LITHUANIA

  v2.0 Updated 18 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            13th Century LITHUANIA. 3

A.       DYNASTY of RINGAUDAS.. 3

RINGAUDAS [1219], DAUSPRUNGAS -1238, MINDAUGAS 1238-1263, TRENIOTA 1263-1265, VAIŠVILKAS 1265-1267, ŠVARNAS 1267-1268, DAUMANTAS 1282-1285. 3

B.       DYNASTY of KENTAURAS.. 7

ŽIVINBUDAS [1219], TRAIDENIS 1270-1282. 7

C.      DYNASTY of DAUJOTAS.. 8

Chapter 2.              GRAND DUKES of LITHUANIA, DYNASTY of PUKUVERAS. 8

A.       ORIGINS, GRAND DUKES of LITHUANIA 1282-1315. 9

PUKUVERAS 1282-1295, VYTENIS 1295-1315. 9

B.       GRAND DUKES of LITHUANIA 1315-1432. 10

GEDIMINAS 1315-1341, JAUNUTAS 1341-1345. 10

ALGIRDAS 1345-1377, ŠVITRIGAILA 1430-1432. 15

C.      DESCENDANTS of NARIMANTAS.. 20

D.      DESCENDANTS of KESTUTIS.. 22

VYTAUTAS 1393-1430. 22

Chapter 3.            CZARTORYSKY. 26

Chapter 4.            SANGUSZKO. 26

Chapter 5.            WIESNIOWIECKI 27

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

In the early 13th century, the territory later known as Lithuania consisted of different regions each ruled by a different duke: Nalšia, Deltuva and Upitč in Aukštaitija (Upper Lithuania), and Ceklis, Karšuva and Kretuva in Žemaitija (Lower Lithuania, also called Samogitia, in the north-west).  In 1219, twenty princes and dukes, and one duchess, from Aukštaitija concluded a peace treaty with the Romanovichi of Galich-Volynia, the earliest agreement involving Lithuanian leaders which survives.  The leaders of three Lithuanian clans (see Chapter 1) were recognised as senior by the other princes and between them created the office of Grand Duke or rex de Owsteiten, the term used by the Teutonic Knights.  Žemaitija remained divided among many different lords, who acknowledged the overlordship of the Grand Duke.  Lithuania became an indissoluble union after 1422[1]

 

The main sources for Lithuanian history are the three redactions of the Lithuanian Chronicles, all written in Old Church Slavonic.  The first was compiled in the 1420s but exists today only in later transcriptions and compilations.  A Latin translation of the first redaction, "Origo regis Jagyelo et Witholdi ducum Lithuanić", was made in the 15th century[2].  A transcript of this document is available in a Russian language website on the web[3].  Extracts from this have been included in the present document ("Origo regis Jagyelo"), but the transcript is surprisingly short and it has been impossible to judge its completeness or accuracy because of lack of Russian language skills.  The second redaction was compiled in the first half of the 16th century, adds a legendary story relating to the alleged foundation of the Lithuanian state in the 1st century, but ignores Mindaugas first king of Lithuania and other early historically attested dukes in its narrative of subsequent Lithuanian history[4].  The third is known only from the 16th century Bychowiec Chronicle, discovered in 1830 and considered one of the least reliable sources of the epoch but also the most complete redaction of the Lithuanian Chronicle[5].  It was published in 1907 in the Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles[6].  A collection of Lithuanian charters of a political character was published in the mid-19th century by Raczyński, but this includes no private donations to religious foundations[7]

 

A genealogy of the descendants of Gedymin Grand Duke of Lithuania is included in Europäische Stammtafeln[8].  Presumably it is based on extracts from different redactions of the Lithuanian Chronicle but this is not known with certainty as the bibliography lists only Polish and German secondary sources, published between 1959 and 1976, which have not been consulted.  This Europäische Stammtafeln version has been used as the basis for the structure of the present document but, considering the unreliability of the original primary sources, it should be viewed with caution. 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of members of these Lithuanian families have not yet been identified, unless otherwise indicated in this document. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    13th Century LITHUANIA

 

 

 

A.      DYNASTY of RINGAUDAS

 

 

RINGAUDAS [1219], DAUSPRUNGAS -1238, MINDAUGAS 1238-1263, TRENIOTA 1263-1265, VAIŠVILKAS 1265-1267, ŠVARNAS 1267-1268, DAUMANTAS 1282-1285

 

RINGAUDAS, son of --- (-after 1219).  He was recognised [after 1219] as RINGAUDAS first Grand Duke [didysis kunigaikštis/velikii kniaz] of Lithuania

m ---.  The name of Ringaudas's wife is not known. 

Ringaudas & his wife had four children:

1.         DAUSPRUNGAS (-[1238]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded Živinbudas [after 1219] as DAUSPRUNGAS Grand Duke of Lithuaniam ---.  The name of Dausprungas's wife is not known.  Dausprungas & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          DAUMANTAS [Dovmont] (-1285).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in [1282] as DAUMANTAS Grand Duke of Lithuania.  He died on campaign in north-east Rus[9]

2.         MINDAUGAS [Mindovg] (-murdered 1263).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his brother in 1238 as MINDAUGAS Grand Duke of Lithuania.  In response to pressures from the Knights of the Teutonic Order, he unified, defended and expanded Lithuanian territory[10].  The Lithuanians attacked Polotsk from [1240/45], and by the early 1250s the western part of Polotsk was recognised as Lithuanian territory under the terms of a truce concluded by his son Vaišvilkas[11].  The Catholic baptism of Mindaugas was organised by Andreas von Stirland, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, in 1251.  In 1253 Pope Innocent IV sent him a royal crown, and he was crowned by Bishop Heinrich, the papal representative, styling himself thereafter "Myndowe Dei gratia rex Lettowie"[12].  "Myndowe…Rex Lettowie" confirmed the privileges of the Christian church in Lithuania by charter dated 12 [Mar or May] 1254[13].  He entered an alliance with Daniil King of Galich to fight the Mongols, sealed by their marriage of his daughter with Daniil's son.  However, Mindovg abandoned Daniil when relations with the Mongols deteriorated and arrested his son Roman who had been installed at Novgorodok, whereupon Daniil launched an attack against Lithuania with the Mongols[14].  "Myndowe…Rex Lettowie" granted his kingdom to the Teutonic Order in Livonia if he died without heirs, by charter dated Jun 1260[15].  He repudiated Christianity in 1261 and expelled Christians from Lithuania.  He was murdered by Daumentas of Nalšia, acting for Treniota, nephew of Mindaugas[16].  The murder is reported in the Novgorod Chronicle which says that Grand Duke Mindaugas was "killed by his own relatives who conspired without anybody's knowledge"[17]. The Annales Capituli Cracovienses record that "Mendoch rex Lytwanonum" was killed in 1263[18]m MORTA, daughter of ---.  She protected the mission clergy in Lithuania after her husband repudiated Christianity[19].  Mindaugas & his wife had two children: 

a)         VAIŠVILKAS [Voyshelk] (-murdered 9 Dec 1267).  The Annales Capituli Cracovienses name "Woysalk filium ipsius Mndog regis" when recording that he and "Theophilum" killed "Stroynat princeps Lithuanonum" who had killed his father Grand Duke Mindaugas[20].  He captured Novgorodok by 1254, was baptised, became a monk and founded a convent outside the city.  According to the Novgorod Chronicle, he went to Mount Sinai where he was "shorn into the monastic order" and remained three years before returning to Lithuania and his father who tried to persuade him to renounce his faith[21].  After his father was murdered, he abandoned the religious life to avenge him[22].  The Novgorod Chronicle says that Voyshelk "vowed himself to God for three years when he should resume his gown but did not leave the monastic order"[23].  He succeeded his cousin in 1265 as VAIŠVILKAS Grand Duke of Lithuania.  He returned to monastic life in 1267, appointing his brother-in-law as his successor.  He was murdered by Lev King of Galich, brother of his successor, because he had not been named ruler of Lithuania[24].  The Annales Polononum record that "dux Leo filius Danielis regis Rusie" killed "Woyslaum filium Mendogi ducis Lithwanonum" in 1267[25]

b)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1255) SHVARN [Ioann] Daniilovich Prince of Kholm, son of DANIIL Romanovich Prince [later King] of Galich & his first wife Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod (-murdered 1269, bur Kholm).  He succeeded his father in 1264 as SHVARN King of Galich.  He succeeded in 1267 as ŠVARNAS Grand Duke of Lithuania

3.         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         TRENIOTA (-murdered 1265).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his uncle in 1263 as TRENIOTA Grand Duke of Lithuania

4.         son.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         TOWTIWILL .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  same person as …?  TOWTIWILL [Tovtivil] (-murdered Polotsk 1263).  Prince of Polotsk.  "The good Knyaz Tovtivil of Polotsk" was killed by "the murderers of Grand Duke Mindaugas" according to the Novgorod Chronicle[26]m ---.  The name of Towtiwill's wife is not known.  Towtiwill & his wife had one child:

i)          son .  The Novgorod Chronicle, in the same paragraph reporting his father's murder, says that the murderers "called on the people of Polotsk to kill Tovtivil's son too, and he escaped to Novgorod with his men"[27]

b)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (before 1252) as his second wife, DANIIL Romanovich Prince of Galich, son of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Galich, Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- ([1201/02]-1264).  He styled himself DANIIL King [korol] of Galich from 1253.

