

 

B.      DUCES of CHAMPAGNE

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         LUPUS (-596 or before).  Dux of Champagne.  Fortunatus addressed historical poems to “Lupi…Ducis[352].  Gregory of Tours records that “Campaniæ Ducatu” was taken from Lupus[353], dated to [581].  m ---.  The name of Lupus’s wife is not known.  Lupus & his wife had three children: 

a)         JEAN .  Flodoard records that “Romulfus…germanus Iohannis tunc temporis ducis, quorum pater Lupus” was installed as archbishop of Reims[354]

b)         ROMULF .  Archbishop of Reims [590].  Flodoard records that “Romulfus…germanus Iohannis tunc temporis ducis, quorum pater Lupus” was installed as archbishop of Reims, adding that he inherited property from his father “trans Ligerim et in pago Pictavensi” and left a testament[355]

c)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Gregory of Tours who names “Godegisilum, Lupi Ducis generum[356]m as his [second] wife, GODEGISEL, son of ---.  Dux

2.         MAGNULF .  Fortunatus addressed a historical poem to “Magnulfe…fratre Lupi[357]

 

 

Brother and sister, parents not known: 

1.         WINTRIO (-murdered [599/600]).  Dux of Champagne.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that the Burgundians and Austrasians entered "paygo Suessionico cum Gundoaldo et Wintrione" and were defeated at "Brinnacum villam" and fled after the battle, dated to soon after the accession (in 592) of Childebert II as king of Burgundy[358].  Fredegar records that "Quintrio dux Campanensium" invaded the kingdom of King Childebert but was put to flight, the year in which King Guntram died[359].  Fredegar records that "Wintrio dux" was killed in the third year of the reign of King Theudebert II, at the instigation of Queen Brunechilde[360]m GODILE, daughter of ---.  The Vita Sanctæ Glodesindis names “patre…Duce…Wintro, matre Godila” as the parents of “Virgo Domini Glodesindis[361].  Wintrio & his wife had one child: 

a)         GLODESINDE .  The Vita Sanctæ Glodesindis names “patre…Duce…Wintro, matre Godila” as the parents of “Virgo Domini Glodesindis[362].  Abbess of Metz. 

2.         ROTLINDE .  The Vita Sanctæ Glodesindis names “patri soror…Rotlindis” as a nun at Trier, referring to her in a later passage as “Glodesindis…amitam suam Rotlindam[363]

 

 

No record has been found of any dux in Champagne between the death of Wintrio and the appointment of Waimar, a period which spans more than half a century. 

 

1.         WAIMAR (-after 692).  Dux of Champagne.  The Passio Leudegarii records that "dux…Campaniæ, Waimeris" with "Deidone" and "Boboni" previously bishop of Valence extracted a ransom from the city of Autun[364], presumably dated to the late 660s or early 670s.  m WALTILDE, daughter of ---.  "Waimerus…cum coniuge Waltilde et Berchario abbate" made donations to the monastery "ad fl Vigeram" by charter dated 692[365]

 

 

 

C.      DUCES of GASCONY

 

 

1.         BARONTUS (-after [634/35]).  Dux of Gascony 631.  Fredegar records that "Baronto duci" was appointed over Gascony after the death [in 631] of "Charibertus rex"[366].  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Barontus…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the twelfth year of the king's reign [632/633][367]

 

 

Three possible brothers.  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania” and his wife Bilichildis as parents of the three brothers “Adabaldus Dux, et fratres eius Herchenaldus Major-domus Occidentalis Franciæ et Sigebertus Comes[368].  The Chronico also specifies that Bilichildis was the full sister of Dagobert I King of the Franks.  However, it also highlights that “others say” that Bilichildis was the daughter of “primi Lotharii avi istius”.  The latter origin is repeated in the Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum which records the marriage of "Hlotharius [rex]…filia…Blithild" and "Ansbertus", and claims that Arnoul Bishop of Metz (ancestor of the Carolingian kings) was this couple’s grandson[369].  The two accounts are completely inconsistent from a chronological point of view: Bishop Arnoul’s suggested birth date range of [580/85] is incompatible with his supposed paternal uncle Maior domus Erchinoald having died in [657/58].  Some corroboration about a family connection between Erchinoald and King Dagobert is provided by Fredegar who names "Erchynoaldus…consanguineus…de genetricis Dagoberti"[370].  Another possibility concerning the parentage of Adabald is provided by the Vita S. Rictrudis which names “Gerberta…filia sanctæ Gertrudis” as the mother of “Adabaldus Dux[371].  The Vita S. Amati also names “sancta Gertrudis” as “beati Adalbaldi avia[372].  It is impossible to sift the fact (if any) from the fiction in these sources. 

1.         [ADABALD .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude records that “Adabaldus Dux” was dux in Gascony, after the death of Charibert II King of the Franks in Gascony (dated elsewhere to 631)[373].  The Vita S. Rictrudis records that “Adabaldus Dux” held possessions in “pago Austrebatensi[374].]  m RICTRUDIS, daughter of ---.  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude records that “Adabaldus Dux” married “matrona Rictrudis…ex generosa Wasconum prosapia (Regium stemma, ac Senatorum genus optimum)[375].  The Vita S. Rictrudis records that “Adabaldus Dux” married “Rictrudis[376].  Adabald & his wife had four children: 

a)         MAURONTUS .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “filium Maurontum et tres filias Virgines…Closendem, Eusebiam et Adalsendem” as the children of “Adabaldus Dux” & his wife, adding that Maurontus was “S. Richarius Pontivensis pater spiritualis[377]

b)         CLOSENDIS .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “filium Maurontum et tres filias Virgines…Closendem, Eusebiam et Adalsendem” as the children of “Adabaldus Dux” & his wife[378]

c)         EUSEBIA .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “filium Maurontum et tres filias Virgines…Closendem, Eusebiam et Adalsendem” as the children of “Adabaldus Dux” & his wife[379]

d)         ADALSENDIS .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “filium Maurontum et tres filias Virgines…Closendem, Eusebiam et Adalsendem” as the children of “Adabaldus Dux” & his wife[380]

2.         [ERCHINOALD (-[657/58]).  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “Adabaldus Dux, et fratres eius Herchenaldus Major-domus Occidentalis Franciæ et Sigebertus Comes” as the sons of “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania” & his wife[381].] 

-        MAIOR DOMUS of NEUSTRIA

3.         [SIEGBERT .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “Adabaldus Dux, et fratres eius Herchenaldus Major-domus Occidentalis Franciæ et Sigebertus Comes” as the sons of “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania” & his wife[382].] 

 

 

 

D.      DUCES of TRANSJURANIA

 

 

1.         MAGNACHAR (-565).  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 565 of "Magnacarius dux Francorum"[383]Dux of Transjurania.  m ---.  The name of Magnacar’s wife is not known.  Magnacar & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARCATRUDIS (-after [556]).  Gregory of Tours names Marcatrude, daughter of Magnachar, as the wife of King Gontran, specifying that she poisoned her stepson Gundobald but died soon after her own son[384]m ([556]) as his first wife, GONTRAN [Guntchramn], son of CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar] King of the Franks & his third wife Ingundis [Ingonde] ([532/34]-28 Mar 592, bur basilique Saint-Marcel, near Chalon-sur-Saône).  He succeeded his father in 561 as GONTRAN King of the Franks

 

2.         WAIFAR (-573).  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 573 of "Vaefarius dux Francorum"[385]Dux of Transjurania, as the same source records that "Teudefredus dux Ultraioranus" succeeded Waifar. 

 

3.         THEODEFRID (-[590]).  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Theodefridus" succeeded as dux after the death in 573 of "Vaefarius dux Francorum"[386]Dux of Transjurania.  Fredegar records the death of "Teudefredus dux Ultraioranus" in the 31st year of the reign of Guntram King of the Franks[387]

 

4.         WANDALMAR [I] (-[604/05]).  Dux of Transjurania.  Fredegar records that "Wandalmarus" succeeded after the death of "Teudefredus dux Ultraioranus" in the 31st year of the reign of Guntram King of the Franks[388].  Fredegar records that "Wandalmaro ducis in pago Ultraiorano et Scotingorum" died in the ninth year of King Theoderic's reign[389]

 

5.         EUDILA (-613).  Dux of Transjurania.  No reference has been found to him other than that Herpo was appointed to succeed "Eudilanæ in pago Ultraiorano" in the 30th year of the reign of King Clotaire II[390]

 

6.         HERPO (-murdered [613/14]).  Dux of Transjurania.  Fredegar records that "Herpone duci genere Franco" was appointed to succeed "Eudilanæ in pago Ultraiorano" in the 30th year of the reign of King Clotaire II, but that "Herpo dux" was killed on the advice of "Aletheo patricio et Leudemundo episcopo et Herpino comite" because of his rebellion[391]

 

7.         WILLIBAD (-killed in battle [643]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Willibadus patricius genere Burgundionem…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the twelfth year of the king's reign [632/633][392].  Fredegar records that "Flaochadum" maior domus of Burgundy was the enemy of the patrician Willebad, which resulted in a bitter struggle in both Burgundy and Neustria, during which Willibad was killed[393]

 

8.         WANDALBERT (-after 645).  "Dagobercthus rex Francorum" names "Vuandelberto ducis" in his donation to the abbey of St Denis dated to [631/32][394].  Fredegar records that "Wandalbertus dux" fought with Flaochad maior domus of Burgundy against Willebad in 643[395].  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "Wandalberto duci et Ebrulfo grafioni" in his donation of property to the abbey of St Denis dated to [645][396]

 

 

 

E.      OTHER DUCES FRANCORUM, 6th to 8th CENTURIES

 

 

1.         ANSBERT .  The Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude names “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania” when recording his marriage[397].  A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his brothers "Deotarium, Firminum, Gamardum, Aigulfum episcopum et Ragnifridum" and their supposed descendants, Ansbert's marriage to "filiam Hlotarii regis Francorum…Blithildem" and their children as shown below[398]m BILICHILDIS, daughter of CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar] King of the Franks & his third wife Ingundis [Ingonde] ([525/40]-).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlotharius…rex" had seven children by "Ingunde", the same six as are named in Gregory of Tours with a marginal note adding "Blitchildim" as the seventh child and specifying that she married "Ansbertus nobilissimus" and by him was mother of "Arnoldum"[399].  An alternative origin for Bilichildis is provided by the Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude which names “Dagobertum Regem et Blithildem sororem eius” as children of “Lotharius…[et] Beretrudam” (chronologically impossible if she was the grandmother of Arnoul Bishop of Metz, see below), but commenting that “others say” that Bilichildis was the daughter of “primi Lotharii avi istius”, adding that Bilichildis married “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania[400].  The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names "Hlotharius [rex]…filia…Blithild" and records her marriage to "Ansbertus"[401].  The recorded names of the alleged children of Bilichildis do not have a Merovingian ring about them.  It is uncertain whether Bilichildis existed at all or whether she and her family were invented for the purposes of compiling a Merovingian descent for the Carolingian dynasty, an enterprise undertaken in Metz from the late 8th century onwards (see below, under her alleged grandson).  Her absence from the list of the children of King Clotaire given by Gregory of Tours certainly suggests that she was a spurious later invention, although Gregory's treatment of the families of the early Merovingians was not exhaustive, as can be seen from the examples of Berthoara, daughter of King Theodebald I, and Theodechildis sister of the same king (see above), whom Gregory does not mention at all.  Settipani demonstrates convincingly that there are sufficient indications in other primary sources that parts, if not all, these reconstructions may be based on historical fact[402].  The situation is further confused by the Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude which names “Adabaldus Dux, et fratres eius Herchenaldus Major-domus Occidentalis Franciæ et Sigebertus Comes” as the sons of “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania” and Bilichildis[403].  The Chronico omits Arnold, although the mention of Erchinoald makes it clear that this source is completely incompatible from a chronological point of view with the descent reported in the Carmen.  Sifting the fact from the fiction in these two sources is inevitably speculative.  Ansbert & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         [ARNOLD .  A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his wife "filiam Holotharii regis Francorum" and their children "filios tres...Arnoldus...secundus Feriolus, tertius Modericus"[404].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Arnoldum" as the son of "Ansbertus" & his wife[405].  The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names (in order) "Arnoldum primogenitum…Feriolum…Modericus…Tharsicia" as the four children of "Ansbertus" & his wife[406].  A 9th century genealogy names "primogenitus Arnoaldus…" as oldest son of Ansbert & his wife[407]m ---.  The name of Arnold’s wife is not known.  Arnold & his wife had one child:] 

i)          [ARNOUL ([580/85]-Remiremont 18 Jul [640], bur Remiremont, later transferred to Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul).  A 9th century genealogy names "beatum Arnulfum episcopum" as the son of Arnold, and Arnulf's sons "Flodulfum, Wallchisum et Anchisum"[408].  Settipani points out that this formed part of a series of genealogies compiled at Metz, from the late 8th century onwards, to glorify the ancestry of the Carolingian dynasty by establishing their descent from the early Merovingians and also from a family of Roman senatorial origin[409].  The earlier Vita Sancti Arnulfi names "Arnulfus episcopus prosapia genitus Francorum" but gives no further details of his ancestry[410].  Another genealogy from the same period does not attempt to trace Arnoul's ancestors further than naming "Buotgisus" as father of "Arnulfum…episcopum urbis Metensium", although the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ in which this is published cites another source which names "Burtgisus, qui a multis cognominatur Arnoaldus" although the dating of the latter is unclear[411].] 

-         CAROLINGIANS

b)         [FERIOLUS .  A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his wife "filiam Holotharii regis Francorum" and their children "filios tres...Arnoldus...secundus Feriolus, tertius Modericus", adding that “Feriolus” was “episcopus...in Ucetia civitate” [Uzès][412].  The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names (in order) "Arnoldum primogenitum…Feriolum…Modericus …Tharsicia" as the four children of "Ansbertus" & his wife[413].] 

c)         [MODERICUS .  A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his wife "filiam Holotharii regis Francorum" and their children "filios tres...Arnoldus...secundus Feriolus, tertius Modericus", adding that “Modericus” was “in Harisido episcopus” [Arisitum][414].  The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names (in order) "Arnoldum primogenitum…Feriolum…Modericus …Tharsicia" as the four children of "Ansbertus" & his wife, recording that Modericus was "in ordine frater"[415].]  

d)         [THARSICIA .  A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his wife "filiam Holotharii regis Francorum" and their children "filios tres...et filiam unam...Tarsicia virgo Christi", who was buried “in Rodinis civitate” [Rodez][416].  The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names (in order) "Arnoldum primogenitum…Feriolum…Modericus …Tharsicia" as the four children of "Ansbertus" & his wife, recording that Tharsicia was "puella dei"[417].] 

e)         [--- .  It is impossible to interpret precisely the term “consanguineus” in the source quoted below.  For presentational purposes only in the present document, Abbot Bertulf is shown as part of the paternal family of Arnulf Bishop of Metz.  The exact degree of relationship is unknown, and in any case the connection could have been through Bishop Arnulf’s maternal family.  It should be noted that this source is the only one, apart from the later fabricated genealogies, which gives any indication of members of the family of Bishop Arnulf.]  m ---.  One child: 

i)          BERTULF (-[627]).  Abbot of Bobbio.  The Vitæ Columbani abbatis discipulorumque eius records that “Bertulfus Ebobiensis cœnobii presul” was “consanguineus beati Arnulfi Mettensis urbis pontificis[418].  The same source records that Bertulf was abbot during the reign of “Ariowaldus Langobardis[419], whose reign is dated to 625-636 (see the document ITALY KINGS).  The editor of the MGH compilation dates Bertulf’s death to [627], calculating from the dates of his successor as abbot[420]

 

 

1.         AIGYNA (-after [634/35]).  Fredegar records that "Palladius eiusque filius Sidocus episcopi Aelosani" made accusations against "Aighynane ducis" related to a rebellion in Gascony, in the 43rd year of the reign of King Clotaire II[421].  Fredegar records that "pueri Aeghynanæ genere Saxonum" killed "Ermarus qui gubernatus palatiæ Gairiberto filio Chlothario", in the 44th year of the reign of King Clotaire II[422].  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Aigyna genere Saxonum", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633], recording in a subsequent passage that the Gascons came to King Dagobert at Clichy "cum Aiginane duci"[423].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Aigyna was dux

 

2.         AMALRIC (-after 4 Jul 673).  "Childericus rex Francorum" donated property on the request of "Amelrico, Bonefacio ducibus" and the advice of "Emnehildæ reginæ" by charter dated to [664/66][424].  "Childericus rex Francorum" donated property to the monastery of St Peter and St Paul "supra fluvium Vigore" by charter dated 4 Jul 673, subscribed by "Vulfaudi maioris domus, Amalrici"[425].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Amalric was dux

 

3.         ARNEBERT (-after [634/35]).  Fredegar records that "Arneberti duci", married to "Godini germanam", led the group sent by King Clotaire II to kill his brother-in-law[426].  Fredegar records that "Arneberto duci" killed "Boso filius Audoleno de pago Stampinæ" (accused of misconduct with Queen Sichildis), in the 43rd year of the reign of King Clotaire II, and in a later passage that he was one of those who killed the queen's brother Brodulf[427].  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "Arinbertus…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign[428].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Arnebert was duxm ---, daughter of WARNACHAR maior domus of Burgundy & his first wife ---. 

