modena, FERRARA

  v3.1 Updated 15 October 2014

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            MARCHESI d'ESTE. 2

Chapter 2.            MARCHESI d'ESTE, SIGNORI di FERRARA. 10

Chapter 3.             SIGNORI di FERRARA, SIGNORI di MODENA, SIGNORI di REGGIO. 19

Chapter 4.            DUKES of FERRARA, MODENA and REGGIO. 33

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Este family, having owned land throughout north and central Italy from the 10th century, established their main residence at Este in the Padovano in the second half of the 12th century.  The family took over the interests of the Adelardi in Ferrara on their extinction.  They acquired Modena and Reggio in Emilia.  By 1500, the family´s lands in Este itself had been surrendered to Venice[1]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    MARCHESI d'ESTE

 

 

ALBERTO AZZO [II], son of ALBERTO Azzo [I] Conte di Luni & his wife --- ([996]-Vangadizza monastery 1097, after 13 Apr).  "Oldericus Maginfredus marchio f. quondam…Maginfredi marchionis et Berta comitissa jugales filia q. Obberti marchionis" sold property "in comitatu Parmensi, Placensiensi, Ticinensi, Tortonensi, Vercellensi, Aquensi, Astensi, Eporediensi, Torinensi, Oradiensi, Albensi, Avigenensi, Aberganensi, Vigintimiliensi" to "Sigifredo presbitero filio q. Adelgisi", with "notitia propinquorum parentum suorum, id est Adalberti marchionis germani sui et Alberti infantis nepotis sui", by charter dated 6 Jun 1021[2].  He succeeded his father as Conte di LuniMarchese.  The Annalista Saxo calls him "Azoni marchioni de Langobardia de castris Calun et Estin"[3].  "Albertus qui Azo marchio vocatur…professus…lege Langobardorum" donated property "in comitatu Patavensis" to the monastery of Santa Maria in Vangadizza "in comitato Vicentino adque in comitato Patavino" to "Gaxdia puella…filia et germana nostra" by charter dated 26 Sep 1075[4].  A charter dated 31 May 1079 records an agreement between the church of Verona and "marchionem Azonem et Ugonem et Fulconem germanos filios eiusdem marchionis Azonis"[5].  The Genealogia Welforum calls him "marchio Etius cum curte Elisina"[6].  "Fulco filius Alberti marchionis qui Azo marchio" swore allegiance to "Ugo germano meo" by charter dated 6 Apr 1095, the text of which refers to their father as still living[7].  "Albertus marchio qui Azo marchio…[et] filius…Ugo" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria in Vangadizza by charter dated 13 Apr 1097[8].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death in 1097 of "Azzo marchio de Longobardia, pater Welfonis ducis de Baiowaria" commenting that he was "iam maior centenario"[9]

m firstly ([1035]) KUNIGUNDE von Altdorf, daughter of WELF [II] Graf von Altdorf & his wife Irmtrud im Moselgau [Wigeriche] ([1020]-31 Mar before 1055, bur Vangadizza monastery).  The Genealogia Welforum names "Cunizam" as daughter of Welf and his wife Imiza, specifying that she married "marchio Etius cum curte Elisina"[10].  The Annalista Saxo names "Cunizam" daughter of Welf, and her husband "Azoni marchioni de Langobardia de castris Calun et Estin"[11]

m secondly ([1049/51]) as her second husband, GERSENDE du Maine, repudiated wife of THIBAUT [III] Comte de Blois, daughter of HERIBERT [I] "Euigilans Canis/Eveille-chien" Comte du Maine & his wife ---([1025/35]-).  The Actus pontificum Cenomannis records that "Atho marchisius" left Maine in the hands of "Gaufridi de Meduana", also naming "uxor eiusdem marchisii Garcendis…filia Herberti Cenomannorum…comitis…Evigila Canem" and specifying that she had married firstly "Theobaldo duci Campanie" and that he had repudiated her[12].  Orderic Vitalis records that "Hugo filius Herberti" and his wife “Bertam ipsius relictam, Tedbaldi Blesensium comitis sororem” had “filium...Herbertum et tres filias”, of whom one married “Azsoni marchiso Liguriæ” (which would be difficult to sustain chronologically and confuses the children of Hugues [IV] Comte du Maine with his sisters)[13]

Mistress (1)MATILDA, sister of GUGLIELMO Vescovo, from Padua and Vedova. 

Alberto Azzo [II] & his first wife had one child:

1.         WELF [IV] ([1030/40]-Paphos Cyprus 9 Nov 1101, bur Cyprus, removed to Weingarten, near Lake Constance).  The Annalista Saxo names "Welfum seniorum" son of "Azoni marchioni de Langobardia de castris Calun et Estin" & his wife "Cunizam"[14].  He was installed in 1070 as WELF [I] Duke of Bavaria by Heinrich [IV] King of Germany. 

-        DUKES of BAVARIA

Alberto Azzo [II] & his second wife had two children:

2.         UGO d'Este (-1131).  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, as noted below, who says that he was younger than his brother Folco, although the charters quoted below suggest that the reverse was the case.  He succeeded in 1070 as HUGUES [V] Comte du Maine.  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed "nostri dilecti cancellarii Ugoni et Fulconi germanis Azonis marchionis filiis" in all their possessions "in comitatu Gauolli, Rodigum, Cederniano, Sarzano, Maretiniago…in comitatu [Pata]uiensi Este" by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1077[15].  A charter dated 31 May 1079 records an agreement between the church of Verona and "marchionem Azonem et Ugonem et Fulconem germanos filios eiusdem marchionis Azonis"[16].  He and his brother made no attempt to claim the inheritance in Maine but in 1090 were contacted in Italy by the men of Maine who had rebelled against the Normans: Orderic Vitalis records the rebellion in 1090 of “Cenomanni contra Normannos” and their sending a deputation to “filiis Azsonis marchisi Liguriæ” inviting him to come to Maine as their leader, adding that it was agreed between “filiis Azsonis” that “Fulco...major natu” should retain “patris honorem in Italia” while “Hugo...frater eius” should claim “Cenomannensem principatum ex matris hereditate[17]Hugues arrived in Maine and was helped by Geoffrey de Mayenne to recover his maternal inheritance.  According to Orderic Vitalis, when "the men of Maine discovered that their new count had neither riches nor judgment and courage to commend him, the hotheads began to regret their action"[18].  He betrayed Matilda Ctss of Tuscany (married to his half-brother's son) in early 1091, frustrating her plan to capture Emperor Heinrich [IV] during the latter's journey to Italy[19]Orderic Vitalis records that “Helias consobrinus eius” suggested to Hugues that he returned “in patriam tuam” and sold him the county, which he did for “x milia solidorum”, dated to [1090][20]"Fulco filius Alberti marchionis qui Azo marchio" swore allegiance to "Ugo germano meo" by charter dated 6 Apr 1095, the text of which refers to their father as still living[21].  "Albertus marchio qui Azo marchio…[et] filius…Ugo" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria in Vangadizza by charter dated 13 Apr 1097[22]m (1078, repudiated) [ERIA] of Apulia, daughter of ROBERT "Guiscard/Weasel" Duke of Apulia & his second wife Sichelgaita di Salerno.  Orderic Vitalis records that “Hugo” had married “filiam Roberti Wiscardi” but had repudiated her, for which Pope Urban II had excommunicated him[23]Her father's insistance that his principal vassals meet the cost of her wedding caused considerable resentment, triggering the revolt against Robert Guiscard in autumn 1078.  Amatus records the marriage of Duke Robert's (unnamed) daughter, endowed "with a very fine dowry", and the (unnamed) son of Marquis Azzo[24].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Ugo [& his wife] had [three or more] children: 

a)         [AZZO (-after 15 Jul 1142).  "Azo marchio filius Hugonis marchionis" donated property to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri by charter dated 26 Jun 1122, witnessed by "Fulcho marchio, Azo filio eius, Robertus marchio…"[25].  "Azo, et Fulco marchiones" donated property to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri by charter dated 4 Dec 1139[26].  The testament of "Azo marchio", dated 15 Jul 1142, bequeathed property to "uxor mea Aichiva…fratres meis"[27]m AICHIVA, daughter of --- (-after 15 Jul 1142).  The testament of "Azo marchio", dated 15 Jul 1142, bequeathed property to "uxor mea Aichiva…fratres meis"[28].  Azzo & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [daughter .  The testament of "Tancredus marchio, Longobardorum lege vivens", dated 27 Feb 1145, bequeathed property to "Manfredum filium meum…Gota uxor mea…propinqui mei Fulconis filii…consanguineæ…meæ Azonis filiæ"[29].  The daughter of Azzo in this document has not been identified.  However, it is possible that she was the testator´s niece, the daughter of his brother, although the latter mentioned no children in his testament dated 15 Jul 1142.] 

b)         [sons .  Azzo had more than one brother, as recorded in the testament of "Azo marchio", dated 15 Jul 1142, which bequeathed property to "uxor mea Aichiva…fratres meis"[30].] 

c)         [TANCREDO (-after 27 Feb 1145).  The testament of "Tancredus marchio, Longobardorum lege vivens", dated 27 Feb 1145, bequeathed property to "Manfredum filium meum…Gota uxor mea…propinqui mei Fulconis filii…consanguineæ…meæ Azonis filiæ"[31].  Tancredo´s parentage is not known.  However, his name suggests a close relationship with the family of the dukes of Apulia, so it is possible that he was a younger son of Ugo and his wife.]  m GOTA, daughter of --- (-after 8 Jul 1164).  The testament of "Manfredinus marchio", dated 8 Jul 1164, bequeathed property to "uxori suæ Villæ…filiam suam Agnetem et filium vel filiam quæ in utero suæ uxoris est…matri suæ Gottæ"[32].  Tancredo & his wife had one child: 

i)          MANFREDO (-after 8 Jul 1164).  The testament of "Tancredus marchio, Longobardorum lege vivens", dated 27 Feb 1145, bequeathed property to "Manfredum filium meum…Gota uxor mea…propinqui mei Fulconis filii…consanguineæ…meæ Azonis filiæ"[33].  The testament of "Manfredinus marchio", dated 8 Jul 1164, bequeathed property to "uxori suæ Villæ…filiam suam Agnetem et filium vel filiam quæ in utero suæ uxoris est…matri suæ Gottæ" and appointed "Albertus de Urbana eius socer" as guardian of his children[34]m GUILLA, daughter of ALBERTO da Urbana & his wife ---.  The testament of "Manfredinus marchio", dated 8 Jul 1164, bequeathed property to "uxori suæ Villæ…filiam suam Agnetem et filium vel filiam quæ in utero suæ uxoris est…matri suæ Gottæ" and appointed "Albertus de Urbana eius socer" as guardian of his children[35].  Manfredo & his wife had [two] children: 

(a)       AGNESE .  The testament of "Manfredinus marchio", dated 8 Jul 1164, bequeathed property to "uxori suæ Villæ…filiam suam Agnetem et filium vel filiam quæ in utero suæ uxoris est…matri suæ Gottæ"[36]

(b)       [child ([Jul/Dec] 1164-).  The testament of "Manfredinus marchio", dated 8 Jul 1164, bequeathed property to "uxori suæ Villæ…filiam suam Agnetem et filium vel filiam quæ in utero suæ uxoris est…matri suæ Gottæ"[37].] 

3.         FOLCO [I] d'Este (-15 Dec 1128).  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who says that he was younger than his brother Ugo (see above), although the charters quoted below suggest that the reverse was the case.  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed "nostri dilecti cancellarii Ugoni et Fulconi germanis Azonis marchionis filiis" in all their possessions "in comitatu Gauolli, Rodigum, Cederniano, Sarzano, Maretiniago…in comitatu [Pata]uiensi Este" by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1077[38].  At Ferrara, Monselice and Montagnana.  After his father's death in 1097, the succession of Folco and his brother Ugo in Italy was disputed by their older half-brother Welf [I] Duke of Bavaria who undertook an expedition to Italy to assert his position[39]

-        see below

Alberto Azzo [II] had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

4.          ADELASIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m GUGLIELMO [I] Adelardi, son of ---.  1070/1140.

