NAVARRE, kings

v3.0 Updated 18 June 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KINGS of PAMPLONA. 5

A.         EARLY SEÑORES de PAMPLONA.. 5

B.         ORIGINS of KINGS of PAMPLONA.. 6

C.        KINGS of PAMPLONA 822-[905] (IÑIGA DYNASTY) 10

D.        KINGS of PAMPLONA [858]-931 (JIMENA DYNASTY) 20

Chapter 2.                KINGS of NAVARRE. 24

A.         KINGS of NAVARRE 905-1076 (JIMENA DYNASTY) 24

B.         KING of NAVARRE 1076 (KING of CASTILE) 64

C.        KINGS of NAVARRE [1076]-1134 (KINGS of ARAGON) 65

D.        KINGS of NAVARRE 1134-1234 (JIMENA DYNASTY) 65

Chapter 3.                KINGS of NAVARRE 1234-1305 (CHAMPAGNE) 71

Chapter 4.                KINGS of NAVARRE (CAPET and CAPET-EVREUX) 78

A.         KINGS of NAVARRE 1305-1328 (CAPET) 78

B.         KINGS of NAVARRE 1328-1479 (CAPET-EVREUX) 80

Chapter 5.                KINGS of NAVARRE 1479-1517 (COMTES de FOIX) 91

Chapter 6.                KINGS of NAVARRE 1517-1555 (ALBRET) 91

Chapter 7.                KINGS of NAVARRE (BOURBON) 93

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Navarre region remained largely autonomous following the Muslim invasion of Spain, presumably explained by its geographical remoteness.  The Akhbar al-Majmua [Collection of Anecdotes, translated into Spanish in the mid-19th century by Lafuente as "Ajbar Machmua", dated to [940] by Chalmeta[1], although Lafuente dates it to the 11th century] records that "Okba ben Al-Hachaeh" [Uqba bin al-Hajaj al-Saluli, governor of Muslim Spain from [728]], conquered territory as far as Narbonne and subjugated Galicia, Álava and Pamplona[2].  It is not clear how extensively Pamplona was conquered at that time.  Muslim influence in the area increased after the capture of Pamplona by Emir Abd al-Rahman I in 781[3].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that “in Spain, the people of Navarre and Pamplona, who had defected to the Saracens during the last years, were again placed under our authority” in 806[4].  As noted in Chapter 1.A below, a “lord” of Pamplona named Velasco Velásquez is recorded in an Arab source in 816.  Presumably he was a Carolingian appointee, although his name indicates Iberian rather than Frankish origin.  Records suggest that some form of organised Navarrese state first emerged in the early 9th century, under the leadership of Íñigo "Arista" whose death is dated to [851/52] in an Arab source.  It is not known whether Íñigo was a descendant of immigrants from the Visigothic court or was a local chief who imposed his leadership over time.  Various references to Gascony in the early sources suggest that a Visigothic origin is unlikely.  The Royal Frankish Annals record that “counts Aeblus and Asinarius had been sent to Pamplona with Basque forces” in 824[5], which suggests a Carolingian Frankish attempt to reassert suzerainty in Pamplona and that Iñigo had not been a Carolingian nominee.  Whatever the truth of Íñigo´s origin, it is probable that his territorial authority was limited and that 9th century Navarre was not a fully-fledged state in the modern sense of the term.  It is not even clear that the title "king" was adopted by the early leaders.  It may have been attributed to them by later chroniclers to add credibility to the dynasty's authority.  The number of marriages with Muslim families in the early Navarre royal family suggest that Muslim influence persisted even after Pamplona had long been under Christian rule, at least until the early 10th century.  The Iñiga dynasty led Navarre until 905 (see Chapter 1.B).  However, their position was challenged by García Jiménez who was accepted as ruler in Pamplona from [858] to [885], García's descendants emerging definitively to lead Navarre from 905 until they were replaced by the kings of Aragon in 1076 (see Chapter 1.C). 

 

Few records have survived which deal with the early history of Navarre.  The reconstruction of the early generations of the ruling families is based almost exclusively on the Codex de Roda[6], a series of texts probably written shortly before 992 almost certainly in Navarre itself.  The Codex does not resolve the question of a possible common origin of the two rival dynasties, the Iñiga and the Jimena, which are dealt with in two different chapters in the Codex.  The description of the Iñiga dynasty in the Codex starts with Íñigo "Arista" and his children.  The chapter which follows deals with the Jimena dynasty, stating that García Jiménez and Íñigo Jiménez were brothers without mentioning their father.  There appear to be four possible explanations concerning the possible relationship between the two families, based on this text:

1.        "Íñigo Jiménez" named in the second part was the same person as "Íñigo "Arista"" named in the first.  This is certainly the most obvious explanation.  No further details are given in the second part concerning Íñigo Jiménez or his descendants, and the reader of the Codex is left wondering why he would have been mentioned at all if a reference back to the first part was not intended.  However, there is an obvious chronological difficulty with this interpretation.  García Jiménez succeeded as ruler of Pamplona in [858].  A glance at the chronology of the early generations of the Jimena dynasty in Chapter 1.C shows that García was probably of a similar age to Íñigo "Arista"'s grandchildren, and so evidently could not have been Íñigo "Arista"'s brother.  In addition, as shown below in Chapter 1.A, Arab sources which name Íñigo "Arista" specify that his father was Íñigo not Jimeno, although this is contradicted by a (dubious) charter of the monastery of Leire which does call him "Enneco…rex, filius Simeonis". 

2.        "Jimeno", father of the brothers García and Íñigo Jiménez (whose name is indicated only by the patronymic accorded to his sons), was the son of Íñigo "Arista".  This satisfies the chronological difficulty mentioned above in relation to the first explanation.  However, why would the authors of the Codex omit any reference to such an obvious relationship?  As the text was written just over eighty years after the extinction of the Iñiga dynasty, the authors of the Codex would have been well aware of the family connection if such a close one had existed.  This, of course, assumes that the text of the Codex which has survived represents the complete version. 

3.        The García and Íñigo Jiménez who are named in the second part of the Codex were in fact the common ancestors of both Íñigo "Arista" and the García Jiménez who ruled Pamplona from [858].  This more complex "reinterpretation" of the text of the Codex was first proposed in the 17th century[7] and has since found favour with many historians.  It assumes that the Codex simply omits all details of the intervening generations between the two individuals allegedly named García Jiménez, and that it conflates the two into one by mistake in the first paragraph of the second chapter.  The possibility of such a mistake cannot of course be excluded.  However, this would be the only example in the early genealogies recounted in the Codex where several generations of a family have been omitted entirely. 

4.        The two dynasties were related only indirectly by marriage or were not related at all.  This requires us to believe that the mention of Íñigo Jiménez in the second part of the Codex is completely unrelated to Íñigo "Arista" in the first part.  The genealogical section of the Codex is grouped into six parts, each dealing with a distinct family.  Apart from the Navarrese dynasties, these are the counts of Aragon, Pallars, Gascony and Toulouse, none of whom is recorded as related to the others in the male line.  One possibility, therefore, is that the author of the Codex purposely separated his description of the two Navarrese dynasties, in the same way as his narrative concerning the other comital families, because they too were unrelated.  Our knowledge of the early history of Navarre is limited, but it is not impossible that these so-called "kings" were little more than local leaders who commanded allegiance in very restricted geographic areas and that several such unrelated chiefs emerged in different parts of the territory at the same time, the extent of their authority over the others fluctuating over time. 

Further information concerning the early kings of Navarre is provided by the late 11th century Libro de Regla of Leire monastery[8] and by the Arab historian Ibn Hayyàn[9].  The Libro de Regla is an extremely confused document.  The dates which it includes cannot be accurate.  In any case, it is not possible to reconcile the names of the early kings which it records with other primary sources.  Worst of all, it clearly omits generations in its narrative of the 11th century Navarrese kings.  Ibn Hayyân provides a completely different perspective, suggesting that the father of Íñigo "Arista" was also named Íñigo.  There is no way of knowing whether this is simply a mistake in the source or whether Ibn Hayyân provides the correct answer to the conundrum. 

 

We are left therefore with two contradictory versions of the parentage of Íñigo "Arista".  These are both shown in Part A of Chapter 1 of this document.  Discussion of such problems is interesting.  However, at this distance in time, our knowledge of the families in question is so limited that it does not appear worthwhile to speculate with any degree of certainty about which hypothesis should be preferred over the other.  It should not be forgotten that the reconstruction of the early generations may even be entirely fictitious, created by later authors to demonstrate dynastic continuity and enhance the reputation of their rulers. 

 

During the 10th and 11th centuries, the kingdom of Navar re acquired extensive territorial power, including over the counties of Álava, Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya to the west, and the counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe and Ribagorza to the east, as well as in the Navarrese heartland around Pamplona and Calahorra.  The boundary agreed with the newly emerged county of Castile to the south is recorded in a charter dated 1016[10].  Sancho III King of Navarre incorporated the county of Castile into his kingdom, after his brother-in-law García Sánchez Conde de Castilla was murdered in 1029, and captured most of the kingdom of León by 1034.  King Sancho divided his territories between his sons, his eldest son García succeeding as king of Navarre, his second son Gonzalo in Sobrarbe and Ribagorza, his third son Fernando in Castile, and his illegitimate son Ramiro in Aragon.  Rivalry between the brothers came to a head when García was killed in battle against Fernando at Atapuerca in 1054, leaving his minor son Sancho IV to inherit the Navarrese crown.  Sancho was murdered by one of his brothers in 1076.  Immediately afterwards, Alfonso VI King of Castile assumed the crown of Navarre: a charter dated 1076 records that Alfonso VI King of Castile ("Adefonsus filius Fredinandi regis") succeeded to the kingdom after "impiisima fraude interfecto rege Sancio, Garsie...regis filius"[11].  Shorlty afterwards, his cousin Sancho I King of Aragon succeeded in taking control of Navarre.  At this time the western counties of Álava, Gupúzcoa and Vizcaya switched their allegiance to Alfonso VI King of Castile, who also took possession of Nájera and Calahorra.  The Aragonese/Navarrese union collapsed on the death in 1134 of Alfonso I King of Aragon and Navarre, Navarre regaining its independence under King García V, grandson of the illegitimate brother of King Sancho IV, although he was obliged to swear allegiance to Alfonso VII King of Castile as the price for his throne. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of PAMPLONA 

 

 

 

A.      EARLY SEÑORES de PAMPLONA

 

 

1.         VELASCO Velásquez, son of VELASCO --- & his wife --- (-after 816)Señor [“King?”] de Pamplona.  The date Velasco took control of Pamplona is not known.  No doubt it was after 806 when the Royal Frankish Annals record that “in Spain, the people of Navarre and Pamplona, who had defected to the Saracens during the last years, were again placed under our authority” in 806[12].  It is possible that he was a vassal of the Carolingian Frankish kings.  Ibn Hayyan records a campaign in 816 led by “[el] hayib Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Wahid ibn Mugit” against “Balask al-Yalasqi señor de Pamplona”, during the course of which “Garsiya ibn Lubb, hijo de la hermana de Barmud, el tío materno de Idfuns, Sanyo, el mejor caballero de Pamplona, Saltan, el mejor caballero de los Mayus” were killed[13]Settipani speculates that “Velasco chef de Pampelune en 816” was the brother of García Galíndez “el Malo” Conde de Aragón[14]However, the chronology is not ideal.  In addition, “Balask al-Yalasqi” presumably indicates “Velasco Velásquez” rather then “Velasco Galíndez”.  If Velasco Señor de Pamplona belonged to the same family as García Galíndez, it is therefore more probable that he was García´s paternal uncle. 

 

 

 

B.      ORIGINS of KINGS of PAMPLONA

 

 

As a preliminary point, a charter dated Aug 828 should be highlighted.  This apparently refers to García Jiménez King of Pamplona at that date.  At first sight, the dating appears consistent with other individuals who are named in the document, as discussed further below.  However, no other reference has been found to King García Jiménez at that time.  It is suggested that the document should be redated to the 860s and that it in fact refers to García Jiménez (who succeeded as king in [858]) and to Galindo Aznárez Conde de Aragón (whose death is dated to [after 867] - see the document ARAGON KINGS, Chapter 1).  This suggestion is supported by the dating clause of the document which refers only to local Navarrese/Aragonese noblemen, whereas other early charters linked to Aragon (dated to the late 820s to the 860s) refer to the regnal years of the Carolingian kings/emperors[15]

 

1.         [GARCÍA Jiménez (-[after Aug 828]).  King of Pamplona.  “Garsias Semenonis rex Pampilonensium...cum comite Galindone de Aragon” donated “monasteriolum Sancti Martini de Ciella cum villa sua de Ciella” to San Juan de la Peña by charter dated Aug 828, the dating clause of which records “Oriol in Boltana, senior Mancius de Eril in Petra fita...[16].  This charter represents the only reference which has been found to a king named García Jiménez in the early 9th century.  The dating of the document is consistent with “comite Galindone de Aragon” being identified as Conde Galindo García who is named in two other sources around the same period.  It is also consistent with “senior Mancius de Eril in Petra fita” being the father of Blasco Mancio who is named in a charter of Siresa dated to [850][17].  However, as noted in the introduction to this section above, other factors suggest that the charter should be redated to the 860s which, if correct, would indicate that it refers to Garcia Jiménez who succeeded as king of Pamplona in [858] (see below).  In this connection, a charter dated 858 for San Martín de Cillas should be noted as its dating clause is similar, recording "sub regimine Garssia Scemenonis rege in Pampilona et comite Galindo in Aragone"[18].] 

 

 

The sources provide two contradictory versions of the parentage of King Íñigo "Arista": 

 

 

VERSION A: 

 

1.         [ÍÑIGO [I] [Sancho] .  The Arab historian Ibn Hayyân indicates that King Íñigo´s father was also named Íñigo: he records the death in the Muslim year 237 (5 Jul 851/22 Jun 852 A.D.) of "Wannaqo ibn Wannaqo frère uterin et allié de Musa ibn Musa" and the accession of "son fils Garsiya…comme émir de Pampelune"[19].  However, the source is rather confused as in other passages it names "Musa et son allié Garsiya ibn Wannaqo, emir des Gascons (d'autres disent que son allié était Furtun ibn Wannaqo, son frère uterin)" and records that "Musa ibn Musa al-Qasawi…fut aidé par son frère utérin, le chef de Pampelune, ibn Wannaqo"[20].  Another possible parentage of Iñigo is suggested by Ibn Hazm who records that "Musa ibn Musa" arranged the marriages of "las hijas de su hermano Lubb ibn Musa" with "los hijos de Wanaqo ibn Sanyo, rey de los Vascos"[21].  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records the death "era DCCV" of "rex Enneco Garseanes", adding that his wife was "Eximena"[22].  This source, however, is even more confused than Ibn Hayyân and is contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records.  It is therefore not certain to whom "Enneco Garseanes" refers.  m (after 788) as her second husband, ---, widow of MUSA ibn Fortún, head of the Banu Qasi family, daughter of ---.  Her two marriages are indicated by Al-Udri who names "Yannaqo ibn Wanniqo" as "hermano de madre de Musa ibn Musa"[23].  Her two marriages are also indicated by the Arab historian Ibn Hayyân who names "Musa et son allié Garsiya ibn Wannaqo, emir des Gascons (d'autres dissent que son allié était Furtun ibn Wannaqo, son frère uterin)" and records in a later passage that "Musa ibn Musa al-Qasawi…fut aidé par son frère utérin, le chef de Pampelune, ibn Wannaqo"[24].  Settipani highlights[25] the lively academic debate over whether Musa was the first or second husband of the wife of Íñigo.  [The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records the death "era DCCV" of "rex Enneco Garseanes", adding that his wife was "Eximena"[26].  This source is confused and contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records.  It is not certain to whom "Enneco Garseanes" refers.  It has been decided not to include "Jimena" as the wife of "Íñigo", considering the number of uncertainties in the text.]  Íñigo & his wife had [two] children:

a)         [ÍÑIGO [II] Iñíguez ([788/90]-[851/52]).  The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Íñigo "Arista".  His parentage is indicated by Al-Udri who names "Yannaqo ibn Wanniqo" as "hermano de madre de Musa ibn Musa"[27].  His parentage is also confirmed by the Arab historian Ibn Hayyân who records the death in the Muslim year 237 (5 Jul 851/22 Jun 852 A.D.) of "Wannaqo ibn Wannaqo frère uterin et allié de Musa ibn Musa" and the accession of "son fils Garsiya…comme émir de Pampelune"[28].  However, other sources suggest that the king who reigned in Navarre at that time was the son of "Jimeno" (see below).  He established himself in [820/25] as ÍÑIGO Iñíguez "Arista" [King] of Pamplona, although it should be noted that none of the early texts attribute the title “king” to him.]     

-        see Part B.  KINGS of PAMPLONA, IÑIGA DYNASTY

b)         [FORTÚN Iñíguez de Pamplona (-killed in battle Pamplona Jul 843).  The Arab historian Ibn Hayyân names "Musa et son allié Garsiya ibn Wannaqo, emir des Gascons (d'autres disent que son allié était Furtun ibn Wannaqo, son frère uterin)" and records in a later passage that "Musa ibn Musa al-Qasawi…fut aidé par son frère utérin, le chef de Pampelune, ibn Wannaqo"[29].]  [m ---, daughter of LUBB ibn Musa.  Ibn Hazm records that "Musa ibn Musa" arranged the marriages of "las hijas de su hermano Lubb ibn Musa" with "los hijos de Wanaqo ibn Sanyo, rey de los Vascos"[30].  No other reference to these possible marriages has been found.  If they are correct, the chronology suggests that the bridegrooms must have been the sons of Íñigo [I], although it is not known whether they were Ínigo Iñíguez and Fortún Iñíguez or other otherwise unrecorded sons.] 

 

 

VERSION B: 

 

1.         [JIMENO --- (-[after 851]).  His name is indicated only by the patronymic accorded to his sons in the Codex de Roda.  No direct information has been found relating to Jimeno.  However, the Chronicon Fontanellensis records that ambassadors from "Induonis et Mitionis Ducum Naverrorum" attended Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks "in Vermeria Palatio" with gifts and agreed peace, dated to 851[31].  A footnote in the edition consulted notes that Marca, in his Historiæ Bearniæ, corrects the apparent reference to two individuals in this edition to "Inniconis Eminonis Duc. Navarr"[32].  Jaurgain records that Oïhenart suggests that the names should in fact be "Iniconis et Ximinonis", adding that they should be identified with "Eneco-Garcia et Semen-Garcia, neveux du souverain de Pamplone"[33].  This hypothesis is not acceptable from a chronological point of view.  It is more likely that, if the passage intends to refer to two individuals, they were Íñigo Iñíguez and Jimeno, father of García Jiménez.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "filius eius Eximinus Enecones" succeeded "rex Enneco Garseanes", adding that his wife was "Munia" and that he died "era DCCLXXV"[34].  This source is confused and contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records.  It is not certain that it can be assumed that this passage refers to the father of Íñigo Jiménez.  m ---.  The name of Jimeno's wife is not known.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "filius eius Eximinus Enecones" succeeded "rex Enneco Garseanes", adding that his wife was "Munia" and that he died "era DCCLXXV"[35].  This source is confused and contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records.  It is not certain that it can be assumed that this passage refers to the father of Íñigo Jiménez.  It has been decided not to include "Munia" as the wife of "Jimeno", considering the number of uncertainties in the text.  Jimeno & his wife had two children: 

a)         [GARCÍA Jiménez (-after 885).  The Codex de Roda records that "Garsea Scemenonis et Enneco Scemenonis" were brothers[36].  He succeeded in [858] as GARCÍA II [King] of Pamplona, although none of the early texts attribute this title to him.] 

-        see Part C.  KINGS of PAMPLONA, JIMENA DYNASTY

b)         [ÍÑIGO Jiménez .  The Codex de Roda records that "Garsea Scemenonis et Enneco Scemenonis" were brothers[37].  "Enneco…rex, filius Simeonis" donated property to Leire by charter dated 18 Apr 842[38].  As noted below, this charter could either refer to King Íñigo Iñíguez (in which case "filius Simeonis" in the document was an error for "filius Enneconis") or to Íñigo, brother of García Jiménez.]  same person as…?  ÍÑIGO "Arista" [King] of Pamplona ([788/90]-[851/52]).  As discussed below, the sources which refer to the parentage of King Íñigo "Arista" are contradictory. 

-        see Part B.  KINGS of PAMPLONA, IÑIGA DYNASTY

 

 

ANOTHER UNCONNECTED EARLY LEADER: 

 

1.         GARCÍA, son of --- (-killed in battle Monte Laturce 859).  Ibn Hazm names "Awriya" as the daughter of "Musa ibn Musa", adding that she married "Garsiya rey de los Vascos" and names their son "Musa ibn Garsiya"[39].  This García has not otherwise been identified in the families of the early kings of Pamplona/Navarre.  One possibility is that the sources have misnamed him and that he is the same person as Galindo Iñíguez, son of Íñigo "Arista" [King] of Pamplona (see below, Part B.), who converted to Islam, probably had a Muslim wife, and is recorded as having a son named Musa.  m [AWRIYA], daughter of MUSA ibn Musa.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicon Sebastiani which records that "Muza…genere suo…Garseane" was killed at the battle of Monte Laturce against Ordoño I King of Asturias [in 859][40].  Ibn Hazm names "Awriya" as the daughter of "Musa ibn Musa", adding that she married "Garsiya rey de los Vascos" and names their son "Musa ibn Garsiya"[41].  García & his wife had one child: 

a)         MUSA ibn Garsiya .  Ibn Hazm names "Awriya" as the daughter of "Musa ibn Musa", adding that she married "Garsiya rey de los Vascos" and names their son "Musa ibn Garsiya"[42]

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of PAMPLONA 822-[905] (IÑIGA DYNASTY)

 

 

ÍÑIGO [II] [Iñíguez/Jiménez], son of [IÑIGO --- & his wife ---] or son of [JIMENO & his wife ---] ([788/90]-[851/52]).  The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Íñigo "Arista".  His parentage is indicated by Al-Udri who names "Yannaqo ibn Wanniqo" as "hermano de madre de Musa ibn Musa"[43].  The Arab historian Ibn Hayyân records the death in the Muslim year 237 (5 Jul 851/22 Jun 852 A.D.) of "Wannaqo ibn Wannaqo frère uterin et allié de Musa ibn Musa" and the accession of "son fils Garsiya…comme émir de Pampelune"[44].  However, other sources suggest that the king who reigned in Navarre at that time was the son of "Jimeno".  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco cognomento Aresta" without naming his father or giving his patronymic[45].  Another passage in the same source records that "Garsea Scemenonis et Enneco Scemenonis" were brothers[46].  It is not certain that "Enneco cognomento Aresta" and "Enneco Scemenonis" in these two passages refer to the same person, but this is possible.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "filius eius…Enneco Xemenones" ruled for 22 years after "Eximinus Enecones", adding that his wife was "Oneca regina", that he died "era DCCCL", and that during his reign holy remains were transferred "ab Osca in monasterio Leioren"[47].  This source is confused, and contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records, but presumably this passage is intended to refer to Íñigo "Arista".  "Enneco…rex, filius Simeonis" donated property to Leire by charter dated 18 Apr 842[48].  There is no reference in this document to the donor as "Arista" but, assuming that the document is genuine, it appears to be the only entirely contemporaneous document which names the king who ruled in Navarre during the first half of the 9th century so it should presumably be accorded the corresponding degree of respect.  Whatever the correctness of his parentage, it appears that ÍÑIGO "Arista" [King] of Pamplona, established himself in [820/25], although no primary source has yet been found which confirms that this is correct.  The Carolingian Franks, who first invaded the territory around Pamplona in 778, were finally driven out in 824.  Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, writing in the first half of the 13th century, records that "Enecho…Arista" came "ex Bigorriæ comitatu" and settled "ad plana Navarræ" and was chosen "regni…principatum" by the residents[49].  This appears inconsistent with the marriage of Íñigo´s mother to Musa Ibn Fortún, which is suggested by Ibn Hayyân (see above).  If the Arab texts are to be believed, Íñigo allied himself with the Banu Qasi family, whose leader was his uterine half-brother according to the sources quoted above, presumably to consolidate his position.  He was injured in the battle for Pamplona in which his brother Fortún was killed in 843[50].  The Chronicon Fontanellensis records that ambassadors from "Induonis et Mitionis Ducum Naverrorum" attended Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks "in Vermeria Palatio" with gifts and agreed peace, dated to 851[51].  A footnote in the edition consulted notes that Marca, in his Historiæ Bearniæ, corrects the apparent reference to two individuals in this edition to "Inniconis Eminonis Duc. Navarr"[52].  Jaurgain records that Oïhenart suggests that the names should in fact be "Iniconis et Ximinonis", adding that they should be identified with "Eneco-Garcia et Semen-Garcia, neveux du souverain de Pamplone"[53].  This hypothesis is not acceptable from a chronological point of view.  If the passage intends to refer to two individuals, it is more likely that they were Íñigo Iñíguez and Jimeno, father of García Jiménez (see above).  However, Marca´s interpretation is more likely to be correct as no other record has been found which indicates that two kings reigned in Pamplona at the same time.  Íñigo suffered from paralysis before he died[54]

m [ONECA], daughter of ---.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "filius eius…Enneco Xemenones" ruled for 22 years after "Eximinus Enecones", adding that his wife was "Oneca regina"[55].  This source is confused, and contradicted by numerous other primary sources in many of the details which it records.  As noted above, it is not certain whether "Enneco Xemenones" is intended to refer to Íñigo "Arista".  The wife of Íñigo "Arista" is not named in the Codex de Roda.  Another possibility is that the wife of Íñigo was ---, daughter of Lubb ibn Musa.  Ibn Hazm records that "Musa ibn Musa" arranged the marriages of "las hijas de su hermano Lubb ibn Musa" with "los hijos de Wanaqo ibn Sanyo, rey de los Vascos"[56]No other reference to these possible marriages has been found.  If they are correct, the chronology suggests that the bridegrooms must have been the sons of Íñigo [I], although it is not known whether they were Ínigo Iñíguez and Fortún Iñíguez or other otherwise unrecorded sons. 

Íñigo "Arista" & his wife had four children: 

1.         GARCÍA Iñíguez ([810]-killed by Arabs [Lumberri] 882[57], bur Leire Monastery).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis et domna Assona…et domna ---" as the children of "Enneco cognomento Aresta"[58].  He succeeded his father in [852] as GARCÍA I [King] of Pamplona.  He was defeated by the Muslims in [858].  "Rexo Garsia, filius Eneconis" donated property to the monastery of Leire, with the advice of "filii mei Fortunii", by charter dated 21 Oct 880[59].  This is the only source so far identified which accords the royal title to García and it is not clear whether it was contemporary.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "filius eius Garsea Ennecones" ruled for 12 years after the death of "Enneco Xemenones" and died "era DCCCXXXV…in Lumberri", his body being returned "ad monasterium Legeren" (for burial)[60]m [firstly] URRACA, daughter of ---.  An undated charter refers to a confirmation by “rex domnus Garcia et regina domna Urraca maiore[61].  Her origin is not known.  Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, writing in the first half of the 13th century, records that "Enecho…Arista…filium Garsiam" married "Urracam, de Regio semine"[62].  Jaurgain suggests that "de Regio semine" should be interpreted as meaning "de la même race que lui" (based on his assumption that the kings of Navarre were descended from the dukes of Gascony, about which there appears to be no proof) and that Urraca was "fille de Sanche-Sancion duc de Vasconie", although he cites no primary source which confirms this parentage[63].  Her origin is discussed by Salazar y Acha who suggests that she was a member of the Banu Qasi family, related to the second wife of Fruela II King of Asturias, which would account for the introduction of the name Fortún into the family of the kings of Navarre[64].  [m secondly LEODEGUNDIS de Asturias, daughter of [ORDOÑO I King of Asturias & his wife Munia ---].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Versi domna Leodegundia regina" names "Leodegundiam Ordonii filiam" and indicates her position as Queen of Pamplona after her marriage[65].  She is not named in the genealogies in the earlier part of the Codex de Roda.  She has been suggested as a possible second wife of King García I but, as there is no indication of dates in the "Versi", this is mere speculation.  Barrau-Dihigo casts doubt on this identification[66].  It is of course possible that she was not a historical figure at all.  It may have been convenient for chroniclers of the rulers of Pamplona to invent a dynastic connection with the kings of Asturias in order to boost local credibility.]  García I & his [first] wife had [four] children:

a)         FORTÚN García ([830]-after 905).  The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife[67].  He succeeded his father in 882 as FORTÚN [King] of Pamplona

-        see below

b)         SANCHO García .  The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife[68]m ---.  The name of Sancho's wife is not known.  Sancho García & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          AZNAR Sánchez de Larraún .  The Codex de Roda names "Asnari Sanziones qui et Larron" as son of "Sanzio Garseanis"[69]m (880) [as her second husband,] his first cousin, ONECA [Íñiga] Fortún de Pamplona, [repudiated wife of ABD ALLAH later ABD ALLAH I Emir of Córdoba], daughter of FORTÚN García King of Pamplona & his wife Aurea --- ([850]-).  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis" and his wife, recording that Oneca married "Asenari Sanzones de Larron" (a second manuscript specifying that she was "suam congermanam") and afterwards married "regi Abdella" by whom she was mother of "Mahomat Iben Abdella"[70].  However, this is unsustainable chronologically if it is correct that she was the mother of Muhammad and his birth date is correctly estimated to [867/68].  On the assumption that this date is correct, it is assumed that Abd Allah was Oneca's first husband.  She married her second husband after returning from Córdoba in [880] with her father who had just been released from captivity[71].  As noted in the document MOORISH SPAIN, Ibn Idhari names "Dorr" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Muhammad[72].  It would not be impossible for this to be an adopted Muslim name.  However, Dorr is also recorded as the mother of the emir´s daughter Fatima, born "despues del califato" which presumably indicates his succession as emir in 888, which would be after Oneca´s supposed return to Pamplona.  The conclusion must be that there is some piece of information in the Codex de Roda which is fundamentally incorrect, maybe either the name of Oneca´s Muslim husband or the name of her supposed son.  Aznar Sánchez & his wife had three children:

(a)       SANCHO Aznárez .  The Codex de Roda names "Santio Asnari et domna Tota regina et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Asnari Sanziones qui et Larron" and his wife[73]

(b)       TODA Aznárez ([885]-after 970).  The Codex de Roda names "Santio Asnari et domna Tota regina et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Asnari Sanziones qui et Larron" and his wife, one manuscript specifying that Tota was the wife of "Sanctii Obtimi regis"[74]m SANCHO I García King of Navarre, son of GARCÍA II Jiménez King of Pamplona & his second wife Dadildis de Pallars ([880]-11 Dec 925, bur San Estebán).

(c)       SANCHA Aznárez.  The Codex de Roda names "Santio Asnari et domna Tota regina et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Asnari Sanziones qui et Larron" and his wife, in a later passage naming "domna Sanzia, Asnari Santionis filia" as wife of "Scemeno Garseanis" and recording that she was killed "in Galias in villa…Laco" by her son García Jiménez[75]m JIMENO García de Pamplona, son of GARCÍA II Jimenez King of Pamplona & his second wife Dadildis de Pallars (-931). 

ii)         [VELASQUITA Sánchez.  Al-Udri records that "Mutarrif ibn Musa" married "Faliskita, hija de Sanyo, señor de Pamplona" and that he brought her to Huesca (which suggests that the marriage should be dated to [870/71] when Mutarif took control of Huesca) and had children by her[76].  The date of her marriage is consistent with Velasquita having been the daughter of Sancho, son of García I Iñíguez [King] of Pamplona, but this is not confirmed beyond all doubt by the passage in Al-Udri.  m ([871/72]) as his [---] wife, MUTARIF ibn Musa, son of MUSA Ibn Musa & his wife --- (-crucified Córdoba 6 Sep 873).] 

c)         ONECA García.  The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife, stating that Oneca married "Asnari Galindones de Aragone"[77]m AZNAR [II] Galíndez Conde de Aragón, son of GALINDO [I] Aznar Conde de Aragón & his wife --- (-893). 

d)         [JIMENA (-after Jun 912, bur [Astorga, transferred to Oviedo Santa María]).  The Cronica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the alliance between King Alfonso and "Galiam simul cum Pampiloniam, causa cognacionis", adding that he had married “uxorem ex illorum prosapia...Xemenam consubrinam Caroli regis[78].  The Cronica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[79].  Sánchez-Albornoz suggests that she was the daughter of King García I[80], but she is not included among his children listed in the Codex de Roda.  Settipani, while agreeing that Jimena must belong to the royal family of Navarre, highlights difficulties with this theory while recognising that none of the other possible origins appears viable[81].  The most obvious difficulty is chronological, as Jimena´s marriage date suggests that, if she was related to the early kings of Navarre, she probably belonged to the subsequent generation.  The reference in the Cronica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, to the alliance between King Alfonso and "Galiam simul cum Pampiloniam, causa cognacionis"[82] suggests an alternative possibility that Jimena may have been related to the dukes of Gascony, who maintained close relations with the kings of Pamplona as indicated by charter evidence.  The Cronica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “uxore sua Xemena regina” was buried with her husband “Astoricæ” but that their bodies were transferred to “Oueto...sub aula sancte Marie Dey genitricis[83].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Queen Jimena" as the wife of "King Alfonso", when reporting their reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur[84].  m ([869/70]) ALFONSO III “el Magno” King of Asturias, son of ORDOÑO I King of Asturias & his wife Munia --- (848-20 Dec 910).] 

García & his [wife/mistress] had one [illegitimate] child: 

e)         daughter .  Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records "la hija de Garsiya ibn W.n.q." as the wife of "Amrus ibn Amr ibn Amrus" in A.H. 259 [872/73][85].  It is possible that this daughter of [King] García was illegitimate.  m as his (x) wife, AMRUS ibn Umar Wali [governor/king] of Huesca, son of UMAR ibn Amrus (-[Huesca] Apr 875). 

2.         GALINDO Iñíguez (-after 851).  The Arab historian ibn Hayyân records that "le chef ibn Wannaqo et son fils Galind" were wounded during the battle for Pamplona in 843 and that "Lubb ibn Musa et Galind ibn Wannaqo" defected to the Arabs the following year[86].  He is not included among the children of King Íñigo "Arista" listed in the Codex de Roda.  Galindo was among the personages who greeted Eulogius at Córdoba in 851[87].  [m ([after 844]) ---.  The name of Galindo's wife is not known.  It is likely that she was a Muslim, whom Galindo married after his conversion.  One possibility is that the sources which refer to "García" (see Part A, above), who married the daughter of Musa ibn Musa of the Banu Qasi and is recorded with a son named Musa, are in fact referring to Galindo Iñíguez.  Galindo & his wife had one child]: 

a)         [MUSA ibn Galind ([845/46 or after]-executed Huesca 4 Aug 871).  No proof has been found that Musa ibn Galind was the son of Galindo Iñíguez.  However, as noted above, the latter is recorded as having defected to the Arabs, and presumably converted to Islam, and no record has been idenfified of another noble of this name having converted.  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that Galindo married a Muslim wife after his supposed conversion, as suggested above.  Wali (governo/king) of Huesca.  Al-Udri records that "Amrus ibn Umar ibn Amrus" rebelled against "Musa ibn Galindo, amil de Huesca" whom he killed in the same city which he captured, in A.H. 256 [869/70], specifying that Musa was killed A.H. "el sábado 13 del mes de ramadán" [4 Aug 871][88].  The Arab historian ibn Hayyân records that "Musa ibn Galind émir de Huesca" was executed in 870[89].] 

