Lotharingia, kings & dukes, pfalzgrafen

  v2.0 Updated 16 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.            KINGS of LOTHARINGIA 843-923 (CAROLINGIANS) 6

CHARLES I 869-877, LOUIS I 870-876, LOUIS II 876-882, LOUIS III 877-879, ZWENTIBOLD 895-900, LOUIS III 900-911, CHARLES II 911-923. 6

LOTHAIRE I 843-855, LOTHAIRE II 855-869. 7

Chapter 2.            DUKES of LOTHARINGIA 903-959. 14

GEBHARD 903-910. 15

GISELBERT 928-939, HENRI 943-945. 15

HEINRICH 940. 16

OTTO 940-943. 16

KONRAD 945-953. 17

BRUNO 953-965. 17

Chapter 3.            DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 959-1045 (FAMILY of WIGERICH) 18

A.       DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 959-1033. 18

FREDERIC I 959-978. 18

THIERRY I 978-1027, FREDERIC II, FREDERIC III 1027-1033. 20

B.       DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 1033-1046. 25

GOZELON I 1033-1044, GODEFROI I 1044-1045. 25

Chapter 4.              DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 1047-1070 (MATFRIEDE) 26

ADALBERT 1047-1048, GERARD 1048-1070. 26

Chapter 5.            DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA. 27

A.       DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA [959]-964. 27

GOTTFRIED [959]-964. 27

B.       DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 977-[1005] (CAROLINGIAN) 28

CHARLES 977-991, OTTO 991-[1005] 28

C.      DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1012-1023, 1046-1065 (FAMILY of WIGERICH) 32

GODEFROI I 1012-1023, GOZELON I 1023-1044, GOZELON II 1044-1046. 32

D.      DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1046-1065 (LUXEMBOURG) 36

FREDERIC 1046-1065. 36

E.       DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1023-1046, 1065-1076 (FAMILY of WIGERICH) 36

GODEFROI II 1065-1069, GODEFROI III 1069-1076. 36

F.       DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1076-1087 (SALIAN KINGS of GERMANY) 42

KONRAD 1076-1087. 42

G.      DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1087-1100 (COMTES de BOULOGNE) 42

GODEFROI IV 1087-1100. 42

H.      DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA (COMTES d'ARLON) 43

HEINRICH I 1101-1106, WALERAN III 1128-1139. 43

I.    DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1106-1222 (COMTES de LOUVAIN) 44

GODEFROI V 1106-1128, GODEFROI VI 1140-1142, GODEFROI VII 1142-1190, HENRI 1180-1222. 44

Chapter 6.            PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN. 44

A.       PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN.. 45

B.       PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN [985]-1085 (EZZONEN) 45

HERMANN [985]-989, EZZO 1020-1034, OTTO 1035-1045, HEINRICH 1045-1060, HERMANN II 1064-1085. 45

C.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (LUXEMBOURG) 53

HERMANN I 1061-1064, HEINRICH 1085-1095, OTTO 1140. 53

D.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (BALLENSTEDT) 53

SIEGFRIED 1095-1113, WILHELM 1128-1140. 53

E.       PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (GRAFEN von CALW) 54

GOTTFRIED 1113-1128. 54

F.       PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (BABENBERG) 55

HEINRICH 1140-1141. 55

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Lotharingia was an entirely artificial political creation and its name an artificial composition.  Emperor Lothaire I, son of the Carolingian Emperor Louis I "the Pious", became king of Lotharingia under the division of imperial territories agreed by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843.  The newly created kingdom covered a wide strip of land from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, and included present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany west of the river Rhine, the French provinces of Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy and Provence, Switzerland and parts of northern Italy, including the imperial cities of Aachen, Pavia and Rome.  The kingdom was divided between the sons of Emperor Lothaire after he abdicated in 855, the territory called Lotharingia then being restricted to present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany west of the Rhine, the French provinces of Alsace, Lorraine, and Switzerland. 

 

Lotharingia was divided between the East and West Frankish kingdoms in 870 following the death without direct male heirs of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia[1].  This proved to be a temporary arrangement, but it set the scene for conflict over the territory between France and Germany which was to last many centuries.  Lotharingia was in effect integrated into the East Frankish kingdom (Germany) after the death in 900 of Zwentibold, last independent king of Lotharingia, but this was challenged by Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks.  During the early part of the reign of Ludwig IV "das Kind" King of Germany, Gebhard, of the Konradiner family, is recorded as duke in Lotharingia (see Chapter 2), although it is more likely that this represented a military appointment rather than the establishment of a single controlling civil administration in the kingdom.  After the deposition of King Charles III in 923, German influence in the territory of Lotharingia predominated.  According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Heinrich I King of Germany secured the release of King Charles from prison and in return was rewarded with "the right hand of St Denis and the entire kingdom of the Lotharingians"[2].  For the rest of the 10th century, this was a source of bitter dispute with the kings of France who constantly attempted to invade Lotharingia to reassert their control.  Meanwhile, King Heinrich I created Graf Giselbert, son of Reginar I Graf [im Maasgau], as dux in 928, effectively creating the duchy of Lotharingia, as a fief of the empire. 

 

The creation of the duchies of Upper and Lower Lotharingia in 959 was a response to local rebellions and intended as a means of asserting greater local control from Germany.  At the outset, it appears more accurate to describe the new rulers as "associate" dukes who governed under the central authority of Bruno Duke of Lotharingia (who was also archbishop of Köln).  In common with most administrative arrangements concerning Lotharingia, the division between the Upper and Lower duchies was artificial and poorly reflected natural, geographic, national and linguistic boundaries, although Upper Lotharingia corresponded roughly to the ecclesiastical province of Trier and Lower Lotharingia to the archbishopric of Köln. 

 

The first dukes of the two areas were prominent local noblemen.  In Upper Lotharingia, Duke Bruno installed comte Frédéric, oldest son of Wigerich [III] and husband of Bruno's niece Beatrix de France.  Duke Frédéric governed an amalgam of territories which included the western German counties of Blieskastel, Saarbrücken, Saarwerden and Salm, the Alsatian counties of Dagsburg and Werd, and the northern French territories which later became the duchies of Lorraine and Bar.  Although the duchy remained within the same family until 1046, each successive duke was appointed by the king of Germany who could depose the title-holder at will, as was the case in 1045 when Duke Godefroi II "le Barbu" was deprived of the duchy.  Upper Lotharingia continued to be the source of constant disputes between France and Germany, the former still claiming the territory which had been lost to Germany when Charles III "le Simple" King of France was deposed in 923.  The duchy of Upper Lotharingia passed to the family of Matfried with the installation of Adalbert as duke in 1047.  The duchy lost much of its territory, what remained eventually evolved into the duchy of Lorraine, members of whose ruling family distinguished themselves in later French history and were ancestors of the second Habsburg dynasty. 

 

The northern duchy of Lower Lotharingia followed a similar line of development.  Duke Bruno installed Gottfried (whose origins are unknown) as associate duke, presumably at the same time as Frédéric was installed as duke of Upper Lotharingia, although this cannot be confirmed definitively from the primary sources.  After Duke Gottfried died in 964, no other duke of Lower Lotharingia is recorded until 977 but it is likely that a successor duke was appointed.  Lotharingia had been claimed by the Carolingian kings of the West Franks since 939, when Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia offered the crown of Lotharingia to Louis IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks during his revolt against Otto I "der Große" King of Germany.  King Louis's son, King Lothaire, disputed control of Lotharingia with Emperor Otto II and fought lengthy campaigns to recapture the territory for the kingdom of the West Franks.  He was preparing another attack when he died in 986.  During the course of the dispute, Emperor Otto II conferred the title "Duke of Lower Lotharingia" in 977 on Charles, King Lothaire's brother, who had sought refuge at the emperor's court.  Emperor Heinrich II confirmed the establishment of the duchy of Lower Lotharingia in 1012.  Its territory included the eastern part of present-day Belgium, a small part of northern France and the southern part of the Netherlands, including the counties of Hainaut, Limburg, Louvain, Luxembourg, Namur, Verdun and the march of Antwerp (all of which form part of present-day Belgium), the county of Cambrai (now in northern France) and the counties of Drenthe, Hamaland, Oostergo, Teisterbant and Westergo (now part of the Netherlands)[3].  Emperor Heinrich installed Godefroi de Verdun (also from the family of Wigerich [III]) as duke in 1012.   As with Upper Lotharingia, the German king retained the right of ducal appointment.  The duchy remained in the family of Wigerich until the death of Duke Godefroi III in 1076, when Emperor Heinrich IV appointed his own son as duke, until the latter's installation as king of Germany in 1087 when the emperor appointed as duke Godefroi de Bouillon [Boulogne] who had inherited the territories of Duke Godefroi III (who was his maternal uncle). 

 

The duchy of Lower Lotharingia was unlikely to survive long as a political entity.  The main administrative difficulty was that the counts of the various territories within the duchy were not vassals of the duke[4], with the sole exception of the county of Hainaut from 1071 to 1076.  Some were vassals of the local bishops of Liège and Utrecht, others were direct suzerains of the emperor.  The duke had little public authority:  Duke Godefroi IV, for example, did not possess a single county within his territory[5].  The decline of the duchy was hastened by rivalry between the counts of Limburg and Louvain during the early part of the 12th century.  Between 1101 and 1139, rival members of the two families were appointed dukes of Lower Lotharingia by different emperors.  The unsuccessful candidates continued to claim the ducal title even while a member of the other family held the duchy, although the situation was clarified when the counts of Limburg adopted the title duke of Limburg from 1140, while the counts of Louvain called themselves dukes of Louvain from 1141, although these changes of title appear initially not to have been sanctioned by imperial authority.  Matters came to a head in the 1180s.  Henri I Comte de Namur et de Luxembourg, then childless, had named his brother-in-law Baudouin IV Comte de Hainaut as his heir.  He revoked the nomination in 1186 after the unexpected birth of his daughter Ermesinde.  Baudouin V Comte de Hainaut, son and heir of Baudouin IV, complained to Heinrich VI King of Germany and obtained judgment in his favour.  Comte Baudouin obtained confirmation of his position from Emperor Friedrich I who also secretly created him Marquis de Namur, an appointment which was announced at Worms in 1190.  This represented a direct challenge to the authority of the duke of Lower Lotharingia and amounted to a final blow to the duchy.  The incumbent duke, Henri de Louvain, appears eventually to have accepted the inevitable, adopted the title duke of Brabant and dropped the title duke of Lower Lotharingia, although the last recorded use of the latter title is as late as 1222. 

 

This document also sets out the families of the Pfalzgrafen (Comtes palatins) of Lotharingia, the introduction to whom is shown in Chapter 6. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of LOTHARINGIA 843-923 (CAROLINGIANS)

 

 

The kings of Lotharingia from 869 to 923 are shown in outline form only to demonstrate how the title was passed through the Carolingian families of the east and west Frankish kingdoms.  For full details of these families, follow the hyperlinks to the documents GERMANY KINGS (for the East Frankish kingdom) and FRANCE, CAROLINGIAN KINGS (for the West Frankish kingdom). 

 

 

CHARLES I 869-877, LOUIS I 870-876, LOUIS II 876-882, LOUIS III 877-879, ZWENTIBOLD 895-900, LOUIS III 900-911, CHARLES II 911-923

 

LOUIS, son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Vienne [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  He succeeded in 814 as Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux”. 

1.         LOTHAIRE (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" sons of Emperor Louis I & his wife Ermengard[6].  He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I in Jul 817 at Aachen, ruling jointly with his father. 

-        see below

2.         LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch).  Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.  In 865, he agreed with Charles "le Chauve" the future division of the territories of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights.  A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Ludwig received Alsace and other territory along the Rhine[7], succeeding as LOUIS I King of East Lotharingia.   

a)         CARLOMAN ([830]-Altötting 29 Sep 880).  He succeeded his father in 876 as CARLOMAN King of the East Franks, until 879 when he abdicated in favour of his brother Charles. 

i)          ARNULF ([850]-8 Dec 899, bur Regensburg St Emmeran).  He was crowned Emperor ARNULF in 896.  

(a)       LOUIS (Altötting Jul 893-in Bavaria 24 Sep 911, bur Regensburg).  He succeeded his father in 900 as LUDWIG IV "das Kind" King of the East Franks.  After his half-brother Zwentibold was deposed as King of Lotharingia, he was recognised as LOUIS III King of Lotharingia at Thionville and at Aachen in Mar 900. 

(b)       ZWENTIBOLD ([870/71]-killed in battle 13 Aug 900, bur [Süsteren or Echternach]).  He was installed as ZWENTIBOLD King of Lotharingia in May 895 by his father.   

b)         LUDWIG ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan 882, bur Kloster Lorsch).  He succeeded his father in 876 as LOUIS II King of East Lotharingia, LUDWIG III King of the East Franks.  He succeeded his first cousin Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks in 879 as King of West Lotharingia, succeeding as sole King of Lotharingia.   

3.         KARL (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to St Denis Paris).  Under the division of Imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks.  He succeeded his nephew Lothaire II in 869 as CHARLES I King of Lotharingia, relinquishing East Lotharingia to his brother Ludwig in 870. 

a)         LOUIS (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne).  He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of West Franks, and LOUIS III King of West Lotharingia, in which he was succeeded by his first cousin Louis II King of East Lotharingia. 

i)          CHARLES (posthumously 17 Sep 879-Péronne 7 Oct 929, bur Péronne St Fursy).  He succeeded in 893 as CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks.  He was chosen as CHARLES II King of Lotharingia 1 Nov 911, in succession to Ludwig IV "das Kind" King of the East Franks and Lotharingia, and adopted the title "King of the Franks/rex francorum", and later "King of France/rex franciæ".  He was deposed in 923.   

 

 

LOTHAIRE I 843-855, LOTHAIRE II 855-869

 

LOTHAIRE, son of Emperor LOUIS I "der Fromme/le Pieux" & his first wife Ermengard (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" sons of Emperor Louis I & his wife Ermengard[8].  His father sent him to govern Bavaria in [Aug] 814[9].  He was crowned joint Emperor LOTHAIRE I in Jul 817 at Aachen, ruling jointly with his father.  He was sent to Italy in 822, where he established his court at Pavia and was crowned King of Italy by the Archbishop of Milan.  The Annales Xantenses record that "Ludewicus imperator" gave "filio suo Lothario regnum Langobardorum" in 822[10].  Einhard's Annales record that the emperor sent "Walahum monachum propinquum suum [imperatoris] fratrem…Adalhardi abbatis" to Italy in 822 with "Hlotharius…filium suum"[11].  He was again crowned Emperor, at Rome 5 Apr 823 by Pope Pascal I.  The rivalry with his father and brothers was exacerbated by the unexpected birth of his half-brother Charles in 823.  Tension was increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing Lothaire's territory to Italy.  Lothaire and his brothers rebelled in Mar 830, captured their father at Compiègne, and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817.  However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, and deprived Lothaire of the imperial title and relegated him once more to Italy.  A further revolt of the brothers followed.  Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833.  He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons.  Lothaire declared himself sole emperor 30 Jun 833, but was forced to flee to Vienne by his brothers Pepin and Louis, who freed their father.  Emperor Louis was restored 1 Mar 834, crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835.  Lothaire captured Chalon-sur-Saône, but was arrested by his father's troops near Chouzy.  His father pardoned him and sent him back to Italy as king.  Emperor Louis proposed yet another partition in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aachen in 837, which was implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, the former taking all land east of the River Meuse, the latter everything to the west, and set aside the claims of his son Louis and the successors of his late son Pepin.  Lothaire succeeded as sole emperor on his father’s death 20 Jun 840.  He sought to extend his power base northwards from Italy across the Alps, and deprive his half-brother Charles.  The latter allied himself with his half-brother Louis, and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye, near Auxerre 25 Jun 841.  After retreating to Aachen, Lothaire was forced out to Lyon in Apr 842 by his brothers, who declared him incapable of governing the empire.  Preliminary peace proposals signed on an island in the Saône, near Mâcon 15 Jun 842 led to the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, under which the territory of the empire was divided between the three brothers.  Lothaire retained the imperial title and was also installed as LOTHAIRE I King of Lotharingia, a newly created territory covering a wide strip of land from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, the new country being named after him.  He established his seat of government at Aachen, and installed his son Louis as King of Italy.  Over the following ten years, a series of meetings aimed to maintain peace between the three brothers, with varying success.  After a serious illness, Emperor Lothaire abdicated in Sep 855 at Kloster Schüller, near Prüm, and divided his territories between his sons Louis II, Lothaire II and Charles.  The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire entered "monasterium Proneæ in Arduenna", was tonsured, died "IV Kal Oct" and was buried in the monastery[12].  The necrology of Prüm records the death "855 III Kal Oct" of "Lotharius imperator"[13]

m (Thionville, Moselle mid-Oct 821) ERMENGARDE, daughter of HUGUES Comte [de Tours] [Etichonen] & his wife Ava --- (-20 Mar 851, bur Kloster Erstein, near Strasbourg).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris refers to the wife of Emperor Lothaire as "filiam Hugi comitis, qui erat de stirpe cuiusdam ducis nomine Etih" and in the following paragraph names her "Irmingarda"[14].  The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in 821 of "Ludewicus imperator…filio suo Lothario" and "Ermingardam filiam Hugonis comitis Turonicorum"[15].  She founded Kloster Erstein in Alsace in 849.  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 851 of "imperatrix…Irmingard, coniunx Lotharii imperatoris"[16].  The Annales Formoselenses record the death in 851 of "Irmingard regina"[17]

Mistress (1): DODA, daughter of --- (-after 9 Jul 855).  The Annales Bertiniani records that "Lotharius imperator" took "duas sibi ancillas ex villa regia", of whom Doda gave birth to "filium…Karlomannum"[18]

Emperor Lothaire & his wife had eight children:   

1.         LOUIS "le Jeune" ([825]-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio)Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[19].  He was sent to Italy as king in 844, crowned in Rome in 844 as LOUIS King of Italy by Pope Sergius II.  He was crowned joint Emperor LOUIS II, reigning jointly with his father, at Rome in Apr 850 by Pope Leo IV.  He was sole emperor in 855 after the death of his father. 

