IRELAND

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                HIGH KINGS of IRELAND. 5

A.         KINGS of IRELAND (KINGS of TARA) 5

B.         KINGS of IRELAND (Ua NIALL) 17

C.        KINGS of IRELAND (Ua CELLACH) 23

D.        KINGS of IRELAND (Ua BRIAN) 27

E.         KING of IRELAND (Ua MAIL na mBó) 28

F.         KING of IRELAND (Ua CONCHOBAIR) 29

Chapter 2.                CONNAUGHT. 32

A.         KINGS of CONNAUGHT (Ua CONCHOBAR) 32

B.         KINGS of CONNAUGHT (Ua RUAIRCH) 49

C.        KINGS of CONNAUGHT (UA FLAITHBERTAIG FAMILY) 52

D          LORDS of CONNAUGHT (de BURGH) 53

Chapter 3.                DESMOND. 56

A.         KINGS of DESMOND.. 56

B.         EARLS of DESMOND.. 60

Chapter 4.                EARLS of KILDARE (WINDSOR) 63

Chapter 5.                KINGS of LEINSTER. 69

A.         KINGS of LEINSTER.. 69

B.         KINGS of OSSORY.. 83

Chapter 6.                MEATH. 88

A.         KINGS of MEATH.. 88

B.         LORDS of MEATH (LACY) 96

Chapter 7.                KINGS of MUNSTER. 105

A.         KINGS of MUNSTER.. 106

B.         KINGS of THOMOND (NORTH MUNSTER) 124

Chapter 8.                NORSE KINGS. 127

A.         KINGS of DUBLIN.. 127

B.         KINGS of LIMERICK.. 148

C.        KINGS of WATERFORD.. 149

Chapter 9.                ORMOND. 151

A.         KINGS of ORMOND.. 151

B.         EARLS of ORMOND (WALTER/BUTLER) 152

Chapter 10.              ULSTER. 155

A.         KINGS of ULSTER.. 156

B.         EARLS of ULSTER (de BURGH) 164

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

During the middle medieval period, Ireland was divided into five provinces, Connaught, Leinster, Meath, Munster and Ulster, each ruled by provincial kings under the supreme king of Ireland who was appointed from one of their number and whose royal seat was at Tara in Meath.  Other minor local kingdoms included Desmond, Ormond, Ossory, Tara, and Thomond.  The position of over-king was not consistently hereditary within any one of the provincial royal families nor does it seem to have been rotated in order between them.  The acceptance of one individual as “High King” depended, it would appear, on his own personal power and the respect with which he was regarded by his fellow kings, reminiscent of the bretwalda in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England.  This is illustrated, in the case of the High King Tordelbach Ua Briain, by the Annals of Inisfallen which record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him[1].  No indication has been found in the primary sources so far consulted concerning any formal selection process which was followed before a new High King was appointed.  It is unlikely that the High King held any jurisdictional role in respect of the regional kingdoms other than his own.  The High Kings are shown in Chapter 1 of this document. 

 

The Annals of Tigernach and its Continuations provide a detailed history of the various kings and chieftains of Ireland between [972/73] and 1178, with one significant gap from 1002 to 1017[2].  The Annals of Ulster are a useful complementary source[3] which, although generally less detailed, significantly extend the coverage at both ends of the date spectrum and record some events which are omitted from the Annals of Tigernach.  The Annals of Inisfallen[4] emphasise affairs in the kingdom of Munster, but contain a significant gap between 1130 and 1159.  The Annals of the Four Masters[5] are much more extensive, purporting to cover from the pre-Christian era until the early 17th century.  They contain less detail than the Annals of Tigernach and their chronology is generally two or three years different from the other Annals, at least until the last quarter of the 10th century, but they provide significant additional information which is absent elsewhere.  Of these four main sources for early Irish history, it is difficult to tell which might have been the earliest source which provided the basis for the others.  Even in cases where information is duplicated in the different sources, the wording of the respective paragraphs is often significantly different.  Another difficulty, common to all early European primary sources of this type, is deciding when legend gives way to fact.  For the purposes of preparation of the present document, the mid-9th century has been taken as the starting point from which information has been extracted. 

 

All the Annals consist mainly of a litany of violent deaths and destructive local conflicts.  They are also noteworthy for the absence of significant detail relating to the religious life of the community (although the Annals of Inisfallen include more religious references than, for example, the Annals of Tigernach), which contrasts with similar primary sources in England and continental European countries.  However, the Irish Annals are unusually valuable for family reconstruction as the names of the fathers and grandfathers of the protagonists are nearly always specified, by way of composite names which include “Mac” (son of) and “Ua/Húa” (grandson of) in the Gaelic original.  Nevertheless, the process of reconstruction is less certain from the mid-11th century, with the duplication of similar names and therefore the multiplication of possibilities for particular family connections.  From the early 12th century, “Ua” in the text more often indicates the name of the most illustrious more remote paternal ancestor, rather than the grandfather of the individual concerned.  This enables a person´s family group to be identified but not his precise place within it.  One difficulty with the Annals is that, when recording the death of a king, they rarely specify the name of his successor.  On the basis of the sources so far consulted, this results in uncertainty regarding the precise regnal order and, in some cases, significant gaps in knowledge about the royal succession of regional kings. 

 

The Annals refer to numerous local kingships either over named clans, for example “the Kindred of Conall”, “the Húi Fidgenti”, “the Húi Echach”, “the Húi Cennselaig”, “the Húi Fiachrach”, “the Húi Forgo”, “the Gailenga”, or over restricted areas of the country, including “Aidne”, “Cairbre”, “Legh and Rechet”, “Teffa”, not all of which have been located.  In some cases, these local kings were descendants of younger sons of the regional kings.  It is probable that many more such connections exist, but the duplication of names presents an obstacle to tracing family relationships.  The Annals do not explicitly state that these local kings operated under the suzerainty of the regional kings, but some passages in the texts suggest that this may have been the case.  For example, the Annals of Ulster record the deaths in 1063 and 1064 of "Niall son of Eochaid over-king of Ulaid [Ulster]” and of “Donnchad son of Brian overking of Mumu [Munster][6].  None of the Annals include many references to lesser nobility with titles such as earl, count, lord or baron: in Ireland most nobles appear to have borne the title “king” however small their area of jurisdiction. 

 

The Annals reveal little contact between Ireland and its neighbours England and Scotland, beyond the record of the deaths of the most noteworthy English and Scottish kings, although the dates of these events do provide an independent assessment of the chronological reliability of the source as most of them are corroborated by other sources.  This comparative isolation of the Irish kingdoms changed in the mid-12th century with the arrival of English adventurers and their troops.  It is clear from the Annals that the English encountered stiff resistance, and were not consistently successful in their conquests.  Nevertheless, from this time the political climate of Ireland changed dramatically, as illustrated by the understated report in the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) of the arrival of Henry II King of England in 1171, which in one sentence records the submission of the king of Desmond and the English king´s assumption of kingship over Leinster and “the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster[7]

 

In the mid-10th century, Norse invaders established the kingdom of D ublin which survived as an autonomous entity for more than a century.  The Norse kings of Dublin made little progress in conquering territory from the neighbouring native Irish kingdoms, although Norse kingdoms were also established temporarily in Waterford.  The Annals reveal numerous battles between the Norse settlers and the Irish.  But, more surprisingly, they also reveal temporary alliances between different factions in the two groups, and numerous marriage alliances. 

 

The families of some of the English settlers in Ireland are also included in this document. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    HIGH KINGS of IRELAND

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of IRELAND (KINGS of TARA)

 

 

1.         MAELSECHLAINN (-30 Nov 862).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid son of Donnchad king of Temair[8]King of Ireland.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 862 of "Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid[9].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record the death of "Mael Sechlainn son of Mael Ruanaid, king of Irelan…the day before Kal Dec"[10]m firstly ---.  The name of Maelsechlainn´s first wife is not known.  m [secondly] as her second husband, LAND, widow of GAETHINE King of Loiches, daughter of DUNLANG King of Osraige & his wife ---.  Her first marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously…was the mother of Cennetig son of Gaethine king of Loiches"[11].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland name in 854 "Cerball son of Dunlang king of Osraige" and "Cerball´s sister, Land, daughter of Dunlang" as the wife of "Mael Sechlainn"[12].  She married thirdly (863) Aedh Finnliath King of Ireland.  Her third marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Aed son of Niall king of Ireland massacred the Norwegians…at Loch Febail", adding that "it was his wife who most incited Aed against the Norwegians, namely Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously"[13].  Maelsechlainn & his first wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland name in 854 "Cerball son of Dunlang king of Osraige" and "Mael Sechlainn´s daughter" as his wife[14].  This daughter must have been born from an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage of her father as her husband´s sister is recorded in the same passage as her father´s current wife.  m CERBALL, son of DUNLANG King of Osraige & his wife ---. 

Maelsechlainn & his [second] wife had [five] children: 

b)         FLANN ([847/48]-Tailltin 25 May 916).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which name “Donnchadh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn[15].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 863 that "Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously, and the mother of Mael Sechlainn´s son i.e. Flann"[16].  The Annals of Ulster record "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill, king of Temair” among the victors in “the battle of Belach Mugna” fought 13 Sep 908 between “the men of Mumu, the Leth Cuinn and the Laigin in Mag Ailbi[17]King of Ireland.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 914 of “Flann the son of Maelsechlainn…at Tailltin” after reigning for 38 years[18].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 916 of "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill king of Ireland[19].  The Annals of Ulster record the death 25 May 916 of "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid son of Donnchad king of Temair having reigned 36 years 6 months and 5 days…in the 68th year of his age[20].  [m (after 879) as her second husband, MAEL MUIRE, widow of AEDH Finnliath King of Ireland, daughter of KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife --- (-913).  The mid-12th century Banshenchas records that "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin" married "Aed Finnliath and then later…Flann Sinna"[21].  The reliability of this information is unknown, although the inclusion of a record of Mael Muire´s death in the Annals of Ulster (see below) indicates that she had some connection with Ireland.  If the information is correct, the chronology dictates that Aedh Finnliath must have divorced his known wife Land of Osraige before marrying Mael Muire.]  Fland & [his wife] had eight children: 

i)          MAELRUANAIDH (-killed 901).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 901 of "Mael Ruanaid son of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill, heir designate of Ireland" killed by “the Luigne i.e. by the sons of Cernachán son of Tadc and by the sons of Lorcán son of Cathal[22]m ---.  The name of Maelruanaidh´s wife is not known.  Maelruanaidh & his wife had two children:

(a)       MAELSECHLAINN (-919 or 921).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 919 of “Maelseachlainn son of Maelruanaidh son of Flann[23].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 921 of "Mael Sechnaill grandson of Flann, heir designate of Temair[24]

(b)       AEDH (-killed 949).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh son of Maelruanaidh, royal heir of Teamhair” was killed in 949 by “Domhnall son of Donnchadh[25]

ii)         AENGHUS (-killed in battle Greallach-Eillte 911).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aenghus son of Flann heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland” was mortally wounded in 911 at “Greallach-Eillte by Cernn son of Bernn” and died after sixty days[26]m ---.  The name of Aenghus´s wife is not known.  Aenghus & his wife had one child: 

(a)       FEARGHAL .  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 948 of “Donnchadh son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn heir-apparent of Meath…killed by his own kinsmen…by Fearghal son of Aengus[27]

iii)        CONAING (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 17 Oct 919).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Conaing son of Flann royal heir of Temuir” was killed[28]

iv)       DONNCHAD (-944).  The Annals of Ulster record a rebellion in 915 against "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill…by his sons Donnchad and Conchobar[29]King of Ireland 918. 

-         see below

v)        CONCHOBAR (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919).  The Annals of Ulster record a rebellion in 915 against "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill…by his sons Donnchad and Conchobar[30].  The Annals of Ulster name "Conchobor grandson of Mael Sechnaill heir designate or king of Temair” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn[31].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 17 Oct 917 of “Conchobhar Ua Maeleachlainn heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland” at the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog[32]

vi)       DOMNALL (-killed in battle Bruighean-Dachoga 921).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnhall son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland” was killed in 919 by “his brother Donnchadh at Bruighean-Dachoga[33].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall grandson of Mael Sechnaill was…killed by his brother Donnchad, which was fitting” in 921[34].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 921 of "Domnall son of Flann royal heir of Ireland” killed by “his brother…Donnchadh son of Flann[35]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child:

(a)       DONNCHAD (-killed 948).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 948 of “Donnchadh son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn heir-apparent of Meath…killed by his own kinsmen…by Fearghal son of Aengus[36]

vii)      MAELRUANAIDH (-killed in battle Tracht-Mugha 941).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 939 of “Maelruanaidh son of Flann, Tanist of Oileach…slain by Cinel-Conaill[37].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 941 of “Maelruanaidh son of Flann heir apparent of the North” killed at “Tracht-Mugha[38].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 941 of "Mael Ruanaid son of Flann, heir designate of Ailech…killed by the Cenél Conaill[39], which suggests that both the entries in the Annals of the Four Masters relate to the same person. 

viii)     GORMLAITH (-948).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the reactions of “Gormlaith daughter of Flann” to the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog” in 917[40].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 946 of “Gormfhlaith daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn, queen of Niall Glundubh…after intense penance in her sins and transgressions[41].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 948 of "Gormlaith daughter of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill[42]m NIALL Glundubh King of Ireland, son of AEDH Finnliath & his wife --- (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 17 Oct 919

ix)       LIGHACH (-921, bur Cluain-mic-Nois).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 921 of “Lighach daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn and wife of Maelmithidh lord of all Breagh” and her burial “at Cluain-mic-Nois[43]m MAELMITHIDH Lord of Breagh, son of ---. 

x)        MUIRGEL (-Cluain-mic-Nois 928).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 926 of “Muirgheal daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn…at Cluain-mic-Nois[44].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 928 of "Muirgel daughter of Mael Sechnaill[45]

xi)       AEDH .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath[46]

-         KINGS of MEATH

c)         AENGUS (-7 Feb 915).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Aengus son of Mael Sechnaill” was among those who defeated “a Northern army led by Niall son of Aed” in 914[47].  The Annals of Ulster record the death 7 Feb 915 of "Aengus grandson of Mael Sechnaill, heir designate of Temair[48].  The latter entry presumably refers to the son of Maelsechnaill, as the latter´s known grandson named Aengus was already deceased at the time (see above).  In addition, it is more likely that the “heir designate” would have been the younger brother of the ruling king, not his son, in accordance with observed succession patterns in Ireland. 

d)         [son .  This son may have been one of the other sons of Maelsechlainn named above.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          AEDH (-919 or after).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Aed grandson of Mael Sechnaill” was blinded in 919 by “his kinsman Donnchad king of Mide[49]

e)         LIGACH (-923).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Lígach daughter of Mael Sechnaill, queen of the king of Brega[50].  Her husband is not named in the source.  However, the text implies that her husband was living when she died, and Lorcán is named as king of Brega in the same source only two years later.  m [LORCAN King of Brega, son of DONNCHAD & his wife --- (-925)]. 

f)          MUIRGEL (-928).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Muirgel daughter of Mael Sechnaill…in old age[51]

 

 

DONNCHAD, son of FLANN King of Ireland & his wife --- (-942).  The Annals of Ulster record a rebellion in 915 against "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill…by his sons Donnchad and Conchobar[52]King of Ireland 918.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn” defeated “the foreigners” in 918 at “Cianachta-Breagh (i.e. at Tigh-mic-nEathach)[53].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the “burning of Ath-Cliath by Donnchadh son of Flann King of Ireland” in 934[54].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 942 of “Donnchadh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn King of Ireland…after the 25th year of his reign[55].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 944 of "Donnchadh son of Flann and of Conn his son[56].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 944 of "Donnchad son of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill son of Mael Ruanaid son of Donnchad, king of Temair” after “spending 25 years as king[57]

m firstly CAINEACH, daughter of CANANNAN & his wife --- (-927).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 927 of “Caineach daughter of Canannan and wife of the king of Ireland[58]

[m secondly DER bhFáil, daughter of MAELFINNIA & his wife --- (-931).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 931 of "Der bhFáil daughter of Mael Finnia son of Flannacán, queen of Temair[59].  The name of Der´s husband is not stated.  However, Donnchad was “king of Temair” at the time of Der´s death.  Not enough information is known about the chronology of Maelfinnia´s family to be able to test whether this is a reasonable hypothesis.] 

m [thirdly] DUIBHLEAMBNA, daughter of TIGERNAN Lord of Breifne & his wife --- (-941).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 941 of “Duibhleambna daughter of Tighearnan lord of Breifne and wife of Donn-chadh son of Flann king of Ireland[60]

Donnchad & his first wife had six children: 

1.         CONN (-killed 944).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 942 of “Conn son of Donchadh, heir apparent of the sovereignty of Ireland…slain by the men of Fearnmhagh[61].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 944 of "Donnchadh son of Flann and of Conn his son[62]m ---.  The name of Conn´s wife is not known.  Conn & his wife had one child: 

a)         CARLUS (-killed 960).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 958 of “Carlus son of Conn son of Donnchadh…slain by the Norsemen[63].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 960 of "Carlus son of Conn son of Donnchad…killed in Ath Cliath[64]

2.         DOMNALL Donn (-952).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 950 of “Domhnall Donn son of Donnchadh royal heir of Teamhair and Oebhinn daughter of Donnchadh[65].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 952 of "Domnall son of Donnchad heir designate of Temair[66]m as her first husband, ---, daughter of ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  She married secondly as his [second] wife, Olaf Sihtricson King of Dublin.  Her marriages are confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][67].  She must have been separated from her first husband and married again before her first husband died as her son named above must have been at least a young adult in [981/82].  Domnall & his wife had three children: 

a)         MAELSECHNAILL ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022).  His date of birth is estimated from the Annals of the Four Masters which record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of Ceinnedigh” (extremely unlikely date) adding that this was “24 years before Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall[68].  The Annals of Tigernach record “the first expedition of MaelSechnaill the Great (“Moir”) from Dublin, when he broke and cut down the wood” in [973/74][69].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor[70].  King of Tara.  High King of Ireland

-        see below

b)         MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 977).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 977 of "Muirchertach son of Domnall, royal heir of Ireland, and the son of Domnall son of Congal another royal heir…killed by the foreigners of Áth Cliath[71]

c)         DONNCHAD (-killed in battle [989/90]).  Crown Prince of Tara.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donchad son of Domnall crownprince of Tara” was killed in [989/90] by “the Clan Colmáin, that is, by Conchobar son of Cerball[72]

3.         OEBHINN (-950).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 950 of “Domhnall Donn son of Donnchadh royal heir of Teamhair and Oebhinn daughter of Donnchadh[73]

4.         CONCHOBAR (-killed 950).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 950 of “Conchobhar son of Domhnall Ua Maeleachlainn royal heir of Ireland…slain by his own tribe[74]

5.         FLANN (-940).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 938 of “Flann daughter of Donnchadh and queen of Oileach[75].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 940 of "Flann daughter of Donnchad, queen of Ailech[76].  Her husband is not named in the source.  However, Muirchertach was king of Ailech at the time.  m [MUIRCHERTACH, son of NIALL Glundubh King of Ireland & his wife Gormlaith (-killed in battle Ath-Fhirdiath 26 Feb 943)]. 

6.         AENGUS (-943).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 943 of “Aenghus son of Donnchadh son of Flann, lord of Meath[77].  It has not been ascertained whether Aenghus was ancestor of the later lords of Meath. 

-        LORDS of MEATH

 

 

The precise relationship between the following persons and the main line of this family has not yet been ascertained: 

1.         MAELRUANAID (-killed 975).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelruanaidh God Ua Maeleachlainn, royal heir of Teamhair was…killed” in 975[78]m ---.  The name of Maelruanaid´s wife is not known.  Maelruanaid & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAELSECHNAILL .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which name “two sons of Maelseachlainn, son of Maelruanaidh, Ardghar and Ardchu, royal heirs of Aileach[79]m ---.  The name of Maelsechnaill´s wife is not known.  Maelsechanill & his wife had two children: 

i)          ARDGAR (-killed 1017).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1017 of “two sons of Maelseachlainn, son of Maelruanaidh, Ardghar and Ardchu, royal heirs of Aileach” killed by “the Cinel-Eoghain[80]

ii)         ARDCHU (-killed 1017).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1017 of “two sons of Maelseachlainn, son of Maelruanaidh, Ardghar and Ardchu, royal heirs of Aileach” killed by “the Cinel-Eoghain[81]

 

2.         CARRACH Calma .  m ---.  The name of Carrach´s wife is not known.  Carrach & his wife had one child: 

a)         AENGHUS (-1016).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1016 of “Oenghus son of Carrach Calma, royal heir of Teamhair…of the cholic[82]

 

3.         MAELSECHLAINNm ---.  The name of Maelsechnaill´s wife is not known.  Maelsechanill & his wife had one child:

a)         MUIRCHERTACHm ---.  The name of Muirchertach´s wife is not known.  Muirchertach & his wife had one child:

i)          ROEN (-killed in battle 1027).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Roen son of Muircheartach son of Maeleachlainn, i.e. one of the Clann-Colmain, royal heir of Teamhair” won three battles in 1026 “over the men of Meath…the men of Breagha and…the foreigners of Ath-cliath[83].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Roen O´MaelSechlainn king of Meath and crownprince of Ireland” won three battles against “the men of Meath…the men of Bregia and…the Foreigners” in [1024/26][84].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Raen Húa Maelsechlainn…king of the west of Meath” was killed in battle in [1027] by “Sitric son of Olaf[85]m ---.  The name of Roen´s wife is not known.  Roen & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MAELRUANAID (-killed 1041).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1041 of “Maelruanaidh son of Roen, royal heir of Teamhair…slain[86]

 

 

MAELSECHNAILL, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022).  His date of birth is estimated from the Annals of the Four Masters which record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of Ceinnedigh” (extremely unlikely date) adding that this was “24 years before Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall[87].  The Annals of Tigernach record “the first expedition of MaelSechnaill the Great (“Moir”) from Dublin, when he broke and cut down the wood” in [973/74][88].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh King of Tara” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor[89].  King of Tara.  High King of Ireland.  The Annals of the Four Masters record 979 as “the first year of Maelseachlainn Mor son of Domhnall son of Donnchadh son of Flann in sovereignty of Ireland[90].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig…and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between them in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian[91].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall, son of Olaf, crownprince of the Foreigners” was killed in battle by “Mael Sechnaill the Great, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Fland…King of Ireland” at “Tara” in [978/79][92].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tomar´s ring and Carlus´s sword were forcibly taken by MaelSechnaill son of Domnall from the Foreigners of Dublin” in [993/94], presumably referring to powerful symbols of power[93].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [1018/22] of “Mael-Sechlainn the Great son of Donnchad overking of all Ireland” at “Cró Inis of Lough Ennell in the 43rd year of his reign[94].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall son of Donnchad overking of Ireland" died in 1022 “in the 43rd year of his reign and the 73rd of his age…2 Sep[95]

m firstly MOR, daughter of DONNCHAD mac Cellach King of Ossory & his wife --- (-[984/85]).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [984/85] of “Mor, daughter of Dondchad son of Cellach, and queen of Ireland[96].  This passage does not name Mor´s husband.  However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals as king of Ireland at that time.

m secondly MOR, daughter of TAIDG maic Cathail maic Concobair & his wife --- (-[990/91]).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [990/91] of “Mor, daughter of Tadg, son of Cathal, son of Conchobar, queen of Ireland[97].  This passage does not name Mor´s husband.  However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals of Tigernach as king of Ireland at that time. 

m [thirdly] as her third husband, GORMLAITH, widow of OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin and separated wife, secondly, of BRIAN Boroma King of Ireland, daughter of (-1030).  Her third marriage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair[98].  It is assumed that Maelsechnaill separated from Gormlaith as he is recorded with another wife before Gormlaith died. 

m [fourthly] MAELMAIRE, daughter of OLAF Sihtricson King of Dublin & his wife --- (-1021).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Maelmaire daughter of Amhlaeibh, wife of Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall[99]

Mailschnaill & his [first/second] wife had four children:

1.         DONNCHAD (-killed in battle 1012).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Maelseachlainn” was killed in 1012 fighting “Ualgharg Ua Ciardha lord of Cairbre and the son of Niall O´Ruairc and the men of Teathbha[100]

2.         CONGALACH (-killed in battle [1017]).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Congalach son of Maelsechlainn” was killed in battle in [1001/02] by the “Fir cell and Eili[101]

3.         DOMNALL (-[1017/18]).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of MaelSechlainn son of Domnall and successor of Saints Findén and my Colmóc rested” in [1017/18][102].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1019 of "Domnall son of Mael Sechnaill, ex-layman, martyr and coarb of Finnián[103]

4.         FLANN (-1042).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1042 of "Flann son of Mael Sechnaill heir designate of Ireland…treacherously killed[104].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1042 of “Flann son of Maelseachlainn Gott, royal heir of Teamhair” killed by “Conchobhar son of Maelseachlainn[105]m ---.  The name of Flann´s wife is not known.  Flann & his wife had three children: 

a)         AEDH (-killed 1021).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Aedh son of Flann son of Maelseachlainn, heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” killed by “Ua Maighteachain one of the Feara-Bile[106]

b)         FLANN .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which names “Aed son of Fland son of Fland son of MaelSechlainn crownprince of Ireland[107]m ---.  The name of Flann´s wife is not known.  Flann & his wife had two children: 

i)          AED (-killed 1021).  Crown Prince.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed son of Fland son of Fland son of MaelSechlainn crownprince of Ireland” was killed in 1021 by “Húa Maigthecháin one of the Fir bili[108]

ii)         DONDCHAD (-killed 1036).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Flaind crownprince of Tara” was killed in 1036 by “the men of Brefne[109]

iii)        MURCHAD (-killed Kells 1076).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Flann Ua Mail Shechnaill was…slain” in 1076 by “the grandson of Maelán Ua Leocháin in the bellhouse of Cenannas”, adding that the latter was killed “within two months for the honour of Colum Cille[110].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad, grandson of Fland Húa MaelSechlainn” was killed in 1076 by “Olaf, son of Maelán king of the Gallenga in the bellhouse of the Kells” and “straightway…Olaf…was killed by Mael-Sechlainn son of Conchobar[111]

c)         GORMLAITH (-1046).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1046 of “Gormlaith daughter of Fland son of MaelSechlainn…in her old age[112]

Mailsechnaill & his [third] wife had [two] children:

5.         CONCHOBAR Húa MaelSechlainn (-killed 1073).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair[113].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1042 of “Flann son of Maelseachlainn Gott, royal heir of Teamhair” killed by “Conchobhar son of Maelseachlainn[114]King of Tara.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar Húa MaelSechlainn king of Tara” was killed in 1073 by “his own brother´s son Muirchertach Húa MaelSechlainn[115]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAELSECHLAINNKing of Tara.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him[116].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad, grandson of Fland Húa MaelSechlainn” was killed in 1076 by “Olaf, son of Maelán king of the Gallenga in the bellhouse of the Kells” and “straightway…Olaf…was killed by Mael-Sechlainn son of Conchobar[117]

6.         son .  It is not certain that this son was also born from Mailsechnaill´s [third] marriage.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         MUIRCHERTACH .  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar Húa MaelSechlainn king of Tara” was killed in 1073 by “his own brother´s son Muirchertach Húa MaelSechlainn[118]

 

1.         FLANNm ---.  The name of Fland´s wife is not known.  Fland & his wife had two children: 

a)         DOMNALL (-killed 1094).  King of Tara.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall the son of Fland Húa MaelSechlainn king of Tara” was killed in 1094 by “the Luigni of Meath[119]

b)         DONNCHAD .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh son of Flann Ua Mail Shechnaill king of western Mide submitted to Muirchertach Ua Briain” in 1095 and “received from him twenty ingots of gold as a stipend[120]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of IRELAND (Ua NIALL)

 

 

1.         NIALLm ---.  The name of Niall´s wife is not known.  Niall & his wife had three children: 

a)         AEDH Finnliath (-Druimm Inasclainn 20 Nov 879).  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 855 "a raid by Aed son of Niall to plunder Ulaid" but adding that "the Ulaid routed Cenel Eogain, and Flaithbertach son of Niall and Conacan son of Colman were slain there"[121]King of Ireland.  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 862 that "Aed son of Niall, mortal enemy of Mael Sechlainn, took the kingship of Ireland after Mael Sechlainn…[and] held the kingship…for seventeen years"[122].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 879 of "Aed son of Niall king of Temuir[123].  The Annals of Ulster record the death 20 Nov 879 of "Aed son of Niall king of Temair…at Druimm Inasclainn in the territory of Conaille"[124]m firstly ---.  The name of Aedh´s first wife is not known, but the dates of marriage of his daughters shown below indicate that they must have been born from an early marriage.  m [secondly] (863, [divorced]) as her third husband, LAND, widow firstly of GAETHINE King of Loiches, and secondly of MAELSECHLAINN King of Ireland, daughter of DUNLANG King of Osraige & his wife ---.  Her first marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously…was the mother of Cennetig son of Gaethine king of Loiches"[125].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland name in 854 "Cerball son of Dunlang king of Osraige" and "Cerball´s sister, Land, daughter of Dunlang" as the wife of "Mael Sechlainn"[126].  Her third marriage is confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in 863 that "Aed son of Niall king of Ireland massacred the Norwegians…at Loch Febail", adding that "it was his wife who most incited Aed against the Norwegians, namely Land, daughter of Dunlang…who was Mael Sechlainn´s wife previously"[127].  [m thirdly as her first husband, MAEL MUIRE, daughter of KENNETH I King of Scotland & his wife --- (-913).  The mid-12th century Banshenchas records that "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Alpin" married "Aed Finnliath and then later…Flann Sinna"[128].  The reliability of this information is unknown, although the inclusion of a record of Mael Muire´s death in the Annals of Ulster (see below) indicates that she had some connection with Ireland.  If the information is correct, the chronology dictates that Aedh Finnliath must have divorced his known wife Land of Osraige before marrying Mael Muire.  She married secondly Flann King of Ireland.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 913 of "Mael Muire daughter of Cinaed son of Ailpin[129].]  Aedh & his first wife had two children: 

i)          daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are indicating by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which state in 862 that "Aed´s daughter was Amlaib´s wife"[130]m (before 862) as his [second] wife, OLAF [Amlaib], son of --- (-after 871). 

ii)         EITHNE (-916).  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record that in [869] "the Laigin drove away one of their chieftains…for he was of the stock of the Ciarraigne Luachra", that "came with his followers to the king of Ireland" who married him to "his daughter Eithne"[131].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 916 of “Eithne daughter of Aedh son of Niall, queen of the men of Breagh…on the festival day of St Martin[132]m ([869]) ---. 

Aedh & his --- wife had two children: 

iii)        DOMNALL (-after 911).  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 863 that "Muiredach son of Mael Duin king of in t-Airthir was killed by Domnall son of Aed son of Niall"[133].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Aed king of Ailech assumed the pilgrim´s staff” in 911 and that “Niall son of Aed took the kingship after him[134]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had two children:

(a)       DONNCHAD (-killed 928).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Donnchad son of Domnall son of Aed…killed by the Norsemen[135]

(b)       FERGAL (-after 933).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[136]

(c)       daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[137]m UATHMHARAN, son of [IVAR & his wife ---]. 

iv)       NIALL Glundubh (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Aed king of Ailech assumed the pilgrim´s staff” in 911 and that “Niall son of Aed took the kingship after him[138]King of Ireland 916.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Niall son of Aed took the kingship of Temuir” in 916[139].  The Annals of the Four Masters record 915 as “the first year of Niall Glundubh son of Aedh Finnliath over Ireland in sovereignty[140].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 17 Oct 917 of “Niall Glundubh son of Aedh Finnliath king of Ireland” at the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog[141].  The Annals of Ulster name "Niall Glúndub son of Aed, king of Ireland” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn[142].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Niall Glúndub son of Aed king of Ireland” was killed[143]m GORMLAITH, daughter of FLANN King of Ireland & his wife --- (-948).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the reactions of “Gormlaith daughter of Flann” to the battle of “Ath-cliath…Cill-Mosamhog” in 917[144].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 946 of “Gormfhlaith daughter of Flann son of Maelseachlainn, queen of Niall Glundubh…after intense penance in her sins and transgressions[145].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 948 of "Gormlaith daughter of Flann son of Mael Sechnaill[146].  Niall & his wife had three children: 

(a)       MUIRCHERTACH (-killed in battle Ath-Fhirdiath 26 Mar 943).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Niall” defeated “the foreigners” in 919[147]

-         see below

(b)       CONAING (-937).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conaing son of Niall and the foreigners of Loch Eathach” won a battle “over the province of Ulidia” in 931[148].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 937 of "Conaing son of Niall[149].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 937 of "Conaing son of Niall, heir designate of Ireland[150]m ---.  The name of Conaing´s wife is not known.  Conaing & his wife had one child:

(1)       FERGAL (-937).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 937 of "Ferga son of Conaing, king of Ailech[151]

(c)       MAEL MUIRE (-966).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 966 of "Mael Muire daughter of Niall son of Aed[152]

Aedh & his [third] wife had [one child]:

v)        [DOMNALL (-after 911).  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Doneualdus rex Britannorum", during its record of the early part of the reign of Constantine II King of Scotland, and the choice of "Duuenaldus filius Ede" to succeed him, "et Flann filius Maelsethnaill et Niall filius Ede"[153].  Some secondary sources show Donald as the son of Aedh King of Scotland.  However, the subsequent references to the two Irish kings in the same passage suggest that the Chronicle is referring to the son of Aedh King of Ireland.  If this hypothesis is correct, it is possible that Domnall´s claim to the Strathclyde throne was through Mael Muire, shown above as the possible second wife of his father, which would mean in turn that this Domnall was not the same person as the son of Aedh of the same name who is recorded in 863 (see above).] 

b)         FLAITHBERTACH (-killed in battle 855).  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 855 "a raid by Aed son of Niall to plunder Ulaid" but adding that "the Ulaid routed Cenel Eogain, and Flaithbertach son of Niall and Conacan son of Colman were slain there"[154]

c)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are indicating by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which state in 862 that "Flann son of Conaing king of Cinachta…was the son of Niall´s daughter"[155]m --- King of Connaught, son of ---. 

 

 

MUIRCHERTACH, son of NIALL Glundubh King of Ireland & his wife Gormlaith (-killed in battle Ath-Fhirdiath 26 Feb 943).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Niall” defeated “the foreigners” in 919[156].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh king of Ireland” fought “Muircheartach son of Niall Glundubh lord of Oileach” in 936 but they were reconciled and jointly “lay siege to the foreigners of Ath-Cliath[157].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 26 Mar 941 of “Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh, lord of Aileach…slain at Ath-Fhirdiath” by “Blacaire son of Godfrey lord of the foreigners[158].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 943 of "Muirchertach son of Niall royal heir of Ireland at the hands of the heathens[159].  The Annals of Ulster record the death 26 Feb 943 of "Muirchertach son of Niall, i.e. Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, king of Ailech” killed “by Blacair son of Gothfrith king of the foreigners at Glas Liatháin beside Cluain Chaín in Fir Rois[160]

m [FLANN, daughter of DONNCHAD King of Ireland & his wife --- (-940).  The name of Muirchertach´s wife is not known.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 938 of “Flann daughter of Donnchadh and queen of Oileach[161].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 940 of "Flann daughter of Donnchad, queen of Ailech[162].  Her husband is not named in the source.  However, Muirchertach was king of Ailech at the time.] 

Muirchertach & his wife had two children: 

1.         DOMNALL (-Ard-Macha [978/80]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domhnall Ua Neill, the son of Muircheartach, son of Niall Glundubb and…his brother” defeated “the foreigners of Loch-Eathach” and killed their king in 943[163]King of Ireland.  The Annals of the Four Masters record 955 as “the first year of Domhnall son of Muircheartach in sovereignty over Ireland[164].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 978 of “Domhnall son of Muircheartach, of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh” at “Ard-Macha” after reigning for 24 years[165].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Domnall mac Muirchertaigh King of Tara” in [978/79] and the accession of “Mael Sechnaill Mor[166].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 980 of "Domnall Ua Néill king of Temuir[167]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had two children: 

a)         MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 977).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muirchertach son of Domnall, king of Aileach, and son of the king of Ireland” plundered “Lughmadagh and Druim-Inesclainn” in 968[168].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Domhnall Ua Neill, and Conghalach son of Domhnall son of Conghalach, two heirs to the monarchy of Ireland” were killed in 975 by “Amhlaeibh son of Sitric[169].  The Annals of Ulster record the same event in 977[170]m ---.  The name of Muirchertach´s wife is not known.  Muirchertach & his wife had one child: 

i)          FLAITHBERTACH (977-after 1031).  The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 977 of “Flaithbertach son of Muirtertach[171].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach, lord of Aileach” made “a great prey…in Conaille-Muirtheimne” in 1005 but was stopped by “Maelseachlainn king of Teamhaire[172].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach O´Neill and his son Aedh” plundered “Inis-Eoghain” in 1031[173]m ---.  The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known.  Flaithbertach & his wife had two children: 

(a)       AEDH (-30 Nov 1033).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach O´Neill and his son Aedh” plundered “Inis-Eoghain” in 1031[174].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1033 of “Aedh son of Flaithbheartach Ua Neill, lord of Oileach, and heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” on “the night of St Andrew´s festival[175]

(b)       MUIREDACH (-killed 1039).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1039 of “Muireadhach son of Flaithbheartach Ua Neill…slain by the Ui-Labhradha[176]

b)         AEDH ([974/75]-killed in battle Craebh-tulcha 1004).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh son of Domhnall Ua Neill heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland and Eochaidh son of Ardgar king of Ulidia” opposed “Brian and Maelseachlainn…[at] Dun-Dealgan in Conaille-Muirtheimhne” in 1001[177].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh son of Domhnall Ua Neill, lord of Oileach” was killed in 1003 at “the battle of Craebh-tulcha between the Ulidians and the Cinel-Eoghain”, adding that he died “in the 15th year of his reign and the 29th of his age[178]m ---.  The name of Aedh´s wife is not known.  Aedh & his wife had two children:

i)          MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 1012).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Aedh O´Neill” was killed in 1012 by “the Dail-Riada[179]

ii)         DOMNALL (-killed 1024).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1024 of “Domhnall son of Aedh royal heir of Aileach” killed by “Gillamura son of Ogan[180]

2.         FLAITHBERTACH (-949).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 947 of “Flaithbheartach son of Muircheartach son of Niall Glun-dubh…slain by the Cinel-Conaill[181].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 949 of "Flaithbertach son of Muirtertach son of Niall[182]m ---.  The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known.  Flaithbertach & his wife had one child: 

a)         MURCHAD (-Dun-Cloitighe 972).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cathal son of Tadhg king of Connaught” was killed in 971 in “the battle of Ceis-Corainn [against] Murchadh Ua Flaithbheartach i.e. Glun-Illar king of Aileach[183].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh Ua Flaithbheartach…lord of Aileach” died at “Dun-Cloitighe” from wounds received during a “predatory excursion into Cinel-Conaill[184]

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of IRELAND (Ua CELLACH)

 

 

1.         CELLACH .  His ancestry is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Congalach son of Mael Mithig son of Flannacán son of Cellach son of Congalagh son of Conaing of Cuirrech son of Congalach son of Aed of Sláine king of Ireland[185]m ---.  The name of Cellach´s wife is not known.  Cellach & his wife had one child: 

a)         FLANNACAN (-896).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Flannacán son of Cellach king of Brega…killed by the Norsemen[186]m DER bFáil, daughter of ---.  The Annals of Ulster name "Mael Finnia…the son of Der bFáil[187].  Flannacán & his wife had five children:  

i)          CONGALACH (-893).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 893 of "Congalath son of Flannacán heir designate of Brega[188]m ---.  The name of Congalach´s wife is not known.  Congalach & his wife had one child:

(a)       AMALGAID (-beheaded 909).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amalgaid son of Congalach, heir designate of Brega, and Innéirge son of Mael Teimin, a religious layman” were beheaded in 909 by “the Conaille of Muirtheimne[189]

ii)         CELLACH (-895).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 895 of "Cellach son of Flannacán heir designate of Brega” killed by “Fogartach son of Tolarg[190]

iii)        CINAED (-896).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Cinaed son of Flannacán heir designate of Brega[191]

iv)       MAELFINNIA (-903).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 903 of "Mael Finnia son of Flannacán king of Brega, a religious layman[192]m ---.  The name of Maelfinnia´s wife is not known.  Maelfinnia & his wife had one child:

(a)       DER bhFáil (-931).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 931 of "Der bhFáil daughter of Mael Finnia son of Flannacán, queen of Temair[193].  The name of Der´s husband is not stated.  However, Donnchad was “king of Temair” at the time of Der´s death.  Not enough information is known about the chronology of Maelfinnia´s family to be able to test whether this is a reasonable hypothesis.  m [as his second wife, DONNCHAD King of Ireland, son of FLANN King of Ireland & his wife --- (-942)]. 

v)        MAELMITHIGH (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Mael Mithig son of Flannacán king of the men of Brega” was killed[194]

-         see below

 

 

MAELMITHIGH, son of FLANNACAN & his wife --- (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Mithig son of Flannacán, king of Cnogba went over to the heathens” in 918 “with a view to defending northern Brega…which availed him not at all[195].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the "battle of Áth Cliath” in 919 in which “Mael Mithig son of Flannacán king of the men of Brega” was killed[196].  The Annals of Ulster name "Mael Mithig son of Flannacán king of Brega” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn[197]

m 

Maelmithigh & his wife had one child:

