NORWAY, kings

  v2.0 Updated 18 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            KINGS of NORWAY [872]-1319. 7

A.       ORIGINS – IMPROBABLE LINEAGE.. 7

B.       KINGS of NORWAY [872]-1028 – DOUBTFUL LINEAGE.. 9

HARALD I [872]-[930], ERIK I [930]-936, HAAKON I 936-960, HARALD II 960-[965] 9

OLAV I 996-1000. 22

OLAV II 1016-1028, MAGNUS II 1035-1047. 26

C.      KINGS of NORWAY (KINGS of DENMARK) 1028-1035. 33

KNUD 1028-1030, SVEND 1030-1035. 33

D.      KINGS of NORWAY 1047-1161. 34

HARALD III 1047-1066, MAGNUS II 1066-1069, OLAV III 1069-1093, HAAKON II 1093-1095. 34

MAGNUS III 1095-1103, EYSTEIN I 1103-[1122/23], SIGURD 1103-1130, OLAV IV 1103-1115, MAGNUS 1130-1135. 39

HARALD 1130-1136, INGE 1142-1161, EYSTEIN 1142-1157, MAGNUS 1142-1145. 47

SIGURD 1136-1155, HAAKON III 1157-1162, SIGURD 1162-1163, INGE 1204-1217. 51

E.       DESCENDANTS of ORM SVEINSSON.. 54

MAGNUS 1161-1184. 54

F.       KINGS of NORWAY 1184-1319. 57

SVERRE 1184-1202. 57

HAAKON IV 1223-1263. 59

MAGNUS IV 1263-1280, ERIK II 1280-1299, HAAKON V 1299-1319. 61

Chapter 2.            KINGS of NORWAY 1319-1448. 66

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Our knowledge of Norwegian history in the early medieval period is almost based exclusively on the early 13th century Sagas written by Icelandic historians, supplemented by short histories written in Norway at the end-12th century and various royal biographies.  The main primary sources which have been used in the preparation of the present document are English translations of Snorre´s Heimkringsla series of Sagas[1] which is generally dated to [1230], Morkinskinna[2] dated to ten years or so earlier[3], to a lesser extent Orkneyinga Saga[4] which was probably written not long after 1200, and the Historia Norwegie, of uncertain date in the late 12th century, which was written in Latin in Norway[5].  Little help is available from surviving charters.  The printed edition of the 22 volumes of the Diplomatarium Norvegicum is available on-line[6].  However, only sparse relevant genealogical information relating to the families of the Norwegian kings and nobles is available in these charters.  Nine diplomas have survived for the 11th century, and 91 for the 12th century, but the majority consist of Papal documents addressed to Norwegian kings or bishops, or otherwise indirectly relate to Norwegian matters, and contain little information which is relevant for present purposes beyond the names of specific kings. 

 

Exactly how the early sources written in Norway, such as the Historia Norwegiæ, fit with the Icelandic Sagas is obscure.  Andersson and Gade, in the introduction to their translation of Morkinskinna, suggest that they derive from the works of early 12th century Icelandic historians Ari þorgilsson and Sæmundr Sigfússon[7].  Whatever the truth of their origin, the Icelandic Sagas and the Norwegian histories are mutually compatible and few factual discrepancies can be observed between them.  On paper at least, lengthy genealogies can be compiled from these sources which link all the main protagonists within complex family groups, related through the male and female lines.  However, it is evident that the Sagas especially use lineage as a means of emphasising social continuity.  In addition, they were written up to three centuries after the events which they purport to recount.  The difficulty is therefore to decide how far they are merely works of historical semi-fiction and the extent to which the information which they contain is historically accurate. 

 

An analysis of the factual accuracy of the documentation is best approached by dividing the overall period into three chronological sub-periods: 9th century and before, 10th and 11th centuries, and 12th century and after.  As far as the earliest sub-period is concerned, the early ancestry of the Norwegian kings is shrouded in mystery and confused by legendary descents.  The Historia Norwegie narrates a descent of Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway (whose death is reported in [830]) from "rex…Ingui", whom it says was reputedly the first king of the Swedish realm, from where settlers came to "Trondemia" [Trøndelag][8].  Snorre´s Ynglinga Saga records a chief named Odin in the city of Asgaard, in Asaland in "Asia", who, it says, led his people westward first to "Gardarike" and then south to "Saxland", before heading north where he died in "Swithiod"[9].  The exploits of Odin´s descendants in Sweden are described in succeeding chapters of the Saga, culminating in the accession of the brothers Yngve and Alf[10]Ynglinga Saga links the Swedish line with the kings of Norway, recording a line of descent which is completely different from the one found in the Historia Norwegie, until the supposed great-grandfather of King Harald "Hårfagre"[11].  There is no reason to suppose that either of these descents is anything other than legendary.  However, the last three generations as recounted in the two sources coincide and are reproduced below in Chapter 1.A of this document, in square brackets and marked “Improbable Lineage”. 