-        KINGS of ITALY

2.         HILTRUDE ([826]-after [865/66]).  Pope Nicholas I names "Helletrude Berengarii Comitis quondam relicta" in an undated letter which refers to her as "Lothario sorore sua"[20]m BERENGAR, son of --- (-[865/66]). 

3.         daughter ([825/30]-).  The Gesta Francorum records that "Gisalbertus, vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and took her to Aquitaine where they were married[21].  The Annales Fuldenses also record that "Gisalbertus vassallus Karoli" abducted "filiam Hlotharii imperatoris" and married her in Aquitaine in 846[22].  The Annales Mettenses also date this event in 846[23].  Settipani states that the emperor recognised the marriage in 849[24].  Rösch says that this daughter is often named Ermengarde in secondary sources but that there is no contemporary proof that this is correct[25]m (Aquitaine 846) GISELBERT Graf von Maasgau, son of --- (-after 14 Jun 877). 

4.         BERTA ([830]-after 7 May 852, maybe after [877]).  A letter from Hincmar Archbishop of Reims to "Irmingardi augustæ", included by Flodoard in the Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, names "Bertæ, ipsius imperatricis filiæ" referring to her activities at "Avennaci monasterii", a later passage confirming that she was "abbatissæ Avennaci monasterii"[26].  A poem by Sedulius is addressed to "Berta…proles…Lothari…Ermingardis matris"[27].  Abbess of Avenay before 847.  Maybe Abbess of Faremoutiers 852-after 877.  m ([Worms autumn 841]) ---.  Berta was married, as shown by a second poem by Sedulius addressed to "Berta" which names "Ermingardis Cæsareumque" as her mother and refers to Bertha's "earthly spouse…now in heaven"[28].  It is possible that she was the daughter "Hlotharius…filiæ suæ" whose marriage is referred to at Worms in Autumn 841 in the Annals of Fulda [29].  Berta's husband has not been identified. 

5.         GISELA ([830]-860).  The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Imperator Lotharius tradidit filiam suam domnam Gislam"[30].  Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 851-860.  "Hludwicus…imperator augustus" made grants to San Salvatore in memory of "Gisla soror nostra defuncta" by charter dated 12 Jan [861][31]

6.         LOTHAIRE ([835]-Piacenza 8 Aug 869, bur Convent of San Antonio near Piacenza)Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[32].  "Lothario rege" is named "filio imperatoris Lotharii" by Folcuin[33].  The Annales Bertiniani record that Emperor Lothaire gave Frisia to his son Lothaire in 855[34].  He succeeded his father in 855 as LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia, with Aachen as his capital.  He attempted to annul his marriage to marry his mistress of many years, but was opposed by Hincmar Archbishop of Reims, and later Pope Nicholas I who ordered him to return to his wife 15 Aug 865.  He was negotiating with Pope Hadrian II for a new decision when he died of malaria[35].  On his death, his lands were divided between Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, instead of passing to his brother Emperor Louis despite the latter's objections.  The necrology of Prüm records the death "869 Kal Iul" of "Lotharius rex filius eius [=Lotharius imperator]"[36]m ([855], separated 857, repudiated 860) TEUTBERGA, daughter of BOSO "l'Ancien" Comte d’Arles & his wife --- (-Metz before 25 Nov 875, bur Metz, Abbaye de Sainte-Glossinde).  The Annales Lobienses name "Tietberga, sorore Hucberti abbatis" as lawful wife of "Lotharius"[37].  The Annales Bertiniani name "Teutbergam" as "materteram suam [=Bosone filio Buvini comitis]"[38].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Thieberga regina legitima uxore [Lotharii]", specifying that she relied on the advice of "Bosonis comitis" at the time of her repudiation, although her relationship to him is not specified[39]Herimannus names "Tiohtpirga uxore legitima" of King Lothaire II when recording his repudiation of her[40].  She protected the wife of Boso Count in Italy after she deserted her husband.  She was repudiated on the grounds of her alleged incest with her brother Hugobert[41].  Her husband kept her prisoner after separating from her.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "uxor Lotharii" fled to "fratrem suum Hucbertum in regno Karli" in 860[42].  She escaped in 860 and sought refuge with Charles II "le Chauve" who gave her the abbey of Avenay in the diocese of Reims.  The Annales Bertiniani records that "uxore [Lothario]" gave support to "uxori Bosonis et Balduino qui filiam eius [=Karoli regis] furatus fuerat in uxorem"[43].  Abbess of Sainte Glossinde at Metz 869.  "Heccardus comes" names "…Teutbergane uxore Lotharii…" among the beneficiaries under his testamentary disposition dated to [Jan 876][44].  It is not certain that this refers to the separated wife of King Lothar II, but no other "Teutberga/Lothaire" couple has been identified at the time.  If this identification is correct, it suggests a family relationship between Teutberga and Ecchard, which has not yet been identified.  Mistress (1): (from [855]) WALDRADA, daughter of --- (-9 Apr after 868).  One manuscript of the Gesta Treverorum names "Waldradam sororem…Guntheri Coloniensis archiepiscopus" when recording her adulterous relationship with King Lothaire II[45].  The Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus of archbishops of Köln records that the concubine of "Lotharius" was "Waldradam, sororem Guntheri archiepiscopi Coloniensis" and that her brother encouraged Lothaire to leave his legitimate wife for Waldrada, for which he was excommunicated by the Pope[46]The Annales Novesienses record that “Guntherus episcopus Coloniensis” had sororem…Vastradam…aliis Waldradam” whom “dux Lotharingiæ Lotharius…superdixit” after her brother approved his divorce from “legitima uxore Tyberga[47]According to Baron Ernouf[48], Gunther archbishop of Köln was uncle of Waldrada and Thetgaud archbishop of Trier was her brother, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The Annales Bertiniani names "Hlotharius Waldradam concubinam" when recording that Lothaire purported to marry her in 862 and crowned her with the support of "Liutfrido avunculo suo et Waltario"[49].  Waldrada was also related to the Etichonen Grafen im Nordgau (ALSACE), as shown by the Vita Sancti Deicoli which names "Waldrada…Heberardo comitis consanguinitatis"[50], but the precise relationship is not known.  Folcuin records King Lothaire's excommunication after repudiating his wife for Waldrada[51].  King Lothaire purported to marry Waldrada in [Aug/Sep] 862 and crowned her as Queen, but this was not recognised by the church[52].  She became a nun at Remiremont.  King Lothaire II had four illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

a)         HUGUES ([855/60]-after 895)Duke of Alsace 867, until after Aug 869.  The Annales Bertiniani record that King Lothaire invested "filioque suo de Waldrada Hugoni" with "ducatum Elisatium" in 867[53].  Herimannus names "Hugonem, Lotharii regis ex Waldrada filium" when recording his rebellion in 879[54]After his father's death, Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks invaded Alsace and Hugues was obliged to submit to him.  The Gesta Francorum records that "Hugo, Hlutharii et Waldrada filius" caused tyranny in France in 879[55].  Pope John VIII excommunicated "Hugonem Lotharii Regis quondam filium non legitimum" in 878[56].  Hugues challenged Louis II "le Bègue" and his son Louis III "le Jeune" in Lotharingia in 879, but was defeated in 880 and swore allegiance at Gondreville in May 881 to Louis "le Jeune" who gave him the abbey of Lobbes.  The Annales Fuldenses record that Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks sent "legatis nepotum suorum" to fight "Hugonem tyrannidem exercentem in Gallia" in 880[57]Charles III "le Gros" King of the East Franks gave him domains of the Bishopric of Metz in 882, but Hugues rebelled in the same year, was defeated once more and took refuge in Burgundy.  He rebelled again in 885 and sought support from his brother-in-law Gotfrid in Frisia[58]The Annales Vedastini record that "Hugo…filius Hlotharii regis" was blinded in 885 on the advice of "Heinrico duce"[59].  He was shut in the monastery of Fulda, later transferred to Sankt-Gallen, and finally to the abbey of Prüm[60]m (883) as her fourth husband, FRIDERADA, widow firstly of ENGUERRAND, secondly of BERNARIUS, and thirdly of WICBERT, daughter of ---.  Regino names "Friderada" as wife of "Engilrammo ex qua filiam quam postmodem Richwinus comes in coniugem accepti", also referring to her subsequent marriages[61].  "Hugo filius Lotharii Regis" had "Wicbertum comitem" murdered and married his wife "Frideradam" in 883[62]. 

b)         GISELA ([860/65]-[21 May/26 Oct] 907)Regino records the marriage in 882 of "Gisla filia Hlotharii" and "rex Godofridus Nordmannorum"[63].  The Annales Fuldenses record the marriage of "Gotafrid Nordmannus qui superiore anno fuerat baptizatus" and "Hugone Hlutharii filio eiusque sororem" in 883[64]Abbess at Nivelles and Fosses, after her husband died.  "Zendeboldus…rex" gave "proprietatem…in loco…VII Fontes" to "propinqua nostra…Kisla…regis Lotharii filia…abbatisse" by charter dated 30 Jul 896[65].  "Zuendebolchus…rex" gave property to "neptis nostre…Gissele…Nyuialensis abbaciæ" for her abbey by charter dated 26 Jul 897[66].  m (882) GODEFRID, son of HARALD "Klak" & his wife --- (-murdered Jun 885).  He was one of the leaders of the Danes who ravaged large parts of territory between the Rhine and the Somme.  He converted to Christianity, and Emperor Charles "le Gros" granted him large parts of Frisia as dux

c)          BERTA ([863]-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca, Santa Maria)"Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[67].  "Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934[68].  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880[69].  Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925[70].  Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death[71].  She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915.  m firstly ([879/80]) THEOTBALD [Thibaut] Comte d’Arles, son of HUBERT d'Arles, Comte de Transjuranie & his wife --- (-[Jun 887]/[895]).  m secondly ([895/98]) ADALBERTO II Marchese of Tuscany, Conte e Duca di Lucca, son of ADALBERT I Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Rothildis of Spoleto (-[10/19] Sep 915, bur Lucca Cathedral). 

d)         ERMENGARDE (-6 Aug after [895/898], bur Lucca, Santa Giustina).  Her epitaph at Lucca records the death "VIII Id Aug" of "Ermingardis…dicata deo" as daughter of "rex…Lotharius"[72].  Nun at Santa Giustina in Lucca.  Gingins-la-Sarra suggests that Ermengarde was the wife of Berlion [I] Vicomte de Vienne, suggesting that she went to Provence with her sister Berta who married Thibaut Comte d´Arles[73].  He says that the charter dated 25 Dec 923, under which “Ludwicus…imperator augustus” confirmed property “in comitatu Viennensi seu et in Lugdunensi in villa…Tadernaco” to “Ingelbertus…et uxori eius Nonie” (Engelbert being this couple´s son)[74], refers to Engelbert as “propinquus” of the emperor.  He says that the term was never used in charters which name Berlion [I] and therefore deduces that the relationship must have been through Engelbert´s mother.  However, the text of the charter in question does not appear to apply the word “propinquus” specifically to Engelbert.  It is used in the phrase “propinquorum et fidelium suorum”, as part of the introductory words in the charter, while Engelbert is named in the document as “fidelis noster”.  There appears to be no other basis for this speculation.  If the hypothesis were correct, it would be difficult to explain why Ermengarde would have left Provence (presumably after the death of her supposed husband, dated to [912]) and established herself as a nun at Lucca, while her two sons remained in Provence. 

7.         ROTRUDE (chr Pavia [835/40]-).  The baptism of Rotrudis daughter of Lothaire is recorded at Pavia in [835/40][75].  [same person as…?  ROTRUDE .  "Witbertus…comes" donated property at Ornois to the abbey of Tournus, for the souls of "Lanberti genitoris mei necnon et Rutrudis genetricis meæ", by charter dated 28 Jan 870[76].  Hlawitschka suggests that she was the daughter of Emperor Lothaire I, as her son's charter dated 28 Jan 870 records that the property he donated to the abbey of Tournus had been granted to his father by Emperor Lothaire[77].  However, the copy of the charter reproduced in the Histoire de Tournus, cited above, states that the property had been donated to Wicbert by "senioris mei Hlotharii Regis".  m ([850/51]) LAMBERT Comte et Marquis de Nantes, son of LAMBERT [I] Comte et Marquis de Nantes [Guidonen] & his wife [--- of Italy] (-killed in battle 1 May 852).] 

8.         CHARLES ([845]-Lyon 25 Jan 863, bur Lyon, Saint-Pierre)Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothaire & his wife[78].  His father invested him in Sep 855 with Provence, Lyon and Transjuranian Burgundy.    

-        KINGS of PROVENCE

Emperor Lothaire I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

9.          CARLOMAN ([853]-).  The Annales Bertiniani name "Karlomannum" as the son of "Lotharius imperator" and his mistress Doda[79]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DUKES of LOTHARINGIA 903-959

 

 

During the early part of the reign of Ludwig IV "das Kind" King of Germany, Gebhard, of the Konradiner family, is recorded as "duke" [dux] of Lotharingia, but he is not named with this title in other documents which suggests that he ceased to be dux before his death in 910.  It is not known what feudal relationship (if any) he had with Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, who was nominally king of Lotharingia at that time, but it is assumed that he was appointed dux by the king of Germany.  This suggests that Gebhard enjoyed territorial jurisdiction separate from the Lotharingian king, although if this is correct the details cannot now be ascertained.  Another possibility is that Gerhard´s appointment was principally military, in line with the original bases for which duces were appointed in the original German provinces, and that he enjoyed no civil jurisdiction in the territory.  After the deposition of King Charles III in 923, the territory of Lotharingia fell within the sphere of influence of the kings of Germany.  According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Heinrich I King of Germany secured the release of King Charles from prison and in return was rewarded with "the right hand of St Denis and the entire kingdom of the Lotharingians"[80].  For the rest of the 10th century, this was a source of bitter dispute between the German and French kings, the kings of France constantly attempting to invade Lotharingia to reassert control.  Meanwhile, King Heinrich I created Graf Giselbert, son of Reginar [I] Graf [von Maasgau], as dux in 928, effectively creating the duchy of Lotharingia, as a fief of the empire.  The major imperial duchies, Bavaria, Carinthia and, from that time, Lotharingia, were awarded to prominent noblemen in return for service or as a means of securing loyalty.  There was no hereditary succession.  Over the following three decades, five other appointees served as dukes of Lotharingia, as set out below.  For full details of these individuals, follow the hyperlinks to the relevant documents. 

 

 

GEBHARD 903-910

 

1.         GEBHARD, son of [UDO Graf im Lahngau [Konradiner] & his wife [Judith [Welf]] (-killed in battle near Augsburg [22] Jun 910)Regino records the war in 902 between "Adalbertus cum fratribus Adalhardo et Heinrico" against "Eberhardum et Gebehardum et Rodulfum fratres", specifying that "postmodum iussu Gebehardi decollatus est"[81]Regino names "Chuonradus senior [et] frater eius Gebehardus", specifying that Gebhard "in Weidereiba poterat"[82]Duke of Lotharingia: "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster St Gallen by charter dated 24 Jun 903 in which among "fidelium nostrum" was listed "…Kebehart dux regni quod a multis Hlotharii dicitur…"[83].  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed an exchange of properties between Kloster Fulda and Kloster Echternach after consulting "fidelium nostrorum comitum vero Kebeharti, Liutpoldi, Burcharti, Eginonis, Liutfredi, Iringi et Cunpoldi" by charter dated 19 Mar 907[84]Regino records the death of "Gebeardus comes" fighting the Hungarians[85]

 

 

GISELBERT 928-939, HENRI 943-945

 

1.         GISELBERT, son of REGINAR [I] "Langhals" Graf [von Maasgau] Comte de Hainaut & his wife Alberada --- ([880]-drowned in the Rhine, near Andernach 2 Oct 939).  Richer records that "Gisleberto eius filio" succeeded on the death of "Ragenerus vir consularis et nobilis cognomento Collo-Longus"[86].  Abbot of Stablo 915/925.  Graf in 916.  He rebelled against Charles III "le Simple" King of the Franks 918, taking refuge with Heinrich Duke of Saxony (later King of Germany).  Lay-abbot of Echternach 924/939.  Abbot of St Maximin at Trier 925/934.  Created dux 928 by Heinrich I King of Germany, effectively creating him GISELBERT Duke of Lotharingia.  He took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine with Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Heinrich, brother of Otto I King of Germany, and was drowned[87]

a)         HENRI (before [934]-[943/45]).  The Liber Memoriales of Remiremont records a donation by "Dumnus Gislibertus dux…Dumna Girberga, Ainricus, Haduidis…", undated but dated to [934][88].  [Duke of Lotharingia 943].  Widukind records that "Conrado" was installed as duke of Lotharingia after the deaths of "Oddone, Lothariorum præside, ac regis nepote Heinrico"[89].  It is suggested that "regis nepote Heinrico" was the son of Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia, and so nephew of Otto I King of Germany.  If this is correct, it this passage confirms that Henri was briefly installed as duke of Lotharingia before dying soon afterwards. 

b)         other children: see GRAFEN von MAASGAU

 

 

HEINRICH 940

 

1.         HEINRICH, son of HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany & his wife ([Dec 919/22 Apr 922]-Regensburg 1 Nov 955, bur Regensburg Niedermünster).  He took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine in 939, together with Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia [Hainaut][90].  After the latter was drowned, Heinrich was installed as HEINRICH Duke of Lotharingia in [940], but was unable to establish himself there and soon returned to Saxony[91].   

 

 

OTTO 940-943

 

1.         OTTO, son of RICHWIN Comte de Verdun & his wife Cunegondis --- (-943).  Widukind names "præfciensque regioni Lothariorum Oddonem, Ricwinus filium, et ut nepotem suum filium Isilberhti, optimæ pulata est coniugio"[92].  He was installed as OTTO joint Duke of Lotharingia in 940.  Adalbero Bishop of Metz expelled the canons of Saint-Arnoul, with the consent of "ducis nostri Ottonis", by charter dated 15 Mar 942[93]Regino records the death in 943 of "Otto dux"[94].  Widukind records that "Conrado" was installed as duke of Lotharingia after the deaths of "Oddone, Lothariorum præside, ac regis nepote Heinrico"[95]

 

 

KONRAD 945-953

 

1.         KONRAD "der Rote", son of WERNER Graf im Nahe-, Speyer- und Wormsgau & his wife --- [Konradiner] (-killed in battle Lechfeld 10 Aug 955, bur Worms Cathedral[96]).  Graf im Nahe-, Worms-, Speyer- und Niddagau 941.  Graf in Franconia 942/45.  He was installed as KONRAD Duke of Lotharingia in [945].  Widukind records that "Conrado" was installed as duke of Lotharingia after the deaths of "Oddone, Lothariorum præside, ac regis nepote Heinrico"[97].  He rebelled against his father-in-law, together with his brother-in-law Liudolf Duke of Swabia.  He was ultimately pardoned, although he was deposed in 953 as Duke of Lotharingia.   

