JERUSALEM, kings

  v2.1 Updated 19 March 2012

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            KINGS of JERUSALEM 1100-1225. 4

A.       KINGS of JERUSALEM 1100-1118 (COMTES de BOULOGNE) 4

GODEFROI, BAUDOUIN I 1100-1118. 4

B.       KINGS of JERUSALEM 1118-1131 (COMTES de RETHEL) 9

BAUDOUIN II 1118-1131. 10

C.      KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1131-1192 (ANJOU, MONFERRATO, LUSIGNAN) 14

MELISENDE 1131-1161, BAUDOUIN III 1143-1163. 14

AMAURY I 1163-1174, BAUDOUIN IV 1161-1185, BAUDOUIN V 1183-1186, SIBYLLE 1186-1190, GUY I 1186-1192. 17

D.      KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1192-1225 (COUNTS of CHAMPAGNE) 23

ISABELLE 1192-1206, HENRI 1192-1197, AMAURY II 1198-1205, MARIE 1206-1212, JEAN 1210-1225, YOLANDE 1225-1228. 23

E.       KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1210-1225 (COMTES de BRIENNE) 32

JEAN 1210-1225, ISABELLE 1225-1228. 32

Chapter 2.            UNALLOCATED NOBLE PARTICIPANTS in the FIRST CRUSADE. 38

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The leaders of the First Crusade who answered the call to arms issued by Pope Urban II in 1095 were mainly "second tier" nobility in western Europe.  They included Bohémond of Apulia and his cousin Tancred, Godefroi de Bouillon Duke of Lower Lotharingia and his brother Baudouin de Boulogne, Robert Count of Flanders, Robert III Duke of Normandy, Hugues "le Maisné" Comte de Vermandois and Raymond "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse.  Their noble followers were from even further down the social scale of nobility.  As a demonstration of this last statement, Chapter 2 of the present document includes a selection of noble participants in the First Crusade who are named by Albert of Aix and who have not yet been connected to the noble families who are shown in Medieval Lands.  The crusaders were probably motivated by the desire for glory, the wish to escape from domestic difficulties, and maybe some religious conviction.  The wives and families of the early crusaders are rarely named in contemporary sources.  Baudouin de Boulogne and Raymond Comte de Toulouse are exceptions[1], but indirect references (especially in Albert of Aix) suggest that a considerable band of family members and other followers may have accompanied the crusading armies.  In particular, Albert of Aix records that the skirmish with "ducem Nichitam principem Bulgarorum" after the crusaders left "urbem Nizh", during their passage through Hungary, during the course of which "matronas, puellas, pueros" were abducted by the attackers and held captive "in terra Bulgariæ usque in presentem diem"[2]

 

The success of the First Crusade meant that the rulers of the newly established territories (Antioch, Edessa, Tripoli, and the kingdom of Jerusalem itself) consolidated for themselves a "first tier" position in the international European scene.  The process was presumably helped by the numerous reports of their activities written by contemporary chroniclers which circulated in the west.  This prominence is reflected in the marriages which were arranged, for instance those of Bohémond I Prince of Antioch and his cousin Tancred with two daughters of Philippe I King of France.  Their renown attracted the participation of a higher level of nobility in the Second and Third Crusades.  This level of authority was maintained throughout the 12th and early part of the 13th centuries, as shown by the consultation with Philippe II King of France regarding the marriage of Marie Queen of Jerusalem in 1208 as well as the marriage of Emperor Friedrich II with Yolande Queen of Jerusalem in 1225.  It is also demonstrated by the frequent mention of the participation of the kings of England, France and Germany in relation to political affairs in the Levant in the contemporary chronicles, particular those of William of Tyre (Continuator) and Matthew Paris. 

 

The First Crusade anticipated a theocratic state in Palestine[3].  The kingship of Jerusalem which the crusaders founded was elective, although the title normally passed along the line of hereditary succession.  When the natural successor was a woman, her husband was normally elected king but he was regarded as deriving his rights from his wife[4].  The first ruler of Jerusalem, Godefroi de Bouillon, did not adopt the title king, which was at the time considered presumptuous.  Such scruples quickly vanished, and his brother and successor was crowned King Baudouin I by the patriarch of Jerusalem at the end of 1100.  The dynasties which ruled in Jerusalem were not good at producing male heirs.  Five Queens of Jerusalem ruled during the hundred years between 1131 and 1228, the choice of husbands for the heiresses being the subject of considerable political manœuvring. 

 

The kingdom of Jerusalem passed to Emperor Friedrich II after his marriage to the daughter of Jean de Brienne.  The titular right to the kingdom passed to his grandson Konradin von Hohenstaufen, but after he was executed in 1268 the right to the kingdom passed to Hugues III de Lusignan King of Cyprus, although this was opposed by his cousin Marie of Antioch.  Her claim was dismissed by the High Court of Jerusalem[5].  Hugues was crowned as king of Jerusalem at Tyre in 1269[6].  He landed at Acre in 1271, but was actively opposed by the Knights Templars.  In Oct 1276, he left the city for Tyre, from where he appointed Balian Ibelin as bailly at Acre, and returned to Cyprus[7].  After his departure, Acre came under the control of Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], who had bought Marie of Antioch's titular rights to the kingdom of Jerusalem[8].  King Hugues made two unsuccessful attempts to reassert his authority over the kingdom of Jerusalem in 1279 and 1281[9].  The right to Jerusalem passed to his sons, his younger son Henri II landing at Acre in 1286.  He regained control of the kingdom and was crowned king of Jerusalem at Tyre 15 Aug 1286.  He returned to Cyprus in [Sep/Oct] 1286, leaving Baudouin Ibelin as bailly[10].  King Henri returned to Acre in May 1289 and negotiated a ten year and ten months peace with Sultan Qalawun.  However, a riot in the city in Aug 1290 resulted in Muslim/Christian clashes, which provoked Sultan al-Ashraf's siege of Acre which lasted from 6 Apr 1291 until the city fell 18 May 1291[11].  After the fall of Acre, the kingdom of Jerusalem continued to maintain a fictive separate existence, with the kings of Cyprus appointing officers of this separate "state".  The town of Famagusta on the east coast of the island of Cyprus was assimilated into the state of Jerusalem, adopted its arms, and was the location for the coronation of each successive king of Cyprus as king of Jerusalem until it fell to the Genoese in 1373[12]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of JERUSALEM 1100-1225

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of JERUSALEM 1100-1118 (COMTES de BOULOGNE)

 
 

GODEFROI, BAUDOUIN I 1100-1118

 

1.         GODEFROI de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE II "Gernobadatus" Comte de Boulogne & his second wife Ida of Lower Lotharingia ([1060]-in Palestine 18 Jul 1100, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre[13]).  "Godefridi et Balduini" are named as sons of "Ida comitisse Boloniensis" in the latter's charter for the soul of her husband[14].  Godefroi´s birth date is estimated on the basis of his being an adolescent when designated heir by his maternal uncle, and from the estimated birth date range of his mother.  William of Tyre records "Godefridus Lotharingiæ dux" as brother of Baudouin and Eustache, and son of Comte Eustache and of Ida sister of Godefroi "Struma" Duke of Lotharingia[15].  Godefroi was designated as heir by his maternal uncle, on whose death in 1076 he inherited the county of Verdun, the allods of Stenay and Mouzay, and the castle of Bouillon with its dependencies.  He was most often known as "GODEFROI de Bouillon", after this inherited castle.  The inheritance was disputed by many parties.  Theoderic Bishop of Verdun seized the opportunity to end the hereditary succession in the county of Verdun by bestowing it on Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, who granted it to Albert III Comte de Namur as guardian of her interests in Lotharingia.  The emperor conferred the duchy of Lotharingia on his infant son Konrad, with Albert III Comte de Namur as vice-duke, although the Annalista Saxo records that he created Godefroi as Markgraf van Antwerpen in "Traiecti" at Easter 1076[16].  When Konrad was crowned as king of Germany in 1087, Godefroi de Boulogne was installed as GODEFROI IV Duke of Lower Lotharingia[17].  Some time following Pope Urban II's call to liberate Jerusalem issued at the Council of Clermont in Auvergne 27 Nov 1095, Godefroi resolved to join the crusade.  Leader of the Lotharingian contingent in the First Crusade in 1096, he sold his estates of Rosay and Stenay on the River Meuse and pledged the castle of Bouillon to the Bishop of Liège to fund the expedition[18], although he retained the title Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  Albert of Aix records that "Godefridus dux regni Lotharingiæ…fraterque eius uterinus Baldewinus, Warnerus de Greis cognatus ipsius Ducis, Baldewinus pariter de Burch, Reinhardus comes de Tul, Petrus…frater ipsius, Dodo de Cons, Henricus de Ascha ac frater illius Godefridus" left for Jerusalem in Aug 1096[19].  After arriving outside Constantinople at Selymbria in Dec 1096, his army ravaged the countryside.  Relations between the crusaders and Emperor Alexios I were tense, and Godefroi attacked Constantinople in Apr 1097.  His troops were defeated by an imperial force, and Godefroi was obliged to swear allegiance to the emperor on Easter Sunday and agree that the emperor should become overlord of any new principalities founded by the crusaders, also conceding that any land captured which had previously belonged to the empire should be handed back to Byzantium[20].  The crusading army reached Jerusalem 7 Jun 1099.  Bar Hebræus records that "les Francs" captured Jerusalem "le vendredi 23 cha'ban" in A.H. 492 (15 Jul 1099) and spent a week killing the Muslims[21].  The electoral council chose Godefroi as ruler of Jerusalem 22 Jul 1099, and after considerable debate about the correct title to adopt, he became GODEFROI "princeps" of Jerusalem[22].  Murray highlights that the evidence concerning the alleged title "advocatus Sancti Sepulcri" is based on a single letter written in Laodicea in [Sep/Oct] 1099 to Daibert Archbishop of Pisa[23].  The whole issue of Godefroi's title is discussed at length by Riley-Smith and Murray[24].  Whatever the interest of this debate, its practical importance was swept aside when Godefroi's brother was crowned "King of Jerusalem" within a year.  The crusaders' control over Jerusalem was strengthened by their defeat of the Fatimid army from Egypt in the plain of al-Majdal 11 Aug 1099[25].  Arnoul de Choques was elected Patriarch of Jerusalem 1 Aug 1099, but was deposed in Dec 1099 and compensated with the position of Archdeacon of Jerusalem.  He was replaced by Daibert Archbishop of Pisa, who had recently arrived in Jerusalem accompanied by Bohémond Prince of Antioch and Baudouin Count of Edessa.  Godefroi was confirmed as ruler in Jerusalem at Christmas 1099 by Patriarch Daibert[26].  At that time, the territory of the kingdom was limited to two separated areas, Judea (with Jerusalem itself, Bethlehem, Jericho and Hebron) and a small coastal strip around Jaffa, Lydda and Ramla.  Despite Godefroi's depleted military resources following the departure of most of the surviving crusaders, plans to expand his territory were in full swing with the siege of Acre when Godefroi died.  Albert of Aix records the death of "duce et nobilissimo Christi athleta" and his burial "in valle Golgatha Calvariæ montis"[27].  In defiance of Patriarch Daibert, Godefroi's household, under the leadership of his kinsman Warner de Grez [Gray], assured the succession of his brother Baudouin by seizing the citadel of Jerusalem.  Despite Warner's death 22 Jul 1100, this show of defiance continued into the Autumn when Robert Bishop of Lydda retrieved Baudouin from Edessa to secure his succession.  According to Matthew of Edessa, Godefroi was poisoned[28]