1.         CONGALACH (-killed Tech Giurann, Leinster 956).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, Braen son of Maelmordha, king of Leinster, Ceallach, son of Faelan, heir of Leinster” destroyed Dublin in 942[198]King of Ireland 943.  The Annals of the Four Masters record 943 as “the first year of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh in sovereignty over Ireland[199].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 956 of "Congalach son of Mael Mithig son of Flannacán son of Cellach son of Congalagh son of Conaing of Cuirrech son of Congalach son of Aed of Sláine king of Ireland” killed “by the foreigners of Áth Cliath and by the Laigin at Tech Giurann in Laigin[200].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Congalach king of Ireland" was killed in 954[201]m EITHNE, daughter of FEARGHAL & his wife --- (-951).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 951 of “Eithne daughter of Fearghal Queen of Ireland, wife of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh[202].  Congalach & his wife had three children: 

a)         MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 964).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 962 of “Muircheartach son of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach[203].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 964 of "Muirchertach son of Congertach son of Mael Mithig, heir designate of Temair” killed by “Domnall son of Congalach[204]

b)         DOMNALL (-killed [976/77]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 962 of “Muircheartach son of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh heir to the sovereignty of Ireland” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach[205].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach[206].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 974 of “Domhnall son of Conghalach, lord of Breagha…named Triubhus Fliuch[207].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 976 of "Domnall son of Congalach king of Brega[208].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 977 of "Muirchertach son of Domnall, royal heir of Ireland, and the son of Domnall son of Congal another royal heir…killed by the foreigners of Áth Cliath[209]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child:

i)          CONGALACH (-killed 977).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Muircheartach son of Domhnall Ua Neill, and Conghalach son of Domhnall son of Conghalach, two heirs to the monarchy of Ireland” were killed in 975 by “Amhlaeibh son of Sitric[210].  The Annals of Ulster record the same event in 977[211]

c)         DONNCHAD (-killed 991).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 991 of "Donnchadh Ua Congalaig royal heir of Ireland…by Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall[212]m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had one child:

i)          DONNCHAD (-killed 1016).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1016 of “Donnchad son of Donnchad Ua Conghalaigh, lord of Breagha and royal heir of Ireland…slain by the men of Breagha themselves[213]

d)         DEARBHAIL (-1012).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1012 of “Dearbhail daughter of Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, daughter of the king of Ireland[214]

2.         DUNLAITH (-940).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 940 of “Dunlaith daughter of Maelmithigh[215]

3.         AEDH (-963).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 963 of “Aedh son of Maelmithigh…on his pilgrimage[216]m ---.  The name of Aedh´s wife is not known.  Aedh & his wife had one child:

a)         MADUDHAN (-killed Tech Giurann, Leinster 956).  The Annals of the Four Masters name “Conghalach son of Maelmithig King of Ireland…Madudhan son of Aedh son of Maelmithig…” among those killed in 954 (956) by “the foreigners of Ath-cliath[217]

 

 

1.         DONNCHADm ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had one child:

a)         LORCAN (-925).  King of Brega.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 925 of "Lorcán son of Dúnchad, king of Brega…in old age[218]m [LIGACH, daughter of MAELSECHNAILL & his wife --- (-923).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Lígach daughter of Mael Sechnaill, queen of the king of Brega[219].  Her husband is not named in the source.  However, the text implies that her husband was living when she died, and Lorcán is named as king of Brega in the same source only two years later.]  Lorcan & his wife had two children: 

i)          two sons (-killed 942).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 942 of "two sons of Lorcán son of Donnchad…killed by Congalach son of Mael Mithig[220]

 

 

 

D.      KINGS of IRELAND (Ua BRIAN)

 

 

1.         BRIAN Boroma, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife --- (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014[221].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig…and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between them in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian[222]High King of Ireland 1002.  It would appear that Brian´s high-kingship overlapped with that of MaelSechanaill as no record has been found that the latter resigned the position.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brían Boroma regnat” in [999/1000][223].  The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Brian rex Hiberniæ" was killed "1014 IX Kal Mai"[224]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[225].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle[226]

 

 

1.         TORDELBACH, son of DOMNAILL of Munster & his wife --- ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086)King of Munster 1064.  High King of Ireland 1072.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him[227].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1086 of “Tordelbach Húa Bríáin king of the greater part of Ireland…in the 77th year of his age but in the 22nd of his reign” and of “his son Tadhg…in one month[228]

a)         MUIRCHERTACH (1048-10 Mar 1119, bur Killaloe).  The Annals of Tigernach record the birth in 1048 of “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland[229].  Snorre names "King Myrkjartan…a son of the Irish king Thialfe" when recording that he ruled over Connaught[230]King of MunsterHigh King of Ireland 1086-1119.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa Bríáin” seized the kingdom of Munster in 1114 when “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin” fell ill[231].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland” died in 1119 “in the sixth year of his tribulation” (presumably referring to his illness reported in an earlier passage) and was buried “in the church of Killaloe[232].  The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1119 of "Murchach maximus rex Hiberniæ"[233].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1119 of "Muirchertach ua Brian king of Ireland…10 Mar[234]

 

 

 

E.      KING of IRELAND (Ua MAIL na mBó)

 

 

1.         DIARMAIT, son of Mail na mbó & his wife --- (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mael na mbó king of the Húi Cennselaig” plundered “Colomb cille´s Maein (Moone), Dísert Diarmata and my Senóc´s Mugna and Clonmore” in 1040[235].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”, adding in a later passage that “the son of Mael na mbó took the kingship of Dublin by force” in 1053[236]King of LeinsterHigh King of Ireland.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Harold Godwinsson and his brother Leofwine, sons of Godwin Earl of Wessex, sought refuge with him in 1051 following the family's disgrace[237].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mail na mbó, king of Britons and the Hebrides and Dublin and Mug Nuadat´s Half [southern Ireland]” was killed in 1072 by “Conchobar Húa Mael-Sechlainn in the battle of Odba[238]

 

 

 

F.      KING of IRELAND (Ua CONCHOBAIR)

 

 

1.         TOIRDELBACH, son of RUAIDRI Húa Conchobair & his wife Mor --- (1088-1156, bur St Ciaran).  The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 1088 of "Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir king of Ireland[239]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” was deposed “by the Connaughtmen” in 1106 and “his brother Toirdelbach the Great was made king[240].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” assumed “the kingship of the Foreigners” in 1118 after expelling “Domnall of the Short Hands Húi Briaín[241]High King of Ireland.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “a great hosting by Toirdelbach son of Ruaidri king of Ireland, as far as Aghaboe in Ossory” in 1125 “so that they gave him his full award in respect of the revolt which they had made against him[242].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna son of Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” died in 1126, after which “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” was made king of Leinster, unsuccessfully challenged by “Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond[243].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of all Ireland and the Augustus of the west of Europe” died in 1156 “in the 68th year of his age in the 50th year of his reign” and was buried “beside S. Ciaran´s altar[244]

a)         RUAIDRI (-1199).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muredach Húa Dubthaig…demanded from his father the liberation of Rúaidri, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” in 1143 after he was taken prisoner “by Tigernán Húa Ruairc and by Conchobar his own brother[245]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the Foreigners” gave the kingship to “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” in 1166 in Dublin[246]High King of Ireland 1166.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ruaidhri Ua Conchubair was expelled by his own son…Conchobar Maenmhuide” in 1186[247].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1199 of "Ruaidhri Ua Concobair…son of Toirrdhealbhach Ua Conchubair, king of Ireland[248]

 

 

1.         NIALL Mac Lochlainn (-killed 1120).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1120 of "Niall son of Mac Lochlainn, royal heir of Ireland…slain by his own people[249]m ---.  The name of Niall´s wife is not known.  Niall & his wife had four children: 

a)         MUIRCERTACH (-killed in battle Tyrone 1166).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “the consecration of the Temple of the Monks (at the monastery of Drogheda) by the clerics of Ireland…and Muirchetach mac maic Lochlann…” in 1157[250]High King of Ireland.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchetach son of Níall Mac Lochlainn overking of Ireland” was killed in 1166 by “the men of Brefne and Conmaicini and Oriel and Húa Ruairc´s army” in Tyrone[251]m ---.  The name of Muircertach´s wife is not known.  Muircertach & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          [son .  It is not known which of the sons of Muircertach was the father of Fingola.  m ---.  One child:]

(a)       FINGOLA .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Godred married “Phingola filia MacLotlen filii Murkartac regis Hiberniæ”, mother of his son, in a Christian marriage ceremony in 1176[252]m (1176) GODRED King of Man, son of OLAV King of Man & his wife Aufrica of Galloway (-Isle of St Patrick, Isle of Man 10 Nov 1187, bur Iona). 

ii)         DOMNALL (-killed 1189).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1189 of "Domnall son of Muircertach Ua Lochlainn…killed by the Foreigners of Dal-Araidhe, amongst themselves[253]

iii)        MUIRCERTACH (-killed 1196, bur Daire of Colum-cille).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Muircertach, son of Muircertach Ua Lochlainn, king of Cenel-Eogain and royal heir of all Ireland” was killed in 1196 by “Donnchadh, son of Bloscadh Ua Cathan, by counsel of all Cenel-Eogain” and buried at “Daire of Colum-cille[254]

b)         CONCHOBAR (-killed Armagh 1170).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the kingship of the Kindred of Eogan was taken by Conchobar son of Níall Mac Lochlainn” in 1169[255].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar son of Mac Lochlainn king of the Kindred of Eogan” was killed in 1170 by “the sons of Cano in Armagh[256]

c)         NIALL (-killed 1176).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the kingship of the Kindred of Eogan was taken by Niall Mac Lochlainn” in 1170[257].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Niall son of Mac Lochlainn” was killed in 1176 by “the Dál mBuinne[258]

d)         MAELSECHLAINN .  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record a “hosting by MaelSechlainn son of MacLochlainn and by the Kindred of Eogan and the men of Oriel” in 1176 when they attacked “the castle of Slane” and killed “Richard Fleming the Foreigner who was commander therein[259].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed Húa Néill king of the Kindred of Eogan” was killed in 1177 by “Mael Sechlainn son of MacLochlainn[260].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael-Sechlainn son of Mac Lochlainn and…Ardgal son of…that Mael-Sechlainn” killed “Aedh Ua Neill…´the lazy youth´ king of Cenel-Eogain for a time and royal heir of all Ireland” in 1177[261]m ---.  The name of Maelsechlainn´s wife is not known.  Maelsechlainn & his wife had one child: 

i)          ARDGAL .  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael-Sechlainn son of Mac Lochlainn and…Ardgal son of…that Mael-Sechlainn” killed “Aedh Ua Neill…´the lazy youth´ king of Cenel-Eogain for a time and royal heir of all Ireland” in 1177[262]

2.         [DOMNALL (-1121).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1121 of "Domnall son of Mac Lochlainn, king of Ireland, in Doire Coluim Chille[263].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1121 of “Domnall mac Mec Lochlainn king of the north of Ireland and the taker of Erin´s hostages[264].]  m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

a)         MOR (-1122).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1122 of "Mór daughter of Domnall ua Lochlainn, wife of Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir[265]m as his [third] wife, TOIRDELBACH King of Connaught, son of RUAIDRI Húa Conchobair & his wife Mor --- (1088-1156, bur St Ciaran). 

3.         [CONCHOBAR .  The Annals of Inisfallen record "a great raid by Conchobar son of Mac Lochlainn in Ulaid” in 1129[266].  The Annals of Inisfallen record "a battle rout of the Ulaid by Conchobar son of Mac Lochlainn and by the Cenél Eógain” in 1130[267]

4.         [MAGNUS (-1129).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1129 of "the king of Ailech Magnus son of Mac Lochlainn[268].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    CONNAUGHT

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of CONNAUGHT (Ua CONCHOBAR)

 

 

1.         CONCHOBARm ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had three children: 

a)         MAELCLUITHE (-killed 923).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelcluithe son of Conchobhar heir apparent of Connaught” was killed in 921[269].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Mael Cluiche son of Conchobar, heir designate of Connacht…killed[270].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 923 of "Mael Cluiche son of Conchobar royal heir of Connachta[271]

b)         CATHAL (-925).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record "Cathal son of Conchobor king of Connacht” among the victors in “the battle of Belach Mugna” fought 13 Sep 908 between “the men of Mumu, the Leth Cuinn and the Laigin in Mag Ailbi[272].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 923 of “Cathal son of Conchobar king of the three divisions of Connaught[273].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 925 of "Cathal son of Conchobar king of Connachta[274].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 925 of "Cathal son of Conchobar, king of Connaught[275]m ---.  The name of Cathal´s wife is not known.  Cathal & his wife had two children: 

i)          DOMNALL (-killed 925).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnhall son of Cathal heir apparent of Connaught” was killed in 923 by “his brother Tadhg son of Cathal” and that “Tadhg assumed the place of his father[276].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 925 of "Domnall son of Cathal with other distinguished men of Connacht…killed by his kinsman Tadc[277]

ii)         TADHG (-956).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnhall son of Cathal heir apparent of Connaught” was killed in 923 by “his brother Tadhg son of Cathal” and that “Tadhg assumed the place of his father[278]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 956 of "Tadc son of Cathal king of Connachta[279]m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known.  Tadhg & his wife had four children: 

(a)       CONCHOBAR (-973).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 973 of "Conchobor son of Tadc king of Connacht"[280].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 973 of "Conchobar son of Tadc son of Cathal king of Connachta[281]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had one child: 

(1)       CATHAL (-1010)King of Connaught.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1009 of “Cathal son of Conchobhar king of Connaught…he was the grandson of Tadhg of the Tower[282]

-         see below

(b)       MUIRCHERTACH (-killed in battle Formaeil, Rath-beg 967).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Muircheartach Ua-Taidhg royal heir to Connaught” killed in “the battle of Formaeil at Rath-beg[283].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 967 of "Muirchertach Ua Tadc, heir designate of Connacht” killed in “the battle of Formaíl[284]

(c)       CATHAL (-killed in battle Ceis-Corainn 973).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 973 of "Cathal son of Tadc…killed immediately after taking the kingship[285].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cathal son of Tadhg king of Connaught” was killed in 971 in “the battle of Ceis-Corainn [against] Murchadh Ua Flaithbheartach i.e. Glun-Illar king of Aileach[286]

(d)       MOR (-[990/91]).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [990/91] of “Mor, daughter of Tadg, son of Cathal, son of Conchobar, queen of Ireland[287].  This passage does not name Mor´s husband.  However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals of Tigernach as king of Ireland at that time.  m as his second wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022). 

iii)        MAELRUANIDH (-killed 928).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Mael Ruanidh son of Conchobar…killed by Donnchad[288]

 

2.         AED Ua Dubda (-[982/83]).  King of North Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed Húa Dubda king of the whole of the north of Connaught” died in [982/83][289]

 

 

1.         MAELMHUAIDHm ---.  The name of Maelmhuaidh´s wife is not known.  Maelmhuaidh & his wife had one child:

a)         DOMNALL (-944).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 944 of “Domhnall son of Maelmhuaidh lord of Connaught[290]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

i)          CONCHOBAR (-[987/88]).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar mac Domnaill king of the Luigni of Connaught” died in [987/88][291]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had two children: 

(a)       MUIRGUS (-killed in battle [986/88]).  Crown Prince of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Dunlang, son of Dub da boirenn, crownprince of Munster [and] Muirgus, son of Conchobar, crownprince of Connaught” were killed in battle between the Munstermen and the Connacians in [986/87][292].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirgius son of Conchobar royal heir of Connachta” was killed in 988 by “Brian[293]m ---.  The name of Muirgus´s wife is not known.  Muirgus & his wife had one child: 

(1)       NIALL (-killed 1036).  Crown Prince in the west of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Muirchertach Húa Flaithbertaig and Níall son of Murgus, two crownprinces of the west of Connaught” were killed in 1036[294]

(b)       --- .  m ---.  One child: 

(1)       NIALL (-killed [1023/25]).  Crown Prince of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Níall Hua Concobair crown prince of Connaught” was killed in [1023/25][295]

 

 

1.         COSCRACHm ---.  The name of Coscrach´s wife is not known.  Coscrach & his wife had one child: 

a)         RUAIDRI (-killed [991/92]).  King of South Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ruaidri son of Coscrach, king of the south of Connaught” was killed in [991/92] by “Conchobar son of MaelSechnaill, and by the son of Comaltán, grandson of Clérech[296]m ---.  The name of Ruaidri´s wife is not known.  Ruaidri & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [CATHAL (-1043).  King of West Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cathal son of Ruaidri king of the west of Connaught went on a pilgrimage to Armagh” in 1037[297].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cathal son of Ruaidri king of the west of Connaught” died in 1043 “on his pilgrimage in Armagh[298]m ---.  The name of Cathal´s wife is not known.  Cathal & his wife had two children: 

(a)       AMALGAID (-1051 or after).  King of West Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amalgaid son of Cathal king of the west of Connaught” was blinded in 1051 by “Aed ua Conchobuir[299]

(b)       GORMLAITH (-1063).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1063 of "Gormlaith daughter of Cathal son of Ruaidri…on pilgrimage in Ard Macha[300]

 

 

CATHAL, son of CONCHOBAR of Connaught & his wife --- (-1010)King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1010 of "Cathal son of Conchobor king of Connacht"[301].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1009 of “Cathal son of Conchobhar king of Connaught…he was the grandson of Tadhg of the Tower[302]

m ---.  The name of Cathal´s wife is not known. 

Cathal & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         [TADHG (-killed 1008).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1008 of “Tadhg Dubhshuileach son of the king of Connaught slain by the Conmaicni[303].  The name of Tadhg´s father is not given.  However, it is reasonable to suppose that he was Cathal who was king of Connaught at the time.  However, this would mean that Cathal had two sons named Tadhg, which seems unlikely.]   

2.         [DUB Chablaig (-1009).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1009 of "Dub Chablaig daughter of the king of Connacht…wife of Brian son of Ceinnéitig"[304].  The name of her father is not given.  However, it is reasonable to suppose that he was Cathal who was king of Connaught at the time.  m [as his second wife,] BRIAN Boru, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife --- (941-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).] 

3.         TADHG “of the White Steed” (-killed 1030).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh O´Ruairc, the son of Sen-Fearghal, lord of Breifne and royal heir of Connaught” was killed in 1014 by “Tadhg of the White Steed, son of Cathal, son of Conchobhar, King of Connaught” at “Loch-Neill in Magh-Aei, in revenge of Domnhall his brother[305].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tadg son of Cathal son of Conchobar king of Connaught” killed “Domnall Húa hEagra king of the Luigne” in [1021/23][306].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tadhg son of Cathal son of Conchobar king of Connaught” was killed in 1030 “Húa MailRuanaig king of Crumthann and by the Clan Coscraid including Ecsaide Húa Cathluain[307].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death of “Tadhg of the White Steed Ua Conchobhair, king of Connaught” killed by “the Gott, i.e. Maelseachlainn grandson of Maelruanaidh, lord of Meath and Cremthainne[308]m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known.  Tadhg & his wife had [two] children:

a)         [son “Sleganach” (-killed 1014).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of the King of Connaught, i.e. Sleghanach” was killed in 1014 when the army of “Maelseachlainn, Ua Neill, and Ua Maeldoraidh” was attacked while they were plundering “Ui-Cennsealagh[309].]

b)         DEARBHAIL (-[1009/10]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1009 of “Dearbhail daughter of Tadhg son of Cathal[310].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1010 of "Der bFáil daughter of Tadc son of Cathal"[311]

4.         DOMNALL “the Cat” (-killed 1012).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domhnall the Cat royal heir of Connaught” was killed in 1012 by “Maelruanaidh Ua Maeldoraidh[312].  Domnall´s parentage is confirmed by a later passage in the same source which records that “Aedh O´Ruairc, the son of Sen-Fearghal, lord of Breifne and royal heir of Connaught” was killed in 1014 by “Tadhg of the White Steed, son of Cathal, son of Conchobhar, King of Connaught” at “Loch-Neill in Magh-Aei, in revenge of Domnhall his brother[313]

5.         BRIAN (-killed [1025/29]).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brian son of Cathal Húa Conchobar crownprince of Connaught” was killed by “MaelSechlainn Húa MaelRunaid king of Crimthann” in [1025/27][314].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1028 of "Brian Ua Conchobuir royal heir of Connachta[315].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1029 of "Brian ua Conchobuir heir designate of Connacht…killed by his own people[316]

6.         CONCHOBAR (-after 1029).  Crown Prince of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar crownprince of Connaught” was blinded in 1029 “(by Tadg Hua Conchobair)[317]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had one child: 

a)         TADHG “in eich gil/of the White Horse” .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Flaithbertach Húa Flaithbertaig went into his patrimony to Aed of the Gapped Spear, son of Tadg of the White Horse, grandson of Conchobar, and the kingship of Connaught was taken by him” in 1097[318]

-        see below

 

1.         DONNCHADm ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had one child: 

a)         DUB DAINGEN (-killed 1034).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Dub daingen son of Donnchad, of the Húi Maini…the king of Connaught” was killed “by his own people” in 1034[319]

 

2.         --- Ua Con Cenainn (-killed 1037).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1037 of "Ua Con Cenainn royal heir of Connachta…killed after taking a prey from Brénainn[320]

 

3.         MURCHAD Liathanach Húa Concobair (-killed 1069).  Crown Prince of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad Liathanach Húa Concobair crownprince of Connaught” was killed in 1069 by “the Conmaicni[321]

 

 

TADHG “in eich gil/of the White Horse”, son of CONCHOBAR Húa Conchobar Crown Prince of Connaught & his wife --- .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Flaithbertach Húa Flaithbertaig went into his patrimony to Aed of the Gapped Spear, son of Tadg of the White Horse, grandson of Conchobar, and the kingship of Connaught was taken by him” in 1097[322]

m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known. 

Tadhg & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         AEDH “in ga bernaig/of the Gapped Spear” Húa Conchobar (-killed 1067).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Flaithbertach Húa Flaithbertaig went into his patrimony to Aed of the Gapped Spear, son of Tadg of the White Horse, grandson of Conchobar, and the kingship of Connaught was taken by him” in 1097[323].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad the Red, son of Art Uallach Húa Ruairc crownprince of Brefne” was killed in 1039 by “Aed Húa Conchobar, that is Aed of the Gapped Spear, instead of his father[324]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aedh Húa Conchobair king of Connaught” blinded “Amalgaid son of Cathal son of Ruaidri king of the west of Connaught” in 1051 and “after that Aedh took up his abode in the west of Connaught[325].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Ruaidri Ua Flaithbertaig banished Aed Ua Conchobuir from the West of Connachta and afterwards took…the kingship” in 1061 but was killed by “Ua Conchobuir[326].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ruaidri Húa Flaithbertaig” was killed by “Aed Húa Conchobair” in 1061[327].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “the men of Brefne surrounding Aed, son of Art the Proud, son of Aed, son of Fergal senior” ravaged Connaught in 1067 and killed “Aed of the Gapped Spear overking of all Connaught”, adding that “Aed Húa Ruairc” succeeded him “in the kingship of Connaught[328]m ---.  The name of Aedh´s wife is not known.  Aedh & his wife had four children: 

a)         TADHG (-killed 1062).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tadg son of Aed Húa Conchobair” was killed by “the son of Aed son of Ruaidri” in 1062[329]m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known.  Tadhg & his wife had one child: 

i)          DOMNALL (-killed 1082).  Crown Prince of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of Tadg Hua Conchobair crownprince of Connaught” was killed by “Cathal son of Aed Húa Conchobair” in 1082[330]

b)         RUAIDRI “na saidhe buidhi/of the Yellow Bitch” (-Cluain Moccu Nóis 1118)King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ruaidri of the Yellow Bitch, son of Aed of the Gapped Spear…king of Connaught” was blinded in 1092 by “Húa Flaithbertaig and by Fogartach Húa Fogartaig” in 1092[331]

-        see below

c)         CATHAL (-killed 1082).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of Tadg Hua Conchobair crownprince of Connaught” was killed by “Cathal son of Aed Húa Conchobair” in 1082[332].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Cathal Ua Conchobuir, a royal heir of Connachta” was killed in 1082 by “Ruaidri Ua Conchobuir[333]m ---.  The name of Cathal´s wife is not known.  Cathal & his wife had one child: 

i)          AED (-1093).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed son of Cathal Húa Conchobair” was taken prisoner in 1092 by “Brian” and that “the kingship of the Sil Muredaig was given to Gilla na nóen Húa Eidin[334].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed son of Cathal Húa Conchobair king of Síl Muiredaig” died in 1093 “in fetters through treachery[335].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Cathal Ua Conchobuir who had been a prisoner…[at] Luimnech” was killed in 1093 by “the followers of Ua Flaithbertaig[336]

d)         DUB choblaith (-1088).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1088 of “Dub choblaith daughter of Aed Húa Conchobair[337]

2.         [CONCHOBAR (-killed 1070).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Conchobar son of the Cleric Húa Conchobair crownprince of Connaught” was killed by “Húi Fallomain” in 1070[338].] 

 

 

RUAIDRI “na saidhe buidhi/of the Yellow Bitch” Húa Conchobair, son of AEDH “in ga bernaig/of the Gapped Spear” Húa Conchobar & his wife --- (-Cluain Moccu Nóis 1118)King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Brian” submitted to “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair king of Connaught” in 1059[339].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Ruaidri Ua Conchobuir king of Connachta was imprisoned by Tairdelbach and released” in 1076 and “he received from Ua Briain a stipend befitting him[340].  The Annals of Tigernach record “the battle of Conachail (Cunghill) in Corann” in 1087 between “Ruaidri of the Yellow Bitch, son of Aed of the Gapped Spear, grandson of Conchobar, and Aed the son of Art the Proud, grandson of Ruarc, king of Connaught”, in which “Aed Húa Ruairc” was among those who were killed[341].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ruaidri of the Yellow Bitch, son of Aed of the Gapped Spear…king of Connaught” was blinded in 1092 by “Húa Flaithbertaig and by Fogartach Húa Fogartaig” in 1092[342].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ua Briain took the high kingship of Connachta” in 1092[343].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1118 of "Ruaidri ua Conchobuir king of Connacht for a long time on pilgrimage in the 26th year after being blinded[344].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1118 of "Ruaidri Ua Conchobuir…in Cluain Moccu Nóis[345]

m MOR, daughter of TORDELBACH Húa Brian & his wife Derborgaill --- (-1088).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1088 of “Mor daughter of Tordelbach Húa Bríáin, wife of Rúaidri Húa Conchobair[346]

Ruaidri & his wife had three children: 

1.         TADHG (-killed 1097).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Tadhg son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair king of Connaught” was killed in 1097 “by the Clan Conchobair and by his own men of trust[347]m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known.  Tadhg & his wife had one child:

a)         son .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Tadc Ua Conchobuir” killed “Echri Ua Maíl Maire king of Ciannachta” 18 Dec 1100[348]

2.         DOMNALL (-1118).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Rúaidri Húa Conchobair king of Connaught” went on raids “into Dalaradia” in 1103[349].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” was deposed “by the Connaughtmen” in 1106 and “his brother Toirdelbach the Great was made king[350].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” banished “his brother Domnall Húa Conchobair” into Munster in 1114, recording in a later passage that he was captured “by the Húi Máini and delivered into Toirdelbach´s hands[351].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1118 of “Domnall son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair[352]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOMNALL (-killed 1150).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Domnall Húa Conchobair crownprince of Connaught” was killed in 1150 by “Rúaidri Húa Conchobair[353]

3.         TOIRDELBACH (1088-1156, bur St Ciaran).  The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 1088 of "Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir king of Ireland[354]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” was deposed “by the Connaughtmen” in 1106 and “his brother Toirdelbach the Great was made king[355].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” assumed “the kingship of the Foreigners” in 1118 after expelling “Domnall of the Short Hands Húi Briaín[356]High King of Ireland.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “a great hosting by Toirdelbach son of Ruaidri king of Ireland, as far as Aghaboe in Ossory” in 1125 “so that they gave him his full award in respect of the revolt which they had made against him[357].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna son of Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” died in 1126, after which “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” was made king of Leinster, unsuccessfully challenged by “Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond[358].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of all Ireland and the Augustus of the west of Europe” died in 1156 “in the 68th year of his age in the 50th year of his reign” and was buried “beside S. Ciaran´s altar[359]m [firstly] ORLAITH, daughter of MURCHAD Húa Mael-Sechlainn King of Meath & his wife --- (-1115).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1115 of “Orlaith daughter of Murchad Húa Mael-Sechlainn, wife of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair[360]m [secondly] [as her second husband,] ---, widow of ---, daughter of ---.  An indication of her first marriage is provided by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Ruaidri Húa Conchobar” banished “Domnall Húa Bríáin” from Thomond into Ormond in 1175 and “gave the kingship of Thomond to the son of Murchad Húa Bríáin…his own mother´s son[361].  It is chronologically more likely that Murchad was born from Ruaidri´s mother´s earlier marriage, considering that date of death of Ruaidri´s father.  m [thirdly] MOR, daughter of DOMNALL Húa Lochlainn & his wife --- (-1122).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1122 of "Mór daughter of Domnall ua Lochlainn, wife of Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir[362]m [fourthly] TAILLTIU, daughter of MURCHAD Húa MaelSechlainn & his wife --- (-1127).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1127 of "Tailltiu daughter of Murchad ua Mael Sechlainn, wife of Tairdelbach ua Conchobuir[363].  Toirdelbach & his --- wife had three children: 

a)         CONCHOBAR (-killed 1144).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” left “his son Conchobar” as king there in 1126 after marching to Dublin and in the same year installed him as king in “Ballaghmoon” after deposing “the son of Mac Murchada[364].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchad Húa MáelSechlainn” was deposed (again) and banished to Munster in 1143 by “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” who appointed “his own son Conchobar mac Toirdelbaig…[as] king over Meath from the Shannon to the sea[365].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” was killed in 1144 by “the Húi Dublaich and the Fir Tulach…owing to a secret conspiracy of all the men of Meath…at Belach mune na sirrite (´the Pass of the Sprite´s brake´)[366]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had one child: 

i)          MURCHERTACH (-killed in battle Fardrum 1153).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) names “Murchertach son of Conchobar son of Toirdelbach” among those killed in 1153 by “Murchad son of Niall and by the North of Ireland and the Húi Briuin of Brefne” at Fardrum against “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair and the West of Connaught[367]

b)         AED (-1136 or after).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” was blinded in 1136 by “his own brother Conchobar and by Diarmait son of Tadg Húa MaelRuanaid[368]m ---.  The name of Aed´s wife is not known.  Aed & his wife had three children: 

i)          MAELSECHNAILL (-killed 1181).  The Annals of Ulster record the "battle of the royal heirs” in 1181 in which fell “two sons of Toirrdelbach Ua Concobair…Briain of Luighni and Magnus, and three sons of Aedh, son of Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobuir…Mael-Secnaill, Muirethach and Muircertach and others[369]

ii)         MUIRETHACH (-killed 1181).  The Annals of Ulster record the "battle of the royal heirs” in 1181 in which fell “two sons of Toirrdelbach Ua Concobair…Briain of Luighni and Magnus, and three sons of Aedh, son of Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobuir…Mael-Secnaill, Muirethach and Muircertach and others[370]

iii)        MUIRCERTACH (-killed 1181).  The Annals of Ulster record the "battle of the royal heirs” in 1181 in which fell “two sons of Toirrdelbach Ua Concobair…Briain of Luighni and Magnus, and three sons of Aedh, son of Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobuir…Mael-Secnaill, Muirethach and Muircertach and others[371]

c)         TADHG (-1145).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “another son of Toirdelbach…Tadg” was appointed crown prince in 1144, but adding in a later passage that “Tadg, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” died in 1145[372]

Toirdelbach & his [second] wife had one child:

d)         RUAIDRI (-1199).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muredach Húa Dubthaig…demanded from his father the liberation of Rúaidri, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” in 1143 after he was taken prisoner “by Tigernán Húa Ruairc and by Conchobar his own brother[373].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the Foreigners” gave the kingship to “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” in 1166 in Dublin[374]High King of Ireland

-        see below

Toirdelbach & his --- wife had eleven children:

e)         CATHAL (-killed 1152).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Cathal, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” was killed in 1152 in “the Calraige of Corann[375]m ---.  The name of Cathal´s wife is not known.  Cathal & his wife had one child: 

i)          DOMNALL (-killed in battle Fardrum 1153).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall, son of Cathal Húa Conchobair” among those killed in 1153 by “Murchad son of Niall and by the North of Ireland and the Húi Briuin of Brefne” at Fardrum against “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair and the West of Connaught[376]

f)          MAEL-SECHLAINN (-killed 1154).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “his son Mael-Sechlainn” was killed in 1154 during a raid by “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair[377]

g)         BRIAN of Brefne (-1181).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Brian of Brefne son of Toirdelbach” was blinded in 1156 “by Ruaidri Húa Conchobair his own brother and by Diarmait son of Tadg[378].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1184 of "Brian of Breifni son of Toirrdelbach Ua Concobair[379]m ---.  The name of Brian´s wife is not known.  Brian & his wife had one child: 

i)          son (-killed 1198).  The Annals of Ulster record that "the son of Brian of Breifni, son of Toirrdealbach Ua Conchubhair” was killed in 1198 by “Cathal Carrach, son of Conchubar Maenmhaighe[380]

h)         daughter (-killed 1134).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchad Húa hEgra and his wife, a daughter of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” were killed in 1134 by “Taichlech Húa hEgra[381]m MURCHAD Húa hEgra, son of --- (-killed 1134). 

i)          daughter (-drowned 1153).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Flaithbertach Húa Canannáin king of the Kindred of Vonall and his wife Dub-coblaig, daughter of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” were drowned in 1153 on the sea[382]m FLAITHBERTACH Húa Canannáin, son of --- (-drowned 1153). 

j)          DOMNALL (-Mayo 1176).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair, son of the king of Ireland” died in 1176 at Mayo[383]

k)         BRIAN of Luighni (-1181).  The Annals of Ulster record the "battle of the royal heirs” in 1181 in which fell “two sons of Toirrdelbach Ua Concobair…Briain of Luighni and Magnus, and three sons of Aedh, son of Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobuir…Mael-Secnaill, Muirethach and Muircertach and others[384]

l)          MAGNUS (-killed 1181).  The Annals of Ulster record the "battle of the royal heirs” in 1181 in which fell “two sons of Toirrdelbach Ua Concobair…Briain of Luighni and Magnus, and three sons of Aedh, son of Toirrdelbach Ua Conchobuir…Mael-Secnaill, Muirethach and Muircertach and others[385]m ---.  The name of Magnus´s wife is not known.  Magnus & his wife had one child: 

i)          DIARMAID (-after 1202).  The Annals of Ulster name "Diarmaid son of Maghnus, that is the son of the brother of his father” among those who captured “Toirrdhealbach son of Ruaidgri son of Toirrdhelbach Ua Conchubhair” in 1202[386]

m)       URAN .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Conchubar, son of Cathal, son of Uran, son of Toirrdealbhadh Ua Conchubair” drowned in 1190[387]m ---.  The name of Uran´s wife is not known.  Uran & his wife had one child: 

i)          CATHAL .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Conchubar, son of Cathal, son of Uran, son of Toirrdealbhadh Ua Conchubair” drowned in 1190[388]m ---.  The name of Cathal´s wife is not known.  Cathal & his wife had one child: 

(a)       CONCHOBAR (-drowned Loch Ribh 1190).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Conchubar, son of Cathal, son of Uran, son of Toirrdealbhadh Ua Conchubair” drowned in 1190 when the ship of “Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobhair king of Connaught” foundered on Loch-Ribh[389]

n)         MOR (-1190).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1190 of "Mor daughter of Toirrdhealbach Ua Conchubhair[390]

o)         CATHAL “Red-Hand” (-Cnoc-Muaidhe monastery 28 May 1224).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Conchubar, son of Cathal, son of Uran, son of Toirrdealbhadh Ua Conchubair” drowned in 1190 when the ship of “Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobhair king of Connaught” foundered on Loch-Ribh[391].  The Annals of Ulster record in [1200/01] the "expulsion of Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobuir” and “the coronation of Cathal Carrach in his stead[392].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1224 of "Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobair king of Connacht and king of the Gaidhil of Ireland…in the Cistercian monastery of Cnoc-Muaidhe V Kal Jun[393]m MOR, daughter of Ua Briain & his wife --- (-1218).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1218 of "Mor daughter of Ua Briain, wife of Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobair"[394].  Cathal & his wife had one child: 

i)          AEDH (-killed 1228).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchadh Ua Eidhin” was blinded in 1213 by "Aedh son of Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchubair"[395]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Aedh son of Cathal Red-Hand took the kingship” in 1225 after "the sons of Ruaidri" were expelled from Connaught[396].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Aedh son of Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobair” was killed in 1228 "by the Foreigners in treachery after his being put away by the Connachtmen from themselves"[397]

 

 

RUAIDRI, son of TOIRDELBACH Húa Conchobar King of Connaught & his --- wife --- (-1199).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muredach Húa Dubthaig…demanded from his father the liberation of Rúaidri, son of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” in 1143 after he was taken prisoner “by Tigernán Húa Ruairc and by Conchobar his own brother[398]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the Foreigners” gave the kingship to “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” in 1166 in Dublin[399]High King of Ireland.  The Annals of Ulster record "great war between Ruaidhri Ua Conchobair and his son…Concobur Maenmuighi” in 1183 and 1184[400].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ruaidhri Ua Conchubair was expelled by his own son…Conchobar Maenmhuide” in 1186[401].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ruaidhri Ua Conchubhair” left Connaught in 1191 “and went to the Cenel-Conaill[402].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1199 of "Ruaidhri Ua Concobair…son of Toirrdhealbhach Ua Conchubair, king of Ireland[403]

m ---.  The name of Ruaidri´s wife is not known. 

Ruaidri & his wife had ten children: 

1.         AEDH (-killed in battle Athlone 1159).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed son of Ruaidri” died in 1159 from a blow received at “a hosting by Ruaidri Húa Conchobair with the Connaughtmen…[at] Athlone[404]m ---.  The name of Aed´s wife is not known.  Aed & his wife had one child: 

a)         DONNCHAD (-killed in battle 1159).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) name “Donnchad son of Aed son of Ruaidri” among those killed in 1159 by “Murchertach son of Niall MacLochlainn with the Kindred of Eogan and Donnchad Húa Cerbaill and the men of Farney[405]

2.         CONCHOBAR Maenmhaighe (-killed 1189).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ruaidri king of Ireland” sent “Conchobar, Ruaidri´s son” with “a hosting by Domnall Húa Briain” to attack the castle of Kilkenny in 1173[406].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar of Moenmag, son of Ruaidri Húa Conchobair was taken by force out of an island in Loch Cuan by Mael-Chulaird Húa Flaithbertaig and Cathal Húa Flaithbertaig and Gilla Beraig Húa Slúagadaig” in 1178 after being held “by his father a year in captivity because of his own improper deeds[407].  The Annals of Ulster record "great war between Ruaidhri Ua Conchobair and his son…Concobur Maenmuighi” in 1183 and 1184[408].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ruaidhri Ua Conchubair was expelled by his own son…Conchobar Maenmhuide” in 1186[409]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ua Diarmata Concobar Maenmhaighi…king of Connacht” joined forces with “Domnall Ua Briain king of Munster” to defeat “the Foreigners” in 1188[410].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1189 of "Conchobur Maenmaighi son of Ruaidhri arch-king of Connacht and royal heir of all Ireland…killed by his own minions by direction of his kinsman…Conchobar Ua Diarmata (son of Cormac otherwise son of Ruaidhri)[411]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had three children:  

a)         CATHAL Carrach (-killed 1202).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1189 of "Conchobur Maenmaighi son of Ruaidhri arch-king of Connacht and royal heir of all Ireland…killed by his own minions by direction of his kinsman…Conchobar Ua Diarmata (son of Cormac otherwise son of Ruaidhri)”, adding that the latter was killed by “Cathal Carrach son of Conchobar Maenmaighi in revenge of his father[412].  The Annals of Ulster record that "the son of Brian of Breifni, son of Toirrdealbach Ua Conchubhair” was killed in 1198 by “Cathal Carrach, son of Conchubar Maenmhaighe[413]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record in [1200/01] the "expulsion of Cathal Red-Hand Ua Conchobuir” and “the coronation of Cathal Carrach in his stead[414].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Cathal Carrach son of Conchubhar Maenmuighe son of Toirrdelbach Mor king of Connacht” was killed in 1202[415]

b)         MUIRCETACH of Tethbha (-killed 1204).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Muircertach of Tethba son of Conchubhar Maenmhuighe son of Ruaidri Ua Conchubhair” was killed in 1204 by "Diarmuid son of Ruaighri and Aedh son of Ruaidhri, that is two brothers of his own father"[416]

c)         MAIL-SEACHNAILL (-1220).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1220 of "Mail-Seachnaill son of Concubhar Maenmhuidhe Ua Concobhair"[417]

3.         CORMAC .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Conchobar Ua Diarmata (son of Cormac otherwise son of Ruaidhri)[418]m ---.  The name of Cormac´s wife is not known.  Cormac & his wife had one child: 

a)         CONCHOBAR Húa Diarmata (-killed 1189).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1189 of "Conchobur Maenmaighi son of Ruaidhri arch-king of Connacht and royal heir of all Ireland…killed by his own minions by direction of his kinsman…Conchobar Ua Diarmata (son of Cormac otherwise son of Ruaidhri)”, adding that the latter was killed by “Cathal Carrach son of Conchobar Maenmaighi in revenge of his father[419]

4.         TOIRDELBACH (-after 1225).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Toirrdhealbach son of Ruaidhri Ua Conchubair” killed “Mail-Seachlainn Ua Neachtain and Gilla-Beraigh Ua Sluaigheadhaigh” in 1190[420]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Tairrdhelbach son of Ruaidhri was crowned” at Carn-fraich in 1225 but was expelled[421]

5.         daughter (-killed 1176).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1176 of "the daughter of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobair, wife of [F]laithbertach Ua Maeldoraidh…killed by the sons of Ua Cairellan[422]m FLAICHBERTACH Húa Maeldoraidh, son of ---. 