 

4.         BEPPELENUS (-killed in battle [587/90]).  Fredegar records that "Beppelenus dux Francorum" was killed "factione Hebracharii…ducis a Brittanis"[429].  Although the passage is not dated, it is placed between passages dealing with events in the 28th and 31st years of the reign of Guntram King of the Franks.  No indication has been found of the territory of which Beppelenus was dux

 

5.         BUCCELENUS (-killed in battle 555).  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Buccelenus dux Francorum" was killed in 555 "in bello Romano" with the whole army[430].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Buccelenus was dux

 

6.         CHAIRARDUS (-[634/35]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Chairaardus ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633][431].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Chairardus was dux

 

7.         CHRAMNELENUS (-after [643]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Chramnelenus ex genere Romano…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633][432].  Fredegar records that "Chramnelenus" fought with Flaochald maior domus of Burgundy against Willebad in 643[433].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Chramnelenus was dux

 

8.         CHRODINUS (-murdered [601/02]).  Fortunatus addressed a historical poem to “Chrodinum Ducem[434].  Fredegar records that "Cautinus dux" was killed by King Theodebert in the sixth year of King Theoderic's reign[435].  It is likely that “Cautinus” was the same person as “Chrodinus”.  No indication has been found of the territory of which Chrodinus/Cautinus was dux

 

9.         ERMENUS (-after [634/35]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Ermeno…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633][436].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Ermenus was dux

 

10.      FULCOALD (-after 6 Sep 667).  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" made a donation to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated to [648] on the advice of "…Fulcoaldi, Bobonis, Adregisili, item Bobonis…"[437].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…Gundoino duce et Hodone domestico" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy on the advice of "Grimoaldo, Fulcoaldo, Adregisilo, Bobone ducibus, Chlodulfo, Ansegisilo, Gariberto domesticis" by charter dated 6 Sep 667[438], although the presence of "Grimoaldo" in the document ten years after the attested death of the only known Duke Grimoald suggests that the document may have been subject to some alteration.  No indication has been found of the territory of which Fulcoald was dux

 

11.      GAELTRAMN .  "Theudericus rex Francorum" confirmed a judgment between "Amalgario vel genitore suo Gaeltramno quondam" and "Acchildis…genetrici sua Bertane quondam" concerning property "in villa…Bactilione Valle" by charter dated Jun 679[439].  It is not known whether this refers to the same Amalgar who is recorded in other sources below. 

a)         [AMALGAR (-after [643]).  Fredegar records that "Amalgario et Arneberto ducibus et Willibado patricius" killed "Brodulfo avunculi fratri suo [Clotaire II] Chairiberto", undated but in a passage which follows those recording events in the 44th year of the reign of King Clotaire II[440].  Fredegar records that King Dagobert sent "Amalgario duce et Venerando" as emissaries to "Sisenando regis", undated but dated to [633/36] when the Visigoth king reigned[441].  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Amalgarius…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [634/35][442].  Fredegar records that "Amalgarius" fought with Flaochald maior domus of Burgundy against Willebad in 643[443].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Amalgar was duxm AQUILINA, daughter of ---.  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" with "Sichelmo duci" donated property to the monastery of "Fontem Besuam in pago Attoariarium…Waldalenus abba" stating that it had been constructed by "genitor suus Amalgarius et genitrix sua Aquilina" by charter dated Aug 664[444].  Amalgar & his wife had three children: 

i)          ADALRIC .  The Chronicon Besuense names “Adalsinda Abbatissa…germanus meus Adalricus” and their parents “genitor…Amalgarius et Aquilina mater[445]

ii)         WALDALENUS (-after Aug 664).  Abbot of "Fontem Besuam in pago Attoariarium".  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" with "Sichelmo duci" donated property to the monastery of "Fontem Besuam in pago Attoariarium…Waldalenus abba" stating that it had been constructed by "genitor suus Amalgarius et genitrix sua Aquilina" by charter dated Aug 664[446]

iii)        ADALSINDA .  The Chronicon Besuense names “Adalsinda Abbatissa…Waldaleni Abbatis fratris sui” in a charter dated 652[447]

 

12.      GODEGISEL Dux.  Fortunatus addressed a historical poem to “Dux Bodegisle[448].  It is possible that this is a transcription error for “Godegisel” as this poem immediately precedes the poem dedicated to Godegisel’s wife.  His name suggests a connection with the family of the early kings of Burgundy, one of whom was named Godegisel (see the document BURGUNDY KINGS).  m [firstly] PALATINA, daughter of GALLIMAGNUS & his wife ---.  Fortunatus addressed a historical poem to “Palatina filia Gallimagni, uxore Godegisili Ducis[449]m [secondly] ---, daughter of LUPUS dux of Champagne & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Gregory of Tours who names “Godegisilum, Lupi Ducis generum[450].  The order of Godegisel’s marriages is not certain as both sources were written in the same timeframe. 

 

13.      HATTO (-after 15 May 653).  A charter dated 15 May 653, classified as spurious in the collection, of "Sigisbertus…Francorum rex" names "dux…Hattus"[451].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Hatto was dux

 

14.      HEDENUS (-after 716).  "Hedenus Dux…cum Theodrada coniuge mea" donated property "super fluviolo Sala in pago Salvense" to Epternach by charter dated 18 Apr 716 at "Hamulo castello", witnessed by "Cato comes, Sigericus comes…"[452]m THEODRADA, daughter of --- (-after 716).  "Hedenus Dux…cum Theodrada coniuge mea" donated property "super fluviolo Sala in pago Salvense" to Epternach by charter dated 18 Apr 716 at "Hamulo castello"[453]

 

15.      LANTHACAR (-killed in battle 548).  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Lanthacarius dux Francorum" was killed in 548 "in bello Romano"[454].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Lanthacar was dux

 

16.      LEUDEBERT (-after [634/35]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Leudebertus…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633][455].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Leudebert was dux

 

17.      MARTIN (-killed Laon [680]).  Duke in Austrasia [676/80]: the Liber Historiæ Francorum records that, after the death of "Vulfoaldo de Auster", "Martinus et Pippinus iunior filius Anseghiselo quondam…duces" were dominant in Austrasia ("decedentibus regibus, dominabantur in Austria") and led the Austrasian army against "Theudericum regem et Ebroinum" but were defeated at "loco…Lucofao", adding that "Martinus" found refuge at Laon where he was later killed by emissaries from Ebroin while "Pippinus" escaped[456].  The passage can be dated to [676/80]. 

 

18.      SICHELM (-after Aug 664).  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" with "Sichelmo duci" donated property to the monastery of "Fontem Besuam in pago Attoariarium" by charter dated Aug 664[457].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Sichelm was dux

 

19.      THEOTHER .  "Pippinus filius Ansegisili quondam necnon…matrona mea Plectrudis filia Huogoberti quondam" donated property to the monastery "Epternaco in pago Bedensi" property "villa Epternaco" previously owned by "Theotharius quondam dux" and which later "filius suus Theodardus" gave to Pépin, by charter dated 13 May 706[458].  Presumably Theotharius was dux in the Rhineland area. 

a)         THEODARD .  "Pippinus filius Ansegisili quondam necnon…matrona mea Plectrudis filia Huogoberti quondam" donated property to the monastery "Epternaco in pago Bedensi" property "villa Epternaco" previously owned by "Theotharius quondam dux" and which later "filius suus Theodardus" gave to Pépin, by charter dated 13 May 706[459]

 

20.      WALDERIC (-after [634/35]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Waldericus…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633][460].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Walderic was dux

 

21.      WANDALMAR [II] (-after [634/35]).  Fredegar records that twelve dukes fought in Gascony "…Wandalmarus…ex genere Francorum…", in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633][461].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Wandalmar was dux

 

22.      WINTRIO (-after [593/94]).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that the Burgundians and Austrasians entered "paygo Suessionico cum Gundoaldo et Wintrione" and were defeated at "Brinnacum villam" and fled after the battle, dated to soon after the accession (in 592) of Childebert II as king in Burgundy[462].  No indication has been found of the territory of which Wintrio was dux

 

 

 

F.      MEROVINGIAN COUNTS, 6th CENTURY

 

 

1.         BERULF .  Fortunatus addressed a historical poem to “Berulfo Comite[463]

 

2.         GALACTORIUS [Garacharius] .  Fortunatus addressed a historical poem to “Galactorium comitem”, in which he states that he was “Burdigalensis[464]

 

3.         SIGOALD .  Fortunatus addressed two historical poems to “Sigoaldum comitem”, in the earlier of which he states that King Childebert installed him as “comitis[465]

 

4.         TERENTIOLUS (-killed in battle Carcassonne 586).  Comte de Limoges.  Gregory of Tours records that “Terentiolus comes quondam urbis Lemovicinæ” was killed at Carcassonne in a military expedition against the Visigoths, dated to 586 from the context[466]

 

 

 

G.      MEROVINGIAN COUNTS, 7th CENTURY

 

 

Three siblings, parents not known: 

1.         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         HUGOBERT [Hubert] (-after 14 Mar 697).  The Conversione S. Huberti Comitis names “comes palatii Hubertus” and “amita sua Oda…Boggis Aquitanorum Ducis recens defuncti relicta vidua[467].  The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas names "sub Theoderico rege comes palatii Hugbertus"[468].  "Childebertus rex Francorum" names "Hociobercthus comite palacii nostro" in his charter dated 14 Mar 697[469].  The Conversione S. Huberti Comitis names “comes palatii Hubertus” under “Theodorico rege[470]m [IRMINA, daughter of ---.  Abbess of Oeren.] 

i)          PLECTRUDIS (-after 717, bur Köln, St Maria im Kapitol).  "Pippinus" names "matrona mea Plectrudis, filia Huogoberti quondam" in his two charters dated 13 May 706[471].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Pippino…uxor nobilissima…Plectrudis" but does not give her origin[472].  After the death of her husband, she "took everything under her control"[473].  The Monumenta Epternacensia records that "Raginfredum maiorem domus" married "Plectrudem"[474].  She was regent for her grandson Theodebald, but opposed by her stepson Charles "Martel" whom she imprisoned.  He escaped, and defeated the forces of Plectrudis at Vinchy, near Cambrai, 28 May 717.  She founded St Maria im Kapitol at Köln.  m ([670/75]) as his first wife, PEPIN [II] "le Gros" or "d'Herstal", son of ANSEGISEL & his wife Begga ([645/50]-Jupille, near Liège 16 Dec 714, bur Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul).

2.         ODA The Conversione S. Huberti Comitis names “comes palatii Hubertus” and “amita sua Oda…Boggis Aquitanorum Ducis recens defuncti relicta vidua[475]The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas names "Oda…Bohggis Aquitanorum ducis recens defuncti vidua" as "amita" of Lambert[476]m BOGGIS Duke of Aquitaine, son of --- (-[688]). 

3.         APER .  The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas names "Oda…Bohggis Aquitanorum ducis recens defuncti vidua" as "amita" of Lambert[477].  Assuming that "amita" is used in the strict sense, this indicates that Oda was the sister of Lambert's father.  m HERISPLENDIS, daughter of ---.  The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas names "Lambertus…pater eius Aper…mater Herisplendis"[478].  Aper & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         LAMBERT (-killed [696]).  The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas names "Lambertus…pater eius Aper…mater Herisplendis", specifying in a later passage that he was "adolescens nobilis Aquitanis genere sub Theoderico rege comes palatii Hugbertus"[479].  The Chronicle of St Bèze records that "Dodone comite" killed "sanctus Lambertus Tungrorum Episcopus"[480].  The Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis of Nicolas records that "impius Dodo" killed Lambert[481]

b)         [--- .  The precise relationship between the brothers, Petrus and Audolecus, and Bishop Lambert is not known.  They are shown here for presentational purposes as his nephews.  However, the words "nepotes" and "consanguinei" used in the sources quoted below could refer to a more remote relationship.  m ---.]  Two children: 

i)          PETRUS (-after [696]).  The Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodo" attacked Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "duo nepotes ipsius Petrus…atque Audolecus"[482].  Sigebert’s Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodonem" sent "duo fratres Gallus et Rioldus, consanguinei Dodonis…in ecclesiæ Traiectensis" to revenge "neptis suæ Alpaidis" (criticised by the bishop for her illicit union) by attacking Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "Petrum et Audolecum consanguineos præsulis" who killed the brothers, for which Dodo killed the bishop[483]

ii)         AUDOLECUS (-after [696]).  The Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodo" attacked Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "duo nepotes ipsius Petrus…atque Audolecus"[484].  Sigebert’s Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodonem" sent "duo fratres Gallus et Rioldus, consanguinei Dodonis…in ecclesiæ Traiectensis" to revenge "neptis suæ Alpaidis" (criticised by the bishop for her illicit union) by attacking Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "Petrum et Audolecum consanguineos præsulis" who killed the brothers, for which Dodo killed the bishop[485]

 

 

1.         AUDECHAR [Autharius] .  m AIGA, daughter of ---.  The Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis names "pater Audecharius, mater…Aiga" as parents of "Ado, Dado et Rado"[486].  The Vita Columbani names "Autharius…cuius coniunx Aiga" as parents of "Ado…Dado"[487].  Audechar & his wife had three children: 

a)         ADO (-after 1 Oct 635).  The Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis names "Ado, Dado et Rado" as sons of "pater Audecharius, mater…Aiga", born "temporibus Clotharii…filium regis Chilperici" in "provintia Gallianum Suessonico opido", specifying that Ado became a monk[488].  "Dagobertus rex Francorum" confirms the donation of property by "Dado referendarius noster, eiusque germani Ado et Rado" to "monasterio Resbacensi in Meldensi territorio" dated 1 Oct 635[489]

b)         DADO [Audoin] (-after 641).  The Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis names "Ado, Dado et Rado" as sons of "pater Audecharius, mater…Aiga", born "temporibus Clotharii…filium regis Chilperici" in "provintia Gallianum Suessonico opido"[490].  "Dagobertus rex Francorum" confirms the donation of property by "Dado referendarius noster, eiusque germani Ado et Rado" to "monasterio Resbacensi in Meldensi territorio" dated 1 Oct 635[491].  Bishop of Rouen 641.  The Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis records that "Audoinus cognomento Dado" became bishop of Rouen[492]

c)         RADO (-after 1 Oct 635).  The Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis names "Ado, Dado et Rado" as sons of "pater Audecharius, mater…Aiga", born "temporibus Clotharii…filium regis Chilperici" in "provintia Gallianum Suessonico opido", specifying that Rado became "palatii thesauros custos"[493].  "Dagobertus rex Francorum" confirms the donation of property by "Dado referendarius noster, eiusque germani Ado et Rado" to "monasterio Resbacensi in Meldensi territorio" dated 1 Oct 635[494].  Treasurer. 

