The menu system requires Java Script to be enabled. If it does not appear please use the Index file for navigation. GASCONY

 

 

GASCONY - dukes & counts

  v4.0 Updated 06 November 2017        

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Chapter 1.                DUKES and COUNTS of GASCONY : SPURIOUS ALARCON DOCUMENTS. 2

Chapter 2.                DUKES and COUNTS of GASCONY [760]-1039 - OTHER SOURCES. 4

 

 

 

 

A straight-forward reconstruction of the family of the early dukes of Gascony is hampered by information which is included in spurious source documents.  For this reason it is considered in two parts below.  Chapter 1 reconstructs the descendants of Duke Lupus based on a document dated 30 Jan 845, which purports to be a confirmation by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks of the possessions of the monastery of Sainte-Marie, Alarcon, together with nine supposed later confirmation documents[1]The wording of these documents is unusually detailed and atypical of other contemporary Carolingian charters, strongly suggesting that they are spurious.  The date of the fabrication is not known with certainty.  Jaurgain, in his work on the nobility in Gascony, states that the collection of these documents was first published in 1694[2].  He highlights that "Comte Vandregisile", alleged founder of Alarcon according to this series of documentation, is first mentioned by Juan Tamayo de Salazar in his work on Spanish saints, which was published in 1658.  Jaurgain reports a suggestion that Tamayo was the fabricator of the whole series of Alarcon documents, the object being to assert a descent of the Gramont and Beaumont families from the Merovingians[3].  However, his own view is that the documents were fabricated in France, in the mid-17th century, in order to claim a Merovingian descent for the Mauléon-Barousse and Aspremont d’Orthe families[4].  A small part of the genealogical information in the Alarcon documentation is corroborated by other primary sources, including the Annales Metenses and the Continuator of Fredegar.  Other parts of the information are clearly incorrect, for example the statement that Boggis Duke of Aquitaine was the son of Charibert II King of the Franks in Aquitaine, the younger half-brother of the Merovingian King Dagobert I.  There remains a large part of information in the documents which is uncorroborated elsewhere and whose accuracy cannot be judged definitively.  The reconstruction set out in the first chapter should therefore be treated with considerable caution.  Chapter 2 sets out the limited reconstruction of the family of the early dukes of Gascony which is possible based only on information in other surviving primary sources.  This information is sparse, and it can quickly be appreciated that there are numerous possible reconstructions other than the one based on the Alarcon documents.  It is even possible that the various rulers in Gascony at the time were unrelated warlords who seized power from each other, or who controlled different parts of the territory at the same time. 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES and COUNTS of GASCONY : SPURIOUS ALARCON DOCUMENTS

 

 

 

LOUP, son of [HATTO & his wife Vandrade ---] (-murdered [775])The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Lupo Duci" as son of "Hattonis Ducis"[5].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted. 

m ---.  The name of Loup's wife is not known. 

Loup & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         [ADALRIC .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) records that "Lupo Duci" left part of Gascony to "eius filio Adalrico" after he was captured[6].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  According to Monlezun, Adalric succeeded his father as duke of Gascony, confined to the western part of the territory[7]m ---.  The name of Adalric's wife is not known.  Adalric & his wife had [two] children:]

a)         [JIMENO (-after [814/15]).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Scimino et Centullo" as sons of "Adalrico", stating that Gascony was divided between "dictum Sciminum et Lupum Centulli demortui Centulli filium", and that Jimeno and his son were killed in a rebellion[8].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  According to Jaurgain, "Semen-Loup, frère aîné de Sanche-Loup" succeeded his younger brother as Duke of Gascony, but he cites no primary source on which this is based[9].  Monlezun states that he was deprived of Gascony in [814/15] by Emperor Louis I[10]Jaurgain considers that Jimeno was the same person as Seguin [I][11], who is shown in Part B below, but other indications suggest that this is probably incorrect as discussed in more detail below.  m ---.  The name of Jimeno's wife is not known.  Jimeno & his wife had one child:]

i)          [GARCIA .  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Garsimirus Scimiri genitus", stating that he and his father were killed in a rebellion[12].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.] 

b)         [CENTULE (-[812]).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Scimino et Centullo" as sons of "Adalrico"[13].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  m ---.  The name of Centule's wife is not known.  Centule & his wife had [two] children:]

i)          [LOUP (-after 819).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Scimino et Centullo" as sons of "Adalrico", stating that Gascony was divided between "dictum Sciminum et Lupum Centulli demortui Centulli filium"[14].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  m ---.  The name of Loup's wife is not known.  Loup & his wife had [two] children:

(a)       [DONAT LOUP (-[before 865]).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Donatum Lupum et Centulupum" as sons of "Lupi Centulli Ducis", stating that the former was installed as Comte de Bigorre[15].  Ancestor of the Comtes de Bigorre (see below, Part B).] 

(b)       [CENTULE LOUP (-[844]).  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Donatum Lupum et Centulupum" as sons of "Lupi Centulli Ducis", stating that the latter was installed as Vicomte de Béarn[16].  His parentage has not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.] 

2.         [LOUP-SANCHOMonlezun records that Loup "arrière petit fils [de] Eudes…fut étranglé et pendu" by King Charles's forces, leaving "fils Adalric et peut-être aussi Loup-Sanche jeunes enfants"[17].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

3.         [ADELA The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) names "Adelæ…Ducis Lupi filiæ" as mother of "Lupus"[18].  Her parentage and marriage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  m WAIFAR Duke of Aquitaine, son of HUNOALD Duke of Aquitaine & his wife --- (-killed in battle 2 Jun 768).]

 

 

1.         TOTILON (-after 815).  Duke of GasconyThe charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) records that "Totilo Duci" was installed as duke of Gascony before "Sigihino Mostellanico", implying that both were installed as dukes after the rebellion of Jimeno[19]According to Monlezun, he was invested with Gascony by Emperor Louis I and died in 845[20], although the basis for this date is uncertain

 

2.         SEGUIN [I] "Mostellanicus" (-after 816).  Duke of GasconyThe charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the Introduction) records that "Totilo Duci" was installed as duke of Gascony before "Sigihino Mostellanico", implying that both were installed as dukes after the rebellion of Jimeno[21]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DUKES and COUNTS of GASCONY [760]-1039 - OTHER SOURCES

 

 

1.         LOUP (-after 770).  Duke of Gascony.  Einhard records the exploits of "Wasconum dux Lupus" in 770 but does not give his origin[22]

 

2.         ADALRIC (-before 814).  [Duke of Gascony.]  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Chorso dux Tholosanus" was defeated by "cuiusdam Wasconis, Adelerici" by forces of Charles I King of the Franks and exiled, but later killed in battle[23]

 

3.         SEGUIN [I] [Jimeno] (-after 816).  Duke of Gascony.  Einhard's Annales record that "Vascones" rebelled against "ducem suum…Sigiwinum" in 816[24].  The Chronicle of Saint-André de Bordeaux records that the emperor expelled "Sihiminum comitem" who escaped to Spain "where he later caused many problems for the emperor’s forces" ("ubi postea multa turbationes contra gentes Imperatoris fecit")[25].  Seguin must have been removed from Gascony before 819 when "Lupus" is recorded in Einhard's Annales as Gascon leader (see above).  Jaurgain considers that Seguin was the same person as "Semen-Loup duc des Vascons"[26], in other words "Jimeno" who is named as son of Adalric in the possibly spurious charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (see Part A. above), although the charter distinguishes the two individuals.  The names "Sigihino/Sigiwinus/Sihiminus" are somewhat similar to "Jimeno".  The key is whether Seguin [I] was a Frankish nominee installed by the emperor after the Gascon revolt or whether he was a Gascon native leader.  The passage from Einhard quoted above suggests that the former was the case, as there appears no reason why the Gascons should have rebelled against their own leader.  However, the references to Seguin [II] (see below) are more consistent with his having been of Frankish rather than Gascon origin: it appears unlikely that a native Gascon whose father had rebelled only twenty years previously would have been appointed count at Bordeaux (presumably by King Charles II). 

 

4.         SEGUIN [II] (-killed [Bordeaux/Saintes] 846).  His name suggests a close family connection with Duke Seguin [I].   It is possible that Seguin [I] and Seguin [II] were in fact the same person as no record has been found of Seguin [I] after 816.  Comte de [Bordeaux et de Saintes].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records that "Siguinus comes Burdagalensis et Sanctonicensis" was captured and killed by the Vikings who burnt Saintes, dating the event to the year after "Bernardus comes Pictavinus et Arueus filius Rainoldi" were killed[27]The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Signuinus comes Burdegalensis et Santonicensis" was captured by the Vikings and killed in 845, following which Saintes was burned[28].  [Duke of Gascony.]  A letter of Lupus Abbot of Ferrières to Wenilo Archbishop of Sens, dated 846, records that "Ducem Vasconum Siguinum" was killed by "Normannos inter Burdegalam et Santones"[29]

 

5.         CENTULE .  His name is known only from the patronymic attributed to his son.  m ---.  The name of Centule's wife is not known.  Centule & his wife had two children:

a)         LOUP Centule (-after 819).  [Duke of Gascony.]  Einhard's Annales name "Berengario Tolosæ et Warino Arverni comite" as fighting "Lupus Centulli Wasco" in 819 and "in quo et fratrem Garsandum…interitum fuit"[30]The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the rebellion of "Wasco, Lupus Centulli cognomento" and fighting "Werinum Arvernorum comitem et Berengarium Tholosanum"[31].  The Gesta Francorum names "Lupus Wasco" when recording that he was "de perfidia convictus" and sent into exile in 819[32]

b)         GERSAND (-killed in battle 819).  Einhard's Annales name "Berengario Tolosæ et Warino Arverni comite" as fighting "Lupus Centulli Wasco" in 819 and "in quo et fratrem Garsandum…interitum fuit"[33]

 

