MOORISH SPAIN

  v3.0 Updated 18 June 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                WALI of al-ANDALUS. 6

Chapter 2.                EMIRATE of CÓRDOBA and CALIPHATE (UMMAYAD DYNASTY) 14

A.         EMIRS of CÓRDOBA.. 14

B.         CALIPHS.. 27

Chapter 3.                REGENTS of CÓRDOBA. 32

A.         FAMILY of AL-MANSUR.. 33

B.         FAMILY of MOHAMMED bin JAWAR.. 36

Chapter 4.                CALIPHATE (HAMUDID or HASANID DYNASTY) 37

Chapter 5.                   HUESCA, TUDELA & ZARAGOZA, 9th-10th CENTURIES. 41

A.         HUESCA – MUSA ibn GALIND.. 41

B.         HUESCA – BANU AMRUS FAMILY.. 41

C.        BANU QASI FAMILY.. 47

Chapter 6.                TAIFA KINGDOMS. 64

A.         ALMERÍA.. 65

B.         BADAJOZ. 66

C.        DENIA.. 68

D.        GRANADA.. 69

E.         MURCIA.. 69

F.         SEVILLE.. 71

G.        TOLEDO.. 75

H.        VALENCIA.. 76

I.      ZARAGOZA.. 77

Chapter 7.                ALMORAVIDS. 78

Chapter 8.                ALMOHADS. 82

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The following represents an outline of the genealogies of the Muslim rulers of Spain, on which much work remains to be done.  These families are of interest not only because of their significance in the history of the Iberian peninsula over many centuries, but also because of their family relationships with the Caliphs of Baghdad and with the Christian rulers of northern Spain. 

 

There are no surviving contemporary Arabic primary sources which recount the Muslim invasion of Spain in 711/12, although the arrival of the Muslims in Spain is narrated from the Christian point of view in the Chronicle of 754[1].  The earliest Arabic record is provided by the anonymous Akhbar al-Majmua (Collection of Anecdotes, translated into Spanish in the mid-19th century by Lafuente as "Ajbar Machmua"[2]), dated to [940] by Chalmeta[3], although Lafuente dates it to the 11th century.  The Ajbar Machmua is useful for the conquest and the period of the early governors of al-Andalus, but contains few details in its review of the reigns of the emirs of Córdoba, descendants of Abd al-Rahman I.  The Tarikh Iftitah al-Andalus (History of the Conquest of al-Andalus) by Ibn al-Qutiya (a descendant of King Witiza[4], see the document SPAIN, VANDALS SUEVI & VISIGOTHS) can also be dated to the mid-10th century[5].  Most of the 10th century compilations, including the 10th century Ahmad bin Musa al-Razi and the mid-11th century Ibn Hayyan, are lost but their material was incorporated into the anonymous Fath al-Andalus ([1100]) and Ibn Idhari´s Bayan al-Maghrib ([1300])[6]Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib is dated to after [1306].  However, it incorporates fragments of earlier works which have since disappeared, including a chronicle written by Arib ben Sa’d in Córdoba in the 10th century[7], and cites earlier historians with commentary in case of conflicting versions of events which adds credibility to its narrative. 

 

The lateness of all these sources has resulted in considerable debate about their reliability.  The vivid narrative of the early Arabic sources suggests that entertaining readers with interesting stories was more important to their authors than reflecting historical fact.  The Ajbar Machmua records the succession of "Rodrigo…que no era de estirpe real" after the death of "el rey de España Gaitixa", adding that he raped "la hija de Julian" [Governor of Ceuta] who had been sent to his court, her father suggesting the conquest of Spain to Musa bin Naser [Governor of Ifrikiyah] in revenge[8].  The same story is repeated by Ibn al-Qutiya[9] and Ibn Abd-el-Hakem[10]Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib provides some different perspective, stating that “on raconte de quatre manières différentes l´entrée des musulmans dans [l´Espagne]” and acknowledges “la contradiction qui existe entre ces quatre versions[11].  He reports that, according to the first version, “Abd Allah ben Nafi ben Abd el-Kays Fihri” and ”Abd Allah ben el-Haçin Fihri” arrived in Spain by sea 6 Oct 647 “du temps d´Othman” [Othman bin Affan al-Quraishi, who ruled as Caliph from 644 to 656, see the document WEST ASIA and NORTH AFRICA (1)].  Ibn Idhari adds that “d´après Tabari”, they entered the country “par terre et par mer” which they conquered “de même que celle de la France”.  Ibn Idhari´s reported second version “que rapporte aussi Tabari” states that the conqueror was “Mousa ben Naçayr” who entered Spain 8 Nov 709.  His third version indicates that “Tarif” entered Spain in 709, and the fourth that “Tarik” entered in 709 [changing the date in a later passage to “28 Oct 710”] and was followed by “Mousa” in 710[12].  Ibn Idhari expands on the last version by recording that “l`infidèle Julien gouverneur d´Algéziras” made contact with “Mousa ben Naçayr gouverneur d´Ifrikiyya” through “Tarik ben Ziyad qui administrait Tangers et les environs au nom de Mousa” and invited them to enter Spain, that “Welid ben Abd el-Melik” [Caliph Walid I, 705-715] advised them to undertake the project “avec quelques escadrons, sans trop exposer les musulmans”, and that Musa sent “un berbère Abou Zora Tarif” as leader of “100 cavaliers et...400 fantassins” who crossed from Tanger in Jul 710 and returned with captives and booty from the area of Algeciras[13].  A later passage in Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib provides an alternative explanation for the motivation of “Julien” who, according to “Isa ben Mohammed, l´un des descendants d´Aboul-Mohadjir...dans son livre”, complained that “un patrice nommé Loderik [=Rodrigo] a dirigé ses ataques contre notre roi et notre royaume” and, after the death of Julian´s father, had “[lui] a couvert de mépris et d´humiliation”, although a later passage repeats the same story of the mistreatment by “Roderik roi Goth d´Espagne” of “la fille de Julien” at his court[14]

 

The Ajbar Machmua also records a preliminary expedition of 400 men, which was followed in 711 by an army of 7,000 "muslimes, en su mayor parte berberiscos y libertos, pues había poquisimos árabes", with a supplementary contingent of 5,000 men sent later by Musa bin Naser, who together defeated King Rodrigo and his army of 100,000 combatants "en un lugar llamado el Lago"[15].  The account is evidently romanticised, with detailed descriptions of Rodrigo´s horse, his bejewelled gold saddle, and the king´s disappearance without trace after being unseated from his mount.  Ibn-el Kouthya states that "Tharik fils de Ziad" defeated Rodrigo "sur les bords du Guadalété, dans la province de Sidonia"[16]Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that the battle was fought at "Shedunia, in…the valley of Umm-Hakim", where Rodrigo was killed[17].  Ibn-el Kouthya states that Rodrigo asked for assistance from "les fils de Witiza, qui avaient déjà atteint l'âge de puberté et pouvaient monter à cheval", but that "Almounz…avec ses deux frères" betrayed Rodrigo and informed "Tharik fils de Ziad"[18].  The alleged involvement of the sons of King Witiza must be exaggerated, as the chronology demonstrates that they were children at the time (see SPAIN, VANDALS SUEVI & VISIGOTHS).  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib describes the second wave of invasion 27 Apr 711 led by “Tarik” who led “une armée de 12,000 berbères”, after receiving the consent of “son patron Ibn Noçayr” and landed “près d´une montagne qui porte encore son nom” [Gibraltar] and provides detailed reports of the different versions of the subsequent battle recorded by different chroniclers[19]The Ajbar Machmua records that the victorious Muslim army moved northwards to conquer Écija, where the army divided and different contingents headed for Toledo, Córdoba, Granada, and Orihuela[20].  The same source records the conquest of Seville by Musa bin Naser, who then marched on Mérida[21]Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records detailed descriptions of the capitulation (in chronological order) of Córdoba, Málaga, Granada, Murcia, Toledo, Carmona, Sevilla, Mérida, Sevilla (a second time) and Niebla[22]The impression is that the southern half of Spain at least capitulated within a couple of years of the first invasion. 

 

The rulers of Muslim Spain (normally referred to today as "al-Andalus") during the first forty years after the conquest, governors appointed by the viceroys of Ifrikiyah based at Kairouan in present-day Tunisia and under the suzerainty of the Ummayad caliphs at Damascus, are set out in Chapter 1 of the present document.  As will be seen below, this period was marked by a succession of appointments, with each governor (wali) rarely governing for more than a couple of years and with no single family of governors establishing any dynastic continuity. 

 

After the Abbasid dynasty overthrew the Ummayad caliphate in 750, Abd er-Rahman, grandson of the last Ummayad Caliph Hisham, fled to North Africa and in 755 crossed into al-Andalus where he was proclaimed emir at Córdoba in 756 and resisted attempts by the Abbasids to seize control (see Chapter 2).  His descendants continued to rule al-Andalus until the early 11th century, Emir Abd er-Rahman III adopting the title Caliph in 929.  Towards the end of the period of Ummayad rule, real power in the state shifted to al-Mansur and his family who relegated the caliphs to secondary positions (see Chapter 3). 

 

This document also sets out Muslim families, probably of Visigothic origin, who established themselves in the Ebro valley and other cities in the north-west bordering the Carolingian March of Spain in the 9th and 10th centuries, notably the Banu-Amrus and Banu-Qasi (see Chapter 5). 

 

The period 1010 to 1013 saw a breakdown of the caliphate system of government in Córdoba, when locally based lords assumed control in their own areas forming the basis for the network of so-called Taifa kingdoms which emerged in al-Andalus during the course of the 11th century (Chapter 6).  The fragmentation of power and military weakness of individual Taifa kingdoms enabled the Christians to conquer significant amounts of territory from the Taifa kingdoms, particularly during the reign of Alfonso VI King of Castile.  The southern Taifa kings sought help from the Almoravid dynasty, Berbers who had originated from the Senegal and Niger river basins and had established themselves as rulers in Morocco in the mid-11th century.  The Almoravids assumed control of al-Andalus with relative ease and ruled in Spain between 1086 and 1147 (Chapter 7).  However, faced with the invasion of the Almohads in Morocco and the advances made by King Alfonso VII in the Iberian peninsular, the Almoravid regime collapsed and a new generation of fragmented Taifa kingdoms emerged in al-Andalus. 

 

The Almohad movement emerged in Morocco in the early 12th century, based on a simplified interpretation and puritanical application of Islam.  They transferred their capital to Seville in 1170, ruling until their departure for Morocco in 1228 (see Chapter 8).  Thereafter, the remaining Muslim centres fell to the Christian armies until Muslim power in Spain was limited to the Nasrid dynasty, which established themselves as rulers of Granada where they survived as rulers until 1492. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    WALI of al-ANDALUS

 

 

[Two siblings]: 

1.         MUSA bin NUSAYR (-El-Merbed 716).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Al-Walid" (Caliph Walid I, succeeded 705) appointed "Muça ben Nosair, cliente de los Benú Omeyga y descendiente de los infieles hechos prisioneros por Jálid en Ain-Attamr" as "gobernador de Ifrikya" in A.H. 78 (30 Mar 697/19 Mar 698) (so misdated), and his campaigns across North Africa against the Berbers with "jefe de la vanguardia…Tárik ben Ziyed" and their conquest of Tanger in A.H. 89 (1 Dec 707/19 Nov 708) and Ceuta, governed by "[gobernador] del Rey de España…un infiel…Julian"[23].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Musa Ibn Nosseyr" appointed "Tarik Ibn Zeiyad" as governor of Tanger and "returned to Cairwan"[24].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Mouça fils de Noçair" crossed from North Africa into Spain after the success of "Tharik fils de Ziad", landed at "le point du littoral connus sous le nom de Port de Mouça", captured Sidonia, entered Seville one year after Tarik, captured Mérida and marched towards Alicante, before turning northwards and entering the province of Galicia[25].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Musa Ibn Nosseyr set out for Andalus in rajab of the year 93" (Apr/May 712), adding in a later passage that he stayed there "in the year 93, 94 and a month of the year 95" (until Oct 713)[26].  The Ajbar Machmua records that "un legado del califa Al-Walid" arrived in Spain, dismissed Musa and expelled him "con Tarik y Moguits", leaving "como gobernador…a su hijo Abdo-l-Aziz" who established himself in Seville, in A.H. 95 (26 Sep 713/15 Sep 714)[27].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Musa Ibn Nosseyr" appeared before the caliph in Damascus "in the year 96…six nights before the end of rabia first" (8 Dec 714)[28].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records the death in A.H. 97 (716) of "Musa Ibn Nosseyr" at "El-Merbed"[29]m (a) as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly Rabia.  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "the mother of Abd-Allah Ibn Musa Ibn Mosseyr" was the wife of "Rabia the lord of the privy-seal of [Caliph] Yezid"[30].  Musa bin Nusayr & his wife (a) had one child: 

a)         ABD ALLAH [Abd el-Aziz] (-murdered [721/23]).  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Musa Ibn Nosseyr…left the government of Cairwan to his son Abd Allah who was his eldest son" when he crossed to Spain in A.H. 93 (Apr/May 712)[31].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Abd-Allah Ibn Musa" was deposed in A.H. 96 (715), but was restored by Caliph Yazid in A.H. 101 (719/20)[32].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Abd-Allah Ibn Musa" was killed on the orders of "Beshr Ibn Safwan", the day before a pardon was received from Caliph Yazid, in A.H. 103-04 (721/23) from the context[33]

Musa bin Nusayr had two children by an unknown wife or concubine: 

b)         MERWAN .  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Musa Ibn Nosseyr sent his son Merwan to Tangiers to wage a holy war upon her coast" and that he returned leaving "Tarik Ibn Amru the command of his army"[34]

c)         ABD al-AZIZ (-murdered Robina [Jul/Aug] 717).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "un legado del califa Al-Walid" arrived in Spain, dismissed Musa and expelled him "con Tarik y Moguits", leaving "como gobernador…a su hijo Abdo-l-Aziz" who established himself in Seville, in A.H. 95 (26 Sep 713/15 Sep 714)[35].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Mouça fils de Noçair" assigned "le gouvernement générale à son fils Abd-el-Aziz" when the caliph ordered his return to Damascus, appointing "Habib ben Abi Okba ben Nafe el_fibry" as his deputy, and that Abd el-Aziz established Seville as his capital and completed the conquest of al-Andalus[36].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Musa Ibn Nosseyr" left the "government of Andalus to his son Abd Elaziz" when he left in Oct 713[37].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Habib, fils d'Abou-Obeida, le Fihry, et Ziad, fils de Nabega, de la tribu de Temim" decapitated Abd el-Aziz, on the orders of Caliph Suleiman, in the mosque of "Robina, qui domine la plaine de Seville" at the end of A.H. 98 (717)[38].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Habib Ibn Abi Obeida Elfihri, and Zeiyad Ibn En-nabighah Et-temimi" chased "Abd-Elaziz Ibn Musa" out of the mosque and that he was killed by Zeiyad, in A.H. 97 (716)[39].  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Abdo-l-Aziz" was killed "a fines del año 98" (Jul/Aug 717)[40]m ([after Oct 713]) as her second husband, EGILONA [Eilo], widow of RODRIGO King of the Visigoths, daughter of ---.  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Abdo-l-Aziz" married "la mujer de Rodrigo…Umm-Asim", who persuaded her second husband to wear a crown which was seen as unislamic[41].  Her two marriages are confirmed by Ibn Abd-el-Hakem who records that "Abd-Elaziz Ibn Musa, after the departure of his father, had married a Christian lady, a daughter of a king of Andalus…Roderic whom Tarik killed" (after Oct 713)[42]Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records that “Abd el-Aziz” married “Aylo veuve de Loderik, laquelle fut la mère d´Açim (Oumm-Açim) et avec qui il habita à Seville[43].  From a chronological point of view, it appears impossible that she was “la mère d´Açim (Oumm-Açim)”: it is suggested that this text refers to her own change of name after marriage, which appears corroborated by the next source.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Abd el-Aziz married "une femme de la nation des Goths…Oumm-Aasim", which was deeply unpopular[44]

2.         [daughter .  Her family connection and marriage are confirmed by Ibn-el Kouthya who records that the Berbers appointed "Ayyoub, fils de Habib le Lakhmy, neveu de Mouça" as their commander, because "sa mère était une sœur de l'illustre général"[45].  It should be noted that the earlier Ajbar Machmua does not mention the relationship (see below).]  m HABIB el-Lakhmi, son of ---.  One child: 

a)         AYUB .  The Ajbar Machmua records that, following the death of "Abdo-l-Aziz" and "despues de haber estado años sin…un wali" [which is inconsistent with the rest of the chronology of the passage] "Ayob ben Habib [Al-Lajmi]" was chosen as wali and transferred his capital to Córdoba "a principios del año 99" (Aug/Sep 717)[46].  His appointment was made without the approval of the Caliph, as a later passage in the same source records that "Obaid-Allah ben Zaid, el Koraixi", appointed as governor of Ifrikiya by Caliph Suleyman, appointed "Al-Horr ben Abd-Allah Al-Tsakafi" who was charged with investigating the murder of Abd al-Aziz[47].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that the Berbers appointed "Ayyoub, fils de Habib le Lakhmy, neveu de Mouça" as their commander, because "sa mère était une sœur de l'illustre général", adding that his descendants "[existent] encore…aux environs de Binna dans la province de Ryia"[48].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that the murderers of "Abd-Elaziz Ibn Musa" appointed "Aiyub a nephew of Musa Ibn Nosseyr" as governor of al-Andalus while they took the head of Abd el-Aziz to the caliph in Damascus[49]

 

 

1.         ABD al-Rahman al-TakefiOne child: 

a)         Al-HORR .  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Obaid-Allah ben Zaid, el Koraixi", appointed as governor of Ifrikiya by Caliph Suleyman [whose death is recorded 3 Oct 717], appointed "Al-Horr ben Abd-Allah Al-Tsakafi" who was charged with investigating the murder of Abd al-Aziz[50].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Abd-Allah fils de Yezid", installed as vice-roy "de l'Ifrikia et des provinces du Magreb", appointed "Al-Horr, fils d'Abd-errahman le Thakeli" as wali in Spain[51]

 

2.         MALIK al-Khawlani .  One child: 

a)         al-SAMH .  The Ajbar Machmua records that Caliph Omar II appointed "Ismail ben Abd-Allah" as governor of Ifrikiya and "Aç-Çamh ben Melic Al-Jaulani" as governor of Spain after his accession [after 3 Oct 717], and that al-Samh arrived A.H. 100 (3 Aug 718/23 Jul 719) and rebuilt the bridge of Córdoba[52].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Caliph "Omar, fils d'Abd-el-Aziz" appointed "Al-Sameh, fils de Malek le Khaulani" as wali in Spain at the same time as appointing "Ismail ben Abd-Allah seigneur des Beni-Makhzoum" as viceroy in Africa[53].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Al-Sameh sent detailed reports to the caliph concerning the Muslim forces in Spain, the towns conquered and the placement of their citadels, and that he built "le pont de Cordoue, jeté sur le Guadalquivir, en face du Khezzan"[54]

 

3.         SUHAYM al-Kalbi .  One child: 

a)         ANBASA .  The Ajbar Machmua records that Caliph Yazid II [succeeded 720] appointed "Bixr bin Safwan, hermano de Hanthala ben Safwan" as governor of Ifrikiya who appointed "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi" as governor of Spain[55].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Caliph Yazid appointed "Biebr, fils de Safouan" as viceroy in Africa, and that he appointed "Anbaça, fils de Sohaim le Kelby" as wali in al-Andalus[56].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Anbasa Ibn Soheym El-Kelbi" was appointed governor of al-Andalus to replace "El-horr Ibn Abd-Errahman El-Absi" after Caliph Yazid died in 724[57]

 

4.         SALAMA al-Kalbi .  One child: 

a)         YAHYA .  The Ajbar Machmua names, in order, "Yahya ben Maçlama Al- Quelbi, Otsmen ben Abi Çaid Al-Jatsami, noveno wali, Hodzaifa ben Al-Ahwaz Al-Kaisi, Al-Haitsam ben Ofair Al-Quinani, Abdo-r-Rahmen ben Abd-Allah Al-Gafeki…Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" as successive governors of Spain after "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi", but gives no further information about the first four (no dates)[58].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Yahia, fils de Salama le Kelby" succeeded "Anbaça, fils de Sohaim le Kelby" as wali in al-Andalus[59]

 

5.         ABU NISA al-Khathami .  One child: 

a)         UTHMAN .  The Ajbar Machmua names, in order, "Yahya ben Maçlama Al- Quelbi, Otsmen ben Abi Çaid Al-Jatsami, noveno wali, Hodzaifa ben Al-Ahwaz Al-Kaisi, Al-Haitsam ben Ofair Al-Quinani, Abdo-r-Rahmen ben Abd-Allah Al-Gafeki…Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" as successive governors of Spain after "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi", but gives no further information about the first four (no dates)[60].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Otman, fils d'Abou Tiça le Khotaimi" succeeded "Yahia, fils de Salama le Kelby" as wali in al-Andalus[61]

 

6.         al-HAWAS al-Qaisi .  One child: 

a)         HUDHAYFA .  The Ajbar Machmua names, in order, "Yahya ben Maçlama Al- Quelbi, Otsmen ben Abi Çaid Al-Jatsami, noveno wali, Hodzaifa ben Al-Ahwaz Al-Kaisi, Al-Haitsam ben Ofair Al-Quinani, Abdo-r-Rahmen ben Abd-Allah Al-Gafeki…Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" as successive governors of Spain after "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi", but gives no further information about the first four (no dates)[62].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Hodaifa, fils d'El-Hawwas le Kaici" succeeded "Otman, fils d'Abou Tiça le Khotaimi" as wali in al-Andalus[63]

 

7.         ABD al-Qafi .  One child: 

a)         al-HAYTHAM .  The Ajbar Machmua names, in order, "Yahya ben Maçlama Al- Quelbi, Otsmen ben Abi Çaid Al-Jatsami, noveno wali, Hodzaifa ben Al-Ahwaz Al-Kaisi, Al-Haitsam ben Ofair Al-Quinani, Abdo-r-Rahmen ben Abd-Allah Al-Gafeki…Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" as successive governors of Spain after "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi", but gives no further information about the first four (no dates)[64].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "El-Haitam, fils d'Abd-el-Kafi" succeeded "Hodaifa, fils d'El-Hawwas le Kaici" as wali in al-Andalus[65]

 

8.         ABD ALLAH al-Ghafiqi .  One child: 

a)         ABD al-Rahman (-killed in battle [733/34]).  The Ajbar Machmua names, in order, "Yahya ben Maçlama Al- Quelbi, Otsmen ben Abi Çaid Al-Jatsami, noveno wali, Hodzaifa ben Al-Ahwaz Al-Kaisi, Al-Haitsam ben Ofair Al-Quinani, Abdo-r-Rahmen ben Abd-Allah Al-Gafeki…Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" as successive governors of Spain after "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi", adding that Abd al-Rahman was defeated and killed at "la Calzada de los Mártires" (no dates)[66].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Abd-errahman, fils d'Abd-Allah le Gafiki" succeeded "El-Haitam, fils d'Abd-el-Kafi" as wali in al-Andalus, adding that his descendants, whose residence was "une localité dite la Mernana des Ghafiki sur le grand plateau qui domine Séville", believed that their ancestor was appointed by Caliph Yazid[67].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "governor of Ifrikiya…Ubeida Ibn Abd-Errahman" appointed "Abd-Errahman Ibn Abd Allah Elakki" as governor of al-Andalus, after A.H. 110 (728/29), adding that he "made an expedition into France…[and] conquered them" but was killed in A.H. 115 (733/34)[68]

 

9.         ATAN al-Fihri .  One child: 

a)         ABD al-Malik (-murdered 743).  The Ajbar Machmua names, in order, "Yahya ben Maçlama Al- Quelbi, Otsmen ben Abi Çaid Al-Jatsami, noveno wali, Hodzaifa ben Al-Ahwaz Al-Kaisi, Al-Haitsam ben Ofair Al-Quinani, Abdo-r-Rahmen ben Abd-Allah Al-Gafeki…Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" as successive governors of Spain after "Anbaça ben Çohaim Alqulbi", adding that Abd al-Malik was descended from "Moharib, rama de Fihr, tribu de Koraix" and that his "primer waliado duró cerca de seis meses nada mas" (no dates)[69].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Abd el-Malek, fils de Katan le Fihri" succeeded "Abd-errahman, fils d'Abd-Allah le Gafiki" as wali in al-Andalus[70].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that the authority of "Abd-el-Malek, fils de Katan le Fihrien" was recognised in al-Andalus after "Okba fils d'El-Haddjadj le Saloulien" was deposed[71].  It is not clear from these two separate passages whether Abd el-Malek held the waliat twice, or whether the text of the chronicle is merely confused.  However, the matters is clarified by the Ajbar Machmua which records that "Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" rebelled against "Okba ben Al-Hachaeh" and expelled him from Spain at the time of the Berber revolts, which the source dates to A.H. 121 (18 Dec 738/6 Dec 739)[72].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem also records that, firstly, "governor of Ifrikiya…Ubeida Ibn Abd-Errahman" appointed "Abd El-malik Ibn Katan" as governor of al-Andalus after "Abd-Errahman Ibn Abd Allah Elakki" was killed, although it states that the latter died in A.H. 115 (733/34) but that the new appointment was made before "the month of ramadan" in A.H. 114 (Oct/Nov 732)[73], and secondly, that "Ubeid Allah Ibn El-Habhab…viceroy in Egypt" appointed "Ibn Abd El-malik Ibn Katan governor of the country for the second time" after "Okba Ibn El-Hajjaj" died in A.H. 116 (734/35)[74].  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi" remained as governor until A.H. 23 (26 Nov 740/14 Nov 741) when "Balch ben Bixr Al-Koxeiri" entered "con los siriacos"[75].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Abd Elmalik Ibn Katan gave up to Balj Ibn Beshr the authority as governor", adding that Balj had fled Syria to al-Andalus in A.H. 124 (742), but that "Balj" put him in prison but afterwards beheaded him (in A.H. 125)[76]

 

10.      al-HAJAJ al-Saluli .  One child: 

a)         UQBA .  The Ajbar Machmua records that Caliph Hisham [succeeded 724] appointed "Obaid-Allah ben Al-Habhab ben Al-Harits, cliente de los Benu Çelol, de la tribu de Kais" as governor of Egypt, who maintained "Bixr ben Safwan" as governor of Ifrikiyah, who appointed "Okba ben Al-Hachaeh" to govern Spain, adding that the last-named arrived A.H. 110 (16 Apr 728/) and remained for several years during which he conquered territory as far as Narbonne and subjugated Galicia, Álava and Pamplona[77].  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records that “Okba ben el-Haddjadj-Selouli” conquered “Narbonne aussi bien que la Galice et Pampelune, où il installa une population musulmane”, adding that his conquests extended “à toute la Galice, moins la portion montagneuse où le roi de ce pays se refugia avec trois cents fantassins” whose number was reduced after Muslim attacks to thirty until “les nôtres, fatigués de poursuites, finirent par y renoncer[78].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Obeid-Allah, fils d'El-Habhab seigneur des Benou Saloul ben Kaïs", appointed viceroy of Africa by Caliph Hisham, appointed "Okba fils d'El-Haddjadj le Saloulien" as wali in al-Andalus in A.H. 110 (728) and that he held the post until the Berbers rebelled against his authority in Tanger[79].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Ubeid Allah Ibn El-Habhab…viceroy in Egypt" appointed "Okba Ibn El-Hajjaj" as governor of al-Andalus after he deposed "Abd El-malik Ibn Katan" in A.H. 116 (734/35), but that Okba "perished in Andalus"[80].  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Okba ben Al-Hachaeh" remained as governor until A.H. 121 (18 Dec 738/6 Dec 739) when the Berbers "partidarios de la secta de los Ibadhies y Sofries" revolted[81]

 

11.      BISHR al-Qushayri .  One child: 

a)         BALJ (-743).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Balch ben Bixr Al-Koxeiri" entered Spain "con los siriacos" A.H. 23 (26 Nov 740/14 Nov 741) and deposed "Abdo-l-Melic ben Katan Al-Moharibi", adding in a later passage that Balj was "sobrino" of "Coltsom ben Iyed Al-Koxeiri" who had been appointed governor of Ifrikiya by Caliph Hisham[82].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Baldj, fils de Bichr" deposed and killed "Abd-el-Malek, fils de Katan le Fihrien" at Córdoba and was recognised as wali in al-Andalus, but was defeated and killed at "Akouh Bortoura, [dans] la province de Waba" (near Córdoba) by "Abd-errahman fils d'Okba le Lakhmi", who then governed Narbonne, and was replaced by "Tsalaba, fils de Selama l'Amelien"[83].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "Balj Ibn Beshr" fled Syria for al-Andalus in A.H. 124 (742) and that "Abd Elmalik Ibn Katan gave up to Balj Ibn Beshr the authority as governor"[84]The Ajbar Machmua records the death of Balj "de las heridas que había recibido de Alkama, según unos, y según otros porque le llegó su hora" (undated)[85]Ibn Abd-el-Hakem reports that "Balj Ibn Beshr" died in A.H. 125 (743) one month after he had killed "Abd Elmalik Ibn Katan", adding that afterwards al-Andalus was "divided between four governors, up to the time Hantala Ibn Safwan El-kelbi sent to them El-chattab El-kelbi who again united them"[86]

 

12.      SALAMA al-Ameli .  One child: 

a)         THAWABA (-after 743).  The Ajbar Machmua records, that after the death of Balj, "Tsaalaba ben Çalama Al-Amili" was named as governor but that he was opposed by "beledíes, árabes y berberiscos" and sought refuge in Mérida (undated)[87].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Tsalaba, fils de Selama l'Amelien" replaced "Baldj, fils de Bichr" as wali in al-Andalus[88].  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Hanthala ben Safwan" appointed "Abo-l-Jatar Al-Hoçam ben Dhirar Alquelbi…un noble siriaco, natural de Damasco" as governor in the name of Caliph Walid II [ruled in 743-44], after which Thawaba fled (undated)[89]

 

13.      ABU'l-Khattar al-Husam bin Dirar al-KalbiThe Ajbar Machmua records that "Hanthala ben Safwan" appointed "Abo-l-Jatar Al-Hoçam ben Dhirar Alquelbi…un noble siriaco, natural de Damasco" as governor in the name of Caliph Walid II [ruled in 743-44], after which Thawaba fled (undated)[90].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that Caliph Hisham appointed "Hantala Ibn Safwan" as viceroy of Africa in A.H. 124 (742) and that he appointed "Abd Elchattab" as governor of al-Andalus[91].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Caliph Hashim appointed "Handhala, fils de Safouan de la tribu de Kelb" as viceroy in Africa and ordered him to install "son compatriote Abou'l-Khattar" was wali in al-Andalus[92].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Abou'l-Khattar" was defeated at Sidonia by "Es-Somail, fils de Hatim le Kelabien" and killed[93]