 

 

Two siblings, parents not known: 

1.         DIDO (-after 673).  Bishop of Poitou.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "filium eius [=Sighiberto rege] parvolum…Daygobertum" when recording that maior domus Grimoald had him tonsured and exiled with "Didonemque Pectavensem urbis episcopum in Scocia" after the death of his father King Sigibert III[495].  The Chronicon Ebersheimense names "Didone Pictavensi…episcopo" when recording that he supported maior domus Leudesius when he installed Theoderic III as king in 673, clarifying that he was "avunculus" of "sanctum Leudegarium"[496].  The Passio Leudegarii names "Didone…Pectavi urbe episcopo" as "avunculo" of "Leodegarius urbis Agustedunensis episcopus"[497]

2.         [sister] .  The Chronicon Ebersheimense names "Didone Pictavensi…episcopo" when recording that he was "avunculus" of "sanctum Leudegarium"[498], which would indicate that Leudegar's mother was Dido's sister, assuming that "avunculus" is used in its strict sense of maternal uncle.  m ---.  Three children: 

a)         LEUDEGAR (-murdered 676).  The Chronicon Ebersheimense names "Leudegario Augustidunensi episcopo ac Garino comite fratre ipsius" when recording that they, together with "Didone Pictavensi…episcopo", supported maior domus Leudesius when he installed Theoderic III as king in 673[499].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "ex Burgundia…beatus Leudegarius Augustudensis episcopus et Gaerinus frater eius" supported the appointment of Leudesius as maior domus in Neustria but that they were both murdered after the fall of Leudesius[500].  The Continuator of Fredegar also records that "Leudegarius episcopus" was killed with "Gaerenum germanium eius"[501]

b)         GARINUS [Warin] (-murdered 676).  The Chronicon Ebersheimense names "Leudegario Augustidunensi episcopo ac Garino comite fratre ipsius" when recording that they, together with "Didone Pictavensi…episcopo", supported maior domus Leudesius when he installed Theoderic III as king in 673[502].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "ex Burgundia…beatus Leudegarius Augustudensis episcopus et Gaerinus frater eius" supported the appointment of Leudesius as maior domus in Neustria but that they were both murdered after the fall of Leudesius[503].  The Continuator of Fredegar also records that "Leudegarius episcopus" was killed with "Gaerenum germanium eius"[504]

c)         daughter .  m ---.  [Two] children: 

i)          [daughter .  The sources cited below under Berswinda state that she was "sororem…regina", but it is not known to which queen this may refer.  m --- King of the Franks.] 

ii)         BERSWINDA .  The Cronica Hohenburgensis records the marriage of "Athicum seu Adalricum" and "Berswindam…filiam sororis sancti Leodegarii, sororem videlicet regina"[505].  The Chronicon Ebersheimense names "Berswindam, filiam sororis Leodegarii episcopi…et Garini comitis Pictavensis, sororem videlicet regina" as the wife of Athicus[506]m ADALRICUS [Athicus], son of LEUDESIUS maior domus & his wife ---. 

 

 

Three brothers, parents not identified: 

1.         CHRODBERT [Robert] [I] .  The Vita Lantberti names "Hrotbertus ac Haltbertus" as "avunculi" of "Lambertus vir…nobilissimi generis prosapia ortus", specifying that "Hrotbertus" was "summus palatii referendarius"[507]Referendarius of King Dagobert I 8 Apr 630.  Anulus of King Clotaire III.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[508], Chrodbert [I] and his brothers were sons of "Charibert nobilis in Neustria †635".  No reference has been found to this person in any of the primary sources so far consulted and it has been decided to omit him until a positive identification can be made.  m ---.  The name of Chrodbert’s wife is not known.  Chrodbert [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANGADRISMA .  The Vita Ansberti names "Hrotbertus…ex stirpe proditus et gerulus…anuli regis Chlotharii" as father of "religiosissimam ac nobilissimam Angadrismam", clarifying in a later passage that "Hrotbertus et frater eius Haltbertus" were "avunculi sancti patris Lantberti"[509]

2.         HALTBERT .  The Vita Lantberti names "Hrotbertus ac Haltbertus" as "avunculi" of "Lambertus vir…nobilissimi generis prosapia ortus"[510]

3.         ERLEBERT .  The Vita Lantberti names "Erlebertus editus territorio Tarvennico" as father of "Lambertus vir…nobilissimi generis prosapia ortus"[511]m ---.  The name of Erlebert’s wife is not known.  Erlebert & his wife had one child:

a)         LAMBERT .  The Vita Lantberti names "Erlebertus editus territorio Tarvennico" as father of "Lambertus vir…nobilissimi generis prosapia ortus"[512].  Abbot of Fontanelle.  Bishop of Lyon. 

 

 

1.         CHRODBERT [Robert] [II] (-before 12 Sep 677).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[513], Chrodbert [II] was the son of "Lambert [I] nobilis in Neustria †after 650", who in turn was the son of Chrodbert [I] (see above).  No reference has been found to "Lambert [I]" in any of the primary sources so far consulted and it has been decided to omit him until a positive identification can be made.  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" confirmed the privileges of the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 22 Jun 653, subscribed by "…Chradoberctus…"[514].  Chancellor for King Clothar III 658.  "Childericus rex Francorum, Chadicho duce, Rodeberto comite" donated property to the monastery of St Gregory in Alsace by charter dated 4 Mar 673, the editor of the compilation identifying "Rodeberto comite" as "comes Alsatiæ superioris sive Sundgaviæ"[515].  Comes palatinus 2 Oct 678.  m DODA, daughter of --- (-before 12 Sep 677).  The Vita Leudegarii names "Rotpertus et uxor Tota"[516].  "Theudericus rex Francorum" donated property held by "Detta relicta Chrodoberctho quondam" to "Chainoni diacono" by charter dated 12 Sep 677[517].  Chrodbert [II] & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [LAMBERT [II] (-before 741).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[518], Lambert [II] was the son of Chrodbert [II] but no reference to Lambert or this alleged relationship has been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted.] m ---.  The name of Lambert’s wife is not known.  Lambert [II] & his wife had one child:

i)          ROBERT [I] ([700/10]-before 764).  The third continuator of the Gesta Abbatum Trudonensium names "Robertus comes vel dux Hasbanie" in 715, and quotes a charter dated 7 Apr 742 under which "Robertus comes, filius condam Lamberti" donated property "in villa…Sarcinio…in pago Hasbaniensi…[et] Halon, Scaffnis, Felepa et Marholt" to St Trudon[519]Comte de Hesbaie.  Comes palatinus 741/42.  

-         GRAFEN in WORMSGAU

 

 

1.         HRODBERT [Robert] (-Salzburg 24 Mar 717 or 27 Mar 718, bur Salzburg).  The Vita Hrodberti Episcopi Salisburgensis names "Hrodbertus…ex nobili regali progenie Francorum ortus" as Bishop of Worms "tempore Hiltiperhti regis Francorum"[520].  His name suggests a relationship with the Rodbertiner family but this cannot be proved.  Bishop of Worms.  First Abbot and Bishop of Salzburg 696-717. 

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         LANDERIC (-after [631/32]).  "Dagobercthus rex Francorum" names "Gaganrico domestico" in his donation of property "villa…Iticianascoam in pago Parisiaco" held by "Landerico et Gangnerico germanis" to the abbey of St Denis dated to [631/32][521]

2.         GAGANRIC (-after [631/32]).  "Dagobercthus rex Francorum" names "Gaganrico domestico" in his confirmation of the donation of property "villa…Iticianascoam in pago Parisiaco" held by "Landerico et Gangnerico germanis" to the abbey of St Denis dated to [631/32][522]

 

 

1.         EBRULF (-after [645]).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "Wandalberto duci et Ebrulfo grafioni" in his donation of property to the abbey of St Denis dated to [645][523].  m ---.  The name of Ebrulf’s wife is not known.  Ebrulf & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANGANTRUDE (-after 1 Nov 692).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" with "Marsone comite palati nostro" confirmed a donation by “Angantrude filia Ebrulfo, relicata Ingoberctho quondam” of property “villa…Nocito…in pago Camiliacinse” to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 1 Nov 692[524]m INGELBERT, son of --- (-[675/92]). 

 

 

1.         ADALRIC (-after 14 Mar 697).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Adalrico…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[525].  "Childeberchthus rex Francorum" names "inlustri viro…Adalrico…comitabus" in his charter dated 14 Mar 697[526]

 

2.         ADREBERT (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Adreberctho…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[527]

 

3.         ÆGYNARUS (-after 22 Jun 653).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" confirmed the privileges of the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 22 Jun 653, subscribed by "…Aegynarus…"[528]

 

4.         AIGULF (-after 22 Jun 653).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" confirmed the privileges of the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 22 Jun 653, subscribed by "…Aigulfo comes palatii…"[529]

 

5.         ANGILBERT (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Angliberctho…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[530]

 

6.         ANSOALD (-after 12 Aug 691).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" issued a judgment about property by charter dated 12 Aug 691 which names "Ansoaldus comes palati noster"[531]

 

7.         AUDOBALD (-after 24 Oct 663).  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" donated property to Saint-Bénigne de Dijon by charter dated 24 Oct 663 which names "Audobaldus comes palatii nostri"[532]

 

8.         AUDRAMNUS (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "Audramno comite palati nostro" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[533]

 

9.         BASINUS (-after [659]).  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" with "Warratone, Baseno grafionibus, item Amalberto, Madelando seniscalcis et Weningo comite palatii" settled a dispute between the church of Rouen and the abbey of St Denis about property previously belonging to "Erchenoaldo quondam maiorum domus…filius eius Leudesius" by charter dated to [659][534]

 

10.      BERTOIN (-after [1 Aug 661]).  "Childericus rex Francorum et Chinechildis regina…Bertuino comiti et Bertelando vicario" donated property "villam…Barisiacum…in pago Laudunensi" to "Amando episcopo" by charter dated to [1 Aug 661][535]

 

11.      BLIDGAR (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Blidegario…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[536]

 

12.      BUCCELEN (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Bucceleno…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[537]

 

13.      CHADOALD (-after Nov 658).  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of St Denis following the judgment of "Chadoloaldi comitis palatii nostri" in a dispute, by charter dated Nov 658[538]

 

14.      CHAGNERIC (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Chagnerico…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[539]

 

15.      CHANULF (-murdered 642).  "Dagobertus rex Francorum" names "Chanulfo comiti" in his confirmation of the donation of property to "monasterio Resbacensi in Meldensi territorio" dated 1 Oct 635[540].  Fredegar names "Ermenfredus" as the husband of "filiam Aegane", when recording that he killed "Chainulfo comiti in Albiodero" some days before his father-in-law died (dated to 642), was expelled and sought refuge in the church of Saint-Rémy at Reims[541]

 

16.      CHARIBERT (-[after 6 Sep 667).  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…Gundoino duce et Hodone domestico" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy on the advice of "Grimoaldo, Fulcoaldo, Adregisilo, Bobone ducibus, Chlodulfo, Ansegisilo, Gariberto domesticis" by charter dated 6 Sep 667[542], although the presence of "Grimoaldo" in the document ten years after the attested death of the only known Duke Grimoald suggests that the document may have been subject to some alteration. 

 

17.      CHARIVEUS (-after 25 Jun 692).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" with "Aerico duci et Charievio comiti" confirmed a donation to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated 25 Jun 692[543]

 

18.      CHILO (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Chillone…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[544]

 

 

[Two possible siblings]: 

1.         [--- .]  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         DODO .  Domesticus.  The Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodo" attacked Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "duo nepotes ipsius Petrus…atque Audolecus"[545].  Sigebert’s Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodonem" sent "duo fratres Gallus et Rioldus, consanguinei Dodonis…in ecclesiæ Traiectensis" to revenge "neptis suæ Alpaidis" (criticised by the bishop for her illicit union) by attacking Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "Petrum et Audolecum consanguineos præsulis" who killed the brothers, for which Dodo killed the bishop[546].  The Chronicle of St Bèze records that "Dodone comite" killed "sanctus Lambertus Tungrorum Episcopus"[547]

b)         CHALPAIS [Alpais] .  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that Pépin had "filium ex alia uxore…Carlo" but does not name the child’s mother[548].  Fredegar (Continuator) records that Pépin married another wife ("aliam duxit uxorem") "nobilem…Chalpaida" by whom he had "filium…Carlo"[549].  Sigebert's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "puellam nobilem…Alpaidem" as second wife of Pépin, specifying that she was "soror…Dodonis qui domesticus Pippini principis erat"[550].  The mid-12th century Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Alpade, sorore Dodonis, qui sanctum Lambertum episcopum Leodinensem martyrisavit" as second wife of Pépin[551].  Settipani does not support the theory that Alpais was the sister of Bertrada, mother of Charibert, whose daughter married Pépin King of the Franks, the hypothesis being based on King Pépin and his wife inheriting property from their respective fathers[552]m (bigamously) as his second wife, PEPIN [II] "le Gros" or "d'Herstal", son of ANSEGISEL & his wife Begga ([645]-Jupille, near Liège 16 Dec 714, bur Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul). 

2.         [--- .  The precise relationship between the brothers Gallus and Rioldus, and Dodo and his sister Alpais, is not known.  They are described imprecisely only as "consanguinei" in the source quoted below.  For presentational purposes in the present document, they are shown as first cousins but there are many other possibilities.  m ---.]  [Two children:]

a)         GALLUS (-killed [696]).  Sigebert’s Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodonem" sent "duo fratres Gallus et Rioldus, consanguinei Dodonis…in ecclesiæ Traiectensis" to revenge "neptis suæ Alpaidis" (criticised by the bishop for her illicit union) by attacking Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "Petrum et Audolecum consanguineos præsulis" who killed the brothers, for which Dodo killed the bishop[553]

b)         RIOLDUS (-killed [696]).  Sigebert’s Vita Landiberti Episcopi records that "Dodonem" sent "duo fratres Gallus et Rioldus, consanguinei Dodonis…in ecclesiæ Traiectensis" to revenge "neptis suæ Alpaidis" (criticised by the bishop for her illicit union) by attacking Bishop Lambert, who was defended by "Petrum et Audolecum consanguineos præsulis" who killed the brothers, for which Dodo killed the bishop[554]

 

 

1.         DRUCTOALD (-after Jun 679).  "Theudericus rex Francorum" confirmed a judgment between "Amalgario vel genitore suo Gaeltramno quondam" and "Acchildis…genetrici sua Bertane quondam" concerning property "in villa…Bactilione Valle" by charter dated Jun 679 which names "Dructoaldus comes palatii noster"[555]

 

2.         ERICHO .  The Vita Germani records that "Chatalrichus sive Chaticuscum Ericho comite" were responsible for the martyrdom of Germanus "in basilica sancti Mauricii"[556]

 

3.         ERMECHAR (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Ermechario…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[557]

 

4.         ETHER (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Ettherio…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[558]

 