3.         ASSONA Iñíguez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis et domna Assona…et domna ---" as the children of "Enneco cognomento Aresta", stating that Assona married "domno Muza qui tenuit Borza et Terrero"[90]m MUSA ibn Musa, son of MUSA ibn Fortun & his [second] wife --- (-Tudela 26 Sep 862). 

4.         --- Iñíguez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis et domna Assona…et domna ---" as the children of "Enneco cognomento Aresta", stating that the unnamed daughter married "Garsea Malo"[91]m (after [838]) as his second wife, GARCÍA [I] Galíndez “el Malo” Conde de Aragon, son of GALINDO Velázquez & his wife Faquilo --- (-before 858). 

 

 

FORTÚN García, son of GARCÍA I Iñíguez King of Pamplona & his first wife Urraca --- ([830]-after 905).  The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife[92].  He was captured by the Muslims in 860 and taken to Córdoba where he remained captive for twenty years[93].  "Rexo Garsia, filius Eneconis" donated property to the monastery of Leire, with the advice of "filii mei Fortunii", by charter dated 21 Oct 880[94].  He succeeded his father in 882 as FORTÚN [King] of Pamplona.  “Rex Fortunio Garcianes” reviewed the territories of the monastery of San Julián de Labasal, at the request of “comite Galindo Asnar”, by charter dated 893, whose dating clause records “...Garcia Sanz in Gallias, Raimundus in Paliares, pagani...Mohomet Ebenlupu in Balleterra et Mohomet Atauel in Osca...[95].  "Fertunius rex, proles regis Garsie" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Mar 901[96].  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "Fortunius Garseanes" came "de Corduba", succeeded on the death of "Garsea Ennecones", but became "monachus in monasterio Legerensi", while "frater eius Sancius Garseanes cum uxore sua Dna Tota regina" ruled in his place[97].  This suggests that Fortún was deposed by Sancho.  Sabaté Curull dates Fortún´s deposition to 905[98]

m ([845]) ORIA, daughter of ---.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Oria filia de ---" as wife of "Furtunio Garseanis"[99]

Fortún & his wife had five children:

1.         ONECA [Íñiga] Fortúnez ([850]-).  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis" and his wife, recording that Oneca married "Asenari Sanzones de Larron" (a second manuscript specifying that she was "suam congermanam") and afterwards married "regi Abdella" by whom she was mother of "Mahomat Iben Abdella"[100].  However, this is unsustainable chronologically if it is correct that she was the mother of Muhammad and his birth date is correctly estimated to [867/68].  On the assumption that this date is correct, it is assumed that Abd Allah was Oneca's first husband.  She married her second husband after returning from Córdoba in [880] with her father who had just been released from captivity[101].  As noted in the document MOORISH SPAIN, Ibn Idhari names "Dorr" as the mother of Emir Abd Allah´s son Muhammad[102].  It would not be impossible for this to be an adopted Muslim name.  However, Dorr is also recorded as the mother of the emir´s daughter Fatima, born "despues del califato" which presumably indicates his succession as emir in 888, which would be after Oneca´s supposed return to Pamplona.  The conclusion must be that there is some piece of information in the Codex de Roda which is fundamentally incorrect, maybe either the name of Oneca´s Muslim husband or the name of her supposed son.  [m firstly ([863, repudiated before 880]) as his --- wife, ABD ALLAH, son of MUHAMMAD Emir of Córdoba & his concubine Baher (-16 Oct 912).]  He succeeded his brother in 888 as ABD ALLAH I Emir of Córdoba.]  m [secondly] (880) her first cousin, AZNAR Sánchez de Larraún, son of SANCHO García de Pamplona & his wife --- . 

2.         ÍÑIGO Fortúnez (-after 905).  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis " and his wife[103]m as her first husband, SANCHA García de Navarra, daughter of GARCÍA II Jiménez King of Pamplona & his first wife Oneca ---.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Sanzia, filia de Garsea Scemenonis" as the wife of "Enneco Furtuniones", specifying that she later married "domno Galindo comes de Aragone"[104].  She married secondly as his second wife, Galindo [II] Aznar Conde de Aragón.  Íñigo Fortún & his wife had three children: 

a)         FORTÚN Iñíguez.  The Codex de Roda names "Furtunio Enneconis et domna Auria…et domna Lopa" as the children of "Enneco Furtunionis" and his wife[105]m ---.  The name of Fortún's wife is not known.  Fortún Iñíguez & [his wife] had three children:   

i)          GARCÍA Fortúnez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Furtunionis et Enneco Furtunionis et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Furtunio Enneconis " and his unnamed wife[106]

ii)         ÍÑIGO Fortúnez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Furtunionis et Enneco Furtunionis et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Furtunio Enneconis " and his unnamed wife[107]

iii)        SANCHA Fortúnez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Furtunionis et Enneco Furtunionis et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Furtunio Enneconis " and his unnamed wife[108]

b)         AUREA Iñíguez.  The Codex de Roda names "Furtunio Enneconis et domna Auria…et domna Lopa" as the children of "Enneco Furtunionis" and his wife, specifying that Aurea married "Munio Garseanis"[109]m MUNIO García

c)         LUPA Iñíguez.  The Codex de Roda names "Furtunio Enneconis et domna Auria…et domna Lopa" as the children of "Enneco Furtunionis" and his wife, specifying that Lupa married "Sanzio Lupi de Araquil"[110]m SANCHO López de Araquíl

3.         AZNAR Fortúnez.  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis" and his wife[111]m ---.  She is referred to, but not named, in the Codex de Roda.  Aznar Fortún & his wife had one child: 

a)         FORTÚN Aznárez “Orbita”.  The Codex de Roda names "Furtuni Asnari qui et cognomento Orbita" as the son of "Asnari Furtunionis" and his unnamed wife[112]m ---.  The name of Fortún's wife is not known.  Fortún Aznar & [his wife] had one child:

i)          GARCÍA Fortúnez de Cabanas (-after 15 Feb 979).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Furtuniones de Capannas" as son of "Furtuni Asnari qui et cognomento Orbita"[113].  "Eximino Sancionis, Garsea Furtunionis, Belasco Lihoriz" confirmed the charter dated 15 Feb 979 under which "Sancius rex et Urraka regina…cum germanis nostris Ranimiro et Eximino" confirmed a prior donation to San Pedro de Siresa by "genitor noster Garsea rex"[114]

4.         VELASCO Fortúnez.  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis" and his wife[115]m ---.  Settipani suggests that the wife of Velasco Fortún may have been the niece of García II Jiménez King of Pamplona, because of the names Jimena and Sancha given to two of the couple's daughters[116].  Velasco Fortún & [his wife] had three children:

a)         JIMENA Velásquez.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Scemena…et domna Tota…et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Belasco Furtunionis" and his unnamed wife, specifying that Jimena married "rege Enneco Garseanis"[117]m ÍÑIGO García King of Pamplona, son of GARCÍA II Jiménez King of Pamplona & his first wife Oneca --- (-after 933). 

b)         TODA Velásquez.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Scemena…et domna Tota…et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Belasco Furtunionis" and his unnamed wife, specifying that Toda married "Enneco Manzones de Lucentes"[118]m ÍÑIGO Manzónez de Lucentes .  

c)         SANCHA Velásquez.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Scemena…et domna Tota…et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Belasco Furtunionis" and his unnamed wife, specifying that Sancha married "Galindo Scemenonis de Pinitano"[119]m GALINDO Jiménez de Pinitano

5.         LOPE Fortúnez .  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Furtunionis et Asenari Furtuniones et Belasco Furtuniones et Lope Furtuniones et domna Onneca" as the children of "Furtunio Garseanis" and his wife[120]

 

 

 

D.      KINGS of PAMPLONA [858]-931 (JIMENA DYNASTY)

 

 

GARCÍA Jiménez, son of [JIMENO] & his wife -- (-after 885).  The Codex de Roda records that "Garsea Scemenonis et Enneco Scemenonis" were brothers[121].  He succeeded in [858] as GARCÍA II [King] of Pamplona, although none of the early texts attribute this title to him.  Settipani speculates that King García either took power following the defeat of King Íñigo García by the Muslims or that he adopted the royal title in a separate part of the country at the same time as Íñigo García continued as king in his own part[122]

m firstly ONECA Rebele de Sangüesa, daughter of --- .  The Codex de Roda records that "Garsea Scemenonis" married "Onneca Rebelle de Sancossa"[123]

m secondly DADILDIS, sister of RAIMUNDO [I] Conde de Ribagorza, daughter of ---.  The Codex de Roda records that "Garsea Scemenonis" married secondly "domna Dadildi de Paliares soror Regimundi comitis"[124]

García II & his first wife had two children:

1.         ÍÑIGO García (-after 933).  The Codex de Roda names "Enneco Garseanis et domna Sanzia" as children of "Garsea Scemenonis" and his first wife "Onneca Rebelle de Sancossa"[125].  He succeeded his father as ÍÑIGO [King] of Pamplona.  “Rege Santio Garseanis cum suos germanos Enecho Garseanis et Scemeno Garseanis” confirmed the territory of the monastery of Fontfride by charter dated 1 Oct 921[126].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia, Eneco Garseanis, Semeno Garseanis…"[127].  It is assumed that "…Eneco Garseanis, Semeno Garseanis…" in this charter are the brothers of King Sancho.  On the death in 931 of his half-brother Jimeno, Íñigo García seized the regency but was forced out in 933 by King García III's mother, the Queen Mother Toda, who installed herself as regent for her son[128]m JIMENA Velásquez de Pamplona, daughter of VELASCO Fortúnez de Pamplona & his wife ---.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Scemena…et domna Tota…et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Belasco Furtunionis" and his unnamed wife, specifying that Jimena married "rege Enneco Garseanis"[129].  Íñigo & his wife had five children: 

a)         GARCÍA Iñíguez (-killed Liédena before 905).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis…et Scemeno Enneconis et Furtunio Enneconis et Sanzio Enneconis" as children of "Enneco Garseanis", specifying that García was killed "in Ledena"[130]

b)         JIMENO Iñíguez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis…et Scemeno Enneconis et Furtunio Enneconis et Sanzio Enneconis" as children of "Enneco Garseanis", which states that the last three fled to Córdoba[131].  [m --- binti Lubb, daughter of LUBB ibn Muhammad.  The marriages of the three brothers Jimeno, Fortún and Sancho Iñíguez with the three daughters of Lubb ibn Muhammad are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln, but the primary source on which the information is based has not yet been identified[132].] 

c)         FORTÚN Iñíguez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis…et Scemeno Enneconis et Furtunio Enneconis et Sanzio Enneconis" as children of "Enneco Garseanis", which states that the last three fled to Córdoba[133].  [m --- binti Lubb, daughter of LUBB ibn Muhammad.  The marriages of the three brothers Jimeno, Fortún and Sancho Iñíguez with the three daughters of Lubb ibn Muhammad are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln, but the primary source on which the information is based has not yet been identified[134].] 

d)         SANCHO Iñíguez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis…et Scemeno Enneconis et Furtunio Enneconis et Sanzio Enneconis" as children of "Enneco Garseanis", which states that the last three fled to Córdoba[135].  [m --- binti Lubb, daughter of LUBB ibn Muhammad.  The marriages of the three brothers Jimeno, Fortún and Sancho Iñíguez with the three daughters of Lubb ibn Muhammad are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln, but the primary source on which the information is based has not yet been identified[136].] 

e)         TODA Iñíguez.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Tota" as sister of "Garsea Enneconis…et Scemeno Enneconis et Furtunio Enneconis et Sanzio Enneconis", specifying that she married "Garsea Enneconis de Olza"[137]m GARCÍA Iñíguez de Olza

2.         SANCHA García.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Sanzia, filia de Garsea Scemenonis" as the wife of "Enneco Furtuniones", specifying that she later married "domno Galindo comes de Aragone"[138]m firstly ÍÑIGO Fortún de Pamplona, son of FORTÚN García King of Pamplona & his wife Aurea --- (-after 905).  m secondly as his second wife, GALINDO [II] Aznar Conde de Aragón, son of AZNAR [II] Galíndez Conde de Aragón & his wife Oneca García de Pamplona (-922). 

García II & his second wife had two children:

3.         SANCHO García ([880]-11 Dec 925, bur San Estebán)The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garseanis et Scemeno Garseanis" as the children of "Garsea Scemenonis" and his second wife "domna Dadildi de Paliares soror Regimundi comitis", one manuscript stating that Sancho was "cognomento Avarca" and succeeded as king in 905, reigned eighteen years and died in 924[139].  He succeeded in 905 as SANCHO I King of Navarre

-        see below

4.         JIMENO García (-29 May 931).  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garseanis et Scemeno Garseanis" as the children of "Garsea Scemenonis" and his second wife "domna Dadildi de Paliares soror Regimundi comitis"[140].  “Rege Santio Garseanis cum suos germanos Enecho Garseanis et Scemeno Garseanis” confirmed the territory of the monastery of Fontfrida by charter dated 1 Oct 921[141].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia, Eneco Garseanis, Semeno Garseanis…"[142].  It is assumed that "…Eneco Garseanis, Semeno Garseanis…" in this charter are the brothers of King Sancho.  The Codex de Roda records that "frater eius Scemeno Garseanis" succeeded on the death of "Sanzio Garseanis" in 925 and reigned five years and five months[143].  It is more probable that he was regent for his infant nephew King García III after his accession in 925[144].  However, some indication has been found that Jimeno used the royal title while in power: a charter dated 922 (presumably to be redated to after 925) records donations to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by "Sancio Garcianes…et domnus Galindo comes" and is witnessed by "domnus Scemeno rege et domnus Enneco et Isinari Galindones et Scemeno Galindones et Paternus Ennecones et Galindo Isinari et Sancio Garcandi de Ronkali…"[145].  A charter dated 928 records that “rex Fortunio Garcianes” had set the limits of “villis...Benassa et...Katamesas” and that they were confirmed by “rege Scemeno Garcianes et suo creato domno Garsea filio de rege Sancio Garsianes”, the dating clause recording “regnante Scemeno Garsianes cum suo creato domno Garsea in Pampilona et in Deiu...[146].  The dating clause of a charter dated 11 Jan 931, under which the people of Viguera donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda, names "regnante…principe Semeno Garseanis in Pampilona…", the same document being witnessed by "Eximino rex serenissimus, Garsea rex filius Sancionis…" which shows that Jimeno had not displaced his nephew entirely[147].  The Codex de Roda records the death "931 IV Kal Jun" of "Scemeno Garseanis"[148]m SANCHA Aznárez, daughter of AZNAR Sánchez de Larraún & his wife Oneca [Íñiga] Fortún de Pamplona.  The Codex de Roda names "Santio Asnari et domna Tota regina et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Asnari Sanziones qui et Larron" and his wife, in a later passage naming "domna Sanzia, Asnari Santionis filia" as wife of "Scemeno Garseanis" and recording that she was killed "in Galias in villa…Laco" by her son García Jiménez[149].  Jimeno García & his wife had four children:

a)         GARCÍA Jiménez (-murdered).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Scemonis et Sanzio Scemonis…et alia filia domna Dadildis", stating that García Jiménez killed his mother "in Galias in villa…Laco" and was killed by "Ihoannes Belescones et Cardelle Belascones" in "Salerazo"[150]

b)         SANCHO Jiménez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Scemonis et Sanzio Scemonis…et alia filia domna Dadildis"[151]m QUIXILO, daughter of GARCÍA Dato Conde de Bailo & his wife ---.  The Codex de Roda names "domna Quissilo filia de domno Garsea comitis Bagilliensis" as wife of "Sanzio Scemonis"[152]

c)         DADILDIS Jiménez .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Scemonis et Sanzio Scemonis…et alia filia domna Dadildis", stating that Dadildis married "domno Muza Asnari"[153]m MUSA Aznárez, son of ---. 

d)         [NUÑILO Jimenez (-after 25 Nov 913).  Risco records that her name is engraved on the agate ark, filled with precious relics, offered by her and her husband to the church of San Salvador de Oviedo in 911 (but he does not quote the inscription)[154].  Florez quotes the inscription "Froyla et Nunilo cognomento Scemena"[155].  “Froyla Rex filius Adephonsi Regis et Xemenæ Reginæ” confirmed his father´s donations to Oviedo Cathedral by charter dated 25 Nov 913, confirmed by “Nunilo Regina, Gundisalvus archidiaconus Ovetensis sedis filius Adephonsi Regis et Xemene Reginæ, Ramirus frater Froilani Regis[156]m (before 911) as his first wife, FRUELA de Asturias, son of ALFONSO III "el Magno" King of Asturias & his wife Jimena García de Pamplona ([875]-Jul 925).  He succeeded his brother in 924 as FRUELA II "el Leproso" King of Asturias and León.] 

Jimeno García had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

e)         GARCÍA Jiménez (-Córdoba ----).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsiam" as the son of "Scimeno Garseanis…ex anzilla", stating that he died "in Cortoba"[157]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of NAVARRE 

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of NAVARRE 905-1076 (JIMENA DYNASTY)

 

 

SANCHO García, son of GARCÍA II Jiménez King of Pamplona & his second wife Dadildis de Pallars ([880]-11 Dec 925, bur San Estebán).  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garseanis et Scemeno Garseanis" as the children of "Garsea Scemenonis" and his second wife "domna Dadildi de Paliares soror Regimundi comitis", one manuscript stating that Sancho was "cognomento Avarca" (confusing Sancho with his grandson of the same name), succeeded as king in 905, reigned eighteen years and died in 924[158].  He succeeded in 905 as SANCHO I King of Navarre, after deposing his distant cousin King Fortún García.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "frater eius Sancius Garseanes cum uxore sua Dna Tota regina" ruled in place of "Fortunius Garseanes", who retired to Leire[159].  "Sancius rex cum Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct [912][160].  He ended Navarre's long standing alliance with the Banu Qasi family: in 915, he defeated Muhammed ben Lub at Tudela, obliged him to cede the castles of Falces and Caparroso and give two of his sons as hostages.  Allied with Ordoño II King of León, he conquered the Nájera district to the south west around Logroño between 918 and 923, and recaptured Viguera in 923[161].  "Sancius rex, filius Garsie regis, successor in regno germani mei Fortunii…cum domina Tuta regina uxore mea" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 18 Mar [918][162].  The Cronica de Sampiro records that "rex…Sancius Garsiani filius" allied himself with "regem domnum Ordonium", although this is not dated[163].  “Rege Santio Garseanis cum suos germanos Enecho Garseanis et Scemeno Garseanis” confirmed the territory of the monastery of Fontfride by charter dated 1 Oct 921, witnessed by “Galindo Galindonis...Sancio Scemenones cum suos germanos et cum suos filios, Blasco Lupi et Blasco Sanciones, Kardellus Ennecones cum filiis suis, Isinarius Gintalli cum filios suos...et scola de rege et de suos germanos, Santio Galindonis...[164].  Abd al-Rahman III Emir of Córdoba counter-attacked, recaptured Tortosa, Sangüesa and in 924 sacked Pamplona[165].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia, Eneco Garseanis, Semeno Garseanis…Eneco Sanzoniz, Garsea Eneconis"[166].  The Codex de Roda records the death "925 III Id Dec" of "Sanzio Garseanis" after reigning for twenty years[167].  Another part of the Codex de Roda, "Initium regnum Pampilonam", records that "rex…Sancio Garseanis" was buried "in Sancti Stefani portico"[168].  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "Sancius Garseanes" died "era DCCCCLXVIII"[169]

m TODA Aznárez, daughter of AZNAR Sánchez de Larraún & his wife Oneca [Íñiga] Fortún ([885]-after 970).  The Codex de Roda names "Santio Asnari et domna Tota regina et domna Sanzia" as the children of "Asnari Sanziones qui et Larron" and his wife, one manuscript specifying that Tota was the wife of "Sanctii Obtimi regis" and that she was "pro neptem de Eneco Arista"[170].  "Sancius rex cum Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct [912][171].  "Sancius rex, filius Garsie regis, successor in regno germani mei Fortunii…cum domina Tuta regina uxore mea" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 18 Mar [918][172].  "Sancio Garsianis rex…cum coniuge mea Tota Isinari" donated the monastery of San Pedro to the bishop of Oya by charter dated 28 Oct 924[173].  "Tota regina, seu filio meo Garsia Sancius" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 20 Sep 928[174].  She was regent for her son King García III from 933[175].  "Garsea Sancio" confirmed donations to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by "Sancio Garsee…commites domno Galindo, Asenari, Galindonis cum omnis fratres eius" by charter dated 9 Mar 933, signed by "Tota Isenari"[176].  Queen Toda became a powerful figure and was the principal organiser of the coalition of Christian princes which defeated Abd al-Rahman III at Simancas in 939[177].  She developed alliances through the marriages of her daughters, not only with three successive kings of León but also the powerful Condes de Álava and Castilla.  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 22 Nov 947, witnessed by "Santius Ranimiri regis filius, Fortis Iustis…Flaginus comes, Garsea, Eximino, Fortunio Galendo…"[178].  The dating clause of a charter dated 15 Apr 958, under which "Muza…cum germana mea Tota" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda, names "regnante…rex Garcia Sanciz in Pampilona, et sub eius Fortun Galindonis in Nagera, et regina Tota in Deio, in Lizarrara"[179].  This is the only document so far identified which suggests that an autonomous part of the kingdom was delegated to Queen Toda during the reign of her son.  The Codex de Roda records the death of "Tuta regina", undated but immediately following the record of the death in 970 of her son King García III[180]

King Sancho I & his wife had six children:

1.         ONECA Sánchez de Navarra (-after Jun 931)The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Oneca married "Adefonsi regis Legionensis"[181].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia…"[182]m (923) ALFONSO IV “el Monje” King of León, son of ORDOÑO II King of León & his first wife Elvira Menéndez ([891/94] or later-[Aug 933]). 

2.         SANCHA Sánchez de Navarra (after 900-[9 Jun 952/26 Dec 955]).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Sancha married "Ordonii imperatoris, postea…Albaro Harramelliz de Alaba, demumque…Fredenando comitis"[183]The Cronica de Sampiro records the marriage of "regis Garsiani [error for Sanchi]…filiam suam…Sanciam" and King Ordoño II, dateable to 923 from the context of the passage[184].  "Fredenando Gundisalviz et uxor mea Sancia" donated property to the abbey of Silos by charter dated 3 Jun 919 (although this must be misdated), confirmed by "Munio Didace, Sarracine Scemonoz, Garcie Bençemaloçe, Frande Arguisso, Garcie Alvarez"[185].  "Comes Ferdinandus Gundisalui et uxor mea Sancia" donated property to the monastery of San Quirice de los Ausines by charter dated 30 Apr 929 [must be misdated considering the date of death of Sancha´s second husband][186]Muma Domna cometissa…cum filio meo Fredinando Gundisalviz…comes et uxor sua Domna Sanctia seu neptis meis Gundisalvo Frenandiz vel Sanctio Frenandiz” donated property in Valzalamio to San Pedro de Cardeñas by charter dated 5 Aug 935[187]"Fredinando comes, Sancia comitisa" and their sons "Gundesalvus, Sancius, Munnio" confirmed a charter dated 23 Dec 941 relating to a dispute concerning property of the monastery of Cardeñas[188]m firstly (Mar 923) as his [third/fourth] wife, ORDOÑO II King of Asturias and León, son of ALFONSO III "el Magno" King of Asturias & his wife Jimena García de Pamplona ([873]-Jan 924, bur Léon Santa María).  m secondly ([924]) ÁLVARO Herrámeliz, son of HERRAMEL & his wife --- (-after 11 Jan 931).  He succeeded Munio Velaz as Conde de Álava in [926][189]m thirdly ([932]) as his first wife, FERNANDO González Conde de Castilla, son of GONZALO Fernández de Lara Conde de Castilla & his wife Muniadomna [de Asturias] ([910]-970). 

3.         URRACA Sánchez de Navarra (-23 Jun 956, bur Oviedo Cathedral).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Urraca married "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila"[190]Her marriage is indicated by the Cronica de Sampiro which records that Sancho, son of King Ramiro II, challenged the succession of King Ordoño III together with "avunculo suo…Garsiano rege Pampilonensium", on the assumption (as explained in the document ASTURIAS, LEON) that the passage indicates that Sancho was born from his father's second marriage[191].  Another passage in another manuscript of the Chronicon de Sampiro records that “Ranimirus…Rex” and “Tarasia Regina cognomento Florentina” had “Ordonium, Sanctium et Geloiram[192].  “Ranimirus Rex Hordonii quondam…Principis proles…cum conjuncta…Urraca Regina” confirmed previous donations to the church of Santiago by charter “IX Kal Mar” dated to 934[193].  “Ranimirus rex et Urracha regina et prolis eius Ordonius regis” donated "villa...Perales et Volpiare et Villa Rezmiro secundum obtinuit illas Gundisalbo Moniz" to Vega by charter dated 24 Sep 946, confirmed by “...Sanzius filius regis, Gelvira prolis regis et Deo vota...[194].  Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, records that a memorial in Oviedo Cathedral records the death of Queen Urraca 23 Jun 956[195]m ([932/34]) as his second wife, RAMIRO II King of León, son of ORDOÑO II King of León & his first wife Elvira Menéndez ([before 21 Feb 897]-1 Jan 951). 

4.         VELASQUITA Sánchez de Navarra.  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Velasquita married "domni Momi comitis Bizcahiensis", secondly "domni Galindi filium Uernardi comitis et domne Tute" and thirdly "Furtunio Galindonis"[196].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia…"[197]m firstly (after 923) MUNIO Conde de Vizcaya, son of --- (-before 931).  The precise identity of Velasquita´s first husband is uncertain.  The Codex de Roda does not specify his patronymic.  A reference has been found during the same period to Munio Vélaz Conde de Álava, son of Vela Jiménez Conde de Álava & his wife ---, and it is possible that this was the same person.  The title conde was granted infrequently during this period and no reference has yet been found in the Álava/Vizcaya area to another Conde Munio in the early 10th century.  Given that comital titles were granted on a personal basis without territorial qualification, it is not impossible that the same nobleman held land in both Álava and Vizcaya and therefore that he would have been described as conde in either territory in different primary sources.  m secondly ([930]) GALINDO de Ribagorza, son of BERNARDO [I] Conde de Ribagorza & his wife Tota ---.  m thirdly FORTÚN Galíndez, son of ---.  Governor of Nájera from 928 to 973[198].  "Senior Fortunio Galindoyc in Nazera…" confirmed the grant by "Sancio Garsianis rex" of the monastery of San Pedro de Usún to the bishop of Oya, by charter dated 28 Oct 924[199]

5.         ORBITA Sánchez de Navarra .  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari"[200]

6.         GARCÍA Sánchez de Navarra ([919]-22 Feb 970, bur San Estebán).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari"[201]He succeeded his father in 925 as GARCÍA III King of Navarre, under the regency of his uncle Jimeno García.   

-        see below

King Sancho had one iIllegitimate daughter by an unknown mistress:

7.          LUPA Sánchez The Codex de Roda names "domna Lopa" as the child of "Sanzio Garseanis…ex anzilla", stating that she was mother of "Regemundo de Bigorra"[202].  She was probably much older than her legitimate brother and sisters, her husband being the great-uncle of the second husband of her half-sister Velasquita Sánchez.  m --- de Bigorre, son of --- (-after 930). 

 

 

GARCÍA Sánchez de Navarra, son of SANCHO I García King of Navarre & his wife Toda Aznárez ([919]-22 Feb 970, bur San Estebán).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari"[203].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia…"[204].  He succeeded his father in 925 as GARCÍA III King of Navarre, under the regency of his uncle Jimeno García.  A charter dated 928 records that “rex Fortunio Garcianes” had set the limits of “villis...Benassa et...Katamesas” and that they were confirmed by “rege Scemeno Garcianes et suo creato domno Garsea filio de rege Sancio Garsianes”, the dating clause recording “regnante Scemeno Garsianes cum suo creato domno Garsea in Pampilona et in Deiu...[205].  "Tota regina, seu filio meo Garsia Sancius" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 20 Sep 928[206].  On the death in 931 of his uncle Jimeno, Íñigo García seized the regency but was forced out in 933 by King García III's mother, the Queen Mother Toda, who installed herself as regent for her son[207].  The Codex de Roda records that "nepus eius Garsea Sanzionis" succeeded after the death of "Scemeno Garseanis" in 931, stating that he was "XII etatis sue anno"[208].  "Garsea Sancio" confirmed donations to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by "Sancio Garsee…commites domno Galindo, Asenari, Galindonis cum omnis fratres eius" by charter dated 9 Mar 933, signed by "Tota Isenari"[209].  Caliph Abd al-Rahman III invaded Navarre once more in 934, obliging Regent Toda to submit to Córdoba, release Muslim hostages and break with the other Christian kingdoms of the peninsula, although her son was recognised as king by the caliph.  Toda broke the peace unilaterally in 937, but was defeated once more by the Muslims[210].  However, regent Toda allied herself with Ramiro II King of León and Fernando González Conde de Castilla, their combined forces defeating the caliph's troops at Alhandega/al-Khandaq, near Simancas in 939[211].  "Garcia rex filius Santii regis et Tote regine" confirmed a donation to Leire by charter dated 14 Feb 938[212].  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 22 Nov 947, witnessed by "Santius Ranimiri regis filius, Fortis Iustis…Flaginus comes, Garsea, Eximino, Fortunio Galendo…"[213].  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice…Tuta regina et cum filiis Sancio et Ranimiro adque Urraka" donated property "in loco Alvelda…villam quam olim tradiderat cliens noster Velasco Donniz", to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 953, witnessed by "Sancio rex et Ranimiro rex…"[214].  The Cronica de Sampiro records that "avunculo suo…Garsiano rege Pampilonensium…" helped Sancho in his rebellion against his brother Ordoño III King of León[215].  Relations between the Christian kingdoms of the peninsula deteriorated when Sancho I "el Craso" King of Asturias sought refuge in Navarre in 958 after he was deposed by his cousin King Ordoño IV.  King García III, allied with the caliph, helped restore King Sancho to the throne in 960.  He also defeated and captured Fernando González Conde de Castilla[216].  After the latter was released by his daughter Urraca, King García formed an alliance with Castile and Barcelona against Caliph Al-Hakam II.  The alliance was, however, unsuccessful and King García lost Calahorra to the caliph's troops[217].  He was Conde de Aragón by right of his wife.  The Codex de Roda records the death "970 VIII Kal Mar" of "Garsea Sanzionis"[218].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "Garsea rex" was buried "in castro Sancti Stefani"[219]

m firstly (after 9 Mar 933, repudiated 940) his first cousin, ANDREGOTO Galíndez Condesa de Aragón, daughter of GALINDO [II] Aznar Conde de Aragón & his second wife Sancha García de Navarra (-972).  One manuscript of the Codex de Roda names "Aznarium Galindonis et domna Andregoto regina et domna Belasquita" as the children of "domno Galindo comes de Aragone" and his wife "domna Sanzia"[220].  As Andregoto is not named in her husband's charter dated 9 Mar 933 (see above), it is assumed that they married after that date.  However, this charter, confirming donations to San Pedro de Siresa by Andregoto's ancestors, suggests that the marriage may have been planned already at that time.  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Sancium et Ramirum" as the two sons of "Garsea Sanciones…et uxore sua regina Eximina"[221], confusing King García III with his grandson King García IV, whose wife was named Jimena[222].  Caliph Abd al-Rahman III imposed the repudiation by King García III of his wife under the peace terms negotiated with Sunyer Conde de Barcelona in 940, as part of his strategy of dividing the alliances between the various Christian kingdoms and counties in the peninsula[223].  "Endregoto Galindonis et prole eius Sancio Garseanis rex et uxor eius Urraca Fredenandizi" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by charter dated 29 Jun 971[224]

m secondly (943 or before) TERESA, daughter of --- (-after Sep 957).  "Garsea…Santionis rex cum coniuge mea Tarasia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 943, confirmed by "Sancius ipsius regis filius…"[225].  "Garsea Sancionis rex…cum coniuge mea Tarasia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 946, confirmed by "Santio ipsius regis filius…Fortun Galindoz, Fortun Scemenonis"[226].  "Garsea Sancionis rex…cum coniuge mea Tarasia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated [956], confirmed by "Gundissalvus comes, Ranimirus comes, Didacus comes, Fertunius dux et abba, Fertunius Garseanis, sennor Lope Garseanis suus germanus…"[227].  "Garsea Sancionis rex…cum coniuge mea Tarasia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated Sep 957, confirmed by "Didacus comes, Ranimiro comes, Eximinus Vigilanis, Lope Garseanis"[228]

King García III & his first wife had one child:

1.         SANCHO García "Abarca" de Navarra ([935/40]-Dec 994)His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 29 Jun 971 under which "Endregoto Galindonis et prolem eius Sancio Garsianis rex" donated property[229].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "filius eius Sancius rex" succeeded on the death of "Garsea rex"[230].  He succeeded his father in 970 as SANCHO II "Abarca" King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón. 