 

14.      NAFE al-Fihri .  One child: 

a)         UQBA .  One child: 

i)          ABU OBEIDA .  One child: 

(a)       HABIB .  One child: 

(1)       ABD al-Rahman .  One child: 

a.         YUSUF (-killed [755/56]).  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Youçuf, fils d'Abd-errahman, fils de Habib, fils d'Abou-Obeida, fils d'Okba, fils de Nafe le Fihrien" was appointed wali in al-Andalus after "Abou'l-Khattar" was defeated at Sidonia by "Es-Somail, fils de Hatim le Kelabien", and ruled "plusieurs années", until the arrival of "Abd-errahman fils de Moawia" when he was deposed[94].  The Ajbar Machmua recounts a similar story, in a lengthy romanticised narrative, culminating in the death of Yusuf, killed by "Abd-Allah ben Omar Al-Ansari" in [755/56][95].  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records 748-753 as years of drought and famine, that in 750 “les habitants de la Galice se soulevèrent” and that many campaigns were directed against them, and that as a result of the famine “la majeure partie de la population [musulmane] émigra à Tanger, à Zawila et sur le littoral africain” departing from “la rivière de Sidona, connu sous le nom de Barbat[96]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EMIRATE of CÓRDOBA and CALIPHATE (UMMAYAD DYNASTY)

 

 

 

A.      EMIRS of CÓRDOBA

 

 

ABD al-RAHMAN, son of MUAWIYA & his wife Rah [Reddah] of the Nafza Berbers ([731]-7 Oct 788, bur Córdoba).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Abderrhaman” as the son of “Mavia[97].  The descent of this line is confirmed by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which names his descendant “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as the son of “Moawiya ben Hicham ben Abd el-Melik ben Merwan ben el-Hakam ben Abou´l-Açi ben Omeyya[98].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd er-Rahman ed-Dakhil b. Moawiyya b. Hicham b. Abd-el-Melik…" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[99].  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib names the mother of “Abd er-Rahman...Abou´l Motarrif” as “Rah ou Reddah, captive berbère originaire du Maghreb[100].  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-rahman hijo de Moavia…" was born "en un lugar conocido por Diar-Haçina de Damaxco" A.H. 113 (731), adding that his father died when he was still "pequeño de años"[101].  One of the few survivors of the Umayyad dynasty after the Abbasid revolution 750, he fled to North Africa seeking refuge with his mother's Berber family: the Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", adding that "el emir Abdo-l-Rahman ben Moawiya" was able to escape, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750), stating in a later passage that Abd al-Rahman was 17 years old at the time[102].  He sent Badr, his chief supporter, to make contact with the Umayyad supporters in al-Andalus.  He crossed to Almuñecar in early Autumn 755, marching on Córdoba next Spring where he defeated the Qaysi army and entered the capital in May 756.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Abd-errahman" entered Seville "dans les derniers jours du mois de chouwal"[103].  The Anales Toledanos record that “Abderrame Adael” entered al-Andalus in 754[104].  He was proclaimed ABD al-RAHMAN I Emir of Córdoba 14 May 756, founding the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba.  Ibn-el Kouthya records the installation in al-Andalus of "Abd-errahman, fils de Moawia, fils de Hicham"[105].  Although he allowed his predecessors Yusuf al-Fihri and al-Sumayl to retain their lands and live in Córdoba, the former resented Abd al-Rahman's rise to power.  He escaped to Merida where he raised an army of Berbers, but was defeated and murdered near Toledo [759/60].  The al-Fihri family continued to hold Toledo until Hisham bin Urwa al-Fihri was captured and executed in 764.  The Abbasid Caliph Abu Jafar al-Mansur attempted to regain control of al-Andalus in 763 through al-Ala bin al-Mughith al-Yahsubi, his representative from Beja in southern Portugal, but Abd al-Rahman defeated and killed the latter at Carmona.  He began the construction of the mosque at Córdoba, consolidating the city's position as capital.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Abderrahaman Iben Mavia” reigned 33 years in Córdoba[106].  The Ajbar Machmua records the death of "emir Abd-l-Rahmen ben Moawiya" after ruling for 33 years and 3 months[107].  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-rahman hijo de Moavia…" died "día martes a seis por andar de Rabi el último (dicen tambien que a diez por andar de Giumada primero" A.H. 172 (788) and was buried "en el alcázar de Cortoba", adding in a later passage that he had eleven sons and nine daughters[108]

[m] (b) (756) HULAL, daughter of ---.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "la fille de Youçouf" offered "une jeune esclave…Houlal" to Abd er-Rahman, adding that she became the mother of Hisham[109].  Ibn Idhari names "Giamel" as the mother of "Hixem ben Abdi-r-rahman apellidado Ar-Radi"[110]

Abd al-Rahman I had two children by unknown wives or concubines: 

1.         SULAYMAN "Abu Ayab" ([747/48]-executed 800).  The Ajbar Machmua records that "los Benul-Abbas…As-Saffah" persecuted "los Benu-Omeyya", adding that "el emir Abdo-l-Rahman ben Moawiya" was able to escape and instructed "su hijo Abo Ayob y sus dos hermanas Umm Al-Asbag y Amat-er-Rahmen" to join him later, in A.H. 132 (20 Aug 749/9 Aug 750), naming Abd al-Rahman´s son "Çuleiman…de sobrenombre Abo Ayob" in a later passage which specifies that he was born A.H. 130 ([747/48][111].  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Soleiman et Hicham" as the two sons of Abd er-Rahman[112].  He was appointed Governor of Toledo by his father.  He refused to accept his brother's accession in 788, but was defeated near Jaen and obliged to surrender 789.  He was expelled to North Africa, although with a cash payment of 60,000 dinars: the Historia Arabum records that "Zulema, qui a patre successor fuerat institutus, præerat principatui Toletano" and rebelled against his brother "Issem" after their father died, but was defeated and fled to Murcia A.H. 174, after which he was compensated with 60,000 "aureorum" and left "in Barbariam"[113].  He returned to Spain to challenge his nephew's accession in 796, but was surrendered by the Berber Governor of Mérida, Asbagh bin Wansus, and executed.  The Historia Arabum records that "fratres Issem, Zuleman et Abdalla" returned to Spain after their brother died to challenge the succession of "Alhacam filius eius", but were defeated and Sulayman was killed[114]

2.         OMAR (-killed Puentedeume [before 768]).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III, records that, while still "adolescens", Omar led a Muslim force in Galicia where he was captured by Fruela I King of Asturias and killed[115]

Abd al-Rahman I & his concubine (b) had one child: 

3.         HISHAM (Córdoba [757/58]-17 Apr or 9 May 796, bur Córdoba).  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "la fille de Youçouf" offered "une jeune esclave…Houlal" to Abd al-Rahman, adding that she became the mother of Hisham[116].  Ibn Idhari records the birth "a cuatro por andar de Xagüel" of "Hixem ben Abdi-r-rahman apellidado Ar-Radi", specifying the year A.H. 139 (757/58) in a later passage[117].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Hicham b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman ed-Dakhil b. Moawiyya…" when reciting the ancestry of his remote descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[118].  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Soleiman et Hicham" as the two sons of Abd al-Rahman[119].  Appointed Governor of Merida by his father.  He arrived at Córdoba within days of his father's death, and was greeted as HISHAM I Emir of Córdoba.  According to Arab sources, Emir Hisham was "passionate about the holy war", sending two armies into battle in 791[120].  The first phase of the mosque at Córdoba was completed during the early part of his reign.  He foiled a plot to depose him in favour of his cousin Muhammad al-Qasim in 805, which he repressed with great severity.  An uprising in Córdoba in 818 was also put down with extreme severity.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Eiscam” reigned seven years and six months in Córdoba, adding in a later paragraph that he was the son of “Abderrhaman[121].  Ibn Idhari records the death "noche del jueves a tres por andar de Safar" A.H. 180 (9 May 796) of "Hixem" and, in a later passage, his burial "en el alcázar de Córdoba"[122].  [m] (a) ZOKHRUF, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une concubine…Zokhrouf" as the mother of Emir Hakam I[123].  Ibn Idhari names "Zajraf" as the mother of Emir al-Hakam I[124].  Hisham I & his concubine (a) had one child: 

a)         al-HAKAM ([771]-3 Jul 822, bur Córdoba)Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Hakam b. Hicham b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman ed-Dakhil…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[125].  Ibn Idhari records the birth A.H. 154 (771) of "al-Hacam ben Hixem ben Abdi-r-rahman"[126].  In an earlier passage, Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names El-Hakam as son of Hisham and "une concubine…Zokhrouf", adding that he was about 22 years old when he succeeded his father[127].  He succeeded his father 796 as al-HAKAM I Emir of Córdoba

-        see below

Hisham I had eleven children by unknown wives or concubines: 

b)         six other sons .  Ibn Idhari records that "Hixem ben Abdi-r-rahman apellidado Ar-Radi" had seven sons and five daughters[128]

c)         daughter .  The Historia Arabum records that "Abdalla autem iam pacificus" sent "filios suos" to Emir al-Hakam who married one of them to "sororem suam"[129]m her first cousin, ---, son of ABD ALLAH "al-Balansi". 

d)         four other daughters .  Ibn Idhari records that "Hixem ben Abdi-r-rahman apellidado Ar-Radi" had seven sons and five daughters[130]

Abd al-Rahman I had [seventeen] children by unknown wives or concubines: 

4.         ABD ALLAH "al-Balansi".  Ibn Idhari records the rebellion of "Abdu-l-lah Al-Valençi hermano de Hixem" against Emir Hisham I A.H. 163[131].  On his nephew's accession, he visited Charlemagne at Aachen to solicit support unsuccessfully.  After attempting to establish himself at Huesca, he was forced southwards to Valencia from where he reached agreement with his nephew in 802 to remain in power with a monthly salary of 1000 dinars.  The Historia Arabum records that "fratres Issem, Zuleman et Abdalla" returned to Spain after their brother died to challenge the succession of "Alhacam filius eius", but were defeated and Abd Allah returned to Valencia which he ruled with a monthly allowance of 1000 "aureos" granted by al-Hakam[132].  Abd Allah had [two or more] children: 

a)         UBAYD Allah

b)         son .  The Historia Arabum records that "Abdalla autem iam pacificus" sent "filios suos" to Emir al-Hakam who married one of them to "sororem suam"[133]m his first cousin, ---, daughter of HISHAM I Emir of Córdoba. 

5.         […]  One child: 

a)         MUHAMMAD bin al-Qasim .  He was the unwilling focus of a plot to depose Emir al-Hakam in his favour in 805, but revealed it to the Emir. 

6.         six other sons .  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-rahman hijo de Moavia…" had eleven sons and nine daughters[134]

7.         nine daughters .  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-rahman hijo de Moavia…" had eleven sons and nine daughters[135]

 

 

al-HAKAM, son of HISHAM I Emir of Córdoba & his concubine Zokhruf ([771]-3 Jul 822, bur Córdoba).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Hakam b. Hicham b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman ed-Dakhil…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[136].  In an earlier passage, Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names El-Hakam as son of Hisham and "une concubine…Zokhrouf", adding that he was about 22 years old when he succeeded his father and was "un homme impie et débauché"[137].  Ibn Idhari records the birth A.H. 154 (771) of "al-Hacam ben Hixem ben Abdi-r-rahman"[138].  He succeeded his father 796 as al-HAKAM I Emir of Córdoba.  Distracted by the challenges to the succession by his uncles Sulayman and Abd-Allah, attacks on the Christians decreased at the start of his reign.  However, by 810 the attacks intensified again and in 816 Emir al-Hakam launched a major offensive against the kingdom of Asturias[139].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Alhacam” reigned 26 years and six months in Córdoba, adding in a later paragraph that he was the son of “Iscem[140].  Ibn Idhari records the death "jueves a cuatro por andar de Dzu-l-higia" A.H. 202 (3 Jul 822) of "al-Hacam" and his burial "en el alcázar"[141]

[m] (a) HELOA, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Heloa" as the mother of Emir Abd al-Rahman II[142]

Emir al-Hakam & his concubine (a) had one child: 

1.         ABD al-RAHMAN ([792]-23 Sep 852).  Ibn Idhari records the birth A.H. 176 (792) of "Abdu-r-Rahman ben al-Hacam"[143].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd er-Rahman b. Hakam b. Hicham b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman ed-Dakhil…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[144].  He succeeded his father 822 as ABD al-RAHMAN II Emir of Córdoba.  During his reign, the court became more formal, the administration of government more organised (following eastern Islamic models), and the respect of Islamic tradition imposed more strictly.  He also encouraged scholars and poets, and constructed mosques in Seville and Jaen, as well as an extension to the mosque in Córdoba.  He founded the city of Murcia in 831.  In Summer 844, Viking warships attacked Seville, but the invaders were effectively beaten by the Emir's troops after they landed.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Abderahaman” reigned 32 years and six months in Córdoba while Ordoño I was king of Asturias, adding in a later paragraph that he was the son of “Haccam[145]Ibn Idhari records the death "noche del jueves a tres andados de Rabi último" A.H. 238 (22 Sep 852) of "amir Abdu-r-rahman ben Al-Hacam"[146][m] (a) BUHEYR, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Buheyr" as the mother of Emir Muhammad[147].  Abd al-Rahman II had five children:  Emir Abd al-Rahman II & his concubine (a) had one child: 

a)         MUHAMMAD ([822]-Aug 886, bur Córdoba).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Mahomat” as the son of “Abderrhaman[148].  Ibn Idhari records the birth "en el mes de Dzu-l-caada" A.H. 207 of "Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman ben al-Hacam"[149].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Hakam b. Hicham…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[150].  He was installed as Governor of Zaragoza after his father conquered it in 844.  He besieged León in 846[151].  He succeeded his father 852 as MUHAMMAD Emir of Córdoba.  He put down a rebellion in 854 in Toledo, and in 868 in Merida.  Separatist movements also developed around Badajoz and Malaga.  Ibn Idhari records the death "noche de jueves a una noche por andar del mes de Safar" A.H. 273 of "el amir Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman" and his burial "en el alcázar"[152].  [m] (a) AYEL, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Ayel" as the mother of Emir al-Mundhir[153].  [m] (b) BAHER, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Baher" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah[154].  Muhammad & concubine (a) had one child: 

i)          al-MUNDHIR ([844]-Jun 888, bur Córdoba).  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Almundar” as the son of “Mahomat[155].  Ibn Idhari records the birth A.H. 229 (844) of "al-Mundhir ben Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman"[156].  He invaded Old Castile in 865.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Almundar, Mahomat regis filius” was sent by his father “cum duce Abuhalit” to invade “Cæsaraugustam” in 882[157].  He succeeded his father 886 as al-MUNDHIR Emir of CórdobaIbn Idhari records the death "en la algazúa que hizo contra Barbaster día sábado a mediados de Safar" A.H. 275 (end Jun 888) of "al-Mundhir ben Muhammad" and his burial "en al alcázar de Córtoba"[158]al-Mundhir had thirteen children by unknown wives or concubines: 

(a)       five sons .  Ibn Idhari records that "al-Mundhir ben Muhammad" had five sons and eight daughters[159]

(b)       eight daughters .  Ibn Idhari records that "al-Mundhir ben Muhammad" had five sons and eight daughters[160]

Muhammad & concubine (b) had one child: 

ii)         ABD ALLAH (Dec 843-16 Oct 912).  Ibn Idhari records the birth "a mediados de Rabi último" A.H. 229 (Dec 843) of "Abdu-l-lah ben Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman"[161].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd Allah b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Hakam b. Hicham…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[162].  He succeeded his brother 888 as ABD ALLAH Emir of Córdoba

-         see below

Muhammad had 54 children by unknown wives or concubines:

iii)        ABD al-RAHMAN .  He invaded Alava in 863, defeating Ordoño I King of Asturias when "nineteen counts were killed in the battle"[163].   

iv)       al-HAKAM .  He captured Guernica in 867[164]

v)        HISHAM .  He was murdered on the orders of his brother Emir Abd Allah. 

vi)       al-QASIM .  He was murdered on the orders of his brother Emir Abd Allah. 

vii)      28 other sons .  Ibn Idhari records that "Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman ben al-Hacam" had 33 sons and 21 daughters[165]

viii)     21 daughters .  Ibn Idhari records that "Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman ben al-Hacam" had 33 sons and 21 daughters[166]

Emir Abd al-Rahman II had eighty-six children by unknown wives and concubines: 

b)         al-MUTARRIF

c)         al-MUNDHIR .  He attacked Álava in [849/50][167]

d)         ABD ALLAH .  Son of Emir Abd al-Rahman's favourite concubine Turab. 

e)         HISHAM

f)          forty other sons .  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-Rahman ben al-Hacam" had 45 sons and 42 daughters[168]

g)         forty-two daughters .  Ibn Idhari records that "Abdu-r-Rahman ben al-Hacam" had 45 sons and 42 daughters[169]

al-Hakam had 39 children by unknown wives or concubines: 

2.         al-MUGHIRA

3.         SAID

4.         UMAYYA

5.         al-WALID bin al-HAKAM .  He led an army to attack Galicia in 838[170]

6.         14 other sons .  The Historia Arabum records that Emir al-Hakam left 19 sons and 21 daughters[171]

7.         21 daughters .  The Historia Arabum records that Emir al-Hakam left 19 sons and 21 daughters[172]

 

 

ABD ALLAH, son of MUHAMMAD Emir of Córdoba & his concubine Baher (Dec 843-16 Oct 912).  Ibn Idhari records the birth "a mediados de Rabi último" A.H. 229 (Dec 843) of "Abdu-l-lah ben Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman"[173].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd Allah b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Hakam b. Hicham…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[174].  He succeeded his brother in 888 as ABD ALLAH Emir of Córdoba.  Central authority deteriorated further during his reign, with many local strongholds developing throughout the emirate, including states set up in Murcia and Seville.  Ibn Idhari records the death A.H. 300 of "Abdu-l-lah ben Muhammad ben Abdi-r-Rahman"[175]

[m] (a) ---.  The name of the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s daughter "Fátima" is not specified by Ibn Idhari, although he says that she was "mayor de edad que sus demás hijos"[176]

[m] (b) DORR, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Dorr" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Muhammad[177]

[m ([863, repudiated before 880]) as her first husband, ONECA [Iñiga] Fortún, daughter of FORTÚN García King of Pamplona & his wife Aurea ([850]-).  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis" and his wife, recording that Oneca married "Asenari Sanzones de Larron" (a second manuscript specifying that she was "suam congermanam") and afterwards married "regi Abdella" by whom she was mother of "Mahomat Iben Abdella"[178].  However, this is unsustainable chronologically if it is correct that she was the mother of Muhammad and his birth date is correctly estimated to [867/68].  On the assumption that this date is correct, it is assumed that Abd Allah was Oneca's first husband.  She married her second husband after returning from Córdoba in [880] with her father who had just been released from captivity[179].  As noted above, Ibn Idhari names "Dorr" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Muhammad.  It would not be impossible for this to be an adopted Muslim name.  However, Dorr is also recorded as the mother of the emir´s daughter Fatima, born "despues del califato" which presumably indicates his succession as emir in 888, which would be after Oneca´s supposed return to Pamplona.  The conclusion must be that there is some piece of information in the Codex de Roda which is fundamentally incorrect, maybe either the name of Oneca´s Muslim husband or the name of her supposed son.] 

[m] (c) TAMEM, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Tamem" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Ahmad[180]

[m] (d) GAZALEN, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Gazalen" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s sons Mutarrif and Suleyman[181]

[m] (e) XEN, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Xen" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Aben[182]

[m] (f) ---.  The name of the mother or mothers of Emir Abd Allah´s children "Abdu-r-rahman, Abdu-l-malic, As-Sida" is not specified by Ibn Idhari[183]

[m] (g) COREIX, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Coreix" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s daughter "Háxima"[184]

[m] (h) FITIEN, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Fitien" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s daughter "Esma"[185]

[m] (i) MALC, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Malc" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s daughter "Háquima"[186]

[m] (j) MUSTATARRIF, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Al-Así de Mustatarrif" as the oldest son of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[187]

[m] (k) JADIL, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Jadil" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Abd al-Rahman, born "despues del califato"[188]

[m] (l) MALHA, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Malha" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s sons "Muhammad Al-Asgar y Ahmad Al-Asgar", born "despues del califato"[189]

[m] (m) MAGIIN, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Magiin" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s daughter Fatima, born "despues del califato"[190]

[m] (n) XARIQ, daughter of ---.  Ibn Idhari names "Xariq" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s daughter Zainab, born "despues del califato"[191]

Abd Allah & his concubine (a) had one child: 

1.         FATIMA .  Ibn Idhari names "Fátima, mayor de edad que sus demás hijos" as daughter of Emir Abd Allah[192]

Abd Allah & his concubine (b) had two children: 

2.         MUHAMMAD ibn Abd Allah ([867/68]-murdered 3 Dec 895).  Ibn Idhari names "Muhammad, padre del Amiru-l-momenin Abdu-r-rahman ben Muhammad…cuya madre fué Dorr" as the oldest son of Emir Abd Allah[193].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Mohammed b. Abd Allah b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[194].  [The Codex de Roda records that Oneca married "regi Abdella" by whom she was mother of "Mahomat Iben Abdella"[195].  The apparent inconsistency of the Codex de Roda with Ibn Idhari is discussed above.]  The death of "Mohametus", killed by "fratre Almotreph", is recorded 3 Dec 895, aged 27[196].  He was murdered by his brother al-Mutarrif, with their father's encouragement.  Ibn Idhari records the murders of the brothers "Muhammad…Mutarrif"[197]m MUZNA, a Basque or Frankish woman.  Muhammad had one child by an unknown wife or concubine: 

a)         ABD al-RAHMAN (7 Jan 891-15 Oct 961, bur Alcazar of Córdoba).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd er-Rahman Naçir b. Mohammed b. Abd Allah b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[198].  He succeeded his grandfather 912 as ABD al-RAHMAN III "al-Nasir/the Victorious" Emir of Córdoba.  In 929 he took the title "Commander of the Faithful" or Caliph

-        see below, Part B

3.         al-BAHE (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Al-Bahé, cuya madre fué Dorr" as the daughter of Emir Abd Allah, named seventh in the list of his daughters[199]

4.         FATIMA (after 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Fátima la menor, hija de Dorr" as the last daughter of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[200]

Abd Allah & his concubine (c) had one child: 

5.         AHMAD .  Ibn Idhari names "Ahmed cuya madre fué Tamem" as the son of Emir Abd Allah, named second in the list of his sons[201]

Abd Allah & his concubine (d) had four children: 

6.         al-MUTARRIF (-murdered 895).  Ibn Idhari names "Mutarrif y Suleiman habidos de Gazalen" as the sons of Emir Abd Allah, named third and fourth in the list of his sons[202].  He was murdered after being accused of conspiring with rebels in Seville.  Ibn Idhari records the murders of the brothers "Muhammad…Mutarrif"[203]

7.         SULEYMAN .  Ibn Idhari names "Mutarrif y Suleiman habidos de Gazalen" as the sons of Emir Abd Allah, named third and fourth in the list of his sons[204]

8.         AISHA (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Aiexa y otra As-Sida, cuya madre de ellas fué Gazalen" as the daughters of Emir Abd Allah, named second and third in the list of his daughters[205]

9.         as-SIDA (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Aiexa y otra As-Sida, cuya madre de ellas fué Gazalen" as the daughters of Emir Abd Allah, named second and third in the list of his daughters[206]

Abd Allah & his concubine (e) had one child: 

10.      ABAN .  Ibn Idhari names "Aben cuya madre se llamaba Xen" as the son of Emir Abd Allah, named fifth in the list of his sons[207]

Abd Allah & his concubine (f) had three children: 

11.      ABD al-RAHMAN .  Ibn Idhari names "Abdu-r-rahman, Abdu-l-malic, As-Sida" as children of Emir Abd Allah, the sons named sixth and seventh in the list of sons and the daughter first among his daughters[208]

12.      ABD al-MALIK .  Ibn Idhari names "Abdu-r-rahman, Abdu-l-malic, As-Sida" as children of Emir Abd Allah, the sons named sixth and seventh in the list of sons and the daughter first among his daughters[209]

13.      as-SIDA (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Abdu-r-rahman, Abdu-l-malic, As-Sida" as children of Emir Abd Allah, the sons named sixth and seventh in the list of sons and the daughter first among his daughters[210]

Abd Allah & his concubine (g) had one child: 

14.      HASHIMA (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Háxima, cuya madre Coreix" as the daughter of Emir Abd Allah, named fourth in the list of his daughters[211]

Abd Allah & his concubine (h) had one child: 

15.      ESMA (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Esma, cuya madre fué Fitien" as the daughter of Emir Abd Allah, named fifth in the list of his daughters[212]

Abd Allah & his concubine (i) had one child: 

16.      HAKIMA (before 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Háquima, cuya madre fué Malc" as the daughter of Emir Abd Allah, named sixth in the list of his daughters[213]

Abd Allah & his concubine (j) had one child: 

17.      al-ASI (after 888-executed 921).  Ibn Idhari names "Al-Así de Mustatarrif" as the oldest son of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[214].  He was killed for conspiring to take over the emirate. 

Abd Allah & his concubine (k) had one child:  

18.      ABD al-RAHMAN (after 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Abdu-r-rahman de Jadil" as the second son of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[215]

Abd Allah & his concubine (l) had four children: 

19.      MUHAMMAD al-ASGAR (after 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Muhammad Al-Asgar y Ahmad Al-Asgar hijos de Malha" as the third and fourth sons of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[216]

20.      AHMAD al-ASGAR .  Ibn Idhari names "Muhammad Al-Asgar y Ahmad Al-Asgar hijos de Malha" as the third and fourth sons of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[217]

21.      RAQIYA .  Ibn Idhari names "Raquiya y Zaineb hijas de Malha" as the first and second daughters of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[218]

22.      ZAINAB .  Ibn Idhari names "Raquiya y Zaineb hijas de Malha" as the first and second daughters of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[219]

Abd Allah & his concubine (m) had one child: 

23.      FATIMA (after 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Fátima, hija de Magiin" as the third daughter of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[220]

Abd Allah & his concubine (n) had one child: 

24.      ZAINAB (after 888-).  Ibn Idhari names "Zaineb hija de Xariq" as the fourth daughter of Emir Abd Allah born "despues del califato"[221]

 

 

 

B.      CALIPHS

 

 

ABD al-RAHMAN, son of MUHAMMAD ibn Abd Allah (7 Jan 891-15 Oct 961, bur Alcazar of Córdoba).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Abd er-Rahman Naçir b. Mohammed b. Abd Allah b. Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman…" when reciting the ancestry of his descendant "El-Motadd billah" Emir of Córdoba[222].  He succeeded his grandfather 912 as ABD al-RAHMAN III "al-Nasir/the Victorious" Emir of Córdoba.  He was able to restore the fortunes of the emirate of Córdoba.  He reasserted the central power of Córdoba, methodically destroying the power of the newly emerged local lords one by one, and appointing in their place trusted local governors.  He led several military expeditions against the Christians personally, including the campaign which resulted in the sack of Pamplona in 924.  In 929 he took the title "Commander of the Faithful" or Caliph.  He also led campaigns in Morocco, capturing Melilla in 927, Ceuta in 931 and Tanger in 951.  He considerably expanded the territories under his control in Spain, with increased revenues in proportion, but was defeated at Alhandega/al-Khandaq by Ramiro II King of Leon in 939.  He entered into diplomatic relations with Otto I King of Germany and Byzantium.  He started constructing the new palace of Madinat-al-Zahra, named after a favourite concubine, outside Córdoba in 936.  The Historia Arabum records the death A.H. 350 of Abd al-Rahman, aged 74, after reigning for 50 years[223]

Abd al-Rahman had six children: 

1.         ABD al-MALIK .  His parentage is confirmed by Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi when he records the accession of his grandson "Abd er-Rahman b. Mohammed b. Abd el-Melik b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir…surnommé El-Mortada" as Caliph[224].  Abd al-Malik had one child: 

a)         MUHAMMAD .  His parentage is confirmed by Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi when he records the accession of his son "Abd er-Rahman b. Mohammed b. Abd el-Melik b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir…surnommé El-Mortada" as Caliph[225].  [m] (a) ATIB, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "El-Motadd billah" was son of "une concubine…Atib"[226].  Muhammad had one child by concubine (a): 

i)          HISHAM (-1031).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that, after Caliph Yahya was deposed, "Abou Bekr Hicham b. Mohammed b. Abd el-Melik b. abd er-Rahman Naçir, frère de Mortada", born "en 364…l´ainé de quatre ans de son frère Mortada" and son of "une concubine…Atib", who was living in exile "dans un fort de la frontière…Albounta", was chosen as Caliph "rebi I 418", adopted the name "El-Motadd billah", but only entered Córdoba "8 dhoulhiddja 420" where he was deposed soon afterwards[227].  He succeeded 1025 as Caliph HISHAM III "al-Mutadd".  The Umayyad caliphate was overthrown in 1031 by Abul-Hazm bin Jahwar.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "El-Motadd billah" lived in exile "auprès d´Ibn Houd…maître de Lérida, Saragosse, Fraga, Tortose" until he died "en 427"[228]

Muhammad had one child by an unknown wife or concubine: 

ii)         ABD al-RAHMAN (-1018).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that supporters of Caliph Ali bin Hamud Nasir rebelled and placed "Abd er-Rahman b. Mohammed b. Abd el-Melik b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir…surnommé El-Mortada" as Caliph, adding that "sa sévérité et sa dureté firent regretter le choix" and that he was killed[229].  He succeeded 1016 as Caliph ABD al-RAHMAN IV "al-Murtada".  Abd al-Rahman had one child: 

(a)       SULEIMAN .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records "…Soleyman b. el-Mortada…qui s´était révolté contre Mahdi b. Naçir" among the leaders chosen by the Córdobans from the deposed Ummayad dynasty after the death of the Berber Caliph Yahya[230]

2.         UBAUD Allah .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records the rebellion of his grandson "Abou Abd er-Rahman Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Obeyd Allah b. Abd er-Rahman…prénom Abou Abd er-Rahman"[231].  Ubaud had one child: 

a)         ABD al-RAHMAN (-executed [976/80]).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records the rebellion of his son "Abou Abd er-Rahman Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Obeyd Allah b. Abd er-Rahman…prénom Abou Abd er-Rahman"[232].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that the father of "El-Mostakfi Billah" was put to death early in the reign of "Hicham el-Moayyed" because of his failed rebellion[233].  [m] (a) HAWRA, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une concubine…Hawra" as the mother of "El-Mostakfi Billah"[234].  Abd al-Rahman had one child by concubine (a): 

i)          MUHAMMAD (-murdered Choumount, near Medina Celi 1025, bur Choumount).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records the rebellion against "el-Mostazhir" led by "Abou Abd er-Rahman Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Obeyd Allah b. Abd er-Rahman…prénom Abou Abd er-Rahman", born "en 366" to "une concubine…Hawra", during which the caliph was killed "27 dhoulkada…414", and his accession as caliph under the name "El-Mostakfi Billah", adding that he only reigned for six months and a few days before he was deposed and fled Córdoba[235].  He succeeded 1024 as Caliph MUHAMMAD IV "al-Mustakfi".  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "El-Mostakfi Billah" was poisoned by one of his officers "Abd er-Rahman b. Mohammed b. Selim" in exile at "le village de Choumount près de Medina Celi" where he was buried[236]

3.         al-HAKAM (915-1 Oct 976).  He succeeded his father 961 as Caliph al-HAKAM II al-Mustansir.  He ordered a major campaign against the Idrissids in Morocco in 973, led triumphantly by his chief general Ghalib bin Abd al-Rahman of Medinaceli[237].  Inheriting a well-oiled machine from his father, his reign was marked by prosperity and stability.  The Historia Arabum records the death of "Alhacam filius…Abderramen" aged 64 after reigning for 16 years[238].  [m] (a) SUBH, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une concubine…Çobh" as the mother of "Abou´l-Walid Hicham b. el-Hakam"[239].  She fell under the influence of Muhammad bin Abi Amir, who was appointed qadi in Morocco, and later regent for her son after his accession in 976.  In 996, she attempted unsuccessfully to wrest power from her former favourite and restore her son.  al-Hakam II had one child by concubine (a): 

a)         HISHAM (972-[1013]).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Abou´l-Walid Hicham b. el-Hakam" as son of "El-Hakam Mostancir" and "une concubine…Çobh", adding that he was "10 ans et quelques mois" when he succeeded[240].  Appointed heir apparent in 970.  He succeeded his father in 976 as Caliph HISHAM II "al-Muayyad", under the regency of Muhammad bin Abi Amir who took the title "al-Mansur/the Victorious" in 981.  The Historia Arabum records that "Issem filius Alhacam" succeeded his father A.H. 366, aged 10 years and 8 months, under the regency of "Almuhayatbille…Mahomathibne Abenhamir…dictus Alhagib…postea Almanzor fuit appellatus"[241].  Regent Abd al-Rahman obliged Caliph Hisham to appoint him heir apparent in Nov 1008.  A revolution was led by Hisham's cousin Muhammad bin Hisham who obliged the Caliph to abdicate in his favour 16 Feb 1009.  He was restored as Caliph in 1010, after Caliph Muhammad was deposed for the second time.  Berber troops pillaged Córdoba in May 1013.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Hicham Moayyed" was restored to the throne after "El-Mahdi" was killed[242].  The period 1010-1013 saw a breakdown of the Caliphate's system of government in Córdoba.  During this time, locally based lords assumed control in their own areas, forming the basis of the so-called Taifa kingdoms.  Caliph Hisham disappeared soon after, probably murdered.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Hicham Moayyed b Hakam Mostançir" was killed when the Berbers invaded Córdoba led by "Soleyman b. Hakam b. Soleyman"[243].  As his body was never found, many pretenders emerged in the following years, notably the individual sponsored in 1035 by Muhammad bin Abbad, ruler of Seville. 