6.         SANCHO (-[before 812])His name is known from the patronymic attributed to his son.  According to Jaurgain, Sancho was the son of Loup Duke of Gascony whom he succeeded but he cites no primary source on which he bases his assertion[34].  The poem of Ermold le Noir names "Loup-Sancion" and records that "Sancion prince des Gascons" (apparently referring to the same person) was brought up at the court of Charles I King of the Franks and swore fidelity to him[35].  This would seem to be the only reference in primary sources to Sancho.  m ---.  The name of Sancho's wife is not known.  Sancho & his wife had three children:

a)         AZNAR Sancho (-[836, bur Alsonense monastery]).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Eblus atque Asenarius comites" were ordered across the Pyrenees to Pamplona in 824[36].  His parentage is confirmed by the reference in the Annales Bertiniani to his brother as "Sancio-Sanci" (see below), although the precise identity of his father as the son of Loup Duke of Gascony has not been confirmed by the primary sources so far consulted.   Comte de Gascogne.  "Azenario Sancius comes" instructed two priests to restore "la terre de Cazaux" to the abbey of Pessan by charter dated Oct [833], subscribed by "Dato Donati comite, Garsia vice comite, Galindo Azenarii"[37]Einhard's Annales record that "Aeblus et Asinarius comites" were sent to Pamplona with riches from Gascony but were captured, "Aeblus" being sent to Córdoba while "Asinarius" was allowed to return home as he was "quasi…consanguineus eorum"[38]The Annales Bertiniani record that "Azenarius quoque citerioris Wasconiæ comes", who had revolted against King Pepin some years earlier, died "a horrible death" in 836[39].  The editor of the Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Asenarius comes de Iacca" founded "Alsonense monasterium" in 835 and was buried there in 836[40]m ---.  The name of Aznar's wife is not known.  Aznar & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          [GARCIA [Aznar] (-[890]).  "Azenario Sancius comes" instructed two priests to restore "la terre de Cazaux" to the abbey of Pessan by charter dated Oct [833], subscribed by "Dato Donati comite, Garsia vice comite, Galindo Azenarii"[41].  Jaurgain identifies "Garcia vice comite" as the son of Aznar Sancho[42], although the document does not indicate the relationship between him and Aznar.  "Garsiano comite, Garcia-Dat, Azenario vicecomite, Sancho-Atilio" subscribed the charter dated Jan [846] under which "Dolgrin" donated "la terre de Cazaux" to the abbey of Pessan, for the soul of "Aner Sancio comite"[43].  Jaurgain states that "Garsiano comite" was the son of Aznar Sanchez and that "Azenario vicecomite" was the son of Garcia Aznar[44].  However, he does not explain how he makes this deduction from the wording of this charter which, as quoted by him, does not specify the patronymics of the subscribers.  Jaurgain states that "Garsiano comite" died "vers 890" but he does not cite the primary source on which this is based[45].]  m ---.  The name of Garcia’s wife is not known.  Garcia & his wife had [one] child: 

(a)       [AZNAR [Garcia] .  "Garsiano comite, Garcia-Dat, Azenario vicecomite, Sancho-Atilio" subscribed the charter dated Jan [846] under which "Dolgrin" donated "la terre de Cazaux" to the abbey of Pessan, for the soul of "Aner Sancio comite"[46].  Jaurgain states that "Garsiano comite" was the son of Aznar Sanchez and that "Azenario vicecomite" was the son of Garcia Aznar[47].  However, he does not explain how he makes this deduction from the wording of this charter which, as quoted by him, does not specify the patronymics of the subscribers.]  m ---.  The name of Aznar’s wife is not known.  Aznar & his wife had one child: 

(1)       [LOUP Aznar (-[935]).  Jaurgain states that "Loup Aznar comte de Comminges" was the son of "Aznar II, fils de Garcia" and that he was comte de Comminges from [910] to [935], but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[48].  [Comte de Comminges.]  Flodoard records that "Lupus quoque Acinarius Vasco" swore hommage to Hugues (future dux Francorum) and King Raoul in 932, commenting that he rode a horse vigorously when he was more than 100 years old[49]m ---.  The name of Loup’s wife is not known.  Loup & his wife had one child: 

a.         [AZNAR [III] (-[940]).  Jaurgain states that "Loup Aznar comte de Comminges" was the father of "Aznar III" but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[50].  "Vicecomes…Asnarius" founded the monastery of Peyrissas, on returning from pilgrimage to Rome, and placed it under the protection of "comiti Comunensis", dated to [915] (by Jaurgain), as recorded in a charter of the abbey of Lézat dated to [1075][51].  [Comte de Comminges].] 

-         COMTES de COMMINGES

ii)         [MARIE .  This individual probably never existed.  The charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 30 Jan 845 (probably spurious, as explained in the introduction to the present chapter) names "Maria comitissa" as wife of "Vandregisilus comes consanguineus noster…" and daughter of "quondam Asinario comite" from whom she inherited "castri Vandres"[52].  Her name and parentage have not been corroborated by other primary sources consulted.  The editor of the Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Asenarius comes de Iacca filiam suam Mariam" married "Wandregisilo limitis Hispanici comitis, qui ab Eudone Aquitaniæ ducis genus ducebat"[53]m WANDREGISIL, son of ---.] 

b)         SANCHO Sancho (-[855]).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "fraterque illius Sancio-Sanci" occupied "citerioris Wasconia", against the wishes of King Pepin, after the death of "Azenarius quoque citerioris Wasconiæ comes" in 836[54]Comte de Gascogne.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Sancius comes Vasconiæ" was captured in 852 by "Pippinum, Pippini filium"[55]Duke of GasconyThe Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Muza quidem nomine Gothus, se ritu Mahamentiano…deceptus" invaded southern France and captured "duos…Francorum magnos duces…Sancionem et…Epulonem" and imprisoned them in chains[56].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc dates the event to 850[57].  Jaurgain considers that this is incorrect and redates the event to Oct 853[58]The Sebastiani Chronicon records that Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks bought peace from Musa, after which the captives were released[59]According to Jaurgain, Sancho died "vers 855" but he cites no primary source on which this is based[60]

c)         [SANCHA] .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Translatio Reliquiarum S. Faustæ which records that (her son) "Arnaldus" obtained "apud Gascones…Ducatus", adding that he was "filius cuiusdam comitis Petragoricensis…Imonis" and that he succeeded "avunculo suo Sanctioni"[61].  She is named Sancha by Jaurgain[62], but the primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m EMENON Comte de Périgord, son of ---.  Emenon & his wife had one child: 

i)          ARNAUD (-864).  The Translatio Reliquiarum S. Faustæ records that "Arnaldus" obtained "apud Gascones…Ducatus", adding that he was "filius cuiusdam comitis Petragoricensis…Imonis", that he succeeded "avunculo suo Sanctioni", that he fought off Viking attacks, and died just before retiring to the monastery of Solignac in Limousin[63]Duke of Gascony

 

7.         DONAT .  His name is known only from the patronymic attributed to his son.  According to Jaurgain, he was the son of Loup Duke of Gascony but he cites no primary source on which this is based and it appears to be no more than a guess[64]

-        CONDES de BAILO

 

8.         LOUP .  His name is known only from the patronymic attributed to his son.  It is possible that he was the same person as Loup [Duke of Gascony] (died after 819) who is shown above.  m ---.  The name of Loup's wife is not known.  Loup & his wife had one child: 

a)         DONAT Loup (-[838/65])Comte [de Bigorre].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Emperor Louis I sent "Elisachar abbatem et Hildebrandum comitem…et Donatum" to suppress the revolt of "Aizone" in the March of Spain [in 827][65].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Emperor Louis I sent "Bonifatius comes et Donatus…comes…et Adrebaldus Flaviniacensis monasterii abbas" as missi to Septimania [in 838][66].  The chronology suggests that he was a different person from Donat, ancestor of the Condes de Bailo, who is shown above.  m FAQUILO, daughter of [MANSIO] & his wife ---.  "Dompna Faquilo" donated property to the monastery of Saint-Orens de Lavedan, for the souls of "Mansionis…Donati Lupi comiti…et filiis meis et filias", by charter dated Dec [865], subscribed by "Dattonis Donati comitis, Luponis, Luponis Centuli"[67].  Monlezun names "Faquilène, fille de Mancion qui paraît appartenir à la souche des vicomtes de Lavédan" as the wife of Donat-Loup de Bigorre[68]

-        COMTES de BIGORRE

 

9.         CENTULE .  His name is known only from the patronymic attributed to his son.  m [AURIA], daughter of ---.  Monlezun names "Auria" as wife of Centule Loup[69].  Centule & his wife had one child: 

a)         LOUP Centule (-[905]).  "Dompna Faquilo" donated property to the monastery of Saint-Orens de Lavedan, for the souls of "Mansionis…Donati Lupi comiti…et filiis meis et filias", by charter dated Dec [865], subscribed by "Dattonis Donati comitis, Luponis, Luponis Centuli"[70]

-        VICOMTES de BEARN

 

 

1.         GUILLAUME, son of [BERTRAND Comte de [Bazas et d’Agen] & his wife Berta ---] (-[killed Bordeaux 848])Comte de [Bordeaux].  [Duke of Gascony.]  He was presumably invested with part of Gascony after the death of Seguin [II] but no primary source has been found which confirms that this is correct.  The Chronicon Fontanellensis records that "Ducem eiusdem Guilhelmum" was captured (and presumably killed, but this is not stated in the source) when "Nortmanni" captured Bordeaux in 848[71]

 

 

1.         SANCHO "Mitarra/Menditarra" ([825/35]-before 893).  The parentage of Sancho is unclear from the primary sources.  Although the patronymic of his son Garcia indicates his father's name, Settipani states that there is no proof that Sancho was related to the previous dukes of Gascony who are shown above[72].  However, a clue is provided by the undated charter, under which Sancho’s great-grandson "dominus Willelmus Sancii comes Gasconiorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq[73].  The document records that "quomodo venisset de Hispania avus domni Willelmi ubi se contulerat pater eius tempore domni Ludovici imperatoris" ("the grandfather of seigneur Guillaume had come from Spain where his father had taken refuge at the time of emperor Louis")[74].  The "avus domni Willelmi" was Count Garcia [I] Sanchez, so the latter's own father would have been Sancho.  The document also states that the consanguinity of Guillaume Sancho with Gaston Centule Vicomte de Béarn was proved: "quidem Rex" (which from the context appears to refer to Sancho) invested "avo Vicecomitis [Gasto Centuli Vicecomes Bearnensis], qui erat de eius progenie" with "hac patria".  This statement provides a strong suggestion that Sancho and his son were related to the previous dukes of Gascony, from whom the vicomtes de Béarn were probably descended although the documentation which proves this relationship has not survived.  Another perspective is provided by the Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ which records that "maxima pars nobilium virorum Guasconiæ" left for "Hispaniam ad Consulem Castellæ" (presumably during the time of Emperor Louis I, although this is not stated in the document), that "Sancius Mitarra, minimus filiorum eius" returned to Gascony, where he was made "Consul" and had a son "Mitarra-Sancius" who was father of "Garsiam-Sancium Curvum"[75].  The distinction between the two persons "Sancius Mitarra" and "Mitarra Sancius" appears unlikely from a chronological point of view, especially given the patronymic assigned to Comte Garcia [I] in other sources (see below).  Sancho’s birth date is estimated from the estimated birth date of his son.  The charter of Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq, quoted above, suggests that Sancho must have been invested as Duke of Gascony in the latter half of the 9th century, maybe in 864 after the death of Duke Arnaud.  The document refers to him as "Rex".  It is unclear why he should have been accorded this title.  However, as noted below, the same title is referred to in a charter dated to [920] in which his son calls himself "Garsias Sanctii consul filius regis Sancii"[76].  This document presumably provided the basis on which Monlezun states that Sancho was the third son of "Garsias-Ximenes" king of Pamplona, and that he eventually succeeded as king of Navarre after 901[77], although he cites no primary sources.  It appears improbable from a chronological point of view that Sancho could have been the same person as Sancho I García King of Navarre, whose succession in Navarre is dated to 905 and death to 925.  The surprising conclusion appears to be that Sancho, father of Garcia [I], was referred to in contemporary documentation as "king" by way of honorific title.  m ---.  The name of Sancho's wife is not known.  Sancho & his wife had two children: 

a)         GARCIA [I] "le Tors/el Curvo" Sancho ([850/60]-after 920)The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Garsiam-Sancium Curvum" as son of "Mitarra-Sancius"[78].  His birth date is estimated consistent with his father’s estimated birth date range.  Comte de Gascogne