 

 

FOLCO [I] d'Este, son of son of ALBERTO AZZO II Conte di Luni [Este] & his second wife Gersende du Maine (-15 Dec 1128).  His parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who says that he was younger than his brother Ugo (see above), although the charters quoted below suggest that the reverse was the case.  "Heinricus…rex" confirmed "nostri dilecti cancellarii Ugoni et Fulconi germanis Azonis marchionis filiis" in all their possessions "in comitatu Gauolli, Rodigum, Cederniano, Sarzano, Maretiniago…in comitatu [Pata]uiensi Este" by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1077[40].  A charter dated 31 May 1079 records an agreement between the church of Verona and "marchionem Azonem et Ugonem et Fulconem germanos filios eiusdem marchionis Azonis"[41].  "Fulco filius Alberti marchionis qui Azo marchio" swore allegiance to "Ugo germano meo" by charter dated 6 Apr 1095, the text of which refers to their father as still living[42].  At Ferrara, Monselice and Montagnana.  After his father's death in 1097, the succession of Folco and his brother Ugo in Italy was disputed by their older half-brother Welf [I] Duke of Bavaria who undertook an expedition to Italy to assert his position[43].  "Fulco marchio filius quondam Azonis marchionis habitator in castro…Montagnana" donated property to the monastery of S. Salvatore near Maratica by charter dated 31 Jul 1100[44].  "Domnus Fulco marchio" judged a dispute in favour of the monks of S. Zacheria by charter dated 31 May 1115[45].  "Fulco marchio filius cuiusdam Azonis" donated property to the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone, for the soul of "Azonis marchionis genitoris mei", by charter dated 10 Jun 1115, which names "Garsenda comitissa genitrice mea et Ugo germano meo"[46].  The Annales Veronenses record the death "XVIII Kal Jan" in 1128 of "Fulco marchio"[47]

m ---.  The name of Folco's wife is not known.  She may have been related to Beatrice: the testament of "Domina Beatrix", dated 13 Mar 1165, bequeathed property to "Donella filia mea, neptem meam Beatricem…neptem meam Mariam, Fulcolinum…et Ubertinum nepotes meos", referring to "filia mea defuncta", and to "Fulconi, Alberto et Opizoni marchionibus"[48]

Folco & his wife had six children: 

1.         AZZO [IV] d'Este .  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis names "quinque germani…Azzo, Bonifacius, Obizo, Fulcho et Albertus" when recording that the nobles of Ferrara invited "aliquem ex marchionibus Estensibus…Obizoni" to rule Ferrara[49].  1154.

2.         BONIFAZIO [I] d'Este (-1163, before 27 Sep).  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis names "quinque germani…Azzo, Bonifacius, Obizo, Fulcho et Albertus" when recording that the nobles of Ferrara invited "aliquem ex marchionibus Estensibus…Obizoni" to rule Ferrara[50].  "Bonifacius marchio habitator in Montefelice" donated property to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri by charter dated 12 Apr 1140[51].  He and his brother Folco reached a settlement with their cousin Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony near Verona in Oct 1154 regarding the disputed inheritance of the Este lands in Italy, under which all the brothers recognised the duke's right to Este and neighbouring places but were enfeoffed by him with all these places for themselves and their descendants in the male and female line: a charter dated 27 Oct 1154 records an agreement between "Henricus filius Henrici ducis Saxonum" and "Bonifacium et Fulconem marchiones pro se et fratribus suis Alberto…et Opizone" relating to "Este et Solesino, Arquada atque Merendola"[52].  Duke Welf VI concluded a similar agreement with the brothers in 1160: a charter dated 6 Jan 1160 records an agreement between "Welfus dux Spoleti" and "Obizonem et Albertum marchiones pro se et fratre suo Fulcone qui non aderat" relating to "Este et Arquada et Solesino atque Merendola"[53].  The absence of any mention of Bonifazio suggests that he may have been in some way incapacitated at the time and no longer participating fully in the government of Este.  "Fulco et Albertus et Bonefacius marchiones" donated fishing rights to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri by charter dated 1161[54].  "Obizo et Bonifacius marchiones Estenses, Vezolus de Camino, Yzelinus de Honara…" signed the charter dated 7 Feb 1164 under which "Bonifacius comes Veronensis filius olim comitis Malregolati" swore allegiance to Emperor Friedrich I[55]m ---.  The name of Bonifazio's wife is not known.  Bonifazio & his wife had two children: 

a)         MARIA d´Este .  "Comitissa Maria filia quondam Bonifacii marchionis" donated property, held "indivisa Aluica sorore sua", to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri, with the consent of "Henrici comitis jugalis", by charter dated 27 Sep 1163[56]m HENRICO Conte, son of ---. 

b)         ALUISA d´Este .  "Comitissa Maria filia quondam Bonifacii marchionis" donated property, held "indivisa Aluica sorore sua", to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri, with the consent of "Henrici comitis jugalis", by charter dated 27 Sep 1163[57]

3.         FOLCO [II] d'Este (-before 1172).  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis names "quinque germani…Azzo, Bonifacius, Obizo, Fulcho et Albertus" when recording that the nobles of Ferrara invited "aliquem ex marchionibus Estensibus…Obizoni" to rule Ferrara[58].  Marchese.  A charter dated 27 Oct 1154 records an agreement between "Henricus filius Henrici ducis Saxonum" and "Bonifacium et Fulconem marchiones pro se et fratribus suis Alberto…et Opizone" relating to "Este et Solesino, Arquada atque Merendola"[59].  A charter dated 6 Jan 1160 records an agreement between "Welfus dux Spoleti" and "Obizonem et Albertum marchiones pro se et fratre suo Fulcone qui non aderat" relating to "Este et Arquada et Solesino atque Merendola"[60].  "Fulco et Albertus et Bonefacius marchiones" donated fishing rights to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri by charter dated 1161[61]Marchese d'Este.  A charter dated 1171 records the settlement of a dispute between the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone and "marchiones de Este…Fulconem, Albertum, Opizonem"[62].  A charter dated 28 Jan 1173 records an agreement between the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone and "dominos marchiones de Adeste…Fulconem et Albertum, atque Opizonem fratres, filios quondam marchionis Fulconis"[63]m ---.  The name of Folco's wife is not known.  Folco [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         BONIFAZIO [II] d'Este (-1190).  "Taurellus" recorded the settlement of disputes between "marchiones Albertum, Opizum et Bonifacium" regarding their respective territories by charter dated 15 Jun 1178[64].  The parentage of Bonifazio is not specified.  His position in the list suggests that he was the most junior of the three.  Alberto and Obizzo were at that time the only surviving sons of Folco d´Este.  It is therefore likely that Bonifazio was the son of one of their deceased brothers.  As Bonifazio [I] only names daughters in his 1163 testament (see above), it is likely that Bonifazio [II] was the son of Folco [II].  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 15 Jul 1193 which names "marchio Fulcus et eius filius marchio Bonifacinus"[65]

4.         ALBERTO d'Este (-after 10 Apr 1184).  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis names "quinque germani…Azzo, Bonifacius, Obizo, Fulcho et Albertus" when recording that the nobles of Ferrara invited "aliquem ex marchionibus Estensibus…Obizoni" to rule Ferrara[66].  Marchese.  A charter dated 27 Oct 1154 records an agreement between "Henricus filius Henrici ducis Saxonum" and "Bonifacium et Fulconem marchiones pro se et fratribus suis Alberto…et Opizone" relating to "Este et Solesino, Arquada atque Merendola"[67].  A charter dated 6 Jan 1160 records an agreement between "Welfus dux Spoleti" and "Obizonem et Albertum marchiones pro se et fratre suo Fulcone qui non aderat" relating to "Este et Arquada et Solesino atque Merendola"[68].  "Fulco et Albertus et Bonefacius marchiones" donated fishing rights to the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri by charter dated 1161[69]Marchese d'Este.  "Albertum et Obizonem marchiones Estenses" confirmed possessions of the abbey of S. Maria della Vangadizza by charter dated 3 Apr 1170[70].  A charter dated 1171 records the settlement of a dispute between the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone and "marchiones de Este…Fulconem, Albertum, Opizonem"[71].  A charter dated 28 Jan 1173 records an agreement between the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone and "dominos marchiones de Adeste…Fulconem et Albertum, atque Opizonem fratres, filios quondam marchionis Fulconis"[72].  "Taurellus" recorded the settlement of disputes between "marchiones Albertum, Opizum et Bonifacium" regarding their respective territories by charter dated 15 Jun 1178[73].  The testament of "marchio Albertus", dated 10 Apr 1184, bequeathed property to "Adelasiam et Aureplasem filias meas…uxori meæ…fratri meo Opizoni"[74]m MATILDA, daughter of --- (-after 15 Jul 1193).  A charter dated 15 Jul 1193 records the settlement of disputes between "dominum Obizonem marchionem de Este" and "dominas Adelasiam et Auremplasiam filias quondam marchionis Alberti de Este…dominam comitissam Matildam uxorem quondam marchionis Alberti et suas filias dominam Adhelasiam et dominam Auremplasiam" regarding their inheritance[75].  Alberto & his wife had two children:

a)         ADELASIA d'Este (-after 15 Jul 1193).  The testament of "marchio Albertus", dated 10 Apr 1184, bequeathed property to "Adelasiam et Aureplasem filias meas…uxori meæ…fratri meo Opizoni"[76].  A charter dated 15 Jul 1193 records the settlement of disputes between "dominum Obizonem marchionem de Este" and "dominas Adelasiam et Auremplasiam filias quondam marchionis Alberti de Este…dominam comitissam Matildam uxorem quondam marchionis Alberti et suas filias dominam Adhelasiam et dominam Auremplasiam" regarding their inheritance[77]

b)         AUREMPLASIA d'Este (-after 15 Jul 1193).  The testament of "marchio Albertus", dated 10 Apr 1184, bequeathed property to "Adelasiam et Aureplasem filias meas…uxori meæ…fratri meo Opizoni"[78].  A charter dated 15 Jul 1193 records the settlement of disputes between "dominum Obizonem marchionem de Este" and "dominas Adelasiam et Auremplasiam filias quondam marchionis Alberti de Este…dominam comitissam Matildam uxorem quondam marchionis Alberti et suas filias dominam Adhelasiam et dominam Auremplasiam" regarding their inheritance[79]

5.         OBIZZO [I] d'Este (-[25 Dec 1193]).  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis names "quinque germani…Azzo, Bonifacius, Obizo, Fulcho et Albertus" when recording that the nobles of Ferrara invited "aliquem ex marchionibus Estensibus…Obizoni" to rule Ferrara[80].  Marchese 1154.  "Obizo et Bonifacius marchiones Estenses, Vezolus de Camino, Yzelinus de Honara…" signed the charter dated 7 Feb 1164 under which "Bonifacius comes Veronensis filius olim comitis Malregolati" swore allegiance to Emperor Friedrich I[81].  A charter dated 6 Aug 1169 records a dispute between the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri and "marchionem Opizonem"[82]Marchese d'Este 1173.  He was created Marchese of Genoa and Milan in 1184 by the emperor.  Podestà di Padua 1177/1180-1181.  Signore di Ferrara 1187, where he was granted the possessions of the Adelardi family.  Avocato of San Romano at Ferrara 1188.  Signore di Rovigo 1191. 

-        SIGNORI di FERRARA.