 

1.         DAUMANTAS [Dovmont] (-1285 or 1299[28]).  Prince of Nalšia.  Implicated in the murder of Grand Duke Mindaugas, he fled to Russia where he settled at Pskov in 1265[29].  He was baptised as TIMOFEI.  In 1266, he was installed as Prince of Pskov[30], from where he attacked Polotsk, then ruled by the Lithuanian Erden whose wife (who was the aunt of Daumantas) he captured[31].  The Novgorod Chronicle says that he "took Gerden's Knyaginya" but does not refer to her relationship to Daumantas.  It also does not specify that the expedition was against Polotsk, merely "against the pagan Lithuanians"[32].  He built up the defences of the city of Pskov against the Teutonic knights and founded several churches to commemorate his victories.  After his death he was revered as a saint at Pskov[33]m (after 1282) MARIA Dmitrievna of Vladimir, daughter of DMITRY I Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife --- (-1300).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  According to the Novgorod Chronicle, Prince Dmitry's "two daughters" were taken to Novgorod from Koporya as hostages in 1282, which dates Maria's marriage to after this date[34].  Daumantas & his wife had one possible child: 

a)         [DAVID [Davydko] (-killed 1326).  According to 16th century sources, David was the son of Daumantas, but Rowell is sceptical[35].  Military commander [starost] of Grand Duke Gediminas based at Grodno.  He was elected Prince (military commandant) of Pskov in 1322[36].  He led a joint Lithuanian/Polish attack on Frankfurt-an-der-Oder in [Feb/Mar] 1326 as part of the response to papal calls to attack the margravate of Brandenburg[37].  He was killed on their march home by a Polish knight appalled at the slaughter of Christians by the pagan Lithuanians[38].  [m (before 1319) --- of Lithuania, daughter of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [first] wife [Wida ---] .  According to Rowell, "the assertion made by Stryjkowski that David was the son-in-law of Gediminas has no support from the sources extant today"[39].]] 

 

 

Later Princes of Pskov, as recorded by Rowell[40]:

 

Aleksandr Mikhailovich 1330-1337 (Lithuanian)

Aleksandr Vsevolodovich 1341, 1342

Algirdas 1341 (Lithuanian)

Andrei Algirdaitis 1343, 1350, 1377 (Lithuanian)

Yury Vitovtovich 1341, 1349 (Lithuanian)

Vassily Budivolna 1357

Ostafei 1358-1360

Aleksandr 1368

Matfei 1375

Grigory Ostafevich 1397-1399

Ivan Andreevich 1400 (Lithuanian)

 

 

 

B.      DYNASTY of KENTAURAS

 

 

ŽIVINBUDAS [1219], TRAIDENIS 1270-1282

 

ŽIVINBUDAS, son of --- (-after 1219).  He succeeded Ringaudas [after 1219] as ŽIVINBUDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania

m ---.  The name of Živinbudas's wife is not known. 

Živinbudas & his wife had five children:

1.         TRAIDENIS [Troiden] (-[1282]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in [1270] as TRAIDENIS Grand Duke of Lithuania.  A strong ruler, he repulsed the Teutonic Order and traded with both Rus and Livonia.  He never converted to Christianity[41].  [m (1238) LUDMIŁA of Poland, daughter of KONRAD I Prince of Mazovia, Kujavia, Sieradz and Łęczyca [Piast] & his wife Agafia Sviatoslavna of Novgorod-Sieviersk [Rurikid] (1223-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.]  Traidenis & his wife had one child: 

a)         GAUDAMANTČ (-1288).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was baptised ZOFIAm (1279) as his first wife, BOLESŁAW Prince of Plock, son of SIEMOWIT I Prince of Mazovia [Piast] & his wife Pereiaslava Daniilovich of Galich (after 1251-20 Apr 1313).  He succeeded his brother in 1294 as BOLESŁAW II Prince of Mazovia.  

2.         SIRPUTIS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He and his brothers, with the exception of Traidenis, were Christian[42]

3.         SVILKENIS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

4.         BORZA .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

5.         LESIS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

C.      DYNASTY of DAUJOTAS

 

 

1.         DAUJOTAS (-after 1219).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         VILIKAILA (-after 1219).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    GRAND DUKES of LITHUANIA, DYNASTY of PUKUVERAS

 

 

This family originated in Aukštaitija, but its origins are unknown.  Two manuscripts of the Russian prose-poem Zadonshchina refer to the grandsons of Grand Duke Gediminas as great grandsons [pravnuki] of SKOLOMEND/Skoldimer, and Rowell speculates that this could refer to a more remote ancestor.  A 16th century genealogy alleges that the family originated in Ukmergč [Vilkmergé/Wilkomierz], a fortified centre in eastern Lithuania[43]

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS, GRAND DUKES of LITHUANIA 1282-1315

 

 

PUKUVERAS 1282-1295, VYTENIS 1295-1315

 

Two brothers, origins unknown. 

1.         BUTIGEIDAS .  1289. 

2.         PUKUVERAS [Budividas] (-1295).  He succeeded in 1282 as PUKUVERAS Grand Duke of Lithuania, at Birngala.  The early 14th century Chronicon Terrć Prussić of Peter von Dusburg records that "Pucuwerus rex Lethowie" sent "filium suum Vithenum" against Poland "ad terram Bristensem", the Poles requesting help from the Teutonic Knights against whom the Lithuanians turned their attention, dated to 1292[44]m ---.  The name of Pukuveras's wife is not known.  Pukuveras & his wife had four children:

a)         VYTENIS [Witen/Woin] (-[Sep 1315/1316]).  The early 14th century Chronicon Terrć Prussić of Peter von Dusburg records that "Pucuwerus rex Lethowie" sent "filium suum Vithenum" against Poland "ad terram Bristensem", the Poles requesting help from the Teutonic Knights against whom the Lithuanians turned their attention, dated to 1292[45].  He succeeded his father in 1295 as VYTENIS Grand Duke of Lithuania.  The war between Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights intensified in the 1290s after the Prussian and Livonian tribes had capitulated.  The Chronicon Terrć Prussić of Peter von Dusburg records that "rex Vithenus cum multitudines copiosa Lethowinorum" invaded "terram Lyvonie" in 1296[46].  In 1298, Grand Duke Vytenis sent Lithuanian troops to defend Riga against attacks by the Teutonic Order, at the request of the Archbishop of Riga[47].  He acquired Polotsk 1307 on the extinction of the Riurikid princes there.  By this time, Lithuanian territory also encompassed Minsk, Pinsk and Turov[48].  The Chronicon Terrć Prussić of Peter von Dusburg records another invasion of "terram Prussie" by "Vithenus rex Lethowie" 3 Apr 1311 which ended in his defeat by the Teutonic Order[49].  His last recorded appearance is in an account of a Lithuanian raid against Prussia in Sep 1315[50]m ---.  The name of Vytenis's wife is not known.  Vytenis & his wife had one child:

i)          SWALEGOTE (-after 1309).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         GEDIMINAS [Gedymin] ([1260]-killed in battle [late 1341/early 1342]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his brother in [1315/16] as GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania.   