-        see below

King García III & his [first/second] wife had three children:

2.         RAMIRO García ([937/40]-8 Jul 981, bur Leire).  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Sancium et Ramirum" as the two sons of "Garsea Sanciones…et uxore sua regina Eximina"[231].  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice…Tuta regina et cum filiis Sancio et Ranimiro adque Urraka" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 953, witnessed by "Sancio rex et Ranimiro rex…"[232].  "Fortunius Garseani" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 20 Jan 962, confirmed by "Ramirus Garseani prolis et provintie Pampilonie…"[233].  He was established as king of Viguera in 970, in accordance with the testament of his father[234].  "Santio…rex…cum fratre meo Ranimiro et domna Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated [10 Dec 970], confirmed by "…Fortunio Galindonis, Scemeno Santionis…"[235].  "Santio rex simulque frater meus Ranimirus et dompna Urraca regina" confirmed a donation to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 971, confirmed by "…Dompna Urraca, eiusdem regis germana, Garsea ipsius regis filius…Furtunio Galindonis dux, sennor Eximino Santionis, Furtunio Garseanis…"[236].  “Sancius rex et Ranemirus rex…cum Clara Urraka regina” donated “la villa de Cirueña” to the “monasterio de San Andrés de Cirueña” by charter dated 13 Nov 972, signed by “Sanctius…rex, cum prolis Garseam” confirmed by “Ranemirus frater ipsius regis…domna Urraka Clara regina[237].  The dating clause of a charter dated 22 May 974, under which the monks of San Martín de Albelda exchanged property with the men of Leza, names "regnante…principe nostro Sancio in Pampilona et sub illius imperio frater eius Ranimiro in Vekaria et in Leza"[238].  "Sancius rex et Urraka regina…cum germanis nostris Ranimiro et Eximino" confirmed a prior donation to San Pedro de Siresa by "genitor noster Garsea rex" by charter dated 15 Feb 979, confirmed by "Eximino Sancionis, Garsea Furtunionis, Belasco Lihoriz"[239].  The Codex de Roda records the death of "Tuta regina" followed by "Ranimirus nepus eius", undated but immediately following the record of the death in 970 of her son King García III[240].  "Sancho Garcés II Abarca y su mujer la reina Urraca" donated property to the monastery of Leire, in memory of "el difunto rey Ramiro de Viguera", by charter dated 15 Aug 981[241].  "Sancho Garcés II Abarca, la reina Urraca" donated property to the monastery of Leire, for the soul of "Ramiro de Viguera, hermano del rey", by charter dated 15 Feb 991[242]m ---.  The name of Ramiro's wife is not known.  However, it is possible that she was Sancha Sánchez, daughter of Sancho --- & his wife --- (-after 15 Aug [981]).  This is based on the charter dated 15 Aug [981] under which Sancho II King of Navarre donated property to Leire monastery in memory of his brother Ramiro, which is subscribed by "…Domna Sanccia Sanccionis…"[243].  Sancha´s name has a position of prominence among the subscribers, following immediately after the king´s son García and his nephews Sancho Ramírez and García Ramírez.  The names of these four subscribers precede the names of the bishops in the document.  Another possibility is that Sancha Sánchez was the daughter of King Sancho, although none of his other known daughters subscribed the document.  Ramiro & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         SANCHO Ramírez de Viguera ([960/70]-).  “…Santio Ranimirus, Garssia Ranimirus…” confirmed the charter dated 15 Feb 991 under which "Santio Garsseanis rex…cum coniux mea Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire[244].  "Sancio rex…" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992, signed by "…Sancio filius Ranimiri regis, Garsea frater eius…"[245].  King of Viguera 981-999.  m ---.  The name of Sancho's wife is not known.  Sancho & his wife had two children:

i)          [LOPE Sánchez (-[1058/60]).  According to Jaurgain, Lope Sánchez was the son of Sancho Ramírez[246].  However, it is not clear that this parentage is confirmed by the primary sources which he cites.  The difficulty is that there were at least three different Navarrese noblemen named Lope Sánchez in the first half of the 11th century (see NAVARRE NOBILITY) and no confirmation has been found that any of them was the son of Sancho Ramírez.  Jaurgain also states that Sancho III "le Mayor" King of Navarre invested his cousin, Lope Sánchez son of Sancho Ramírez, as vicomte de Labourd, the territory of which included the valleys of Arberoue, Ossès, Cize, Irissary, Iholdy et Armendarits, but he does not cite the primary source which confirms that this is correct[247].  Vicomte de Labourd.  "Loup-Sanche vicomte de Labourd…[et] Fortun-Sanche son frère" donated the church of Sainte-Marie de Bayonne to the bishop of Labourd by charter dated 1058[248].] 

ii)         [FORTÚN Sánchez (-1062 or after).  According to Jaurgain, Fortún Sánchez was the brother of Lope Sánchez, and son of Sancho Ramírez although he cites no primary source which confirms that this is correct[249].  Vicomte de Labourd.  "Loup-Sanche vicomte de Labourd…[et] Fortun-Sanche son frère" donated the church of Sainte-Marie de Bayonne to the bishop of Labourd by charter dated 1058[250]

b)         GARCÍA Ramírez de Viguera (-after 1005 or after 1009).  …Santio Ranimirus, Garssia Ranimirus…” confirmed the charter dated 15 Feb 991 under which "Santio Garsseanis rex…cum coniux mea Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire[251].  "Sancio rex…" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992, signed by "…Sancio filius Ranimiri regis, Garsea frater eius…"[252].  King of Viguera 999-1005.  He may have been the Christian prince who allied himself with Abd al-Rahman "Sanchuelo" in an attempt to restore the latter to power in Córdoba in 1009 after the coup led by Caliph Muhammad al-Mahdi[253]m [as her first husband,] TODA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 1054 under which “Fronilla, Garsie regis filia et regine domne Tote” donated property “in Torrillas” to the monastery of Irache[254].  There is no other “Garsia rex” to whom this can apply other than garcía Ramírez.  A suggestion about an earlier or later possible marriage of Toda is provided by the same charter which refers to “sorore mea que peccavit et fornicata est cum fratre suo”.  It is unlikely that “fratre suo” should be interpreted literally.  However, it is possible that the husband of Fronilda´s sister was the stepson of her mother, a relationship which may have been disapproved by the church even though they were not members of the same blood line.  If this is correct, it is likely that this other marriage of Toda was her second, after the death of García Ramírez, and that her husband already had a son by his first wife.  García & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          TODA García de Viguera ([985/1000]-after 1050)"Senior Furtun Sancii…cum uxor mea dompna Tota" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla, for the soul of "socer meus regi Garsea Ranimiriz", by charter dated 1050, which names "frater meus senior Garsea Fortuniones" and is confirmed by "…senior Fortun Sancii dominator Naiera…"[255].  This separate confirmation suggests that the donor may not have been the same person as Fortún Sánchez Señor de Nájera, although it is not the only example found where one of the main protagonists in a charter is also listed as a confirmant or subscriber.  m FORTÚN Sánchez Señor de Nájera, son of --- (-killed in battle 1054).   

ii)         FRONILDA García de Viguera (-1054 or after).  Fronilla, Garsie regis filia et regine domne Tote” donated property “in Torrillas” to the monastery of Irache by charter dated 1054[256]

iii)        [daughter .  The charter dated 1054 under which “Fronilla, Garsie regis filia et regine domne Tote” donated property “in Torrillas” to the monastery of Irache refers to “sorore mea que peccavit et fornicata est cum fratre suo[257].  It is possible that this sister of Fronilda is the same person as Toda mentioned above.  It is unlikely that “fratre suo” should be interpreted literally.  However, it is possible that this daughter´s husband was the stepson of Fronilda´s mother, a relationship which may have been disapproved by the church even though they were not members of the same blood line.]   

c)         [TODA Ramírez .  Her marriage and patronymic are confirmed by the charter dated 1087 under which her daughter “dompna Sancia Oriol” donated Zabalza and Idocin to Leire monastery, for the souls of “patris mei Oriol Garceiz et matris mee Tota Ranimiriz…[258].  The identity of her father as Ramiro García de Viguera is not certain.  However, the chronology appears to be favourable and no other Ramiro has been identified at that time among the Navarrese nobility.  m AURELIO García, son of GARCÍA --- & his wife --- (-after 13 Apr 1042).] 

3.         URRACA García .  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice…Tuta regina et cum filiis Sancio et Ranimiro adque Urraka" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 953, witnessed by "Sancio rex et Ranimiro rex…"[259].  "Santio rex simulque frater meus Ranimirus et dompna Urraca regina" confirmed a donation to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 971, confirmed by "…Dompna Urraca, eiusdem regis germana, Garsea ipsius regis filius…Furtunio Galindonis dux, sennor Eximino Santionis, Furtunio Garseanis…"[260]same person as…?  URRACA (-[12 Jul], before 3 Apr [1009]).  Her parentage and two marriages are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[261], but the primary source which confirms that they are correct has not yet been identified.  Del Pino assumes that her first marriage is correct when he records that Urraca took the initiative to free Fernando González Conde de Castilla, captured by the forces of King García III in 960, married him and escaped to Burgos[262].  She is not named in any of the documents in the compilation relating to the county of Castile[263].  The timing of her reappearance at the court of Navarre to sign the 971 charter quoted above is consistent with her having been recently widowed from her supposed first husband.  Concerning her second marriage, the charter dated 992 under which her brother Sancho King of Navarre donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla is signed, among others, by "…Sancio filius Gogelmi comitis…" (apparently Urraca's son by this supposed second marriage)[264].  The charter dated 993, under which "Willelmus Sancius comes" restored the monastery of Saint-Sever, also appears to confirm his wife´s royal parentage when it records that "meæ conjugis Urracæ, ex regali stirpe procedentis…" consented to the restoration[265].  "Willelmus Sancius comes et dominus totius Vasconie, cum Urraca sua muliere" donated the church of Sainte-Susanne to the abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde by undated charter[266].  "Willelmus Sancius comes et dominus totius Vasconie, cum Urraca sua muliere" donated the church of Sainte-Susanne to the abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde by undated charter[267].  "Willelmus Sancius comes et dominus totius Vasconie, cum Urraca sua muliere" donated the church of Sainte-Susanne to the abbey of Saint-Jean de Sorde by undated charter[268].  The Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis quotes a charter dated 29 Jul 1011 under which "Ugo…Præsul, secundum lineam carnis eidem Duci propinquis et affinis" donated property to the convent of Condom, for the souls of "meorumque parentum, item Garsiæ-Sanctii Comitis et filii sui Sanctii-Garsiæ Comitis, et Guillermi-Sanctii Comitis et Gimbaldi Episcopi, et Guillelmi Comitis, et Garsiæ Comitis, et Bernardi-Guillelmi Comitis, et Urachæ Comitissæ"[269].  She died before 3 Apr [1009], the date of the charter under which her son "Bernardus Willelmus comes…cum germano meo Sancio" confirmed, "annuente beatæ memoriæ matre mea Urraca", the foundation of Saint-Sever by "genitor meus Willelmus Sancio comes", this wording suggesting that Urraca died only shortly before the confirmation especially as the document is purportedly signed by "Urracæ comitissæ"[270].  The necrology of Saint-Sever records the death "IV Id Jul…1041" of "Urraca comitissa"[271].  However, either the year is incorrect or this entry refers to another "Urraca comitissa".  Even without the evidence of the 3 Apr [1009] charter, Urraca would have been well over 90 years in 1041 if this entry refers to the wife of Guillaume Sancho. m firstly (before 26 Dec 955) as his second wife, FERNANDO González Conde de Castilla, son of GONZALO Fernández Conde de Castilla & his wife Muniadomna [de Asturias] ([910]-Jun 970).  m secondly (after 14 Jul 972) GUILLAUME Sanchez Comte de Gascogne, son of [SANCHO Garcia] & his wife --- (-[996]). 

4.         JIMENO García (-after 15 Feb 979).  "Sancius rex et Urraka regina…cum germanis nostris Ranimiro et Eximino" confirmed a prior donation to San Pedro de Siresa by "genitor noster Garsea rex" by charter dated 15 Feb 979, confirmed by "Eximino Sancionis, Garsea Furtunionis, Belasco Lihoriz"[272]

 

 

SANCHO García de Navarra, son of GARCÍA III Sánchez King of Navarre & his first wife Andregota Galíndez Condesa de Aragón (after 935-Dec 994).  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Sancium et Ramirum" as the two sons of "Garsea Sanciones…et uxore sua regina Eximina"[273].  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice…Tuta regina et cum filiis Sancio et Ranimiro adque Urraka" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 953, witnessed by "Sancio rex et Ranimiro rex…"[274].  His mother's name is confirmed by the charter dated 29 Jun 971 under which "Endregoto Galindonis et prolem eius Sancio Garsianis rex" donated property[275].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "filius eius Sancius rex" succeeded on the death of "Garsea rex"[276].  He succeeded his father in 970 as SANCHO II García "Abarca" King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón.  He inherited a kingdom which had been considerably weakened by Muslim attacks during the last years of his predecessor's rule, and on his accession accepted the suzerainty of Caliph al-Hakam II.  King Sancho attempted unsuccessfully to reassert his authority but was defeated in 975 at Estercuel near Tudela[277].  A period of calm followed, presumably due to a pact with al-Mansor confirmed by the latter's marriage with King Sancho's illegitimate daughter.  "Endregoto Galindonis et prole eius Sancio Garseanis rex et uxor eius Urraca Fredenandizi" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by charter dated 29 Jun 971[278].  “Sancius rex et Ranemirus rex…cum Clara Urraka regina” donated “la villa de Cirueña” to the “monasterio de San Andrés de Cirueña” by charter dated 13 Nov 972, signed by “Sanctius…rex, cum prolis Garseam” confirmed by “Ranemirus frater ipsius regis…domna Urraka Clara regina[279].  "Garsias Ferdinandez…cum coniuge mea Ava comitisa" founded the monastery of Infantado de Covarrubias, offering "filiam…nostram Urracam" as a nun there, by charter dated 25 Dec 978, confirmed by "…Sancio rex, Urraka regina, rege Scemeno…"[280].  "Sancius rex et Urraka regina…cum germanis nostris Ranimiro et Eximino" confirmed a prior donation to San Pedro de Siresa by "genitor noster Garsea rex" by charter dated 15 Feb 979, confirmed by "Eximino Sancionis, Garsea Furtunionis, Belasco Lihoriz"[281].  A charter dated 17 Sep 983 confirmed an agreement between Benedicto Bishop of Nájera and the abbot of Albelda, witnessed by "Sancio rex, Urraca regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus, Gondesalvus regulus…"[282]Sanctio principem...cum coniuge mea Urraca et filios nostros Garsea et Ranemiro una cum Gundesabo” granted “villa in territorio Ataresensem...Badagues” to “domno Santio presbiter Ataresense” by charter dated 1 Jan 985[283]"Sancio, filio Garseani regis…cum coniux mea Urraka et filios nostros Garsea et Ranimiro et Gundisalvo" confirmed a donation to the monastery of Pampaneto by charter dated 6 May 985[284].  The Muslims renewed their attacks on Navarre from 990, obliging King Sancho to visit Córdoba in 992 to negotiate peace[285].  "Santio Garsseanis rex…cum coniux mea Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 15 Feb 991[286].  "Sancio rex…cum…subole Urraca regina et vina prole Garsea et coniux eius Eximina et Gundessalvo" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992, signed by "Sancio rex…Urraca regina, Garsea eorundem filius, Gundessalvus frater eius, Eximina regina, Sancio filius Ranimiri regis, Garsea frater eius, Sancio filius Gogelmi comitis…"[287]

m (962) as her third husband, URRACA Fernández de Castilla, widow firstly of ORDOÑO III King of León and secondly of ORDOÑO IV "el Malo" King of León, daughter of FERNANDO González Conde de Castilla & his first wife Sancha Sánchez de Navarra (-after 1007).  The Cronica de Sampiro records the marriage of "Ordonius filius regis" and "filiam Fredenandi…Urracam", from the context dated to the reconciliation of King Ramiro II and Conde Fernando after the latter's rebellion[288], which is dated to [943/44] by Torres[289].  The Cronica de Sampiro records the marriage of "Ordonium…Adefonsy regis filium" and "Ferdinando Burgensium comitte…filiam suam…relictam ab Ordonio Ramiri filio"[290].  The Codex de Roda records the marriage of "regem Sanctium" and "Urracam, filiam comitis Sanctii de Castella"[291], although it is chronologically more acceptable that Urraca was the daughter of Conde Fernando, which is confirmed by the charter dated 29 Jun 971 under which "Endregoto Galindonis et prole eius Sancio Garseanis rex et uxor eius Urraca Fredenandizi" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa[292].  The Chronicon Burgense also states incorrectly that King Sancho was “gener comitis Sancii[293].  "Santio…rex…cum fratre meo Ranimiro et domna Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated [10 Dec 970], confirmed by "…Fortunio Galindonis, Scemeno Santionis…"[294].  "Endregoto Galindonis et prole eius Sancio Garseanis rex et uxor eius Urraca Fredenandizi" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by charter dated 29 Jun 971[295].  “Sancius rex et Ranemirus rex…cum Clara Urraka regina” donated “la villa de Cirueña” to the “monasterio de San Andrés de Cirueña” by charter dated 13 Nov 972, signed by “Sanctius…rex, cum prolis Garseam” confirmed by “Ranemirus frater ipsius regis…domna Urraka Clara regina[296].  "Sancius rex et Urraka regina…cum germanis nostris Ranimiro et Eximino" confirmed a prior donation to San Pedro de Siresa by "genitor noster Garsea rex" by charter dated 15 Feb 979, confirmed by "Eximino Sancionis, Garsea Furtunionis, Belasco Lihoriz"[297].  "Garsias Ferdinandez…cum coniuge mea Ava comitisa" founded the monastery of Infantado de Covarrubias, offering "filiam…nostram Urracam" as a nun there, by charter dated 25 Dec 978, confirmed by "…Sancio rex, Urraka regina, rege Scemeno…"[298]Sanctio principem...cum coniuge mea Urraca et filios nostros Garsea et Ranemiro una cum Gundesabo” granted “villa in territorio Ataresensem...Badagues” to “domno Santio presbiter Ataresense” by charter dated 1 Jan 985[299]"Sancio, filio Garseani regis…cum coniux mea Urraka et filios nostros Garsea et Ranimiro et Gundisalvo" confirmed a donation to the monastery of Pampaneto by charter dated 6 May 985[300].  "Santio Garsseanis rex…cum coniux mea Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 15 Feb 991[301].  "Sancio rex…cum…subole Urraca regina et vina prole Garsea et coniux eius Eximina et Gundessalvo" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992, signed by "Sancio rex…Urraca regina, Garsea eorundem filius, Gundessalvus frater eius, Eximina regina, Sancio filius Ranimiri regis, Garsea frater eius, Sancio filius Gogelmi comitis…"[302].  "Garsea rex et uxor mea Eximina, cum domna Urracha regina" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by charter dated to [995/1004][303].  She became a nun after the death of her third husband. 

King Sancho II & his wife had six children: 

1.         GARCÍA Sánchez de Navarra ([964]-after 8 Dec 999)The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Garseam, Renimirum, Gundisalvum et Fernandum" as the four sons of "Sancius Garseanes…Abarca"[304].  “Sancius rex et Ranemirus rex…cum Clara Urraka regina” donated “la villa de Cirueña” to the “monasterio de San Andrés de Cirueña” by charter dated 13 Nov 972, signed by “Sanctius…rex, cum prolis Garseam” confirmed by “Ranemirus frater ipsius regis…domna Urraka Clara regina[305].  A charter dated 17 Sep 983 confirmed an agreement between Benedicto Bishop of Nájera and the abbot of Albelda, witnessed by "Sancio rex, Urraca regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus, Gondesalvus regulus…"[306]Sanctio principem...cum coniuge mea Urraca et filios nostros Garsea et Ranemiro una cum Gundesabo” granted “villa in territorio Ataresensem...Badagues” to “domno Santio presbiter Ataresense” by charter dated 1 Jan 985[307]"Sancio, filio Garseani regis…cum coniux mea Urraka et filios nostros Garsea et Ranimiro et Gundisalvo" confirmed a donation to the monastery of Pampaneto by charter dated 6 May 985[308].  “Garssia Santionis rex, Eximinia regina…” confirmed the charter dated 15 Feb 991 under which "Santio Garsseanis rex…cum coniux mea Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire[309].  "Sancio rex…cum…subole Urraca regina et vina prole Garsea et coniux eius Eximina et Gundessalvo" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992[310].  He succeeded his father in 994 as GARCÍA IV King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón.  He refused to pay tribute to the caliphate after his accession, triggering reprisal attacks against Navarre[311].  "Garsea rex et uxor mea Eximina, cum domna Urracha regina" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by charter dated to [995/1004][312].  “Garsea Sancioni rex…cum coniux mea Eximina” donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 31 Dec [997][313]m (before 981) JIMENA Fernández, daughter of conde FERNANDO Vermúdez de Cea [León] & his wife condesa Elvira Díaz (-after 1035).  “Garssia Santionis rex, Eximinia regina…” confirmed the charter dated 15 Feb 991 under which "Santio Garsseanis rex…cum coniux mea Urraca regina" donated property to the monastery of Leire[314].  "Sancio rex…cum…subole Urraca regina et vina prole Garsea et coniux eius Eximina et Gundessalvo" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992[315].  "Garsea rex et uxor mea Eximina, cum domna Urracha regina" donated property to the monastery of San Pedro de Siresa by charter dated to [995/1004][316].  Her parentage is suggested by the charter dated 15 Oct 1071 under which her great grandson Alfonso VI King of Castile donated "uilla…Cento Fontes qui fuit de abio meo comes Fredenando Ueremudiz…in ripa de Estola…et monasterio de Cisterna" to "soror mea domina Urracca prolis Fredenandiz"[317].  “Garsea Sancioni rex…cum coniux mea Eximina” donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 31 Dec [997][318].  "Sancius…rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater regis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus"[319].  "Domna Eximina regina, mater Sancioni regis" bought property from "senior Oveco Didaz" by charter dated 1028[320]"Scemena regina…et filia mea Urraca regina et xristi ancillas" donated property "in territorio Coza super castrum de Muza inter duos rivulos Karrione et Aratoi" to Santiago de Compostela, naming "genitores nostri Fredenandus Ueremudiz et dna. Geluira", by charter dated 26 Sep 1028, subscribed by "Scemena Regina, Urraca regina, Veremudus rex, Scemena regina…"[321].  King García IV & his wife had four children: 

a)         SANCHO García de Navarra ([990/92]-murdered 18 Oct 1035)…Ranimirus…regulus, Gundesalbo regulus…Sancio regulus…” confirmed the charter dated 31 Dec [997] under which “Garsea Sancioni rex…cum coniux mea Eximina” donated property to the monastery of Leire[322].  The Historia Silense records that "Sancius filius eius" succeeded on the death of King García[323].  He succeeded his father in 999 as SANCHO III "el Mayor" King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón. 

-        see below

b)         URRACA García de Navarra (-after 6 Aug 1031)Rex Adefonsi proles Veremudi cum coniuge mea Regina Urraca” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “IV Kal Nov” dated to 1024[324].  Her parentage is suggested by the document of her stepson King Vermudo III dated 6 Aug 1031 in which he names her "tia mea Urraca regina Garseani regis filia"[325]"Scemena regina…et filia mea Urraca regina et xristi ancillas" donated property "in territorio Coza super castrum de Muza inter duos rivulos Karrione et Aratoi" to Santiago de Compostela, naming "genitores nostri Fredenandus Ueremudiz et dna. Geluira", by charter dated 26 Sep 1028, subscribed by "Scemena Regina, Urraca regina, Veremudus rex, Scemena regina…"[326]m (1023) as his second wife, ALFONSO V King of León, son of VERMUDO II "el Gotoso" King of León & his second wife Elvira García de Castilla (996-killed in battle Viseu 4 Jul or 7 Aug 1028). 

c)         ELVIRA de Navarra .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

d)         GARCÍA de Navarra .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         RAMIRO Sánchez de Navarra (-992).  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Garseam, Renimirum, Gundisalvum et Fernandum" as the four sons of "Sancius Garseanes…Abarca"[327].  A charter dated 17 Sep 983 confirmed an agreement between Benedicto Bishop of Nájera and the abbot of Albelda, witnessed by "Sancio rex, Urraca regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus, Gondesalvus regulus…"[328]Sanctio principem...cum coniuge mea Urraca et filios nostros Garsea et Ranemiro una cum Gundesabo” granted “villa in territorio Ataresensem...Badagues” to “domno Santio presbiter Ataresense” by charter dated 1 Jan 985[329]"Sancio, filio Garseani regis…cum coniux mea Urraka et filios nostros Garsea et Ranimiro et Gundisalvo" confirmed a donation to the monastery of Pampaneto by charter dated 6 May 985[330].  Señor de Cardenas.  “…Ranimirus…regulus, Gundesalbo regulus…Sancio regulus…” confirmed the charter dated 31 Dec [997] under which “Garsea Sancioni rex…cum coniux mea Eximina” donated property to the monastery of Leire[331]

3.         GONZALO Sánchez de Navarra (-997).  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Garseam, Renimirum, Gundisalvum et Fernandum" as the four sons of "Sancius Garseanes…Abarca"[332].  A charter dated 17 Sep 983 confirmed an agreement between Benedicto Bishop of Nájera and the abbot of Albelda, witnessed by "Sancio rex, Urraca regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus, Gondesalvus regulus…"[333]Sanctio principem...cum coniuge mea Urraca et filios nostros Garsea et Ranemiro una cum Gundesabo” granted “villa in territorio Ataresensem...Badagues” to “domno Santio presbiter Ataresense” by charter dated 1 Jan 985[334]"Sancio, filio Garseani regis…cum coniux mea Urraka et filios nostros Garsea et Ranimiro et Gundisalvo" confirmed a donation to the monastery of Pampaneto by charter dated 6 May 985[335].  "Sancio rex…cum…subole Urraca regina et vina prole Garsea et coniux eius Eximina et Gundessalvo" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 992, signed by "Sancio rex…Urraca regina, Garsea eorundem filius, Gundessalvus frater eius…"[336].  “…Ranimirus…regulus, Gundesalbo regulus…Sancio regulus…” confirmed the charter dated 31 Dec [997] under which “Garsea Sancioni rex…cum coniux mea Eximina” donated property to the monastery of Leire[337]

4.         FERNANDO Sánchez de Navarra .  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Garseam, Renimirum, Gundisalvum et Fernandum" as the four sons of "Sancius Garseanes…Abarca"[338]

5.         MAYOR Sánchez .  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Maiorem et Eximinam" as the two daughters of "Sancius Garseanes…Abarca"[339]

6.         JIMENA Sánchez .  The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, names "Maiorem et Eximinam" as the two daughters of "Sancius Garseanes…Abarca"[340]

King Sancho II had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]:   

7.          [ABDA "la Vascona” . The name of the maternal grandfather of Abd al-Rahman "Sanchuelo", son of al-Mansur, is assumed to have been Sancho because of the nickname which his grandson is given in Arab primary sources.  Dozy suggests that he was either Sancho García Conde de Castilla or Sancho II García King of Navarre, on the assumption that only the daughter of one of the most prominent Christian leaders of the time would have been considered as a suitable bride for such a prominent person[341].  He quotes a passage from Ibn-al-Khatib which records that "le chef des Roum offrit sa fille" to al-Mansur and that she became his favourite wife, suggesting that it refers to the mother of Sanchuelo[342].  Dozy highlights no primary sources which identifies "Sancho" more precisely, and indeed the way he writes suggests that no such source exists.  "Le chef des Roum" suggests Sancho King of Navarre rather than Sancho Conde de Castilla, but this is not beyond doubt.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Sanchuelo´s mother was "Abda la Vascona", illegitimate daughter of Sancho King of Navarre.  The basis for this speculation is not known but it may be no more than guesswork assuming that it is correct that Dozy ignored no available primary source.  The primary source which confirms the name "Abda" has not yet been identified either.  Presumably it has been assumed that Sanchuelo´s mother must have been illegitimate if she was married to a Muslim prince, but this conclusion is not consistent with the parentage of other Navarrese princesses who were married to Muslim leaders.  m polygamously, MUHAMMAD bin Abi Amir "al-Mansur/the Victorious" Regent of Córdoba (-10 Aug 1002).] 

 

 

SANCHO García de Navarra, son of GARCÍA IV Sánchez King of Navarre & his wife Jimena Fernández ([990/92]-murdered Bureba 18 Oct 1035, bur Monastery of San Salvador de Oña[343], transferred to León, royal pantheon of San Isidro[344]).  “…Ranimirus…regulus, Gundesalbo regulus…Sancio regulus…” confirmed the charter dated 31 Dec [997] under which “Garsea Sancioni rex…cum coniux mea Eximina” donated property to the monastery of Leire[345].  The Historia Silense records that "Sancius filius eius" succeeded on the death of King García[346].  He succeeded his father in 999 as SANCHO III "el Mayor" King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón, under the regency of --- until 1005.  The Muslim attacks against Navarre continued unabated, culminating in the capture of Pamplona in 1000[347].  “Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora” donated property to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 17 Apr 1014[348].  "Sancius rex…cum coniuge mea Mumadonna regina" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 24 Jun 1014, signed by "…sennor Lope Sancii maiordomus, sennor Lope Ennecones botilarius, sennor Garsea Lopez, sennor Enneco Sanchiz Naialensis, sennor Fortun Sanchiz frater eius, sennor Eximino Garceiz Osselensis, sennor Fortun Belasquiz Funensis"[349].  Conde de Ribagorza [1018]: the end 13th century “Crònica d´Alaó Renovada” records that, after the death of “Guillelmum Ysarni, quem genuerat Ysarnus prefatus ex concubina” (dated to 1018]), Ribagorza was inherited by “rex Sancius...jure propinquitatis”, explained because “Major comitissa soror comitis Sancii de Castella” married “comitis Paliarensis Raimundi Suniarii” and remained in Ribagorza after their marriage was ended “consanguinitatis causa”, and because “rex Sancius Pampilonensis” married “filiam predicti comitis Sancii de Castella...Majorem[350].  "Sancius rex" confirmed a donation of property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by his parents by charter dated 1020, signed by "Momadonna regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus prolis regis...Lope Sanchiz maiordomus, Lope Ennecones botellarius, sennor Enneco Sancii Naialensis et Muensis, sennor Fortun Belasquiz Funensis"[351].  King Sancho III confirmed the donation of the monastery of San Cristóbal de Tobia to San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1020, signed by "Momadonna regina cum filiis meis Garsea regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Ranimirus alius frater eius..."[352].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024, confirmed by "Garsias regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Gunçalvus frater eius, Fredinandus frater horum…"[353].  He claimed the county of Castile in his wife's name after the murder of her brother conde García Sánchez in 1029, and incorporated the whole of Castile into his kingdom.  Taking advantage of the weakness of the caliphate which followed the death of Abd al-Malik, Sancho III led a rapid of expansion of the territory of Navarre to the west, capturing most of the kingdom of León.  He forced the marriage of his son Fernando to Sancha de León, sister of Vermudo III King of León.  He captured the city of León from Vermudo in 1034 when he declared himself emperor of all the Hispano-Christian principalities.  Strongly influenced by French monarchist theories and feudal norms, he was the first monarch to adopt the French practice of claiming to rule "by the grace of God", later adopted by the other Iberian monarchies, and introduced the term vassal into local usage[354].  His personal empire was short-lived as he decreed the division of his territories between his sons after his death.  The Chronicon Burgense records the death in 1035 of “Sancius Rex Abarca[355].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records the death in 1035 of "Sancius rex" and his burial "Onie monasterio", although the passage is garbled as the earlier part of the sentence records the succession in 970 of King Sancho II[356]

m (before 27 Jun 1011) MUNIA [Mayor] de Castilla, daughter of SANCHO García Conde de Castilla & his wife Urraca Gómez ([990/95]-after 13 Jul 1066, bur Monastery of San Martín de Frómista).  The Crónica Latina records that “la huerfana doña Mayor, hija del…conde Sancho” married “al rey de Navarra y Nájera Sancho, nieto de Sancho Abarca[357]"Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Mumadonna regina" granted rights to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 24 Jun 1011, signed by "…Ranimirus regulus…senior Lope Sancii maiordomus, senior Lope Enneconis botilarius, senior Garsea Lopez, senior Enneco Sanchez Naialensis, fratri eius senior Fortun Sanchez, senior Eximino Garceiz Osselensis, senior Fortun Belaskis Funensis"[358].  "Sancius…rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater regis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus"[359].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024[360].  She succeeded her brother in 1029 as Condesa de Castilla.  "Domna Major regina" confirmed a charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" dated 26 Jun 1033 which related to concessions to the monastery of Oriense[361].  "Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora" donated the monastery of San Sebastian to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 17 Apr 1014, redated to [1030][362].  She became a nun after her the death of her husband.  She founded the monastery of San Martín de Fromista 13 Jul 1066, the document naming her father but not her husband[363].  The testament of "Maior regina Christi ancilla", in which she requests burial in the monastery of San Martín de Frómista, is dated 13 Jun 1066[364]

Mistress (1): SANCHA de Aibar, daughter of --- ([995]-[27 Oct 1070/1076], bur Monastery of San Juan de la Peña).  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium refers to the mother of "Raimirus filius Sancii Regis Navarrorum" as "nobilissima domina de castro…Ayunarum"[365].  Her name is confirmed by the charter dated 27 Oct 1070 under which "domina Sancia, mater Ranimiri regis" granted the monastery of Santa Cecilia de Aibar "quam dedit michi illa regine domna Eximina mater Sancionis regis" to "nepte mea domna Sancia", in the presence of "abbatissa domne Mennose soror episcopi domni Sancii Aragonensium"[366].  Señora de Miranda, and of the monastery of Santa Cecilia de Aibar[367]

King Sancho III & his wife had [seven] children: 

1.         [MAYOR Sánchez (-before 1044).  Pérez de Urbel proposes this origin for the first wife of Pons Comte de Toulouse, suggesting that the name "Majorie" (by which she is referred in French sources) is similar to "Mayor" and may indicate a connection with Castile or Navarre[368].  Although this origin is not impossible, it does seem unlikely that such a prominent origin of the wife of Comte Pons should not have been recorded in contemporary sources.  "Poncius" donated property to "sponse mee Maiore" at the time of their marriage by charter dated 14 Sep 1037, signed by "Willelmo patri suo, Bertramno…"[369]m (before 14 Sep 1037) as his first wife, PONS-GUILLAUME de Toulouse, son of GUILLAUME III "Taillefer" Comte de Toulouse & his second wife Emma de Provence (-1060, bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin).  He succeeded his father in 1037 as PONS Comte de Toulouse.] 

2.         GARCÍA Sánchez de Navarra ([1005/10]-killed in battle Atapuerca 1 Sep 1054).  The Anales Toledanos record the birth “en el mes de Noviembre” in 1016 of “el Infant fillo del Rey D. Sancho…Garcia Sanchez[370].  Bearing in mind the likely chronology of García´s illegitimate daughter Mencía, it is likely that he was born a few years earlier than 1016.  Under the division of territories organised by his father prior to his death, he received Navarre, succeeding in 1035 as GARCÍA V "él de Nájera” King of Navarre

-        see below

3.         [RAMIRO (-after 1020).  ["Sancius rex" confirmed a donation of property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by his parents by charter dated 1020, signed by "Momadonna regina, Garsea regulus, Ranimirus regulus prolis regis..."[371].]  King Sancho III confirmed the donation of the monastery of San Cristóbal de Tobia to San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1020, signed by "Momadonna regina cum filiis meis Garsea regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Ranimirus alius frater eius..."[372].  No other reference has been found to this second son of King Sancho named Ramiro.  One of the two sons named Ramiro was presumably the king´s illegitimate son which is shown below.  It is not known whether the other Ramiro was legitimate or also legitimate.  The reference in the first charter dated 1020 to “Ranimirus regulus prolis regis” suggests that he may have been legitimate, as it seems unlikely that the king´s illegitimate son would have been called “regulus”.] 