6.         BEATRICE d’Este .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    MARCHESI d'ESTE, SIGNORI di FERRARA

 

 

OBIZZO [I] d'Este, son of FOLCO [I] d'Este & his wife --- (-[25 Dec 1193]).  A charter dated 27 Oct 1154 records an agreement between "Henricus filius Henrici ducis Saxonum" and "Bonifacium et Fulconem marchiones pro se et fratribus suis Alberto…et Opizone" relating to "Este et Solesino, Arquada atque Merendola"[83].  A charter dated 6 Jan 1160 records an agreement between "Welfus dux Spoleti" and "Obizonem et Albertum marchiones pro se et fratre suo Fulcone qui non aderat" relating to "Este et Arquada et Solesino atque Merendola"[84].  "Obizo et Bonifacius marchiones Estenses, Vezolus de Camino, Yzelinus de Honara…" signed the charter dated 7 Feb 1164 under which "Bonifacius comes Veronensis filius olim comitis Malregolati" swore allegiance to Emperor Friedrich I[85].  A charter dated 6 Aug 1169 records a dispute between the monastery of S. Maria delle Carceri and "marchionem Opizonem"[86]Marchese d'Este.  "Albertum et Obizonem marchiones Estenses" confirmed possessions of the abbey of S. Maria della Vangadizza by charter dated 3 Apr 1170[87].  A charter dated 1171 records the settlement of a dispute between the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone and "marchiones de Este…Fulconem, Albertum, Opizonem"[88].  A charter dated 28 Jan 1173 records an agreement between the monastery of S. Benedetto di Polirone and "dominos marchiones de Adeste…Fulconem et Albertum, atque Opizonem fratres, filios quondam marchionis Fulconis"[89].  "Taurellus" recorded the settlement of disputes between "marchiones Albertum, Opizum et Bonifacium" regarding their respective territories by charter dated 15 Jun 1178[90].  He was created Marchese di Genoa & Milan in 1184 by the emperor.  Podestà di Padua 1177/1180-1181.  Signore di Ferrara 1187, where he was granted the possessions of the Adelardi family.  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis records that, after the death of "Guililemus Marchesellæ de familia Adelardorum", the nobles of Ferrara invited "aliquem ex marchionibus Estensibus…Obizoni" to rule Ferrara[91].  Vogt of San Romano at Ferrara 1188.  Signore di Rovigo 1191.  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[92]

m firstly ---.  The name of Obizzo's first wife is not known.  The chronology dictates that Obizzo´s oldest son was born from this otherwise unrecorded first marriage as his son was appointed guardian of his father´s minor children, under the testament dated 1193. 

m secondly SOPHIA da Landinara, daughter of --- (-after 1236).  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[93].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

Obizzo [I] & his first wife had one child:

1.         AZZO [V] d'Este (-before 1193).  The testament of his father "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, names "Azzonem nepotem suum" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of his children[94].  It is clear that Azzo [VI] was therefore the son of an older deceased son, born from an earlier marriage of his father.  His name is confirmed by a charter of Emperor Otto IV dated 10 Feb 1212 which names his son "Azonem…Estensem marchionem filium quondam Azonis, qui fuit filius…marchionis Opizonis"[95]m ---.  The name of Azzo's wife is not known.  Azzo [V] & his wife had two children: 

a)         AZZO [VI] "Azzolino" d'Este ([1170]-Nov 1212, bur Vangadizza monastery)The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[96]In Castillo di Ariano 1195.  Podestà di Ferrara 1196, 1205 and 1208.  Podestà di Padua 1199.  Podestà di Verona 1206/07.  The Annales Veronenses Antiqui record "primitus dominus Aço marchio Estensis" as "potestas Verone" in 1206[97].  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Azo marchio Estensis" took control of Verona in 1207 with the consent of "comitis…Sancti Bonifacii et Monticulorum"[98].  A charter dated 28 Aug 1207 records an alliance between the people of Mantua and "domino Azone marchione Estense et comite Bonifacio de Verona" both of whom promised to defend Mantua[99].  Podestà di Mantua 1207/08 and 1210/11.  The Annales Mantuani record "domnus Azo marchio Estensis" as potestas of Mantua in 1207, 1208, 1210 and 1211[100].  Created Marchese di Ancona e Conte di Loreto by Emperor Otto IV 20 Jan 1210[101].  Emperor Otto IV issued a judgment in favour of "Bonifatius Estensis marchio filius quondam Opizonis Estensis marchio" against "Azonem…Estensem marchionem filium quondam Azonis, qui fuit filius suprascripti marchionis Opizonis" by charter dated 10 Feb 1212[102].  Created Marchese di Ancona by the Pope 10 May 1212.  The Annales Mantuani record the death in Nov 1212 of "Azzo marchio secundus"[103].  The testament of "dominus Azzo Estensis marchio", dated 18 Nov 1212, bequeathes property to "filie sue domine Beatrici…Aldeurandinum et Azzolinum novellum filios", a codicil naming "uxori mee domine Ailisii…filie mee Constantie"[104].  The Annales Veronenses Antiqui record the deaths in 1212 of "Aço marchio et comes Bonifacius"[105]m firstly ---, daughter of [Conte ALDOBRANDINO & his wife ---].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  It is possible that her parentage represents an educated guess based on the name of her son.  However, the name Aldobrandino persisted in the family among the descendants of Azzo [VII] d´Este, born from Azzo [VI]´s third marriage, which suggests that the name was introduced into the family in an earlier generation, maybe through the wife of Azzo [V].  m secondly (before 1192) SOPHIE [Eléonore] de Maurienne, daughter of HUMBERT [III] Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie & his third wife Klementia von Zähringen [Baden] ([1167/72]-3 Dec 1202).  An epitaph in the monastery of S. Giovanni Batista di Gemmola, placed there in 1578, records the death "VI Id Mai" in 1226 of (her daughter) "Virgo Beatrix" daughter of "Marchio…Estensis…Azo" and his "coniuge patre…Sabaudia cui comitatur"[106].  The primary source which confirms her name as Sophie has not yet been identified.  m thirdly (22 Feb 1204) ALIX de Châtillon, daughter of RENAUD de Châtillon-sur-Loing ex-Prince of Antioch & his second wife Stephanie de Milly (-1235 or after).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Aleydem [uxor] marchionis Eystensis in Italia" as third of the three daughters of "Raynaldus de Castellione uxor…relictam principis Raymundi"[107], but it appears chronologically unlikely that Alix could have been the daughter of Renaud by his first wife who died [1163/67].  Pope Innocent III confirmed his protection of "nobili mulieri Aliz, filiæ quondam principis Rainaldi" by charter dated 16 Jun 1198[108].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1204 records the marriage contract for "dominus Azo Estensis marchio" and "domina Aliz filia quondam Rainaldi principis Antiocheni"[109].  The testament of "dominus Azzo Estensis marchio", dated 18 Nov 1212, bequeathes property to "filie sue domine Beatrici…Aldeurandinum et Azzolinum novellum filios", a codicil naming "uxori mee domine Ailisii…filie mee Constantie"[110].  "Domini Azoni Estensis Marchionis" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria at Carceres, with the consent of "Domina Adelice sua matre", by charter dated 1235[111].  Azzo [VI] & his first wife had one child:

i)          ALDOBRANDINO [I] d'Este ([1190]-1215).  The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino names "Aldrevandinus et Azo" as the two sons of "marchionem Estensem"[112].  The testament of "dominus Azzo Estensis marchio", dated 18 Nov 1212, bequeathes property to "filie sue domine Beatrici…Aldeurandinum et Azzolinum novellum filios", a codicil naming "uxori mee domine Ailisii…filie mee Constantie"[113].  Podestà di Ferrara 1212.  Podestà di Verona 1212/13.  The Annales Mantuani record "domnus Azo marchio Estensis…marchio Oldrevandinus filius eius" as potestas of Mantua in 1212 and 1213[114].  He succeeded his father in 1212 as Marchese di Ancona.  m ---.  The name of Aldobrandino's wife is not known.  Aldobrandino [I] & his wife had one child: 

(a)       BEATRICE d'Este (1215-1245 before 8 May, bur Gemmola).  Her origin is deduced from the Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam which refers to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" as "nepos marchionis Hestensis"[115].  The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino records the marriage in 1235 of "dompna Beatrix olim filia marchionis Aldrevandini" and "regem Ungarie"[116].  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Beatrix filia quondam Aldrevandini marchionis Estensis" married "Andree regi Ungarie" in 1235, despite opposition from "filiis regis Bele…et Colomanno"[117].  She returned to Italy after her husband's death in 1235[118].  A later passage in the same source records that she left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died, later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum", and then returned with her child "ad paternam domum"[119]m (Székesfehérvár 14 May 1234) as his third wife, ANDRÁS II King of Hungary, son of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egrecz Abbey). 

Azzo [VI] & his second wife had one child:

ii)         BEATRICE d’Este (1192-Gemmola 10 May 1226, bur Padua, Santa Sofia, transferred 1256 to Este Santa Tecla).   The testament of "dominus Azzo Estensis marchio", dated 18 Nov 1212, bequeathes property to "filie sue domine Beatrici…Aldeurandinum et Azzolinum novellum filios", a codicil naming "uxori mee domine Ailisii…filie mee Constantie"[120].  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino names "Beatrix…soror supradicti marchionis" (in a passage dealing with Azzo [VII]) adding that she became a nun and was elected abbess of her convent[121].  A charter dated 8 Nov 1216 records that "domini Folchi Padue Potestatis" granted "domine Beatricis filie quondam domini Azonis Hestensis marchionis" property of "quondam domini Alodprandini marchionis et Azonis Novelli eius fratris"[122].  Nun at Gemmola 1221.  An epitaph in the monastery of S. Giovanni Batista di Gemmola, placed there in 1578, records the death "VI Id Mai" in 1226 of (her daughter) "Virgo Beatrix" daughter of "Marchio…Estensis…Azo" and his "coniuge patre…Sabaudia cui comitatur"[123]

Azzo [VI] & his third wife had two children:

iii)        AZZO [VII] d'Este ([1205/10]-Ferrara 17 Feb 1264, bur Ferrara San Francesco)The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino names "Aldrevandinus et Azo" as the two sons of "marchionem Estensem"[124]Marchese d'EsteSignore di Ferrara 1240.   

-         see below

iv)       COSTANZA d´Este ([Nov 1212]-[before 8 Nov 1216]).  The testament of "dominus Azzo Estensis marchio", dated 18 Nov 1212, bequeathes property to "filie sue domine Beatrici…Aldeurandinum et Azzolinum novellum filios", a codicil naming "uxori mee domine Ailisii…filie mee Constantie"[125].  The late appearance of Costanza suggests that she was born around the time of the testament shortly before the death of her father.  Her absence from the document dated 8 Nov 1216, which granted property to her half-sister Beatrice (see above), suggests that Costanza had already died by that date. 

b)         AGNESE d'Este .  The Cronica Alberti de Bezanis states that "Ezelino secundo" had two wives in his boyhood, firstly "dominam Agnetam sororem domini Azonis primi marchionis Estensis" who after her divorce married "domino Dulcemanino…de Padua"[126]m firstly (divorced) as his first wife, EZZELINO [II] "il Monaco" da Romano, son of EZZELINO [I] "Balbo" da Romano & his wife Honoria --- ([1150]-1235).  m secondly DULCEMANINO di Padua, son of ---.