 

 

BRUNO 953-965

 

1.         BRUNO, son of HEINRICH I King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde [Immedinger] (May 925-Reims 11 Oct 965, bur Köln St Pantaleon).  Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[98].  "Brun archiepiscopus Agrippinæ civitatis" is named "frater imperatoris", when recording his death in 965[99].  Chancellor of Germany 940-953.  Abbot of Lorsch 948/50.  Archbishop of Köln 953.  In 953, he was installed as BRUNO Duke of Lotharingia by his brother King Otto[100].  In 959, Lotharingian nobles led by Immo revolted against Duke Bruno who was obliged to install comte Frédéric (husband of his niece Béatrix de France) as Duke of [Upper] Lotharingia[101].  It is assumed that he installed Gottfried (see Chapter 5) as Duke of [Lower] Lotharingia at the same time or before, although the timing of this has not been confirmed specifically in the primary sources so far consulted. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 959-1045 (FAMILY of WIGERICH)

 

 

The duchy of Upper Lotharingia was created in 1059 when Bruno Duke of Lotharingia divided his duchy into two parts, roughly corresponding to the ecclesiastical provinces of Trier and Köln[102].  He installed comte Frédéric, oldest son of Wigeric and husband of Bruno's niece Beatrix de France, as duke of Upper Lotharingia,.  Although the duchy remained within the same family until 1046, each successive duke was appointed by the king of Germany who could depose the title-holder at will, as was the case in 1045 when Duke Godefroi II "le Barbu" was deprived of the duchy.  Upper Lotharingia continued to be the source of constant disputes between France and Germany, the former still claiming the territory which had been lost to Germany when Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks was deposed in 923.  The duchy of Upper Lotharingia passed to the family of Matfried with the installation of Adalbert as duke in 1047.  What remained of Upper Lotharingian territory eventually evolved into the duchy of Lorraine (see the document LORRAINE). 

 

 

 

A.      DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 959-1033

 

 

FREDERIC I 959-978

 

FREDERIC, son of WIGERICH [III] Graf [von Bidgau], Pfalzgraf & his wife Cunigonde --- ([910/15]-[Jun/Jul] 978).  Duke Frederic's parentage is deduced from the charter of "Otto…imperator augustus" dated 3 Jun 960, under which property was donated to Kloster St Petrus at Metz and which names "compater noster Adalbero…sanctæ Mettensis ecclesiæ presul [et] germano suo Friderico duce"[103], read together with the diploma of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks which granted the abbey of Hastières to the church of Liège which names the parents of Adalberon[104].  "Friderici, Gisilberti, Sigeberti fratrum predicti Gozlini" subscribed the charter dated 943 which refers to "Gozlines…miles…ex nobilissimis regni Chlotarii ducens prosapia" and the donation by "uxor eius Uda et filius eius…Regingerus" to St Maximin at Trier[105].  He constructed the château de Bar on land inherited from his wife, triggering protests from Louis IV King of France to Otto I King of Germany (the former considering the area within his sphere of influence) and from the Bishops of Toul (who considered that part of the land belonged to one of his churches)[106].  Bruno Duke of Lotharingia, brother of Otto I King of Germany, to whom the latter had granted Lotharingia in 953, created the duchy of Upper Lotharingia in 959 and appointed Frédéric as FREDERIC I [associate] Duke of [Upper] Lotharingia.  From the death of Duke Bruno in 965, the duchy was held under the direct authority of Emperor Otto and his successors.  Duke Frédéric attended the grand assembly of nobility and clergy convoked by the emperor at Köln 2 Jun 965[107].  "Fredericus…Lothariensium Dux" confirmed donations of property at Murecourt to Bouxières by charter dated 26 Oct 966, signed by "Teutberti comitis, Lictardi comitis, Widonis comitis…"[108].  The Franco/German dispute over Lotharingia and Bar was pursued by Lothaire King of France who fought lengthy campaigns to recapture Lotharingia, culminating in the invasion of 978, the capture of Aachen, and the siege of Metz, although the French were forced to retreat by Otto II King of Germany[109].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 978 of "Fridurih dux"[110]

m (betrothed 951, [10 Sep/12 Nov] 954) BEATRIX de France, daughter of HUGUES "le Grand" Duc des Francs & his third wife Hedwig of Germany ([938/39]-23 Sep 1003).  Flodoard refers to "Hugonis principis filiam" marrying "Fredericus, frater Adalberonis episcopi" in 954[111].  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names "Beatricis, Hugonis Capitonis Francorum regis sororis" as wife of "ducis Frederici"[112].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "sororem [Otto filius Hugo rex…dux Burgundie]…Beatricem" as wife of "Fridericus dux Mosellanorum"[113].  "Otto…imperator augustus" made donations to Notker Bishop of Liège by charter dated 15 Jun 983 which names "Mettensium episcopus Theodericus noster consanguineus et illustris dux Beatrix nostra consobrina[114].  "Otto…rex" confirmed the donation to the bishopric of Toul of the abbeys of St Dié and Moyenmoutier by "Friderico duce cum coniuge sua Beatrice nepte nostra" dated 984, recording that Duke Frederic was then deceased[115].  Beatrix acted as regent of Upper Lotharingia for her son Duke Thierry I from 978 to 987, and took an active part in the government of the duchy.  She intervened with her brother Hugues Capet over the capture of her son by French troops during the siege of Verdun in 985, and actively attempted to resolve the Franco/German conflict over Lotharingia by diplomatic means.  She was imprisoned in an abbey by her son, who was impatient to assume personal rule but was obliged to release her by the Pope.  She visited the monastery of Saint-Dié in 1003 with her family[116]

Duke Frederic I & his wife had three children:

1.         HENRI "Hezelin" de Lotharingia (-[972/978]).  He is named in documents of the abbey of Saint-Mihiel between 8 Sep 962 and 972[117]

2.         ADALBERON de Lotharingia (-Metz 14 Dec 1005, bur Metz Cathedral, transferred to l'église de l'Abbaye Saint-Symphorien).  "Adalberonem filium Beatricis nobilissimæ ductricis, matris Theoderici ducis" is named in the Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium[118].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "ducem Theodericum et…Alberonem episcopus" as sons of "Fridericus dux Mosellanorum" & his wife Beatrix[119].  He was appointed Bishop of Metz 16 Oct 984, enthroned 28 Dec 984[120].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the election of "Adalbero, filius Friderici ducis" as Bishop of Metz in 984[121].  He was present at the diet of [1004/05], where he strongly criticised Konrad Duke of Carinthia for his consanguineous marriage, and was forced to return to Lotharingia with his brother[122]

3.         THIERRY de Lotharingia ([962/72]-11 Apr 1027).  The Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "Theodoricus" son of "Frederico"[123].  He succeeded his father in 978 as THIERRY I Duke of Upper Lotharingia.   

-        see below

 

 

THIERRY I 978-1027, FREDERIC II, FREDERIC III 1027-1033

 

THIERRY de Lotharingia, son of FREDERIC I Duke of Upper Lotharingia & his wife Beatrix de France ([962/72]-11 Apr 1027).  The Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "Theodoricus" son of "Frederico"[124].  "Adalberonem filium Beatricis nobilissimæ ductricis, matris Theoderici ducis" is named in the Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium[125].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "ducem Theodericum et…Alberonem episcopus" as sons of "Fridericus dux Mosellanorum" & his wife Beatrix[126].  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names "Theoderici ducis Barrensis" son of "ducis Frederici et Beatrici, Hugonis Capitonis Francorum regis soror"[127].  He succeeded his father in 978 as THIERRY I Duke of Upper Lotharingia, under the regency of his mother until 987.  Lothaire King of France invaded Upper Lotharingia again in 983, advancing as far as Brisach where he was forced to retreat by Swabian troops.  The French king returned to Lotharingia in 985 and besieged Verdun, where in Mar 985 he captured Duke Thierry but released him in mid-985 through the intervention of the duke's mother and her brother Hugues Capet[128].  Comte Héribert I [de Vermandois] captured the château of Stenay in Lotharingia in 987.  In 1011, Duke Thierry was seriously wounded in an ambush at Odernheim, captured by Friedrich Graf [im Moselgau] [Luxembourg], and taken to Metz but released in return for hostages[129].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" renewed the privileges of Kloster Fulda by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1020, witnessed by "Godifridi ducis, Berinhardi ducis, Thiederici ducis, Welphonis comitis, Cunonis comitis, Kunrati comitis, Ottonis comitis, Adilbrahtis comitis, Bobonis comitis, Friderici comitis, Bezilini comitis, Ezonis comitis palatini"[130], the order of witnesses presumably giving some idea of the relative importance of these nobles at the court of Emperor Heinrich II at the time.  The necrology of Gorze records the death "III Id Apr" of "Theodericus dux"[131]

m (992 or before) RICHILDE, daughter of ---.  Richilde is named with her husband in 992[132].  Her origin is unknown but she may have been Richilde [von Bliesgau], daughter of Folmar Graf von Bliesgau & his wife Berthe ---.  This origin is suggested by the charter dated 1076 under which Pibon Bishop of Toul granted privileges to the priory of Laître sous Amance, founded by "comitissæ Sophiæ", in which she declared that the castle of Amance belonged to "Theodericus dux, comitissæ avus" who had inherited it from "comiti Folmaro in Asmantia"[133].  The reference would be explained if Folmar had been Duke Thierry's father-in-law. 

Duke Thierry I & his wife had three children: 

1.         FREDERIC de Lotharingia ([997/99]-17/18 May 1026).  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names "filius huius Theoderici fuit iunior Frederici, qui mortuus est ante patrem suum" and his two daughters[134].  He was titled duke during the lifetime of his father, sometimes referred to as FREDERIC II Duke of Upper Lotharingia, but Poull believes he was not appointed associate duke[135].  He allied himself with Foulques III "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou to support his father against Eudes II Comte de Blois, fighting him at Pontlevoy and in Champagne.  He opposed the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, and refused to swear allegiance to him.  He made contact with the Italian lords who were also opposed to the new king.  The rebels offered the crown to Robert II King of France, who refused it, although he supported the movement and sent troops to attack Metz.  He was repulsed, but Duke Frederic was not discouraged and was planning a new revolt when he died[136].  The necrology of Verdun Saint-Vanne records the death "XV Kal Jun" of "Fredericus dux"[137]m ([1016]) as her second husband, MATHILDE of Swabia, widow of KONRAD Duke of Carinthia [Salier], daughter of HERMANN II Duke of Swabia & his wife Gerberga of Upper Burgundy ([988]-20 Jul [1031/32]), bur Worms Cathedral).  Thietmar refers to "Konrad" as son-in-law of Hermann Duke of Swabia, recording that they attacked Strasbourg together after the election of Heinrich II King of Germany[138].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Beatricam…de Gallia…filia comitis Frederic, mater…domina Matilda", but does not give the origin of Mathilde[139].  The primary source which records her second marriage has not so far been identified.  However, the Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "duabus puellulis Sophia et Beatrice" as daughters of the son of "duce Theodorico", specifying that the empress was their amita and that she adopted them after their father died[140].  The Annalista Saxo names "Machtildis" sister of Gisela, wife of Emperor Konrad II, and her third husband[141].  She married thirdly Esiko Graf im Schwabengau [Askanier-Ballenstedt].  She attended the Easter celebrations at Ingelheim in 1030[142].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records the death in Jul of "Mechthild soror imperatricis Gislæ"[143].  Duke Frédéric & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         FREDERIC de Lotharingia ([1017]-22 May 1033, bur [Abbaye de Saint-Mihiel]).  The Chronique of Jean de Bayon records that "Fridericus ex filio nepos, quia ipse æquivocus filius ante obierat" succeeded on the death of "Theodericus dux" in 1029 and records that he had "sorores tres, prima Sophia, quam Ludovicus comes, secunda Beatrix quam Bonifacius marchio Italiæ, tertia Petronix, quam quidam Elisatii princeps"[144].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1027 as FREDERIC III Duke of Upper Lotharingia, and is documented 6 Sep 1032 as being invested with the administration of the duchy[145].  After his death, Konrad II King of Germany installed Gozelon Duke of Lower Lotharingia as Duke of Upper Lotharingia, passing over the late duke's two sisters. 

b)         SOPHIE de Lotharingia ([1018]-21 Jan 1093).  The Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "duabus puellulis Sophia et Beatrice" as daughters of the son of "duce Theodorico", specifying that the empress was their amita and that she adopted them after their father died[146].  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names (in order) "Beatrix…et Sophia" daughters of "iunior Frederici", specifying that Sophia married "Ludovico de Monzione comiti"[147].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "comitissa Barri…Sophia" as wife of "comiti Montionis Ludovico", specifying that she was sister of "Beatrix marchisa" but incorrectly naming "Sigefridi fratris Frederici" as their father[148].  Her share of the succession of her brother consisted of the abbey of Saint-Mihiel and its dependencies, the castles of Bar, Amance and Mousson, the southern part of her family's ancestral lands[149].  Her territories were threatened by Eudes II Comte de Blois, who had challenged the succession of Emperor Konrad II to the kingdom of Burgundy in 1032.  Comte Eudes captured Bar 14 Nov 1037 but was defeated and killed at Commercy by the emperor's troops[150].  She entered into possession of her lands at the time of her marriage[151].  Pibon Bishop of Toul granted privileges to the priory of Laître sous Amance, founded by "comitissæ Sophiæ", by charter dated 1076 under which she declared the castle of Amance belonged to "Theodericus dux, comitissæ avus" who had inherited it from "comiti Folmaro in Asmantia"[152].  The Obituaire de Saint-Mansuy records the death "21 Jan" of "Sophia comitissa"[153]m (1038) LOUIS de Mousson, Comte de Montbéliard, Altkirch and Ferrette, son of --- & his wife Hildegarde [im Nordgau] ([1015]-[29 Aug 1071/1076]). 

c)         BEATRIX de Lotharingia ([1019]-18 Apr 1076, bur Pisa Cathedral).  The Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "duabus puellulis Sophia et Beatrice" as daughters of the son of "duce Theodorico", specifying that the empress was their amita and that she adopted them after their father died[154].  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names (in order) "Beatrix…et Sophia" daughters of "iunior Frederici", specifying that Beatrice married "Bonefacio Italiæ marchioni"[155].  Beatrix entered into her share of the succession of her brother in [1037] as dame du château de Briey, heiress of the lordships of Stenay, Mouzay, Juvigny, Longlier and Orval, all in the northern part of her family's ancestral lands[156].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Beatricam…de Gallia…filia comitis Frederic, mater…domina Matilda" as wife of "Bonifacius"[157].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage of "Bonifacius…relictam Beatricem" with "Godefridus…cognomento Barbatus", specifying (incorrectly) that she was daughter of "Sigifridi de Brie filii ducis Theoderici"[158].  Regent of Tuscany 1054-1056.  Having retired to Verdun with her husband in early 1069 due to his deteriorating health, she returned to Italy after his death and associated her daughter in the government of her Italian estates[159].  The Notæ de Beatrice ducissi Tusciæ et Gisla records the death "1076 XIV Kal Mai" of "Tuscie ductrix Italieque Beatrix"[160].  The Annales Pisani of Bernardo Marangoni record the death "IV Kal May" in 1077 of "comitissa Beatrix"[161]m firstly (1037 after Jun) as his second wife, BONIFAZIO Marchese of Tuscany, Signor di Canossa, son of Marchese TEDALDO & his wife Guillia [Willa] --- ([985]-San Martino all'Argine May 1052, bur Mantua Cathedral).  m secondly ([Mantua] mid-1054) as his second wife, GODEFROI "le Barbu" Comte de Verdun, ex-Duke of Upper Lotharingia, son of GOZELON I Duke of Upper Lotharingia & his wife --- (-Verdun 30 Dec 1069, bur Verdun Saint-Vanne).  He was appointed GODEFROI II Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1065. 

d)         [PETRONILLE .  The Chronique of Jean de Bayon records that "Fridericus ex filio nepos, quia ipse æquivocus filius ante obierat" succeeded on the death of "Theodericus dux" in 1029 and records that he had "sorores tres, prima Sophia, quam Ludovicus comes, secunda Beatrix quam Bonifacius marchio Italiæ, tertia Petronix, quam quidam Elisatii princeps"[162].  No other source has been found which identifies Pétronille.  Viellard speculates that her husband may have been Gérard d´Alsace Duke of Lorraine and that she died soon after their marriage.  He notes that Dom Calmet suggests that she married Berthold I von Zähringen Duke of Carinthia[163]m ---.] 

2.         ADALBERON de Lotharingia ([1000]-[Oct] 1006 or 24 Mar after 1006).  He was appointed Bishop of Metz end 1005, in succession to his uncle Adalberon, under the guardianship of Thierry de Luxembourg.  He was consecrated before 14 May 1006 but died soon after.  The necrology of Verdun Saint-Vanne records the death "IX Kal Apr" of "Adelbero clericus Teuderici ducis filius"[164]

3.         ADELAIS de Lotharingia (-after 1032).  The Chronicon Sancti Huberti names "Adeladis comitissa Araeleonis" as daughter of "ducis Theoderici, soror Sigifridi [=error for Frederici] patris marchissæ Beatricis" (although the name of her husband is not specified) when recounting the story of her cubicularius having been bitten by a rabid dog[165].  The Gesta Treverorum refers to "comitissa de castello…Aralunæ, mater comitum Walrammi et Folconis, marito suo defuncto, astipulantibus filiis et filiabus suis", but does not name her or specify her origin[166].  Eberhard Archbishop of Trier refers to past donations by "comite Walrammo de Arlo et uxore ipsius Adelheide" in two charters dated 1052 and 1053, the second one referring to the confirmation of donations by "filiorum eorum Walrammi et Folconis" after the death of their parents[167], which appears to pull all the information together.  m WALERAN [I] Comte d'Arlon, son of --- (-before 1032). 