-        see below, Part B. GRAND PRINCES of LITHUANIA

c)         VOIN Davydko (-[1333/35]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Prince of Polotsk in 1326.  He and his brother Gediminas concluded a peace treaty with Novgorod in 1326[51].  He was succeeded by his first cousin Narimantas, appointed Prince of Polotsk by his father Grand Duke Gediminas[52]m ---.  The name of Voin's wife is not known.  Voin & his wife had one child:

i)          LIUBKO (-1342).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Prince of Polotsk.

d)         FËDOR (-after 1362).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was installed as Prince of Kiev by his brother Grand Duke Gediminas after the city was captured by Lithuania in 1323[53].  He was replaced as prince in 1362 by Vladimir, son of Algirdas of Lithuania[54]

 

 

 

B.      GRAND DUKES of LITHUANIA 1315-1432

 

 

GEDIMINAS 1315-1341, JAUNUTAS 1341-1345

 

GEDIMINAS [Gedymin], son of PUKUVERAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his wife --- ([1260]-killed in battle [late 1341/early 1342]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His base was in north-west Lithuania at the castle of Gedimin-Burg in Pograuden[55].  He succeeded his brother in 1315 as GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania.  He styled himself "Gedeminne Dei Gratia Letwinorum et multorum Ruthenorum Rex".  He transferred his main residence to Vilnius before Jan 1323, building two castles there as well as Catholic and Orthodox churches to serve foreign merchants and artisans[56].  He expanded Lithuanian hegemony over large parts of western Rus, acquiring Viterbsk in 1318 by marrying his son Algirdas to the heiress of the last prince, Volynia and Kiev by conquest in 1323, Minsk in 1326, and later Turov and Pinsk[57].  Conflicts with the Teutonic Knights continued from the start of Gediminas's reign with frequent attacks on Žemaitija, until Gediminas offered peace in 1322, a four year peace treaty being signed 2 Oct 1323 at Vilnius and ratified by the pope 31 Aug 1324[58].  Although he wrote to Pope John XXII in 1322 announcing his readiness to welcome the Catholic faith to Lithuania, he refused baptism when the papal legates arrived in Vilnius in 1324[59].  "Gedeminnen deme Koninge van Lettouuen" agreed a peace agreement with Estonia, Livonia and Curland by charter dated [Oct] 1323[60].  In 1330 he began a major assault against Prussia, burning Osterode to the ground[61].  Prince of Poland 1333.  "Ludowicus…Romanorum Imperator" granted "tocius terre Lithovie" to the Teutonic Knights by charter dated Dec 1337[62].  Lithuania occupied Volynia in 1340[63].  According to the Novgorod Chronicle, Gediminas died in "the same winter" of the year in which Khan Uzbek died[64]

[m firstly WIDA, daughter of WIDMUND.] 

[m secondly OLGA Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD of Smolensk.] 

[m thirdly IEVNA [Eva] Ivanovna, daughter of IVAN Vsevolodich Prince of Polotzk (-[1345]).  According to Rowell, "the tradition that Gediminas had two wives, one of whom was Orthodox (Eva, mother of Grand Duke Jaunutis) has no solid basis"[65].  Her date of death is suggested by an interpolation in the third redaction of the Lithuanian Chronicle[66].] 

Gediminas & his [---] wife had [fourteen] children:

1.         MANVIDAS [Montovid] (-[1342]).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "primus et senior Montiwid" to whom his father gave "Bernow et Slonym"[67].  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Kernavč [Kirnovo] and Slonim on the death of the former[68]

2.         NARIMANTAS [Narimont] (-killed in battle Strčva 2 Feb 1348).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "secundus Narimuth" to whom his father gave "Pynsk"[69].  His father installed him as Prince of Polotsk in [1333/35], in succession to his uncle Voin[70].  He was baptised GLEB in 1333.  Starost of Grodno.  Prince of Novogrodek.  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Pinsk on the death of the former[71].  When his brother Jaunutis was deposed as Grand Duke in 1345, Narimantas sought refuge with the Mongols but returned in [1347][72] and fought in the army of Grand Duke Algirdas. 

-        see below, Part C. DESCENDANTS of NARIMANTAS.

3.         [daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  According to Rowell, "the assertion made by Stryjkowski that David was the son-in-law of Gediminas has no support from the sources extant today"[73]m (before 1319) DAVID Starost at Grodno, son of [DAUMANTAS Prince of Nalšia & his wife ---] (-killed 1326).  Military commander of Grand Duke Gediminas based at Grodno.  He was elected Prince (military commandant) of Pskov in 1322.]

4.         ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] (-end May 1377).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "tercius Olgerth, pater domini regis" to whom his father gave "Crewa"[74].  He succeeded in 1345 as ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania

-        see below

5.         JAUNUTIS [Evnuty] (-1366).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "quartus Iwenynti", adding that "Yewyntham" was located "in Wilna in Magno ducatu"[75].  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Vilnius on the death of the former in 1341, and succeeded as JAUNUTIS Grand Duke of Lithuania[76].  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "dux autem magnus Kyerstruki" entered Vilna, that "dux…magnus Jewynthi" fled to the mountains, and that Kestutis summoned "fratrem suum seniorem ducem Olgerth" to succeed as Grand Duke, the latter granting "Zaslaw" to Jaunutis[77].  He was removed as Grand Duke by his brother Kestutis, imprisoned in Vilnius castle, but escaped to Smolensk and sought refuge with his brother-in-law in Moscow where he was baptised IOANN [Ivan] 25 Nov 1345[78].  He returned from exile in Moscow in 1347 and was installed at Zaslavl [Isiaslavl], in the principality of Minsk, by his brother Grand Duke Algirdas[79]m ---. The name of Jaunutis´s wife is not known.  Jaunutis & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [FËDOR .]

b)         SEMËN .  1386.

c)         MIKHAIL (-killed in battle 12 Aug 1399).  Prince of Isiaslavl.  m ---.  Ancestors of the Princes Iaslavski and Mstislavski.

6.         KESTUTIS [Kiejstut] (-murdered 15 Aug 1382).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "quintus Kyestuti, pater domini magni ducis Wythowdi" to whom his father gave "Troky, Coriatho Nowogrodek"[80].  He was baptised ALEKSANDER.  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Trakai in western Lithuania (in whose castle he established his base) and the Grand Duchy of Žemaitija.  "Jagel obirster Herczoge der Littouwin unde Kenstutte Herczoge zcu Tracken" confirmed a ten year peace by charter dated 1379[81]

-        see below, Part D. DESCENDANTS of KESTUTIS

7.         KARIJOTAS [Koriat] (-after 1358).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "sextus Koriath"[82].  He was baptised MIKHAEL.  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Novogorodok on the death of the former[83].  Prince of Novogorodok and Volkowijsk.  m ---.  The name of Karijotas´s wife is not known.  Karijotas & his wife had seven children:

a)         ALEKSANDR (-1380).  Prince of Podolsk and Novogorodok 1375.  m his first cousin, --- Semënovna, daughter of SEMËN Ivanovich "Gordiy/the Proud" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his first wife Aigusta [Anastasia] of Lithuania .  

b)         KONSTANTIN (-[1390]).  Prince of Podolsk and Novogorodok 1385.  Ancestor of the Princes Koryatowicz and Kurczewicz.  

c)         IURII [Jerzy] (-1374).  Prince of Podolsk 1362/74.  Pretender to the throne of Moldavia.  m ANASTASIA of Moldavia, daughter of IOLATCU Voivode of Moldavia (-26 Jan or [20 May] 1420).  Iurii & his wife had two children: 

i)          IUGA Zurzevic .  1392. 

ii)         ANA (-1418)m ([1405]) as his second wife, ALEXANDRU Cel Bun Voivoide of Moldavia ([1375]-[1430/31]). 

d)         FËDOR (-after 1416).  Prince of Podolsk and Novogorodok [1392].  After, Prince of Ujgorod and Munkacz (in Hungary).  m ---.  The name of Fëdor´s wife is not known.  Fëdor & his wife had two children:

i)          ANNA .  1416.

ii)         MARIA .  1416.

e)         LEV (-1399). 

f)          VASSILI .  1403. 

g)         DMITRI (-12 Aug 1399).  Prince of Volynia and Bobrek.  m (1356) LIUBA Ivanovna of Vladimir, daughter of IVAN II Ivanovich "Krotkiy/the Beauty" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his second wife Aleksandra Vasilievna Veliaminova .  She adopted the name ANNA on her marriage. 

8.         LIUBARTAS [Lubart] (-1384).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "septimus Lubarth"[84].  He was baptised DMITRY.  He took control of Volynia in 1340 after the assassination of Bołeslaw Jerzy of Mazovia Prince of Galich[85], directly challenging Kazimierz III King of Poland who had invaded Galich and who was obliged to recognise Lithuanian rights to the area in 1345[86].  Liubartas apparently received no further land under the division of territories organised by his father before he died[87].  In Sep 1349, King Kazimierz invaded Galich and captured Volynia, although he permitted Liubartas to retain Łuck[88].  According to the Novgorod Chronicle, he obtained Volynia "with a large force by deceit"[89].  Prince of Vladimir-Volhynsk and Luck [1379].  m firstly ([1320]) EUFEMIA [Offa] Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR Mstislavich Prince of Volhynia & his wife --- (-1349).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "septimus Lubarth" who married "dux wladimiriensis…filiam" who brought him "Luczko et terram dictam Volnyczska"[90].  This marriage was arranged to increase the dynasty's influence in south-west Rus[91]m secondly (after 1349) OLGA Konstantinovna, daughter of KONSTANTIN III Vassilievich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Ivanovna of Moscow.  Liubartas & his second wife had three children: 

a)         FËDOR ([1351]-Aug 1431).  Prince of Vladimir in Volhynia and Luck. 

b)         LAZAR .

c)         SEMËN .