4.         al-MUGHIRA (-murdered 976).  He was the focus of a plot to deprive Caliph Hisham of his inheritance in 976, but was strangled on the orders of the new Caliph's supporters. 

5.         SULAYMAN .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "…Solyman b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir" when recording the ancestry of his son[244].  Sulayman had two children: 

a)         HISHAM (-executed 1009).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Hicham b. Solyman b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir" attempt a rebellion against "El-Mahdi" at the head of a Berber army "5 chawwal 399" but was captured and executed[245].  Hisham had one child: 

i)          ABD al-RAHMAN .  Abd al-Rahman had one child: 

(a)       MOHAMMED .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that, after the death of the Berber Caliph Yahya, the Córdobans chose three new leaders from the deposed Ummayad dynasty "Abd er-Rahman b. Hicham b. Abd el-Djebbar b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir, frère du Mahdi, Soleyman b. el-Mortada…et Mohammed b. Abd er-Rahman b. Hicham b Soleyman", the first of whom was chosen as caliph "13 ramadan 414"[246]

b)         HAKAM ([943/44]-murdered 1016).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Hakam" was decapitated "21 moharrem 407" by "Ali b. Hammoud" leader of the Berbers, who on the same day also killed "[son] père Hakam b Soleyman b. Naçir" aged 72 years[247].  [m] (a) ZABIA, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Hakam" was son of "une concubine…Zabia"[248].  Hakam had one child by concubine (a): 

i)          SULAYMAN (-murdered 1016).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Hakam" was born "en 354" son of "une concubine…Zabia"[249].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b Hakam b Soleyman b Abd er-Rahman Naçir", son of the brother of "Hicham b. Solyman b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir", was appointed leader by the Berbers after his uncle was killed, deposed "El-Mahdi", adopted the name "El-Mostain Billah", entered Córdoba "rebi II…400" and added "Zafir bi-hawl Allah" to his names[250].  He was proclaimed Caliph SULAYMAN "al-Mustain" Nov 1009 after Caliph Muhammad was deposed.  He was deposed after his predecessor's military victory at Aqabat al-Baqar 22 May 1010.  The Berbers proceeded to besiege Córdoba for the next three years.  He was restored as Caliph following the disappearance of Caliph Hisham II, amid the ruins of the destroyed city of Córdoba.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Hakam" was decapitated "21 moharrem 407" by "Ali b. Hammoud" leader of the Berbers, who on the same day also killed "[son] père Hakam b Soleyman b. Naçir" aged 72 years[251].  Sulayman had four children: 

(a)       MOHAMMED .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Mohammed", who he had appointed as his heir but did not reign, and "Walid et Maslama" as the sons of "Soleyman b. Hakam"[252]

(b)       WALID .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Mohammed", who he had appointed as his heir but did not reign, and "Walid et Maslama" as the sons of "Soleyman b. Hakam"[253]

(c)       MASLAMA .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Mohammed", who he had appointed as his heir but did not reign, and "Walid et Maslama" as the sons of "Soleyman b. Hakam"[254]

(d)       UMM al-Hakam .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "el-Mostazhir" courted "sa cousine Oumm el-Hakam, fille de Soleyman Mostain"[255]

6.         ABD al-JABBAR .  Abd al-Jabbar had one child: 

a)         HISHAM (-executed 1006).  He was killed for conspiring with Isa bin Said.  [m] (a) MUZNA, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une concubine…Mouzna" as mother of "Mohammed b Hicham b. Abd el-Djebber b Abd-er-Rahman Naçir"[256].  [m] (b) GHAYA, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi "une concubine…Ghaya" as mother of "el-Mostazhir"[257].  Hisham had one child by concubine (a): 

i)          Abul WALID MUHAMMAD ([976/77]-23 Jun 1010).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Mohammed b Hicham b. Abd el-Djebber b Abd-er-Rahman Naçir…prénom Aboul-Walid", born in 366, as son of "une concubine…Mouzna" adding that he took the title "El-Mahdi"[258].  He became a fugitive after the execution of his father, but led the opposition to Abd al-Rahman, son of al-Mansur, in 1009.  He obliged Caliph Hisham to abdicate in his favour 16 Feb 1009, succeeding as Caliph MUHAMMAD "al-Mahdi".  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Mohammed b. Hicham b. Abd el-Djebber" deposed "Hicham Moayyed" and killed "Abd et-Rahman l´Amiride", but was himself killed "7 dhoul-hiddja 400"[259].  He quickly appointed family members to key positions to strengthen his hold on power, and recruited a salaried militia from among the people of Córdoba.  He was deposed Nov 1009 by a joint Berber and Castilian army.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b Hakam b Soleyman b Abd er-Rahman Naçir" deposed "El-Mahdi", who fled to Toledo, from where he recruited troops from "des Francs", was briefly restored at Córdoba, but was killed there[260].  He contracted troops from the Counts of Barcelona and Urgel, defeating the Berbers at Aqabat al-Baqar 22 May 1010.  He was briefly restored to power in Córdoba, but rearrested 23 Jun 1010 and executed.  Abul Walid had one child: 

(a)       OBEID Allah .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Obeyd Allah" as the son of "El-Mahdi"[261]

Hisham had one child by concubine (b):

ii)         ABD al-RAHMAN (-1024).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that, after the death of the Berber Caliph Yahya, the Córdobans chose three new leaders from the deposed Ummayad dynasty, including "Abd er-Rahman b. Hicham b. Abd el-Djebbar b. Abd er-Rahman Naçir, frère du Mahdi…prénom…Aboul-Motarref", born "dhoulkada 392"  from "une concubine…Ghaya" and only 22 years old, who was installed as caliph "13 ramadan 414" and adopted the name "el-Mostazhir"[262].  He succeeded in 1018 as Caliph ABD al-RAHMAN V "al-Mustazhir". 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    REGENTS of CÓRDOBA

 

 

 

A.      FAMILY of AL-MANSUR

 

 

1.         al-WALID bin Yezid . Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Abou Amir Mohammed b. el-Welid b Yezid b Abd el-Melik b Amir el-Moaferi et Kahtani" as minister of Caliph "El-Hakam Mostancir"[263].  [m] BOREYHA, daughter of YAHYA bin ZAKARIA Temimi .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Boreyha…fille de Yahya b. Zakariyya Temimi connu sous le nom d´Ibn Bartal" as mother of "El-Mançour"[264].  al-Walid & his [wife] had one child: 

a)         Abu Amir MUHAMMAD bin Abi Amir (-10 Aug 1002).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Abou Amir Mohammed b. el-Welid b Yezid b Abd el-Melik b Amir el-Moaferi et Kahtani" as minister of Caliph "El-Hakam Mostancir", adding that he adopted the name "El-Mançour"[265].  Regent for Caliph Hisham II, he took the title "al-Mansur/the Victorious" in 981.  The Historia Arabum records that "Issem filius Alhacam" succeeded his father A.H. 366, aged 10 years and 8 months, under the regency of "Almuhayatbille…Mahomathibne Abenhamir…dictus Alhagib…postea Almanzor fuit appellatus"[266].  He was effective ruler until his death in 1002, eclipsing the Caliph.  He was able to eliminate his rivals, including Ghalib bin Abd-al-Rahman who had allied himself with García Fernández Conde de Castilla, whom he defeated at Atienza Jul 981.  He built a new palace in the east of Córdoba called Madinat al-Zahira, to which all government administration was transferred, leaving the Caliph isolated in his own palace.  He led many successful campaigns against the Christians, including the sack of Barcelona 985 and of Santiago de Compostela 997, after which the bells of the cathedral were carried south to Córdoba by prisoners of war.  The Chronicon Burgense records the death in 1002 of “Almanzor” and his burial “in inferno[267].  The Historia Arabum records the death A.H. 393 of "Almanzoris" after leading the country for 26 years[268].  [m] (a) ---.  [m] (b) ---, daughter of [SANCHO & his wife ---].  The name of the maternal grandfather of Abd al-Rahman "Sanchuelo", son of al-Mansur, is assumed to have been Sancho because of the nickname which his grandson is given in Arab primary sources.  Dozy suggests that he was either Sancho García Conde de Castilla or Sancho II García King of Navarre, on the assumption that only the daughter of one of the most prominent Christian leaders of the time would have been considered as a suitable bride for such a prominent person as al-Mansur[269].  He quotes a passage from Ibn-al-Khatib which records that "le chef des Roum offrit sa fille" to al-Mansur and that she became his favourite wife, suggesting that it refers to the mother of Sanchuelo[270].  Dozy highlights no primary sources which identifies "Sancho" more precisely, and indeed the way he writes suggests that no such source exists.  "Le chef des Roum" suggests Sancho King of Navarre rather than Sancho Conde de Castilla, but this is not beyond doubt.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Sanchuelo´s mother was Abda de Navarra "la Vascona", illegitimate daughter of Sancho II García Abarca King of Navarre & his mistress ---.  The basis for this speculation is not known but it may be no more than guesswork assuming that it is correct that Dozy ignored no available primary source.  The primary source which confirms the name "Abda" has not yet been identified either.  Presumably it has been assumed that Sanchuelo´s mother must have been illegitimate if she was married to a Muslim prince, but this conclusion is not consistent with the parentage of other Navarrese princesses who married Muslim leaders.  [[m] (c) ([999/Aug 1002]) TERESA de León, daughter of VERMUDO II King of Leon & his second wife Elvira García de Castilla ([992]-25 Apr 1039, bur San Pelayo de Oviedo).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Alfonso and Teresa" as the children of King Vermudo and his wife Elvira, stating that Teresa married "a certain pagan king of Toledo for the sake of peace, although she was herself unwilling" by her brother after their father died[271].  According to the same source, her husband died immediately after consummating the marriage, as his wife had predicted, having ordered her to be returned to León with sumptuous gifts.  After her return, she became a nun at San Pelayo de Oviedo where she was buried[272].  The sources are contradictory regarding the identity of Teresa´s husband.  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records that King Alfonso “inito consilio nobiles regni” (which suggests that the marriage took place during the king´s minority) married "Tharasiam sororem Regis Adefonsi" to "Abdella Rex Toletanus"[273].  According to Ibn-Khaldun, in 993 King Vermudo sent "sa fille à Almanzor" who enslaved her but later freed and married her[274].  Cotarelo, analysing the chronology of the interactions between the kings of León and Al-Mansur in the late 10th/early 11th centuries, concludes that “no hay...posibilidad de que el rey Don Bermudo entregase su hija a [Almanzor][275].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium refers to Al-Mansur and his son in a passage which immediately follows the text which recounts Teresa's marriage, without making the link between the two[276].]  m (d) (995) ONECA García, daughter of GARCÍA I Fernández Conde de Castilla & his wife Ava de Ribagorza.  Her marriage was arranged by her brother Conde Sancho to placate al-Mansur[277].  Abbess of San Salvador de Oña 1045.  al-Mansur had one child by concubine (a): 

i)          ABD al-MALIK al-Muzaffar (-1008).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Adamelch" as son of "Almanzor", when reporting their planned invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias[278].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "son fils Abou Merwan Abd el-Melik b. Abou Amir surnommé El-Mozaffer" succeeded his father "El-Mançour" as regent for Caliph Hisham II, adding that he ruled for seven years[279].  Ibn-Khaldun states that the dispute concering the regency of Alfonso V King of León, after his accession in 999, was submitted to "Abdalmelic fils d´Almanzor" who ordered "au juge des chrétiens [de Cordoue] Açbagh ibn --- de décider…[et il] prononça en faveur de Menendo Gonzalez"[280].  He succeeded his father in 1002 as regent of the Caliphate.  The Historia Arabum records the succession of "filius Abdelmelich cognominatus Almodofar" on the death of "Almanzoris"[281].  Ibn-Khaldun records that Alfonso V King of León was defeated by "Modhaffar fils d´Almanzoe…près de Clunia" which al-Muzaffar captured[282].  The Historia Arabum records the death A.H. 400 of "Abdelmelich cognominatus Almodofar" after leading the country for six years and eight months[283]

al-Mansur had one child by concubine (b): 

ii)         ABD al-RAHMAN "Sanchuelo" ([983]-executed 1009).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "son frère Abd el-Rahman surnommé Naçir" succeeded "El-Mozaffer" as regent for Caliph Hisham II, adding that he ruled for seven years[284].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1008 as Regent of the Caliphate.  The Historia Arabum records the succession of "frater eius Abderramen, qui derisorie Sanciolus dicebatur" after the death of "Abdelmelich cognominatus Almodofar"[285].  Abd al-Rahman obliged Caliph Hisham to appoint him heir apparent in Nov 1008.  A revolution was led by Hisham's cousin Muhammad bin Hisham who obliged the Caliph to abdicate in his favour 16 Feb 1009.  Abd al-Rahman was executed after returning to Córdoba following this coup d'état.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abd el-Rahman surnommé Naçir" was killed by his own troops[286].  Abd al-Rahman Nazir had one child: 

(a)       ABD al-AZIZ (-[1060/61]).  He was the son of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, so grandson of al-Mansur.  He took over Valencia in 1021. 

-         VALENCIA

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of MOHAMMED bin JAWAR

 

 

Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that the grand vizir of Caliph Hisham III continued to administer the city of Córdoba after the caliph was deposed in 1031, and that the administration remained in his family until 1053 when the city fell under the authority of "l´emir surnommé Mamoun b. Dhoun-Noun, chef de Tolède" who died soon afterwards and was succeeded by "un Berbère nommé Ibn Okacha…nom propre…Mousa", who remained until he was expelled by "Ez-Zafer bi-hawi Allah Aboul-Kasim Mohammed b. Abbad"[287]

 

 

1.         MOHAMMED bin Jawar .  His parentage is confirmed by Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi who records the ancestry of his son "Aboul-Hazm Djahwar b. Mohammed b. Djahwar b. Odeyd Allah b. Mohammed b. el-Ghamr b. Yahya b. Abd el.Ghafir b. Abou Oda", adding in a later passage that his was "une famille noble" whose ancestors had been "ministres sous les dynasties Hakamite et Amirite"[288].  Mohammad had one child: 

a)         JAWAR bin Mohammed .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "le vizir Aboul-Hazim Djawar b. Mohammed" engineered the accession of "El-Motadd billah", last of the Ummayad Caliphs, and that, after the caliph, was deposed "le royaume de Córdoba" continued to be administered by him until he died "1 çafar 435"[289].  Jawar had one child: 

i)          ABUL-WALID MOHAMMED bin Jawar .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "son fils Aboul-Walid Mohammad b. Djahwar" succeeded as administrator of Córdoba after the death of "Djawar b. Mohammed", until he died "29 chawwal 443", after which Córdoba fell under the authority of "l´emir surnommé Mamoun b. Dhoun-Noun, chef de Tolède" who died soon afterwards and was succeeded by "un Berbère nommé Ibn Okacha…nom proper…Mousa" who remained until he was expelled by "Ez-Zafer bi-hawi Allah Aboul-Kasim Mohammed b. Abbad"[290]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    CALIPHATE (HAMUDID or HASANID DYNASTY)

 

 

1.         HAMUD bin Meymoun .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Hamoud b. Meymoun b. Ahmed b. Ali b. Obeyd Allah b. Omar b. Idris [b. Idris] b. Abd Allah b. Hasan b. Hasan b. Ali b. Abou Taleb" when recording the appointments of his two sons[291].  Hamud had two children: 

a)         QASIM bin Hamud (-bur Algeciras).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Hakam…El-Mostain Billah" appointed "Kasim", older son of "Hamoud b. Meymoun…", as governor of Algeciras, dated to [1013/16] from the context[292].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "son frère…dix ans plus âgé que lui Kasem b. Hammoud" succeeded after "Ali b. Hamoud…Naçir" was killed, and reigned until "rebi I de 412" when he fled from Córdoba to Seville after the rebellion of "le fils de son frère Yahya b. Ali b. Hammoud" in Málaga, only to be restored the following year[293].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Qasim was expelled again in "chaban 414", left again for Seville where he joined "ses deux fils Mohammed et Hasan", but from where they were expelled and sought refuge in Jérez[294].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Qasim was imprisoned by his nephews but strangled "en 431" aged 80, after the death of his nephew Idris, and buried at Algeciras[295].  [m] (a) EMIRA, daughter of HASAN bin Kanun.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Emira, fille de Hasan b. Kannoun b. Ibrahim b. Mohammed b. Kasem b. Idris b. Idris b. Abd Allah b. Hasan b. Hasan b. Ali b. Abou Taleb" as the mother of Qasim´s two sons "Mohammed et Hasan"[296].  Qasim had two children by concubine (a): 

i)          MOHAMMED (-Algeciras ----).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "ses deux fils Mohammed et Hasan" when recording that their father joined them in Seville in "chaban 414" after he was deposed[297].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Yahya b. Ali" imprisoned his two cousins "Mohammed et Hasan fils de Kasim b. Hammoud" but that their guardian "un Maghrebin nommé Aboul-Haddjadj" released them on learning that Yahya had been killed, whereupon Mohammed was recognised as ruler of Algeciras "sans prendre le titre de khalife"[298].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Hasan died in Algeciras "sa cousine fille d´Idris" leaving "une huitaine d´enfants males"[299].  Mohammed had one child: 

(a)       QASIM .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Kasim b. Mohammed b. Kasim" succeeded his father at Algeciras but did not take the title Caliph[300]

ii)         HASAN .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "ses deux fils Mohammed et Hasan" when recording that their father joined them in Seville in "chaban 414" after he was deposed[301].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Yahya b. Ali" imprisoned his two cousins "Mohammed et Hasan fils de Kasim b. Hammoud" but that their guardian "un Maghrebin nommé Aboul-Haddjadj" released them on learning that Yahya had been killed, whereupon Hasan "fut pris de ferveur religieuse" and went on pilgrimage to Mecca with "sa sœur Fatima, fille de Kasim, et femme de Yahya b. Ali el-Motali"[302]

Qasim had one child by an unknown wife or concubine: 

iii)        FATIMA .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "sa sœur Fatima, fille de Kasim, et femme de Yahya b. Ali el-Motali" accompanied her brother Hasan on pilgrimage to Mecca[303]m YAHYA bin Ali el-Motali, son of ---. 

b)         ALI bin Hamud .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Hakam…El-Mostain Billah" appointed "Ali", younger son of "Hamoud b. Meymoun…", as governor of Ceuta and Tanger, dated to [1013/16] from the context, that Ali invaded Spain, conquered Malaga, defeated "Mohammed b. Soleyman" who commanded the caliph´s Berber troops, decapitated the Caliph "21 moharrem 407", and took the title himself with the name "Naçir"[304].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Ali b. Hamoud…Naçir" was killed in his bath "en 408" by his slaves, after ruling for two years less two months[305].  [m] (a) LOBUNA, daughter of MOHAMMED bin Hasan.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Lobbouna, fille de Mohammed b. Hasan b. Kasem (connu sous le nom de Kannoun) b. Ibrahim b. Mohammed b. Kasem b. Idris b. Idris b. Abd Allah b. Hasan b. Hasan b. Ali b. Abou Taleb" as the mother of Ali´s son Yahya[306].  Ali bin Hamud had two children: 

i)          YAHYA .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yahya et Idris" as the two sons of "Ali b. Hamoud…Naçir"[307].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "le fils de son frère Yahya b. Ali b. Hammoud" rebelled against his uncle Qasim in Málaga, captured Córdoba, and succeeded as Caliph with the name "El-Motali", until he was expelled "en 413" by Qasim and retired to Málaga, before being restored again the following year[308].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Yahya took the name "les uns dissent…Aboul-Kasem et les autres Abou Mohammed" when he succeeded as caliph[309].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Yahya b. Ali le Fatimide" was restored after "El-Mostakfi Billah" was deposed in 1025, but remained at Carmona as he failed to reconquer Córdoba[310].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Yahya was killed "dans le voisinage de Carmona…7 moharrem 427"[311].  Yahya had two children by unknown wives or concubines: 

(a)       HASAN .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Hasan et Idris nés de concubines l´un et l´autre" as the sons of Yahya[312].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Hasan…le cadet des deux fils de Yahya" governed Ceuta and Tanger after his paternal uncle Idris left for Málaga[313].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that, after the death of his uncle Idris, "Hasan b. Yahya" was recognised as ruler of Málaga and Caliph with the title "El-Mostali"[314].  [m] his cousin, --- binti Idris, daughter of IDRIS bin Ali.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Hasan married "sa cousine fille d´Idris" who it was said poisoned him in revenge for the death of her brother Yahya[315]

(b)       IDRIS .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Hasan et Idris nés de concubines l´un et l´autre" as the sons of Yahya[316].  Idris had one child: 

(1)       MOHAMMED .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Mohammed b. Idris, cousin d´Idris b. Yahya", after being imprisoned by his cousin Mohammed Mahdi, established himself as ruler in Málaga where he continued to reside until his death "en 445"[317]

ii)         IDRIS (-Bobastro 10--).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yahya et Idris" as the two sons of "Ali b. Hamoud…Naçir"[318].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Idris b. Ali" governed Ceuta and Tanger and that, after the death of his brother, he went to Málaga where he was recognised as caliph under the name of "Motaayyid" and reigned "jusqu´en 430 ou 431"[319].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Idris b. Ali" had left Málaga for "la montagne de Boubachtar" due to illness and died there[320].  Idris had six children: 

(a)       ALI .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Ali, oldest son of Idris, predeceased his father[321].  Ali had one child: 

(1)       ABDALLAH .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Ali, oldest son of Idris, predeceased his father leaving "un fils…Abd Allah" who was exiled by his uncle[322]

(b)       YAHYA Hayun (-executed Málaga).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yahya…Mohammed surnommé Mahdi et Hasan surnommé Sami" as the surviving sons of "Idris b. Ali", adding that "Yahya b. Idris connu sous le nom de Hayyoun" failed to succeed his father in Málaga, which submitted to his cousin Hasan bin Yahya, and was executed[323].  Yahya had one child: 

(1)       IDRIS .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Idris b. Yahya surnommé Ali" ruled in Málaga after the death  of "Mohammed b. Idris b. Yahya", but that after his death the Berbers expelled the Hasanid dynasty from Spain[324]

(c)       MOHAMMED Mahdi .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yahya…Mohammed surnommé Mahdi et Hasan surnommé Sami" as the surviving sons of "Idris b. Ali", recording in a later passage that he was recognised as Caliph at Málaga "sous le nom de Mahdi"[325]

(d)       HASAN Sami .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yahya…Mohammed surnommé Mahdi et Hasan surnommé Sami" as the surviving sons of "Idris b. Ali", adding in a later passage that his brother Mohammed exiled him "sur le littoral africain dans les montagnes des Ghomara"[326]

(e)       ISMAIL .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Idris sent "son fils Ismail" to besiege Cardona after his rule in Málaga was challenged by "le prince de Séville, le kadi Aboul-Kasim Mohammed b. Ismail b. Abbad"[327]

(f)        daughter .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Hasan married "sa cousine fille d´Idris" who it was said poisoned him in revenge for the death of her brother Yahya[328].  [m] her cousin, HASAN bin Yahya, son of YAHYA bin Ali. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    HUESCA, TUDELA & ZARAGOZA, 9th-10th CENTURIES

 

 

 

A.      HUESCA – MUSA ibn GALIND

 

 

1.         MUSA ibn Galind, son of [GALINDO Íñiguez de Pamplona & his wife ---] ([845/46]-killed Huesca 4 Aug 871)Wali [governor/king] of Huesca.  Al-Udri records that "Amrus ibn Umar ibn Amrus" rebelled against "Musa ibn Galindo, amil de Huesca" whom he killed in the same city which he captured, in A.H. 256 [869/70], specifying that Musa was killed A.H. "el sábado 13 del mes de ramadán" [4 Aug 871] and in a later passage that his body was affixed to the walls of the city[329].  The Arab historian ibn Hayyân records that "Musa ibn Galind émir de Huesca" was executed in 870[330]

 

 

 

B.      HUESCA – BANU AMRUS FAMILY

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         YUSUF .  Yusuf had one child: 

a)         AMRUS ibn Yusuf .  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records "Amrus ibn Yusuf, conocido como el muladí, de la gente de Wasqa…antepasado de los Banu Amrus" as "en la Frontera Superior como seguidor del califa al-Hakam" [al Hakam I Emir of Córdoba, who ruled 796-822], undated[331].  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records that "el emir al-Hakam" appointed "Amrus ibn Yusuf, conocido como el muladí" as "gobernador de la Frontera Superior" in A.H. 186 [802], that Amrus campaigned "hacia la Frontera…matando a Bahlul ibn Abi al-Hayyay y apoderándose del país de los Banu Qasi", built "el monte de Tutila, [y] una medina fortificada" and appointed "su hijo Yusuf" as governor[332].  Amrus had four children: 

i)          YUSUF ibn Amrus .  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records that "Amrus ibn Yusuf, conocido como el muladí" appointed "su hijo Yusuf" as governor of "el monte de Tutila, [y] una medina fortificada" which he had built, dated to after A.H. 186 [802][333]

ii)         UMAR ibn Amrus .  Umar had one child: 

(a)       AMRUS ibn Umar (-[Huesca] Apr 875)Al-Udri records that "Amrus ibn Umar ibn Amrus" rebelled against "Musa ibn Galindo, amil de Huesca" whom he killed in the same city which he captured, in A.H. 256 [869/70][334]Wali [governor/king] of Huesca.  Al-Udri records that "Abd al-Ala", general of "Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad ibn Mugit, amil de la Marca", was sent to Huesca after the rebellion of Amrus ibn Umar, commenting in a later passage that the latter sought refuge "en Andira" and allied himself with "Garsiya ibn Wanniqo [García I Iñíguez [King] of Pamplona] y los Sirtaniyyun", in A.H. 257 [869/70], adding that "Mutarrif ibn Musa" [of the Banu Qasi family] then took control of Huesca[335].  Cañada Juste states that Amrus was restored in Huesca after the downfall of Mutarif ibn Musa [872] and remained there until his death in Apr 875, but does not cite the corresponding primary sources[336].  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records that "el bárbaro Ludriq" attacked "Madinat Salim" A.H. 224 [838/39] and that "Musa ibn Musa" sent "su hijo Fortun" who defeated and killed him[337]m (x) --- of Pamplona, [illegitimate] daughter of GARCIA I [King] of Pamplona & his [wife/mistress ---].  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records "la hija de Garsiya ibn W.n.q." as the wife of "Amrus ibn Amr ibn Amrus" in A.H. 259 [872/73][338].  Amrus had one child by an unknown wife or concubine: 

(1)       MASUD ibn Amrus (-killed early 887).  Wali [governor/king] of Huesca.  Cañada Juste states that Amrus was succeeded in Huesca by his son Masud, who was killed in early 887 by [his cousin] Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Tawil, but does not cite the corresponding primary sources[339]

iii)        ZAKARIYYA ibn Amrus .  Zakariyya had one child: 

(a)       LUBB ibn Zakariyya (-[869/70] or after).  Al-Udri records that "Abd al-Ala", general of "Abd al-Wahhab ibn Ahmad ibn Mugit, amil de la Marca", was sent to Huesca after the rebellion of Amrus ibn Umar and captured "Lubb ibn Zakariyya ibn Amrus", in A.H. 257 [869/70][340]

iv)       son .  One child: 

(a)       XABRIT .  Ibn Said names "señor de Huesca…Xabrit…primo de Amrus", adding that he was imprisoned by "Alháquem I"[341].  Xabrit had one child: 

(1)       ABD al-MALIK ibn Xabrit .  Ibn Hayyan names "Mohamed hijo de Abdelmelic hijo de Xabrit…señor de Huesca" when identifying his son[342]

-         see below

2.         son .  One child: 

a)         SABRIT .  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records that "Amrus ibn Yusuf, conocido como el muladí" appointed "su hijo Yusuf" as governor of "el monte de Tutila, [y] una medina fortificada" which he had built, dated to after A.H. 186 [802], a later passage which records the same events adds that Amrus installed "su primo (el hijo de su tío paterno) Sabrit en Wasqa"[343]

 

 

ABD al-MALIK ibn Xabrit .  Ibn Hayyan names "Mohamed hijo de Abdelmelic hijo de Xabrit…señor de Huesca" when identifying his son[344]No reference has been found to Abdul Malik in his own capacity. 