-        see below

b)         ANEPALAFRED .  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis records that “Anepalafred frater Comitis Garsia Sancii” donated “ecclesiam sancti Pauli in…Bonos Casales” for having been cured of an illness after two years[79]

 

 

GARCIA [I] "le Tors/el Curvo" Sancho, son of SANCHO "Mitarra/Menditarra" Duke of Gascony & his wife --- ([850/60]-after 920).  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Garsiam-Sancium Curvum" as son of "Mitarra-Sancius"[80].  His birth date is estimated consistent with his father’s estimated birth date range.  Comte de Gascogne.  He is named in charters dated [886/87][81]Rex Fortunio Garcianes” reviewed the territories of the monastery of San Julián de Labasal, at the request of “comite Galindo Asnar”, by charter dated 893, whose dating clause records “...Garcia Sanz in Gallias, Raimundus in Paliares, pagani...Mohomet Ebenlupu in Balleterra et Mohomet Atauel in Osca...[82].  "Walfridus…abba…monachorum monasterii Soricinensis" sold "cella Modulfi", donated by "Arrichoatus comes", to "dominus Garcias, comes et marchio in limitibus oceanis" by charter dated Oct 904, which names "uxoris suæ Aminianæ et…filiis et filiabus"[83].  "Garsias Sanctii consul filius regis Sancii" granted "Astaracensem pagum" to "Arnaldo filio meo" by charter dated to [920], signed by "Garciæ Sancii Consulis, Sancii Wilhelmi comitis filii, Salii Vivari, Sancii Amanevi, Gumbaudi, Eneci fratris eius"[84]

m AMUNA [Munia], daughter of ---.  "Walfridus…abba…monachorum monasterii Soricinensis" sold "cella Modulfi", donated by "Arrichoatus comes", to "dominus Garcias, comes et marchio in limitibus oceanis" by charter dated Oct 904, which names "uxoris suæ Aminianæ et…filiis et filiabus"[85].  Jaurgain suggests that "Aminiane", wife of Garcia, was the daughter of Guillaume Comte [de Bordeaux] and [Duke of Gascony] whom (it seems) Garcia’s father succeeded, in order to explain in particular the transmission of the name Guillaume into Garcia’s family[86].  The chronology is not ideal for this suggestion.  Guillaume Comte [de Bordeaux] is last recorded when he was captured in 848.  Jaurgain says “très probablement, il survécut longtemps à ce désastre”.  No indication has been found which indicates that Jaurgain’s speculation is correct.  Given the estimated birth dates of Garcia’s children, it is unlikely that their mother was born before [860], which would mean that Guillaume survived for a considerable time during which the sources were silent about his career.  In any case, the name “Munia” suggests that Garcia’s wife was of Spanish origin.  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis records that "comitissa…coniux…Garsiæ Principis cognomento Curvi" restored the convent of Condom[87]

Comte Garcia I & his wife had [seven] children:

1.         SANCHO Garcia ([875/90]-[950/55]).  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Sancium-Garsiam et Willelmum-Garsiam et Arnaldum-Garsiam" as the three sons of "Garsiam-Sancium Corvum", specifying that they divided Gascony between them[88].  Sancho Garcia is named as the son of Garcia Sanchez in the cartulary of Auch[89] and in the Codex de Roda[90], the former specifying that he inherited Gascony from his father.  His birth date range is estimated based on the birth date range estimated for his father, although his estimated date of death suggests that he was probably born towards the end of this range.  Comte de Gascogne

-        see below

2.         GUILLAUME Garcia .  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Sancium-Garsiam et Willelmum-Garsiam et Arnaldum-Garsiam" as the three sons of "Garsiam-Sancium Corvum", specifying that they divided Gascony between them, Guillaume Garcia receiving "Fidenciacum"[91].  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garsias et Arnaldo Garsies ac Gilelmo Garsies, ac domna Andregoto, seu domna Acibella, seu et ---" as the children of "Garsea Sanzoz" and his unnamed wife[92].  The cartulary of Auch records that "Garsiam Sancium Curvum" had three sons "Sancium Garsiam et Guillelmum Garsiam et Arnaldum Garsiam", specifying that Sancho succeeded in Gascony, Guillaume in Fezensac, and Arnaud in Astarac[93]Monlezun names "Guillaume" as second of the three sons of Garcia, specifying that he succeeded his father in "Fezensac, réuni alors à l'Armagnac"[94] "Guilelmus Garsie comes de Fidentiaco" donated property to Sainte-Marie d’Auch by charter dated May [926], signed by "Oriolo Datus vicecomite…"[95]m ---.  The name of Guillaume's wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had five children: 

a)         RAYMOND .  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundus de Fedenzac, et Oton, ac Fridolo, et Bernardo, at domna ---" as the children of "Gilelmo Garsies" and his unnamed wife[96]

b)         OTHON (-before 985).  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundus de Fedenzac, et Oton, ac Fridolo, et Bernardo, at domna ---" as the children of "Gilelmo Garsies" and his unnamed wife[97].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Ottonem cognomina Fultam et Bernardum Luscum" as children of "Guillelmus-Garsias Consul Fidentiaci", stating that they divided their territories between them, Othon taking "Fidentiacum"[98]Comte de Fezensac [965].  Monlezun names "Othon et Bernard" as the two sons of Guillaume Garcia, specifying that Othon succeeded his father in "l'orient qui retint le nom de Fezensac [et qui] s'étendait de Vic à Mauvezin, et de Montesquiou à Valence" but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[99]

-        COMTES de FEZENSAC

c)         FREDELON .  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundus de Fedenzac, et Oton, ac Fridolo, et Bernardo, at domna ---" as the children of "Gilelmo Garsies" and his unnamed wife[100].  "Oddo comes" donated property to Sainte-Marie d’Auch by charter dated to [960] "regnante tres fratres germanos Oddo comite, Bernardo comite, Fredelone comite"[101]

d)         BERNARD "le Louche" (-after 1029).  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundus de Fedenzac, et Oton, ac Fridolo, et Bernardo, at domna ---" as the children of "Gilelmo Garsies" and his unnamed wife[102].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Ottonem cognomina Fultam et Bernardum Luscum" as children of "Guillelmus-Garsias Consul Fidentiaci", stating that they divided their territories between them, Bernard taking "Armaniacum" and also commenting that Bernard built "Monasterium S. Orientii"[103]Comte d'Armagnac et d'Aignan ([965].  Monlezun names "Othon et Bernard" as the two sons of Guillaume Garcia, specifying that Bernard succeeded his father in "l'occident sous le nom d'Armagnac…[comprenant] les cantons actuels de Riscle, d'Aignan, de Nogaro et de Cazaubon" but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[104]

-        COMTES d'ARMAGNAC

e)         GERSENDE de Fezensac .  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundus de Fedenzac, et Oton, ac Fridolo, et Bernardo, at domna ---" as the children of "Gilelmo Garsies" and his unnamed wife, stating that the unnamed daughter was the mother of "domne Abe comitisse"[105].  Another passage in the Codex de Roda names "domna --- Gilelmo Garsias filia" as the wife of "Regemundus"[106]The end 13th century “Crònica d’Alaó Renovada” names “Garsendis…de Gallis” as wife of “Regimundi…comes Ripacurcie[107]Regimundus…commes…et coniux mea Eresindis” donated property for the monastery of San Vicente by charter which is dated 1 Dec “anno regnante Leutario rege” and also quotes the date “957”[108].  Her name is indicated by the undated charter under which “Unifredus comes” donated property “ad Stum Petrum de Lastanosa”, for the souls of “parente meo Raimundo comite et…matre mea Gersinde comittissa[109].  “Regimundus…commes…et coniux mea Eresindis” donated property for the monastery of San Vicente by charter which is dated 1 Dec “anno regnante Leutario rege” and also quotes the date “957”[110]m RAIMUNDO [II] Conde de Ribagorza, son of BERNARDO [I] Conde de Ribagorza & his wife Tota de Aragón (-[960/Dec 964]). 

3.         ARNAUD Garcia (-[960]).  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garsias et Arnaldo Garsies ac Gilelmo Garsies, ac domna Andregoto, seu domna Acibella, seu et ---" as the children of "Garsea Sanzoz" and his unnamed wife[111].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Sancium-Garsiam et Willelmum-Garsiam et Arnaldum-Garsiam" as the three sons of "Garsiam-Sancium Corvum", specifying that they divided Gascony between them, Arnaud Garcia receiving "Astaracum"[112]Comte d'Astarac

-        COMTES d'ASTARAC

4.         ANDREGOTO .  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garsias et Arnaldo Garsies ac Gilelmo Garsies, ac domna Andregoto, seu domna Acibella, seu et ---" as the children of "Garsea Sanzoz" and his unnamed wife[113].  [m RAYMOND Comte de Bordeaux, son of ---.  Settipani suggests that the wife of Comte Raymond, named Andregoto, was the daughter of Duke Garcia Sanchez of the same name but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[114].  "Comes Villelmus…matrem suam…Entregotis et uxorem suam Aremburgis" and "Guillelmus comes, filius Remundo comiti" founded the abbey of Bordeaux Sainte-Croix by charter dated to "regnante Guillelmo comite, quod vocatur bonus in civitate Burdegalensi"[115].] 