6.         MURCHADH (-1177 or after).  The Annals of Ulster record that "the son of Ruaidhri (…Murchadh) Ua Conchobhuir” led “Milo Cogan…to Ros-Comain to destroy Connacht” in 1177 and was blinded by his father in revenge[423]

7.         DIARMAID (-killed 1221).  The Annals of Ulster name "Diarmaid son of Ruaidri Ua Conchobhair…the son of his own father” among those who captured “Toirrdhealbach son of Ruaidgri son of Toirrdhelbach Ua Conchubhair” in 1202[424].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Muircertach of Tethba son of Conchubhar Maenmhuighe son of Ruaidri Ua Conchubhair” was killed in 1204 by "Diarmuid son of Ruaighri and Aedh son of Ruaidhri, that is two brothers of his own father"[425].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Diarmuid son of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobhair” was killed in 1221[426]

8.         AEDH (-killed 1233).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Muircertach of Tethba son of Conchubhar Maenmhuighe son of Ruaidri Ua Conchubhair” was killed in 1204 by "Diarmuid son of Ruaighri and Aedh son of Ruaidhri, that is two brothers of his own father"[427]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Aedh son of Ruaidhri and his brothers took the kingship of Connacht” in 1228[428].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Feidhlim O´Concubhair king of Connacht was taken prisoner by Richard de Burgh in Milic…and the kingship of Connacht reverted…to Aedh son of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobair again” in 1232 but that in 1233 he was killed[429]

9.         DUIBESSA (-1229).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1229 of "Duibessa daughter of Ruaidhri Ua Conchobair wife of Cathal Mac Diarmata…a nun[430]m CATHAL Mac Diarmata, son of ---. 

10.      [ROSE (-after Aug 1224).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   In his report to King Henry dated 5 Aug 1224 following the capture of castle Trum, William Marshall Earl of Pembroke records that "the wife of William de Lascy, the daughter of Llewllyn, Griffin´s sister, the wife of Thomas Blund, William´s brother, and the mother of William, of Thomas, and of him that was killed" were in the castle, adding that "the mother…will be prisoner unless her nephew the king of Connaught return to the king´s peace through her"[431]m as his second wife, HUGH de Lacy Lord of Meath, son of GILBERT de Lacy & his wife --- (-killed 25 Jul 1185).] 

 

 

1.         FEIDHLIM O´Concubhair (-after 13 Dec 1243).  Letters of safe conduct were granted to "Fedelin O´Concainor son of the King of Connaught to come to England to confer with the king" by charter dated 13 Dec 1243[432]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of CONNAUGHT (Ua RUAIRCH)

 

 

1.         FERGAL “Sen/Senior” Ua Ruairc (-killed [966/67]).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 967 of "Ferga Ua Ruairc king of Connachta[433].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 966 of "Fergal ua Ruairc…killed by Domnall son of Congalach king of Brega[434]m ---.  The name of Fergal´s wife is not known.  Fergal & his wife had one child: 

a)         AED (-[1014/15]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which name “Art the Proud, son of Aed, son of Fergal senior[435].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1015 of "Aed Ua Ruairc king of Bréifne[436].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aedh O´Ruairc, the son of Sen-Fearghal, lord of Breifne and royal heir of Connaught” was killed in 1014 by “Tadhg of the White Steed, son of Cathal, son of Conchobhar, King of Connaught” at “Loch-Neill in Magh-Aei, in revenge of Domnhall his brother[437]m ---.  The name of Aed´s wife is not known.  Aed & his wife had one child: 

i)          ART “Uallach/the Proud” Ua Ruairch (-killed 1046).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which name “Art the Proud, son of Aed, son of Fergal senior[438]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Art the Proud (Uallach) Húa Ruairch king of Connaught” was killed in 1046 by “the kindred of Conall[439]m ---.  The name of Art´s wife is not known.  Art & his wife had two children: 

-         see below

ii)         NIALL .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which name “Cathal son of Tigernán son of Niall son of Aed Húa Rúairc king of Brefne[440]m ---.  The name of Níall´s wife is not known.  Níall & his wife had one child: 

(a)       TIGERNÁN .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which name “Cathal son of Tigernán son of Niall son of Aed Húa Rúairc king of Brefne[441]m ---.  The name of Tigernán´s wife is not known.  Tigernán & his wife had two children: 

(1)       CATHAL (-killed 1059).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed Húa Ruairc namely Aed son of Art the Proud” killed “Cathal son of Tigernán son of Niall son of Aed Húa Rúairc king of Brefne” in 1059[442]

(2)       DOMNALL (-killed 1102).  King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall son of Tigernán Húa Ruairc king of Connaught and the Húi Bríáin and the Conmaicne for a time” was killed in 1102 “by the Munter Eolais[443].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tigernán Ua Ruairc´s son was…slain by his kinsmen” in 1102[444]

b)         ART “Cailech/the Cock” .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which record that “the king of Brefne Donnchad son of Art “the Cock” son of Fergal Senior Húa Ruairc…king of the east of Connaught” was killed in 1084[445]m ---.  The name of Art´s wife is not known.  Art & his wife had one child: 

i)          DONNCHAD (-killed Monecronock 1084).  King of East Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “the king of Brefne Donnchad son of Art “the Cock” son of Fergal Senior Húa Ruairc…king of the east of Connaught” was killed in “the battle of Monecronock” in 1084 by “Murchertach Húa Briain king of Munster[446]

 

 

ART “Uallach/the Proud” Ua Ruairch, son of AED Ua Ruairch & his wife --- (-killed 1046).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which name “Art the Proud, son of Aed, son of Fergal senior[447]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Art the Proud (Uallach) Húa Ruairch king of Connaught” was killed in 1046 by “the kindred of Conall[448]

m ---.  The name of Art´s wife is not known. 

Art & his wife had three children: 

1.         DONNCHAD “Derg/the Red” (-killed 1039).  King of East Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad the Red, son of Art Uallach Húa Ruairc crownprince of Brefne” was killed in 1039 by “Aed Húa Conchobar, that is Aed of the Gapped Spear, instead of his father”, adding that Donnchad was “king of the whole of the east of Connaught[449]

2.         AED (-killed Cunghill, Corann 1087).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed Húa Ruairc namely Aed son of Art the Proud” killed “Cathal son of Tigernán son of Niall son of Aed Húa Rúairc king of Brefne” in 1059[450].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ruaidri Húa Flaithberaig” was killed by “Aed Húa Conchobair” in 1061[451].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “the men of Brefne surrounding Aed, son of Art the Proud, son of Aed, son of Fergal senior” ravaged Connaught in 1067 and killed “Aed of the Gapped Spear overking of all Connaught”, adding that “Aed Húa Ruairc” succeeded him “in the kingship of Connaught[452]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record “the battle of Conachail (Cunghill) in Corann” in 1087 between “Ruaidri of the Yellow Bitch, son of Aed of the Gapped Spear, grandson of Conchobar, and Aed the son of Art the Proud, grandson of Ruarc, king of Connaught”, in which “Aed Húa Ruairc” was among those who were killed[453].  The Annals of Inisfallen record “a battle between the Connachta” in 1087 in which "the son of Art Ua Ruairc” was killed[454]

3.         NIALL (-killed in battle Corann 1047).  King of East Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1047 of “Niall son of Art the Proud, descendant of Ruarc, king of Brefne and the east of Connaught” killed by “Aed Húa Conchobair in the Corann[455].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1047 of "Niall Ua Ruairc king of Bréifne slain[456]

 

 

1.         --- “Mac na haidche/son of the night” Ua Ruairc (-killed Inis Locha Arbach 1053).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cú chiar grandson of Maelduin, king of Lurg” was killed by “Mac na haidche (“the son of the night”) Húa Ruairc” in 1053 “in his own assembly[457].  Crown Prince of Connaught.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1053 of "Mac na hAidche ua Ruairc heir designate of Connacht” killed by “Diarmait ua Cuinn” on “Inis Locha Arbach[458]

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of CONNAUGHT (UA FLAITHBERTAIG FAMILY)

 

 

1.         RUAIDRI Ua Flaithbertaig (-killed 1061).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Ruaidri Ua Flaithbertaig banished Aed Ua Conchobuir from the West of Connachta and afterwards took…the kingship” in 1061 but was killed by “Ua Conchobuir[459]King of West Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ruaidri Húa Flaithbertaig” was killed by “Aed Húa Conchobair” in 1061[460]m ---.  The name of Ruaidri´s wife is not known.  Ruaidri & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [--- Ua Flaithbertaig (-killed 1065).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Tadg Húa Cellaig and his son and Húa Flaithbertaig” were killed in 1065 by “Aed Húa Conchobair[461].  [Two children]: 

i)          [FLAITHBERTACH Ua Flaithbertaig (-killed 1098).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Flaithbertach Húa Flaithbertaig went into his patrimony to Aed of the Gapped Spear, son of Tadg of the White Horse, grandson of Conchobar, and the kingship of Connaught was taken by him” in 1097[462]King of Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Flaithbertach Húa Flaithbertaig king of Connaught” was blinded in 1098 “by the Sil Muiredag in vengeance for the blinding of Rúaidri of the Yellow Bitch[463].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1098 of "Flaithbertach Ua Flaithbertaig king of the west of Connachta…slain[464]m ---.  The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known.  Flaithbertach & his wife had one child: 

(a)       [MUIREDACH Húa Flaithbertaigh (-killed 1121).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muiredach Húa Flaithbertaigh king of the west of Connaught” died in 1121, adding in a later passage that he was killed as part of the army of “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” as it was marching southwards from Munster[465].] 

ii)         [AED Húa Flaithbertaig (-killed 1079).  King of West Connaught.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aedh Húa Flaithbertaig king of the west of Connaught” was killed by “Ruaidri Húa Conchobair” in 1079[466]

 

 

 

D       LORDS of CONNAUGHT (de BURGH)

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

WILLIAM de Burgh, son of --- & his wife Alice --- (-[1205/06]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 7 Oct 1234 which records payment of a fine by his son "Richard de Burgh" for return of land in Connaught which had been confiscated from him "the strife with Hubert de Burgh Earl of Kent his uncle"[467]Lord of Connaught

m ---.  The name of William´s wife is not known. 

William & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         RICHARD de Burgh (-Gascony before 17 Feb 1243).  King Henry III ordered "Richard de Burgh to have seisin of all the lands which belonged to William, Richard´s father, in Ireland and whereof the latter was disseised by King John" by charter dated 14 Apr 1220[468]Lord of Connaught.  Justiciar of Ireland 1228-1232.  The Annals of Ulster record in 1228 that "the Justiciate of Ireland was assumed by the son of William de Burgh (namely, Richard)[469].  Henry III King of England wrote to "Ricardo de Burgo", dated 13 Jan 1233, ordering him to surrender his castles to "fideli nostro Mauricio filio Geroldi justiciarum nostrum Hiberniæ"[470].  A writ dated [29] Dec "[28?] Hen III" and 7 Mar "27 Hen III" after the death of "Richard de Burgo" assigns dower to "Egidia late the wife of the said Richard" but names no heir[471]m as her first marriage, EGIDIA de Lacy, daughter of WALTER de Lacy Lord of Meath & his wife Margery de Briouse (-[22 Feb 1247/5 Nov 1248]).  A writ dated [29] Dec "[28?] Hen III" and 7 Mar "27 Hen III" after the death of "Richard de Burgo" assigns dower to "Egidia late the wife of the said Richard" but names no heir[472].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1247 records the homage of "Richard son and heir of Richard de Burgh for all his father´s lands…in Ireland…saving the dower of Egidia, who was Richard´s wife"[473].  She married secondly Richard de Rochester.  Her second marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 8 Oct 1249 which records that "the Dominican friars of London have shown to the king that Egidia, who was the wife of Richard de Burgh senior, received 180 marks in which Richard was bound to Hubert de Burgh late Earl of Kent and which the Earl had left by his will to the friars, and that Richard of Rochester who subsequently married Egidia wasted her chattels" and the order to restore property to the friars[474].  A charter dated 5 Nov 1248 mandates "Peter de Bermingham to cause dower to be assigned to Alice who was the wife of Richard de Burgh…son and heir of Richard de Burgh who died in the king´s service at Bordeaux" and to have dower "of all the lands whereof Egidia, who was the wife of the latter, was endowed"[475].  Richard & his wife had seven children: 

a)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by a charter dated 20 Sep 1242 which records that "Richard de Burgh has intimated to the king that John de Marisco, who married Mabel Richard´s granddaughter, having been taken prisoner and disseised of his land by the king´s order"[476].  The chronology suggests that this daughter must have been among her father´s older children, assuming that she was born legitimate from his known marriage.  m HAMON de Valognes, son of --- (-before 17 Dec 1243). 

b)         ALICE de Burgh (-after 17 Feb 1243).  A charter dated 17 Feb 1243 mandates "Aleys daughter of Richard de Burgh to have her dower, according to the law and custom of Ireland, out of the lands of Muriardach Hobren, in that country"[477].  The name of Alice´s husband is not known.  The chronology suggests that Alice must have been among her father´s older children, assuming that she was born legitimate from his known marriage.  m --- (-before 17 Feb 1243). 

c)         MARGERY de Burgh (-after 1 Mar 1253).  A charter dated 3 Aug 1248 records security taken from "Margaret who was the wife of Theobald Pincerna…that she shall not marry without the king´s licence" and the assignment of her dower to her[478]m (1242 or before) THEOBALD Butler, son of THEOBALD Butler & his first wife Joan de Mareis (-bur Arklow 1248 before 3 Aug). 

d)         daughter .  Inquisitions dated 28 Oct 1251 to 17 Mar 1252 as to the lands of "Gerard de Prendegast" record that he married secondly "the daughter of Richard de Burgh and by her had an only surviving daughter who at [17 Mar 1252] will be 10 years of age"[479]m as his second wife, GERALD de Prendergast, son of --- (-before 28 Oct 1251). 

e)         RICHARD de Burgh ([1225/29]-[19 May/6 Nov] 1248).  He succeeded his father as Lord of Connaught.  A charter dated [Jul] 1245 records that "Richard de Burgh…is under age and in custody of the king"[480].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1247 records the homage of "Richard son and heir of Richard de Burgh for all his father´s lands…in Ireland…saving the dower of Egidia, who was Richard´s wife"[481]m ALICE, daughter of --- (-after 5 Nov 1248).  A charter dated 5 Nov 1248 mandates "Peter de Bermingham to cause dower to be assigned to Alice who was the wife of Richard de Burgh…son and heir of Richard de Burgh who died in the king´s service at Bordeaux" and to have dower "of all the lands whereof Egidia, who was the wife of the latter, was endowed"[482]

f)          WALTER de Burgh (-Galway Castle 28 Jul 1271).  A charter dated 27 May 1250 records the restoration "to Walter brother and heir of Richard de Burgh all the lands…of the latter in Ireland, saving Walter´s marriage"[483].  He succeeded his brother in 1248 as Lord of Connaught.  In 1264 he exchanged land in Munster for land in Ulster with Edward, son of Henry III King of England, and was created Earl of Ulster around this time[484]

-        EARLS of ULSTER

g)         WILLIAM de Burgh (-killed 1270).  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 1270 disputes between “the king of Connaught...and...the Earl” during the course of which “the Earl´s brother (William Oge, son of Richard, the son of William the Conqueror” was taken prisoner and later “put to death...by O´Conor[485]m ---.  The name of William´s wife is not known.  William & his wife had one child: 

i)          WILLIAM Liath . 

2.         [WILLIAM de Burgh (-after 1232).  The Annals of Ulster record in 1230 "a hosting by William de Burgh into Connacht, so that much of Connacht was destroyed by him[486].  The Annals of Ulster record in 1232 "a hosting by William de Burgh to the castle of Bun-Gaillbi, so that they built a castle there[487].  The parentage of this William de Burgh has not been ascertained.  From a chronological point of view, he could have been the younger brother of Richard de Burgh.  Another possibility is that this was in fact the same person as Richard de Burgh: the Annals of Ulster record in 1235 "a great hosting by the Justiciary and by Mac William de Burgh into Connacht...[488].  The reference to the “Justiciary” and “Mac William” suggests that this text refers to Richard.  It is not therefore impossible that the earlier two passages referred to “William” as a shortened form of “Mac William”.  It should be noted that Richard´s appointment as justiciar is recorded in the same source with reference to his father´s name (see above).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DESMOND

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of DESMOND

 

 

1.         CORMAC .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Cormac of Mothail took the kingship of the Déisi” in 897 and killed “Mael Bennachta[489]m ---.  The name of Cormac´s wife is not known.  Cormac & his wife had two children: 

a)         CELECHAIR (-killed in battle 941).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 941 of "Célechair son of Cormac king of the Déisi” killed by “Cellachán king of Caisel[490]

b)         FAELAN (-966).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 966 of "Faelán son of Cormac king of the Déisi[491]m ---.  The name of Faelan´s wife is not known.  Faelan & his wife had two children: 

i)          CORMAC (-killed 975).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 975 of "Cormac son of Faelán by the army of Mathgamain[492]

ii)         DOMNALLm ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

(a)       DIARMAIT (-killed in battle Sliabh Cua 1031).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Diarmaid son of Domhnall son of Faelan, lord of the Deisi” was killed by “Muircheartach son of Brian in the battle of Sliabh Cua” in 1031[493]

 

 

2.         TADHG Maic Carrthaigh (-Cashel 1124).  King of Desmond.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Murchad Ua Briain was slain by Tadc son of Mac Carthaig, the Desmumu, and the Uí Briain” in 1118[494].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tadc son of Mac Carthaig accompanied by the Desmumu went to Osraige” and “Ua Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige submitted to him[495].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "a grave malady afflicted Tadc son of Mac Carthaig” and “Cormac his brother took the kingship of Desmumu in his presence” in 1123[496].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Tadhg son of Mac Carthaig king of Desmond” died in 1124 “in Cashel after great repentance[497], which suggests that he had been deposed earlier.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1124 of "Tadc son of Mac Carthaig king of Caisel[498]m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known.  Tadhg & his wife had two children: 

a)         DONNCHAD (-after 1127).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "two sons of Tadc son of Mac Carthaig…Donnchad and Domnall…were banished to Connachta” in 1127[499].  It should be noted that the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad, son of Taidhg Maic Carrthaigh, king of Desmond” died in 1123 “and his brother Cormac was made king[500].  This contradicts the version of events recorded in the Annals of Innisfallen, which do not mention Domnall in 1123 and state that Cormac was the brother of Tadhg. 

b)         DOMNALL (-after 1127).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "two sons of Tadc son of Mac Carthaig…Donnchad and Domnall…were banished to Connachta” in 1127[501]

3.         [CORMAC .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "a grave malady afflicted Tadc son of Mac Carthaig” and “Cormac his brother took the kingship of Desmumu in his presence” in 1123[502].  This contrasts with the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Donnchad, son of Taidhg Maic Carrthaigh, king of Desmond” died in 1123 “and his brother Cormac was made king[503].  It should be noted that the Annals of Inisfallen refer to Donnchad, son of Tadhg, in 1127 which suggests that their version of the 1123 events should be preferred over the Annals of Tigernach.  This would mean that Cormac was the brother not the son of Taghd, although it must be pointed out that the question is not without doubt.  King of Desmond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna son of Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” died in 1126, after which “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” was made king of Leinster, unsuccessfully challenged by “Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond[504].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Cormac son of Mac Carthaig king of Desmond was deposed by the Munstermen themselves” in 1127 and “he entered Les Mór[505].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain and Tairdelbach his brother turned against Ruaidri´s son and brought Cormac out of Les Mór and gave him the kingship of Mumu” in 1127[506].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Cormac son of Maic Carrthaig” was killed in 1138 by “Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin his father-in-law, gossip and fosterer” (corrected to “son-in-law” in a footnote to the edition consulted)[507].]  m ---.  The name of Cormac´s wife is not known.  Cormac & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         DIARMAIT Mac Carthaig .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchad son of Donnchad Ua Carthaig” was killed by “the son of Cormac Ua Carthaig” in 1163[508]King of Desmond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) name “Diarmait Mac Carthaig king of Desmond” among those who joined “a hosting by Ruaidri Húa Conchobair overking of Ireland” in 1166[509].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Mac Carthaig king of Desmond” submitted to Henry II King of England in 1171 at Waterford[510].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait son of Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond” was taken prisoner by “Cormac Liathanach his own son” in 1176, adding in the following sentence that he retook the kingship after his son was killed[511]m ---.  The name of Diarmait´s wife is not known.  Diarmait & his wife had two children: 

i)          CORMAC Liathanach (-killed 1176).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait son of Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond” was taken prisoner by “Cormac Liathanach his own son” in 1176, but adding in the following sentence that “Cormac Liathanach Mac Carthaig king of Desmond after deposing his father” was killed “by his own household and then the father took the kingship[512]King of Desmond

ii)         DOMNALL .  The Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall son of Diarmait Mac Carthaigh” defeated “the Foreigners of Munster and Limerick” in 1196[513]

b)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Cormac son of Maic Carrthaig” was killed in 1138 by “Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin his father-in-law, gossip and fosterer” (corrected to “son-in-law” in a footnote to the edition consulted)[514]m TOIRDELBACH Húa Bríáin King of Munster, son of DIARMAIT King of Munster & his wife ---. 

c)         [MURCHAD .  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1168 of "Muircetach son of Toirrdelbach Ua Briain king of Dal-Cais…killed at Dun-na-sciath by the sons of Murchadh Mac Carthaigh king of Desmond[515]

4.         DONNCHAD (-after 1127).  The parentage of Donnchad is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “the son of Donnchad Mac Carthaig” was killed “by his first cousin the son of Cormac” in 1164[516], confirming that Cormac and Donnchad were brothers.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach” divided “Munster into two” in 1127, “the southern half to Donnchad son of Mac Carthaig, and the northern half to Conchobar Húa Briain[517].  However, the chronology of events at this time is far from clear, as the Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain and Tairdelbach his brother turned against Ruaidri´s son and brought Cormac out of Les Mór and gave him the kingship of Mumu” in 1127[518]m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         DONNCHAD (-1163).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchad son of Donnchad Ua Carthaig” was killed by “the son of Cormac Ua Carthaig” in 1163[519].  It is not known with certainty that Donnchad was the son of this Donnchad.  He could also have been the son of Donnchad, son of Tadhg (see above).] 

b)         MAELSECHNAILL (-killed 1166).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall Ua Carthaig turned against Cormac´s son” in 1164[520].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “the son of Domnall Ua Carthaig was banished to Laigin” in 1165[521].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1166 of “Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall Ua Carthaig…slain by Cormac´s son[522]m ---.  The name of Maelsechnaill´s wife is not known.  Maelsechnaill & his wife had one child: 

i)          CORMAC (-killed 1178).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1178 of "Cormac son of Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall Ua Carthaig…slain[523]

c)         DOMNALL (-killed 1164).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “Domnall son of Domnall” was killed when "Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall Ua Carthaig turned against Cormac´s son” in 1164[524].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the son of Donnchad Mac Carthaig” was killed “by his first cousin the son of Cormac” in 1164[525]

d)         [son .  It is probable that this son was one of the sons named above.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          MUIRCHERTACH (-killed Móin Cluana Cuarbáin 1178).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “Muirchertach grandson of Domnall Ua Carthaig” was killed in 1178 by “Ua hEtersceóil in Móin Cluana Cuarbáin and Hector[526]

 

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of DESMOND

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

JOHN FitzThomas, son of THOMAS FitzMorice & his wife Sabina [Sadhbh] (-killed in battle Callan 23 Jul 1261, bur Tralee Dominican Church, co. Kerry).  The Annals of Ulster record in 1261 that "John Fitz Thomas and the Barrymore were killed by Finghin Mag Carrthaigh and by the Desmonians[527].  James Grace´s Annales Hiberniæ (probably dated to [1537/39]) record in 1261 that “Johannes filius Thomæ et Mauricius filius eius” were killed “in Desmonia a Mac Karthy[528]

m MARGERY, daughter of THOMAS FitzAnthony, seneschal of Leinster & his wife ---. 

John & his wife had one child: 

1.         MORICE FitzJohn (-killed in battle Callan 23 Jul 1261).  The Annals of Ulster record in 1261 that "John Fitz Thomas and the Barrymore were killed by Finghin Mag Carrthaigh and by the Desmonians[529].  “Barrymore” appears to be a reference to Morice, and presumably his wife´s family.  James Grace´s Annales Hiberniæ (probably dated to [1537/39]) record in 1261 that “Johannes filius Thomæ et Mauricius filius eius” were killed “in Desmonia a Mac Karthy[530]m MATILDA de Barry, daughter of ---.  Morice & his wife had one child: 

a)         THOMAS FitzMorice ([Apr 1261]-Knockainy, co. Limerick 4 Jun 1298, bur Tralee Dominican Church, co. Kerry)m (before 7 Feb 1284) as her first husband, MARGARET Berkeley, daughter of Sir THOMAS Berkeley Lord Berkeley & his wife Joan de Ferrers of the Earls of Derby (-after 4 May 1320).  She married secondly (before 5 Apr 1299) Reynold Rosel [Russel].  Thomas & his wife had two children: 

i)          THOMAS FitzThomas (2 Apr 1290 or before-before 2 Apr 1309). 

ii)         MORICE FitzThomas (1293-Dublin Castle 25 Jan 1356, bur Tralee Dominican Church, co. Kerry).  He was created Earl of Desmond in 1329. 

-         see below

 

 

MORICE FitzThomas, son of THOMAS FitzMorice & his wife Margaret Berkeley (1293-Dublin Castle 25 Jan 1356, bur Tralee Dominican Church, co. Kerry).  He was created Earl of Desmond in 1329. 

m firstly (Greencastle 5 Aug 1312) KATHERINE de Burgh, daughter of RICHARD de Burgh Earl of Ulster & his wife Margaret de Burgh of Lanvalley (-Dublin [1 Nov 1331]). 

m secondly [MARGARET O'Brien, daughter of CONOR O'Brien of Thomond & his wife ---]. 

m thirdly (before 20 Apr 1344) AVELINE, daughter of [NICHOLAS FitzMorice of Kerry & his wife ---] (-after 14 Mar 1359). 

Morice & his second wife had two children:

1.         MORICE FitzMorice (Newcastle in Connello, co. Limerick 31 Jul 1336-drowned Irish Sea [20 Apr/5 Jun] 1358).  He succeeded his father in 1356 as Earl of Desmondm (1350) as her first husband, BEATRICE de Stafford, daughter of RALPH de Stafford Earl of Stafford & his second wife Margaret de Audley (-13 or 14 Apr 1415).  She married secondly (Royal licence 1 Jan 1359) Sir Thomas de Ros Lord Ros, and thirdly (before 20 Aug 1385) Sir Richard de Burley

2.         NICHOLAS FitzMorice ([1338/39]-).  He was disinherited as an idiot. 

Morice & his third wife had two children: 

3.         GERALD [Garrett] FitzMorice (-1398).  He succeeded his half-brother in 1358 as Earl of Desmondm (after 20 Jul 1359) ALIANORE Butler, daughter of JAMES Butler Earl of Ormond & his wife Eleanor de Bohun (-1392).  Gerald & his wife had three children: 

a)         JOHN FitzGerald (-drowned 1400).  He succeeded his father in 1398 as Earl of Desmondm MARY, daughter of MAC-WILLIAM Burk & his wife ---.  John & his wife had one child:   

i)          THOMAS FitzJohn ([1386]-Rouen or Paris 1420, bur Paris church of the Franciscans or church of the Dominicans 10 Aug 1420).  He succeeded his father in 1400 as Earl of Desmond.  He was expelled in 1418.  m KATHERINE, daughter of WILLIAM MacCormicke & his wife ---. 

b)         ELLICE FitzGerald m JOHN Barry Lord Barry, son of DAVID Barry Lord Barry & his wife --- (-[1420]). 

c)         JAMES FitzGerald (-Mocollop [1462/63], bur Youghall).  He succeeded his nephew in 1420 as Earl of Desmond.   

-        see below

4.         JOHN FitzMorice (-1369). 

 

 

JAMES, son of GERALD Earl of Desmond & his wife Alianore le Botiller (-Mocollop [1462/63], bur Youghall).  He succeeded his nephew in 1420 as Earl of Desmond

m MARY, daughter of ULICK MacRichard Burle & his wife --- (-1435). 

James & his wife had three children: 

1.         THOMAS (-executed Drogheda 15 Feb 1468, bur St Peter´s Church, transferred to Dublin Christ Church).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Desmondm as her first husband, his cousin, ELLICE, daughter of WILLIAM Barry Lord Barry & his wife Ellen Roche.  She married secondly Maurice Mor FitzGibbon.  Thomas & his wife had three children: 

a)         JAMES (1459-murdered Courtmontresse near Rathkeale, co. Limerick 7 Dec 1487, bur Youghal)Earl of Desmondm MARGARET, daughter of TEIGE O'Brien Prince of Thomond & his wife ---.  James & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter . 

b)         MAURICE (-1520, bur Tralee Friars Preachers)Earl of Desmondm firstly ELLEN Roche, daughter of MAURICE Roche Lord Roche of Fermoy & his wife ---.  m secondly HONOR, daughter of JOHN FitzGibbon, the White Knight & his wife ---.  Maurice & his first wife had one child: 

i)          JAMES (-Dingle or Rathkeale 18 Jun 1529, bur Tralee)Earl of Desmondm as her first husband, AMY, daughter of TURLOGH Mac-I-Brien-Ara, Bishop of Killaloe & his wife --- (-before 1537).  She married secondly as his second wife, Edmond FitzMaurice Baron of Kerry.  James & his wife had one child: 

(a)       JOAN (-2 Jan 1565, bur Skeaton)m firstly (before 21 Dec 1532) JAMES Butler Lord Butler, son of PIERS Butler Earl of Ossery & his wife Margaret FitzGerald of the Earls of Kildare.  He was created Viscount Thurles in 1536, and succeeded his father in 1539 as Earl of Ormond and Ossory (before 20 Jul 1504-London 28 Oct 1546, bur London, St Thomas of Acon).  m secondly (before 28 Aug 1548) Sir FRANCIS Bryan, Knight Marshal and Lord Justice of Ireland (-2 Feb 1550).  m thirdly ([1550/51]) as his first wife, GERALD FitzGerald, son of JAMES FitzGerald Earl of Desmond & his second wife More O´Carroll ([1533]-killed Glenagintigha, near Tralee, co. Kerry 11 Nov 1583, bur Kilnamanagh Chapel, Ardnegrath, co. Kerry).  He succeeded his father in 1558 as Earl of Desmond. 

c)         THOMAS (1454-Rathkeale 1534, bur Youghal).  He succeeded his nephew in 1529 as Earl of Desmondm firstly SHELA [Gille], daughter of CORMAC Laidir McTeige MacCarthy Lord of Muskerry & his wife Mary FitzMaurice (-after 1505).  m secondly CATHERINE, daughter of JOHN FitzGerald of Dromana Lord of the Decies & his wife Ellen FitzGibbon (-1604).  Ancestors of the later Earls of Desmond. 

2.         GERALD Mor. 

3.         JOAN FitzGerald (-1486)m THOMAS Earl of Kildare, son of JOHN "Cam/crooked" & his wife --- (-1477). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    EARLS of KILDARE (WINDSOR)

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

MAURICE FitzGerald, son of GERALD FitzWalter & his wife Nesta of Wales (-Wexford 1 Sep 1176).  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "David Menevensi episcopo et Mauricio Giraldi filio" as brothers of "Robertus filius Stephani"[531].  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the arrival in Ireland of "Mauricius Giraldi filius…uterinus…Stephanidæ frater" and his expedition to Dublin [in 1169][532].  The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1177 of "Mauricius filius Geraldi"[533].  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the death "apud Weisefordiam…circa kal Sep" of "Mauricius Giraldi filius" [in 1176][534]

m firstly ---. 

m secondly ---. 

Maurice & his first wife had one child: 

1.         WILLIAM FitzMaurice (-[1199]).  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "Mauricio filio Guillelmo comes" when recording his marriage[535].  Baron of Naas.  m (1174) ALINE de Clare, illegitimate daughter of RICHARD de Clare "Strongbow" Earl of Pembroke.  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the marriage between "Mauricio filio Guillelmo comes" and "Alinam filiam suam [Richardi]"[536].  William & his wife had one child: 

a)         WILLIAM FitzWilliam (-before Aug 1227).  Baron of Naas.  He was ancestor of the BARONS of NAAS.  m as her second husband, MATILDA [Eva] de Pont de l'Arche, widow of PHILIP de Briouse, daughter of --- (-after 1 Sep 1227).  "William baron of Naas and Eva his wife" paid a fine for "having dower in the manor of Grene, which pertains to Eva of the free tenement formerly of Phillip de Braose, her former husband, in Ireland", dated 12 Sep 1220[537].  A charter dated 1 Sep 1227 records that "Matilda who was the wife of the Baron of Nas represents that the justiciary…has disseised her of her dower out of…those of Philip de Breouse her first husband" and the king´s order to restore the property to her[538].  William & his wife had two children: 

i)          DAVID FitzWilliam .  "David Fitz William Baron of Naas" gave land to "Maurice Fitz William his brother" by charter dated 25 Sep 1234[539]

ii)         MAURICE FitzWilliam .  "David Fitz William Baron of Naas" gave land to "Maurice Fitz William his brother" by charter dated 25 Sep 1234[540]

Maurice & his second wife had seven children: 

2.         GERALD FitzMaurice ([1150]-1203).  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "duo Mauricii filii, Giraldus et Alexander"[541].  Baron of Offaly. 

-        see below

3.         ALEXANDER .  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "duo Mauricii filii, Giraldus et Alexander"[542]

4.         THOMAS FitzMaurice (-1213).  Lord Connello.  m SABINE, daughter of ---.  Thomas & his wife had two children: 

a)         JOHN FitzThomas (-killed in battle Callan 1261)

-        EARLS of DESMOND.   

b)         MAURICE FitzThomas ([1197]-before 1253).  Ancestor of the LORDS KERRY. 

5.         DAVID FitzMaurice (-killed in battle 1195).  The Annales Cambriæ record that "David filium Mauricii et Tankardum monachum" were killed by "Mailgum filius Res" in 1195[543]

6.         MAURICE FitzMaurice .  Ancestor of the FitzGerald family, feudal barons of Burnchurch, co. Kilkenny[544]

7.         ROBERT FitzMaurice (-after 1194).  Ancestor of the Barons of Kerry and Lixnaw, the Earls of Kerry, Earls of Shelburne, and Marquesses of Lansdowne[545].  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1194/95], names "Robertus filius Maur" paying "c s, v milites" in Gloucestershire[546]

8.         NESTA .  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the marriage between "Herveius" and "Reimundi consobrinam, Mauricii Giraldidæ filiam, Nestam"[547]m HERVE de Montmorency, son of [BOUCHARD [III] Seigneur] de Montmorency & his [third wife] Adelisa de Clermont (-after 1172). 

 

 

GERALD FitzMaurice, son of MAURICE FitzGerald & his [first/second] wife --- ([1150]-1203).  The Expugnatio Hibernica names "duo Mauricii filii, Giraldus et Alexander"[548].  Baron of Offaly.  The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1200 of "Geraldus filius Mauricii" in Ireland[549]

m ([1193]) as her first husband, EVE, daughter of [ROBERT de Bermingham & his wife ---] (-[1226]).  She married secondly Geoffrey FitzRobert, and thirdly Geoffrey de Marsh

Gerald & his wife had one child: 

1.         MAURICE FitzGerald (-1257).  Baron of Offaly.  The Annals of Ulster record in 1257 the death of "Maurice Fitz Gerald”, a later entry recording him as “Maurice Fitz Gerald, Justiciary of Ireland for a time, dissolver of the Gaidhil and of the churches of Ireland[550]m JULIANA, daughter of ---.  Maurice & his wife had four children: 

a)         GERALD FitzMaurice ([1220]-1243).  m ---.  The name of Gerald´s wife is not known.  Gerald & his wife had two children: 

i)          MAURICE FitzGerald (-1268).  Baron of Offaly.  m firstly ---.  m secondly as her first husband, AGNES de Valence Dame de Danfalize, daughter of GUILLAUME de Lusignan "de Valence" Seigneur de Valence Lord of Pembroke & his wife Joan Munchensy (-after 7 Oct 1277).  An order dated 10 Apr 1275 relates to payments to "Agnes de Valence the K´s cousin" out of the estate of "Maurice Fitz Gerald her late husband"[551].  She married secondly Hugh Balliol Baron of Bywell, and thirdly Jean d'Avesnes Seigneur de Beaumont.  A writ after the death of "Hugh de Balliolo", dated "10 Apr 55 Hen III", assigns her dower to "Agnes de Valentia, the king´s niece, late the wife of the said Hugh"[552].  The Chronicle of Baudouin d´Avesnes records that "Ioannes", son of "domino Balduino de Avesnes domino de Bellomonte" and his wife, married "Agnete filia domini Guillelmi de Valentia fratris regis Angliæ Henrici ex parte matris"[553].  An order dated 7 Oct 1277 relates to attorneys appointed by "John de Aveynes and Agnes his wife" relating to affairs in Ireland[554].  Maurice & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

(a)       GERALD FitzMaurice (-1287).  Baron of Offaly.  m JOAN de Joinville, daughter of GEOFFREY de Joinville (Geneville], Justiciar of Ireland & his wife Matilda de Lacy. 

ii)         JULIANA (-after 1309).  m JOHN de Cogan (1243-1275). 

b)         DAVID FitzMaurice (-before 1249).  Pope Alexander IV ordered the bishop of Cloyne “not to molest Maurice son of Maurice, who has appealed to the Pope, on the ground that he married Matilda, daughter of Gerald de Prendergast, she having been espoused to his late brother David who died before she was seven years old”, dated 28 Oct 1259[555].  David´s priority in the betrothal to Matilda suggests that he was probably Maurice´s older brother.  Betrothed ([1249]) to MATILDA de Prendergast, widow of MAURICE de Rocheford, daughter of GERALD de Prendergast & his second wife --- de Burgh (23 Mar 1242-), who later married David´s brother Maurice. 

c)         MAURICE FitzMaurice (-1286).  The Annals of Ulster record in 1286 the death of "Maurice Fitz Gerald the Bald[556]m firstly (before 28 Oct 1259) as her second husband, MATILDA de Prendergast, widow of MAURICE de Rocheford, daughter of GERALD de Prendergast & his second wife --- de Burgh (23 Mar 1242-).  Inquisitions following the death of "Gerald de Prendeg" record that he married firstly "the sister of Theobald Butler”, by whom he had “one daughter surviving whom John de Cogan married and of her begat one son aged 8 at the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin 35 Hen III”, and secondly “a daughter of Richard de Burgo” by whom he had “one daughter who will be 10 at the feast of St Patrick in Lent 36 Hen III[557].  The date of her marriage is confirmed by the order dated 28 Oct 1259 under which Pope Alexander IV instructed the bishop of Cloyne “not to molest Maurice son of Maurice, who has appealed to the Pope, on the ground that he married Matilda, daughter of Gerald de Prendergast, she having been espoused to his late brother David who died before she was seven years old[558]m secondly EMMELINE de Longespee, daughter of STEPHEN Longuespee [Seneschal of Gascony, Justiciar of Ireland] & his wife Emmeline de Rydeleford ([1251/52]-19 May 1331).  The Book of Lacock names “Elam de la Souch…Emelinam” as the children of “Stephanus Lungespee” and his wife “Emelinam comitissam de Ulton”, adding that Emmeline married “Mauritio filio Mauritii[559].  A writ dated 20 Jul "4 Edw I", following the death of "Emelina countess of Ulster" names "Emelina the wife of Maurice son of Maurice and daughter of the said countess aged 24 and more and Alan son of Roger la Zouche who had to wife Ela elder daughter of the said countess aged 8 are her heirs[560].  Inquisitions made after a writ dated 10 Apr "14 Edw II", after the death of "Thomas son of Richard de Clare", record land in Ireland "Kinsale...which Emeline late the wife of Maurice son of Maurice holds in dower[561].   A writ dated 23 May "5 Edw III", following the death of "Emelina Longespe or de Lungespe", names "Robert de Holond and Maud his wife” and “the said Maud aged 40 years is her next heir”, while a second writ dated 3 Jan “6 Edw III” and inquisitions dated 9 Mar “7 Edw III” state that Emmeline died “on Whitsunday 5 Edward III” and that “Maud sometime the wife of Robert de Houlond...and Helen her sister both aged 40 years and more are next heirs of the said Emelina[562].  Maurice & his first wife had [two] children: 

i)          [AMABEL .  The Complete Peerage shows “Amabel d. s.p.” as another daughter of Maurice FitzMaurice in a table which cites no sources[563].  The table does not show her alleged marriage.  Burke´s Peerage shows “Amabel m. Andrew Avenel, dsp” as the daughter of Maurice FitzMaurice and his first wife, without any indication of the source on which the information is based[564].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not been identified.  m ANDREW Avenell, son of ---.] 

ii)         JULIANA .  Her parentage and two marriages are confirmed by documents attached to a writ dated 28 Jul 1292, relating to claims made by "Thomas de Clare and Maurice Fitz Maurice" against "the vill of Youghal", which include (1) an agreement dated 18 Feb 1275 relating to lands granted by Thomas to Maurice, remainder to Thomas and “the heirs of his body begotten of Juliana his wife”, (2) a writ dated 6 Apr 1292 recording that “Adam de Cretinge and Juliana his wife” had shown that “Maurice Fitz Maurice” had “enfeoffed Thomas the Clare formerly Juliana´s husband and Juliana herself” of certain property, and (3) an inquisition taken 12 Aug 1292 which found that “Thomas de Clare and Juliana his wife were jointly enfeoffed by Maurice Fitz Maurice, Juliana´s father[565].  The identity of Juliana´s mother is confirmed by the inquisitions following the death of her stepmother Emmeline de Longespee (see above) which recorded that the heirs of the deceased were descendants of her sister, not descendants of Juliana and her husband Thomas de Clare.  m firstly ([1274/12 Feb 1275]) THOMAS de Clare Lord of Thomond, son of RICHARD de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford & his wife Matilda de Lacy (-29 Aug 1287).  m secondly (before 6 Apr 1292) as his second wife, ADAM de Creting, son of ---.  [A writ dated 8 Feb "24 Edw I", following the death of "Adam de Creting alias de Cretinge", names "John his son aged 17 [...aged 19...aged 20] is his next heir”, and inquisitions dated 30 Jun “27 Edw I”, following a writ dated 24 Sep “26 Edw I”, records “Rumford in Haveryngge [Essex]. The said Adam and Nichola his wife were enfeoffed jointly of the manor[566].  The inquisitions include no reference to land in Ireland and it is assumed that these two writs followed the death of a different Adam de Creting.] 

d)         THOMAS FitzMaurice (-Ballyloughmask, co. Mayo 1271).  m ---.  The name of Thomas´s wife is not known.  Thomas & his wife had one child: 

i)          JOHN FitzThomas (-Laraghbryan, near Maynooth 12 Sep 1316, bur Kildare, Church of the Friars Minor).  Baron of Offaly.  He was created Earl of Kildare in 1316. 