Abdul Malik had two children: 

1.         MUHAMMAD "Atauil/al-Tawil" (-[913/14]).  Ibn Hayyan names "Mohamed hijo de Abdelmelic hijo de Xabrit…señor de Huesca", adding that he was known as "Atauil"[345].  Wali [governor/king] of Huesca.  Ibn Hayyan records that "Ismail hijo de Muza, de la familia de los Benicasi, señor de Lérida" relinquished his position in favour of "sus dos hijos, Muza y Motárrif" who were ambushed by "Atauil rey de Huesca" while defending "su distrito de Barbotania", when Musa was killed and Motarrif captured, dated A. H. 276 [6 May 889/25 Apr 890][346].  “Rex Fortunio Garcianes” reviewed the territories of the monastery of San Julián de Labasal, at the request of “comite Galindo Asnar”, by charter dated 893, whose dating clause records “...Garcia Sanz in Gallias, Raimundus in Paliares, pagani...Mohomet Ebenlupu in Balleterra et Mohomet Atauel in Osca...[347].  Ibn Hayyan records that "Atauil rey de Huesca" was defeated by "Lupo hijo de Mohámed", who was reconstructing "el castillo de Monzón", and captured, dated A. H. 283 [19 Feb 896/8 Feb 897][348].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Tawil, señor de Huesca" attacked Zaragoza and the lands of "Muhammad ibn Lubb" after the latter was killed, but was captured by "Lubb ibn Muhammad", dated to A.H. 285/86 [898/99] from the context[349].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik, conocido por Ibn al-Tawil" campaigned against Pallars and captured "el castillo de Awlaya" in "muharram" A.H. 290 [Dec 902/Jan 903][350]Ibn Idhari records that "Atauil" captured "los castillos de Barbastro y Alquézar y de la Barbotania", dated A. H. 294 [22 Oct 906/12 Oct 907][351]Ibn Idhari records that "Mohámed Atauil" together with "Abdala hijo de Mohámed Abenlupo" sacked "el castillo de Santa Bárbara, término de Monreal (?)", but retreated before attacking Pamplona, dated A. H. 298 [9 Sep 910/29 Aug 911][352].  Ibn Idhari records the death of "Mohámed Atauil" in A. H. 301 [913/914][353]m SANCHA Aznar, daughter of AZNAR Galíndez Conde de Aragón & his wife Oneca García de Pamplona.  The Codex de Roda names "Galindo Asnari et Garsea Asnari et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Asnari Galindones" and his wife, stating that Sancha married "regis Atoele mauro"[354].  Muhammad & his wife Sancha had five children: 

a)         ABD al-MALIK ibn Muhammad (-murdered [25] Dec 918, bur Huesca).  The Codex de Roda names "Abdelmelik et Ambroz et Furtunio et Muza et domna Belasquita" as the children of "regis Atoele mauro" and his wife Sancha[355].  Al-Udri records that "Abd al-Malik" took part in the expedition in which his father was killed, but escaped and was named "gobernador de [Huesca]" by "el imam Abd Allah" A.H. 301 [914][356].  Al-Udri records that "Abad al-Malik ibn Muhammad", who was at Huesca, gave help to "Amrus ibn Muhammad" at "el castillo de Barbastro" and defeated "Muhammad ibn Abd Allah", although "su hermano Yusuf" destroyed "Arnedo, Wafaw [De la Granja suggests "Alfaro"] y Falces"[357].  Al-Udri records that "Amrus ibn Muhammad" accused "su hermano Abd al- Malik" of betrayal and ordered him to be strangled, adding that he was buried "en Huesca el sábado a tres días por andar de rabi II" A. H. 301 [29 Nov 913] or "otros dicen que fue en 306 a doce días por andar de rayab" [25 Dec 918][358].  Abd al-Malik had one child: 

i)          LUBB .  His parentage is confirmed by Al-Udri who names his son "Yahya ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik"[359].  Lubb had one child: 

(a)       YAHYA .  Al-Udri records that "el principe de los creyentes Abd al-Rahman" named "su hijo Abd al-Malik" as "walí de Huesca" after the death of his father, adding that he shared power from A.H. 346 [957/58] with "Yahya ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik" in whose favour he resigned "el sábado a dos días por andar de yumada I" A.H. 348 [6 Aug 959][360]

b)         AMRUS ibn Muhammad (-6 Jun 935).  The Codex de Roda names "Abdelmelik et Ambroz et Furtunio et Muza et domna Belasquita" as the children of "regis Atoele mauro" and his wife Sancha[361]Al-Udri records that "Abd al-Malik" granted "el castillo de Monzón" to "su hermano Amrus…el sábado a siete días por andar del mes de ramadán" A.H. 301 [22 Apr 914][362].  Al-Udri records that "Yunus" captured "el castillo de Monzón, que le había cedido su primo Muhammad ibn Lubben saban" A.H. 302 [Feb/Mar 915] and then invited "Muhammad ibn Abd Allah" to capture "el castillo de Barbastro" which was unsuccessfully defended by "Amrus ibn Muhammad" who was obliged to seek refuge "en los arrabales de Barbastro"[363].  Al-Udri records that "Fortun y Amrus, los dos hijos de al-Tawil" arrived in Córdoba in A.H. 319 [931/32][364].  Al-Udri records the death of "Amrus ibn Muhammedla noche de sábado a comienzos de rayab" A.H. 323 [6 Jun 935], after which "Muhammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Hudayr" took "la mujeres y a los hijos de Amrus a Huesca" from where "los hijos" were sent to Córdoba[365]

c)         FORTUN (-crucified Calatayud [938/39]).  The Codex de Roda names "Abdelmelik et Ambroz et Furtunio et Muza et domna Belasquita" as the children of "regis Atoele mauro" and his wife Sancha[366]Al-Udri records that "Fortun ibn Muhammad" left Huesca "contra el castillo de Muns" where "su hermano Amrus ibn Muhammad" was defeated, dated "el martes a nueve días por andar de safar" A.H. 309 [30 Jun 921][367]Al-Udri records that "Fortun y Amrus, los dos hijos de al-Tawil" arrived in Córdoba in A.H. 319 [931/32][368].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Hasan" allied himself with "Fortun ibn Muhammad" and that they were expelled from Huesca "en yumada II" A.H. 321 [29 May/Jun 933] and sought refuge "en el castillo de Ban wa-Man", from where Fortún went to Córdoba to request his restoration from the "Principe de los Creyentes Abd al-Rahman"[369].  Al-Udri records that "Fortun ibn Muhammad" was captured "en la región de Calatayud por Salama ibn Ahmad ibn Salama", tortured "en al-Suradiq", that his tongue was cut out "en el campamento del Arrabal" and that he was crucified "a la puerta del Alcázar", dated A.H. 327 [938/39][370]

d)         MUSA ibn Muhammad (-Huesca 18 Dec 954, bur Huesca).  The Codex de Roda names "Abdelmelik et Ambroz et Furtunio et Muza et domna Belasquita" as the children of "regis Atoele mauro" and his wife Sancha[371].  Al-Udri records that "Amrus ibn Muhammed" campaigned against Lérida where "su hermano Musa ibn Muhammad" was "lugarteniente" and captured his brother, dated "el martes a tres días por andar de muharram" A.H. 320 [8 Feb 932][372]Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Muhammad" was named "gobernador de Huesca" A.H. 328 [940] and died "el martes a diex días por andar de saban" A.H. 343 [18 Dec 954], and was buried "en la plaza de la mezquita aljama en Huesca"[373].  Musa had one child:  

i)          ABD Al-MALIK ibn Musa (-after 6 Aug 959).  Al-Udri records that "el principe de los creyentes Abd al-Rahman" named "su hijo Abd al-Malik" as "walí de Huesca" after the death of his father, adding that he shared power from A.H. 346 [957/58] with "Yahya ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik" in whose favour he resigned "el sábado a dos días por andar de yumada I" A.H. 348 [6 Aug 959][374].  Al-Udri records that "el Principe de los Creyentes Abd al-Rahman" appointed "su hijo Yahya [ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik]" as "gobernador de Barbastro" after the death of his father, adding that he shared power with "Abd al-Malik ibn Musa ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik" from A.H. 346 [957/58][375]

e)         VELASQUITA .  The Codex de Roda names "Abdelmelik et Ambroz et Furtunio et Muza et domna Belasquita" as the children of "regis Atoele mauro" and his wife Sancha[376]

Muhammad & his wife [x] had two children: 

f)          YAHYA ibn Muhammad (-Barbastro 20 Dec 951, bur Barbastro).  Al-Udri records that, after "Fortun ibn Muhammad" was expelled from Huesca "en yumada II" A.H. 321 [29 May/Jun 933], the inhabitants of Huesca appointed "su hermano Yahya ibn Muhammad" to lead them, but this was rejected by the "Principe de los Creyentes Abd al-Rahman" until Yahya presented himself in Córdoba, Al- Udri in a later passage recording that he was retained in Córdoba, granted "el gobierno de la ciudad de Mérida", but later imprisoned "en la prisión de al-Duwayra"[377].  Al-Udri records that Yahya finally left Córdoba A.H. 330 and settled in Barbastro "la noche del viernes 10 de saban" [30 Apr 942] where he was captured by "los Mayus…el sábado 8 de sawwal" later the same year [26 Jun 942], returned to Barbastro after his release, and died there "en la noche del sábado a doce días por andar de rayab" A.H. 340 [20 Dec 951] and buried there[378]

g)         LUBB ibn Muhammad (-Córdoba 2 Dec 955).  Al-Udri records that "el Principe de los Creyentes" appointed "Lubb ibn Muhammad" as "gobernador de Barbastro" after the death of Yahya ibn Muhammad, but that he died suddenly in Córdoba "el miércoles 13 de saban" A.H. 344 [2 Dec 955][379].  The passage does not specify that Lubb was the brother of Yahya, but the relationship is confirmed by the same source which records the succession of his son (see below).  Lubb had one child: 

i)          YAHYA ibn Lubb .  Al-Udri records that "el Principe de los Creyentes Abd al-Rahman" appointed "su hijo Yahya [ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik]" as "gobernador de Barbastro" after the death of his father, adding that he shared power with "Abd al-Malik ibn Musa ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik" from A.H. 346 [957/58][380]

2.         ABDULLAH (-Barcelona [913/14]).  Ibn Idhari records the death in Barcelona of "Abdala hijo de Abdelmélic hijo de Xabrit" in A. H. 301 [913/914][381]

 

 

 

C.      BANU QASI FAMILY

 

 

Descendants of a Visigoth who converted to Islam and assumed the name "Qasi" soon after the Moorish invasion in 711/12, this family rose to considerable prominence during the 9th and early 10th centuries in north-western Spain in the area adjacent to the Carolingian "March" of Spain.  The sources which are quoted below show participation by the Banu Qasi family in various conflicts with their Carolingian neighbours, and it is likely that such talented local Muslim leaders represented the best hope of the emirate of Córdoba for further territorial expansion to the north.  Indeed, the Muslim historian Al-Udri records that at one time (probably dated to the 850s) Muhammad Emir of Córdoba appointed Musa ibn Musa, great-grandson of the original Qasi, as "gobernador de la Marca", implying wide territorial responsibility[382], although the appointment was later withdrawn and was not repeated among Musa´s descendants.  This passage should, however, probably not be taken as indicating that the emirate of Córdoba established its own "March" on the northern borders of its territories.  Al-Udri´s works were written some two centuries after these events and, as a resident of Zaragoza, he must have been familiar with the local concept of "la Marca", probably using it in his writing as a convenient geographical descriptive term rather to indicate an established political entity on the Muslim side of the divide. 

 

Various members of the Banu Qasi family were appointed as "wali" (governor, but sometimes translated as king, in the sense of "local" king) of the cities of Tudela and Zaragoza by the emirs of Córdoba during the second half of the 9th and early 10th centuries.  However, they were unruly vassals, and the sources reveal numerous rebellions against the central authority of the emirate, especially by Musa ibn Musa and, after his death, his sons.  The sources also show temporary alliances agreed, throughout the same period, between the Banu Qasi and the local Christian magnates to fight the emir or other rival local Muslim leaders.  As will be seen below, these alliances were confirmed by several marriages, mainly with the family of the rulers of Pamplona, but also including single cases of intermarriage with the kings of Asturias and the counts of Pallars/Ribagorza. 

 

The Arabic sources record four cases of members of the Banu Qasi family converting back to Christianity in the early 10th century: Fortun ibn Lubb, Fortun ibn Abd Allah, and the brothers Abd Allah and Ismail ibn Mutarif.  There is no information on their descendants, but it is likely that some or all of these individuals were ancestors of nobility in the kingdom of N avarre.  In this respect, the names "Fortun" and "Lubb" are particularly significant, the former being recorded frequently among Navarrese nobility and the latter presumably being transformed into the equally common "Lope" and its Basque equivalent "Ochoa" (see the document NAVARRE NOBILITY). 

 

Numerous references to the Banu Qasi family are found in the works of 10th to 13th century Muslim Spanish historians, corroborated by passages in Christian sources such as the Chronicle of Alfonso III, the Chronicon Sebastiani, the Chronicon Albeldense, and the Codex de Roda.  The main primary source for reconstructing the family is the 11th century historian al-Udri.  The family was studied in detail in 1980 by Alberto Cañada Juste, who compares the information extracted from all relevant sources and places the Banu Qasi in their proper historical context[383].  The recent work by Jesús Lorenzo Jiménez includes a useful appendix of Spanish translations of relevant extracts from Arabic language sources, some of which are difficult to obtain elsewhere. 

 

 

 

[CASIUS], son of --- (-after 714).  A Visigoth from around the Ebro delta, he converted to Islam in 714, adopted the name QASI, and acquired a position of power in Tudela.  The Visigothic origin of this family is confirmed by the Chronicle of Alfonso III which records Qasi´s great-grandson "Musa a Goth by birth…"[384].  Ibn Hazm names "Qasi…el conde [qumis] de la Marca en la época de los godos" adding that he converted to Islam in Damascus "en presencia de al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik" [Caliph Walid I, who reigned from 705-715] after the Muslim conquest of Spain[385].  Cañada Juste records that the name "Casius" was first used by Sánchez-Albornoz in 1948[386], presumably in an attempt to "latinise" the name Qasi. 

Qasi had five children: 

1.         FORTÚN ibn Qasi ([before 713]-).  Ibn Hazm names "Fortun, Abu Tawr, Abu Salama, Yunus y Yahya" as the sons of "Qasi"[387].  His parentage is confirmed by Al-Udri when he names his descendant "Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun ibn Garsiya"[388].  Cañada Juste suggests that his Navarrese name "Fortún", in contrast to the Muslim names of Qasi´s other recorded children, indicates that Fortún was probably born before his father´s conversion[389].  Fortun had two children:

a)         MUSA ibn Fortun ([745]-Zaragoza 789 or Dec 802).  Ibn Hazm names "Musa y Zahir" as the sons of "Fortun"[390].  His parentage is confirmed by Al-Udri when he names his descendant "Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun ibn Garsiya"[391].  [Lucas de Tuy records that "ex Chaldeis duos magnos tyrannos…Hienchaza…[et] Alporu cum filio suo Azeth" captured "Muza [et] filius eius Lupus" in battle, dating the event to the reign of "Carolus…magnus Franciæ Rex" (so before he was crowned emperor in 800)[392].  However, the passage is confused and in a later part records the death in battle of "genere eiusdem Muzæ…Garsia", which appears to refer to the son-in-law of Musa ibn Musa who was killed in battle in 859.  It is therefore uncertain whether Lucas de Tuy is referring to Musa ibn Fortun or Musa ibn Musa.]  Ibn Idari records that Musa ibn Fortun expelled the rebel Said ibn al-Husayn Yahya Ansari from Zaragoza A.H. 172 [10 Jun 788][393].  Ibn al-Athir records that Musa ibn Fortun was murdered by Chahdar, a follower of Said ibn al-Husayn A.H. 173 [789][394].  Al-Udri records that "[Musa ibn Fortun]" rebelled in Zaragoza against "el imam al-Hakam" but died in the same town "en du l-hiyya" A.H. 186 [Dec 802][395]m (x) as her first husband, ---, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Íñigo [de Pamplona].  Her two marriages are indicated by Al-Udri who names "Yannaqo ibn Wanniqo" as "hermano de madre de Musa ibn Musa"[396].  Ibn Hayyân names "Musa et son allié Garsiya ibn Wannaqo, emir des Gascons (d'autres dissent que son allié était Furtun ibn Wannaqo, son frère uterin)" and records in a later passage that "Musa ibn Musa al-Qasawi…fut aidé par son frère utérin, le chef de Pampelune, ibn Wannaqo"[397].  Settipani highlights the lively academic debate over whether Musa was the first or second husband of the wife of Íñigo[398].  [The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records the death "era DCCV" of "rex Enneco Garseanes", adding that his wife was "Eximena"[399].  This source is confused and contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records.  It is not certain to whom "Enneco Garseanes" refers.  It has been decided not to include "Jimena" as the name of the wife of "Íñigo", considering the number of uncertainties in the text.]  Musa had five children by unknown [wives/concubines]:

i)          MUTARIF ibn Musa (-killed [Pamplona] 799).  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun"[400]Ibn Hayyan records that "la gente de Pamplona mata a traición a Mutarrif ben Musa" A.H. 183 [799][401]There are no other details or background information relating to Mutarif, any position he held, or the circumstances which resulted in his death[402]

ii)         YUNUS ibn Musa .  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun", adding in a later passage that "Yunus ibn Musa, hermano de Musa ibn Musa" remained loyal together with "los hijos de su tío Zahir ibn Fortun", that they fought for thirty years against "Musa ibn Musa", and that Yunus "tiene [todavía] descendientes"[403]

iii)        YUWARTAS ibn Musa .  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun"[404]

iv)       LUBB ibn Musa .  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun"[405].  [Lucas de Tuy records that "ex Chaldeis duos magnos tyrannos…Hienchaza…[et] Alporu cum filio suo Azeth" captured "Muza [et] filius eius Lupus" in battle, dating the event to the reign of "Carolus…magnus Franciæ Rex" (so before he was crowned emperor in 800)[406].  However, the passage is confused and in a later part records the death in battle of "genere eiusdem Muzæ…Garsia", which appears to refer to the son-in-law of Musa ibn Musa who was killed in battle in 859.  It is therefore uncertain whether Lucas de Tuy is referring to Musa ibn Fortun or Musa ibn Musa.]  Lubb had [two or more] children: 

(a)       daughters .  Ibn Hazm records that "Musa ibn Musa" arranged the marriages of "las hijas de su hermano Lubb ibn Musa" with "los hijos de Wanaqo ibn Sanyo, rey de los Vascos"[407].  No other reference to these possible marriages has been found.  If they are correct, the chronology suggests that the bridegrooms must have been the sons of Íñigo [I], although it is not known whether they were Ínigo Iñíguez and Fortún Iñíguez or other otherwise unrecorded sons.  [m ÍÑIGO [II] Iñíguez, son of [ÍÑIGO & his wife ---] ([788/90]-[851/52]), or FORTÚN Iñíguez, son of [ÍÑIGO & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Pamplona Jul 843). 

v)        GARSIYA ibn Musa .  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun"[408]

Musa & his wife (x) had one child:  :

vi)       MUSA ibn Musa (-Tudela 26 Sep 862).  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun"[409].  His parentage is confirmed by Al-Udri when he names his descendant "Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun ibn Garsiya"[410]Wali [governor/king] of Tudela, Wali [governor/king] of Zaragoza 852: Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Musa" was named "wali de Tudela" in A.H. 238 [852] and "en el mismo año 238, el viernes a cuatro días por andar de rabi II" [14 Oct 852] "wali…de Zaragoza"[411]

-         see below

b)         ZAHIR ibn Fortun .  Ibn Hazm names "Musa y Zahir" as the sons of "Fortun"[412].  Zahir had [---] children: 

i)          children .  Ibn Hazm records that "Yunus ibn Musa, hermano de Musa ibn Musa" remained loyal together with "los hijos de su tío Zahir ibn Fortun" and that they fought for thirty years against "Musa ibn Musa"[413]

2.         ABU TAWR ibn Qasi .  Ibn Hazm names "Fortun, Abu Tawr, Abu Salama, Yunus y Yahya" as the sons of "Qasi"[414]

3.         ABU SALAMA ibn Qasi .  Ibn Hazm names "Fortun, Abu Tawr, Abu Salama, Yunus y Yahya" as the sons of "Qasi"[415]

4.         YUNUS ibn Qasi .  Ibn Hazm names "Fortun, Abu Tawr, Abu Salama, Yunus y Yahya" as the sons of "Qasi"[416]

5.         YAHYA ibn Qasi .  Ibn Hazm names "Fortun, Abu Tawr, Abu Salama, Yunus y Yahya" as the sons of "Qasi"[417]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following person and the main Banu Qasi has not yet been established: 

1.         ABD al-YABBAR ibn Qasi (-after [840/41]).  Al-Udri records that "Abd Allah ibn Kulayb [wali de Zaragoza]" expelled "de sus lares a Abd al-Yabbar ibn Qasi" in A.H. 226 [840/41][418]

 

 

MUSA ibn Musa, son of MUSA ibn Fortun & his second wife --- (-Tudela 26 Sep 862).[419]  Ibn Hazm names "Musa ibn Musa, Mutarrif, Yunus, Yuwartas, Lubb y Garsiya" as the sons of "Musa ibn Fortun"[420].  His parentage is confirmed by Al-Udri when he names his descendant "Muhammad ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun ibn Garsiya"[421].  Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Musa" rebelled against "el imam Abd al-Rahman", who had named "Abd Allah ibn Kulaybe wali de Zaragoza" and "Amir ibn Kulayb [wali] de Tudela", A.H. 226 [840/41][422].  Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Musa" rebelled against "Al-Mutarrif, hijo de Abd al-Rahman ibn Hakam…en el castillo de Arnedo" and sent "su hijo Fortun ibn Musa" to lead the cavalry A.H. 227 [841/42][423].  He rebelled against Emir Abd al-Rahman II, defeated the emir's troops in 843 but was in turn defeated in 844 by troops led by Muhammad, the emir's son[424].  The Arab historian ibn Hayyân records that "Lubb ibn Musa et Galind ibn Wannaqo" defected to the Arabs in 844[425].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Musa a Goth by birth but deceived by the Muhammadan rite along with all of his family which the Chaldeans call the Banu Qasi rebelled against the Cordoban king [and] took Zaragoza…Tudela and Huesca and…Toledo" and "demanded that his men call him the third king of Spain"[426]Wali [governor/king] of Tudela, Wali [governor/king] of Zaragoza 852: Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Musa" was named "wali de Tudela" in A.H. 238 [852] and "en el mismo año 238, el viernes a cuatro días por andar de rabi II" [14 Oct 852] "wali…de Zaragoza"[427].  The Chronicon Sebastiani records that "Muza" invaded southern France [in Oct 853] and captured "duos…Francorum magnos Duces…Sancionem et…Epulonem"[428].  The Chronicon Sebastiani records that "pater Muza [et] filius Lupus" captured "ex Chaldeis duos…magnos tyrannos, unum ex genere Alkorexi nomine Ibenamaz, alium militum nomine Alporz cum filio suo Azeth", dated to the context to the mid-850s[429].  Planning to attack the kingdom of Asturias, he was defeated by King Ordoño I at Monte Laturce in 859[430].  Al-Udri records that "el imam Muhammad" [Muhammad Emir of Córdoba] named him "gobernador de la Marca" but withdrew the appointment in A.H. 246 [860/61][431].  Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Musa" fought together with "Azraq ibn Mantil ibn Salim yerno suyo, marido de su hijo" at Guadalajara and died "el sábado, a tres días por andar de rayab" A.H. 248 [26 Sep 862] at Tudela from wounds received during the battle[432].  A different angle emerges from Ibn al-Qutiyya, who records the marriage of "Musa ibn Musa…una…hija" and "Azraq ibn Mantil, sahib de Wadi l-Hiyara", undated, Azraq´s rebellion against his father-in-law, and the death of the latter "antes de llegar a Tutila" from injuries inflicted personally by Azraq[433].  This latter version is partially confirmed by Ibn Idari who records that "Musa ibn Musa" fought "ibn Salim en Wadi l-Hiyara" and was mortally wounded, in A.H. 248 [862/63][434]

m (x) ASSONA Íñiguez, daughter of ÍÑIGO "Arista" King of Pamplona & his wife [Oneca ---].  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis et domna Assona…et domna ---" as the children of "Enneco cognomento Aresta", stating that Assona married "domno Muza qui tenuit Borza et Terrero"[435]

Musa had [seven] children by unknown [wives/concubines]: 

1.         LUBB ibn Musa (-27 Apr 875, bur Viguera).  Al-Udri records that "en algunos Anales" record that "Musa ibn Musa" was survived by "varios hijos…Lubb, Ismail, Mutarrif y Fortun", adding that Lubb "estuvo en Córdoba en calidad de rehén junto al Sultan" until "los Mayus" [the Vikings[436]] arrived at Seville "en su segunda incursión", against whom "El Sultán" appointed Lubb as "general de las tropas", rewarded him with "una esclava llamada Ayab" after his victory, and sent him back to "la Marca"[437]The Chronicon Sebastiani records that "pater Muza [et] filius Lupus" captured "ex Chaldeis duos…magnos tyrannos, unum ex genere Alkorexi nomine Ibenamaz, alium militum nomine Alporz cum filio suo Azeth", dated to the context to the mid-850s[438].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Musa" installed "his son…Lupe as prefect" in Toledo, but after the defeat of 859 he swore allegiance to Ordoño I King of Asturias[439].  The Chronicon Sebastiani records that "Lupus…filius de…Muza…Toleto Consul" swore allegiance to Ordoño I King of Asturias [in 859][440].  Al-Udri records that "Lubb [ibn Musa]" rebelled "en Arnedo", sought an alliance with "Garsiya ibn Wanniqo", installed himself as lord "de la Marca" in A.H. 257 [870/71], captured Zaragoza, and Tudela "el domingo 4 de rabi I" A.H. 258 [19 Jan 872][441].  Al-Udri records the death "el sábado a trece días por andar del mes de rayab" A.H. 261 [27 Apr 875] of "Lubb ibn Musa", after being unseated from his horse while hunting, and his burial "en Viguera"[442].  [m] (a) AYAB, daughter of ---.  Al-Udri records that "los Mayus" [the Vikings[443]] arrived at Seville "en su segunda incursión", against whom "El Sultán" appointed Lubb as "general de las tropas" to fight "los Mayus" and rewarded him with "una esclava llamada Ayab" after his victory[444].  Lubb & his wife (a) had one child: 

a)         MUHAMMAD ibn Lubb (-killed Arrabal de Zaragoza 3 Sep or 2 Oct 898).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Isa y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Musa ibn Musa", adding that Muhammad´s mother was "Ayab, la [doncella] de palacio"[445].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" rebelled in Zaragoza A.H. 258 [871/72] but in A.H. 261 [874/75] sold the city "por diez mil ---" to "Hasim ibn Abd al-Aziz", after which "el imam Muhammad" appointed Muhammad ibn Lubb as "gobernador de Arnedo, Tarazona y Yaris"[446]

-        see below

b)         ISA ibn Lubb .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Isa y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Musa ibn Musa"[447]

c)         MUTARIF ibn Lubb .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Isa y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Musa ibn Musa"[448]

2.         ISMAIL ibn Musa (-Monzón 10 Oct 889, bur Monzón).  Al-Udri records that "en algunos Anales" record that "Musa ibn Musa" was survived by "varios hijos…Lubb, Ismail, Mutarrif y Fortun", adding that Ismail was "gobernador…de Zaragoza"[449].  He captured Zaragoza 16 Jan 872[450].  Al-Udri records that "Ismail [ibn Musa]" entered Huesca, killed [his father-in-law] "Abd Allah ibn Jalaf ibn Rasid" and "todos sus hijos", and captured "de su villa, Barbastro…Alquézar y de toda la Barbitaniya"[451].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Zmael Iben Muiza” defended “Cæsaraugustam” [Zaragoza] against the attack of “Almundar, Mahomat regis filius” in 882[452].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ababdella, filius Jub” allied himself with Emir al-Mundhir and was attacked by “tius suus Zmael et suus congermanus…Zmael Ibem Furtum” whom he captured and imprisoned in Viguera castle in [882][453].  After Muhammad broke relations with the Emir, Ismail was released and transferred the castle of Valtierra to Muhammad in return[454].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" captured "Ismail ibn Musa y a sus primos [corrected by the translator to "sobrinos"]…Ismail et Lubb hijos estos dos de Fortun ibn Musa" at "Calahorra…el viernes 10 de yumada II" A.H. 270 [15 Nov 883] and freed them only after "Zaragoza, Tudela y Valtierra" were transferred to him, although he sent Ismail ibn Musa "al castillo de Monzón" where he remained until his death "el 10 de yumada II" A.H. 276 [10 Oct 889] and where he was buried[455].  Ibn Hayyan records that "Ismail hijo de Muza, de la familia de los Benicasi, señor de Lérida" relinquished his position in favour of "sus dos hijos, Muza y Motárrif" and died soon afterwards, dated A. H. 276 [6 May 889/25 Apr 890][456]m (x) SAYYIDA, daughter of ABD ALLAH ibn Jalaf ibn Rasid.  Al-Udri records that "Ismail [ibn Musa]" patched up an alliance with "Abd Allah ibn Jalaf ibn Rasid" and married "su hija Sayyida"[457].  Ismail had three children by unknown mothers: 

a)         MUSA ibn Ismail (-killed in battle Barbotania [6 May 889/25 Apr 890]).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…y Said" as the sons of "Ismail ibn Musa", adding that Musa was killed "en Huesca"[458].  Ibn Hayyan records that "Ismail hijo de Muza, de la familia de los Benicasi, señor de Lérida" relinquished his position in favour of "sus dos hijos, Muza y Motárrif" who were ambushed by "Atauil rey de Huesca" while defending "su distrito de Barbotania", when Musa was killed and Motarrif captured, dated A. H. 276 [6 May 889/25 Apr 890][459]

b)         MUTARIF ibn Ismail .  Ibn Hayyan records that "Ismail hijo de Muza, de la familia de los Benicasi, señor de Lérida" relinquished his position in favour of "sus dos hijos, Muza y Motárrif" who were ambushed by "Atauil rey de Huesca" while defending "su distrito de Barbotania", when Musa was killed and Motarrif captured, dated A. H. 276 [6 May 889/25 Apr 890][460]

c)         SAID ibn Ismail .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…y Said" as the sons of "Ismail ibn Musa", adding that Said died "en Córdoba"[461]