4.         GONZALO Sánchez de Navarra (-murdered Monclus 26 Jun 1045, bur San Victorian).  “Ranimirus proles regis, Garseanes frater eius, Gundisaluus frater eius, Ferdinandus frater eius” confirmed the charter dated 17 Apr 1014 under which “Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora” donated property to the monastery of Leire, although the absence of the brother Bernardo suggests that this charter should be redated to approximately ten years later[373].  "Sancius…rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater regis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus"[374].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024, confirmed by "Garsias regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Gunçalvus frater eius, Fredinandus frater horum…"[375].  Under the division of territories organised by his father prior to his death, he received Sobrarbe and Ribagorza in north Aragon, succeeding in 1035 as GONZALO King of Ribagorza and Sobrarbe.  His half-brother Ramiro I King of Aragon defeated him and annexed Sobrarbe and Ribagorza.  The Crónica de San Juan de Peña states that Gonzalo was killed "en el puent de Monclus" and buried "en Sant Vitorian"[376].  The end 13th century “Crònica d´Alaó Renovada” records that “rex Sancius Pampilonensis...filium suum Gonzaldum” was installed by his father “in Rippacurtiam...comitem in ibi” but was killed “apud Alascorre[377]

5.         BERNARDO Sánchez de Navarra (-after 17 Dec 1024).  "Sancius rex…cum coniuge mea Munnia domna" donated property to the monastery of Albelda by charter dated 17 Dec 1024, confirmed by "Garsea proles regis et frater eius Gonzalvus, Ranimirus et Bernardus cum fratre eorum Fredinando"[378]

6.         FERNANDO Sánchez de Navarra ([1016/18]-27 Dec 1065)Ranimirus proles regis, Garseanes frater eius, Gundisaluus frater eius, Ferdinandus frater eius” confirmed the charter dated 17 Apr 1014 under which “Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora” donated property to the monastery of Leire, although the absence of the brother Bernardo suggests that this charter should be redated to approximately ten years later[379].  "Sancius…rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater regis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus"[380].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024, confirmed by "Garsias regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Gunçalvus frater eius, Fredinandus frater horum…"[381].  The charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" dated 26 Jun 1033 relating to concessions to the monastery of Oriense was confirmed by his sons (in order) "Ranimirus…Garsea…Fredinandus"[382].  His father installed him as Conde de Castilla in 1029, in succession to his maternal uncle.  The Historia Silense records that King Sancho granted "Castella" to "Fernandum"[383].  Under the division of territories organised by his father prior to his death, he received Castile, succeeding in 1035 as FERNANDO I "el Magno" King of Castile.  He proclaimed himself King of León and Galicia after the defeat of his brother-in-law Vermudo III King of León at Tamarón 4 Sep 1037.  m (Nov/Dec 1032) SANCHA de León, daughter of ALFONSO V King of León & his first wife Elvira Menéndez (1013-7 Nov 1067).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Vermudo and Sancha" as the children of King Alfonso and his wife Elvira, specifying that Sancha married "King Fernando, the son of King Sancho the Fat"[384]. 

-        KINGS of CASTILE and LEÓN

7.         [JIMENA Sánchez de Navarra  (-after 23 Dec 1062, bur San Isidro de León)Although the wife of Vermudo III King of Leon is described in the epitaph on her tomb as "domna Xemena uxor regis Veremundi iunioris … Sanctiique Kastellani comitis filia"[385], Salazar y Acha argues convincingly her Navarrese origin[386].  Other evidence cited includes Queen Jimena's confirmation of a donation by Fernando I King of Castile dated 21 Dec 1062 in which she is named "Xemena devota regina soror illius", as well as a similar donation dated 23 Dec 1062[387].  In any case, by the time of Jimena's marriage in [1034/35], her presumed father King Sancho of Navarre was also Conde de Castilla, de iure uxoris, so could correctly have been described as "Sanctiique Kastellani comitis" depending on the point of view of the author of the inscription.  She is incorrectly named Teresa by 13th century chroniclers[388].  She presumably married after 23 Jan 1034, the last date when King Vermudo is named alone in charter documentation[389]"Scemena regina…et filia mea Urraca regina et xristi ancillas" donated property "in territorio Coza super castrum de Muza inter duos rivulos Karrione et Aratoi" to Santiago de Compostela, naming "genitores nostri Fredenandus Ueremudiz et dna. Geluira", by charter dated 26 Sep 1028, subscribed by "Scemena Regina, Urraca regina, Veremudus rex, Scemena regina…"[390].  The indications of the other sources quoted in this document suggest that this charter may be misdated.  She made joint donations with her husband dated 17 Feb 1035, 20 Jan 1036 and 9 Jun 1037[391].  She became a nun at Vega after the death of her husband.  She is named 'Regina Xemena tenente del monasterio de Veiga' in a document dated (presumably wrongly) 1034[392]m ([23 Jan 1034[393]/17 Feb 1035]) VERMUDO III King of Leon, son of ALFONSO V King of León & his first wife Elvira Menéndez ([1017/18][394]-killed in battle Tamarón 4 Sep 1037, bur San Isidro de León).] 

King Sancho III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):   

8.          RAMIRO Sánchez (Aibar [1008]-killed in battle Graus 8 May 1063, bur Monastery of San Juan de la Peña)The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium names "Raimirus filius Sancii Regis Navarrorum…ex…nobilissima domina de castro…Ayunarum" when specifying that he inherited Aragon on the death of his father[395].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Mumadonna regina" granted rights to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 24 Jun 1011, signed by "…Ranimirus regulus…"[396].  Ranimirus proles regis, Garseanes frater eius, Gundisaluus frater eius, Ferdinandus frater eius” confirmed the charter dated 17 Apr 1014 under which “Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora” donated property to the monastery of Leire, although the absence of the brother Bernardo suggests that this charter should be redated to approximately ten years later[397].  King Sancho III confirmed the donation of the monastery of San Cristóbal de Tobia to San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1020, signed by "Momadonna regina cum filiis meis Garsea regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Ranimirus alius frater eius..."[398].  "Sancius…rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater regis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus"[399].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024, confirmed by "Garsias regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Gunçalvus frater eius, Fredinandus frater horum…"[400].  The charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" dated 26 Jun 1033 relating to concessions to the monastery of Oriense was confirmed by his sons (in order) "Ranimirus…Garsea…Fredinandus"[401]Under the division of territories organised by his father prior to his death, he received Aragon, succeeding in 1035 as RAMIRO I King of Aragon

-        KINGS of ARAGON

 

 

GARCÍA Sánchez de Navarra, son of SANCHO III "el Mayor" King of Navarre & his wife Munia Mayor de Castilla (Nov [1005/10]-killed in battle Atapuerca 1 Sep 1054, bur Santa María de Nájera[402])The Anales Toledanos record the birth “en el mes de Noviembre” in 1016 of “el Infant fillo del Rey D. Sancho…Garcia Sanchez[403].  Bearing in mind the likely chronology of García´s illegitimate daughter Mencía, it is likely that he was born a few years earlier than 1016.  “Ranimirus proles regis, Garseanes frater eius, Gundisaluus frater eius, Ferdinandus frater eius” confirmed the charter dated 17 Apr 1014 under which “Sancius…rex…cum coniuge mea regina domina Maiora” donated property to the monastery of Leire, although the absence of the brother Bernardo suggests that this charter should be redated to approximately ten years later[404].  "Sancius…rex" recommended the rule of St Benedict to the monastery of Leire by charter dated 21 Oct 1022, subscribed by "Eximina regina mater regis, Regina domna Muma, Garsia et Ranimirus, Gundesalbus et Fernandus"[405].  "Sancius rex et uxor mea Muma dompna regina" donated property to the monastery of Yarte y Anoz by charter dated 17 May 1024, confirmed by "Garsias regulus, Ranimirus frater eius, Gunçalvus frater eius, Fredinandus frater horum…"[406].  The charter of "Sancius Hispaniarum rex" dated 26 Jun 1033 relating to concessions to the monastery of Oriense was confirmed by his sons (in order) "Ranimirus…Garsea…Fredinandus"[407].  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Navarre, succeeding in 1035 as GARCÍA V "él de Nájera” King of Navarre.  The Historia Silense records that King Sancho granted "Pampilonensibus" to "Garsiam primogenitum"[408].  He invaded the territory of Castile but was defeated and killed in battle by his brother Fernando I King of Castile[409].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that Fernando I King of Castile killed "his brother King García" in battle at Atapuerca and captured his kingdom "in the era 1095 (1057)"[410].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "Garsea rex" was killed in 1054 "in Ataporca" and buried "in Nagera"[411].  The Chronicon Burgense records that “Garseas Rex” was killed in 1054 “a fratre suo Ferdinando in Ataporca[412]

m ([Barcelona] 1038) [as her second husband,] ESTEFANÍA, [widow of ---,] (-after 1066).  "Garsea…rex, Sancionis regis filius…cum coniuge mea domina Stefania regina" granted two monasteries to abbot Gómez of Yábar by charter dated 1040[413].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   According to Marca, "les mémoires du convent de Nagara" state that she was "fille du comte de Foix", but he does not provide a direct quote or source reference[414].  If Marca is correct, she would be Etiennette de Foix, daughter of Bernard Roger de Carcassonne Comte de Couserans, Carcassonne and Bigorre, Seigneur du pays de Foix & his wife Garsenda Ctss de Bigorre.  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc refers to a marriage contract (again, no quote or source reference) dated 1036, but this is not reproduced by Marca[415].  This is all too vague to show Stephanie´s origin other than in square brackets in the present document, until more precise information comes to light.  Salazar y Acha suggests that Stephanie was the widow of a Catalan nobleman when she married King García, and was the mother of a daughter Constanza who later married her [second] husband´s illegitimate son Sancho (see below)[416].  Firstly, he says that this would explain Stephanie´s presence in Barcelona when she married, which is confirmed by the charter dated 1038 from San Juan de la Peña which names her for the first time with King García and records that he fetched her in Barcelona[417].  Secondly, it would explain the charter dated 29 Nov 1074 under which her son Sancho IV King of Navarre granted “unas casas en la ciudad de Calahorra” to “germano meo domno Sancio et uxori vestra vel germana mea domna Constanza[418], the reference to his sister-in-law as “germana mea” being unusual if she was not also his own sister.  Thirdly, it accords with the narrative in the Crónica Najerense which recounts that “infans domnus Sancius, quem rex Garsias Pampilonensium ex concubina habuerat” abducted “filiam regine Stephanie”, who was betrothed to “Santius rex”, and took her to the court of the Moorish king of Zaragoza and later to Ramiro I King of Aragon, triggering the war between Castille and Aragon in the course of which the Aragonese king was killed in 1064[419].  Salazar y Acha speculates that Stephanie´s first husband was an otherwise unidentified son of Bernardo [I] Conde de Besalú (whose possible sister was named Constanza) but this is only one of the possibilities.  However, Salazar y Acha´s hypothesis, although appealing, appears unlikely to be correct because Queen Estefania does not include Constanza in her testament dated to [1066] which names all her other known children[420].  "Garsea…rex…cum mulier mea Stephania regina" confirmed the resettlement of Villanova de Pampaneto by charter dated 1 Jan 1044[421].  "Stephanie coniugis" is named in the charter of "Garsia rex, Sancii regis filius" dated 2 Dec 1052[422].  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to “meo filio Sancio rex…domno Ranimiro meo filio…domno Fredenando meo filio…domno Regumendo meo filio…filia mea Urraka…filia mea Ermesinda…filia mea Eximina…filia mea Maiore”, in the presence of “senior Eximio Garceiz, senior Fortun Lopez, senior Fortun Sancii, senior Fortun Belaskez, senior Eximio Fortuniones…domna Auria[423]

King García V & his wife had [eight] children.  The order of birth of these children is uncertain.  As will be seen below, the different primary sources are inconsistent regarding the order in which these children are named.  The order which follows is taken from the [1066] testament of their mother, with the daughters fitted into the order of the sons as appears most appropriate from the other available sources: 

1.         SANCHO de Navarra (1039-murdered Peñalén 4 Jun 1076)The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "filius eius Sancius rex" succeeded after the death of "Garsea rex"[424].  After his father's defeat and death, Fernando I King of Castile allowed him to succeed in 1054 as SANCHO IV "él de Peñalén" King of Navarre, provided he agreed to become King Fernando's vassal[425].  Sancho IV was also obliged to return the Bureba district to Castile.  "Sancius rex…cum matre mea Stefania regina" returned property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla, donated by "senior Azenari Sanchiz" and usurped by his father, by charter dated 11 Mar 1055, confirmed by "Ranimirus et Fredinandus et Remondus germanos regis…"[426].  The testament of “Stephania”, dated to [1066], names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to “meo filio Sancio rex…[427].  "Sancius…rex" donated property to the monastery of Valbanera by charter dated 1074, witnessed by "Infans Raimundus frater regis, Ermisenda soror regis, Comes Enneco Lopez dominator Nagera, illius filius Lope Ennecones dominator Alberiti, Senior Furtunio Iohannes dominator Clabilio, Senior Enneco Furtuniones dominator Arneto, Senior Enneco Azenarius dominator Okon et Calagurra…"[428].  The Chronicon Burgense records that “Sancius Rex Garsea” was killed “in Pennalem” in 1076[429].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "Sancius rex" was killed in 1076 after reigning 22 years "in Penalene a fraude de frater eius Regimundus"[430].  The charter dated 1079 under which “Mancia Fortunionis” donated property to the monastery of Leire records that “frater suus Regimundus et soror Ermisenda” had killed “rege domno Santio, prole Garssie regis[431].  He was pushed off a cliff by his brother Ramón and his sister Ermesinda[432].  A charter dated 1076 records that Alfonso VI King of Castile ("Adefonsus filius Fredinandi regis") succeeded to the kingdom after "impiisima fraude interfecto rege Sancio, Garsie...regis filius"[433]m (after 1068) PLACENCIA, daughter of --- (-after 14 Apr [1088]).  "Sancius rex…cum uxore mee Placentie regine" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 25 Feb 1070, confirmed by "Raimundus frater meus, Armesilda et dompna Maior germanas regis…"[434].  "Sancius rex…et uxore mee Placencia regine" granted property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 20 Nov 1071, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermesilda et domna Maior germanas meas…"[435].  "Sancius rex filius regis Garsie…cum coniuge mea Placencia regina" donated property to San Miguel de Excelsis by undated charter[436].  "Sanctius…rex Garsiani regis filius…cum coniuge mea domina Placentia regina" confirmed the properties of the monastery of San Miguel de Excelsis by charter dated 1074[437].  "Rex Sancius…cum regina Placentia uxore mea" donated property to the monasteries of los Santos Cosme y Damián by charter dated 1074[438].  "Sanctius…rex…cum uxore mea domina Placentia regina" declared the rights of towns in Urranci by charter dated 1 Jun 1075[439].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Placentia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 1075, confirmed by "…infans Raimundus, illius soror domna Ermisenda…"[440].  "Senior Didaco Alvarez…cum uxore mea domna Sancia" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 14 Apr [1088], confirmed by "Placencia regina…"[441]Mistress (1): JIMENA, daughter of ---.  "Sancius rex" granted the villa of Ezquíroz to "ancilla mea domina Eximina [et] filio meo Raymonde quem habui en te" by charter dated 18 Jul 1071[442].  King Sancho IV [had five illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:] 

a)         [GARCÍA (-after 1 May 1092).  “...Garsea et alter Garsea germani filii Sancii regis Nagerensis, Fredinandus et Reimundus, Antolino Nunniz...” witnessed the charter dated 1 May 1092 under which Alfonso VI King of Castile confirmed the prohibition of the entry of women into Valvanera[443].  It is supposed that “Sancii regis Nagerensis” refers to Sancho IV King of Navarre.  Nájera (the usual indication of “Nagerensis”) had been one of the territories under Navarrese control.  No other document has been identified around the time which refers specifically to a “king” of Najera.  It is possible either that the term was used in this charter to avoid a reference to Navarre, which could have been politically inconvenient considering the change of regime following the death of King Sancho IV, or that it represents a mistranscription.  If this hypothesis is correct, King Sancho´s sons sought refuge in Castile.  It is unusual, but not exceptional, that two brothers bore the same name.  However, the practice is sometimes an indication that the two did not share the same mother, or that one was legitimate and the other illegitimate.  No indication has been found about the identity of the mother of the two sons named García.  The absence in the records of an indication that any of King Sancho´s sons claimed the throne after his death suggests that all his sons may have been illegitimate.] 

b)         [GARCÍA (-after 1 May 1092).  “...Garsea et alter Garsea germani filii Sancii regis Nagerensis, Fredinandus et Reimundus, Antolino Nunniz...” witnessed the charter dated 1 May 1092 under which Alfonso VI King of Castile confirmed the prohibition of the entry of women into Valvanera[444].  As explained above, it is possible that “Sancii regis Nagerensis” refers to Sancho IV King of Navarre.  It is unusual, but not exceptional, that two brothers bore the same name.  However, the practice is sometimes an indication that the two did not share the same mother, or that one was legitimate and the other illegitimate.  No indication has been found about the identity of the mother of the two sons named García.  The absence in the records of an indication that any of King Sancho´s sons claimed the throne after his death suggests that all his sons may have been illegitimate.] 

c)          [FERNANDO (-after 1 May 1092).  “...Garsea et alter Garsea germani filii Sancii regis Nagerensis, Fredinandus et Reimundus, Antolino Nunniz...” witnessed the charter dated 1 May 1092 under which Alfonso VI King of Castile confirmed the prohibition of the entry of women into Valvanera[445].  As explained above, it is possible that “Sancii regis Nagerensis” refers to Sancho IV King of Navarre.  There is no indication in the charter of the parentage of “Fredinandus et Reimundus”.  The linking of the two names suggests that they were related, maybe brothers.  The fact that the names follow the references to the brothers named García, without a further added patronymic, may indicate that they were also sons of King Sancho.]

d)         [RAMÓN (-after 1 May 1092).  “...Garsea et alter Garsea germani filii Sancii regis Nagerensis, Fredinandus et Reimundus, Antolino Nunniz...” witnessed the charter dated 1 May 1092 under which Alfonso VI King of Castile confirmed the prohibition of the entry of women into Valvanera[446].  As explained above, it is possible that “Sancii regis Nagerensis” refers to Sancho IV King of Navarre.  There is no indication in the charter of the parentage of “Fredinandus et Reimundus”.  The linking of the two names suggests that they were related, maybe brothers.  The fact that the names follow the references to the brothers named García, without a further added patronymic, may indicate that they were also sons of King Sancho.]

e)         URRACA Sánchez (-after 1072).  A charter of Sancho IV King of Navarre dated 1072 recommended the education of “filiam suam…Vrraca” to the abbot of Larrasoain[447]. 

King Sancho IV had one illegitimate children by Mistress (1):   

f)          RAMÓN Sánchez (-after Aug 1110).  "Sancius rex" granted the villa of Ezquíroz to "ancilla mea domina Eximina [et] filio meo Raymonde quem habui en te" by charter dated 18 Jul 1071[448].  Señor de Esquíroz"Urraca…tocius Ispanie regina" confirmed rights of the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated Aug 1110, confirmed by "Raimundus Sancionis, regis filius…"[449].  . 

King Sancho IV had one illegitimate children by Mistress (1):   

2.         URRACA de Navarra (-after 1 Feb 1095)The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to (in order) “…filia mea Urraka…filia mea Ermesinda…filia mea Eximina…filia mea Maiore”, specifying that Urraca´s inheritance was “Alberite, Lardero, Mucrones[450].  “Comite Garcia Ordoniz, uxor eius comitissa domna Urraka, Ermesindis soror eius…” subscribed the charter dated 18 Apr 1081 under which “Ranimirus filius Garsie regis et Stefanie regina” donated property to Santa María de Nájera[451].  The charter dated 1089, in which "domno comite Garsia et nobilissima et nobilior orta nata dompna Urraca comitissa, dominantibus Naiera" are named, hints at an illustrious ancestry[452].  "Gassea…comes…cum…coniuge Urracha comitissa" donated property to the monastery of San Adrián de las Palmas by charter dated 13 Aug 1084, subscribed by "Senior Eneco Acenariz"[453].  “Garseanus comes, Urraka soror illius…” confirmed the charter dated 27 May [1085] by which “Renemirus infans, prolis Garseani principis” donated property to Santa María de Nájera[454].  Her parentage is specified clearly in the charter dated 1 Mar 1145 under which her daughter “Domna Maior filia comitis Garsie et comitisse domne Urrache, filie regis Garsie, filii regis Sanctii maioris” donated “una viña en Calahorra” to Santa María Real de Nájera, for the souls of “filiorum meorum[455]m as his first wife, ([1076]) as his first wife, conde GARCÍA Ordóñez, son of ORDOÑO Ordóñez & his wife Anderquina --- (-killed in battle Uclés 30 May 1108). 

3.         ERMESINDA de Navarra (-after 1 Jul 1110)Garsias…rex…cum coniuge mea Stephania regina” granted rights to Santa María de Nájera by charter dated 18 Apr [1052], confirmed by “Dominus Sancius filius meus, Infans Ranimirus filius meus, Infans Raimundus filius meus, Infans Ermesinda filia mea[456].  "Sancius rex" confirmed the donation by "Fortunius presbiter de Resa" to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1065, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermisinda germanas…"[457].  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to (in order) “…filia mea Urraka…filia mea Ermesinda…filia mea Eximina…filia mea Maiore”, specifying that Ermesinda´s inheritance was “Villa Mediana et Matres[458].  "Sancius rex…cum uxore mee Placentie regine" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 25 Feb 1070, confirmed by "Raimundus frater meus, Armesilda et dompna Maior germanas regis…"[459].  "Sancius…rex" confirmed property rights of "domno Garcia" by charter dated 17 Jan 1071, confirmed by "domnus Reimundus frater regis, domna Ermesenda soror regis…"[460].  "Sancius rex…et uxore mee Placencia regine" granted property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 20 Nov 1071, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermesilda et domna Maior germanas meas…"[461].  "Sancius…rex" donated property to the prior of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 1073, confirmed by "…infans Reimundus et soror eius domna Ermesenda…"[462].  "Sancius…rex" donated property to the monastery of Valbanera by charter dated 1074, witnessed by "Infans Raimundus frater regis, Ermisenda soror regis…"[463].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Placentia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 1075, confirmed by "…infans Raimundus, illius soror domna Ermisenda…"[464].  "Sancius…Nagelensis rex" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1075, confirmed by "Remundus frater regis, Ermesinda soror regis, Eximina soror eorum…"[465].  The charter dated 1079 under which “Mancia Fortunionis” donated property to the monastery of Leire records that “frater suus Regimundus et soror Ermisenda” had killed “rege domno Santio, prole Garssie regis[466].  After murdering her brother, she sought refuge with Alfonso VI King of Castile and León, who arranged her marriage to a Navarrese noble.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Her stay in Castile is demonstrated by "Ranemirus Garsie regis filius, Ermensinda G[arsie] regis filia" confirming a charter of "Aldefonsus imperator totius Hispanie" dated 3 Sep 1079[467].  "Infante Ranimirus" donated property to San Martín by charter dated 1079, witnessed by "germana mea Ermesinda et sennor Enneco Azenariz"[468].  "Ranimirus, Garsie rex prolis" donated a servant to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 23 Jun 1082, witnessed by "Ermisenda Garsie regis filia…"[469].  “Senior Fortun Sanz de Iarnoz cum uxore mea dompna Ermesenda Garceiz” sold half of “su palacio de Navasa en Aragón” to Leire monastery by charter dated 27 Nov 1109, the proceeds being used to pay his ransom for release from the Muslims[470]Senior Fortunio Sanz de Yarnoz et infanta Ermisenda Garceiz” donated “la villa de Yéqueda…” to Leire monastery by charter dated 1 Jun 1110[471]Senior Fortunio Sanz de Yarnoz et infanta Ermisenda Garceiz” donated the monastery of San Salvador to Leire monastery by charter dated 1 Jul 1110[472]m ([1076]) FORTÚN Sánchez Señor de Yarnóz, son of --- (-after 1 Jun 1110). 

4.         RAMIRO de Navarra (-murdered Rueda de Jalón, near Zaragoza 6 Jan [1083])Garsias…rex…cum coniuge mea Stephania regina” granted rights to Santa María de Nájera by charter dated 18 Apr [1052], confirmed by “Dominus Sancius filius meus, Infans Ranimirus filius meus, Infans Raimundus filius meus, Infans Ermesinda filia mea[473].  "Sancius rex…cum matre mea Stefania regina" returned property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla, donated by "senior Azenari Sanchiz" and usurped by his father, by charter dated 11 Mar 1055, confirmed by "Ranimirus et Fredinandus et Remondus germanos regis…"[474].  Gomesano Bishop of Calahorra granted property to "senior Eximino Furtuniones et senior Sancio Furtuniones" by charter dated 19 Mar 1058, confirmed by "Ranimirus infans, Fredinandus infans, Reimundus infans…"[475].  "Ranimirus infans, Garsea rex prolis" donated property "qui fuit de Fortunio Scanciano de patre meo…qui dominatus fuerit Calagurre" to the prior of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated [20 Jul 1062], confirmed by "senior Fortuni Garzeiz dominator Calagurre…"[476].  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to “meo filio Sancio rex…domno Ranimiro meo filio…domno Fredenando meo filio…domno Regumendo meo filio…[477].  “…Infans Ranimirus in Sancto Stephano…” is named in the dating clause of a charter of Sancho IV King of Navarre dated 17 Apr 1072[478].  “…Infans domnus Ranimirus, dominator Sancti Stefani” witnessed a charter of Sancho IV King of Navarre dated 6 Aug 1072[479].  "Garsias…Aragonensium episcopus" introduced the rule of St Augustine to the cathedral of San Pedro de Jaca by charter dated to [1076/79], which names "Ranimiri regis filius, Sancii regis catholici frater germanus"[480].  According to Reilly[481], he became the ward of Alfonso VI King of Castile and Leon after his brother's murder in 1076.  If this is correct, the reason is unclear as Ramiro would no longer have been a minor at the time.  Even if he had been the youngest son of King García V, he must have been at least 22 years old at the time, his father having died in 1054.  His stay in Castile is demonstrated by "Ranemirus Garsie regis filius, Ermensinda G[arsie] regis filia" confirming a charter of "Aldefonsus imperator totius Hispanie" dated 3 Sep 1079[482].  “Ranimirus filius Garsie regis et Stefanie regina” donated property to Santa María de Nájera by charter dated 18 Apr 1081, confirmed by “comite Garcia Ordoniz, uxor eius comitissa domna Urraka, Ermesindis soror eius, Eximinus, Infans domne Hurrace, Elvira soror eius, Petri Assuriz, comite domno Munio, Gundissalvus comes, Lope Ennecones Alabensis comes, senior Didaco Albaroz, senior Semeno Fortuniones[483].  Señor de Calahorra.  "Ranimirus, Garsie rex prolis" donated a servant to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 23 Jun 1082, witnessed by "Ermisenda Garsie regis filia…"[484].  “Renemirus infans, prolis Garseani principis” donated property to Santa María de Nájera by charter dated 27 May [1085], confirmed by “Garseanus comes, Urraka soror illius, Semena soror eius, Semeno Fortunioniz comite, Martino Adefonso comite…[485].  He and conde Gonzalo Salvadórez were invited by the Moorish holders of the castle of Rueda de Jalón to enter the castle, in the name of Alfonso VI King of Castile and León, but were massacred[486]

5.         FERNANDO de Navarra (-[1068][487]).  "Sancius rex…cum matre mea Stefania regina" returned property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla, donated by "senior Azenari Sanchiz" and usurped by his father, by charter dated 11 Mar 1055, confirmed by "Ranimirus et Fredinandus et Remondus germanos regis…"[488].  Gomesano Bishop of Calahorra granted property to "senior Eximino Furtuniones et senior Sancio Furtuniones" by charter dated 19 Mar 1058, confirmed by "Ranimirus infans, Fredinandus infans, Reimundus infans…"[489].  Señor de Bucesta, Jubera, Lagunilla y Oprela.  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to “meo filio Sancio rex…domno Ranimiro meo filio…domno Fredenando meo filio…domno Regumendo meo filio…[490].  [m NUÑA Iñíguez, daughter of ÍÑIGO López Conde y Señor de Vizcaya & his wife Toda Fortúnez.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  According to Llorente, her parentage and marriage are without foundation in contemporary sources[491].  The mid-14th Century Nobiliario of Pedro de Portugal Conde de Barcelós names “doña Munega Iñiguez” as the only daughter of “Iñiguez Guerra señor de Vizcaya” and her marriage to “don Hernando, hijo del rey de Navarra, hijo bastardo[492].  The chronology of this part of the Nobiliario means that this “Hernando” could not have been the son of King García V.  The account is evidently confused and if this is the only source which confirms the parentatge and marriage of Nuña Iñíguez, it should be dismissed.] 

6.         RAMÓN de Navarra (-after 1079).  “Garsias…rex…cum coniuge mea Stephania regina” granted rights to Santa María de Nájera by charter dated 18 Apr [1052], confirmed by “Dominus Sancius filius meus, Infans Ranimirus filius meus, Infans Raimundus filius meus, Infans Ermesinda filia mea[493].  "Sancius rex…cum matre mea Stefania regina" returned property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla, donated by "senior Azenari Sanchiz" and usurped by his father, by charter dated 11 Mar 1055, confirmed by "Ranimirus et Fredinandus et Remondus germanos regis…"[494].  Gomesano Bishop of Calahorra granted property to "senior Eximino Furtuniones et senior Sancio Furtuniones" by charter dated 19 Mar 1058, confirmed by "Ranimirus infans, Fredinandus infans, Reimundus infans…"[495].  "Sancius rex" confirmed the donation by "Fortunius presbiter de Resa" to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1065, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermisinda germanas…"[496].  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to “meo filio Sancio rex…domno Ranimiro meo filio…domno Fredenando meo filio…domno Regumendo meo filio…[497].  "Sancius rex…cum uxore mee Placentie regine" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 25 Feb 1070, confirmed by "Raimundus frater meus, Armesilda et dompna Maior germanas regis…"[498].  "Sancius…rex" confirmed property rights of "domno Garcia" by charter dated 17 Jan 1071, confirmed by "domnus Reimundus frater regis, domna Ermesenda soror regis…"[499].  "Sancius rex…et uxore mee Placencia regine" granted property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 20 Nov 1071, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermesilda et domna Maior germanas meas…"[500].  “…Infant don Remond in Cambero…” confirmed a charter of Sancho IV King of Navarre dated 7 Dec 1071[501].  “…Infans Raimundo in ambos Camberosi…” is named in the dating clause of a charter of Sancho IV King of Navarre dated 17 Apr 1072[502].  "Sancius…rex" donated property to the prior of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 1073, confirmed by "…infans Reimundus et soror eius domna Ermesenda…"[503].  "Sancius…rex" donated property to the monastery of Valbanera by charter dated 1074, witnessed by "Infans Raimundus frater regis, Ermisenda soror regis…"[504].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Placentia regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 1075, confirmed by "…infans Raimundus, illius soror domna Ermisenda…"[505].  "Sancius…Nagelensis rex" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1075, confirmed by "Remundus frater regis, Ermesinda soror regis, Eximina soror eorum…"[506].  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Initium regnum Pampilonam" records that "Sancius rex" was killed in 1076 "in Penalene a fraude de frater eius Regimundus"[507].  Señor de Murillo y Cameros.  The charter dated 1079 under which “Mancia Fortunionis” donated property to the monastery of Leire records that “frater suus Regimundus et soror Ermisenda” had killed “rege domno Santio, prole Garssie regis[508].  He fled into exile at Zaragoza.  "Infante Ranimirus" donated property to San Martín by charter dated 1079, witnessed by "germana mea Ermesinda et sennor Enneco Azenariz"[509]

7.         JIMENA de Navarra (-after 27 May [1085]).  "Sancius rex" confirmed the donation by "Fortunius presbiter de Resa" to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1065, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermisinda germanas…"[510].  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to (in order) “…filia mea Urraka…filia mea Ermesinda…filia mea Eximina…filia mea Maiore”, specifying that Jimena´s inheritance was “Corcuetos et Fornos et Daroka[511].  "Sancius…Nagelensis rex" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 1075, confirmed by "Remundus frater regis, Ermesinda soror regis, Eximina soror eorum…"[512].  "Scenna [Scemena] soror eiusdem" confirmed a charter of "Aldefonsus imperator totius Hispanie" dated 3 Sep 1079 named in the text immediately after "Ranemirus Garsie regis filius, Ermensinda G[arsie] regis filia"[513].  “Garseanus comes, Urraka soror illius, Semena soror eius…” confirmed the charter dated 27 May [1085] by which “Renemirus infans, prolis Garseani principis” donated property to Santa María de Nájera[514]

8.         MAYOR de Navarra (-after 1115).  "Sancius rex" granted property to "senior Sancio Furtuniones" by charter dated 7 Dec 1057, confirmed by "…infante domna Maiore…"[515].  The testament of “Stephania” is dated to [1066] names “domini mei Garsie regis” and bequeathes properties to (in order) “…filia mea Urraka…filia mea Ermesinda…filia mea Eximina…filia mea Maiore”, specifying that Mayor´s inheritance was “Iangua, Ataio, Villiela[516].  "Sancius rex…cum uxore mee Placentie regine" donated property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 25 Feb 1070, confirmed by "Raimundus frater meus, Armesilda et dompna Maior germanas regis…"[517].  "Sancius rex…et uxore mee Placencia regine" granted property to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla by charter dated 20 Nov 1071, confirmed by "Regimundus frater meus, Eximina et Ermesilda et domna Maior germanas meas…"[518].  “Maior, Garsiæ regis filia” donated property to Santa María de Nájera by charter dated 14 May 1077[519].  [Note: According to Europäische Stammtafeln[520], the wife of Guy [II] Comte de Mâcon was Mayor, daughter of García VI King of Navarre.  The source on which this is based is not known, although it is true that her name suggests a Spanish connection.  However, the charters dated 25 Feb 1070 and 20 Nov 1071 appear to disprove the hypothesis, as Comte Guy [II] and his wife were married before that date, as shown by the charter dated [1067] of "Guido comes", by which he donated property to Saint-Vincent de Mâcon, which was subscribed by "Maitris comitisse"[521].  "Guido comes" also supported a donation to Saint-Vincent de Mâcon by charter dated [1077] subscribed by "Maioris comitisse"[522].  The close ties between Burgundy and Spain started during the reign of Fernando I King of Castile, who established an annual rent of 120 ounces of gold in favour of the abbey of Cluny some time after 1055[523].  It is therefore not impossible that the marriage of Comte Guy with a Spanish princess from another family was agreed to provide an early symbol of this cooperation.] 

9.         SANCHA de Navarra (-after [1063/65]).  "Domna Sancha" established the boundaries of San Martín de Cuevagallegos, with the consent of "Sancionis regis fratris mei", by charter dated to [1063/65][524].  As she is not named in any of her brother's own charters, it is possible that Sancha was illegitimate.  She is not named in the [1066] testament of Queen Estefanía, so if she was a legitimate daughter she must have died before that date. 

King García V had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:   

10.       MENCÍA García ([1020/30]-[1073]).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated to [1049] under which King García granted property in “Nalda, Leza y Jubera” to “seniori Fortun Ochoaz fideli meo” and to “filiis tuis atque filiabus quos genuit uxor tua ex te, dompna Mencia filia mea[525]Doña Mencia infanta, hija del rey don Garcia” donated “mis palacios…en la villa de Leza” to the monastery of San Prudencio by charter dated to [1057], witnessed by “todos mis hijos: don Aznar Fortunez, don Iñigo, don Sancho, don Lope, don Ximeno[526]m ([1035/40]) FORTÚN Ochoa, son of --- (-[1049/57]). 