5.         ACIBELLA de Gascogne (-before 905).  The Codex de Roda names "domna Acibella, Garsea Sanzionis comitis Guasconie filia" as the first wife of "Galindo Asnari"[116]m as his first wife, GALINDO II Aznar Conde de Aragón, son of AZNAR II Galíndez Conde de Aragón & his wife Oneca Garcés de Pamplona (-923). 

6.         [GERSENDE] (-after 972).  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garsias et Arnaldo Garsies ac Gilelmo Garsies, ac domna Andregoto, seu domna Acibella, seu et ---" as the children of "Garsea Sanzoz" and his unnamed wife[117].  Another passage in the Codex de Roda records that "Pontio" married "filia Garsie Sanzionis" by whom he was father of "Regimundus"[118].  This could refer to any of the three daughters referred to in the former passage.  The name of the wife of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse is confirmed by her undated codicil testament (see below).  Settipani discusses hypotheses suggesting that the two sources do not in fact refer to the same wife of Raymond Pons, who in this scenario would have married twice, firstly to a daughter of Garcia de Gascogne and secondly to Gersende[119].  It is suggested that Raymond Pons's first wife was Garcia's daughter who is named Andregoto in the Codex de Roda (the widow of Raymond Comte de Bordeaux), and that his second wife Gersende was the daughter of Ermengaud Comte de Rouergue.  The Rouergue origin is proposed to explain why most of the property referred to in Gersende's codicil testament was located in Rouergue and Albigeois, although it is recognised that if this origin is correct the spouses would have been first cousins (insufficient information has yet been identified on which to base a conclusion concerning the acceptability to the church of first cousin marriages at that time).  The hypothesis represents an interesting speculation.  However, it is not felt that there is a sufficiently strong basis to justify showing these two marriages as a likely possibility, even in square brackets, in this document.  "Poncio comes et marchio" donated property to the church of Béziers by charter dated 17 Jan 937, signed by "Garsindis, Jonus vicecomes…Ato vicecomes"[120]"Raimundus qui et Pontius, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" dedicated the church of Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 937[121]"…Domni Pontii ducis Aquitanorum et comitis Tolosani, Guarsindis uxoris eius, Hugonis comitis, Arnaudi vicecomitis, Sicardi vicecomitis, Atonis, Pontii" signed the charter dated Aug 940 under which Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and Rodoald Bishop of Béziers donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières[122].  A charter dated 969, which records an agreement between Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and the monastery of Saint-Pons de Thomières, refers to the advice of "Gersindæ comitissæ et Adalais vicecomitissæ" and "quondam Poncius comes"[123].  A charter dated 972 records donations to the church of Saint-Michel de Gaillac, confirmed by "Regimundus comes", subscribed by "Gersindis comitissæ"[124]"Domina Garcendis comitissa quæ fui uxor domni Pontii comitis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the soul of "dicti mariti mei Pontii comitis", by charter dated Jul [972], which reserves property which "Adalaydis et filius eius Ermengaudus et Raymundus" held in "castrum de Cenceno" for their lives[125].  The testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", dated to [972], bequeathed property for life to the following beneficiaries (few of whom can be identified): "ecclesiam…Sancti Symphoriani cum alode…Cabannes excepto Dauker" to "Ugoni comiti nepoti meo" [Hugues Comte de Quercy?]; "alodem meum…Cencinnonem" to "Adalais vicecomitissæ et filiis eius Ermengaudo et Regimundo" [Adelais, widow of Matfred Vicomte de Narbonne]; "ecclesiam…Sanctum Martialum de Greza" to "Aimerico" and after his death to "Regimundo filio eius"; "villam…Gerbuxam" to "Mironi filio Amelii" and after his death to "fratri ipsius…Matfredi"; "villam meam…Brutia" to "Amelio nepoti meo" [see below]; "alodem meum…Vilarem" to "Froterio"; "alodum meum…Cantullum" to "Adraldo filio"; "alodum meum…Cantullum" to "Bernardo vicecomiti"; "castellarum…Becus…excepto convenientia Grimaldi…Bernardo filio ipsius Grimaldi" to the church of Saint-Vincent; "ecclesiam meam de Vinarcha" to "Bernardo et Dagberto filiis Dagberti"; "mansum quam tenuit Robertus" to "Regimundo filio Bernardi"; "fevum quam tenuit Rostagnus de Veharca" to "Aimardo et Bernardo filiis Bernardi"; "alium fevum quem tenuit Pontius" to "Raymundo filio Bernardi et alio Raymundo et Attoni"; "ecclesiam meam de Bar" to "Isarnus vicecomes"; "alios mansos" to "Aicfredo et fratri eius Matfredo, filiis Unigerii"; "Cotnag et Vallelias" to "Raymundo filio Gundinildis nepoti meo" [Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse?]; "mansum ubi Godalbertus visus est manere" to "Sicfredo" and after his death to "filio suo Rainardo"; "Campumalbum et Bragos" to "Barnardo filio Regimundo"; "mansum de Genestoso" to "Adalrico filio Pontii"; "alodem quem dedit mihi Regimundus, ecclesiam de Becia" to "Alanberganæ"; "alodum de Fraxino…medietatem" to "Arnaldo filio Bernardi"; "ecclesiam de Muscle…Sanctum Stephanum" to "Sanctioni filio Foramundi", "alium alodem" half to "Olibano" and half to "ipsi Sanctioni"; "mansum ubi mansit Andreas de Miliares" to "Gauzeleno et filio eius Umberti"[126]m RAYMOND PONS Comte de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND II Comte de Toulouse & his wife Guinidilda [de Barcelona] ([900]-[940/44], bur Saint-Pons-de-Thomières). 

7.         [TOTA .  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis records that “Soror Principis Sanctii…Tota” donated property after taking “possessionem sancti Petri…Tamvilla[127].  Tota’s parentage is not without doubt but it is a reasonable assumption that “Principis Sanctii” refers to Comte Sancho Garcia.] 

 

 

SANCHO Garcia, son of GARCIA [I] "le Tors/el Curvo" Sancho Comte de Gascogne & his wife Amuna --- ([875/90]-[950/55])The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garsias et Arnaldo Garsies ac Gilelmo Garsies, ac domna Andregoto, seu domna Acibella, seu et ---" as the children of "Garsea Sanzoz" and his unnamed wife[128].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Sancium-Garsiam et Willelmum-Garsiam et Arnaldum-Garsiam" as the three sons of "Garsiam-Sancium Corvum", specifying that they divided Gascony between them[129].  The cartulary of Auch records that "Garsiam Sancium Curvum" had three sons "Sancium Garsiam et Guillelmum Garsiam et Arnaldum Garsiam", specifying that Sancho succeeded in Gascony, Guillaume in Fezensac, and Arnaud in Astarac[130].  His birth date range is estimated based on the birth date range estimated for his father, although his estimated date of death suggests that he was probably born towards the end of this range.  Comte de GascogneThe Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis names "Sancius-Garsiæ" as brother of "Arnaldus…cognomento…Natus", son of "comitissa…coniux…Garsiæ Principis cognomento Curvi" who restored the convent of Condom, specifying that he received "Vasconiæ Principatum"[131].  Monlezun names "Sanche" as oldest of the three sons of Garcia, specifying that he succeeded his father in "la grande Gascogne qui comprenait les vicomtés de Lomagen, de Gavarret, de Tursan et de Bruillois"[132] 

m ---.  The name of Sancho's wife is not known.  The cartulary of Auch records that "Sancius Garsias" had "duos filios manzeres Sancium Sancium et Guillelmum Sancium"[133].  This is the only source so far identified which casts doubt on the legitimacy of any of Sancho’s children.  Jaurgain suggests that Sancho may have been closely related to his wife, and that the church had not granted the required dispensation for the marriage, therefore considering the children as illegitimate[134].  Jaurgain suggests that Sancho’s other children, who are not named in this source, must have been born from an otherwise unrecorded second marriage[135].  While it is not impossible that Sancho married twice, it does not appear correct to draw this conclusion only from the absence of the names of the other children from the Auch cartulary. 

Sancho & his wife had seven children:

1.         GARCIA Sancho .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife[136]

2.         SANCHO Sancho (-[961]).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife[137]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis names "Sancium…et Guillermum atque Gimbaldum" as the three children of "Sancius-Garsiæ", specifying that "Sancius-Sanctii major natu" succeeded his father but died childless[138]The cartulary of Auch records that "Sancius Garsias" had "duos filios manzeres Sancium Sancium et Guillelmum Sancium"[139].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Sancium-Sancium et Guillelmum-Sancium" as "duos filios manzeres" of "Sancius-Garsias"[140]Comte de GascogneMonlezun names "Sanche et Guillaume que les cartulaires d'Auch et de Lescar traitent d'enfants naturels" as sons of Sancho, and that Sancho succeeded his father but died without issue and was succeeded by his brother[141]

3.         GUILLAUME Sancho (-23 Dec [996]).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife[142]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis names "Sancium…et Guillermum atque Gimbaldum" as the three children of "Sancius-Garsiæ", specifying that "Guillelmus-Sanctii" succeeded his brother[143]Comte de Gascogne.   

-        see below

4.         GOMBAUD (-after 978).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife[144]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis names "Sancium…et Guillermum atque Gimbaldum" as the three children of "Sancius-Garsiæ"[145]"Garsias Sanctii consul filius regis Sancii" granted "Astaracensem pagum" to "Arnaldo filio meo" by charter dated to [920], signed by "Garciæ Sancii Consulis, Sancii Wilhelmi comitis filii, Salii Vivari, Sancii Amanevi, Gumbaudi, Eneci fratris eius"[146].  "Gumboldus episcopus et frater meus Willelmus Sancio dux Vasconum" re-established the monastery of La Réole by charter dated 977, subscribed by "Garsiæ nepotis ipsorum, Rotgarii vicecomitis, Utzan Amaneii, Seguini vicecomitis, Areolidat vicecomitis, Arnoldi Amaneii"[147].  The version reproduced by Marca, quoted by Jaurgain, names "Garsiæ nepotis ipsorum, Rotgarii Judicis, Utzan Amaneu, Vicecomitis Exii, Areolidat Vicecomitis, Arnaldi Amaneu" as the subscribers[148].  Bishop and Duc des Gascons 978.  "Gumboldus episcopus…regionis dux" confirmed an exchange of property between the monks of La Réole and his vassal "Arsia" with the advice of "fratrum…Willelmus Sancio dux" by charter dated 978, subscribed by "Aner Sano vicecomes, Willelmus Arsiæ, Sans Aner, Rotgarius vicecomes, Utzan Amanieu, Arnald Amanieu"[149].  "Gunbaldus sancta Burdegalensis ecclesie archiepiscopus" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Cyprien at Poitiers by charter dated to [989/1010], subscribed by "Avierna, Ilduini filii eius, Willelmi fratris sui, Odulrici fratris sui"[150]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis notes that "Gimbaldum Comitem, patrem Ugonis Episcopi" donated property "ecclesiam S. Johannis, Cablisa" to the convent of Condom[151]m ---.  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis records that "Gimbaldum-Sanctii" married "uxorem…nobilibus ortam natalibus" before his appointment as bishop[152].  The name of Gombald's wife is not known.  Gombald & his wife had one child:

a)         HUGUES (-after 29 Jul 1011).  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis records that "Gimbaldum-Sanctii" married "uxorem…nobilibus ortam natalibus" before his appointment as bishop, and that the couple had "filium…Hugonem", recording that he was unable to succeed after the death of his father but was eventually installed in "Basatensem Episcopatum"[153]"Avierna, Ilduini filii eius…" subscribed the charter dated to [989/1010] under which "Gunbaldus sancta Burdegalensis ecclesie archiepiscopus" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Cyprien at Poitiers[154].  "Hugo...præsulatus" donated property, obtained by “meus genitor Gunbaldus”, to Condom, reciting that “meus patruus et Vasconiæ comes Sanctius” founded the abbey, was succeeded by “frater eius Guillelmus Sanctius meus itidem patruus”, that “quodam tempore Guillelmo Burdegalensi comite capto, meus patruus Guillelmus Sancius cuius superius mentionem feci, ei subvenire studuit” and made donations[155]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "eodem Duce [provinciam Vasconiam Sanctione…ducatum]…et Arnaldo Vicecomite et cum coniuge sua eorumque filio Arnaldo, eiusque coniuge Adalias, Bernardo Vicecomite, et Arnaldo Lupo Vicecomite, Amnardo, Gauzelmo, Arhuino, Gauselmo alio Vicecomite", donated property "omnem portionem meæ hereditatis…in pago Leumaniæ" to the convent of Condom, for the souls of "meorumque parentum, item Garsiæ-Sanctii Comitis et filii sui Sanctii-Garsiæ Comitis, et Guillermi-Sanctii Comitis et Gimbaldi Episcopi, et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis, et Bernardi-Guillelmi Comitis, et Urachæ Comitissæ", naming in a later passage "meus genitor Gimbaldus…meus patruus et Vasconiæ Comes Sanctius…frater eius Guillelmus-Sanctius, meus itidem patruus"[156]

5.         UDALRICH .  "…Willelmi fratris sui, Odulrici fratris sui" subscribed the charter dated to [989/1010] under which "Gunbaldus sancta Burdegalensis ecclesie archiepiscopus" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Cyprien at Poitiers[157]

6.         [son .  The wording of the charter of the 29 Jul 1011 charter of Bishop Hugues de Gascogne suggests that the individuals who consented to his donation were his close relations and heirs.  Vicomte Arnaud is named first in the list, after Duke Sancho Guillaume, and therefore should probably be considered the senior heir.  The document provides no indication about his parentage.  Jaurgain states that he was descended from "Donat Sanche troisième fils de Sanche IV Garcia, duc et comte de Gascogne, né de sa seconde femme" but he provides no primary source which confirms the existence of this individual[158].  Under his reconstruction, Vicomte Arnaud was the grandson of this person.  However, the birth date range estimated for Arnaud is more consistent with his being the first cousin of Hugues.  m ---.]  [Two children]: 

a)         [GUILLAUME (-3 Nov [before 1011], bur Sainte-Quitterie d’Aire).  An inscription in the church of Sa inte-Quitterie d’Aire records the death "III Id Nov" of "Guillelmus comes C--- [M]archio dux Guascanorum" and the death of "Garsie fratris eius comitis Agennensium"[159].  Marca explains this inscription by asserting that the children of Duke Guillaume Sancho were under age when their father died and that "Guillaume leur cousin germain pris la conduite des affaires avec la qualité de comte, marquis et duc des Gascons"[160].  No primary source has been identified which confirms this supposition.  In a later passage, Jaurgain cites secondary sources which claim that the inscription never existed, although he appears not to subscribe to this view[161].  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis" donated property to the convent of Condom, for the souls of "meorumque parentum, item Garsiæ-Sanctii Comitis et filii sui Sanctii-Garsiæ Comitis, et Guillermi-Sanctii Comitis et Gimbaldi Episcopi, et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis, et Bernardi-Guillelmi Comitis, et Urachæ Comitissæ"[162].  It is assumed that "…et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis…" were these two brothers.] 

b)         [GARCIA (-[before 29 Jul 1011], bur Sainte-Quitterie d’Aire).  "Garsiæ nepotis ipsorum…" subscribed the charter dated 977 under which "Gumboldus episcopus et frater meus Willelmus Sancio dux Vasconum" re-established the monastery of La Réole[163].  His relationship to Guillaume is confirmed by an inscription in the church of Sa inte-Quitterie d’Aire which records the death "III Id Nov" of "Guillelmus comes C--- [M]archio dux Guascanorum" and the death of "Garsie fratris eius comitis Agennensium"[164]Jaurgain cites secondary sources which claim that the inscription never existed, although he appears not to subscribe to this view[165].  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis" donated property to the convent of Condom, for the souls of "meorumque parentum, item Garsiæ-Sanctii Comitis et filii sui Sanctii-Garsiæ Comitis, et Guillermi-Sanctii Comitis et Gimbaldi Episcopi, et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis, et Bernardi-Guillelmi Comitis, et Urachæ Comitissæ"[166].  It is assumed that "…et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis…" were these two brothers.  Jaurgain states that he was the same person as "…Garsia Donato" ("Guillelmo Sancio, Arsenario Sancio, Rotberto, Bergunio Forte, Garsia Donato") who signed a charter of Réole dated May 980 but there appears to be nothing in the document which suggests that this might be the case[167].]    

7.         [--- .  The wording of the charter of the 29 Jul 1011 charter of Bishop Hugues de Gascogne suggests that the individuals who consented to his donation were his close relations and heirs.  Vicomte Arnaud is named first in the list, after Duke Sancho Guillaume, and therefore should probably be considered the senior heir.  The document provides no indication about his parentage.  Jaurgain states that he was descended from "Donat Sanche troisième fils de Sanche IV Garcia, duc et comte de Gascogne, né de sa seconde femme" but he provides no primary source which confirms the existence of this individual[168].  Under his reconstruction, Vicomte Arnaud was the grandson of this person.  However, the birth date range estimated for Arnaud (see below) is more consistent with his being the first cousin of Hugues.  Jaurgain suggests that the father of Vicomte Arnaud was Vicomte Oton Donat: Guillaume Sancho Duke of Gascony donated the church of Saint-Gény at Lectoure to Saint-Sever, with the consent of "Otdati vicecomitis atque Arnaldi abbatis præfati loci", by charter dated 993, the donation being recalled in another charter dated 1009[169].  If this is correct, it is likely that he would have been married to one of the daughters of Comte Sancho Garcia.  Jaurgain suggests that Oton Daton was the brother of the two brothers Guillaume and Garcia, shown above as nephews of Comte Guillaume Sancho.  However, given the birth date range estimated for Arnaud, this is unlikely to be correct.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         ARNAUD ([950/70]-after 29 Jul 1011)The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", donated property to the convent of Condom with the consent of "…et Arnaldo Vicecomite et cum coniuge sua eorumque filio Arnaldo, eiusque coniuge Adalias…"[170]The wording of this charter suggests that the individuals who consented to this donation were the close relations and heirs of the donor.  Vicomte Arnaud is named first in the list, after Duke Sancho Guillaume, and therefore should probably be considered the senior heir.  The document provides no indication about Arnaud’s parentage.  Jaurgain states that he was descended from "Donat Sanche troisième fils de Sanche IV Garcia, duc et comte de Gascogne, né de sa seconde femme", but he provides no primary source which confirms the existence of this individual[171].  Under his reconstruction, Vicomte Arnaud was the grandson of this person.  However, the birth date range estimated for Arnaud, consistent with his son and his son’s wife also being named in the 1011 charter, is more consistent with his being the first cousin of the donor.  [The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 982, under which property was donated to Réole, refers to "regnante Guillelmo Sancio comite, captinentia Arnaldo vicecomiti"[172].  It is not known whether this charter refers to Vicomte Arnaud who was ancestor of the vicomtes de Lomagne, but if it does he would have obviously been born in the earlier part of the date range estimated above.] 

-        VICOMTES de LOMAGNE

8.         ACIBELLA .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife, stating that Acibella married "Lupi Garsies"[173]m LOUP Garcia, son of ---. 

9.         LUCIA .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife[174]

 

 

The following five individuals are all named in the charter dated 29 Jul 1011, under which Bishop Hugues de Gascogne donated property to Condom, as consenting to his donation.  This suggests that they were all his close relations and heirs, although if this is correct it is not known how they may have been related to the bishop.  It is possible that they were descendants of the daughters of Sancho Garcia Comte de Gascogne or that they were related to Hugues through the maternal line. 

 

1.         BERNARD (-after 29 Jul 1011).  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "eodem Duce [provinciam Vasconiam Sanctione…ducatum]…et Arnaldo Vicecomite et cum coniuge sua eorumque filio Arnaldo, eiusque coniuge Adalias, Bernardo Vicecomite, et Arnaldo Lupo Vicecomite, Amnardo, Gauzelmo, Arhuino, Gauselmo alio Vicecomite", donated property to the convent of Condom[175]Vicomte

 

2.         ARNAUD Loup (-after 29 Jul 1011)The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "…Bernardo Vicecomite, et Arnaldo Lupo Vicecomite, …Gauselmo alio Vicecomite", donated property to the convent of Condom[176]Vicomte de Dax.  According to Jaurgain, Arnaud Loup Vicomte de Dax was the second son of Aner Loup Vicomte d’Oloron.  He cites no primary source and presumably bases his hypothesis solely on the patronymic.  However, it is likely that all the persons who consented to the 29 Jul 1011 donation were the close relatives and heirs of the donor.  If this is correct, the absence of Aner Loup Vicomte d’Oloron, and other members of his family, would be surprising if he was the older brother of Vicomte Arnaud Loup and would have had greater seniority in the claim to the estate. 