5.         GISELRAM (-before 1 Jan 674).  m ---.  The name of Giselram’s wife is not known.  Giselram & his wife had one child: 

a)         WOLFAUD (-after 1 Jan 716).  "Wolfaudus comes filius Gislarami quondam…et coniux mea Adalsinda" donated "villam meam…Condatum in pago Barrense super fluvium Callo" which he had purchased from "Hertellione" to the abbey of Saint-Mihiel by charter dated 1 Jan 674[559].  The Testament of "Volfaudi filius Gislaramni quondam et conjunx mea Adalsinda filia Alberti quondam" is dated [709] and records that he founded "abbatiæ sancti Michaelis ad Mosam in diocese Virdunensi" to which he donated property "in pago Virdunensi…Castellionis in fine Vuidiniaca…Marsupia…Byllata…Mononis"[560].  A similar Testament of "Wolfaudum Comitem" is dated 20 Dec [708] and donated "locellum Marsupia…in pago Virdunensi"[561].  A similar Testament of "Wolfaudus Comes filius Gislaranni quondam…coniunx mea Adalsinda" is dated 1 Jan 716 and donated "loco…Castellionis…in pago Virdunensi in fine Vindiniaca"[562]m ADALSINDA, daughter of ADALBERT & his wife --- (-after 1 Jan 716).  "Wolfaudus comes filius Gislarami quondam…et coniux mea Adalsinda" donated "villam meam…Condatum in pago Barrense super fluvium Callo" which he had purchased from "Hertellione" to the abbey of Saint-Mihiel by charter dated 1 Jan 674[563].  The Testament of "Volfaudi filius Gislaramni quondam et conjunx mea Adalsinda filia Alberti quondam" is dated [709] and records that he founded "abbatiæ sancti Michaelis ad Mosam in diocese Virdunensi" to which he donated property "in pago Virdunensi…Castellionis in fine Vuidiniaca…Marsupia…Byllata…Mononis"[564].  A similar Testament of "Wolfaudus Comes filius Gislaranni quondam…coniunx mea Adalsinda" is dated 1 Jan 716 and donated "loco…Castellionis…in pago Virdunensi in fine Vindiniaca"[565]

 

6.         GODIN (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "Godino…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[566]

 

7.         HERMANRICH (-after 22 Jun 653).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" confirmed the privileges of the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 22 Jun 653, subscribed by "…Ermenrico domesticus…"[567]

 

8.         HERPO (-after 613).  Fredegar records that, in the fifteenth year of the reign of King Theoderic II, the Alemans invaded "pago Aventicense, Ultraiorano" which was defended by "Abbelenus et Herpinus comitis…de ipse pago comitebus"[568].  Fredegar names "Erpone comestabuli de pago Ultraiorano" when recording his involvement in the events of 613[569].  He also records that "Herpo dux" was killed on the advice of "Aletheo patricio et Leudemundo episcopo et Herpino comite" because of his rebellion[570]

 

9.         INGELBERT (-[675/92]).  The Chronicon Moissiacense records that "Ingobertus…et Amalbertus et reliqui maiores natu Francorum" rebelled against King Childeric II [in 675][571].  m ANGANTRUDE, daughter of EBRULF & his wife ---.  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" with "Marsone comite palati nostro" confirmed a donation by “Angantrude filia Ebrulfo, relicata Ingoberctho quondam” of property “villa…Nocito…in pago Camiliacinse” to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 1 Nov 692[572]

 

10.      IONATHAN (-after 14 Mar 697).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Ionathan…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[573].  "Childeberchthus rex Francorum" names "inlustri viro…Ionathan…comitabus" in his charter dated 14 Mar 697[574]

 

11.      MAGNACHAR (-after 14 Mar 697).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Magnechario…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[575].  "Childeberchthus rex Francorum" names "inlustri viro…Magnechario…comitabus" in his charter dated 14 Mar 697[576]

 

12.      MODEGISEL (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Sigibertus rex Francorum" names "Modegisilo comiti" in his donation to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated 651[577].  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Modeghiselo…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[578].  The timespread between these two charters suggests that they may refer to two different individuals of the same name. 

 

13.      NORDBERT (-[695]).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that Pépin left "Nordebertum quondam" as his deputy in Neustria after conquering the kingdom and becoming maior domus in Neustria[579].  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Nordoberctho…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[580].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Nordebertus"[581], maybe dated to [695] when Pépin appointed his son Grimoald as maior domus of Neustria. 

 

14.      OGMIRC (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Ogmirc…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[582]

 

15.      RAGNOALD (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Ragnoaldo…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[583]

 

16.      RANDOALD .  The Vita Germani records that "Chatalrichus sive Chaticuscum Ericho comite" were responsible for the martyrdom of Germanus "in basilica sancti Mauricii" whom they left with "comite…Randoaldo"[584]

 

17.      SAROARD (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Sarroardo…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[585]

 

18.      SIGOLEN (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Sigoleno optematis…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[586]

 

19.      WALDRAMN (-after 28 Feb 693).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Waldramno…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[587]

 

20.      WARNO [Warin] (-after 7 Mar 716).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" issued a charter dated 5 May 692 about a dispute involving the abbey of St Denis which names "Warno comis palacii nostri"[588].  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" with "Marsone comite palati nostro" confirmed a donation to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 1 Nov 692[589].  It is assumed that "Warno" and "Marso" refer to the same person and that the difference of name is due to mistranscription of letters which could appear similar in contemporary documentation.  "Childebercthus rex Francorum" names "Grimoaldo maiorem domus nostri…Gairinus quondam loce ipsius Parisiace comis…Sigofredus comis palatie nostre" in his donation to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 13 Dec 710[590], which it is assumed also refers to the same person.  "Chilperichus rex Francorum" names "Warno comis palati nostri" in his charter dated 7 Mar 716[591]

 

21.      WENING (-after [659]).  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" with "Warratone, Baseno grafionibus, item Amalberto, Madelando seniscalcis et Weningo comite palatii" settled a dispute between the church of Rouen and the abbey of St Denis about property previously belonging to "Erchenoaldo quondam maiorum domus…filius eius Leudesius" by charter dated to [659][592]

 

 

 

H.      MEROVINGIAN COUNTS, 8th CENTURY

 

 

1.         --- .  m BERTRADA, daughter of ---.  The editor of Einhard's Annals in the MGH SS series records that "Pippinus…uxoris pater et Avia Charibertus et Bertradana" founded the monastery of Prüm[593].  This is presumably based on the charter dated 23 Jun 720 under which "Bertrada seu Berta et filius meus Chairibertus" donated property to Prüm, witnessed by "Bernarius, Chrodolande, Theodericus"[594], although the charter is probably spurious as it predates the foundation of the abbey.  It is assumed that this refers to the mother of Charibert, father of Queen Bertrada, although another possibility is that it refers to the wife of Charibert and an otherwise unknown son of Charibert, brother of Queen Bertrada.  The Monumenta Epternacensia record a donation by "Berta, filiis meis Chardradus et Harbertus"[595].  [Three] children: 

a)         HARDRAD (-after 720).  The Monumenta Epternacensia record a donation by "Berta, filiis meis Chardradus et Harbertus"[596]

b)         CHARIBERT [Heribert] (-after 23 Jun 720).  "Bertrada seu Berta et filius meus Chairibertus" donated property to Prüm by charter dated 23 Jun 720[597], although the charter is probably spurious as it predates the foundation of the abbey.  The Monumenta Epternacensia record a donation by "Berta, filiis meis Chardradus et Harbertus"[598].  Comte de Laon.  m ---.  The name of Charibert’s wife is not known.  Charibert & his wife had one child: 

i)          BERTRADA [Berta] "au Grand Pied" ([720]-Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne 12 Jun 783[599], bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 749 of "Bertradem cognomine Bertam, Cariberti Laudunensis comitis filiam" and "Pippinus"[600].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus"[601].  Pépin planned to divorce his wife, but was convinced otherwise by Pope Paul I in 762.  After the death of her husband, Bertrada assumed a prominent role in government.  She tried unsuccessfully to reconcile her two sons, meeting with Carloman at Seltz and also travelling to Italy in 770[602].  The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "IV Id Jul" of "Bertrada regina"[603]m ([743/44]) PEPIN maior domus, son of CHARLES "Martel" maior domus of Austrasia and Neustria [Carolingian] & his first wife Chrothrudis (715-Saint-Denis 24 Sep 768, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  He succeeded in 751 as PEPIN “le Bref” King of the Franks

c)         [WETA .  "Asuarius" abbot of Prüm noted a donation to the abbey by "filia in Christo Wetane", which names "genetricis tue [Wetane] Bertradane" and "Cario et coniuge tue Wettane", by undated charter dated to [762/804][604].  It is not certain that "Bertradane" was the same person as the mother of Charibert, although the common connection with Prüm indicates that this is possible.  If this is correct, the charter is probably datable to the earliest part of the suggested date range, assuming that the date of Bertrada's 720 charter (see above) is correct and at that date her son Charibert was already an adult.  m CARIO .] 

 

 

1.         ANSBERT (-after 20 Jan 702).  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[605]

 

2.         ANSEGISUBO (-after 20 Jan 702).  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[606]

 

3.         AUDOUINm ---.  The name of Audouin’s wife is not known.  Audouin & his wife had one child: 

a)         WEROALD (-after 14 Jun [741/42]]).  “Uueraldus…monachus filius Audouino quondam comite” donated property to Weissenburg monastery by charter dated 14 Jun [741/42][607].  “Uueraldus monachus filius Audouino comite” donated property “in pago Saroinse” to Weissenburg monastery by charter dated 18 Dec “anno sexto regnante domno nostro regis”, subscribed by “Adalchardo comitem…[608].  The dating of the latter charter is problematic as the king whose reign is referred to in the dating clause is not identified by name.  It is assigned to King Childebert III in the compilation, therefore 700[609], but this is inconsistent with Weroald’s donation under the other charter dated [741/42]. 

 

4.         AUSTREMUND (-after 6 Jan [708/09]).  “…Ostremundi comite…” subscribed the charter dated “V Non Mai anno ii regnante Childeberto rege” (3 May [697/98]) under which “Haregarius et conjux mea Truda et filia nostra Tenestina Deo sacrata” donated property to the church of Sainte-Marie, Maine[610].  “…Hostremundo comite…” subscribed the testament of “Carileffus…monachus” dated “VIII Id Jan anno xiiii regnante Childeberto rege” (6 Jan [708/09])[611]

 

5.         BATGISUS (-after 20 Jan 702).  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[612]

 

6.         BERGETHOSIENIS (-after 9 Jul 726).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[613]

 

7.         BERO (-after 14 Dec 710).  "Childebercthus rex Francorum" names "Bero comis palate nostre qui ad vice itemque…Grimberctho comiti palati nostro" in his donation to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 14 Dec 710[614]

 

8.         BERTOALD (-after 8 Apr 709).  "Childebercthus rex Francorum" names "Bertoaldus comes palati nostri" in his charter dated 8 Apr 709[615]

 

9.         BOVO (-after 20 Jan 702).  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[616]

 

10.      CATO (-after 18 Apr 716).  "Hedenus Dux…cum Theodrada coniuge mea" donated property "super fluviolo Sala in pago Salvense" to Epternach by charter dated 18 Apr 716 at "Hamulo castello", witnessed by "Cato comes, Sigericus comes…"[617]

 

11.      CHAMINGO (-after 2 Mar 714).  "Pippinus dux filius Ansgisili quondam et…matrona mea Blittrudis filia Huogoberti" donated property to the monastery "Suestra in pago Mosariorum super fluviolo Suestra" which "Blittrudis" bought from "Alberico et Haderico" by charter dated 2 Mar 714, subscribed by "Chammingo comes, Crodegertus"[618]

 

12.      EBERHARD (-after 9 Jul 726).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[619]

 

13.      ERCHENFRED (-after 9 Jul 726).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[620]

 

14.      FOLCAR (-after 9 Jul 726).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[621]

 

15.      GAIRIFRED .  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which recites that previously "quando Carlus fuit eiectus per Soanachylde cupididate et Gairefredo Parisius comite insidiante"[622]

 

16.      GERWINm GUNZA, sister of BASINUS Archbishop of Trier, daughter of ---.  The Vita S. Basini records that “Ducissa Gunza…Basini germana” married “Gerwino[623].  Gerwin & his wife had one child: 

a)         LIUTWIN (-[717]).  The Vita S. Basini names “Lutwinum” as the son of “Gerwino” & his wife[624].  Archbishop of Trier. 

17.      LANTBERT, son of --- .  He was related to Liutwin "der Heilige" Archbishop of Trier.  Graf.  Vogt of Kloster Hornbach and Kloster Mettlach. 

-        CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY

 

18.      GISELMAR (-after 25 Feb 702).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Ghislemaro…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[625].  "Childeberthus rex Francorum" names "Ghyslemarus comes palati nostri" in his charter dated 25 Feb 702[626]

 

19.      GONDUIN (-after 6 Jan [708/09]).  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "…Gunduino…comitebus" in his charter dated 28 Feb 693[627].  “…Gunduini comite…” subscribed the charter dated “V Non Mai anno ii regnante Childeberto rege” (3 May [697/98]) under which “Haregarius et conjux mea Truda et filia nostra Tenestina Deo sacrata” donated property to the church of Sainte-Marie, Maine[628].  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[629].  “Gundoino comite…” subscribed the testament of “Carileffus…monachus” dated “VIII Id Jan anno xiiii regnante Childeberto rege” (6 Jan [708/09])[630]

 

20.      GRIMBERT (-after 725).  "Childebercthus rex Francorum" names "Bero comis palate nostre qui ad vice itemque…Grimberctho comiti palati nostro" in his donation to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 14 Dec 710[631].  "Comite…Grimberto" donated vines at Trier to Ardenne Saint-Hubert by charter dated 725[632]

 

21.      GUNDOLIN (-after 6 Jan [708/09]).  “…Gondolini comite…” subscribed the charter dated “V Non Mai anno ii regnante Childeberto rege” (3 May [697/98]) under which “Haregarius et conjux mea Truda et filia nostra Tenestina Deo sacrata” donated property to the church of Sainte-Marie, Maine[633].  “…Gundeleno comite…” subscribed the testament of “Carileffus…monachus” dated “VIII Id Jan anno xiiii regnante Childeberto rege” (6 Jan [708/09])[634]

 

22.      HARDRIC (-after 20 Jan 702).  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[635]

 

23.      HERIGER (-after 9 Jul 726).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[636]

 

24.      HERIMARD (-after 20 Jan 702).  "Pippino…eiusque…matrona Plectrude" donated property by charter dated 20 Jan 702, subscribed by "Ansigisubo comite, Ansberto comite, Hardrico comite, Bovone comite, Erimardo comite, Batgiso comite, Gonduino comite, Ramfrido comite"[637]

 

25.      MEGINHERE (-after 9 Jul 726).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[638]

 

26.      SALACON (-after 17 Sep 741).  "Karolus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa…Eliste in ipse loco Marithaima" previously confiscated from "Everhardus" and granted to Pépin to the monastery "in pago Batua" by charter dated 9 Jul 726, subscribed by "Saleconis comitis, Folcarii comitis, Bergethosienis comitis, Maginharii comitis, Liudolfi, Odonis, Agilonis, Herigeri comitis, Erkanfredi comitis qui advocatus fuit episcopus"[639].  "Karlus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa Clippiacum in pago Parisiaco" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 17 Sep 741, subscribed by "Radberti comitis, Raygaubaldi comitis, Salaconis comitis, matrone Sonechildis, Grifonis filii sui"[640].  

 

27.      SIEGRICH (-after 18 Apr 716).  "Hedenus Dux…cum Theodrada coniuge mea" donated property "super fluviolo Sala in pago Salvense" to Epternach by charter dated 18 Apr 716 at "Hamulo castello", witnessed by "Cato comes, Sigericus comes…"[641]

 

28.      SIGOFRED (-after 13 Dec 710).  "Childebercthus rex Francorum" names "Grimoaldo maiorem domus nostri…Gairinus quondam loce ipsius Parisiace comis…Sigofredus comis palatie nostre" in his donation to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 13 Dec 710[642]

 

29.      WILRICH (-after 6 Jan [708/09]).  “…Wilirico comite…” subscribed the testament of “Carileffus…monachus” dated “VIII Id Jan anno xiiii regnante Childeberto rege” (6 Jan [708/09])[643]

 

30.      WINTEMAR (-after 6 Jan [708/09]).  “…Winitmarci comite…” subscribed the charter dated “V Non Mai anno ii regnante Childeberto rege” (3 May [697/98]) under which “Haregarius et conjux mea Truda et filia nostra Tenestina Deo sacrata” donated property to the church of Sainte-Marie, Maine[644].  “…Wintemaro comite…” subscribed the testament of “Carileffus…monachus” dated “VIII Id Jan anno xiiii regnante Childeberto rege” (6 Jan [708/09])[645]

 

 

1.         ADALHARD (-after [721]).  “Adalchardus…comes” donated property “in pago Saruinse” to Weissenburg monastery by charter dated 12 Jul “anno V regnante domini nostri Chilperico rege” (presumably 721)[646].  “Uueraldus monachus filius Audouino comite” donated property “in pago Saroinse” to Weissenburg monastery by charter dated 18 Dec “anno sexto regnante domno nostro regis”, subscribed by “Adalchardo comitem…[647].  The dating of both these charters is problematic, in the first charter because the regnal years of King Chilperic II are uncertain and in the second because the name of the king whose reign is referred to in the dating clause is omitted.  In the case of the latter, the charter is assigned to the reign of King Childebert III in the compilation, therefore 700[648], but this is inconsistent with another donation by Weroald which is dated [741/42] (see above). 