11.       SANCHO García ([1030/35]-after 29 Nov 1074)"Sancius rex" granted property to "senior Sancio Furtuniones" by charter dated 7 Dec 1057, confirmed by "…Infante domno Santio et uxor eius domna Contanza…"[527].  Señor de Uncastillo y Sangüesa.  Salazar y Acha discusses his marriage[528]The Crónica Najerense records that “infans domnus Sancius, quem rex Garsias Pampilonensium ex concubina habuerat” abducted “filiam regine Stephanie”, who was betrothed to “Santius rex”, and took her to the court of the Moorish king of Zaragoza and later to Ramiro I King of Aragon, triggering the war between Castille and Aragon during the course of which the Aragonese king was killed in 1064[529]Sancho IV King of Navarre granted “unas casas en la ciudad de Calahorra” to “germano meo domno Sancio et uxori vestra vel germana mea domna Constanza” by charter dated 29 Nov 1074[530]m (before 7 Dec 1057) CONSTANZA, daughter of --- & his wife [Etiennette] [de Foix] (-after 29 Nov 1074).  "Sancius rex" granted property to "senior Sancio Furtuniones" by charter dated 7 Dec 1057, confirmed by "…Infante domno Santio et uxor eius domna Contanza…"[531].  Sancho IV King of Navarre granted “unas casas en la ciudad de Calahorra” to “germano meo domno Sancio et uxori vestra vel germana mea domna Constanza” by charter dated 29 Nov 1074[532].  Salazar y Acha hypothesises that Constanza was the daughter of Stephanie de Foix, wife of García V King of Navarre, by an otherwise unrecorded earlier marriage with a noble at the court of Barcelona, suggesting that it would be unusual for King Sancho to refer to his brother´s wife as “germana” unless there was also a blood relationship between them[533]However, this hypothesis, although appealing, appears unlikely to be correct because Queen Estefania does not include Constanza in her testament dated to [1066] which names all her other known children[534].  Sancho & his wife had two children:

a)         ESTEFANÍA Sánchez (-after 19 Apr 1129)The carta de arras of “Froila prole de Diego” to “Estefanía hija de Sancho” is dated 11 Sep 1087, confirmed by “comes Fredenando Didaz[535].  Estefanía´s royal ancestry is referred to in the charter dated 1 Mar 1112 under which “commes Henricus” (conde de Portugal) granted property to “commes Froila et uxori vestre Stephania, commitissa, ex regali sanguine et prosapie horta[536].  Her connection with Sancho García, illegitimate son of García IV King of Navarre, is suggested by the charter dated to [1110/15] which refers to the donation of land “en Puente de la Reina” which previously belonged to “comes don Fruila et uxor eius domna Stephania et infans Ranimirus” to Pamplona Cathedral[537], “infans Ranimirus” in this document being identified by Canal Sánchez-Pagín (it would appear correctly) as the son of Sancho García[538].  The only element of doubt is the fact that Ramiro is called “infans” even though he was not the son of the monarch, although it should be noted that Ramiro Sánchez is given this title in both the “Corónicas” Navarras and the Crónica latina de los reyes de Castilla (see below).  Estefanía made a purchase of property at Corniero without her husband in 1121, presumably a widow[539].  She granted a fuero to the community of Villarmildo 19 Apr 1129[540].  m (before 11 Sep 1087) FRUELA Díaz, son of DIEGO Pérez & his wife María Froilaz (-19 Feb [1119/21]).  Mayordomo of Alfonso VI King of Castile 1 May 1106[541]

b)         RAMIRO Sánchez (-1116)The Crónica Latina names “infante Ramiro, que fue hijo del infante Sancho de cierta dueña, hijo del rey García” as father of King García[542]Ramiro is one of the few examples of an individual, not the son of a king, who was described with the title “infante”.  Señor de Monzón.  The testament of "Ramiro Sánchez rey de Navarra, yerno de Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar el Cid" is dated 1110[543].  m (after 1098) ELVIRA [Cristina] Rodríguez, daughter of RODRIGO Díaz de Vivar "El Cid Campeador" & his wife Jimena Díaz.  The "Corónicas" Navarras name "dona Cristiana…dona Maria" as the two daughters of "este meo Çid" and his wife, stating that Cristina married "l'ifant don Romiro"[544].  Her origin is also suggested by the Crónica de San Juan de la Peña which states that "el infant Don Garcia fillo de Don Ramiro…" was "sobrino del Cit Ruidiaz"[545].  Ramiro & his wife had three children: 

i)          GARCÍA Ramírez ([1105]-Lorca, Navarra 25 Nov 1150, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María).  The "Corónicas" Navarras name "al rey don García de Navarra, que dixieron Garçía Remíriz" as the son of "l'ifant don Romiro" and his wife[546].  The Crónica Latina names “el rey de Navarra [García] Ramírez, hijo del infante Ramiro, que fue hijo del infante Sancho de cierta dueña, hijo del rey García” and adds that it was said that he was the vassal of king of Castile alter he suceded to the throne[547].  Infante de Navarra.  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records that "el infant Don Garcia fillo de Don Ramiro, fillo de Don Sancho, rey de Nauarra que fué, el que mató su hermano Remon" (which confuses García Ramírez's paternal grandfather with the latter's legitimate half-brother) was proposed as king of Navarre in particular by "Don Sancho de la Rosa, vispo de Pamplona, et de Ladron fillo de Ennego Veliz, et de Guillem Aznariz Doteiça, et de Exemen Aznarez de Torres"[548].  He succeeded in 1134 as GARCÍA VI "el Restaurador" King of Navarre

-         see below.

ii)         ALFONSO Ramírez (-before 1164).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Señor de Castroviejo.  Maybe ancestor of the ZÚÑIGA family. 

iii)        ELVIRA Ramírez (-Jerusalem after 1163).  “...Domna Albira iermana regis...” confirmed the charter dated 1136 under which García Ramírez King of Navarre donated property to the Gran Priorato of Navarre[549]The primary source which confirms her two marriages has not yet been identified.  She and her husband donated property at Villaverde to the monks of Oña by charter dated 1137[550].  "Comes Rudericus filius Gomessani comitis…cum coniuge mea Eluira comitissa" donated Villaverde to the convent of Oña by charter dated 1146[551].  She made a benefaction to the monks of Oña 18 Feb 1161, shortly before setting out on pilgrimage to Jerusalem[552].  m firstly (after 1115) LADRÓN Vélaz Señor de Álava, son of VELA --- & his wife ---.  m secondly (before 1137) conde RODRIGO Gómez de Manzanedo, son of GÓMEZ González & his wife URRACA Múñoz (-1146)[553]

 

 

 

B.      KING of NAVARRE 1076 (KING of CASTILE)

 

 

1.         ALFONSO VI King of Castile, son of FERNANDO I "el Magno" King of Castile and León & his wife Sancha de León (Compostela [1038/40]-Toledo 1 Jul 1109, bur Sahagún, León, San Mancio chapel in the royal monastery of Santos Facundo y Primitivo).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names (in order) "Urraca, Sancho, Alfonso, García and Elvira" and the children of King Fernando and Queen Sancha[554].  Under the partition of lands in his father’s will, he received León and the parias from the Taifa state of Toledo, succeeding in 1065 as ALFONSO VI King of León.  He succeeded after the death of his brother in 1072 as ALFONSO VI King of Castile.  After the death in Jun 1076 of Sancho IV “él de Peñalén” King of Navarre, King Alfonso succeeded as King of Navarre: a charter dated 1076 records that Alfonso VI King of Castile ("Adefonsus filius Fredinandi regis") succeeded to the kingdom after "impiisima fraude interfecto rege Sancio, Garsie...regis filius"[555].  The precise circumstances under which the throne of Navarre passed to Sancho I King of Aragon have not been ascertained.  The earliest (apparently reliably dated) charter so far identified which names Sancho as king of Navarre is dated Mar 1077: the dating clause of a charter dated Mar 1077, under which King Sancho I granted “kasas de Lope filio de donna Pura” to “Banzo Ezones de Biele”, records “ego Sancio Ranimirez...rex in Pampilona et in Aragona et in Superabi sive in Ripacorza...regnante rex Adefonsu in Castella...[556].  Evidently some difference persisted between Aragon and Castile about the succession in Navarre as the dating clause of a charter dated 14 May 1081, under which "domna Onneca" sold "media vinea in plano de Leiva" to “domno Iohanne”, records “regnante Aldefonsus rex in Legione et in Castella et in Pampilona...[557]

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of NAVARRE [1076]-1134 (KINGS of ARAGON)

 

 

After the death of Sancho IV King of Navarre in 1076, Alfonso VI King of Castile and Leon annexed Rioja and most of the Basque provinces to Castile.  Sancho I King of Aragon joined the remaining territories of Navarre to Aragon, and succeeded as Sancho V King of Navarre.  For full details of these monarchs and their families, see ARAGON

 

 

RAMIRO Sánchez, illegitimate son of SANCHO III King of Navarre & his mistress Sancha de Aybar (-killed in battle Graus 8 May 1063).  He succeeded in 1035 as RAMIRO I King of Aragon.   

1.         Infante don SANCHO Ramírez de Aragón ([1042/43]-Huesca 4 Jun 1094)He succeeded his father in 1063 as SANCHO I Ramírez King of Aragon.  After the murder of Sancho IV King of Navarre in 1076, he succeeded as SANCHO V King of Navarre after which he styled himself "Sancius gratia Dei rex Aragonensium et Pampilunensium"[558].   

a)         Infante don PEDRO de Aragón ([1066/18 Aug 1068]-Valle de Aran 27 Sep 1104)He succeeded his father in 1094 as PEDRO I King of Aragon and Navarre

b)         Infante don ALFONSO de Aragón (Jaca 1083-Almuniente 7 Sep 1134)He succeeded his brother in 1104 as ALFONSO I “el Batallador” King of Aragon and Navarre

 

 

 

D.      KINGS of NAVARRE 1134-1234 (JIMENA DYNASTY)

 

 

GARCÍA Ramírez Infante de Navarra, son of RAMIRO Sánchez de Navarra Señor de Monzón & his wife Elvira [Cristina] Rodríguez ([1105]-Lorca, Navarra 25 Nov 1150, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María).  The "Corónicas" Navarras name "al rey don García de Navarra, que dixieron Garçía Remíriz" as the son of "l'ifant don Romiro" and his wife[559].  The Crónica Latina names “el rey de Navarra [García] Ramírez, hijo del infante Ramiro, que fue hijo del infante Sancho de cierta dueña, hijo del rey García” and adds that it was said that he was the vassal of king of Castile alter he suceded to the throne[560].  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records that "el infant Don Garcia fillo de Don Ramiro, fillo de Don Sancho, rey de Nauarra que fué, el que mató su hermano Remon" (which confuses García Ramírez's paternal grandfather with the latter's legitimate half-brother) was proposed as king of Navarre in particular by "Don Sancho de la Rosa, vispo de Pamplona, et de Ladron fillo de Ennego Veliz, et de Guillem Aznariz Doteiça, et de Exemen Aznarez de Torres…et Don Ffernan Enneguer Delet"[561]He succeeded his father in 1116 as Señor de Monzón y Logroño.  On the death of Alfonso I " el Batallador" King of Aragon and Navarre in 1134, the late king's brother Ramiro succeeded as king of Aragon.  However, Navarre succeeded in separating from Aragon under the leadership of García, who succeeded as GARCÍA VI "el Restaurador" King of Navarre.  The succession and division of territories was confirmed under the Pact of Vadoluongo in Jan 1135[562].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record that "el rey don Garcia de Navarra" died "viespra de santa Çecilia" after ruling 15 years, in 1178, another manuscript in the series recording the death "VI Kal Dec…apud Loricam" of "Garssias rex Pampilonensis"[563]

m firstly (after 1130) MARGUERITE de Laigle, daughter of GILBERT Seigneur de Laigle & his wife Juliane du Perche (-25 May 1141).  "Garsias Ranimiriz" confirmed the rights and privileges of the church of Pamplona on the advice of "uxoris mee Margarite regina" by charter dated 1135[564].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  A charter of Leire monastery dated May 1141 states that “in mense maio in ipso anno…regina Margarita” died[565]

m secondly (León 24 Jun 1144) as her first husband, URRACA Alfonso de Castilla “la Asturiana”, illegitimate daughter of ALFONSO VII King of Castile & his mistress Gontroda Pérez (1132-Palencia 26 Oct 1164, bur Palencia, Cathedral San Antolín).  The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris names "Urraca" as the daughter of King Alfonso VII and his "concubine…Guntroda", recording that she was brought up by the king's sister Infanta Sancha[566].  The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris records the marriage of King García and "his [=King Alfonso VII] daughter Infanta Urraca whom he had fathered by Guntroda, the daughter of Pedro Asturiano" on 24 Jun 1144 in León[567].  "Garsias…Pampilonensium rex…cum uxore mea Urraka regina" donated property to the church of Santa María de las Dueñas by charter dated to [1144/50][568].  “Gontrodo Petri...cum domina mea, et filia Urraca” donated property to the monastery of Santa María de Vega near Oviedo by charter dated 13 Oct 1153[569].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  She married secondly (before 1163) as his second wife, Álvaro Rodríguez de Castro. 

King García VI & his first wife had three children:

1.         Infante don SANCHO de Navarra (1132-Pamplona 27 Jun 1194, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María)The "Corónicas" Navarras name "el rey don Sancho de Navarra" as the son of "al rey don García de Navarra, que dixieron Garçía Remíriz" and his wife "la reyna dona Margerina"[570].  He succeeded his father in 1150 as SANCHO VI "el Sabio" King of Navarre

-        see below

2.         Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra ([1137]-12 Aug 1156, bur Nájera, Cathedral Santa María de Real).  The Annales Compostellani record the death “II Id Aug” in 1146 of “Regina Branca mater istius Aldefonsi Regis Castellæ…filia Garsiæ Regis Navarræ[571], although the year is clearly incorrect.  "Rex Sancius…domni Adefonsi imperatoris Hyspanie filius" donated "[monasterium] beate Marie de Naigara" to Cluny by charter dated 30 Aug 1156 "pro remedio…mulieris mee…regine domne Blanche quam in Jagarensi ecclesia sepelire feci"[572]m (Calahorra 30 Jan 1151) Infante don SANCHO de Castilla, son of ALFONSO VII "el Emperador" King of Castile and León & his first wife Berenguela de Barcelona (1134-Toledo 31 Aug 1158, bur Toledo, Cathedral Santa María).  He succeeded his father 1157 as SANCHO III “el Deseado” King of Castile

3.         Infanta doña MARGARITA de Navarra (-Palermo 1182)The Annals of Romoald name "Margaritam filiam Garsie regis Navarre" as the wife of "rex Guillelmus"[573].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that Guillaume I King of Sicily married "Margaritam filiam Garziæ regis Navarræ" during the lifetime of his father while still Prince of Capua[574].  Regent of Sicily 1166-1171.  m (1150) GUILLAUME of Sicily Principe di Tarento Duca di Apulia, son of ROGER II King of Sicily & his first wife Infanta doña Elvira de Castilla ([1131]-7 May 1166).  He succeeded his father in 1154 as GUILLAUME I “le Mauvais” King of Sicily

King García VI & his second wife had one child:

4.         Infanta doña SANCHA de Navarra (1148-1176)Rodrigo de Toledo records that "Rex Garsias tertiam filiam…Sanciam" married "Gastoni vicecomiti Bearnensi", that the couple died childless and that she married secondly "Petro comiti Molinensi" by whom she had "filium…Aimericum qui fuit vicecomes Narbonensis"[575]The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos records that "Conde D. Pedro de Molina" married "D. Sancha"[576].  “Comes Petrus et eleinfant uxor sua Sancia” donated “de medietate salinarum…in Terceguela” to the monastery of Santa María de Huerta by charter dated 1173[577].  "Comes Petrus et ele Infant uxor sua Santia" donated "medietate Salinarum" to Huerta San Martín by charter dated "Era 1240" (presumably mis-dated)[578]m firstly ([1165]) GASTON [V] Vicomte de Béarn, son of PIERRE Vicomte de Béarn [Gavaret] & his wife Ataresa --- (-1170).  m secondly (1173) as his first wife, conde PEDRO Manrique de Lara Vicomte de Narbonne, son of conde MANRIQUE Pérez de Lara & his wife Ermesinde Ctss de Narbonne (-Jan 1202, bur Santa María de Huerta).  Mayordomo mayor of Fernando II King of León 11 Feb 1185. 

King García VI had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

5.          RODRIGO García (-after Jan 1172)The Annals of Romoald name "Henricus naturalis frater regine [Siciliæ]" recording that he went to Sicily where he was installed with "comitatum Montes Caveosi"[579]He moved to Sicily from Spain after the death of Guglielmo II "el Malo" King of Sicily in the hope of profiting from the influence of his half-sister the dowager Queen of Sicily.  Hugo Falcandus records that "the brother of the queen was staying at Palermo…he had been called Rodrigo…the queen told him to call himself Henry and she gave him the county of Montescaglioso"[580].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Henricus naturalis frater reginæ" arrived in Sicily , was granted "comitatum Montis-Caveosi", and married to "unam de filiabus regis Rogerii"[581].  He was transferred before Dec 1168 to the county of the Principate.  m (1167) --- of Sicily, illegitimate daughter of ROGER II King of Sicily by his mistress ---.  The Annals of Romoald refer to the wife of "Henricus naturalis frater regine [Siciliæ]" as "unam de filiabus regis Rogerii"[582]

 

 

Infante don SANCHO de Navarra, son of GARCÍA IV King of Navarre & his first wife Marguerite de Laigle (1132-Pamplona 27 Jun 1194, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María)The "Corónicas" Navarras name "el rey don Sancho de Navarra" as the son of "al rey don García de Navarra, que dixieron Garçía Remíriz" and his wife "la reyna dona Margerina"[583].  He succeeded his father in 1150 as SANCHO VI "el Sabio" King of Navarre.  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "V Kal Iul" in 1194 of "Santius…rex Navarre"[584].  The Annales Compostellani record the death in 1194 of “Sancius Rex Navarræ[585]

m (Carrión de los Condes 20 Jul 1153) Infanta doña SANCHA de Castilla, daughter of ALFONSO VII King of Castile & his first wife Berenguela de Barcelona ([1139]-5 Aug 1177, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María).  The Anales Toledanos record the death in Aug 1177 of “la Reyna de Navarra, filla del Emperador[586].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "Non Aug" in 1179 of "Sancha…regina Navarre"[587]

King Sancho VI & his wife had five children: 

1.         Infanta doña BERENGUELA de Navarra ([1163/5]-[1230], bur Abbaye de l’Espan (Piété Dieu), Mans, transferred 1821 to Le Mans Cathedral)The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Berenguela Reina d´Ingalterra, D. Blanca, D. Constança que murio en Arouca" as the daughters of "Sancho Rey de Navarra"[588].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Berengariam" wife of "rex Anglorum Richardus" as sister of "Blancham sororis regis Navarreorum"[589].  Matthew of Paris names her and calls her daughter of the king of Navarre, when he records her marriage in Cyprus[590].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage "IV Id Mai" in Cyprus in [1191] of King Richard and "Berengariam filiam regis Navarræ"[591].  This marriage was arranged by King Richard's mother Eléonore d'Aquitaine[592].  She arrived with Queen Eléonore at Naples in early 1191 and stayed with her future husband's sister Joanna dowager Queen of Sicily. She and Queen Joanna sailed with King Richard's fleet to Palestine and landed at Limassol, Cyprus in Apr 1191[593].  She was crowned Queen of England by the Bishop of Evreux immediately after her marriage[594].  She sailed from Acre for France 29 Sep 1191 with her sister-in-law Queen Joanna[595].  The Necrology of Le Mans Cathedral records the death "10 Kal Jan 1230" of "Berengaria regina quondam uxor Richardi…regis Anglorum"[596].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "X Kal Jan 1230" of "regina Berengaria domna Cenomanensis relicta…regis Anglie Richardi"[597].  The Annals of Waverley record that “Berengaria quondam regina Angliæ” founded “quandam abbatiam de ordine Cisterciensi in pago Cenomannensi…Pietatem Dei” adding that she was buried there[598]m (Chapel of St George, Limassol, Cyprus 12 May 1191) RICHARD I King of England, son of HENRY II King of England & his wife Eléonore Dss d'Aquitaine (Beaumont Palace, Oxford 8 Sep 1157-Chalus 6 Apr 1199, bur Fontevrault Abbey). 

2.         Infante don SANCHO de Navarra (after 1170-Tudela 7 Apr 1234, bur Roncevalle)The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 1194 as SANCHO VII "el Fuerte" King of Navarre.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1234…post pascha dominica Misericordia" of "in regem…Navarrorum…Sanctio" without heirs, specifying that it was said that he left a library of 1,700,000 books[599].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "VII Id Apr…apud Tutelam" in 1234 of "Sancius…rex Navarre, filius…regis Sancii et regine Sancie" and his burial "apud Recidevalem"[600].  The Annales Compostellani record the death in 1234 of “Sancius Rex Navarræ[601]An early 13th century genealogy of the comtes de Toulouse written by Bernardus Guidonis records that "Regi Navarræ" who married "Raymundus quartus...[et] Beatricem sororem Trencavelli vicecomitis Biterrensis...filiam" was buried "in ecclesia hospitalis Rongivallis"[602]m ([1195], divorced [1200]) as her first husband, CONSTANCE de Toulouse, daughter of RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse & his second wife Béatrice de Béziers ([1180]-after 12 May 1260).  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that the daughter of Comte Raymond VI and his wife Beatrix de Béziers married "le roi de Navarre", but confuses her with her mother when he adds that the latter married secondly "Pierre Bermond de Salvio" after her repudiation[603].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the letter by Pierre Bermond Seigneur de Sauve to Pope Innocent III dated 1212 in which he refers to his "uxorem…quondam filiam comitis Tolosani" when requesting that he be recognised as nearest heir to the comte de Toulouse[604].  Her name is confirmed by the charter dated Nov 1219 under which "Raymundus, filius domini Raymundi...ducis Narbonæ, comitis Tolosæ, marchionis" confirmed dispositions by "pater meus" to "Petro Bermundi di Salvi nepoti meo, nato ex sorore mea domina Constancia"[605]She married secondly Pierre Bermond [VI] d'Anduze Seigneur de Sauve et d'Anduze.  King Sancho VII had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:   

a)         GUILLERMO Sánchez.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         RODRIGO Sánchez (-[22/23] Dec ----, bur Tudela).  The records of Tudela cathedral (dated 1340 and 1353) record the death "XXII Dec" of "dompni Roderici Sancii filii domini…regis Navarre" and "XXIII Dec" of "Rodere filii Sanchi regis Navarre"[606]. 

c)          RAMIRO (-22 Feb 1228).  The dating clause of a charter dated 1221 states "reinando et rey D. Sancho en Navarra y siendo su hijo el señor D. Remigio obispo de Pamplona"[607]Bishop of Pamplona 1220. 

3.         Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra (-12/14 Mar 1229)The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Berenguela Reina d´Ingalterra, D. Blanca, D. Constança que murio en Arouca" as the daughters of "Sancho Rey de Navarra"[608].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Blancham sororis regis Navarreorum" as wife of "Theobaldus frater [comitis Campaniensis Henrici]"[609].  Regent of Champagne 1201-1222 during the minority of her son.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1229 pridie Id Mar" of "comitissa Blancha Campaniensis"[610]m (1 Jul 1199) THIBAUT III Comte de Champagne et de Brie, son of HENRI I "le Libéral" Comte de Champagne & his wife Marie de France (13 May 1179-24 May 1201).   

a)         THIBAUT de Champagne (Pamplona 3 May 1201-Pamplona 8 Jul 1253, bur Pamplona)Villehardouin records that the wife of Comte Thibaut "had borne him a little daughter and was about to bear a son" when her husband died[611].  He succeeded his father in 1201 as THIBAUT IV Comte de Champagne et de Brie.  He succeeded his maternal uncle in 1234 as TEOBALDO I "le Grand" King of Navarre

-        see Chapter 3.A.  KINGS of NAVARRE 1234-1305 (CHAMPAGNE).

4.         Infanta doña CONSTANZA de Navarra (-Aruca ----).  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Berenguela Reina d´Ingalterra, D. Blanca, D. Constança que murio en Arouca" as the daughters of "Sancho Rey de Navarra"[612]. 

5.         Infante don FERNANDO de Navarra (-Tudela 16 Dec 1207).  The Annales Compostellani record the death “XV Kal Jan” in 1208 of “Infans Fernandus fil Reg. Sancii Navarræ[613]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of NAVARRE 1234-1305 (CHAMPAGNE)

 

 

THIBAUT de Champagne, son of THIBAUT III Comte de Champagne & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Navarra (Pamplona 3 May 1201-Pamplona 8 Jul 1253, bur Pamplona).  Villehardouin records that the wife of Comte Thibaut "had borne him a little daughter and was about to bear a son" when her husband died[614].  He succeeded his father in 1201 as THIBAUT IV Comte de Champagne et de Brie.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "comes Campaniensis Theobaldus" joined his [maternal] uncle in Navarre in 1225[615].  He succeeded his maternal uncle in 1234 as TEOBALDO I "le Grand" King of Navarre.  He answered the call of Pope Gregory IX for a Crusade in 1239, and led a French contingent which landed at Acre 1 Sep 1239.  He marched south to attack the Egyptian outposts of Ascalon and Gaza, where they were defeated.  He returned to Europe in Sep 1240[616].  The necrology of Sens cathedral records the death "Kal Mai" of "Theobaldus illustris rex Navarre et comes Campanie"[617].  The necrology of Saint-Etienne, Troyes records the death "11 Jul" of "Theobaldus rex Navarre, Campanie et Brie comes palatinus"[618].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "Id Iul…apud Pampilonam" in 1253 of "Teobaldus…rex Navarre et comes palatinus Campanie atque Brie" and his burial in Pamplona[619]

[620]Betrothed (1219) MARGARET of Scotland, daughter of WILLIAM I "the Lion" King of Scotland & his wife Ermengarde de Beaumont (1193-1259, bur Church of the Black Friars, London). 

m firstly (mid-May 1220, repudiated 1222) as her second husband, GERTRUD von Dagsburg, widow of THIBAUT I Duke of Lorraine, daughter of ALBERT II Graf von Dagsburg & his wife Gertrud von Baden ([May 1205/mid-1206]-before 19 Mar 1225).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage in 1220 of "Gertrudem comitissam de Daburc [relictam Theobaldi iuvenis dux Lotharingie]" and "iuvenis comes Theobaldus Campaniensis" and their separation two years later on grounds of consanguinity[621].  Richer records that "ducem Lotoringie Theobaldum" was married to "filiam comitis de Daxporc", that he inherited the county through her, that after her first husband died she married "comes…Campanie adhuc adolescens" who in his turn inherited the county, that she was repudiated for sterility by her second husband and married thirdly "comiti de Lignigne", and that after the couple's death soon afterwards there were no heirs to her county which (including "castra…Hernestem et Turquestem, et…opida…Albam et Saleborc") was annexed by "Metensis episcopus Iohannes" but that "frater…dicti comitis defuncti" captured "castrum Daxporc"[622].  She married thirdly (1224 before Sep) Simon von Leiningen

m secondly (1222) AGNES de Beaujeu, daughter of GUICHARD [V] “le Grand” Sire de Beaujeu & his wife Sibylle de Hainaut [Flanders] (-11 Jul 1231, bur Clairvaux).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the second marriage of "Theobaldus comes Campaniensis" and "Agnetem sororem Humberti filiam Wichardi de Belloioco"[623].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1231 V Id Jul" of "Agnes comitissa Campanie" and her burial "in Clarevalle in capella comitis Flandrie matris sue avunculi"[624]

[625]Betrothed ([1231/32]) to YOLANDE de Bretagne, daughter of PIERRE Duke of Brittany & his first wife Alix de Thouars (in Brittany end 1218-château de Bouteville 10 Oct 1272, bur Villeneuve-les-Nantes, église abbatiale de Notre Dame).  Her betrothal to Thibaut IV Comte de Champagne is confirmed by a letter from King Louis IX to Comte Thibaut, dated 1229, which states that the king had “entendu que vous avez convenancé et promis à prendre à femme la fille du Comte Pierre de Bretaigne” and forbade him from proceeding, adding “la raison pourquoi vous savez bien” (without providing any further explanation)[626].  The 1229 date (cited by Lobineau) is presumably incorrect, assuming that the date of death of Comte Thibaut´s second wife is correctly reported as 11 Jul 1231 as shown above.  This suggested redating is confirmed by a letter from Pope Gregory IX to the archbishop of Bourges dated 24 Apr 1232 stating that “Campaniæ et Britanniæ comites” intended to arrange a marriage alliance prohibited by the degrees of consanguinity and forbidding the arrangement[627]

m thirdly (contract Mar 1232, 22 Sep 1232) MARGUERITE de Bourbon, daughter of ARCHAMBAUD [VIII] "le Grand" Sire de Bourbon [Dampierre] & his wife [Beatrix de Montluçon] (-Provins, Brie 12 Apr 1256, bur Clairval).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "comes Campaniensis Theobaldus" and "Margaretam filiam Erchenbaldi de Borbona"[628].  The contract of marriage between “Theobaldus Campanie et Brie comes palatinus” and “Archambaldus dominus Borbonii…Margarita filia” is dated Mar 1232[629].  She was regent of Champagne and Navarre 1253-1256 during the minority of her son.  "Don Alfonso, yffante primero fijo del rey d´Aragon" consented to any alliance between "mio padre don Jagme…rey d´Aragon" and "dona Margarita…reyna de Navarra, de Campayna et de Bria condessa palatina, et con vuestro fijo don Thibalt rey de Navarra", by charter dated 1 Aug 1253[630]Marguerite…royne de Navarre, de Champaigne et de Brye conteste palatine” settled a dispute between “les nobles barons Jehan conte de Bourgoigne et signour de Salins…et Thiebaut conte de Barz” by charter dated 3 Nov 1254[631].  The necrology of Saint-Etienne, Troyes records the death "29 Mar" of "Margarita regina Navarre"[632].  The necrology of the Chapelle Saint-Blaise, Provins records the death on 29 Mar of "Margarita regina"[633].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "II Id Apr…apud Privignum" in 1256 of "Margarita…regina Navarre, commitissa Canpanie atque Brie" and her burial in "apud Claram vallem"[634]

Comte Thibaut IV & his second wife had one child:

1.         BLANCHE de Champagne (before 19 Jan 1225-Château de Hédé, Ille-et-Vilaine 11 Aug 1283, bur Hennebont, Morbihan, Abbaye cistercienne de Notre Dame de la Joie).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Agnes comitissa Campanie" left an only daughter but does not name her[635].  “O Meranie dux, comes Burgundie palatinus et…Beatrix uxor eius” agreed with “Theobaldum Campanie et Brye comitem palatinum” the marriage of “Othonem filium nostrum” and “Blancham filiam ipsius Theobaldi comiti Campanie” by charter dated 19 Jan 1225[636]Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra from her father's accession to the throne of Navarre in 1234.  The marriage contract between “P. dux Britannie comes Richerimontis…Johanni de Britannia filio nostro” and “Theobaldus…rex Navarre, Campanie et Brie comes palatinus…filiam suam domiscellam Blancham” is dated 16 Jan 1236[637].  She founded the Abbaye de la Joie near Hennebont [1270], where she was later buried.  The Chronicon Britannicum records the death "pridie Id Aug" 1273 (presumably error for 1283) of “domina Blancha ducissa Britanniæ” and her burial “apud Henbond[638].  The necrology of the Abbaye des Clairets records the death "IV Id Sep" of "Blancha comitissa Britannie"[639]Betrothed (19 Jan 1225) to OTTO de Bourgogne, son of OTTO I Duke of Merano, Comte Palatin de Bourgogne [Andechs] & his first wife Beatrix de Bourgogne-Comté (-Burg Niesten 19 Jun 1248, bur Langheim).  He succeeded his father in 1234 as Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Duke of Merano.  m (contract Château-Thierry, Aisne 16 Jan 1236) JEAN de Bretagne, son of PIERRE I "Mauclerc" Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond & his first wife Alix de Thouars Dss of Brittany (1217-Château de l'Isle, Férel, Morbihan 8 Oct 1286, bur Prières, église abbatiale de Notre Dame).  On his marriage, his father-in-law declared Jean his heir in Navarre, even if he subsequently had a male heir.  After his majority, he swore allegiance to Louis IX King of France at Paris 16 Nov 1237 as JEAN I "le Roux" Duke of Brittany.  He renounced his rights to Navarre in favour of his brother-in-law Teobaldo II King of Navarre, by agreement in 1254. 

King Teobaldo I & his third wife had six children:

2.         ELEONORE de Champagne ([1233]-young). 

3.         THIBAUT de Champagne, Infante don TEOBALDO de Navarra (1239-Trapani, Sicily 4 Dec 1270, bur Provins, église des Cordeliers)The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the birth in 1239 of "regi Navarre filius" but does not name him[640].  He succeeded his father in 1253 as THIBAUT V Comte de Champagne et de Brie, TEOBALDO II "el Joven" King of Navarre"Don Alfonso, yffante primero fijo del rey d´Aragon" consented to any alliance between "mio padre don Jagme…rey d´Aragon" and "dona Margarita…reyna de Navarra, de Campayna et de Bria condessa palatina, et con vuestro fijo don Thibalt rey de Navarra", by charter dated 1 Aug 1253[641]He died on returning from the crusade in Tunis.  The necrology of the Chapelle Saint-Blaise, Provins records the death on 4 Dec of "Theobaldus rex Navarre fundator noster"[642].  "Aliénor contesse de Lincestre" donated "la conté de Biguorre", transferred to "nostre seigneur Monsieur Symon de Montfort conte de Lincestrie" by "Monsieur Eschivat de Chabanes", to "Monsieur Henry…roy de Navarre et conte de Champaigne" by charter dated Oct 1265[643].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "Non Dec…apud Trapanam" in 1270 of "Theobaldus secundus…rex Navarre et comes palatinus Campanie adque Brie" and his burial "apud Privignum"[644]m (Melun, Seine-et-Marne 6 Apr 1258) ISABELLE de France, daughter of LOUIS IX King of France & his wife Marguerite de Provence (2 or 18 Mar 1242-Hyères near Marseille 27 Apr 1271, bur Provins, église des Cordeliers).  An anonymous chronicle of the kings of France, written [1286/1314], records that the first child of "li rois Loois...[et] Marguerite la fille au conte de Provence" was a daughter who married "au roi de Navarre", and in a later passage records her marriage in 1255[645]She died on returning from the crusade in Tunis.  The necrology of Saint-Etienne, Troyes records the death "22 Apr" of "Ysabellis quondam regine Navarre…regis Francorum filia"[646].  The "Corónicas" Navarras record the death "XV Kal Mai…apud Yeras" in 1271 of "Helisabet…regina Navarre et comitissa Campanie atque Brie" and her burial "in monasterio…Barra"[647].  [Mistress (1)MARQUESA Gil de Rada, daughter of ---.]  King Teobaldo II had [one illegitimate child by Mistress (1)]:

a)         [MARQUESA de Navarra (-after 1303).  Zurita records that “Don Pedro Fernandez” married secondly “Doña Marquesa hija de Thibaldo Rey de Nauarra, que no se declara, qual de los dos Reyes era, padre o hijo, y es muy verisimil que fue el primero, y de Doña Marquesa Lopez”, adding that she founded “el monasterio de religiosas de la Orden del Santo Sepulchro de Hierusalem de [Zaragoza][648]Despite the suggestion by Zurita, from a chronological point of view it is more likely that Marquesa was the daughter of King Teobaldo II.  m (before 1276) as his second wife, PEDRO Fernández Barón de Hijar, illegitimate son of JAIME I “el Conquistador” King of Aragon & his mistress Berenguela Fernández ([1245/49]-[1297]).]   