-        VICOMTES de DAX

 

3.         AMNARD (-after 29 Jul 1011).  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "eodem Duce [provinciam Vasconiam Sanctione…ducatum]…et Arnaldo Vicecomite et cum coniuge sua eorumque filio Arnaldo, eiusque coniuge Adalias, Bernardo Vicecomite, et Arnaldo Lupo Vicecomite, Amnardo, Gauzelmo, Arhuino, Gauselmo alio Vicecomite", donated property to the convent of Condom[177]

 

4.         GAUCELM (-after 29 Jul 1011).  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "eodem Duce [provinciam Vasconiam Sanctione…ducatum]…et Arnaldo Vicecomite et cum coniuge sua eorumque filio Arnaldo, eiusque coniuge Adalias, Bernardo Vicecomite, et Arnaldo Lupo Vicecomite, Amnardo, Gauzelmo, Arhuino, Gauselmo alio Vicecomite", donated property to the convent of Condom[178]

 

5.         ARHUIN (-after 29 Jul 1011).  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "eodem Duce [provinciam Vasconiam Sanctione…ducatum]…et Arnaldo Vicecomite et cum coniuge sua eorumque filio Arnaldo, eiusque coniuge Adalias, Bernardo Vicecomite, et Arnaldo Lupo Vicecomite, Amnardo, Gauzelmo, Arhuino, Gauselmo alio Vicecomite", donated property to the convent of Condom[179]

 

 

GUILLAUME Sancho, son of [SANCHO Garcia] & his wife --- (-23 Dec [996]).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsie Sanzoz, ac Sanzo Sanzoz et Gilelmo Sanzoz, ac domnus Gundebaldus episcopus, ad domna Acibella…ac domna Lucia" as the children of "Sanzio Garsies" and his unnamed wife[180]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis names "Sancium…et Guillermum atque Gimbaldum" as the three children of "Sancius-Garsiæ", specifying that "Guillelmus-Sanctii" succeeded his brother[181]The cartulary of Auch records that "Sancius Garsias" had "duos filios manzeres Sancium Sancium et Guillelmum Sancium"[182].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "Sancium-Sancium et Guillelmum-Sancium" as "duos filios manzeres" of "Sancius-Garsias"[183]Comte de Gascogne [970].  "Dominus Willelmus Sancii comes Gasconiorum" donated property "villam de Luco Deo" to the abbey of Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq by undated charter which refers to "quomodo venisset de Hispania avus domni Willelmi"[184].  "Gumboldus episcopus et frater meus Willelmus Sancio dux Vasconum" re-established the monastery of La Réole by charter dated 977, subscribed by "Guillelmi Garsiæ nepotis ipsorum, Rotgarii vicecomitis, Utzan Amaneii, Seguini vicecomitis, Arcolidat vicecomitis, Arnoldi Amaneii"[185].  "Gumboldus episcopus…regionis dux" confirmed an exchange of property between the monks of La Réole and his vassal "Arsia" with the advice of "fratrum…Willelmus Sancio dux" by charter dated 978, subscribed by "Aner Sano vicecomes, Willelmus Arsiæ, Sans Aner, Rotgarius vicecomes, Utzan Amanieu, Arnald Amanieu"[186].  "…Willelmi fratris sui, Odulrici fratris sui" subscribed the charter dated to [989/1010] under which "Gunbaldus sancta Burdegalensis ecclesie archiepiscopus" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Cyprien at Poitiers[187]"Willelmus Sancius comes" restored the monastery of Saint-Sever, with the consent of "meæ conjugis Urracæ, ex regali stirpe procedentis…filiis meis Bernardo atque Sancio", by charter dated 993, signed by "…Orioli Sancii de Fageto, Donati Garciæ de Donagelo, Aquelini Atilii de Calonar, Garciæ Mancii de Bergiu…Centuli Gastoni, Gastoni Centuli de Bearno, Azinelli Elzii de Samadello, Asnarii Elsi, Bergomi Sancii, Garciæ Lupi de Sylvestro"[188]. 

m (after 14 Dec 972) as her second husband, URRACA, daughter of --- (-[12 Jul], before 3 Apr [1009]).  Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 993 under which "Willelmus Sancius comes" restored the monastery of Saint-Sever, with the consent of "meæ conjugis Urracæ, ex regali stirpe procedentis…filiis meis Bernardo atque Sancio"[189].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[190], she was Urraca de Navarra, widow of Fernán González Conde de Castilla, daughter of García III Sánchez King of Navarre & his second wife Teresa de León.  There does not appear to be any surviving primary source which confirms that this is correct, although several factors suggest that it may be true.  The fact that King García III had a sister named Urraca is confirmed by the charter dated 971 under which "Santio rex simulque frater meus Ranimirus et dompna Urraca regina" confirmed a donation to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla, which was confirmed by "…Dompna Urraca, eiusdem regis germana, Garsea ipsius regis filius…"[191].  In addition, "…Sancio filius Gogelmi comitis…" (apparently Urraca's son, see below) was among those who signed a charter dated 992 under which Sancho King of Navarre (who would have been Urraca’s brother if this hypothesis is correct) donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla[192].  Lastly, there appears to be no other probable "regali stirpe" (as quoted in the 993 charter quoted above) than the royal family of Navarre from which Urraca could have descended.  "Willelmus Sancius comes et dominus totius Vasconie, cum Urraca sua muliere" donated the church of Sainte-Susanne to the abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde by undated charter[193].  "Willelmus Sancius comes et dominus totius Vasconie, cum Urraca sua muliere" donated the church of Sainte-Susanne to the abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde by undated charter[194]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis" donated property to the convent of Condom, for the souls of "meorumque parentum, item Garsiæ-Sanctii Comitis et filii sui Sanctii-Garsiæ Comitis, et Guillermi-Sanctii Comitis et Gimbaldi Episcopi, et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis, et Bernardi-Guillelmi Comitis, et Urachæ Comitissæ"[195].  She died before 3 Apr [1009], the date of the charter under which her son "Bernardus Willelmus comes…cum germano meo Sancio" confirmed, "annuente beatæ memoriæ matre mea Urraca", the foundation of Saint-Sever by "genitor meus Willelmus Sancio comes", this wording suggesting that Urraca died only shortly before the confirmation especially as the document is purportedly signed by "Urracæ comitissæ"[196].  The necrology of Saint-Sever records the death "IV Id Jul…1041" of "Urraca comitissa"[197].  However, either the year is incorrect or this entry refers to another "Urraca comitissa".  Even without the evidence of the 3 Apr [1009] charter, Urraca would have been well over 90 years in 1041 if this entry refers to the wife of Guillaume Sancho. 

Comte Guillaume & his wife had four children: 

1.         BERNARD Guillaume (-25 Dec [1009]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 993 under which "Willelmus Sancius comes" restored the monastery of Saint-Sever, with the consent of "meæ conjugis Urracæ, ex regali stirpe procedentis…filiis meis Bernardo atque Sancio"[198].  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis" donated property to the convent of Condom, for the souls of "meorumque parentum, item Garsiæ-Sanctii Comitis et filii sui Sanctii-Garsiæ Comitis, et Guillermi-Sanctii Comitis et Gimbaldi Episcopi, et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis, et Bernardi-Guillelmi Comitis, et Urachæ Comitissæ"[199]Comte de Gascogne.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Bernardus Wasconiæ dux" when recording his death "insidiis muliebribus, maleficis artibus corpore fatescente"[200]"Bernardus Willelmus comes" confirmed the foundation of Saint-Sever by "genitor meus Willelmus Sancio comes", confirmed by "germano meo Sancio et beatæ memoriæ matre mea Urraca, cum duobus consanguineus nostris Aymone…et Aymonio", by charter dated 3 Apr [1009], signed by "Bernardi filii Willelmi…Urracæ comitissæ, Goscelini de Listrac, Achelini filii eius, Willelmi Auriloi de Fageto, Willelmi Aurioli de Monte-Severi et de Mugron, Azerilis de Salt, Anelup de Loron, Lobaner filii eius, Arnaldi Lupi de Aquis, Lomans de S. Hilario, Atilio Sancio de Tourcian, Lobaner vicecomes de Marcian, Willelmi Lupi eius filii"[201].  The necrology of Saint-Sever records the death "VIII Kal Jan…in die dominico" (which Jaurgain calculates as indicating 1009) of "comes Vasconiæ Bernardus filius Willelmi Sancii comitis"[202]. 

2.         GERSENDE (-after 996)The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis notes that "Gimbaldum Comitem, patrem Ugonis Episcopi" donated property "ecclesiam S. Johannis, Cablisa" to the convent of Condom and also "nobilissima femina Gavarsens…eius videlicet neptis, soror Sanctii Guasconiæ Comitis" after returning from "quadam provincia Burgundia…ubi maritum habuerat"[203]Three charters name the second wife of Henri Duke of Burgundy as "Gersende":  "Domnus Hugo comes atque mater sua Adeleidis" donated property "in pago Cabilonensi" to the abbey of Paray-le-Moniale by an undated charter signed by "Hugo comes, Adeleidis matris suæ, Mauritii filii eius, Enrici ducis, Garlindis uxoris eius"[204]; "Henrici ducis…[et] dominæ Garsindis comitissæ" and "Henricus dux, Gersindis ducatrix" are named in two charters of Saint-Symphorien d'Autun dated Jun 991 or 992 and 10 May 993 respectively[205].  Bouchard suggests that Garlindis/Garsindis are name variants of "Gerberga", the wife of Duke Henri named in earlier sources (and assumed to be his first wife)[206].  However, this appears unlikely to be correct as the suffix root elements of these names "-sendis" and "-berga" are not normally interchangeable and appear separately with different prefix roots in many different contemporary names[207].  It therefore appears likely that "Gersende" was a different person from "Gerberge".  Bouchard also highlights that the only allusion to the origin of Duke Henri's supposed second wife is a satirical poem written about Landry Comte de Nevers which includes an obscure reference to a wife who felt distressed and "sought Gascony".  She also comments that the context of the poem implies that, in any case, it was Landry's wife to whom this refers[208].  However, it does not appear that she was aware of the passage in the Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, quoted above, which seems to confirm Gersende’s parentage conclusively.  m (before Jun 992, repudiated 996 before 24 Oct) as his second wife, HENRI Duke of Burgundy, son of HUGUES "le Grand" Duc des Francs & his third wife Hedwig of Germany ([948]-Château de Pouilly-sur-Saône 15 Oct 1002). 