-         see below

 

 

JOHN FitzThomas, son of THOMAS FitzMaurice & his wife --- (-Laraghbryan, near Maynooth 12 Sep 1316, bur Kildare, Church of the Friars Minor).  Baron of Offaly.  He was created Earl of Kildare in 1316. 

m BLANCHE Roche, daughter of JOHN Roche Baron of Fermoy & his wife --- (-after Feb 1330). 

John & his wife had three children: 

1.         GERALD (-1303). 

2.         THOMAS (-5 Apr 1328, bur Kildare, Church of the Friars Minor).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Kildarem (Greencastle 16 Aug 1312) as her first husband, JOAN de Burgh, daughter of RICHARD de Burgh Earl of Ulster & his wife Margaret de Burgh of Lanvalley (-23 Apr 1350).  She married secondly (Maynooth 3 Jul 1329) as his second wife, Sir John Darcy Lord Darcy.  Thomas & his wife had three children: 

a)         JOHN (-1323). 

b)         RICHARD ([1318/19]-7 Jul 1331).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Kildare

c)         MAURICE (-1390, bur Dublin Holy Trinity).  He succeeded his brother in 1331 as Earl of Kildarem (1347) ELIZABETH Burghersh, daughter of BARTHOLOMEW Burghersh Lord Burghersh & his wife Elizabeth de Verdon.  Maurice & his wife had two children: 

i)          GERALD (-1432).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Kildarem firstly ([1381]) MARGARET Rochefort, daughter of Sir JOHN Rochefort & his wife ---.  m secondly (before 18 Nov 1397) AGNES Darcy, daughter of --- (-29 Sep 1439).  Gerald & his second wife had one child: 

(a)       ELIZABETH (-6 Aug 1452)m firstly Sir JOHN Grey Lord Grey (of Codnor), son of Sir RICHARD Grey Lord Grey & his wife Elizabeth Basset (1396 or before-14 Sep 1430).  m secondly (1432) as his second wife, JAMES Butler Earl of Ormond, son of JAMES Butler Earl of Ormond & his wife Anne de Welles ([1392]-Ardee 23 Aug 1452, bur St Mary´s Abbey, near Dublin). 

Gerald had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

(b)        RICHARDm (1405) JOAN FitzEustace of Castelmartyn. 

ii)         JOHN .  He succeeded his brother as Earl of Kildarem ---.  The name of John´s wife is not known.  John & his wife had one child: 

(a)       JOHN "Cam/crooked" .  m ---.  The name of John´s wife is not known.  John & his wife had one child:

(1)       THOMAS (-25 Mar 1477, bur [Dublin, All Hallows]).  He succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Kildarem JOAN FitzGerald, daughter of JAMES FitzGerald Earl of Desmond & his wife Mary Burle (-1486, Adare Monastery).  Ancestors of the later Earls of Kildare. 

3.         JOAN m (1302) EDMUND Butler, daughter of THEOBALD Butler & his wife Joan FitzGeoffrey (-1321).  Chief Governor of Ireland (Justiciar) [1314/15]-1317. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    KINGS of LEINSTER

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of LEINSTER

 

 

1.         MUIREDACH (-885).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 885 of "Muiredach son of Bran king of Laigin and superior of Cell Dara"[567]m ---.  The name of Muiredach´s wife is not known.  Muiredach & his wife had two children:

a)         FAELAN (-Aenach-Colmain 942).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Faelan son of Muireadhach, King of Leinster, with his son Lorcan” were taken prisoners in 923 by “the foreigners of Ath-cliath[568].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 940 of “Faelan son of Muireadhach King of Leinster…of a fall at Aenach-Colmain[569].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 942 of "Faelán son of Muiredach king of Laigin[570]m ---.  The name of Faelan´s wife is not known.  Faelan & his wife had [five] children: 

i)          DONNCUAN (-929).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 929 of “Donncuan son of Faelan heir apparent of Leinster[571]

ii)         LORCAN (-killed Dublin 943).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Faelan son of Muireadhach, King of Leinster, with his son Lorcan” were taken prisoners in 923 by “the foreigners of Ath-cliath[572]King of Leinster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 941 of “Lorcan son of Faelan king of Leinster…slain by the Norsemen as he was plundering Ath-Cliath[573].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 943 of "Lorcán son of Faelán king of Laigin, at the hands of the heathens[574]m ---.  The name of Lorcan´s wife is not known.  Lorcan & his wife had two children:

(a)       CEARBHALL (-killed 967).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Muireadhach son of Faelan, Abbot of Cill-dara and royal heir of Leinster” killed by “Amhlaeibh lord of the foreigners and by Cearbhall son of Lorcan[575].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Cearbhall son of Lorcan royal heir of Leinster” killed by “Domhnall lord of Breagha[576].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 967 of "Cerball son of Lorcán heir designate of Laigin” killed by “Domnall king of Brega[577]m ---.  The name of Cearbhall´s wife is not known.  Cearbhall & his wife had four children: 

(1)       three sons (-killed Gleann-da-Locha 983).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the three sons of Cearbhall son of Lorcan plundered the Termon of Caeimhghin at Gleann-da-Locha” in 983 and were killed[578]

(2)       GILLACELE (-killed 993).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 993 of “Gillacele son of Cearbhall, royal heir of Leinster” killed by “the son of Amhlaeibh[579]

(b)       DOMNALL Claen (-killed [977/84]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnall Claen son of Lorcan” killed “Murchadh son of Finn, king of Leinster” in 970[580]King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall Cloen king of Leinster” was captured in [977/78] by “the Foreigners of Dublin”, adding in a later passage that he was released by “Mael-Sechnaill the Great” in [978/79][581].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall Clóen” was killed in [982/83] by “Aed son of Echthigern of the Húi Cennselaig[582].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnall Claen” was killed in 982 by “Aedh son of Echthigern, one of the Ui-Ceinnsealaigh, and Fiachra son of Finnshneacta, chief of Fortuatha-Laighean, and Maelmithigh son of Gairbheth by treachery[583].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 984 of “Domnall Claen king of Laigin…killed by the Ui Cheinnselaig[584]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

(1)       DONNCHAD (-after 1003).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donchad son of Domnall Clóen king of Leinster” was captured in [997/98] by “Sitric son of Olaf[585].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” deposed “the king of Laigin Donnchadh son of Domnall” in 1003[586]

iii)        CELLACH (-966).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, Braen son of Maelmordha, king of Leinster, Ceallach, son of Faelan, heir of Leinster” destroyed Dublin in 942[587]King of Leinster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 966 of "Cellach son of Faelán king of Laigin[588]

iv)       MUIREDACH (-killed 965).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 965 of “Muireadhach son of Faelan, Abbot of Cill-dara and royal heir of Leinster” killed by “Amhlaeibh lord of the foreigners and by Cearbhall son of Lorcan[589]

v)        DOMNALL .  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donndubhan son of Imhar and Domhnall son of Faelan lord of the Deisi” killed “Gillaphadraig son of Donnchadh lord of Osraighe” in 995[590].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 995 of “Domhnall son of Faelan lord of the Deisi[591]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MOTHLA (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Mothla son of Domnhall son of Faelan, lord of the Deisi-Mumhan” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][592]

b)         FLANN (-930).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 930 of “Flann son of Muireadhach heir apparent of Leinster” and of “Lorcan son of Cathal royal heir of Leinster[593]

 

 

1.         MUIREGANm ---.  The name of Muiregan´s wife is not known.  Muiregan & his wife had three children:

a)         DOMNALL (-killed 884).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 884 of "Domnall son of Muirecán, king of Laigin…killed by his associates"[594]

b)         CERBALL (-909).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Ulster record "Cerball son of Muirecán, king of Laigin” among the victors in “the battle of Belach Mugna” fought 13 Sep 908 between “the men of Mumu, the Leth Cuinn and the Laigin in Mag Ailbi[595].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 909 of "Cerball son of Muirecán…king of the Laigin…of a sickness[596].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Cerwallt son of Muregan king of Leinster died of a fatal disorder" in 905[597]

c)         MAELMORDA (-killed in battle Cenn Fuait 917).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Mórda son of Muirecán, king of eastern Life” was killed in 917 “by Sitriuc grandson of Imar in the battle of Cenn Fuait[598]m ---.  The name of Maelmorda´s wife is not known.  Maelmorda & his wife had one child:

i)          FINN (-923).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 921 of “Finn son of Maelmordha son of Muiregan heir apparent of Leinster” killed by “Ceallach son of Cearbhall[599]

-         see below

ii)         MUIREDACH (-942).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 942 of “Flann son of Finn and Muireadhach son of Maelmordha, two royal heirs of Leinster[600]

iii)        BRAEN (-killed in battle 947).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Maelmithigh, heir apparent to the sovereignty of Ireland, Braen son of Maelmordha, king of Leinster, Ceallach, son of Faelan, heir of Leinster” destroyed Dublin in 942[601].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 945 of “Braen son of Maelmordha king of Leinster” killed by “Donnchadh son of Ceallach lord of Osraighe[602].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 947 of "Braen son of Mael Mórda, king of the Laigin…killed on a foray in Osraige[603]m ---.  The name of Braen´s wife is not known.  Braen & his wife had two children: 

(a)       MADUDAN (-killed 970).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Mac Brain” killed “Madudhan son of Bran” in 970[604]

(b)       FINN (-killed 970).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallach son of Domhnall son of Finn son of Maelmordha , lord of Ui-Faelain” killed “Finn son of Bran” in 970[605]

 

 

FINN, son of MAELMORDA & his wife --- (-923).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 921 of “Finn son of Maelmordha son of Muiregan heir apparent of Leinster” killed by “Ceallach son of Cearbhall[606].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 923 of "Finn son of Mael Mórda, heir designate of Laigin…killed by his own kinsman[607]

m ---.  The name of Finn´s wife is not known. 

Finn & his wife had five children:

1.         FLANN (-942).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the deaths in 942 of “Flann son of Finn and Muireadhach son of Maelmordha, two royal heirs of Leinster[608]

2.         MURCHAD (-972).  King of Leinster 965.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Finn king of Leinster” led an army “into Osraighe” in 965[609].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 972 of "Murchad son of Finn king of Laigin[610]m ---.  The name of Murchad´s wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had three children:

a)         MAELMORDA (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that “Mael Mórda son of Murchad king of Laigin” was killed in the battle[611].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Finn king of Leinster” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][612]m ---.  The name of Mail-mordha´s wife is not known.  Mail-mordha & his wife had two children: 

i)          CEARBALL (-killed 1017).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cearball mac Mail-mordha crownprince of Leinster” was killed in 1017[613]

ii)         BRAEN (-Köln 1052).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Braen son of Mael Mórda king of Laigin” was blinded in 1018 “in Áth Cliath by Sitriuc son of Amlaib[614]

b)         GORMLAITH (-1030).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster[615].  Her third marriage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair[616].  It is assumed that Maelsechnaill separated from Gormlaith as he is recorded with another wife before Gormlaith died.  m firstly as his third wife, OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin, son of SIHTRIC King of York & his first wife --- (-981).  m secondly (after 981, [separated]) [as his second wife,] BRIAN Boroma, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife --- (941-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  m thirdly ([separated]) as his [third] wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022). 

c)         BRAEN (-killed in battle Teamhair [978/80]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 973 of “Ceallach son of Domhnall, lord of Ui-Faelain” killed by “Broen son of Murchadh[617].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Braen son of Murchadh royal heir of Leinster” was killed in 978 in “the battle of Teamhair[618], the battle being dated between 978 and 980 in different sources. 

3.         DOMNALL (-947).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 947 of “Dormhnall son of Finn royal heir of Leinster[619]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child:

a)         CELLACH (-after 970).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallach son of Domhnall son of Finn son of Maelmordha , lord of Ui-Faelain” killed “Finn son of Bran” in 970[620].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 973 of “Ceallach son of Domhnall, lord of Ui-Faelain” killed by “Broen son of Murchadh[621]

4.         MAELMORDA (-966).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelmordha son of Finn royal heir of Leinster” was mortally wounded in 966[622]

5.         CONCHOBAR (-977).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 977 of “Conchobhar son of Finn, lord of Ui-Failghe[623]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had one child:

a)         CONGALACH (-killed 1014 or 1017).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach son of Conchobhar, lord of the Ui-Failghe” was killed in 1014 when the army of “Maelseachlainn, Ua Neill, and Ua Maeldoraidh” was attacked while they were plundering “Ui-Cennsealagh[624].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1017 of “Conghalach son of Conchobhar son of Finn lord of Ui-Failghe[625].  It is probable that these two entries refer to the same person.  Neither entry is found in the Annals of Ulster or the Annals of Inisfallen.  m ---.  The name of Congalach´s wife is not known.  Congalach & his wife had one child:  

i)          MUIRCHERTACH (-killed in battle 1026).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1026 of “Muircheartach son of Conghalach lord of Ui-Failghe” killed “by the foreigners of Ath Cliath[626]

 

 

1.         DUNLANGm ---.  The name of Dúnlang´s wife is not known.  Dúnlang & his wife had one child:

a)         AILILL (-killed 871).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ailill son of Dúnlang king of Laigin” was killed in 871 “by the Norsemen[627]m ---.  The name of Ailill´s wife is not known.  Ailill & his wife had one child:

i)          UGAIRE (-killed in battle Cenn Fuait 917).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ugaire son of Ailill king of Laigin” was killed in 917 “by Sitriuc grandson of Imar in the battle of Cenn Fuait[628]m ---.  The name of Augaire´s wife is not known.  Augaire & his wife had one child:

(a)       TUATHAL (-958).  The Annals of the Four Masters record “a victory…over the people of Laighis and the Ui-Faircheallain by Tuathal son of Ugaire” in 950[629]King of Leinster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 958 of "Tuathal son of Augaire king of Laigin[630]m ---.  The name of Tuathal´s wife is not known.  Tuathal & his wife had three children: 

-         see below

 

 

TUATHAL, son of UGAIRE & his wife --- (-958).  The Annals of the Four Masters record “a victory…over the people of Laighis and the Ui-Faircheallain by Tuathal son of Ugaire” in 950[631]King of Leinster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 958 of "Tuathal son of Augaire king of Laigin[632]

m ---.  The name of Tuathal´s wife is not known. 

Tuathal & his wife had three children: 

1.         DONNCHAD (-964).  The Annals of the Four Masters records the death in 964 of “Donnchadh son of Tuathal royal heir of Leinster[633]

2.         UGAIRE (-killed in battle Bithland [976/77]).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ugaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster” was captured in [974/75] by “the Foreigners of Dublin[634].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ugaire, son of Tuathal, king of Leinster” was killed in [976/77] at “the Battle of Bithland[635]m ---.  The name of Ugaire´s wife is not known.  Ugaire & his wife had one child:

a)         TUATHAL (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Tuathal son of Ugaire, royal heir of Leinster” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][636]

3.         DUNLANG (-1013).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1013 of “Dunlang son of Tuathal king of Leinster[637]m ---.  The name of Dunlang´s wife is not known.  Dunlang & his wife had six children:

a)         GILLA COEMGIN (-killed [1017/18]).  Crown Prince of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gilla Coemgin son of Dunlang crownprince of Leinster” was killed in [1017/18] “by the Leinstermen[638]

b)         DONNCUAN “the Simpleton” (-killed 1015).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donncuan i.e. the Simpleton son of Dunlaing lord of Leinster and Tadhg Ua Riain lord of Ui-Drona” were killed in 1015 by “Donnchadh son of Gillaphadraig at Leithghlinn[639]

c)         UGAIRE (-killed Dubloch [1022/24]).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ugaire son of Dunlang king of Leinster” defeated “Sitric son of Olaf with the Foreigners of Dublin at Dergnae mo Goróc (Delgany)” in 1021[640].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Augaire son of Dunlang king of Leinster” was killed “at Dubloch, by Donn slébe” in [1022/24][641]

d)         DONNCHAD (-killed [1036/37]).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad, son of Dunlang, king of Leinster” was blinded by “Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic” in 1036 and died[642].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1037 of "Dúnlang´s king of Laigin by the Osraige[643]

i)          DOMNALL (-1039).  Crown Prince of Leinster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1039 of "Domnall son of Donnchad royal heir of Laigin[644].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1039 of “Domnall son of Donnchad king of the Húi Faeláin…slain by Domnall Húa Fergail king of the Forths[645]

e)         MURCHAD (-killed in battle Mag Muilchet 1042).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Dunlang king of Leinster” was killed by “Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchad king of Ossory and by Mac Craith Húa Donnchada king of the Eoganacht ´load-of-plunder´ on Mag Muilchet in Leix” in 1042[646]

f)          MAILCORCRE .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records that the "grandmother...his mother´s mother" of King Gruffydd was "Mailcorcre daughter of Dunlang son of Tuathal King of Leinster"[647]m OLAF of Dublin, son of SIHTRIC King of Dublin & his wife --- ([after 1013]-murdered 1034). 

 

 

1.         UATHMARANm ---.  The name of Uathmaran´s wife is not known.  Uathmaran & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIARMUIT (-[982/83]).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmuit mac Uathmaran king of Leinster” died in [982/83][648]

 

 

1.         MAIL na mBó (-1006).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed son of Echthigern” was killed in [1001/02] “in the prayer-house of Saint m´Aedóc´s great Ferns by Mael na mbó[649].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1006 of "Mael na mBó king of Uí Cheinnselaigh…killed by his own people[650]m ---.  The name of Mail´s wife is not known.  Mail & his wife had three children: 

a)         DIARMAIT (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mael na mbó king of the Húi Cennselaig” plundered “Colomb cille´s Maein (Moone), Dísert Diarmata and my Senóc´s Mugna and Clonmore” in 1040[651].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”, adding in a later passage that “the son of Mael na mbó took the kingship of Dublin by force” in 1053[652]King of LeinsterHigh King of Ireland

-        see below

b)         DOMNALL “Remuir/the Fat” (-killed 1041).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall the Fat crownprince of the Húi Cennsilaig” was killed in 1041 by “in Húi Bairrche [by] Murchad son of Dunlang[653].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1041 of "the son of Mael na mBó” killed in “a battle between the Laigin[654]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

i)          DONNCHAD (-killed 1089).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Enna son of Diarmait and the nobles of Desmumu” successfully held the fortress of “Port Láirge” in 1088 against “the Laigin and the son of Domnall Remar[655].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad, son of Domnall the Fat, son of Mael na mbó, King of Leinster and the Foreigners” was killed by “Húa Conchobair…with the folk of Ossory and the west of Leinster” in 1089[656].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ui Briain” killed “Domnall´s son [and] took the kingship of Laigin and Áth Cliath” in 1089[657]m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donchad & his wife had [one possible child]: 

(a)       [MURCHAD (-killed 1091).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1091 of "Murchad grandson of Domnall Remar…killed by Enna son of Diarmait[658].] 

c)         MURCHAD .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which name “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad, son of Mael na mbó[659]m ---.  The name of Murchad´s wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had one child: 

i)          GORMLAITH (-1112).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1112 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad, son of Mael na mbó, female successor to S. Brigit[660]

 

 

DIARMAIT, son of MAEL na mBó & his wife --- (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ruaidri son of Tadg son of Lorcan” was blinded in 1036 by “Mael na mbó” (which must indicate the latter´s son assuming that the death date of Mail na mBó is correctly recorded above)[661].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mael na mbó king of the Húi Cennselaig” plundered “Colomb cille´s Maein (Moone), Dísert Diarmata and my Senóc´s Mugna and Clonmore” in 1040[662].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him”, adding in a later passage that “the son of Mael na mbó took the kingship of Dublin by force” in 1053[663]King of LeinsterHigh King of Ireland.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Harold Godwinsson and his brother Leofwine, sons of Godwin Earl of Wessex, sought refuge with him in 1051 following the family's disgrace[664].  Orderic Vitalis records that “duo filii Heraldi regis Angliæ” had fled “ad Dyrmetum regem Hiberniæ” after their father was killed and, with his support, landed at Exeter with 66 ships, ravaged the interior of the country, but were defeated by “Briennius Eudonis comitis Britanniæ minoris filius et Guillelmus Gualdi” and fled back to Ireland[665].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Mail na mbó, king of Britons and the Hebrides and Dublin and Mug Nuadat´s Half [southern Ireland]” was killed in 1072 by “Conchobar Húa Mael-Sechlainn in the battle of Odba[666].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1072 of "Diarmait son of Mael na mBó king of Laigin and the foreigners…7 Feb” killed in battle by “Conchobar ua Mael Sechlainn king of Temair[667]

m DERBORGAILL, daughter of ---, granddaughter of BRIAN Boru King of Ireland (-Imlech 1080).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1080 of "Derbhforgaill daughter of Brian´s son, wife of Diarmait son of Mael na mBó…in Imlech[668]

Diarmait & his wife had three children: 

1.         MURCHAD (-Dublin 1070, bur Dublin).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Diarmait son of Mael na mbó” invaded “Mann…and defeated Ragnall´s son” in 1061[669].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1070 of "Murchad son of Diarmait king of Laigin and the foreigners…buried in Áth Cliath[670].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1070 of "Murchad son of Diarmiat son of Mael na mBó king of foreigners and Gaedil…in Áth Cliath[671]m ---.  The name of Murchad´s wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had four children: 

a)         DOMNALL (-1075).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Murchad, grandson of Mael na mBó took the kingship of Áth Cliath” in 1075 and died “in the same year[672].  King of Dublin.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1075 of "Domnall son of Murchad, king of Áth Cliath…of a three nights' sickness"[673]

b)         DONCHAD (-1115)King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the son of Murchad, son of Diarmait, son of Máel na mbó” won a battle in 1114[674]

-        see below

c)         ENDA .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which names “Diarmait son of Enda, son of Murchad, king of the Foreigners and Leinstermen[675]m ---.  The name of Enda´s wife is not known.  Enda & his wife had one child: 

i)          DIARMUIT (-[1117]).  King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait son of Enda, son of Murchad, king of the Foreigners and Leinstermen, rested in Dublin” in 1117[676]

d)         GORMLAITH (-1112).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad coarb of Brigit, rested” in 1112[677].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1112 of "Gormlaith daughter of Murchad son of Diarmait, successor of Brigit[678]

2.         ENNA (-killed 1092).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which name "Diarmait son of Enna son of Diarmait king of Laigin[679].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Enna son of Diarmait and the nobles of Desmumu” successfully held the fortress of “Port Láirge” in 1088 against “the Laigin and the son of Domnall Remar[680].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ui Briain” imprisoned “Énna son of Diarmait” in 1089[681].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1092 of "Enna son of Diarmait…slain by the Uí Cheinnselaig[682]m ---.  The name of Enna´s wife is not known.  Enna & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIARMUIT (-killed Cell Dara 1098).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1098 of "Diarmait son of Enna son of Diarmait king of Laigin, killed by the sons of Murchad son of Diarmait…in the middle of Cell Dara[683]

3.         --- “Glún Iairn” (-killed in battle 1070).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1070 of "Glún Iairn son of Diarmiat son of Mael na mBó…slain by Cartach´s son and the Gailenga and by the north of Ireland[684]

 

 

DONCHAD, son of MURCHAD King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1115)King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the son of Murchad, son of Diarmait, son of Máel na mbó” won a battle in 1114[685].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” was killed in battle by “Domnall son of Murchertach Húa Bríáin” in 1115[686]

m ---.  The name of Donchad´s wife is not known. 

Donchad & his wife had one child: 

1.         ENNA (-1126)King of Leinster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach son of Ruaidri king of Ireland” gave “the kingship of the Foreigners to the king of Leinster” in 1125[687].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna son of Donnchad son of Murchad king of Leinster” died in 1126, after which “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” was made king of Leinster, unsuccessfully challenged by “Cormac Mac Carthaig king of Desmond[688]m ---.  The name of Enna´s wife is not known.  Enna & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIARMAIT (-Fermanagh 1 May 1171)King of Leinster.  The Annales Cambriæ record that "Diermit rex filius Murcath" was expelled from Ireland by his people and went to the English king, recording in later passages that he returned to Ireland and built "castellum Carrec iuxta Wisefordiam" in 1170, and died in 1172[689].  "Diarmicius Rex Lageniensium" donated "terram…Balidubgaill" to All Saints Dublin by undated charter witnessed by "…Enna filio meo…"[690].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Henry II King of England arrived in Ireland in 1171, went to Dublin where he received “the kingship of Leinster and of the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster[691].  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the death "apud Fernas circa kal Mai" of "Dermitius Murchardi filius" [in 1171][692]m [MOR, daughter of ---].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   Mistress: (1152) DERBFORGAILL, wife of TIERNAN O'Rourke King of Breifny, daughter of MURCHAD O'Malaghlin King of Meath & his wife ---.  The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Dermitius…Murchardi filius Langeniensium princeps" eloped with "Ororicio…Medensium rege…uxor ipsius Omachlachelini filia" [in 1152][693].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Mac Murchada king of Leinster forcibly carried off out of Meath the wife of Húa Ruairc…Derb-forgaill daughter of Murchad with her wealth” in 1152, adding in a later passage that she “came again to Húa Ruairc by flight from Leinster” in 1153[694].  Diarmait & his wife had two children: 

i)          AOIFE [Eva] (-after 1189).  The Annales Cambriæ record that "Ricardus comes de Striguil" invaded Ireland in 1171 and married "filiam Diermit regis"[695].  The Expugnatio Hibernica records the marriage of "filia…Dermitii, Eva" and Earl Richard[696].  She was styled Countess of Ireland in 1185, but Countess of Strigoil in 1186[697]m (Waterford [26 Aug 1171]) RICHARD de Clare "Strongbow" Earl of Pembroke, son of GILBERT de Clare "Strongbow" Earl of Pembroke & his wife Isabel de Beaumont ([1130]-Dublin 20 Apr 1176, bur Dublin, Holy Trinity).  In [1168] he promised Dermot King of Leinster to help him recover his kingdom in return for the hand of his daughter and eventual succession to the crown.  He landed near Waterford 23 Aug 1170, and marched to Dublin.  He acceded to the demand of King Henry II to surrender his Irish conquests to him and was granted Leinster in fee[698]

ii)         URLACHAN .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m DONOUGH [Donald] More King of Thomond, son of TADHG King of Thomond & his wife --- (-1194).

Dermot had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

iii)        ENNA (-1168 or after).  "Diarmicius Rex Lageniensium" donated "terram…Balidubgaill" to All Saints Dublin by undated charter witnessed by "…Enna filio meo…"[699].  The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Ossiriæ princeps Duvenaldus" [Dounchad [Donough] Lord of Ossory] blinded "Dermitio…filium eiusdem primogenitum"[700].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Enna Mac Murchada crownprince of Leinster” was blinded in 1168 by “Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic king of Ossory[701]

iv)        CONNOR (-1170).  The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Dermitio" gave "filium suum Chuchurum" as hostage to Roderic of Connaught [in 1169][702].  The Expugnatio Hibernica records that Roderic killed Dermot's son [in 1170][703]

v)         DOMNALL Caemanach (-killed 1175).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1175 of "Domnall Caemanach son of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha king of Leinster…[slain][704]. 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of OSSORY

 

 

1.         CERBALL (-888).  King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 888 of "Cerball son of Dúngal, king of Osraige[705].  m ---.  The name of Cerball´s wife is not known.  Cerball & his wife had one child: 

a)         DIARMAIT (-928).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait son of Cerball took the kingship of Osraige” in 894[706].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 928 of "Diarmait son of Cerball, king of Osraige[707]

b)         CELLACH (-killed in battle Mag Ailbe 908).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 908 of "Cellach son of Cerball king of Osraige” killed in “the battle of Mag Ailbe[708]m ---.  The name of Cellach´s wife is not known.  Cellach & his wife had three children: 

i)          CUILEN (-933).  King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 933 of "Cuilén son of Cellach king of Osraige[709]

ii)         DONNCHAD (-[974/76]).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh son of Cellach took the kingship of Osraige” in 934[710]King of Ossory.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Ceallach lord of Osraighe” killed “Braen son of Maelmordha king of Leinster” in 945[711].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death of “Donnchad, son of Cellach king of Ossory in senili étate” in [974/75][712].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 974 of “Donnchadh son of Ceallach lord of Osraighe[713].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 976 of "Donnchadh son of Cellach king of Osraige[714].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 976 of "Donnchadh, son of Cellach, king of Osraige[715]m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had five children: 

(a)       GILLA PATRAIC (-996)King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchaidh king of Osraige” was captured by “Brian son of Cennétig” in 983[716]m ---.  The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known.  Gilla Patraic & his wife had one child: 

-         see below

(b)       DIARMAIT (-killed 972).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Diarmaid son of Donnchad, Tanist of Osraighe” was killed in 972 in “a slaughter of the Osraighi in Iarthar-Liphi[717].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 974 of "Diarmait son of Donnchad” killed by “Ugaire son of Tuathal[718]m ---.  The name of Diarmait´s wife is not known.  Diarmait & his wife had one child: 

(1)       CELLACH (-killed [1001/02]).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 996 of "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchadh king of Osraige” and the accession of “Cellach son of Diarmait[719]King of Ossory.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cellach son of Diarmait king of Ossory” was killed in [1001/02] by “the son of his father´s brother…Donchad son of Gilla Patraic[720]

(c)       MUIRDACH (-973).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 973 of “Muireadhach son of Donnchadh son of Ceallach, Tanist of Osraighe[721]

(d)       TADG (-killed [990/91]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 990 of “Tadhg son of Donnchadh, Tanist of Osraighe[722].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 991 of “Tadc son of Donnchad, heir designate of Osraige[723]

(e)       MOR (-[984/85]).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in [984/85] of “Mor, daughter of Dondchad son of Cellach, and queen of Ireland[724].  This passage does not name Mor´s husband.  However, Maelsechnaill is the only person described in other passages in the Annals as king of Ireland at that time.  m as his first wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022). 

iii)        DOMNALL (-killed 974).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 972 of “Domhnall son of Ceallach, lord of Ui-Ceinnsealaigh” killed when “the UiCeinnsealaigh were plundered in Osraighe[725].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 974 of "Domnall son of Cellach” killed by “Ugaire son of Tuathal[726]

 

 

GILLA PATRAIC, son of DONNCHAD King of Ossory & his wife --- (-996)King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchaidh king of Osraige” was captured by “Brian son of Cennétig” in 983, adding in a later passage that he was released in 984[727].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 996 of "Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchadh king of Osraige” and the accession of “Cellach son of Diarmait[728]

m ---.  The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known. 

Gilla Patraic & his wife had four children: 

1.         DONNCHAD (-1039).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cellach son of Diarmait king of Ossory” was killed in [1001/02] by “the son of his father´s brother…Donchad son of Gilla Patraic[729]King of Leinster 1033.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad Mac Gilla Pátraic” held “the Fair of Carman…after taking the kingship of Leinster” in 1033[730].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Gilla Pátraic, overking of Leinster and Ossory, champion of Ireland” died in 1039[731]m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had two children: 

a)         DIARMAIT (-killed 1036).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1036 of “Diarmaid son of Donnchadh, Tanist of Osraighe…slain[732]

b)         GILLA PATRAIC (-1055).  King of Ossory.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Dunlang king of Leinster” was killed by “Gilla Pátraic son of Donnchad king of Ossory” in 1042[733].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1055 of “Gilla Pátraic king of Ossory[734]m ---.  The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known.  Gilla Patraic & his wife had three children: 

i)          DOMNALL (-1087).  King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall Ua Gilla Pátraic submitted to Tiadelbach Ua Briain and received a very large stipend of valuables and riches from the king of Mumu” in 1070[735].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him[736].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1087 of "Domnall mac Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige[737]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had two children: 

(a)       DONNCHAD (-killed 1090).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1090 of "Donnchadh son of Domnall Ua Gilla Pátraic…slain[738]

(b)       MUIRCHERTACH (-1095).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1095 of "Muirchertach son of Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic, royal heir of Osraige[739]

(c)       [GILLA PATRAIC “Ruad/Red” (-killed in battle Mag Coba, Ulster 1103).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gilla Pátraic Ruad king of Osraige” was killed in 1103 at “the battle of Mag Coba[740].]  m ---.  The name of Gilla Patraic´s wife is not known.  Gilla Patraic & his wife had one child: 

(1)       DONNCHAD (-killed 1123).  King of Ossory.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tadc son of Mac Carthaig accompanied by the Desmumu went to Osraige” and “Ua Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige submitted to him”, adding that “the nobles of Osraige including their king were imprisoned by the Dál Cais[741].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donncadh Húa Gilla Padraic king of Ossory” was killed in 1123[742].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1123 of "the son of Gilla Pátraic, king of Osraige…slain by his own people[743]

ii)         DONNCHAD (-killed 1089).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donncadh mac Gilla Padraic king of Ossory” was killed in 1089[744]

iii)        CERBALL (-1105).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1105 of "Cerball son of Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic, king of the south of Osraige[745]

2.         DUNGHAL (-killed 1015).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Dunghal son of Gillaphadraig son of Donnchadh” was killed in 1015 by “Maelseachlainn [in a raid] into Ossory[746]

3.         MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 1041).  Joint King of Ossory.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Muirchertach Mac Gilla Pátraic one of the two kings of Ossory” was killed in 1041 by “the Húi Caeluide his own people[747]

4.         TAIDHG (-after 1027).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Tadhg Mac Gillaphadraig” was blinded in 1027 by “the lord of Osraighe, Donnchadh Mac Gillaphadraig[748]m ---.  The name of Taidhg´s wife is not known.  Taidhg & his wife had one child: 

a)         DERBORGAILL (-after 1098).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Derborgaill daughter of Tadg, son of Gilla Pátraic, mother of Muirchertach Húa Bríáin king of Irelandrested in Glendalough” in 1098[749]m TORDELBACH, son of TADGH & his wife --- ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086).  He succeeded in 1064 as King of Munster. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    MEATH

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of MEATH

 

 

1.         AENGUS, son of DONNCHAD King of Ireland & his first wife Caineach --- (-943)Lord of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 943 of “Aenghus son of Donnchadh son of Flann, lord of Meath[750]

 

2.         AEDH, son of FLANN Ua Maelseachlainn & his wife --- King of Meath.  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath[751]m ---.  The name of Aedh´s wife is not known.  Aedh & his wife had three children: 

a)         DONNCHAD Finn (-killed 972).  Lord of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh Finn son of Aedh, lord of Meath” was killed in 972 by “Aghda son of Dubhcenn son of Tadhgan, lord of Teathba[752].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 974 of "Donnchadh Finn son of Mael Sechnaill[753], but this appears to refer to the same person.  m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had two children: 

i)          DOMNALL (-after 997).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domhnall son of Donnchadh Finn” was blinded in 996 by “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall[754].  The Annals of Ulster record the same event in 997[755]

ii)         DONNCHAD (-killed in battle 1012).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Donnchadh Finn and the Ui-Meith” plundered “Lann-Leire” in 1002 but were defeated by “Cathal son of Labhraidh[756].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh son of Donnchadh Finn royal heir of Teamhair” was killed in 1012 fighting “Ualgharg Ua Ciardha lord of Cairbre and the son of Niall O´Ruairc and the men of Teathbha[757]

b)         MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 972).  King of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 972 of “Muircheartach son of Aedh son of Flann Ua Maelseachlainn King of Meath” killed by “Domhnall son of Conghalach[758]

c)         DOMNALL (-killed 1023).  Lord of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1023 of “Domhnall son of Aedh Beag Ua Maeleachlainn, the second lord that was over Meath” killed by “the son of Seanan Ua Leocain and the Luighni[759]

 

3.         MAELSECHLAINN .  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1025 of “Maelseachlainn Gott lord of Meath[760]

 

4.         AEDH “Bic/the Little” .  m ---.  The name of Aed´s wife is not known.  Aed & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOMNALL (-killed in battle [1021/23]).  Joint King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of Aed the Little, grandson of MaelSechlainn, one of the two kings of Meath” was killed by “the son of Senán Hua Leochain and by the Luigni” in [1021/23][761]

 

 

1.         DOMNALL “Got/the Stammerer” (-killed 1030).  King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach record that the kingdom of Meath was seized by “MaelSechlainn” in 1029 and “the Stammerer was expelled upon Lough Ree[762].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall the Stammerer king of Meach” was killed in 1030 “by his own soldier Cú cairn Húa Cobthaig[763]

 

2.         MAELSECHLAINN .  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelseachlainn son of Maelruanaidh” entered Meath in 1026[764]King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach record that the kingdom of Meath was seized by “MaelSechlainn” in 1029 and “the Stammerer was expelled upon Lough Ree[765].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the kingdom of Meath was assumed by Ua Maeleachlainn” in 1030 “after he had been expelled up Loch Ribh by Gott Ua Maeleachlainn[766].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death of “Tadhg of the White Steed Ua Conchobhair, king of Connaught” killed by “the Gott, i.e. Maelseachlainn grandson of Maelruanaidh, lord of Meath and Cremthainne[767]m ---.  The name of Maelsechlainn´s wife is not known.  Maelsechlainn & his wife had one child: 

a)         MURCHAD (-killed Loch Semhdidhe Island 1033).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1033 of “Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, i.e. the son of Maeleachlainn Gott” killed by “Mac Iarnain, i.e. the chief of Cuircne, on the island of Loch Semhdidhe[768]

 

3.         MURCHAD Ua Fallamhain (-killed 1064).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh Ua Fallamhain Tanist of Meath and his brother” were killed in 1064[769]

 

4.         CONCHOBAR Ua Máil-Sechlainn (-1073).  King of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhair Ua Maeleachlainn lord of Meath” defeated “Murchad son of Diarmait son of Mael na mbo lord of the foreigners” in 1059[770].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar O´Maeleachlainn king of Meath” defeated and killed “Diarmaid son of Mael na mbo king of Leinster” in 1072[771].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar Ua Maelseachlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1073 by “the son of his brother, Murchadh son of Flann” in 1072, adding that Meath was “afterwards desolated between Maelseachlainn son of Conchobhar and this Murchadh[772]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had two children: 

a)         MAELSECHLAINN .  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar Ua Maelseachlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1073 by “the son of his brother, Murchadh son of Flann” in 1072, adding that Meath was “afterwards desolated between Maelseachlainn son of Conchobhar and this Murchadh[773]

b)         MURCHAD (-killed 1077).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Conshobair Ua Maeleachlainn” was killed in 1077 by “the men of Teathbha and Catharnach Sinnach[774]

5.         FLANNm ---.  The name of Flann´s wife is not known.  Flann & his wife had one child: 

a)         MURCHAD .  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conchobhar Ua Maelseachlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1073 by “the son of his brother, Murchadh son of Flann” in 1072, adding that Meath was “afterwards desolated between Maelseachlainn son of Conchobhar and this Murchadh[775].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchertach Húa Mael-Sechlainn” was deposed again in 1106 and the kingship of Meath given to “Murchad son of Fland[776]King of Meathm ---.  The name of Murchad´s wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had three children: 

i)          DONNCHAD (-killed 1106).  King of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn lord of Meath” led a predatory expedition “into Fearnmhagh” in 1101[777].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn” was deposed in 1105 by “Muirchertach Ua Briain” who divided Meath between “the sons of Domnall Ua Maeleachlainn[778].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad, son of Murchad, son of Fland Húa MáelSechlainn, king of Meath” was killed “by the Munstermen” in 1106[779].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn son of Murchadh son of Flann, King of Meath” was killed in 1106 by “the Ui-Minnegain, i.e. some of the Ui-Mic-Uais of Meath[780]m ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MAELSECHLAINN (-killed 1125).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelseachlainn son of Donnchadh Ua Maeleachlainn, the third lord of [Meath]” was killed in 1125 by “Domhnall son of Murchadh Ua Maeleachlainn[781]

ii)         ORLAITH (-1115).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1115 of “Orlaith daughter of Murchad Húa Mael-Sechlainn, wife of Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair[782]m TOIRDELBACH King of Connaught, son of RUAIDRI Húa Conchobair & his wife Mor --- ([1087/88]-1156, bur St Ciaran). 

iii)        CONCHOBAR (-killed 1133).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar, son of Murchad Húa MáelSechlainn, crownprince of Meath” was killed in 1133 by “Donnchad, son of Gilla moCholmoíc and by Foreigners[783]

b)         DOMNALL Ua Maelsechlainn (-killed 1094).  King of Meath.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnall son of Flann Ua Maelachlainn king of Meath” sold “Iseal-Chiarain” to “Cormac Mac Cuinn na mBocht” in 1089[784].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the king of Meath, even Domnall Húa MaelSechlainn” was killed in 1094 by “Murchertach Húa Briain[785]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had two children: 

i)          MAELSECHLAINN (-killed 1115).  King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Meath was divided between “the two sons of Domnall Húa Máelsechlainn” in 1115, but that “MáelSechlainn straightway fell by Murchad[786]

ii)         MURCHAD (-after 1143)King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Meath was divided between “the two sons of Domnall Húa Máelsechlainn” in 1115, but that “MáelSechlainn straightway fell by Murchad[787].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “another hosting by [Toirdelbach son of Ruaidri king of Ireland] into Meath” in 1125 when “they banished Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn king of Meath into Munster” and he “divided Meath into four parts, among Tigernán and the three grandsons of MaelSechlainn[788].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn” was deposed (again) in 1127 and replaced by “his son Domnall[789].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchad Húa MáelSechlainn” was deposed (again) and banished to Munster in 1143 by “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” who appointed “his own son Conchobar mac Toirdelbaig…[as] king over Meath from the Shannon to the sea[790]m MOR, daughter of MURCHAD Ua Bríáin & his wife --- (-1137).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Mór, daughter of Murchad Húa Bríáin, wife of Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn” died in 1137[791].  Murchad & his wife had three children: 

(a)       DOMNALL (-after 1127).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair and Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn” took “Domnall, son of Murchad Húa MáelSechlainn, by force out of Dublin” in 1118[792]King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn” was deposed (again) in 1127 and replaced by “his son Domnall”, adding that the latter was deposed “at the end of the quarter and Diarmait Húa MaelSechlainn was put in his place[793]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had five children: 

(1)       AEDH (-1125 or after).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aedh son of Domnall Húa Concobair” was captured by his brother in 1125[794]

(2)       son .  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aedh son of Domnall Húa Concobair” was captured by his brother in 1125[795]

(3)       CONCHOBAR (-1153 or after).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar, son of Domnall Húa MaelSechlainn” was blinded in 1153 by “MaelSechlainn son of Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn[796]

(4)       DONNCHAD (-killed 1160).  King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad son of Domnall Húa MaelSechlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1160 by “Murchad Húa Findallain and by his son[797]

(5)       DERBAIL (-Clonmacnois 1167).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Derbail daughter of Domnall Húa Máil-Sechlainn died in pilgrimage at Clonmacnois” in 1166[798]

iii)        MAELSECHLAINN ([1123/24]-St Colomb cille´s Durrow 1154).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar, son of Domnall Húa MaelSechlainn” was blinded in 1153 by “MaelSechlainn son of Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn[799]King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “MaelSechlainn son of Murchad Húa MáelSechlainn king of Meath and the greater part of Leinster” died in 1154 “in the thirtieth year of his age in the third year of his reign in Meath at S. Colomb cille´s Durrow[800]

iv)       DERBFORGAILL .  The Expugnatio Hibernica records that "Dermitius…Murchardi filius Langeniensium princeps" eloped with "Ororicio…Medensium rege…uxor ipsius Omachlachelini filia" [in 1152][801].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Mac Murchada king of Leinster forcibly carried off out of Meath the wife of Húa Ruairc…Derb-forgaill daughter of Murchad with her wealth” in 1152, adding in a later passage that she “came again to Húa Ruairc by flight from Leinster” in 1153[802]m TIERNAN O'Rourke King of Breifny, son of ---.  Mistress (1152) of DIARMAIT King of Leinster, son of ENNA King of Leinster & his wife --- (-Fermanagh 1 May 1171). 