 

2.         AUTGAR (-after 1 Mar 752).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[649]

 

3.         BOVILO (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[650]

 

4.         FULCHER (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[651]

 

5.         HAGINO (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[652]

 

6.         HARDRAD, son of --- .  m ---.  The name of Hardrad's wife is not known.  Hardrad & his wife had one child:

a)         ROTHARD [Chrothard] (-after 9 Dec 771).  Settipani names Rothard as son of Hardrad[653] but does not cite the primary source on which this is based.  Graf.  With estates in Alsace and Lorraine, he was a member of the high aristocracy under Pépin I King of the Franks and became one of the king's main helpers in the incorporation of Alemannia into the Frankish realm[654].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[655].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[656].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[657].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[658].  He is mentioned in 769 as Graf in Argen, north of Lake Constance[659].  “Ratardus filius Hardrardi quondam” donated property at “Mandris” to the abbey of Gorze, for the soul of “Haildis quondam coniugis mee”, except for part which was “dotis coniugis mee Ermenane”, by charter dated 9 Dec 771[660]m firstly HAILDIS, daughter of ---.  “Ratardus filius Hardrardi quondam” donated property at “Mandris” to the abbey of Gorze, for the soul of “Haildis quondam coniugis mee”, except for part which was “dotis coniugis mee Ermenane”, by charter dated 9 Dec 771[661]m secondly (before 9 Dec 771) ERMENANE, daughter of ---.  “Ratardus filius Hardrardi quondam” donated property at “Mandris” to the abbey of Gorze, for the soul of “Haildis quondam coniugis mee”, except for part which was “dotis coniugis mee Ermenane”, by charter dated 9 Dec 771[662].  Rothard & his [first/second] wife had one child:

i)          WELF [I] (-[824/25]).  Settipani names Welf [I] as son of Rothard[663] but does not cite the primary source on which this is based.  The Annalista Saxo names "de principibus Bawarorum qui fuit binomius, name et Eticho et Welfus dicebatur" who was father of Empress Judith[664].  Graf in Swabia. 

-         SWABIAN NOBILITY

 

7.         HELMGAUD [Chiemgaud] (-after 30 Oct 759).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[665].  The name "Cheimgaud" is similar to "Chamingo" (see above), but it is clear that this is the same person as "Helmgaud" names in the following charter.  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[666].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[667]

 

8.         HILDEGAR (-after 8 Jul 753).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[668]

 

9.         HUGOBERT (-after 15 Aug 746).  "Karlemannus maior domus filius Karoli quondam" restored property to the monastery of Stablo and Malmédy by charter dated 15 Aug 746, which names "Hugberto comiti palatio nostro" and is subscribed by "Childradus"[669]

 

10.      LEUDONIUS .  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which records privileges granted to "Karolus quondam maiorem domus Miloni" and by King Pépin to "Miloni", names "Leudonius quondam episcopus genitor Miloni et Widoni", specifying that Milo succeeded Leudonius as bishop, and details the dispute between "Wicberto misso et filios Lantberti, Widoni et Hrodoldo vel Warnario"[670]m ---.  The name of Leudonius’s wife is not known.  Leudonius & his wife had two children:

a)         MILO (-after 30 Oct 759).  Bishop.  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which records privileges granted to "Karolus quondam maiorem domus Miloni" and by King Pépin to "Miloni", names "Leudonius quondam episcopus genitor Miloni et Widoni", specifying that Milo succeeded Leudonius as bishop, and details the dispute between "Wicberto misso et filios Lantberti, Widoni et Hrodoldo vel Warnario"[671]

b)         WIDO .  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which records privileges granted to "Karolus quondam maiorem domus Miloni" and by King Pépin to "Miloni", names "Leudonius quondam episcopus genitor Miloni et Widoni", specifying that Milo succeeded Leudonius as bishop, and details the dispute between "Wicberto misso et filios Lantberti, Widoni et Hrodoldo vel Warnario"[672]

 

11.      OTBERT (-killed 748).  The Annales Nazariani record that "Otbertus" was killed in 748[673]

 

12.      RADBERT (-after 17 Sep 741).  "Karlus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa Clippiacum in pago Parisiaco" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 17 Sep 741, subscribed by "Radberti comitis, Raygaubaldi comitis, Salaconis comitis, matrone Sonechildis, Grifonis filii sui"[674]

 

13.      RAIGABALD (-after 17 Sep 741).  "Karlus maiorum domus filius Pippini quondam" donated property "villa Clippiacum in pago Parisiaco" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 17 Sep 741, subscribed by "Radberti comitis, Raygaubaldi comitis, Salaconis comitis, matrone Sonechildis, Grifonis filii sui"[675]

 

14.      RAUCHING (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[676]

 

15.      REMY (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[677]

 

16.      THEUDEBERT (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[678]

 

17.      WALCHER (-after 11 Feb 747).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[679]

 

 

1.         ADALBERT (-after 30 Jul 757).  "Adalberctus" donated property "in villa…Frittonorum" to Fulda by charter dated 18 Jan 753, subscribed by "Adalprahti, Otacri, Irminsuuindæ"[680].  "Nordpraht" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Uuacharenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 31 Jul 756, subscribed by "Otacri, Adalprahti…"[681].  "Adalbertus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Deinenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 30 Jul 757, subscribed by "Odacri, Uuillisuuindæ coniugis suæ…Liutsuuinda…"[682]m ERMENSUINDA, daughter of ---.  "Adalberctus et coniux mea Ermensina" donated property for the foundation of Fulda "in loco iuxta fluvio…Uulta in silua Bochonia" by charter dated 24 Jan 750, subscribed by "Adalberti, Irminsuuindæ"[683].  "Adalberctus" donated property "in villa…Frittonorum" to Fulda by charter dated 18 Jan 753, subscribed by "Adalprahti, Otacri, Irminsuuindæ"[684].  Adalbert & his wife had [two possible children]:   

a)         [ODACRE (-after 30 May 779).  "Adalberctus" donated property "in villa…Frittonorum" to Fulda by charter dated 18 Jan 753, subscribed by "Adalprahti, Otacri, Irminsuuindæ"[685], the order of subscribers highlighting a likely close family relationship between Odacre and Adalbert & his wife Ermensuinda, although it has not yet been proved that Adalbert was Odacre's father.  "Odacrus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Uuacharenheim", described in relation to adjacent property held by "Nordperdi fratris mei", to Fulda by charter dated 17 Jun 756, subscribed by "Odagri, Nordperdi, Landsuuindæ fliiæ eius…"[686].  "Nordpraht" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Uuacharenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 31 Jul 756, subscribed by "Otacri, Adalprahti…"[687].  "Adalbertus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Deinenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 30 Jul 757, subscribed by "Odacri, Uuillisuuindæ coniugis suæ…Liutsuuinda…"[688].  "Odagrus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Uuacharenheim…et alia villa…Sauuuilenheim", inherited from his parents, to Fulda by charter dated 23 Feb 772, subscribed by "Odacri, Lantsuuinde filia sua, Hattoni comitis" and which also names "coniuge sua Hrodsuuinda"[689].  "Otacar et coniux mea Hruodsuuind" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Sauuuilenheim" by charter dated 3 May 774, subscribed by "Uualuramni, Adalbercti, Odilprahti, Geilun, Elisabeth"[690].  "Odacar…Hruodsuunde coniugis mee" donated property "in villa…Brizzenheim" by charter dated 13 Nov 775, subscribed by "Geilane, Geilrada, Elisabeth, Lantsuuinde…"[691].  "Lantsuuind" donated property to Fulda by charter dated 30 May 779, subscribed by "Lantsuuinde, Elisabeth, Geilrat, Odacri, Uualramni, Nandgarii…"[692].]  m HRUODSUINDA, daughter of --- (-after 13 Nov 775).  "Odagrus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Uuacharenheim…et alia villa…Sauuuilenheim", inherited from his parents, to Fulda by charter dated 23 Feb 772, subscribed by "Odacri, Lantsuuinde filia sua, Hattoni comitis" and which also names "coniuge sua Hrodsuuinda"[693].  "Otacar et coniux mea Hruodsuuind" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Sauuuilenheim" by charter dated 3 May 774, subscribed by "Uualuramni, Adalbercti, Odilprahti, Geilun, Elisabeth"[694].  "Odacar…Hruodsuunde coniugis mee" donated property "in villa…Brizzenheim" by charter dated 13 Nov 775, subscribed by "Geilane, Geilrada, Elisabeth, Lantsuuinde…"[695].  Odacre & his wife had one child: 

i)          LANTSUINDA (-[30 May 779/20 Mar 786]).  "Odacrus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Uuacharenheim", described in relation to adjacent property held by "Nordperdi fratris mei", to Fulda by charter dated 17 Jun 756, subscribed by "Odagri, Nordperdi, Landsuuindæ fliiæ eius…"[696].  "Odagrus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Uuacharenheim…et alia villa…Sauuuilenheim", inherited from his parents, to Fulda by charter dated 23 Feb 772, subscribed by "Odacri, Lantsuuinde filia sua, Hattoni comitis" and which also names "coniuge sua Hrodsuuinda"[697].  "Lantsuuind" donated property to Fulda by charter dated 30 May 779, subscribed by "Lantsuuinde, Elisabeth, Geilrat, Odacri, Uualramni, Nandgarii…"[698].  "Elisabeth et Geilrat" donated property "in pago Wormacinse in Gunsanheimu marcu" to Fulda for the soul of "Lantsuindæ" by charter dated 31 May 786[699]

b)         [NORDBERT (-after 30 Jul 757).  "Odacrus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Uuacharenheim", described in relation to adjacent property held by "Nordperdi fratris mei", to Fulda by charter dated 17 Jun 756, subscribed by "Odagri, Nordperdi, Landsuuindæ fliiæ eius…"[700].  "Nordpraht" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Uuacharenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 31 Jul 756, subscribed by "Otacri, Adalprahti…"[701].  "Adalbertus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Deinenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 30 Jul 757, subscribed by "Odacri, Uuillisuuindæ coniugis suæ…Liutsuuinda…"[702].]  m WILLISWINDIS, daughter of ---.  "Adalbertus" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Deinenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 30 Jul 757, subscribed by "Odacri, Uuillisuuindæ coniugis suæ…Liutsuuinda…"[703].  Nordbert & his wife had two children: 

i)          HELMSUINDA (-after 6 May 800).  "Helmsuuind et Crapucha" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Iuacharenheim" to Fulda for the soul of "patris nostri Nordprahtes" by charter dated 6 May 800, subscribed by "Risalahi, Nordberti, Hattoni comitis…"[704]

ii)         CRAPUCHA (-after 6 May 800).  "Helmsuuind et Crapucha" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa Iuacharenheim" to Fulda for the soul of "patris nostri Nordprahtes" by charter dated 6 May 800, subscribed by "Risalahi, Nordberti, Hattoni comitis…"[705]

 

2.         ADELARD (-after 765).  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Adelardus comes Cavalonensis et Australdis itemque comis" killed "Chilpingus comes Arvernorum" who had rebelled against King Pépin "in pago Lugdunense in regno Burgundie"[706].  The Annales Metenses name "Adalardus comes Cabillonensis" fighting in 765 in the battle in which Hilpingus was killed[707]

 

3.         AMANUGUS (-killed in battle 765).  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Ammanugus comis Pectavensis" invaded "Toronico" and was killed "ab homines Vulfardo" at the abbey of St Martin[708].  The Annales Metenses name "Amanugus comes" recording that he was killed in 765 "dum in partibus Turononum…ab hominibus Vulfardi abbas monasterii sancti Martini"[709]

 

4.         AUSTRALDIS (-after 765).  The Continuator of Fredegar records the participation of "Australdus comis et Galemanius…comis" in the wars in Gascony[710].  The Annales Metenses record that in 765 "Waiferius" sent "Mancionem comitem consobrinum suum" against the Franks and that he was killed by "comites Australdus et Galimannus"[711].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Adelardus comes Cavalonensis et Australdis itemque comis" killed "Chilpingus comes Arvernorum" who had rebelled against King Pépin "in pago Lugdunense in regno Burgundie"[712]

 

5.         BALDEBERT (-762).  The Annales Alammanici record the death of "Baldebertus" in 762[713]

 

6.         BAUGULF (-after 26 May 771).  An undated charter described property "[in] marchæ…Hephenheim" including "Steinfurtowa…villam cum sylva…in beneficio Wegelenzo pater Warini et post eum Warinus comes filius eius…et post eum Bougolfus comes"[714].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[715].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[716].  "Baugolfi comitis" subscribed the charter dated 20 Dec 770 under which "Folcradus et Agilolfus" donated property "in pago Spirense" to Fulda by charter dated 20 Dec 770[717].  "Baugulfus" donated property "in villam Ginninheim" to Fulda by charter dated 26 May 771[718]

 

7.         BERENGAR (-after [769]).  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Hermenaldo, Beringario, Childerado et Uniberto comite Bitorivo" pursued "Waifarium" during the wars in Gascony[719]

 

8.         BLADINUS [Blandinus] (-killed in battle [769]).  Comte d'Auvergne et de Clermont.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Uniberto comite Biturivo et Bladino comite Arvenico" rebelled against King Pépin[720].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Bladinus comes Arvernorum" was captured by King Pépin and killed in the wars in Gascony[721].  The Annales Metenses record that in 761 "Pippino rege" invaded Aquitaine "usque ad Clarummontem castrum" where he captured "Blandinus perfidus comes"[722]

 

9.         CHILDERAD [Hildrad] (-after 28 Jul 775).  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Hermenaldo, Beringario, Childerado et Uniberto comite Bitorivo" pursued "Waifarium" during the wars in Gascony[723].  "Grodegangus…archiepiscopus" donated property "in pago Wormacensi…[et] in villa Dagosbesher…in Hostoven, Burdus, in villa Flamersheim ecclesiam" to Gorze, with the consent of "Pipini…Francorum regis, avunculi mei", by charter dated 25 May 765, witnessed by "Grifonis majoris domus fratris domini Pipini regis, Carli filii regis, Hildradi ducis, Rodingi comitis, Hamedei advocati…"[724].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[725]

 

10.      CHILPINGUS [Hilpingus] (-killed in battle [768]).  Comte d'Auvergne.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Chilpingus comes Arvernorum" rebelled against King Pépin "in pago Lugdunense in regno Burgundie" but was killed in battle by "Adelardus comes Cavalonensis et Australdis itemque comis"[726].  The Annales Metenses record that in 765 "Hilpingus quoque comes Arvernorum" rebelled "in pagum Lucovivensem" and was killed by "Adalardus comes Cabillonensis"[727]

 

11.      DROGO (-after 13 Aug 762).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[728].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[729]

 

12.      ENGELGER (-after 11 Dec 770).  "…Angilgeri comitis…" witnessed the charter dated 11 Dec 770 under which "Wigbertus" donated property "in pago Rigorense in Pisinheimo marcha" to Lorsch[730]