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 1033-1046

 

 

After the death in 1033 of Frederic III Duke of Upper Lotharingia, Konrad II King of Germany installed his distant cousin Gozelon Duke of Lower Lotharingia as duke of Upper Lotharingia.  He and his son, who succeeded his father briefly as duke of Upper Lotharingia in 1044, are shown here in outline form only.  For full details, see Chapter 5 DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA. 

 

 

GOZELON I 1033-1044, GODEFROI I 1044-1045

 

GOZELON, son of GODEFROI Comte de Verdun & his wife Mechtild of Saxony [Billung] ([968/73]-19 Apr 1044, bur Münsterbilsen).  He succeeded his brother in 1023 as GOZELON I Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  Comte dans les Ardennes 1028.  After the death in 1033 of Frédéric III Duke of Upper Lotharingia, Konrad II King of Germany installed Gozelon as GOZELON I Duke of Upper Lotharingia, passing over the late Duke's two sisters. 

1.         other children: - see LOWER LOTHARINGIA

2.         GODEFROI (-Verdun 30 Dec 1069, bur Verdun Cathedral).  Heinrich III King of Germany installed him as GODEFROI II "le Barbu" Duke of Upper Lotharingia in 1044 in succession to his father, while appointing his younger brother as Duke of Lower Lotharingia. 

-        see Chapter 5.C. DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DUKES of UPPER LOTHARINGIA 1047-1070 (MATFRIEDE)

 

 

ADALBERT 1047-1048, GERARD 1048-1070

 

Sons of GERHARD Graf [von Metz] & his wife Gisela ---

1.         ADALBERT [Albert] (-killed in battle near Thuin 11 Nov 1048).  The Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Bosonis-Villæ names "Odelrico comite et Gerhardo duce" as sons and successors of "Gerhardus comes marchio [et] cum uxore sua Gisela"[168].   Comte de Longwy.  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names "Albertum de Longui castro", but does not give his origin[169].  Emperor Heinrich III appointed him as ADALBERT Duke of Upper Lotharingia in early 1047, after confiscating the duchy from Godefroi II "le Barbu" Duke of Upper Lotharingia.  Duke Adalbert was killed fighting the forces of ex-Duke Godefroi.  No indication has been found of the name of Duke Adalbert's wife.  Szabolcs de Vajay[170] has confirmed the incorrectness of his previous proposition that she was Clémence de Foix, and that the duke was the father of Etiennette (wife of Guillaume Comte de Bourgogne) and Clémence (wife of Conrad Comte de Luxembourg). 

2.         GERHARD (-Remiremont [14 Apr 1070]).  The Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Bosonis-Villæ names "Odelrico comite et Gerhardo duce" as sons and successors of "Gerhardus comes marchio [et] cum uxore sua Gisela"[171].  Graf von Metz.  Emperor Heinrich III appointed him as GERARD Duke of Upper Lotharingia after his brother was killed in battle in Nov 1048. 

-        DUKES of LORRAINE

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA

 

 

 

A.      DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA [959]-964

 

 

GOTTFRIED [959]-964

 

1.         GOTTFRIED (-after 958).  He was installed as Comte de Hainaut in 958 after Comte Reginar [III] was banished[172].  "Otto…rex" granted property confiscated from "Ymmo in villa Castra et in pago Darnegouue ac in comitatu Rotberti comitis", at the request of "Godefridi comitis", to "fideli nostro Tietboldo" by charter dated 11 Jun 958[173].  "Otto…rex" granted property "villa Vuambia sitam in pago Heinia in comitatu Godefridi" held by "Engibrandus" by charter dated 13 Jun 958[174]same person as…?  GOTTFRIED (-Italy 964).  It is not certain that Gottfried Comte de Hainaut was the same person as Gottfried Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  However, after the death of the latter, "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property "in loco Uillare…terram olim Godefridus bone memorie dux noster" to the convent of Saint-Ghislain (in Hainaut) at the request of "Richarius comes" by charter dated 2 Jun 965[175], "Richarius comes" being identified as Gottfried's successor in Hainaut.  He was appointed [associate] Duke of [Lower] Lotharingia.  Bruno archbishop of Köln confirmed an exchange of property "Baldau, quam Sigifredus comes…acquireret" for "in villa Nohas…in pago Heislensi in comitatu Tulpiaco" between the abbot of Stavelot and "comite Warnero fideli nostro" by charter dated 953 "regnante rege Ottone fratre nostro, anno xviii, Godefrido duce"[176].  Vanderkindere suggests that this charter should be redated to 959, to support the hypothesis that the two appointments of Gottfried and Friedrich, as associate dukes in Lower and Upper Lotharingia respectively, occurred simulataneously[177].  "Godefridi ducis" subscribed a charter dated 964 issued by the abbot of Prüm[178].  The Continuator of Regino names "Godefridus dux Lothariensis" among those who died of plague in Italy in 964[179].  Ruotger's Vita Brunonis records that he sent "auxiliares" to Lotharingia, of whom "Godefridus dux" whom he had brought up himself and of whose worthiness he was so convinced that he considered it unnecessary to offer donations for his soul[180]

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 977-[1005] (CAROLINGIAN)

 

 

CHARLES 977-991, OTTO 991-[1005]

 

 

CHARLES, son of LOUIS IV "d'Outremer" King of the Franks & his wife Gerberga of Germany (Laon summer 953-in prison Orléans 12 Jun 991, bur 1001 Maastricht, St Servatius).  Twin with his brother Henri.  Flodoard records the birth of twins to "Gerberga regina" in 953 "unus Karolus, alter Heinricus, sed Henricus mox post baptismum defunctus est"[181].  Flodoard records war between "Karolum regis filium fratrem" and "Godefridum atque Arnulfum, Lotharienses comites" in 975[182].  Banished from the Frankish court after accusing Queen Emma of adultery with Adalbero Bishop of Laon[183], he sought refuge at the court of Emperor Otto II who created him Duke of Lower Lotharingia in May 977 at Diedenhofen.  The Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium record that "Karolum ducem, regis Lotharii fratrem" had been granted Lotharingia by Emperor Otto[184].  During Emperor Otto's campaign against his brother King Lothaire, Duke Charles captured Laon in 978 and was proclaimed King of the Franks by Theudebert Bishop of Metz[185].  He claimed the French throne after the death of his brother in 986, and that of his nephew in 987.  He captured Laon in [May] 988, and Reims in [Aug/Sep] 989, thanks to his nephew Arnoul Archbishop of Reims.  He was captured at Laon 30 Mar 991 with his wife and children and taken to Senlis.  Richer records that "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote" were imprisoned[186].  From there, they were imprisoned by Hugues Capet King of France at Orléans, where he died[187].  "Otto…rex" donated property "Vvalbisci in comitatu Karoli comitis" to Quedlinburg by charter dated 6 Jan 992[188].  It is assumed that this refers to Charles ex-Duke of Lotharingia as no other Count Charles or Karl has been identified in Germany at the time.  If this is correct, the charter demonstrates that Charles was still recognised with a title in Germany after his capture by the French, although this was "comes" rather than "dux".  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "X Kal Jul" of "Karoli ducis"[189].  Sigebert records that "Karolus dux" died in 991 and that "Otto filius eius" succeeded in the duchy of Lotharingia[190]

m ([970]) ADELAIS de Troyes, daughter of [ROBERT Comte de Troyes & his wife Adelais [de Bourgogne].  The Historia Francorum Senonensis refers to the wife of "Karolus" as "filiam Herberti comitis Trecarum"[191].  Assuming the birth of the couple's eldest son in 970, this could not refer to Héribert, son of Robert, whose birth is dated to [950].  It is also unlikely to have been Héribert [II] Comte de Vermandois, father of Robert, who was not comte de Troyes.  Settipani suggests[192] that the Historia must be in error and that her father was Robert Comte de Troyes.  This would not be the only error in this source, as the Historia also refers to "Karolus, frater eius [=Hludovicus], filius Hlotharii regis" when recording his "succession" in 987[193].  The Chronico Richardi Pictavensis also names "Carolus uxore sua…filia Herberti Comitis Trecarum"[194], presumably based on the same source as the Historia.  Her name is recorded by Richer, who states that "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote" were imprisoned by Hugues "Capet" King of France[195].  Orderic Vitalis links the two sets of references by recording that Charles was imprisoned with his wife who was the daughter of Héribert Comte de Troyes[196].  An interesting twist to this apparently straight-forward explanation is provided by another passage in Richer which refers disparagingly to Charles's marriage to "uxorem de militari ordine sibi imparem"[197].  It is difficult to imagine this description being appropriate to the Vermandois/Carolingian origin of Charles's known wife.  Ferdinand Lot therefore proposed that the text meant that Charles was married twice[198].  If such a second marriage did take place, it must have occurred at the height of the dispute between Charles and his brother King Lothar around [975].  At that time Charles was challenging his brother's authority to rule, and it is difficult to imagine that he would have weakened his own position by contracting an unequal marriage.  On the basis of the primary sources so far consulted, it is felt that there is insufficient basis for concluding that Duke Charles married twice.  The comment by Richer could presumably be explained by his personal dislike of the Vermandois family. 

Duke Charles & his wife had six children: 

1.         OTTO ([970]-13 Jun [1013/14], bur Maastricht, St Servatius).  The Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium names "defuncti ducis Ottonis, filii Karoli"[199].  He succeeded his father in 991 as Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  Sigebert records that "Karolus dux" died in 991 and that "Otto filius eius" succeeded in the duchy of Lotharingia[200].  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium names "Ottoni duci Lotharingiæ, suo consanguineo [=Henricus imperator]" when recording his opposition to "Metensis episcopus Theodericus secundus" and usurpation of the possessions of the church of Metz (including the abbey of St Trudo) in 1005 during the rebellion of the latter[201].  The same text refers to Otto leaving an only daughter, which suggests that he died soon afterwards, although it is not impossible that the chronicle conflates two distinct events.  In any case, conclusions drawn from this passage cannot be definitive as the part of the chronicle in question is incomplete[202].  Some corroboration is found in the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines which records the death of "duce Ottone, filio ducis Karoli" in 1005[203].  Sigebert also records the death of "Ottone duce" in 1005, adding that the duchy of Lotharingia was granted to "comiti Godefrido, filio Godefridi Ardennensis"[204].  However, it is not possible to treat these passages as conclusive as regards the date of Otto's death.  The thrust of both texts is the recording the appointment by the emperor of Godefroi (son of Godefroi Comte de Verdun) as Duke of Lower Lotharingia "mortuo duce Ottone", an event which is recorded elsewhere as taking place in 1012.  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "VII Id Jun" of "Ottonis ducis"[205].  [m ---.  If it is correct, as shown below, that Otto was the father of a daughter, the name of his wife is not known.]  Duke Otto & his wife had one possible child: 

a)         [daughter .  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium records that "Ottoni duci Lotharingiæ…" left an only daughter, whom it later identifies as "Hermegardam Namursi cometissam"[206].  As shown below, other sources indicate that Ermengarde, wife of Albert I Comte de Namur, was the daughter of Duke Otto's father.  The sources discussed in the document NAMUR indicate that Ermengarde was the mother of at least three of the children of Comte Albert.  This would be chronologically impossible if she had been the daughter of Duke Otto.] 

2.         ERMENGARDE ([970/75]-after 1013).  The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Karolus dux" was father of "Ermengardem et Gerbergam"[207].  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium, on the other hand, names "Hermegardam Namursi cometissam" as only daughter of "Ottoni duci Lotharingiæ", son of Duke Charles[208].  The latter appears chronologically impossible in light of the sources discussed in the document NAMUR which attest Ermengarde as the mother of at least three of her husband's children.  The Fundatio Ecclesiæ S Albani Namucensis is less specific on Ermengarde's origin when it names her son "comes Albertus secundus, ortus ex patre Lothariensi" referring to his mother as "matre vero Francigena Ermengarde, nobilissimam Francorum regum prosapiam trahente"[209].  The birth date range of Ermengarde is estimated on the basis of her having been the mother of all Comte Albert's recorded children.  Her marriage date is suggested by Richer, who does not name her among the children of her father when the family was imprisoned in 991: "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote"[210].  This presumably indicates that her marriage predated this imprisonment.  It has been suggested that Ermengarde was Albert [I]'s second wife, considering the likely difference in their ages[211].  If this is correct, it is unlikely that there were any surviving children from his earlier marriage as Albert's successor (presumably his eldest son) was the son of his surviving wife, presumably Ermengarde, as shown by the Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium which records that "Rotberdo Namurcensi comite" betrayed Lambert Comte de Louvain after the battle of Hougaerde (dated to 1013) and that Lambert, captured by "Herimannum…comitem", was released after the intervention of "Rotbodi…comitis mater"[212]m (990) ALBERT [I] Comte de Namur, son of ROBERT [I] Comte de Namur & his wife --- (-shortly before 1011). 

3.         GERBERGA ([975]-27 Jan after 1018, bur Nivelles).  The Genealogica comitum Buloniensium records that "Karolus dux" was father of "Ermengardem et Gerbergam", and that "Gerberga soror Ermengardis" was mother of "Henricum seniorem de Bursella"[213].  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium names "Gerbergam, filiam Karoli ducis Lotharingie" as wife of "Lambertus filius Reyneri comitis Montensis", specifying that Brabant (including Louvain and Brussels) was her dowry[214].  The Annales Hanoniæ name "Gebergam filiam Karoli ducis Lotharingie" as wife of "Lambertus…comes Lovaniensis"[215].  "Gerberga" is named as wife of "Lantbertum comitem, filium Ragineri Longicolli" in the Gesta of Gembloux Abbey when recording her husband's death, but her origin is not stated[216].  Sigebert's Chronica records in 977 that "Lantbertus" married "Gerbergam filiam Karoli ducis"[217], but this date must be incorrect.  Richer records that "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote" were imprisoned[218].  This suggests that Gerberga was not yet married at that date.  The birth date of Gerberga is estimated on the basis of the likely birth date ranges of two of her presumed children by Comte Lambert.  m (991 or after) LAMBERT [I] Comte de Louvain, son of REGINAR [III] Comte de Hainaut & his wife Adela ([950]-killed in battle Florennes 12 Sep 1015). 

4.         ADELAIS (-after 1012).  Richer records that "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote" were imprisoned[219]

5.         LOUIS (991 or after-after 993).  The Historia Francorum Senonensis records the birth of two sons "Hludovicum et Karolum" to "Karolus" while he was in custody in "Aurelianis civitate"[220].  After his father was captured, Hugues Capet entrusted him to Adalberon Bishop of Laon.  Hugues retook him in 993 and imprisoned him at Orléans.  Richer records that "Karolum…cum uxore Adelaide et filio Ludovico, et filiabus duabus, quarum altera Gerberga, altera Adelaidis dicebatur, necnon et Arnulfo nepote" were imprisoned[221]

6.         CHARLES (991 or after-after 991).   The Historia Francorum Senonensis records the births of two sons "Hludovicum et Karolum" to "Karolus" while he was in custody in "Aurelianis civitate"[222].  He escaped from captivity, maybe to his brother Otto, but no further information has been found in the primary sources consulted to shed light on his fate. 

 

 

 

C.      DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1012-1023, 1046-1065 (FAMILY of WIGERICH)

 

 

GODEFROI I 1012-1023, GOZELON I 1023-1044, GOZELON II 1044-1046

 

1.         GODEFROI, son of GODEFROI Comte de Verdun & his wife Mechtild of Saxony (-26 Sep 1023, bur Verdun Saint-Vanne).  "Adalberonem…episcopum, Fredericum et Herimannum comites, Godefridum atque Gozelonem" are named (in order) the five sons of "comiti Godefrido" & "Mathildis Saxoniæ comitissa" in the Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium, which specifies that Godefroi and Gozelon succeeded as dukes[223].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Arnulphum comitem Flandrensem, Godefridum ducem, Gozelonem ducem, fratres" as children of "Mathildis soror Guepe et Berthe [Burgundiæ]"[224].  He was installed in 1012 as GODEFROI I Duke of Lower Lotharingia by Emperor Heinrich II.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that the emperor conferred "ducatus Lotharingie" on "comiti Godefrido Virdunensi, filio Godefridi Ardennensis" after the death of Otto Duke of Lower Lotharingia [Carolingian], an event which the chronicler records under 1005[225].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" renewed the privileges of Kloster Fulda by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1020, witnessed by "Godifridi ducis, Berinhardi ducis, Thiederici ducis, Welphonis comitis, Cunonis comitis, Kunrati comitis, Ottonis comitis, Adilbrahtis comitis, Bobonis comitis, Friderici comitis, Bezilini comitis, Ezonis comitis palatini"[226], the order of witnesses presumably giving some idea of the relative importance of these nobles at the court of Emperor Heinrich II at the time.  "Ducis Godefridi eiusque fratris…marchionis Gozelonis" are named as present with Adalbold bishop of Utrecht at Driel, in an undated charter dated to before 1023, relating to the donation of Wamel[227].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1023 of "Godefridus dux"[228].  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "VI Kal Oct" of "Godefridi pacifici ducis"[229]