9.         MARIA ([1305]-1348).  She retired to a convent at Tver after her husband was killed[92]m (1320) DMITRY Mikhailovich "Groznye Otchi/Menacing Eyes" Prince of Tver, son of MIKHAIL Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife Anna Dmitrievna of Rostov (15 Oct 1299-executed [Sarai] 15 Sep 1325).  He succeeded in 1322 as DMITRY Grand Prince of Vladimir.   

10.      DANNILA ([1306]-1364).  Her marriage was arranged to confirm her father's alliance with Prince Waclaw in the Mazovian civil war[93].  She was baptised ELŻBIETAm (before 6 Dec 1320, maybe 1316[94]) WACŁAW Prince of Plock, son of BOLESŁAW II Prince of Mazovia [Piast] & his second wife Kunigunde of Bohemia ([1293]-23 May 1336).

11.      ALDONA ([1309/10]-26 May 1339).  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the Lithuanian/Polish alliance 1324/25.  She was baptised ANNA 30 Apr 1325.  Although she had a reputation for piety after her conversion, some were scandalised by her devotion to music, cymbals being played before her in procession[95]m (16 Oct 1325) as his first wife, KAZIMIERZ Prince of Poland, son of WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/the Short" King of Poland & his wife Jadwiga of Poland (30 Apr 1310-Krakow 5 Nov 1370, bur Krakow Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1333 as KAZIMIERZ III "Wielki/the Great" King of Poland

12.      GAUDEMUNDA ([1316]-murdered near Zawichost 5 Feb 1342).  She was baptised EUFEMIA.  She was drowned under the ice in River Vistula[96]m (betrothed 1324, Plock Cathedral 1331) BOLESŁAW JERZY Prince of Galich and Vladimir in Volynia, son of TROJDEN I Prince of Czersk [Piast] & his wife Maria Iurievna of Galich (before 1313-murdered 7 Apr 1340).

13.      AIGUSTA (-11 Mar 1345).  She was baptised ANASTASIA.  Her marriage was arranged to confirm a truce in relations between Lithuania and Moscow[97].  Died as a nun.  m (1333) SEMËN Ivanovich of Vladimir, son of IVAN I Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Elena --- (1316-21 Apr 1353).  He succeeded his father in 1340 as SEMËN "Gordiy/the Proud" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow. 

14.      [98]daughter m ANDREI Mstislavich of Kozelsk, son of MSTISLAV Mikhailovich of Karachev & his wife --- (-1339). 

 

 

ALGIRDAS 1345-1377, ŠVITRIGAILA 1430-1432

 

ALGIRDAS [Olgierd], son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & [his second wife Olga Vsevolodovna of Smolensk]  ([1296]-end May 1377).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "tercius Olgerth, pater domini regis" to whom his father gave "Crewa"[99].  He succeeded as Prince of Vitebsk on his first marriage[100].  Baptised ALEKSANDER.  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Krčva and Vitebsk on the death of the former[101].  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "dux autem magnus Kyerstruki" entered Vilna, that "dux…magnus Jewynthi" fled to the mountains, and that Kestutis summoned "fratrem suum seniorem ducem Olgerth" to succeed as ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania[102].  Expanding his territories eastwards, he replaced the Khan of the Golden Horde as suzerain of the principalities of Chernigov, Pereiaslavl and Kiev[103].  Metropolitan Aleksei created a Russian Orthodox metropolitanate of Lithuania, with ecclesiastical responsibility over Lithuania, Kiev and western Chernigov, consecrating Roman --- (a relative of Olgierd's second wife) as its primate, although the two sees were reunified after the death of Roman in 1361[104]

m firstly (1318) [MARIA] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk, daughter of IAROSLAV Vasilievich Prince of Vitebsk (-1346). 

m secondly ([1350]) IULIANA Aleksandrovna of Tver, daughter of ALEXANDER I Mikhailovich Prince of Tver, ex-Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife Anastasia [Iurievna of Galich] ([1325]-1392). 

Algirdas & his first wife had eight children:

1.         ANDREI ([1319]-killed in battle 12 Aug 1399).  He was baptised ANDREI in 1342, and installed by his father as Prince of Pskov[105].  Prince of Polotsk.  He supported Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, against the Mongol Khan Mamai (who was supported by Andrei's half-brother Jagiello) in the battle of Kulikovo in 1380[106]m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had three children:

a)         MIKHAEL (-1385).

b)         SEMËN (-1387).

c)         IVAN (-after 1437).  of Pskov.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

i)          ALEXANDER (-1442).  of Pskov 1439.

2.         KONSTANTIN (-[1386/30 Oct 1393]).  Prince of Czartorysk.   

-        CZARTORYSKY

3.         OLEŁKO WŁODZIMIERZ (-1398).  He was installed as Prince of Kiev in 1362, in succession to his paternal uncle Fëdor[107].  Prince of Kopylsk and Słuck 1395.  m ---.  The name of Olełko´s wife is not known.  Olełko & his wife had four children:

a)         daughter (-1396)m (1385) as his first wife, VASILY Mikhailovich Prince of Kashin and Krosnya, son of MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver & his wife Ievdokia Konstantinovna of Suzdal (-after 1426). 

b)         OLEŁKO ALEXANDER (-1454).  Prince of Kiev 1441.  Prince of Słuck.  m (26 Aug 1417) ANASTASIA Vasilievna, daughter of VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Sofia of Lithuania (-1470).  Ancestors of the Princes Olełkowicz-Słucki.  Olełko & his wife had three children:

i)          SZYMON Prince Olełkovicz (-1471).  Prince of Kiev.  m MARIA Gasztold, daughter of ---. 

(a)       SOFIA Pss Olełkowicza (-6 Feb 1483)m (Winter 1471) MIKHAIL III Borisovich Grand Prince of Tver, son of BORIS Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver & his second wife Anastasia Aleksandrovna of Suzdal (1453-before 1505). 

(b)       ALEXANDRA Pss Olełkowicza (-Apr 1515)m (1498) FEDOR Ioannovich Prince Iaroslavich, son of IOANN Vasilievich Prince Iaroslavich & his wife Ievdokia Worotyńska (-May 1521).  Prince of Pinsk 1499. 

ii)         MICHAŁ Olełkowicz .  He was chosen as ruler of Novgorod in 1470 after the city requested Kazimierz IV King of Poland for protection but within weeks left Novgorod[108]

iii)        OVDOTIA [Eudokia] (-1467)m (1463) as his first wife, STEFAN III Voivode of Moldavia (-1504).  No surviving children.

c)         IWAN .  1422, 1446.  m ([Feb 1422]) as her first husband, VASILISA Andreievna Pss Holyńskaya, daughter of ANDREI Prince Holyński.  She married secondly Michał Prince Siemionowicz. 

d)         ANDREI (-[1457]).  m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Andrei & his wife had two children:

i)          GLEB (-[1457]).

ii)         EUDOKIA m IVAN Rohatyński.

4.         FEODOR (-before 1400).  Prince of Ratno [Ratnie].   

-        SANGUSZKO

5.         [109]KORIBUTAS [Korybut] ([1331]-after 1404).  A charter dated 1388 records that "Witoldus et Conradus frater eius duces Littuawie Karobud frater pretensi Regis Polonie" occupied Masovia[110].  Prince of Novgorod Severskiy [Nowogrodzko-Siewierski].  He was baptised DMITRY in 1386. 

-        WIESNIEWICKI.

6.         FEODORA m (after 1376) SVIATOSLAV Titovich Prince of Karachev, son of TIT Mstislavich Prince of Karachev & his wife ---.

7.         daughter m IVAN Iurievich Prince of Novosilsk and Odoievsk, son of IURII Romanovich Prince of Novosilsk & his wife --- (-after 1371).

8.         MARIA [Agrafena] (-1393)m (1354) BORIS Konstantinovich Prince of Gorodeno, son of KONSTANTIN Vasilievich Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod & his second wife Ielena --- (before 1340-12 May 1394).  He succeeded his brother in 1383 as Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod. 