 

The second sub-period starts with the reign of King Harald I and the first three or four generations of his alleged descendants.  The reign of King Harald is reported both in the Sagas and the Historia as improbably long and his descendants as improbably numerous.  For example, according to the Historia Norwegie he reigned for 73 years and had sixteen sons[12].  His seven successor kings of Norway, up to and including Harald III "Hardråde" King of Norway whose succession is dated to 1047, are recorded as sons of King Harald I or his second to fourth generation direct descendants in three different male lines.  Little information is recorded in the sources about the ancestors of these successor kings other than their names.  While the existence of the different kings can be corroborated, mainly from English primary sources, the suspicion persists that their actual family relationships to each other were much less certain than the Icelandic and Norwegian primary source documentation leads us to believe.  The families of these kings who ruled before 1047 are set out in Chapter 1.B of this document, marked “Doubtful Lineage”.  No attempt has been made to assign square brackets among this family group as there appears to be no factual basis on which to decide whether some lines are any more or less historically certain than others.  From the reign of King Harald III,  some hints can be found which suggest that we may be on somewhat firmer ground.  These hints are found in the works of the early 12th century Icelandic historians Ari þorgilsson and Sæmundr Sigfússon, who were precursors to Snorre and possibly also to the Historia Norwegie as mentioned above.  Firstly, Ari þorgilsson, in his extant Íslingabók, indicates tantalisingly that the book is a revision of an earlier version “minus the genealogies and kings´ lives[13], without indicating the date of that early version or any more details.  Secondly, a poem dated to [1190] reviews ten Norwegian kings from Harald I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" forwards “as Sæmundr inn fródi [the Wise] told[14].  These suggested earlier works no longer exist.  However, if the hints are correct, it is possible that the precursors to the surviving primary sources dated from the mid- to late-11th century and were roughly contemporary with the reigns of Kings Harald III and Olav III (from 1047 to 1093), which may give some comfort about the factual accuracy of the Saga and Historia narratives relating to the families of these kings.  In addition, few factual inconsistencies can be identified within either the Historia Norwegiæ or the Heimskringla series of Sagas with respect to this period:  the genealogies of the Scandinavian rulers reconstructed from these sources fit neatly together and their chronology appears robust.  This contrasts with the shaky chronology of the early rulers of Orkney described in Orkneyinga Saga[15], which provides genealogical details which purport to link the successive jarls of Orkney into a single family whose ancestry is traced back to “Earl Rognwald the Powerful”, a leading supporter of Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway[16].  The precise chronological problems of the early chapters of Orkneyinga Saga are discussed further in the introduction to the chapter on the Jarls of Orkney in the document SCOTLAND, MORMAERS, EARLS, LORDS.  The families of the Norwegian kings who ruled from 1047 to 1161 are set out in Chapter 1.D of this document. 

 

As far as the last sub-period is concerned, we appear to be on solid ground, with the exception of the question of descent from imposters which is discussed further below.  The last entry in the Heimskringla series of Sagas concerns King Magnus Erlingsson, and appears to be dated to 1177, presumably shortly before the last Saga in the series was written.  If this is correct, its account of 12th century Scandinavian events is nearly contemporaneous and is therefore probably comparable in accuracy to primary sources produced in other parts of Europe.  The families of the Norwegian kings who ruled from 1161 to 1319 are set out in Chapter 1.E and F of this document. 

 

Whatever the factual reliability of the Sagas, they represent our principle source of information concerning the medieval Norwegian kings.  If they are dismissed as unreliable, there is little other basis from which the genealogies of Norwegian royal and noble families can be reconstructed. 

 

The practice of accession to the throne by royal bastards survived in the Norwegian royal family well into the late 13th century, contrasting sharply with other European monarchies during the middle medieval period.  For example, King William I "the Conqueror" (succeeded in 1066) was the last illegitimate king of England, King Arnulf (crowned emperor in 896) was the last illegitimate German king, and no French kings are recorded as having been of illegitimate birth.  There are numerous examples of monarchs in other European countries who practised concubinage during the 11th to 13th centuries, and many cases where their illegitimate children enjoyed prominent careers.  King Henry I of England is particularly noteworthy for having produced a large number of illegitimate offspring for whom their father arranged high-profile marriages to advance his political aims.  The uniqueness of the Norwegian case centres on the equality of treatment between the legitimate and illegitimate candidates for the succession.  Again, using the family of the English king Henry I as a contrasting example, the nomination of his powerful illegitimate son Robert Earl of Gloucester as his father's recognised heir never seems to have been considered as a serious possibility after the death of the king's only legitimate son in 1120.  In the case of the Norwegian kings, the monarch's "unofficial" partners appear from the primary sources to have been generally accepted at court.  Harald "Gille", king of Norway from 1130 until 1136, is the last king for whom a report has been found which records his maintaining relationships both with his official wife and one of his mistresses at the same time, although King Haakon IV, who succeeded in 1223, was the last Norwegian king who is recorded as being illegitimate.  The case of King Harald includes the narration in Snorre's Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille of the king's murder by his rival Sigurd "Slembdjakn", the success of the plot depending on the murderer's advance knowledge of the identity of the partner with whom the king was planning to spend the night[17].  The case of King Sigurd Haraldsson (who died in 1155) is also significant.  His six children are recorded as having been born to six different mothers (although their paternity is disputable in the case of two of them), while there is no record of the king having contracted any "official" marriage.  Three of his supposed illegitimate children succeeded to the Norwegian throne. 