 

13.      FREDERIC (-after 753).  Comte de Transjuranie.  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Theudoeno comite Viennense…et Frederico Ultraiurano comite" captured and killed Grifon in 753 as he was crossing the Alps to seek refuge in Lombardy[731]

 

14.      GALIMANUS (-after 765).  The Continuator of Fredegar records the participation of "Australdus comis et Galemanius…comis" in the wars in Gascony[732].  The Annales Metenses record that in 765 "Waiferius" sent "Mancionem comitem consobrinum suum" against the Franks and that he was killed by "comites Australdus et Galimannus"[733]

 

15.      GISELHAR [Gislarius] (-after 30 Oct 759).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[734].  The Continuator of Fredegar records the participation of "Gislario comite Betoricas" in the wars in Gascony[735].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[736]

 

16.      HERLUIN (-after 13 Aug 762).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[737]

 

17.      HERMENELD (-after 28 Jul 775).  "Pippinus maior domus" donated property to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 11 Feb 747, which names "fidelibus nostris…Haginone, Theudeberto, Remedio, Gerehardo, Fulgario, Bovilone, Walcherio, Rauchingo et Ermenaldo comite palatii nostro"[738].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Hermenaldo, Beringario, Childerado et Uniberto comite Bitorivo" pursued "Waifarium" during the wars in Gascony[739].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[740]

 

 

Brother and sister, parents not known: 

1.         LAIDRATUS (-after 28 Aug 765).  "Laidratus comes" donated property to Fulda by charter dated 31 Aug 755, subscribed by "Irminsuuindæ…"[741].  "Leidratus comes" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Deinenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 23 Jul 756, subscribed by "Uoto comes…"[742].  "Laidratus comes" donated property "in pago Uurmacinse in loco…castro Pinginsie" to Fulda by charter dated 28 Aug 765, subscribed by "Irminsuuindæ germanæ eius…"[743]

2.         ERMENSUINDA (-after 28 Aug 765).  "Laidratus comes" donated property to Fulda by charter dated 31 Aug 755, subscribed by "Irminsuuindæ…"[744].  "Laidratus comes" donated property "in pago Uurmacinse in loco…castro Pinginsie" to Fulda by charter dated 28 Aug 765, subscribed by "Irminsuuindæ germanæ eius…"[745]same person as…?  ERMENSUINDA (-after 18 Jan 753).  "Adalberctus et coniux mea Ermensina" donated property for the foundation of Fulda "in loco iuxta fluvio…Uulta in silua Bochonia" by charter dated 24 Jan 750, subscribed by "Adalberti, Irminsuuindæ"[746].  "Adalberctus" donated property "in villa…Frittonorum" to Fulda by charter dated 18 Jan 753, subscribed by "Adalprahti, Otacri, Irminsuuindæ"[747]m ADALBERT, son of --- (-after 30 Jul 757). 

 

 

1.         LUITFRIED (-after 8 Jul 753).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[748].  Presumably Luitfried was related to the counts in Alsace, probably ancestor of Hugues Comte de Tours. 

 

2.         MAGANAR (-after 8 Jul 753).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[749]

 

3.         MANTIO [Mancio] (-killed in battle 765).  The Annales Metenses record that in 765 "Waiferius" sent "Mancionem comitem consobrinum suum" against the Franks and that he was killed by "comites Australdus et Galimannus"[750].  The Continuator of Fredegar names "Waiofarius princeps…Mantione comite consubrino suo"[751].  "Mantio comes" has not otherwise been identified, but "consobrinus" indicates that he was the first cousin of Waifar Duke of Aquitaine on his mother's side, assuming that the primary sources use the term in its strict sense. 

 

4.         RACULF [Raulco/Rauho] (-[30 Oct 759/Jul 766]).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[752].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[753].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[754].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated "villa…Essone…in pago Parisyaco" to the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated Jul 766 which records that the property was previously held by "Rauhone comite per nostrum beneficium"[755], which implies either that Rauho/Raculf had died before that died or had been disgraced and his property confiscated.

 

5.         RODING [Hruoding] (-after 25 May 765).  "Grodegangus…archiepiscopus" donated property "in pago Wormacensi…[et] in villa Dagosbesher…in Hostoven, Burdus, in villa Flamersheim ecclesiam" to Gorze, with the consent of "Pipini…Francorum regis, avunculi mei", by charter dated 25 May 765, witnessed by "Grifonis majoris domus fratris domini Pipini regis, Carli filii regis, Hildradi ducis, Rodingi comitis, Hamedei advocati…"[756]

 

6.         ROTGAR (-after 752).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to Fulrad Abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 1 Mar 752 which names "fidelibus nostris…Milone, Rotgario, Cheimgaudo, Crothardo, Gerichardo, Autgario et Wiberto comite palatii nostri"[757]

 

7.         THEODERIC (-after 8 Jul 753).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[758]

 

8.         THEODOIN (-after 753)Comte [de Vienne].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Theudoeno comite Viennense…et Frederico Ultraiurano comite" captured and killed Grifon in 753 as he was crossing the Alps to seek refuge in Lombardy[759].  The Annales Laurissenses also record the capture and death of Grifo at the hands of "Theodoino comite in valle Maurienna"[760]

 

9.         TROIANUS (-after 13 Aug 762).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[761]

 

10.      UNIBERT [Gunbert] (-after 769).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[762].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Uniberto comite Biturivo et Bladino comite Arvenico" rebelled against King Pépin[763].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that "Hermenaldo, Beringario, Childerado et Uniberto comite Bitorivo" pursued "Waifarium" during the wars in Gascony[764]

 

11.      VULFARD [Wulfard] (-after 765).  Abbot of Saint-Martin.  The Annales Metenses name "Amanugus comes" recording that he was killed in 765 "dum in partibus Turononum…ab hominibus Vulfardi abbas monasterii sancti Martini"[765]

 

12.      VUODO .  "Leidratus comes" donated property "in pago Uuormacinse in villa…Deinenheim" to Fulda by charter dated 23 Jul 756, subscribed by "Uoto comes…"[766]

 

13.      WALTHAR [Waltar] (-after [782]).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[767].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[768].  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued judgment in favour of Kloster Mettlach by charter dated to [782] which names "fidelibus…Erhardo, Walerano, Ernust, Warnario, Huncelinus, Warlando, Waltario, Rimigaudo, Hainrico, Gaeroni et Hieronimo comitibus…et Walachario seu comiti palatii nostri"[769]

 

14.      WARIN (-after 13 Aug 762).  An undated charter described property "[in] marchæ…Hephenheim" including "Steinfurtowa…villam cum sylva…in beneficio Wegelenzo pater Warini et post eum Warinus comes filius eius…et post eum Bougolfus comes"[770].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[771].  It is assumed that this indicates that there were two different "Warini comitis". 

 

15.      WEGELENZO .  An undated charter described property "[in] marchæ…Hephenheim" including "Steinfurtowa…villam cum sylva…in beneficio Wegelenzo pater Warini et post eum Warinus comes filius eius…et post eum Bougolfus comes"[772]m ---.  The name of Wegelenzo’s wife is not known.  Wegelenzo & his wife had one child: 

a)         WARIN (-after 13 Aug 762).  An undated charter described property "[in] marchæ…Hephenheim" including "Steinfurtowa…villam cum sylva…in beneficio Wegelenzo pater Warini et post eum Warinus comes filius eius…et post eum Bougolfus comes"[773].  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[774].  It is assumed that this indicates that there were two different "Warini comitis".  m ---.  The name of Warin’s wife is not known.  Warin & his wife had two children: 

i)          WIDEGO (-[after 22 Jun 823]).  "Widegowi filii Warini comitis..." witnessed the charter dated 6 Jun 799 under which “Bernherus” donated property "in pago Rinensi in Locheim" to Lorsch[775].  "Witegowo" donated property "in pago Wormat. In Albecher marca" to Lorsch by charter dated 784[776].  "Widegowo et soror mea Reginburc" donated property "in pago Gardachgowe in villa Francunbach" to Lorsch by charter dated 806[777].  Emperor Louis I confirmed the donation of "ecclesia...in pago...Lobotengowe in villa...Siggenheim", previously acquired by "Warinus quondam comes ad partem fisci nostri" and granted to “Widegowo comes per beneficium largitioinis nostræ”, to Lorsch by charter dated 22 Jun 823[778]

ii)         REGINBURG (-after 806).  "Widegowo et soror mea Reginburc" donated property "in pago Gardachgowe in villa Francunbach" to Lorsch by charter dated 806[779]

 

16.      WELENTUS (-after 13 Aug 762).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" donated property to found Kloster Prüm by charter dated 13 Aug 762 which names "coniux mea Bertrada…genitor suus Heribertus" and was subscribed by (first column) "Droconi comitis, Warini comitis, Baugulfi comitis, Troanie comitis, Herloini comitis, Rachulfi comitis" and (second column) "Chrodardi comitis, Welenti comitis, Gerhardi comitis, Waltarii comitis, Gunberti comitis, Warini comitis"[780]

 

17.      WIDO (-after 30 Oct 759).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed a donation to the abbey of Saint-Denis by "Gerardum comitem" by charter dated 30 Oct 759 which names as present "Uuidone, Raulcone, Milone, Helmgaudo, Rothardo, Gislehario…et Uuicberto comite palatii nostro"[781]

 

18.      WULFAR (-after 8 Jul 753).  "Pippinus rex Francorum" confirmed rights to market customs duties of the abbey of Saint-Denis by charter dated 8 Jul 753 which names "fidelibus…Milone, Helmgaudo, Hildegario, [C]hrothardo, Drogone, Baugulfo, [G]islehario, Leuthfredo, Rauhone, Theuderico, Maganario, Nithado, Uualthario, Uulfario et Uuicberti comite palatii nostro"[782]

 



[1] Fredegar, IV, 18, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 128. 

[2] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 25. 

[3] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[4] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, nos. 25, 28, 31, 33, 43, 57, 60, 66, and 70, pp. 31-79. 

[5] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 15, p. 16. 

[6] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[7] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 19, p. 19. 

[8] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[9] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3, 6, p. 9, and 12, p. 17. 

[10] Fredegar IV, 75, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 158. 

[11] Fredegar, IV, 87, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 165. 

[12] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 21, p. 21. 

[13] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 22, p. 22. 

[14] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[15] Fredegar, IV, 86 and 88, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 164 and 165. 

[16] Fredegar, IV, 86 and 88, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 164 and 165. 

[17] Fredegar, IV, 85, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 164. 

[18] Liber Historiæ Francorum 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 314. 

[19] Fredegar, IV, 85. 

[20] Annales Xantenses 650, MGH SS II, p. 219. 

[21] Annales Mettenses 687, MGH SS I, p. 316. 

[22] Annales Xantenses 650, MGH SS II, p. 219. 

[23] Ghesquière, J. (ed.) (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V (Brussels), De S. Begga vidua, Caput I, 1.   

[24] Annales Xantenses 657, MGH SS II, p. 220. 

[25] Annales Xantenses 650, MGH SS II, p. 219. 

[26] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, De S. Begga vidua, Caput I, 1.   

[27] Sigeberti Chronica 640, MGH SS VI, p. 324. 

[28] Settipani (1993), p. 152, citing Eckhardt, K. A. (1975) Studia Merovingica (Witzenhausen), p. 142, and Werner, M. (1980) Der Lütticher Raum im frühkarolingischer Zeit. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte einer karolingischen Stammlandschaft (Göttingen), p. 398. 

[29] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[30] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, De S. Begga vidua, Caput II, 16, p. 119.   

[31] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, p. 120 footnote e.  The precise source for the biography is unclear from Ghesquière’s statement.  .   

[32] Annales Xantenses 698, MGH SS II, p. 220. 

[33] Annales Laubienses, MGH SS IV, p. 12. 

[34] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 315-6. 

[35] Fredegar, IV, 86 and 88, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 164 and 165. 

[36] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 21, p. 21. 

[37] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 1, p. 91. 

[38] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 316. 

[39] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), pp. 106-8. 

[40] Vita Sanctæ Geretrudis 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 460. 

[41] Annales Xantenses 650, MGH SS II, p. 219. 

[42] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, De S. Begga vidua, Caput I, 1.   

[43] Annales Mettenses 687, MGH SS I, p. 316. 

[44] Cronica Hohenburgensis 646, Annales Marbacenses, MGH SS in Usum Scholarum [9], p. 2. 

[45] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[46] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[47] Annales Xantenses 664, MGH SS II, p. 220. 

[48] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 317-8. 

[49] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 31, p. 30. 

[50] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 714, MGH SS I, p. 343. 

[51] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 432. 

[52] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264. 

[53] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[54] Settipani, C. 'L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 186. 

[55] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264. 

[56] Genealogiæ Karolorum III, MGH SS XIII, p. 246, footnote 1 citing Meurisse Hist. de Metz, p. 85. 

[57] McKitterick (1983), p. 22. 

[58] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[59] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 7, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 434. 

[60] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 2, p. 92. 

[61] Catalogus Episcoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 2, p. 269. 

[62] Sigeberti Chronica 640, MGH SS VI, p. 324. 

[63] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 5, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 433. 

[64] Ex Vita S. Chlodulfi Episcopi Mettensis, RHGF, Tome III, p. 542, and Acta Sanctorum, June II, De Sancto Chlodulpho Episcopo Metensi, Caput I, p. 127. 

[65] Settipani (1993), p. 148. 

[66] Sigeberti Chronica 640, MGH SS VI, p. 324. 

[67] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 5, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 433. 

[68] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis, MGH SS II, p. 264. 

[69] Genealogiæ Karolorum II, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[70] Vita Chrodegangi Episcopi Mettensis 7, MGH SS X, p. 556. 

[71] Annales Xantenses 640, MGH SS II, p. 219. 

[72] Desiderii Episcopi Cadurcensis Epistolæ, I, 8, MGH Epistolarum, Tome III, V, p. 197. 

[73] Settipani (1993), p. 149. 

[74] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 22, p. 22. 

[75] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[76] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[77] Catalogus Episcoporum Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 269. 

[78] Settipani (1993), p. 150, citing Depoin, J. ‘Grandes figures monacales des temps mérovingiens. Saint Arnoul de Metz. Etudes de critique historique’, Revue Mabillon 22 (1922), p. 23 [not yet consulted, page missing from the copy available for download on Gallica]. 

[79] D O I 101, p. 183. 

[80] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[81] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 54, p. 172. 

[82] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 5, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 433. 

[83] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis, MGH SS II, p. 264. 

[84] Genealogiæ Karolorum II, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[85] Vita Chrodegangi Episcopi Mettensis; 7, MGH SS X, p. 556. 

[86] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 22, p. 22. 

[87] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[88] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, De S. Begga vidua, Caput I, 4, 5, p. 114.   

[89] Settipani (1993), p. 152. 

[90] Settipani (1993), p. 152. 

[91] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, De S. Begga vidua, Caput I, 1, p. 113.   

[92] Sigeberti Chronica 640, MGH SS VI, p. 324. 

[93] Settipani (1993), p. 152, citing Eckhardt (1975), p. 142, and Werner (1980), p. 398. 

[94] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[95] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, De S. Begga vidua, Caput II, 16, p. 119.   

[96] Ghesquière (1789) Acta Sanctorum Belgii, Tome V, p. 120 footnote e.  The precise source for the biography is unclear from Ghesquière’s statement.  .   

[97] Annales Xantenses 698, MGH SS II, p. 220. 

[98] Annales Laubienses, MGH SS IV, p. 12. 

[99] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 265. 

[100] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 2, p. 92. 

[101] Settipani (1993), p. 115, footnote 495 citing Chaume, M. 'La famille de saint Guillaume de Gellone' Annales de Bourgogne (1929), p. 48, n. 1 [not yet consulted]. 

[102] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 57, p. 51. 

[103] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris), p. 36. 