2.         BAUDOUIN de Boulogne ([1063/68]-Al-Arish 2 Apr 1118, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  "Godefridi et Balduini" are named as sons of "Ida comitisse Boloniensis" in the latter's charter for the soul of her husband[29].  Baudouin´s birth date range is estimated on the basis of his being knighted [before 1086].  William of Tyre and the Chronicle of Baldwin III both record him as brother of Godefroi and Eustache[30].  Albert of Aix records that "Godefridus dux regni Lotharingiæ…fraterque eius uterinus Baldewinus, Warnerus de Greis cognatus ipsius Ducis, Baldewinus pariter de Burch, Reinhardus comes de Tul, Petrus…frater ipsius, Dodo de Cons, Henricus de Ascha ac frater illius Godefridus" left for Jerusalem in Aug 1096[31].  As there is no indication of a second marriage of their mother, this indication ("fraterque eius uterinus") that the brothers may not have shared the same father should probably be dismissed.  It is probable that Baudouin was youngest of the three brothers: he is always referred to after his brother Godefroi, and it is unlikely that Eustache would have succeeded to the paternal inheritance if he had been younger than Baudouin.  Canon at Cambrai, Reims and Liège, he left the church to become a knight probably before 1086 when, together with his brother Eustache, he organised military support for their brother Godefroi who was besieged at Stenay.  Baudouin was granted the county of Verdun in 1095 by Richer Bishop of Verdun, to whom Godefroi had surrendered the county while raising funds for his participation in the crusade.  It is likely that he was recognised, although not formally, as his brother Godefroi's heir to the duchy of Lower Lotharingia[32].  Albert of Aix records that Kálmán King of Hungary demanded "Baldewinum fratrem ipsius ducis…uxorem quoque familiam eius" as hostages while the crusading army crossed through Hungary[33].  While marching across Cilicia, Baudouin took control of Tarsus, recently captured from the Turks by Tancred, nephew of Bohémond of Apulia[34].  Baudouin later relieved the Armenian population of Edessa, and established control over the town in Feb 1098, which provided the Lotharingian crusading contingent with a vital fresh source of supplies and income.  Baudouin was adopted as son and heir by Thoros Lord of Melitene and Edessa, who was immediately overthrown and murdered.  He was installed as BAUDOUIN Count of Edessa 10 Mar 1098.  With the treasure found in Edessa, he was able to extend his territories considerably by purchasing the neighbouring emirate of Samosata from the Turkish Emir Balduk[35].  Receiving news of the death of his brother Godefroi, Baudouin arrived in Jerusalem [9] Nov 1100, and was crowned as BAUDOUIN I King of Jerusalem by Patriarch Daibert at the church of the Nativity, Bethelehem, on Christmas Day 1100[36].  During his reign, the Muslim coastal cities and the inland border area of Transjordan were gradually conquered.  He captured Arsuf (1101), Caesarea (1101), Acre (1104), Sidon (1110), and Beirut (1110).  Baudouin was taken ill while campaigning against the Fatimids in Egypt.  Albert of Aix records that Baudouin appointed "fratri Eustachio" as his successor on his deathbed if he would come to Jerusalem, or if he failed to come "Baldewinus de Burg"[37].  Albert of Aix records in detail the ceremonials which followed his death and his burial "juxta fratris uterini Godefridi…in loco Calvariæ, in vestibulo templi Dominici"[38]m firstly (in England [1090/1096]) [as her second husband,] GODECHILDE de Tosny, [repudiated wife[39] of ROBERT de Beaumont-le-Roger Comte de Meulan,] daughter of RAOUL [III] de Tosny Seigneur de Conches & his wife Isabelle de Montfort [l'Amaury] (-Germanicea, Cilicia Oct 1097).  Her parentage is specified by Orderic Vitalis, who also records her two marriages and her brothers Roger and Ralph[40].  According to the Complete Peerage, her first marriage is "highly improbable" as Godechilde was still a young girl when she married Baudouin de Boulogne in 1096[41], although it cannot be dismissed entirely as infant marriages were by no means unknown at the time.  Orderic Vitalis makes no mention of any annulment of her alleged first marriage: it is possible that it went no further than a contract of betrothal.  She left with her husband on crusade in 1096.  Albert of Aix records that Kálmán King of Hungary demanded "Baldewinum fratrem ipsius ducis…uxorem quoque familiam eius" as hostages while the crusading army crossed through Hungary[42].  William of Tyre records the death of "Gutueram" wife of Baudouin Count of Edessa at Maresia, and her burial there[43].  Albert of Aix records the death "in regione Meresc" of "uxor Baldewini…quam de regno Angliæ ortam eduxit…Godwera" and her burial there, dated to late 1097 from the context[44]m secondly ([1098/1100], repudiated [1102/08]) secondly [ARDA], daughter of TAPHNUZ [Tafroc] Ruler of Marash [Armenia] & his wife --- (-Constantinople after 1117).  William of Tyre records Count Baudouin's second marriage with the daughter of Tafroc, although he does not name her[45].  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinum frater ducis Godefridi" married "de genere Armenico…filiam…principis et fratris Constentini…Taphnuz" who appointed Baudouin as his heir, dated to late 1098[46].  According to Murray, her name is not given in any medieval sources but has been applied to her in "modern scholarship"[47].  According to Rüdt-Collenberg[48], Arda was the daughter of Thoros, brother of Constantine Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The marriage was arranged as part of her future husband's policy of integration with the Armenian population after his installation as count of Edessa[49].  Her father promised a dowry of 60,000 bezants on her marriage, of which only 7,000 bezants was paid.  She joined her husband in Jerusalem after his accession as king, but was repudiated on the grounds of alleged adultery and obliged to become a nun at the convent of St Anne at Jerusalem.  She was subsequently allowed to join her father in Constantinople where, according to William of Tyre, "she took to evil ways"[50].  Her date of death is not known, but she presumably died after 1117 as, according to Albert of Aix, her existence at that date provided her husband with the grounds for repudiating his third wife Adelaida del Vasto[51]m thirdly (Acre Sep 1113, repudiated 1117) ADELAIDA del Vasto, widow of ROGER I Count of Sicily, daughter of MANFREDO del Vasto Marchese di Savona [Monferrato] & his wife --- ([1072]-Palermo 16 Apr 1118, bur Patti, Convent of San Salvatore).  Fulcher of Chartres specifies that King Baudouin married the widow of Roger Count of Sicily and names her "Adelaidis" in a later passage[52].  Albert of Aix records the marriage at Acre of King Baudouin to the widow of "Rotgeri ducis Siciliæ, fratris Boemundi", describing in detail the magnificence of her suite, dated to [1113] from the context[53].  Her origin is confirmed by Malaterra who records the marriage of "comes Rogerus" and "Adelaydem…neptem Bonifacii…Italorum marchionis, filiam…fratris eius", dating the event to 1089[54].  According to Houben[55], she was "barely 15" on her first marriage, although if this is correct her assumed birth year would be earlier or later than [1072] depending on the actual year of the marriage.  As a condition of her second marriage, she insisted that her son by her first marriage, Roger Count of Sicily, would become heir to Jerusalem if the second marriage produced no other heir[56].  Albert of Aix records that Arnoul Patriarch of Jerusalem ordered the king to repudiate his wife "propter adulterium" in relation to his "prima conjuge, de orta de principibus Armeniæ", implying that the former wife was still alive when the king remarried, but adds that the king was also accused of consanguinity with his wife who was "ortæ de sanguine Gallorum", whereupon his wife returned to Sicily[57].  A further difficulty was presumably the possibility of the crown of Jerusalem passing to the count of Sicily, in accordance with the arrangements made at the time of the marriage, but this is not mentioned by Albert of Aix.  Fulcher records her death in Sicily in April immediately after recording the death of King Baudouin[58].  The Annales Siculi record the death in 1118 of "Adelasia regina Ierosolimitana mater regis Rogerii"[59]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of JERUSALEM 1118-1131 (COMTES de RETHEL)

 

 

Fulcher and William of Tyre state that Baudouin II was consanguineus of Baudouin I King of Jerusalem[60], without giving details of the precise relationship.  Albert of Aix records him as "cognatus" of Duke Godefroi[61].  These sources, and the various conclusions to be drawn from them, are discussed at length in Murray[62].  Three possibilities have been proposed:

 

 

 

 

As can be seen, there is little substance to any of these theories and insufficient basis for deciding that any one might be preferable. 

 

 

BAUDOUIN II 1118-1131

 

BAUDOUIN de Rethel, son of HUGUES [I] Comte de Rethel & his wife Mélisende de Montlhéry ([1075/80]-Jerusalem 21 Aug 1131, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  William of Tyre names "Balduinus cognominatus de Burgo, domini Hugonis comitis de Retest filius" and records him as "consanguineus" of Godefroi Duke of Lower Lotharingia and his brothers Baudouin and Eustache[67].  In a later passage, William of Tyre names his mother and records that he was "primogenitus"[68], although the inheritance by his brothers of the paternal county seems to indicate that this is incorrect, unless he was passed over by family agreement either because of his absence in Palestine or his already superior position as Count of Edessa.  His birth date range is estimated assuming that he was an adolescent or young adult when he joined the First Crusade.  He was known as "BAUDOUIN du Bourg".  Albert of Aix records that "Godefridus dux regni Lotharingiæ…fraterque eius uterinus Baldewinus, Warnerus de Greis cognatus ipsius Ducis, Baldewinus pariter de Burch, Reinhardus comes de Tul, Petrus…frater ipsius, Dodo de Cons, Henricus de Ascha ac frater illius Godefridus" left for Jerusalem in Aug 1096[69].  Albert of Aix records that "Cononem comitem de Monte Acuto, Baldwinum de Burch, Godefridum de Ascha" were sent by Godefroi de Bouillon for the first meeting with the emperor after the arrival of the crusading army in Constantinople, dated to end 1096[70].  He joined the crusading contingent of Godefroi IV Duke of Lower Lotharingia in Cilicia.  After completing his pilgrimage, he returned to Edessa to rejoin Baudouin I Count of Edessa [Boulogne].  When the latter succeeded his brother in 1100 as Baudouin I King of Jerusalem, he invested Baudouin du Bourg as BAUDOUIN II Count of Edessa, as vassal of the kingdom of Jerusalem[71].  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinus dux civitatis Rohas" installed "Baldewino de Burg…sui generis, filio comitis Hugonis de Rortest" at Edessa on succeeding to the kingdom of Jerusalem, dated to 1100 from the context[72].  Count Baudouin married the daughter of Gabriel, Armenian Lord of Melitene, in order to consolidate his position in Edessa.  He was captured with Joscelin de Courtenay by Soqman, Ortokid Prince of Mardin, after the battle of Harran in 1104, but was released in 1107 in exchange for Joscelin de Courtenay who had allowed himself to be recaptured to ensure Baudouin's freedom[73].  During his imprisonment Tancred was appointed regent of Edessa, followed by Richard of the Principate [Sicily] after Tancred assumed the role of regent of Antioch[74].  Baudouin had to evict Richard forcibly to regain Edessa in 1108 following his release[75].  He captured more territory in Cilician Armenia by expelling the Armenian lords Vasil Dgha from Rabun and Kaisun in 1116 and Constantine from Gargar in 1117[76].  Albert of Aix records that Baudouin appointed "fratri Eustachio" as his successor on his deathbed if he would come to Jerusalem, or if he failed to come "Baldewinus de Burg"[77].  Despite being the fallback choice of his predecessor, he was unanimously elected by the council to succeed and was crowned 14 Apr 1118[78] as BAUDOUIN II King of Jerusalem by Arnoul Patriarch of Jerusalem.  In Aug 1119, Baudouin marched to relieve Antioch after the defeat of Roger Prince of Antioch by Najm al-Din Ilghazi ibn Artuk, Turkish emir in north Syria, at the "Ager Sanguinis" and was victorious at Zerdana.  He assumed the position of regent of Antioch for the rightful prince Bohémond II who was still in Toulouse[79] and who did not arrive in Palestine until 1126.  King Baudouin II returned to Jerusalem to be crowned 25 Dec 1119.  He was obliged to increase his time spent in the north to defend Antioch which was attacked in 1120 and 1122.  This was unpopular in Jerusalem, where unrest increased after Pons Count of Tripoli renounced his allegiance to King Baudouin in 1122.  The king was captured 18 Apr 1123 by Artukid forces and imprisoned in the fortress of Khartpert.  The Frankish prisoners seized control of the fortress in Aug 1123, but it was recaptured by Balak and King Baudouin was moved to Harran.  He was released 29 Aug 1124 on payment of a ransom, but did not return to Jerusalem until Apr 1125[80].  During his absence, Eustache Granarius Lord of Sidon and Caesarea was appointed Constable of the kingdom, and was succeeded in 1123 by Guillaume de Bures[81].  King Baudouin's armies defeated a Fatimid invasion, preventing the recapture of Jaffa in May 1123, and captured Tyre 7 Jul 1124 after a five month siege.  While King Baudouin II was held captive, a faction in Jerusalem which was hostile to the king offered the throne of Jerusalem to Charles "the Good" Count of Flanders [Denmark], who refused the offer[82].  King Baudouin's forces made a major push northwards in 1129 to capture more territory, but failed to capture Damascus[83].  When dying, he became a monk and was admitted as a canon of the Holy Sepulchre[84]

m (1101) MORFIA of Melitene, daughter of GABRIEL Lord of Melitene & his wife ---.  She is named by William of Tyre, who also names her father and specifies his Armenian origin but emphasises his Greek faith, when recording her marriage[85].  This marriage was arranged to consolidate her husband's position as newly installed count of Edessa.  She was crowned as queen of Jerusalem at Bethlehem at Christmas 1119[86]

King Baudouin II & his wife had four children:

1.         MELISENDE of Jerusalem (-11 Sep 1161).  She is named by William of Tyre who also records her parentage[87].  She succeeded her father in 1131 as MELISENDE Queen of Jerusalem.   