 

The widespread acceptance of accession by royal bastards had another result in the Norwegian royal family, unique among all European ruling families at the time.  This was the ease with which imposters were accepted at court, and eventually succeeded as kings, despite what now seem to be very dubious claims if the reports in the Sagas are to be believed.  The likelihood that imposters would emerge appears to have increased because the Norwegian kings routinely sent away their infant sons, legitimate and illegitimate, to distant parts of the country soon after birth for fostering by trustworthy noblemen.  This was presumably to reduce the risk of their being murdered by other family-members, which must have been a distinct possibility if they had remained at court.  The acceptance of imposter claims appears, from primary sources such as the Heimskringla, to having depended solely on their successfully completing an ordeal by fire (walking over red-hot plough-shares), backed-up by personal testimony from the claimants' mothers.  The cases of King Harald "Gille" and King Sigurd "Slembidkjan" provide an interesting contrast.  Snorre records the arrival in Norway from Ireland of the future King Harald, who claimed to be the son of King Magnus III, some time in the early years of the 12th century during the reign of King Sigurd "Jorsalafare", who would have been his legitimate half-brother[18].  The narration in the Saga inspires little confidence in the truth of Harald's story, but it portrays his arrival in a positive light, praises his easy personality and treats as inevitable his eventual acceptance as King Sigurd's successor.  A few years into King Harald's reign, Sigurd "Slembidkjan" emerged with a similar story, also claiming to be King Magnus's son.  In his case, the treatment of the story in the Saga is sceptical and his portrayal extremely negative, presumably influenced by the Danish backing which he received for his claim[19].  The impression left on the reader is that good leadership qualities were considered more important by Norwegian king-makers than royal blood.  King Sigurd "Slembidkjan" left no recorded descendants.  However, all later Norwegian kings descend from King Harald "Gille".  There is therefore a distinct possibility that all kings of Norway who succeeded to the throne after 1136, when King Harald was murdered, had no genetic link at all with their predecessors.  This possibility seems to have been of little concern to contemporaries. 

 

Another remarkable case is that of King Sverre who succeeded in 1184 and from whom all subsequent Norwegian kings were descended (see Chapter 1.F).  According to the Saga of King Sverre, he came to Norway from the Faroe Islands in [1177], the year after being told by his mother that his real father was King Sigurd Haraldsson, after having spent the first twenty four years of his life as one of the sons of a Faroese nobleman[20].  The Saga records no challenge to this claimed paternity, for which there appears to have been no proof apart from his mother's word, and which was (which seems very convenient) first raised more than twenty years after the death of his putative father.  The source makes no reference to Sverre having to prove his paternity by ordeal which, as noted above, had been a common practice in the Norwegian royal family when similar situations had arisen previously.  Ironically, King Sverre is recorded in the Saga as having been more careful when arranging the accession of his own son Haakon for, on his deathbed in 1202, he declared that Haakon was his only living son specifically to avoid any subsequent successful claims by imposters[21]

 

In 1319, the Norwegian throne passed to a member of the Swedish royal family who was the grandson of the last Norwegian king of Norway Haakon V.  In common with the thrones of Sweden and Denmark, the Norwegian throne passed through the female line to the family of the dukes of Pomerania and the Wittelsbach dukes of Bavaria.  The Norwegian kings between 1319 and 1448 are shown in outline form only in Chapter 2 of this document.  From 1449, the Norwegian crown was united with the Danish crown when Christian Duke of Oldenburg was chosen as king of Denmark and Norway.  The union with Denmark lasted until 1814, from which date the kings of Sweden also ruled as kings of Norway.  Norway finally regained its independence in 1905. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of NORWAY [872]-1319

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS – IMPROBABLE LINEAGE

 

 

1.         [HALFDAN, son of [EYSTEIN] (-Holtar, Vestfold ----, bur Borre).  According to the Historia Norwegie, "Halfdan Auri Prodigus Cibique Tenacissimus" was the son of "Eustein cognomento Bumbus" and succeeded his father as king of Norway after the latter was lost at sea[22].  The Ynglinga Saga names Halfdan "the Mild" as the son of King Eystein, recording his death at Holtar in Vestfold and burial at Borre[23]m LIV, daughter of DAG King at Vestmare & his wife ---.  The Ynglinga Saga names "Liv, a daughter of King Dag of Westmare" as the wife of Halfdan "the Mild"[24].  King Halfdan & his wife had one child:] 