2.         GOZELON ([968/73]-19 Apr 1044, bur Münsterbilsen).  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Arnulphum comitem Flandrensem, Godefridum ducem, Gozelonem ducem, fratres" as children of "Mathildis soror Guepe et Berthe [Burgundiæ]"[230]Count in the March of Antwerp.  "Henricus…rex" granted property "inter flumina…Nitæ…Thila…Wauerwald in comitatu Gotizonis comitis qui Antwerf dicitur situm" to "nostrum bestiarum Baldrico sanctæ Leodicensis ecclesiæ presul nec non Baldrico comiti" by charter dated 12 Sep 1008[231].  "Ducis Godefridi eiusque fratris…marchionis Gozelonis" are named as present with Adalbold bishop of Utrecht at Driel, in an undated charter dated to before 1023, relating to the donation of Wamel[232].  He succeeded his brother in 1023 as GOZELON I Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  Wipo, in his description of the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, names him "Gozilo Duke of the Ripuarians"[233].  He succeeded in 1033 as GOZELON I Duke of Upper Lotharingia.  "Adelaydis comitissa uxor quondam…Ludouici comitis" donated property "per manum Gozelonis ducis atque Godefridi…et pro eius amore Dominique Frederici prefati ducis fratris" to Verdun Saint-Vanne by charter dated to [1038/40], subscribed by "dux Gozelo et eius filius Godefridus"[234].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death in 1044 of "Gozzilo dux Lotharingorum"[235].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "19 Apr" of "Gozlinus dux"[236].  Heinrich III King of Germany regranted "comitatum…in Thrente" to the bishop of Utrecht by charter dated 22 May 1046, which specifies that the grant was made "post obitum Gozlini ducis nostre"[237]m ---.  The name of Duke Gozelon's wife is not known.  Duke Gozelon I & his wife had six children:

a)         GODEFROI ([1000/1015] -Verdun 30 Dec 1069, bur Verdun Cathedral)Herimannus names "Gotefridus alter filius eius [=Gozzilo dux Lotharingorum]" when recording his being passed over in the succession to his father[238].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Godefridum ducem, Odam et Regelindam" as children of "Gozelo, frater Arnulphi et Godefridi"[239].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of the estimated birth date of his father, and the more restricted birth date range of his sister Regelindis, although the absence of any information relating to his career before [1040] suggests that he may have been born in the later part of this period.  He succeeded in 1044 as GODEFROI II Duke of Upper Lotharingia.  He succeeded in 1065 as GODEFROI II "le Barbu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia

-        see below, Part E

b)         MATHILDE (-murdered Burg Cochem 17 Aug 1060).  She is named "Mathildam, Gozelini ducis filiam" in the Annales Weissemburgenses, which record that she was murdered by her husband[240].  The Monumenta Epternacensia name "Mathilde Gozelonis ducis filia" as wife of "Heinricus"[241].  The necrology of Weissenburg records the death "VI Kal Aug" of "Mahthild com a Henrico marito suo occiso 1060"[242]m HEINRICH Pfalzgraf of Lotharingia, son of HEZZELIN Graf im Zülpichgau [Ezzonen] & his wife [--- of Carinthia] (-Echternach Abbey 29 Jul 1060). 

c)         GOZELON (-1046 before 22 May).  Herimannus names "Gozziloni filius Gozzilo dux Lotharingorum" when recording his succession to his father[243].  Heinrich III King of Germany installed him as GOZELON II Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1044 in succession to his father, while appointing his older brother as Duke of Upper Lotharingia.  He was described as "ignavus" by the chronicler Hermann Contract von Reichenau[244].  He was deposed as duke of Lower Lotharingia and replaced by Frédéric de Luxembourg.  The Annales Altahenses record that the duchy was removed from "Gozziloni" and granted to "Friderico, Baioariæ ducis fratri"[245]

d)         FREDERIC (-Florence 29 Mar 1058, bur Florence Santa Reparata).  The Gesta Epsicoporum Virdunensium names "Fredericum, fratrem ducis Godefridi, archidiaconum Sancti Lamberti"[246].  Archdeacon of Liège St Lambert 1051.  Papal Chancellor and Librarian 1051.  Abbot of Monte Cassino and Cardinal 1057.  He was elected Pope STEPHEN IX 2 Aug 1057.  The Chronicon Hugonis names "Stephanus qui et Fredericus frater Godefridi ducis" when recording his election as Pope[247]

e)         UDA (-23 Oct, after 1047).  The Vita Sanctæ Gudilæ names "Oda…Gozelonis ducis filia" as wife of "Lambertus…comes" in a passage dated 1047[248].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Godefridum ducem, Odam et Regelindam" as children of "Gozelo, frater Arnulphi et Godefridi"[249].  "Baldricus…cum uxore mea Oda" founded the collegial church in Brussels by charter dated 1047[250]m LAMBERT [II] Comte de Louvain, son of LAMBERT [I] "le Barbu" Comte de Louvain & his wife Gerberge of Lower Lotharingia [Carolingian] (-after 21 Sep 1062, bur Nivelles).

f)          REGELINDIS ([1010/15]-after 1067).  The Fundatio ecclesiæ Sancti Albani Namurcensis refers to the wife of "comes Albertus secundus" as "Gothelonis ducis filia" but does not name her[251].  The Chronicon Hanoniense names "Gosseclone ducis Lotharingie…[filia] Raelendem" as wife of "Alberto comiti"[252].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Godefridum ducem, Odam et Regelindam" as children of "Gozelo, frater Arnulphi et Godefridi"[253].  Her birth date range is estimated from her eldest son being born before 1035.  She was given Durbuy as her dowry by her father.  m ALBERT [II] Comte de Namur, son of ALBERT [I] Comte de Namur & his wife Ermengardis of Lower Lotharingia [Carolingian] (-[1063/64]).

 

 

 

D.      DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1046-1065 (LUXEMBOURG)

 

 

FREDERIC 1046-1065

 

1.         FREDERIC, son of FRIEDRICH Graf [im Moselgau], Vogt of Stablo and Malmédy [Luxembourg] & his wife [--- von Hammerstein] [Konradiner] (-28 Aug 1065, bur Stablo).  He was installed by Heinrich III King of Germany as FREDERIC Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1046.  He was installed as count in the march of Antwerp, after this was recaptured from Baudouin V Count of Flanders by Emperor Heinrich III in 1049.  Vogt of Stablo and Malmédy. 

 

 

 

E.      DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1023-1046, 1065-1076 (FAMILY of WIGERICH)

 

 

GODEFROI II 1065-1069, GODEFROI III 1069-1076

 

GODEFROI, son of GOZELON I Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Upper Lotharingia & his wife --- ([1000/1020]-Verdun 30 Dec 1069, bur Verdun Cathedral)Herimannus names "Gotefridus alter filius eius [=Gozzilo dux Lotharingorum]" when recording his being passed over in the succession to his father[254].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Godefridum ducem, Odam et Regelindam" as children of "Gozelo, frater Arnulphi et Godefridi"[255].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of the estimated birth date of his father, and the more restricted birth date range of his sister Regelindis, although the absence of any information relating to his career before [1040] suggests that he may have been born in the later part of this period.  "Adelaydis comitissa uxor quondam…Ludouici comitis" donated property "per manum Gozelonis ducis atque Godefridi…et pro eius amore Dominique Frederici prefati ducis fratris" to Verdun Saint-Vanne by charter dated to [1038/40], subscribed by "dux Gozelo et eius filius Godefridus"[256].  His father appointed him as Comte de Verdun in [1040].  Heinrich III King of Germany installed him as GODEFROI II "le Barbu" Duke of Upper Lotharingia in 1044 in succession to his father, while appointing his younger brother as Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  Duke Godefroi objected to this partition of his father's territories, sought support from Henri I King of France, but was deprived of Upper Lotharingia in Sep 1044 by King Heinrich.  The emperor also deprived Godefroi of the county of Verdun, giving it to Richard Bishop of Verdun and ordering him to make a re-grant.  Duke Godefroi was captured in Jul 1045 and imprisoned in Schloß Giebichstein, near Halle.  He was released in Spring 1046, when he resumed his position as duke.  He revolted again later in 1046 after the emperor appointed Frédéric de Luxembourg to succeed his younger brother as Duke of Lower Lotharingia.  Duke Godefroi allied himself with Dirk IV Count of Holland and Baudouin V Count of Flanders.  Count Dirk attacked Cambrai, Utrecht and Liège, while Duke Godefroi and Count Baudouin attacked and burned the royal palace of Nijmegen as well as the town of Verdun 25 Oct 1046.  The emperor confiscated Upper Lotharingia for the second time in early 1047 and awarded it to Adalbert Graf von Metz, who was killed in battle by ex-Duke Godefroi the following year.  Godefroi finally conceded in 1049 after Pope Leo IX excommunicated him and ordered him to surrender[257].  Theoderic Bishop of Verdun returned the county of Verdun to Godefroi II after he had done penance for his actions[258].  Ex-Duke Godefroi moved to Italy, where he acquired a position of power, especially after his second marriage.  Count of Tusculum 1056.  Emperor Heinrich III, angered at his second marriage, fomented a rebellion against him in Florence.  Godefroi was obliged to flee Italy and find temporary refuge in Lotharingia[259].  After the death of Emperor Heinrich III in 1056, Godefroi was able to extend his power even further in Italy.  He procured the election of his brother as Pope Stephen IX in 1057, and even planned his own coronation as emperor.  His plans were thwarted by his brother's death in 1058, but he was able to install his own candidate as his successor Pope Nicholas II 24 Jan 1059 who ruled briefly for two years[260].  Emperor Heinrich III installed him as GODEFROI II Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1065, wishing to make an ally of such a powerful individual.  "Dux et marchio Godefridus…uxoris mee Beatricis" confirmed the rights of the church of Verdun Saint-Vanne granted by "patre meo Gozelone", with the consent of "comitis Manasse", by charter dated [1065/66], subscribed by "comitis Manasse et filii eius Rainaldi, Hezelini comitis, comitis Arnulfi de Chisneio"[261].  Returning to Italy, he commanded the troops which blocked the advance on Rome of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia.  He retired to Verdun in 1069 due to deteriorating health[262].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death of "dux Bullonii Godefridus Magnus…dictus…Barbatus" and his burial at Verdun[263].  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "XI Kal Jan" of "Godefridi ducis"[264]

m firstly DODA [Guota/Uoda], daughter of --- (bur Münsterbilsen).  The Vita B. Idæ Boloniensis Comitissæ records that Ida was the daughter of "pater…Godefridus, mater…Doda"[265].  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed the foundation and possessions of the convent of Maria Magdalena at Verdun by charter dated 16 Jun 1040, on the petition of "Ricardi Virdunensis ecclesiæ presulis,…quodam suæ dioceseos clerico Ermenfrido, …tempore patris sui Heizelini comitis" which records donations by "…Guota per manus mariti sui Gotefridi ducis…"[266].  The origin of Doda is not known.  Murray suggests[267] that she was the daughter of Manassès [I] Comte de Rethel, her name resembling the name of Manassès's wife.  This proposed origin is presumably inconsistent with Doda's daughter having been the wife of Manassès [II] Comte de Rethel (see below), as the couple would have been first cousins. 

m secondly ([Mantua] mid-1054) as her second husband, BEATRIX of Upper Lotharingia, widow of BONIFAZIO Marchese of Tuscany, Signor di Canossa, daughter of FREDERIC II Duke [of Upper Lotharingia] & his wife Mathilde of Swabia ([1019]-18 Apr 1076, bur Pisa Cathedral).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage of "Bonifacius…relictam Beatricem" with "Godefridus…cognomento Barbatus", specifying (incorrectly) that she was daughter of "Sigifridi de Brie filii ducis Theoderici"[268].  Regent of Tuscany 1054-1056.  Having retired to Verdun with her husband in early 1069 due to his deteriorating health, she returned to Italy after his death and associated her daughter in the government of her Italian estates[269].  The Notæ de Beatrice ducissi Tusciæ et Gisla records the death "1076 XIV Kal Mai" of "Tuscie ductrix Italieque Beatrix"[270].  The Annales Pisani of Bernardo Marangoni record the death "IV Kal May" in 1077 of "comitissa Beatrix"[271]

Duke Godefroi II & his first wife had [five] children:

1.         [JUDITH ([1020/30]-).  In the commentary to "Li Estoire de Jerusalem et d'Antioche", the wife of Manassès is referred to as an unnamed daughter of Godefroi "le Barbu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, therefore sister of Ida who married Eustache [II] Comte de Boulogne[272].  If this is correct, it would provide an explanation for the evidently close family relationship between Baudouin I King of Jerusalem and his successor King Baudouin II, the exact nature of which has not been proved in other sources.  While no primary source has yet been identified which provides direct confirmation of this hypothesis, the charter dated [1065/66] under which "dux et marchio Godefridus…uxoris mee Beatricis" confirmed the rights of the church of Verdun Saint-Vanne was issued with the consent of "comitis Manasse" and is subscribed by "comitis Manasse et filii eius Rainaldi…"[273].  If Manassès Comte de Rethel was Duke Godefroi's son-in-law, this would provide an explanation for his involvement in this charter which is otherwise difficult to explain.  As mentioned above, this possible connection is inconsistent with Duke Godefroi's first wife having been the daughter of Manassès [II] Comte de Rethel as the couple would have been first cousins.  Judith's marriage date range is estimated from the probable birth date range of the couple's son Hugues.  Her name is confirmed by Hugues de Rethel naming his parents Manassès and Judith in a charter dated 1081 for the church of Braux[274].  Her birth date range is estimated for consistency with the estimated birth dates of her descendants.  Two other theories concerning the origin of the wife of Comte Manassès [III] are discussed in the document CHAMPAGNE NOBILITY.  m (before [1045/55]) MANASSES [III] Comte de Rethel, son of [MANASSES [II] Comte de Rethel] & his wife --- (-1081 or after).] 

2.         GODEFROI ([1025/40]-murdered Vlaardingen, near Antwerp 26 Feb 1076, bur Verdun Cathedral).  He was short and hunch-backed.  The Gesta Mediolanensium names "dux Gotefredus Gotofredi filius" when recording his death and that Matilda was his widow[275].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Godefridus Gibbosus" as son of "dux Bullonii Godefridus Magnus…dictus…Barbatus" when recording that he succeeded his father, specifying that he was "corpore exiguous tamen animo eximius"[276].  There is little information on which to base a precise estimated birth date range, although it is more likely that he was born in the later part of the period [1025/40] if it is correct (as suggested above) that his father was born in the later part of the date range [1000/20].  Heinrich IV King of Germany appointed him to succeeded his father in 1069 as GODEFROI III "Gibbosus/le Bossu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Comte de Verdun.  He rejoined his wife in Tuscany in late 1072, returning alone to Lotharingia in 1073[277].  He provided troops for King Heinrich IV in the latter's struggle against the Saxons in 1074, to the displeasure of Pope Gregory VII.  Duke Godefroi's name appears in the list of the nobles who purportedly deposed the Pope at Worms 24 Jan 1076.  He also volunteered to lead the army to Rome to expel the Pope.  The Annals of Lambert record that "Gozilo dux Lutheringorum" was murdered in Antwerp supposedly on the instructions of Robert Count of Flanders[278].  He designated his nephew Godefroi de Boulogne as his heir in Lower Lotharingia.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death of "Godefridus Gibbosus" and his burial at Verdun[279].  The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "VI Kal Mar" of "Godefridi ducis"[280].  The necrology of Verdun Saint-Vanne records the death "V Kal Mar" of "Godefridus iunior dux et marchio"[281]m (betrothed 1055, Verdun [May] 1069[282]) as her first husband, MATILDA Signora di Canossa Ctss of Tuscany, daughter and heiress of BONIFAZIO Marchese of Tuscany, Signor di Canossa & his second wife Beatrix of Upper Lotharingia ([Mantua] 1046-Bondeno de' Roncovi 24 Jul 1115, bur Monastery of San Benedetto di Polirone, transferred 1633 to St Peter's Rome).  The Annalista Saxo names "Machtildis filia Beatricis ex Bonifacio marchione de Langobardia" when recording her two marriages[283].  Her first marriage was arranged at the same time as her mother's second marriage with Godefroi's father[284].  She is recorded as wife of Godefroi in his donation in [1069] to the abbey of Saint-Hubert des Ardennes[285].  She separated from her husband and returned to Tuscany in early 1070, although Godefroi requested her return[286].  Her marital difficulties were not helped by her husband's alliance with King Heinrich IV, husband and wife therefore supporting different sides in the deepening dispute between Church and Empire.  She took sole possession of her territories on the death of her mother in 1076, titling herself "dux et marchesa" in 1078 and 1099 but more frequently Ctss of Tuscany[287].  She became one of the strongest supporters of Pope Gregory VII, and acted as intermediary with King Heinrich when the latter visited Italy in 1077 with a view to seeking reconciliation with the Pope, the meeting between Pope and King taking place at the castle of Canossa.  In 1081, Ctss Matilda donated all her estates to the church, which granted them back to her as a fief for life, and sent the major part of her personal treasure to the Pope[288].  King Heinrich IV confiscated Ctss Matilda's properties in Lotharingia (inherited from her mother) and occupied Metz in 1085, awarding the lordships of Stenay and Mouzay to Thierry Bishop of Verdun as a reward for his support[289].  She married secondly (in secret mid-1089, separated summer 1095[290]) Welf V of Bavaria "dux et marchese", who succeeded in 1101 as Welf II Duke of Bavaria.  The Chronicon of Bernold records the marriage in 1089 of "dux Mathildis filia Bonifacii marchionis, sed vidua Gotefridi ducis" and "Welfoni duci filio Welfonis ducis"[291].  Ctss Matilda attempted to capture the Emperor during the latter's journey to Italy in early 1091 but the plan failed because of the betrayal of Ugo d'Este (who was the half-brother of Matilda's father-in-law)[292].  Emperor Heinrich was then able to pursue her troops which he defeated at Tresenta, in the region of Padua, in 1091[293].  He followed up by besieging the castle of Monteveglio in 1092, but retired to Verona after being defeated at Maddona della Battaglia near Canossa[294].  She recovered possession of all the territories she had lost when Emperor Heinrich returned to Germany in 1097 except for Mantua, and returned to Tuscany in mid-1098[295].  She confirmed her earlier donation of her lands to the church 17 Nov 1102, the text of the charter being engraved on a marble slab in one of churches in Rome[296].  Emperor Heinrich V granted her the title "vice-reine" at Bianello 6 May 1111[297], together with the government of Liguria (which corresponded to the ecclesiastical province of Milan), and annulled the confiscation of her assets decreed by his father in 1081.  The city of Mantua conceded to her in Oct 1114[298].  The Annales Cremonenses record the death in 1115 of "comitissa Matildis"[299].  The Cronica of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona records the death in 1115 of "comitissa Matildis" and her burial "aput ecclesiam sancti Benedicti inter Padum et Lironem quam Teutaldus avus construxerat et Bonifacius pater eius ampliaverat"[300].  Duke Godefroi & his wife had one child: 

a)         BEATRIX ([1070/71]-before 29 Aug 1071).  Her [supposed] maternal grandmother made donations for the souls of her two deceased husbands and her deceased "neptis" Beatrix[301].  Poull assumes that Beatrix was the niece of Ctss Beatrix, the daughter of her nephew Frederic de Mousson, Herr von Lützelburg[302], but this is not possible considering the date of his only known marriage.  It is assumed therefore that "neptis" should be interpreted as meaning granddaughter in this case. 