-        see below

2.         ALIX of Jerusalem ([1110]-after 1136).  She is named "Haalis" by William of Tyre who records her parentage and also her marriage in Autumn 1126[88].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis la fille au roy Bauduin de Jerusalem" as wife of "Beymont…prince"[89].  Her marriage was arranged when her father became regent of Antioch, on behalf of her future husband, in 1119.  The marriage took place when her father invested her husband as Prince of Antioch on his arrival at Antioch in Oct 1126[90].  Her husband settled Latakieh and Jabala on Alix as her dower[91].  She assumed the regency of Antioch in Feb 1130 for her infant daughter immediately on the death of her husband, without waiting for her father to appoint a regent.  To protect her position, she sent an envoy to Zengi atabeg of Aleppo requesting him to become her overlord provided he guaranteed her continued possession of Antioch, but the envoy was intercepted by King Baudouin.  When the king entered the city in May 1130, he removed his daughter from the regency and banished her to Latakieh and Jabala.  King Baudouin assumed the regency himself, leaving Joscelin de Courtenay Count of Edessa as guardian in Antioch when he returned to Jerusalem[92].  After her father's death in 1131, she reasserted her claim to the regency of Antioch, but her forces were defeated by Foulques d'Anjou King of Jerusalem[93].  She was allowed to return to Antioch in 1135, but forced into exile in May 1136.  m (Betrothed 1119, Autumn 1126) BOHEMOND II Prince of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND I Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance de France ([1107/08]-killed in battle near Anazarbus, Cilicia Feb 1130).  His parentage is recorded by William of Tyre and Orderic Vitalis[94]

3.         HODIERNE of Jerusalem ([1118 or after]-after 1152).  She is named by William of Tyre who also records her parentage[95].  He records her marriage in a later passage, in which he says that she was her father's second daughter[96], although if this is correct it is unclear why she would not have been chosen as bride for Bohemond of Antioch in place of her younger sister.  A headstrong person, her husband attempted to keep her in a state of seclusion.  "Raimundus Tripolitanus comes et Hodierna coniux mee…Tripolis comitissa, regis Iherusalem filia" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated Jan 1140[97].  Her sister Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem visited Tripoli in 1152 in an attempt to negotiate a reconciliation between the couple.  Hodierne and her sister left for Jerusalem together, but returned after learning of the murder of Count Raymond.  Ctss Hodierne assumed the regency in Tripoli in the name of her son, with Baudouin III King of Jerusalem as guardian[98].  m (1131) RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of PONS Count of Tripoli & his wife Cécile de France ([1117]-murdered Tripoli 1152).  He succeeded his father 1137 as RAYMOND II Count of Tripoli

4.         JUDITH [Yvette] of Jerusalem (1119-after 31 Dec 1178).  She is named "Iveta" by William of Tyre who also records her parentage and that she was born after her father´s accession (only in the Latin text: the version in old French implies that it was Hodierna who was the daughter who was born after their father's accession)[99].  Her sister Queen Mélisende installed her as abbess of the convent of St Lazarus, which she had founded at Bethany in 1143[100].  "Joeta, abbatissa S. Lazari de Bethania" exchanged property by charter dated 1157[101].  Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem confirmed the privileges of "Judithæ filiæ Balduini II abbatissæ S. Lazari de Bethania" by charter dated 31 Dec 1178[102]

 
 
 

C.      KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1131-1192 (ANJOU, MONFERRATO, LUSIGNAN)

 

 

MELISENDE 1131-1161, BAUDOUIN III 1143-1163

 

MELISENDE of Jerusalem, daughter of BAUDOUIN II King of Jerusalem & his wife Morfia of Melitene (-11 Sep 1161).  She is named by William of Tyre who also records her parentage[103].  In 1127, her father sent Guillaume de Bures and Guy Brisebarre to France to offer her hand in marriage to Foulques V Comte d'Anjou as part of his plan for her eventual succession to the throne of Jerusalem[104].  "Milisenda filia regis…" subscribed the charter dated Mar 1128 under which "Balduinus…rex Iherusalem Latinorum secundus" granted privileges to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem[105].  She succeeded her father in 1131 as MELISENDE Queen of Jerusalem, crowned with her husband 14 Sep 1131.  She founded the convent of St Lazarus at Bethany in 1143, and installed her sister Yvette as abbess[106].  After her husband's death, she and her son Baudouin were crowned as king and queen together 25 Dec 1144, but Queen Melisende assumed the government of the kingdom herself.  She took as her adviser her first cousin Manassès de Hierges, Constable of Jerusalem[107].  She was in open breach with her son after he was crowned again as an adult in 1151, without informing his mother.  A council agreed that he would rule in Galilee and the northern part of the kingdom, while Mélisende retained Jerusalem and Nablus.  King Baudouin demanded Jerusalem from her but she refused.  He captured Constable Manassès at his castle of Mirabel in 1152 and expelled him from Palestine, after which his mother was obliged to yield Jerusalem[108].  Queen Mélisende presided over a council of regency in 1157 while her son was absent from Jerusalem on campaign[109]

m (2 Jun 1129[110]) as his second wife, FOULQUES V Comte d'Anjou, son of FOULQUES IV Comte d'Anjou & his fifth wife Bertrade de Montfort (1092-Acre 13 Nov 1144).  He left France in early 1129, resigning the county of Anjou to his older son by his first marriage, and landed at Acre in May 1129 before travelling to Jerusalem for his second marriage[111].  He was crowned as FOULQUES King of Jerusalem 14 Sep 1131, by right of his wife.  He imposed himself as regent of Antioch after his sister-in-law Alix Ctss of Antioch attempted to reassert her right to the regency after the death of her father.  He rescued Pons Count of Tripoli from the Castle of Montferrand in 1133, where he had fled after being ambushed by Turks in the Nosairi Mountains.  He also relieved Antioch which was being threatened by Sawar Governor of Aleppo[112].  Zengi marched on Homs and besieged the castle of Montferrand.  King Foulques went to relieve the siege, but his army was massacred, and he was obliged to seek refuge in the castle which he was eventually obliged to surrender as the price for his own release[113].  He agreed an alliance with Unur of Damascus in 1139 against Zengi atabeg of Aleppo, who was threatening Damascus, and forced the latter's retreat to Aleppo[114].  King Foulques died after being thrown from his horse during a hunting party[115].  The necrology of Angers Cathedral records the death "IV Id Nov" of "Fulco prius Andegavorum comes postea rex Hierusalem"[116]

Queen Mélisende & King Foulques had two children:

1.         BAUDOUIN of Jerusalem (1131-Beirut 10 Feb 1162).  His parentage is specified by William of Tyre, who records him as the older son aged 13 when his father died[117].  He succeeded in 1144 as BAUDOUIN III King of Jerusalem, jointly with his mother.  They were crowned as king and queen together 25 Dec 1144, but his mother assumed the government of the kingdom herself[118].  William of Tyre records the disputes between the two[119], which culminated in Baudouin being crowned again as an adult 2 Apr 1151 at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, without informing his mother with whom he was thereafter in open breach.  A council agreed that he would rule in Galilee and the northern part of the kingdom while his mother retained Jerusalem and Nablus[120].  King Baudouin demanded Jerusalem from her but she refused.  He captured Constable Manassès de Hierges at his castle of Mirabel in 1152 and expelled him from Palestine, and his mother was obliged to yield Jerusalem.  Baudouin appointed Honfroy de Toron as the new Constable[121].  He launched an attack against Ascalon 25 Jan 1153, which surrendered 19 Aug[122].  King Baudouin fell ill while visiting Tripoli, and was moved to Beirut where he died.  According to William of Tyre, it was believed that he was poisoned by the drugs given to him by Barac, doctor of Raymond III Count of Tripoli, who was treating him[123].  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "10 Feb" of "Baldoinus rex"[124]m (Jerusalem [Oct] 1158) THEODORA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos sébastokrator & his second wife Eirene Diplosynadene ([1146]-).  William of Tyre names her, specifies that her father Isaakios was the brother of the emperor, and that she was 13 years old when she married[125].  Ioannes Kinnamos names "imperatoris ex fratre neptis" as the wife of "Balduinus…Palestinæ rex", when recording her husband's death[126].  This marriage was arranged after King Baudouin sent a mission to Constantinople in Summer 1157 to request a bride from the imperial family.  She had a dowry of 100,000 golden hyperperi, and in return was given Acre as her dower.  She arrived in Acre from Constantinople in Sep 1158[127].  After her husband's death, she retired to Acre where she met Andronikos Komnenos, to whom Amaury I King of Jerusalem had recently given the fief of Beirut[128], and lived with him as his mistress at Beirut from 1167.  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Andronic cousin de l´empereur Emmanuel" left Cilicia for Acre where he met "la fille de son frère veuve du roi de Jérusalem" with whom he committed adultery, and went together "à Harran" where their child was born[129].  Niketas Choniates names "Theodora Comnenia, Isaacii sebastocratoris filia" as mistress of "Comnenus Andronicus imperatoris Manuelis patrueli"[130].  Emperor Manuel I demanded the recall of Andronikos, but the couple fled to Damascus and sought refuge with Nur ed-Din.  Thereafter they lived together in various locations in the Muslim world until Andronikos was given a castle in Paphlagonia where they settled.  When they left Palestine, King Amaury I confiscated Acre[131]

2.         AMAURY of Jerusalem (1136-Jerusalem 11 Jul 1174).  His parentage is specified by William of Tyre, who records him as the younger son aged 7 when his father died[132].  He succeeded his brother in 1162 as AMAURY I King of Jerusalem

-        see below

 

 

AMAURY I 1163-1174, BAUDOUIN IV 1161-1185, BAUDOUIN V 1183-1186, SIBYLLE 1186-1190, GUY I 1186-1192

 

AMAURY of Jerusalem, son of FOULQUES King of Jerusalem Comte d'Anjou & his second wife Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem (1136-Jerusalem 11 Jul 1174).  His parentage is specified by William of Tyre, who records him as the younger son aged 7 when his father died[133].  His mother installed him as Count of Jaffa before 1151[134].  His brother installed him as Lord of Ascalon after the city surrendered in Aug 1153[135].  He succeeded his brother in 1162 as AMAURY I King of Jerusalem, his succession being confirmed by election only after the annulment of his marriage[136].  He was crowned 18 Feb 1162 at Jerusalem by Patriarch Amaury[137].  In Sep 1163, King Amaury invaded Egypt on the pretext that the Fatimid Caliphate had failed to pay the annual tribute of 160,000 dinars which had been agreed with his predecessor in 1160.  He was forced to withdraw as the Nile was in flood[138].  He returned to campaign in Egypt in 1164, but hastened back when Nur ed-Din attacked Harenc.  He obtained the release of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, who had been captured by Nur ed-Din at Artah, but not that of Raymond III Count of Tripoli[139].  King Amaury's army was routed in Egypt 18 Mar 1167 and returned to Ascalon 10 Aug[140].  After agreeing an alliance with Byzantium, King Amaury launched another expedition to Egypt and with the help of Andronikos Kontostephanos unsuccessfully laid siege to Damietta in late 1169[141].  King Amaury appointed Milon de Plancy as Seneschal of Jerusalem. 

m firstly ([1158], annulled 1162) as her second husband, AGNES de Courtenay, widow of RENAUD Lord of Marash, daughter of JOSCELIN II de Courtenay Count of Edessa & his wife Béatrice --- (1133-[Sep 1184/1 Feb 1185]).  William of Tyre records that "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni" and his wife "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem" had "filiam" who firstly married "Rainaldi de Mares" and secondly "domini Almarici comitis Joppensis, qui postea fuit Hierosolymatorum rex"[142].  Agnès was unpopular in Jerusalem.  The Patriarch of Jerusalem refused to confirm her marriage as the parties were third cousins, so within the prohibited degrees, and insisted on an annulment as a condition of her husband's succession as king in 1162.  The king agreed, but insisted that the legitimacy and rights of inheritance of his two children be recognised[143].  William of Tyre (Continuator) states[144] that Agnès married thirdly (after 1162) Hugues Ibelin Lord of Rama, and fourthly (before 1171, repudiated before 1174) as his first wife, Renaud Garnier Lord of Sidon.  She returned to the court at Jerusalem when her brother was appointed Seneschal in [1176/77], becoming a domineering influence over her two children[145]

m secondly (29 Aug 1167) as her first husband, MARIA Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos protosébastos & his wife --- Taronitissa (1154-before Oct 1217).  She is named with her father by William of Tyre when he records her marriage to King Amaury[146].  Caffaro records that "rex Amarricus" married secondly after separating from his first wife "Maria neptis imperatoris Manuelis, filiam Iohannis protosauasto…nepos imperatoris Manuelis ex fratre suo" and that they had "filiam unam…Ysabella"[147].  King Amaury sent ambassadors to Constantinople in [1164/65] to ask the emperor for the hand of an imperial princess but received no answer until they landed at Tyre with Maria Komnene in Aug 1167[148].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "una filiarum protosebasti" and the brother of Baudouin III King of Jerusalem[149].  She married secondly (1177) Balian of Ibelin Lord of Nablus.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "la reyne Marie…niece de l'empereur Manuel" as wife of "Belleem de Ybelin"[150].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "relictam regis Almarici…que fuit de Grecia" married "Bethuliani de Guibelin"[151].  She was given Nablus as her dower on her second marriage[152].  "Hugo…rex Cipri" confirmed the grant to the church of Nicosia by "Philippus de Ybellino" for the soul of "domine Marie regine, matris sue" by charter dated Oct 1217[153]

King Amaury & his first wife had two children:

1.         SIBYLLE of Jerusalem ([1160]-Acre [Sep/21 Oct] 1190).  William of Tyre names her and records her parentage[154], specifying that she was her parents' older child born before her father's accession[155].  She was brought up by her great-aunt Yvette Abbess of Bethany[156].  Her father negotiated for her marriage to Etienne de Champagne-Blois Comte de Sancerre, who arrived in Jerusalem in Summer 1171 but quickly broke off negotiations for the marriage and left Palestine for Constantinople[157].  Sibylle was dominated by her mother after the latter returned to court in [1176/77][158].  Her first marriage was probably arranged on the suggestion of Louis VII King of France[159].  The Chronicle of Ernoul suggests her betrothal to Baudouin of Ibelin, although not explicitly, when it records in the same paragraph that "Bauduins de Rames" and "la contesse Sibille de Jaffes et d'Escalonne li seur le roi" were both widowed from their second and first marriages respectively, apparently confirmed in a later passage which states that Sibylle wished to marry him if he was released from prison[160].  Her second marriage was proposed by Amaury de Lusignan, who was possibly her mother's lover and the brother of her future husband[161].  The Chronicle of Ernoul records that Sibylle married her second husband while her betrothed, Baudouin of Ibelin, was in Constantinople requesting Emperor Manuel I to finance the payment of the ransom which had been promised to Saladin as the price for his release from captivity[162].  On the death of her son in 1186, she was proclaimed SIBYLLE Queen of Jerusalem by Joscelin [III] de Courtenay [Edessa], and crowned at Jerusalem by Patriarch Heraclius[163].  She took refuge at Tripoli during Saladin's campaigns against the kingdom in 1187[164].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records her death during the siege of Acre in [Sep/Oct] 1190[165].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1191 records the death "apud Acra" of "Sibilia regis Guodonis uxor cum duabus filiabus"[166]m firstly (Oct 1176) GUGLIELMO "Lungaspada" di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] ([1135/45]-Jun 1177).  William of Tyre names him "dominus Willelmus marcho cognominatus Longaspata filius marchionis Willelmi senioris de Monteferrato" when recording his landing at Sidon in Oct 1176, his marriage a few days later, and installation as Count of Jaffa and Ascalon[167].  Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem confirmed an exchange of property with the prior of the church of the Holy Sepulchre by charter dated 1177, subscribed by "Willelmus Marchisius, comes Ascalonensis et Joppensis"[168].  He died of malaria[169].  [Betrothed ([1179]) to BAUDOUIN of Ibelin Lord of Rama, son of BALIAN of Ibelin Lord of Rama & his wife Helvis --- (1135 or before-[Feb 1186/88]).]  m secondly (Apr 1180) GUY de Lusignan, son of HUGUES VIII "le Brun" Sire de Lusignan & his wife Bourgogne de Rancon (-1194 after 18 Aug, bur Nicosia).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Gaufridum, Henricum regem Cypri et Guidonem regem Ierosolimorum" as brothers of "Hugo de Lisegnen"[170].  William of Tyre names him as son of "Hugonis Bruni" when recording his arrival in Palestine in [1179] and marriage[171].  While still living in France, Guy was proposed by his brother Amaury, who had by then already acquired a position of influence in the kingdom of Jerusalem, as the husband of Sibylle heiress of Jerusalem after the death of her first husband.  Guy arrived in Palestine in 1179, and was installed as Count of Jaffa and Ascalon on his marriage[172].  "Guido Joppensis et Ascalonitanus comes…" subscribed the charter dated 1 Mar 1181 under which Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem granted property to the abbot of Mount Tabor[173].  King Baudouin IV appointed him as regent of Jerusalem in 1182 after the king fell ill at Nazareth, although the king retained personal control over the city of Jerusalem.  Dissatisfied with his performance, the king deposed Guy from the regency 23 Mar 1183 after a quarrel and attempted to bar him from succession to the throne[174].  Guy retired to his counties of Jaffa and Ascalon, throwing off his allegiance to the crown.  King Baudouin seized Jaffa, but Guy continued to defy the king at Ascalon[175].  His wife Sibylle succeeded as Queen of Jerusalem in 1186 after the death of her infant son King Baudouin V.  After her own coronation, she crowned her husband as GUY I King of Jerusalem.  After Saladin's invasion of Galilee in summer 1187, the Christian army was defeated at Hattin 4 Jul 1187, where King Guy was captured.  He was kept in prison at Nablus, later at Lattakieh.  Saladin moved on to capture Ascalon in Sep 1187 and Jerusalem 2 Oct 1187[176].  Saladin released King Guy in Jul 1188, after he promised to abandon the kingdom (an oath he later declared invalid for having been made under duress), and he joined Queen Sibylle at Tripoli[177].  Guy marched from Tripoli to Tyre, hoping to resume control of what remained of the kingdom of Jerusalem, but was refused entry to the city by Corrado di Monferrato.  He made another unsuccessful attempt to enter Tyre in Apr 1189, with help from Pisan and Sicilian forces, but in Aug 1189 marched south to attack Acre[178].  After he was joined in the siege by Corrado di Monferrato, the pair settled their differences and Corrado agreed to recognise Guy as king while continuing to hold Tyre himself, together with Beirut and Sidon[179].  After his wife's death in 1190, King Guy's title to the crown was thrown into doubt.  Balian of Ibelin arranged the marriage of Guy's sister-in-law, Isabelle of Jerusalem, by then heir to the throne, to Corrado di Monferrato, but King Guy refused to abdicate.  After Acre finally capitulated to the Christian siege 12 Jul 1191[180], the European dignitaries decided that Guy should remain as king of Jerusalem for life, after which the crown would pass to Corrado di Monferrato, his wife Isabelle and their issue[181].  However, following further quarrels between the crusader leaders, King Richard called a council in Apr 1192 which decided that Corrado should replace Guy as king[182].  Richard I King of England agreed to sell Cyprus to King Guy, providing a convenient way of removing him from the scene.  Although King Corrado was murdered at the end of April, his widow remarried within a week.  It appears that Guy became involved in a plot with the Pisans to seize Tyre[183], but he left the mainland for Cyprus in early May 1192, installing himself as GUY Lord of Cyprus although he continued to claim the kingdom of Jerusalem until his death in late 1194[184].  Cyprus passed technically under the suzerainty of Emperor Heinrich VI in Feb 1194 when Richard I King of England swore allegiance to the emperor as part of the terms for his release from captivity, the island being considered at the time as an English possession[185].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the death in 1194 of "Guido de Hierusalem" and his burial in "la madre chiesia di Nicossia"[186].  Queen Sibylle & her first husband had one child:

a)         BALDUINO di Monferrato (posthumously late Summer 1177-Acre [end Aug] 1186).  His uncle appointed him as his heir 23 Mar 1183.  He succeeded in 1185 as BAUDOUIN V King of Jerusalem, under the regency of Raymond Count of Tripoli[187].  His death "from illness" at Acre is recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator)[188], the date estimated from the coronation of his successors in mid-September[189]

Queen Sibylle & her second husband had two [maybe four] children:

b)         ALIX de Lusignan (-Acre [Sep/21 Oct] 1190).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names as daughters of Queen Sibylle "Aelis et Marie" when recording their deaths during the same "season" as their mother[190]

c)         MARIE de Lusignan (-Acre [Sep/21 Oct] 1190).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names as daughters of Queen Sibylle "Aelis et Marie" when recording their deaths during the same "season" as their mother190.    

d)         [2 other children.  A continuator of Caffaro states that "mortuis quatuor eorum filiis" when recording the deaths of "rege Guidone et uxore eius Sibilia, filia quondam regis Aymerici"[191].  However, the accuracy of this is uncertain as the passage was clearly written much later, as shown by the inclusion in the text of a reference to the death of Konradin in 1268.] 

2.         BAUDOUIN of Jerusalem (1161-Mar 1185, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  William of Tyre names him and records his parentage[192], specifying that he was his parents' younger child born before his father's accession[193].  He caught leprosy while a child[194].  He succeeded his father in 1174 as BAUDOUIN IV "le Lépreux" King of Jerusalem, crowned 15 Jul 1174 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem.  Raymond Count of Tripoli, as King Baudouin's nearest male relative, was installed as regent in Autumn 1174, after prevarications from Milon de Plancy Seneschal of Jerusalem, who was murdered soon after[195].  Count Raymond was supported by the more traditional elements of society in Palestine and the Knights Hospitallers, and remained as regent until 1177 when the king came of age[196].  In [1176/77], King Baudouin appointed Joscelin [III] de Courtenay [Edessa] as seneschal[197], supported by the more progressive elements in Palestine centred around recent arrivals and the Knights Templar[198].  "Balduinus…in sancta civitate Ierusalem Latinorum rex sextus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated 1177 which names "pater meus rex Amalricus"[199].  He appointed Amaury de Lusignan as Constable of Jerusalem in 1181[200].  After leading a campaign against Damascus in Dec 1182, King Baudouin fell ill at Nazareth and was obliged to appoint his brother-in-law Guy de Lusignan as regent of Jerusalem, although the king retained personal control over the city of Jerusalem.  King Baudouin deposed Guy from the regency 23 Mar 1183 after a quarrel[201].  King Baudouin appointed his nephew as his heir and resumed control of the government himself, although by that time he could neither move without help nor sign his name[202].  Before he died, he appointed Raymond Count of Tripoli as regent for his heir[203]

King Amaury & his second wife had two children:

3.         daughter ([1171]-young).  She is referred to by Runciman[204], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

4.         ISABELLE of Jerusalem (1172-before May 1206).  She is named by William of Tyre (Continuator) who records her parentage and, in a later passage, records her mother's statement at the time of the annulment of her first marriage that Isabelle was only eight years old when that marriage took place[205].  She succeeded her brother-in-law in 1192 as ISABELLE Queen of Jerusalem

-        see below, Part D

 

 

 

D.      KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1192-1225 (COUNTS of CHAMPAGNE)

 

 

ISABELLE 1192-1206, HENRI 1192-1197, AMAURY II 1198-1205, MARIE 1206-1212, JEAN 1210-1225, YOLANDE 1225-1228

 

ISABELLE of Jerusalem, daughter of AMAURY I King of Jerusalem & his second wife Maria Komnene (1172-before May 1206).  She is named by William of Tyre (Continuator) who records her parentage and, in a later passage, records her mother's statement at the time of the annulment of her first marriage that Isabelle was only eight years old when that marriage took place[206].  Caffaro names "filiam unam…Ysabella" as the child of "rex Amarricus" and his second wife "Maria neptis imperatoris Manuelis, filiam Iohannis protosauasto…nepos imperatoris Manuelis ex fratre suo" and that they had[207].  Her first marriage was arranged in 1180 by her half-brother King Baudouin IV in an attempt to heal the breach between the Ibelin and Courtenay families[208].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Hamfrei le tiers" married "la reyne Ysabiau" but that they were separated and that he died without heirs[209].  Raymond Count of Tripoli promoted her candidacy as queen in 1186, when he opposed the succession of her half-sister Queen Sibylle[210].  However, her husband submitted to Queen Sibylle, which put an end to the plan[211].  She became heir to the throne in 1190 after the death of her half-sister Queen Sibylle.  Her first marriage was annulled against her wishes and she was married to her second husband on the advice of her mother[212].  She was crowned in [Jan] 1198 at Acre as ISABELLE Queen of Jerusalem with her fourth husband.  "Aymericus…Jerusalem Latinorum rex nonus et rex Cypri" granted rights to the commune of Marseille, with the consent of "Ysabelis uxoris mee…quamdam regis Amalrici filia", by charter dated Oct 1198[213].  After the death of her fourth husband in Jan 1205, Queen Isabelle assumed personal authority over the government of Jerusalem[214]

m firstly (castle of Kerak Nov 1183, annulled 1190) HONFROY [IV] of Toron, son of HONFROY [III] of Toron & his wife Stephaine de Milly heiress of Oultrejourdain (-after 1190).  William of Tyre names him and his father when recording his marriage[215].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names his mother when recording the annulment of his marriage[216].  A charter dated 1180 records earlier donations by "Guidonem de Miliaco…dominus Philippus Neapolitanus dominusque Guido Francigena et dominus Henricus Bubalus, predicti Guidonis filii" and the present donation by "Reginaldus quondam princeps Anthiochensis…Montisregalis et Hebron dominus" of property to the abbey of Notre-Dame de Josaphat with the consent of "uxor mea Stephania…et Hanfredi prefate dominie Stephanie filii et uxoris eius Elisabeth filie regis Jerusalem"[217], although this is presumably misdated if the date of Honfroy's marriage is correct.  The Chronicle of Ernoul records the marriage of "Hainfrois" and "le serour le roi…Ysabiaus" on the day Saladin started his siege of the castle of Krak[218].  While Raymond Count of Tripoli was promoting Isabelle's candidacy to succeed as queen in 1186, Honfroy submitted to Queen Sibylle and put an end to the plan[219].  He was captured by Saladin when he took Jerusalem 2 Oct 1187, freed by his mother who promised to surrender the castles of Kerak and Montreal but as neither garrisons would obey her order, she returned him to captivity, from which he was released a few months later[220].  The Chronicle of Ernoul records the ecclesiastical annulment of the marriage of Isabelle and Honfroy "que Hainfrois estoit si mauvais qu'il ne poroit le tiere tenir", undated but in passages which deal with events in 1190[221].  After the annulment of his marriage, Isabelle restored to him the fief of Toron[222]

m secondly (Acre 24 Nov 1190) as his third wife, CORRADO di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] ([1145/47]-murdered Tyre 28 Apr 1192).  The Cronica Alberti de Bezanis names "Gullielmus Spatam-longam, Conradum, Bonifacium, Fredericum et Raynerium" as the five sons of "Gulielmus marchio Montisferati" & his wife[223].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him son of "le marquis Boniface", but clarifies this error by specifying that his nephew was king of Jerusalem[224].  He arrived in Constantinople in [1186] and was placed in command of the troops which crushed the rebellion of Theodoros Branas by Emperor Isaakios II, whose sister he married[225].  The Chronicle of Ernoul also records that Corrado was involved in suppressing the rebellion of "Livernas"[226].  He was awarded the title caesar in 1187.  He landed at Tyre 14 Jul 1187.  He took command of the defence of the city against Saladin, who was unable to capture it[227].  He sent Josias Archbishop of Tyre to the Pope in late summer 1187 to inform him of the plight of the kingdom of Jerusalem[228].  He refused to surrender Tyre to Guy de Lusignan King of Jerusalem in 1188 and 1189, but was persuaded by Ludwig III "der Milde" Landgraf von Thüringen to join in King Guy's attack on Acre[229].   During the early part of the siege, he and King Guy settled their differences, Corrado agreeing to recognise Guy as king while Corrado would continue to hold Tyre, Beirut and Sidon[230].  After the death of Queen Sibylle in 1190, Balian of Ibelin and his wife Queen Maria (mother of Isabelle of Jerusalem) considered Corrado a better candidate for the throne of Jerusalem than King Guy.  They therefore engineered his marriage to Isabelle, now heir to the throne, despite the fact that his previous two wives may still both have been alive at the time[231].  After his marriage, Corrado returned to Tyre, refusing to assume the throne of Jerusalem unless King Guy abdicated[232].  After the capitulation of Acre 12 Jul 1191, a meeting of European dignitaries decided that Guy de Lusignan should remain as king of Jerusalem until his death, after which the crown would pass to Corrado, his wife Isabelle and their issue.  Meanwhile Corrado would be Lord of Tyre, Beirut and Sidon, and he and King Guy would share the royal revenues[233].  He succeeded his father in 1191 as CORRADO Marchese di Monferrato.  After further quarrels between the crusader leaders, a council called by Richard I King of England in Apr 1192 decided that Corrado should replace Guy as king of Jerusalem.  His coronation was planned at Acre, but a few days later he was murdered at Tyre, apparently by two Assassins hired by Sheikh Sinan in revenge for an act of piracy against one of his merchant ships[234]