a)         [GUDRÖD Halfdansson (-Stiflesund ----).  The Historia Norwegie names "Guthrodum Regem Venatorem" as son of "Halfdan Auri Prodigus Cibique Tenacissimus", recording that he was betrayed by his wife who bribed one of his squires to murder him[25].  The Ynglinga Saga names Gudröd "the Hunter" as son of Halfdan "the Mild"[26].  According to tradition his family came from Uppsala, establishing their rule over the district west of the Oslo fjord, also known as the Vik,  with the title King of Vestfold.  The Ynglinga Saga records that Gudröd "the Hunter" was killed when his younger son was one year old, by one of his wife's servants[27]m firstly ALFHILDA, daughter of ALFARIN King at Alfheim & his wife ---.  The Ynglinga Saga names "Alfhild, a daughter of King Alfarin of Alfheim" as the wife of Gudröd "the Hunter"[28].  Part of Vingulmark was her dowry[29]m secondly ASA, daughter of HARALD King at Agder & his wife ---.  The Ynglinga Saga records that Gudröd "the Hunter" proposed marriage to Asa, daughter of Harald "Redbeard" king at Agder, after the death of his first wife, but was refused.  The Saga records that Gudröd proceeded to invade Agder, kill Harald and his son Gyrd, and abduct and marry Asa[30].  The Historia Norwegie records that Asa bribed one of his squires to murder her husband[31].  After her husband was killed, she set off westwards to Agder with her one year old son.  King Gudröd & his first wife had one child:]

i)          [OLAF (-Geirstad ----, bur Geirstad).  The Ynglinga Saga names "Olaf afterwards called Geirstad-Alf" as the son of Gudröd "the Hunter" and his wife Alfhild[32].  The Ynglinga Saga records that Olaf succeeded his father in Vestfold when he was about 20 years old and divided the kingdom with his younger half-brother, but died "of a disease in his foot" and was buried at Geirstad which was his main residence[33].  m ---.  The name of Olaf's wife is not known.  King Olaf & his wife had one child: 

(a)       [ROGNVALD .  The Ynglinga Saga names Rognvald "Mountain-high" as the son of Olaf whom he succeeded as king of Vestfold[34].]

[King Gudröd & his second wife had one child:] 

ii)         [HALFDAN "Swarti/the Black" ([830]-Rykinsvik [870], bur Ringerike, Ringarik, Hedmark and Vestfold).  The Ynglinga Saga names Halfdan as son of Gudröd "the Hunter" and his second wife[35].  The Historia Norwegie names "Halfdanus…Niger" as son and successor of "Guthrodum Regem Venatorem", recording that he died after falling through the ice while travelling across a frozen lake "Rond"[36].  Snorre recounts that, after his father's death, his mother took Halfdan to Agder where he became king when aged eighteen, at which time he went to Vestfold and divided that kingdom with his half-brother Olaf[37].  He extended his domain to other parts of eastern Norway, probably also to the Sognefjord area on the west coast.  He died, aged 40, after falling through the ice while riding over Rykinsvik bight.  According to the Saga of Halfdan the Black, different districts claimed the honour of being Halfdan's burial place, and to satisfy all of them his body was divided into four parts and buried in Raumarik, Ringarik, Hedmark and Vestfold[38]m firstly RAGNHILD [Thora], daughter of HARALD "Gullskiegg/Goldbeard" King at Sogn & his wife Selware ---.  Snorre records the marriage of Halfdan "the Black" and Ragnhild, daughter of Harald "Gulskeg" king at Sogn, as well as her death in the winter before her son died[39].  Are´s Landnama-book names "Thora" as the daughter of "Harold Gold-beard…a king in Sogn [and his] wife Sel-ware, the daughter of earl Hound-wolf", adding that she married "Half-dan the Black the king of the Uplanders"[40].  m secondly RAGNHILD, daughter of SIGURD "Hjort/the Stag" Helgasson King at Ringerike & his wife Thorny.  Snorre records the second marriage of Halfdan "the Black" and Ragnhild, daughter of Sigurd "Hjort" king at Ringerike.  He records that Ragnild's father was the son of Helge "Hvasse/the Sharp" and his wife Aslaug, daughter of Sigurd "the Worm-eyed" (son of Ragnar "Lodbrok"), and that her mother was the daughter of "Klakharald king in Jutland" and a sister of Thyre "Dannebod" who married the Danish king Gorm "the Old"[41].  King Halfdan & his first wife had one child:]

(a)       [HARALD .  Snorre names Harald as the son of Halfdan "the Black" & his first wife, recording that his maternal grandfather appointed him his heir but that he died aged 10, a year after his mother[42].] 

King Halfdan & his second wife had one child:

(b)       [HARALD ([853/54] or 860-933, 934 or 940).  The Historia Norwegie names "Haraldus Comatus" as son and successor of "Halfdanus…Niger"[43].  He succeeded his father as King at Vestfold, when he was about 10 years old.  He became ruler of all Norway as HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway.] 