Obizzo [I] & his second wife had five children:

2.         GERSENDA d’Este .  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[127]

3.         FORA d’Este .  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[128].   

4.         ADELAIDA d’Este .  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[129].   

5.         TOMMASINA d’Este .  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[130].   

6.         BONIFAZIO d'Este (-7 Jun 1228).  The testament of "Obizo marchio de Est", dated 1193, bequeathes property to "Gaysedam filiam suam…reliquas…filias…Adeletam, Froam, Tomasinam, et postumam, si qua forte apparuerit…Azzonem nepotem suum et Bonifatium filium suum…comitissa Sophia uxor sua" and appoints "supradictum Azzonem" as guardian of "filio suo Bonifatio et filiabus suis"[131].  Emperor Otto IV freed "Bonifatius Estensis marchio, filius quondam Opizonis marchionis de Est" from the guardianship of "Azonem Estensem marchionem" by charter dated 10 Feb 1212[132].  The date of this order suggests that Bonifazio must have been at the end of his father´s life and therefore that he was probably one of his youngest children by his second marriage.  Marchese d´Este.  Emperor Otto IV issued a judgment in favour of "Bonifatius Estensis marchio filius quondam Opizonis Estensis marchio" against "Azonem…Estensem marchionem filium quondam Azonis, qui fuit filius suprascripti marchionis Opizonis" by charter dated 10 Feb 1212[133].  The Annales Veronenses Antiqui record the death in Jun 1228 of "marchio Bonifacius Estensis"[134]

 

 

AZZO [VII] d'Este, son of AZZO [VI] "Azzolino" d'Este Marchese di Ancona & his third wife Alix de Châtillon ([1205/10]-Ferrara 17 Feb 1264, bur Ferrara San Francesco).  The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino names "Aldrevandinus et Azo" as the two sons of "marchionem Estensem"[135].  An indication of his date of birth is provided by the Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino which names "marchio Aldrevandinus…Estensi Azo frater eius" as successor to his brother in 1215 and as "Azo marchio adolescens" in 1224[136].  The testament of "dominus Azzo Estensis marchio", dated 18 Nov 1212, bequeathes property to "filie sue domine Beatrici…Aldeurandinum et Azzolinum novellum filios", a codicil naming "uxori mee domine Ailisii…filie mee Constantie"[137]Marchese d'Este.  Vogt of San Antonio at Ferrara 1229.  Podestà di Vicenza 1236.  "Domini Azoni Estensis Marchionis" donated property to the monastery of Santa Maria at Carceres, with the consent of "Domina Adelice sua matre", by charter dated 1235[138].  Azzo expelled Salinguerra Torelli from Ferrara in 1240 as became Signore di Ferrara.  Podestà di Mantua 1247/53.  "Dominus Azo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio et dominos Lodoycus comes Veronensis et dominus Catelanus domini Guidonis domine Hostie potestas Mantue" agreed peace by charter dated 10 May 1259[139].  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "filiæ nostræ Beatrici olim sorori…monasterii [Sancti Antonii de Ferraria]…filiæ nostræ Costantiæ…quando eam in matrimonio…comiti Uberto de Maretima…filiæ nostræ Cobitosæ…quando eam…in uxorem…Isnardo marchioni Malaspinæ…dominæ Mambiliæ uxori nostræ…Constantiæ nepti nostræ, sorori Opizonis nepotis nostri…Obizonem legitimum nepotem nostrum filium quondam Rainaldi filii nostri"[140].  The Annales Mantuani record the death in mid-Feb 1264 of "marchio Azzo Estensis…in civitate Ferarie"[141]

m firstly ([1221]) GIOVANNA, daughter of --- (-1233).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  

m secondly (1238) MABILIA Pallavicini, daughter of GUIDO Pallavicini Marchese of Boudonitza & his wife --- [de Bourgogne] (-Feb 1264).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam names "Mabilia [filia domnus Markesopolus Pellavicini]" & his wife "de Burgundia" as the wife of "domno Açoni marchioni Hestensi"[142].  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "…dominæ Mambiliæ uxori nostræ…"[143].  She bequeathed property in Parma to her brother Ubertino by her will dated 1264[144]

Azzo [VII] & his first wife had four children: 

1.         RINALDO [I] d'Este (shortly after 1221-Apulia 1251).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam names "Rainaldo principe, quondam filio Açonis marchionis Estensis et Ferraria"[145].  He was a hostage of Emperor Friedrich [II] from 1238 to 1251.  The Annales Veronenses record the death in 1251 of "Rainaldus marchio Estensis…carceratus in Apulia" poisoned on the orders of "ipsius regis" [referring to "Conradus rex Apuliæ"][146]m (1233 or May 1239) ADELASIA da Romano, daughter of ALBERIGO da Romano & his first wife --- (-1251).  The Annales Veronenses record the marriage in 1233 of "Rainaldum marchionem Estensem" and "filiam domni Albrici de Romano"[147].  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "filium unicum marchionis" married "filiam unicam Albrici" in May 1239[148].  The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino records that "principem Rainaldum" had married "Albericus…filiam Aledeitam" against the wishes of her uncle Ezzelino[149].  She was a hostage of Emperor Friedrich [II] from 1238 to 1251.  Mistress (1) ---.  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Rainaldus…filius marchionis Estensis" left "filium et filias…de quadam puella nobili de Apulia" while he was in prison[150].  Rinaldo [I] had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         OBIZZO [II] d'Este ([1247]-Ferrara 13 Feb 1293, bur Ferrara Franciscans)The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Rainaldus…filius marchionis Estensis" left "filium et filias…de quadam puella nobili de Apulia", born while he was in prison, and that he declared as his heir "puerum…Obizum" who was legitimated by "tam per sedem apostolicam, quam per regem Alemanie Guilielmum"[151].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1264 as Signore di Ferrara, Marchese d’Este

-        see below

b)         CONSTANZA d'Este .  The Chronicon Patavinum names "Constantia" as the daughter of "Raynaldus filius marchionis de Est…de quadam domicella nobili de Apulia" born while he was in prison[152].  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "…Constantiæ nepti nostræ, sorori Opizonis nepotis nostri…"[153].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   m GUIDO di Maltraversi da Lozzo.

c)          PIETRO d'Este (-1304).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Abbot. 

2.         BEATRICE d'Este (-18 Jan 1262).  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino records that "Beatrix, prefati marchionis filia" succeeded as abbess after the death of "Beatrix…soror supradicti marchionis" (in a passage dealing with Azzo [VII])[154].  Nun in Ferrara 1254.  Founded the convent of San Antonio on the Island in the River Po at Polesine in 1256.  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "filiæ nostræ Beatrici olim sorori…monasterii [Sancti Antonii de Ferraria]…"[155]

3.         COSTANZA d'Este (-Ferrara after 1315).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam names "domina Constantia filia Açonis marchioni Hestensis" as wife of "domni Guilielmus primogenitus…domni Pallavicin"[156].  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "…filiæ nostræ Costantiæ…quando eam in matrimonio…comiti Uberto de Maretima…"[157].  Nun at Ferrara San Antonio, after her second husband died.  m firstly UMBERTO Conte di Maremma, son of --- (-1264).  m secondly GUGLIELMO Pallavicini Marchese di Scipiono, son of --- (-Cremona 28 Dec 1284, bur Cremona cathedral). 

4.         CUBITOSA d'Este .  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "…filiæ nostræ Cobitosæ…quando eam…in uxorem…Isnardo marchioni Malaspinæ…"[158]m ISNARDO Marchese di Malaspina, son of ---.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    SIGNORI di FERRARA, SIGNORI di MODENA, SIGNORI di REGGIO

 

 

OBIZZO [II] d'Este, illegitimate son of RINALDO [I] d'Este & his mistress --- ([1247]-Ferrara 13 Feb 1293, bur Ferrara Franciscans).  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record that "Rainaldus…filius marchionis Estensis" left "filium et filias…de quadam puella nobili de Apulia", born while he was in prison, and that he declared as his heir "puerum…Obizum" who was legitimated by "tam per sedem apostolicam, quam per regem Alemanie Guilielmum"[159].  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam names "[filius] natus ex quadam nobile muliere de Neapoli…Opiçonem" and "Rainaldo principe, quondam filio Açonis marchionis Estensis et Ferraria", records that he was expelled from Ferrara and lived in Ravenna before being recalled by his grandfather, and after his mother was drowned in the Adriatic[160].  Legitimated in 1252 by the Pope.  The testament of "Azzo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio", dated 13 Feb 1264, bequeathed property to "…Obizonem legitimum nepotem nostrum filium quondam Rainaldi filii nostri"[161].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1264 as Marchese d’Este, and elected to succeed as hereditary Signore di Ferrara "gubernator et rector et generalis et perpetuus dominus"[162].  The nobles of the city of Modena (the Rangoni, Boschetti and Guidoni) delivered Modena into the hands of Obizzo [II] in 1288, whereby he became Signore di Modena.  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Obizo Marchio Estensis" was elected and installed as "dominus civitatis Mutinæ" in 1289[163].  Podestà di Reggio 1290, Signore di Reggio.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records the death in 1293 of "Oppizzo Marchio Estensis filius Raynaldi"[164].  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis records the death in Feb 1293 of "Obizo" aged 46 after ruling for 29 years[165].  The Chronicon Estense records the death 13 Feb 1293 of "dominus Obizo…marchio Estensis et Marchiæ Anconitanæ, civitatis Ferrariæ, Mutinæ, Regii dominus generalis" in Ferrara and his burial "ad locum Fratrum Minorem in Ferrara"[166]

m firstly (1263) GIACOMINA Fieschi, daughter of NICCOLÒ Fieschi di Lavagna & his wife Leonora --- (-Ferrara Sep 1287, bur Ferrara Franciscans).  The Annales S. Iustinæ Patavino record the marriage in 1263 of "Azo…marchio Estensis…nepotem" and "virginem nobilissimam, natione Ianuensem de progenie…pape Innocentii"[167].  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to the wife of "Opiçonem" as "papa Adrianus…propinquam"[168].  The Historia Ricobaldi Ferrariensis records that "Obizo" married "neptem cardinalis Otthoboni de Flisco Januensis…Jacominam"[169].  The Chronicon Estense records the death in Sep 1287 of "domina Jacobina de Flisco de Janua uxor…domini marchionis opizonis Estensis" in Ferrara and her burial "ad Fratres Minores"[170]

m secondly (contract 28 Jul 1289) as her first husband, COSTANZA della Scala, daughter of ALBERTO [I] della Scala Signore e Capitane di Verona & his wife --- (-Mantua after 27 Apr 1306).  The Chronicon Estense records the marriage in Jul 1289 of "dominus marchio Obizo Estensis" and "filiam…domini Alberti de la Scala"[171].  The marriage contract between "domini Alberti de la Scala…dominam Constanciam suam filiam" and "domino Obiçoni Estensi et Anconitano marchioni" is dated 28 Jul 1289[172].  She married secondly (contract 19 Jul 1299) Guido Botticella di Bonaccolai Podestà di Mantua.  The marriage contract between "dominus Guido dictus Botexela de Bonacolsis, Mantue capitaneus generalis" and "domino Alberto de la Scala, Verone capitaneo generali…domine Constantie eius filie [olim uxoris marchionis Estensis]" is dated 19 Jul 1299[173].  "Domina Constantia filia quondam…domini Alberti de la Scala et uxor…domini Guidonis de Bonacosis" granted property to her husband by charter dated 27 Apr 1306[174]

Obizzo [II] & his first wife had five children:

1.         AZZO [VIII] d'Este (after 1263-Este 31 Jan 1308, bur Este Santa Tecla, transferred to Ferrara Dominicans)The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to the 3 sons and 4 daughters of "Opiçonem" & his wife "papa Adrianus…propinquam", of whom "primogenitus Aço"[175].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Azo Marchio Estensis filius…primogenitus" succeeded on the death of his father "Oppizzo Marchio Estensis filius Raynaldi"[176].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records negotiations for the marriage of "una figlia de miser Piero Tiepolo suo fiol [miser Lorenzo Tiepolo Doge]" and "miser Azzo" son of "marchese Obizone de Este signore allora di Ferrara", dated to 1282 from the context, adding that the negotiations failed because of the death of Azzo (which appears to be incorrect)[177].  He succeeded his father in 1293 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena e Reggio.  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Azzo Marchio" succeeded "Obizo Marchio Estensis" excluding "Aldrovandino et Francisco fratribus suis"[178].  The Chronica Parva Ferrariensis records the succession of "Azo filius eius" on the death in Feb 1293 of "Obizo"[179].  "Dominus Azo Estensis et Anchonitanus marchio et dominus Aldrevandinus et dominus Franciscus eius fratres, marchiones Estenses et Anchonitani, filii et heredes domini Obizoni Estensis et Anchonitani marchionis" reached agreement concerning their inheritance by charter dated 4 Apr 1293[180].  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record the death in 1308 of "Azzo Marchio Estensis"[181].  The Chronicon Estense records the death "die ultimo" Jan 1308 at Este of "dominus Aczo marchio Estensis" and his burial "ad locum Sanctæ Teclæ in terra de Est", later transferred to Ferrara "ad Domum Fratrum Prædicatorum"[182]m firstly (Ferrara Sep 1282) GIOVANNA Orsini, daughter of BERTOLDO Orsini & his wife Filippa --- (-[1302/04]).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to the wife of "primogenitus Aço" as "parentela papa Nicholai tertii natione Romani"[183].  The Chronicon Estense records the marriage in Sep 1282 in Ferrara of "domini Azonis filii domini marchionis Obizonis Estensis" and "domina Johanna de Ursinis de Roma"[184]m secondly (Ferrara Apr 1305) as her first husband, BEATRICE of Sicily, daughter of CHARLES II King of Sicily [Anjou] & his wife Maria of Hungary (1295-Andria 1335[185], bur Andria).  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record the marriage "in civitate Ferrariæ" in 1304 of "Azzo Estensis Marchio" and "filiam Regis Caroli de Apulia"[186].  The Chronicon Estense records the marriage in Apr 1305 of "dominus Aczo…Estensis et Anconitanus marchio…" and "dominam Beatricem filiam…Regis Karoli de Apulia" in Ferrara[187].  She married secondly (before 24 Jan 1309) Bertrand des Baux Seigneur de Berre Conte d'Andria.  Azzo [VIII] & his first wife had three children:

a)         RICCARDO d'Este .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b)         PIETRO d'Este .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Abbot.

c)         CONSTANZA d'Este .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m [UMBERTO/LAMBERTINO] Caccianemici, son of ---.