m thirdly (Acre 5 May 1192) HENRI II Comte de Champagne, son of HENRI I "le Libéral" Comte de Champagne & his wife Marie de France (29 Jul 1166-Acre 10 Sep 1197).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Henricus et Theobaldus" as sons of "comes Henricus Trecensis" & his wife[235].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him and specifies that he was nephew of Philippe II King of France[236].  He left on the Third Crusade and was in command of the siege operations at Acre in 1190[237].  After the murder of Corrado di Monferrato, Comte Henri hurried to Tyre, was acclaimed as the suitable candidate to marry Corrado's widow, and within two days his betrothal was announced[238].  He succeeded in 1192 as HENRI King of Jerusalem, by right of his wife, but was never crowned king[239].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Isabella" as wife of "comes Campaniensis Henricus…comes et princeps…in Acra"[240].  Together with Richard I King of England, King Henri signed a five year peace treaty with Saladin 2 Sep 1192, under which the coastal towns as far south as Jaffa were given to the Christians who were also given the right to visit the holy places in Jerusalem[241].  He appointed Jean of Ibelin as Constable of Jerusalem in 1194, considering that Amaury de Lusignan had forfeited the post after his arrest following his support of the Pisan revolt in Tyre[242].  Following the succession of Amaury de Lusignan as Lord of Cyprus in 1194, the two parties planned an alliance, sealed by the betrothal of Amaury's three young sons to King Henri's three young daughters[243].  King Henri died after accidentally falling through a window in his palace[244]

m fourthly (Acre Jan 1198) as his second wife, AMAURY I King of Cyprus, son of HUGUES [VIII] "le Brun" Sire de Lusignan & his wife Bourgogne de Rancon ([1145]-Acre 1 Apr 1205).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Gaufridum, Henricum regem Cypri et Guidonem regem Ierosolimorum" as brothers of "Hugo de Lisegnen"[245].  "…Aimericus de Lisenian…" subscribed a charter dated 13 Dec 1174 under which Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[246], which appears to be the first mention of his name in the Levant.  King Baudouin IV appointed him as Constable of Jerusalem in 1181[247].  He supported the rebellion of the Pisans at Tyre in May 1192, was arrested by Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem, but retired to Jaffa on his release.  King Henri, considering that Amaury had thereby forfeited his office of Constable, appointed Jean of Ibelin as Constable in his place[248].  Amaury's younger brother Guy Lord of Cyprus had bequeathed his authority in Cyprus to their older brother Geoffroy de Lusignan but, as the latter had returned to France in [1192], the Franks in Cyprus summoned Amaury to succeed as Lord of Cyprus in 1194[249].  The rivalry with the kingdom of Jerusalem was suspended when Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem visited Cyprus in 1194, the new alliance being sealed by the betrothal of Amaury's three young sons to Queen Isabelle's three young daughters[250].  According to Edbury, the reconciliation took place in 1197[251].  Amaury did homage to Emperor Heinrich VI, through his ambassador Renier of Jebail, at Gelnhausen in Oct 1195, in return being recognised by the emperor as AMAURY I King of Cyprus.  He was crowned in Sep 1197 at Nicosia, where he did homage once more to the emperor's representative Konrad von Querfurt, Bishop of Hildesheim, who was present at the ceremony as Imperial Chancellor[252].  On the death of Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem in Sep 1197, King Amaury was proposed by the German leaders, headed by Konrad von Wittelsbach Archbishop of Mainz, as the best candidate to become Queen Isabelle's fourth husband.  King Amaury arrived at Acre in Jan 1198, married Isabelle and was crowned with his wife a few days later as AMAURY II King of Jerusalem.  The two kingdoms were linked only by the person of the monarch, as each retained its own administrative identity[253].  After the collapse of the German crusade in early 1198, King Amaury opened negotiations with al-Adil (Saladin's brother) although the six year peace treaty was not signed until Sep 1204, under the terms of which Beirut, Sidon, Jaffa and Ramleh were transferred back to the kingdom of Jerusalem[254].  "Aymericus…Latinorum Jerusalem rex nonus et rex Cipri" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated Mar 1201 which names "frater meus rex Guido"[255].  The Archbishop of Cæsarea records the death "c purificacionem B. Mariæ" of "regis Amalrici II filium" and the death 1 Apr of the king himself, by charter dated [May] 1205[256].  On the death of King Amaury in 1205, the two kingdoms of Jerusalem and Cyprus were separated once more. 

Queen Isabelle & her second husband had one child:

1.         MARIA di Monferrato (Tyre summer 1192-1212).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and specifies her parentage[257].  A continuator of Caffaro records the death in 1192 of "Conrado marchionis Montidferrati" leaving "uxore sua pregnante, ex quo nata est unica filia Maria"[258], which indicates that Maria must have been born in summer 1192, therefore after her mother's second marriage.  She was known as "la Marquise", from her father's rank[259].  She succeeded her mother in 1206 as MARIE Queen of Jerusalem, under the regency of Jean of Ibelin Lord of Beirut[260].  Her marriage was arranged by Philippe II King of France, who gave her husband a dower of 40,000 silver pounds, a sum which was equalled by Pope Innocent III[261].  She was crowned with her husband 3 Oct 1210 at Tyre[262].   William of Tyre (Continuator) records her death in childbirth within two years of her marriage[263]m (14 Sep 1210) as his first wife, JEAN de Brienne, son of ERARD [II] de Brienne & his wife Agnes de Montfaucon (-27 Mar 1237).  He landed at Acre 13 Sep 1210, was married next day and crowned 3 Oct 1210 at Tyre as JEAN King of Jerusalem by Albert Patriarch of Jerusalem[264]

-        see below, Part E. KINGS of JERUSALEM (COMTES de BRIENNE).   

Queen Isabelle & her third husband had three children:

2.         MARIE of Jerusalem (-before 1205).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her as the oldest daughter of Isabelle and her third husband[265].  In a later passage, he specifies that "des filles dou conte Henri estoit morte Marie qui estoit l'ains née", her death as well as that of her betrothed occurring before they reached the age of marriage[266].  The text is unclear about the precise date of her death, but implies that it was before the death of her stepfather.  Although she bore the same first name as her older half-sister, the two passages indicate unequivocally that they were two separate individuals, especially the latter which is included in the chapter which follows the one which records the marriage of the older Marie with Jean de Brienne.  This is confirmed by the Chronicle of Amadi which records that "de la figlie del conte Henrico era morta Maria ch'era primogenita" when recording the marriage of her sister Alix to Hugues I King of Cyprus[267].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Alisica, Filippa e Margarita che morite senza heredi" as the three daughters of "Henrico conte de Campagna" and his wife "Isabella, figliola del re Almerico"[268].  No other reference has been found in other sources to a fourth daughter named Marguerite.  It is therefore assumed that this passage refers to Marie.  The Chronicle of Ernoul records that "li quens Henris…entre lui et se feme" had three daughters and the betrothal arranged between them and "III fieus que li connestables avoit, qui sires estoit de l'ille de Cypre"[269]Betrothed (1194[270]) to GUY de Lusignan, son of AMAURY de Lusignan Lord of Cyprus [later King of Cyprus and King of Jerusalem] & his first wife Eschiva of Ibelin (-[30 Mar 1206/5 Dec 1207).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that Guy and his brother Jean died before reaching the age of marriage[271].  The text is unclear about the precise dates of their death, but clearly their brother Hugues was the only surviving son when their father died. 

3.         ALIX of Jerusalem ([1195/96]-1247).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and gives her parentage, specifying that she was the second daughter of Isabelle when recording her betrothal[272].  The Chronicle of Ernoul records that "li quens Henris…entre lui et se feme" had three daughters and the betrothal arranged between them and "III fieus que li connestables avoit, qui sires estoit de l'ille de Cypre"[273].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the older daughter of "comes Campaniensis Henricus" and his wife Isabelle as "regina Ciprie uxor…Guidonis filii Heimerici"[274], "Guidonis" being an error for "Henrici".  Ctss of Jaffa 1205-1209.  Her betrothal was arranged as part of the alliance between Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem and Amaury de Lusignan after the latter's succession as Lord of Cyprus in 1194272.  The text suggests that the three daughters were betrothed to the three sons of Amaury in their order of age, which means that Alix would have been betrothed to Jean even though she later married the only surviving brother Hugues.  A charter dated 5 Dec 1207 records the agreement for the marriage between "Hugonem I regem Cypri" and "Aelidem majorem filiam Henrici comitis Campaniæ", or, if she died before the marriage was performed, "sororem minorem Philippam"[275].  She acted as co-regent of Cyprus for her infant son from 1218, jointly with her uncle Philippe of Ibelin, but after a dispute with the latter in 1223 she left Cyprus for Tripoli[276].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Buemont" son of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance married "la reyne Aalis" who left him[277].  Still regarding herself as regent of Cyprus, she unsuccessfully attempted to appoint her second husband as bailli of Cyprus in 1225[278].  She maintained that her great nephew Konrad von Hohenstaufen had forfeited the right to the kingdom of Jerusalem by failing to come to Palestine, and claimed the throne herself at Acre in autumn 1229, although the High Court rejected her claim[279].  "Dominus Georgius marchio de Ceua…et fratribus suis" agreed with "dominus Poncius de Duima nuncius comitis Campanie" to prohibit "reginam Cypri" from passing through his territory, by charter dated 9 Jan 1233[280].  The Chronicle of Philippe de Novare names "messier Raoul de Saissons, un haut baron de France" as husband of "la reyne Aalis"[281].  She and her third husband were nominated titular regents of the kingdom in Jerusalem by an assembly at Acre 5 Jun 1243, in the continuing absence of her great nephew Konrad von Hohenstaufen[282].  She continued to rule as sole regent after her husband returned to France in 1244[283].  Jerusalem was invaded by the Khwarismians in Jul 1244, and surrendered 23 Aug 1244[284]Betrothed (1194[285]) to JEAN de Lusignan, son of AMAURY de Lusignan Lord of Cyprus [later King of Cyprus and Jerusalem] & his first wife Eschiva of Ibelin (-before 1205).  m firstly (betrothed 5 Dec 1207, before Sep 1210) HUGUES I King of Cyprus, son of AMAURY I King of Cyprus & his first wife Eschiva of Ibelin ([1193/94]-Tripoli 10 Jan 1218).  m secondly (shortly before 5 Aug 1225, annulled by reason of consanguinity after 5 Jul 1227) as his first wife, BOHEMOND of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch & his first wife Plaisance of Jebail (-Jan 1252).  He succeeded his father in 1233 as BOHEMOND V Prince of Antiochm thirdly (1241, divorced 1244) RAOUL de Soissons Seigneur de Cœuvres, son of --- & his wife --- (-after 1247).  William of Tyre (Continuator) records the marriage at Acre of Queen Alix and "Raol de Soissons frere dou conte de Soissons"[286].  According to the editor of the version consulted, he was the son of Raoul III de Nesle Comte de Soissons and his third wife Ade de Grand-Pré[287].  He had arrived in Palestine in 1239 with the Crusade led by Thibaut King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne[288].  He was nominated titular regent of the kingdom in Jerusalem with his wife by an assembly at Acre 5 Jun 1243[289].  After Tyre was captured from the Filangieri brothers, Raoul demanded the city for the kingdom of Jerusalem but with support from the Ibelin family it was given as a fief to Philippe de Montfort[290].  Raoul left his wife and returned to France in 1244[291]

4.         PHILIPPA of Jerusalem ([1195/97]-20 Dec 1250).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and gives her parentage, specifying that she was the third daughter of Isabelle when recording her betrothal[292].  The Chronicle of Ernoul records that "li quens Henris…entre lui et se feme" had three daughters and the betrothal arranged between them and "III fieus que li connestables avoit, qui sires estoit de l'ille de Cypre"[293].  A charter dated 5 Dec 1207 records the agreement for the marriage between "Hugonem I regem Cypri" and "Aelidem majorem filiam Henrici comitis Campaniæ", or, if she died before the marriage was performed, "sororem minorem Philippam"[294].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Philippam" as younger daughter of "comes Campaniensis Henricus" and his wife Isabelle, and her husband "Erardus de Ramerut", specifying that the latter claimed the county of Champagne in her name[295].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and her father, when recording her marriage[296].  A charter dated to [1212] records the agreement for the marriage between "Erardum Brennensem" and "Philippam…"[297].  The Chronicon of Robert canon of St Marie, Auxerre records the marriage in 1214 of "Airardus de Rameruco" and "Philippam filiam Henrici regis Iherosolimitani et comitis Trecensis"[298].  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the marriage in 1216 of "filiam Henrici comitis Campanie" with "Airardus de Bregne"[299].  The cartulary of Tulle St Martin records the grant by "Erardus de Brena et Philippa uxor mea, Henrici…quondam comitis Trecensis filia" dated 21 Mar 1217[300].  "Erardo [de Brenna] et Philippa, uxore eius" postponed appearance at a Papal tribunal requested by "comitissam Campanie", by charter dated [1220/21][301].  The cartulary of Tulle St Martin records the grant by "Philippa domina Rameruci" for the soul of "maritus meus nobilis vir Erardus de Brena dominus Rameruci" dated Friday before 24 Jun 1247[302]Betrothed (1194[303]) HUGUES de Lusignan, son of AMAURY I King of Cyprus & his first wife Eschiva of Ibelin ([1193/94]-Tripoli 10 Jan 1218).  He succeeded his father in 1205 as HUGUES I King of Cyprus, and later married Philippa's sister Alix.  m (15 Aug [1213/14]) as his second wife, ERARD [I] de Brienne Seigneur de Ramerupt et de Vénizy, son of ANDRE de Brienne Seigneur de Ramerupt & his wife Adelais Dame de Venisy (-after 1244). 