-         see below

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of NORWAY [872]-1028 – DOUBTFUL LINEAGE

 

 

HARALD I [872]-[930], ERIK I [930]-936, HAAKON I 936-960, HARALD II 960-[965]

 

HARALD, son of HALFDAN "Swarti/the Black" King of Vestfold & his second wife Ragnhild ([853/54] or 860-Hogaland 933, 934 or 940, bur Haugar in Karmtsund, near the church in Haugesund).  The Historia Norwegie names "Haraldus Comatus" as son and successor of "Halfdanus…Niger", recording that he reigned for 73 years and had 16 sons[44].  Snorre names Harald as the son of Halfdan "the Black" & his second wife[45].  According to Snorre, Harald was ten years old when he succeeded his father as King at Vestfold[46].  He conquered the area around Trondheim where Haakon Grjotgardson Jarl of Haalogaland accepted his overlordship.  He was supported by the Jarl of Möre.  The local rulers farther south joined forces against Harald, but were defeated in the naval battle at Hafrsfjord, after which Harald became ruler of all Norway as HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway.  He corresponded with Athelstan King of Wessex, and dispatched a mission to England led by Helgrim and Osfrid who presented Athelstan with an ornate warship at York[47].  During his lifetime King Harald divided his kingdom between his sons and gave them all the title king.  He decreed the title hereditary in the male line, and that his descendants in the female line should have the title Jarl.  He granted:

The division resulted in major disputes between his sons about who would inherit the overall kingship[48].  The dating of this division is difficult to assess, but from the chronology of events recorded by Snorre it appears to have occurred before the birth of King Harald's son Haakon, which is dated to [919].  King Harald abdicated in 930 "when he was 80 years old" in favour of his son Erik, died three years later in 933, and was buried "under a mound at Haugar in Karmtsund, near the church in Haugesund"[49]

m firstly ASA Haakonsdatter, daughter of Jarl HAAKON Grjotgardson [Ladejarl] & his wife ---.  Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and "Asa, a daughter of Earl Hakon Grjotgardson"[50]

m secondly GYDA, daughter of ERIK King at Hördeland & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Gyda, daughter of King Eirik of Hordaland…brought up as foster-child in the house of a great bonde in Valdres", narrating that, when King Harald asked for her hand she refused, saying that she would only marry the person who ruled the whole of Norway, which inspired him to conquer the country[51].  Snorre records their marriage in a later passage[52]

m thirdly SVANHILD, daughter of EYSTEIN "Glumra" Jarl of the Uplanders [in Kristian and Hedemarken] & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Snahild, a daughter of Earl Eystein" as one of the wives of King Harald[53]

m fourthly SNEFRIED, daughter of SVASE the Finn & his wife ---.  Snorre names Snæfried, the daughter of Svase the Finn, who ensnared King Harald with a magic potion which was effective even after her death.  The spell was only broken when her body was burned on a funeral pyre at which time "serpents and lizards and toads and every species of venomous reptile continued to issue from it"[54]

m fifthly ALVHILD, daughter of RING Dagsson of Ringerike & his wife ---.  Snorre names "lastly Ashild, a daughter of Hring Dagson" as one of the wives of King Harald[55]

m sixthly ([894]) RAGNHILD Eriksdatter "the Rich", daughter of RÖRIK [Horik/Erik] [King of the Danes] & his wife --- (-[897).  Snorre names "Ragnhild the Mighty, a daughter of King Eirik from Jutland" as one of the wives of King Harald, commenting that "it is said that he put away nine wives" when he married her[56].  According to Snorre, "Queen Ragnhild the Mighty" lived three years after she came to Norway[57]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Harald's first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2): THORA Mosterstang, daughter of ---.  Snorre names Thora Mosterstang "from Moster…connected with Kare Aslakson of Hordaland" as the mother of King Harald's son Haakon[58]

In addition to the sons referred to below, the Historia Norwegie names "sextus Gunrodus…decimus Eusteinus, XI Iorundus, XIII Ynguar, XIV Truggui, XV Ringr, XVI Rolfr" as sons of "Haraldus Comatus"[59].  These sons are not named in the Sagas and have been omitted from this document. 

King Harald I & his first wife had four children:

1.         GUTTORM (-killed in battle after [915]).  Snorre names "the eldest Guthorm, Halfdan "the Black" and Halfdan "the White"…twins and Sigfrod…fourth" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Asa[60].  He was named after, and brought up by, "Guthorm the Duke" who ruled Viken and the Uplands in the king's absence[61].  After the death of Guthorm's fosterfather at Tunsberg, King Harald installed his son Guthorm as chief in his place[62].  In his father's division of territories, he was confirmed as king in the land from Glommen to Svinasund and Ranrike[63].  He was killed by Solve "Klofe" while defending Viken against attack[64], dated from the chronology of the passages to after his father's division of his territories. 

2.         HALFDAN "Swarti/the Black" (-Trondheim [932]).  Snorre names "the eldest Guthorm, Halfdan "the Black" and Halfdan "the White"…twins and Sigfrod…fourth" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Asa[65].  He fought alongside his brother Halfdan the White in Estonia64.  Under his father's division of territories, the land north of Trondheim was granted to Halfdan "the Black", Halfdan "the White" and Sigrod[66].  After attempting to murder his half-brother Erik at a farm at Solve in More, Halfdan was reconciled with Erik after Guthorm Sindre intervened with King Harald[67].  On his father's abdication in favour of Halfdan's half-brother Erik, Halfdan "also took a king's high seat" ruling over Tröndheim "with the consent of all the people".  He died suddenly at a feast in Tröndheim 2 years later, "the general report was that Gunhild [wife of his half-brother Erik] had bribed a witch to give him a death drink"[68]

3.         HALFDAN "Hvide/the White" (-killed in battle Estonia after [915]).  Snorre names "the eldest Guthorm, Halfdan "the Black" and Halfdan "the White"…twins and Sigfrod…fourth" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Asa[69].  Under his father's division of territories, the land north of Trondheim was granted to Halfdan "the Black", Halfdan "the White" and Sigröd[70].  Halfdan "the White" was killed in battle in Eistland [Estonia], fighting alongside his brother Halfdan the Black[71], dated from the chronology of the passages to after his father's division of territories. 