Azzo [VIII] had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

d)         FRESCO d'Este (-Venice 1312).  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Azzo Estensis Marchio…dominus Frischus filius suus naturalis" arrived in Modena in 1306 and was met with riots[188].  He succeeded his father in 1308 as Signore di Ferrara, deposed in Oct 1308.  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Frischo filio" succeeded as "domino Ferrariæ" on the death in 1308 of "Azzo Marchio Estensis" but after a few months gave the city to the Venetians[189].  m PELLEGRINA Caccianemici, daughter of CACCIANEMICO Caccianemici & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Fresco & his wife had [three or more] children:   

i)          FOLCO d'Este (-after 10 Oct 1308).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   His grandfather attempted to transfer his lands and lordships to Folco but this provoked a rebellion by the latter's great-uncles.  Folco sought support from Venice whose forces occupied by Ferrara but were obliged to surrender to the papal siege in 1310[190]

ii)         children.  1300.

2.         BEATRICE d'Este (-1 Sep [1334 or 1337], bur Milan Franciscan Church).  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record the marriage "in Prato Entesini, Burgi Bajovariæ Mutinæ" in 1300 of "Azzo Estensis Marchio…dominam Beatricem sororem suam, uxorem olim Judicis de Gallura" and "domino Galeacio filio domini Massei de Vicecomitibus domini Mediolani"[191].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the marriage in 1299 between "Azzo Marchio Estensis sororem suam Beatricem" and "Galeazio Vicecomiti"[192].  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Dominus Galeazius Mediolani vicarius imperialis" married "parentelæ de marchionibus Estensibus de Ferraria…Beatricem"[193].  The Annales Mediolanenses record the death 1 Sep (in 1337 from the context) of "Domina Beatrix de Este de Ferraria mater Domini Azzonis" and her burial "in ecclesia Fratrum Minorem Mediolani"[194]m firstly UGOLINO Visconti Judge of Gallura, son of --- (-Lucca 2 or 9 Jan 1298).  m secondly (24 Jun 1300) GALEAZZO [I] Visconti Signore di Piacenza e Milano, son of MATTEO [I] Visconti & his wife Violanta di Borri (1277-Pescia 6 Aug 1328).

3.         MADDALENA d'Este .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m firstly ALDOBRANDINO Turchi, from Ferrara, son of ---.  m secondly RANIERO di Canossa, son of ---.

4.         ALDOBRANDINO [II] d'Este (-Bologna Jun 1326, bur Ferrara Franciscans)The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Azzo Marchio" succeeded "Obizo Marchio Estensis" excluding "Aldrovandino et Francisco fratribus suis"[195].  He succeeded his father in 1293 as Signore di Modena, Lendinara, Rovigo e d'Este. 

-        see below

5.         FRANCESCO d'Este (-killed in battle Ferrara 23 Aug 1312).  "Dominus Obizo Estensis et Anchonitanus marchio" granted "castra…in districtu Paduano et Vicentino…Estensem…Calaonis" to "Francisco filio suo" by charter dated 21 Feb 1282[196].  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Azzo Marchio" succeeded "Obizo Marchio Estensis" excluding "Aldrovandino et Francisco fratribus suis"[197].  "Dominus Azo Estensis et Anchonitanus marchio et dominus Aldrevandinus et dominus Franciscus eius fratres, marchiones Estenses et Anchonitani, filii et heredes domini Obizoni Estensis et Anchonitani marchionis" reached agreement concerning their inheritance by charter dated 4 Apr 1293[198]Signore di Reggio.  He and his brothers opposed the succession of their great-nephew Folco in 1308 and turned to Padua and the papacy for support.  Papal troops besieged Ferrara, which surrendered in 1310 whereupon direct papal rule was established.  Francesco was killed in the ensuing disorders[199]m ORSINA Orsini, daughter of BERTOLDO Orsini & his wife Filippa ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Francesco & his wife had four children: 

a)         AZZO [IX] d'Este (-Ferrara 24 Jun 1318, bur Ferrara Dominicans).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He and his brother, together with their cousins, were restored as Signori di Ferrara in 1317 following a pro-Este revolt in their favour against the papal administration[200].  The Chronicon Estense records the death in 24 Jun 1318 in Ferrara of "dominus Azzo marchio Estensis quondam domini marchionis Francisci Estensis" and his burial "ad locum Fratrum Minorem Prædictorum", leaving "unus filius…Bertoldus"[201]m RICCIARDA di Gucellone da Camino, daughter of ---.

b)         BERTOLDO d'Este (-21 Jul 1343).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He and his brother were restored as Signori di Ferrara in 1317 following a pro-Este revolt in their favour against the papal administration202m firstly (1324) DOMENICA Pio, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (Ferrara Jul 1339) CATERINA da Camino, daughter of RICCARDO da Camino & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m thirdly (Florence 6 Jun 1342) CATERINA Visconti, daughter of LUCCHINO Visconti Signore di Milano & his first wife Caterina Spinola.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Bertoldo & his first wife had one child:

i)          FRANCESCO d'Este (Ferrara Jun 1323 or 1325-Este 13 Dec 1384)The Chronicon Estense records the birth in Jun 1323 in Ferrara of "dominus Franciscus filius domini Bertoldi"[202].  He opposed the succession of his cousin Aldobrandino [III] as Signore di Ferrara in 1352, and sought support from the Visconti, Malatesta, Gonzaga and Carrara families, but renounced his claim in 1354[203].  Governor of Parma 1344.  m TADDEA di Barbiano, daughter of GIOVANNI Conte di Barbiano & his wife ---.  1393.  Francesco & his wife had three children: 

(a)       GIACOMO d'Este (-Ferrara 28 Oct 1392).  Governor of Parma.  Capitano of the Visconti.  m ---.  The name of Giacomo's wife is not known.  Giacomo & his wife had one child: 

(1)       OBIZZO d'Este .  Canon. 

(b)       AZZO [X] d'Este (1344-Este [1/29] Jan 1415).  He challenged the succession of Niccolò [III] as Signore di Ferrara in 1393.  Azzo X was finally defeated and captured in 1395.  He was held in custody first by Astorgio Manfredi, Signore di Faenza, and later by Venice who used him as their puppet leader when they attacked Ferrara in 1405[204]m firstly TOMMASINA Guarnioni, daughter of ---.  m secondly RICCARDA, daughter of GUACELLO di Canino & his wife ---.  m thirdly AMABILIA, daughter of RAMBOLDO di Collalto & his wife ---.  Azzo [X] & his [first/second/third] wife had three children: 

(1)       TADDEO d'Este (-near Brescia 21 Jun 1448, bur Este San Francesco).  Venetian Governor General in Friulia 1421.  Captain General, Condotierre 1437.  m firstly (Sep 1420) MADDALENA Arcelli, daughter of FILIPPO Arcelli [Venetian Governor General in Friulia] & his wife ---.  m secondly (1442) MARGHERITA Pico, daughter of MARCO Pico & his wife ---.  Taddeo & his first wife had two children: 

a.         ELENA d'Estem LODOVICO Conte Torriani [Thurn], from Udine, son of ---.

b.         BERTOLDO d'Este (May 1434-killed in battle Corinth 4 Nov 1463, bur Este San Francesco).  He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Venetian forces which landed in Nauplia in response to Ottoman attacks on Lepanto and around Modon in 1462.  They recaptured Argos and several fortresses before restoring the Hexamilion and besieging Akrocorinth.  Bertoldo was struck on the head by a stone during the siege and died from the wound, while the Turks destroyed the Hexamilion again and forced a retreat to Nauplia[205].  Governor General of Morea 1463.  m as her first husband, GIACOPA da Leonessa, daughter of GENTILE da Leonessa & his wife ---.  She married secondly Pietro Valier

Taddeo had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:   

c.          COSTANZA d'Estem ANTONIO Benzoni, son of ---.

(2)       FRANCESCO d'Este (-after May 1424).

(3)       ORSINA d'Estem FEDERICO Conte di Porcia, son of ---.

(c)       ORSINA d'Estem FEDERICO Savorgnani Signor di Udine, son of ---.

c)         GIACOPINA d'Estem ENRICO Scrofegni, son of ---.

d)         GIOVANNA d'Estem SIMONE GUIDO Conte di Battifolle, son of ---.

 

 

ALDOBRANDINO [II] d'Este, son of OBIZZO [II] Marchese d´Este & his first wife Giacomina Fieschi (-Bologna Jun 1326, bur Ferrara Franciscans)The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record that "Azzo Marchio" succeeded "Obizo Marchio Estensis" excluding "Aldrovandino et Francisco fratribus suis"[206].  He succeeded his father in 1293 as Signore di Modena, Lendinara, Rovigo e d'Este.  "Dominus Azo Estensis et Anchonitanus marchio et dominus Aldrevandinus et dominus Franciscus eius fratres, marchiones Estenses et Anchonitani, filii et heredes domini Obizoni Estensis et Anchonitani marchionis" reached agreement concerning their inheritance by charter dated 4 Apr 1293[207].  He lost Este to Padua[208].  The Chronicon Estense records the death in Jun 1326 in Bologna of "marchio Aldrovandinus" and his burial "Ferrariam…ad locum Fratrum Minorem"[209]

m (1289) ALDA Rangoni, daughter of TOBIA Rangoni & his wife --- (-[Sep] 1325).  The Chronicon Estense records the marriage in 1288 of "Aldrovandinus filius…domini marchionis" and "dominam Aldam filiam domini Tobiæ de Rangonibus"[210].  This marriage was arranged as part of the agreement under which her future father-in-law became Signore di Modena[211].  The Chronicon Estense records the death in 1325 (Sep from the context) of "dominæ Aldæ matris…dominorum marchionum…quæ fuerat de Rangonibus"[212]

Aldobrandino [II] & his wife had four children: 

1.         RINALDO [II] d'Este (-Ferrara 31 Dec 1335)The Chronicon Estense names "marchiones Raynaldus et Obizo et Nicolaus Estensis" as the children of "Aldrovandinus filius…domini marchionis" and his wife "dominam Aldam filiam domini Tobiæ de Rangonibus"[213].  He and his brothers, together with their cousins, were restored as Signori di Ferrara in 1317 following a pro-Este revolt in their favour against the papal administration[214].  He secured the town of Comacchio, near the coast, in 1325, previously disputed with the Polenta lords of Ravenna.  The pope granted him a papal vicariate over Ferrara for 10 years in 1329[215]m LUCREZIA di Barbiano, daughter of NICCOLÒ Conte di Barbiano & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Rinaldo [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         BEATRICE d'Este (-10 Feb 1339).  By charter dated 18 Dec 1338, "Conte Aymone di Savoia" appointed "Umberto di Vileta Signore di Chevron ed Aimone di Verdon" as proxies to confirm all obligations agreed by "Giacomo di Savoia Principe d'Acaia" relating to the dowry of "Beatrice figlia Rainaudo Marchese di Ferrara"[216].  An agreement dated 22 Jan 1339 between "Beatrice figlia del fu Marchese Renaldo d'Este" and "Obizione e Nicolao Marchesi d'Este" relates to the payment of dowry to "Giacomo di Savoia Principe d'Acaia"[217].  Although the wording of these documents do not confirm that this marriage ever took place (and the evident problems relating to the dowry suggest difficult negotiations), the 16 May 1366 testament of Prince Jacques names "…Principessa Sibilla di Beaux sua Seconda Consorte…" and therefore indicates that he was married before[218]m (by proxy 18 Dec 1338, 22 Jan 1339[219]) as his first wife, JACQUES de Savoie Signore di Piemonte titular Prince of Achaia, son of PHILIPPE de Savoie Prince of Achaia & his second wife Catherine de Viennois ([6/16] Jan 1315-Pinerolo 14 May 1367).  No issue.