Queen Isabelle & her fourth husband had three children:

5.         SIBYLLE of Cyprus ([1199/1200]-after 1225).  She is named by William of Tyre (Continuator), who also specifies her parentage, says she was her parents' older daughter and names her husband[304].  She claimed the throne of Armenia for herself after the death of her husband, who had left the throne to their infant daughter, but was exiled by the regent Constantine Lord of Barba'ron and Partzerpert [Hethumid].  m (1210) as his second wife, LEWON I King of Armenia, son of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains & his wife Isabelle Lady of Toron (1150-May 1219, bur Agner and Sis). 

6.         AMAURY of Cyprus ([1200]-2 Feb 1205).  He is named by William of Tyre (Continuator), who also specifies his parentage[305].  The Chronicle of Amadi names "uno filiolo…Almerico et due figlie…Sybilla…et…Melisena" as the children of "il re Almerico" and his queen[306].  The Archbishop of Cæsarea records the death "c purificacionem B. Mariæ" of "regis Amalrici II filium" and the death 1 Apr of the king himself, by charter dated [May] 1205[307]

7.         MELISENDE of Cyprus (after [1200/01]-after 1249).  She is named by William of Tyre (Continuator), who also specifies her parentage, says she was her parents' younger daughter and names her husband[308].  She protested at the succession of her nephew Henri I King of Cyprus as regent of Jerusalem on the death of her sister Alix in 1246[309]m ([1/10] Jan 1218) as his second wife, BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND III Prince of Antioch & his first wife Orgueilleuse [de Harenc] (1171-Mar 1233). 

 

 

 

E.      KINGS OF JERUSALEM 1210-1225 (COMTES de BRIENNE)

 

 

JEAN 1210-1225, ISABELLE 1225-1228

 

JEAN de Brienne, son of ERARD [II] de Brienne & his wife Agnès de Montbéliard [Montfaucon] ([1170/75]-27 Mar 1237).  "Johan de Briene" is named as brother of Gauthier de Brienne by William of Tyre (Continuator), after his brother Guillaume[310].  "Gualterius comes Brene" donated property to Beaulieu (Aube) by charter dated 1194 with the consent of "Willelmi et Johannis fratrum eius"[311].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Iohannis frater eiusdem comitis [Galteri comitis Briennensis" when recording that he succeeded as Comte de Brienne after the death of his brother[312].  "Johannes comes Brene" donated property to Basse-Fontaine by charter dated Apr 1210[313].  His first marriage was arranged by Philippe II King of France, who gave him a dower of 40,000 silver pounds, a sum which was equalled by Pope Innocent III[314].  He landed at Acre 13 Sep 1210, was married to his first wife the next day, and was crowned 3 Oct 1210 at Tyre as JEAN King of Jerusalem by Albert Patriarch of Jerusalem[315].  "Iohannes…Latinorum Ierusalem rex decimus et comes Brena et domina Maria uxor mea regina" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated 1 Jul 1211[316].  He retained the bailiship of the kingdom of Jerusalem after the death of his first wife[317], nominally in the name of his daughter.  After a long siege, and with the help of western armies which were part of the Fifth Crusade, Damietta in Egypt was captured 5 Nov 1219 and added to the territory of the kingdom of Jerusalem[318].  Jean left the crusade in Feb 1220, intending to visit Armenia to claim the throne in the name of his second wife following the death of her father, but as both she and their infant son died before he sailed for Cilicia he had no further claim and abandoned the journey[319].  He arrived back with the Fifth Crusade 6 Jul 1221, which proceeded to march further into Egypt but was forced to retreat and return Damietta 8 Sep 1221[320].  After appointing Eudes de Montbéliard as regent, King Jean sailed from Acre in autumn 1222, to find a suitable husband for his daughter.  He agreed to her marriage with Friedrich II King of Germany on condition that he continued as regent of Jerusalem for life.  His son-in-law reneged on the promise immediately after the wedding, declaring himself king of Jerusalem[321].  He was appointed regent of the Latin empire of Constantinople, by agreement at Perugia in Apr 1229, and was crowned JEAN Emperor of Constantinople on his arrival in the city in 1231.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1237 in Constantinople of "rex Iohannes"[322]

m firstly (Tyre 1210) MARIE Queen of Jerusalem, daughter of CORRADO Marchese di Monferrato & his third wife Isabelle Queen of Jerusalem (Tyre Summer 1192-1212).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and specifies her parentage[323].  A continuator of Caffaro records the death in 1192 of "Conrado marchionis Montidferrati" leaving "uxore sua pregnante, ex quo nata est unica filia Maria"[324], which indicates that Maria must have been born in summer 1192, therefore after her mother's second marriage.  She was known as "la Marquise", from her father's rank[325].  Her marriage was arranged by Philippe II King of France, who gave her husband a dower of 40,000 silver pounds, a sum which was equalled by Pope Innocent III[326].  She was crowned with her husband 3 Oct 1210 at Tyre[327].   William of Tyre (Continuator) records her death in childbirth within two years of her marriage[328]

m secondly  ([23/30] Apr 1214) RITA [Stephanie] of Armenia, daughter of LEWON I King of Armenia & his first wife Isabelle --- (after 1195-Jun 1220).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and her father when recording her marriage, specifying that she was the daughter of his first marriage[329].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "une fille encore en bas âge…Ritha" as Leo's daughter by his first marriage, stating that she was brought up by her paternal grandmother[330]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon gave his daughter Rita to the king of Jerusalem" in [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215][331].  "Leo…rex Armenie" granted property to the Knights Hospitallers with the consent of "domini Rupini principis Antiochie…nepotis et heredis mei" by charter dated 23 Apr 1214, and declared having received a loan from the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated the same date, both documents specifying that they formed part of the arrangements for the marriage of "mee filie" and "regi Iherosolimitano"[332].  She claimed the throne on the death of her father, who had left the kingdom of Armenia to her half-sister.  Her husband left the Fifth Crusade in Feb 1220 intending to visit Armenia to press her claim, but as both she and their infant son died before he sailed for Cilicia he abandoned the journey[333]

m thirdly (Toledo 1224) Infanta doña BERENGUELA de Castilla y León, daughter of don ALFONSO IX King of León & his second wife Infanta doña Berenguela de Castilla (1204-Constantinople 12 Apr 1237, bur Constantinople).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the wife of "rex Ierusalem Iohannes" as daughter of "Berengaria" and "regi Legionensi id est regi Galicie" and in a later passage records the marriage of "rex Iohannes Ierosolimitanus" and "filia regis Gallicie, sororem Fernandi de Castella", but in neither place is she named[334].  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in 1223 of "le roi de Castille…sa sœur Bérengère, nièce de Blanche reine de France" and "Jean roi de Jérusalem"[335].  "Jehan fiuz le roy Jehan de Jherusalem, bouteillier de France" instituted masses for "nostre pere le roy Jehan de Jherusalem et empereur de Costantinoble…et madame Berangiere sa fame jadis nostre mere" in the church of St Paul, Paris by charter dated Oct 1294[336].  The necrology of Maubuisson records the death "II Id Apr" of "Berengaria imperatrix Constantinopolitane"[337]

King Jean & his first wife had one child:

1.         ISABELLE [Yolande] of Jerusalem (1211-Andria, Bari 25 Apr or 5 May 1228, bur Bari cathedral).  William of Tyre (Continuator) records the birth and parentage of "Ysabel"[338].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "rex Iohannes filiam suam Ysabel", records her marriage to "imperatori Frederici" and specifying that he thereby became king of Jerusalem[339].  According to Runciman[340], she was named Yolande in "western chronicles" but these have not so far been identified.  She was crowned ISABELLE Queen of Jerusalem at Tyre days after her marriage by proxy, and sailed from Acre in [Aug/Sep] 1225 for her marriage[341].  After her marriage, her husband kept her secluded in his harem at Palermo[342].  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the marriage in 1225 of "imperator" and "filiam regis Joannis…Isabellam" as his second wife, her death in 1227, and the birth of "Rex Conradus filius eius"[343].  She died in childbirth.  m (by proxy Acre Aug 1225, Brindisi Cathedral 9 Nov 1225) as his second wife, Emperor FRIEDRICH II, son of Emperor HEINRICH VI [Hohenstaufen] & his wife Constanza of Sicily (Iesi, Ancona 26 Dec 1194-Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, Foggia, of dysentery 13 Dec 1250, bur 25 Feb 1251 Palermo Cathedral).  He declared himself FRIEDRICH King of Jerusalem at Brindisi 9 Nov 1225.  He replaced Eudes de Montbéliard as regent of Jerusalem with Thomas of Aquino Count of Acerra in 1226[344].  He sailed from Brindisi 8 Sep 1227 for Jerusalem, but fell ill at Otranto where Ludwig IV Landgraf of Thuringia had been put ashore and postponed his journey while he recovered[345].  He embarked again at Brindisi 28 Jun 1228, although his second wife had meanwhile died putting in doubt his title to the kingdom of Jerusalem, and landed in Cyprus in Jul 1228[346].  He left Cyprus for Acre 3 Sep 1228, and after lengthy negotiations signed a ten year peace treaty with Sultan al-Kamil 18 Feb 1229 under which the city of Jerusalem was returned to the kingdom of Jerusalem[347].  He made his ceremonial entry to Jerusalem 17 Mar 1229, and crowned himself king the next day in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, before sailing back to Europe from Acre 1 May 1229 after appointing Eudes de Montbéliard as Constable of Jerusalem and Balian of Sidon and Garnier the German as baillis[348]

King Jean & his second wife had one child:

2.         JEAN (1216-1220).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Crown Prince of Armenia. 

King Jean & his third wife had four children:

3.         MARIE de Brienne (Capua Apr 1225-in Italy after 5 May 1275, bur Assisi).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Iohannes Iherosolimitanus rex…cum uxore sua pregnante filia regis Hyspanie" arrived in Capua where she gave birth to a daughter in Apr 1225[349].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "rex…Iohannes super Grecos…filiam suam Mariam" and "Balduini iuveni…filius comitis Petri"[350].  Her marriage was agreed at the same time as her father was appointed regent for her husband.  m (contract Perugia 19 Apr 1229, in person 1234) BAUDOUIN II Emperor of Constantinople, son of PIERRE Emperor of Constantinople, Seigneur de Courtenay & his second wife Yolande de Flandre Marquise de Namur (Constantinople [late 1217/early 1218]-Naples 1273 after 15 Oct, bur Barletta Cathedral). 

4.         ALPHONSE de Brienne dit d'Acre (-Tunis 25 Aug 1270, bur Saint-Denis).  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1244 that Jean Emperor of Constantinople sent "ses trios fils, Alphonse, Jean et Louis, encore enfants" to Louis IX King of France[351].  He succeeded as Comte d'Eu, by right of his wife. 

-        COMTES d'EU

5.         LOUIS de Brienne dit d'Acre (-after 1 Sep 1297).  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1244 that Jean Emperor of Constantinople sent "ses trios fils, Alphonse, Jean et Louis, encore enfants" to Louis IX King of France[352].  He succeeded as Vicomte de Beaumont-au-Maine by right of his wife. 