3.         SANCHO Guillaume (-4 Oct 1032, bur Saint-Julien de Lescar).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 993 under which "Willelmus Sancius comes" restored the monastery of Saint-Sever, with the consent of "meæ conjugis Urracæ, ex regali stirpe procedentis…filiis meis Bernardo atque Sancio"[209].  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Santius" as brother of Bernard, when recording his succession as "dux Wasconum"[210].  The Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ names "nobilem Ducem Guasconis Sancius et fratres et sorores eius" as children of "Guillelmus-Sancius"[211].  The only difficulty with this paternity is the charter dated to [1010/32] under which "Sancius comes, nepos…Urrache" donated the church of Saint-Pantaléon to the abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde[212].  If the text of this charter is correct, Sancho was not the son of Urraca.  It is uncertain how "nepos" should be translated in the context of the document.  If "grandson" is correct, no information has so far been found to identify Sancho's father.  However, "…Sancio filius Gogelmi comitis…" was among those who signed a charter dated 992 under which Sancho King of Navarre donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla[213], King Sancho being the brother of Urraca de Navarra.  A further complication is provided by the Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis which names Gersende as sister of Sancho[214].  If it is correct that Gersende was the wife of Henri Duke of Burgundy as shown above, and that they married before Jun 992, it is not possible for her to have been the granddaughter of Comte Guillaume Sanchez.  The solution to this problem is not obvious.  Although charter evidence is usually more reliable than manuscript genealogies (assuming that the charter in question is not spurious), in this case the Genealogica Comitum Guasconiæ records no names later than Sancho, which suggests that it was written while he was still alive and therefore has some chance of being accurate.  Not enough is known about the chronology of this family to be able to assess estimated birth dates with any reasonable degree of confidence, otherwise an effective method of cross-checking the feasibility of proposed relationships.  Duke of Gascony.  An undated charter records the donation by "Santius…comes" to Bordeaux Saint-Seurin and the confirmation after his death by his successor "eius nepos…Odo", signed by "Centullus de Bearnt, Arnaldus Aquensis, Willelmus Lup, Aichelmus Guillelmi, Andro Auriohl"[215]The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis", with the consent of "eodem Duce [provinciam Vasconiam Sanctione…ducatum]…", donated property to the convent of Condom[216].  "Sancius…totius Gasconniæ princeps et dux" founded the monastery of St Hilaire-de-Lassun, later known as St Pé-de-Générès, in the presence of "Garcias Arnaldi comes Vigorrensis…Centullus Gastonis vicecomes Bearnensis…Bernardus comes Armaniacensis, Aymericus comes Fedenciacensis, Bernardus comes Pardiniacensis…Forto vicecomes Levitanensis et filii eius Garcias et Guilhermus, Guilhermus Dati vicecomes Sylvanensis, et Guilhermus Odonis vicecomes de Montanerii, Raimundus Guilhermi de Benaco, et Arnaldus Raymundi de Baso, Guilhermus Garcias Curta spata, Arnaldus cognomine Ursus, Guilhermus Lupi vicecomes Marcianensis, et Arnaldus vicecomes Aquensis, Arnaldus de Aura…", by charter dated to [1022][217].  "Comes Sancio" confirmed the foundation of the monastery of Saint-Sever by "pater meus Willelmus Sancio" by charter dated Nov 1028, signed by "Centuli Gastoni, Willelmi Lupi, Arnaldi, Rotberti, Azoris Acelini, Arnaldi Willelmi, Bernardi Raymundi, Ricardi, Raymundi, Arnaldo Lupi, Sancio Atil, Arnaldi"[218].  The necrology of Saint-Sever records the death "IV Non Oct…1032" of "Sancius comes Vasconiæ"[219].  m ---.  The name of Sancho's wife is not known.  Sancho & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [ALAISIA .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[220], Hilduin Comte d'Angoulême married Alaisia, daughter of Sancho Guillén Duke of Gascony, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified and it contradicts the sources cited above.  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes records the marriage of "Ilduinem comitem" and "comitissæ Alaiziæ", specifying that she brought "castro Fronciaco" to her husband[221].  However, the chronicle of Guitres names "Grimoardus…vicecomes [et] uxorem de Montiniac…Dea" as parents of "Alaaz, Engolismensem comitissam et Ameliam, Petragoricorum comitissam"[222]Another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[223], records their possible son as Berenger, "Duke of Gascony 1032, died [1036/37]".  He is named as such in L'art de verifier les dates[224], but if this is correct it is unclear why Berenger (who would presumably have been his parents' oldest son if he succeeded in Gascony) did not subscribe the charter dated to [1020/28] which was subscribed by his presumed brothers Guillaume and Arnaud[225]It appears that this person never existed.  Jaurgain suggests that his invention resulted from misinterpretation of a charter dated to [1060] under which "Auriol Garsies de Navarra" granted property in Gascony which he held "ex comite Berlengerio" to Garcia Arnaud Vicomte de Dax, suggesting that "comes Berlenger" can be identified as Berenguer Ramon I Comte de Barcelona who happened to own some property in Gascony[226]m ([1020]) HILDUIN d'Angoulême, son of GUILLAUME IV Comte d'Angoulême & his wife Gerberge d'Anjou (-1032 before 1 May).  He succeeded his father in 1028 as Comte d'Angoulême.] 

4.         SANCHA [Brisca/Prisca] (-before 1018).  The Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes names "Briscam" as sister of "dux Santii", when recording her marriage to "Willelmi ducis" after the death of the latter's first wife[227].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "sororem Sancii Ducis Gasconiæ, nomine Briscam" as second wife of Duke Guillaume, in a later paragraph recording the death of "Sancia conjuge Guillermi ducis"[228].  "Willelmi ducis Aquitanorum, Willelmi filii eius, Odoni filii eius, Prisca comitisse" subscribed the charter dated to [1012/18] under which "Ugo Liziniacensis domnus" donated property to St Cyprien, Poitiers[229].  An agreement between the abbots of Jumièges and Bougeuil concerning an exchange of land in Poitou, by charter dated [13 Apr/4 Apr] 1012, is subscribed by "Richardus…filius Ricardi principi magni…Vuillelmus Pictavorum comes et uxor Prisca…"[230].]  m (early 1011) as his second wife, GUILLAUME III "le Grand" Comte de Poitou, GUILLAUME V Duke of Aquitaine, son of GUILLAUME IV "Fier-à-Bras" Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME II Comte de Poitou] & his wife Emma de Blois ([969]-Abbaye de Maillezais 31 Jan 1030).  Sancha & her husband had two children: 

a)         EUDES de Poitou (killed in battle Mauzé 10 Mar 1039, bur Maillezais, Abbaye de Saint-Pierre).  Ademar names "Odonem" son of "Willelmi ducis" & his wife "Briscam"[231].  He succeeded his maternal uncle as Duke of Gascony in 1032.  It appears to be incorrect, as asserted by Richard, that Eudes only succeeded as Duke of Gascony in 1036 after the death of "Bérenger d'Angoulême"[232].  It is probable that the latter person never existed but was invented to explain the charter dated to [1060] under which "Auriol Garsies de Navarra" granted property in Gascony which he held "ex comite Berlengerio" to Garcia Arnaud Vicomte de Dax, Jaurgain suggesting that "comes Berlenger" can in fact be identified as Berenguer Ramon I Comte de Barcelona who happened to own some property in Gascony[233].  An undated charter records the donation by "Santius…comes" to Bordeaux Saint-Seurin and the confirmation after his death by his successor "eius nepos…Odo", signed by "Centullus de Bearnt, Arnaldus Aquensis, Willelmus Lup, Aichelmus Guillelmi, Andro Auriohl"[234].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1038 as EUDES Duke of Aquitaine, Comte de PoitouHe was killed while asserting his rights to Poitou against his stepmother and half-brother[235].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records that "Odo comes" was killed and buried "in Malliaco" with his father and brother[236]

b)         THIBAUT (-young).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maixent names "Odonem et Tetbaudum" as the two sons of Duke Guillaume and "sororem Sancii Ducis Gasconiæ, Briscam", specifying that Thibaut "puer mortuus est"[237].  "Willelmus Pictavorum comes et dux Aquitaniæ" donated property to Saint-Maixent for the souls of "filii mei Willelmi atque Odoni atque Tetbaudi" by charter dated [1013/22][238].  He is named in a charter of the Abbey of Saint-Maixent, dated to after his mother's death and before his father's remarriage[239]

 

 

 

 

 



[1] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4, and Llorente (1807), Vol. III, 7, pp. 38-80. 

[2] Jaurgain (1898), p. 71, citing Cardinal de Aguirre (1693-94) Collectio Conciliorum Hispaniæ (Rome), Tome III, p. 131. 

[3] Jaurgain (1898), p. 81, citing Tamayo de Salazar, J. (1651-59) Anamnesis sive commemoration omnium sanctorum Hispanorum (Lyon), t. V, p. 392. 

[4] Jaurgain (1898), p. 84. 

[5] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[6] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[7] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 302. 

[8] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[9] Jaurgain (1898), p. 116. 

[10] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 316. 

[11] Jaurgain (1898), p. 118. 

[12] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[13] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[14] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[15] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[16] RHGF; Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[17] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 302. 

[18] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[19] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[20] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 341. 

[21] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[22] Einhardi Annales 770, MGH SS I, p. 149. 

[23] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 5, MGH SS II, p. 609. 

[24] Einhardi Annales 816, MGH SS I, p. 203. 

[25] Jaurgain (1898), p. 119, quoting Vetus chronic. manuscript. Collegii S. Andr. Burdegal, citée par Oïhenart Notitia, p. 257. 

[26] Jaurgain (1898), p. 118. 

[27] Adémar de Chabannes, III, 17, p. 133. 

[28] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 365. 

[29] Beati Servati Lupi Abbatis Ferrariensis Epistolæ I, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 494. 

[30] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 205. 

[31] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624. 

[32] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 819, MGH SS I, p. 357. 

[33] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 205. 

[34] Jaurgain (1898), p. 113. 

[35] Guizot, M. (1824) Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l’histoire de France (Paris), Poème d’Ermold le Noir I, pp. 8-9. 

[36] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625. 

[37] Jaurgain (1898), p. 162, quoting Brugeles, L. C. (1736) Chroniques ecclésiastiques du diocèse d’Auch, Preuves de la IIe partie, p. 34. 

[38] Einhardi Annales 824, MGH SS I, p. 213. 

[39] Annales Bertiniani II 836, RHGF, Tome VI, p. 196. 

[40] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625 footnote 74, which does not cite the reference for this information. 

[41] Jaurgain (1898), p. 162, quoting Brugeles (1736), Preuves de la IIe partie, p. 34. 

[42] Jaurgain (1902), p. 287.  

[43] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163, quoting Brugeles (1736), Preuves de la IIe partie, p. 35. 

[44] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163. 

[45] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163. 

[46] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163, quoting Brugeles (1736), Preuves de la IIe partie, p. 35. 

[47] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163. 

[48] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163. 

[49] Flodoardi Annales 932, MGH SS III, p. 381. 

[50] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163. 