Rinaldo [II] had four illegitimate children by FURLANA (-7 or 13 Nov 1362) or ORSOLINA Macaruffi, daughter of MACARUFFO Macaruffi Signore di Padua & his wife ---:    

b)         OBIZZO d'Este .  1344.  Vicar of Ferrara.  One [illegitimate] child: 

i)          [OBIZZO (1347-after 1 Apr 1396).  Nepos of Bishop Aldobrandino.  Canon at Modena 1359-1395.]

c)          ALDOBRANDINO d'Este (Ferrara 1325-30 Oct 1381, bur Ferrara cathedral).  Legitimated at Ferrara 30 May 1344.  Bishop of Adria 1349.  Bishop of Modena 1352-1378.  Bishop of Ferrara 1379-1381.

d)         GIACOMA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m ZAMBROSINO Boccadelli, son of ---.

e)         AZZO d'Este ([1332]-7 Mar 1371, bur Ferrara, Franciscan church).  Legitimated at Ferrara 30 May 1344.  Podestà di Modena 1352.  m TOMMASINA de Garamontibus, daughter of DUXIUS de Garamontibus & his wife ---. 

2.         NICCOLÒ [I] d'Este (-Ferrara 1344).  The Chronicon Estense names "marchiones Raynaldus et Obizo et Nicolaus Estensis" as the children of "Aldrovandinus filius…domini marchionis" and his wife "dominam Aldam filiam domini Tobiæ de Rangonibus"[220].  He and his brothers, together with their cousins, were restored as Signori di Ferrara in 1317 following a pro-Este revolt in their favour against the papal administration216.  Citizen of Venice 1331.  Vicar of Ferrara 1343.  m (Ferrara 21 Jan 1335) BEATRICE Gonzaga, daughter of GUIDO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his first wife Agnese Pico di Mirandola.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Niccolò [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         RINALDO [III] d'Este (1336-1369). 

3.         OBIZZO [III] d'Este (14 Jul 1294-Ferrara 20 Mar 1352)The Chronicon Estense names "marchiones Raynaldus et Obizo et Nicolaus Estensis" as the children of "Aldrovandinus filius…domini marchionis" and his wife "dominam Aldam filiam domini Tobiæ de Rangonibus"[221].  He and his brothers, together with their cousins, were restored as Signori di Ferrara in 1317 following a pro-Este revolt in their favour against the papal administration.

-        see below.

4.         ALISIA d'Este (-1329).  The Chronicon Estense records the marriage in 1325 (Sep from the context) in Ferrara of "dominam Ilicem sororem dominorum marchionum Estensium…Raynaldi et Obiczonis" and that she left for Mantua, but does not name her husband[222].  The primary source which confirms her husband´s name has not yet been identified.   m ([Sep] 1325) RINALDO Passerino Bonacolsi Signore di Mantua, son of --- (-killed in battle 1330). 

 

 

OBIZZO [III] d'Este, son of ALDOBRANDINO [II d'Este Signor di Modena & his wife Alda Rangoni (14 Jul 1294-Ferrara 20 Mar 1352).  The Chronicon Estense names "marchiones Raynaldus et Obizo et Nicolaus Estensis" as the children of "Aldrovandinus filius…domini marchionis" and his wife "dominam Aldam filiam domini Tobiæ de Rangonibus"[223].  The Chronicon Estense records the birth 14 Jul 1294 of "Aldrovandino…filius masculus…Obiczo"[224].  He and his brothers, together with their cousins, were restored as Signori di Ferrara in 1317 following a pro-Este revolt in their favour against the papal administration216.  He recovered the town of Modena in 1336, followed by Argenta and San Felice in 1346[225].  Vicar of Ferrara 1343.  Vogt of Pomposa monastery.  A number of noble families in Parma invited Obizzo [III] to become Signore di Parma in 1344[226].  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record the death in 1352 of "Opizo Estensis" and that "Aldrobandinus filius" seized "dominium"[227]

m firstly (May 1317) GIACOMA Pepoli, daughter of ROMO Pepoli, from Bologna, & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Estense records the marriage in May 1317 of "dominus Obizo marchio Estensis" and "dominam Jacobam filiam domini Romei de Pepolis de Bononia"[228].   

m secondly (1347) LIPPA Ariosto, daughter of nobile GIACOMO Ariosto from Bologna & his wife --- (-27 Nov 1347).  She had been his mistress before marrying Obizzo.  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Marchio Oppizo Estensis" had "tres filios…Aldrovandinum et alios" by "muliere Bononiensi et sorore Henrici de Ariostis"[229]

Obizzo [III] & his second wife had eight children (born before their parents' marriage, legitimated in 1346 by the Pope):

1.         ALDA d'Este (18 Jul 1333-before 24 Sep 1381).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 20 Jun 1377 from "domini Ludovici de Gonzaga" which names his wife "domina Alda" and her brother "dominus Marchio" and "domina Verde consorte ipsius"[230].  "Regina de la Scala consors…domini Mediolani" sent a letter of condolence to "domino Ludovico de Gonzaga" on the death of "consortis vestre et sororis nostre…domine Alde Estensis marchionisse" dated 24 Sep 1381[231]m (16 Feb 1356) LODOVICO [II] Gonzaga Signore di Mantua, son of GUIDO Gonzaga Signore di Mantua & his third wife Beatrice di Bari (1334-4 Oct 1382).

2.         ALISIA d'Este .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   [According to Europäische Stammtafeln[232], Alisia married firstly (Ferrara 1321) Rainaldo Bonaccolsi (-1328), but this is chronologically impossible.  Presumably there is confusion with her aunt of the same first name.]  m (Ferrara 12 Jul 1349) GUIDO di Polenta Signore di Ravenna, son of ---.

3.         RINALDO d'Este .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

4.         ALDOBRANDINO [III] d'Este (14 Sep 1335-Ferrara 2/3 Nov 1361)The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Marchio Oppizo Estensis" had "tres filios…Aldrovandinum et alios" by "muliere Bononiensi et sorore Henrici de Ariostis"[233].  Vicar of Ferrara 1352.  He succeeded in 1354 as Signore di Modena.  The Annales Veteres Mutinensium record the death in 1352 of "Opizo Estensis" and that "Aldrobandinus filius" seized "dominium"[234]m (1351) BEATRICE da Camino, daughter of RICCIARDO da Camino Signore di Treviso & his wife Verde della Scala (-beheaded 1388).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Aldobrandino [III] & his wife had three children: 

a)         NICCOLÒ d'Este (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b)         VERDE d'Este (27 Apr 1354-20 Aug 1400, bur Mindelheim).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (1377) KONRAD von Teck, son of FRIEDRICH [III] Herzog von Teck & his wife Anna von Helfenstein (-killed in battle [29 Oct 1385/10 Jul 1386], bur Ferrara).  

c)         OBIZZO [IV] d'Este (1356-beheaded 1388).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

5.         NICCOLÒ [II] "lo Zoppo" d'Este (Ferrara 17 May 1338-Ferrara 26 Mar 1388)Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Domini Ugolini de Gonzaga Dominus Mantuæ…Raymundinus Lupus de Soragna episcopatus Parmiæ…Taxinus de Donatis de Florentia pro Domino Johanne de Olegio Domino Bononiæ…Nicolaus frater Domini Oldrevandini Marchionis Ferrariæ et Mutinæ" formed a league with "societate Teutonicorum Domini Comitis Altimani de Alemannia" in Oct 1357[235]The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Domino Nicolao Domino civitatem Ferrariæ et Mutinæ" suceeded on the death of "fratris sui Aldrovandini"[236].  He succeeded his brother in 1361 as Signore di Ferrara.  He captured Reggio from Feltrino Gonzaga in 1371 but immediately lost it to Bernabò Visconti[237]m (Feb 1363) VERDE della Scala, daughter of MASTONO [II] Signor di Verona & his wife Taddea da Carrara (-1393 or after).  The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that "Domini Canis et Albuinus fratres, filii quondam Domini Mastini de la Scala…sororem" married "Domino Nicolao Domino civitatem Ferrariæ et Mutinæ", dated to 1362 in a later passage[238].  Her name is confirmed by a charter dated 20 Jun 1377 from "domini Ludovici de Gonzaga" which names his wife "domina Alda" and her brother "dominus Marchio" and "domina Verde consorte ipsius"[239].  Niccolò [II] & his wife had two children: 

a)         TADDEA d'Este (1365-Padua 23 Nov 1404, bur Padua cathedral)The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (Padua 31 May 1377) FRANCESCO [II] "il Giovane" da Carrara, son of FRANCESCO [I] da Carrara Signore di Padova & his wife Fina Buzzacavini (-1406).  Signore di Padova 1392. 

b)         RINALDO d'Este (1371-).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

6.         AZZO d'Este .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   1340/49. 

7.         UGO d'Este (Ferrara 18 Oct 1344-[2 Aug 1370], bur Ferrara San Francesco).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m (1363) COSTANZA Malatesta, daughter of MALATESTA [III] Malatesta "l'Ungharo" Signore di Rimini & his wife --- (-1378).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

8.         BEATRICE d'Este (-1387).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (1365) as his second wife, WOLDEMAR I Graf von Anhalt, son of ALBRECHT I Graf von Anhalt in Köthen und Zerbst & his second wife Agnes von Brandenburg [Askanier] (-after 7 Jan 1368).  

Obizzo [III] had four illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

9.          ALBERTO d'Este (Ferrara 1347-Ferrara 30 Jul 1393)Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Albertus marchio Estensis frater…marchionis Nicolai" succeeded on the death of his brother "in dominio…civitatum Ferrariæ et Mutinæ"[240].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1388 as Signore di Ferrara.  Co-signore di Ferrara 1385.  He succeeded his half-brother 1388 as Signore di Ferrara.  He briefly recovered the town of Este in 1389[241].  Founded the University of Ferrara 1391.  m (1388) GIOVANNA de' Roberti, daughter of CABRINO de' Roberti, from Reggio & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   1425.  Mistress (1): ISOTTA Albaresani, daughter of --- (-after 1425).  Alberto had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

a)         NICCOLÒ [III] d'Este (Ferrara 9 Nov 1383-poisoned Milan 26 Dec 1441, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli)He was legitimated in 1391 by the Pope.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Nicolaus filius…marchionis Alberti" succeeded on the death of his father "Albertus marchio Estensis frater…marchionis Nicolai"[242].  He succeeded his father in 1393 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena, Adria, Comacchio e Rovigo. 