[104] RHGF, Tome III, p. 367, quoted in Settipani, p. 115 footnote 491. 

[105] Domus Carolingiæ Genealogia, MGH SS II, p. 309. 

[106] Ex Vita S. Wandregisili Abbatis Fontanellensis, RHGF III, p. 561. 

[107] Ex Vita S. Wandregisili Abbatis Fontanellensis, RHGF III, p. 561. 

[108] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium 1.1 and 1.2, MGH SS II, p. 271. 

[109] Vita Ansberti Episcopi Rotomagensis 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 626. 

[110] Annales Xantenses 665, MGH SS II, p. 220. 

[111] Ex Vita S. Wandregisili Abbatis Fontanellensis, RHGF III, p. 564. 

[112] RHGF VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[113] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 265.  

[114] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, 2, pp. 91-2. 

[115] Annales Xantenses 685, MGH SS II, p. 220. 

[116] Chronicon Sancti Huberti Andaginensis 3 (7), MHG SS VIII, p. 570. 

[117] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 46, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 319. 

[118] Fredegar (Continuator), 5, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171. 

[119] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, 2, p. 92. 

[120] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, 70, p. 62. 

[121] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[122] Liber Historiæ Francorum 51, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 325. 

[123] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[124] Annales Mettenses 714, MGH SS I, p. 322. 

[125] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, 4 and 5, pp. 93-4. 

[126] Liber Historiæ Francorum 48, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 323. 

[127] Fredegar (Continuator), 8, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 173. 

[128] Monumenta Epternacensia, MGH SS XXIII, p. 59. 

[129] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 49, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[130] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[131] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[132] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 1, MGH SS XXV, p. 382. 

[133] Settipani (1993), p. 156. 

[134] Abbé E. Bougaud (ed.) (1875) Besuensis Abbatiæ Chronicon, authore Joanne Monacho (Dijon) [same volume as Chronicle of Saint-Bénigne de Dijon], p. 246, footnote 2 commenting that the murder took place in 696 and that Dodon was the brother of Alpais. 

[135] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[136] Liber Historiæ Francorum 48, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 323. 

[137] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium, 2.2, MGH SS II, p. 276. 

[138] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[139] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[140] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 49, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[141] Annales Metenses 708, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[142] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 264. 

[143] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[144] Annales Mettenses 693, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[145] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium, 8.1, MGH SS II, p. 280. 

[146] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 7, p. 96. 

[147] Settipani (1993), p. 162. 

[148] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, Diplomata spuria, no. 7, p. 214. 

[149] Settipani (1993), p. 162 footnote 120. 

[150] Annales Mettenses 693, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[151] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium, 8.1, MGH SS II, p. 280. 

[152] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, Diplomata spuria, no. 7, p. 214. 

[153] McKitterick (1983), p. 31. 

[154] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, Diplomata spuria, no. 7, p. 214. 

[155] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 8, p. 215. 

[156] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, Diplomata spuria, no. 7, p. 214. 

[157] Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 189. 

[158] Annales Petaviani 719, MGH SS I, p. 7. 

[159] Liber Historiæ Francorum 48, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 323. 

[160] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium, 2.2, MGH SS II, p. 276. 

[161] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[162] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[163] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 49, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 323. 

[164] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 73, p. 64. 

[165] Annales Mettenses 708, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[166] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 77, p. 68. 

[167] Fredegar (Continuator), 7, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[168] Liber Historiæ Francorum 50, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[169] Liber Historiæ Francorum 50, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[170] Fredegar (Continuator), 7, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[171] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xxvii, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 405. 

[172] Chronicon Moissiacense 713, MGH SS I, p. 290. 

[173] Annales Mettenses 711, MGH SS I, p. 322. 

[174] Liber Historiæ Francorum 49, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[175] Annales Metenses 714, MGH SS I, p. 322. 

[176] Monumenta Epternacensia, MGH SS XXIII, p. 59. 

[177] Liber Historiæ Francorum 50, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[178] Fredegar (Continuator), 8, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 173. 

[179] Annales Alaminnici 741, MGH SS I, p. 26. 

[180] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[181] Fredegar (Continuator), 21, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 177. 

[182] Settipani (1993), pp. 159-61. 

[183] Pérard, E. (1664) Recueil de plusieurs pièces curieuses servant à l’histoire de Bourgogne (Paris), p. 33. 

[184] Fredegar (Continuator), 34, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 182. 

[185] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 49, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[186] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[187] Chronicon Moissiacense 713, MGH SS I, p. 289. 

[188] Fredegar (Continuator), 8, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 173. 

[189] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 7, p. 96. 

[190] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 93, p. 82. 

[191] Devic, Dom C., Dom Vaissete, Dulaurier, E. (1875) Histoire générale de Languedoc, 3rd Edn. (Toulouse), Tome II, Note LXXXIV, p. 204. 

[192] Annales Sancti Amandi Continuatio 741, MGH SS 1, p. 10. 

[193] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.       

[194] Fredegar (Continuator), 24, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 1179. 

[195] Annales Laureshamenses, MGH SS I, p. 24. 

[196] Annales Mosellani, MGH SS XVI, p. 494. 

[197] Settipani, pp. 167-8, quoting Liber confraternitatum augiensis, MGH Lib Confr II, 460, p. 292. 

[198] Annales Petaviani 725, MGH SS I, p. 9. 

[199] Fredegar (Continuation), 12, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 175. 

[200] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[201] Fredegar (Continuator), 25, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 180. 

[202] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 14, p. 101. 

[203] Settipani, pp. 167-8, quoting Liber confraternitatum augiensis, MGH Lib Confr II, 460, p. 292. 

[204] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[205] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[206] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 11, p. 98. 

[207] Annales Einhardi 743, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[208] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 97, p. 87. 

[209] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[210] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 746, p. 38. 

[211] RFA 753, p. 40. 

[212] Annales Moselleni 754, MGH SS XVI, p. 495. 

[213] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 15, p. 102. 

[214] Annales Petaviani Continuatio 753, MGH SS I, p. 11. 

[215] Annales Petaviani Continuatio 753, MGH SS I, p. 11. 

[216] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[217] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[218] Fredegar (Continuator), 25, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 180. 

[219] Annalium Petavianorum Continuatio 754, MGH SS I, p. 11. 

[220] Annales Moselleni 754, MGH SS XVI, p. 495. 

[221] Settipani (1993), p. 173, quoting Mabillon Acta Sanctorum ord. s. Ben. IV 1, p. 71. 

[222] Hlawitschka, E. 'Die Vorfahren Karls des Großen', Beumann, H. (ed.) (1965) Karl der Große (Düsseldorf), pp. 76-78, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 174. 

[223] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS II, p. 267. 

[224] Calmet, A. (1748) Histoire de Lorraine (Nancy), Tome II, Preuves, col. cv. 

[225] Settipani (1993), p. 173, quoting Mabillon Acta Sanctorum ord. s. Ben. IV 1, p. 71. 

[226] Hlawitschka, E. 'Die Vorfahren Karls des Großen', Beumann, H. (ed.) (1965) Karl der Große (Düsseldorf), pp. 76-78, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 174. 

[227] Einhardi Annales 782, MGH SS I, p. 163. 

[228] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[229] Annales Einhardi 741, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[230] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[231] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 14, p. 101. 

[232] RFA 741, p. 37. 

[233] RFA 747, p. 38. 

[234] Annalium Petavianorum Continuatio, 748, 749, MGH SS I, p. 11. 

[235] RFA 748, p. 39. 

[236] RFA 748, p. 39. 

[237] Fredegar (Continuator), 35, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 183. 

[238] Annales Laurissenses minores 755, 14, MGH SS I, p. 116. 

[239] Settipani (1993), p. 178. 

[240] Settipani (1993), p. 178. 

[241] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[242] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[243] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 302. 

[244] Annales Moselleni 787, MGH SS XVI, p. 495. 

[245] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[246] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[247] Liber Historiæ Francorum 51 and 52, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 325-6. 

[248] Fredegar (Continuator), 8, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[249] Annales Metenses 717, MGH SS I, p. 324. 

[250] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 87, p. 77.  

[251] Fredegar (Continuator), 10, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 174. 

[252] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 88, p. 78. 

[253] McKitterick (1983), p. 30. 

[254] Annales Petaviani 725, MGH SS I, p. 9. 

[255] Fredegar, IV, 18, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 128. 

[256] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 130. 

[257] Fredegar, IV, 24-26. 

[258] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 130. 

[259] Fredegar, IV, 26, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 131. 

[260] Fredegar, IV, 27, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 132. 

[261] Fredegar, IV, 27, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 132. 

[262] Fredegar, IV, 28, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 132. 

[263] "In the forty third year" of the reign of King Clotaire II, Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[264] Fredegar, IV, 40, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 140. 

[265] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 141. 

[266] McKitterick (1983), p. 22. 

[267] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[268] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[269] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[270] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[271] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[272] Fredegar, IV, 89, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[273] Fredegar, IV, 89 and 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166,and McKitterick (1983), p. 27. 

[274] Fredegar, IV, 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[275] Fredegar, IV, 89, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[276] Fredegar, IV, 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[277] Chronicon Moissiacense, MGH SS I, p. 288. 

[278] Liber Historiæ Francorum 40, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 311. 

[279] Vita Aldegundis Abbatissæ Malbodiensis 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 86. 

[280] Liber Historiæ Francorum 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 314. 

[281] Fredegar, IV, 79, 80 and 83, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 161-3. 

[282] Vita Aldegundis Abbatissæ Malbodiensis 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 86. 

[283] Liber Historiæ Francorum 36, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 304. 

[284] Fredegar, IV, 25 and 26, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 130-1. 

[285] Liber Historiæ Francorum 40, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 311. 

[286] Vita Aldegundis Abbatissæ Malbodiensis 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 86. 

[287] Vita Aldegundis Abbatissæ Malbodiensis 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 86. 

[288] Ex Vita S. Waldetrudis Primæ Abbatissæ Castrilocensis in Hannonia, RHGF III, pp. 525-6. 

[289] Vita Aldegundis Abbatissæ Malbodiensis 4, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 87. 

[290] Vita Aldegundis Abbatissæ Malbodiensis 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 86. 

[291] Fredegar, IV, 79, 80 and 83, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 160 and 163. 

[292] Chronicon Moissiacense, MGH SS I, p. 287. 

[293] Fredegar, IV, 83, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 163. 

[294] Fredegar (Continuator), 4, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 170. 

[295] Fredegar, IV, 84, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 163. 

[296] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[297] Fredegar, IV, 84, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 163. 

[298] Liber Historiæ Francorum 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 314. 

[299] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 169. 

[300] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 37, p. 34. 

[301] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 37, p. 34. 

[302] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 318. 

[303] Chronicon Ebersheimense 4, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 433-4. 

[304] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 169. 

[305] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 319. 

[306] Cronica Hohenburgensis 664, Annales Marbacenses, MGH SS in Usum Scholarum [9], p. 3. 

[307] Chronicon Ebersheimense 5, MGH SS XXIII, p. 434. 

[308] Cronica Hohenburgensis 664, Annales Marbacenses, MGH SS in Usum Scholarum [9], p. 3. 

[309] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium 1.4, MGH SS II, p. 272. 

[310] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 19, p. 19. 

[311] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 169. 

[312] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 317. 

[313] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 181. 

[314] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 318. 

[315] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 169. 

[316] Fredegar (Continuator), 4, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171, and Wood, p. 255.

[317] Liber Historiæ Francorum 47, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 320. 

[318] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[319] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 57, p. 51. 

[320] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 37, p. 34. 

[321] Fredegar (Continuator), 4, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171, and Liber Historiæ Francorum 47, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 320.

[322] Liber Historiæ Francorum 48, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 322. 

[323] Fredegar (Continuator), 5, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171. 

[324] Annales Mettenses 693, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[325] Liber Historiæ Francorum 47, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 320. 

[326] Fredegar (Continuator), 4, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171.

[327] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 57, p. 51. 

[328] Fredegar (Continuator), 5, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171. 

[329] Annales Mettenses 693, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[330] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 57, p. 51. 

[331] Fredegar (Continuator), 5, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171.

[332] Annales Mettenses 689, MGH SS I, p. 316. 

[333] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 57, p. 51. 

[334] Fredegar (Continuator), 5, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171.

[335] Fredegar (Continuator), 5, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 171. 

[336] Annales Mettenses 693, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[337] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[338] Annales Mettenses 693, MGH SS I, p. 321. 

[339] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium, 8.1, MGH SS II, p. 280. 

[340] Monumenta Epternacensia, MGH SS XXIII, p. 62. 

[341] Foppens, J. F. (1734) Diplomatum Belgicorum nova collectio, sive supplementum ad opera diplomatica Auberti Miræi (Brussels), Tome III, Pars IV, III, p. 560. 

[342] Monumenta Epternacensia, MGH SS XXIII, p. 62. 

[343] Ex Vita S. Pauli Episcopi Virdunensis, RHGF III, p. 515. 

[344] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch)”, 6, p. 5, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[345] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 6, p. 5. 

[346] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 6, p. 5. 

[347] Fredegar, IV, 87, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 165. 

[348] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 21, p. 21. 

[349] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 22, p. 22. 

[350] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[351] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 6, p. 5. 

[352] Fortunati Carmina Historica, VII, VII and IX, RHGF II, pp. 514-6. 

[353] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin) IX, 14, RHGF II, p. 340. 

[354] Flodoardi Historiæ Remensis Ecclesiæ II, IV, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 140. 

[355] Flodoardi Historiæ Remensis Ecclesiæ II, IV, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 140. 

[356] Gregory of Tours IX, 12, RHGF II, p. 339. 

[357] Fortunati Carmina Historica, VII, X, RHGF II, p. 516. 

[358] Liber Historiæ Francorum 36, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 304 and 306. 

[359] Fredegar, IV, 14, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 127. 

[360] Fredegar, IV, 18, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 128. 

[361] Ex Vita S. Glodesindis Abbatissæ Mettensis, RHGF III, p. 461. 

[362] Ex Vita S. Glodesindis Abbatissæ Mettensis, RHGF III, p. 461. 

[363] Ex Vita S. Glodesindis Abbatissæ Mettensis, RHGF III, pp. 461-2. 

[364] Passio Leudegarii Episcopi Augustodunensis I, 25, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 306. 

[365] Pardessus II, p. 21, quoted in MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 306 footnote 1. 

[366] Fredegar, IV, 67, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 154. 

[367] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[368] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[369] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, pp. 142-3. 

[370] Fredegar, IV, 84, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 163. 

[371] Ex Vita S. Rictrudis, RHGF III, p. 538. 

[372] Ex Vita S. Amati Episcopi Senonensis, RHGF III, p. 608. 

[373] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 523. 

[374] Ex Vita S. Rictrudis, RHGF III, p. 538. 

[375] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, pp. 522-3. 

[376] Ex Vita S. Rictrudis, RHGF III, p. 538. 

[377] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 523. 

[378] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 523. 

[379] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 523. 

[380] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 523. 

[381] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[382] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[383] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 565, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[384] Gregory of Tours IV.25, pp. 218-19. 

[385] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 573, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 238. 

[386] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 573, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 238. 

[387] Fredegar, IV 13, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 127. 

[388] Fredegar, IV 13, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 127. 

[389] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 130. 

[390] Fredegar, IV, 43, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 142. 

[391] Fredegar, IV, 43, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 142. 

[392] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[393] Fredegar, IV, 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 166 and 167. 

[394] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 14, p. 16. 

[395] Fredegar, IV, 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[396] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 18, p. 19. 

[397] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[398] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[399] Liber Historiæ Francorum 27, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 285. 

[400] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[401] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, pp. 142-3. 

[402] Settipani, C. 'L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), pp. 185-229. 

[403] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF III, p. 522. 

[404] Genealogiæ Karolorum II, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[405] Liber Historiæ Francorum 27, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 285. 

[406] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 143. 