Ismail & his (x) wife had one child: 

d)         MUHAMMAD ibn Ismail .  Al-Udri records the birth of "Muhammad", son of "Ismail [ibn Musa]" and his wife "Sayyida"[462].  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…y Said" as the sons of "Ismail ibn Musa", adding that Muhammad was "rey de Toledo" and was killed by the inhabitants of Toledo[463].  Muhammad had one child: 

i)          LUBB ibn Muhammad .  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb, que se reunió con el sii en Ifriqiya" as the son of "Muhammad ibn Ismail, el que fue asesinado en Toledo"[464]

3.         MUTARIF ibn Musa (-crucified Córdoba 5 Sep 873).  Al-Udri records that "en algunos Anales" record that "Musa ibn Musa" was survived by "varios hijos…Lubb, Ismail, Mutarrif y Fortun"[465]Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Musa" took control of Huesca after Amrus ibn Umar was expelled, dated to A.H. 257 [870/71], an earlier passage recording, as a variation, that "Lubb [ibn Musa]" granted "el mando…de Huesca" to "su hermano…Mutarrif" after his campaign in A.H. 258 [871/72][466].  He captured Tudela in Dec 871, but was captured by Emir Muhammad who had him executed along with his sons[467].  Al-Udri records that "Fortun ibn Musa" rebelled but was captured by "el imam Muhammad" who imprisoned him and "Mutarrif ibn Musa…en la prisión de al-Duwayra en Córdoba"[468]Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Musa" was crucified in Córdoba "en el Llano de Mutarrif, el viernes 8 de du l´qada" A.H. 259 [5 Sep 873][469]m (x) secondly (870) VELASQUITA Sánchez, daughter of [SANCHO García de Pamplona & his wife ---].  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Musa" married "Faliskita, hija de Sanyo, señor de Pamplona" and that he brought her to Huesca (which suggests that the marriage should be dated to [870/71] when Mutarif took control of Huesca) and had children by her[470].  Mutarif had six children by unknown mothers: 

a)         MUHAMMAD ibn Mutarif (-crucified Córdoba 5 Sep 873).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Musa y Lubb, todos tres crucificados en Córdoba junto con su padre y al mismo tiempo…Yusuf…Abd Allah e Ismail" as the sons of "Mutarrif [ibn Musa] el que fue crucificado"[471]

b)         MUSA ibn Mutarif (-crucified Córdoba 5 Sep 873).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Musa y Lubb, todos tres crucificados en Córdoba junto con su padre y al mismo tiempo…Yusuf…Abd Allah e Ismail" as the sons of "Mutarrif [ibn Musa] el que fue crucificado"[472]

c)         LUBB ibn Mutarif (-crucified Córdoba 5 Sep 873).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Musa y Lubb, todos tres crucificados en Córdoba junto con su padre y al mismo tiempo…Yusuf…Abd Allah e Ismail" as the sons of "Mutarrif [ibn Musa] el que fue crucificado"[473]

d)         YUSUF ibn Mutarif (-Nájera ----).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Musa y Lubb, todos tres crucificados en Córdoba junto con su padre y al mismo tiempo…Yusuf…Abd Allah e Ismail" as the sons of "Mutarrif [ibn Musa] el que fue crucificado", adding that Yusuf was killed "en Nájera"[474]

e)         ABD ALLAH ibn Mutarif .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Musa y Lubb, todos tres crucificados en Córdoba junto con su padre y al mismo tiempo…Yusuf…Abd Allah e Ismail" as the sons of "Mutarrif [ibn Musa] el que fue crucificado", adding that Abd Allah and Ismail converted to christianity[475]

f)          ISMAIL ibn Mutarif .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Musa y Lubb, todos tres crucificados en Córdoba junto con su padre y al mismo tiempo…Yusuf…Abd Allah e Ismail" as the sons of "Mutarrif [ibn Musa] el que fue crucificado", adding that Abd Allah and Ismail converted to christianity[476]

Mutarif & his wife (x) had [two] children: 

g)         [two] children ([872/early 874]-).  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Musa" married "Faliskita, hija de Sanyo, señor de Pamplona" and that he brought her to Huesca (which suggests that the marriage should be dated to [870/71] when Mutarif took control of Huesca) and had children by her (but gives no details about these children)[477].  There appears to be time between the suggested date of the marriage of their parents, and their father´s death, for two children to have been born, the second maybe born posthumously. 

4.         FORTUN ibn Musa (-Tudela 23 Mar 874).  Al-Udri records that "en algunos Anales" record that "Musa ibn Musa" was survived by "varios hijos…Lubb, Ismail, Mutarrif y Fortun"[478]Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records that "el bárbaro Ludriq" attacked "Madinat Salim" A.H. 224 [838/39] and that "Musa ibn Musa" sent "su hijo Fortun" who defeated and killed him[479].  Ibn al-Athir records that "Fortun ibn Musa" defeated "al rey de los Gallegos [Loderik/Luzriq]" and destroyed a fortress built at Álava A.H. 224 [839][480].  Al-Udri records that "Musa ibn Musa" rebelled against "Al-Mutarrif, hijo de Abd al-Rahman ibn Hakam…en el castillo de Arnedo" and sent "su hijo Fortun ibn Musa" to lead the cavalry A.H. 227 [841/42][481].  Al-Udri records that "Lubb [ibn Musa]" granted "el mando de Tudela" to "su hermano Fortun ibn Musa", after it was captured Tudela "el domingo 4 de rabi I" A.H. 258 [19 Jan 872][482].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Fortunio Iben Muza” held “Tutelam castrum” in 882[483].  Al-Udri records that "Fortun ibn Musa" rebelled but was captured by "el imam Muhammad" who imprisoned him and "Mutarrif ibn Musa…en la prisión de al-Duwayra en Córdoba"[484]Al-Udri records the death "Tudela…el domingo último día de yumada I" A.H. 260 [23 Mar 874] of "Fortun"[485].  Fortun had four children: 

a)         ISMAIL ibn Fortun .  Ibn Hazm names "Ismail, Musa, Muhammad y Lubb" as the sons of "Fortun ibn Musa"[486].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ababdella, filius Jub” allied himself with Emir al-Mundhir and was attacked by “tius suus Zmael et suus congermanus…Zmael Ibem Furtum” whom he captured and imprisoned in Viguera castle in [882][487].  After Muhammad broke relations with the Emir, Ismail was released and transferred the town of Tudela, as well as the castle of San Esteban de Deyo, to Muhammad[488].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" captured "Ismail ibn Musa y a sus primos [corrected by the translator to "sobrinos"]…Ismail et Lubb hijos estos dos de Fortun ibn Musa" at "Calahorra…el viernes 10 de yumada II" A.H. 270 [15 Nov 883] and freed them only after "Zaragoza, Tudela y Valtierra" were transferred to him[489].  

b)         MUSA ibn Fortun .  Ibn Hazm names "Ismail, Musa, Muhammad y Lubb" as the sons of "Fortun ibn Musa"[490]

c)         MUHAMMAD ibn Fortun .  Ibn Hazm names "Ismail, Musa, Muhammad y Lubb" as the sons of "Fortun ibn Musa"[491]

d)         LUBB ibn Fortun .  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" captured "Ismail ibn Musa y a sus primos [corrected by the translator to "sobrinos"]…Ismail et Lubb hijos estos dos de Fortun ibn Musa" at "Calahorra…el viernes 10 de yumada II" A.H. 270 [15 Nov 883] and freed them only after "Zaragoza, Tudela y Valtierra" were transferred to him[492]

5.         [--- .  The precise parentage of Yunus has not been ascertained.  Presumably his father was one of the sons of Musa ibn Musa who are named above, apart from Lubb whose son Muhammad is named as cousin of Yunus in the passage from Al-Udri which is quoted below.]  One child: 

a)         YUNUS (-after [Feb/Mar] 915).  Al-Udri records that "Yunus" captured "el castillo de Monzón, que le había cedido su primo Muhammad ibn Lubben saban" A.H. 302 [Feb/Mar 915][493]

6.         [AWRIYA] binti Musa .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicon Sebastiani which records that "Muza…genere suo…Garseane" was killed at the battle of Monte Laturce against Ordoño I King of Asturias [in 859][494].  Ibn Hazm names "Awriya" as the daughter of "Musa ibn Musa", adding that she married "Garsiya rey de los Vascos" and names their son "Musa ibn Garsiya"[495]m GARCÍA, son of --- (-killed in battle Monte Laturce 859). 

7.         --- binti Musa .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Al-Udri who records that "Musa ibn Musa" fought together with "Azraq ibn Mantil ibn Salim yerno suyo, marido de su hijo" at Guadalajara in A.H. 248 [862/63][496].  Ibn al-Qutiyya records the marriage of "Musa ibn Musa…una…hija" and "Azraq ibn Mantil, sahib de Wadi l-Hiyara", undated, Azraq´s rebellion against his father-in-law, and the death of the latter "antes de llegar a Tutila" from injuries inflicted personally by Azraq[497].  The passage suggests that the marriage took place not long before the battle in which Musa ibn Musa was killed.  If that is correct, this daughter must have been considerably younger than her [half-] brothers who are named above.  m ([860/62]) AZRAQ bin Mantil bin Salim (-after [862/63]). 

 

 

MUHAMMAD ibn Lubb, son of LUBB ibn Musa & his [wife] (a) Ayab (-killed Arrabal de Zaragoza 3 Sep or 2 Oct 898).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Isa y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Musa ibn Musa", adding that Muhammad´s mother was "Ayab, la [doncella] de palacio"[498].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ababdella…qui Mahomat Iben Lupi” had close relations with Alfonso III King of Asturias who entrusted his son Ordoño to his care[499].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" rebelled in Zaragoza A.H. 258 [871/72] but in A.H. 261 [874/75] sold the city "por diez mil ---" to "Hasim ibn Abd al-Aziz", after which "el imam Muhammad" appointed Muhammad ibn Lubb as "gobernador de Arnedo, Tarazona y Yaris"[500].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ababdella, filius Jub” allied himself with Emir al-Mundhir and was attacked by “tius suus Zmael et suus congermanus…Zmael Ibem Furtum” whom he captured and imprisoned in Viguera castle[501].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" captured "Ismail ibn Musa y a sus primos [corrected by the translator to "sobrinos"]…Ismail et Lubb hijos estos dos de Fortun ibn Musa" at "Calahorra…el viernes 10 de yumada II" A.H. 270 [15 Nov 883] and freed them only after "Zaragoza, Tudela y Valtierra" were transferred to him[502].  He occupied Zaragoza, but broke relations with the Emir when the latter requested him to hand over his prisoners and the town, and released his captives.  He was able to resist the Emir's counter-attack in 883.  Ibn-Hayyân records that Muhammad ibn Lubb was obliged to sell Zaragoza to Raymond Comte de Pallars in 884 but that the town was recaptured by the Emir[503].  Unable to re-establish his alliance with King Alfonso III, Muhammad devastated Álava in [886/87][504].  “Rex Fortunio Garcianes” reviewed the territories of the monastery of San Julián de Labasal, at the request of “comite Galindo Asnar”, by charter dated 893, whose dating clause records “...Garcia Sanz in Gallias, Raimundus in Paliares, pagani...Mohomet Ebenlupu in Balleterra et Mohomet Atauel in Osca...[505].  The Codex de Roda records the death in 898 of "Mohamad Iben Lup"[506]Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" was murdered in "las ruinas del Arrabal" outside Zaragoza "el domingo 12 del mes de ramadan, aunque otros dicen que de saban" A.H. 285 [3 Sep or 2 Oct 898][507]

Muhammad had seven children: 

1.         LUBB ibn Muhammad (-killed outside Zaragoza 29/30 Sep 907).  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb ibn Mohammad…Musa, Yusuf, Abd Allah, Yunus y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Mohammad ibn Lubb"[508].  Al-Udri records that "Muhammad ibn Lubb" captured "Tudela" and appointed "lugarteniente a su hijo Lubb ibn Muhammad"[509]Wali [governor/king] of Tudela and Zaragoza: Al-Udri records that "[el] imam Abd Allah" granted "Tudela y Tarazona" to "Lubb ibn Muhammad" after the death of his father A.H. 285 [late 898][510].  Al-Udri records that "Lubb ibn Muhammad" was killed "el miércoles a doce días por andar del mes de dul-hiyya" A.H. 294 [29 Sep 907] while he was attacking Zaragoza[511].  The Codex de Roda records that "Lupe" was killed "II Kal Oct" 908 "a Sanzione rege [Sancho I King of Navarre] in As---"[512].  Lubb had [six] children: 

a)         MUHAMMAD ibn Lubb (-murdered [Jul/Aug] 929).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Abd Allah y Fortun" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Muhammad"[513].  Al-Udri records that "los habitantes de Lérida" expelled "Muhammad ibn Lubb del castillo de Léridael miércoles 17 de safar" A.H. 315 [23 Apr 927], that "Hasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman y a su hijo Yahya" replaced him in Lérida ten days later, and that Muhammad ibn Lubb fled to "el castillo de Aro"[514].  Al-Udri records that "un emisario de su cuñado Raymund señor de Pallars" offered shelter to "Muhammad ibn Lubb", but betrayed him and killed him "en yumada II" A.H. 317 [Jul/Aug 929][515]m (before 929) --- [de Pallars], daughter of [BERNARDO [I] Conde de Ribagorza & his wife Tota Galíndez de Aragón].  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Al-Udri who records that "un emisario de su cuñado Raymund señor de Pallars" offered shelter to "Muhammad ibn Lubb", but betrayed her husband (see above), dated to A.H. 317 [929] from the context[516].  It is assumed that "Raymund señor de Pallars" indicates Raimundo [II] Conde de Ribagorza, which would mean that the wife of Muhammad ibn Lubb was the daughter of Conde Bernardo [I], but this is not beyond all doubt.  Muhammad had one child by an unknown wife or concubine: 

i)          LUBB ibn Muhammad .  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb" as the son of "Muhammad [ibn Lubb]"[517]

b)         ABD ALLAH ibn Lubb (-killed in battle Baqayra [923/24]).  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Abd Allah y Fortun" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Muhammad", adding that his uncle Mutarif ibn Muhammad killed "su sobrino Abd Allah ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad"[518].  Arib ibn Said records that "Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik al-Tawil" campaigned together with "Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Lubb" in A.H. 298 [910/11] and provides some details about their battles[519].  Arib ibn Said records that "Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Lubb" was defeated at "la batalla de Baqayra" by "la gente de Banbaluna…el bárbaro Sanyuh", together with "Mutarrif ibn Musa ibn Di l-Nun y Muhammad ibn Muhammad, hijo de su tío paterno", in A.H. 311 [923/24][520]

c)         FORTUN ibn Lubb .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad, Abd Allah y Fortun" as the sons of "Lubb ibn Muhammad", adding that Fortun converted to christianity[521]

d)         [daughter .  The marriages of the three brothers Jimeno, Fortún and Sancho Iñíguez with the three daughters of Lubb ibn Muhammad are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[522].  The primary source on which the information is based has not yet been identified.  m JIMENO Íñiguez de Pamplona, son of ÍÑIGO García King of Pamplona & his wife Jimena Velásquez de Pamplona.] 

e)         [daughter .  The marriages of the three brothers Jimeno, Fortún and Sancho Iñíguez with the three daughters of Lubb ibn Muhammad are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[523].  The primary source on which the information is based has not yet been identified.  m FORTÚN Íñiguez de Pamplona, son of ÍÑIGO García King of Pamplona & his wife Jimena Velásquez de Pamplona.] 

f)          [daughter .  The marriages of the three brothers Jimeno, Fortún and Sancho Iñíguez with the three daughters of Lubb ibn Muhammad are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[524].  The primary source on which the information is based has not yet been identified.  m SANCHO Íñiguez de Pamplona, son of ÍÑIGO García King of Pamplona & his wife Jimena Velásquez de Pamplona.] 

2.         MUSA ibn Muhammad .  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb ibn Mohammad…Musa, Yusuf, Abd Allah, Yunus y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Mohammad ibn Lubb"[525]

3.         YUSUF ibn Muhammad .  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb ibn Mohammad…Musa, Yusuf, Abd Allah, Yunus y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Mohammad ibn Lubb"[526]

4.         ABD ALLAH ibn Muhammad (-Tudela end 915).  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb ibn Mohammad…Musa, Yusuf, Abd Allah, Yunus y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Mohammad ibn Lubb"[527].  Al-Udri records that "Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Lubb" took control of Tudela [after his brother was killed] but lifted the siege of Zaragoza[528]Wali [governor/king] of Tudela.  Al-Udri records that "Abd Allah [ibn Muhammad]" was defeated at "les estribaciones del Yabal al-Bardi, a ocho millas de Pamplona" by "Sanyo" [Sancho King of Navarre] and captured "el jueves 4 de muharram" A.H. 303 [20 Jul 915][529].  Al-Udri records the death "en Tudela…dos meses despues de su liberación" of "Abd Allah" from poison administered by King Sancho at Pamplona[530].  Abd Allah had five children: 

a)         MUHAMMAD ibn Abd Allah .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…Fortun…Abd Allah…Urraka" as the children of "Abd Allah", adding that Muhammad was "el último de los reyes de los Banu Qasi"[531].  Al-Udri records that "su hijo Muhammad" succeeded on the death of "Abd Allah"[532]

b)         MUSA ibn Abd Allah .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…Fortun…Abd Allah…Urraka" as the children of "Abd Allah", adding that Musa was killed[533]

c)         FORTUN ibn Abd Allah .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…Fortun…Abd Allah…Urraka" as the children of "Abd Allah", adding that Fortun converted to christianity[534].  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Muhammad, hermano de Abd Allah" entered Tudela to see "Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al castillo de Valtierra" and rescue "Abd Allah" in exchange for "Falces y Caparroso", and for leaving "su hija y a su hijo Fortun" as hostages[535]

d)         ABD ALLAH ibn Abd Allah .  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…Fortun…Abd Allah…Urraka" as the children of "Abd Allah", adding that Abd Allah was drowned in the river Tajo[536]

e)         daughter .  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Muhammad, hermano de Abd Allah" entered Tudela to see "Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al castillo de Valtierra" and rescue "Abd Allah" in exchange for "Falces y Caparroso", and for leaving "su hija y a su hijo Fortun" as hostages[537].  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…Fortun…Abd Allah…Urraka" as the children of "Abd Allah", adding that Urraca married "el rey Furuwila ibn Idfuns" by whom she was the mother of "Rudmir y Urdunni"[538].  She was baptised URRACA on her marriage.  Her origin is discussed by Salazar y Acha[539].  Her parentage is confirmed by Ibn Khaldun[540].  A document of Otero de las Dueñas dated 976 names “domna Urraca regina et filios suos Ordonio et Ranimirio[541]m ([913]) as his second wife, FRUELA II "el Leproso" King of Asturias, son of ALFONSO III "el Magno" King of Asturias & his wife Jimena García de Pamplona ([875]-Jul 925). 

5.         YUNUS ibn Muhammad .  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb ibn Mohammad…Musa, Yusuf, Abd Allah, Yunus y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Mohammad ibn Lubb"[542]

6.         MUTARIF ibn Muhammad (-killed [Tudela or Valtierra] 31 Mar 916).  Ibn Hazm names "Lubb ibn Mohammad…Musa, Yusuf, Abd Allah, Yunus y Mutarrif" as the sons of "Mohammad ibn Lubb", adding that Mutarif killed "su sobrino Abd Allah ibn Lubb ibn Muhammad"[543].  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Muhammad, hermano de Abd Allah" entered Tudela to see "Muhammad ibn Abd Allah al castillo de Valtierra" and rescue "Abd Allah" in exchange for "Falces y Caparroso", and for leaving "su hija y a su hijo Fortun" as hostages[544].  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif" was killed in Tudela by "el hijo de su hermano, Muhammad ibn Abd Allah", who accused him of betrayal, "el lunes a siete días por andar del mes de ramadán" A.H. 303 [31 Mar 916], but adds that "otros dicen que su sobrino" captured him "en el valle de Calahorra" and killed him "en Valtierra"[545]

7.         MUHAMMAD ibn Muhammad .  His parentage is confirmed by Arib ibn Said who records that "Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Lubb" was defeated at "la batalla de Baqayra" by "la gente de Banbaluna…el bárbaro Sanyuh", together with "…Muhammad ibn Muhammad, hijo de su tío paterno", in A.H. 311 [923/24][546].  Muhammad had one child: 

a)         MUHAMMAD ibn Muhammad (-killed in battle Baqayra [923/24]).  Arib ibn Said records that "Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn Lubb" was defeated at "la batalla de Baqayra" by "la gente de Banbaluna…el bárbaro Sanyuh", together with "…Muhammad ibn Muhammad, hijo de su tío paterno", in A.H. 311 [923/24][547]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    TAIFA KINGDOMS

 

 

There were around 30 recorded Taifa kingdoms, but by 1080 this had reduced to nine, after various conquests and consolidations: Albarracin, Almería, Alpuente, Badajoz, Granada, Mallorca, Seville, Toledo and Zaragoza[548].  The information set out below relating to the Taifa kings is as yet sketchy.  

 

 

 

A.      ALMERÍA

 

 

1.         ZUHAIR (-1038).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "l´eunuque Zoheyr l´Amirite" ruled Almería[549]

 

2.         KHEYRAN .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "l´eunuque Zoheyr l´Amirite" ruled Almería, and was succeeded by "Kheyran…également Amirite et eunuque"[550]

 

 

1.         MOHAMMED .  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records that "Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sumadih", grandfather of "Abu Yahya", ruled "the city and district of Huesca in the days of al-Muwaiyad Hisham Ibn al-Hakam" but was expelled by "his cousin Mundir Ibn Yahya at-Tujibi"[551].  One child: 

a)         MAAN .  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records that "Maan", father of "Abu Yahya", was left by "Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abi Aamir the sovereign of Valencia" to govern Almería "as his lieutenant" but "declared himself independent"[552]m ---, daughter of ABD al-AZIZ wali of Valencia.  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records that "Maan", father of "Abu Yahya", married "the daughter of Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abi Aamir the sovereign of Valencia" who seized Almería after the death of "Zuhair his father´s mawla who commended at Almeria"[553].  One child: 

i)          ABU YAHYA (-14 May 1091, bur Almería).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Abu Yahya Muhammad Ibn Maan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sumadih, surnamed al-Motasim at-Tujibi…sovereign of Al-Mariya, Bajjana and as-Sumadihiya", and his death "at Almeria…22nd of the first Rabi" A.H. 484 (14 May 1091) and burial "near the Bab al-Khaukha"[554].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abou Yahya Mohammed b. Man b. Çomadih" succeeded "Kheyran" as ruler of Almería but was expelled by "Yousof b. Tachefin le Lamtounide en 484"[555]

 

 

 

B.      BADAJOZ

 

 

After Berber troops pillaged Córdoba in May 1013, and Caliph Hisham II disappeared presumed killed, the 13th century historian Aben Zaid records that the court transferred to Badajoz[556].  A couple of years later, Sapur proclaimed himself ruler of Badajoz as discussed in more detail below. 

 

 

1.         SAPUR (-Badajoz 8 Nov 1022).  Ramón Martinez records that "Sapur" was "camarero del Califa" [al-Hakam II] until 976 when he was appointed "wali de la provincia de Algarbe", a position which he held for forty years when he declared himself king at Badajoz[557]King of Badajoz [1015/16]: Aben al-Atsir records that "a Badajoz, se alzo…el esclavo Sapur, el amiri, llamado Almanzor"[558]Francisco Codera records that the early 13th century historian Aben-Alabar, quoting Ibn Hayyan, calls Sapur "cliente ó liberti de Almoçtansir", that he took control of Badajoz, and that on his deathbed he bequeathed his kingdom to "Mohammad Almothaffir", who Codera suggests was "Abdallah Almansur"[559]Francisco Codera records that "Sapur…hachib" reigned in Badajoz from A.H. 406 (1015) and died "en la noche de jueves, nueve noches pasadas del mes de xaaban del año 413" (8 Nov 1022) according to a sepulchral inscription[560].  Ramón Martinez comments that the title "hachib" refers to the "primer ministro del Califa" and was the one adopted by "los usurpadores menos audaces…varios de los reyezuelos de taifa"[561]

 

2.         ABU MOHAMMED ABDALLAH bin Mohammed bin Mazlamah (-30 Dec 1045).  Francisco Codera records that the early 13th century historian Aben-Alabar, quoting Ibn Hayyan, records that Sapur on his deathbed bequeathed his kingdom to "Mohammad Almothaffir", who Codera suggests was "Abdallah Almansur"[562].  There is no record of a family relationship, if any, between Abu Mohammed Abdallah and his predecessor Sapur.  King of Badajoz 1022: Ramón Martinez suggests that Sapur had in fact appointed Abu Mohammed Abdallah as guardian of his [infant] children but that he banished the children and proclaimed himself king, supported by troops in Mérida[563]Francisco Codera quotes an inscription which records the death "en la noche de martes a once noches por andar de chumada postrero del año 437" (30 Dec 1045) of "Almanzor Abdallah ben Mohammad ben Maçlamah", commenting that he was "el primero de la familia de los Aftasitas de Badajoz"[564].  One child: 

a)         MOHAMMED ABU BAKR (-1068).  King of Badajoz 1045: Ramón Martinez records that "su hijo Mohamed, llamado Abu-bequer" succeeded his father as king and took the title "Almodafar"[565].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Ibn el-Aftas surnommé el-Mozaffer" ruled the frontier area in southern Spain, and "son fils Abou Mohammed Omar surnommé el-Motawkkil Alallah" ruled in Badajoz, Evora, Santarem and Lisbon[566].  Two children: 

i)          YAHYA (-Mérida 1081).  King of Badajoz 1068: Ramón Martinez records that "su hijo Yahya" succeeded his father as king and took the title "Almanzor"[567].  Ramón Martinez records the death A.H. 473 (1081) at Mérida of "el rey Yahya" without leaving any son to succeed him[568]

ii)         ABU MOHAMMED OMAR el-Motawkkil al-Allah (-killed 1094).  King of Badajoz 1081: Ramón Martinez records that "le poeta Aben Abdum" records that "era en aquel tiempo gobernador de Evora el príincipe aftasi Omar al-Motawakil…cuando la muerte de su hermano Yahya Almanzor le llamó al trono de Badajoz"[569]Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Ibn el-Aftas surnommé el-Mozaffer" ruled the frontier area in southern Spain, and "son fils Abou Mohammed Omar surnommé el-Motawkkil Alallah" ruled in Badajoz, Evora, Santarem and Lisbon, adding that he was killed by "les Almoravides compagnons de Yousof b. Tachefin" who also killed "ses deux fils Fadl et Abbas…au début de l´année 485"[570].  Abu Mohammed had two children: 

(a)       FADL (-killed 1094).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "les Almoravides compagnons de Yousof b. Tachefin" who also killed "ses deux fils Fadl et Abbas…au début de l´année 485"[571]

(b)       ABBAS (-killed 1094).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "les Almoravides compagnons de Yousof b. Tachefin" who also killed "ses deux fils Fadl et Abbas…au début de l´année 485"[572]

 

 

 

C.      DENIA

 

 

1.         MUYAHID al-Muwaffaq (-1045).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Modjahid l´Amirite" ruled in Denia, and was succeeded by "son fils Ali b. Modjahid surnommé el-Mowaffak"[573].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records that "Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abi Aamir the sovereign of Valencia" seized Almería after the death of "Zuhair his father´s mawla who commended at Almeria" and that "Abu ´l-Jaish Mujahid Ibn Abd Allah al-Aamiri the sovereign of Denia" invaded Valencia[574].  Mojahid had one child: 

a)         ALI IQBAL bin Mojahid al-Muwaffaq (-1076).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Modjahid l´Amirite" ruled in Denia, and was succeeded by "son fils Ali b. Modjahid surnommé el-Mowaffak"[575].  A charter dated 26 Dec 1058 records that “...urbis Deniæ...Dux...Mugeyd” granted “insulas...Baleares...Majoretas et Minoretas” to “sedis Barchinonensis” and that “filius prædicti ducis Mugeyd...Hali...assensu filiorum suorum[576]

 

 

 

D.      GRANADA

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         ZAWI bin Ziri (-after [1019/20]).  A Sanhaja Berber, the people of Elvira offered him sovereignty.  He moved them to Granada which was easier to defend.  He returned to North Africa in [1019/20], and was succeeded by his nephew. 

2.         MAKSAN .  One child: 

a)         HABUS (-1038).  He succeeded his uncle in Granada, which he established as a major political force.  One child: 

i)          BADIS (-1073).  Two children: 

(a)       BULUGGIN bin Badis (-1064).  One child: 

(1)       ABD ALLAH bin Buluggin (-after 1090).  He succeeded 1073.  He was deposed by the Almoravids in 1090.  He wrote his memoirs "the Tibyan" while in exile at Aghmat near Marrakesh. 