 

6.         MURCHERTACH Ua Maelsechlainn (-after 1132).  King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchertach Húa Mail-Sechnaill” was deposed in 1102 and the kingdom of Meath taken “by Murchad[803].  He must have been restored soon afterwards, as the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchertach Húa Bríáin and MáelSechlainn king of Meath” went on raids “into Dalaradia” in 1103[804].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchertach Húa Mael-Sechlainn” was deposed again in 1106 and the kingship of Meath given to “Murchad son of Fland[805].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair…marched over into Meath” in 1132 and “gave the kingship of Meath to Murchertach Húa MaelSechlainn[806]

 

7.         CONCHOBARm ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had one child: 

a)         CONCHOBAR Húa Máil-Sechlainn (-killed 1105).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar Húa Máil-Sechlainn, son of Conchobar, king of Meath” was killed “by the Munstermen” in 1105[807]

 

8.         DOMNALL mac maic Donncadha (-killed 1123).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall mac maic Donncadha crown-prince of Meath” was killed in 1123 by “the Gailenga[808]

 

9.         TAIDHG Húa Máel-Sechlainn .  m ---.  The name of Taidhg´s wife is not known.  Taidgh & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAEL-SECHLAINN (-killed 1124).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “MaelSechlainn son of Tadg Húa Máel-Sechlainn” was killed in 1124 “by Meathmen[809]

 

10.      DIARMAIT Húa MaelSechlainn (-killed in battle 1130).  King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn” was deposed (again) in 1127 and replaced by “his son Domnall” was made king of Leinster, adding that the latter was deposed “at the end of the quarter and Diarmait Húa MaelSechlainn was put in his place[810].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa MáelSechlainn king of the east of Meath” was killed in battle in 1130 by “Tigernán Húa Ruaire[811]

 

11.      DIARMAIT Húa MaelSechlainn (-killed 1169).  King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) name “Diarmait Húa Máil-Sechlainn king of Meath” among those who joined “a hosting by Ruaidri Húa Conchobair overking of Ireland” in 1166[812].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa MaelSechlainn king of Meath and the greater part of Leinster and the makings of a king of Ireland was parricidally killed by Domnall of Bregia Húa MaelSechlainn” in 1169[813]m ---.  The name of Diarmait´s wife is not known.  Diarmait & his wife had two children: 

a)         DOMNALL (-killed S. Colomb cille´s Durrow 1173).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa MaelSechlainn king of Meath and the greater part of Leinster and the makings of a king of Ireland was parricidally killed by Domnall of Bregia Húa MaelSechlainn” in 1169[814]King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that Henry II King of England arrived in Ireland in 1171, went to Dublin where he received “the kingship of Leinster and of the men of Meath, Brefne, Oriel and Ulster[815].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall of Bregia Húa MaelSechlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1173 “in S. Colomb cille´s Durrow by Art Húa MaelSechlainn his own father´s son and by the Munter Laigecháin[816]

b)         ART (-killed 1184).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall of Bregia Húa MaelSechlainn king of Meath” was killed in 1173 “in S. Colomb cille´s Durrow by Art Húa MaelSechlainn his own father´s son and by the Munter Laigecháin”, adding that “Art succeeded him[817]King of Meath.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Art Húa MaelSechlainn was deposed by the men of Meath” and the kingship given to “Donnchad Húa MaelSechlainn” in 1176[818].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1184 of "Art Ua Mael-Sechlainn king of the West of Meath…killed by the direction of the Foreigners” and the accession of “Mael-Sechlainn the Little” in his place[819]

 

12.      DONNCHAD .  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Art Húa MaelSechlainn was deposed by the men of Meath” and the kingship given to “Donnchad Húa MaelSechlainn” in 1176[820]King of Meathm ---.  The name of Donnchad´s wife is not known.  Donchad & his wife had one child: 

a)         FLAND (-killed 1176).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Fland son of Donnchad Húa MaelSechlainn” was killed in 1176 by “Cairbre Húa Ciarda[821]

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of MEATH (LACY)

 

 

HUGH de Lacy, son of GILBERT de Lacy & his wife --- (-killed 25 Jul 1185).  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Hugo…et Walterus frater eius” as the sons of “Gilbertus de Lacy”, adding that Hugh died childless[822].  This is contradicted by the Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire which records that "Gilbertus de Lacy" had a son "Hugonem" who had "filium Walterum"[823].  "…Hugoni de Lacy…" subscribed the charter dated [1172/78] under which Henry II King of England confirmed the freedoms of the city of Rouen[824].  “Hugo de Laci et Roes. uxor mea et Robertus filius meus” donated revenue to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Gilberto de Monemue…Roberto de Monemue…"[825].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the son of the Empress went with Hugo de Lacy from Dublin to Fore and…burnt the town” in 1172[826].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “three fleets of Englishmen arrived in Ireland” in 1177, those of “Hugo de Lacy…William Fitz Audeline and…Philip de Breusa (Pilip de Preis)”, adding that Hugh´s went to Dublin[827]Lord of Meath.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1186 of "Ugo de Lacy…killed by O´Miadhaigh of Tebtha[828]

m firstly ROHESE, daughter of [BADERON de Monmouth & his wife Rohese de Clare] (-[1180]).  “Hugo de Laci et Roes. uxor mea et Robertus filius meus” donated revenue to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Gilberto de Monemue…Roberto de Monemue…"[829].  Proof of the parentage of Rohese, first wife of Hugh de Lacy, has not been found in any of the primary sources consulted during the preparation of the present document.  However, the charter quoted above suggests a family connection with the Monmouth family, who had founded the priory.  Her name suggests that she may have been the daughter of Baderon and his wife of the same name. 

m secondly ROSE, daughter of --- Húa Conchobair (-after Aug 1224).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   In his report to King Henry dated 5 Aug 1224 following the capture of castle Trum, William Marshall Earl of Pembroke records that "the wife of William de Lascy, the daughter of Llewllyn, Griffin´s sister, the wife of Thomas Blund, William´s brother, and the mother of William, of Thomas, and of him that was killed" were in the castle, adding that "the mother…will be prisoner unless her nephew the king of Connaught return to the king´s peace through her"[830]

Hugh & his first wife had eight children: 

1.         WALTER de Lacy ([1172]-before 24 Feb 1241).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire records that "Gilbertus de Lacy" had a son "Hugonem" who had "filium Walterum"[831].  “Walterus de Lacy filius Hugonis de Lacy” confirmed his father´s donation to Lanthony Abbey by undated charter[832].  Lord of Meath. 

-        see below

2.         HUGH de Lacy ([1176]-before 26 Dec 1242, bur Carrickfergus, Convent of the Franciscan Friars).  He was created Earl of Ulster in 1205.  King John addressed letters to "Walter, Hugh and Robert de Lascy…" dated 23 May 1207[833].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Hugonem de Laci et Walterum fratrem eius” were exiled from Ireland in Aug 1210 by King John[834].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Hugo de Laci” was expelled “ab Albigensibus” in 1222, returned to England and that his lands in Ireland were restored to him, adding in a later passage that he returned to Ireland in 1223 after the end of the Welsh wars[835][836].  A charter dated 27 Dec 1222 records that King Henry III granted "to Hugh de Lascy the land which Walter de Lacy his brother gave to him and the land which formed the marriage of his wife in Ireland"[837]m firstly LESCELINE de Verdun, daughter of BERTRAM de Verdun Seneschal of Ireland & his second wife Rohese ---.  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Hugo de Lasci” repudiated his legitimate wife for adultery in 1225[838].  King Henry III notified William Marshall Earl of Pembroke, by charter dated 12 May 1226, that "he commits to Walter de Lascy the custody of…the land which Hugh de Lascy held in Ulster…with the castles of Rathour and Le Nober which he had in marriage with Leceline his wife of the fee of Nicholas de Verdun"[839]m secondly as her first husband, EMMELINE de Rydeleford, daughter of WALTER de Rydeleford Lord of Bray & his wife Annora --- (-[18 May 1275/19 Jul 1276]).  A charter dated 8 Feb 1243 records that "if A. who was wife of Hugh de Lacy will not take for her husband Stephen Longespee, as the king had requested her, the justiciary shall distrain her to do so in accordance with the custom of Ireland"[840].  A charter dated 25 Apr 1243 mandates "the justiciary of Ireland to cause Emelina, who was the wife of Hugh de Lacy, to have out of his lands in Ulster 40 librates, until he shall otherwise provide for her"[841].  A charter dated 16 May 1244 restored to "Emeline Countess of Ulster…all [her] inheritance from Walter de Rydeleford her father whose heir she is and…dower out of the lands…in Ireland of Hugh late Earl of Ulster her husband"[842].  She married secondly ([16 May/14 Dec] 1244) Stephen Longespee Seneschal of Gascony, Justiciar of Ireland.  The Book of Lacock records that “Stephanus Lungespee” married “Emelinam comitissam de Ulton[843].  A charter dated 16 Dec 1244 orders an enquiry into "what lands Walter de Rideleford, grandfather of Christiana daughter and one of the heirs of Robert de Mariscia, was seised in fee at his death" and "what lands fell to the share of Christiana and what to that of the Countess of Ulster, aunt of Christiana and wife of Stephen Longespee", and to grant seisin of Christiana´s share to "Fulk de Newcastle…[to whom] the king has granted…Christiana´s lands with her marriage"[844].  Hugh [& his first wife] had two children: 

a)         HUGH de Lacy (-after 1226).  m ---.  The name of Hugh´s wife is not known.  Hugh & his wife had two children: 

i)          WALTER de Lacy .  A charter dated [12 May 1226] records that Walter de Lacy took the property of Hugh de Lacy, as ordered by the king, and that "Walter and Roger, sons of Hugh de Lascy, Hugh´s eldest son" were given as hostages[845]

ii)         ROGER de Lacy .  A charter dated [12 May 1226] records that Walter de Lacy took the property of Hugh de Lacy, as ordered by the king, and that "Walter and Roger, sons of Hugh de Lascy, Hugh´s eldest son" were given as hostages[846]

b)         ROSE de Lacy (-after 1237).  Henry III King of England noted that "Waltero de Lascy" had given "Roesiam neptem eius, filiam Hugonis de Lascy" as a hostage, dated 28 Mar 1217[847].  According to Matthew of Paris, the wife of Alan of Galloway "iam defunctus" was the (unnamed) daughter of "Hugonem de Lasey"[848].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records in 1229 that "Alan the lord of Galloway…set out for Ireland and there married the daughter of Hugh de Lacy"[849].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Alanus de Galweia profectus in Hiberniam" married "filiam Hugonis de Lacy" in 1228[850].  If her parentage and marriage is correctly stated in the two sources quoted, the chronology suggests that this daughter must have been born from Hugh´s first marriage, assuming that she was legitimate.  She is named "Rose de Lacy" by Keith Stringer, who cites a charter of St Bees which indicates that she was still alive in 1237[851]m ([1228/29]) as his [fifth wife], ALAN Lord of Galloway, son of ROLAND Lord of Galloway & his wife Elena de Moreville (-[2] Feb 1234, bur Dundraynan). 

3.         ROBERT de Lacy (-[23 May 1207/5 Jul 1215]).  “Hugo de Laci et Roes. uxor mea et Robertus filius meus” donated revenue to Monmouth Priory by undated charter witnessed by "Gilberto de Monemue…Roberto de Monemue…"[852].  King John addressed letters to "Walter, Hugh and Robert de Lascy…" dated 23 May 1207[853]m ---.  The name of Robert´s wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         WALTER de Lacy .  An order of King John dated 11 Feb 1204 relating to Ireland names "Walteri de Lascy st filius Rob de Lascy" among hostages[854]

b)         HUGH de Lacy .  "Hug fil Rob de Lacy q est in custodia Henr Biset" as a hostage 8 Aug 1207[855]

c)         [son (-after 5 Jul 1215).  A charter dated 5 Jul 1215 records an agreement between King John and "Walter de Lascy" for restoration of his land in Ireland, including a provision that "the fines hereafter to remain to Walter namely the fines for the son of Robert de Lascy…"[856].  It is not known whether this entry relates to one of the other named sons of Robert or to another son whose name is unknown.] 

4.         GILBERT de Lacy (-after 27 Dec 1222).  "Gilbert de Lasci appeared against Walter de Lasci his brother in a plea of trespass in Ireland" dated 27 Jun 1206[857].  King Henry III wrote "to Hugh de Lascy. Sends Gilbert de Lascy his brother in whom Hugh shall place faith regarding the king´s Irish affairs" 27 Dec 1222[858]

5.         WILLIAM de Lacy (-after 1210).  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Willelmum de Laci” was captured in Ireland in 1210 by King John, adding that he later died in prison[859]

6.         ELAINEm RICHARD de Beaufou, son of ---. 

7.         ALICE (-[before 1242]).  m firstly ROGER Pipard, son of WILLIAM Pipard & his wife --- (-before 12 Apr 1225).  m secondly (before 1232) GEOFFREY de Mareys [Marsh] Justiciar of Ireland (-1245). 

8.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are referred to by Eyton but he cites no primary source on which this is based[860]m WILLIAM FitzAlan, son of WILLIAM FitzAlan & his second wife Isabel de Say ([1154]-[1210]). 

Hugh & his second wife had three children: 

9.         WILLIAM de Lacy (-killed in battle Monach-cranncain 1233).  King John ordered the delivery of "William de Lascy to Walter de Lascy his brother…" after he gave assurances about his loyalty, dated 10 Feb 1215[861].  King Henry III commanded "William de Lacy" to deliver "the castles of Rath and Carlingeford which he had taken" dated [Jan] 1217[862].  A report from William Marshall Earl of Pembroke to Henry III King of England, dated 5 Aug 1224, records that he besieged "the castle of Trum…with William de Lascy its lord…conquered him and he with difficulty escaped, he had a brother killed there…[and] the castle was abandoned"[863].  The Annals of Ulster record in 1233 that "William de Lacy and Charles, son of Cathal Ua Conchobuir and many foreigners were killed by the Muinnter-Raighillaigh in Monach-cranncain[864]m GWENLLIAN of Wales, illegitimate daughter of LLYWELYN "Fawr/the Great" Prince of Wales & his mistress --- (-1281).  In his report to King Henry dated 5 Aug 1224 following the capture of castle Trum, William Marshall Earl of Pembroke records that "the wife of William de Lascy, the daughter of Llewllyn, Griffin´s sister, the wife of Thomas Blund, William´s brother, and the mother of William, of Thomas, and of him that was killed" were in the castle[865]

10.      THOMAS de Lacy (-after 1224).  In his report to King Henry dated 5 Aug 1224 following the capture of castle Trum, William Marshall Earl of Pembroke records that "the wife of William de Lascy, the daughter of Llewllyn, Griffin´s sister, the wife of Thomas Blund, William´s brother, and the mother of William, of Thomas, and of him that was killed" were in the castle[866]

11.      --- de Lacy (-killed in battle Trum [Jul] 1224).  A report from William Marshall Earl of Pembroke to Henry III King of England, dated 5 Aug 1224, records that he besieged "the castle of Trum…with William de Lascy its lord…conquered him and he with difficulty escaped, he had a brother killed there…[and] the castle was abandoned"[867]

 

 

WALTER de Lacy, son of HUGH de Lacy Lord of Meath & his first wife Rose de Monmouth ([1172]-before 24 Feb 1241).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire records that "Gilbertus de Lacy" had a son "Hugonem" who had "filium Walterum"[868].  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1190/91], records "Walterus de Lascy" paying "xxv l xii s vi d" in Herefordshire[869].  The Red Book of the Exchequer, listing scutage payments in [1194/95], records "Walterus de Lascy" paying "li l v s, li milites et quartam" in Herefordshire[870].  “Walterus de Lacy filius Hugonis de Lacy” confirmed his father´s donation to Lanthony Abbey by undated charter[871].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Hugo…et Walterus frater eius” as the sons of “Gilbertus de Lacy[872] but, as noted above, this is chronologically improbable.  Lord of Meath.  King John addressed letters to "Walter, Hugh and Robert de Lascy…" dated 23 May 1207[873].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “Hugonem de Laci et Walterum fratrem eius” were exiled from Ireland in Aug 1210 by King John[874].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Walterus de Lascy" holding two knights´ fees "in Hamme" in Hereford in [1210/12][875].  A charter dated 5 Jul 1215 records an agreement between King John and "Walter de Lascy" for restoration of his land in Ireland[876].  An undated charter of Henry III King of England confirmed a donation by ”Walterus de Lacy” to the Hospital of Ludlow, Shropshire, for the souls of “Margeriæ uxoris meæ…Gilberti de Lacy filii mei[877].  "Walterus de Lacy" confirmed the donation by "Margeria uxor mea" to Acornbury priory, Herefordshire by charter dated to [1220/25], witnessed by “domino Willielmo de Lascy, domino Simone de Clifford, priore de Careswell, Egidio de Clifford…[878].  A charter of King Edward II dated 26 Jan 1326 confirmed donations to Lanthony Abbey, among which a donation by “Walterus de Lacy filius Hugonis de Lacy” for the soul of “dominæ Margeriæ uxoris meæ[879].  Matthew Paris names "…Walterus de Lascy…" among those who died in 1241[880]

m MARGERY de Briouse, daughter of WILLIAM de Briouse & his wife Mathilde de Saint-Valéry Dame de la Haye (-after 1255).  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Walterus”, son of “Gilbertus de Lacy”, married “Margeriam filiam Matildis de S. Walerico, quondam uxoris Willielmi de Brewes[881].  This wording suggests that Margery may have been her mother´s daughter by an earlier marriage, not the daughter of William de Briouse, although no other primary source has yet been identified which suggests that Maud married twice.  Nevertheless, the Annals of Worcester record that King John exiled “Walterum de Lacy” in 1211 because he would not repudiate “uxorem suam, filiam W. de Breaus[882].  A charter of King Edward II dated 26 Jan 1326 confirmed donations to Lanthony Abbey, among which a donation by “Walterus de Lacy filius Hugonis de Lacy” for the soul of “dominæ Margeriæ uxoris meæ[883].  King John granted land "in foresta nostra de Acornebur" to "Margaret de Lascy" to build a religious house, for the souls of "W. de Breusa patris sui, Matillid matris sue et W. fratris sui", dated 10 Oct 1216[884].  "Walterus de Lacy" confirmed the donation by "Margeria uxor mea" to Acornbury priory, Herefordshire by charter dated to [1220/25], witnessed by “domino Willielmo de Lascy, domino Simone de Clifford, priore de Careswell, Egidio de Clifford…[885].  An undated charter of Henry III King of England confirmed a donation by ”Walterus de Lacy” to the Hospital of Ludlow, Shropshire, for the souls of “Margeriæ uxoris meæ…Gilberti de Lacy filii mei[886].  A charter dated 10 Oct 1241 ordered her dower to be assigned to "Margery who was the wife of Walter de Lacy"[887]

Walter & his wife had [seven or more] children: 

1.         GILBERT de Lacy of Ewyas Lacy, Herefordshire (-[12 Aug/25 Dec] 1230, bur Lanton, Wales).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire records that "Gilbertus de Lacy" had a son "Hugonem" who had "filium Walterum", who in turn had "filium Gilbertum de Lacy"[888].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Gilbertus de Lacy” as son of “Walterus de Lacy” and his wife[889].  An undated charter of Henry III King of England confirmed a donation by ”Walterus de Lacy” to the Hospital of Ludlow, Shropshire, for the souls of “Margeriæ uxoris meæ…Gilberti de Lacy filii mei[890].  The Annals of Tewkesbury record the death in 1230 of “Gilebertus de Lacy filius et hæres Walteri de Lacy” and his burial “apud Lantone in Wallia[891].  The Annals of Worcester record the death in 1230 of “Gilbertus de Lacy[892]m as her first husband, ISABEL, daughter of [HUGH Bigod Earl of Norfolk & his wife Maud Marshal of Pembroke] ([after 1207]-).  The sources which report the parentage of the wife of Gilbert de Lacy are conflicting.  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Gilbertus de Lacy” married “Isabellæ Mareschal[893], presumably confusing her with Isabel daughter of William Marshal Earl of Pembroke who married firstly Gilbert de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hereford and secondly Richard Earl of Cornwall.  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire names "Isabella soror Johannis" as daughter of ”Rogerus sive Radulphus Bigod, secundus filius Hugonis le Bigod com. Norfolke et Suffolke…” and his wife “Bertam de Fornivale”, adding that she married firstly "Gilberto de Lacy" and secondly "Johanni Fitz-Geffrey"[894].  This must also be incorrect, as any children of Ralph Bigod could not have been born before the late 1220s at the earliest, which is inconsistent with the timing of Isabel´s first marriage.  If Isabel was a member of the Bigod family, she must have been the daughter of Hugh and Maud Marshal of Pembroke.  This is the solution adopted by the Complete Peerage[895], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  She married secondly Sir John FitzGeoffrey.  Gilbert & his wife had three children: 

a)         WALTER de Lacy (-[15 May 1238/1241]).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire names "Walterus de Lacy" as the son "Gilberto de Lacy" and his wife, adding that he died young[896].  His paternal grandfather recognised Walter as his heir 15 May 1238[897]

b)         MARGERY de Lacy (-before 1256).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire names "Margeria et Matilda" as the daughters and co-heiresses of "Gilberto de Lacy" and his wife, adding that Margery married "Johanni de Verdon" (and lists three generations of their descendants)[898].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Margeria, uxor Johannis de Verdon” as daughter and heiress of “Gilbertus de Lacy”, son of “Walterus de Lacy”, and also lists their descendants[899].  A charter dated 14 May 1244 restored to "John de Verdun and Margaret his wife, granddaughter and one of the heirs of Walter de Lascy, and to Peter de Geneve and Matilda his wife, granddaughter and another of Walter´s heirs, all the lands in Meath whereof Walter was seised at his death"[900]m (before 14 May 1244) as his first wife, JOHN de Verdun, son of THEOBALD Butler [Le Botiller] & his second wife Rohese de Verdun of Alton, Staffordshire ([1226]-before 17 Oct 1274). 

c)         MATILDA de Lacy (-11 Apr 1304).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire names "Margeria et Matilda" as the daughters and co-heiresses of "Gilberto de Lacy" and his wife, adding that Matilda married "Gaufrido de Genyvile" (and naming her son and grandchildren)[901].  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Matildis” as second daughter and heiress of “Gilbertus de Lacy”, son of “Walterus de Lacy”, adding that she married “Galfridi de Geneville”, and also lists their descendants[902].  A charter dated 19 Feb 1244 relates to the inheritance of "W. de Lacy in…comitatu [Hereford]" by "Matillidi uxori Petri de Geneva, neptem et unicam heredem predicti Waltheri" and "sorori ipsius Matillidis"[903].  A charter dated 14 May 1244 restored to "John de Verdun and Margaret his wife, granddaughter and one of the heirs of Walter de Lascy, and to Peter de Geneve and Matilda his wife, granddaughter and another of Walter´s heirs, all the lands in Meath whereof Walter was seised at his death"[904].  Her first marriage is confirmed by Matthew of Paris who names "Matildam elegantem filiam Walteri de Lasey in Hybernia" as wife of "Petrus de Geneure natione Provincialis…" when recording her husband's death in 1249[905].  Henry III King of England granted "Geoffroy de Joinville et Mahaut de Lacy sa femme" rights in the land of Meath held by "Gautier de Lacy, grand-père de Mahaut" by charter dated 8 Aug 1252[906].  “Gaufridus de Genvyle dominus de Vaucolour miles et Matildis de Lacy filia Gileberti Lacy uxor eius” donated property to Dore Abbey by undated charter, witnessed by “Johanne de Vaucolour milite…[907]m firstly (before 19 Feb 1244) PIERRE de Genève, son of HUMBERT Comte de Genève & his wife --- (-1249).  m secondly (1252 before 8 Aug) GEOFFROY de Joinville Seigneur de Vaucouleurs, son of SIMON Seigneur de Joinville & his second wife Beatrix d'Auxonne [Bourgogne-Comté] (-Trim 21 Oct 1314).  

2.         EGIDIA de Lacy (-[22 Feb 1247/5 Nov 1248])A writ dated [29] Dec "[28?] Hen III" and 7 Mar "27 Hen III" after the death of "Richard de Burgo" assigns dower to "Egidia late the wife of the said Richard" but names no heir[908].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1247 records the homage of "Richard son and heir of Richard de Burgh for all his father´s lands…in Ireland…saving the dower of Egidia, who was Richard´s wife"[909].  Her second marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 8 Oct 1249 which records that "the Dominican friars of London have shown to the king that Egidia, who was the wife of Richard de Burgh senior, received 180 marks in which Richard was bound to Hubert de Burgh late Earl of Kent and which the Earl had left by his will to the friars, and that Richard of Rochester who subsequently married Egidia wasted her chattels" and the order to restore property to the friars[910].  A charter dated 5 Nov 1248 mandates "Peter de Bermingham to cause dower to be assigned to Alice who was the wife of Richard de Burgh…son and heir of Richard de Burgh who died in the king´s service at Bordeaux" and to have dower "of all the lands whereof Egidia, who was the wife of the latter, was endowed"[911]m firstly RICHARD de Burgh Lord of Connaught, son of WILLIAM de Burgh Lord of Connaught & his wife --- (-Gascony before 17 Feb 1243).  m secondly RICHARD de Rochester, son of ---. 

3.         KATHERINE de Lacy (-after Sep 1267).  "Katerina de Lacy filia Walteri de Lacy" donated land in Cofham, held by "domino Waltero de Clifford", to Acornbury priory, Herefordshire, for the souls of “fratris mei…et…dicti Walteri de Clifford et Margaretæ uxoris suæ et Margaretæ filiæ ipsius” by undated charter, witnessed by "domino Willielmo de Evereus, domino Rogero de Clifford, domino Ricardo Tirel, domino Roberto de Lacy, domino Willielmo de Rachesford…"[912]

4.         sons .  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Walterus de Lacy” and his wife had “plures filii et filiæ” who all died childless except for their son Gilbert[913]

5.         [HUGH de Lacy (-in Ireland 1245).  Matthew of Paris names "in Hybernia, Hugonis de Lasey" among those who died in 1245[914].  This Hugh de Lacy has not otherwise been identified.  It is possible that he was one of the otherwise unrecorded sons of Walter de Lacey.] 

6.         daughters .  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey records that “Walterus de Lacy” and his wife had “plures filii et filiæ” who all died childless except for their son Gilbert[915]

7.         PERNEL de Lacy (-after 25 Oct 1288)m firstly (Sep [1232/34]) RAOUL [VI] de Tosny, son of RAOUL [IV] de Tosny & his wife Constance de Beaumont (-[29 Sep 1239]).  m secondly (before 15 Oct 1256) GUILLAUME de Saint-Omer, son of NICOLAS [I] de Saint-Omer Lord of Boetia & his wife Margit of Hungary (-after 19 Oct 1265). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    KINGS of MUNSTER

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of MUNSTER

 

 

1.         CELLACHAN (-954).  King of Caisel.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallachan king of Caiseal with the men of Munster…” attacked Meath in 937[916].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallachan of Caiseal” defeated “Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan at Magh-duin” in 942[917].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 954 of "Cellachán king of Caisel[918]m ---.  The name of Cellachan´s wife is not known.  Cellachan & his wife had one child: 

a)         DONNCHAD (-963).  King of Caisel.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 963 of "Donnchadh son of Cellachán king of Caisel[919].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 961 of “Donnchadh son of Ceallachan king of Caiseal…mortally wounded by his own kinsmen[920]

 

2.         INMAINENm ---.  The name of Inmainen´s wife is not known.  Inmainen & his wife had one child: 

a)         FLAITHBERTACH (-920 or 944).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Flaithbertach son of Inmainén took the kingship of Caisel” in 914[921]King of Caisel.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Inmhainen king of Caiseal” was killed in 920 and that “Lorcan son of Conlingan assumed the kingship of Caiseal[922].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 942 of “Flaithbheartach son of Inmainen, king of Caiseal[923].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 944 of "Flaithbertach son of Inmainén, chief[924]m ---.  The name of Flaithbertach´s wife is not known.  Flaithbertath & his wife had one child: 

i)          SENCHANm ---.  The name of Senchan´s wife is not known.  Senchan & his wife had one child: 

(a)       DOMNALL (-killed in battle 1027).  Crown Prince of Munster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Domnall son of Senchán son of Flaithbertach crownprince of Munster” was killed in battle in [1027][925]

 

3.         FLANNm ---.  The name of Flann´s wife is not known.  Flann & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAELFOTHARDAIG (-957).  King of Caisel.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 955 of “Maelfothartaigh son of Flann, king of Caiseal[926].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 957 of "Mael Fothardaig king of Caisel[927]

 

4.         CLEIRACHm ---.  The name of Cleirach´s wife is not known.  Cleirach & his wife had one child: 

a)         FEARGRAIDH (-961).  King of Caisel.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 958 of “Feargraidh son of Cleireach, Tanist of Caiseal” and in 959 of “Feargraidh son of Cleireach, king of Caiseal[928].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 961 of "Fer Gráid king of Caisel…killed by his own people[929]

 

5.         DOMNALLm ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child:

a)         DUB da boirenn (-959).  King of Caisel.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 959 of "Dub dá Bairenn son of Domnall king of Caisel[930]m ---.  The name of Dub´s wife is not known.  Dub & his wife had three children: 

i)          DUNLANG (-killed in battle [986/87]).  Crown Prince of Munster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Dunlang, son of Dub da boirenn, crownprince of Munster [and] Muirgus, son of Conchobar, crownprince of Connaught” were killed in battle between the Munstermen and the Connacians in [986/87][931]m ---.  The name of Dunlang´s wife is not known.  Dunlang & his wife had three children:

(a)       CORMAC (-1016).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the "repose of Cormac son of Dúnlang, coarb of Barre” in 1016[932]

(b)       BAETHAN (-killed 1016).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the "Baethán son of Dúnlaing” was killed in 1016 by “the king of Osraige in Lethglenn[933]

(c)       UGAIRE (-killed 1024).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1024 of "Ugaire son of Dúnlaing” killed “with his princes by Donn Sléibe son of Mael Mórda[934]

ii)         DOMNALL (-killed in battle 1015).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1015 of "Domnall son of Dub dá Bairenn in a battle against the son of Bran[935]

iii)        DONNCHAD (-killed 1017).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1017 of "Donnchadh son of Dub dá Bairenn…slain by Mael Muad[936]

 

6.         BRANm ---.  The name of Bran´s wife is not known.  Bran & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAELMUAD (-killed Belach Lechta 978).  King of Caisel.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mathgamain son of Cenn-étig king of Munster” was killed in [974/75] by “Mael-Muad son of Bran king of the Húi Echach (Iveagh)” after being “treacherously delivered up by Donnában son of Cathal king of the Húi Fidgenti[937].  The Annals of the Four Masters call him “Maelmhuaidh son of Bran, lord of Desmond” when recording the same incident[938].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” defeated and killed “Mael Muad son of Bran king of Caisel” at “the battle of Belach Lechta” in 978[939].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelmhuaidh lord of Desmond” was killed in 976 at “the battle of Bealach-Leachta [with] Brian son of Cenneidigh[940]m ---.  The name of Mael Muad´s wife is not known.  Mael Muad & his wife had four children: 

i)          CIAN (-killed in battle [1013/14]).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1014 of "Cian son of Mael Muad and his brother[941].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cian, Cathal and Roghallach, three sons of Maelmhuaidh” were killed in 1013 in the battle between the “Ui-Eathach themselves, i.e. between Cian son of Maelmhuaidh and Domhnall son of Dubh-da-bhoireann[942]

ii)         CATHAL (-killed in battle [1013/14]).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1014 of "Cian son of Mael Muad and his brother[943].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cian, Cathal and Roghallach, three sons of Maelmhuaidh” were killed in 1013 in the battle between the “Ui-Eathach themselves, i.e. between Cian son of Maelmhuaidh and Domhnall son of Dubh-da-bhoireann[944]

iii)        ROGHALLACH (-killed in battle [1013/14]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Cian, Cathal and Roghallach, three sons of Maelmhuaidh” were killed in 1013 in the battle between the “Ui-Eathach themselves, i.e. between Cian son of Maelmhuaidh and Domhnall son of Dubh-da-bhoireann[945]

iv)       son .  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1015 of "Domnall son of Dub dá Bairenn in a battle against the son of Bran[946]

 

 

1.         LORCÁNKing of Caisel.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Flaithbheartach son of Inmhainen king of Caiseal” was killed in 920 and that “Lorcan son of Conlingan assumed the kingship of Caiseal[947]m ---.  The name of Lorcán´s & his wife is not known.  Lorcán & his wife had one child: 

a)         CEINNÉITIG (-951).  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014[948].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ceallachan of Caiseal” defeated “Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan at Magh-duin” in 942[949].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 951 of "Cennétig son of Lorcán, royal heir of Caisel[950]m ---.  The name of Ceinnéitig & his wife is not known.  Ceinnéitig & his wife had six children: 

i)          ECHTIGERN (-killed 948).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach” killed “two sons of Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan…Echtighern and Donnchuan” in 948[951]

ii)         DONN CUAN (-killed 948).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conghalach” killed “two sons of Ceinneidigh son of Lorcan…Echtighern and Donnchuan” in 948[952]m ---.  The name of Donn Cuan´s wife is not known.  Donn Cuan & his wife had three children: 

(a)       CONANG (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the princes of Mumu round Conaing son of Donn Cúán” were killed at the battle of Clontarf in 1014[953].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Conaing son of Donncuan, the son of Brian´s brother” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][954]m ---.  The name of Conang´s wife is not known.  Conang & his wife had [three] children: 

(1)       MATHGAMAIN (-[1017/19]).  Crown Prince of Munster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mathgamain son of Conang son of Donn Cuan, crownprince of Munster” died in [1017/18][955].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1019 of "Mathgamain son of Conaing[956]m ---.  The name of Mathgamain´s wife is not known.  Mathgamain & his wife had one child: 

a.         AEDH (-1011).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1011 of "Aed son of Mathgamain[957].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1010 of “Aedh son of Mathgamain, royal heir of Caiseal[958]

(2)       [--- .  m ---.] 

a.         [EDRU Hua Conaing (-killed 1032).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Edru Hua Conaing crownprince of Munster” was killed by “the community of Emly” in 1032[959].] 

(3)       DUNADACH .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Ua Dúnchada and Dúnadach son of Conang” plundered “Cell Mo-Chellóc” in 1015[960]

(b)       CEINNETIG .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which names "Aed son of Ceinnétig son of Donn Cuan, chief of the Clann Tairdelbaig” when recording his death[961]m ---.  The name of Ceinnetig´s wife is not known.  Ceinnetig & his wife had one child: 

(1)       AEDH (-killed 1054).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1054 of "Aed son of Ceinnétig son of Donn Cuan, chief of the Clann Tairdelbaig…killed by the Connachta[962].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1054 of "Aed son of Cennétig…slain” when “Aed Ua Conchobuir” raided “Tratraige” in 1054[963]

(c)       CEILEACHAIR (-1007).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1007 of “Ceileachair son of Donncuan son of Ceinneidigh, Abbot of Tir-da-ghlas[964]

iii)        LACHTNA (-953).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 953 of "Lachtna son of Cennétig son of Lorcán[965]

iv)       MATHGAMUIN (-killed 976).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Mathgamain son of Cennétig” defeated “the foreigners…at Sulchuait” in 967[966]King of Munster.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mathgamuin son of Cennétig king of Caisel” was killed in 976 by “Mael Muad son of Bran[967].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mathgamain son of Cenn-étig king of Munster” was killed in [974/75] by “Mael-Muad son of Bran king of the Húi Echach (Iveagh)” after being “treacherously delivered up by Donnában son of Cathal king of the Húi Fidgenti[968].  The name of Mathgamuin´s & his wife is not known.  Mathgamuin & his wife had one child: 

(a)       AEDH (-1011).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Aed son of Mathgamain” was imprisoned by “Brian son of Cennétig” in 986[969].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1011 of "Aed son of Mathgamain, heir designate of Caisel[970]

v)        BRIAN Boroma ([941]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 941 of "Brian son of Cennéitig[971].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brian mac Cendéidigh” attacked “Inis Cathaig (Scattery Island)…[and] therein the Foreigners of Limerick…Imar, and Olaf one of his sons and Dubchenn his other son” in [975/76][972].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Cennétig” killed “Mael Muad king of Desmumu” in battle in 978[973].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” defeated and killed “Mael Muad son of Bran king of Caisel” at “the battle of Belach Lechta” in 978[974]King of MunsterHigh King of Ireland 1002. 

-         see below

vi)       MARCAIN (-1010).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Marcán son of Cennétig took the abbacy of Imlech Ibuir” in 990[975].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1010 of "Marcáin son of Cennétig, coarb of Colum son of Crimthann[976]

 

 

BRIAN Boroma, son of CEINNÉITIG & his wife ---  ([941]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of Ulster record the birth in 941 of "Brian son of Cennéitig[977].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the birth in 925 of “Brian son of Ceinnedigh” adding that this was “24 years before Maelseachlainn son of Domnhall[978], although this proposed date of birth of Brian is improbable considering the date of his death.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brian mac Cendéidigh” attacked “Inis Cathaig (Scattery Island)…[and] therein the Foreigners of Limerick…Imar, and Olaf one of his sons and Dubchenn his other son” in [975/76][979].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Cennétig” killed “Mael Muad king of Desmumu” in battle in 978[980].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig” defeated and killed “Mael Muad son of Bran king of Caisel” at “the battle of Belach Lechta” in 978[981]King of Munster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Cennétig…and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temuir” divided Ireland between them in 997 “Leth Cuinn to Mael Sechnaill and Leth Moga to Brian[982]High King of Ireland 1002.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Brían Boroma regnat” in [999/1000][983].  The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Brian rex Hiberniæ" was killed "1014 IX Kal Mai"[984]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[985].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle[986].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Brian son of Ceinneidigh monarch of Ireland in the 88th year of his age” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][987]

m [firstly] ---.  The name of Brian´s first wife is not known.  However, it is probable that he was married before his marriage to Gormlaith in order to have grandson who was killed in battle in 1014. 

m [secondly] (after 981, [separated]) as her second husband, GORMLAITH, widow of OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin, daughter of MORUGH MacFinn King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1030).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster[988].  Brian must have separated from his wife Gormlaith if the reference to his wife Dub is correct, unless the marriages were polygamous.  She married thirdly, as his [third] wife, Maelsechnaill King of Ireland.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair[989]

m [thirdly] DUB Chablaig, daughter of [CATHAL King of Connaught & his wife ---] (-1009).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1009 of "Dub Chablaig daughter of the king of Connacht…wife of Brian son of Ceinnéitig"[990].  The name of her father is not given.  However, it is reasonable to suppose that he was Cathal who was king of Connaught at the time. 

Brian & his first wife had one child: 

1.         MURCHAD (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle “and his son Murchad and the latter´s son…Tairdelbach[991].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Murchadh son of Brain heir apparent of the sovereignty of Ireland in the 63rd year of his age” was killed in 1013 in the battle [of Clontarf][992]m ---.  The name of Murchad & his wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had one child: 

a)         TORDELBACH (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that Brian was killed in the battle “and his son Murchad and the latter´s son…Tairdelbach[993]

Brian & his [first/second] wife had one child: 

2.         DOMNALL (-1011).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1011 of "Domnall son of Brian[994].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1010 of “Domhnall son of Brian son of Ceinneidigh, son of the king of Ireland[995]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child:

a)         TOIRDELBACH ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Domnall son of Brian” killed “Ua Donnocáin king of Ara” in 1031[996].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ua Briain…Toirdelbach” killed “Ua Donnocáin king of Ara Tire” in 1031[997]King of Munster 1064.  High King of Ireland 1072. 