3.         son (-[1046/47]).  On his father's release in Spring 1046, he was retained by Emperor Heinrich III as a hostage.  He died during his captivity[303]

4.         IDA ([1038/43][304]-13 Aug 1113).  The Annalista Saxo names her "soror Gocelonis seu Godefridi ducis"[305].  Her marriage is given in Orderic Vitalis, who specifies that she was the sister of "Godfrey Duke of Lotharingia" and names her three sons[306].  The Vita B. Idæ Boloniensis Comitissæ records that she was the daughter of "pater…Godefridus, mater…Doda"[307].  She made a donation to Saint-Bertin for the soul of "Eustachii domini mei comitis" with her sons "Godefridi et Balduini"[308].  The Lamberti Audomariensis Chronica records the death "Id Apr 1113" of "Ida comitissa Boloniæ"[309]m as his second wife, EUSTACHE [II] Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [I] Comte de Boulogne & his wife Mathilde de Louvain (-[1072/82]). 

-        see below, Part G.  DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA (COMTES de BOULOGNE)

5.         WILTRUDIS (-1093, bur Hirsau).  The Historia Hirsaugiensis Monasterii names "Wieldrude" as wife of "Adalberti de Kalwa" but does not give her origin[310].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death in 1093 of "uxor comitis Adelberti…Weliga, magni ducis Gotifredi filia" and her burial "apud Hyrsaugiense monasterium"[311]m ADALBERT Graf von Calw, son of ADALBERT [I] Graf im Ufgau & his wife Adelheid von Egisheim (-Hirsau 22 Sep 1099, bur Hirsau). 

 

 

 

F.      DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1076-1087 (SALIAN KINGS of GERMANY)

 

 

KONRAD 1076-1087

 

KONRAD, son of Emperor HEINRICH IV King of Germany & his first wife Berthe de Savoie (12 Feb 1074-27 Jul 1101).  He was installed as KONRAD Duke of Lower Lotharingia by his father in 1076, on the death of Godefroi III "le Bossu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia, with Albert III Comte de Namur as vice-duke[312].  He was crowned King of Germany at Aachen 30 May 1087, at which time the duchy of Lower Lotharingia was conferred on Godefroi de Bouillon [Boulogne].   

 

 

 

G.      DUKE of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1087-1100 (COMTES de BOULOGNE)

 

 

GODEFROI IV 1087-1100

 

IDA of Lotharingia, daughter of GODEFROI II Duke of Lower Lotharingia & his first wife Doda --- (-13 Aug 1113). 

m as his second wife, EUSTACHE [II] Comte de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE [I] Comte de Boulogne & his wife Mathilde de Louvain (-[1072/82]). 

Comte Eustache II & his wife had three children:

1.         other children: - see BOULOGNE

2.         GODEFROI de Boulogne ([1060]-in Palestine [18 Jul 1100], bur Jerusalem).  "Godefridi et Balduini" are named as sons of "Ida comitisse Boloniensis" in the latter's charter for the soul of her husband[313].  William of Tyre records "Godefridus Lotharingiæ dux" as brother of Baudouin and Eustache, and son of Comte Eustache and of Ida sister of Godefroi "Struma" Duke of Lotharingia[314].  Designated heir by his maternal uncle, on the latter's death in 1076 he inherited the county of Verdun, the allods of Stenay and Mouzay, and the castle of Bouillon with its dependencies.  The inheritance was disputed by many parties.  Theoderic Bishop of Verdun seized the opportunity to end the hereditary succession in the county of Verdun by bestowing it on Matilda of Tuscany, who granted it to Albert III Comte de Namur as guardian of her interests in Lotharingia.  The emperor conferred the duchy of Lotharingia on his infant son Konrad with Albert III Comte de Namur as vice-duke, although he did create Godefroi as Markgraf van Antwerpen.  When his predecessor Konrad Duke of Lower Lotharingia was crowned King of Germany in 1087, Godefroi de Boulogne was installed as GODEFROI IV Duke of Lower Lotharingia[315].  He was known as "Godefroi de Bouillon", after the castle which he inherited from his mother's family and which became his centre of operations.  Leader of the First Crusade in 1096, he disposed of his properties to fund the expedition, although he retained the title duke.  The crusading army reached Jerusalem 7 Jun 1099 and captured the city 15 Jul 1099.  The electoral council chose him as ruler of Jerusalem 22 Jul 1099, and after considerable debate about the correct title to adopt, he became GODEFROI princeps of Jerusalem

 

 

 

H.      DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA (COMTES d'ARLON)

 

 

HEINRICH I 1101-1106, WALERAN III 1128-1139

 

HEINRICH, son of [UDO] von Limburg & his wife Judith von Salm (-1119)HEINRICH I Graf von Limburg.  Emperor Heinrich IV installed him as HEINRICH I Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1101.  He was deposed as duke in 1106. 

1.         WALERAN ([1085]-6 Aug 1139)WALERAN III Comte d'Arlon 1115-1119.  Graf von Limburg 1119.  He was installed as WALERAN Duke of Lower Lotharingia by Emperor Lothar in 1128. 

 

 

 

I.        DUKES of LOWER LOTHARINGIA 1106-1222 (COMTES de LOUVAIN)

 

 

GODEFROI V 1106-1128, GODEFROI VI 1140-1142, GODEFROI VII 1142-1190, HENRI 1180-1222

 

GODEFROI de Louvain, son of HENRI II Comte de Louvain & Adela [Adelheid] [in der Betuwe] (-25 Jan 1139, bur Afflighem).  Markgraf van Antwerpen 1105.  He succeeded in 1106 as GODEFROI V "le Barbu" Duke of Lower Lotharingia

1.         GODEFROI (-[11 Nov/31 Dec] 1142, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  He was installed in 1140 as GODEFROI VI Duke of Lower Lotharingia in succession to his father.  Duc de Louvain 1141. 

a)         GODEFROI (1142-10 Aug 1190, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  He was installed in 1142 as GODEFROI VII Duke of Lower Lotharingia in succession to his father.  Duc de Louvain 1147.  Graf van Brabant 1153. 

i)          HENRI de Brabant (1165-Köln 5 Sep 1235, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  He was installed in 1180 as HENRI Duke of Lower Lotharingia, until 1222.  Duc de Louvain 1183-1198.  He was installed as HENRI I "le Guerroyeur" Duke of Brabant in 1191. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN

 

 

The title "Pfalzgraf" first emerged in Lotharingia, on a continuous basis, in the mid-980s when Hermann, of the family of Ezzo, was referred to by this title in documents during the reign of Otto III King of Germany.  An earlier isolated reference to a "comes palatii" has been found in documents dated between 933 and 945 as noted in part A of this chapter.  The original role of the holder of the title "Pfalzgraf", of which there was only one in each of the original German provinces, is not known, although it is possible that it related to a function at the ducal court similar to that of the palatine at the court of the Carolingian emperors[316].  The title remained in the family of the Ezzonen until 1085.  Whatever the origin and original reason for the title, it became attached as an honorific to the name of the geographical base of the family who held it from time to time.  Some time during the first half of the 12th century, the Pfalzgrafen lost their original association with Lotharingia and became associated with lands in the Franconian and Lotharingian Rhineland.  The first Pfalzgraf shown by contemporary records to be clearly associated with Franconia was Hermann von Stahleck, who succeeded Heinrich von Babenberg as Pfalzgraf in 1141.  His family is dealt with in the document PALATINATE. 

 

 

 

A.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN

 

 

1.         AMEDEE (-after 946)Comte Palatin [Pfalzgraf] [von Lothringen].  “Hamedeus comes palatii…” subscribed a charter dated 16 Dec 933 under which Adalbero Bishop of Metz recorded his reform of Gorze Abbey[317].  “Hamedeus comes palatii et advocate, Odocari comitis…” subscribed a charter dated 936 under which Adalbero Bishop of Metz restored land at Moivron to Gorze Abbey[318].  "Hamedei comitis palatii…" witnessed the charter dated 7 Oct 945 under which Adalbero Bishop of Metz reformed the abbey of Metz Sainte-Glossinde[319].  “Hamedeus” sold land “in Enwaldi villa” to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 946[320]

 

 

 

B.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN [985]-1085 (EZZONEN)

 

 

HERMANN [985]-989, EZZO 1020-1034, OTTO 1035-1045, HEINRICH 1045-1060, HERMANN II 1064-1085

 

HERMANN "Pusillus", son of EHRENFRIED Graf [im Zülpichgau] & his wife Richwara --- (-16 Jul or 20 Nov 996).  "Herimannis…comes" donated property "in…villæ…Eilba in Maginensi pago" to Münster St Martin for the soul of "nostræ matris Rihuuare" by charter dated 10 Jun 963[321].  The primary source which names his father has not yet been identified.  Graf im Bonngau 970, 992 and 993.  Graf in Gerresheim 976.  Graf im Eifelgau 975 and 978.  "Uuicfredus sancta Treuerice sedis archidiaconus" donated property "in pago Aiflense in comitatu Herimanni" to the abbey of St Maximin by charter dated 975[322].  "Udo cum coniuge mea Gisla" donated property "in pago Aiflensi in comitatu Herimanni" to St Maximin at Trier by charter dated 978[323].  Graf von Zülpich 981.  He was installed as HERMANN Pfalzgraf of Lower Lotharingia in [985]/989.  "Otto…rex" donated property "Vvalbisci in comitatu Karoli comitis" to Quedlinburg by charter dated 6 Jan 992, which names as present "Bernhardi ducis, Egberti comitis, Eggihardi marchionis, Herimanni palatini comitis, Huodonis marchionis, Deoderici palatini comitis eiusque fratris Sigeberti comitis, Herimanni comitis"[324].  Graf im Auelgau 996.  The Memorienbuch of Köln St Gereon records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Herimannus palatinus comes cuius beneficio habemus Grieneswilere"[325].  The Memorienbuch of Köln St Gereon records the death "XII Kal Dec" of "Herimannus palatinus comes huius beneficio habemus Louenich"[326]

m HEILWIG, daughter of ---, from the family of ULRICH Bishop of Augsburg (-12 Nov or 22 Jan ----).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Helywiga" wife of "Hermanni comitis palatine…cognomente Pusillus", but does not give her origin[327].  The Memorienbuch of Köln St Gereon records the death "II Id Nov" of "Helewich comitissa uxor palatine horum beneficio habemus Grieneswilere"[328]

Pfalzgraf Hermann & his wife had three children: 

1.         EZZO [Ehrenfried] (-Saalfeld 21 May 1034, bur Brauweiler).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" as husband of "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", and in a later passage as son of "Hermanni comitis palatine…cognomente Pusillus"[329].  Graf im Auel- und Bonngau.  Pfalzgraf.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" renewed the privileges of Kloster Fulda by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1020, witnessed by "Godifridi ducis, Berinhardi ducis, Thiederici ducis, Welphonis comitis, Cunonis comitis, Kunrati comitis, Ottonis comitis, Adilbrahtis comitis, Bobonis comitis, Friderici comitis, Bezilini comitis, Ezonis comitis palatini"[330], the order of witnesses presumably giving some idea of the relative importance of these nobles at the court of Emperor Heinrich II at the time.  Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of "allodium suum in Brunwilre" to the abbey of St Nicholas made by "Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde" by charter dated 10 Oct 1028[331].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church of Köln donated by "Erenfridus beate memoriæ comes palatinus [et] coniuge sua domina Mathilde abbatiam in Brunwilare" and "postea defunctis supra dictis principibus filii eorum Herimannus…Coloniensis…archiepiscopus nec non sorores eius domina Richeza Bolemiæ quondam regina ac Theophanu Asnidensis monasterii abbatissa" by charter dated 17 Jul 1051 which also names "Etzo comes palatinus…et frater eius comes Hezelinus"[332].  The Annales Hildesheimenses record that "Hezo Palatinus comes" died after catching pox from his "concubina nomine Tiethburga"[333].  The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in 1034 of "Erenfridus comes palatinus"[334]m (before 15 Jun 991) MATHILDE of Germany, daughter of Emperor OTTO II & his wife Theofano --- (Summer 978-Echtz 4 Dec 1025, bur Brauweiler Abbey).  The Vita Godehardi names "Mahtildis domnæ Sophiæ sororis" as wife of "Ezonis palatine comitis"[335].  Thietmar records that "Mathilde the emperor's sister married Ezzo, who was the son of Hermann the count palatine", commenting that "this displeased many"[336].  Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of "allodium suum in Brunwilre" to the abbey of St Nicholas made by "Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde" by charter dated 10 Oct 1028[337].  The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in 1025 of "domna nostra Mathilda"[338].  Ezzo & his wife had ten children: 

a)         RICHENZA (-Saalfeld 21 Mar 1063, bur Köln St Maria ad gradus).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" as children of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying in a later passage that "Richza" was divorced from her husband and was mother of "Gazimerum"[339].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of Kloster Brauweiler by charter dated 18 Jul 1051 which names "Richeza regina quondam Poleniæ…pro remedio anime sue fratrisque sui beate memorie Ottonis ducis aliorumque parentum suorum in monasterio Brunwilarensi sepultorum…per manum Heinrici palatini comitis filii patrui sui" and witnessed by "Heinricus comes palatinus, Sicco comes, Starchri comes…"[340].  She fled for shelter to a western monastery when Poland descended into civil war[341]m ([1013], [divorced]) MIESZKO LAMBERT of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW I "Chrobry/the Brave" Prince [later King] of Poland & his third wife Emnilde --- (989-10 May 1034).  He succeeded in 1025 as MIESZKO II King of Poland

b)         LUDOLF (-11 Apr 1031, bur Brauweiler).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the three sons (in order) "Hermannus, Otto, Ludolphus" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", but specifies that Ludolf was first born[342].  Heir of the Herrschaft Waldenburg.  Vogt von Brauweiler.  m MATHILDE van Zutphen, daughter of OTTO Graaf van Zutphen & his wife ---.  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "filiam Ottonis comitis de Sudveno nomine Mathildem" as wife of Ludolf[343].  Ludolf & his wife had two children: 

i)          HEINRICH (-after 31 Oct 1031).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Heinricum et Cunonem" as the two sons of Ludolf & his wife, specifying that one [=Heinrich] succeeded to his father's county[344]

ii)         KUNO [Konrad] (-Hungary [15 Dec] 1055, bur Köln St Maria ad gradus).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Heinricum et Cunonem" as the two sons of Ludolf & his wife, specifying that one [=Kuno] was installed as Duke of Bavaria[345].  Vogt von Brauweiler 1031.  He succeeded in 1049 as KONRAD Duke of Bavaria.  He was deprived of the dukedom in 1053 when the king installed his son as Duke.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1055 of "Cuono dux"[346]m as her first husband, JUDITH von Schweinfurt, daughter of OTTO Markgraf von Schweinfurt & his wife Irmgard [Aemilia/Immula] di Susa (-[1 Mar 1104]).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Eilica, Iudhita, Beatrix, Gisla, Berta" as the five daughters of Otto von Schweinfurt & Immula, also naming Judith's two husbands[347].  She married secondly Botho Graf von Botenstein [Aribonen]. 

c)         OTTO (-Tomburg 7 Sep 1047).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the three sons (in order) "Hermannus, Otto, Ludolphus" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying in a later passage that he died at Tonsburg "VII Idus Sep"[348].  Graf im Deutzgau 1025.  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the property of the church of Würzburg by charter dated 9 Oct 1033, witnessed by "…Ezzo palatinus comes et filius eius Otto…"[349].  He succeeded in 1035 as OTTO Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  He relinquished the Pfalzgrafschaft in 1045 when he was installed as OTTO Duke of Swabia.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1047 of "Otto dux"[350].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of Kloster Brauweiler by charter dated 18 Jul 1051 which names "Richeza regina quondam Poleniæ…pro remedio anime sue fratrisque sui beate memorie Ottonis ducis aliorumque parentum suorum in monasterio Brunwilarensi sepultorum…per manum Heinrici palatini comitis filii patrui sui" and witnessed by "Heinricus comes palatinus, Sicco comes, Starchri comes…"[351].  The necrology of Gorze records the death "VII Id Sep" of "Oto dux"[352]m [--- von Egisheim, daughter of HUGO VI Graf im Nordgau und zu Egisheim & his wife Heilwig von Dagsburg.  A possible daughter of Hugo [VI] is shown as possible wife of Otto in Europäische Stammtafeln[353], but the primary source on which this is based has not so far been identified.]  Otto & his wife had one child: 

i)          RICHENZA (-Mar, 1082 or before).  The Annalista Saxo names Richenza wife of Hermann [III] and records her second marriage to "Otto de Northeim quondam dux", but does not give her origin[354].  The primary source which confirms her origin and her first marriage has not so far been identified.  m firstly HERMANN [III] Graf von Werl, son of RUDOLF Graf im Mittleren Friesland & his wife --- (-before 1050).  m secondly ([1050]) OTTO Graf von Northeim, son of BENNO Graf [von Northeim] & his wife [Eilika ---] (-11 Jan 1083).  He was installed as OTTO Duke of Bavaria in 1061. 

d)         HERMANN (-Köln 11 Feb 1056, bur Köln Cathedral).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the three sons (in order) "Hermannus, Otto, Ludolphus" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis"[355]Herimannus names "Herimannus, Ottonis secundi imperatoris ex filia nepos" when recording his installation as Archbishop of Köln in 1036[356].  Imperial Chancellor for Italy 1034/37.  Vogt von Brauweiler.  Provost at Köln Cathedral 1033. Archbishop of Köln 1036.  "Herimannus secundi Ottonis imperatoris filie…domne Mathilde beate memorie filius" donated property to Köln St Severin by charter dated 8 Sep 1043[357].  Abbot of St Ursula at Köln.  Archchancellor of the Roman Church 1049. 

e)         ADELHEID (-20 Jun before 1011, bur 1051 Brauweiler).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying that Adelheid became a nun at Nivelle[358].  Abbess of Nivelle [1003]. 

f)          THEOPHANO (-5 Mar 1056, bur Essen Abbey).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying that Theophano became a nun at Essen[359].  Abbess of Essen 1039.  Abbess of Gerresheim.  Provostess at Rellinghausen. 

g)         HEILWIG (-[21] Sep 1076).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying that Heilwig became a nun at Neuss[360].  Abbess of St Quirin at Neuss. 

h)         MATHILDE (-[1051/57]).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying that Mathilde became a nun at Dietkirchen and Villich[361].  Abbess of Dietkirchen and Villich after 1021. 

i)          SOPHIE (-Mainz [1045/58]).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying that Sophie became a nun at St Maria, Mainz and Gandersheim[362].  The Vita Godehardi names "maior Sophia, iunior Ida" as daughters of "Ezonis palatini comitis" and "Mahtildis domnæ Sophiæ sororis" when recording that they were brought up at Gandersheim[363].  Nun at St Maria, Mainz 1027, later abbess. 

j)          IDA (-[7/8] Apr 1060, bur Köln St Maria im Kapitol).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying that Ida became a nun at St Maria, Köln[364].  The Vita Godehardi names "maior Sophia, iunior Ida" as daughters of "Ezonis palatini comitis" and "Mahtildis domnæ Sophiæ sororis" when recording that they were brought up at Gandersheim[365].  Nun at St Maria, Mainz 1027.  Abbess of St Maria at Gandersheim before 1038.  Abbess of St Maria im Kapitol, Köln 1049. 