Algirdas & his second wife had twelve children:

9.         KENNA ([1350]-27 Apr 1368).  Her marriage was proposed by her future husband's maternal grandfather, Kazimierz III King of Poland, to strengthen the ties between Lithuania and Poland[111].  She was baptised as JOHANNA on her marriage.  m (1360[112]) as his first wife, KASIMIR von Pommern, son of BOGISLAW V Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern & his first wife Elźbieta of Poland ([1351]-2 Jan 1377).  He succeeded his father in 1373 as KASIMIR IV Duke of Pomerania in Stargard.  No issue. 

10.      JOGAILA [Jagiello] ([1351]-1 Jun 1434).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "magnum ducem Olgerth" had twelve children, of whom he favoured "dux Jagello"[113].  Prince of Kiev 1377.  "Jagel obirster Herczoge der Littouwin unde Kenstutte Herczoge zcu Tracken" confirmed a ten year peace by charter dated 1379[114].  He supported the Mongol Khan Mamai against Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, although his forces failed to arrive in time to help the Khan at the battle of Kulikovo in 1380[115].  Grand Prince of Lithuania 1382/3-1386 and 1392/1401.  He succeeded as WŁADISŁAW II King of Poland 1386-1434, after which he focussed his attention on Poland leaving Lithuania to a viceroy[116].   

-        KINGS of POLAND

11.      SKIRGAILA [Skirgajllo] (-11 Jan 1397).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "dux Jagello" granted "Poloczko" to "fratri suo Sergallo"[117].  He was baptised IVAN in [1383/84].  Prince of Troik 1382.  Prince of Polock 1387.  "Schirgalo…dux Lithuanie et dominus Tracensis et Polocensis" confirmed peace with the Teutonic Order by charter dated 1388, sealed by "domini Alexandri ducis Lithwanie et domini Kernoviensis"[118].  Prince of Kiev 1395.  Prince of Lithuania 1386-1392.

12.      LENGVENIS [Lingweni] ([1355]-after 19 Jun 1431).  Prince of Mstislavsk.  He was baptised SZYMON in 1386.  "…Symeonis alias Ligwen Sigismundi germani fratris ducis Wytawdi…" subscribed the charter dated 1411 under which "Wladislaus…Rex Polonie…cum…Alexandro alias Wytowldo Magno Duce Lithuanie…fratre nostro" agreed peace with the Teutonic Knights[119]m firstly (14 Jun 1394) MARIA Dmitrievna of Moscow, daughter of DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal (-1399).  m secondly (winter [1406/07]) ---, from Moscow.  Lengvenis & his first wife had one child:

a)         IURI Semenovich .  Prince of Mstislavsk 1422-56.  Prince of Novgorod 1433.  m ---.

i)          IVAN Iurievich (-before 1489).  Prince of Mstislawsk.  m JULIANA, daughter of --- (-before 1495).

(a)       ANASTASIA Ivanovna (-after 1523)m (after 1496) SIEMION Prince Słucki (-1500).

(b)       IULIANA Ivanovna (-after 1507)m (early 1499) MICHAŁ Prince Zasławski .

Lengvenis & his second wife had one child:

b)         IAROSLAV FEDOR Semenovich (1410-1435).

13.      KORIGAILA [Korigajllo] (-killed in battle Vilna 28 Oct 1392).  He was baptised KAZIMIERZ in 1386.

14.      WIGAND [Wigunt] (-28 Jun 1392).  Prince of Kirnovo.  He was baptised ALEKSANDER in 1386.  "Schirgalo…dux Lithuanie et dominus Tracensis et Polocensis" confirmed peace with the Teutonic Order by charter dated 1388, sealed by "domini Alexandri ducis Lithwanie et domini Kernoviensis"[120]m (before 25 Jan 1390) HEDWIG von Oppeln, daughter of WLADISLAW Duke of Oppeln, Palatine of Hungary [Piast] & his second wife Euphemia of Mazovia [Piast] ([1376/78]-after 13 May 1390).

15.      ŠVITRIGAILA [Svidrigailo] (-10 Feb 1452).  He was baptised BOLESŁAW.  Prince of Polock 1400/02.  After 1406, Prince of Vladimir-Volhynsk Perejeslavl Volokolamsk.  Prince of Chermigov 1419/30.  He succeeded in 1430 as ŠVITRIGAILA Grand Duke of Lithuania, until 1432.  m ([1430/33]) ANNA Ivanovna of Tver, daughter of IVAN Ivanovich Prince of Tver & his wife --- (-[1471/28 Sep 1484]).  She adopted the name SOFIA in Lithuania. 

16.      ELENA (-15 Sep 1438).  She became a nun as IEPRAKSIA[121]m (Winter [1371/72]) VLADIMIR Andreievich “Khrobry/the Brave” Prince of Sierpukhov and Bobrovsk, son of ANDREI Ivanovich of Moscow, Prince of Sierpukhov and Bobrovsk & his second wife Maria Konstantinovna of Rostov-Borisoglebsk (15 Jul 1353-4 or 14 May 1410).

17.      MARIA .  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "dux magnus Jagello" married "sororem suam germanam ducissam Mariam" to "duci Daud"[122]m firstly (1379) VAIDILA [Wojdylo] Starost of Lidzki (-1382).  m secondly DAVID Dmitrievich Prince of Gorodeno [Gorodetsk].

18.      WILHEIDA KATARZYNA (-after 4 Apr 1422)m (1388) JOHANN von Mecklenburg-Stargard, son of JOHANN I Herzog von Mecklenburg-Stargard & his third wife Agnes von Lindau-Ruppin (-[6 Jul/9 Oct] 1416, bur Sternberg).  He succeeded in his father in 1392 as JOHANN II Herzog von Mecklenburg-Stargard

19.      ALEKSANDRA (-19 Jun 1434)m ([1387]) SIEMOWIT IV Prince of Plock and Kujavia, son of SIEMOWIT III "Starszy" Prince of Mazovia & his first wife Euphemia von Troppau [Přemyslid] (before 1352-5 Dec 1425).

20.      JADWIGA (-after 13 May 1400)m (1394) HANUŠ III Duke of Auschwitz [Oświęcim], son of HANUŠ II Duke of Auschwitz [Piast] & his wife Hedwig von Brieg [Piast] ([1366/76]-1405, after 19 Aug). 

 

 

 

C.      DESCENDANTS of NARIMANTAS

 

 

NARIMANTAS [Narimont], son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & [his first wife Wida ---] (-killed in battle Strčva 2 Feb 1348).  His father installed him as Prince of Polotsk [1333/35], in succession to his uncle Voin[123].  He was baptised as GLEB in 1333[124].  Starost of Grodno.  Prince of Novogrodek.  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Pinsk on the death of the former[125].  When his brother Jaunutis was deposed as Grand Duke in 1345, Narimantas sought refuge with the Mongols but returned in [1347][126] and fought in the army of Grand Duke Algirdas. 

m MARIJA of the Golden Horde, daughter of TOKHTA Khan of the Golden Horde & his wife Maria Palaiologina (-1332). 

Narimantas & his wife had six children: 

1.         PUNIGAILO [Padigiełło] Narimantaitis (1303-1386).  Castellan of Trocki. 

2.         MIKHAIL Narimantaitis .  Prince of Turov and Pinsk.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had one child: 

a)         VASSILI Mikhailovich .  Prince of Pinsk 1355.  Ancestor of the Princes Pinsky[127] and Kurcewicz.

3.         ALEKSANDR Narimantaitis (-after 1386).  Prince of Turov and Pinsk.  Ancestor of the Princes Rojinsky[128]

4.         YURY Narimantaitis (-1392).  Prince of Belz [Belck] and Cholm 1390-92. 

5.         PATRIKII Narimantaitis (-[1383/87]).  Prince of Starodub 1384/1408.   

-        see below

6.         SEMËN Narimantaitis (-after 1386). 

 

 

PATRIKII Narimantaitis, son of NARIMANTAS [Narimont] of Lithuania & his wife Marija of the Golden Horde (-[1383/87]).  He went to Novgorod in 1383 and was given the town of Orekhov, Korel town [Keksholm on Lake Ladoga], half the town of Koporya and Lusko village.  The towns of Orekhov and Korel were taken from him in 1384 after the townsmen complained to Novgorod about him and he was awarded Russa and Ladoga in their place[129].  Prince of Starodub 1384/1408. 

m IELENA, daughter of ---. 