(b)       MAKSAN bin Badis

 

 

 

E.      MURCIA

 

 

1.         TAHIR .  Tahir had one child: 

a)         ABU ABD al-Rahman MOHAMMED bin Tahir .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abou Abd er-Rahman Mohammed b. Tahir" conquered Murcia but was by expelled troops of "Motadid" ruler of Seville, led by "Ibn Ammar", and sought refuge in Valencia[577]

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         ABU ABD ALLAH MOHAMMED bin Said bin Mardanish "el Rey Lobo" (Peñíscola [1124/25]-Murcia 27 Mar 1172).  Taking advantage of the disintegration of the Almohad dynasty´s control of al-Andalus in the 1140s, Mohammed "ibn Mardanish" (known as "el Rey Lobo" in Christian sources) took control of the area around Murcia.  Dozy suggested that "Mardanish" derived from "Martínez" and therefore that Mohammed descended from Christians who had converted to Islam[578].  The Historia Arabum records that "Mahomath Abenzahath…rex Lupus postea dictus" obtained "regnum Valentiæ et regnum Murciæ…Lorcam Vastam et Guadix"[579].  Lucas de Tuy records that "Reges Sarracenorum…Abephandil et Zaphadola et Rex Lupus" were vassals of Alfonso VII King of Castile and León[580].  The Anales Toledanos record that "el Rey Lop" led the rebels in Granada and killed "Pedro Garcia la Lacian" in 1162, and entered Toledo in 1167[581].  Ibn Khaldun records that the Almohad leader Abd al-Mamun learnt that "Mohammed-Ibn-Merdenich" had left Murcia and was besieging Jaen, and sent troops to defeat him, dated to [1164] from the context[582].  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub sent "le cid Abou-Said…[avec] le cid Abou-Hafs" to attack "Ibn-Merdenich" who was threatening Córdoba, A.H. 560 (1164/65)[583].  The Anales Toledanos record the death in 1172 of "el Rey D. Lop"[584].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "dans le mois de redjeb" A.H. 567 (Mar 1172) of "Ibn-Merdenich" and the submission of "son fils Hilal" to the Almohads[585].  Two children: 

a)         HILAL .  Ibn Khaldun records the death "dans le mois de redjeb" A.H. 567 (Mar 1172) of "Ibn-Merdenich" and the submission of "son fils Hilal" to the Almohads who was sent to Caliph Abu Yaqub at Seville[586]m (Seville [1172/73]) ---, daughter of ABU YAQUB.  Ibn Khaldun records that Caliph Abu Yaqub "donna sa fille en mariage" to "Hilal fils de Merdenich" at Seville A.H. 568 (1172/73)[587]

b)         GHANEM .  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "Ghanem fils de Mohammed-Ibn-Merdenich" as commander of the fleet and sent him to recapture Lisbon A.H. 573 (1177/78)[588]

2.         ABU al-HAJAJ .  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub´s forces attacked "Ibn Merdenich" but that "son frère Abou-´l-Haddjadj [seigneur de Valence]" submitted to the Almohads, A.H. 567 (1171/72)[589]

 

 

 

F.      SEVILLE

 

 

Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records that "Noaim and his son Itaf were the first of the family who passed from the East into Spain…natives of al-Arish…between Egypt and Syria", adding that they settled "at Tumin, a village in that district of the province of Seville which is called Tushana", when reciting the ancestry of Abu al-Qasim Mohammed al-Mutamid[590].  The alleged descent is recited in full under Ismail bin Abbad below, although its historical accuracy is unknown. 

 

 

1.         ISMAIL bin Abbad (-1019).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary names "Abu ´l-Walid Ismail, the son of Kuraish, the son of Abbad, the son of Amr, the son of Aslam, the son of Amr, the son of Itaf, the son of Noaim, a member of the tribe of Lakhm and a descendant of an-Noman Ibn al-Mundir the last king of al-Hira" when reciting the ancestry of his great-grandson[591].  He was appointed qadi of Seville by Mohammed bin Abi Amir "al-Mansur".  He acted as political leader of the city of Seville during the period when the central administrative authority of the Abbasid Caliphate broke down.  Ismail´s death in recorded in 1019[592].  Ismail had one child: 

a)         ABU al-QASIM MOHAMMED (-24 Jan 1042, bur Seville).  He succeeded his father in 1019 as qadi of Seville, after pressuring the Hamudid Caliph Qasim bin Hamud for the appointment when a rival candidate had already been chosen[593].  Dozy records that in 1023 "Casim le Hammoudite" fled Córdoba for Seville, where his two sons formed part of the Berber garrison, but that "le cadi de la ville Abou-´l-Casim Mohammed, de la famille des Beni-Abbad, réussit à gagner le chef de cette garnaison", and that the Sevillans "prirent les armes contre les fils de Casim" and refused entry to Qasim[594].  Dozy records that the Sevillans offered "au cadi l´autorité souveraine" but that he was too wise to accept it immediately[595].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "le kadi Aboul-Kasim Mohammed b. Ismail b. Abbad Lakhmi" became master of Seville after expelling "Kasim b. Hamud et ses deux fils Mohammed et Hasan"[596].  He adopted the title "hajib".  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "le prince de Séville, le kadi Aboul-Kasim Mohammed b. Ismail b. Abbad" challenged the rule of Idris bin Ali (Hasanid) at Málaga[597].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abou l-Kasem" died "en 439"[598].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records the death "29th of the first Jumada" A.H. 433 (24 Jan 1042) of "the kadi Muhammad Ibn Ismail" and his burial at Seville, when recording his grandson Abu al-Qasim Mohammed al-Mutamid[599].  Abu al-Qasim had two children: 

i)          ISMAIL .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Ismail l´aîné surnommé Abou l-Welid et Abbad surnommé Abou Amr" as the sons of Abul Qasim[600].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Ismail b. Mohammed b. Ismail b. Abbad" commanded his father´s army when he invaded Málaga but was killed in battle[601]

ii)         ABBAD MOHAMMED al-Mutadid ([1015/16]-Seville 28 Mar 1069, bur Seville).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Ismail l´aîné surnommé Abou l-Welid et Abbad surnommé Abou Amr" as the sons of Abul Qasim, adding that the latter succeeded his father in Seville and adopted "le surnom de Motadid billah"[602].  He succeeded his father in 1042 as hajib of Seville.  He conquered Córdoba 1069/70.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Motadid" died "en redjab 464"[603].  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records the death "at Seville…1st of the latter Jumada" A.H. 461 (28 Mar 1068) of "al-Motadid" and his burial at Seville, when recording his grandson Abu al-Qasim Mohammed al-Mutamid[604].  Mohammed had one child: 

(a)       ABU al-QASIM MOHAMMED al-Mutamid (Beja [Nov/Dec] 1039-Aghmat 16 Oct or 11 Dec 1095).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "son fils Abou l-Kasim Mohammed b. Abbad b, Mohammed b. Ismail b. Abbad", aged 37, succeeded in Seville after the death of "Motadid" and added "à son surnom de Motamid ala Illah celui de Zafir bi-hawl allah"[605].  Emir of Seville. 

-         see below

 

 

ABU al-QASIM MOHAMMED al-Mutamid, son of MOHAMMED al-Mutadid (Beja [Nov/Dec] 1039-Aghmat 16 Oct or 11 Dec 1095).  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records "Al-Motamid ala ´Illah Abu ´l-Kasim Muhammad, the son of al-Motadid billah Abu Amr Abbad, the son of az-Zafir al-Muwaiyad billah Abu ´l-Kasim Muhammad, kadi of Seville, the son of Abu ´l-Walid Ismail…", his birth "in the month of the first Rabi…in Bajja" A.H. 431 (Nov/Dec 1039), and his death "in prison at Aghmat 11th Shawwal some say, of Zu ´l-Hijja" A.H. 448 (16 Oct or 11 Dec 1095)[606].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "son fils Abou l-Kasim Mohammed b. Abbad b, Mohammed b. Ismail b. Abbad", aged 37, succeeded in Seville after the death of "Motadid" and added "à son surnom de Motamid ala Illah celui de Zafir bi-hawl allah"[607].  Emir of Seville.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Córdoba was "une dependence de Séville" after it was conquered by "Motamid"[608].  He recovered Córdoba 1076/7, and conquered Valencia 1078.  After the fall of Toledo, he and his allies, Abd Allah of Granada and al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz, defeated Alfonso VI King of Castile and León at Sagrajas, north east of Badajoz 23 Oct 1086.  He was unable to sustain the momentum, after unsuccessfully besieging Aledo in 1088.  Faced with the increasing power of the Almoravids under Ibn Tashfin and his nephew Sir bin Abi Bakr, he allied himself with King Alfonso but was obliged to surrender Seville Sep 1091.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Motamid" was deprived of his kingdom "en redjab 484"[609].  He was deported to Morocco, where he lived at Aghmat near Marrakesh. 

Abu al-Qasim had three children: 

1.         al-RADI (-executed Ronda 1091).  He was executed by Garur, Almoravid commander, after the fall of Ronda. 

2.         ABU NASIR al-Fatah al-Mamun (-killed in battle Castle of Almodovar 26 Mar 1090).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Motamid" appointed "son fils aîné Abbad surnommé Mamoun" as governor of Córdoba[610].  Emir of Córdoba.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abbad b Motamid surnommé Mamoun" was killed "le premier çafar 484" during the defense of Córdoba[611]m as her first husband, ZAÏDA, daughter of --- (-13 Sep 1107, bur Royal Pantheon of San Isidor at León).  She was the mistress of Alfonso VI King of Castile and León from [late 1091/1092].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Zaida, the daughter of King Abenabeth of Seville, who was baptised…Elisabeth" as the second of two concubines of King Alfonso, and their son "Sancho who died at the battle of Ucles"[612].  The Chronicon de Cardeña records that King Alfonso married “Mora, que decien la Cayda, sobrina de Abenafanle” who was the mother of his son Sancho[613].  Her first marriage is confirmed by the Bayan al Mugrib of Ibn Idari which names "le fils d´Alphonse, Sancho, qu´il avait eu de l´épouse d´Al Mamun ibn Abbad" when recording the battle of Uclés[614].  Salazar y Acha attempts to explain these three apparently contradictory sources by suggesting that Zaida could have been the daughter of "un hermano mayor…Ismail ibn Abbad" of Mohammed al-Mutamid, noting particularly the practice of endogamous marriages in the Muslim dynasties[615].  As noted above, Ismail is recorded as the brother of al-Mutatid and so would have been the paternal uncle of al-Mutamid.  From a chronological point of view therefore Salazar y Acha´s suggestion appears untenible, although Zaida could have been another relative, maybe the daughter of an otherwise unrecorded brother of al-Mutamid.  Alberto Montaner Frutos also discusses Zaïda, in particular relating to legends which have developed in connection with her history[616].  She was King Alfonso's mistress for some time before they married.  Reilly[617] dates the start of her relationship with King Alfonso to late 1091 or 1092, suggesting its diplomatic importance would have been greatest after the fall of Córdoba in Mar 1091 but before the fall of Badajoz in early 1094.  This seems supported by the likelihood that their son Sancho was at least 15 years old when he was killed at the battle of Uclés in May 1108.  Zaïda was christened ISABEL[618], date not known.  Reilly cites a document of Galician origin dated 27 Mar 1106 which indicates that King Alfonso had married "helisabet" shortly before[619].  Reilly[620] quotes a charter granted at Oviedo 19 Mar 1106 which lists members of the royal family, naming "Elisabeth" directly before "Sancho", which presumably refer to Zaïda and her son.  Reilly cites a charter dated 14 May 1107 which also names "Elisabeth" directly before "Sancho"[621], which presumably also refers to Zaïda.  Reilly says that her sepulchral inscription (presumably now lost) reportedly stated that she had died in childbirth on 13 Sep, without giving the year, and in a later passage that the inscription stated that this was the "second ferial day", which he interprets as meaning a Monday or Thursday[622].  If the charters dated 1106 and 1107 correctly refer to Zaida, the year must have been 1107 assuming that King Alfonso married his sixth wife in 1108.  Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, states that Queen Isabel was buried "en la Capilla mayor" of the monastery, but does not quote the inscription which confirms this statement[623]

3.         FAKR ed-Dawla .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Motamid" appointed "[son] fils…Fakhr ed-Dawla" as his heir "sous le nom de Moayyed b. Naçr Allah"[624]

 

 

 

G.      TOLEDO

 

 

1.         DHUL-NUN .  Dhun-Nun had one child: 

a)         MUSA .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "…Mousa b. Dhoun-Noun" when recording the ancestry of his great great great grandson[625].  Musa had one child: 

i)          MOTARREF .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "…Motarref b. Mousa b. Dhoun-Noun" when recording the ancestry of his great grandson[626].  Motarref had one child: 

(a)       AMIR .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "…Amir b. Motarref b. Mousa b. Dhoun-Noun" when recording the ancestry of his grandson[627].  Amir had one child: 

(1)       ISMAIL (-[1043/44]).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "…Ismail b. Amir b. Motarref b. Mousa b. Dhoun-Noun…surnom de Mamoun" when recording the ancestry of his son[628].  Lord of Ucles.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Ismail" captured Toledo "dès le début des troubles"[629].  He was invited to establish himself as ruler of Toledo after Yaish, the qadi, was driven out of the city in [1018].  Ismail had one child: 

a.         ABU al-HASAN YAHYA al-Mamun (-assassinated 1075).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "l´emir Aboul-Hasan Yahya b. Ismail b. Amir b. Motarref b. Mousa b. Dhoun-Noun…surnom de Mamoun" governed "Tolède et son territoire"[630].  He paid tribute (paria) to the kings of Castile, and with Castilian help captured Córdoba spring 1075.  In an earlier passage, Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "l´emir surnommé Mamoun b. Dhoun-Noun, chef de Tolède" assumed authority in Córdoba, but died soon afterwards when the city was administered by "un Berbère nommé Ibn Okacha…nom proper…Mousa", who remained until he was expelled by "Ez-Zafer bi-hawi Allah Aboul-Kasim Mohammed b. Abbad"[631].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Aboul-Hasan" governed Toledo "jusqu´à son expulsion par Alphonse…en 476"[632].  Abu al-Hasan had two children: 

(i)         al-QADIR (-executed Oct 1092).  He succeeded on the assassination of his father.  Al-Mutamid of Seville, taking advantage of the young ruler's weakness, conquered Valencia in 1078.  He was forced to flee to Cuenca [1078/79], and appealed to his ally Alfonso VI King of Castile.  Toledo passed to al-Mutawwakil of Badajoz, but with King Alfonso's help, he was expelled and al-Qadir reinstated.  The city remained unstable, a further rebellion was suppressed, and Alfonso captured Toledo 25 May 1085, promising al-Qadir that he would be installed in Valencia.  He was executed following a coup in Valencia led by the qadi Abn Jahhaf. 

(ii)        daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are texts quoted by Dozy which record that Abd al-Malik King of Valencia was deposed and imprisoned "dans la forteresse de Cuenca" by "son beau-père Mamoun de Tolède" who incorporated Valencia into his domains, dated to 1063[633]m ABD al-MALIK ABU MERWAN King of Valencia, son of ABD al-AZIZ King of Valencia (-after 1064). 

 

 

 

H.      VALENCIA

 

 

1.         ABD al-AZIZ, son of ABD al-RAHMAN “Sanchuelo” (-[1060/61])He took over Valencia in 1021.  Abd al-Aziz had two children: 

a)         ABD al-MALIK ABU MERWAN (-after 1064).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abd el-Melik b. Abd el-Aziz…prénom…Abou Merwan" held "Valence et ses dépendances"[634].  Dozy records that Abd al-Malik was deposed and imprisoned "dans la forteresse de Cuenca" by "son beau-père Mamoun de Tolède" who incorporated Valencia into his domains, dated to 1063[635]m ---, daughter of ABU al-HASAN YAHYA al-Mamun King of Toledo.  Her parentage and marriage are texts quoted by Dozy which record that Abd al-Malik King of Valencia was deposed and imprisoned "dans la forteresse de Cuenca" by "son beau-père Mamoun de Tolède" who incorporated Valencia into his domains, dated to 1063[636]

b)         --- .  Ibn Khallikan´s 13th century Biographical Dictionary records that "Maan", father of "Abu Yahya", married "the daughter of Abd al-Aziz Ibn Abi Aamir the sovereign of Valencia" who seized Almería after the death of "Zuhair his father´s mawla who commended at Almeria"[637]m MAAN wali of Almería, son of MOHAMMED wali of Huesca. 

 

 

 

I.        ZARAGOZA

 

 

1.         al-MUNDHIR bin Yahya (-[1021/22]).  He was granted Zaragoza by Caliph Sulayman al-Mustain, whom he recognised in 1013.  He joined the supporters of Caliph Abd al-Rahman IV "al-Murtada" on the expedition against the Zirids of Granada in 1018.  He took the title hajib in Zaragoza.  al-Mundhir had one child: 

a)         YAHYA (-1036).  He succeeded his father [1021/22] as hajib of Zaragoza.  Yahya had one child: 

i)          al-MUNDHIR (-murdered 1038).  He succeeded his father as hajib of Zaragoza.  He was assassinated by Abd Allah bin al-Hakam, his distant cousin, but the latter was driven out by a popular rebellion.  He was replaced by Sulayman bin Hud, whose family continued to rule Zaragoza until it was annexed by the Almoravids in 1110. 

 

 

2.         SULEYMAN bin Hud Mutamin (-1046).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Houd…surnom…Moutamin, son fils…Moktadir et son petit-fils…Mostain" held "Tortose…Saragosse…Fraga, Lérida et Calatayud"[638].  Suleyman had one child: 

a)         al-MUQTADIR (-1081).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Houd…surnom…Moutamin, son fils…Moktadir et son petit-fils…Mostain" held "Tortose…Saragosse…Fraga, Lérida et Calatayud"[639].  al-Muqtadir had one child: 

i)          al-MUSTAIN (-killed in battle near Zaragoza [1109/10]).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Soleyman b. Houd…surnom…Moutamin, son fils…Moktadir et son petit-fils…Mostain" held "Tortose…Saragosse…Fraga, Lérida et Calatayud"[640].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Ali-Ibn-Youçof" crossed into Spain A.H. 503 (1109/10) and that "El-Mostain-Ibn-Houd" was killed defending Zaragoza against "le fils de Radmir" [Alfonso I King of Aragon] who proceeded to besiege Tudela[641]

 

 

3.         ABD al-MALIK Imad al-Dawla .  King of Zaragoza.  One child: 

a)         ibn HUD al-Mustansir Sayf al-Dawla .  Lucas de Tuy records that "Reges Sarracenorum…Abephandil et Zaphadola et Rex Lupus" were vassals of Alfonso VII King of Castile and León[642]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    ALMORAVIDS

 

 

The Almoravid movement originated in the desert area between southern Morocco and the Senegal and Niger river plains, which was inhabited by nomad Berbers who belonged to the Sanhaja group of tribes.  The Almoravids were characterised by their veils, like present-day Tuaregs, exposing only their eyes, which were practical in desert conditions but unusual further north and later provided the Almohad movement with one of their main causes of ideological complaint (see below, Chapter 8).  Inspired by the teachings of Abd Allah bin Yasin, these Berbers enforced a simple and rigorist view of Islam which, according to al-Bakri, involved entitlement to one-third of all ´unclean´ property and a regime of brutal floggings for minor irregularities[643].  Leadership of the movement among the Berbers was assumed by Yahya bin Umar and his brother Abu Bakr, from the Banu Targut clan in the Lamtuna tribe, who together with Ibn Yasin launched military expeditions, first in southern Morocco and then expanding northwards.  The Almoravid appeal was based on the slogan ´the spreading of righteousness, the correction of injustice and the abolition of unlawful taxes´[644].  After the death of Ibn Yasin, the leaders claimed no religious authority and did not adopt titles such as caliph, but styled themselves ´Amir al-Muslimin´.  The Almoravids founded their new capital at Marrakesh, whose construction started in 1070.  Yusuf bin Tashfin, first cousin of Yahya bin Umar, who assumed the leadership around the same time, pushed the conquests northwards and was invited into Spain by the Taifa kings of Seville, Badajoz and Granada whose territories were threatened by the Christians under Alfonso VI King of Castile.  The Almoravids ruled al-Andalus from 1086.  They achieved considerable success during the first two decades of the 12th century, including the reconquest of Valencia in 1102 and Zaragoza in 1110.  However, Córdoba rebelled against the Almoravids in 1121, around which time the Almohad movement emerged in Morocco to challenge their authority.  King Alfonso VII assumed personal rule of Castile in 1126 after the death of his mother Queen Urraca, and led successful campaigns against the Almoravids in al-Andalus.  After Tashfin bin Ali was recalled to Morocco in 1138 to lead the struggle against the Almohads, the Almoravids were a spent force in al-Andalus. 

 

 

1.         TURGUT bin Wartasin al-Lamtuni .  One child: 

a)         IBRAHIM .  Two children: 

i)          UMAR .  Two children: 

(a)       YAHYA (-killed 1056).  He invited Abd Allah bin Yasin, a follower of a simple and rigorist view of Islam from the Gazzula tribe of the Sanhaja Berbers, to join the Lamtuna tribe which he led with his brother Abu Bakr.  They launched their jihad against southern Morocco [1054], calling their followers Almoravids.  Ibn Khaldun records the death in A.H. 447 (1055/56) of "Yahya-Ibn-Omar" after choosing "son frère Abou-Bekr" as his successor[645]

(b)       ABU BAKR (-[1087/88]).  Ibn Khaldun records the death in A.H. 447 (1055/56) of "Yahya-Ibn-Omar" after choosing "son frère Abou-Bekr" as his successor, who conquered "le pays de Sous…Massa, Taroudant…Aghmat…Tedla" in the Maghreb[646].  He started constructing Marrakesh as his capital in 1070.  Soon after, he went southwards to control the rebellion of the Guddala, leaving his cousin Yusuf bin Tashfin as leader in Marrakesh.  After his return, Yusuf refused to relinquish his position, which Abu Bakr accepted.  Ibn Khaldun records the death A.H. 480 (1097/88) of "Abou-Bekr"[647]m (1058, divorced 1061) as her second husband, ZEINAB, widow of LAGHUT ibn Yusuf ibn Ali Lord of Aghmat, daughter of ISHAQ-en-Nefzaui.  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Bekr" married "Zeinab la nefzaouienne, fille d´Ishac-en-Nefzaoui et veuve de Laghout…[qui] avait été concubine de Youçof-Ibn-Ali-Ibn-Abd-er-Rahman-Ibn Ouatas avant son mariage avec Laghout" after her husband was killed A.H. 450 (1058)[648].  She married thirdly her second husband´s first cousin, Yusuf bin Tashfin.  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Bekr" divorced "Zeinab la nefzaouienne, fille d´Ishac-en-Nefzaoui et veuve de Laghout…[qui] avait été concubine de Youçof-Ibn-Ali-Ibn-Abd-er-Rahman-Ibn Ouatas avant son mariage avec Laghout" so that she could marry "son cousin Youçof, fils de son oncle paternel Tachefin" A.H. 453 (1061)[649].  One child: 

(1)       IBRAHIM .  He attempted to regain his father's position in 1076. 

ii)         TASHFIN .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "les Lomtouna et les Mossoufa, deuz puissantes tribus berbères" settled in the plains of Marrakesh "au commencement de l´année 463" and chose "Tachefin b. Yousof" as their leader[650]

-         see below

 

 

TASHFIN, son of IBRAHIM bin Turgut bin Wartasin al-Lamtuni .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "les Lomtouna et les Mossoufa, deuz puissantes tribus berbères" settled in the plains of Marrakesh "au commencement de l´année 463" and chose "Tachefin b. Yousof" as their leader[651]

Two children: 

1.         YUSUF (-2 Sep 1106).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abou Yakoub Yousof b. Tachefin le Lamtounide et…son fils Ali" reunited Spain under his rule[652].  His cousin Abu Bakr appointed him leader of the Almoravids in Marrakesh, during his absence suppressing the Guddala rebellion after 1070, but Yusuf refused to relinquish his position when Abu Bakr returned.  He conquered the rest of Morocco, Tangier falling in 1078, and Ceuta in 1083.  He adopted the title Amir al-Muslimin/Prince of the Muslims.  He was invited to Spain to help the failing taifa kings in their struggle against the Christians after Alfonso VI King of Castile captured Toledo in 1085, and defeated King Alfonso at Sagrajas near Badajoz 23 Oct 1086.  He returned to Spain in 1088 and in 1090, when he captured Granada and Malaga.  Ibn Khaldun records details of these campaigns[653].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Yousof b. Tachefin" crossed into Spain in "479…au mois de djomada I"[654].  In 1098, Abbasid Caliph al-Mustazhir in Baghdad confirmed Yusuf's right to govern Morocco.  Yusuf´s forces recaptured Valencia in 1102.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death in A.H. 500 (1106/07) of "l'émir des Musulmans Youssouf fils de Taschefyn, empereur de l'Occident et de l'Espagne musulmane" and the succession of "son fils Ali"[655].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "dans le mois de Moharrem" A.H. 500 (Sep 1106) of "Youçof-Ibn-Tachefin"[656]m (1058) as her third husband, ZEINAB, widow firstly of LAGHUT ibn Yusuf ibn Ali Lord of Aghmat, divorced wife secondly of ABU BAKR bin Umar, daughter of ISAK-en-Nefzaui.  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Bekr" married "Zeinab la nefzaouienne, fille d´Ishac-en-Nefzaoui et veuve de Laghout…[qui] avait été concubine de Youçof-Ibn-Ali-Ibn-Abd-er-Rahman-Ibn Ouatas avant son mariage avec Laghout" after her husband was killed A.H. 450 (1058)[657].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Bekr" divorced "Zeinab la nefzaouienne, fille d´Ishac-en-Nefzaoui et veuve de Laghout…[qui] avait été concubine de Youçof-Ibn-Ali-Ibn-Abd-er-Rahman-Ibn Ouatas avant son mariage avec Laghout" so that she could marry "son cousin Youçof, fils de son oncle paternel Tachefin" A.H. 453 (1061)[658].  Three children: 

a)         SIR (-1086). 

b)         ALI (Ceuta 24 Nov 1083-26 Jan 1143).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death in A.H. 500 (1106/07) of "l'émir des Musulmans Youssouf fils de Taschefyn, empereur de l'Occident et de l'Espagne musulmane" and the succession of "son fils Ali"[659].  He was formally recognised as his father's heir in 1102, and succeeded him 1106.  Ibn Khaldun records the death "dans le mois de Moharrem" A.H. 500 (Sep 1106) of "Youçof-Ibn-Tachefin" and the succession of "Ali-Ibn-Youçof fils d´Ibn-Tachefin" who appointed "son frère Temim" as governor of Spain[660].  He spent most of time in Morocco.  His forces captured Zaragoza 1110, but lost it to Alfonso I King of Aragon in 1118.  The people of Córdoba rebelled against the Almoravids in 1121.  The rise of Muhammad bin Tumart, as spiritual leader of the Masmuda tribes, weakened Almoravid power in Morocco, and represented the start of the Almohad movement.  Ibn Khaldun records the death A.H. 537 (1142/43) of "Ali-Ibn-Youçof" and the succession of "Tachefin-Ibn-Ali son fils"[661].  Two children: 

i)          TASHFIN (-killed in battle Oran Mar 1145).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "l'émir Taschefyn, fils d'Aly" was "emir d'Espagne, au nom de son père" in Córdoba in A.H. 529 (1135)[662].  His father appointed him Governor of Granada and Almería in 1129, and Córdoba in 1131.  Ibn Khaldun records that "Ali-Ibn-Youçof" appointed "son fils Tachefin" as governor of western Spain, with his residences at Córdoba and Seville, A.H. 526 (1131/32)[663].  He was effective viceroy of al-Andalus until his recall to Morocco in 1138 to lead the struggle against the Almohads.  He succeeded his father 1143, but the Almoravid movement was fatally weakened by then.  Ibn Khaldun records the death A.H. 537 (1142/43) of "Ali-Ibn-Youçof" and the succession of "Tachefin-Ibn-Ali son fils"[664].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Tachefin-Ibn-Ali" fled to Oran where he was killed by the Almohads A.H. 541 (1146/47), in a later passage dating the event to "le 27 de Ramadan" A.H. 539 (Mar 1145)[665]

(a)       IBRAHIM (-after 1145).  Ibn Khaldun records that "son fils Ibrahim" was proclaimed sovereign at Marrakesh after the death of "Tachefin-Ibn-Ali", A.H. 541 (1146/47), but that he was deposed because of his "faiblesse et l´incapacité"[666]

ii)         ISHAQ (-murdered Marrakesh [Mar/Apr] 1147).  Ibn Khaldun records that, after "Ibrahim" was deposed, he was succeeded by "son oncle Ishac, fils d´Ali et petit-fils de Youçof-Ibn-Tachefin", but that he and his family were killed by the Almohads[667]

c)         TAMIM .  His father appointed him Governor of Marrakesh and the surrounding lands.  Ibn Khaldun records that "Ali-Ibn-Youçof fils d´Ibn-Tachefin" appointed "son frère Temim" as governor of Spain[668].  He defeated Alfonso VI King of Castile at Uclés 29 May 1108. 

2.         ABI BAKR .  Two children: 

a)         SIR (-Seville 1113).  Governor of Meknes 1077/78.  He was one of the leading generals at the battle of Sagrajas in 1086.  Yusuf bin Tashfin appointed him Governor of his newly acquired Spanish territories in 1090.  He captured Seville in Sep 1091, and Badajoz in 1094.  Two children: 

i)          YAHYA .  He succeeded his father in Seville in 1113. 

ii)         FATIMA .  One child: 

(a)       MUHAMMAD (-[1117/18]).  He was active in recapturing Valencia in 1102 and was appointed Governor there.  He succeeded his uncle as Governor of Seville. 

b)         YAHYA .  Ibn Khaldun records that "Yahya-Ibn-Abi-Bekr, petit-fils de Youçof-Ibn-Tachefin" crossed into Spain to campaign A.H. 493 (1099/1100)[669].  Governor of Fez.  He attempted to displace Ali as leader of the Almoravids in 1106. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    ALMOHADS

 

 

The Almohad movement, based on a simplified, puritanical interpretation of Islam, emerged in north Africa in 1117/20 under the leadership of the Berber Mohammed bin Tumart, who became known as al-Mahdi.  Ibn Khaldun records the emergence of "l´imam des Masmouda…Mohammed-Ibn-Toumert surnommé El-Mehdi…[qui] appartenait à la tribu des Hergha, branche de la grande tribu des Masmouda", during the reign of the Almoravid Ali bin Yusuf, as the founder of the Almohad sect, recounts his period of training, his conquest of the Maghrib, and his death A.H. 522 (1128)[670].  The name Almohad derived from "Muwahhidun", meaning those who affirm the unity of God, one of the pillars of Almohad teaching[671].  Kennedy emphasises that there was little to distinguish Almohad teachings from those of their enemies the Almoravids, Almohad criticisms being directed mainly at the loose morals of the latter[672].  Abd al-Mumin, ancestor of all the later Almohad caliphs, was appointed by al-Mahdi as his successor and led a series of campaigns which in the mid-1140s culminated in the collapse of the Almoravid dynasty in North Africa and the conquest of al-Andalus which was administered as part of the Almohad African empire.  Ibn Khaldun recounts the invasion of Spain by the Almohads in A.H. 540 (1145/46), and their progress in capturing Jérez, Niebla, Seville ("dans le mois de Chaban" A.H. 541, Jan 1147), Badajoz, Baeza, Úbeda, Lisbon, Tortosa, Lérida, Fraga, Jaen, Granada and finally Córdoba in 1149[673].  Abd al-Mumin maintained his power by appointing his sons to the provincial governorships, but faced opposition in al-Andalus particularly from Ibn Mardanish King of Murcia who was finally defeated in 1172. 