Ezzo had three illegitimate children by an unknown mistress, although the primary sources which name them and confirm their parentage have not yet been identified:

k)          HEINRICH (-1 May 1093).  Abbot of Gorze 1055/93. 

l)           WAZELA [Azela] The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m RUTGER Graf [von Kleve], son of --- (-before 1051). 

m)        EZZO (-before 1075).  Abbot of Saalfeld 1063. 

2.         HEZZELIN [Hermann] (-20 Nov 1033, bur Brauweiler).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names (in order) "Erenfridum et Ezelinum" as the two sons of "Hermanni comitis palatine…cognomente Pusillus" & his wife[366].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the property rights of Kloster Michelsberg near Bamberg by charter dated 8 May 1017, which recapitulates donations including property "in Tufercgowe in comitatu Hecilonis comitis, Thiedonhusen"[367].  Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of "allodium suum in Brunwilre" to the abbey of St Nicholas made by "Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde" by charter dated 10 Oct 1028[368].  "Hezel…palatinus comes…domni Ezzonis palatini comitis frater uterinus" donated property "in villa…Luvenich" to Köln St Gereon by charter dated 29 Sep 1033, witnessed by "…Euerhart comes…"[369].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church of Köln donated by "Erenfridus beate memoriæ comes palatinus [et] coniuge sua domina Mathilde abbatiam in Brunwilare" and "postea defunctis supra dictis principibus filii eorum Herimannus…Coloniensis…archiepiscopus nec non sorores eius domina Richeza Bolemiæ quondam regina ac Theophanu Asnidensis monasterii abbatissa" by charter dated 17 Jul 1051, which also names "Etzo comes palatinus…et frater eius comes Hezelinus"[370].  Graf im Zülpichgau.  Vogt von Kornelimünster.  m [--- of Carinthia, daughter of KONRAD I Duke of Carinthia [Salier] & his wife Mathilde of Swabia].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[371], the wife of Hezzelin was the possible daughter of Konrad Duke of Carinthia.  The primary source which suggests this parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Hezzelin & his wife had two children:  

a)         HEINRICH (-Echternach Abbey 29 Jul 1060).  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of Kloster Brauweiler by charter dated 18 Jul 1051 which names "Richeza regina quondam Poleniæ…pro remedio anime sue fratrisque sui beate memorie Ottonis ducis aliorumque parentum suorum in monasterio Brunwilarensi sepultorum…per manum Heinrici palatini comitis filii patrui sui" and witnessed by "Heinricus comes palatinus, Sicco comes, Starchri comes…"[372].  He succeeded in 1045 as HEINRICH "Furiosus" Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  "Bezecha" a nun at Köln St Ursula donated property "in pago Bonnensi in comitatu Sikkonis in villa Walathorp" to her convent by charter dated 1047, signed by "Heinrici palatini comitis, Thederici comitis, Kristiani comitis, Gerhardi comitis…"[373].  Vogt von Brauweiler.  Vogt von St Servatius, Maastricht.  "Heinricus comes Palatinus, mentis insania captus" was tonsured and obliged to enter the monastery of Gorze, but escaped and murdered his wife[374]m MATHILDE of Lotharingia, daughter of GOZELON I Duke of Lower Lotharingia & his wife --- (-murdered Burg Cochem 17 Jul 1060).  She is named "Mathildam, Gozelini ducis filiam" in the Annales Weissemburgenses, which record that she was murdered by her husband[375].  The Monumenta Epternacensia name "Mathilde Gozelonis ducis filia" as wife of "Heinricus"[376].  The necrology of Weissenburg records the death "VI Kal Aug" of "Mahthild com a Henrico marito suo occiso 1060"[377].  Pfalzgraf Heinrich & his wife had one child: 

i)          HERMANN (-20 Sep 1085).  The primary source which names him and confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 1064 as HERMANN II Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  Graf im Ruhrgau 1065/78.  The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records the death in 1085 of "Hermannus palatinus comes"[378].  [Betrothed (1077) to AGNES von Rheinfelden, daughter of RUDOLF von Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia & his second wife Adelaide de Savoie (-19 Dec 1111).  The Annales of Berthold name "Herimannus comes Palatinus, qui gener regis Roudolfi futurus erat" in 1077[379].  It is assumed that this passage indicates that Pfalzgraf Hermann was betrothed to one of the daughters of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, although no other reference to this has been found.  If it is correct, the daughter was presumably Agnes as Adelheid was already married in 1077.]  m (after [1076/83]) as her second husband, ADELHEID von Weimar heiress of Orlamünde, widow of ADALBERT [II] Graf von Ballenstedt, daughter of OTTO Graf von Weimar, Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Adela de Louvain (-28 Mar 1100).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Odam, Cunigundam, Adelheidam" as the three daughters of Markgraf Otto & his wife, specifying that Adelheid married "Adalberto comiti de Ballenstide"[380].  In a later passage, the Annalista Saxo records the death of "Adhela sive Adelheit palatina" in 1100 en route to Rome, repeating her parentage[381].  No other primary source has so far been identified which confirms her second and third marriages.  She married thirdly (1089) Heinrich von Laach Pfalzgraf von Lotharingen [Wigeriche].  Hermann & his wife had two children, although the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified: 

(a)       child (-1086). 

(b)       child (-1086). 

b)         KONRAD (-1061).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was installed as KONRAD III Duke of Carinthia in 1057.  The Annales of Berthold record the death in 1061 of "Chounradus…Carantanis ducis"[382]

3.         RICHENZA .  The primary source which names her and confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Nivelles 1040/49. 

 

 

 

C.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (LUXEMBOURG)

 

 

HERMANN I 1061-1064, HEINRICH 1085-1095, OTTO 1140

 

1.         HERMANN von Gleiberg, son of [FRIEDRICH Graf im Moselgau Vogt von Stablo [Wigeriche-Luxembourg] & his wife --- heiress of Gleiberg [Konradiner]  (-Jan 1086).  He succeeded in 1061 as HERMANN I Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  There may be confusion between this person, identified so far only in Grote[383], and Hermann II Pfalzgraf von Lothringen (see above).  If he did exist, he ceased to be Pfalzgraf in 1064 when Hermann II succeeded. 

 

 

1.         HEINRICH von Laach, son of THIERRY de Luxembourg [Wigeriche] & his wife --- (-12 Apr 1095).  He succeeded in 1085 as HEINRICH Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  Founder of Maria Laach. 

 

 

1.         OTTO von Salm, son of HERMANN [I] Graf von Salm [Luxembourg] King of Germany & his [second] wife --- (-murdered Burg Schönburg 1150 before 12 Nov).  Graf von Reineck und von Bentheim 1126.  He succeeded in 1140 as OTTO Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  He was strangled[384]

 

 

 

D.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (BALLENSTEDT)

 

 

SIEGFRIED 1095-1113, WILHELM 1128-1140

 

1.         SIEGFRIED Graf von Orlamünde, son of ADALBERT Graf von Ballenstedt [Askanier-Brandenburg] & his wife Adelheid von Weimar heiress of Orlamünde ([1075]-killed in battle 3 Sep 1113).  He succeeded as SIEGFRIED I Graf von Orlamünde.  He succeeded in 1095 as SIEGFRIED Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  Friedrich [I] Archbishop of Köln donated property to Bonn St Cassius by charter dated 1112 witnessed by "Sigefrido palatino comite, Reginboldo de Isenborch, Teoderico de Are…"[385].  The Annales Corbeienses record that "Sifridus palatinus" was killed in 1113[386]

a)         - other children: GRAFEN von ORLAMÜNDE.

b)         WILHELM (-13 Feb 1140).  A document dated Apr 1125 names "Wilhelmum palatinum Sigefridi filium"[387], which indicates that he must have claimed the Pfalzgrafschaft from Pfalzgraf Gottfried several years before 1129, the date suggested in Europäische Stammtafeln.  This is confirmed by the charter dated 15 Jul 1128, witnessed by "Palatinus comes Willelmus, Marchio Adelbertus, comes Herimannus et frater eius Cunradus…", under which Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz confirmed an exchange of property between "heredes comites Rodulfi…marchionis…prefati comitis filius Rodulfus…matre eius religiosa vidua Richarde…et fratre predicti pueri Udone iam milite facto et uxorato…" and the provost of Jechenburg[388].  He succeeded before 15 Jul 1128 as WILHELM Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  "Willehelmus comes Palatinus…" witnessed the charter dated 1132, after 13 Sep, under which Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz donated property "in pago…Weitereibia…in comitatu Sigefridi comitis de Nuringes" to Mainz cathedral[389]

 

 

 

E.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (GRAFEN von CALW)

 

 

GOTTFRIED 1113-1128

 

1.         GOTTFRIED [I] von Calw, son of ADALBERT [II] Graf von Calw & his wife Wiltrudis of Upper Lotharingia (-6 Feb 1131).  Graf von Calw.  He was installed in 1113 as GOTTFRIED Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  The Concordat of Worms dated 23 Sep 1122 is subscribed by "…Godefridus palatinus comes…"[390].  A document of Lothar King of Germany dated Aug 1125 names "…G. palatinus comes…"[391]

 

 

 

F.      PFALZGRAFEN von LOTHRINGEN (BABENBERG)

 

 

HEINRICH 1140-1141

 

1.         HEINRICH von Babenberg, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria & his second wife Agnes of Germany [Staufen] (1112-13 Jan 1177, bur Vienna Schottenkloster).  He was appointed HEINRICH Pfalzgraf von Lothringen in 1140 to replace Otto von Salm Graf von Reineck.  He resigned as Pfalzgraf in 1141 when he succeeded his brother as HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria.  

 

 



[1] MGH LL Capitularia regum Francorum II, pp. 193-5. 

[2] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 1. 23, p. 84. 

[3] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), pp. 23-5. 

[4] Werner, M. Der Herzog von Lothringen in salischer Zeit, p. 387, cited in Murray (2000), p. 24.

[5] Murray (2000), p. 25. 

[6] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[7] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), pp. 285-6. 

[8] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[9] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 814, p. 97. 

[10] Annales Xantenses 822, MGH SS II, p. 224. 

[11] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS, p. 209. 

[12] Annales Bertiniani II 855. 

[13] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[14] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 28 and 29, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[15] Annales Xantenses 821, MGH SS II, p. 224. 

[16] Annales Xantenses 851, MGH SS II, p. 229. 

[17] Annales Formoselenses 851, MGH SS V, p. 35. 

[18] Annales Bertiniani II 853. 

[19] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. 

[20] Epistola XLII, RHGF VII, p. 438. 

[21] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 846, MGH SS I, p. 364. 

[22] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 846, MGH SS I, p. 364. 

[23] Annales Mettenses, RCGF 7, p. 186. 

[24] Settipani (1993), p. 264. 

[25] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 89. 

[26] Flodoardi Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III 27, MGH SS XIII, pp. 547 and 548. 

[27] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 61, MGH Poetæ latini ævi Carolini III, p. 217. 

[28] Sedulii Scotti Carmina II 78, MGH Poetæ latini ævi Carolini III, p. 228, which reads "Terrenum sponsum cælestis nunc capit aula". 

[29] Ruodolfi Fuldensis Annales 841, MGH SS I, p. 363. 

[30] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XIV, col. 106. 

[31] MGH Diplomata, IV, 33, p. 133. 

[32] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. 

[33] Folcuini Gesta Abbatum Lobiensium 13, MGH SS IV, p. 61. 

[34] Annales Bertiniani II 855. 

[35] Settipani (1993), p. 271. 

[36] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219. 

[37] Annales Lobienses 870, MGH SS XIII, p. 232. 

[38] Annales Bertiniani III 869. 

[39] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 861, MGH SS XXIII, p. 737. 

[40] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 862, MHG SS V, p.  105. 

[41] Settipani (1993), p. 271 footnote 549. 

[42] Annales Bertiniani II 860. 

[43] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[44] Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire, XXV, p. 59. 

[45] Gesta Treverorum, 26, MGH SS II, p. 164. 

[46] Cæsarii Heisterbacensis Catalogus Archiepiscopum Coloniensium 94-1230, Fontes rerum Germanicarum II, p. 272. 

[47] Annales Novesienses, Veterum Scriptorum IV, col. 537. 

[48] Baron Ernouf (1858) Histoire de Waldrade, de Lother II et de leurs descendants (Paris), p. 5. 

[49] Annales Bertiniani III 862. 

[50] Vita Sancti Deicoli 13, MGH SS XV.2, p. 678. 

[51] Folcuini Gesta Abbatum Lobiensium 13, MGH SS IV, p. 61. 

[52] Settipani (1993), pp. 271-2. 

[53] Annales Bertiniani III 867. 

[54] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 879, MHG SS V, p. 108. 

[55] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 879, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[56] Conventu Compendiensi V, RCGF 9, p. 304. 

[57] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 394. 

[58] Reginonis Chronicon 885, MGH SS I, p. 595. 

[59] Annales Vedastini 885, MGH SS I, p. 522. 

[60] Settipani (1993), p. 273. 

[61] Reginonis Chronicon 883, MGH SS I, p. 594. 

[62] Chronico Saxonico 883, RHGF IX, p. 36. 

[63] Reginonis Chronicon 882, MGH SS I, p. 593. 

[64] Annales Fuldenses, Pars Quarta, 883, MGH SS I, p. 398. 

[65] MGH Diplomata IV, Zw 11, p. 36. 

[66] MGH Diplomata IV, Zw 16, p. 45. 

[67] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[68] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris), Tome I, 417, p. 403. 

[69] Annales Bertiniani III 880. 

[70] RHGF IX, p. 105. 

[71] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.18, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[72] Epitaphia Lunense I, MGH Poetæ latini IV, p. 1007. 

[73] Gingins-la-Sarra, F. de (1853) Les Hugonides (Lausanne), pp. 20-1. 

[74] Cluny, Tome I, 237, p. 228. 

[75] Settipani (1993), p. 265 footnote 504, citing Agnellus Liber pontificalis ecclesiæ Ravennatis c. 171, MGH SRL, p. 388 (without specifying the volume). 

[76] Chifflet, P. F. (1644) Histoire de l´abbaye royale et de la ville de Tournus (Dijon), Preuves, p. 212.  

[77] Settipani (1993), p. 265, citing Hlawitschka, E. 'Waren die Kaiser Wido und Lambert Nachkommen Karls des Grossen?', Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 49 (1969), pp. 366-86. 

[78] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. 

[79] Annales Bertiniani II 853. 

[80] Thietmar 1. 23, p. 84. 

[81] Reginonis Chronicon 902, MGH SS I, p. 610. 

[82] Reginonis Chronicon 906, MGH SS I, p. 611. 

[83] D LK 20, p. 125. 

[84] D LK 53, p. 178. 

[85] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 910, MGH SS I, p. 614. 

[86] Richer I.XXXIV, p. 70. 

[87] Thietmar 2.34, p. 117. 

[88] Liber Memorialis de Remiremont, p. 9, Hlawitschka, E. (1969) Die Anfänge des Hauses Habsburg-Lothringen, Genealogische Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Lothringens und des Reiches im 9. 10 and 11 Jahrhundert (Saarbrücken), p. 57, suggesting the estimated date. 

[89] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.33, MGH SS III, p. 447. 

[90] Thietmar 2.34, p. 117. 

[91] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 152. 

[92] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.26, MGH SS III, p. 445. 

[93] Calmet, A. (1748) Histoire de Lorraine (Nancy), Tome II, Preuves, col. clxxxviii. 

[94] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 943, MGH SS I, p. 619. 

[95] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.33, MGH SS III, p. 447. 

[96] Thietmar 2.10, p. 98. 

[97] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.33, MGH SS III, p. 447. 

[98] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430. 

[99] Annales Hildesheimenses 965, MGH SS III, p.60. 

[100] Thietmar 2.23, p. 108. 

[101] McKitterick (1983), p. 325, and Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Nancy), p. 10. 

[102] Murray (2000), p. 22. 

[103] D O I 210, p. 289. 

[104] Poull (1994), p. 8. 

[105] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch I”), 179, p. 241, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[106] Poull (1994), pp. 11 and 12. 

[107] Poull (1994), p. 10. 

[108] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. ccxx. 

[109] Thietmar 3.8, p. 133. 

[110] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[111] Flodoard 954, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[112] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 2, MGH SS X, p. 492. 

[113] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 958, MGH SS XXIII, p. 767. 

[114] MGH Diplomata II, D O II 308, p. 365. 

[115] MGH Diplomata II, D O III 2, p. 395. 

[116] Poull (1994), pp. 14-15. 

[117] Poull (1994), p. 15. 

[118] Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium, continuatio 5, MGH SS IV, p. 47. 

[119] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 958, MGH SS XXIII, p. 767. 

[120] Poull (1994), p. 15. 

[121] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 984, MGH SS XXIII, p. 772, the same paragraph recording the appointment of "alter Adalbero filius comitis Godefridi" as Bishop of Verdun, making it clear that the two were different persons, disproving the assertion in Poull (1994), p. 15. 

[122] Poull (1994), p. 18. 

[123] Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi 9, MGH SS IV, p. 82. 

[124] Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi 9, MGH SS IV, p. 82. 