[407] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[408] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[409] Settipani, C. 'L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 186. 

[410] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 432. 

[411] Genealogiæ Karolorum III, MGH SS XIII, p. 246, footnote 1 citing Meurisse Hist. de Metz, p. 85. 

[412] Genealogiæ Karolorum II, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[413] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 143. 

[414] Genealogiæ Karolorum II, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[415] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 143. 

[416] Genealogiæ Karolorum II, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[417] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, p. 143. 

[418] Vitæ Columbani abbatis discipulorumque eius, Liber II, 23a De vita Bertulfi abbatis, MGH rerum Meroving, Tome IV, p. 144. 

[419] Vitæ Columbani abbatis discipulorumque eius, Liber II, 23a De vita Bertulfi abbatis, MGH rerum Meroving, Tome IV, p. 145. 

[420] MGH rerum Meroving, Tome IV, p. 147, footnote 1. 

[421] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 148. 

[422] Fredegar, IV, 55, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 148. 

[423] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 160 and 161. 

[424] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 28, p. 27. 

[425] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 31, p. 30. 

[426] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 147. 

[427] Fredegar, IV, 54 and 58, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 148 and 150. 

[428] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[429] Fredegar, IV 12, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 127. 

[430] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 555, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[431] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[432] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[433] Fredegar, IV, 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[434] Fortunati Carmina Historica, IX, XVI, RHGF II, p. 525. 

[435] Fredegar, IV, 20, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 128. 

[436] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[437] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 22, p. 22. 

[438] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[439] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 49, p. 45. 

[440] Fredegar, IV, 58, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 150. 

[441] Fredegar, IV, 73, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 158. 

[442] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[443] Fredegar, IV, 90, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 166. 

[444] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 42, p. 39. 

[445] Chronicon Besuense, Spicilegium II, p. 402. 

[446] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 42, p. 39. 

[447] Chronicon Besuense, Spicilegium II, p. 402. 

[448] Fortunati Carmina Historica, VII, V, RHGF II, p. 512. 

[449] Fortunati Carmina Historica, VII, VI, RHGF II, p. 513. 

[450] Gregory of Tours IX, 12, RHGF II, p. 339. 

[451] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 54, p. 172. 

[452] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cx. 

[453] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cx. 

[454] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 553, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[455] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[456] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 46, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 319. 

[457] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 42, p. 39. 

[458] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 4, p. 93. 

[459] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 4, p. 93. 

[460] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[461] Fredegar, IV, 78, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 160. 

[462] Liber Historiæ Francorum 36, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 304 and 306. 

[463] Fortunati Carmina Historica, VII, XV, RHGF II, p. 517. 

[464] Fortunati Carmina Historica, X, XXII, RHGF II, p. 529. 

[465] Fortunati Carmina Historica, X, XIX and XX, RHGF II, p. 528. 

[466] Gregory of Tours VIII, XXX, RHGF II, p. 325. 

[467] Ex Conversione S. Huberti Comitis, RHGF III, p. 609. 

[468] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 415. 

[469] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[470] Ex Conversione S. Huberti Comitis, RHGF III, p. 609. 

[471] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 4 and 5, pp. 93-4. 

[472] Liber Historiæ Francorum 48, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 323. 

[473] Fredegar (Continuator), 8, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 173. 

[474] Monumenta Epternacensia, MGH SS XXIII, p. 59. 

[475] Ex Conversione S. Huberti Comitis, RHGF III, p. 609. 

[476] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 415. 

[477] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 415. 

[478] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 1 and 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, pp. 410 and 415. 

[479] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 16, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 426. 

[480] Chronicle of Bèze, p. 246, footnote 2 commenting that the murder took place in 696 and that Dodon was the brother of Alpais. 

[481] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Nicolao 1 and 12, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, pp. 410 and 415. 

[482] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Stephano, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, p. 390. 

[483] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Sigeberto, II, XVII, XXI, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, pp. 399 and 402. 

[484] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Stephano, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, p. 390. 

[485] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Sigeberto, II, XVII, XXI, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, pp. 399 and 402. 

[486] Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 554. 

[487] Vitæ Columbani Abbatis Discipulorumque eius I, 26, MGH SS rer Merov IV, p. 100. 

[488] Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 554. 

[489] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 15, p. 16. 

[490] Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 554. 

[491] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 15, p. 16. 

[492] Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, pp. 554-5. 

[493] Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 554. 

[494] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 15, p. 16. 

[495] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 316. 

[496] Chronicon Ebersheimense 5, MGH SS XXIII, p. 434. 

[497] Passio Leudegarii Episcopi Augustodunensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 283. 

[498] Chronicon Ebersheimense 5, MGH SS XXIII, p. 434. 

[499] Chronicon Ebersheimense 5, MGH SS XXIII, p. 434. 

[500] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 318 and 319. 

[501] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 169. 

[502] Chronicon Ebersheimense 5, MGH SS XXIII, p. 434. 

[503] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, pp. 318 and 319. 

[504] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 2, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 169. 

[505] Cronica Hohenburgensis 664, Annales Marbacenses, MGH SS in Usum Scholarum [9], p. 3. 

[506] Chronicon Ebersheimense 6, MGH SS XXIII, p. 434. 

[507] Vita Lantberti Abbatis Fontanellensis et episcopi Lugdunensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 608. 

[508] ES II 10. 

[509] Vita Ansberti Episcopi Rotomagensis 2 and 3, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, pp. 620 and 621. 

[510] Vita Lantberti Abbatis Fontanellensis et episcopi Lugdunensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 608. 

[511] Vita Lantberti Abbatis Fontanellensis et episcopi Lugdunensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 608. 

[512] Vita Lantberti Abbatis Fontanellensis et episcopi Lugdunensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, p. 608. 

[513] ES II 10. 

[514] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 19, p. 19. 

[515] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 30, p. 29, footnote 43. 

[516] Vita Beati Leudegarii Martyris I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini III, p. 23. 

[517] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 47, p. 43. 

[518] ES II 10. 

[519] Gestorum Abbatum Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia, I, 7, MGH SS X, p. 371. 

[520] Vita Hrodberti Episcopi Salisburgensis 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 157. 

[521] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 14, p. 16. 

[522] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 14, p. 16. 

[523] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 18, p. 19. 

[524] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 64, p. 56. 

[525] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[526] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[527] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[528] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 19, p. 19. 

[529] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 19, p. 19. 

[530] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[531] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 59, p. 53. 

[532] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 41, p. 38. 

[533] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[534] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 37, p. 34. 

[535] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 25, p. 25. 

[536] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[537] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[538] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 34, p. 32. 

[539] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[540] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 15, p. 16. 

[541] Fredegar, IV, 83, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 163. 

[542] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[543] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 62, p. 55. 

[544] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[545] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Stephano, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, p. 390. 

[546] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Sigeberto, II, XVII, XXI, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, pp. 399 and 402. 

[547] Chronicle of Bèze, p. 246, footnote 2 commenting that the murder took place in 696 and that Dodon was the brother of Alpais. 

[548] Liber Historiæ Francorum, 49, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 324. 

[549] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 172. 

[550] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397. 

[551] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 1, MGH SS XXV, p. 382. 

[552] Settipani (1993), p. 156. 

[553] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Sigeberto, II, XVII, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, p. 399. 

[554] Vita Landiberti Episcopi Traiectensis auctore Sigeberto, II, XVII, MGH rer Merov, Tome VI, p. 399. 

[555] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 49, p. 45. 

[556] Vita Germani Abbati Grandivallensis 11, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 38. 

[557] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[558] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[559] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. lxxxi. 

[560] Testamentum Volfaudi Comitis, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber IV, Collectio Veterum, p. 403. 

[561] Testamentum Volfaudi Comitis, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber IV, Collectio Veterum, p. 409. 

[562] Testamentum Volfaudi Comitis, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber IV, Collectio Veterum, p. 410. 

[563] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. lxxxi. 

[564] Testamentum Volfaudi Comitis, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber IV, Collectio Veterum, p. 403. 

[565] Testamentum Volfaudi Comitis, Stephani Baluzii Miscellaneorum, Liber IV, Collectio Veterum, p. 410. 

[566] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[567] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 19, p. 19. 

[568] Fredegar, IV, 37, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 138. 

[569] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 141. 

[570] Fredegar, IV, 43, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 142. 

[571] Chronicon Moissiacense, MGH SS I, p. 288. 

[572] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 64, p. 56. 

[573] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[574] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[575] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[576] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[577] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 23, p. 23. 

[578] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[579] Liber Historiæ Francorum 48, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 323. 

[580] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[581] Liber Historiæ Francorum 49, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 323. 

[582] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[583] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[584] Vita Germani Abbati Grandivallensis 11, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 38. 

[585] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[586] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[587] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[588] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 60, p. 53. 

[589] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 64, p. 56. 

[590] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 77, p. 68. 

[591] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 83, p. 73. 

[592] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 37, p. 34. 

[593] MGH SS I, p. 136, footnote 11. 

[594] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch, 8, p. 10. 

[595] Monumenta Epternacensia 720, MGH SS XXIII, p. 63. 

[596] Monumenta Epternacensia 720, MGH SS XXIII, p. 63. 

[597] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 8, p. 10. 

[598] Monumenta Epternacensia 720, MGH SS XXIII, p. 63. 

[599] RFA 783, p. 61. 

[600] Annales Laurissen ses 749, MGH SS I, p. 136. 

[601] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[602] RFA 770, p. 48. 

[603] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Prieuré d'Argenteuil, p. 348.       

[604] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 14, p. 17. 

[605] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[606] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[607] Traditiones possessionesque Wizenburgenses (Speyer, 1842) (“Traditiones Wizenburgenses“) CCXLI, p. 231. 

[608] Traditiones Wizenburgenses CCXLIII, p. 234. 

[609] Traditiones Wizenburgenses, p. 340. 

[610] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 88. 

[611] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 80. 

[612] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[613] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[614] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 78, p. 69. 

[615] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 76, p. 67. 

[616] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[617] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cx. 

[618] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 6, p. 95. 

[619] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[620] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[621] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[622] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[623] Ex Vita S. Basini Archiepiscopi Trevirensis, RHGF III, p. 591. 

[624] Ex Vita S. Basini Archiepiscopi Trevirensis, RHGF III, p. 591. 

[625] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[626] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 73, p. 64. 

[627] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 66, p. 58. 

[628] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 88. 

[629] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[630] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 80. 

[631] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 78, p. 69. 

[632] Kurth, G. (ed.) (1903) Chartes de l’abbaye de Saint-Hubert en Ardenne (Brussels) ("Ardenne Saint-Hubert"), Tome I, II, p. 3. 

[633] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 88. 

[634] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 80. 

[635] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[636] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[637] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 3, p. 92. 

[638] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[639] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 12, p. 99. 

[640] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 14, p. 101. 

[641] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cx. 

[642] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 77, p. 68. 

[643] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 80. 

[644] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 88. 

[645] Veterum Analectorum III, p. 80. 

[646] Traditiones Wizenburgenses CCLXVII, p. 256. 

[647] Traditiones Wizenburgenses CCXLIII, p. 234. 

[648] Traditiones Wizenburgenses, p. 340. 

[649] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[650] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[651] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[652] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[653] Settipani (1993), p. 254 footnote 433. 

[654] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 1. 

[655] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[656] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[657] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[658] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[659] Jordan, p. 2. 

[660] D’Herbomez, A. (ed.) Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Gorze, Mettensia II (1898) (Paris) 14, p. 35. 

[661] Gorze 14, p. 35. 

[662] Gorze 14, p. 35. 

[663] Settipani (1993), p. 254 footnote 433. 

[664] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[665] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[666] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[667] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[668] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[669] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 16, p. 103. 

[670] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[671] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[672] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[673] Annales Nazariani 748, MGH SS I, p. 27. 

[674] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 14, p. 101. 

[675] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 14, p. 101. 

[676] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[677] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[678] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[679] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[680] Fulda 6, p. 5. 

[681] Fulda 13, p. 9. 

[682] Fulda 14, p. 16. 

[683] Fulda 2, p. 1. 

[684] Fulda 6, p. 5. 

[685] Fulda 6, p. 5. 

[686] Fulda 10, p. 7. 

[687] Fulda 13, p. 9. 

[688] Fulda 14, p. 16. 

[689] Fulda 39, p. 25. 

[690] Fulda 45, p. 29. 

[691] Fulda 53, p. 34. 

[692] Fulda 63, p. 40. 

[693] Fulda 39, p. 25. 

[694] Fulda 45, p. 29. 

[695] Fulda 53, p. 34. 

[696] Fulda 10, p. 7. 

[697] Fulda 39, p. 25. 

[698] Fulda 63, p. 40. 

[699] Fulda 92, p. 56. 

[700] Fulda 10, p. 7. 

[701] Fulda 13, p. 9. 

[702] Fulda 14, p. 16. 

[703] Fulda 14, p. 16. 

[704] Fulda 161, p. 91. 

[705] Fulda 161, p. 91. 

[706] Fredegar (Continuator) 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[707] Annales Metenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[708] Fredegar (Continuator) 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[709] Annales Metenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[710] Fredegar (Continuator) 44, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[711] Annales Mettenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[712] Fredegar (Continuator) 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[713] Annales Alammanici 762, MGH SS I, p. 28. 

[714] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, VI, p. 16. 

[715] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[716] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[717] Dronke, E. F. J. (ed.) (1850) Codex Diplomaticus Fuldensis (Cassel, reprint Aalen 1962) (“Fulda”) 31, p. 20. 

[718] Fulda 34, p. 22. 

[719] Fredegar (Continuator) 51, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 191. 

[720] Fredegar (Continuator) 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 187. 

[721] Fredegar (Continuator) 47, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 190. 

[722] Annales Mettenses 761, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[723] Fredegar (Continuator) 51, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 191. 

[724] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cv. 

[725] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[726] Fredegar (Continuator) 45, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[727] Annales Mettenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[728] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[729] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[730] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, XI, p. 25. 

[731] Fredegar (Continuator), 35, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 183. 

[732] Fredegar (Continuator) 44, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[733] Annales Mettenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[734] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[735] Fredegar (Continuator) 51, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 191. 

[736] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[737] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[738] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Maiorum Domum, no. 18, p. 104. 

[739] Fredegar (Continuator) 51, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 191. 

[740] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[741] Fulda 8, p. 6. 

[742] Fulda 12, p. 9. 

[743] Fulda 26, p. 16. 

[744] Fulda 8, p. 6. 

[745] Fulda 26, p. 16. 

[746] Fulda 2, p. 1. 

[747] Fulda 6, p. 5. 

[748] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[749] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[750] Annales Mettenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[751] Fredegar, IV, Continuator, 44, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 188. 

[752] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[753] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[754] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[755] DD Kar. 1, 22, p. 30. 

[756] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cv. 

[757] DD Kar. 1, 1, p. 3. 

[758] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[759] Fredegar (Continuator), 35, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 183. 

[760] Annales Laurissenses minores 755, 14, MGH SS I, p. 116. 

[761] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[762] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[763] Fredegar (Continuator) 42, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 187. 

[764] Fredegar (Continuator) 51, MGH SS rer Merov, Tome II, p. 191. 

[765] Annales Metenses 765, MGH SS I, p. 334. 

[766] Fulda 12, p. 9. 

[767] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9. 

[768] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[769] DD Kar. 1, 148, p. 200. 

[770] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, VI, p. 16. 

[771] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[772] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, VI, p. 16. 

[773] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, VI, p. 16. 

[774] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[775] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, CLXXXXIII, p. 299. 

[776] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome II, MDCCCXLI, p. 310. 

[777] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome II, MMDCCLI, p. 561. 

[778] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome I, XXII, p. 50. 

[779] Codex Laureshamensis (1768), Tome II, MMDCCLI, p. 561. 

[780] DD Kar. 1, 16, p. 21. 

[781] DD Kar. 1, 12, p. 17. 

[782] DD Kar. 1, 6, p. 9.