Patrikii & his wife had three children: 

1.         FEODOR Patrikievich (-shortly after 1424).  Ancestor of Princes Shomansky[130]/Khovansky. 

2.         IURI Patrikievich (-[1447])m ANNA Dmitrievna of Moscow, daughter of DMITRI Ivanovich "Donskoi" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal (8 Jan 1387-).  Baumgarten cites two sources which specify that the wife of Iurii Patrikievich was the daughter of Dmitry "Donskoy"[131].  [or m (1418) MARIA Vasilievna, daughter of VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Sofia of Lithuania.  Baumgarten names Maria as the wife of Iuri Patrikievich, although in a later passage he cites two sources which specify that the wife of his wife was the daughter of Dmitry "Donskoy"[132].]  Iuri & his wife had three children: 

a)         VASSILI Yurievich (-Jan 1450).  Prince Patrikiev.  Boyar at Moscow.  m MARIA, daughter of ---.  1457.  Vassili & his wife had four children: 

i)          IVAN Bulgak Vassilievich (-14 Apr 1498).  Prince Patrikiev.  Boyar at Moscow 1476.  Voivode 1481.  m KSENIA Ivanovna Vsevoloia, daughter of IVAN Ivanovich Vsevoloi.  Ivan & his wife had four children: 

(a)       IVAN Ivanovich (-14 Apr 1498).  Prince Bulgakov. 

(b)       MIKHAIL Golitza Ivanovich (-1554).  Prince Bulgakov.  Died as a monk.  Ancestor of the Princes Galitzin[133].

(c)       ANDREI Kuraka Ivanovich (-after 1535).  Prince Bulgakov.  m firstly ---.  m secondly --- Dmitrievna, daughter of DMITRI Semienovich Peshkov-Saburov.  Ancestors of the Princes Kurakin[134].

(d)       DMITRI Ivanovich (-in prison after 1514).  Prince Bulgakov.  Voivode. 

ii)         DANIEL Shchenia Vassilievich (-1516).  Prince Patrikiev.  Boyar at Moscow 1476.  Ancestor of Princes Stechnsatev. 

iii)        MIKHAIL Kolyshka Vassilievich (-12 Jun 1495).  Prince Patrikiev.  Boyar at Moscow 1475. 

iv)       VASSILI Kossei Vassilievich (-1531).  Prince Patrikiev.  Boyar at Moscow 1475.  Monk. 

b)         IVAN Yurievich 'Gvozdi' (-1499).  Prince Patrikiev.  He became one of the closest advisers of Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow.  He and his associates came to dominate the duma.  Instrumental in securing the accession of Dmitry Ivanovich as co-ruler in 1498, he fell into disgrace within a year of the coronation and was forced to become a monk at Troick[135]m IEVDOKIA Vladimirovna Shovrina, daughter of VLADIMIR Grigorievich Shovrin.  1470/73. 

i)          VASILY .  He fell from grace with his father and was forced to become a monk, as VASSIAN[136].  He opposed Vasily III's projected divorce in 1525[137]

ii)         IVAN Mania Ivanovich (-after 1522).  Prince Patrikiev.  Boyar at Moscow.  Voivode of Polock 1498[138].  He fell from grace with his father[139]

iii)        IRINA Ivanovnam SEMION Shripun Ivanovich Prince Riapolovski, boyar at Moscow (-shot 5 Feb 1499).  He fell from his grace with his father-in-law and was executed[140]

c)         IELENA Yurievnam IVAN Mikhailovich Tcheliadnin .

3.         ALEXANDER Patrikievich (-[1443]).  Prince of Starodub. 

a)         AGRAFENA Alexandrovna (-after 1434)m (8 Oct 1403) ANDREI Dmitrievich Prince of Mozhaisk and Belosero, son of DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal (-9 Jul 1432). 

b)         VASSILI Alexandrovich .  Ancestor of the Princes Korecky[141]

 

 

 

D.      DESCENDANTS of KESTUTIS

 

 

VYTAUTAS 1393-1430

 

KESTUTIS [Kiejstut], son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & [his second wife Olga Vsevolodovna of Smolensk]   ([1297]-murdered 15 Aug 1382).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "ducem magnum Lithuanie Gediminum" had seven sons, of whom "quintus Kyestuti, pater domini magni ducis Wythowdi" to whom his father gave "Troky, Coriatho Nowogrodek"[142].  Baptised ALEKSANDER.  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Trakai in western Lithuania (in whose castle he established his base) and the Grand Duchy of Žemaitija on his father's death[143].  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "dux autem magnus Kyerstruki" entered Vilna, that "dux…magnus Jewynthi" fled to the mountains, and that Kestutis summoned "fratrem suum seniorem ducem Olgerth" to succeed as Grand Duke[144].  He fled from captivity in Prussia in 1361 and took refuge with his sister Elżbieta Pss of Plock[145].  "Jagel obirster Herczoge der Littouwin unde Kenstutte Herczoge zcu Tracken" confirmed a ten year peace by charter dated 1379[146].  On the death of his older brother Olgerd, a succession struggle broke out between Keistut and Olgerd's sons, continuing until the former's death[147].  He was killed in a rebellion in Lithuania[148].  

[m firstly ---.  According to Rowell, the attribution to Kiejstut of a first wife is based on erroneous attribution to him of other sons who were active much before Vytautas, including Patrikii Narimantaitis[149].] 

m [secondly] BIRUTČ [Bierute or Biruta] of Palanga (-murdered 15 Aug 1382). 

Kestutis & his second wife had seven children: 

1.         VAIDOTAS [Butautas] Butaw (-Prague 1380).  He was baptised HENRYK in 1365.  m ---.  The name of Vaidotas´s wife is not known.  Vaidotas & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [KRADJUT (-1389).] 

2.         VYTAUTAS [Vitovt or Witold] (1344-27 Oct 1430).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo names "Kyestuti, pater domini magni ducis Wythowdi"[150].  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "magnum ducem Kyerstruchi" had seven children of whom he favoured "dux Vitoldus"[151].  On his father's death, he sought refuge with the Teutonic Knights[152].  Baptised ALEKSANDER 21 Oct 1383.  After Vasily Dmitrievich, son of Dmitry Ivanovich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow, sought refuge in Lithuania after escaping from the court of Khan Tokhtamysh in 1386, Vytautas helped him return to Moscow[153].  Following a further power struggle, he emerged in 1393 as VYTAUTAS Grand Duke of Lithuania[154].  Vytautas expanded his control eastwards, seizing Smolensk in 1395 and started a decade-long war against Riazan.  In 1398, he formed an alliance with the Teutonic Knights to launch a major, but eventually unsuccessful, campaign against Novgorod and Pskov, culminating in a truce with Vasily Dmitrievich in 1408[155].  In 1399 he helped the exiled Khan Tokhtamysh, who had sought refuge in Lithuania after being deposed by Timur in 1395, in his attempt to regain power in the Golden Horde but their combined forces were defeated on the Vorskla river[156].  "Wladislaus Rex Polonie" agreed peace with the Teutonic Knights, including the restoration of "terram Samaitie" to "dominus Alexander alias Wytawdus dux Littwanie…frater noster", by charter dated 1404[157].  Together with his cousin Władysław II King of Poland, he defeated the Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg/Grunwald 1410[158].  Taking advantage of divisions among the Golden Horde, Vytautas extended Lithuanian political authority into the Mongol realm, building a series of forts between Kiev and the Black Sea in order to reassert Lithuanian control over the steppe and secure the lower Dnieper river[159].  He clashed with the Orthodox church authorities in 1414 when he appointed his own nominee to his self-created separate metropolitanate in Lithuania, but the Muscovite metropolitan reunited the two sees in 1419[160].  In 1427, he launched a final attack of Novgorod, forcing the town to sue for peace[161].  [m firstly MARIA Pss Lukomskaia, [daughter of ANDREI Prince Lukomski].]  m secondly (before 1387) ANNA Sviatoslavna of Smolensk, daughter of SVIATOSLAV Ivanovich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- (-31 Jul or 14 Aug 1418).  m thirdly (9 Nov 1418) as her second husband, IULIANA Ivanovna Pss Holyńskaya, widow of IVAN Karachevski, daughter of IVAN Borisovich Prince Holyński [Holszanski] (1375-[1448]).  Vytautas & his first wife had two children:

a)         IVAN (-[1384]). 

b)         JERZY ([1384]). 

Vytautas & his second wife had one child:

c)         SOFIA (1371-15 Jun 1453).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "dux Wytersky" had no male children and that he wished "filiam suam unicam" to inherit "Wythewsko"[162]m (9 Jan 1391) VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow, son of DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal (30 Dec 1371-7/27 Feb 1425).