4.         MARGUERITE de Champagne, Infanta doña MARGARETA de Navarra ([1240]-3 Oct 1307, bur église des Précheresses, Nancy)She renounced her rights over the county of Champagne shortly after her marriage, renewing the declaration 20 Mar 1273[649].  She founded the convent of the Clarissans at Neufchâteau in 1297.  m (contract 6 Jun 1249, 10 Jul 1255) FERRY III Duke of Lorraine, son of MATHIEU II Duke of Lorraine & his wife Catherine van Limburg (early 1240-31 Dec 1302, bur Beaupré Abbey). 

5.         PIERRE de Champagne, Infante don PEDRO de Navarra (-22 May 1265).  Señor de Muruzábal.  The necrology of the Chapelle Saint-Blaise, Provins records the death on 22 May of "Petrus filius regis Navarre"[650]

6.         BEATRICE de Champagne, Infanta doña BEATRIZ de Navarra ([1242]-Château de Villaines-en-Duesmois, Côtes d'Or 1295 after Jul)A charter dated Nov 1258 confirms the marriage between “Hue duc de Bourgoigne” and “Thiebaut…foy de Navarre, de Champaigne et de Brie cuens palatins…demoiselle Biatrix nostre serour[651].  Dame de l'Isle-sous-Montréal.  She renounced any claim to the succession of her brother 2 Sep 1273.  After her husband died, she retired to the château de l'Isle-sur-Serein.  She quarrelled with her stepson Robert Duke of Burgundy, and asked for protection from Philippe II "Auguste" King of France.  m (contract Nov 1258) as his second wife, HUGUES IV Duke of Burgundy, son of EUDES III Duke of Burgundy & his second wife Alix Dame de Vergy (9 Mar 1213-château de VillaInés-en-Duesmois, Côtes d'Or 27 or 30 Oct 1272, bur Abbaye de Cîteaux). 

7.         HENRI de Champagne, Infante don ENRIQUE de Navarra (-Pamplona 22 Jul 1274, bur Pamplona)He succeeded his brother in 1270 as HENRI III Comte de Champagne et de Brie, ENRIQUE I King of NavarreThe Gesta Philippi Tertia Francorum Regis of Guillaume de Nangis records the death in 1274 of "Henricus rex Navarræ comesque Campaniæ in regno Navarræ"[652]The necrology of Saint-Etienne, Troyes records the death "23 Jul" of "Henricus rex Navarre"[653]m (Melun, Seine-et-Marne 1269) as her first husband, BLANCHE d'Artois, daughter of ROBERT I Comte d’Artois [Capet] & his wife Mathilde [Mahaut] de Brabant (1248-Paris 2 May 1302).  The Gesta Philippi Tertia Francorum Regis of Guillaume de Nangis records that "Henricus rex Navarræ comesque Campaniæ" married "sorore comitis Attrebatensis Roberti"[654]Regent of Navarre, during the minority of her daughter Juana Queen of Navarre, whose marriage with the future Philippe IV King of France she agreed at Orléans May 1275.  She married secondly (27 Jul/29 Oct 1276) Edmund “Crouchback” of England Earl of Lancaster, who was also Regent of Champagne and Navarre 1275-1283.  The Chronicle of Thomas Wykes records the marriage in 1275 of “dominus Edmundus frater domini regis Anglorum” and “dominam reginam Naveriæ[655]The Gesta Philippi Tertia Francorum Regis of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in 1275 of "comes Attrebati Robertus...sororem...relictam regis Navarræ Henrici" and "Edmundo fratri regis Angliæ Edoardi"[656]Mistress (1): --- Lacarra, daughter of ---.  King Enrique I & his wife had two children: 

a)         THIBAUT de Champagne, Infante don TEOBALDO de Navarra (-1273).

b)         JEANNE de Champagne, Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra (Bar-sur-Seine 14 Jan 1273-Château de Vincennes 31 Mar or 2 Apr 1305, bur Paris église des Cordeliers)A charter dated 1 Sep 1273 records the agreement between "Edbbardus…rex Anglie" and "Henricus…rex Navarre, Campanie et Brie, comes palatinus" for the marriage of "Henricus rex…Johannam filiam nostrum et heredem" and "Henrico filio primogenitor et heredi…Edbbardi regis Anglie"[657].  She succeeded her father in 1274 as JEANNE Ctss de Champagne et de Brie, JUANA Queen of Navarre, Ctss de Bigorre.  The Gesta Philippi Tertia Francorum Regis of Guillaume de Nangis records that "unicam filiam Johannam" succeeded on the death of her father "Henricus rex Navarræ comesque Campaniæ" in 1274[658].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in 1284 "festo Assumptionis beatæ virginis matris Domini...crastino...apud Parisius" of "Philippus regis Franciæ Philippi filius major natu" and "Johannam filiam defuncti regis Navarræ comitisque Campaniæ Henrici"[659]After her marriage, she continued to govern Champagne personally, her husband governing Navarre.  A charter dated 1297 records the appointment of arbitrators in the dispute between "Mathildis de Courtenaio comitissa Theati uxor…domini Philippi de Flandria, filii…comitis Flandrensis" and "Lora vicecomitissa Turenne domina de Cabanesio soror dicte domine Mathildis" concerning the county of Bigorre, which they had sold to "domina Johanna regina Francie et Navarre"[660]Betrothed (1 Sep 1273) to HENRY of England, son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Windsor Castle 13 Jul [1267/68]-Merton, Surrey or Guildford Castle, Surrey 14 Oct 1274, bur Westminster Abbey).  m (Paris, Notre Dame 16 Aug 1284) PHILIPPE de France, son of Philippe III King of France & his first wife Infanta doña Isabel de Aragón (Fontainebleau 8 Apr/Jun 1268-Fontainebleau 29 Nov 1314, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded 1284 by right of his wife as FELIPE I King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne.  He succeeded his father 1285 as PHILIPPE IV "le Bel" King of France.  Crowned Notre-Dame de Reims 6 Jan 1286.  

-        see Chapter 4.  KINGS of NAVARRE (CAPET).

King Enrique I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

c)          JUAN Enríquez de Lacarra (-1323)

-        ENRÍQUEZ de LACARRA.

King Teobaldo I had four illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

8.          ELIDA de Navarra (-[1238/42])The marriage contract of "Petrus Ferrandus dominus civitatis S. Mariæ de Alvarracin…filium meum Alvar Petriz" (substituting "secundum filium meum Petrum Ferrandi…tertium filium meum…Garciam Ortiz") and "domino Th…Navarræ, Campaniæ et Briæ comite palatino…Ælidis filiæ eiusdem…regis Navarræ" is dated Mar 1237[661].  Betrothed (contract Mar 1237) ÁLVARO Pérez de Azagra Señor de Albarracín, son of PEDRO Fernández de Azagra & his wife ---.

9.          INES de Navarra Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 15 Jul 1243 under which "D. Alvar Periz" donated the pueblo of Santa Olalla to "mi muger doña Ignis filla del rey de Navarra", confirmed by "D. Pedro Ferrandez Dazagra vasaillo de Sancta Maria é seinnor de Albarracin"[662].  m (before 15 Jul 1243) as his second wife, ÁLVARO Pérez de Azagra Señor de Albarracín, son of PEDRO Fernández de Azagra & his wife --- .

10.       GUILLERMO de Navarra ([1225 or after]-30 Dec before 1267).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "comes Campaniensis Theobaldus" had "filium nomine Guillelmum bastardum", dating the event to "quo tempore rex"[663].  As the same passage records the arrival of Thibaut in Navarre to join his uncle in 1225, it is assumed that "quo tempore rex" is intended to mean "during the time his uncle was king" rather than "while he [Thibaut] was king".  The marriage dates of the illegitimate daughters of Thibaut indicate that they must have been born before his accession, which also suggests that this interpretation of the phrase in the Chronicle is correct.  The Chronicle also adds in the same passage that "episcopus Pampelone" was "frater uterinus eiusdem bastardi", giving a clue to the identity of the mother of Guillermo.  A priest.  

11.       BERENGUELA de Navarra .  Prioress of San Pedro de Ribas.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of NAVARRE (CAPET and CAPET-EVREUX)

 

 

A.      KINGS of NAVARRE 1305-1328 (CAPET)

 

 

JEANNE de Champagne, Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra, daughter of ENRIQUE I King of Navarre [HENRI III Comte de Champagne] & his wife Blanche d'Artois [Capet] (Bar-sur-Seine 14 Jan 1273-Château de Vincennes 31 Mar or 2 Apr 1305, bur Paris église des Cordeliers).  She succeeded her father 1274 as JEANNE Ctss de Champagne et de Brie, JUANA Queen of Navarre, Ctss de Bigorre.  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the marriage in 1284 "festo Assumptionis beatæ virginis matris Domini...crastino...apud Parisius" of "Philippus regis Franciæ Philippi filius major natu" and "Johannam filiam defuncti regis Navarræ comitisque Campaniæ Henrici"[664]The contract between "Philippus…Francorum Rex" and "Blancham Reginam Navarræ, Campaniæ, Briæque Comitissam Palatinam", dated May 1275, provides for the marriage between "filiam suam Joannam heredem unicam" and "unum ex duobus primogenitis nostris"[665].  After her marriage, she continued to govern Champagne personally, her husband governing Navarre.  The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "II Kal Apr" of "domine Johanne quondam regine Francie et Navarre"[666]The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records the death in Apr 1305 "apud nemus Vincennarum" of "Johanna regina Franciæ et Navarræ, Britanniæ et Campaniæ comitissa" and her burial "in ecclesia fratrum Minorum"[667]The necrology of Sainte-Chapelle records the death "II Kal Apr" of "domine Johanne quondam regine Francie et Navarre"[668]

m (contract May 1275, Paris, Notre Dame 16 Aug 1284) PHILIPPE de France, son of PHILIPPE III King of France & his first wife Infanta doña Isabel de Aragón (Fontainebleau 8 Apr/Jun 1268-Fontainebleau 29 Nov 1314, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded in 1284 by right of his wife as FELIPE I King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne.  He succeeded his father in 1285 as PHILIPPE IV "le Bel" King of France.  Crowned Notre-Dame de Reims 6 Jan 1286. 

1.         LOUIS de France (Paris 4 Oct 1289-Château du Bois de Vincennes 5 Jun 1316, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded his mother 1305 as LUIS I King of Navarre, Comte de Champagne.  Crowned King of Navarre at Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María el Real, 1 Oct 1307.  "Ludovicus, regis Francie primogenitus…rex Navarre, Campanie Brieque comes palatinus" confirmed the privileges of Iholdy and Armendarits by charter dated 24 Oct 1307[669].  He succeeded his father 1314 as LOUIS X "le Hutin" King of France.  Crowned at Notre-Dame de Reims 24 Aug 1315. 

a)         JEANNE de France (Conflans Sainte Honorine 28 Jan 1312-Château de Conflans 6 Oct 1349, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  On the death of her father, she was excluded from the succession to the French Crown, her birth being suspicious because of the reputation of her mother.  Following her maternal grandmother’s protests, her uncle Philippe V confirmed her future rights to the counties of Champagne and Brie 27 Mar 1318.  She was proclaimed JUANA II Queen of Navarre by an Assembly 1328 shortly after the succession of Philippe VI as King of France.  She renounced her rights to the county of Champagne 1335.  She died of the plague.  m (contract Paris 27 Mar 1318, 18 Jun 1318, Château de Conflans 1329) PHILIPPE d’Evreux, son of LOUIS de France Comte d’Evreux & his wife Marguerite d’Artois (27 Mar 1306-Jerez de la Frontera 23 Sep 1343, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María el Real).  Comte d’Angoulême et de Mortain 27 Mar 1318, confirmed by the Treaty of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon 14 Mar 1336.  He succeeded his father 1319 as Comte d’Evreux.  He was proclaimed FELIPE III “le Bon/le Sage” King of Navarre by an Assembly 1328, shortly after the succession of Philippe VI King of France.  Crowned King of Navarre 5 Mar 1329, Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María el Real. 

-        see below, Part B.  KINGS of NAVARRE 1328-1479 (CAPET-EVREUX).

b)         JEAN de France (posthumously Paris 14 Nov 1316-Louvre 19 Nov 1316, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He succeeded at birth as JEAN I “le Posthume” King of France, JUAN I King of Navarre.  

2.         PHILIPPE de France ([1292/93]-Longchamp, near Paris 3 Jan 1322, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He was recognised Comte Palatin de Bourgogne, Sire de Salins, by right of his wife, 26 Jun 1310.  Comte de Poitiers Dec 1311.  He was appointed regent on the death of his brother 1316, awaiting the birth of his nephew.  He succeeded his nephew in 1316 as PHILIPPE V "le Long" King of France, FELIPE II King of Navarre.  Crowned Notre-Dame de Reims 6 Jan 1317. 

3.         CHARLES de France (Creil, Oise 18 Jun 1294-Château du Bois de Vincennes 1 Feb 1328, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  Comte de La Marche 1314.  He succeeded his brother in 1322 as CHARLES IV "le Bel" King of France, CARLOS I King of Navarre.  Crowned Notre-Dame de Reims 21 Feb 1322. 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of NAVARRE 1328-1479 (CAPET-EVREUX)

 

 

JEANNE de France, daughter of LOUIS X "le Hutin" King of Navarre, LUIS I King of Navarre, & his first wife Marguerite de Bourgogne (Conflans Sainte Honorine 28 Jan 1312-Château de Conflans 6 Oct 1349, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  On the death of her father, she was excluded from the succession to the French Crown, her birth being suspicious because of the reputation of her mother.  Following her maternal grandmother’s protests, her uncle Philippe V confirmed her future rights to the counties of Champagne and Brie 27 Mar 1318.  She was proclaimed JUANA II Queen of Navarre by an Assembly in 1328 shortly after the succession of Philippe VI as King of France.  She renounced her rights to the county of Champagne in 1335.  She died of the plague. 

m (contract Paris 27 Mar 1318, 18 Jun 1318, Château de Conflans 1329) PHILIPPE d’Evreux, son of LOUIS de France Comte d’Evreux & his wife Marguerite d’Artois (27 Mar 1306-Jerez de la Frontera 23 or 26 Sep 1343, bur Pamplona, Cathedral Santa María el Real).  Comte d’Angoulême et de Mortain 27 Mar 1318, confirmed by the Treaty of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon 14 Mar 1336.  He succeeded his father in 1319 as Comte d’Evreux.  He was proclaimed FELIPE III “le Bon/le Sage” King of Navarre by an Assembly 1328, shortly after the succession of Philippe VI King of France.  Crowned King of Navarre 5 Mar 1329, Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María el Real.  The necrology of Vauvert records the death "VI Kal Oct" of "Philippus rex Navarre"[670]

King Felipe & Queen Juana had eight children: 

1.         Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra (1330-Château de Neaufles-Saint-Martin, Eure 5 Oct 1398, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The marriage contract of "Philippus…Navarræ rex…Blancham filiam" and "Dom. Humbertus Dalphinus Viennensis…Andream filium et natum primogenitum" is dated 19 Aug 1335[671].  The dates of documents which relate to Pedro de Castilla´s betrothal to Joan of England suggest that his betrothal to Blanca de Navarra may have been an alternative, probably short-lived, agreement presumably arranged at a time when relations with England were not proceeding well and soon discarded.  Betrothed (19 Aug 1335) to ANDRE de Viennois, son of HUMBERT [II] Dauphin de Viennois & his wife Marie de Baux (5 Sep 1333-Grenoble Oct 1335, bur Grenoble Dominican Church).  Betrothed (contract 1 Jul 1345, contract broken before 1348) to Infante don PEDRO de Castilla y León, son of ALFONSO IX King of Castile & his second wife Infanta dona Maria de Portugal (Burgos 30 Aug 1334-murdered Montiel 22 Mar 1369, bur Seville Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1350 as PEDRO I "el Cruel" King of Castilem (Brie-Comte-Robert, Seine-et-Marne 11 Jan 1350) as his second wife, PHILIPPE VI King of France, son of CHARLES de France Comte de Valois & his first wife Marguerite of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] (1293-Abbaye de Coulombs, near Nogent-le-Roi, Eure-et-Loir 22 Aug 1350, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).    

2.         Infante don CARLOS de Navarra (Château d'Evreux, Eure 17 May 1332-Pamplona 1 Jan 1387, bur Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real)He succeeded his mother in 1349 as CARLOS II "el Malo/le Mauvais" King of Navarre

-        see below

3.         Infanta doña MARÍA de Navarra ([1335]-Valencia 29 Apr 1347, bur Valencia, San Vicente, transferred to Nuestra Señora de Poblet).  A document dated 23 Jul 1338 at Alagón certifies that "Pedro…Rey de Aragon de Valencia de Cerdennya de Corcegua e comte de Barçalona" married "dona Maria filla del…princep e sennyor don Phelip…Rey de Navarra conte de Euroux de Engolesme de Morentayn e de Longauilla et de la…sennyora dona Johannya…Reyna del dicto Reyno"[672]m (contract 6 Jan 1337, Alagón 23 Jul 1338) as his first wife, PEDRO IV "el Ceremonioso" King of Aragon, son of ALFONSO IV King of Aragon & his first wife Teresa de Entenza Ctss de Urgel (Balaguer 5 Sep 1319-Barcelona 5 Jan 1387, bur Nuestra Señora de Poblet).  

4.         Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra ([1336/37]-Longchamps 3 Jul 1387, bur church of the monastery of Longchamps).  Nun at monastery of St François at Longchamps, near Paris in May 1337.  The necrology of Longchamp records the death on 3 Jul of "seur Jehanne fille du roi de Navarre religieuse en cette eglise"[673].  A list of nuns at Longchamp in the abbey's necrology includes "madame seur Jehanne de Navarre, cousine germaine de madame seur Blanche de France…estoit fille du roy de Navarre, sa mère fille du roy de France" and records that she lived 50 years and died 3 Jul 1387[674]

5.         Infanta doña INÉS de Navarra (after 1337-Estella castle Jan 1397 or [4 Feb 1396/1400])A charter dated 8 Feb 1347 records that Philippe VI King of France abandoned rights over the lands to be ceded to "Agnes, fille…de Phelippe jadis roy et de…Jehnne de France royne de Navarre" when she married "Gaston comte de Foix…[filz de] Alliénor de Cominges contesse de Foix"[675].  The 15th century Chronicle of Esquerrier records that "Mossen Gaston appelat Febus" married "Madona Agnes de Navarra"[676].  After being repudiated by her husband, on the excuse that her dowry had not been paid in full, she returned to Navarre and lived in the castles of Pamplona, Olite and Estella.  m (contract 5 Jul 1348, Paris, église du Temple 4 Aug 1349, repudiated Dec 1362) GASTON III "Fébus" Comte de Foix, de Bigorre et de Béarn, son of GASTON II "le Preux" Comte de Foix & his wife Eléonore Ctss de Comminges (30 Apr 1331-1 Aug 1391)

6.         Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra ([1339]-château de Guéméné-sur-Scorff 20 Nov 1403, bur Abbaye de Monrepos)Charles...Roy de Navarre Comte d´Evreux” granted property to “nostre...sœur...Madame Jeanne de Navarre”, married to “nostre...frere Messire Jehan Vicomte de Rohan”, as her part in the succession of their parents by charter dated Oct 1377[677]m (Oct 1373) as his second wife, JEAN Vicomte de Rohan, son of ALAIN [VII] Vicomte de Rohan & his wife Jeanne de Rostrenen ([1329]-château de Guéméné-sur-Scorff after 24 Feb 1396). 

7.         Infante don FELIPE de Navarra (-Vernon, Eure 29 Aug 1363, bur Notre Dame d'Evreux or Paris).  Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that “Don Carlos Rey de Navarra é el Infante Don Phelipe su hermano” visited Pedro I King of Castile “en Burgos” in 1351[678].  Comte de Longueville.  He took part in the defence of the county of Bar, which had been invaded by Lorraine, in October 1353.  He was imprisoned when he tried to govern the county, released in January 1356.  He supported his brother Carlos King of Navarre, imprisoned by Jean II King of France, and fought at Poitiers in Sep 1356 against France under the Black Prince.  His brother appointed him 15 Oct 1361 Lieutenant General of his territories in France.  m (13 Jun 1353) as her second husband, YOLANDE de Flandre, widow of HENRI IV Comte de Bar, daughter of ROBERT de Flandre Comte de Marle & his wife Jeanne de Bretagne (château d'Alluyes, Eure-et-Loir 2 Feb or 15 Sep 1326 or 1331-château de Nieppe dit de La Motte-au-Bois, Hazebrouck, Nord 12 Dec 1395, bur Bar-le-Duc, église collégiale Saint-Maxe).  The necrology of Nogent-le-Rotrou records the death “IV Non Feb“ of "domine Yolendis de Flandria comitisse de Barro et domine de Nogento” and her bequest of “argenteam sancti Johannis Baptiste...[679]Mistress (1): JEANNETTE d'Aisy, daughter of ---.  Her lover's brother, Louis Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger, made her a gift in 1367.  Infante Felipe had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         LANCELOT bâtard de Longueville .  He received a gift from his uncle Carlos II King of Navarre in 1371 for so long as he remained in the forces of the Duke of Brittany.

b)         ROBINE bâtarde de Longueville .  Her uncle Louis Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger made her a gift in 1367.

8.         Infante don LUIS de Navarra (1341-Apulia 1372, bur Naples)His brother Carlos II King of Navarre named him Viceroy of Navarre in 1353, during the former's absence in France for his marriage.  Lieutenant of the King of Navarre 1356-1364.  Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger and Seigneur d'Anet 1365 by gift of his brother.  Accompanied to Naples by a considerable body of Navarrese troops on his second marriage, he planned to use this force to recapture Durazzo which was captured by the Albanians in 1368[680].  He died while making his preparations.  m firstly (secretly 1358, annulled) MARÍA de Lizarazu, daughter of ---. She was from St Etienne de Baïgorry.  The marriage was annulled by Carlos II King of Navarre.  m secondly (contract Nov 1365, Naples 19 Jun 1366) as her first husband, his cousin JEANNE of Sicily Dss di Durazzo, daughter of CHARLES of Sicily Duca di Durazzo [Anjou-Capet] & his wife Marie of Sicily (1344-poisoned château d'Œuf, Naples 20 Jul 1387, bur Naples, church of San Lorenzo).  She married secondly ([1376]) Robert d'Artois.  Infante Luis & his first wife had [four] children:

a)         JUANA de Beaumont (chr Olite 2 Sep 1359-).  Infante Luis reimbursed the expenses of the people "en la villa de Olit" relating to the festivities for baptism of "nuestra…fija Juane…2 de sétiembre" in 1359[681].  She was brought up at the monastery of Santa Clara at Estella with her first cousin Isabel Infanta de Navarra.  m PES [Pedro] de Laxague Seigneur de Laxague [Lasaga] [near Ostabat], son of NICOLAS de Laxague Seigneur de Laxague [huissier d'armes at Bayonne] & his wife --- (-Laxague 29 May 1393, bur Pamplona, San Cernin).  Personal chevalier of the future Carlos III King of Navarre.

b)         CARLOS de Beaumont "Charlot" ([1361]-[1432/33]).  According to Yanguas, "Carlos de Beaumont alferez de Navarra" was "hijo natural" of Luis and "María de Lizarazu"[682].  He succeeded his father in 1372 as Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger and Seigneur d'Anet. 

-        CONDES de LERÍN

c)         TRISTAN de Beaumont .  According to Yanguas, Tristan was "hijo natural" of Luis[683].  He studied at Sangüesa in 1376.  Canon at Pamplona 1379. 

d)         [ANDREA de Navarra .  Andrea de Navarra, his parentage and supposed descendants (until the late 16th century) are shown in the on-line "Libro d´Oro di Melita"[684].  This cites no primary sources, and no further information has been found on this possible line of descent.  He went to Sicily with Martín de Aragón, who became Martin I King of Sicily.] 

 

 

Infante don CARLOS de Navarra, son of FELIPE III King of Navarre [Evreux-Capet] & his wife Juana II Queen of Navarre [Capet] (Château d'Evreux, Eure 17 May 1332-Pamplona 1 Jan 1387, bur Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real).  Comte d'Evreux, d'Angoulême et de Mortain 1344, by donation of Philippe VI King of France following the death of his father.  He succeeded his mother in 1349 as CARLOS II "el Malo/le Mauvais" King of Navarre, under the regency firstly of Philippe VI King of France and, after his death in 1350, of Jean II King of France until 12 Feb 1352.  Crowned 27 Jun 1350 at Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real.  Ayala´s Crónica de Pedro I records that “Don Carlos Rey de Navarra é el Infante Don Phelipe su hermano” visited Pedro I King of Castile “en Burgos” in 1351[685].  Named Lieutenant of Languedoc by Jean II King of France when he was declared of age 12 Feb 1352.  Throughout his life he considered himself the rightful King of France, through his mother, and plotted against the French king.  Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger, by the Treaty of Mantes 22 Feb 1354.  After allying himself with Edward III King of England, with whom he agreed to divide France, he was arrested at Rouen 5 Apr 1356.  He escaped from the château d'Arleux en Artois 8 Nov 1357, to resume his conspiring in France.  Proclaimed Captain of Paris 15 Jun 1358.  Comte de Longueville 1363 on the death of his brother Philippe.  He was obliged to accept peace at Paris 6 March 1365, under which he recovered Evreux but lost Mantes, Meulan and Longueville, and renounced his claims over Burgundy (succession to which he had claimed after death in 1361 of Philippe I "de Rouvres" Duke of Burgundy), Champagne and Blois, in return for which he was compensated with Montpellier[686].  On the death of Enrique II de Trastámara King of Castile in 1379, Carlos captured Logroño.  Juan I King of Castile invaded Navarre, and imposed the peace of Briones.  Carlos was accused of trying to poison the King of Castile, and convicted 2 March 1386. 

m (Château de Vivier-en-Brie, Coutevroult 12 Feb 1352) JEANNE de France, daughter of JEAN II "le Bon" King of France & his first wife Bonne of Bohemia (Châteauneuf-sur-Loire, Loiret 24 Jun 1343-Evreux, Eure 3 Nov 1373, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint Denis).  Mistress (1): CATALINA de Esparza, daughter of --- (-after 1388).  Carlos III King of Navarre ordered a pension payable in 1388 to "Juana su hermana bastarda y á Catalina de Esparza su madre"[687]. 

Mistress (2): CATALINA de Lizaso, daughter of --- (-after 1381).  Carlos II King of Navarre ordered maintenance payments for "Catalina de Lizaso madre de Leonel nuestro fijo" in 1381[688]. 

King Carlos II & his wife had eight children: 

1.         Infanta doña MARÍA de Navarra (Puente la Reina [1355]-after 1420)Carlos II King of Navarre committed a dowry of "30.000 florines de oro" to his daughter María for her marriage by contract dated 25 Nov 1396[689].  The date of the marriage is not known.  m (contract Tudela 20 Jan 1393, contract 25 Nov 1396) as his first wife, ALFONSO de Aragón "el Joven", son of ALFONSO de Aragón "el Viejo" Duque de Gandía & his wife Violante Jiménez Señora de la baronía de Arenós (after 1358-29 Nov 1425).  He succeeded his father in 1412 as Duque de Gandía, Conde de Denia y Ribagorza, Barón de Arenós, and also as one of the candidates for the throne of Aragon.  No issue. 

2.         Infante don CARLOS de Navarra (Mantes, Yvelines 1361-Olite 8 Sep 1425, bur 10 Mar 1509 Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real)He succeeded his father in 1387 as CARLOS III "el Noble" King of Navarre, Comte d'Evreux. 

-        see below

3.         Infante don FELIPE de Navarra (Pamplona 1364-young accidentally). 

4.         Infante don PEDRO de Navarra (Evreux 31 Mar 1366-Nevers, Nièvre 29 Jul 1412, bur Paris, Abbaye Saint-Antoine, later transferred to église des Chartreux in Paris).  Comte de Mortain in May 1408, by award of the King of France.  He was Lieutenant of his brother for his territories in France.  The necrology of Vauvert records the death "IV Kal Aug" of "dominus Petrus de Navarra domini Karoli quondam regis Navarre filius et comes de Mortaing"[690]m (contract château d'Alençon, Orne 21 Apr 1411, château d'Alençon Aug 1411) as her first husband, CATHERINE d'Alençon, daughter of PIERRE II Comte d'Alençon & his wife Marie Chamaillart (Verneuil-sur-Avre, Eure [1380]-Paris, Hôtel d’Auxerre 25 Jun 1425, bur Paris, Abbaye Sainte-Geneviève).  She married secondly (Paris, Hôtel Saint-Pol 1 Oct 1413) as his second wife, Ludwig VII Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt.  The necrology of Vauvert records the death "VII Kal Jul" of "domine Katherina de Alençonio ducissa in Bavaria filia ducis Alençonii quondam uxor…principis domini Petri de Navarra"[691].  [Mistress (1): --- Pérez, daughter of PEDRO Martínez de Peralta & his wife ---.  No primary source has been identified in which she is named.  It is not known whether her name and existence are merely speculative on the assumption that Pedro de Peralta was the son of Infante Pedro.]  Infante Pedro had [one illegitimate child by Mistress (1)]: 

a)         [PEDRO de Peralta (-[1442/50]).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Pedro Martínez de Peralta was the illegitimate son of Pedro de Navarra Comte de Mortain.  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified but the chronology for this parentage is tight given the birth of his illegitimate son before 1404.  Yanguas cites the testament of "el consejero del rey D. García Martínez de Peralta" dated 1371, which names "Mosen Pierres" as his son by "Doña Ana Sancha Ruiz de Azagra su mujer", and the testament of "Mosen Pierres" dated 1 May 1438, before "su hijo el obispo de Pamplona", which states the same information, although he highlights that there appear to have been several individuals named "Pedro de Peralta" at the same time[692].  The contemporary documentation nevertheless demonstrates close links between Pedro Martínez de Peralta and the Navarrese royal family: his illegitimate son is named in the same document dated 1404 as the king´s illegitimate son, and members of the royal family were godparents of two of his children.  Señor de Peralta y Andosilla.  Mosén.  Yanguas records that Queen Blanca, under her testament dated 17 Feb 1439, provided for the reversión of "la villa de Peralta y la Planicilla de Caparroso" to the crown if "Mosen Pierres de Peralta y Mosen Pierres el jóven su hijo" died without legitimate male heirs[693].] 

-        SEÑORES de PERALTA

5.         Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra (Pamplona 1370-Dower House, Royal Manor of Havering-atte-Bower, Essex 9 Jul 1437, bur Canterbury Cathedral).  The Chronicon Britannicum records the marriage 11 Sep 1386 “in villa de Saille in parrochia Guerrandiæ” of “Johannes dux Britanniæ comes Montisfortis et Richemundiæ” and “Johannam filiam regis Navarræ[694].  “Jehan Duc de Bretagne” assigned dower to “nostre...espouse Jehanne fille du Roy de Navarre” by charter dated 26 Feb 1395[695].  Regent of Brittany 1399-1402.  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “ducis Brytanie relictam regisque Navarie sororem”, dated to 1403 from the context[696].  She was accused of conspiracy by her stepson Henry V King of England, imprisoned at Pevensey Castle, released in 1425 by King Henry VI.  m firstly (Saillé-près-Guérande 11 Sep 1386) as his third wife, JEAN V "le Vaillant" Duke of Brittany, son of JEAN IV Duke of Brittany & his wife Jeanne de Flandre ([Nov/Dec] 1339 or [30 Sep/8 Dec] 1340-Nantes 1/2 Nov 1399, bur Nantes Cathedral).  m secondly (by proxy Elchim near Canterbury 3 Apr 1402 in person Westminster Abbey, London 7 or 25 Feb 1403) as his second wife, HENRY IV King of England, son of JOHN of Gaunt Duke of Lancaster & his first wife Blanche of Lancaster (Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire 3 Apr or 30 May 1367-Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey 20 Mar 1413, bur Canterbury Cathedral). 

6.         Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra (1372-Olite 1385, bur Olite). 

7.         Infanta doña BONA de Navarra (1364-after 1389). 

8.         Infanta doña ISABEL de Navarra .  She was brought up at the monastery of Santa Clara at Estrella. 

King Carlos II had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):   

9.          JUANA bastarda de Navarra (-1439 or before)Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1382 under which Carlos II King of Navarre ordered various payments including "para nuestra fija Juana, bastarda"[697].  Carlos III King of Navarre ordered a pension payable in 1388 to "Juana su hermana bastarda y á Catalina de Esparza su madre"[698].  Her marriage to "Juan de Bearn baron de Beorlegui" is dated 1397[699].  A document dated 1439 records that "Madama Juana, tia de la reina" had died[700].  m (1397) JEAN de Béarn, son of JEAN de Béarn [captain of the château of Lourdes] & his wife --- (-before 1418).  Seigneur de Beorleguy 6 Aug 1391, by order of Carlos III King of Navarre.  Jean & his wife had one child: 

a)         BLANCA de Navarra Her parentage and marriage are referred to by Yanguas who says that the king of Navarre granted her a dowry of 16,000 florins[701].  Baronesa de Beorlegui.  Yanguas quotes a document dated 27 Mar 1427 which records the arrival at Pamplona of "D. Hugo de Cardona, esposo de Doña Blanca, fija de Madama Juana de Navarra" to meet the queen and the couple´s marriage 18 May at Pamplona[702].  m (Pamplona 18 May 1427) HUG de Cardona Barón de Guadalest, son of JUAN RAMON FOLC [I] Comte de Cardona & his wife Juana de Aragón (-[1470]). 

King Carlos II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2):   

10.       LEÓNEL bastard de Navarra ([1378/79]-Ucar 1413)His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 1380 under which Carlos II King of Navarre ordered maintenance payments for "Leonel nuestro fijo"[703].  Señor de Unciti, Lizárraga and Ioate, which he received from his father.  Created Vizconde de Muruzábal by his half-brother Carlos III King of Navarre at Estella 13 Apr 1407. 

-        VIZCONDES de MURUZÁBAL, MARQUESES de CORTES.

 

 

Infante don CARLOS de Navarra, son of CARLOS II "el Malo" King of Navarre & his wife Jeanne de France (Mantes, Yvelines 1361-Olite 8 Sep 1425, bur 10 Mar 1509 Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real)Having been left as a hostage for the good behaviour of his father in 1370, he remained at the court of Charles V King of France until 1381.  He succeeded his father 1387 as CARLOS III "el Noble" King of Navarre, Comte d'Evreux, crowned at Pamplona 13 Feb 1390.  From 1397 to 1406, he lived at the court of Charles VI King of France, to whom he ceded his rights to the counties of Champagne, Brie, Evreux and Beaumont-le-Roger, in return for which he was created Duc de Nemours in Paris 9 Jun 1404. 

m (contract Burgos 1373, Soria 27 May 1375) Infanta doña LEONOR de Castilla y León, daughter of ENRIQUE II of Castile & Juana Manuel de Castilla Señora de Villena, Peñafiel y Escalona ([1363]-Olite 27 Feb 1415 or Pamplona 5 Mar 1416, bur Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real).  Ayala´s Crónica de Enrique II records the betrothal in 1373 of “el Infante Don Carlos fijo primogénito del Rey de Navarra” and “la Infanta Doña Leonor fija del Rey Don Enrique” at Burgos, and in a later passage their marriage in Soria in May 1375[704]She left her husband with her daughters in 1390, returning to Castile where she lived at Valladolid and played an active political role.  She opposed her nephew Enrique III King of Castile, forming the League of Lillo together with her half-brother Fadrique de Castilla Duque de Benevente and cousin Pedro de Castilla Conde de Trastámara.  King Enrique besieged her in her castle at Roa [mid-1394] and obliged her to return to her husband in February 1395.  Crowned Queen of Navarre at Pamplona 3 Jun 1403.  Under her testament dated 27 Jul 1414, Queen Leonor bequeathed money to "su hija Doña Isabel" for her marriage to "el infante D. Juan, hijo secundo del rey D. Fernando de Aragon"[705]. 