-        see below

b)         DIARMAIT (-killed 1051).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Domnall son of Brian” was killed by “Murchad son of Brián” in 1051[998].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1051 of "Diarmait Ua Briain…slain by Murchad Ua Briain[999]

Brian & his second wife had two children: 

3.         TADHG (-killed 1023).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Tadg son of Brian Boroma” was killed by “the Eili instigated by his brother…Dondchad” in [1021/23][1000].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1023 of "Tadc son of Brian killed by the Éile[1001]

4.         [son .  It is probable that Derborgaill´s father was one of the sons of Brian who are named above, but the primary source which names him as not yet been identified.  The mother of this son was most probably Brian´s wife Gormlaith as his daughter Derborgaill had a daughter of this name, which appears to restrict his identity to Tadhg or Donnchad.]  m ---.  One child: 

a)         DERBORGAILL (-Imlech 1080).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1080 of "Derbhforgaill daughter of Brian´s son, wife of Diarmait son of Mael na mBó…in Imlech[1002]m DERMOT MacMailnamo [Diarmait mac Máel na mBó] King of Leinster and of Ireland (-killed in battle Odba 7 Feb 1072). 

Brian & his [second/third] wife had [four] children: 

5.         DONNCHAD (-Rome after 1064).  The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Donchal filius suis annis 51" succeeded his father "Brian rex Hiberniæ" in 1014[1003], although the reference to his age must clearly be incorrect.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Catharnach son of Aed of the Húi Caisín” attacked “Donnchad son of Brian” in [1017/19] and cut off his right hand[1004]King of Munster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Donnchad son of Brián Boroma king of Munster” was “dethroned” in 1064 and “went to Rome on a pilgrimage” and died there “in the monastery of Stephen[1005]m firstly ---, daughter of MURCHAD Mac Finn & his wife --- (-1030).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1030 of "the daughter of Murchad son of Finn, queen of Mumu[1006]m secondly --- [of Waterford], daughter of RÆGNALD [King of Waterford] & his wife ---.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the marriage in 1032 of "Donnchadh son of Brian” and “the daughter of Ragnall[1007].  It is not certain that King Donnchad´s father-in-law was the king of Waterford.  Donnchad & his first wife had one child: 

a)         LATHIR (-1028).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1028 of "Lathir daughter of Donnchadh…on her pilgrimage in Corcach[1008]

Donnchad & his [first/second] wife had three children:

b)         three sons .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "three sons of Donnchadh son of Brian took a great prey in Corcu Modruad, both cows and booty” in 1054[1009]

6.         Binn (-Armagh 1073).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Bé Binn daughter of Brian…on pilgrimage in Ard Macha[1010]

7.         [--- .  m ---.]  Two children: 

a)         two sons (-killed Man 1073).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Sitriuc son of Amlaib and two grandsons of Brian…killed in Man[1011]

8.         SADB (-1048).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1048 of "Sadb daughter of Brian[1012]

Brian & his [third wife] had one child: 

9.         MURCHAD Ua Brian (-killed in battle 1068).  Bearing in mind Murchad´s date of death, he must have been born late in his father´s life and therefore from his father´s third marriage, unless he was illegitimate.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Diarmait son of Domnall son of Brian” was killed by “Murchad son of Brián” in 1051[1013].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1051 of "Diarmait Ua Briain…slain by Murchad Ua Briain[1014].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Toirdelbach ua Briain” defeated “Murchad ua Briain” in 1055[1015].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Murchad Ua Briain was attacked in Corcu Modruad and Tairdelbach inflicted a great slaughter upon him” in 1055[1016].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Murchad Ua Briain” killed “Ua Nechtain” in 1061 “in Corrdam[1017].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1068 of "Murchad Ua Briain royal heir of Ireland and the king of Ireland´s son…slain by the men of Tethba[1018].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1068 of "Murchad ua Briain heir designate of Mumu…killed by the men of Tethba[1019]m ---.  The name of Murchad´s wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had one child:

a)         BRIAN (-1118).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Murchad Ua Briain, Brian, went to Leth Cuinn, having been put away by Muirchertach Ua Briain” in 1111[1020].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Murchad” was imprisoned in 1114[1021].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Brian son of Murchad Ua Briain was slain by Tadc son of Mac Carthaig, the Desmumu, and the Uí Briain” in 1118[1022]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following persons and the main family of Brian Boroma has not yet been established: 

1.         DOMNALL Bán (-killed 1052).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1052 of "Domnall Bán Ua Briain…killed by the Connachta[1023]

 

2.         DOMNALL Ruad Ua Brian (-killed 1055).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1055 of "Domnall Ruad Ua Briain…slain by the Uí Eidin[1024]

 

3.         FLAITHBERTACH Ua Briain (-killed 1061).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1061 of "Flaithbertach Ua Briain…slain by Muiredach Ua Muiredaig[1025]

 

4.         CONCHOBAR Ua Briain (-killed Cenél Eógain 1078).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain” killed “Tadc Ua Briain” in 1061[1026].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1078 of "Conchobar Ua Briain…slain in Cenél Eógain after taking the kingship there[1027].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Conchobor Ua Briain king of Telach Óc and heir designate of Ireland” was killed in 1078 “with his wife by the Cenél Binnigh of Glenn[1028]m --- (-killed Cenél Eógain 1078).  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Conchobor Ua Briain king of Telach Óc and heir designate of Ireland” was killed in 1078 “with his wife by the Cenél Binnigh of Glenn[1029]

 

5.         CENNETIG Ua Briain .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Cennétig Ua Briain took the kingship [in Cenél Eógain]” after the death of Conchobar Ua Briain in 1078[1030]

 

6.         TADHG Ua Briain (-killed 1061).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain” killed “Tadc Ua Briain” in 1061[1031]

 

7.         CONAING Ua Briain (-1072 or after).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conaing Ua Briain was blinded by Taidelbach” in 1072[1032]

 

8.         LORCAN Ua Briain (-1078).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1078 of "Lorcán ua Briain[1033]

 

9.         MATHGAMAIN Ua Briain (-1129).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1129 of "Mathgamain Ua Briain[1034]

 

 

TORDELBACH, son of DOMNALL of Munster & his wife --- ([1008/09]-Cenn Coradh 14 Jul 1086).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Domnall son of Brian” killed “Ua Donnocáin king of Ara” in 1031[1035].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ua Briain…Toirdelbach” killed “Ua Donnocáin king of Ara Tire” in 1031[1036].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tairdelbach Ua Briain beleaguered upper Dál Cais” in “great warfare between the men of Mumu and the Connachta” in 1053[1037].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Toirdelbach ua Briain” defeated “Murchad ua Briain” in 1055[1038].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tairdelbach Ua Briain brought the son of Mael na mBó and the Laigin, Osraige and the foreigners” to attack “Brian´s son” in 1058[1039].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Tairdelbach Ua Briain and the son of Mael na mBó burned in Machaire” in 1062[1040]King of Munster 1064.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall Ua Gilla Pátraic submitted to Tiadelbach Ua Briain and received a very large stipend of valuables and riches from the king of Mumu” in 1070[1041]High King of Ireland 1072.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him[1042].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the king of Ulaid submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain [and] received a stipend from him” in 1081[1043].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1086 of “Tordelbach Húa Bríáin king of the greater part of Ireland…in the 77th year of his age but in the 22nd of his reign” and of “his son Tadhg…in one month[1044].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1086 of "Tairdelbach ua Briain king of Ireland…in Cenn Coradh…14 Jul in the 77th year of his age[1045]

m [firstly] DERBORGAILL, daughter of TAIDHG maic Gilla Padraic & his wife ---.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Derborgaill daughter of Tadg, son of Gilla Pátraic, mother of Muirchertach Húa Bríáin king of Irelandrested in Glendalough” in 1098[1046].  If these two wives are correctly attributed to Tordelbach son of Tadhg, one of other must have been separated from her husband, or the marriages must have been polygamous. 

m [secondly] GORMLAITH, daughter of --- Húa Fócarta & his wife --- (-Cell Dá Lua 1076, bur Inis Celtra).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1076 of "Gormlaith daughter of Ua Fócarta wife of Tairdelbach ua Briain[1047].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1076 of "Gormlaith daughter of Ua Fócarta queen of Mumu, wife of Tairdelbach Ua Briain rested in Cell Dá Lua” and her burial “in Inis Celtra[1048].  If these two wives are correctly attributed to Tordelbach son of Tadhg, one of other must have been separated from her husband, or the marriages must have been polygamous. 

Tordelbach & his --- wife had six children: 

1.         TADGH (-[Aug] 1086).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that in 1084 "the two sons of Tairdelbach Tadc and Muirchertach went and burnt the land of [In] Cailech´s son[1049]King of Munster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that, on the death of Tordelbach in 1086, Munster "was divided in three between [his] three sons…Tadc, Muirchertach and Diarmait[1050].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1086 of “Tordelbach Húa Bríáin king of the greater part of Ireland…in the 77th year of his age but in the 22nd of his reign” and of “his son Tadhg…in one month[1051].  The Annals of Ulster record that Tadgh, son of "Tairdelbach ua Briain king of Ireland” died a month after his father[1052]m ---.  The name of Tadgh´s wife is not known.  Tadgh & his wife had three children: 

a)         MURCHAD (-1110).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1110 of "Murchad son of Tadc Ua Briain[1053]

b)         DOMNALL (-1115).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Tadc went in indignant mood into the north of Ireland and forcibly took the kingship of Insi Gall” in 1111[1054].  King of Thomond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair” installed “the son of Tadg Húa Bríáin” as king of Thomond in 1115 but killed him later the same year after he rebelled[1055].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Tadc Ua Briain was slain by the Connachta” in 1115[1056]

c)         DONNCHAD (-1113).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad son of Tadg Húa Briain” died in 1113[1057]

2.         MUIRCHERTACH (1048-10 Mar 1119, bur Killaloe).  The Annals of Tigernach record the birth in 1048 of “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland[1058].  Snorre names "King Myrkjartan…a son of the Irish king Thialfe" when recording that he ruled over Connaught[1059].  King of Dublin.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the kingship of Áth Cliath was taken by Muirchertach son of Tairdelbach Ua Briain” in 1075[1060].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that in 1084 "the two sons of Tairdelbach Tadc and Muirchertach went and burnt the land of [In] Cailech´s son[1061]King of Munster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that, on the death of Tordelbach in 1086, Munster "was divided in three between [his] three sons…Tadc, Muirchertach and Diarmait”, but adding that Diarmait “was banished from Mumu” in 1086 after the death of his brother Tadhg, when his brother Muirchertach “took the kingship[1062]High King of Ireland 1086-1119.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ui Briain” killed “Domnall´s son [and] took the kingship of Laigin and Áth Cliath” in 1089[1063].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ua Briain took the high kingship of Connachta” in 1092[1064].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa Bríáin” seized the kingdom of Munster in 1114 when “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin” fell ill[1065].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain took the kingship of Mumu and banished Muirchertach from Luimnech to Cell Da Lua” in 1114, but in a later passage records that “Muirchertach came to Luimnech and Diarmait was imprisoned by him” in 1115[1066].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain turned against Muirchertach Ua Briain” in 1116 and that “Muirchertach Ua Briain went to Les Mór and assumed the pilgrim´s staff[1067].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Murchertach Húa Bríáin king of Ireland” died in 1119 “in the sixth year of his tribulation” (presumably referring to his illness reported in an earlier passage) and was buried “in the church of Killaloe[1068].  The Annales Cambriæ record the death in 1119 of "Murchach maximus rex Hiberniæ"[1069].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1119 of "Muirchertach ua Brian king of Ireland…10 Mar[1070]m ---.  Muirchertach & his wife had two children: 

a)         LAFRACOTH .  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Muirchertach Ua Briain made a marriage alliance with the French and with the Norsemen” in 1102[1071].  She is named daughter "of an Irish king named Murchertach" by Orderic Vitalis[1072]m (1102) ARNOUL de Montgommery, son of ROGER Sire de Montgommery, Vicomte d'Hiémois [later Earl of Shrewsbury] & his first wife Mabel d'Alençon. 

b)         BIADMUNIA [Blathmin] ([1094/97]-).  Snorre records that King Magnus "contracted in marriage his son Sigurd to Biadmynia, King Myrkjartan's daughter"[1073]Orkneyinga Saga records that Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway “arranged the betrothal of Bjadmunja, daughter of King Myrkjartan of Connaught to his son Sigurd”, adding that she was five at the time and his son nine[1074].  Snorre records that Sigurd left "the Irish king's daughter behind" when he left for Norway following his father's death[1075]Betrothed (1102) to SIGURD Magnusson King of Orkney and the Isles, illegitimate son of MAGNUS III "Barelegs" King of Norway & his mistress --- ([1089/90]-Oslo 14 Aug 1130, bur Hallvardskyrka, Oslo).  He succeeded his father in 1103 as SIGURD "Jorsalafari/the Crusader" Joint King of Norway

3.         MOR (-1088).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1088 of “Mor daughter of Tordelbach Húa Bríáin, wife of Rúaidri Húa Conchobair[1076]m RUAIDRI “na saidhe buidhi/of the Yellow Bitch” Húa Conchobair, son of AEDH “in ga bernaig/of the Gapped Spear” Húa Conchobar & his wife --- (-1118). 

4.         DIARMAIT (-Corcach Mór Muman 1118).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain brought a fleet to Wales and took great spoil therefrom” in 1080[1077].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that, on the death of Tordelbach in 1086, Munster "was divided in three between [his] three sons…Tadc, Muirchertach and Diarmait”, but adding that Diarmait “was banished from Mumu” in 1086 after the death of his brother Tadhg, when his brother Muirchertach “took the kingship[1078].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain was banished to Ulaid” in 1092[1079].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmait Húa Bríáin” seized the kingdom of Munster in 1114 when “Muirchertach Húa Bríáin” fell ill[1080].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain took the kingship of Mumu and banished Muirchertach from Luimnech to Cell Da Lua” in 1114, but in a later passage records that “Muirchertach came to Luimnech and Diarmait was imprisoned by him” in 1115[1081].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain turned against Muirchertach Ua Briain” in 1116 and that “Muirchertach Ua Briain went to Les Mór and assumed the pilgrim´s staff[1082]King of Munster 1116.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Diarmuit Húa Bríáin king of the southern half of Ireland [Lethe Mogha]” died in 1118[1083].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Diarmait Ua Briain died in Corcach Mór Muman” in 1118[1084]m ---.  The name of Diarmait´s wife is not known.  Diarmait & his wife had three children: 

a)         CONCHOBAR (-1142).  King of Munster.  His jurisdiction over Munster was limited to the northern part from 1127, as shown by the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) which record that “Toirdelbach” divided “Munster into two” in that year, “the southern half to Donnchad son of Mac Carthaig, and the northern half to Conchobar Húa Briain[1085].  However, the chronology of events at this time is far from clear, as the Annals of Inisfallen record that "Conchobar Ua Briain and Tairdelbach his brother turned against Ruaidri´s son and brought Cormac out of Les Mór and gave him the kingship of Mumu” in 1127[1086].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar, son of Diarmait Húa Bríáin, king of Thomond and Desmond and Leth Moga, and an attacker of Erin” died from illness “at Killaloe in his pilgrimage”, and that “Toirdelbach his brother assumed the kingship of Munster[1087]m ---.  The name of Conchobar´s wife is not known.  Conchobar & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          son (-killed 1168).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar´s son straightway fell for this by Máel-Sechlainn Húa Faeláin” after “the grandson of Conchobar Húa Bríáin” killed “Muirchertach son of Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin” in 1168[1088].  One child: 

(a)       son .  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchertach son of Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin was made king after his father” but that “the grandson of Conchobar Húa Bríáin killed him treacherously[1089]

ii)         [DOMNALL Húa Briain “the Short-handed” .  It is possible that Domnall was the same person as the unnamed son of Conchobar noted above.]  m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

(a)       son .  The Annals of Ulster record that "the grandson of Conchubhar, son of Domnall Ua Briain the Short-handed, was blinded and emasculated by the Foreigners” in 1194[1090]

b)         TORDELBACH (-1167).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” captured “Toirdelbach Húa Briain” in 1122 and the kingship of Thomond was given to “Tadg Húa Bríain, the son of Toirdelbach´s own father and mother[1091]King of Munster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar, son of Diarmait Húa Bríáin, king of Thomond and Desmond and Leth Moga, and an attacker of Erin” died from illness “at Killaloe in his pilgrimage”, and that “Toirdelbach his brother assumed the kingship of Munster[1092].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin” was deposed and banished in 1152 and “went into Tyrone”, and Munster was divided between “Tadg Húa Briain and Diarmait son of Cormac[1093].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Tairrdelbach Ua Briain was expelled from the kingship of Munster” in 1165 by “his son…Muircertach[1094].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Briain again took the kingship of Munster” in 1166[1095].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1167 of "Toirrdelbach Ua Briain[1096]m --- of Desmond, daughter of CORMAC King of Desmond & his wife ---.  Toirdelbach & his wife had three children: 

i)          MUIRCHERTACH (-killed 1168).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Tairrdelbach Ua Briain was expelled from the kingship of Munster” in 1165 by “his son…Muircertach[1097]King of Munster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Muirchertach son of Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin was made king after his father” but that “the grandson of Conchobar Húa Bríáin killed him treacherously[1098].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1168 of "Muircetach son of Toirrdelbach Ua Briain king of Dal-Cais…killed at Dun-na-sciath by the sons of Murchadh Mac Carthaigh king of Desmond[1099]

ii)         BRIAN (-1168 or after).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the kingship of Ormond [was taken] by Brían” in 1168, adding in the following sentence that “Brian son of Toirdelbach was taken prisoner by Domnall son of Toirdelbach[1100].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “Brian son of Tairdelbach Ua Briain was blinded by Domnall Ua Briain” in 1168[1101]

iii)        DOMNALL (-1194).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Brian son of Toirdelbach was taken prisoner by Domnall son of Toirdelbach” in 1168 and that “the kingship of Dál-Cais was seized by him[1102].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “Domnall son of Tairdelbach took the kingship of Tuadmumu” in 1168[1103].  [The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Domnall, son of Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin crown prince of Munster” died in 1176[1104].  It is assumed this refers to another son of Tordelbach, in view of the later recording Domnall´s death in 1194, and that “Domnall” in the entry is an error.]  King of Munster.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ua Diarmata Concobar Maenmhaighi…king of Connacht” joined forces with “Domnall Ua Briain king of Munster” to defeat “the Foreigners” in 1188[1105].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1194 of "Domnall Ua Briain (son of Toirrdhealbach…king of Munster)[1106]

c)         TADHG (-1167).  King of Thomond 1122.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” captured “Toirdelbach Húa Briain” in 1122 and the kingship of Thomond was given to “Tadg Húa Bríain, the son of Toirdelbach´s own father and mother[1107].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) records that “Tadhg Húa Bríáin” was blinded by his own brother in 1153[1108]

-        KINGS OF THOMOND

5.         DUNNCHAD (-killed Dalaradia 1103).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Dunnchad son of Tordelbach Húa Bríáin” was killed in “Dalaradia” in 1103[1109]

6.         DERBAIL (-1116).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1116 of "Derbail daughter of Tairdelbach ua Briain[1110]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following persons and the main family of Brian Boroma has not yet been established: 

1.         MATHGAMAIN Ua Briain (-1175 or after).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “Tadc Ua Briain´s son and Mathgamain Ua Briain were blinded by Domnall Ua Briain” in 1175[1111]

 

2.         MUIRCHERTACH Ua Briain (-drowned 1179).  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1179 of "Muirchertach Ua Briain…drowned[1112]

 

3.         MURCHAD Ua Briain .  m ---.  The name of Murchad´s wife is not known.  Murchad & his wife had one child:

a)         MOR (-1137).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Mór, daughter of Murchad Húa Bríáin, wife of Murchad Húa MaelSechlainn” died in 1137[1113]m MURCHAD King of Meath, son of  DOMNALL Ua Maelsechlainn & his wife --- (-after 1143). 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of THOMOND (NORTH MUNSTER)

 

 

1.         BRIAN mac Murchada (-killed 1118).  King of Thomond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Brían mac Murchada king of Thomond” died in 1118[1114]

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

TADHG, son of DERMOT King of Munster & his wife --- (-1167)King of Thomond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Conchobair king of Ireland” captured “Toirdelbach Húa Briain” in 1122 and the kingship of Thomond was given to “Tadg Húa Bríain, the son of Toirdelbach´s own father and mother[1115].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin” was deposed and banished in 1152 and “went into Tyrone”, and Munster was divided between “Tadg Húa Briain and Diarmait son of Cormac[1116].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) records that “Tadhg Húa Bríáin” was blinded by his own brother in 1153[1117]

m ---.  The name of Tadhg´s wife is not known.  Tadhg & his wife had one child: 

1.         DOMNALL (-1194)King of Thomond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “the kingship of Thomond was taken by Domnall Húa Bríáin” in 1168[1118].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ruaidri Húa Conchobar” banished “Domnall Húa Bríáin” from Thomond into Ormond in 1175 and “gave the kingship of Thomond to the son of Murchad Húa Bríáin…his own mother´s son”, adding in a later passage that Domnall made peace with Ruaidri in 1176[1119].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that “Tadc Ua Briain´s son and Mathgamain Ua Briain were blinded by Domnall Ua Briain” in 1175[1120]m URLACHAN of Leinster, daughter of DERMOT MacMurrough King of Leinster & his wife [Mor ---].  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

a)         DONOUGH Cairbreach (-1242).  King of Thomond 1239.  m ---.  The name of Donough´s wife is not known.  Donough & his wife had one child:

i)          CONOR Na Suidane (-1258).  King of Thomond 1242.  m ---.  The name of Conor´s wife is not known.  Conor & his wife had one child:

(a)       TEIGE Caeluisce (-1259).  King of Thomond 1258.  m ---.  The name of Teige´s wife is not known.  Teige & his wife had one child:

(1)       TURLOUGH (-1306).  King of Thomond.  m ---.  The name of Turlough´s wife is not known.  Turlough & his wife had three children:

a.         MORTOGH (-1343).  King of Thomond. 

-         see below.

b.         CONOR O'Brien .  m ---.  The name of Conor´s wife is not known.  Conor & his wife had one child:

(i)         MARGARET .  m as his second wife, MORICE FitzThomas Earl of Desmond, son of THOMAS FitzMorice & his wife Margaret Berkeley (1293-1356). 

c.         --- of Thomond [1121][m firstly EDMUND de Burgh, son of RICHARD de Burgh 2nd Earl of Ulster & his wife Margaret de Burgh of Lanvalley (-1338).]  m secondly (1339) TURLOUGH O'Connor King of Connaught, son of . 

 

 

MORTOGH, son of TURLOUGH King of Thomond & his wife --- (-1343).  King of Thomond 1307. 

m ---.  The name of Mortogh´s wife is not known. 

Mortogh & his wife had one child:

1.         MAHON Moinmoy (-1369).  King of Thomond 1343.  m ---.  The name of Mahon´s wife is not known.  Mahon & his wife had one child:

a)         BRIAN Catha An Eanaigh (-1399).  King of Thomond 1370.  m ---.  The name of Brian´s wife is not known.  Brain & his wife had one child:

i)          TURLOUGH "Bog/the Soft" (-1459).  King of Thomond 1446.  m ---.  The name of Turlough´s wife is not known.  Turlough & his wife had one child:

(a)       TEIGE An Chomard (-1466).  King of Thomond 1461.  m ---.  The name of Teige´s wife is not known.  Teige & his wife had one child:

(1)       TURLOUGH Don (-1528).  King of Thomond 1499.

-         see below.

 

 

TURLOUGH Don, son of TEIGE An Chomard King of Thomond & his wife --- (-1528).  King of Thomond 1499. 

m RAGHNAILT, daughter of JOHN Macnamara of Clancuilen & his wife ---. 

Turlough & his wife had three children:

1.         CONOR (-1539).  m firstly ANNABELL de Burgh, daughter of ULICK de Burgh of Clanricarde & his wife ---.  m secondly ---.  Conor & his first wife had one child: 

a)         DONOGH O'Brien (-1 Apr 1557).  2nd Earl of Thomond.  m (1533 or before) HELEN Butler, daughter of PIERS Butler Earl of Ormond and Earl of Ossory & his wife Margaret FitzGerald of the Earls of Kildare (-2 Jul 1597, bur Kilkenny, St Canice´s Cathedral).  Ancestors of the later Earls of Thomond.  

2.         DONOGH (-1531). 

3.         MURROUGH (-before 28 Oct 1551).  King of Thomond 1540-1543.  He was created Earl of Thomond and Baron of Inchiquin in 1543. m ELEANOR, daughter of Sir THOMAS FitzGerald, the Knight of Glyn & his wife ---.  Murrough & his wife had one child: 

a)         DESMOND O´Brien .  He succeeded his father as Baron of Inchiquin. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    NORSE KINGS

 

 

A.      KINGS of DUBLIN

 

 

The arrival of the so-called "Dark Foreigners" in Ireland is first recorded in Irish annals in 849 when the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland state euphemistically that "Amlaib [Olaf] Conung, son of the king of Norway, came to Ireland…with a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly"[1122].  Clare Downham discusses the various theories of the meaning of the terms "Dark Foreigners" and "Fair Foreigners" used in early primary sources to describe the Viking raiders[1123].  The identity of the "king of Norway" in question is uncertain.  A later passage in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland names him "Gofraid/Gothfraid, son of Ragnall, son of Gothfraid Conung, son of Gofraid"[1124], and the same source records the death in 873 of "the Norwegian king, i.e. Gothfraid…of a sudden hideous disease"[1125].  "Gofraid/Gothfraid" cannot be linked to any of the main contemporary Norwegian rulers who are shown in the document NORWAY KINGS, although it should be borne in mind that the government of Norway was fragmented at the time with numerous local rulers in different parts of the country who probably all referred to themselves as kings. 

 

Whatever their precise origin, the Viking raiders in Ireland quickly settled around Dublin, following the more permanent arrival of Olaf and his presumed brothers Ivar and Asl which is recorded in both the Chronicon Scottorum and the Annals of Ulster in 853[1126].  The Irish resources record numerous raids by these Dublin-based Vikings against their Irish neighbours.  However, more surprisingly, they also record Viking alliances with different Irish factions to conduct joint attacks.  For example, the Annals of the Four Masters record in 860 that “Aedh Finnlaith son of Niall Caille and Flann son of Conang went with the lord of the foreigners to plunder Meath[1127].  More specifically, the Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1128].  It is clear from these two contrasting passages that Irish/Viking alliances fluctuated and no doubt were motivated by short-term interest. 

 

Ivar and his descendants are recorded in the Irish annals as kings of Dublin until the end of the 11th century.  However, their leadership of the Viking settlers did not go unchallenged.  The Annals of Ulster record in 893 "a great dissension among the foreigners of Ath Cliath and they became dispersed, one section following Imar´s son, and the other Sigfrith the jarl[1129].  The same source records the return to Ireland in 894 of "Imar´s son[1130], who is presumably identified with "Sitriuc son of Imar killed by other Norsemen” in 896[1131].  The reconstruction of events in succeeding years is unclear from the Irish sources, until the Annals of Ulster record in 903 that "the heathens were driven from Ireland i.e. from the fortress of Ath Cliath by Mael Finnia son of Flannacan with the men of Brega and by Cerball son of Muirican with the Laigin[1132].  Welsh primary sources record the arrival of Vikings in North Wales around the same time, presumably the consequence of their expulsion from Dublin.  The Annales Cambriæ record in 903 that "Igmunt" [Ingmund] arrived "in insula Mon" (presumably referring to Anglesey) and held "maes Osmeliaun"[1133].  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales dates the event to 900, recording that "Igmond came to the isle of Mona and fought the battle of Rhos Meilon"[1134].  The same Viking group passed on to England, as confirmed by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which record in [907] that "the Norwegians left Ireland…their leader was Ingimund", that they were "driven by force out of British territory" by "Cadell son of Rhodri…king of the Britons" [indicating that the passage refers to the Welsh], and that "Aethelflaed Queen of the Saxons [wife of Aethelred]…gave him land near Chester, and he stayed there for a time"[1135].  Ingmund has not yet been identified: he does not feature in the Irish annals.  Other Viking exiles from Dublin raided Scotland, as shown by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 904 of "Imar grandson of Imar” killed by “the men of Foirtriu” [indicating Scotland near the Forth][1136].  The regrouping of Viking forces can be dated to [914/16].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 915 (manuscript D) or 917 (manuscript A) that "a great pirate host came over hither from the south from Brittany under two jarls Ohtor and Hroald, and sailed west about until the estuary of the Severn", and were opposed "by the men from Hereford and Gloucester…[who] slew the jarl Hroald and the other jarl Ohtor´s brother[1137].  The Annals of Ulster record in 914 "a naval battle at Manu between Barid son of Oitir and Ragnall grandson of Imar, in which Barid and almost all his army were destroyed”, and “a great new fleet of the heathens on Loch da Caech”, followed in 915 by "a great and frequent increase in the number of heathens arriving at Loch da Chaech"[1138].  The family of Ivar was able to leverage the situation to its advantage, the Annals of Ulster recording that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1139]

 

After that time, the descendants of Ivar established themselves once more in Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey grandson of Imhar took up his residence at Ath-Cliath” in 919[1140].  After that time, Viking settlers were not confined to Dublin.  Downham lists 19 places throughout Ireland, ranging from Ulster in the north to Galway in the west, Limerick in the south-west and Waterford and Wexford in the south-east, in which 10th century chronicles record Viking settlements during the period 917 to 968[1141].  The same family group diversified their field of activity into northern England: Simeon of Durham records that "King Inguald stormed York" in 919[1142].  Family members continued to rule as kings of York until they were finally driven out in 952. 

 

 

Five possible brothers:    

1.         OLAF [Amlaib] (-after 871).  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 849 that "Amlaib Conung, son of the king of Norway, came to Ireland…with a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly"[1143].  A later, undated, passage in the same source names his father "Gofraid" when recording that "Amlaib went from Ireland to Norway to fight the Norwegians and help his father, Gofraid, for the Norwegians were warring against him"[1144].  The Chronicon Scottorum and Annals of Ulster both record that "Amlaib son of the king of Lochlann came to Ireland" in 853 and "the foreigners of Ireland submitted to him and he took tribute from the Irish"[1145].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 853 that "Amlaib, son of the king of Norway came to Ireland and the foreigners of Ireland gave him hostages"[1146].  The Annals of Ulster record in 857 that "Imar and Amlaib inflicted a rout on Caitil the Fair and his Norse-Irish in the lands of Munster"[1147].  The Annals of Ulster record in 859 that "Amlaib and Imar and Cerball led a great army into Mide"[1148].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 860 that “Aedh Finnlaith son of Niall Caille and Flann son of Conang went with the lord of the foreigners to plunder Meath[1149].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 862 that "Aed son of Niall and his son-in-law Amlaib went with great armies of Irish and Norwegians to the plain of Mide and they plundered it…"[1150]King [of Dublin].  The Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1151].  The Annals of Ulster record in 864 that "Conchobar son of Donnchaid, one of two kings of Mide, was put to death in water at Cluain Iraird by Amlaib king of the foreigners"[1152].  The Annals of Ulster record in 866 that "Amlaib and Auisle went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them"[1153].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 871 that "Amlaib and Imar came back from Alba to Ath Cliath, bringing many British and Scottish and Saxon prisoners with them. They numbered two hundred ships"[1154].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the second year of the reign of Constantine I King of Scotland [1065], "Amlaib cum gentibus suis" wasted "Pictaviam" which they occupied from 1 Jan to 17 Mar, but that in the third year "Amlaib" was killed by King Constantine[1155]m [firstly] ---.  The name of Olaf´s [first] wife is not known.  m [secondly] ---, daughter of AEDH Finnliath & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are indicating by the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland which state in 862 that "Aed´s daughter was Amlaib´s wife"[1156].  [m thirdly (before 867) ---, daughter of CINAED & his wife ---.  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 867 "an encounter between Oisle son of the king of Norway and Amlaib his brother", adding that "the king had three sons, Amlaib, Imar and Oisle, Oisle was the least of them in age", recounting a lengthy romanticised account of the killing of Asl by his brother Olaf which includes Asl suggesting to Olaf that "if your wife i.e. the daughter of Cinaed does not love you, why not give her to me"[1157].  There is no way to judge the accuracy of the information concerning Olaf´s wife.  Clare Downham refers to works which attempt to identify "Cinaed" either as Kenneth I King of Scotland, as "Cinaed mac Conaing king of Brega, an ally of Olaf who was killed in 851" or "indeed yet another Cinaed", concluding that "either identification is possible, if the lady is not a figure of fiction"[1158].]  Olaf & his [first] wife had two children: 

a)         CARLUS (-killed in battle 866).  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 866 “Carlus son of Amhlaeibh” among those killed in a battle fought between "Flann son of Conaing lord of all Breagh…the men of Breagh and Leinster and the foreigners" and Aedh King of Ireland at "Cill Ua nDaighre"[1159]

b)         EYSTEIN [Oistin] (-killed 875).  [The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in [871/72] that "Imar son of Gothfraid son of Ragnall son of Gothfraid Conung son of Gofraid" and "the son of the man who left Ireland" [Olaf/Amlaib] "plundered from west to east and from south to north"[1160].  It is possible that this passage refers to Eystein or another son.]  The Annals of Ulster record in 875 that "Oistin son of Amlaib, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann"[1161]

2.         [IVAR [Imar] (-873).  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 849 that "Amlaib Conung, son of the king of Norway, came to Ireland…with a proclamation of many tributes and taxes from his father, and he departed suddenly. Then his younger brother Imar came after him to levy the same tribute"[1162].  The Annals of Ulster record in 857 that "Imar and Amlaib inflicted a rout on Caitil the Fair and his Norse-Irish in the lands of Munster"[1163].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, recording in 858 "a victory by Cerball son of Dunlang and Imar over the Gall-Gaedil in Ara Tire"[1164], indicate that Ivar was acting in alliance with native Irish forces in this battle.  The Annals of Ulster record in 859 that "Amlaib and Imar and Cerball led a great army into Mide"[1165]King [of Dublin].  The Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1166].  [The Chronicle of Æthelweard records that "the fleets of the tyrant Inwær arrived in the land of the English from the north, and they wintered among the East Angles", dated to [866/67][1167].  It is not certain that Ivar recorded in this chronicle was the same person as Ivar King of Dublin.]  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 871 that "Amlaib and Imar came back from Alba to Ath Cliath, bringing many British and Scottish and Saxon prisoners with them. They numbered two hundred ships"[1168].  [The Chronicle of Æthelweard records the death of "Inwær" in the same year as Edmund King of East Anglia, dated to 869[1169].]  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in [871/72] that "Imar son of Gothfraid son of Ragnall son of Gothfraid Conung son of Gofraid" and "the son of the man who left Ireland" [Olaf/Amlaib] "plundered from west to east and from south to north"[1170].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 873 of "Imar king of the Norsemen of all Ireland and Britain"[1171].]  m ---.  The name of Ivarr´s wife or wives is not known.  Ivarr & his wife had [six] children: 

a)         BARDR [Barith] (-881).  He succeeded his father as King [of Dublin].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 873 that "Barid with a great fleet from Ath Cliath [went] by sea westwards, and he plundered Ciarraigne Luachra under ground [i.e. the raiding of the caves]"[1172].  The Chronicon Scottorum records the death in 881 of "Barith son of Imar, head of the Norsemen…by a miracle of God and Ciannan"[1173].  The Annals of Ulster record in 881 that "the oratory of Cianan was destroyed by the foreigners…afterwards Barith, a great despot of the Norsemen, was killed by St. Ciannan"[1174]

b)         SIGFRITH (-killed 888).  He presumably succeeded his brother as King [of Dublin].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 883 "the burning of Les Mor by the son of Imar"[1175].  It is supposed that this passage refers to Sigfrith who had (presumably) succeeded his brother two years earlier.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 888 of "Sigfrith son of Imar king of the Norseman…killed by his kinsman"[1176]

c)         SIHTRIC (-killed 896).  He presumably succeeded his brother as King [of Dublin].  The Annals of Ulster record in 893 "a great dissension among the foreigners of Ath Cliath and they became dispersed, one section following Imar´s son, and the other Sigfrith the jarl[1177].  The Annals of Ulster record in 894 that "Imar´s son came again to Ireland[1178].  It is assumed that this passage refers to Sihtric whose departure is implied by the passage dated 893 in the same source.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Sitriuc son of Imar killed by other Norsemen[1179]

d)         OLAF (-killed 896).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 896 of "Amlaíb son of Imar", killed by “the Conaille and Laigne´s son[1180]

e)         [--- .  The context suggests that the father of the unnamed son who is recorded below was a different person from the father of the other grandsons of Ivar who are shown in the next section of the present document.]  m ---.  One child: 

i)          son .  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 929 that “Godfrey went into Osraighe to expel the grandson of Imhar from Magh-Roighne[1181]

f)          [UATHMHARAN .  Downham indicates that Uathmharan was the son of Ivar, but this relationship is not indicated in any of the primary sources which she cites[1182].  The name of his son Sigfrith indicates a close family relationship with Ivar.  m ---, daughter of DOMNALL & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[1183].  Uathmharan & his wife had one child: 

i)          SIGFRITH (-after 933).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Fergal son of Domnall son of Aed and Sicfrith son of Uathmarán, the son of Domnall´s daughter” defeated “Muirchertach son of Niall” in 933[1184].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 931 that “a battle was gained in Magh-Uatha by Fearghal, son of Domnall; and Sichfraidh son of Uathmharan i.e. the son of the daughter of Domhnall, over Muircheartach, son of Niall[1185]

3.         [ASL [Auisle] (-killed 867).  The Annals of Ulster record in 863 that "three kings of the foreigners, Amlaib and Imar and Auisle plundered the land of Flann, son of Conaing, and Lorcan son of Cathal king of Mide was with them in this"[1186].  The Annals of Ulster record in 864 that "Conchobar son of Donnchaid, one of two kings of Mide, was put to death in water at Cluain Iraird by Amlaib king of the foreigners"[1187].  The Annals of Ulster record in 866 that "Amlaib and Auisle went with the foreigners of Ireland and Scotland to Fortriu, plundered the entire Pictish country and took away hostages from them"[1188].  The Annals of Ulster record in 867 that "Auisle, one of three kings of the heathens, was killed by his kinsmen in guile and parricide"[1189].  The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland record in 867 "an encounter between Oisle son of the king of Norway and Amlaib his brother", adding that "the king had three sons, Amlaib, Imar and Oisle, Oisle was the least of them in age", recounting a lengthy romanticised account of the killing of Asl by his brother Olaf[1190].]  m ---.  The name of Asl´s wife or wives is not known.  Asl & his wife had one child: 

a)         son (-killed 883).  The Annals of Ulster record in 883 "death of Auisle´s son at the hands of Iergne´s son and the daughter of Mael Sechnaill"[1191]

4.         [HALFDAN (-after 876).  His relationship with Ivar is confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which records in 878 that "a brother of Ivar and Halfdan was in Wessex in Devon with twenty-three ships" and was killed[1192].  It is not certain that Halfdan´s brother Ivar was the same person as Ivar who is named above, as the death of the latter is recorded five years earlier.  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Bagsecg and Halfdan, the heathen kings" were in one division of Danes who fought Æthelred I King of Wessex at Ashdown in 871, adding that "Bagsecg" was killed[1193].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "Halfdan went with a part of the host into Northumbria, and took winter-quarters on the river Tyne" in 874[1194].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 876 that "Halfdan shared out the lands of Northumbria, and they were engaged in ploughing and in making a living for themselves"[1195]same person as…?  ALBAN (-killed in battle Loch Cuan 877).  The Annals of Ulster record in 875 that "Oistin son of Amlaib, king of the Norsemen, was deceitfully killed by Albann"[1196].  It is not certain that this passage refers to Halfdan, who is recorded in Northumbria in 874 and 876 by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (see above), although it is not known of course whether he spent all his time there.  The Annals of Ulster record in 877 "a skirmish at Loch Cuan between the fair heathens and the dark heathens, in which Albann king of the dark heathens fell"[1197].] 