4.         SIGRÖD (-killed in battle Tunsberg 934, bur Tunsberg).  Snorre names "the eldest Guthorm, Halfdan "the Black" and Halfdan "the White"…twins and Sigfrod…fourth" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Asa[72].  Under his father's division of territories, the land north of Trondheim was granted to Halfdan "the Black", Halfdan "the White" and Sigrod[73].  Sigröd was chosen as king at Tröndheim after the death of his brother Halfdan.  After his father's death he took "all the revenues … of the Tröndheim country" with which his half-brother King Erik I was "very ill-pleased".  The latter sailed for Tunsberg in Vike, where Sigröd had joined forces with his half-brother Olav, and defeated and killed the two of them[74]

King Harald I & his second wife had five children:

5.         ALOF "Aarbod/Season-bettering".  Snorre names "Alof…the eldest…their son Hrorek, then Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils" as the children of King Harald and his wife Gyda[75].  Snorre records that King Harald gave Jarl Thore his daughter "Alof, called Arbot" after the king confirmed him as Jarl of Möre[76]m ([890]) THORE Ragnvaldsson "Tause/the Silent" Möre-Jarl, son of [RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of Möre in Norway & his wife Ragnhild].

6.         RÖREK.  Snorre names "Alof…the eldest…their son Hrorek, then Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils" as the children of King Harald and his wife Gyda[77]

7.         SIGGTRYGG.  Snorre names "Alof…the eldest…their son Hrorek, then Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils" as the children of King Harald and his wife Gyda[78].  The Historia Norwegie names "Sigtrygr" as twelfth son of "Haraldus Comatus"[79].  Under his father's division of territories, Vingulmark, Raumarike, Vestfold and Thelamark were granted to Olav, Björn, Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils[80]

8.         FRODE.  Snorre names "Alof…the eldest…their son Hrorek, then Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils" as the children of King Harald and his wife Gyda[81].  Under his father's division of territories, Vingulmark, Raumarike, Vestfold and Thelamark were granted to Olav, Björn, Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils[82].  With his brother Thorgils, he plundered Scotland and Ireland, becoming joint king in Dublin, where he was allegedly poisoned[83]

9.         THORGILS.  Snorre names "Alof…the eldest…their son Hrorek, then Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils" as the children of King Harald and his wife Gyda[84].  Under his father's division of territories, Vingulmark, Raumarike, Vestfold and Thelamark were granted to Olav, Björn, Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils[85].  With his brother Frode, he plundered Scotland and Ireland, becoming joint king in Dublin, sole king after his brother's death, until he was killed by the Irish[86]

King Harald I & his third wife had three children:

10.      OLAV Geirstadaalf (-killed in battle Tunsberg 934, bur Tunsberg).  The Historia Norwegie names "Olauus" as third son of "Haraldus Comatus"[87]

-        see below

11.      BJÖRN.  The Historia Norwegie names "Berno" as fourth son of "Haraldus Comatus"[88]

-        see below

12.      RAGNAR Rykkil.  Under his father's division of territories, Hedemark and Gudbrandsdal were granted to Dag, Hring and Ragnar[89]m ---.  The name of Ragnar's wife is not known.  Ragnar & his wife had one child: 

a)         AGNAR Ragnarsson.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Agnar's wife is not known.  Agnar & his wife had one child:

i)          RAGNAR Agnarsson.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

King Harald I & his fourth wife had four children[90]:

13.      SIGURD "Hrise" .  Snorre names "Sigurd Hrise…Halfdan Haleg, Gudrod Ljome and Ragnvald Rettilbeine" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Snæfrid[91].  The Historia Norwegie names "Siwardus…Gigas" as sixth son of "Haraldus Comatus"[92]Morkinskinna recites the descent of “Harald Sigurdarson” from “Harald hárfagri”, to “Sigurdr hrisi”, to “Hálfdan, father of Sigurdr sýr, the father of Haraldr”, adding that these ancestors were all “kings of Hringaríki in Norway[93]

-        see below

14.      HALFDAN "Haaleg" (-killed in battle [894]).  Snorre names "Sigurd Hrise…Halfdan Haleg, Gudrod Ljome and Ragnvald Rettilbeine" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Snæfrid[94].  The Historia Norwegie names "Halfdanus Hafoeta" as eighth son of "Haraldus Comatus"[95].  Snorre records that, with his brother Gudred Liomi he surprised Ragnvald Mörejarl [ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy and Jarls of Orkney] in his hall in [894] and burned him alive[96]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Halfdan Long-Leg and Gudrod Gleam, King Harald´s sons by Snæfrid” attacked “Earl Rognvald of More, killed him and assumed his authority”, that Halfdan left for Orkney and “conquered the islands and set himself up as king over them”, Jarl Einar “fled the islands over to Scotland” but returned “later in the year…[and] came out as victor”, and that Halfdan´s body was found in the sea and mutilated (including graphic details of the mutilation)[97].  He was killed by Einar I "Turf-Einar" Jarl of Orkney after he invaded Orkney following the death of Jarl Ragnvald[98].  The Historia Norwegie records that "Halfdan…Hafota" was murdered by the men of Orkney[99]