Mistress (1): MARÍA Miguel de Esparza, daughter of ---.  A document names "María Miguel" as the mother of King Carlos´s bastard son Lancelót[706]

Mistress (2): ---. 

King Carlos III & his wife had eight children: 

1.         Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra (1382-Béarn Jul 1413)She was recognised as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite 3 Dec 1402.  She governed Navarre in the name of her parents during their absences abroad.  Betrothed (1401) to MARTIN I King of Sicily, son of MARTÍN I King of Aragon & his first wife María López de Luna (25 Jul 1374-Cagliari 25 Jul 1409, bur Cagliari).  He later married her sister Infanta doña Blanca.  m (Olite 12 Nov 1402) as his first wife, JEAN de Foix-Grailly, son of ARCHAMBAUD de Grailly Captal de Buch & his wife Isabelle Ctss de Foix et de Bigorre (1382-Mazères, Ariège 4 May 1436).  He succeeded in 1412 as Comte de Foix

2.         Infanta doña MARÍA de Navarra (1383-Pamplona 6 Jan 1406, bur Pamplona Santa María).  Queen Leonor ordered payment "al convento de frailes menores de Olite en almosna por el servicio que ficieron…sobre el cuerpo de la infanta Doña María" in Jan 1406[707]

3.         Infanta doña BLANCA de Navarra (Pamplona 1385-Santa María de Nieva 3 Apr 1441, bur Tudela, église des Cordeliers)She was recognised as second in line to the throne at Olite in 1402.  Declared Regent of Sicily by her father-in-law, after the death of her first husband.  She was recognised as heiress to the throne of Navarre at Olite 28 Oct 1416.  She succeeded her father in 1425 as BLANCA I Queen of Navarre, crowned with her second husband at Pamplona 15 May 1429.  Charles VII King of France created her Dss de Nemours 15 Feb 1437.  Yanguas records that Queen Blanca, under her testament dated 17 Feb 1439, appointed "su hijo el principe D. Carlos" as her universal heir, asking that he abstain from adopting the title king of Navarre after her death in favour of her husband, substituting "la infanta Doña Blanca…y…Doña Leonor" in case of his death, and bequeathed to "Maria de Peralta 3000 florines para su casamiento con Juan de Luxa, a su hermana Doña Juana condesa de Lerin los 10000 florines que su padre le mandó cuando casó con el condestable D. Luis de Beaumont, a Catalina de Beaumont hermana del condestable 300 florines para ayuda de su casamiento, a Doña Blanca de Arellano, hija de Doña Teresa condesa de Cortés 500 florines…otros 500…á Doña Anglesa mugger de Mosen Gracian de Agramont por su dote", provided for the reversión of "la villa de Peralta y la Planicilla de Caparroso" to the crown if "Mosen Pierres de Peralta y Mosen Pierres el jóven su hijo" died without legitimate male heirs, and pardoned "D. Godofre su hermano" granting him "en recompensa del condado de Córtes…el de Monfort en el ducado de Nemours"[708].  m firstly (by proxy Catania 21 May 1402) as his second wife, MARTIN I King of Sicily, son of MARTÍN I King of Aragon & his first wife María López de Luna (25 Jul 1374-Cagliari 25 Jul 1409, bur Cagliari).  Betrothed (Paris 1409, contract broken before 1410) to LUDWIG von Bayern, son of STEFAN III Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt & his first wife Taddea Visconti ([20 Dec 1365/1369]-in prison Burghausen 1/2 May 1447, bur Raitenhaslach).  He succeeded his father in 1413 as LUDWIG VII "der Bärtige" Duke of Bavaria-IngolstadtBetrothed (1410) to EDOUARD de Bar, son of ROBERT I Duc de Bar & his wife Marie de France (-killed in battle Agincourt 1415).  He succeeded his father in 1411 as EDOUARD III Duc de Bar.  m secondly (by treaty 5 Nov 1419, contract Olite 5 Dec 1419, Pamplona 18 Jun 1420) as his first wife, Infante don JUAN de Aragón, son of FERNANDO I "él de Antequera" King of Aragon & his wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Medina del Campo 29 Jun 1398-Barcelona 19 Jan 1479, bur Nuestra Señora de Poblet).  On the death of his father-in-law, he proclaimed himself JUAN II King of Navarre, by right of his wife, crowned 18 May 1425.  He seized power in Navarre, setting aside the rights of his son, on his first wife's death in 1441.  He succeeded in 1458 as JUAN II King of Aragon, immediately excluding his son from the succession.  Queen Blanca & her first husband had one child: 

a)         Infante don MARTÍN de Aragón (1403-Valencia Aug 1407). 

Queen Blanca & her second husband had four children: 

b)         Infante don CARLOS de Aragón y Navarra (Peñafiel 29 May 1421-Barcelona maybe poisoned 23 Sep 1461)"Carlos…rey de Navarra duque de Nemoux" granted "al infante D. Cárlos", son of "el infante D. Juan de Aragon y la reina Doña Blanca", "nuestra villa y castillo de Viana…" and the title "Principe de Viana", by charter dated 20 Jan 1423[709]Principe de Viana.  Although designated heir to Navarre from birth by the Cortes, his father was already trying in 1427 to change the order of succession in favour of his youngest daughter Infanta doña Leonor.  Yanguas records that Queen Blanca, under her testament dated 17 Feb 1439, appointed "su hijo el principe D. Carlos" as her universal heir, asking that he abstain from adopting the title king of Navarre after her death in favour of her husband[710].  Carlos left Navarre in 1451 for Guipúzcoa, supported by the Beaumont clan [family of Navarra-Evreux].  He was imprisoned 1453-1455.  After a brief reconciliation in 1460, Carlos was incarcerated at Lérida.  This crystallised opposition to the king in Aragon, where a special council was formed which secured Infante don Carlos's release 25 Feb 1461 and imposed a capitulation on the king enacted at Vilafranca del Penedès 21 Jun 1461 requiring him to recognise his older son's right to succeed.  Carlos died soon after, maybe from tuberculosis, though there were rumours of poisoning. 

-        ARAGON KINGS

c)         other children: see ARAGON KINGS.  

d)         Infanta doña LEONOR de Aragón y Navarra (2 Feb 1425-Tudela 12 Feb 1479).  The 15th century Chronicle of Esquerrier records that "Mossen Gaston fil de Mossen Johan et de Madona Johana de Labrit" married "Madona Leonor infanta de Navarra"[711]Her father named her Lieutenant General of the Kingdom of Navarre 1464.  She succeeded her father in 1479 as LEONOR I Queen of Navarrem (30 Jul 1436) GASTON IV Comte de Foix et de Bigorre, Vicomte de Béarn, son of JEAN III de Grailly Comte de Foix et de Bigorre Vicomte de Béarn & his wife Jeanne d'Albret (1423-Roncevalles 25 Jul 1472). 

-        see Chapter 5.  KINGS of NAVARRE 1479-1517 (COMTES de FOIX)

4.         Infanta doña BEATRIZ de Navarra (1386-1410)She was recognised as third in line to the throne at Olite in 1402.  m (contract 15 Aug 1405, Pamplona 14 Sep 1406) as his first wife, JACQUES II de Bourbon Comte de la Marche et de Castres, son of JEAN I de Bourbon Comte de la Marche et de Vendôme & his wife Catherine Ctss de Vendôme et de Castres ([1369/70]-Besançon 24 Sep 1438, bur Besançon, couvent des Cordelières Sainte-Claire).  

5.         Infanta doña ISABEL de Navarra (1396-after 31 Aug 1435 or [1450])Under her testament dated 27 Jul 1414, Queen Leonor bequeathed money to "su hija Doña Isabel" for her marriage to "el infante D. Juan, hijo secundo del rey D. Fernando de Aragon"[712].  Betrothed (1403) to Infante don JUAN de Castilla, son of Infante don FERNANDO de Castilla [later FERNANDO I "él de Antequera" King of Aragon] & his wife Leonor Urraca de Castilla "la Ricahembra" Condesa de Alburquerque (Medina del Campo 29 Jun 1398-Barcelona 19 Jan 1479, bur Nuestra Señora de Poblet).  He later married her older sister Blanca.  m (by proxy 10 May 1419) as his second wife, JEAN [IV] Comte d'Armagnac, son of BERNARD [VII] Comte d'Armagnac & his wife Bonne de Berry [Valois] (Rodez, Aveyron 15 Oct 1396-château de L'Isle-Jourdain, Gers 5 Nov 1450). 

6.         Infante don CARLOS de Navarra (Pamplona 15 Aug 1397-Estella castle 12 Aug 1402, bur Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real).  Sworn heir to the throne in 1398.   

7.         Infante don LUIS de Navarra (Olite castle 1401-14 Oct 1402, bur Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real).  

8.         Infanta doña MARGARITA de Navarra .  1403, 1412. 

King Carlos III had [five] illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

9.          LANCELOT [Lanzarot] bastard de Navarra (1386-Olite 8 Jan 1420, bur Pamplona, Cathedral of Santa María la Real).  Carlos III King of Navarre ordered payments to García López de Lizoain for the expenses of "Lancelót nuestro fijo bastardo [y] de su madre" in 1387[713].  Apostolic protonotary of anti-Pope Benedict XIII.  Archdeacon of  Calahorra 1404.  Patriarch of Alexandria 1406.  Bishop of Pamplona, being named administrator for life in 1408.  Señor de Arazúri.  Lancelot had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress:

a)         doñ JUANA document names "Juanot" as son of Lancelot[714]. 

b)         MARGARITA (-1423 or before).  Her parentage and aproxímate date of death are confirmed by a document signed by "Miramonda de Blasquen aya de Margarita de Navarra, fija del seinor Patriarca que Dios haya" in 1423[715].  m as his first wife, GRACIAN d'Agramonte [de Gramont], son of BERNARDO d'Agramonte & his wife Gracie de Haux (-28 Jun 1469).  Ricohombre de Navarra, grand maître d'hôtel of Carlos Principe de Viana.  He married secondly Anglesola, daughter of Leónel bastard de Navarra Vizconde de Muruzábal. 

10.       GODOFRE bastard de Navarra (1394-[1429/32])Yanguas records that Queen Leonor, wife of Carlos III King of Navarre, ordered payments to be made for the clothing of "Godofre fijo bastart de mi dicho senior é á Tristan é Machin bastartes del Alferiz é de Mosen Pierres de Peralta" in 1404[716].  Protonotary of the anti-Pope Benedict XIII, who named him Archdeacon of Calahorra in 1404.  Created 3rd Marshal of the Kingdom of Navarre by King Carlos III in 1411.  Conde de Cortes 1412/14.  Juan II King of Aragon deprived him of all his titles in 1429 and confiscated his possessions.  Yanguas records that Queen Blanca, under her testament dated 17 Feb 1439, pardoned "D. Godofre su hermano" granting him "en recompensa del condado de Córtes…el de Monfort en el ducado de Nemours"[717].  m TERESA Ramírez de Arellano Señora de Buñuel, daughter of CARLOS Ramírez de Arellano Señor de Buñuel.  Godofre & his wife had one child: 

a)         BLANCA de Navarra (-in Navarre 1442)Yanguas records that Queen Blanca, under her testament dated 17 Feb 1439, bequeathed to "…a Doña Blanca de Arellano, hija de Doña Teresa condesa de Cortés 500 florines…"[718].  Señora de Lodosa y Buñuel.  m as his second wife, PEDRO González Hurtado de Mendoza Señor de Almazán y Monteagudo, son of JUAN González Hurtado de Mendoza & his wife Inés Henríquez. 

Godofre had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:   

b)         CARLOS de Cortes .  Pedro de Navarra Vizconde de Muruzábal de Andión gave him possessions in 1455.

11.       JUANA bastarda de Navarra (-1 Sep 1456)Her father created her Condesa de Lerín at Olite 25 Aug 1424.  Señora de Eslava y Sada.  Yanguas records that Queen Blanca, under her testament dated 17 Feb 1439, bequeathed to "…su hermana Doña Juana condesa de Lerin los 10000 florines que su padre le mandó cuando casó con el condestable D. Luis de Beaumont…"[719].  m firstly ÍÑIGO Ortíz de Zúñiga Señor de Nieva, Mendavia y Las Cuevas [marshal of Castile], younger son of DIEGO López de Zúñiga 12th Señor de Zúñiga [d'Eztuniga] [Grand Justice of the Kingdom of Castile, chamberlain of Carlos III King of Navarre] & his wife Juana García de Leíva (-1420).  m secondly (1425) her cousin, LUIS de Beaumont Conde de Lerín, son of CARLOS de Beaumont "Charlot" Conde de Lerín & his second wife Anne de Curton dame de Curton et de Guiche (-Madrid 1462).

12.       [LEÓNEL bastard de Navarra (-after 1441).]  

13.       [MARÍA bastarda de Navarra .  Nun.] 

King Carlos III had one illegitimate child by [Mistress (1)]: 

14.       FRANCISCO (-[1418/21]).  Yanguas records that García López de Roncesvalles, treasurer of the king, reimbursed money paid to the nurse of "Mosen Frances, fijo natual del rey" dated 1418[720].  Antonia Martínez de Villafranca, inhabitant of Olite, stated that she had been "nodriza de D. Frances, que Dios haya, fijo del rey" in a document dated 1421[721]. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    KINGS of NAVARRE 1479-1517 (COMTES de FOIX)

 

 

Infanta doña LEONOR de Aragón y Navarra, daughter of BLANCA Queen of Navarre & JUAN II King of Navarre [Aragón] (2 Feb 1425-Tudela 12 Feb 1479).  The 15th century Chronicle of Esquerrier records that "Mossen Gaston fil de Mossen Johan et de Madona Johana de Labrit" married "Madona Leonor infanta de Navarra"[722].  Her father named her Lieutenant General of the Kingdom of Navarre 1464.  She succeeded her father 1479 as LEONOR I Queen of Navarre

m (30 Jul 1436) GASTON IV Comte de Foix et de Bigorre, Vicomte de Béarn, son of JEAN III de Grailly Comte de Foix et de Bigorre Vicomte de Béarn & his wife Jeanne d'Albret (1423-Roncevalles 25 Jul 1472).  Gaston IV & his wife had ten children: 

1.         GASTON de Foix Infante de Navarra (1444-Libourne, Gironde 23 Nov 1470, bur Bordeaux, Cathédrale Saint-André)Principe de Viana.  He died from injuries received during a tournament.  m (contract Tours 1458, Saint-Jean-d'Angély, Charente-Maritime 11 Feb 1462, Saint-Macaire, Gironde 7 Mar 1462) MADELEINE de France, daughter of CHARLES VII King of France & his wife Marie d'Anjou (Tours, Indre-et-Loire 1 Dec 1443-Pamplona 24 Jan 1495, bur Pamplona Cathedral).  Gaston & his wife had two children: 

a)         FRANCISCO FEBO de Navarra ([Nov/Dec] 1466-Pamplona 30 Jan 1483).  He succeeded his grandfather 1472 as Comte de Foix et de Bigorre, Vicomte de Béarn.  He succeeded his paternal grandmother in 1479 as FRANCISCO FEBO King of Navarre.  

b)         CATALINA de Navarra (1470-Mont-de-Marsan 12 Feb 1517 bur Lescar)She succeeded her brother in 1483 as CATALINA Queen of Navarre, Ctss de Foix et de Bigorre, Vicomtesse de Béarn.  m (Orthez 14 Jul 1484) JEAN d'Albret, son of ALAIN Sire d'Albret & his wife Françoise de Blois dite de Bretagne ([1469]-Pau 14 Jun 1516, bur Lascar).  He succeeded in 1484 as JUAN (III) Joint King of Navarre, by right of his wife. 

-        see Chapter 6.  KINGS of NAVARRE 1517-1555 HOUSE of COMTES d'ALBRET

2.         other children: see FOIX.   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KINGS of NAVARRE 1517-1555 (ALBRET)

 

 

CATALINA de Navarra, daughter of GASTON de Foix Infante de Navarra Principe de Viana & his wife Madeleine de France (1470-Mont-de-Marsan 12 Feb 1517 bur Lescar)She succeeded her brother in 1483 as CATALINA Queen of Navarre, Ctss de Foix et de Bigorre, Vicomtesse de Béarn.  She was deposed in 1512 by Fernando II "el Católico" King of Aragon, who declared himself King of Navarre.  The royal family left Pamplona and settled in Béarn. 

m (Orthez 14 Jul 1484) JEAN d'Albret, son of ALAIN Sire d'Albret Comte de Gavre, de Périgord et de Castres & his wife Françoise de Blois dite de Bretagne Ctss de Périgord ([1469]-Pau 14 Jun 1516, bur Lascar).  He succeeded in 1484 as JUAN (III) Joint King of Navarre, by right of his wife. 

King Juan & Queen Catalina had thirteen children: 

1.         Infanta doña ANA de Navarra d'Albret (Pau 19 May 1492-Pau 15 Aug 1532).    

2.         Infanta doña MADALENA de Navarra d'Albret (Olite 29 Mar 1494-Medina del Campo May 1504). 

3.         Infanta doña CATALINA de Navarra d'Albret (Pamplona 1495-Caen Nov 1532).  Abbess of the Trinity at Caen. 

4.         Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra d'Albret (Pamplona 15 Jun 1496-Pamplona after Nov 1496). 

5.         Infanta doña QUITERÍA de Navarra d'Albret (1499-Montvilliers [13 Sep/30 Oct] 1536).  Abbess at Montvilliers. 

6.         son (b and d Jun 1500). 

7.         Infante don ANDRÉS FEBO de Navarra d'Albret (Pamplona 14 Oct 1501-Sangüesa 17 Apr 1503). 

8.         Infante don ENRIQUE de Navarra d'Albret (Sangüesa 18 Apr 1503-Hagetmau en Béarn, Landes 29 May 1555, bur Lescar Cathedral)He succeeded his mother in 1517 as ENRIQUE (II) titular King of Navarre, Comte de Foix et de Bigorre, Vicomte de Béarn et de Marsan, Duc de Nemours et de Montblanc.  He reconquered most of Navarre in 1520, but lost it soon after.  m (contract 3 Jan 1527, Saint-Germain-en-Laye 24 Jan 1527) as her second husband, MARGUERITE d'Orléans Dss de Berry, widow of CHARLES IV Duc d'Alençon, daughter of CHARLES d'Orléans Comte d'Angoulême et de Périgord & his wife Louise de Savoie (Château d'Angoulême, Charente 11 Apr 1492-Château d'Odos en Bigorre, near Tarbes 21 Dec 1549, bur Lescar).  She was the author of several surviving literary works.  Mistress (1): MARIANNE Alespées, daughter of ---.  King Enrique & his wife had two children: 

a)         Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra d'Albret (Pau 7 Jan 1528-Paris, Hôtel du Prince de Condé 9 Jun 1572, bur Vendôme Saint-Georges)She succeeded her father in 1555 as JUANA (III) titular Queen of Navarre, Pss de Béarn, Ctss de Foix.  She converted to the Swiss Reformed Church 1560.  m firstly (Château de Châtellerault 14 Jun 1541, not consummated, annulled 12 Oct 1545) WILHELM "der Reiche" Herzog von Kleve, Jülich und Berg, son of JOHANN III "dem Friedfertigen" Herzog von Kleve, Jülich und Berg & his wife Maria von Jülich (Kleve 28 Jul 1516-Düsseldorf 25 Jun 1592, bur Düsseldorf St Lambertuskirche).  m secondly (Moulins en Bourbonnais, Allier 20 Oct 1548) ANTOINE de Bourbon Duc de Vendôme, son of CHARLES de Bourbon Duc de Vendôme & his wife Françoise d'Alençon (Château de La Fère en Picardie 22 Apr 1518-Les Andelys, Eure 17 Nov 1562, bur Vendôme Saint-Georges).  He succeeded in 1555 as ANTOINE King of Navarre, by right of his wife.  Created Duc d'Albret, pair de France 1 Dec 1556, registered 11 Jan 1557.  He died from wounds received at the siege of Rouen. 

-        see Chapter 7.  KINGS of NAVARRE 1555-1609, HOUSE of BOURBON

b)         Infante don JUAN de Navarra d'Albret (after 1530-young). 

King Enrique had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

c)          JEAN Alespées

9.         Infanta doña BUENAVENTURA de Navarra d'Albret (Pamplona 14 Jul 1505-[1510/11]). 

10.      Infante don MARTÍN de Navarra d'Albret (after 1506-Sangüesa after 1512). 

11.      Infante don FRANCISCO de Navarra d'Albret (1508-Salvatuerra de Béarn after 28 Sep 1512). 

12.      Infante don CARLOS de Navarra d'Albret (Pau 12 Dec 1510-in prison Naples Sep 1528).  He fought at the siege of Naples. 

13.      Infanta dona ISABEL de Navarra d'Albret ([1513/14]-after 1555)She converted to the Swiss Reformed Church.  m firstly (contract Fontainebleau 16 Aug 1534) RENE I Vicomte de Rohan Comte de Porhoët, Baron de Léon, son of PIERRE II de Rohan Seigneur de Frontenay, de la Marche et de Gié & his wife Anne de Rohan (-killed in battle near Metz 20 Oct 1552, bur Nancy Cathedral).  m secondly (1555) ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    KINGS of NAVARRE (BOURBON)

 

 

Infanta doña JUANA de Navarra d'Albret, Pau 7 Jan 1528-murdered Paris, Hôtel du Prince de Condé 9 Jun 1572, bur Vendôme Saint-Georges).  She succeeded her father 1555 as JUANA (III) titular Queen of Navarre, Pss de Béarn, Ctss de Foix.  She converted to the Swiss Reformed Church 1560. 

m firstly (Château de Châtellerault 14 Jun 1541, not consummated, annulled 12 Oct 1545) WILHELM "der Reiche" Herzog von Kleve, Jülich und Berg, son of JOHANN III "dem Friedfertigen" Herzog von Kleve, Jülich und Berg & his wife Maria von Jülich (Kleve 28 Jul 1516-Düsseldorf 25 Jun 1592, bur Düsseldorf St Lambertuskirche). 

m secondly (Moulins en Bourbonnais, Allier 20 Oct 1548) ANTOINE de Bourbon Duc de Vendôme, son of CHARLES de Bourbon Duc de Vendôme & his wife Françoise d'Alençon (Château de La Fère en Picardie 22 Apr 1518-Les Andelys, Eure 17 Nov 1562, bur Vendôme Saint-Georges).  He succeeded in 1555 as ANTOINE King of Navarre, by right of his wife.  Created Duc d'Albret, pair de France 1 Dec 1556, registered 11 Jan 1557.  He died from wounds received at the siege of Rouen. 

Queen Juana & her second husband had children:

1.         other children: see BOURBON

2.         HENRI de Bourbon (Château de Pau, Béarn 13 Dec 1553-assassinated Paris 14 May 1610, bur Saint-Denis).  On his birth, he bore the title Comte de Viane.  He became Prince de Navarre 24 May 1555 on the death of his grandfather Henri d’Albret King of Navarre.  He succeeded his mother 9 Jun 1572 as ENRIQUE III King of Navarre.  On the death of his father, he became premier prince de sang de France.  On the death of his very distant cousin Henri III King of France 2 Aug 1589, he was recognised as HENRI IV King of France and Navarre. 

-        KINGS of FRANCE

 

 



[1] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 7, citing Chalmeta, P. (1994) Invasión e Islamización: la sumisión de Hispania y la formación de al-Andalus (Madrid), p. 50 [not yet consulted]. 

[2] Lafuente, E. (ed. & trans.) (1867) Colección de obras arábicas de historia y geografía, Tome I (Madrid) ("Ajbar Machmua"), p. 38. 

[3] Payne, S. G. (1973) A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1 - Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century (University of Wisconsin Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm (15 Dec 2002), Chapter 3, p. 35. 

[4] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“Royal Frankish Annals”), 806, p. 86. 

[5] Royal Frankish Annals, 824, p. 117. 

[6] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945), pp. 193-283. 

[7] Oïhenart, A. de (1656) Notitia utriusque Vasconiæ 2nd edn. (Paris), cited in Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 93. 

[8] Yanguas y Miranda, J. (1845) Adiciones al Diccionario de antigüedades de Navarra (Pamplona), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain, J. de (1898) La Vasconie, étude historique et critique, première partie (Pau), p. 137. 

[9] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 307, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[10] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1976) Cartulario de San Millán de la Cogolla (Valencia), Tome I, 166, p. 161. 

[11] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 1, p. 7. 

[12] Royal Frankish Annals, 806, p. 86. 

[13] Levi-Provencal & García Gómez 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 297, reproduced in Textos históricos al-Ándalus. Conquista, Emiratos y Califato, IES Isidra de Guzmán, consulted at <http://www.educa.madrid.org/web/ies.isidradeguzman.alcala/departamentos/geografia/historia_2bac/al_andalus.pdf> [3 Nov 2012]. 

[14] Settipani (2004), p. 88. 

[15] See, for example, Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1986) Cartulario de Siresa (Zaragoza) (“Siresa”), 2 ([828/33]: “regnante domno nostro Lodovico imperatore”) and 4 ([840/67]: “regnum...domni nostri Karoli regis”), pp. 17, and 20. 

[16] Ubieto Arteta, A. (1962) Cartulario de San Juan de la Peña (Valencia) (“San Juan de la Peña”), Vol. I, 3, p. 21. 

[17] Siresa, 3, p. 18. 

[18] Lacarra 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', p. 243, footnote 21 (continuation from p. 242), quoting “Lib. Gótico, fol. 80 r”. 

[19] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 307, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[20] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 301 and 305, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[21] De la Granja, F. 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón VIII (1967), available as an extract at <http://www.unizar.es/cema/recursos/447_545.pdf> (8 Feb 2011), Apéndice, "Principales familias árabes mencionadas en la obra de al-Udri, según la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm (ed. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo, 1948)", p. 87. 

[22] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[23] De la Granja, F. 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón VIII (1967), available as an extract at <http://www.unizar.es/cema/recursos/447_545.pdf> (8 Feb 2011), 27, p. 23. 

[24] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 301 and 305, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[25] Settipani (2004), pp. 101-2. 

[26] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[27] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 27, p. 23. 

[28] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 307, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[29] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 301 and 305, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[30] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[31] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF VII, p. 42. 

[32] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF VII, p. 42, citing in footnote (d) Marca, P. de (1640) Histoire de Béarn, cap. 10. 

[33] Jaurgain (1898), p. 128, citing Oïhenart Notitia, p. 250. 

[34] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[35] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[36] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[37] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[38] Martín Duque, A. J. (1983) Documentación medieval de Leire (siglos IX a XII) (Pamplona) ("Leire") 1, p. 11, discussed in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[39] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[40] Chronicon Sebastiani 26, España Sagrada XIII, p. 491. 

[41] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[42] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[43] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 27, p. 23. 

[44] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 307, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[45] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 1, p. 229. 

[46] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[47] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[48] Leire, 1, p. 11, discussed in Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[49] Jaurgain (1898), p. 147, quoting Rodericus Toletanus De Rebus Hispaniæ l. v, c. 21. 

[50] Settipani (2004), p. 103 footnote 4, quoting Arab sources. 

[51] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF VII, p. 42. 

[52] Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF VII, p. 42, citing in footnote (d) Marca (Béarn), cap. 10. 

[53] Jaurgain (1898), p. 128, citing Oïhenart Notitia, p. 250. 

[54] Settipani (2004), p. 103 footnote 2, quoting Arab sources. 

[55] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[56] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Apéndice, "la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm", p. 87. 

[57] Rodrigo of Toledo, V, 22, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 103. 

[58] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 1, p. 229. 

[59] Leire, 3, p. 14. 

[60] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[61] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, p. 38, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Urraca´, p. 33. 

[62] Jaurgain (1898), p. 147, quoting Rodericus Toletanus De Rebus Hispaniæ l. v, c. 21. 

[63] Jaurgain (1898), p. 146 footnote 4. 

[64] Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Urraca, Un nombre egregio en la onomástica altomedieval´, En la España medieval, Anejo I, 2006, p. 29, available at <http://www.ucm.es/BUCM/revistasBUC/portal/modulos.php?name=Revistas2_Historico&id=ELEM&num=ELEM060622> (10 Feb 2008). 

[65] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 272. 

[66] Barrau-Dihigo, p. 251 footnote 60. 

[67] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 2, p. 230. 

[68] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 2, p. 230. 

[69] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 4, p. 231. 

[70] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3 and 5, pp. 230 and 231. 

[71] Settipani (2004), p. 104. 

[72] Fernández González, F. (trans) (1860) Historias de al-Andalus por Aben-Adhari de Marruecos, Tome I (Granada) ("Ibn Idhari"), p. 280. 

[73] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 4, p. 231. 

[74] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 4, p. 231. 

[75] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 4 and 12, pp. 231 and 235. 

[76] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 160, p. 70. 

[77] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 2, p. 230. 

[78] Cronica de Sampiro, in Pérez de Urbel, J. and González Ruiz-Zorrilla, A. (eds.) (1959) Historia Silense (Madrid), (“Historia Silense (Pérez)”), p. 160. 

[79] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[80] Sánchez-Albórnoz, C. 'Problemas de la Historia Navarra', p. 52, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 117. 

[81] Settipani (2004), pp. 117-18. 

[82] Cronica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[83] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 15, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 461. 

[84] Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester U. P.), Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[85] Lorenzo Jiménez, J. (2010) La Dawla de los Banu Qasi (Madrid), Apéndice de textos, p. 60, quoting Lévi-Provençal, E. & García Gómez, E. ´Fragmentos inéditos del Muqtabis´, Al-Andalus, 19 (Madrid, 1954), al-Muqtabis II-2, pp. 331-2. 

[86] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 301 and 303, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92 footnote 1. 

[87] Settipani (2004), p. 92. 

[88] De la Granja 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', 157-8, pp. 68-9. 

[89] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 311, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 92 footnote 1. 

[90] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 1, p. 229. 

[91] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 1, p. 229. 

[92] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 2, p. 230. 

[93] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945),, p. 230 footnote 3, citing Arab sources. 

[94] Leire 3, p. 14. 

[95] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 7, p. 31. 

[96] Leire 4, p. 17. 

[97] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[98] Sabaté Curull, F. 'Repoblación y Prefeudalismo', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), p. 244. 

[99] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3, p. 230. 

[100] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3 and 5, pp. 230 and 231. 

[101] Settipani (2004), p. 104. 

[102] Ibn Idhari, Tome I, p. 280. 

[103] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3, p. 230. 

[104] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 6, p. 232. 

[105] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 6, p. 232. 

[106] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 9, p. 233. 

[107] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 9, p. 233. 

[108] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 9, p. 233. 

[109] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 6, p. 232. 

[110] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 6, p. 232. 

[111] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3, p. 230. 

[112] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 7, p. 233. 

[113] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 7, p. 233. 

[114] Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 190. 

[115] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3, p. 230. 

[116] Settipani (2004), p. 99 footnote 3. 

[117] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 8, p. 233. 

[118] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 8, p. 233. 

[119] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 8, p. 233. 

[120] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 3, p. 230. 

[121] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[122] Settipani (2004), p. 100. 

[123] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[124] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[125] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[126] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 12, p. 42. 

[127] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1981) Cartulario de Albelda (Zaragoza), 3, p. 13. 

[128] Del Pino, J. L. 'El Califato Omeya de Córdoba (Génesis y consolidación política)', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), p. 158. 

[129] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 8 and 11, pp. 233 and 235. 

[130] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 11, p. 235. 

[131] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 11, p. 235. 

[132] ES II 56. 

[133] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 11, p. 235. 

[134] ES II 56. 

[135] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 11, p. 235. 

[136] ES II 56. 

[137] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 11, p. 235. 

[138] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 6, p. 232. 

[139] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10 and 13, pp. 234 and 236. 

[140] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10, p. 234. 

[141] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 12, p. 42. 

[142] Albelda 3, p. 13. 

[143] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[144] Del Pino, p. 158. 

[145] Siresa, 7, p. 26. 

[146] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 14, p. 47. 

[147] Albelda 6, p. 16. 

[148] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[149] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 4 and 12, pp. 231 and 235. 

[150] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 12, p. 235. 

[151] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 12, p. 235. 

[152] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 12, p. 235. 

[153] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 12, p. 235. 

[154] Risco, M. (1792) Historia de la ciudad y corte de León y de sus reyes (Madrid), p. 184. 

[155] Florez, H. (1770) Memorias de las reynas cathólicas (Madrid), Tomo I, p. 90. 

[156] España Sagrada, Tome XXXVII, Apendice, XIII, p. 343. 

[157] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 12, p. 236. 

[158] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 10 and 13, pp. 234 and 236. 

[159] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[160] Leire 5, p. 18. 

[161] Del Pino, pp. 148-9. 

[162] Leire 6, p. 19. 

[163] Cronica de Sampiro 18, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 163. 

[164] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 12, p. 42. 

[165] Del Pino, p. 150. 

[166] Albelda 3, p. 13. 

[167] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[168] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 259. 

[169] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[170] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 4 and 13, pp. 231 and 236. 

[171] Leire 5, p. 18. 

[172] Leire 6, p. 19. 

[173] Gaztambide, J. G. (ed.) (1997) Colección diplomatica de la catedral de Pamplona, Tome I 829-1243 (Gobierno de Navarra), 2, p. 21. 

[174] Albelda 5, p. 15. 

[175] Del Pino, p. 158. 

[176] Siresa 8, p. 27. 

[177] Payne Chapter 3, p. 49.   

[178] Albelda 15, p. 24. 

[179] Albelda 24, p. 34. 

[180] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[181] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13, p. 236. 

[182] Albelda 3, p. 13. 

[183] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13 and 14, pp. 236 and 237. 

[184] Cronica de Sampiro 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[185] Férotin, D. M. (ed.) (1897) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Silos (Paris), 1, p. 1. 

[186] Garrido Garrido, J. M. (ed.) (1983) Documentación de la catedral de Burgos (804-1183) (Burgos) ("Burgos Cathedral"), 3, p. 10. 

[187] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXIV, p. 380. 

[188] Zabalza Duque, pp. 226-7. 

[189] Pérez de Urbel, Fray Justo (1969/70) El condado de Castilla 3 vols. (Madrid), Vol. I, p. 267. 

[190] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13 and 17, pp. 236 and 238-9. 

[191] Cronica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[192] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 23, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 467. 

[193] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 362. 