-        VICOMTES de BEAUMONT-au-MAINE

6.         JEAN de Brienne dit d'Acre (-1296).  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1244 that Jean Emperor of Constantinople sent "ses trios fils, Alphonse, Jean et Louis, encore enfants" to Louis IX King of France[353].  "Jehan fiuz le roy Jehan de Jherusalem, bouteillier de France" instituted masses for "nostre pere le roy Jehan de Jherusalem et empereur de Costantinoble…et madame Berangiere sa fame jadis nostre mere" in the church of St Paul, Paris by charter dated Oct 1294[354].  Bouteiller of France.  m firstly ([1250/52]) as her second husband, JEANNE de Châteaudun, widow of JEAN Comte de Montfort, daughter of GEOFFROY [VI] Vicomte de Châteaudun & his second wife Clémence des Roches (-[19 Sep 1254]).  Joinville records that “l´empereris s´en alla en France” (dated to [1249] from the context) and took with him “monsignour Jehan d´Acre son frère” whom he married to “la contesce de Montfort[355].  “Jeanne comtesse de Montfort” granted a confirmation charter dated 1251[356].  The necrology of Joyenval records the death “19 Sep...circa...1254“ of "domini Joannis Montifortis comitis et dominæ Joannæ de Castilione uxoris eius[357]m secondly (before 5 Jun 1257, separated [1265]) MARIE de Coucy, widow of ALEXANDER II King of Scotland, daughter of ENGUERRAND [III] Seigneur de Coucy & his third wife Marie de Montmirail (-[1284/85], bur Newbottle, Scotland).  She is named by Matthew Paris, who also names her father when he records her (first) marriage[358].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage in 1239 of "Ingelrannus de Coci…filiam suam" and "regi Scotie Alexandro"[359].  She returned to France 29 Sep 1251 after her husband's death[360].  Her second marriage is confirmed by John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) which records that "Maria mater regis Alexandri…uxor Johannis de Aconia" fled her husband for Scotland in 1265[361].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death of "Maria mater Alexandri tertii regis Scotiæ in partibus transmarinis", dated to [1284/85] from the context[362].  Jean & his first wife had one child: 

a)         BLANCHE de Brienne (-after 8 Oct 1285).  A charter dated 18 Jan 1266 (O.S.?) records an agreement between "Jean d´Acre bouteiller de France" and "Robert de Drous" under which the former gave revenue from the manor of Louplande to "damoiselle Blanche sa fille"[363].  Dame de Loupelande.  "Jean fils le roy de Jérusalem" notified his promise to "monseigneur Enguerran seigneur de Fieules el nom de Guillaume son aisné fils mary damoiselle Blanche nostre fille" relating to revenue from Louplande by charter dated Feb 1266 (presumably O.S.)[364].  An “order to cause Blanche wife of William de Fenes to have in [the] forest [of Selewode] twelve leafless stumps for her fuel, as the king´s gift” is dated 8 Oct 1285[365]m (contract 18 Jan [1266 or 1267], before Feb [1266 or 1267]) GUILLAUME [II] de Fiennes, son of ENGUERRAND [II] de Fiennes & his wife Isabeau de Condé (-killed in battle Courtrai 11 Jul 1302). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    UNALLOCATED NOBLE PARTICIPANTS in the FIRST CRUSADE

 

 

1.         THOMAS de Fer-Château .  Albert of Aix names "…Thomas de Feria castro, Francigena…Gerardus de Keresi castello…Wido de castro Porsessa…Baldewinus…cognomine Calderun…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[366].  Albert of Aix records that "…Thomas de Feria castro…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Hrodulphus" fought against the Turks at Dorylæum (1 Jul 1097)[367]

 

2.         GERARD de Cérisy (-killed in battle Dorylæum 1 Jul 1097).  Albert of Aix names "…Thomas de Feria castro, Francigena…Gerardus de Keresi castello…Wido de castro Porsessa…Baldewinus…cognomine Calderun…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[368].  Albert of Aix records that "Gerardus de Keresi" was killed in battle against the Turks at Dorylæum (1 Jul 1097)[369]

 

3.         BAUDOUIN Calderon (-killed in battle Nikaia [1097]).  His name suggests Spanish origin.  Albert of Aix names "…Thomas de Feria castro, Francigena…Gerardus de Keresi castello…Wido de castro Porsessa…Baldewinus…cognomine Calderun…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[370].  Albert of Aix records that "…Baldewinus Calderun…" was killed at the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[371]

 

4.         MILON "Louez" .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[372]

 

5.         GAUTHIER de Domedart .  Murray suggests that "Domedart" indicates a toponym derived from the saint´s name "domnus Medardus", indicates Domart-en-Ponthieu as the probable place of origin, and also suggests that Gauthier and his son may have been identical with Gauthier de Saint-Valéry and his son Bernard[373], recorded by William of Tyre as "Walterius de Sancto Valerius Bernardusque filius eius" at the capture of Nikaia in 1097[374].  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[375].  Albert of Aix records "…Reinardus de Hamersbach, Walterus de Domedart" as those who guarded Adhémar Bishop of Le Puy into the mountains towards the port of Simeon after finding the holy lance, dated to mid-1098 from the context[376]m ---.  The name of Gauthier´s wife is not known.  Gauthier & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERNARD de Domedart .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[377]

 

6.         RUTHARD, son of GODEFROI & his wife ---.  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[378].  Albert of Aix records that "…Thomas de Feria castro…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Hrodulphus" fought against the Turks at Dorylæum (1 Jul 1097)[379]

 

7.         RAOUL .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[380].  Albert of Aix records that "…Thomas de Feria castro…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Hrodulphus" fought against the Turks at Dorylæum (1 Jul 1097)[381]

 

8.         GISELBERT de Traves .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[382]

 

9.         OLIVIER de Château-Jussieux . Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[383]

 

10.      ACHARD de Montmerle .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[384]

 

11.      GAUTHIER de Verveis .  Murray suggests that he originated from Verviers, near Liège[385].  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[386]

 

12.      ARNOUL de Tyr .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[387]

 

13.      JAN van Nijmegen .  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…Milo…cognomine Louez…Walterus de Domedart et eius filius Bernardus…Ruthardus filius Godefridi…Rodulfus ditissimus copiarum…Gisilbertus de Treva [Traves] unus de principibus Burgundiæ…Oliverus de castro Jussi…Achar de Montmerla…Walterus de Verveis, Arnulfus de Tyr, Johannes de Namecca…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[388]

 

14.      GUY de Porsesse (-Nikaia [1097]).  Albert of Aix records the brave participation of "…Wido de Porsessa…" in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[389].  Albert of Aix records that "…Wido de Porsessa…" died from illness at the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[390]

 

15.      WALO (-killed in battle Nikaia [1097]).  Albert of Aix records that "…de Insula Flandriæ Walo…" was killed at the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[391]

 

16.      REINHARD von Hamersbach (-[Antioch] [1098/99], bur Antioch).  Murray suggests that he originated from Hemmersbach, near Bergheim, about 25km west of Köln[392].  Albert of Aix records "…Reinardus de Hamersbach, Walterus de Domedart" as those who guarded Adhémar Bishop of Le Puy into the mountains towards the port of Simeon after finding the holy lance, dated to mid-1098 from the context[393].  Albert of Aix records the death of "Reinardus [miles] de Hamersbach"  during an epidemic and his burial "in atrio basilicæ beati Petri" in Antioch[394]

 

17.      LITHARD de Cambrai .  Albert of Aix names "Hugo de Tabaria, Rorgius de Cayphas, Guntfridus de Turri David, Hugo de Sancto Abraham, Eustachius Granarius, Gutmannus de Brussella castello Brabantiæ, Lithardus de Cameraco civitate Galliæ, Pisellus de Tuorna, Baldewinus de Hastrut castellis Flandrie" as those who went to relieve King Baudouin at Jaffa, dated to [1105/06] from the context[395]

 

18.      PISELLE de "Tuorna" .  Albert of Aix names "Hugo de Tabaria, Rorgius de Cayphas, Guntfridus de Turri David, Hugo de Sancto Abraham, Eustachius Granarius, Gutmannus de Brussella castello Brabantiæ, Lithardus de Cameraco civitate Galliæ, Pisellus de Tuorna, Baldewinus de Hastrut castellis Flandrie" as those who went to relieve King Baudouin at Jaffa, dated to [1105/06] from the context[396]

 

19.      BAUDOUIN de Hastrut .  Albert of Aix names "Hugo de Tabaria, Rorgius de Cayphas, Guntfridus de Turri David, Hugo de Sancto Abraham, Eustachius Granarius, Gutmannus de Brussella castello Brabantiæ, Lithardus de Cameraco civitate Galliæ, Pisellus de Tuorna, Baldewinus de Hastrut castellis Flandrie" as those who went to relieve King Baudouin at Jaffa, dated to [1105/06] from the context[397]

 

 



[1] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) X.I, pp. 401-2, and Guiberto Historia quæ dicitur gesta dei per Francos, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, IV (Paris, 1879) ("Guibert") II.XVIII, p. 150, respectively. 

[2] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber I, Cap. IX, p. 278.  

[3] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 310. 

[4] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 299-300. 

[5] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 328-9. 

[6] WT Continuator ("WTC") XXXIV.XII, p. 457. 

[7] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 345. 

[8] Edbury, P. W. (1994) The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191-1374 (Cambridge University Press), p. 36. 

[9] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 389 and 393-4. 

[10] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 396-7. 

[11] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 408-12. 

[12] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 621. 

[13] WT IX.XXIII, p. 399. 

[14] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris) ("Saint-Bertin") II.16, p. 227. 

[15] WT I. XVII, p. 45, III.XXIII, p. 146, and IX.V, p. 370. 

[16] Annalista Saxo 1076. 

[17] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), p. 20. 

[18] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 145-46. 

[19] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. I, p. 299. 

[20] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 149-52. 

[21] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 4. 

[22] Gesta Francorum, X, 39, pp. 206-8, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 292. 

[23] Murray (2000), p. 71. 

[24] Riley-Smith, J. C. 'The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 52 (1979), 83-86 and Murray, A. V. 'The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon as Ruler of Jerusalem', Collegium Medievale 3 (1990), 163-78. 

[25] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 296. 

[26] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 305. 

[27] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VII, Cap. XXI, p. 521. 

[28] Extrait du Chronique de Matthieu d'Edesse, RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I (Paris, 1869) ("ME") II.XVI, p. 50. 

[29] Saint-Bertin II.16, p. 227. 

[30] WT I. XVII, p. 45, and Balduini III Historia Nicæna vel Antiochena, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome V ("Baldwin III") IX, p. 144. 

[31] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. I, p. 299. 

[32] Murray (2000), p. 34-5. 

[33] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. IV, p. 302. 

[34] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 198-9. 

[35] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 203-8. 

[36] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 326. 

[37] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXVIII, p. 707. 

[38] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXIX, p. 708. 

[39] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. III, Book V, p. 129.  

[40] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 129. 

[41] CP VII 526 footnote a.  . 

[42] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. IV, p. 302. 

[43] WT X.I, pp. 401-2. 

[44] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber III, Cap. XXVII, p. 358. 

[45] WT X.I, p. 402. 

[46] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber III, Cap. XXXI, p. 361. 

[47] Murray (2000), p. 182. 

[48] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), Table I. 

[49] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 208. 

[50] WT XI.I, pp. 451-2. 

[51] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXIV, p. 704. 

[52] Fulcherio Carnotensi Historia Hierosolymitana, Gesta Francorum Iherusalem Peregrinantium, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome III (Paris, 1866) ("Fulcher") II.LI and LIX, pp. 428 and 433. 

[53] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XIII, p. 696. 

[54] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna) (“Malaterra”), IV.14, p. 93. 

[55] Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press), p. 24. 

[56] WT XI.XXI, p. 488. 

[57] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXIV, p. 704. 

[58] Fulcher II.LXIV, p. 436. 

[59] Annales Siculi, Malaterra, p. 116. 

[60] Fulcher, III.1, pp. 615-16, WT I. XVII, p. 45. 

[61] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. I, p. 299. 

[62] Murray (2000), pp. 171-75. 

[63] Comte Riant, in Receuil des historiens des croisades, Histoire Occidentaux, ed. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 5 vols (Paris, 1844-95), 5: 631. 

[64] Genealogica comitum Boloniensium, MGH SS IX, p. 300, cited in Murray (2000), p. 173. 

[65] Richard, J. (1996) Histoire des Croisades (Paris), p. 504. 

[66] Murray (2000), p. 173-4, where the author cites the three sources referring to the wife of Duke Godefroi II. 

[67] WT I. XVII, p. 45. 

[68] WT XII.I, p. 511. 

[69] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. I, p. 299. 

[70] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XI, p. 306. 

[71] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 36. 

[72] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VII, Cap. XXXI, p. 527. 

[73] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 43 and 111-12. 

[74] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 47.  

[75] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 112-14. 

[76] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 130. 

[77] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXVIII, p. 707. 

[78] Fulcher III.I, p. 441, which specifies that he was crowned on Easter day. 

[79] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 152. 

[80] Runciman (1978), pp. 162-5 and 171-2. 

[81] Runciman (1978), p. 166.  

[82] Galbert of Bruges (Galbertus notarius Brugensis), De multro, traditione, et occisione gloriosi Karoli comitis Flandriarum, Rider, J. (ed.), Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Medievalis 131 (Turnhout, 1994), p. 15, discussed in Murray (2000), pp. 139-45. 

[83] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 178-80. 

[84] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 185. 

[85] WT X.XXIV, p. 437. 

[86] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 155. 

[87] WT XII.IV, p. 517. 

[88] WT XII.IV, p. 517, and XIII.XXI, p. 588, respectively. 

[89] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[90] Runciman (1978), pp. 152 and 176. 

[91] Runciman (1978), p. 184. 

[92] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 183-4. 

[93] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 188-90. 

[94] WT XII.XXI, p. 589, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 133. 

[95] WT XII.IV, p. 517. 

[96] WT XXI.V, p. 1011. 

[97] Rozière, E. de (ed.) (1849) Cartulaire de l'église de Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem (Paris) ("Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem"), 93, p. 184. 

[98] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 333. 

[99] WT XII.IV, p. 517. 

[100] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 231-2.   

[101] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1893) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) 327, p. 84. 

[102] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1904) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani, Supplement (Oeniponti) 562b, p. 35. 

[103] WT XII.IV, p. 517. 

[104] WT XIII.XXIV, p. 593, and XIV.II, p. 608. 

[105] Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem, 44, p. 81. 

[106] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 231-2.   

[107] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 233.   

[108] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 334-5. 

[109] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 360. 

[110] WT XIII.XXIV, p. 593. 

[111] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 178. 

[112] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 195. 

[113] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 203. 

[114] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 227-8. 

[115] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 233.   

[116] Urseau, C. (ed.) Obituaire de la Cathédrale d'Angers (Angers).   

[117] WT XV.XXVII, p. 702, and XVI.I, p. 704. 

[118] WT XVI.III, p. 707, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 233.   

[119] WT XVII.XIII, p. 780. 

[120] WT XVII.XIV, p. 781. 

[121] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 334-5. 

[122] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 339-40. 

[123] WT XVIII.XXXIV, p. 879, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 361. 

[124] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 189.       

[125] WT XVIII.XXII, p. 857. 

[126] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237. 

[127] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 349-50. 

[128] WT XX.II, p. 943. 

[129] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 325. 

[130] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn)Imperium Alexii Comneni Porphyrogeniti Manuelis filii, 2, p. 295. 

[131] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 378-9. 

[132] WT XV.XXVII, p. 702, and XVI.I, p. 704. 