3.         TAUTVILAS [Towtiwil] (-Sep 1390).  He was baptised KONRAD [21 Oct 1383].  m as her first husband, IULIANA Sviatoslavna of Smolensk, daughter of SVIATOSLAV Ivanovich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife ---.  She married secondly Mohiwid, a lord (pan) in Lithuania.  Tautvilas & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [JADWIGA (-after 1 Dec 1405)m ([1397]) BARNIM V Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern zu Stolp, son of BOGISLAW V Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern & his second wife Adelheid von Braunschweig (1369-16 May 1402).  No issue.] 

4.         KORYBUT (-murdered 20 Mar 1440).  He was baptised ŽYGIMANTES [Siegmund] in [1383].  Prince of Trock and Motchaisk 1383.  Prince of Starodub 1406.  "…Symeonis alias Ligwen Sigismundi germani fratris ducis Wytawdi…" subscribed the charter dated 1411 under which "Wladislaus…Rex Polonie…cum…Alexandro alias Wytowldo Magno Duce Lithuanie…fratre nostro" agreed peace with the Teutonic Knights[163].  He succeeded in 1432 as KORYBUT Grand Duke of Lithuania.  Described as "cruel and unmerciful", he was murdered by Alexander Czartoryski and his brother Ivan[164]m firstly --- Andreievna Pss Odynczewicza, daughter of ANDREI Mikhailovich Prince Odynczewicz.  m secondly (Jan 1416) ---.  Korybut & his first wife had one child:

a)         MICHAEL BOLESŁAW (before 1406-shortly before 10 Feb 1452).  He was excluded from succeeding after his father was murdered[165]m firstly (before 28 May 1427) ANNA of Mazovia, daughter of SIEMOWIT V Prince of Plock and Kujavia [Piast] & his wife Aleksandra of Lithuania (13 Jun 1407-before 7 Feb 1435).  m secondly (before 7 Feb 1435) EUFEMIA of Mazovia, daughter of BOLESŁAW [III)] of Masovia [Piast] & his wife Anna Ivanovna Holczánska (before 1420-before 3 Mar 1436).  m thirdly ([1440/45]) this sister of his first wife, KATARZYNA of Mazovia, SIEMOWIT V Prince of Plock and Kujavia [Piast] & his wife Aleksandra of Lithuania (-after 29 Mar 1475).

5.         MIKLAUSČ [Miklova] (-30 Oct 1404).  She was baptised MARIA.  A Nun as MARFAm (end 1375) as his first wife, IVAN Mikhailovich of Tver, son of MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver & his wife Ievdokia Konstantinovna of Suzdal (1357-22 May 1425).  He succeeded his father in 1399 as Grand Prince of Tver. 

6.         RINGAILČ [Ryngajla] (-1433).  She was baptised ELISABETHm firstly ([4 Feb/Jun] 1392) HENRYK of Mazovia, son of SIEMOWIT III "Starszy" Prince of Mazovia [Piast] & his second wife --- von Münsterberg [Piast] ([1368/70]-Winter [1392/93]).  m secondly (1419, divorced 1421) as his third wife, ALEXANDRU ”al Bun” Voivode of Moldavia (-[20 Dec 1430/2 Jan 1431]).

7.         DANUTČ [Danuta] ([1362]-25 May 1448).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "magni duci Kyerstruki" married "filiam suam" to "ducis Mazowie domini Janusii", adding that "astorodensis comendator…Smydsten" was "compater magnis duci Kyerstruki"[166].  She was baptised ANNAm (shortly before 27 Sep 1376) JANUSZ I Prince of Ciechanów and Warsaw, son of SIEMOWIT III "Starszy" Prince of Mazovia & his first wife Euphemia von Troppau [Přemyslid] (-8 Dec 1429).

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    CZARTORYSKY

 

 

KONSTANTIN of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk (-[1386/30 Oct 1393]).  Prince of Czartorysk. 

m ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known. 

Konstantin & his wife had two children: 

1.         VASSILI .  Ancestor of the Princes Czartoryski. 

a)         ALEKSANDER .  Prince Czartoryski.  He and his brother Ivan murdered Korybut Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1440[167]

b)         IVAN .  He and his brother Aleksander murdered Korybut Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1440167

2.         GLEB .  1389/90. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    SANGUSZKO

 

 

FEODOR of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk (-before 1400).  Prince of Ratno [Ratnie]. 

m OLGA, daughter of ---. 

Feodor & his wife had three children: 

1.         ROMAN .  Prince of Kobrynsk.  1387, 1417.  m ---.  The name of Roman´s wife is not known.  Roman & his wife had three children:

a)         SIEMION Prince Kobrynski (-[1460]).  m JULIANA Pss Holczanska, daughter of --- (-[1500]).  Siemion & his wife had three children: 

i)          IVAN Prince Kobrynski (-[1490]).  m (before 1473) as her first husband, FEODORA Rohatyńska, daughter of IVAN Rohatyński (-Jul/Aug 1512).  She married secondly (1508) Mikhail Radziwiłł.

ii)         MARIA (-after 1512).  m IVAN Krasny .

iii)        ANNA (-Feb/Mar 1519).  m firstly (Jan 1481) FEODOR Ivanovich Prince Bjelsky (-after 1506).  m secondly WACŁAW Kostewicz (-1532).

2.         HURKO .  1412, 1416.

3.         SANGUSZKO .  Prince of Ratnie.  1433, 1443.  Ancestor of the Princes Sanguszko.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    WIESNIOWIECKI

 

 

KORIBUTAS [Korybut] of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk ([1331]-after 1404).  A charter dated 1388 records that "Witoldus et Conradus frater eius duces Littuawie Karobud frater pretensi Regis Polonie" occupied Masovia[168].  Prince of Novgorod Seversk [Nowogrodzko-Siewierski].  He was baptised DMITRY in 1386. 

m (after [1384]) as her second husband, ANASTASIA Olegovna of Riazan, widow of DMITRY Vasilievich Prince of Druck, daughter of OLEG Ivanovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosinia --- (-after 12 Aug 1399). 

Koributas & his wife had [seven] children: 

1.         IWAN (-after 1431).

2.         [MICHAEL .  1379.  Ancestor of Princes Trubetzkoi.] 

3.         SIGISMOND (-1435).  Pretender to the Bohemian throne 1422-27.

4.         MARIAm FEODOR Prince Vorotynsky (-after 1442).

5.         ELENA (-after 2 Mar 1449)m (before 16 Jan 1407) JOHANN II Duke of Troppau, Ratibor and Jägerndorf, son of IANUŠ I Duke of Ratibor [Přemyslid] & his wife Anna von Sagan [Piast] ([1365]-12 Aug 1424). 

6.         ANASTASIA m as his second wife, VASILY Mikhailovich Prince of Kashin and Krosnya, son of MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver & his wife Ievdokia Konstantinovna of Suzdal (-after 1426). 

7.         FEODOR .  Living 1440.  Wiesniowieck.  m ---.  The name of Feodor´s wife is not known.  Feodor & his wife had one child:

a)         DASKOm ---.  The name of Dasko´s wife is not known.  Dasko & his wife had one child:

i)          VASSILI .  Duke of Wiesniowiecki.  m ---.  The name of Vassili´s wife is not known.  Vassili & his wife had one child:

(a)       FEDOR (-[1549/53])m MARIA, daughter of Maria of Herlan.  Mistress of Stefan III Voivode of Moldavia.  Fedor & his wife had two children: 

(1)       MICHAŁ Wiesniowiecki .

-         KINGS of POLAND

(2)       DEMETRIUS .  Palatine of Podolien.  Pretender to the throne of Moldavia 1563. 

 

 

 



[1] Rowell, S. C. (1994) Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe (Cambridge University Press), p. 50. 

[2] Lithuanian Chronicles, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, consulted at<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanian_Chronicles> (8 Oct 2007). 

[3] Origo regis Jagyelo et Witholdi ducum Lithuanić, available at <http://litopys.org.ua/psrl3235/lytov21.htm> (8 Oct 2007). 

[4] Lithuanian Chronicles, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, consulted at<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuanian_Chronicles> (8 Oct 2007). 

[5] Bychowiec Chronicle, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, consulted at<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bychowiec_Chronicle> (8 Oct 2007). 

[6] Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles, vol. 17 (Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisei), cited in Bychowiec Chronicle, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, consulted at<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bychowiec_Chronicle> (8 Oct 2007). 

[7] Raczyński, E. (ed.) (1845) Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić (Bratislava). 

[8] ES II 124-26. 

[9] Rowell (1994), p. 52. 