5.         [brother (-killed in battle Devon 878).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records in 878 that "a brother of Ivar and Halfdan was in Wessex in Devon with twenty-three ships" and was killed and (Manuscript E only) "there the banner which they called the Raven was captured"[1198]

 

 

The following [five] persons are recorded as grandsons of Imar, but it is not known whether they were sons of one or more of the sons of Ivar who are shown above, or sons of other unrecorded sons or daughters, nor whether all [five] were brothers or first cousins: 

 

1.         IVAR [Imar] (-killed 904).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 904 of "Imar grandson of Imar” killed by “the men of Foirtriu[1199]

 

2.         RÆGNALD (-921).  Simeon of Durham records that "King Reingwald and earl Oter and Osvul Cracabane" broke into and plundered "Dunbline" in 912[1200].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ragnall grandson of Imar” defeated “Barid son of Oitir” in “a naval battle at Manu” in 914[1201].  He descended on the Northumbrian coast between 913 and 915, and at Corbridge defeated an army led by Constantine King of the Scots and Ealdred ealdorman of Bernicia.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1202].  The Annals of Ulster record that "the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech i.e. Ragnall king of the dark foreigners and the two jarls Oitir and Gragabai forsook Ireland and proceeded…against Scotland” in 918, “Gothfrith grandson of Imar” leading a battalion in a battle “on the bank of the Tyne in northern Saxonland” where Oitir and Gragabai were killed[1203].  Following an expedition against the Scots in 918, he stormed York in 919 and declared himself King of York.  Simeon of Durham records that "King Inguald stormed York" in 919[1204].  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum…Reignoldus rex Danorum…rex Streatcledwalorum" submitted to King Eadward and signed a treaty, undated but dateable to [920/22] from the context[1205].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle dates this event to 923[1206], which is not compatible with Rægnald´s date of death in 921 as recorded in the Annals of Ulster.  In accepting Edward "the Elder" King of Wessex as overlord, Rægnald gained acceptance of his new kingdom.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 921 of "Ragnall grandson of Imar, king of the fair foreigners and the dark foreigners[1207]

 

3.         GUTHFRITH (-934).  The Annals of Ulster record that "the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech i.e. Ragnall king of the dark foreigners and the two jarls Oitir and Gragabai forsook Ireland and proceeded…against Scotland” in 918, “Gothfrith grandson of Imar” leading a battalion in a battle “on the bank of the Tyne in northern Saxonland” where Oitir and Gragabai were killed[1208]King of Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey grandson of Imhar took up his residence at Ath-Cliath” in 919[1209].  The Annals of Ulster record that of "Gothfrith grandson of Imar entered Ath Cliath” in 921[1210].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 925 that “Godfrey with his foreigners left Ath-cliath but came back after six months[1211].  The Annals of Ulster record in 926 that "Gothfrith king of the foreigners came from Ath Cliath to relieve" the remaining army of "Alpthann son of Gothfrith” besieged at “Ath Cruithne[1212].  The Annals of Ulster record in 927 that "Gothfrith abandoned Ath Cliath, and Gothfrith returned again within six months" in the passage after the one reporting the death of "Sitruic grandson of Imar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners[1213], suggesting that Guthfrith left for York to claim the succession of King Sihtric.  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 929 that “Godfrey went into Osraighe to expel the grandson of Imhar from Magh-Roighne[1214].  The Annals of Ulster record that in 930 "Gothfrith grandson of Ímar with the foreigners of Áth Cliath razed Derc Ferna"[1215].  Florence of Worcester records that he was expelled by Æthelstan King of Wessex[1216], and William of Malmesbury that he sought refuge with Constantine King of the Scots[1217].  After returning to lay siege briefly to York, he surrendered to Æthelstan and was allowed to return to Ireland.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 934 of "Gothfrith grandson of Ímar…of a sickness"[1218]m ---.  The name of Guthfrith's wife is not known.  Guthfrith & his wife had four children: 

a)         OLAF Guthfrithson (-end 940).  Adam of Bremen names "Analaph, Sigtrih et Reginold" as sons of Gudred, ruling in England[1219], although this is of uncertain accuracy as the undated paragraph is anachronistic as it follows that recording the succession of Emperor Otto III in 983.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Amhlaeibh son of Godfrey” plundered “the province of Ulster” in 931 but defeated by “Muircheartach son of Niall[1220].  He succeeded his father 934 as King of Dublin.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb grandson of Imar” sacked “the island of Loch Gabor” in 935[1221].  In 937, he sailed with a large fleet for England to reconquer York, joining forces with his father-in-law Constantine King of the Scots and Owen King of Strathclyde, but was defeated by Æthelstan King of Wessex at Brunanburh, and returned to Ireland[1222].  Simeon of Durham records that "Anlaf the pagan king of the Irishmen…stirred up by his father-in-law Constantine king of the Scots" and entered the mouth of the Humber river in 937[1223].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Gothfrith” was “in Ath Cliath again” in 938[1224].  He invaded England in 939 and by the end of that year had occupied York, installing himself as King of York.  Simeon of Durham records that "King Onlaf first came to York" in 939[1225].  In raids on northern Mercia the following year, he took Tamworth and nearby land, and by treaty with Edmund took the whole of modern Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire.  He continued by invading Northumbria over the Tees before he died.  The Chronicon Scottorum records the death in 941 of "Amlaib son of Gothfrith, king of the fair foreigners and the dark foreigners"[1226].  The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 934 the death of "Awley m´Godfrey king of the Danes"[1227].  Edmund regained the lost territories from his successor Olaf Sitrihcson in 942.  m (937) --- of the Scots, daughter of CONSTANTINE II King of the Scots & his wife --- .  King Constantine was Olaf's father-in-law according to Florence of Worcester[1228].  Olaf [& his wife] had two children: 

i)          SIHTRIC "Caman" (-after 960).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Camán son of Amlaíb son of Gothfrith was defeated at Dub” in 960[1229].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 960 “a prey by Sitric Cam from the sea to Ui-Colgain, but he was overtaken by Amhlaeibh, with the foreigners of Ath-cliath and the Leinstermen[1230]

ii)         GUTHFRITH (-963).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 963 of "Guthfrith son of Amlaíb[1231]

b)         HALFDAN (-killed in battle Cluain na Cruimther 28 Dec 926).  The Annals of Ulster record that "the fleet of Loch Cuan under Alpthann son of Gothfrith landed at Linn Duachaill” 4 Sep 926[1232].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 926 of "Alpthann son of Gothfrith” 28 Dec 926 by “Muirchertach son of Niall” at “the bridge of Cluain na Cruimther[1233]

c)         BLACAIR (-killed in battle 948).  King of Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record in 938 that “Blacaire son of Godfrey came to Ath-cliath[1234].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death 26 Mar 941 of “Muirchertach of the Leather Cloaks, son of Niall Glundubh, lord of Aileach…slain at Ath-Fhirdiath” by “Blacaire son of Godfrey lord of the foreigners[1235].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Blacaire one of the chiefs of the foreigners was expelled from Dublin” in 943 and “Amhlaeibh remained after him there[1236].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Blacair gave up Áth Cliath” in 945 and that “Amlaíb succeeded him[1237].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Blacair son of Gothfrith king of the foreigners” was killed in 948 by “Congalach son of Mael Mithig[1238]

d)         RÆGNALD Guthfrithson (-after 944).  After his cousin Olaf was deposed, he succeeded 942 as King of York.  He was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex in 944[1239].  Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1240].  Florence of Worcester records that Eadmund King of Wessex expelled "duos reges, Anlafum regis…Sihtrici filium, et Reignoldum Guthferthi filium" from Northumbria, undated but dateable to [944] from the context[1241]

 

4.         [NIEL (-killed in battle 914).  Simeon of Durham records that "King Niel was slain by his brother Sihtric" in 914[1242].  This reference is puzzling.  It may refer to the death of Niall Glundubh King of Ireland, which is dated to 919 in Irish sources[1243].  However, no relationship with Sihtric is identified.  “Niel” would seem to be an Irish rather than a Norse name.] 

5.         SIHTRIC "Caoch" (-[926/27]).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1244]King of Dublin: the Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar” defeated “Niall son of Aed king of Ireland…in the battle of Cenn Fuait” in 917 and that he “entered Ath Cliath” in the same year[1245].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar abandoned Ath Cliath” in 920[1246].  He invaded Mercia in 920 with an army from Dublin, destroying Davenport in Cheshire[1247].  Simeon of Durham records that "King Sihtric stormed Devonport" in 920[1248].  He succeeded his [first cousin] in 921 as SIHTRIC King of York.  He proposed an alliance to Æthelstan King of Wessex, which was sealed in 926 by his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 927 of "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners…at an immature age"[1249].  The comment relating to his age is difficult to explain.  Assuming that the birth date of Sihtric´s son Olaf is correctly estimated to [900] as shown below, it is likely that Sihtric would have been in his forties or early fifties when he died.  Simeon of Durham records the death of "Sihtric king of the Northumbrians" died in 926[1250].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 925 of “Sitric son of Imhar lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill[1251].  The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 the death of "Sittrick o´Himer prince of the new and old Danes"[1252].  Florence of Worcester records the death of "Northanhymbrorum rex Sihtricus", undated but dateable to [926/27] from the context[1253]m firstly ---.  The name of Sihtric's first wife is not known but the fact of this earlier marriage is dictated by the chronology of his son Olaf.  m secondly (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD I “the Elder” King of Wessex & his first wife Ecgwynn ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth).  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1254].  The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1255].  Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother.  After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess.  Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1256].  King Sihtric & his first wife had four children: 

a)         OLAF [Amlaib] ([900]-Iona [978/80]).  [The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 that "Maceilgi with the sons of Sittrick tooke Dublyn on Godfrey"[1257].  The source does not name Sihtric´s sons who were involved in this campaign.]  His parentage is confirmed by Simeon of Durham who records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1258].  He was accepted as King of York by the Northumbrians in 927.  King of Dublin

-        see below

b)         SIGFRITH (-killed in battle Brunanburh 937).  The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 931 "Sithfrey and Oisle ye 2 sones of Sithrick" among those killed by the Saxons "on the plaines of Othlyn"[1259], identified as Brunanburh, dated to 937 in other sources.  

c)         ASL (-killed in battle Brunanburh 937).  The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 931 "Sithfrey and Oisle ye 2 sones of Sithrick" among those killed by the Saxons "on the plaines of Othlyn"[1260], identified as Brunanburh, dated to 937 in other sources. 

d)         GUTHFRITH (-[951/52]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Godfrey son of Sitric with the foreigners of Ath-cliath” plundered “churches of Meath” in 949[1261].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Gothfrith son of Sitriuc with the foreigners of Ath Cliath” plundered churches in 951[1262]King of Dublin: the Chronicon Scottorum records in 951 that "Gothfrith son of Sitruic took Ath Cliath and plundered Cenannas and…he died in a short time"[1263]

 

 

OLAF [Amlaib] Sihtricsson, son of SIHTRIC King of York & his first wife --- ([900]-Iona [978/80]).  Given the date of his death, and the record of activities of the sons of King Sihtric in 922, it is likely that Olaf was born in [900].  [The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 that "Maceilgi with the sons of Sittrick tooke Dublyn on Godfrey"[1264].  The source does not name Sihtric´s sons who were involved in this campaign.]  He was accepted as King of York by the Northumbrians in 927 after the death of his father, and was supported by his uncle Guthfrith who came from Dublin.  However, Æthelstan invaded Northumbria and expelled Olaf, who joined his father's former associates in Ireland[1265].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 938 that “Amhlaeibh Cuaran went to Cair-Abroc[1266].  Florence of Worcester records that Olaf joined his cousin at York in 940 and was elected King of York[1267].  Simeon of Durham records that "the son of Sihtric named Onlaf reigned over the Northumbrians" in 941 but was driven out in 943[1268].  He lost the territories gained by Olaf Guthfrithson to Edmund King of Wessex in 942, and he was driven out of York and deposed in favour of his cousin Rægnald.  He returned to Northumbria in 944, reasserting himself as king in opposition to Rægnald, but he was expelled by Edmund King of Wessex later that year[1269].  Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund expelled "king…Anlaf the son of Sihtric and [king] Reignold the son of Guthferth" from Northumbria in 944[1270].  Florence of Worcester records that Eadmund King of Wessex expelled "duos reges, Anlafum regis…Sihtrici filium, et Reignoldum Guthferthi filium" from Northumbria, undated but dateable to [944] from the context[1271]King of Dublin: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Blacaire one of the chiefs of the foreigners was expelled from Dublin” in 943 and “Amhlaeibh remained after him there[1272].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Blacair gave up Áth Cliath” in 945 and that “Amlaíb succeeded him[1273].  He returned to York once more in 949, expelling King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe", but was finally driven out in his turn by Erik in 952, when he returned to Dublin to take over from his brother Guthfrith.  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 962 “a victory…over Amlaeibh, son of Sitric, by the Osraighi i.e. at Inis-Teoc[1274].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 965 that “Muireadhach, son of Faelan, Abbot of Cill-dara, and royal heir of Leinster, was slain by Amhlaeibh, lord of the foreigners, and by Cearbhall, son of Lorcan[1275].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 975 that “Muircheartach, son of Domhnall Ua Neill, and Conghalach, son of Domhnall, son of Conghalach, two heirs to the monarchy of Ireland, were slain by Amhlaeibh, son of Sitric[1276].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 978 "the battle of Teamhair…gained by Maelseachlainn, son of Domhnall, over the foreigners of Ath-cliath and of the Islands, and over the sons of Amhlaeibh in particular", where "Ragnhall son of Amhlaeibh heir to the sovereignty of the foreigners” was killed, adding that "after this Amhlaeibh went across the sea and died at l-Coluim-Cille"[1277].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Olaf son of Sitric high-king over the Foreigners of Dublin” died in Iona in [978/79] after being defeated by “Mael-Sechnaill the Great[1278], the battle being dated between 978 and 980 in different sources (see below). 

m firstly ---.  No record has been found in any primary sources which confirms this supposed first marriage.  However, given Olaf´s estimated birth date, it is likely that he was married before his marriage to the widow of Domnall. 

m [secondly] (after 952) as her second husband, ---, widow of DOMNALL, daughter of ---.  Her marriages are confirmed by the Annals of Tigernach which record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1279]

m [thirdly] as her first husband, GORMLAITH, daughter of MURCHAD MacFinn King of Leinster & his wife --- (-1030).  She married secondly Brian Boru, and thirdly, as his [third] wife, Maelsechnaill King of Ireland.  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith, daughter of Murchad son of Fland” mother of “Sitric son of Olaf king of the Foreigners and of Donnchad son of Brian king of Munster[1280].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1030 of “Gormlaith daughter of Murchadh son of Finn, mother of the king of the foreigners Sitric, Donnchadh son of Brian king of Munster, and Conchobhar son of Maeleachlainn king of Teamhair[1281]

Olaf & his [first] wife had [two] children: 

1.         [SIHTRIC (-after 967).  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 967 that “Ceanannas was plundered by Sitric, son of Amhlaeibh, lord of the foreigners, and by Murchadh, son of Finn, king of Leinster; but Domhnall Ua Neill king of Ireland overtook and defeated them[1282].  It is unlikely that this passage refers to Sihtric King of Dublin, son of Olaf, who is named below.  King Sihtric´s death is recorded in 1042, which appears inconsistent with his participation in a battle fought in 967.  It is therefore probable that this Sihtric was an older son of King Olaf who diedsoon after 967.  Another possibility is that there is an error in the text and that "Sitric son of Amhlaebh" should read "Amhlaebh son of Sitric".] 

2.         RÆGNALD (-killed in battle Temair [978/80]).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 980 of "Ragnall son of Amlaíb" at the battle of Temair[1283].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ragnhall son of Amhlaeibh heir to the sovereignty of the foreigners” was killed in 978 in “the battle of Teamhair[1284].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall, son of Olaf, crownprince of the Foreigners” was killed in battle by “Mael Sechnaill the Great, son of Domnall, son of Donnchad, son of Fland” at “Tara” in [978/79][1285].   

Olaf & his [second] wife had one child: 

3.         --- “Glun iaraind/Iron knee” (-murdered [987/89]).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1286].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that in 982 “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall and Gluniairn son of Amhlaeibh” defeated “Domhnall Claen and Imhar of Port-Lairge” in which “Gilla-Padraig son of Imhar” was killed[1287]King of Dublin.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 989 of "Glún Iarn king of the foreigners…killed when drunk by his own slave"[1288].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf king of the Foreigners” was killed “by his own slave…Colbain” in [987/88][1289]m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  One child: 

a)         GILLA Ciaráin (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Brian son of Ceinnéitig son of Lorcán king of Ireland and Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall king of Temair" led an army to “Áth Cliath” in 1014, adding that “Gilla Ciarráin son of Glún Iairn, heir designate of the foreigners” was killed in the battle[1290]

Olaf & his [third] wife had one child: 

4.         SIHTRIC (-1042)King of Dublin.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc son of Amlaíb was expelled from Áth Cliath" in 994[1291].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Imhar came to Ath-Cliath after Sitric, son of Amblaeibh” in 994[1292].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1293].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Sitriuc son of Olaf king of the Foreigners” plundered “into Ulster…Cell Cleithe and Inis Cumscraig” in [1000/01][1294]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[1295].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Amlaíb king of the foreigners" went to Rome in 1028[1296]m ---.  The name of Sihtric´s wife is not known.  Sihtric & his wife had five children: 

a)         ARTALACH (-killed in battle Glenn Mama 30 Dec [996/97]).  The Annals of Tigernach name “Artalach son of Sitric and Harald son of Olaf, and Cuilen son of Erigen” among those killed in battle in [996/97] by “Mael Sechlainn and Brian son of Kennedy” at “Glenn Mama[1297]

b)         OLAF (-killed in battle 1013).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc…the son of the king of the foreigners and Mathgamain son of Duibgilla son of Amlaíb" were killed in 1013 by “Cathal son of Donnchad son of Dub dá Bairenn[1298]

c)         --- “Glun iaraind/Iron knee” (-killed 1031).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Iron-knee son of Sitric” was killed by “the (folk of) the south of Bregia” in 1031[1299]m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  One child: 

i)          son .  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Sitric” was killed in Wales “by the son of Iron-Knee” in 1036[1300]

d)         OLAF ([after 1013]-murdered 1034).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc king of the foreigners was held prisoner by Mathgamain ua Riacáin king of Brega" in 1029 and ransomed for "1,200 cows and six score Welsh horses and sixty ounces of gold…"[1301].  He was presumably born after the death of his brother Olaf in 1013, unless one or other of these sons was illegitimate.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Amlaíb son of Sitriuc was killed by the Saxons on his way to Rome"[1302].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Olaf son of Sitric was killed by Englishmen as he was going to Rome” in 1034[1303]m MAILCORCRE, daughter of DUNLANG King of Leinster & his wife ---.  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records that the "grandmother...his mother´s mother" of King Gruffydd was "Mailcorcre daughter of Dunlang son of Tuathal King of Leinster"[1304].  Olav & his wife had one child:   

i)          SIHTRIC (-killed in battle Isle of Man 1073).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1073 of "Sitriuc son of Amlaib and two grandsons of Brian…killed in Man[1305]

ii)         [RAGNHILD .  The 13th century History of Gruffydd ap Cynan records that he was born in Dublin, son of "Cynan king of Gwynedd and his mother Ragnaillt daughter of Olaf King of the city of Dublin", adding that his maternal grandmother was "Mailcorcre daughter of Dunlang son of Tuathal King of Leinster"[1306].  From a chronological point of view, it is possible that Ragnhild´s father was Olav son of Sihtric.  m CYNAN ap Iago, son of IAGO ap Idwal King of Gwynedd & his wife ---.] 

e)         GODFRID (-killed Wales 1036).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Sitric” was killed in Wales “by the son of Iron-Knee” in 1036[1307]

Olaf & his [---] wife had four children: 

5.         HARALD (-killed in battle Glenn Mama 30 Dec [996/97]).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Aralt son of Amlaíb" was killed in battle at Glenn Mama "III Kal Jan" 999[1308].  The Annals of Tigernach name “Artalach son of Sitric and Harald son of Olaf, and Cuilen son of Erigen” among those killed in battle in [996/97] by “Mael Sechlainn and Brian son of Kennedy” at “Glenn Mama[1309]m ---.  The name of Harald´s wife is not known.  Harald & his wife had one child: 

a)         IVAR (-1054).  King of Dublin.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Aralt was expelled by the foreigners” in 1046 and “the son of Raghnall was elected king[1310].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Imar son of Harald” slaughtered “Ragnall Húa Eochada” in “Rathlin of the Ulaid[1311].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1054 of "Ímar son of Aralt, king of the foreigners"[1312]m ---.  The name of Imar´s wife is not known.  Imar & his wife had one child: 

i)          GODFRID “Meranach” (-1095)King of Dublin.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Goffraidh, son of Harald´s son” became king of Dublin in 1091[1313].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1095 of "Gofraidh Meranach, king of the foreigners"[1314].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the death in 1095 of “Gobfraidh rex Dormanorom[1315].  [From a chronological point of view, it is possible that he was the same person as GODRED “Crovan/white-handed” King of Man, whose exploits are recorded in the Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum[1316].] 

6.         DUBGAL (-killed in battle Clontarf 1014).  The Annals of Ulster record that "Dubgall son of Amlaíb" was killed in battle at Clontarf in 1014[1317]

7.         GYDA .  Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[1318].  In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[1319]m firstly ---.  m secondly (in England 988) as his second wife, OLAV Trygveson, son of TRYGVE Olavsson [Norway] & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter (posthumously [968][1320]-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]).  He imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway in [995]. 

8.         MAELMAIRE (-1021).  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1021 of “Maelmaire daughter of Amhlaeibh, wife of Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall[1321]m as his third wife, MAELSECHNAILL King of Ireland, son of DOMNALL & his wife --- ([949/50]-Cró Inis of Lough Ennell 2 Sep 1022). 

 

 

1.         RÆGNALD .  It is possible that this is the same person as Rægnald King of Waterford, who died in 1031, see below Part C.  Clare Downham suggests that he may have been the same person as Rægnald King of the Hebrides (son of Godfrid King of the Hebrides, see the document SCOTLAND MORMAERS, EARLS, LORDS)[1322]m ---.  The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known.  Rægnald & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         ECHMARCACH (-Rome 1064).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Aralt was expelled by the foreigners” in 1046 and “the son of Raghnall was elected king[1323]King of Dublin.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Echmarcach son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners went oversea” in 1052 and “the son of Mael na mbó assumed the kingship after him[1324].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Echmarcach son of Ragnall, king of the foreigners was banished by the king of Laigin Diarmait son of Mael na mBó" in 1052, the latter making himself king[1325].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Murchad son of Diarmait son of Mael na mbó” invaded “Mann…and defeated Ragnall´s son” in 1061[1326].  His deposition was presumably temporary, as the Annals of Ulster record the death in 1064 of "Echmarcach king of the Foreigners"[1327].  The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records the death in 1064 of "Echmarcach rex Innarenn" at Rome[1328].  Downham interprets "rex Innarenn" as "king of the Rhinns of Galloway"[1329]

b)         OLAFm ---.  The name of Olaf´s wife is not known.  Olaf & his wife had one child: 

i)          GODFRID (-1075).  King of Dublin.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Conchobair Ua Mail Sechnaill (king of Temuir), Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath, and Domnall son of Gilla Pátraic king of Osraige…submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain king of Mum” in 1072 and “gave acknowledgement and high-kingship to him[1330].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Gofraid grandson of Ragnall king of Áth Cliath was banished oversea by Taidelbach Ua Briain” in 1075 and “died beyond the sea having assembled a great fleet [to come] to Ireland[1331].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Gofraidh son of Amlaíb or son of Ragnall, king of Áth Cliath" died in 1075[1332].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh king of the Foreigners” died in 1075[1333]

c)         CACHT (-1054).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Cacht daughter of Ragnall queen of Ireland” died in 1054[1334].  No indication has been found in the Annals concerning the identity of Cacht´s husband as there is no mention in the text of any “king of Ireland” during that period.  m ---. 

d)         [--- .  It is not known which of the children of Ragnall may have been the parent of the sons referred to below.  m ---.]  children: 

i)          sons (-killed in battle Isle of Man 1087).  The Annals of Ulster record that "the grandsons of Ragnall and the son of the king of Ulaid" led a sea expedition “into Man” in 1087 during which the grandsons of Ragnall were killed[1335]

 

 

1.         THORKILm ---.  The name of Thorkil´s wife is not known.  Thorkil & his wife had two children: 

a)         RÆGNALD (-killed 1146).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ragnall son of Thorkill king of the Foreigners of Dublin” was killed in 1146 by “[people of] South of Bregia[1336]m ---.  The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known.  Rægnald & his wife had one child: 

i)          ASCALL (-killed in battle Dublin 1171).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record the “battle of Dublin” in 1171 between “Miles Cogan” and “Ascall son of Ragnall king of the Foreigners” in which Ascall was killed[1337]

b)         BRODAR (-killed 1160).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Brodar son of Thorkill king of Dublin” was killed in 1160 by “the (men of) the south of Bregia[1338]

 

 

1.         OTTIR (-killed 1148).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Ottir king of the Foreigners of Dublin” was killed in 1148 by “the sons of Thorkill[1339]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of LIMERICK

 

 

1.         SIHTRIC .  Sihtric is only recorded in the chronicle entries which report the death of his son Harold, which are contradictory.  He could either be the same person as Sihtric, son of Ivar, who was killed in 896 or as Sihtric "Caoch" King of Dublin and York (both of whom are shown in Part A above).  m ---.  The name of Sihtric´s wife is not known.  Sihtric & his wife had one child: 

a)         HARALD (-killed 940)King of Limerick: the Annals of the Four Masters record that “Aralt grandson of Imhar, the son of Sitric, lord of the foreigners of Luimneach” was killed in 938 “in Connaught by the Caenraighi of Aidhne[1340].  The Chronicon Scottorum records the death in 939 of "Aralt son of Imar´s grandson, i.e. the son of Sitric king of the foreigners of Luimnech…killed by the Connachta"[1341].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 940 of "Aralt grandson of Ímar at the hands of the Connachta[1342]same person as…?  HARALD .  Several sources name Harald as the father of the late 10th century Kings of the Hebrides.  The co-identity with Harald King of Limerick is one of three possibilities (see the document SCOTLAND MORMAERS, EARLS, LORDS for a discussion of the different cases).  It is the possibility which is supported by Collingwood[1343] and Clare Downham[1344]

 

 

1.         IVAR (-killed Scattery Island 975).  The parentage of Ivar is unknown.  He could have been the son of Harald King of Limerick, but this hypothesis is not confirmed by any of the primary sources.  Another possibility is that the two were unrelated, as suggested by the reference in the Annals of the Four Masters, quoted below, which records that attack on Limerick by "Maghnus son of Aralt" on the assumption (as posited above) that "Aralt" was the same person as Harald King of Limerick, in which case the attack might have been an attempt by Magnus to reassert his legitimate rights to the Norse kingdom of Limerick.  King of Limerick.  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 968 that “the foreigners of Luimneach were driven from inis-Ubhdain by Mathghamhai son of Ceinneidigh[1345].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 972 "the banishment of the foreigners from Luimnech and the burning of the fortress…enacted by the counsel of the nobles of Mumu, namely Mathgamain and Faelan and the son of Bran, and others"[1346].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 972 “the plundering of Inis-Cathaigh by Maghnus son of Aralt, with the Lag-manns of the islands along with him, and Imhar lord of the foreigners of Luimneach was carried off from the island, and the violation of Seanan thereby[1347].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Inis-Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Ceinneidigh, against the foreigners of Luimneach, with Imhar and his two sons…Amhlaeibh and Duibhchenn” in 975[1348].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 977 that "Imar king of the foreigners and his two sons were killed on Inis Cathaig by Brian son of Cennetig"[1349]m ---.  The name of Ivar´s wife is not known.  Ivar & his wife had two children: 

a)         OLAF (-killed Scattery Island 975).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Inis-Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Ceinneidigh, against the foreigners of Luimneach, with Imhar and his two sons…Amhlaeibh and Duibhchenn” in 975[1350].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 977 that "Imar king of the foreigners and his two sons were killed on Inis Cathaig by Brian son of Cennetig"[1351]

b)         DUIBCHENN (-killed Scattery Island 975).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Inis-Cathaigh was violated by Brian son of Ceinneidigh, against the foreigners of Luimneach, with Imhar and his two sons…Amhlaeibh and Duibhchenn” in 975[1352].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 977 that "Imar king of the foreigners and his two sons were killed on Inis Cathaig by Brian son of Cennetig"[1353]

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of WATERFORD

 

 

1.         IVAR (-1000).  King of Waterford.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “MaelSechnaill son of Domnall and Glún iarainn (Ironknee) son of Olaf, son of MaelSechnail´s mother” defeated “Domnall Clóen, son of Lorcán, and Imar of Waterford” in [981/82][1354].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that in 982 “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall and Gluniairn son of Amhlaeibh” defeated “Domhnall Claen and Imhar of Port-Lairge” in which “Gilla-Padraig son of Imhar” was killed[1355].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Imhar came to Ath-Cliath after Sitric, son of Amblaeibh” in 994[1356].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1357].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1000 of "Imar king of Port Láirge"[1358]m ---.  The name of Ivar´s wife is not known.  Ivar & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         GILLA PADRAIG (-killed in battle 982).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that in 982 “Maelseachlainn son of Domhnall and Gluniairn son of Amhlaeibh” defeated “Domhnall Claen and Imhar of Port-Lairge” in which “Gilla-Padraig son of Imhar” was killed[1359]

b)         [RÆGNALD (-killed in battle 994).  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 990 that "the son of Imar abandoned Port Lairge"[1360].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Ragnall son of Imar was killed by Murchad in 994"[1361].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1362].  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 995 the "death of Ragnall grandson of Imar king of the foreigners"[1363].  It is not known whether this Ragnall was in fact the son or grandson of Ivar, although the mention of another son of Ivar called Ragnall (see below) suggests that this earlier Ragnall may have been his grandson.] 

c)         RÆGNALD (-1018).  King of Waterford.  The Annals of Innisfallen record in 1018 the death of "Ragnall, son of Imar king of Port Lairge"[1364]m ---.  The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known.  Rægnald & his wife had two children:  

i)          son (-killed 1014).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “the son of Raghnall son of Imhar lord of Port-Lairge” was killed in 1014 by “the Ui-Liathain[1365]

ii)         RÆGNALD (-killed 1031).  King of Waterford.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall mac Raghnaill meic Imuir king of Waterford” was killed in Dublin in 1031[1366]m ---.  The name of Rægnald´s wife is not known.  Rægnald & his wife had one child:

(a)       [daughter .  The Annals of Inisfallen record the marriage in 1032 of "Donnchadh son of Brian” and “the daughter of Ragnall[1367].  It is not certain that King Donnchad´s father-in-law was the king of Waterford.  m (1032) as his second wife, DONNCHAD King of Munster, son of BRIAN Boroma King of Munster, High King of Ireland & his [second/third] wife [Gormlaith of Leinster/Dub of Connaught] (-Rome after 1064).] 

d)         SIHTRIC (-killed 1022).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall was killed by the Leinstermen, Imar again fled, and Sitric reigned in his place” in [993/94][1368]King of Waterford.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Sitric son of Imar king of Waterford” was killed in 1022 by “the king of Ossory[1369]

e)         DONNDUBHAN .  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Diarmaid son of Domhnall lord of Ui-Ceinnsealaigh” was killed in 995 by “Donndubhan son of Imhar[1370]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    ORMOND

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of ORMOND

 

 

1.         GILLA COEMGIN Húa Cenn-étig .  m ---.  The name of Gilla Coemgin´s wife is not known.  Gilla Coemgin & his wife had one child:

a)         OLAF (-1164 or after).  King of Ormond.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Olaf son of Gilla Coemgin Húa Cenn-étig king of Ormond” was blinded in 1164 by “Toirdelbach Húa Bríáin[1371]

 

2.         DOMNALL Húa Ceinneidig (-killed 1181).  King of Ormond.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1181 of "Domnall Ua Ceinneidig king of Ormond…slain[1372]

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of ORMOND (WALTER/BUTLER)

 

 

THEOBALD Walter, son of HERVE Walter & his wife Matilda [de Valoignes] (-England [20 Dec 1205/3 Apr 1206])The Complete Peerage records Theobald Walter as “s. and h. of Hervey Walter of West Dereham, Norfolk...by Maud da. and coh. of Theobald de Valoignes” but does not cite the primary source on which this statement is based[1373]Ranulfus de Glamvilla” founded Leiston abbey, Suffolk by undated charter, witnessed by “...Willielmo de Valeines, Radulfo Murdac...Teobaldo Walteri...Rogero Walteri...[1374]He was given land in Ireland in [1185] by Prince John, then Lord of Ireland.  He was appointed "butler" in 1192.  "Manser Arsic" paid for an inquisition of Novel disseisin against "Theobald Butler" touching his free tenement, dated 1199[1375].  "John de Penris" paid for a writ of Mort d´ancestor against "Theobald Walter" dated 20 Dec 1205[1376].  "Meyler Fitz Henry justiciary of Ireland" was ordered to take into the king´s hands lands "which belonged to Theobald Walter when he left Ireland" by mandated dated 3 Apr 1206[1377]

m (before 1200) as her first husband, MATILDA, daughter and co-heiress of ROBERT Le Vavasour & his wife --- (-before Jan 1226).  King John ordered the restoration of the dower of "Matilda his daughter who was the wife of Theobald Walter" to "Robert le Vavasour" dated 20 Jul 1207[1378].  She married secondly ([22 Jul/1 Oct] 1207) as his first wife, Fulk FitzWarin [III].  King John ordered payment of her dower to "Fulk Fitz Warin and Matilda (who was the wife of Theobald Walter)" restoring to them what he "had previously granted to Robert le Vavasour", dated 1 Oct 1207[1379]

Theobald & his wife had two children: 

1.         THEOBALD Butler or Le Botiller ([1200]-before 19 Jul 1230).  A charter dated 2 Jul 1220 records that "Theobald Walter being of full age, the king has taken his homage and…[causes] Theobald to have seisin of all the lands…which descend to him by right of inheritance from Theobald his father"[1380]m firstly JOAN, daughter of GEOFFROY de Mareis, Justiciar & his wife ---.  A charter dated [Aug] 1226 records that "Theobald Walter…has so misconducted himself in regard to the king that, although he has married the justiciary´s daughter and has by her a son, the justiciary would, if it is the king´s will, deprive him of all the land which he holds of the king in Ireland"[1381]m secondly ([1225]) ROHESE de Verdun, daughter of NICHOLAS de Verdun of Alton, Staffordshire & his wife --- (-10 Feb 1247, bur Priory of Grace-Dieu, Belton).  A charter dated 19 Jul 1230 records that Henry III King of England granted custody of "the lands and heirs of Theobald Fitz Walter and marriage of the heirs" to Richard Earl of Cornwall "saving to Rohesia who was his wife, her dower out of them"[1382].  Henry III King of England granted "terris que fuerunt...Theobaldi quondam viri sui in Anglia...dotem suam" to "Rohesie que fuit uxor Theobaldi pincerne", dated 1231[1383].  A charter dated 23 Oct 1231 records that "Rohesia daughter and heir of Nicholas de Verdun made with the king a fine of 700 marks for her relief that she may have seisin of her father´s lands at his death…"[1384].  The Chronicle of Croxden records the death “IV Id Feb” 1248 of “domina Roysia de Verdun fundatrix abbatiæ de Crokesden” and the succession of “dominus Johannes de Verdun filius eius[1385].  "John de Verdun made a fine with the king of 1,300 marks to have seisin of the lands both in England and Ireland which had belonged to Rohesia de Verdun his mother and whose heir he is" by charter dated 3 May 1247[1386].  Theobald & his first wife had one child: 

a)         THEOBALD Butler (-1248).  Henry III King of England took the homage of "Theobald son and heir of Theobald Pincerna" by charter dated 11 Jun 1244[1387].  Lord Justice of Ireland 1247. 

-        see below

Theobald & his second wife had one child: 

b)         JOHN de Verdun ([1226]-before 17 Oct 1274).  He adopted his mother´s family name Verdun.  The Chronicle of Croxden records the death “IV Id Feb” 1248 of “domina Roysia de Verdun fundatrix abbatiæ de Crokesden” and the succession of “dominus Johannes de Verdun filius eius[1388]

-        LORDS VERDUN

2.         MATILDA .  Henry III King of England granted custody of "Thedbaldo filio Thedbaldi Walteri Matildem sororem ipsius…", previously granted by King John to "Gileberto filio Reinfridi patris tuo", to "Willelmo de Lancastria" dated [Jun] 1220[1389]same person as…?  --- Walter .  Inquisitions following the death of "Gerald de Prendeg" record that he married firstly "the sister of Theobald Butler”, by whom he had “one daughter surviving whom John de Cogan married and of her begat one son aged 8 at the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin 35 Hen III”, and secondly “a daughter of Richard de Burgo” by whom he had “one daughter who will be 10 at the feast of St Patrick in Lent 36 Hen III[1390]m as his first wife, GERALD de Prendergast, son of --- (-before 28 Oct 1251). 

 

 

THEOBALD Butler, son of THEOBALD Butler & his first wife Joan de Mareis (-1248).  Henry III King of England took the homage of "Theobald son and heir of Theobald Pincerna" by charter dated 11 Jun 1244[1391].  Lord Justice of Ireland 1247.  A writ dated 6 Jul "33 Hen III", after the death of "Theobald le Butiler alias le Botiller alias Pincerna" specifies that his heir (unnamed) "is aged 6 years"[1392]

m (before 1242) MARGERY de Burgh, daughter of RICHARD de Burgh Lord of Connaught & his wife Egidia de Lacy.  A charter dated 3 Aug 1248 records security taken from "Margaret who was the wife of Theobald Pincerna…that she shall not marry without the king´s licence" and the assignment of her dower to her[1393].  1253. 

Theobald & his wife had one child: 

1.         THEOBALD Butler (1242-1285).  A writ dated 6 Jul "33 Hen III", after the death of "Theobald le Butiler alias le Botiller alias Pincerna" specifies that his heir (unnamed) "is aged 6 years"[1394]m (before 1268) JOAN, daughter of JOHN FitzGeoffrey & his wife Isabel --- (-1303).  Theobald & his wife had two children: 

a)         THEOBALD Butler (1269-1299). 

b)         EDMUND Butler (-1321).  Knight 1309.  Chief Governor of Ireland (Justiciar) [1314/15]-1317.  m (1302) JOAN FitzGerald, daughter of JOHN FitzThomas Earl of Kildare & his wife Blanche Roche.  Edmund & his wife had one child: 

i)          JAMES Butler ([1305]-[Jan/Feb] 1338, bur Gowran, co. Kilkenny).  He was created Earl of Ormond in 1328. 

-         see below

 

 

JAMES Butler, son of Sir EDMUND Butler & his wife Joan FitzGerald of Kildare ([1305]-[Jan/Feb] 1338, bur Gowran, co. Kilkenny).  He was created Earl of Ormond in 1328. 

m (1327) as her first husband, ELEANOR de Bohun, daughter of HUMPHREY de Bohen Earl of Hertford and Essex & his wife Elizabeth of England (-7 Oct 1363).  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names (in order) “Margareta…Humfredus…Johannes…Humfredus decimus…Edwardus et Willielmus…Alianora, Margareta secunda, Eneas, Isabella” as the six sons and four daughters of “Humfredus octavus de Bohun, comes Herefordiæ et Essex, constabularius Angliæ et dominus Breconiæ” and his wife “Elizabetham filiam regis Edwardi filii regis Henrici tertii”, adding that Eleanor married firstly (after the death of her father) “domino Jacobo le Botyler Hiberniæ”, who was created “comitem de Urmond” by King Edward III[1395].  She married secondly (licence 24 Jan 1344, before 20 Apr 1344) Sir Thomas de Dagworth, who was created Lord Dagworth. 

James & his wife had four children: 

1.         JOHN Butler (Athur 6 Nov 1330-young). 

2.         JAMES Butler ([Kilkenny 4 Oct 1331]-Knocktopher Castle 18 Oct or 6 Nov 1382, bur Gowran).  A manuscript which narrates the descents of the founders of Lanthony Abbey names “Jacobus le Botiler” as the son of “domino Jacobo le Botyler Hiberniæcomitem de Urmond” and his wife[1396].  He succeeded his father in 1338 as Earl of Ormond.  The will of "James Botiler Earl of Ormond", dated 31 Aug 1379, bequeathed property to “Elizabeth my wife...James my son and heir...my other sons and daughters, not married[1397]m as her first husband, ELIZABETH Darcy, daughter of Sir JOHN Darcy & his [second wife Joan Dowager Ctss of Kildare née de Burgh of the Earls of Ulster] (-24 Mar 1390).  The will of "James Botiler Earl of Ormond", dated 31 Aug 1379, bequeathed property to “Elizabeth my wife...James my son and heir...my other sons and daughters, not married[1398].  She married secondly ([28 Dec 1383/30 Mar 1384]) Sir Robert de Hereford

-        EARLS of ORMOND

3.         ALIANORE (-1392)m (after 20 Jul 1359) GERALD FitzGerald Earl of Desmond, son of MORICE FitzThomas Earl of Desmond & his third wife Aveline FitzMorice (-1398). 

4.         PERNEL (-1368)m (before 8 Sep 1352) as his first wife, GILBERT Lord Talbot, son of RICHARD Talbot Lord Talbot & his wife Elizabeth Comyn of Badenoch ([1332]-Roales, Spain 24 Apr 1387). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  ULSTER

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of ULSTER

 

 

1.         EOCHAGAN (-killed 883).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 883 of "Eochucán son of Aed, one of the two kings of Ulaid" killed by “the sons of Ainfíth son of Aed[1399]m ---.  The name of Eochagan´s wife is not known.  Eochagan & his wife had three children: 

a)         MUIREDACH (-killed 895).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 895 of "Muiredach son of Eochucán, one of the two kings of Ulaid" killed by “Aidíth son of Laigne[1400]

b)         AEDH (-killed in battle Cill-Mosamhog, near Dublin 14 Sep or 17 Oct 919).  The Annals of Ulster name "Aed son of Eochucán, king of Conchobor´s Province” among those killed 14 Sep 919 by “the heathens…at Duiblinn[1401]m ---.  The name of Aedh´s wife is not known.  Aedh & his wife had two children:

i)          NIALL (-959 or 971).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 959 of “Niall son of Aedh son of Eochagan King of Ulidia[1402].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 971 of "Niall son of Aed, king of Ulaid[1403]m ---.  The name of Niall´s wife is not known.  Niall & his wife had one child:

(a)       ARCHU (-killed [980/81]).  Crown Prince of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Archu mac Neill crown prince of Ulster” was killed in [980/81][1404].  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 981 of “Archu son of Niall royal heir of Ulidia…slain by his kinsmen[1405]

ii)         MATUDAN (-killed 950).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 947 and 948 of “Madudhan son of Aedh son of Eochagan king of Ulidia…slain by the Ulidians[1406].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 950 of "Matudan king of Ulaid[1407]m ---.  The name of Matudan´s wife is not known.  Matudan & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ARDGALL (-killed in battle Cell Móna [969/70])King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 969 of "Ardgal son of Matudan king of Ulaid[1408]m ---.  The name of Ardgall´s wife is not known.  Ardgall & his wife had one child: 

-         see below

c)         MAELCIARAIN ([864/65]-915).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 915 of "Mael Ciaráin son of Eochucán, superior of Cluain Eois and bishop of Ard Macha…in the 50th year of his age[1409]

2.         EIREMON (-killed 886).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 886 of "Eiremón son of Aed, one of two kings of Ulaid" killed by “Eolóir son of Iergne[1410].  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 886 of "Uromun son of Aed king of Ulaid[1411]

3.         DUBGALL (-killed 925).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 925 of "Dubgall son of Aed, king of Ulaid…killed by his own people[1412]

 

 

ARDGALL, son of MATUDAN King of Ulster & his wife --- (-killed in battle Cell Móna [969/70])King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 969 of "Ardgal son of Matudan king of Ulaid[1413].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 970 of "Ardgar son of Matudán, king of Ulaid” in “the battle of Cell Móna[1414].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Ardghal son of Madadhan king of Ulidia” was killed in 976 at “the battle of Cill-mona[1415]

m ---.  The name of Ardgall´s wife is not known. 