[133] WT XV.XXVII, p. 702, and XVI.I, p. 704. 

[134] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 334. 

[135] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 340. 

[136] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 362. 

[137] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 362. 

[138] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 367. 

[139] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 369. 

[140] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 373-6. 

[141] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 384-8. 

[142] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[143] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 362, and WT XIX.IV, p. 889. 

[144] WTC XXIII.III, p. 5. 

[145] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 407. 

[146] WT XX.I, p. 942. 

[147] Belgrano, L. T. (ed.) (1891) Annali Genovesi di Caffaro e de´ suoi continuatori, Vol. 1, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Genoa), Regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, p. 132. 

[148] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377. 

[149] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 13, p. 237. 

[150] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVII, p. 61. 

[151] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[152] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 370 and 377. 

[153] Mas de Latrie, M. L. (1855) Histoire de l´Ile de Chypre (Paris), Vol. 3, p. 608. 

[154] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[155] WT XIX.IV, p. 888. 

[156] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 407. 

[157] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 392-3. 

[158] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 407. 

[159] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 411. 

[160] Mas Latrie, M. L. (ed.) (1871) Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier (Paris), Ernoul, 6 and 7, pp. 48 and 57. 

[161] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 424. 

[162] Ernoul 7, p. 59. 

[163] WTC XXIII.XVII, p. 28, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 446. 

[164] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 20. 

[165] WTC XXV.X, p. 151. 

[166] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1191, MGH SS XXIII, p. 868. 

[167] WT XXI.XIII, p. 1025. 

[168] Röhricht (1893), 552, p. 147. 

[169] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 411. 

[170] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1198, MGH SS XXIII, p. 876. 

[171] WT XXII.I, p. 1063. 

[172] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 424. 

[173] Röhricht (1893), 601, p. 160. 

[174] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 434-6 and 439, and Edbury (1994), p. 25. 

[175] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 439-40. 

[176] Runciman (1978), Vol 2, pp. 462-5. 

[177] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 19 and 21. 

[178] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 21-2. 

[179] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 27. 

[180] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 50. 

[181] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 51. 

[182] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 64. 

[183] Edbury (1994), p. 28. 

[184] Edbury (1994), p. 29

[185] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 73, and Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), pp. 160-3. 

[186] Mas Latrie, R. de (ed.) (1891) Chroniques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi (Paris) (“Amadi”), p. 86. 

[187] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 443. 

[188] WTC XXIII.XVII, p. 25. 

[189] WTC XXIII.XVIII, p. 30. 

[190] WTC XXV.X, p. 151. 

[191] Caffaro regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, Iacobus Avrie (continuator), p. 147. 

[192] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[193] WT XIX.IV, p. 888. 

[194] WT XXII.I, p. 1062. 

[195] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 405. 

[196] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 405 and 411. 

[197] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 407. 

[198] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 405. 

[199] Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem, 169, p. 307. 

[200] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 424. 

[201] Runciman (1978), pp. 434-6 and 439. 

[202] Runciman (1978), p. 439. 

[203] WTC XXIII.II, p. 4, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 443. 

[204] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 404 and 443 footnote 2, the latter specifying that this was the elder daughter. 

[205] WTC XXIII.III, p. 6, and WTC XXV.XI, p. 152. 

[206] WTC XXIII.III, p. 6, and WTC XXV.XI, p. 152. 

[207] Caffaro regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, p. 132. 

[208] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 424. 

[209] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 65. 

[210] WTC XXIII.XVIII, p. 30. 

[211] WTC XXIII.XIX, p. 31, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 448-9. 

[212] WTC XXV.XI, pp. 152-3, and XXV.XII, p. 154. 

[213] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 2, p. 24. 

[214] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 104. 

[215] WT XXII.V, p. 1068. 

[216] WTC XXV.XI, p. 152. 

[217] Delaborde, H. F. (ed.) (1880) Chartes de Terre Sainte provenant de l'abbaye de Notre-Dame de Josaphat (Paris) ("Josaphat") XLI, p. 88. 

[218] Ernoul 9, p. 103. 

[219] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 448-9. 

[220] Runciman (1978), Vol 2, pp. 462-5. 

[221] Ernoul 24, p. 267. 

[222] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 32. 

[223] Cronica Alberti de Bezanis, MGH SS rerum Germanicarum in usum Scholarum II (Hannover, 1908), pp. 41-2. 

[224] WTC XXIII.XI, p. 15. 

[225] Sturdza (1999), p. 537, Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 444-5, and WTC XXIII.XVI, p. 25. 

[226] Ernoul 11, p. 128. 

[227] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 471-2. 

[228] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 4-5. 

[229] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 25. 

[230] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 27. 

[231] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 31. 

[232] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 32. 

[233] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 51. 

[234] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 64. 

[235] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1181, MGH SS XXIII, p. 856. 

[236] WTC XXVI.XIV, p. 195. 

[237] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 29. 

[238] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 65. 

[239] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 82. 

[240] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 874. 

[241] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 73. 

[242] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 84. 

[243] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 84. 

[244] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 93. 

[245] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1198, MGH SS XXIII, p. 876. 

[246] Röhricht (1893), 518, p. 137. 

[247] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 424. 

[248] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 84. 

[249] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 84. 

[250] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 84. 

[251] Edbury (1994), p. 32. 

[252] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 85. 

[253] Edbury (1994), p. 33. 

[254] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 98 and 103. 

[255] Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem, 177, p. 316. 

[256] Röhricht (1893), 803, p. 215. 

[257] WTC XXX.XI, p. 305. 

[258] Caffaro regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, Iacobus Avrie (continuator), p. 147. 

[259] WTC XXX.XIV, p. 308. 

[260] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 104. 

[261] WTC XXX.XIII, p. 307, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 132-3. 

[262] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 133. 

[263] WTC XXXI.VIII, p. 320. 

[264] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 133. 

[265] WTC XXVI.XXI, pp. 208-10. 

[266] WTC XXX.XV, p. 308. 

[267] Amadi, p. 98. 

[268] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado del conte de Campagna 7, p. 164. 

[269] Ernoul 25, p. 293. 

[270] WTC XXVI.XXI, pp. 208-9. 

[271] WTC XXX.XV, p. 308. 

[272] WTC XXVI.XXI, pp. 208-10. 

[273] Ernoul 25, p. 293. 

[274] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 874. 

[275] Röhricht (1893), 823, p. 221. 

[276] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 180. 

[277] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[278] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 180. 

[279] WTC XXXIII.XIII, p. 380, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 195. 

[280] Ferretto, A. (ed.) ´Documenti intorno alle relazioni fra Alba e Genova (1141-1270)´, Biblioteca della società storica subalpina, Vol. XXIII (Pinerolo, 1906) ("Alba Genova Relazioni"), XCVI, p. 114. 

[281] Kohler, C. (ed.) (1913) Philippe de Novare Mémoires 1218-1243 (Paris) ("Philippe de Novare"), p. 94. 

[282] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 221. 

[283] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 222. 

[284] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 224-5. 

[285] WTC XXVI.XXI, pp. 208-9. 

[286] WTC XXXIII.L, p. 420. 

[287] WTC XXXIII.L, p. 420, footnote c, citing Art de verifier les dates, t. II, p. 730. 

[288] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 221. 

[289] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 221. 

[290] WTC XXXIII.LIII, p. 423. 

[291] WTC XXXIII.L, p. 420, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 222. 

[292] WTC XXVI.XXI, pp. 208-0. 

[293] Ernoul 25, p. 293. 

[294] Röhricht (1893), 823, p. 221. 

[295] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 874. 

[296] WT XXXI.VIII, p. 319. 

[297] Röhricht (1893), 860, p. 230. 

[298] Roberti Canonici S Mariani Autissiodorensis Chronicon 1214, MGH SS XXVI, p. 277. 

[299] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 1216, MGH SS V, p. 49. 

[300] Champeval, J.-B. (ed.) (1903) Cartulaire des abbayes de Tulle et de Roc-Amadour (Brives) (“Tulle Saint-Martin”) no. 610, p. 355. 

[301] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 614. 

[302] Tulle Saint-Martin no. 611, p. 356. 

[303] WTC XXVI.XXI, pp. 208-9. 

[304] WTC XXX,XI, p. 305. 

[305] WTC XXX,XI, p. 305. 

[306] Amadi, p. 93. 

[307] Röhricht (1893), 803, p. 215. 

[308] WTC XXX,XI, p. 305. 

[309] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 230. 

[310] WTC XXVII.XIV, p. 235. 

[311] Abbé Laloire (ed.) (1878) Chartes de Beaulieu (Aube), Collection des principaux cartularies du diocèse de Troyes Tome IV (Paris, Troyes), (“Beaulieu (Aube)”) 191, p. 284. 

[312] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1201, MGH SS XXIII, p. 879. 

[313] Abbé Laloire (ed.) (1878) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Basse-Fontaine, Collection des principaux cartularies du diocèse de Troyes Tome III (Paris, Troyes) (“Basse-Fontaine”) 7, p. 13. 

[314] WTC XXX.XIII, p. 307, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 132-3. 

[315] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 133. 

[316] Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem, 145, p. 268. 

[317] WTC XXXI.IX, p. 320. 

[318] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 162. 

[319] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 164-5. 

[320] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 167. 

[321] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 173-4. 

[322] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1237, MGH SS XXIII, p. 941. 

[323] WTC XXX.XI, p. 305. 

[324] Caffaro regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, Iacobus Avrie (continuator), p. 147. 

[325] WTC XXX.XIV, p. 308. 

[326] WTC XXX.XIII, p. 307, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 132-3. 

[327] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 133. 

[328] WTC XXXI.VIII, p. 320. 

[329] WTC XXXI.VIII, p. 320. 

[330] Sempad Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie, RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I (Paris, 1869), 654, p. 642. 

[331] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle (Venice Manuscript) (New Jersey) 102, 663 A.E [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215], a vailable at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[332] Langlois, V. (ed.) (1863) Le Trésor des Chartes d'Arménie (Venice) ("Chartes d´Arménie"), VIII and IX, pp. 122 and 124. 

[333] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 164-5. 

[334] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1212 and 1224, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 895 and 913. 

[335] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1825) Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis (Paris), p. 132. 

[336] Mas Latrie, L. de (ed.) (1873) Nouvelles Preuves de l'Histoire de Chypre sous le règne des princes de la maison de Lusignan, Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des chartes, Tome XXXIII (Paris) ("Nouvelles Preuves I"), p. 41. 

[337] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Maubuisson, p. 655. 

[338] WTC XXXI.VIII, p. 320. 

[339] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1224, MGH SS XXIII, p. 913. 

[340] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 134 footnote 1. 

[341] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 175. 

[342] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 177. 

[343] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, RIS I.2, p. 278. 

[344] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 179. 

[345] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 178. 

[346] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 179-81. 

[347] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 183 and 187. 

[348] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 188-9. 

[349] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1225, MGH SS XIX, p. 344.  

[350] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[351] Guillaume de Nangis, p. 153. 

[352] Guillaume de Nangis, p. 153. 

[353] Guillaume de Nangis, p. 153. 

[354] Nouvelles Preuves I, p. 41. 

[355] Natalis de Wailly (ed.) (1868) Histoire de Saint-Louis par Jean Sire de Joinville (Paris), XXX, p. 50. 

[356] Inventaire-sommaire des Archives départementales antérieures à 1790, Sarthe 4(1) (1883), p. 168, information provided in a private email to the author dated 29 Feb 2012 by Douglas Richardson, to whom I am grateful for pointing out the correct order of the marriages of Jean de Brienne dit d´Acre. 

[357] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye de Joyenval, p. 301.       

[358] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. III, 1239, p. 530. 

[359] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1239, MGH SS XXIII, p. 945. 

[360] MP, Vol. V, 1251, p. 265. 

[361] Goodall, W. (ed.) (1759) Joannis de Fordun Scotichronicon cum Supplementis et Continuatione Walteri Boweri, Vols. I, II (Edinburgh) ("Joannis de Fordun (Goodall)"), Vol. II, Lib. X, Cap. XXV, p. 109. 

[362] Johannis de Fordun (Goodall), Vol. II, Lib. X, Cap. XXXIX, p. 127. 

[363] Société des Archives Historiques du Maine (1905) Cartulaire de Château-du-Loir, Archives historiques du Maine Tome VI (Le Mans) (“Château-du-Loir”) 185, p. 151. 

[364] Château-du-Loir, 186, p. 152. 

[365] Calendar of Close Rolls preserved in the PRO, Edward I, 1279-1288 (1902), p. 343. [information provided by Douglas Richardson in a private email to the author dated 2 Mar 2012]

[366] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXII, p. 315. 

[367] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XLII, p. 332. 

[368] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXII, p. 315. 

[369] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XLII, p. 331. 

[370] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXII, p. 315. 

[371] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIX, p. 321. 

[372] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[373] Murray (2000), p. 232. 

[374] WT II.I, p. 33. 

[375] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[376] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IV, Cap. XLVII, p. 422. 

[377] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[378] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[379] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XLII, p. 332. 

[380] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[381] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XLII, p. 332. 

[382] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[383] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[384] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[385] Murray (2000), p. 233. 

[386] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[387] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[388] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[389] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXVII, p. 320. 

[390] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIX, p. 321. 

[391] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIX, p. 321. 

[392] Murray (2000), p. 224. 

[393] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IV, Cap. XLVII, p. 422. 

[394] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber V, Cap. III, p. 435. 

[395] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IX, Cap. XLVIII, p. 621. 

[396] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IX, Cap. XLVIII, p. 621. 

[397] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IX, Cap. XLVIII, p. 621.