 

The success of the Almohads in Spain was limited, mainly because their period of authority coincided with the reigns of powerful Christian kings who spearheaded the reconquest, Alfonso VIII and Fernando III Kings of Castile, Pedro II and Jaime I Kings of Aragon, and Afonso I and Sancho I Kings of Portugal, and culminated in their ignominous defeat by the Christians at Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212.  Almohad authority in al-Andalus was also diluted because of the numerous Maghreb-based rebellions whose suppression demanded considerable military resources.  After the death of Caliph Yusuf al-Mustansir in 1224, the caliphate was disputed by different members of the family, eight of whom succeeded until the death in 1269 of Abu Dabbis Idris al-Wathiq.  Ibn Khaldun records the succession of caliphs during this period[674].  Almohad rule in al-Andalus ended when Caliph al-Mamun moved his headquarters to Marrakesh in 1228. 

 

 

1.         ALI al-KUMI .  Two children: 

a)         ABD al-MUMIN (-Saleh [May/Jun] 1163, bur Tinmelel).  Ibn Khaldun records that "le Mehdi", when he died A.H. 522 (1128), appointed "son principal disciple Abd-el-Moumen-Ibn-Ali" as his successor but that his death was kept secret for three years while Abd al-Mumin and his supporters consolidated their positions[675].  Ibn Khaldun records that, after the death of Tashfin bin Ali in 1145 at Oran, Abd al-Mumin captured Fez, after a siege of seven months, Meknes, Tlemcen, and Marrakesh "vers la fin du mois de Choual" A.H. 541 (Mar/Apr 1147)[676].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "à Salé dans le mois de djomada second" A.H. 558 (May/Jun 1163) of Abd al-Mumin and his burial "à Tinmelel…auprès du tombeau du Mehdi"[677].  [m] (a) ZAINAB, daughter of MUSA Derir.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "d´une femme libre Zeyneb" daughter of "Mousa Derir…originaire d´un village de Tinmelel appelé Ansa" as the mother of "Yousof et Omar", sons of "Abd el-Moumin"[678].  Abd al-Mumin had two children by concubine (a): 

i)          ABU YAQUB YUSUF (-Santarem [Jun/Jul] 1184, bur Seville)Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yousof et Omar" as the two sons of "Abd el-Moumin" and "d´une femme libre Zeyneb"[679]

-         see below

ii)         ABU HAFS UMAR (-[1177/79]).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yousof et Omar" as the two sons of "Abd el-Moumin" and "d´une femme libre Zeyneb"[680].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abd-el-Moumen" appointed "son fils le cid Abou-Hafs" as governor of Tlemcen[681].  Ibn Khaldun records that "le cid Abou-Hafs" recognised the succession of his brother after the death of their father A.H. 558 (May/Jun 1163) and was appointed vizir[682].  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub sent "le cid Abou-Said…[avec] le cid Abou-Hafs" to attack "Ibn-Merdenich" who was threatening Córdoba, A.H. 560 (1164/65)[683].  Ibn Khaldun records the death of "le cid Abou-Hafs, frère et vizir du khalife" A.H. 573 (1177/78)[684].  [Zerkechi] records the death “en 575” (1179) of “le vizir Abou Hafç Omar ben Abd el-Moumin[685].  Two children: 

(a)       ABU ZAID .  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "ses neveux Abou-Zeid et Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, tous les deux fils du cid Abou-Hafs" as governors of Granada and Málaga respectively A.H. 571 (1175)[686].  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Yousof Yakoub el-Mançour” appointed “Abou Zeyd ben Abou Hafç ben Abd el-Moumin” as governor “de l´Ifrikiyya” in 1188[687]

(b)       ABU MOHAMMAD ABD ALLAH (-Tunis 25 Feb 1221, bur Tunis).  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "ses neveux Abou-Zeid et Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, tous les deux fils du cid Abou-Hafs" as governors of Granada and Málaga respectively A.H. 571 (1175)[688].  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Yousof Yakoub el-Mançour” appointed “pour vizir le cheykh Abou Mohammed Abd el-Wahid fils du cheykh Abou Hafç” on his accession in 1184[689].  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Abd Allah Mohammed ben Yakoub el-Mançour...En-Naçir li-din Allah” at first appointed “comme vizir Abou Zeyd ben Abou Hayyan fils du cheykh Abou Hafç” on his accession in 1199 but soon replaced him with “le cheykh Abou Mohammed Abd el-Wahid fils du même cheykh[690].  [Zerkechi] records the death “le jeudi 1er moharrem et premier jour...618...à Tunis” (25 Feb 1221) of “le cheykh Abou Mohammed Abd el-Wahid fils du cheykh Abou Hafç” and his burial “dans le kaçba de cette ville[691].  Two children: 

(1)       ABU MOHAMMED .  Governor of Jaen.  Ibn Khaldun records that "le gouverneur de Jaen, Abou-Mohammed-el-Baïaci, fils d´Abou-Abd-Allah-Mohammed, petit-fils d´Abou-Hafs et arrière petit-fils d´Abd-el-Moumen" swore fidelity to "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, fils d´El-Mansour" after he was proclaimed caliph in 1224[692].  He succeeded in 1224 as Caliph al-DAFER: Ibn Khaldun records that "El-Baïaci" proclaimed himself caliph with the title "Ed-Dafer" after the accession of Caliph al-Adil[693]

(2)       ABU DABBUS IDRIS (-killed 1269).  He succeeded in 1266 as Caliph al-WATHIQ: Ibn Khaldun records that "El-Morteda" was killed by the supporters of "Abou-Debbous" who succeeded and took the titles "El-Ouathec-Billah" and "El-Motamed-al-Allah"[694].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Debbous" was killed A.H. 668 (1269) by supporters of "Yacoub-Ibn-Abd-el-Hack"[695].  One child: 

a.         ABU al-WAHAD (-after 1269).  He succeeded in 1269 as Caliph al-MOTASSEM: Ibn Khaldun records that "un fils d´Abou-Debbous…Abd-el-Ouahed" was proclaimed caliph by "les cheikhs almohades, qui…coururent se refugier dans leurs montagnes" after Caliph al-Wathiq was killed A.H. 668 (1269), that he took the title "El-Motacem-Billah" and was treated as sovereign "pendant cinq jours" before "ils abandonnèrent la capitale et emmenèrent ce prince avec eux"[696]

Abd al-Mumin had eleven children by unknown wives or concubines: 

iii)        ABU ABD ALLAH .  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abd-el-Moumen" appointed his son "le cid Abou-Abd-Allah[-Mohammed]" as heir to his throne[697].  Ibn Khaldun records that "le cid Abou-Yacoub" was recalled to Morocco A.H. 558 (1163) to be recognised as heir to the throne in place of "son frère [Abou-Abd-Allah]-Mohammed"[698]

iv)       ABD ALLAH .  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abd-el-Moumen" appointed "son fils Abd-Allah" to command the army which captured the fortress "El-Cala" in Ifrikiya[699]

v)        ABU al-HASAN (-[Jun] 1163).  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abd-el-Moumen" appointed "son fils le cid Abou-´l-Hacen" as governor of Fez[700].  Ibn Khaldun records that "ses fils le cid Abou-´l-Hacen seigneur de Fez et le cid Abou-Mohammed [Abd-Allah] seigneur de Bougie" died soon after the death of their father A.H. 558 (May/Jun 1163)[701]

vi)       ABU SAID (-Marrakesh 1175).  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abd-el-Moumen" appointed "Abou-Said un autre de ses fils" as governor of Ceuta[702].  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub sent "le cid Abou-Said…[avec] le cid Abou-Hafs" to attack "Ibn-Merdenich" who was threatening Córdoba, A.H. 560 (1164/65)[703].  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "[le] cid Abou-Said" as governor of Granada, dated to A.H. 561 (1165/66) from the context, but in a later passage that he made the appointment A.H. 568 (1172/73)[704].  Ibn Khaldun records the deaths of "les cids Abou-Emran, Abou-Said et Abou-Zekeria" from plague in Marrakesh A.H. 571 (1175)[705]

vii)      ABU MOHAMMED ABD ALLAH (-[Jun] 1163).  Ibn Khaldun records that "Abd-el-Moumen" appointed "un quatrième fils, le cid Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah" as governor of Bejaia[706].  Ibn Khaldun records that "ses fils le cid Abou-´l-Hacen seigneur de Fez et le cid Abou-Mohammed [Abd-Allah] seigneur de Bougie" died soon after the death of their father A.H. 558 (May/Jun 1163)[707]

viii)     ABU ZAKARIA (-Marrakesh 1175).  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "son frère le cid Abou-Zekeria" as governor of Bejaia, dated to A.H. 561 (1165/66) from the context[708].  Ibn Khaldun records the deaths of "les cids Abou-Emran, Abou-Said et Abou-Zekeria" from plague in Marrakesh A.H. 571 (1175)[709]

ix)       ABU IBRAHIM .  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "Abou-Abd-Allah-Ibn-Ibrahim" as governor of Seville, dated to A.H. 561 (1165/66) from the context, but replaced him later "par un autre de ses frères, le cid Abou-Ibrahim"[710]

x)        ABU ISHAQ .  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "le cid Abou-Ishac" as governor of Córdoba, dated to A.H. 561 (1165/66) from the context[711]

xi)       ABU IMRAN (-Marrakesh 1175).  Ibn Khaldun records that Abu Yaqub appointed "son frère le cid Abou-Imran" as his deputy in Morocco when he left for Spain A.H. 567 (1171/72)[712].  Ibn Khaldun records the deaths of "les cids Abou-Emran, Abou-Said et Abou-Zekeria" from plague in Marrakesh A.H. 571 (1175)[713]

xii)      ABU ALI al-HASAN .  Ibn Khaldun records that Caliph Abu Yaqub appointed "son frère [Abou-Ali-]el-Hacen" as governor of Córdoba A.H. 571 (1175)[714].  [Zerkechi] records that “Yousof” appointed “son frère Abou Ali” as governor “de l´Ifrikiyya et du Zab” in 575 (1179)[715]

xiii)     ABU al-HASAN ALI .  Ibn Khaldun records that Caliph Abu Yaqub appointed "[Abou-´l-Hacen] Ali, un autre de ses frères" as governor of Seville A.H. 571 (1175)[716]

xiv)     ABU HAYYAN .  One child: 

(a)       ABU ZEYD .  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Abd Allah Mohammed ben Yakoub el-Mançour...En-Naçir li-din Allah” at first appointed “comme vizir Abou Zeyd ben Abou Hayyan fils du cheykh Abou Hafç” on his accession in 1199 but replaced him soon after[717]

xv)      other children .  [Zerkechi] records that “Abd el-Moumin” left “seize fils et deux filles” when he died[718]

b)         YUSUF .  Ibn Khaldun records that Caliph Abu Yaqub appointed "son oncle Youçof" as governor of Valencia A.H. 568 (1172/73)[719]

 

 

ABU YAQUB YUSUF, son of ABD al-MUMIN (-Santarem [Jun/Jul] 1184, bur Seville).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yousof et Omar" as the two sons of "Abd el-Moumin" and "d´une femme libre Zeyneb"[720].  Ibn Khaldun records that "les cheikhs de Séville" requested Abd al-Mumin to appoint "un de ses fils" as their governor A. H. 551 (1156) and that he appointed "le cid Abou-Yacoub"[721].  Ibn Khaldun records that "le cid Abou-Yacoub" was recalled to Morocco A.H. 558 (1163) to be recognised as heir to the throne in place of "son frère [Abou-Abd-Allah]-Mohammed"[722].  The Chronicon Lusitanum records that “Jacobus filius Elmuninmo Imperatoris Sarracenorum et frater eius Frocen” unsuccessfully besieged “castellum de Abrantes” in Oct 1217 (1179)[723].  The Chronicon Lusitanum records that “Juceph Abenjacob Emir Elmunimo Secundus Imperator Sarracenorum, filius de Ali Abelmuinem, qui dictus est Rex de Asino” subjugated “magnas regions ultra mare…Capza et Gumera, quæ fuerunt regis Ali, et totum regnum Marrocos…Valentiam, Murciam et Granatam…et Castella…tota Lusitania usque ad Dorium” in 1222 (1184), was helped by “Rex Auzchi de Abderrahemé, Rex Azum frater eius, Rex Hecic Aben Muza, Rex Abuzach, Rex Ismaé et Abemjuceph fratres eius, et Abderramen Rex Zuz, et Zoleima, et Aburabe Rex de Chedala, et Rex de Bugia” and sent ambassadors to “filios suos…Abozach….Rex Sibilliæ, et Abdacu Abuialne…Rex de Granata, et Gamu…Rex de Murcia, et de Valentia”, adding that “Jacob quoque Abenjuceph filius eius…qui post eum regnaturus erat” came from Seville and “alius filius eius Abozabz…Rex…de Algarbio[724].  The Crónica Latina names “Aben Jacob” as son of “Abdelmún”, adding that he died during the siege of Santarem in Portugal[725].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records the death of Abu Yaqub Yusuf "7 redjeb 580" and his burial at Seville[726].  Ibn Khaldun records the death A.H. 580 (mid.1184) of Caliph Abu Yaqub during the siege of Santarem[727]

[m] (a) SAHIR, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une esclave chrétienne…Sahir" as the mother of "Yakoub b. Yousof b. Abd el-Moumin b. Ali…surnom Abou Yousof"[728]

Abu Yaqub Yusuf had one child by concubine (a): 

1.          ABU YUSUF YAQUB ([1158]-Jan 1199, bur Marrakesh, transferred to Tinmelel).  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Yousof Yakoub el-Mançour” was born “dans la dernière décade de dhoul-hiddja 554” (1158)[729].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Omar, Yakoub l´héritier présomptif, Abou Bekr, Abd Allah, Ahmed, Yahya, Mousa, Ibrahim, Idris, Abd el-Aziz, Talha, Ishak, Mohammed, Abd el-Wahid, Othman, Abd el-Hakk, Abd er-Rahman et Ismail" as the eighteen sons of "Yousof"[730].  He succeeded in 1184 as Caliph al-MANSUR: Ibn Khaldun records that "son fils Yacoub" succeeded on the death of Abu Yaqub A.H. 580 (1184), calling him "El-Mansour" in a later passage, and returned to Seville from Santarem, but left again immediately "avec son frère le cid Abou-Yahya, pour envahir le pays de l´ennemi"[731].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Yakoub b. Yousof b. Abd el-Moumin b. Ali…surnom Abou Yousof", son of "une esclave chrétienne…Sahir", succeeded his father at the age of 32, and died "en çafar 595" aged 48[732].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records the death of Yaqub "à la nouvelle lune de çafar 595"[733].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "vers la fin du mois de rebia" A.H. 595 (Jan 1199) of "El-Mansour"[734].  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Yousof Yakoub el-Mançour” died “la nuit du jeudi au vendredi 22 rebl I 595” and was buried “dans le salon du palais qu´il habitait à Merrakech...transféré dans le monastère de Tinmelel[735].  [m] (a) ZAHAR, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une esclave chrétienne…Zahar" as the mother of "Abou Abd Allah Mohammed b. Yakoub b. Yousouf b. Abd el-Moumin b. Ali"[736].  Yaqub had one child by concubine (a): 

a)         ABU ABD ALLAH MOHAMMAD (-Marrakesh 25 Dec 1213).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Mohamed…son héritier présomptif…Ibrahim, Abd Allah, Abd el-Aziz, Abou Bekr, Zakariyya, Idris, Isa, Mousa, Çalih, Othman, Younos, Saad, Mosaid, Hasan et Hoseyn" as the surviving sons of "Yakoub b. Yousof b. Abd el-Moumin b. Ali…surnom Abou Yousof"[737].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that "Abou Abd Allah Mohammed b. Yakoub b. Yousouf b. Abd el-Moumin b. Ali", son of "une esclave chrétienne…Zahar", born "vers la fin de 576", as his father´s successor, adding that he died "10 chaban 610"[738].  He succeeded in 1199 as Caliph al-NASIR: Ibn Khaldun records that "son fils et successeur désigné Mohammed" succeeded after the death of Yaqub al-Mansur, A.H. 595 (1198/99), and adopted the title "En-Nacer-li-Din-Illah"[739].  Ibn Khaldun records the Almohad conquest of Mallorca[740].  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi records that Mohammed died in Marrakesh[741].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "dans le mois de chaban" A.H. 610 (Dec/Jan 1213/14) of "En-Nacer"[742].  [Zerkechi] records that “En-Naçir” died “10 chaban 610 des suites de la morsure quún chien lui fit au pied” (25 Dec 1213)[743].  [m] (a) ZAHAR, daughter of ---.  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "une esclave chrétienne…Kamar…surnommée Hokeyma" as the mother of "Yousouf b. Mohammed b. Yakoub"[744].  Mohammed had one child by concubine (a): 

i)          YUSUF ([1197/98]-[Nov/Dec 1223/Jan 1224]).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yousof, son héritier présomptif, Yahya et Ishak" as the sons of "Mohammed", adding in a later passage that Yusuf was born "au commencement de chawwal 594" to "une esclave chrétienne…Kamar…surnommée Hokeyma", succeeded his father, but died young "en chawwal ou en dhoulkada 620"[745].  He succeeded in 1214 as Caliph al-MUSTANSIR: Ibn Khaldun records that "son fils Youçof", 16 years old, was proclaimed sovereign in early A.H. 611 (1214) after the death of "Mohammed-en-Nacer" and took the title "El-Mostancer-Billah"[746].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "le 10 de dou´l-hiddja" A.H. 620 (Jan 1224) of "El-Mostancer"[747].  [Zerkechi] records the death (according to Ibn Khaldyun) “un samedi de dhoul-hiddja [620]...empoisonné par le vizir Abou Said ben Djami” ([Nov/Dec] 1223) of “El-Montaçir”, noting that according to “Ibn el-Khatib Andalosi” he died after “[une] vache...lui donna un coup de corne[748]

Mohammed had three children by unknown wives or concubines: 

ii)         YAHYA (-Seville 1208).  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yousof, son héritier présomptif, Yahya et Ishak" as the sons of "Mohammed", adding that Yahya died "à Seville en 608 du vivant de son père"[749]

iii)        ISHAQ .  Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi names "Yousof, son héritier présomptif, Yahya et Ishak" as the sons of "Mohammed", adding that Yahya died "à Seville en 608 du vivant de son père"[750]

iv)       YAHYA (-murdered [1235/36]).  He succeeded in 1227 as Caliph al-MUTASIM: Ibn Khaldun records that "Yahya fils d´En-Nacer et neveu d´El-Mamoun" was inaugurated as sovereign A.H. 624 (Sep 1227), in opposition to his uncle Caliph al-Mamun, after the death of Caliph al-Adil, but was deposed A.H. 626 (1228/29)[751].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Yahya fils d´En-Nacer" conquered Morocco "avec l´appui des Kholt et des Heskoura" A.H. 632 (1234/35) but that "les vainqueurs s´y livrèrent à tous les excès qui peuvent se commettre en pareille occasion et, dès ce moment, commença le declin du khalifat"[752].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Yahya-ibn-Nacer" was assassinated by one of "les Makiliens…arabes" with whom he was negotiating an alliance A.H. 633 (1235/36)[753]

Yaqub had [ten] children by unknown wives or concubines: 

b)         ABU MOHAMMED ABD ALLAH (-Sep 1227).  He succeeded in 1224 as Caliph al-ADIL: Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, fils d´El-Mansour" was proclaimed caliph in opposition to "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-el-Ouahed, frère d´El-Mansour", who was deposed, and took the title "El-Adel"[754].  [Zerkechi] records that, after the deposition of “El-Makhlou”, “El-Adil gouverneur de Murcie dont le nom est Abou Mohammed Abd Allah ben Yakoub el-Mançour...” succeeded[755]

c)         ABU al-ULA IDRIS (-[Oct/Nov] 1232).  Governor of Córdoba.  Ibn Khaldun records that "ses frères, Abou-´l-Ola gouverneur de Cordoue, Abou-´l-Hacen gouverneur de Grenade, et Abou-Mouça gouverneur de Malaga" secretly swore fidelity to "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, fils d´El-Mansour" after he was proclaimed caliph in 1224[756].  He succeeded in 1227 as Caliph al-MAMUN: Ibn Khaldun records that "[Abou-´l-Ola-Idris] El-Mamoun" proclaimed himself sovereign A.H. 624 (Sep 1227) after the death of Caliph al-Adil[757].  Ibn Khaldun records the death "vers le commencement de" A.H. 630 (Oct/Nov 1232) of "El-Mamoun"[758].  Two children: 

i)          ABUL HASAN ALI al-SAID (-Temzezdekt [May/Jun] 1248).  He succeeded in 1242 as Caliph al-MOTADID: Ibn Khaldun records that "son frère Abou-´l-Hacen-[Ali-]Es-Said" was proclaimed sovereign "sur la proposition d´Abou-Mohammed-Ibn-Ouanoudin" after the death of his brother in 1242 and took the title "El-Motaded-billah"[759].  Ibn Khaldun records that "Es-Said" was killed "dans le mois de Safer" A.H. 646 (May/Jun 1248) at "Temzezdet…par les Abd-el-Ouadites"[760]

ii)         ABU MUHAMMAD ABD al-WAHID (-4 Dec 1242).  He succeeded in 1232 as Caliph al-RASHID: Ibn Khaldun records that "son fils Abd-el-Ouahed" was proclaimed caliph after the death of Caliph al-Mamun and was given "le surnom d´Er-Rechid" A.H. 630 (Oct/Nov 1232)[761].  Ibn Khaldun records that "9 du second Djomada" A.H. 640 (4 Dec 1242) "Er-Rechid fut trouvé noyé, dit-on, dans une des citernes du palais" but adding that "selon un autre récit, il en fut retiré vivant, mais une fièvre le saisit à l´instant et l´emporta"[762]

d)         ABU al-HASAN .  Governor of Granada.  Ibn Khaldun records that "ses frères, Abou-´l-Ola gouverneur de Cordoue, Abou-´l-Hacen gouverneur de Grenade, et Abou-Mouça gouverneur de Malaga" secretly swore fidelity to "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, fils d´El-Mansour" after he was proclaimed caliph in 1224[763]

e)         ABU MUSA .  Governor of Málaga.  Ibn Khaldun records that "ses frères, Abou-´l-Ola gouverneur de Cordoue, Abou-´l-Hacen gouverneur de Grenade, et Abou-Mouça gouverneur de Malaga" secretly swore fidelity to "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, fils d´El-Mansour" after he was proclaimed caliph in 1224[764].  He succeeded as Caliph al-MUWEID: Ibn Khaldun records that "un frère d´El-Mamoun…Abou-Mouça" proclaimed himself sovereign at Ceuta and took the title "El-Mouweied"[765]

f)          [ABU IBRAHIM ISHAQ .  As noted below, Ibn Khaldun names "Abou-Hafs-Omar, fils du cid Abou-Ibrahim-Ishac et neveu d´El-Mansour" when recording his accession as Caliph in 1242[766].  It is likely that "neveu" indicates grandson, being a translation of a word presumably with connotations as difficult as that of "nepos" in Latin.  If this is correct, the new Caliph´s father was another son of Caliph al-Mansur.  From a chronological point of view, this also looks a more appealing interpretation, given that Abu Ibrahim must have been born before 1184 if he had been the son of Abu Yaqub Yusuf.]  One child: 

i)          ABU HAFS UMAR (-1266).  He succeeded in 1242 as Caliph al-MURTADA: Ibn Khaldun records that "Abou-Hafs-Omar, fils du cid Abou-Ibrahim-Ishac et neveu d´El-Mansour" was proclaimed sovereign after the death of Caliph al-Motadid in 1242 and took the title "El-Morteda"[767].  Ibn Khaldun records that "El-Morteda" was killed by the supporters of "Abou-Debbous"[768]

g)         other sons .  [Zerkechi] records that “Abou Yousof Yakoub el-Mançour” left “huit garçons” when he died[769]

Abu Yaqub Yusuf had eighteen children by unknown wives or concubines: 

2.         ABU YAHYA .  Ibn Khaldun records that "son fils Yacoub" succeeded on the death of Abu Yaqub A.H. 580 (1184), returned to Seville from Santarem, but left again immediately "avec son frère le cid Abou-Yahya, pour envahir le pays de l´ennemi"[770]

3.         ABU MOHAMMED ABD al-WAHID (-[Apr] 1224).  He succeeded in 1224 as Caliph al-MAKHLU: Ibn Khaldun records that "l´assemblée des cheiks almohades" chose "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-el-Ouahed, frère d´El-Mansour" to succeed A.H. 620 after the death of "El-Mostancer", calling him "El-Makhloue" in a later passage, but that he was deposed by his nephew and killed "dans le mois de Rebia" A.H. 621 (Mar/Apr/May 1224)[771].  [Zerkechi] records that “El-Montaçir” was succeeded by “l´oncle de son père Abou Mohammed Abd el-Wahid ben Yousof ben Abd el-Moumin...connu sous le nom d´El-Makhlou (le déposé)”, adding that he was deposed “le samedi 20 chaban 621” (7 Sep 1224)[772]

4.         ABD al-AZIZ .  Ibn Khaldun records that "le gouverneur de Jaen, Abou-Mohammed-el-Baïaci, fils d´Abou-Abd-Allah-Mohammed, petit-fils d´Abou-Hafs et arrière petit-fils d´Abd-el-Moumen" swore fidelity to "Abou-Mohammed-Abd-Allah, fils d´El-Mansour" after he was proclaimed caliph in 1224 and marched on Seville where he gained the support of "Abd-el-Aziz, frère d´El-Mansour et d´El-Makhloue"[773]

5.         other sons .  [Zerkechi] records that “Yousof” left “dix-huit enfants mâles” when he died in 1184[774]

6.         daughter .  Ibn Khaldun records that Caliph Abu Yaqub "donna sa fille en mariage" to "Hilal fils de Merdenich" at Seville A.H. 568 (1172/73)[775]m (Seville [1172/73]) HILAL, son of ABU ABD ALLAH MOHAMMED bin Said bin Mardanish. 

 



[1] España Sagrada, Tome VIII, Chronicon del Pacense, 34-36, p. 290, and MGH Auct. Ant. XI, p. 353. 

[2] Lafuente, E. (ed. & trans.) (1867) Colección de obras arábicas de historia y geografía, Tome I (Madrid) ("Ajbar Machmua"). 

[3] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 7, citing Chalmeta, P. (1994) Invasión e Islamización: la sumisión de Hispania y la formación de al-Andalus (Madrid), p. 50 [not yet consulted]. 

[4] Kennedy (1996), p. 17. 

[5] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 428. 

[6] Kennedy (1996), p. 17. 

[7] Fagnan, E. (trad.) (1901) Histoire de l´Afrique et de l´Espagne intitulée Al-Bayano’l-Mogrib (Alger) (“Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan”), Vol. I, Avant-propos, p. I. 

[8] Ajbar Machmua, p. 19. 

[9] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 435. 

[10] Jones, J. H. (ed. and trans.) (1858) Ibn Abd-el-Hakem's History of the Conquest of Spain (Goettingen, London), p. 19. 

[11] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 5-6. 

[12] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 6-7. 

[13] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 7. 

[14] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 10. 

[15] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 21-2. 

[16] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 434. 

[17] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 20. 

[18] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[19] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 9 and 11-12. 

[20] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 23-6. 

[21] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 28-9. 

[22] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 14-18 and 21-3. 

[23] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 17-8. 

[24] Jones, J. H. (ed. and trans.) (1858) Ibn Abd-el-Hakem's History of the Conquest of Spain (London, Goettingen) (“Ibn Abd-el-Hakem”), p. 18. 

[25] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 437. 

[26] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, pp. 21 and 25. 

[27] Ajbar Machmua, p. 31. 

[28] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 26. 

[29] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 28. 

[30] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 31. 

[31] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 21. 

[32] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 28. 

[33] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 31. 

[34] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 18. 

[35] Ajbar Machmua, p. 31. 

[36] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 438. 

[37] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 25. 

[38] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 439. 

[39] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, pp. 27-8. 

[40] Ajbar Machmua, p. 32. 

[41] Ajbar Machmua, p. 31. 

[42] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, pp. 26-7. 

[43] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 30. 

[44] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 439. 

[45] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 440. 

[46] Ajbar Machmua, p. 32. 

[47] Ajbar Machmua, p. 33. 

[48] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 440. 

[49] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 28. 

[50] Ajbar Machmua, p. 33. 

[51] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 440. 

[52] Ajbar Machmua, p. 35. 

[53] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 440. 

[54] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[55] Ajbar Machmua, p. 35. 

[56] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[57] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 32. 

[58] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 35-6. 

[59] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[60] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 35-6. 

[61] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[62] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 35-6. 

[63] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[64] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 35-6. 

[65] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[66] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 35-6. 

[67] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[68] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 33. 

[69] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 35-6. 

[70] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 441. 

[71] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 442. 

[72] Ajbar Machmua, p. 41. 

[73] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 33. 

[74] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 33. 

[75] Ajbar Machmua, p. 41. 

[76] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 37. 

[77] Ajbar Machmua, p. 38. 

[78] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 41. 

[79] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 442. 

[80] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 33. 

[81] Ajbar Machmua, p. 39. 

[82] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 41, 42 and 47-9. 

[83] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 445. 

[84] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 37. 

[85] Ajbar Machmua, p. 53. 

[86] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 38. 

[87] Ajbar Machmua, p. 53. 

[88] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 445. 

[89] Ajbar Machmua, p. 54. 

[90] Ajbar Machmua, p. 54. 

[91] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 39. 

[92] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 448. 

[93] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 450. 

[94] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 450. 

[95] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 77-94. 

[96] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 56-7. 

[97] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143D. 

[98] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[99] Fagnan, E. (trans. & ed.) (1893) Histoire des Almohades d´Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi (Algiers) ("Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi"), p. 50. 

[100] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[101] Fernández González, F. (trans) (1860) Historias de al-Andalus por Aben-Adhari de Marruecos, Tome I (Granada) ("Ibn Idhari"), p. 107. 

[102] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56-7 and 58. 

[103] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 456. 

[104] Anales Toledanos II, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 402. 

[105] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 455. 