15.      GUDRÖD Ljome .  Snorre names "Sigurd Hrise…Halfdan Haleg, Gudrod Ljome and Ragnvald Rettilbeine" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Snæfrid, recording that Gudröd requested his foster-father Thjodolf of Hvin to intercede with their father on their behalf[100].  The Historia Norwegie names "Guthrodus" as seventh son of "Haraldus Comatus"[101].  He seized Möre after murdering Jarl Ragnvald but was expelled by his father and sent to Agder[102]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Halfdan Long-Leg and Gudrod Gleam, King Harald´s sons by Snæfrid” attacked “Earl Rognvald of More, killed him and assumed his authority”, but that Gudröd “gave himself up to his father[103].  Under his father's division of territories, Ringerike, Hadeland, Thoten and their dependencies were granted to his sons by Snæfrid[104].  His boat was lost in a storm while he was travelling north to Rogaland while visiting his foster-father Thjodolf in Hvin[105]

16.      RAGNVALD Rettilbein.  Snorre names "Sigurd Hrise…Halfdan Haleg, Gudrod Ljome and Ragnvald Rettilbeine" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Snæfrid[106].  The Historia Norwegie names "Rogualdus Recilbein" as ninth son of "Haraldus Comatus", recording that he was reared by a sorceress "in prouincia Hatlandia" and became skilled in the same art[107].  Under his father's division of territories, Ringerike, Hadeland, Thoten and their dependencies were granted to his sons by Snæfrid[108].  He "allowed himself to be instructed in the arts of witchcraft and became an area warlock", being burned in his house as punishment by his half-brother Erik on the orders of their father who was "a hater of all witchcraft"[109].  According to the Historia Norwegie, he was reputedly drowned "in Hatlandia" on the orders of his father[110]m ---.  The name of Ragnvald's wife is not known.  Ragnvald & his wife had one child:

a)         ---.  The names of Evind's parents are not known.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          EYVIND Kelda (-drowned 998).  Snorre names "Eyvind Kelda, a grandson of Ragnvald Rettilbeine, Harald Harfager's son", stating that he was a sorcerer and was drowned after being bound to a rock at Skrattasker as the tide came in, on the orders of King Olav[111]

King Harald I & his fifth wife had four children:

17.      DAG.  Snorre names (in order) "Dag, Hring, Gudrod Skiria and Ingigerd" as the children of King Harald and his wife Alvhild[112].  Under his father's division of territories, Hedemark and Gudbrandsdal were granted to Dag, Hring and Ragnar[113]

18.      RING.  Snorre names (in order) "Dag, Hring, Gudrod Skiria and Ingigerd" as the children of King Harald and his wife Alvhild[114].  Under his father's division of territories, Hedemark and Gudbrandsdal were granted to Dag, Hring and Ragnar[115]m ---.  The name of Ring's wife is not known.  Ring & his wife had one child:

a)         DAG Ringsson.  King of Hedemark [960].  m ---.  The name of Dag's wife is not known.  Dag & his wife had three children:

i)          RÖREK (-1021).  Snorre names "two brothers…Hrorek and Ring" as kings in Hedemark, recording that they supported the accession of King Olav Haraldson[116].  King of Hedemark.  He was blinded on the orders of Olav II King of Norway[117]

ii)         RING.  Snorre names "two brothers…Hrorek and Ring" as kings in Hedemark, recording that they supported the accession of King Olav Haraldson[118].  King of Hedemark.  He was banished on the orders of Olav II King of Norway[119]m ---.  The name of Ring's wife is not known.  Ring & his wife had two children:

(a)       DAG Ringsson.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1030.

(b)       EMUND Ringsson.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  An official in Polotzk.

iii)        RAGNHILD.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m RAUD, from Österdalen.

19.      GUDRÖD Skirja.  Snorre names (in order) "Dag, Hring, Gudrod Skiria and Ingigerd" as the children of King Harald and his wife Alvhild[120]

20.      INGEGERD.  Snorre names (in order) "Dag, Hring, Gudrod Skiria and Ingigerd" as the children of King Harald and his wife Alvhild[121]

King Harald & his sixth wife had one child: 