[51] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 320, col. 620, and Jaurgain (1902), p. 287. 

[52] RHGF, Tome VIII, pp. 470-4. 

[53] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625 footnote 74, which does not cite the reference for this information. 

[54] Annales Bertiniani II 836, RHGF, Tome VI, p. 196. 

[55] Annales Bertiniani II 852. 

[56] Sebastiani Chronicon, 25, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, pp. 490-1. 

[57] Histoire Générale de Languedoc (3rd Edn), Tome I, p. 1063. 

[58] Jaurgain (1898), p. 124. 

[59] Sebastiani Chronicon, 26, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 491. 

[60] Jaurgain (1898), p. 124. 

[61] Ex Historia Translatione Reliquiarum S. Faustæ, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 344. 

[62] Jaurgain (1898), p. 124, citing Oïhenart Notitia, p. 419. 

[63] Ex Historia Translatione Reliquiarum S. Faustæ, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 344. 

[64] Jaurgain (1898), p. 170. 

[65] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 41, MGH SS II, p. 630. 

[66] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 59, MGH SS II, p. 644. 

[67] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163, quoting Bibl. Nat. mss., Collection Duchesne (Papiers d’Oïhenart), vol. 114, fo. 96, extrait du cartulaire de Castelloboo (Livre verd de Benac), and Larcher Glanage, Tome I, p. 274. 

[68] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 350, citing "Titres de Lavédan". 

[69] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 351. 

[70] Jaurgain (1898), p. 163, quoting Bibl. Nat. mss., Collection Duchesne (Papiers d’Oïhenart), vol. 114, fo. 96, extrait du cartulaire de Castelloboo (Livre verd de Benac), and Larcher Glanage, Tome I, p. 274. 

[71] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF, Tome VII, p. 41. 

[72] Settipani (2004), p. 81. 

[73] Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq Appendice, p. 28. 

[74] Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq Appendice, p. 28. 

[75] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 385. 

[76] Jaurgain (1898), p. 180, quoting Brugeles (1736), Preuves de la troisième partie, 81. 

[77] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 357, citing "Cartulaire d'Auch et de Lescar", and p. 359. 

[78] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[79] Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, Spicilegium, Tome II, p. 592. 

[80] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[81] Settipani (2004), p. 81. 

[82] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 7, p. 31. 

[83] Jaurgain (1898), p. 192, quoting Gallia Christiana t. I, Instrum., p. 170. 

[84] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 180 and 285-6, quoting Extrait des Archives de la Chambre des Comptes de Montpellier, ex ms. Berd, and Brugeles (1736), Preuves de la troisième partie, 81. 

[85] Jaurgain (1898), p. 192, quoting Gallia Christiana t. I, Instrum., p. 170. 

[86] Jaurgain (1898), p. 198. 

[87] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 394. 

[88] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[89] Settipani (2004), p. 86, quoting Cartulaire de Auch

[90] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 28, p. 248. 

[91] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF XII, p. 386. 

[92] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 28, p. 248. 

[93] Settipani (2004), p. 86, quoting Cartulaire de Auch

[94] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 364. 

[95] Jaurgain (1902), p. 133 quoting Cartulaire noir de Sainte-Marie d’Auch, fos. 77 vo.-79 vo.. 

[96] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 31, p. 250. 

[97] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 31, p. 250. 

[98] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF XII, p. 386. 

[99] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 368. 

[100] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 31, p. 250. 

[101] Jaurgain (1902), p. 134, quoting Cartulaire noir de Sainte-Marie d’Auch, fos. 77 vo.-79 vo.. 

[102] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 31, p. 250. 

[103] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[104] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 368. 

[105] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 31, p. 250. 

[106] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 27, p. 247. 

[107] D’Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Vol. III, Part 1, 24, and Fragmentum historicum, Ex cartulario Alaonis, España Sagrada, Tome XLVI, XXXVI, p. 325. 

[108] Roda (Abad), p. 125. 

[109] Roda (Abad), LXXXVIII, p. 315. 

[110] Roda (Abad), p. 125. 

[111] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 28, p. 248. 

[112] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF XII, p. 386. 

[113] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 28, p. 248. 

[114] Settipani (2004), p. 46. 

[115] Bordeaux Sainte-Croix, 1, p. 1. 

[116] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 24 and 28, pp. 244 and 248. 

[117] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 28, p. 248. 

[118] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 32, p. 251. 

[119] Settipani (2004), pp. 37-50. 

[120] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 68, col. 173. 

[121] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 69, col. 173. 

[122] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 74, col. 185. 

[123] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 117, col. 259. 

[124] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 123, col. 269. 

[125] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 125, col. 272. 

[126] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[127] Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, Spicilegium, Tome II, p. 597. 

[128] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 28, p. 248. 

[129] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[130] Settipani (2004), p. 86, quoting Cartulaire de Auch

[131] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 394. 

[132] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 363. 

[133] Settipani (2004), p. 86, quoting Cartulaire de Auch

[134] Jaurgain (1902), p. 10. 

[135] Jaurgain (1902), p. 10. 

[136] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[137] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[138] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 394. 

[139] Settipani (2004), p. 86, quoting Cartulaire de Auch

[140] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[141] Monlezun (1846), Tome I, p. 364. 

[142] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[143] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 394. 

[144] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[145] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 394. 

[146] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 180 and 285-6, quoting Extrait des Archives de la Chambre des Comptes de Montpellier, ex ms. Berd, and Brugeles (1736), Preuves de la troisième partie, 81. 

[147] Saint-Benoît-du-Loire, LXII, p. 153, charter headed "Acte suspect" in the compilation. 

[148] Jaurgain (1898), p. 329, quoting Marca, P. de (1640) Histoire de Béarn, pp. 210-11. 

[149] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, LXIII, p. 165. 

[150] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien, 5, p. 7. 

[151] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[152] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[153] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[154] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 5, p. 7. 

[155] Jaurgain (1898), p. 379. 

[156] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[157] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 5, p. 7. 

[158] Jaurgain (1902), p. 15. 

[159] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 201 and 405-9, quoting Oïhenart Notitia, p. 428. 

[160] Marca (Béarn), p. 230. 

[161] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 406-9. 

[162] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[163] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, LXII, p. 153, charter headed "Acte suspect" in the compilation. 

[164] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 201 and 405-9, quoting Oïhenart Notitia, p. 428. 

[165] Jaurgain (1898), pp. 406-9. 

[166] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[167] Réole Saint-Pierre, 14, p. 108. 

[168] Jaurgain (1902), p. 15. 

[169] Jaurgain (1898), p. 202, and Buisson (1876), Tome I, p. 157.

[170] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[171] Jaurgain (1902), p. 15. 

[172] Réole Saint-Pierre, 5, p. 104. 

[173] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[174] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[175] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[176] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[177] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[178] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[179] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[180] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda' (1945), 29, pp. 248-9. 

[181] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 394. 

[182] Settipani (2004), p. 86, quoting Cartulaire de Auch

[183] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[184] Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq Appendice, p. 28. 

[185] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire LXII, p. 153, charter headed "Acte suspect" in the compilation. 

[186] Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire LXIII, p. 165. 

[187] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 5, p. 7. 

[188] Jaurgain (1898), p. 396, and Buisson (1876), Tome I, pp. 151-9.

[189] Jaurgain (1898), p. 396, and Buisson (1876), Tome I, pp. 151-9.

[190] ES III 563. 

[191] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 88, p. 102. 

[192] San Millán de la Cogolla, Tome I, 108, p. 117. 

[193] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca Histoire de Béarn, p. 229. 

[194] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca Histoire de Béarn, p. 229. 

[195] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[196] Jaurgain (1898), p. 399, quoting Marca (Béarn), p. 232.

[197] Jaurgain (1902), p. 12, and Buisson (1876), Tome II, p. 128.

[198] Jaurgain (1898), p. 396, and Buisson (1876), Tome I, pp. 151-9.

[199] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF XI, p. 395. 

[200] Adémar de Chabannes III, 39, p. 162. 

[201] Jaurgain (1898), p. 399, quoting Marca (Béarn), p. 232.

[202] Jaurgain (1902), p. 13, and Buisson (1876), Tome II, p. 136.

[203] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[204] Paray-le-Moniale, 193, p. 97. 

[205] Autun Saint-Symphorien 15 and 17, pp. 37 and 42. 

[206] Bouchard (1987), p. 268. 

[207] Names with the root "Ermen-" provide the most obvious examples. 

[208] Bouchard (1987), p. 268, citing Adalbero of Laon Rhythmus satyricus 14-15.

[209] Jaurgain (1898), p. 396, and Buisson (1876), Tome I, pp. 151-9.

[210] Adémar de Chabannes III, 39, p. 162. 

[211] Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII, p. 386. 

[212] Sorde Saint-Jean II, p. 2. 

[213] San Millán de la Cogolla 108, p. 117. 

[214] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF, Tome XI, p. 395. 

[215] Bordeaux Saint-Seurin, IX, p. 10. 

[216] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF XI, p. 395. 

[217] Jaurgain (1898), p. 443, quoting Gallia Christiana, Tome I, Instrum. pp. 194-5. 

[218] Jaurgain (1898), p. 401, and Buisson (1876), Tome II, p. 144. 

[219] Jaurgain (1898), p. 238, and Buisson (1876), Tome II, p. 151.

[220] ES III 817. 

[221] Adémar de Chabannes III, 68, p. 194. 

[222] Settipani (2004), p. 173 footnote 3, quoting Chronique de Guitres, III. 

[223] ES III 563. 

[224] Richard (1903), Tome II, p. 122 footnote 25, citing Art de vérifier les dates, p. 729. 

[225] Saint-Amand-de-Boixe, 3, p. 94.  

[226] Jaurgain (1898), p. 243, quoting Sorde Saint-Jean 40, p. 31.

[227] Adémar de Chabannes III, 39, p. 162. 

[228] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1010 and 1013, RHGF, Tome X, p. 232. 

[229] Poitiers Saint-Cyprien 49, p. 49. 

[230] Jumièges, Tome I, 7, p. 16. 

[231] Ademari Historiarum III.39, MGH SS IV, pp. 133-4. 

[232] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 122 footnote 25. 

[233] Jaurgain (1898), p. 243, quoting Sorde Saint-Jean 40, p. 31.

[234] Bordeaux Saint-Seurin, IX, p. 10. 

[235] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 128. 

[236] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 393. 

[237] Chronico Sancti Maxentii 1010, RHGF, Tome X, p. 232. 

[238] Saint-Maixent, Vol. I, LXXXI, p. 99. 

[239] Richard (1903) Tome II, p. 105 footnote 206.