-        see below

10.       COSTANZA (1343-1392).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (2 Feb 1362) as his second wife, GALEOTTO "l'Ungharo" Malatesta Signore di Rimini Under-Signore di Pesaro, son of MALATESTA Malatesta "Guastafamiglia" & his wife --- (Jun 1327-Jul 1372). 

11.       FOLCO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

12.       GIOVANNI (-1388).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following family members have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

NICCOLÒ [III] d'Este, son of ALBERTO d'Este Signor di Ferrara & his mistress Isotta Albaresani (Ferrara 9 Nov 1383-poisoned Milan 26 Dec 1441, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  Legitimated 1391 by the Pope.  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Nicolaus filius…marchionis Alberti" succeeded on the death of his father "Albertus marchio Estensis frater…marchionis Nicolai"[243].  He succeeded his father in 1393 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena, Adria, Comacchio e Rovigo, minor until 1402.  His succession was challenged by Azzo [X], who was finally defeated and captured in 1395[244].  His forces temporarily occupied Reggio in 1404, and attacked Piacenza in 1405.  In 1404, he helped Francesco da Carrara to defend Padua against attack by Venice, which in 1405 attacked Ferrara and forced commercial concessions from Niccolò[245].  Signore di Reggio e Parma 1409.  He was forced to relinquish Parma to Filippo Maria Visconti in 1421[246].  Signore di Lugo 1437.  He recovered the Polesine from Venice in 1438, and bought Bagnacavallo and Massalombarda in the Romagna in 1440[247].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records the death 26 Dec 1441 "in Milano lo marchese Nicholo de Ferrara"[248]

m firstly (Jun 1397) GIGLIOLA da Carrara, daughter of FRANCESCO [II] "il Giovane" da Carrara Signore di Padova & his wife Taddea d'Este ([1382]-1416).  She died of the plague. 

m secondly (1418) PARISINA Malatesta, daughter of ANDREA Malatesta Signore di Cesena & his wife --- (1404-beheaded Ferrara 21 May 1425).  She committed adultery with her husband's illegitimate son Ugo and was beheaded[249].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "lo marchese Nicholo de Ferrara" beheaded "sua mugliere et Ugo sui figliolo" in 1424, adding that she was "figliola del signore Malatesta de Cesena"[250]

m thirdly ([1429/31]) RICCIARDA di Saluzzo, daughter of TOMASO III Marchese di Saluzzo & his wife Marguerite de Roucy (-Ferrara 16 Aug 1474, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  "Marchese Nicolao d'Este fù Alberto" issued a proxy dated 2 Dec 1430 for the negotiation of his marriage to "Rizarda figlia del fù Marchese di Saluzzo"[251]

Niccolò [III] & his second wife had three children:

1.         GINEVRA d'Este (24 Mar 1419-12 Oct 1440).  Twin with Luzia.  m as his first wife, SIGISMONDO PANDOLFO Malatesta Signore di Rimini, illegitimate son of PANDOLFO [III] Malatesta Signore di Rimini & his mistress Antonia da Barignano (Brescia 19 Jun 1417-Castel Sismondo 7 Oct 1468). 

2.         LUCIA d'Este (24 Mar 1419-28 Jun 1437).  Twin with Ginevra.  m (1437) CARLO Gonzaga di Mantua, son of GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Marchese di Mantua & his wife Paola Malatesta (-21 Dec 1456). 

3.         ALBERTO CARLO d'Este (1421-aged 21 days). 

Niccolò [III] & his third wife had two children:

4.         ERCOLE d'Este (26 Oct 1431-25 Jan 1505, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  Governor of Modena 1463.  He succeeded his half-brother in 1471 as ERCOLE I Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio.  

-        DUKES of FERRARA, MODENA and REGGIO

5.         SIGISMONDO d'Este (1433-Ferrara 1 Apr 1507).  Signore di San Martino di Rio 11 May 1501. 

-        SIGNORI di SAN MARTINO.

Niccolò [III] had three illegitimate children by STELLA dei Tolomei dell´Assassino, daughter of --- (bur Ferrara San Francesco). 

6.          UGO d'Este (1405-beheaded Ferrara 21 May 1425).  He committed adultery with his father's second wife and was beheaded[252].  The 15th century Cronachetta degli Sforza records that "lo marchese Nicholo de Ferrara" beheaded "sua mugliere et Ugo sui figliolo" in 1424, adding that she was "figliola del signore Malatesta de Cesena"[253]. 

7.          LEONELLO d'Este (Ferrara 21 Sep 1407-Palazzo di Belriguardo 1 Oct 1450, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  He was legitimated by the Pope in 1429.  He succeeded his father in 1441 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena e Reggio.  m firstly (Jan 1435) MARGHERITA Gonzaga, daughter of GIANFRANCESCO Gonzaga Marchese di Mantua & his wife Paola Malatesta (-3 Jul 1439).  m secondly (20 May 1444) MARIA d'Aragona, illegitimate daughter of ALFONSO V King of Aragon and Naples & his mistress Giraldona Carlino (-9 Dec 1449, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record the marriage 13 Apr 1444 of "Madama Maria figliola del Re d´Aragona" and "al Marchese di Ferrara"[254].  Leonello & his first wife had one child:

a)         NICCOLÒ d'Este (Ferrara 20 Jul 1438-beheaded Ferrara 4 Sep 1476, bur Ferrara San Francesco).

Leonello had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

b)         FRANCESCO d'Este (1444-after 1471).

8.          BORSO d'Este (1413-Ferrara 19 Aug 1471, bur Certosa).  He succeeded his brother 1450 as Signore di Ferrara, Modena e Reggio.  He was created Duke of Modena and Reggio by the Emperor 1452.  He was created Duke of Ferrara by the Pope 14 Apr 1471.    

Niccolò [III] had one illegitimate child by CATERINA de´ Medici, daughter of ---.

9.          MELIADUSE d'Este (1406-1452).  Abbot of Pomposa and Ferrara, resigned 1425.  Meliaduse had six illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

a)         SCIPIONE d'Este .  Scipione had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

i)          MELIADUSE d'Este (-after 1522).  Bishop of Comacchio 1497-1506.  Canon at Ferrara 1519.  Meliaduse had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:

(a)        ERCOLE d'Este .  1501.

(b)        SCIPIONE d'Este (Ferrara 1498-Casale Monferrato 15 Jul 1567, bur Casale cathedral).  Bishop of Casale.  Scipione had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

(1)        PAOLO d'Este .

b)         POLISSENA d'Este m firstly GIOVANNI Romei, son of ---.  m secondly SCARMACCIO Visconti, son of ---.

c)          2 sons.

d)         2 daughters.

Niccolò [III] had two illegitimate children by FILIPPA della Tavola, daughter of ---.

10.       GURONE Maria d'Este (-1484).  Canon at Ferrara.  Apostolic protonotary.  Abbot of Nonantola Santa Maria di Gavello e Campagnola.  Gurone had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

a)         NICCOLÒ MARIA d'Este (-Ferrara 5 Aug 1507, bur Ferrara cathedral).  Provost at Bondeno and Commendatario-Abbot of Santa Maria di Gavello 1483.  Bishop of Adria 1487-1502.  Governor of Viterbo 1502-1503.  Niccolò had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

i)          NICCOLÒ .

ii)         GURONE .

iii)        ERCOLE .

11.       ALBERTO d'Este (1415-8 Apr 1502).  Signore di Polesine di Rovigo 1471/74.  Alberto had four illegitimate children by BIANCA Mezzarili, wife of FRANCESCO Petrati, daughter of ---.

a)         daughter m (1490) FEBO Gonzaga dei Signori di Sabbioneta, son of ---.

b)         AGOSTINO .

c)          BORSO .

d)         FRANCESCO MARIA .

Niccolò [III] had three illegitimate children by CATARINA, daughter of TADDEO & his wife ---.

12.       ISOTTA d'Este (1425-1456)m firstly (1443) ODDANTONIO di Montefeltro Duke of Urbino, son of GUIDO ANTONIO di Montefeltro Conte di Urbino & his second wife --- (after 1424-1444).  m secondly (1446) STEFANO Frangipani Conte di Segni, son of --- (-1481).

13.       CAMILLA d'Este m (1448) RODOLFO Varano di Camerino, son of --- (-1464).

14.       BEATRICE d'Este (1427-before 29 Nov 1497).  m firstly (1448) NICCOLÒ da Correggio Conte di Corregio, son of --- (-[1453/54]).  m secondly (28 Oct 1454) TRISTANO Sforza Signore di Saliceto, Noceto e Lusurasco, illegitimate son of FRANCESCO I Sforza Duke of Milan & his mistress --- (Genoa 1424-Milan 1477). 

Niccolò [III] had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

15.       RINALDO d'Este ([1435]-8 Apr 1503)m (11 Jun 1472) as her second husband, LUCREZIA, widow of GIAMBARTOLOMEO Marchese di Carretto, illegitimate daughter of GUGLIELMO XI Marchese di Monferrato & his mistress --- (-after 1481).  Rinaldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         NICCOLÒ .  1511/12.  m LEONORA Caleagnini, daughter of ---.

Niccolò [III] had one illegitimate child by ANNA de' Roberti, daughter of ---: 

16.       BIANCA MARIA d'Este (18 Dec 1440-Mirandola 12 Jan 1506, bur Mirandola San Francesco)m (1468) GALEOTTO [I] Pico Signore della Mirandola, son of (-7 Apr 1499, bur Mirandola San Francesco).

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DUKES of FERRARA, MODENA and REGGIO

 

 

ERCOLE d'Este, son of NICCOLÒ [III] d´Este Signore di Ferrara e Modena & his third wife Ricciarda di Saluzzo (26 Oct 1431-25 Jan 1505, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  Governor of Modena 1463.  He succeeded his half-brother in 1471 as ERCOLE I Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio

m (Ferrara 4 Jul 1473) ELEONORA of Naples, daughter of FERRANTE I King of Naples & his first wife Isabella di Chiaramonte (Naples 22 Jun 1450-Ferrara 11 Oct 1493, bur Ferrara, Corpus Domini).  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "la regina Ysabella mogliera del re Ferrante primo" gave birth to a daughter "Dianora de Ragona, quale fo duchessa de Ferrara" 21 Jul 1450 and that "maddama de Aragona" married "al Ducha Ercoles de Ferrara" in 1460 and left for Ferrara[255].  

Ercole & his wife had six children: 

1.         ISABELLA d´Este (18 May 1474-13 Feb 1539).  m (12 Feb 1490) GIANFRANCESCO II Marchese di Mantua, of FEDERICO I Marchese di Mantua [Gonzaga] & his wife Margareta von Bayern (10 Aug 1466-29 Mar 1519). 

2.         BEATRICE d´Este (Naples 29 Jun 1475-2 Jan 1497)m (18 Sep 1491) LODOVICO Sforza, son of FRANCESCO Duke of Milan & his second wife Bianca Maria Visconti of Milan (Vigema [Vigevano?] 3 Aug 1452-27 May 1508).  He succeeded his nephew 1494 as LODOVICO “il Moro” Duke of Milan

3.         ALFONSO d´Este (21 Jul 1476-31 Oct 1534, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini).  He succeeded his father in 1505 as ALFONSO I Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio.  m firstly (12 Jan 1491) ANNA Sforza, daughter of GALEAZZO MARIA Sforza Duke of Milan & his second wife Bonne de Savoie (1473-30 Nov 1497).  m secondly (6 Jan 1502) as her third husband, LUCREZIA Borgia, divorced wife firstly of GIOVANNI Sforza Signore di Pesaro, widow secondly of ALFONSO d´Aragona Principe di Salerno Duca di Biscaglia, illegitimate daughter of RODRIGO Borgia [Pope Alexander VI] & his mistress Vannozza Catanei (Rome 18 Apr 1480-Ferrara 24 Jun 1519, bur Ferrara Corpus Domini).  m thirdly LAURA ESTOCHIA Dianti, daughter of FRANCESCO Dianti & his wife --- (-27 Jun 1573). 