Ardgall & his wife had four children: 

1.         EOCHAID (-killed in battle Craeb Tulcha 1004).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Aed son of Domnall high-king of Ailech and Eochaid son of Ardgal king of Ulster” forced a truce on “Bian and…MaelSechlainn [and] the men of…Munster and Connaught and Leinster and the Foreigners” in [1000/01][1416].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Eochaid son of Ardgal king of Ulaid, together with his princes” was killed in battle in 1004 “at Craeb Tulcha[1417].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Eochaidh son of Ardghair king of Ulidia, and Dubhtuinne his brother, and the two sons of Eochaidh, Cuduiligh and Domhnall” were killed in 1003 at “the battle of Craebh-tulcha between the Ulidians and the Cinel-Eoghain[1418]m ---.  The name of Eochaid´s wife is not known.  Eochaid & his wife had [six] children: 

a)         CUDUILIGH (-killed in battle Craeb Tulcha 1004).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Eochaidh son of Ardghair king of Ulidia, and Dubhtuinne his brother, and the two sons of Eochaidh, Cuduiligh and Domhnall” were killed in 1003 at “the battle of Craebh-tulcha between the Ulidians and the Cinel-Eoghain[1419]

b)         DOMNALL (-killed in battle Craeb Tulcha 1004).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Eochaidh son of Ardghair king of Ulidia, and Dubhtuinne his brother, and the two sons of Eochaidh, Cuduiligh and Domhnall” were killed in 1003 at “the battle of Craebh-tulcha between the Ulidians and the Cinel-Eoghain[1420]m ---.  The name of Domnall´s wife is not known.  Domnall & his wife had one child: 

i)          MATUDAN (-1007).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelruanaidh son of Ardghar king of Ulidia” was killed in 1005 by “Madadhan son of Domhnall” after “being one-half year in the government of the province”, and that Matudan was killed “by the Torc i.e. Dubhtuinne, in the middle of Dun-Leathghlaise[1421]King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1007 of "Matudán king of Ulaid[1422]m ---.  The name of Matudan´s wife is not known.  Matudan & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MUIRDACH (-killed 1007).  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 1005 that that “Dubhtuinne the Torc king of Ulidia” was killed by “Muireadhach son of Madadhan in revenge of his father[1423]

c)         DUBHTUINNE .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of the Four Masters which name “Niall son of Dubhtuine son of Eochaidh son of Ardgar, ex-king of Ulidia[1424]m ---.  The name of Dubhtuinne´s wife is not known.  Dubhtuinne & his wife had one child:

i)          NIALL (-killed 1015).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Niall son of Eochaidh son of Ardghar” defeated “Niall son of Dubhtuinne” at “the battle of the Mullachs” in 1011 and afterwards deposed him[1425].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Niall son of Eochaid" defeated “Niall son of Dub Tuinne” at “the battle of Na Mullaig” in 1012 and was “afterwards made king[1426].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Niall son of Dubhtuine son of Eochaidh son of Ardgar, ex-king of Ulidia” was killed in 1015 in “a battle between the Ulidians and the Dal-Araidhe[1427]

d)         NIALL (-13 Nov 1063).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Niall son of Eochaidh son of Ardghar” defeated “Niall son of Dubhtuinne” at “the battle of the Mullachs” in 1011 and afterwards deposed him[1428].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Niall son of Eochaid" defeated “Niall son of Dub Tuinne” at “the battle of Na Mullaig” in 1012 and was “afterwards made king[1429]King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Níall son of Eochaid king of Ulster” defeated “the foreigners of Dublin” in a sea battle in [1018/22][1430].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1063 of "Niall son of Eochaid over-king of Ulaid…13 Nov[1431]m ---.  The name of Niall´s wife is not known.  Niall & his wife had one child: 

i)          EOCHAID (-1062).  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1062 of “Eochaid son of Níall son of Eochaid king of Ulster[1432]

e)         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          FLAITHBERTACH (-[1019/20] or after).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Flaithbertach grandson of Eochaid” was blinded in [1019/20] by “Niall son of Eochaid[1433]

f)          [RAGNALL Ua Eochaid (-killed in battle Rechru 1045).  Crown Prince of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1045 of "Ragnall Ua hEochada royal heir of Ulaid slain by the foreigners of Áth Cliath in Rechru[1434].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Ragnall Húa Eochada” was killed in 1045 “in a slaughter in Raithlin of the Ulaid…by Imar son of Harald[1435].] 

2.         DUBHTUINNE (-killed in battle Craeb Tulcha 1004).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Eochaidh son of Ardghair king of Ulidia, and Dubhtuinne his brother, and the two sons of Eochaidh, Cuduiligh and Domhnall” were killed in 1003 at “the battle of Craebh-tulcha between the Ulidians and the Cinel-Eoghain[1436]m ---.  The name of Dubhtuinne´s wife is not known.  Dubhtuinne & his wife had two children: 

a)         DOMNALL (-killed 1006).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Domnhall son of Dubhtuinne king of Ulidia” was killed by “Muireadhach son of Madadhan and Uarghaeth of Sliabh Fuaid[1437]

b)         MUIRDACH (-killed 1007).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 1007 of “Muireadhach son of Dubhtuinne king of Ulidia…slain[1438]

3.         GILLACOMGAILL (-killed in battle 1004).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Gillacomhghaill son of Ardghar and his son” were killed in 1004 by “Maelruanaidh son of Ardghar, contending for the kingdom of Ulidia[1439]m ---.  The name of Gillacomgaill´s wife is not known.  Gillacomgail & his wife had one child: 

a)         son (-killed in battle 1004).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Gillacomhghaill son of Ardghar and his son” were killed in 1004 by “Maelruanaidh son of Ardghar, contending for the kingdom of Ulidia[1440]

4.         MAELRUANAIDH (-1007).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Gillacomhghaill son of Ardghar and his son” were killed in 1004 by “Maelruanaidh son of Ardghar, contending for the kingdom of Ulidia[1441]King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 1007 of "Mael Ruanaid king of Ulaid[1442].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Maelruanaidh son of Ardghar king of Ulidia” was killed in 1005 by “Madadhan son of Domhnall” after “being one-half year in the government of the province[1443]

 

 

1.         DUBHTUINNE Torc (-killed [1005]).  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Madadhan son of Domhnall” was killed “by the Torc i.e. Dubhtuinne, in the middle of Dun-Leathghlaise[1444]King of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 1005 that that “Dubhtuinne the Torc king of Ulidia” was killed by “Muireadhach son of Madadhan in revenge of his father[1445]

 

2.         AMHALGAIDHm ---.  The name of Amhailgaidh´s wife is not known.  Amhalgaidh & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOMNALL (-985).  Crown Prince of Ulster.  The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 985 of “Domhnall son of Amhalgaidh, Tanist of Ulidia[1446]

 

3.         LOINGSECHm ---.  The name of Loingsech´s wife is not known.  Loingsech & his wife had one child: 

a)         AEDH (-killed 972).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record the death in 972 of "Aed son of Loingsech king of Ulaid [killed] by the grandson of Matudán[1447]

 

4.         DONNCHAD Húa Mathgamma (-killed 1065).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1065 of "Donnchad ua Mathgamna king of Ulaid…killed in Bennchor by his own people[1448]

 

5.         MAEL RUANAID (-killed 1071).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Húa Maeil Ruanaid king of Ulster” was killed in 1071[1449]

 

6.         --- Húa Flaithri (-killed 1072).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Húa Flaithri king of Ulster and his son Aisid king of the Húi Gabla” were “burnt in a house set on fire” in 1072[1450]m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  One child:

a)         AISID (-killed 1072).  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Húa Flaithri king of Ulster and his son Aisid king of the Húi Gabla” were “burnt in a house set on fire” in 1072[1451]

 

7.         DONNSLEIBE Húa Eochadha (-killed in battle Belach Goirt, Ibair 1091).  King of Méranach.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donn Sléibe Ua hEochada was deposed” in 1078 and “came to the house of Tairdelbach Ua Briain”, adding that “in Meránach Ua hEochada took the kingship after him[1452]King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donn Sléibe Ua hEochada took the kingship of Ulaid” in 1080[1453].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the king of Ulaid submitted to Tairdelbach Ua Briain [and] received a stipend from him” in 1081[1454].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnsleibe Húa Eochadha or maybe Donnchad, son of Donnslebe king of Ulster” was killed in 1091 by “the Kindred of Eogan[1455].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1091 of "Donn Sléibe ua Eochada king of Ulaid…killed in battle by Lochlann´s grandson king of Ailech at Belach Goirt in Ibair[1456]m ---.  The name of Donnsleibe´s wife is not known.  Donnsleibe & his wife had five children:

a)         DONNCHAD (-1114 or after).  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnsleibe Húa Eochadha or maybe Donnchad, son of Donnslebe king of Ulster” was killed in 1091 by “the Kindred of Eogan[1457]King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh Ua hEochada” was made king after “Donn Sleibe Ua hEochada king of Ulaid” was killed in 1091[1458].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad king of Ulster, son of Donn-slébe king of Ulster” was deposed in 1095[1459].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh Ua hEochada king of Ulaid” was deposed and banished “to Cenél Eógain” in 1095 and “Goll Garbraige took the kingship of Ulaid[1460].  He must have been restored as king soon afterwards as the Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad Húa Eochaid king of Ulster” was captured in 1100 “by the son of Mac Lochlainn king of the kindred of Eogan[1461].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad Húa hEochada king of Ulster” was blinded in 1114 by “Húa Mathgamna” who took the kingship himself[1462]m ---.  The name of Donchad´s wife is not known.  Donnchad & his wife had two children:

i)          AED (-killed 1114).  Crown Prince of Ulster.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1114 of "Aed son of Donnchad ua Eochada heir designate of Ulaid…unjustly killed[1463]

ii)         son (-killed 1129).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "the son of Donnchad Ua hEochada, king of Ulaid was killed in a house on fire by the Ulaid” in 1129[1464]

b)         CONCHOBAR (-killed 1107).  Crown Prince of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Conchobar Cisenach Húa hEochada” was killed in 1107[1465].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1107 of "Conchobor son of Donn Slébe heir designate of Ulaid…killed by the men of Fernmag[1466]

c)         AED (-killed in battle 1122).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed, son of Donn-slébe Húa Eochada, king of Ulster” was killed in battle in 1122 by “Húa Mathgamma[1467]

d)         NIALL (-killed in battle 1127).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “a battle between two kings of Ulster” in 1127 in which “Aed Húa Mathgamna and Níall, son of Donn-slébe Húa Eochada, king of Ulster” were killed[1468]

e)         EOCHAID (-1166 or after).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Eochaid son of Donn-slébe Húa Eochadha” was taken prisoner in 1165 by “Donnchad Húa Cerbaill” and “the kingship of Ulster was given to him by the sons of Mac Lochlainn for gold and hostages[1469].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Eochaid son of Donn-slébe king of Ulster” was blinded by “Murchertach son of (Níall) Mac Lochlainn” while he was under the safeguard of “Húa Cerbaill king of Oriel”, reported under 1166 although the context suggests that this happened before[1470]

 

8.         GOLL GARBRAIDE Húa hEochada (-killed 1108).  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Donnchadh Ua hEochada king of Ulaid” was deposed and banished “to Cenél Eógain” in 1095 and “Goll Garbraige took the kingship of Ulaid[1471].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Goll Garbraide Húa hEochada king of Ulster” was killed in 1108[1472]

 

9.         AEDH Húa Mathgamna (-killed in battle 1127).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Donnchad Húa hEochada king of Ulster” was blinded in 1114 by “Húa Mathgamna” who took the kingship himself[1473].  The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Ua Mathgamna king of Ulaid was banished by the son of Donn Sléibe” in 1118[1474].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Aed, son of Donn-slébe Húa Eochada, king of Ulster” was killed in battle in 1122 by “Húa Mathgamma[1475].  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record “a battle between two kings of Ulster” in 1127 in which “Aed Húa Mathgamna and Níall, son of Donn-slébe Húa Eochada, king of Ulster” were killed[1476].  The last two passages demonstrate that Aedh Húa Mathgamna did not gain control over the whole of the kingdom of Ulster, in which two kings ruled at the same time. 

 

10.      CU ULAD Húa hEochadha (-Downpatrick 1157).  King of Ulster.  The Annals of Tigernach (Continuation) record that “Cú Ulad Húa hEochadha king of Ulster” died in 1157 “in Downpatrick[1477]

 

11.      RUAIDRI Mac Donnsleibe (-killed 1201).  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1201 of "Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe king of Ulidia…killed by the Foreigners[1478]

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of ULSTER (de BURGH)

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

WALTER de Burgh, son of RICHARD de Burgh Lord of Connaught & his wife Egidia de Lacy of Meath (-Galway Castle 28 Jul 1271).  A charter dated 27 May 1250 records the restoration "to Walter brother and heir of Richard de Burgh all the lands…of the latter in Ireland, saving Walter´s marriage"[1479].  He succeeded his brother in 1248 as Lord of Connaught.  In 1264 he exchanged land in Munster for land in Ulster with Edward, son of Henry III King of England, and was created Earl of Ulster around this time[1480].  The Annals of Ulster record in 1269 that "the son of John de Verdon was killed by Walter de Burgh[1481].  The Annals of Ulster record in 1269 that "Walter de Burgh Earl of Ulster and lord of Connacht died[1482].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 1271 the death of “Walter Burke Earl of Ulster and Lord of the English of Connaught...of a short sickness in the castle of Galway[1483]

m ([1257]) AVELINE FitzJohn, daughter of JOHN FitzGeoffrey Lord of Shere and Shalford & his wife Isabel Le Bigod of Norfolk (-[20 May 1274], bur Dunmow Priory).  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire records that the second (unnamed) daughter of "Johanni Fitz-Geffrey" and his wife "Isabella Bygod…" married "comiti Ultoniæ"[1484]

Walter & his wife had two children: 

1.         RICHARD de Burgh ([1259]-Athassel Monastery 29 Jul 1326, bur Athassel Monastery).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Ulsterm (before 27 Feb 1281) MARGARET de Burgh of Lanvalley, daughter of --- (-1304).  Richard & his wife had ten children: 

a)         ELEANOR de Burgh m (St Peter´s Priory, Ipswich 3 Jan 1297) THOMAS de Multon, son of THOMAS de Multon & his wife Emoine Le Botiller (21 Feb 1276-[May 1321/8 Feb 1322]).  He was summoned to Parliament in 1299 whereby he is held to have become Lord Multon of Egremont. 

b)         ELIZABETH de Burgh (-Cullen Castle, Banffshire 26 Oct 1327, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertus, adhuc comes" married "Elizabeth filiam Haymeri de Burkis comitis de Hullister" after the death of his first wife[1485].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "VII Kal Nov" in 1327 of "domina Elizabeth regina, mater regis David" and her burial "in choro de Dunfermeling juxta regem Robertum sponsum suum"[1486].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1327 of "Elizabeth regina Scociæ mater David regis et uxor…Roberti de Broys" and her burial "apud Dunfermlyn"[1487].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "VII Kal Nov" in 1327 of "Regina Elizabeitht, mater regis David de Broys" and her burial "in choro de Dumfermling iuxta Robertem regem et suum sponsum"[1488]m (1302) as his second wife, ROBERT de Brus Earl of Carrick, son of Sir ROBERT de Brus, Earl of Carrick, Lord of Annandale & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex 11 Jul 1274-Cardross Castle, Dumbartonshire 7 Jun 1329, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  King of Scotland.  He succeeded in 1306 as ROBERT I King of Scotland

c)         WALTER de Burgh (-1304). 

d)         AVELINE de Burgh m ([Jun 1308/Oct 1320]) JOHN de Bermingham, son of PIERS Fitz James Mac Phioris de Bermingham of Thetmoy & his wife Ela de Odingsells of Maxstoke, Warwickshire (-killed in battle Ballybraggan 10 Jun 1329).  He was created Earl of Louth in 1319. 

e)         JOHN de Burgh ([1290]-Galway 18 Jun 1313)m (Waltham Abbey, Essex 30 Sep 1308) as her first husband, ELIZABETH de Clare, daughter of GILBERT de Clare Earl of Gloucester & his second wife Joan of England "of Acre" (Tewkesbury 16 Sep 1295-4 Nov 1360).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Elianoram, Elizabetham, et Margaretam” as the three daughters of “Gilbertus secundus” and his wife “Johanna de Acres, filia regis Edwardi primi”, adding in a later passage that she had three husbands “Johannem de Borow comitem de Holvestre…[1489].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "ad festum Sancti Michaelis" in 1308 of "filius comitis Ultoniæ" and "sororem comitis Claudiocestriæ"[1490].  She married secondly (near Bristol 4 Feb 1316) Theobald de Verdun.  The Chronicle of Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire records the second marriage of "Theobaldo Verdon" and "Elizabetham de Burgo, nuper uxorem Johannis de Burgo filii comitis Ultoniæ, sororem Gilberti de Clare comitis Gloucestriæ", and names their children "Isabella et Katherina"[1491].  She married thirdly (1317) Roger Damory.  The will of "Elizabeth de Burg Lady of Clare", dated 25 Sep 1355, proved 3 Dec 1360, chose burial “in the Sisters Minories beyond Aldgate, London”, requested masses for the souls of "Monsr John de Bourg, Monsr Theobaud de Verdon and Monsr Roger Dammory my lords", bequeathed property to “dame Elizabeth countess of Ulster, the debt which my son, her father, owed me at his death...my daughter Bardolf...Monsr John Bardolf and to my said daughter his wife...my joesne fille Isabel Bardolf to her marriage, Agnes her sister to her marriage...Monsieur William de Ferrers...Monsr Thomas Furnival...my daughter Countess of Athol...[1492].  John & his wife had two children:

i)          ELIZABETH de Burghm ROGER Damory Baron of Armagh, son of ---. 

ii)         WILLIAM de Burgh (in Ireland 17 Sep 1312-murdered Le Ford [Belfast] 6 Jun 1333).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Willelmo” as the son of “Johannem de Borow comitem de Holvestre” & his wife[1493].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1326 as Earl of Ulster.  He was summoned to Parliament 10 Dec 1327, whereby he is held to have become Lord Burgh.  He was murdered by John de Logan and some of the Mandevilles.  His death marked the end of Norman rule in Ireland.  m (1330) as her first husband, MATILDA de Lancaster, daughter of HENRY Earl of Lancaster & his wife Maud Chaworth ([1310]-[Bruisyard Abbey, Suffolk] 5 May 1377, bur Campsey Abbey, Suffolk).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk names “Matilda filia Henrici comitis Lancastrie filii Edmundi filii tercii Henrici regis Anglie...” as the wife of “Wyllelmy Borch comitis Ultonie” and mother of “Elizabetha Clarencie ducissa[1494].  She fled to England with her daughter after the murder of her first husband.  She married secondly (before 8 Aug 1343) [as his first wife,] Sir Ralph de Ufford.  She became a canoness at the Augustine Abbey of Campsey, Suffolk, [8 Aug 1347/25 Apr 1348].  She transferred to the Poor Clares at Bruisyard Abbey, Suffolk in 1364.  William & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ELIZABETH de Burgh ([Carrickfergus Castle, Ulster] 6 Jul 1332-Dublin [10 Dec] 1363, bur Clare Priory, Suffolk).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey names “Elizabetha de Borow” as daughter and heiress of “Willelmo”, son of “Johannem de Borow comitem de Holvestre”, adding that she married “Leonellus filius secundus Regis Edwardi tertii[1495].  She succeeded as Ctss of Ulster in 1333 on the murder of her father.  The marriage contract between “Elizabetham filiam et hæredem Willielmi de Burgo nuper comitis Ultoniæ defuncti” and “Rex...Leonello filio nostro” is dated 5 May 1341[1496].  The will of "Elizabeth de Burg Lady of Clare", dated 25 Sep 1355, proved 3 Dec 1360, bequeathed property to “dame Elizabeth countess of Ulster, the debt which my son, her father, owed me at his death...my daughter Bardolf...Monsr John Bardolf and to my said daughter his wife...my joesne fille Isabel Bardolf to her marriage, Agnes her sister to her marriage...Monsieur William de Ferrers...Monsr Thomas Furnival...my daughter Countess of Athol...[1497]m (contract 5 May 1341, Tower of London 15 Aug 1342, and Reading Abbey 9 Sep 1342, consummated 1352) as his first wife, LIONEL of England "of Antwerp", son of EDWARD III King of England & his wife Philippa de Hainaut (Antwerp 29 Nov 1338-Alba, Piémont 17 Oct 1368, bur Pavia, later removed to Clare Priory, Suffolk).  Earl of Ulster 1347, in right of his wife.  Created Duke of Clarence 13 Nov 1362.  Chief Governor of Ireland 1 Jul 1361-1364, 1364-1365, and during 1367. 

f)          MATILDA de Burgh (-2 Jul 1316, bur Tewkesbury Abbey).  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the marriage of “Gilbertus tertius” and “Matilda, filia Johannes de Borow comitis Ultoniæ[1498].  The Annales Londonienses record the marriage "ad festum Sancti Michaelis" in 1308 of "comes Claudiocestriæ" and "filiam comitis Ultoniæ de Hibernia, id est Ulstre"[1499].  The Chronica de Fundatoribus et Fundatione of Tewkesbury Abbey records the death “VI Non Jul 1315” of “Gilbertus tertius…domina Matilda uxor eiusdem” and her burial “in sinistra viri sui[1500]m (Waltham Abbey 29 Sep 1308) GILBERT de Clare Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, of GILBERT de Clare Earl of Gloucester & his second wife Joan of England "of Acre" (10/11 May 1291-killed in battle Bannockburn 24 Jun 1314, bur Tewkesbury). 

g)         THOMAS de Burgh (-1316). 

h)         EDMUND de Burgh (-1338).  He was taken prisoner and drowned.  He is alleged to have been the ancestor of the BURKE family of Clanwilliam[1501][1502][m as her first husband, --- of Thomond, daughter of TURLOUGH O'Brien of Thomond & his wife ---.  She married secondly (1339) Turlough O'Connor King of Connaught.] 

i)          JOAN de Burgh (-23 Apr 1359, bur Kildare, Church of the Friars Minors)m firstly (Greencastle 16 Aug 1312) THOMAS FitzJohn Earl of Kildare, son of JOHN FitzThomas Earl of Kildare & his wife Blanche Roche (-Maynooth 5 Apr 1328, bur Kildare, Church of the Friars Minors).  m secondly (Maynooth 3 Jul 1329) as his second wife, Sir JOHN Darcy, son of Sir ROGER Darcy of Oldcotes & Styrrup, Nottinghamshire & his wife Isabel d´Aton (-30 May 1347).  He was summoned to Parliament in 1332 whereby he is held to have become Lord Darcy. 

j)          KATHERINE de Burgh (-Dublin [1 Nov 1331])m (Greencastle 5 Aug 1312) as his first wife, MORICE FitzThomas, son of THOMAS FitzMorice & his wife Margaret Berkeley (1293-1356).  He was created Earl of Desmond in 1329. 

2.         EGIDIA de Burgh .  King Edward I confirmed the grant of "castro de Roo" made by "Ricardus de Burgo comes Ultoniæ et dominus Connactensis" to "Jacobo Senescallo Scotiæ et Egidiæ sorori ipsius comitis" by charter dated 10 Oct 1296[1503]m [as his third wife,] JAMES Stewart High Steward of Scotland, son of ALEXANDER Stewart High Steward of Scotland & his wife Jean [of Bute] ([1243]-16 Jul 1309). 

 

 



[1] Seán Mac Airt (ed.) (1951) The Annals of Inisfallen (Dublin), available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100004/index.html> (ed. Färber, B.) (26 Jan 2008), 1072.6, p. 227. 

[2] Stokes, W. (trans.) (1993) The Annals of Tigernach (Llanerch), Vol. II. 

[3] Bambury, P. and Beechinor, S. (eds.) (2000) The Annals of Ulster (Corpus of Electronic Texts Edition “CELT”, University College, Cork), available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001A/index.html> (22 Feb 2006). 

[4] Seán Mac Airt (ed.) (1951) The Annals of Inisfallen (Dublin), available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100004/index.html> (ed. Färber, B.) (26 Jan 2008). 

[5] Priour, M. and Beechinor, S. (eds.) (2002) The Annals of the Four Masters (CELT), available at <http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100005B/index.html> (26 Jan 2008). 

[6] Annals of Ulster, 1063.6 and 1064.4, pp. 501 and 502. 

[7] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 429. 

[8] Annals of Ulster, 916.1, p. 365. 

[9] Annals of Inisfallen, 862.1, p. 133. 

[10] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 113. 

[11] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 119. 

[12] Radner, J. N. (ed. & trans.) (1978) Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (Dublin), p. 98. 

[13] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 119. 

[14] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 98. 

[15] Annals of the Four Masters 934.7, p. 633. 

[16] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 119. 

[17] Annals of Ulster, 908.3, p. 357. 

[18] Annals of the Four Masters 914.10, p. 587. 

[19] Annals of Inisfallen, 916.1, p. 145. 

[20] Annals of Ulster, 916.1, p. 365. 

[21] Downham, C. (2007) Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland (Dunedin), p. 141, citing Dobbs, M. E. (ed.) ´The Ban-Shenchus´, Revue celtique 47 (1930), pp. 186, 225, 311, 335 [not yet consulted]. 

[22] Annals of Ulster, 901.1, p. 353. 

[23] Annals of the Four Masters 919.17, p. 607. 

[24] Annals of Ulster, 921.4, p. 373. 

[25] Annals of the Four Masters 949.4, p. 665. 

[26] Annals of the Four Masters 911.4, p. 583. 

[27] Annals of the Four Masters 948.16, p. 663. 

[28] Annals of Inisfallen, 919.3, p. 145. 

[29] Annals of Ulster, 915.3, p. 365. 

[30] Annals of Ulster, 915.3, p. 365. 

[31] Annals of Ulster, 919.3, p. 369. 

[32] Annals of the Four Masters 917.7, p. 593. 

[33] Annals of the Four Masters 919.7, p. 601. 

[34] Annals of Ulster, 921.2, p. 373. 

[35] Annals of Inisfallen, 921.2, p. 147. 

[36] Annals of the Four Masters 948.16, p. 663. 

[37] Annals of the Four Masters 939.12, p. 645. 

[38] Annals of the Four Masters 941.8, p. 649. 

[39] Annals of Ulster, 941.4, p. 389. 

[40] Annals of the Four Masters 917.7, p. 595. 

[41] Annals of the Four Masters 946.9, p. 661. 

[42] Annals of Ulster, 948.5, p. 395. 

[43] Annals of the Four Masters 921.10, p. 609. 

[44] Annals of the Four Masters 926.6, p. 621. 

[45] Annals of Inisfallen, 928.1, p. 149. 

[46] Annals of the Four Masters 972.14, p. 701. 

[47] Annals of Ulster, 914.7, p. 363. 

[48] Annals of Ulster, 915.1, p. 363. 

[49] Annals of Ulster, 919.2, p. 369. 

[50] Annals of Ulster, 923.7, p. 375. 

[51] Annals of Ulster, 928.2, p. 379. 

[52] Annals of Ulster, 915.3, p. 365. 

[53] Annals of the Four Masters 934.7, p. 633. 

[54] Annals of the Four Masters 918.12, p. 599. 

[55] Annals of the Four Masters 942.13, p. 653. 

[56] Annals of Inisfallen, 944.2, p. 153. 

[57] Annals of Ulster, 944.4, p. 391. 

[58] Annals of the Four Masters 927.16, p. 623. 

[59] Annals of Ulster, 931.4, p. 382. 

[60] Annals of the Four Masters 941.12, p. 651. 

[61] Annals of the Four Masters 942.9, p. 651. 

[62] Annals of Inisfallen, 944.2, p. 153. 

[63] Annals of the Four Masters 958.4, p. 679. 

[64] Annals of Ulster, 960.2, p. 403. 

[65] Annals of the Four Masters 950.9, p. 667. 

[66] Annals of Ulster, 952.3, p. 397. 

[67] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 235. 

[68] Annals of the Four Masters 925.5, p. 615. 

[69] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 230. 

[70] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 233. 

[71] Annals of Inisfallen, 977.4, p. 163. 

[72] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 239. 

[73] Annals of the Four Masters 950.9, p. 667. 

[74] Annals of the Four Masters 950.12, p. 667. 

[75] Annals of the Four Masters 938.12, p. 639. 

[76] Annals of Ulster, 940.4, p. 389. 

[77] Annals of the Four Masters 943.4, p. 655. 

[78] Annals of the Four Masters 975.7, p. 703. 

[79] Annals of the Four Masters 1016.10, p. 791. 

[80] Annals of the Four Masters 1016.10, p. 791. 

[81] Annals of the Four Masters 1016.10, p. 791. 

[82] Annals of the Four Masters 1016.7, p. 789. 

[83] Annals of the Four Masters 1026.10, p. 811. 

[84] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 259. 

[85] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 260. 

[86] Annals of the Four Masters 1041.5, p. 839. 

[87] Annals of the Four Masters 925.5, p. 615. 

[88] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 230. 

[89] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 233. 

[90] Annals of the Four Masters 979.1, p. 711. 

[91] Annals of Inisfallen, 997.2, p. 173.  

[92] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 233. 

[93] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 242. 

[94] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 253. 

[95] Annals of Ulster, 1022.3, p. 460. 

[96] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 236. 

[97] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 236. 

[98] Annals of the Four Masters 1030.21, p. 821. 

[99] Annals of the Four Masters 1021.3, p. 799. 

[100] Annals of the Four Masters 1012.7, p. 767. 

[101] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 248. 

[102] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 249. 

[103] Annals of Inisfallen, 1019.2, p. 189. 

[104] Annals of Ulster, 1042.6, p. 482.  

[105] Annals of the Four Masters 1042.8, p. 841. 

[106] Annals of the Four Masters 1021.4, p. 799. 

[107] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 252. 

[108] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 252. 

[109] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 304. 

[110] Annals of Inisfallen, 1076.6, p. 233. 

[111] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 268. 

[112] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 278. 

[113] Annals of the Four Masters 1030.21, p. 821. 

[114] Annals of the Four Masters 1042.8, p. 841. 

[115] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 303. 

[116] Annals of Inisfallen, 1072.6, p. 227. 

[117] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 268. 

[118] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 303. 

[119] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 320. 

[120] Annals of Inisfallen, 1095.4, p. 249. 

[121] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 99. 

[122] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 113. 

[123] Annals of Inisfallen, 879.1, p. 137. 

[124] Annals of Ulster, 879.1 335 

[125] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 119. 

[126] Radner, J. N. (ed. & trans.) (1978) Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (Dublin), p. 98. 

[127] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 119. 

[128] Downham (2007), p. 141, citing Dobbs, M. E. (ed.) ´The Ban-Shenchus´, Revue celtique 47 (1930), pp. 186, 225, 311, 335 [not yet consulted]. 

[129] Annals of Ulster, 913.1, p. 361. 

[130] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 113. 

[131] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 137. 

[132] Annals of the Four Masters 916.8, p. 593. 

[133] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 117. 

[134] Annals of Inisfallen, 911.1, p. 145. 

[135] Annals of Ulster, 928.4, p. 379. 

[136] Annals of Ulster, 933.1, p. 383. 

[137] Annals of Ulster, 933.1, p. 383. 

[138] Annals of Inisfallen, 911.1, p. 145. 

[139] Annals of Inisfallen, 916.3, p. 145. 

[140] Annals of the Four Masters 915.1, p. 589. 

[141] Annals of the Four Masters 917.7, p. 593. 

[142] Annals of Ulster, 919.3, p. 369. 

[143] Annals of Inisfallen, 919.3, p. 145. 

[144] Annals of the Four Masters 917.7, p. 595. 

[145] Annals of the Four Masters 946.9, p. 661. 

[146] Annals of Ulster, 948.5, p. 395. 

[147] Annals of the Four Masters 919.15, p. 605. 

[148] Annals of the Four Masters 931.10, p. 629. 

[149] Annals of Inisfallen, 937.2, p. 153. 

[150] Annals of Ulster, 937.5, p. 385. 

[151] Annals of Inisfallen, 937.1, p. 151. 

[152] Annals of Ulster, 966.2, p. 407. 

[153] Skene, W. F. (ed.) (1867) Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and other early memorials of Scottish history (Edinburgh) ("Skene (1867)") I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8. 

[154] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 99. 

[155] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, p. 107. 

[156] Annals of the Four Masters 919.15, p. 605. 

[157] Annals of the Four Masters 936.15, p. 635. 

[158] Annals of the Four Masters 941.7, p. 647. 

[159] Annals of Inisfallen, 943.1, p. 153. 

[160] Annals of Ulster, 943.2, p. 391. 

[161] Annals of the Four Masters 938.12, p. 639. 

[162] Annals of Ulster, 940.4, p. 389. 

[163] Annals of the Four Masters 943.7, p. 655. 

[164] Annals of the Four Masters 955.1, p. 675. 

[165] Annals of the Four Masters 978.4, p. 709. 

[166] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 233. 

[167] Annals of Inisfallen, 980.3, p. 163. 

[168] Annals of the Four Masters 968.5, p. 693. 

[169] Annals of the Four Masters 975.5, p. 703. 

[170] Annals of Ulster, 977.1, p. 413. 

[171] Annals of Ulster, 977.2, p. 413. 

[172] Annals of the Four Masters 1005.5, p. 755. 

[173] Annals of the Four Masters 1031.8, p. 823. 

[174] Annals of the Four Masters 1031.8, p. 823. 

[175] Annals of the Four Masters 1033.5, p. 827. 

[176] Annals of the Four Masters 1039.7, p. 837. 

[177] Annals of the Four Masters 1001.14, p. 747. 

[178] Annals of the Four Masters 1003.12, p. 751. 

[179] Annals of the Four Masters 1012.12, p. 769. 

[180] Annals of the Four Masters 1024.11, p. 809. 

[181] Annals of the Four Masters 947.4, p. 661. 

[182] Annals of Inisfallen, 949.1, p. 153. 

[183] Annals of the Four Masters 971.9, p. 697. 

[184] Annals of the Four Masters 972.7, p. 699. 

[185] Annals of Ulster, 956.3, p. 399. 

[186] Annals of Ulster, 896.9, p. 351. 

[187] Annals of Ulster, 903.2, p. 353. 

[188] Annals of Ulster, 893.5, p. 347. 

[189] Annals of Ulster, 909.5, p. 357. 

[190] Annals of Ulster, 895.3, p. 349. 

[191] Annals of Ulster, 896.2, p. 349. 

[192] Annals of Ulster, 903.2, p. 353. 

[193] Annals of Ulster, 931.4, p. 382. 

[194] Annals of Inisfallen, 919.3, p. 145. 

[195] Annals of Ulster, 918.7, p. 369. 

[196] Annals of Inisfallen, 919.3, p. 145. 

[197] Annals of Ulster, 919.3, p. 369. 

[198] Annals of the Four Masters 942.12, pp. 651 and 653. 

[199] Annals of the Four Masters 943.1, p. 655. 

[200] Annals of Ulster, 956.3, p. 399.  

[201] Williams ab Ithel, J. (ed.) (1860) Brut y Tywysogion, or the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (London) ("Brut y Tywysogion (Williams)"), p. 23. 

[202] Annals of the Four Masters 951.16, p. 669. 

[203] Annals of the Four Masters 962.10, p. 685. 

[204] Annals of Ulster, 964.5, p. 405. 

[205] Annals of the Four Masters 962.10, p. 685. 

[206] Annals of the Four Masters 972.14, p. 701. 

[207] Annals of the Four Masters 974.5, p. 701. 

[208] Annals of Ulster, 976.2, p. 413. 

[209] Annals of Inisfallen, 977.4, p. 163. 

[210] Annals of the Four Masters 975.5, p. 703. 

[211] Annals of Ulster, 977.1, p. 413. 

[212] Annals of Inisfallen, 991.3, p. 169. 

[213] Annals of the Four Masters 1016.10, p. 791. 

[214] Annals of the Four Masters 1012.5, p. 767. 

[215] Annals of the Four Masters 940.7, p. 643. 

[216] Annals of the Four Masters 963.8, p. 687. 

[217] Annals of the Four Masters 954.8, p. 673. 

[218] Annals of Ulster, 925.3, p. 377. 

[219] Annals of Ulster, 923.7, p. 375. 

[220] Annals of Ulster, 942.5, p. 389. 

[221] Annals of Ulster, 1014.2, p. 448. 

[222] Annals of Inisfallen, 997.2, p. 173. 

[223] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 246. 

[224] Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1014, MGH SS V, p. 555. 

[225] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books) 12, p 38. 

[226] Annals of Ulster, 1014.2, p. 448. 

[227] Annals of Inisfallen, 1072.6, p. 227. 

[228] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 310. 

[229] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 282. 

[230] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003), Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[231] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 337. 

[232] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 344. 

[233] Williams ab Ithel, J. (ed.) (1860) Annales Cambriæ (London), p. 37. 

[234] Annals of Ulster, 1119.2, p. 563. 

[235] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 271. 

[236] Annals of Tigernach II, pp. 284 and 285. 

[237] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 

[238] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 302. 

[239] Annals of Ulster, 1088.6, p. 523. 

[240] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 330. 

[241] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 343. 

[242] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 351. 

[243] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 352. 

[244] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 396. 

[245] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 376. 

[246] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 414. 

[247] Annals of Ulster, 1186.8, p. 209. 

[248] Annals of Ulster, 1199.1, p. 231. 

[249] Annals of Inisfallen, 1120.3, p. 279. 

[250] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 398. 

[251] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 415. 

[252] Oliver, J. R. (ed.) (1860) Monumenta de Insula Manniæ, Vol. I (Douglas, Isle of Man), Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum, p. 161. 

[253] Annals of Ulster, 1189.1, p. 215. 

[254] Annals of Ulster, 1196.3, p. 223. 

[255] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 423. 

[256] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 424. 

[257] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 426. 

[258] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 439. 

[259] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 442. 

[260] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 443. 

[261] Annals of Ulster, 1177.3, p. 187. 

[262] Annals of Ulster, 1177.3, p. 187. 

[263] Annals of Inisfallen, 1121.2, p. 279. 

[264] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 345.  

[265] Annals of Ulster, 1122-4, p. 567. 

[266] Annals of Inisfallen, 1129.10, p. 293. 

[267] Annals of Inisfallen, 1130.6, p. 295. 

[268] Annals of Inisfallen, 1129.13, p. 293. 

[269] Annals of the Four Masters 923.3, p. 613. 

[270] Annals of Ulster, 923.6, p. 375. 

[271] Annals of Inisfallen, 923.2, p. 149. 

[272] Annals of Ulster, 908.3, p. 357. 

[273] Annals of the Four Masters 923.3, p. 613. 

[274] Annals of Inisfallen, 925.1, p. 149. 

[275] Annals of Ulster, 925.4, p. 377. 

[276] Annals of the Four Masters 923.6, p. 613. 

[277] Annals of Ulster, 925.5, p. 377. 

[278] Annals of the Four Masters 923.6, p. 613. 

[279] Annals of Inisfallen, 956.1, p. 155. 

[280] Annals of Ulster, 973.1, p. 411. 

[281] Annals of Inisfallen, 973.4, p. 161. 

[282] Annals of the Four Masters 1009.9, p. 761. 

[283] Annals of the Four Masters 965.11, p. 689. 

[284] Annals of Ulster, 967.3, p. 407. 

[285] Annals of Inisfallen, 973.4, p. 161. 

[286] Annals of the Four Masters 971.9, p. 697. 

[287] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 236. 

[288] Annals of Ulster, 928.3, p. 379. 

[289] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 236. 

[290] Annals of the Four Masters 944.8, p. 655. 

[291] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 238. 

[292] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 238. 

[293] Annals of Inisfallen, 988.2, p. 167. 

[294] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 268. 

[295] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 257. 

[296] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 240. 

[297] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 268. 

[298] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 274. 

[299] Annals of Ulster, 1051.3, p. 490. 

[300] Annals of Ulster, 1063.1, p. 501. 

[301] Annals of Ulster, 1010.1, p. 442. 

[302] Annals of the Four Masters 1009.9, p. 761. 

[303] Annals of the Four Masters 1008.6, p. 761. 

[304] Annals of Ulster, 1009.8, p. 441. 

[305] Annals of the Four Masters 1014.22, p. 785. 

[306] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 255. 

[307] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 261. 

[308] Annals of the Four Masters 1030.12, p. 819. 

[309] Annals of the Four Masters 1014.19, p. 783. 

[310] Annals of the Four Masters 1009.10, p. 763. 

[311] Annals of Ulster, 1010.7, p. 442. 

[312] Annals of the Four Masters 1012.6, p. 767. 

[313] Annals of the Four Masters 1014.22, p. 785. 

[314] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 260. 

[315] Annals of Inisfallen, 1028.6, p. 197. 

[316] Annals of Ulster, 1029.3, p. 468. 

[317] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 261. 

[318] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 323. 

[319] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 267. 

[320] Annals of Inisfallen, 1037.8, p. 203. 

[321] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 301. 

[322] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 323. 

[323] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 323. 

[324] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 270. 

[325] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 283. 

[326] Annals of Inisfallen, 1061.8, p. 221. 

[327] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 294. 

[328] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 297. 

[329] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 295. 

[330] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 307. 

[331] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 318. 

[332] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 307. 

[333] Annals of Inisfallen, 1082.2, p. 237. 

[334] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 319. 

[335] Annals of Tigernach II, Continuation, p. 319. 

[336] Annals of Inisfallen, 1093.6, p. 245.