[194] Serrano, L. (ed.) (1927) Cartulario de Monasterio de Vega con documentos de San Pelayo de Oviedo (Madrid), Vega (“Vega”), 2, p. 3. 

[195] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. I, cap. VI.3, p. 33. 

[196] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13 and 17, pp. 236 and 238-9. 

[197] Albelda 3, p. 13. 

[198] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 91. 

[199] Pamplona 2, p. 21. 

[200] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13, p. 236. 

[201] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13, p. 236. 

[202] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13, p. 236. 

[203] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 13, p. 236. 

[204] Albelda 3, p. 13. 

[205] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 14, p. 47. 

[206] Albelda 5, p. 15. 

[207] Del Pino, p. 158. 

[208] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[209] Siresa 8, p. 27. 

[210] Del Pino, p. 159. 

[211] Del Pino, p. 160. 

[212] Pamplona 3, p. 22, and Leire 7, p. 20. 

[213] Albelda 15, p. 24. 

[214] Albelda 20, p. 30. 

[215] Cronica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[216] Del Pino, p. 161. 

[217] Del Pino, p. 163. 

[218] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[219] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 259. 

[220] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 6, p. 232. 

[221] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[222] Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 151, which does not cite the source reference for the original. 

[223] Del Pino, p. 160. 

[224] Siresa 10, p. 30. 

[225] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 30, p. 45. 

[226] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 41, p. 57. 

[227] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 69, p. 81.  

[228] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 76, p. 90. 

[229] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 232 footnote 6, quoting Sangorrin El Libro de la Cadena de Jaca, p. 17. 

[230] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 259. 

[231] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[232] Albelda 20, p. 30. 

[233] Mínguez Fernández, J. M. (ed.) (1976) Colección diplomatica del Monasterio de Sahagún, Tomo I Siglos IX y X (León), 196. 

[234] Sabaté Curull, p. 247. 

[235] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 87, p. 101. 

[236] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 88, p. 102. 

[237] Cantera Montenegro, M. (ed.) (1991) Colección documental de Santa María la Real de Nájera, Tomo I (Siglos X-XIV) (San Sebastián) 3, p. 4. 

[238] Albelda 26, p. 36. 

[239] Siresa 11, p. 32, and Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 190. 

[240] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 255. 

[241] Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 155. 

[242] Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 161. 

[243] Leire 11, p. 25. 

[244] Leire 9, p. 22. 

[245] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[246] Jaurgain (1902), p. 234. 

[247] Jaurgain (1898), p. 207. 

[248] Jaurgain (1898), p. 223, quoting Livre d´or de Bayonne fo. 3.

[249] Jaurgain (1902), p. 234. 

[250] Jaurgain (1898), p. 223, quoting Livre d´or de Bayonne fo. 3.

[251] Leire 9, p. 22. 

[252] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[253] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 128. 

[254] Lacarra, J. M. (ed.) (1965) Colección diplomática de Irache, Vol. 1 (958-1222) (Zaragoza) ("Irache"), 13, p. 18. 

[255] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 270, p. 264. 

[256] Irache 13, p. 18. 

[257] Irache 13, p. 18. 

[258] Leire 123, p. 180. 

[259] Albelda 20, p. 30. 

[260] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 88, p. 102. 

[261] ES III 563. 

[262] Del Pino, p. 162. 

[263] Zabalza Duque. 

[264] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[265] Jaurgain (1898), p. 396, quoting Buisson, D. P.-D. Historia monasterii S. Severi, t. I, pp. 151-9.

[266] Raymond, P. (ed.) (1873) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint Jean de Sorde (Paris, Pau), p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca (Béarn), p. 229. 

[267] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca (Béarn), p. 229. 

[268] Sorde Saint-Jean, p. 2 footnote 3, which quotes an extract of this charter, no longer in the cartulary, from Marca (Béarn), p. 229. 

[269] Ex Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, RHGF XI, p. 395. 

[270] Jaurgain (1898), p. 399, quoting Marca (Béarn), p. 232.

[271] Jaurgain (1902), p. 12, quoting Buisson, D. P.-D. Historia monasterii S. Severi, t. II, p. 128.

[272] Siresa 11, p. 32, and Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 190. 

[273] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[274] Albelda 20, p. 30. 

[275] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 232 footnote 6, quoting Sangorrin El Libro de la Cadena de Jaca, p. 17. 

[276] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 259. 

[277] Del Pino, p. 163. 

[278] Siresa 10, p. 30. 

[279] Nájera Santa María 3, p. 4. 

[280] Serrano, L. (ed.) (1907) Cartulario del Infantado de Covarrubias, Fuentes para la Historia de Castilla por los pp. benedictinos de Silos, Tomo II (Silos) ("Infantado de Covarrubias"), VII, p. 13. 

[281] Siresa 11, p. 32, and Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 190. 

[282] Albelda 28, p. 38. 

[283] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 22, p. 66. 

[284] Albelda 29, p. 39. 

[285] Torre-Sevilla Quiñones de León, M. 'El Régimen de Almanzor', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), p. 182. 

[286] Leire 9, p. 22. 

[287] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[288] Cronica de Sampiro 23, in Historia Silense (Pérez), pp. 167-8. 

[289] Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, M. (1999) Linajes nobiliarios de León y Castilla (siglos IX-XIII) (Consejería de Educación y Cultura de la Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid), p. 211. 

[290] Cronica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[291] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), 17, p. 239. 

[292] Siresa 10, p. 30. 

[293] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308. 

[294] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 87, p. 101. 

[295] Siresa 10, p. 30. 

[296] Nájera Santa María 3, p. 4. 

[297] Siresa 11, p. 32, and Canellas, A. 'Un documento original del rey Sancho Garcés II Abarca', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 190. 

[298] Infantado de Covarrubias, VII, p. 13. 

[299] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 22, p. 66. 

[300] Albelda 29, p. 39. 

[301] Leire 9, p. 22. 

[302] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[303] Siresa 12, p. 33. 

[304] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[305] Nájera Santa María 3, p. 4. 

[306] Albelda 28, p. 38. 

[307] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 22, p. 66. 

[308] Albelda 29, p. 39. 

[309] Leire 9, p. 22. 

[310] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[311] Torre-Sevilla Quiñones de León, p. 182. 

[312] Siresa 12, p. 33. 

[313] Leire 13, p. 29. 

[314] Leire 9, p. 22. 

[315] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[316] Siresa 12, p. 33. 

[317] Vignau Ballester. V. (ed.) (1885) Cartulario del monasterio de Eslonza (Madrid) ("Eslonza"), Part I, V, p. 8. 

[318] Leire 13, p. 29. 

[319] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[320] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 185, p. 182. 

[321] López Ferreiro, A. (1899) Historia de la Santa Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela (Santiago), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXIX, p. 219. 

[322] Leire 13, p. 29. 

[323] Historia Silense (Pérez), 74, p. 178. 

[324] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 390. 

[325] Contreras, Luis Núñez 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III Rey de León' Historia, Instituciones y Documentos (1977) doc. 7, cited in Salazar y Acha, J. 'Una hija desconocida de Sancho el Mayor reina de León' Príncipe de Viana 49 (1988), pp. 183-92, 184. 

[326] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXIX, p. 219. 

[327] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[328] Albelda 28, p. 38. 

[329] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 22, p. 66. 

[330] Albelda 29, p. 39. 

[331] Leire 13, p. 29. 

[332] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[333] Albelda 28, p. 38. 

[334] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. I, 22, p. 66. 

[335] Albelda 29, p. 39. 

[336] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 108, p. 117. 

[337] Leire 13, p. 29. 

[338] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[339] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[340] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 258, also reproduced at Jaurgain (1898), p. 137. 

[341] Doxy (1859), Tome I, p. 209. 

[342] Dozy, R. (1859) Recherches sur l´histoire et la literature de l´Espagne pendant le moyen-âge (Leiden), Tome I, p. 210, quoting Ibn-al-Khatib, man. G., fol. 180r. et v. (in the original Arabic and in French translation). 

[343] Historia Silense, Chapter 76, p. 42. 

[344] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Contribution à l'histoire de l'attitude des royaumes pirénéens dans la querelle des investitures: de l'origine de Berthe, reine d'Aragon et de Navarre', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 375-402, 396. 

[345] Leire 13, p. 29. 

[346] Historia Silense (Pérez), 74, p. 178. 

[347] Torre-Sevilla Quiñones de León, p. 182. 

[348] Leire 15, p. 33. 

[349] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 151, p. 152. 

[350] D´Abadals i Vinyals, R. (2009) Els Comtats de Pallars i Ribagorça, Catalunya Carolíngia, Vol. III (Barcelona), Part 1, 24, and Fragmentum historicum, Ex cartulario Alaonis, España Sagrada XLVI, XXXVI, p. 325. 

[351] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 170, p. 163. 

[352] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 171, p. 165. 

[353] Albelda 31, p. 41. 

[354] Payne Chapter 3, p. 52. 

[355] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 308. 

[356] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 259. 

[357] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla (trans. unknown), I, 1, consulted at <http://www.geocities.com/iblbo/archivo/cronicacastilla.menu.htm> (12 Apr 2008)

[358] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 142, p. 144. 

[359] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[360] Albelda 31, p. 41. 

[361] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny ( Paris) Tome IV, 2891, p. 89. 

[362] Pamplona 5, p. 24. 

[363] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 97, quoted at p. 111 footnote 8.  

[364] Pérez Celada, J. A. (ed.) (1986) Documentación del monasterio de San Zoilo de Carrion 1047-1300 (Palencia), 4, p. 11. 

[365] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 378. 

[366] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1966) Cartulario de Santa Cruz de la Serós (Valencia) 4, p. 16. 

[367] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Contribution à l'histoire de l'attitude des royaumes pirénéens dans la querelle des investitures: de l'origine de Berthe, reine d'Aragon et de Navarre', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 375-402, 396. 

[368] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. III, p. 157. 

[369] Devic, Dom C., Dom Vaissete, Dulaurier, E. (1875) Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. (Toulouse), Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 211, col. 428. 

[370] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, pp. 383-4. 

[371] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 170, p. 163. 

[372] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 171, p. 165. 

[373] Leire 15, p. 33. 

[374] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[375] Albelda 31, p. 41. 

[376] Ximénez de Embún y Val, T. (ed.) (1876) Historia de la Corona de Aragón: Crónica de San Juan de la Peña: Part aragonesa, available at Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes <http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=12477> (3 Aug 2007), XVI, p. 45. 

[377] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 1, 24, and Fragmentum historicum, Ex cartulario Alaonis, España Sagrada XLVI, XXXVI, p. 325. 

[378] Albelda 32, p. 43. 

[379] Leire 15, p. 33. 

[380] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[381] Albelda 31, p. 41. 

[382] Cluny IV, 2891, p. 89. 

[383] Historia Silense (Pérez), 75, p. 179. 

[384] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[385] Ricardo del Arco (1954) Sepulcros de la Casa Real de Castilla (Madrid), p. 166, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 185, the author emphasising in footnote 17 the unreliability of many of these inscriptions often added a posteriori

[386] Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', pp. 183-92. 

[387] España Sagrada tomo XXXVI (Madrid 1787), apéndice LXXIX, p. CLXXXVIII-CXCI, quoted in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 189, the author emphasising that "illius" refers to King Fernando from the context. 

[388] Lucas de Tuy Chronicon Mundi and Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada Opera, both of whom also give her supposed Castilian origin, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 185. 

[389] 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III', doc. 16, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 184. 

[390] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXIX, p. 219. 

[391] 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III', docs. 18, 19 and 20, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 184.

[392] Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 184 footnote 13. 

[393] The last date when King Vermudo is named alone in documentation, 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III', doc. 16, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 184. 

[394] King Vermudo declared himself 18 years old in a 20 Jan 1036 donation to the monastery of Sahagún, 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III', doc. 4, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 183. 

[395] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 378. 

[396] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 142, p. 144. 

[397] Leire 15, p. 33. 

[398] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 171, p. 165. 

[399] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[400] Albelda 31, p. 41. 

[401] Cluny IV, 2891, p. 89. 

[402] Historia Silense, Chapter 84, p. 47. 

[403] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, pp. 383-4. 

[404] Leire 15, p. 33. 

[405] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[406] Albelda 31, p. 41. 

[407] Cluny IV.2891, p. 89. 

[408] Historia Silense (Pérez), 75, p. 179. 

[409] Historia Silense, Chapters 76, and 82-84, pp. 42 and 46-7. 

[410] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 82. 

[411] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 259. 

[412] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309. 

[413] Pamplona 13, p. 37. 

[414] Marca (Béarn), p. 709. 

[415] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, p. 117, citing Marca (Béarn), p. 709. 

[416] Salazar y Acha, J. ´Reflexiones sobre la posible historicidad de un episodio de la Crónica Najerense´, Principe de Viana, Anejo no. 14, 1992, p. 154. 

[417] San Juan de la Peña, Vol. II, 72, pp. 21-29, cited in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, p. 154. 

[418] Rodríguez, R. (ed.) Catálogo de Documentos del Monasterio de Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, 191, p. 60, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, pp. 152 and 153. 

[419] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1988) Crónica Najerense (Zaragoza, Textos Medievales 15), p. 110, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, p. 150. 

[420] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[421] Albelda 35, p. 46. 

[422] Cluny IV, 3343, p. 431. 

[423] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[424] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 260. 

[425] Reilly, B. F. (1982) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca 1109-1126 (Princeton University Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, available at http://libro.uca.edu/urraca/urraca.htm [7 Dec 2002], Chapter 1, p. 7. 

[426] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 291, p. 281. 

[427] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[428] Lucas Álvarez, M. 'Libro Becerro del Monasterio de Valbanera', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. IV (Zaragoza, 1951) 67, p. 500. 

[429] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 309. 

[430] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 260. 

[431] Leire 106, p. 156. 

[432] Reilly, B. F. (1988) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under King Alfonso VI 1065-1109 (Princeton University Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, available at http://libro.uca.edu/alfonso6/alfonso.htm [7 Dec 2002], Chapter 5, pp. 87 and 89. 

[433] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 1, p. 7. 

[434] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 377, p. 356. 

[435] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 391, p. 367. 

[436] Pamplona 16, p. 40. 

[437] Pamplona 27, p. 51. 

[438] Albelda 60, p. 79. 

[439] Pamplona 30, p. 55. 

[440] Albelda 61, p. 80. 

[441] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 170, p. 120. 

[442] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[443] García Turza, F. J. (ed.) (1985) Documentación medieval del monasterio de Valvanera (siglos XI a XIII) (Zaragoza) (“Valvanera”), 69, p. 70. 

[444] Valvanera, 69, p. 70. 

[445] Valvanera, 69, p. 70. 

[446] Valvanera, 69, p. 70. 

[447] Leire 96, p. 145. 

[448] Pamplona 7, p. 29. 

[449] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 330, p. 219. 

[450] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[451] Nájera Santa María 23, p. 43. 

[452] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 189, p. 132. 

[453] Pamplona 34, p. 60. 

[454] Nájera Santa María 25, p. 45. 

[455] Nájera Santa María 53, p. 79. 

[456] Nájera Santa María 9, p. 15. 

[457] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 349, p. 332. 

[458] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[459] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 377, p. 356. 

[460] Albelda 56, p. 76. 

[461] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 391, p. 367. 

[462] Albelda 58, p. 78. 

[463] Lucas Álvarez, M. 'Libro Becerro del Monasterio de Valbanera', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. IV (Zaragoza, 1951) 67, p. 500. 

[464] Albelda 61, p. 80. 

[465] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 425, p. 400. 

[466] Leire 106, p. 156. 

[467] Cluny IV, 3540, p. 665. 

[468] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 26, p. 29. 

[469] Albelda 63, p. 83. 

[470] Leire 225, p. 309. 

[471] Leire 233, p. 318. 

[472] Leire 235, p. 321. 

[473] Nájera Santa María 9, p. 15. 

[474] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 291, p. 281. 

[475] Albelda 41, p. 60. 

[476] Albelda 44, p. 63. 

[477] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[478] Leire 94, p. 143. 

[479] Irache 49, p. 64. 

[480] Pamplona 31, p. 56. 

[481] Reilly (1988) Chapter 5, p. 89. 

[482] Cluny IV, 3540, p. 665. 

[483] Nájera Santa María 23, p. 43. 

[484] Albelda 63, p. 83. 

[485] Nájera Santa María 25, p. 45. 

[486] Historia Roderici: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester University Press), pp. 98-147, Chapter 18, pp. 108-9, and Reilly (1988), Chapter 9, p. 165. 

[487] ES II 56.  ES III 117 gives 1152, but this is contradicted by the charter evidence quoted above. 

[488] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 291, p. 281. 

[489] Albelda 41, p. 60. 

[490] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[491] Llorente, J. A. (1808) Noticias Históricas de las tres provincias vascongadas Álava, Guipúzcoa y Vizcaya (Madrid), Vol. V, p. 462. 

[492] Fragmento del Nobiliario del conde de Barcelós don Pedro de Portugal (“Nobiliario de Pedro Barcelós”), Llorente (1808), Vol. V, p. 574. 

[493] Nájera Santa María 9, p. 15. 

[494] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 291, p. 281. 

[495] Albelda 41, p. 60. 

[496] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 349, p. 332. 

[497] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[498] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 377, p. 356. 

[499] Albelda 56, p. 76. 

[500] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 391, p. 367. 

[501] Leire 91, p. 139. 

[502] Leire 94, p. 143. 

[503] Albelda 58, p. 78. 

[504] Lucas Álvarez, M. 'Libro Becerro del Monasterio de Valbanera', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. IV (Zaragoza, 1951) 67, p. 500. 

[505] Albelda 61, p. 80. 

[506] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 425, p. 400. 

[507] Lacarra ‘Textos navarros del Códice de Roda (1945), p. 260. 

[508] Leire 106, p. 156. 

[509] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 26, p. 29. 

[510] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 349, p. 332. 

[511] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[512] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 425, p. 400. 

[513] Cluny IV, 3540, p. 665. 

[514] Nájera Santa María 25, p. 45. 

[515] Albelda 40, p. 59. 

[516] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[517] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 377, p. 356. 

[518] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 391, p. 367. 

[519] Nájera Santa María 21, p. 40. 

[520] ES II 56. 

[521] Ragut, M. C. (ed.) (1864) Cartulaire de Saint-Vincent de Mâcon (Mâcon), 11, p. 10. 

[522] Mâcon Saint-Vincent 13, p. 11. 

[523] MacKay, A. (1977) Spain in the Middle Ages, p. 25. 

[524] San Millán de la Cogolla I, 354, p. 335. 

[525] García Turza, F. J. (1992) Documentación medieval del Monasterio de San Prudencio de Monte Laturce (Siglos X-XV) (Bibliotéca de Temas Riojanos, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos), 2. 

[526] García Turza, F. J. (1992) Documentación medieval del Monasterio de San Prudencio de Monte Laturce (Siglos X-XV) (Bibliotéca de Temas Riojanos, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos), 4. 

[527] Albelda 40, p. 59. 

[528] Salazar y Acha, J. ´Reflexiones sobre la posible historicidad de un episodio de la Crónica Najerense´, Principe de Viana, Anejo no. 14, 1992, pp. 149-56. 

[529] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1988) Crónica Najerense (Zaragoza, Textos Medievales 15), p. 110, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, p. 150. 

[530] Rodríguez, R. (ed.) Catálogo de Documentos del Monasterio de Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, 191, p. 60, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, pp. 152 and 153. 

[531] Albelda 40, p. 59. 

[532] Rodríguez, R. (ed.) Catálogo de Documentos del Monasterio de Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, 191, p. 60, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Reflexiones sobre…´, pp. 152 and 153. 

[533] Salazar y Acha, J. ´Reflexiones sobre la posible historicidad de un episodio de la Crónica Najerense´, Principe de Viana, Anejo no. 14, 1992, p. 154. 

[534] Nájera Santa María 18, p. 34. 

[535] Ménendez Pidal, R. (1929) La España del Cid (Madrid), t. II, p. 750, quoted in Canal Sánchez-Pagín, J. M. 'El conde leonés don Fruela Díaz y su esposa, la navarra doña Estefanía Sánchez (siglos XI-XII)', Principe de Viana 47 (1986), p. 24, with the comment that the original is no longer available in the Archivo Episcopal de León. 

[536] Rodríguez, J. (1976) Las Juderías de la provincia de León (León), pp. 347-8, quoted in Canal Sánchez-Pagín 'El conde leonés don Fruela Díaz', p. 24. 

[537] Canal Sánchez-Pagín 'El conde leonés don Fruela Díaz', 3, p. 36. 

[538] Canal Sánchez-Pagín 'El conde leonés don Fruela Díaz', p. 25. 

[539] Cadenas Allende, F. 'Los Flagínez: una familia leonesa de hace mil años', Estudios genealógicos, heráldicos y nobiliarios en honor de Vicente Cadenas y Vicent, I (Madrid, 1978), p. 191. 

[540] Barton, S. (2002) The aristocracy in twelfth-century León and Castile (Cambridge University Press), p. 245. 

[541] Salazar y Acha, J. (2000) La casa del Rey de Castilla y León en la Edad Media (Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales Madrid), p. 354. 

[542] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, I, 5. 

[543] RAH, Colección Salazar y Castro, M-18, Falta (no. 48883). 

[544] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1989)"Corónicas" Navarras (Zaragoza), 2.23, p. 45. 

[545] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña XX, p. 82. 

[546] "Corónicas" Navarras 2.24, p. 46. 

[547] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, I, 5. 

[548] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña XX, p. 82. 

[549] Larragueta, G. (1957) El gran Priorado de Navarra, doc. 15 [information provided by Mara González in a private email to the author dated 28 Oct 2011].

[550] Barton (2002), p. 291, citing CD Oña I, p. 215. 

[551] Menéndez Pidal, R. (1919) Documentos lingüísticos de España (Madrid), Tome I, 148, p. 198. 

[552] Barton (2002), p. 291, citing CD Oña I, p. 269. 

[553] Chronicon Burgense, ed. E. Flórez, ES, XXIII, p. 309, cited in Barton, p. 291. 

[554] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81. 

[555] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 1, p. 7. 

[556] Canellas López, A. (1993) La colección diplomática de Sancho Ramírez (Zaragoza), 42, p. 56. 

[557] San Millán de la Cogolla II, 35, p. 35. 

[558] From his accession as king of Navarre, King Sancho styled himself "king by God's grace of the Pamplonese and Aragonese", Bisson, p. 13. 

[559] "Corónicas" Navarras 2.24, p. 46. 

[560] Crónica Latina de los reyes de Castilla, I, 5. 

[561] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña XX, p. 82. 

[562] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Ramire II le Moine, roi d'Aragon, et Agnès de Poitou dans l'histoire et dans la légende', Mélanges offerts à René Crozier à l'occasion de son soixantedixième anniversaire, t. II (Poitiers, 1966), pp. 727-50, 735. 

[563] "Corónicas" Navarras 6.33 and 7.5, pp. 66 and 72. 

[564] Pamplona 187, p. 173. 

[565] Leire 315, p. 413. 

[566] Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester U. P.), Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 32, p. 178. 

[567] Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 91-93, pp. 201-2. 

[568] Lacarra, J. M. 'Documentos para la reconquista del valle del Ebro', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. III (Zaragoza, 1947-8) V, p. 614. 

[569] Yepes, A. de (1609) Coronica General de la Orden de San Benito, Tomo VII, Apendix, VIII, p. 10. 

[570] "Corónicas" Navarras 2.25, p. 46. 

[571] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322. 

[572] Cluny V, 4190, p. 536. 

[573] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 429. 

[574] Cronica di Romualdo Guarna arcivescovo Salernitano (Chronicon Romualdi II archiepiscopi Salernitani) ("Romualdo Guarna"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), p. 22. 

[575] Marca (Béarn), p. 465, quoting "Roderic. Tol. I. 5. c. 29". 

[576] Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid) ("Pedro Barcelos"), Tit. X, Lara, 12 p. 77. 

[577] García Luján, J. A. (ed) (1981) Cartulario del monasterio de Santa María de Huerta (Huerta) ("Santa María de Huerta"), 22, p. 35. 

[578] Salazar y Castro, L. (1694) Pruebas de la Casa de Lara (Madrid) ("Salazar y Castro (Lara), Pruebas"), p. 14. 

[579] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 436. 

[580] Loud, G. A. and Wiedmann, T. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The History of the Tyrants of Sicily by Hugo Falcandus (Manchester U. P.), 31, p. 155. 

[581] Romualdo Guarna, p. 31. 

[582] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 436. 

[583] "Corónicas" Navarras 2.25, p. 46. 

[584] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.7, p. 73. 

[585] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322. 

[586] Anales Toledanos I, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 392. 

[587] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.6, p. 72. 

[588] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. V, Reyes de Navarra, 9 p. 22. 

[589] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 874. 

[590] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (“MP”), Vol. II, 1191, p. 372. 

[591] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London), Continuatio, (London), p. 158. 

[592] MP, Vol. II, 1190, p. 364. 

[593] Runciman, S. (1954) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, pp. 42-4. 

[594] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 45. 

[595] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 74-5. 

[596] Busson, G. & Ledru, A. (eds.) (1906) Nécrologe-obituaire de la Cathédrale du Mans (Le Mans), p. 337. 

[597] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1230, MGH SS XXIII, p. 927. 

[598] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1865) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia (London), Annales de Waverleia, p. 308. 

[599] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1234, MGH SS XXIII, p. 935. 

[600] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.8, p. 73. 

[601] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 324. 

[602] RHGF XIX, De genealogia comitum Tolosanorum, auctore Bernardo Guidonis ordinis prædicatorum monitum, p. 225. 

[603] Lagarde, C. (trans.) (1864) Chronique de Maître Guillaume de Puylaurens sur la guerre des Albigeois (1202-1272) (Béziers), Chap. V, p. 20. 

[604] Devic, Dom C. & Dom Vaissete (1840-42) Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. (Toulouse), Tome V, Notes, II.IV, p. 403, quoting "Innoc. III liv. xi. ep. 222". 

[605] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XCII, p. 605. 

[606] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 321. 

[607] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 321, footnote 2. 

[608] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. V, Reyes de Navarra, 9 p. 22. 

[609] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 874. 

[610] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1229, MGH SS XXIII, p. 923. 

[611] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin), 3, p. 37. 

[612] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. V, Reyes de Navarra, 9 p. 22. 

[613] Annales Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 322. 

[614] Villehardouin, 3, p. 37. 

[615] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1225, MGH SS XXIII, p. 915. 

[616] Runciman (1974) Vol. 3, pp. 212-13 and 217. 

[617] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Eglise cathédrale de Sens, Obituaire du xiii siècle, p. 2.       

[618] Troyes Necrologies, 2 Obituaire de Saint-Etienne, p. 219. 

[619] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.9, p. 74. 

[620] Evans, C. F. E. 'The matrilineal descent of Queen Victoria', Genealogists' Magazine (1964), Vol. 14, pp. 273-7, reprinted in Edwards, S. (ed.) (2003) Complete Works of Charles Evans, Genealogy and related topics (Foundation for Medieval Genealogy), p. 65. 

[621] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1220, MGH SS XXIII, p. 910. 

[622] Richeri Gesta Senoniensis Ecclesiæ IV, 23, MGH SS XXV, p. 312. 

[623] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1222, MGH SS XXIII, p. 912. 

[624] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1231, MGH SS XXIII, p. 929. 

[625] Evans, C. F. E. 'The matrilineal descent of Queen Victoria', Genealogists' Magazine (1964), Vol. 14, pp. 273-7, reprinted in Edwards, S. (ed.) (2003) Complete Works of Charles Evans, Genealogy and related topics (Foundation for Medieval Genealogy), p. 65. 

[626] Lobineau, G. A. (1707) Histoire de Bretagne (Paris), Tome I, p. 224, quoting the letter without providing any citation reference to the full document. 

[627] Auvray, L. (1896) Les Registres de Grégoire IX (Paris), Tome I, 789, col. 494. 

[628] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1231, MGH SS XXIII, p. 930. 

[629] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2231, p. 247. 

[630] Brutails, J. A. (ed.) (1890) Documents des Archives de la Chambre des Comtes de Navarre (1196-1384) (Paris) XVI, p. 17. 

[631] Prost, B. and Bougenot, S. (eds.) (1904) Cartulaire de Hugues de Chalon (1220-1319) (Lons-le-Saunier), 574, p. 440. 

[632] Troyes Necrologies, 2 Obituaire de Saint-Etienne, p. 219. 

[633] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chapelle Saint-Blaise, à Provins, p. 998. 

[634] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.10, p. 74. 

[635] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1231, MGH SS XXIII, p. 929. 

[636] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 1738, p. 64. 

[637] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 2432, p. 311. 

[638] Morice, H. (1742) Mémoires pour servir de preuves à l´histoire ecclesiastique et civile de Bretagne, Tome I (Paris), Chronicon Britanicum, col. 112. 

[639] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye des Clairets, p. 281.       

[640] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1239, MGH SS XXIII, p. 947. 

[641] Brutails (1890) XVI, p. 17. 

[642] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chapelle Saint-Blaise, à Provins, p. 998. 

[643] Merlet, L. ´Procès pour la possession du comté de Bigorre (1254-1503)´, Bibliothèque de l´Ecole des Chartes, Vol. 18, no. 1 (1857), Pièces Justificatives, VIII, p. 317, quoting Cartulaire de Bigorre, ch. 17. 

[644] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.11, p. 75. 

[645] RHGF XXI, Chronique anonyme des rois de France, pp. 81 and 84. 

[646] Troyes Necrologies, 2 Obituaire de Saint-Etienne, p. 219. 

[647] "Corónicas" Navarras 7.12, p. 75. 

[648] Zurita, J. (1669) Anales de la Corona de Aragon (Zaragoza), Tome I, Lib. III, CI, p. 227. 

[649] Poull, G. (1991) La Maison ducale de Lorraine (Presses universitaires de Nancy), p. 82. 

[650] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chapelle Saint-Blaise, à Provins, p. 998. 

[651] Hugues de Chalon 522, p. 378. 

[652] RHGF XX, Gesta Philippi Tertii Francorum Regis, p. 494. 

[653] Troyes Necrologies, 2 Obituaire de Saint-Etienne, p. 219. 

[654] RHGF XX, Gesta Philippi Tertii Francorum Regis, p. 494. 

[655] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1869) Annales Monastici Vol. IV, Annales de Oseneia, Chronicon Thomæ Wykes, Annales de Wigornia (London), Thomas Wykes, pp. 266-7. 

[656] RHGF XX, Gesta Philippi Tertii Francorum Regis, p. 500. 

[657] Yanguas (Adiciones), p. 267. 

[658] RHGF XX, Gesta Philippi Tertii Francorum Regis, p. 494. 

[659] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 570. 

[660] Merlet ´Procès´, Pièces Justificatives, XII, p. 321, quoting Cartulaire de Bigorre, ch. 34. 

[661] Salazar y Castro, L. (1694) Pruebas de la Casa de Lara (Madrid) ("Salazar y Castro (Lara), Pruebas"), p. 646. 

[662] Salazar y Castro (Lara), Pruebas, p. 647. 

[663] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1225, MGH SS XXIII, p. 915. 

[664] RHGF XX, Chronicon Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 570. 

[665] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 682. 

[666] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Sainte-Chapelle, p. 817. 

[667] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 591. 

[668] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Sainte-Chapelle, p. 817. 

[669] Brutails (1890) XXIV, p. 24. 

[670] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chartreux de Vauvert, p. 703. 

[671] Valbonnais, Marquis de (1722) Histoire de Dauphiné (Geneva), Tome II, LVI, p. 300. 

[672] Castro, J. R. 'El matrimonio de Pedro IV de Aragón y María de Navarra', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. III (Zaragoza, 1947-8) V, p. 147. 

[673] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Longchamp, p. 660. 

[674] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Longchamp, p. 674. 

[675] Brutails (1890) XXXVI, p. 44. 

[676] Pasquier, F. & Courteault, H. (eds.) (1895) Chroniques romanes des comtes de Foix composées au XV siècle par Arnaud Esquerrier et Miégeville (Foix, Toulouse) ("Esquerrier"), p. 51. 

[677] Morice (1742), Tome I, col. 180. 

[678] López de Ayala, P. (1779) Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla (Madrid), Tome I, Crónica del rey don Pedro, Año Secundo, Cap. XI, p. 48. 

[679] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Collégiale de Nogent-le-Rotrou, p. 386.       

[680] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), pp. 306-7. 

[681] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 108, quoting "caj. 13, n. 160". 

[682] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 116. 

[683] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 116. 

[684] Libro d'Oro di Melita (Maltagenealogy.com), available at http://www.fast.net.au/tancarville/libro%20d'Oro/navarre.html [2 Dec 2002]. 

[685] López de Ayala (1779), Tome I, Crónica del rey don Pedro, Año Secundo, Cap. XI, p. 48. 

[686] Montpellier was confiscated by the French king 20 Apr 1378, and incorporated into the royal domain 28 Oct 1382. 

[687] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 108, quoting "caj. 54. n. 9". 

[688] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 188, quoting "caj. 43, n. 43". 

[689] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 307, quoting "caj. 73, n. 18". 

[690] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chartreux de Vauvert, p. 702. 

[691] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Chartreux de Vauvert, p. 701. 

[692] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 690 footnote 1. 

[693] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 145, quoting "caj. 161, n. 4". 

[694] Morice (1742) Preuves, Tome I, Chronicon Britanicum, col. 114. 

[695] Morice (1744) Preuves, Tome II, col. 661. 

[696] Thompson, E. M. (1904) Chronicon Adæ de Usk 1377-1421, 2nd edn (London) (“Chronicon Adæ de Usk”), p. 85. 

[697] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 108, quoting "caj. 44, n. 51: caj. 55, n. 50". 

[698] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 108, quoting "caj. 54. n. 9". 

[699] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 108, quoting "caj. 71. n. 17". 

[700] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 108, quoting "caj. 143. n. 54". 

[701] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 139, quoting "caj. 104, n. 39". 

[702] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 177. 

[703] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 188, quoting "caj. 42, n. 36".  

[704] López de Ayala, P. (1780) Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla (Madrid), Tome II, Crónica del rey Enrique II, Año Octavo, Cap. VIII, p. 47, Año Decimo, Cap. II, pp. 75-6. 

[705] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 191, quoting "caj. 104, n. 8". 

[706] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 172, quoting "caj. 79, n. 5". 

[707] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 308, quoting "caj. 93, n. 3". 

[708] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 145, quoting "caj. 161, n. 4". 

[709] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 178, quoting "caj. 122, n. 5". 

[710] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 145, quoting "caj. 161, n. 4". 

[711] Esquerrier, p. 69. 

[712] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 191, quoting "caj. 104, n. 8". 

[713] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 172, quoting "caj. 54, n. 80". 

[714] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 173, quoting "caj. 139, n. 10". 

[715] Yanguas, Tomo II, p. 173, quoting "caj. 108, n. 16". 

[716] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 109. 

[717] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 145, quoting "caj. 161, n. 4". 

[718] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 145, quoting "caj. 161, n. 4". 

[719] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 145, quoting "caj. 161, n. 4". 

[720] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 516, quoting "caj. 105, n. 13". 

[721] Yanguas, Tomo I, p. 516, quoting "caj. 107, n. 12". 

[722] Esquerrier, p. 69.