[10] Martin, J. (1999) Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge University Press), p. 163. 

[11] Fennell, J. (1983) The Crisis of Medieval Russia 1200-1304 (Longman), p. 102. 

[12] Rowell (1994), pp. 51 and 64. 

[13] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, I, II, p. 4. 

[14] Martin (1999), p. 164. 

[15] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, I, XII, p. 13. 

[16] Rowell (1994), pp. 51-2. 

[17] Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London) ("Novgorod Chronicle") 1263, p. 98. 

[18] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1263, MGH SS XIX, p. 601. 

[19] Rowell (1994), p. 298. 

[20] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1264, MGH SS XIX, p. 600. 

[21] Novgorod Chronicle 1265, p. 99. 

[22] Rowell (1994), p. 149. 

[23] Novgorod Chronicle, 1265, p. 99. 

[24] Baranauskas, Tomas Medieval Lithuania, Chronology, at <http://viduramziu.lietuvos.net/en/c1183.htm> (31 Oct 2004). 

[25] Annales Polononum I 1267, MGH SS XIX, p. 636. 

[26] Novgorod Chronicle 1263, p. 98. 

[27] Novgorod Chronicle 1263, p. 98. 

[28] Novgorod Chronicle 1299, p. 114. 

[29] Rowell (1994), p. 52. 

[30] Novgorod Chronicle 1266, p. 100. 

[31] Fennell (1983), pp. 133-4, the author saying that "Daumantas was probably unrelated to Mindaugas and his family". 

[32] Novgorod Chronicle 1266, p. 100. 

[33] Rowell (1994), pp. 177-8. 

[34] Novgorod Chronicle 1282, p. 108. 

[35] Rowell (1994), p. 179, quoting Heidenstein, R. De Bello Muscovitico commentariorum libri sex (Basel, 1588), p. 120. 

[36] Novgorod Chronicle 1322, p. 122. 

[37] Rowell (1994), p. 234. 

[38] Rowell (1994), p. 237. 

[39] Rowell (1994), p. 82, referring to Stryjkowski, M. Kronika polska, litewska, zmódźka I wszystkiej Rusi, 2 vols. (Warsaw, 1846, reprinted 1985). 

[40] Rowell (1994), p. 179, footnote 130. 

[41] Rowell (1994), p. 52. 

[42] Rowell (1994), p. 150. 

[43] Rowell (1994), pp. 53-4. 

[44] Hirsch, T, Töppen, M, Strehlke, E. (eds.) (1861) Scriptores rerum Prussicarum, Band I (Leipzig), Chronicon Terrć Prussić Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 155. 

[45] Chronicon Terrć Prussić Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 155. 

[46] Chronicon Terrć Prussić Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 163. 

[47] Rowell (1994), pp. 56-7. 

[48] Martin (1999), p. 205. 

[49] Chronicon Terrć Prussić Petri de Dusburg, III, p. 176. 

[50] Rowell (1994), p. 55. 

[51] Novgorod Chronicle 1326, p. 124. 

[52] Rowell (1994), p. 84. 

[53] Rowell (1994), p. 87. 

[54] Rowell (1994), p. 100. 

[55] Rowell (1994), p. 56. 

[56] Rowell (1994), p. 72. 

[57] Rowell (1994), p. 84. 

[58] Rowell (1994), pp. 193-4, 211 and 215. 

[59] Rowell (1994), p. 189. 

[60] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, II, IV, p. 39. 

[61] Rowell (1994), p. 247. 

[62] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, II, VI, p. 42. 

[63] Martin (1999), p. 205. 

[64] Novgorod Chronicle 1341, p. 136. 

[65] Rowell (1994), p. 88, footnote 25. 

[66] Rowell (1994), p. 282. 

[67] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[68] Rowell (1994), p. 280. 

[69] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[70] Rowell (1994), p. 84. 

[71] Rowell (1994), p. 280.  

[72] Rowell (1994), p. 286. 

[73] Rowell (1994), p. 82, referring to Stryjkowski, M. Kronika polska, litewska, zmódźka I wszystkiej Rusi, 2 vols. (Warsaw, 1846, reprinted 1985). 

[74] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[75] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[76] Rowell (1994), p. 280. 

[77] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[78] Chronicle of Novgorod 1345, p. 140, and Rowell (1994), p. 90. 

[79] Rowell (1994), p. 286. 

[80] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[81] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, III, I, p. 53. 

[82] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[83] Rowell (1994), p. 280. 

[84] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[85] Rowell (1994), p. 101. 

[86] Knoll (1972), p. W. (1972) The Rise of the Polish Monarchy: Piast Poland in East Central Europe 1320-1370 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London), p. 137. 

[87] Rowell (1994), p. 280. 

[88] Knoll (1972), p. 141. 

[89] Novgorod Chronicle 1349, p. 143. 

[90] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[91] Rowell (1994), p. 88. 

[92] Rowell (1994), p. 89. 

[93] Rowell (1994), p. 8. 

[94] Rowell (1994), p. 91, cites a 6 Dec 1320 charter granted at Wyszgród in which Prince Waclaw refers to his wife and children. 

[95] Rowell (1994), p. 232. 

[96] Rowell (1994), p. 93. 

[97] Rowell (1994), p. 90. 

[98] Rowell, table 2. 

[99] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[100] Rowell (1994), p. 84. 

[101] Rowell (1994), p. 280. 

[102] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[103] Martin (1999), p. 205. 

[104] Martin (1999), p. 206. 

[105] Novgorod Chronicle 1342, p. 137. 

[106] Martin (1999), p. 214. 

[107] Rowell (1994), p. 100. 

[108] Crummey, R. O. (1987) The Formation of Muscovy 1304-1613 (London), pp. 87-8. 

[109] Son of his father's second wife, according to Rowell, table 2(a). 

[110] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, II, VII, p. 46. 

[111] Knoll (1972), p. 176. 

[112] Knoll (1972), p. 161. 

[113] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[114] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, III, I, p. 53. 

[115] Martin (1999), p. 214. 

[116] Martin (1999), p. 216. 

[117] Origo Regis Jagyelo.  

[118] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, II, IX, p. 48. 

[119] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, VI, III, p. 129. 

[120] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, II, IX, p. 48. 

[121] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes XIII au XVI sičcles´, Orientalia Christiana XXXV - 1, No 94, Jun 1934 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1934)”), p. 16. 

[122] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[123] Rowell (1994), p. 84. 

[124] Chronicle of Novgorod 1333, p. 129. 

[125] Rowell (1994), p. 280. 

[126] Rowell (1994), p. 286. 

[127] ES III 168, which gives no details of the descent. 

[128] ES III 168, which gives no details of the descent. 

[129] Novgorod Chronicle 1383 and 1384, p. 160. 

[130] ES III 168, which gives no details of the descent. 

[131] Baumgarten (1934), p. 20. 

[132] Baumgarten (1934), Table 3, p. 18, and p. 20. 

[133] ES III 168, which gives no details of the descent. 

[134] ES III 168, which gives no details of the descent. 

[135] Martin (1999), p. 290. 

[136] Martin (1999), p. 290. 

[137] Martin (1999), p. 292. 

[138] ES III 168. 

[139] Martin (1999), p. 290. 

[140] Martin (1999), p. 290. 

[141] ES III 168, which gives no details of the descent. 

[142] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[143] Rowell (1994), pp. 99 and 280. 

[144] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[145] Rowell (1994), p. 93. 

[146] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, III, I, p. 53. 

[147] Martin (1999), p. 216. 

[148] Novgorod Chronicle 1381, pp. 158-9. 

[149] Rowell (1994), table 2(b). 

[150] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[151] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[152] Novgorod Chronicle 1381, p. 159, which says that Vitovt "escaped to the Nemtsy, and Martin (1999), p. 216.   

[153] Martin (1999), p. 216. 

[154] Martin (1999), p. 216. 

[155] Martin (1999), pp. 216-17. 

[156] Martin (1999), p. 203, and Crummey (1987), p. 66. 

[157] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, IV, II, p. 87. 

[158] Martin (1999), p. 216. 

[159] Martin (1999), p. 218. 

[160] Crummey (1987), pp. 67-8. 

[161] Martin (1999), p. 217. 

[162] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[163] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, VI, III, p. 129. 

[164] Novgorod Chronicle 1440, pp. 196-7. 

[165] Novgorod Chronicle 1440, p. 197. 

[166] Origo Regis Jagyelo. 

[167] Novgorod Chronicle 1440, pp. 196-7. 

[168] Codex Diplomaticus Lithuanić, II, VII, p. 46.