[125] Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium, continuatio 5, MGH SS IV, p. 47. 

[126] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 958, MGH SS XXIII, p. 767. 

[127] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 2, MGH SS X, p. 492. 

[128] Poull (1994), p. 14. 

[129] Thietmar, Book VI, chapter 52, p. 274. 

[130] MGH Diplomata III, D H II 427, p. 542. 

[131] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 267. 

[132] Poull (1994), p. 20. 

[133] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cccxlviii, and Lesort, A. (1909) Chronique et chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Mihiel, Mettensia 27 (Paris), no. 39, p. 153, quoted in Poull (1994), p. 20, and no. 43 and 44, pp. 166-71, cited in Poull (1994), p. 76. 

[134] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 2, MGH SS X, p. 492. 

[135] Poull (1994), p. 18. 

[136] Poull (1994), pp. 21-2. 

[137] Bloch, H. (ed.) ´Die älteren Urkunden des Klosters S. Vanne zu Verdun´, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 14th year, 1901 (“Verdun Saint-Vanne (1902)”), p. 140. 

[138] Thietmar 5.12, p. 213. 

[139] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLXI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 435. 

[140] Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi 32, MGH SS IV, p. 84. 

[141] Annalista Saxo, 1026. 

[142] Poull (1994), p. 23. 

[143] Fragmenta Libri Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 212. 

[144] Viellard, L. (1884) Documents et mémoire pour server à l´histoire du territoire de Belfort (Besançon), 47, p. 93. 

[145] Poull (1994), p. 23. 

[146] Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi 32, MGH SS IV, p. 84. 

[147] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 2, MGH SS X, p. 492. 

[148] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1032, MGH SS XXIII, p. 784. 

[149] Poull (1994), p. 32. 

[150] Poull (1994), pp. 30-1. 

[151] Poull (1994), p. 69. 

[152] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cccxlviii, and Lesort, A. (1909) Chronique et chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Mihiel, Mettensia 27 (Paris), no. 39, p. 153, quoted in Poull (1994), p. 20, and no. 43 and 44, pp. 166-71, cited in Poull (1994), p. 76. 

[153] Mavot, P. 'L'obituaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Mansuy-lès-Toul', Revue Mabillon XVIII 1928, p. 98. 

[154] Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi 32, MGH SS IV, p. 84. 

[155] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 2, MGH SS X, p. 492. 

[156] Poull (1994), pp. 23 and 32. 

[157] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLXI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 435. 

[158] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1052, MGH SS XXIII, p. 790. 

[159] Poull (1994), p. 43. 

[160] Notæ de Beatrice ducissa Tusciæ et Gisla 1076, MGH SS XXX.2, p. 1443. 

[161] Bernardi Marangonis Annales Pisani, MGH SS XIX, p. 239. 

[162] Viellard (1884), 47, p. 93. 

[163] Viellard (1884), 47, p. 93. 

[164] Necrology Verdun Saint-Vanne (1902), p. 138. 

[165] Chronicon Sancti Huberti Andaginensis 19 (27), MHG SS VIII, p. 578. 

[166] Gesta Treverorum 16, 1122, MGH SS VIII, p. 189.  The date "1032" is included in the footnote by the editor. 

[167] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 338 and 339, pp. 393-94. 

[168] Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Bosonis-Villæ I, MGH SS XV.2, p. 978. 

[169] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 2, MGH SS X, p. 492. 

[170] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Parlons encore d'Etiennette', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Oxford), pp. 2-6. 

[171] Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Bosonis-Villæ I, MGH SS XV.2, p. 978. 

[172] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 325, the author attributing this event to 977 which must be incorrect assuming Comte Reginar died in 973. 

[173] D O I 194, p. 275.   

[174] D O I 195, p. 275.   

[175] D O I 291, p. 408. 

[176] Veterum Scriptorum II, pp. 46-7. 

[177] Vanderkindere, A. (1902) La formation territoriale des principautés belges au moyen-âge (Brussels), Tome II, p. 21. 

[178] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch I, 219, p. 277. 

[179] Continuator Reginonis 964, MGH SS I, p. 627. 

[180] Ruotgeri Vita Brunonis 41, MGH SS IV, pp. 270-1. 

[181] Flodoard 953, MGH SS III, p. 402. 

[182] Flodoard (Continuator) 975, MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[183] McKitterick (1983), p. 325.  See also Werner. K. F. 'Du nouveau sur un vieux thème:  Les origines de la "noblesse" et de la "chevalerie"', Comptes rendus de l'Académie des inscriptions et des belles-lettres (1985), p. 55, quoted in Settipani (1993), p. 337 footnote 337. 

[184] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium, MGH SS VII, p. 443. 

[185] Thietmar, p. 133, footnote 25, and McKitterick (1983), p. 325.  . 

[186] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[187] Settipani (1993), p. 337. 

[188] MGH Diplomata II, D O III 81, p. 489. 

[189] Marchandisse, A. (ed.) (1991) L'obituaire de la cathédrale Saint-Lambert de Liège (Brussels), p. 86. 

[190] Sigeberti Auctarium Affligemense 991, MGH SS VI, p. 353. 

[191] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 368. 

[192] Settipani (1993), pp. 337-39 footnote 1010. 

[193] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 367. 

[194] Chronico Richardi Pictavensis, RCGF 9, p. 22. 

[195] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[196] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) (1969) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Clarendon Press), I, p. 160. 

[197] Richeri Historiæ IV 11, MGH SS III, p. 633. 

[198] Lot, F. (1891) Les derniers Carolingiens, Lothaire, Louis V, Charles de Lorraine (954-991) (Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Ecole pratique des hautes études fasc. 87), p. 209 n. 2, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 337 footnote 1010. 

[199] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium III.7, MGH SS 7, p. 468.  Although the passage is undated, the dates "1013 vel 1014" are noted in the margin by the editor. 

[200] Sigeberti Auctarium Affligemense 991, MGH SS VI, p. 353. 

[201] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia 1005, MGH SS X, p. 381. 

[202] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia 1005, MGH SS X, p. 382, footnote d on the preceding page specifying that it was destroyed in a fire. 

[203] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1005, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[204] Sigeberti Auctarium Affligemense 1005, MGH SS VI, p. 354. 

[205] L'obituaire de la cathédrale de Saint-Lambert de Liège, p. 78. 

[206] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia 1005, MGH SS X, pp. 381 and 382. 

[207] Genealogica comitum Buloniensium MGH SS IX, p. 300. 

[208] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia 1005, MGH SS X, p. 382. 

[209] Fundatio Ecclesiæ S. Albani Namucensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 962. 

[210] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[211] Rousseau, F. (ed.) (1936) Actes des Comtes de Namur de la Première Race 946-1196 (Brussels) ("Namur"), p. xlvi. 

[212] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium III 5, MGH SS VII, p. 468. 

[213] Genealogica comitum Buloniensium MGH SS IX, pp. 300-1. 

[214] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia 1015, MGH SS X, p. 382. 

[215] Iacobi de Guisia Annales Hanoniæ XIV.XL, MGH SS XXX Part 1, p. 184. 

[216] Gesta Abbatum Gemblacensium 32, MGH SS VIII, p. 537. 

[217] Sigeberti Chronica 973, MGH SS VI, p. 352. 

[218] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[219] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[220] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 368. 

[221] Richeri Historiæ IV 49, MGH SS III, p. 642. 

[222] Hugonis Floriacensis, Historia Francorum Senonensis, MGH SS IX, p. 368. 

[223] Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium, continuatio 9, MGH SS IV, p. 48. 

[224] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[225] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1005, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[226] MGH Diplomata III, D H II 427, p. 542. 

[227] Vanderkindere II, p. 123, citing "Heda, edit. 1643, 100; cf. S. Muller, 81". 

[228] Annales Blandinienses 1023, MGH SS V, p. 26. 

[229] L'obituaire de la cathédrale de Saint-Lambert de Liège, p. 78. 

[230] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[231] D H II 186, p. 221. 

[232] Vanderkindere II, p. 123, citing "Heda, edit. 1643, 100; cf. S. Muller, 81". 

[233] Mommsen, T. E. and Morrison, K. F. (trans.) (1962) Imperial Lives and Letters of the Eleventh Century (New York), "Wipo, On the election and consecration of Conrad II (1024)", from "The Deeds of Conrad II (Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris)", reproduced in Hill, pp. 192-201.  . 

[234] Bloch, H. (ed.) ´Die älteren Urkunden des Klosters S. Vanne zu Verdun´, Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft für lothringische Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 10th year, 1898 (“Verdun Saint-Vanne (1898)”), XXXVII, p. 443. 

[235] Bernoldi Chronicon 1044, MGH SS V, p. 425. 

[236] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[237] D H III 152, p. 192. 

[238] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1044, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[239] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[240] Annales Weissemburgenses 1058, MGH SS III, pp. 70-1. 

[241] Monumenta Epternacensia 33, MGH SS XXIII, p. 26. 

[242] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Weissenburgense, p. 312. 

[243] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1044, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[244] Poull (1999), p. 31. 

[245] Annales Altahenses 1046, MGH SS XX, p.802 . 

[246] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 4, MGH SS X, p. 493. 

[247] Chronicon Hugonis, monachi Virdunensis et divionensis abbatis Flaviniacensis II.16 1051, MGH SS VIII, p. 408. 

[248] Huberto, Vita Sanctæ Gudilæ, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1203. 

[249] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[250] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, XLVII, p. 57. 

[251] Fundatio ecclesiæ Sancti Albani Namurcensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 962. 

[252] Gisleberti Chronicon Hanoniense, MGH SS XXI, p. 492. 

[253] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[254] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1044, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[255] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 5, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[256] Verdun Saint-Vanne (1898), XXXVII, p. 443. 

[257] Poull (1994), pp. 31-2. 

[258] Murray (2000), p. 13. 

[259] Poull (1994), p. 39. 

[260] Poull (1994), p. 40. 

[261] Verdun Saint-Vanne (1902), LIV, p. 77. 

[262] Poull (1994), p. 42. 

[263] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1070, MGH SS XXIII, p. 797. 

[264] L'obituaire de la cathédrale de Saint-Lambert de Liège, p. 172. 

[265] Ex Vita B. Idæ Boloniensis Comitissæ, RHGF XIV, p. 113. 

[266] MGH Diplomata V, D H III 53, p. 68. 

[267] Murray (2000), p. 174. 

[268] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1052, MGH SS XXIII, p. 790. 

[269] Poull (1994), p. 43. 

[270] Notæ de Beatrice ducissa Tusciæ et Gisla 1076, MGH SS XXX.2, p. 1443. 

[271] Bernardi Marangonis Annales Pisani, MGH SS XIX, p. 239. 

[272] Li Estoire de Jerusalem et d'Antioche XII, p. 631 footnote j. 

[273] Verdun Saint-Vanne (1902), LIV, p. 77. 

[274] Murray (2000), p. 173, citing Saige, G., Lacaille, H. and Labande, L. H. (1902-16) Trésor des chartes du comté de Rethel, 5 vols. (Monaco), Vol. 1, no.1. 

[275] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium V.5, MGH SS VIII, p. 29.  

[276] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1070, MGH SS XXIII, p. 797. 

[277] Poull (1994), p. 46. 

[278] Lamberti Annales 1076, MGH SS V, p. 243. 

[279] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1076, MGH SS XXIII, p. 798. 

[280] L'obituaire de la cathédrale de Saint-Lambert de Liège, p. 28. 

[281] Necrology Verdun Saint-Vanne, p. 137. 

[282] When Matilda is known to have been in Verdun after returning to Lotharingia with her parents in early 1069. 

[283] Annalista Saxo 1076. 

[284] Poull (1994), p. 45. 

[285] Chronicon Sancti Huberti Andaginensis, MGH, SS, t. VIII, pp. 580-3, cited in Poull (1994), p. 46. 

[286] Poull (1994), p. 46. 

[287] Poull (1994), p. 48. 

[288] Poull (1994), p. 54. 

[289] Poull (1994), p. 55. 

[290] Genealogia Welforum, MGH, SS, t. XIII, p. 734. 

[291] Bernoldi Chronicon 1089, MGH SS V, p. 449. 

[292] Poull (1994), p. 57. 

[293] Runciman, S. (1952) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 1, p. 101. 

[294] Poull (1994), p. 57. 

[295] Poull (1994), p. 59. 

[296] Poull (1994), p. 60. 

[297] Matilde e I Canossa, verses 1250-1259, cited in Poull (1994), p. 61. 

[298] Poull (1994), p. 61. 

[299] Annales Cremonenses 1115, MGH SS XXXI, p. 3. 

[300] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica 1115, MGH SS XXXI, p. 162. 

[301] Memorie della gran Contessa Matilda, restituita alla patria lucchese da Francesco Maria Fiorentini. Seconda edizione da Gian Domenico Mansi (Lucca, 1756), pp. 86-89, cited in Poull (1994), p. 74. 

[302] Poull (1994), p. 74. 

[303] Poull (1994), p. 31. 

[304] Birth date range estimated from the likely birth of her second son in [1060]. 

[305] Annalista Saxo 1076. 

[306] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 175. 

[307] Ex Vita B. Idæ Boloniensis Comitissæ, RHGF XIV, p. 113. 

[308] Saint-Bertin II.16, p. 227. 

[309] Lamberti Audomariensis Chronica 1113, Catalogus Regum Langobardorum et Imperatorum, MGH SS V, p. 65. 

[310] Historia Hirsaugiensis Monasterii, MGH SS XIV, p. 265. 

[311] Bernoldi Chronicon 1093, MGH SS V, p. 457.  

[312] Murray (2000), p. 20. 

[313] Saint-Bertin II.16, p. 227. 

[314] WT I. XVII, p. 45, III.XXIII, p. 146, and IX.V, p. 370. 

[315] Murray (2000), p. 20. 

[316] Arnold, B. (2003) Princes and territories in medieval Germany (Cambridge U.P.), pp. 125-8. 

[317] D´Herbomez, A. (ed.) (1898) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Gorze, Mettensia II (Paris) ("Gorze"), 92, p. 169. 

[318] Gorze 96, p. 177. 

[319] Calmet (1748), Tome II, Preuves, col. cc. 

[320] Gorze 103, p. 189. 

[321] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 213, p. 272. 

[322] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 245, p. 301. 

[323] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 251, p. 307. 

[324] MGH Diplomata II, D O III 81, p. 489. 

[325] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1860) Archiv für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band III (Düsseldorf), Memorienbuch des Canonichenstifts St Gereonis zu Cöln ("Köln St Gereon Memorienbuch"), p. 116. 

[326] Köln St Gereon Memorienbuch, p. 117. 

[327] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 23, MGH SS XI, p. 407. 

[328] Köln St Gereon Memorienbuch, p. 117. 

[329] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 1 and 23, MGH SS XI, pp. 396 and 407. 

[330] MGH Diplomata III, D H II 427, p. 542. 

[331] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 164, p. 102. 

[332] MGH Diplomata V, D H III 272, p. 362. 

[333] Annales Hildesheimenses 1034, MGH SS III, p. 99. 

[334] Annales Brunwilarenses 1034, MGH SS I, p. 99. 

[335] Wolfherii Vita Godehardi Episcopi Hildenesheimensis, Vita Prior 29, MGH SS XI, p. 188. 

[336] Thietmar 4.60, p. 194, footnote 165 referring to "a later source from Brauweiler" asserting that Ezzo won the right to marry Mathilde by beating King Otto III at dice or chess. 

[337] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 164, p. 102. 

[338] Annales Brunwilarenses 1034, MGH SS I, p. 99. 

[339] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 16, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 403. 

[340] MGH Diplomata V, D H III 273, p. 370. 

[341] Dzięcioł, Witold (1963) The Origins of Poland (Veritas, London), p. 200. 

[342] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[343] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[344] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[345] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 6, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[346] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[347] Annalista Saxo 1036. 

[348] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 17, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 404. 

[349] MGH Diplomata IV, D K II 199, p. 264. 

[350] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[351] MGH Diplomata V, D H III 273, p. 370. 

[352] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 267. 

[353] ES I.2 200B. 

[354] Annalista Saxo 1082. 

[355] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5, MGH SS XI, p. 398. 

[356] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1036, MHG SS V, p. 122. 

[357] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 179, p. 111. 

[358] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 399. 

[359] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 399. 

[360] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 399. 

[361] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 399. 

[362] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 399. 

[363] Wolfherii Vita Godehardi Episcopi Hildenesheimensis, Vita Prior 29, MGH SS XI, p. 188. 

[364] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 6, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 399. 

[365] Wolfherii Vita Godehardi Episcopi Hildenesheimensis, Vita Prior 29, MGH SS XI, p. 188. 

[366] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 23 (interpolation), MGH SS XI, p. 407. 

[367] MGH Diplomata III, D H II 366, p. 468. 

[368] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 164, p. 102. 

[369] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 169, p. 105. 

[370] MGH Diplomata V, D H III 272, p. 362. 

[371] ES I.2 201.  She is not shown in ES I.1 12. 

[372] MGH Diplomata V, D H III 273, p. 370. 

[373] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 182, p. 113. 

[374] Annales Weissemburgenses 1058, MGH SS III, p. 71. 

[375] Annales Weissemburgenses 1058, MGH SS III, pp. 70-1. 

[376] Monumenta Epternacensia 33, MGH SS XXIII, p. 26. 

[377] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Weissenburgense, p. 312. 

[378] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, Continuatio I, 1085, MGH SS V, p. 562. 

[379] Bertholdi Annales 1077, MGH SS V, p. 294. 

[380] Annalista Saxo 1062. 

[381] Annalista Saxo 1100. 

[382] Bertholdi Annales 1061, MGH SS V, p. 271. 

[383] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 51. 

[384] ES I.2 182. 

[385] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 275, p. 178. 

[386] Annales Corbeienses, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 42. 

[387] Conventus Leodiensis, MGH LL 2, p. 77. 

[388] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) ("Mainz Urkunden 12th Century"), 14, p. 16. 

[389] Menzel, K. & Sauer, W. (eds.) (1885) Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1 (Wiesbaden), 188, p. 128. 

[390] Concordatum Wormatiense, MGH LL 2, p. 76. 

[391] Lotharii Imp. Conventus Moguntinus, MGH LL 2, p. 79.