-        DUKES of FERRARA, MODENA and REGGIO

4.         FERRANTE d´Este (Naples 19 Sep 1477-Ferrara 22 Feb 1540, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli=.  

5.         IPPOLITO d´Este (Ferrara 20 Mar or Nov 1479-Ferrara Aug 1520).  Commendatario-Abbot of Pomposa 1485.  Archbishop of Gran, Primate of Hungary 1487 to 1496.  Cardinal 1493.  Archbishop of Milan 1498. 

6.         ALBERTO d´Este (1481-1482, bur Ferrara Santa Maria degli Angeli).  

 



[1] Dean, T. (1988) Land and Power in Late Medieval Ferrara: The Rule of the Este 1350-1450 (Cambridge Un iversity Press), pp. 13-14. 

[2] Carutti, D. (1889) Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, marchionum in Italia (Turin) ("Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ"), L, p. 17. 

[3] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[4] Gloria, A. (ed.) (1877) Codice Diplomatico Padovano al secolo sesto a tutto l´undecimo (Venice) ("Codice Diplomatico Padovano"), 223, p. 252. 

[5] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 256, p. 280. 

[6] Genealogia Welforum 8, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[7] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 314, p. 338. 

[8] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 321, p. 344. 

[9] Bernoldi Chronicon 1097, MGH SS V, p. 465. 

[10] Genealogia Welforum 8, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[11] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[12] Busson, G. and Ledru, A. (eds.) (1902) Actus Pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium (Le Mans) ("Actus pontificum Cenomannis"), 377. 

[13] Le Prévost, A. (1845) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber IV, XII, p. 252. 

[14] Annalista Saxo 1126. 

[15] D H IV 289, p. 377. 

[16] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 256, p. 280. 

[17] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XI, p. 327. 

[18] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 193. 

[19] Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Presses Universitaires de Nancy), p. 57. 

[20] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XI, pp. 330-2. 

[21] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 314, p. 338. 

[22] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 321, p. 344. 

[23] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XI, p. 329. 

[24] P. N. Dunbar (trans.) G. A. Loud (rev.) (2004) Amatus of Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Boydell) ("Amatus") VIII.34, p. 204. 

[25] Muratori, L. A. (1717) Delle Antichità Estensi ed Italiane, Parte I (Modena) ("Muratori (Este)"), p. 326. 

[26] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 328. 

[27] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 330. 

[28] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 330. 

[29] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 331. 

[30] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 330. 

[31] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 331. 

[32] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 335. 

[33] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 331. 

[34] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 335. 

[35] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 335. 

[36] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 335. 

[37] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 335. 

[38] D H IV 289, p. 377. 

[39] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 6. 

[40] D H IV 289, p. 377. 

[41] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 256, p. 280. 

[42] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 314, p. 338. 

[43] Jordan (1986), p. 6. 

[44] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 336, p. 358. 

[45] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 314. 

[46] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 316. 

[47] Annales Veronenses, Annales Sanctæ Trinitatis, MGH SS XIX, p. 2. 

[48] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 324. 

[49] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 481. 

[50] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 481. 

[51] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 321. 

[52] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 341. 

[53] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 343. 

[54] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 322. 

[55] Codice Diplomatico Eceliniano, XXVII, p. 39, quoting "Ex Tabulario Comitum Sambonifaciorum". 

[56] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 323. 

[57] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 323. 

[58] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 481. 

[59] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 341. 

[60] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 343. 

[61] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 322. 

[62] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 337. 

[63] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 339. 

[64] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 348. 

[65] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 360. 

[66] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 481. 

[67] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 341. 

[68] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 343. 

[69] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 322. 

[70] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 345. 

[71] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 337. 

[72] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 339. 

[73] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 348. 

[74] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 326. 

[75] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 360. 

[76] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 326. 

[77] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 360. 

[78] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 326. 

[79] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 360. 

[80] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 481. 

[81] Codice Diplomatico Eceliniano, XXVII, p. 39, quoting "Ex Tabulario Comitum Sambonifaciorum". 

[82] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 336. 

[83] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 341. 

[84] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 343. 

[85] Codice Diplomatico Eceliniano, XXVII, p. 39, quoting "Ex Tabulario Comitum Sambonifaciorum". 

[86] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 336. 

[87] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 345. 

[88] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 337. 

[89] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 339. 

[90] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 348. 

[91] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 481. 

[92] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[93] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[94] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[95] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 397. 

[96] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[97] Cipolla, C. (ed.) Annales Veronenses Antiqui, Bulletino dell´Istituto Storico Italiano, No. 29 (Rome, 1908) ("Annales Veronenses Antiqui"), p. 51. 

[98] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 149. 

[99] Cipolla, C. (1901) Documenti per la storia delle relazioni fra Verona e Mantova nel secolo XIII, Bibliotheca Historica Italica, Series altera, Vol. I (Milan) ("Verona Mantua Relazioni"), VI, p. 16. 

[100] Annales Mantuani, MGH SS XIX, p. 20. 

[101] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 392. 

[102] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 397. 

[103] Annales Mantuani, MGH SS XIX, p. 20. 

[104] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 403. 

[105] Annales Veronenses Antiqui, p. 53. 

[106] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CDVII, p. 151, quoting Muratori (Este), Parte I, pp. 406-7. 

[107] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, p. 850. 

[108] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungariæ (Buda), Tome II, p. 318. 

[109] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 379. 

[110] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 403. 

[111] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 754. 

[112] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. I, 12, MGH SS XIX, p. 45. 

[113] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 403. 

[114] Annales Mantuani, MGH SS XIX, p. 20. 

[115] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, pp. 166-67. 

[116] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. III, 9, MGH SS XIX, p. 60. 

[117] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 154. 

[118] Macartney, C. A. (1962) Hungary: A Short History (Edinburgh University Press), Chapter 2, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003). 

[119] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 155. 

[120] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 403.  

[121] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 184. 

[122] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 407. 

[123] Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, CDVII, p. 151, quoting Muratori (Este), Parte I, pp. 406-7. 

[124] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. I, 12, MGH SS XIX, p. 45. 

[125] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 403. 

[126] Cronica Alberti de Bezanis, MGH SS rerum Germanicarum in usum Scholarum II (Hannover, 1908), p. 46. 

[127] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[128] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[129] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[130] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[131] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 364. 

[132] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 396. 

[133] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 397. 

[134] Annales Veronenses Antiqui, p. 58. 

[135] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. I, 12, MGH SS XIX, p. 45. 

[136] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, pp. 151 and 152. 

[137] Muratori (Este), Parte I, p. 403. 

[138] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome I, p. 754. 

[139] Verona Mantua Relazioni, XXX, p. 61. 

[140] Muratori, L. A. (1740) Delle Antichità Estensi ed Italiane, Parte II (Modena) ("Muratori (Este)"), p. 18. 

[141] Annales Mantuani, MGH SS XIX, p. 24. 

[142] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 377. 

[143] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 18. 

[144] Miller, W. (1921) Essays on the Latin Orient (Cambridge), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 249, citing Litta Le famiglie celebri italiane, Vol. V. 

[145] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 167. 

[146] Annales Veronenses, MGH SS XIX, p. 14. 

[147] Annales Veronenses, MGH SS XIX, p. 9. 

[148] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 157. 

[149] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. XII, 16, MGH SS XIX, p. 146. 

[150] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 162. 

[151] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 162. 

[152] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XII, Chronicon Patavinum, col. 212. 

[153] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 18. 

[154] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 185. 

[155] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 18. 

[156] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 376. 

[157] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 18. 

[158] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 18. 

[159] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 162. 

[160] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, pp. 167-8. 

[161] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 18. 

[162] Dean (1988), p. 15. 

[163] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 73. 

[164] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 597. 

[165] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 488. 

[166] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 342. 

[167] Annales S. Iustinæ Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 183. 

[168] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 168. 

[169] Historia Ricobaldi Ferrariensis, RIS IX, col. 135. 

[170] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 339. 

[171] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 341. 

[172] Verona Mantua Relazioni, LXVII, p. 355. 

[173] Verona Mantua Relazioni, LXVII, p. 359. 

[174] Verona Mantua Relazioni, LXVII, p. 377. 

[175] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 168. 

[176] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 595. 

[177] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 153. 

[178] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 74. 

[179] Chronica Parva Ferrariensis, RIS, VIII, col. 488. 

[180] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 48. 

[181] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 78. 

[182] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 360. 

[183] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 168. 

[184] Chronicon Estense, RIS XVI, col. 338. 

[185] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 256.  According to ES III 750, she died [1320/21], which is consistent with her second husband's second marriage in 1324. 

[186] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 75. 

[187] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 351. 

[188] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 76. 

[189] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 78. 

[190] Dean (1988), p. 18. 

[191] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 75. 

[192] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. LXXI, RIS XVI, col. 687. 

[193] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. VII, RIS XVI, col. 313. 

[194] Annales Mediolanenses, Cap. CIX, RIS XVI, col. 714. 

[195] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 74. 

[196] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 36. 

[197] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 74. 

[198] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 48. 

[199] Dean (1988), p. 18. 

[200] Dean (1988), p. 18. 

[201] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 382. 

[202] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 384. 

[203] Dean (1988), pp. 19-20. 

[204] Dean (1988), pp. 23-4. 

[205] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), pp. 465-7. 

[206] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, RIS, XI, col. 74. 

[207] Muratori (Este), Parte II, p. 48. 

[208] Dean (1988), p. 21. 

[209] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 388. 

[210] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 340. 

[211] Dean (1988), p. 17. 

[212] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 386. 

[213] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 340. 

[214] Dean (1988), p. 18. 

[215] Dean (1988), p. 19. 

[216] Inventory of the State Archives of Turin (“State Archives”), volume 102, page 53, fascicule 1, consulted at <http://ww2.multix.it/asto/asp/inventari.asp> (14 Nov 2003). 

[217] State Archives, volume 102, page 53, fascicule 2. 

[218] State Archives, volume 104, page 59, fascicule 13.1.1. 

[219] State Archives, volume 102, pages 53, fascicule 1 and 2, respectively. 

[220] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 340. 

[221] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 340. 

[222] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 385. 

[223] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 340. 

[224] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 342. 

[225] Dean (1988), p. 19. 

[226] Dean (1988), p. 19. 

[227] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, Additamenta Varia, RIS, XI, col. 82. 

[228] Chronicon Estense, RIS XV, col. 380. 

[229] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 333. 

[230] Osio, L. (ed.) (1864) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan) ("Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi"), Vol. I, CXXVIII, p. 186. 

[231] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CLVII, p. 221. 

[232] ES I.1 32. 

[233] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XI, RIS XVI, col. 333. 

[234] Annales Veteres Mutinensium, Additamenta Varia, RIS, XI, col. 82. 

[235] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 503. 

[236] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIII, RIS XVI, col. 392. 

[237] Dean (1988), p. 20. 

[238] Petri Azarii Chronicon, Cap. XIII and XV, RIS XVI, cols. 392 and 421. 

[239] Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi, Vol. I, CXXVIII, p. 186. 

[240] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 596. 

[241] Dean (1988), p. 21. 

[242] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 596. 

[243] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 596. 

[244] Dean (1988), pp. 23-4. 

[245] Dean (1988), p. 25. 

[246] Dean (1988), p. 26. 

[247] Dean (1988), p. 26. 

[248] Una inedita chronachetta degli Sforza, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XIX, Fascicolo IV (Naples, 1894) ("Cronachetta degli Sforza"), p. 734. 

[249] Dean (1988), p. 27. 

[250] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 731. 

[251] State Archives, volume 25, page 18, fascicule 21. 

[252] Dean (1988), p. 27. 

[253] Cronachetta degli Sforza, p. 731. 

[254] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 231. 

[255] Capasso, B. (ed.) ´Le chronache de li antique ri del regno di Napoli di D. Gaspare Fuscolillo´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno Primo, Fascicolo I (Naples, 1876) ("Gaspare Fuscolillo"), I, pp. 48 and 50.