[106] Chronicon Albeldense 80, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143A. 

[107] Ajbar Machmua, p. 106. 

[108] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, pp. 107 and 108. 

[109] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 459. 

[110] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 129. 

[111] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 56-7 and 58. 

[112] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 475. 

[113] Francisco Cardinal de Lorenzana (ed.) (1793) Padres Toletanorum quotquot extant opera, Tome III, Roderici Archiepiscopi Toletani Historia Arabum (Toledo) ("Historia Arabum"), I, cap. XIX, p. 261. 

[114] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXII, p. 263. 

[115] Chronicle of Alfonso III:  Wolf, K. B. (trans) (1999) Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain (Liverpool University Press, 2nd ed.), 16, p. 171, and Barrau-Dihigo, L. (1989) Historia politica del reino Asturiano (718-910) (Gijón), p. 134. 

[116] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 459. 

[117] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, pp. 109 and 129. 

[118] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[119] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 475. 

[120] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 134. 

[121] Chronicon Albeldense 80 and 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143A and 1143C. 

[122] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, pp. 130 and 137. 

[123] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 15. 

[124] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 142. 

[125] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[126] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 142. 

[127] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 15. 

[128] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 129. 

[129] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXII, p. 262. 

[130] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 129. 

[131] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 131. 

[132] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXII, p. 262. 

[133] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXII, p. 262. 

[134] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 108. 

[135] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 108. 

[136] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[137] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 15. 

[138] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 142. 

[139] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 136-7. 

[140] Chronicon Albeldense 80 and 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143A and 1143C. 

[141] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 159. 

[142] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 164. 

[143] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 164. 

[144] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[145] Chronicon Albeldense 80 and 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143A and 1143C. 

[146] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 181. 

[147] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 188. 

[148] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143C. 

[149] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 188. 

[150] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[151] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 128-9. 

[152] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 208. 

[153] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 221. 

[154] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 233. 

[155] Chronicon Albeldense 82, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1143C. 

[156] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 221. 

[157] Chronicon Albeldense 66, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1139C. 

[158] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 221. 

[159] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 221. 

[160] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 221. 

[161] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 233. 

[162] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[163] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 154, quoting an Arab source. 

[164] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 156. 

[165] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 188. 

[166] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 188. 

[167] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 139. 

[168] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 166. 

[169] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 166. 

[170] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 138. 

[171] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXV, p. 264. 

[172] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXV, p. 264. 

[173] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 233. 

[174] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[175] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 234. 

[176] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[177] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[178] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 3 and 5, pp. 230 and 231. 

[179] Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 104. 

[180] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[181] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[182] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[183] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[184] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[185] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[186] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[187] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[188] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[189] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[190] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[191] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[192] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[193] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[194] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[195] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 3 and 5, pp. 230 and 231. 

[196] Jaurgain, J. de (1898) La Vasconie, étude historique et critique, première partie (Pau), p. 173, citing Casiri, t. II, p. 200. 

[197] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 277. 

[198] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[199] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[200] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[201] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[202] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[203] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 277. 

[204] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[205] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[206] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[207] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[208] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[209] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[210] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[211] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[212] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[213] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[214] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[215] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[216] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[217] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[218] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[219] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[220] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[221] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 281. 

[222] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[223] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXI, p. 269. 

[224] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[225] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[226] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[227] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 49-50. 

[228] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 50. 

[229] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[230] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[231] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[232] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[233] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 48. 

[234] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 48. 

[235] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 46 and 48. 

[236] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 49. 

[237] Given the honorific title Dhul-Sayfayn/Lord of the Two Swords in 975. 

[238] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXI, p. 269. 

[239] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 21. 

[240] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 21. 

[241] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXII, p. 269. 

[242] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[243] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[244] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[245] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[246] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[247] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[248] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[249] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[250] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 34 and 36. 

[251] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[252] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[253] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[254] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 37. 

[255] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 47. 

[256] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[257] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[258] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[259] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 33. 

[260] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[261] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 34. 

[262] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[263] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 21. 

[264] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 32. 

[265] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 21 and 23. 

[266] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXII, p. 269. 

[267] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308. 

[268] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXII, p. 270. 

[269] Doxy (1859), Tome I, p. 209. 

[270] Doxy (1859), Tome I, p. 210, quoting Ibn-al-Khatib, man. G., fol. 180r. et v. (in the original Arabic and in French translation). 

[271] Chronicon Regum Legionensium: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester UP), p. 77. 

[272] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[273] Schottus, A. (ed.) (1608) Hispaniæ Illustratæ, Tomo IV (Frankfurt), Lucæ Tudensis Chronicon Mundi, ("Lucas Tudensis"), Liber IV, p. 89. 

[274] Dozy, R. (1859) Recherches sur l´histoire et la literature de l´Espagne pendant le moyen-âge (Leiden), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 109. 

[275] Cotarelo, E, (1903) El supuesto casamiento de Almanzor con una hija de Bermudo II (Madrid), pp. 9-10. 

[276] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[277] Pérez de Urbel, Fray Justo (1969/70) El condado de Castilla 3 vols. (Madrid), Vol. III, p. 1. 

[278] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 78. 

[279] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 33. 

[280] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 110. 

[281] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXII, p. 270. 

[282] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 111. 

[283] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXII, p. 270. 

[284] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 33. 

[285] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XXXII, p. 270. 

[286] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 33. 

[287] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 52. 

[288] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 49 and 51. 

[289] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 49 and 51-2. 

[290] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 52. 

[291] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 36. 

[292] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 36. 

[293] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[294] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 44. 

[295] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 44-5. 

[296] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 45. 

[297] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 44. 

[298] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 54. 

[299] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 59. 

[300] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 59. 

[301] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 44. 

[302] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 54-5. 

[303] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 55. 

[304] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 36 and 43. 

[305] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[306] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 45. 

[307] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[308] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[309] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 45. 

[310] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 48 and 49. 

[311] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[312] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[313] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 53. 

[314] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 55. 

[315] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 55. 

[316] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 46. 

[317] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 57 and 59. 

[318] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 43. 

[319] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 53. 

[320] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 54. 

[321] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 54. 

[322] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 54. 

[323] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 54 and 55. 

[324] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 59. 

[325] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 54 and 58. 

[326] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 54 and 59. 

[327] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 53. 

[328] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 55. 

[329] De la Granja, F. 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón VIII (1967), available as an extract at <http://www.unizar.es/cema/recursos/447_545.pdf> (8 Feb 2011), 157-8, pp. 68-9. 

[330] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 311, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92 footnote 1. 

[331] Lorenzo Jiménez, J. (2010) La Dawla de los Banu Qasi (Madrid), Apéndice de textos, p. 28, quoting Lévi-Provençal, E. & García Gómez, E. ´Fragmentos inéditos del Muqtabis´, Al-Andalus, 19 (Madrid, 1954), al-Muqtabis II-1, 93r. 

[332] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 30, quoting Lévi-Provençal & García Gómez (1954), al-Muqtabis II-1, 96r-96v. 

[333] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 30, quoting Lévi-Provençal & García Gómez (1954), al-Muqtabis II-1, 96r-96v. 

[334] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 157-8, pp. 68-9. 

[335] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 158-60, pp. 69-70. 

[336] Cañada Juste, A. 'Los Banu Qasi (714-924)', Principe de Viana 41 (1980), p. 48. [available at <http://dialnet.uniroja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=15651> (6 Feb 2011]

[337] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 60, quoting Lévi-Provençal & García Gómez (1954), al-Muqtabis II-2, pp. 331-2. 

[338] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 60, quoting Lévi-Provençal & García Gómez (1954), al-Muqtabis II-2, pp. 331-2. 

[339] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 48.

[340] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 158, p. 69. 

[341] Codera, F. ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, Ibarra, E. & Ribera, J. (eds.) Revista de Aragón, Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1900), p. 81, citing Ibn Said "Ms. Ar. de la R. Ac. de la Hist. núm. 80, fol. 268". 

[342] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, quoting Ibn Hayyan (no precise citation). 

[343] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 32, quoting Lévi-Provençal & García Gómez (1954), al-Muqtabis II-1, 96r-96v. 

[344] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, quoting Ibn Hayyan (no precise citation). 

[345] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, quoting Ibn Hayyan (no precise citation). 

[346] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, citing Ibn Hayyan, citing fol. 66 del Ms. de Oxford. 

[347] Ubieto Arteta, A. (1962) Cartulario de San Juan de la Peña (Valencia) (“San Juan de la Peña”), 7, p. 31. 

[348] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 82, citing Ibn Hayyan, citing fol. 89 del Ms. de Oxford y de la Bibl. Nac. 

[349] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 63, p. 35. 

[350] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 146, p. 60. 

[351] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 82, citing Ibn Idhari "ed. Dozy, Tome II, p. 147" [Dozy, R. (1848-52) Histoire de l´Afrique et de l´Espagne intitulée Al-bayano´l-Mogrib par Ibn-Adhárí (Leiden), text in Arabic no translation]. 

[352] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 83, citing Ibn Idhari "ed. Dozy, Tome II, p. 154". 

[353] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 83, citing Ibn Idhari "ed. Dozy, Tome II, p. 172". 

[354] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 22, p. 243. 

[355] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 23, p. 244. 

[356] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 171, p. 75. 

[357] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 68, p. 37. 

[358] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 172, p. 76. 

[359] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 190, p. 83. 

[360] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 190, p. 83. 

[361] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 23, p. 244. 

[362] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 171, p. 75. 

[363] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 67, p. 37. 

[364] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 125, p. 54. 

[365] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 180, p. 78. 

[366] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 23, p. 244. 

[367] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 181, p. 79. 

[368] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 125, p. 54. 

[369] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 183, p. 79. 

[370] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 189, p. 82. 

[371] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 23, p. 244. 

[372] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 178, p. 77. 

[373] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 190, p. 83. 

[374] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 190, p. 83. 

[375] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 195, p. 85. 

[376] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 23, p. 244. 

[377] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 183 and 192, pp. 79 and 84. 

[378] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 193, p. 84. 

[379] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 194, p. 85. 

[380] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 195, p. 85. 

[381] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 83, citing Ibn Idhari "ed. Dozy, Tome II, p. 172". 

[382] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 32, p. 25. 

[383] Cañada Juste, A. 'Los Banu Qasi (714-924)', Principe de Viana 41 (1980), p. 7. [available at <http://dialnet.uniroja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=15651> (6 Feb 2011]

[384] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25, pp. 176-7. 

[385] De la Granja, F. 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón VIII (1967), available as an extract at <http://www.unizar.es/cema/recursos/447_545.pdf> (8 Feb 2011), Apéndice, "Principales familias árabes mencionadas en la obra de al-Udri, según la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm (ed. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo, 1948)", p. 86. 

[386] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 7.

[387] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[388] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 171, p. 75. 

[389] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 6, citing Sánchez Albornoz ´La auténtica batalla de Clavijo´, Cuadernos de Historia de España, IX (1948), p. 97 (not yet consulted). 

[390] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[391] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 171, p. 75. 

[392] Lucas Tudensis, p. 77. 

[393] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 9, citing Fagnan, E. (1904) Histoire de l´Afrique et de l´Espagne intitulée al-Bayano-l-Mogrib (Alger), Tome II, Ibn Idari, Kitab al-Bayan al-Mugrib fi ajbar al-Magrib, pp. 98-99 (not yet consulted, "no preview" in Google Book). 

[394] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 9, citing Fagnan, E. (1898) Annales du Maghreb et de l´Espagne (Alger), Ibn al-Atir, Kamil fi-l-Tarij, p. 141 (not yet consulted, "no preview" in Google Book). 

[395] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 20, p. 19. 

[396] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 27, p. 23. 

[397] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 301 and 305, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[398] Settipani (2004), pp. 101-2. 

[399] Yanguas y Miranda, J. (1845) Adiciones al Diccionario de antigüedades de Navarra (Pamplona), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain, J. de (1898) La Vasconie, étude historique et critique, première partie (Pau), p. 137. 

[400] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[401] Bermejo, J. V. (ed. & trans.) (1999) Muqtabis II (Madrid), p. XII [available Limited Preview in Google Book]. 

[402] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 10. 

[403] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", pp. 86 and 88. 

[404] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[405] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[406] Lucas Tudensis, p. 77. 

[407] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[408] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[409] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[410] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 171, p. 75. 

[411] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 32, p. 24. 

[412] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[413] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 88. 

[414] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[415] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[416] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[417] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[418] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 27, p. 23. 

[419] The descendants of this family are set out in Cañada Juste, A. 'Los Banu Qasi (714-924)', Principe de Viana 41 (1980), pp. 5-94, and Meouak, M. (1999) Pouvoir souverain, administration centrale et elites politiques dans l'Espagne umayyade (II-IV / VIII-X siècles) (Helsinki), pp. 220-2, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 102. 

[420] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 86. 

[421] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 171, p. 75. 

[422] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 27, p. 22. 

[423] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 28, p. 23. 

[424] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 153. 

[425] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 303, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92 footnote 1. 

[426] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25, pp. 176-7. 

[427] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 32, p. 24. 

[428] Chronicon Sebastiani 25, España Sagrada XIII, p. 491. 

[429] Chronicon Sebastiani 25, España Sagrada XIII, p. 491. 

[430] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 153-4. 

[431] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 32, p. 25. 

[432] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 33, p. 25. 

[433] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 22, quoting al-Abyari, I. (1989) El Dar al-Kitab al-Misri/Dar al-Kitab al-Lubnani (Cairo, Beirut), pp. 111-2. 

[434] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 139, quoting Colin, G. S. & Levi-Provençal, E. (1951) Histoire de l´Afrique du Nord et de l´Espagne musulmane intitulée Kitab al-Bayan al-Mughrib (Leiden), Vol. II, p. 100. 

[435] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 1, p. 229. 

[436] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', p. 26 footnote 37, 3, interprets "los Mayus" as indicating "los Normandos", but this is anachronistic as the Viking settlements in Normandy post-dated these events. 

[437] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 37, p. 26. 

[438] Chronicon Sebastiani 25, España Sagrada XIII, p. 491. 

[439] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25 and 26, p. 177. 

[440] Chronicon Sebastiani 26, España Sagrada XIII, p. 491. 

[441] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 34, p. 25. 

[442] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 36, p. 26. 

[443] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', p. 26 footnote 37, 3, interprets "los Mayus" as indicating "los Normandos", but this is anachronistic as the Viking settlements in Normandy post-dated these events. 

[444] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 37, p. 26. 

[445] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[446] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 54, 57 and 58, pp. 32-3. 

[447] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[448] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[449] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 37, p. 26. 

[450] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 160. 

[451] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 44, p. 28. 

[452] Chronicon Albeldense 66, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140A. 

[453] Chronicon Albeldense 71, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140C. 

[454] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 161. 

[455] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 49, p. 30. 

[456] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, quoting Ibn Hayyan, citing fol. 66 del Ms. de Oxford. 

[457] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 43, p. 28. 

[458] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[459] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, quoting Ibn Hayyan, citing fol. 66 del Ms. de Oxford. 

[460] Codera ´Mohámed Atauil, rey moro de Huesca´, p. 81, quoting Ibn Hayyan, citing fol. 66 del Ms. de Oxford. 

[461] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[462] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 43, p. 28. 

[463] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[464] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[465] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 37, p. 26. 

[466] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 35, p. 26, and 160, p. 70. 

[467] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 160. 

[468] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 50, p. 30. 

[469] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 163, p. 71. 

[470] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 160, p. 70. 

[471] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[472] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[473] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[474] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[475] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[476] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[477] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 160, p. 70. 

[478] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 37, p. 26. 

[479] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 37, quoting Lévi-Provençal & García Gómez (1954), al-Muqtabis II-1, 180r. 

[480] Cañada Juste 'Los Banu Qasi', p. 9, citing Fagnan (1898), Ibn al-Atir, Kamil fi-l-Tarij, p. 211 (not yet consulted, "no preview" in Google Book). 

[481] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 28, p. 23. 

[482] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 35, p. 26. 

[483] Chronicon Albeldense 66, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1139C. 

[484] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 50, p. 30. 

[485] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 53, p. 31. 

[486] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[487] Chronicon Albeldense 71, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140C. 

[488] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 161. 

[489] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 49, p. 30. 

[490] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[491] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[492] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 49, p. 30. 

[493] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 67, p. 37. 

[494] Chronicon Sebastiani 26, España Sagrada XIII, p. 491. 

[495] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[496] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 33, p. 25. 

[497] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 22, quoting al-Abyari (1989), pp. 111-2. 

[498] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[499] Chronicon Albeldense 67, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140A. 

[500] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 54, 57 and 58, pp. 32-3. 

[501] Chronicon Albeldense 71, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1140C. 

[502] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 49, p. 30. 

[503] Doxy (1859), Tome I, p. 227, citing Ibn-Haiyân, fol. 15 r. et v, and fol. 9 v, also discussed in Arco, R. del 'El Templo de Nuestra Señora del Pilar en la Edad Media', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 13. 

[504] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 161-2. 

[505] San Juan de la Peña, 7, p. 31. 

[506] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 255. 

[507] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 60, p. 34. 

[508] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[509] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 58, p. 33. 

[510] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 61, p. 34. 

[511] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 65, p. 36. 

[512] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 255. 

[513] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[514] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 78 and 80, pp. 39-40. 

[515] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 82, p. 40. 

[516] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 82, p. 40. 

[517] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[518] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[519] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, pp. 10-1, quoting Colin & Levi-Provençal (1951), Vol. II, pp. 152-3. 

[520] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 16, quoting Colin & Levi-Provençal (1951), Vol. II, p. 195. 

[521] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[522] ES II 56. 

[523] ES II 56. 

[524] ES II 56. 

[525] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[526] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[527] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[528] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 67, p. 37. 

[529] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 69, p. 37. 

[530] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 71, p. 38. 

[531] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 88. 

[532] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 73, p. 38. 

[533] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 88. 

[534] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 88. 

[535] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 70, p. 38. 

[536] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 88. 

[537] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 70, p. 38. 

[538] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 88. 

[539] Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Urraca, Un nombre egregio en la onomástica altomedieval´, En la España medieval, Anejo I, 2006, p. 29, available at <http://www.ucm.es/BUCM/revistasBUC/portal/modulos.php?name=Revistas2_Historico&id=ELEM&num=ELEM060622> (10 Feb 2008). 

[540] Ajbar Maymua, (1867) Colección de obras arábigas de la Real Academia de la Historia I (Madrid), pp. 141-2, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Urraca´, p. 31. 

[541] Rodríguez Fernández, J. (1972) Ramiro II Rey de León (León), 90, p. 678, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Urraca´, p. 32. 

[542] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[543] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[544] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 70, p. 38. 

[545] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 72, p. 38. 

[546] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 16, quoting Colin & Levi-Provençal (1951), Vol. II, p. 195. 

[547] Lorenzo Jiménez (2010), Apéndice de textos, p. 16, quoting Colin & Levi-Provençal (1951), Vol. II, p. 195. 

[548] Kennedy (1996), p. 145. 

[549] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[550] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[551] Slane, B. M. (trans.) (1842-72) Ibn Khallikan´s Biographical Dictionary (Paris) ("Ibn Khallikan"), Vol. III, p. 200. 

[552] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 200. 

[553] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 200. 

[554] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 200. 

[555] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[556] Ramón Martínez y Martínez, M. (1904) Historia del reino de Badajoz durante la dominación Musulmana (Badajoz), p. 95, quoting Aben Zaid, lib. III, c. I (unpublished translation by Francisco Codera, see pp. 15-6). 

[557] Ramón Martínez (1904), p. 98, without citing the corresponding primary sources. 

[558] Codera, F. ´Un reyezuelo de Badajoz desconocido hasta hoy´, Buletín de la academia real de historia, Tome IV (Madrid, 1884), Cuaderno VI, III, p. 358, quoting in translation "Tornberg (ed.), Tome IX, Aben-Al-Atsir, p. 203" [not yet consulted]. [Available in Google Book, Full View] 

[559] Codera ´Un reyezuelo de Badajoz´, p. 358, no precise citation, except on the last point for which Codera refers to Casiri Bibliotheca Arabico-Escurialensis, Tome II, p. 41 [not yet consulted].  Ramón Martínez (1904), p. 14 notes that Aben-Alabar´s works were published by Codera: el "Mocham", Biblioteca arábico-hispana, Tome IV (Madrid, 1886), and la "Tecmila", in Biblioteca arábico-hispana, Tome V and VI (Madrid, 1889) [neither work yet consulted]. 

[560] Codera ´Un reyezuelo de Badajoz´, p. 358, citing in translation "Lápida en poder del Sr. D. Nicolás Díaz y Pérez, y de la cual hemos visto una copia (Abril de 1881)".

[561] Ramón Martínez (1904), pp. 97-8. 

[562] Codera ´Un reyezuelo de Badajoz´, p. 358 (see above for full citation). 

[563] Ramón Martínez (1904), p. 99, citing Casiri Bibliotheca Arabico-Escurialensis, Tome II, p. 66 [not yet consulted]. 

[564] Codera ´Un reyezuelo de Badajoz´, p. 359, quoting in Arabic and in translation "Inscripción sepulcral…de la cual Sr. D. Pascual de Gayangos posee copia".

[565] Ramón Martínez (1904), p. 113, no sources cited. 

[566] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[567] Ramón Martínez (1904), pp. 122 and 125, no sources cited. 

[568] Ramón Martínez (1904), p. 140, citing Conde, J. A. (1820) Historia de la dominación de los árabes en España (Madrid), Parte III, cap. VIII, which he comments, on p. 18, contains "muchos errores". 

[569] Ramón Martínez (1904), p. 125, citing "Dozy, Commentaire historique sur le poème de AA-benbdúm par Aben Badrúm, Introduction". 

[570] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[571] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[572] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[573] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[574] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 200. 

[575] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 63. 

[576] Marca, P. de (1688) Marca Hispanica (Paris), Appendix, CCXLIX, col. 1116. 

[577] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 103. 

[578] González Cavero, I. ´Una revisión de la figura de ibn Mardanish. Su alianza con el reino de Castilla y la oposición frente a los Almohades´, Miscelánea Medieval Murciana, Vol. XXXI (2007), p. 100 [consulted at <http://dialnet.unirioja.es> (3 Apr 2011)], citing Dozy, R. P. A. (1965) Recherches sur l´histoire et la littérature de l´Espagne pendant le Moyen Âge (Amsterdam), Vol. I, p. 365 [not yet consulted]. 

[579] Historia Arabum, I, cap. XLIX, p. 283. 

[580] Schottus, A. (ed.) (1608) Hispaniæ Illustratæ, Tomo IV (Frankfurt), Lucæ Tudensis Chronicon Mundi, ("Lucas Tudensis"), p. 104. 

[581] España Sagrada, Tome XXIII, Anales Toledanes I, p. 391.  

[582] Slane, Baron de (trans.) (1854) Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l´Afrique septentrionale par Ibn-Khaldoun (Alger) ("Ibn Khaldun Berbers"), Vol. II, pp. 194-5. 

[583] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 197. 

[584] España Sagrada, Tome XXIII, Anales Toledanes I, p. 391.  

[585] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 200. 

[586] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 200. 

[587] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[588] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 202. 

[589] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 200. 

[590] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 182. 

[591] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 182.  

[592] Dozy, R. (1861) Histoire des musulmans d´Espagne (Leiden), Tome IV, p. 11, citing Dozy, R. (1852) Scriptorum arabum loci de Abbadidis (Leiden), Tome II, p. 173 (Ibn-Khatibi "ex opere al-Ihala fi tarrici Garnala") text in Arabic not translated, and other texts. 

[593] Dozy (1861), Tome IV, p. 11. 

[594] Dozy (1861), Tome IV, pp. 7-8, citing Dozy (1852), Tome II, p. 32 (Ibn-Athiri "ex opere Camilo ´t-tawarie") and p. 208 (Ibn-Khaldun "ex opere al-abar wadiwano ´l-mobtadari wal-cabar fi aijami ´l-Arabi wa´l-Agami wa´l-Barbar"), both texts in Arabic not translated. 

[595] Dozy (1861), Tome IV, p. 9. 

[596] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[597] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 53. 

[598] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 80. 

[599] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 184. 

[600] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 80. 

[601] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 54. 

[602] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 80. 

[603] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 86. 

[604] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 186. 

[605] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 86-7. 

[606] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 182. 

[607] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 86-7. 

[608] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 53. 

[609] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 87. 

[610] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 110. 

[611] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 119. 

[612] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 88. 

[613] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 378. 

[614] Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Política matrimonial de Alfonso VI de Castilla´, Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Héraldica y Genealogía, Vol. II (1992-93, Madrid), p. 319, quoting in translation an extract quoted in Levi Provençal, E. ´La mora Zaida, femme d´Alphonse VI de Castille, et leur fils l´infant don Sancho´, Hesperis 18 (1934), pp. 1-8 and 200-1. 

[615] Salazar y Acha ´Política matrimonial de Alfonso VI de Castilla´, p. 320. 

[616] Montaner Frutos, A. ‘La mora Zaida, entre historia y leyenda’, Taylor, B. & West, G. (eds.) (2005) Historicist Essays on Hispano-Medieval Narrative: In Memory of Roger M. Walker (Leeds), p. 272, available in Google Book “Limited Preview”. 

[617] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 234.   

[618] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 88.  

[619] Reilly, B. F. (1988) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI 1065-1109 (Princeton University Press), Chapter 16, p. 339, in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at <http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm> (7 Dec 2002). 

[620] Reilly (1988), p. 339. 

[621] Reilly (1988), Chapter 15, p. 325. 

[622] Reilly (1988), Chapter 12, p. 234, and Chapter 16, p. 339 footnote 46.  . 

[623] Pérez, J., Romualdo Escalona, F. (1782) Historia del real monasterio de Sahagun (Madrid) ("Sahagún (Pérez)"), Lib. II, cap. V.3, p. 73. 

[624] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 110. 

[625] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[626] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[627] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[628] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[629] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[630] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[631] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 52. 

[632] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[633] Dozy (1861), Tome IV, p. 127, citing Dozy, R. (1860) Recherches sur l´histoire et la littérature de l´Espagne pendant le moyen âge, 2nd edn. (Leiden), Tome II, Appendice, IX, "Extraits relatifs à l´histoire de Valence", pp. LI-LIV (Text in Arabic, no translation). 

[634] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 62. 

[635] Dozy (1861), Tome IV, p. 127, citing Dozy (1860), Tome II, Appendice, IX, "Extraits relatifs à l´histoire de Valence", pp. LI-LIV (Text in Arabic, no translation). 

[636] Dozy (1861), Tome IV, p. 127, citing Dozy (1860), Tome II, Appendice, IX, "Extraits relatifs à l´histoire de Valence", pp. LI-LIV (Text in Arabic, no translation). 

[637] Ibn Khallikan, Vol. III, p. 200. 

[638] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 61. 

[639] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 61. 

[640] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 61. 

[641] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 83. 

[642] Lucas Tudensis, p. 104. 

[643] Kennedy (1996), p. 156. 

[644] Kennedy (1996), p. 158. 

[645] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 71. 

[646] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 71. 

[647] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 73. 

[648] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 71. 

[649] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 72. 

[650] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 85-6. 

[651] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 85-6. 

[652] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 78. 

[653] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 78-80. 

[654] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 111. 

[655] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 239-40. 

[656] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 82. 

[657] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 71. 

[658] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 72. 

[659] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 239-40. 

[660] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 82. 

[661] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 85. 

[662] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 413. 

[663] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 83. 

[664] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 85. 

[665] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 85 and 178. 

[666] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 86. 

[667] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 86 and 181. 

[668] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 82. 

[669] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 81. 

[670] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 161-73. 

[671] Kennedy (1996), p. 198. 

[672] Kennedy (1996), p. 199. 

[673] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 183-8. 

[674] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 232-57. 

[675] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 173. 

[676] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 179-81. 

[677] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 195-6. 

[678] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 204. 

[679] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 203-4. 

[680] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 203-4. 

[681] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 190. 

[682] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 196. 

[683] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 197. 

[684] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 202. 

[685] Fagnan, E. (ed. (1895) Chronique des Almohades et des Hafçides attribuée à Zerkechi (Constantine) (“Zerkechi”), p. 15. 

[686] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 202. 

[687] Zerkechi, p. 19. 

[688] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 202. 

[689] Zerkechi, p. 17. 

[690] Zerkechi, p. 21. 

[691] Zerkechi, p. 25. 

[692] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[693] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 231. 

[694] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 255. 

[695] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 257. 

[696] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 257. 

[697] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 191. 

[698] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 195. 

[699] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 190. 

[700] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 190. 

[701] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 196. 

[702] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 190. 

[703] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 197. 

[704] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 197 and 201. 

[705] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[706] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 190-1. 

[707] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 196. 

[708] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 197. 

[709] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[710] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 197. 

[711] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 197. 

[712] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 200. 

[713] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[714] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[715] Zerkechi, p. 16. 

[716] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[717] Zerkechi, p. 21. 

[718] Zerkechi, p. 15. 

[719] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201. 

[720] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, pp. 203-4. 

[721] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 192. 

[722] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 195. 

[723] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 429. 

[724] Chronicon Lusitanum, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 429. 

[725] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla (trans. unknown), I, 6, consulted at <http://www.geocities.com/iblbo/archivo/cronicacastilla.menu.htm> (12 Apr 2008). 

[726] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 226. 

[727] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 205. 

[728] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 226. 

[729] Zerkechi, p. 17. 

[730] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 211. 

[731] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 205-6 and 208. 

[732] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 226. 

[733] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 267. 

[734] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 215. 

[735] Zerkechi, p. 20. 

[736] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 267. 

[737] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 226. 

[738] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 267. 

[739] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 216. 

[740] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 217-9. 

[741] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 281. 

[742] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 226. 

[743] Zerkechi, p. 24. 

[744] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 281. 

[745] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 267. 

[746] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 227. 

[747] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 229. 

[748] Zerkechi, p. 26. 

[749] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 267. 

[750] Abd el-Wahid Merrakechi, p. 267. 

[751] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 233. 

[752] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 240. 

[753] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 241. 

[754] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[755] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 233. 

[756] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[757] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 233. 

[758] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 237. 

[759] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 243. 

[760] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 246. 

[761] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 237. 

[762] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 243. 

[763] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[764] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[765] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 237. 

[766] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 243. 

[767] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 243. 

[768] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 255. 

[769] Zerkechi, p. 21. 

[770] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 205-6. 

[771] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, pp. 229, 230 and 231. 

[772] Zerkechi, p. 26. 

[773] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[774] Zerkechi, p. 17. 

[775] Ibn Khaldun Berbers, Vol. II, p. 201.