21.      ERIK ([895]-murdered Stainmore Westmoreland 954).  Snorre names "Eirik Blood-axe" as the son of King Harald and his wife "Ragnhild the Mighty"[122].  The Historia Norwegie names "Ericus…Blothex" as oldest son of "Haraldus Comatus", specifying that he succeeded his father as king[123].  Snorre records that he was fostered by "the herse Thorer Hroaldson" after his mother's death[124], in a later passage that this was in the Fjord district[125].  Under his father's division of territories, Halogaland, North More and Raumsdal were granted to Eirik[126].  He succeeded in [930] on the abdication of his father as ERIK I "Blodøks/Blood-axe" Over-King of Norway.  He conquered Viken in 934 after defeating his half-brothers Olav King of Viken and Sigröd King of Tröndheim at Tunsberg[127].  His support diminished after the return to Norway of his half-brother Haakon, and he fled in [935/36] to Orkney where he established himself as king and took to piracy because he had little land.  The Historia Norwegie records that he was deposed after ruling one year and fled to England where he was baptised and appointed "toti Northimbrie comes" by King Athelstan[128].  King Athelstan established him as vassal king at York in 939, on condition that he and his family accepted baptism[129].  He was expelled from York in 940 by Athelstan's successor King Edmund I[130]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earls Arnkel and Erlend, the sons of Turf-Einar” joined ex-King Eirik after he was expelled from Northumbria by Edmund King of England and that they sailed to the Hebrides, looted in Ireland and Strathclyde, until they were killed in battle against Olaf King of Northumbria[131].  He returned as King of York after a Danish revolt 947-948, but was driven out in 949 by Olaf Sihtricson.  Florence of Worcester records that "quondam Danica stirpe progenitum, Yrcum" was made king of Northumbria, undated but dateable to [949] from the context[132].  After the latter was deposed, Erik became king of York once more 952-954 until the Northumbrians rose against him and defeated him.  He was killed by Maccus son of Harald Sihtricsson King of Limerick.  Simeon of Durham records that "the last of the kings of [Northumbria]…Eiric" was killed by "Muccus the son of Onlaf"[133]m ([922]) GUNHILD, daughter of --- ([910/20]-after 970).  The primary sources are contradictory concerning Gunhild's parentage.  According to the Historia Norwegie, she was GUNHILD, daughter of GORM “den Gamle/the Old” King of Denmark & his wife Tyre, this source recording the marriage of "Ericus…Blothex" and "de Dania…Gunnildam…Gorms Stultissimi Danorum regis filiam ac Thyri" and specifying that she was "malificam et iniquissimam"[134].  According to Snorre, she was the daughter of Ozur "Tote", a Finn who lived in Halogaland[135], in a later passage stating that she was "clever with much knowledge and lively but a very false person and very cruel in disposition"[136].  Snorre names "Eyvind Skreyja and Alf Askman" as brothers of Gunhild, when recording that they joined the army of Harald Eirikson and were killed in battle[137].  Her birth date range is estimated from her allegedly having nine sons by her husband, who were probably born in the range [935/50] if the indications in Snorre's narrative are correct.  If this is correct, she was probably older than her brother Harald King of Denmark, assuming that her Danish origin is correct.  Gunhild returned to Orkney with her sons after her husband's death[138], departing in [spring/summer] 955 for Denmark where her sons were granted fiefs by King Harald.  The Historia Norwegie records that she returned with her sons to "fratrem suum Haraldum regem Danorum" after her husband was murdered[139].  After her son succeeded as king of Norway, she was known as the "King mother" and exercised considerable influence in governing the country[140].  She returned to Orkney with her surviving sons after the defeat of her son King Harald in [965] at Limfiord[141].  King Erik I & his wife had [eight] children:

a)         GAMLE Eriksson (-killed in battle Rastarkalv, island of Frei [955]).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[142].  The Historia Norwegie names "Gamla" as second son of "Ericus…Blothex" & his wife[143].  Snorre records that "Gamle Eirikson" was somewhat older than the other brothers but "still he was not a grown man" when he and his brothers left Orkney for Denmark with their mother[144].  The Historia Norwegie records that "Gamle filius Gunnilde" was hurled from a promontory into the sea "in prouincia Northmore in…insula Frethi loco Rastarcalf" while fighting his paternal uncle King Haakon[145].  According to Snorre, he drowned while trying to reach his ship[146]

b)         GOTTORM Eriksson (-killed in battle Avaldsnes on Karmøy [953]).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[147].  The Historia Norwegie names "Gorm" as sixth and youngest son of "Ericus…Blothex" & his wife[148].  The Historia Norwegie records that "duo filii Gunnilde…Gormr et Erlingr" were killed in battle "in…oppido…Fittium" while fighting their paternal uncle King Haakon[149]

c)         HARALD Eriksson (-killed in battle Limfiord near Hals, Jylland [965]).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[150].  The Historia Norwegie names "Haraldum…Grafeld" as oldest son of "Ericus…Blothex" & his wife[151].  According to Snorre, in [955] he was adopted as foster son by Harald King of Denmark who "set him on his knee"[152], which implies that Harald was not yet an adult at the time.  He defeated and killed his uncle in battle and succeeded him in 960 as HARALD II "Gråfeld/Greyskin" King of Norway.  According to Snorre, his nickname was earned after he bought a grey skin from a trader from Iceland, all his retainers following his example[153].  He was killed in battle by Harald "Guld-Harald" of Denmark who was plotting to become King of Norway[154].  King Harald II had one iIllegitimate child by an unknown mistress:   

i)          son .  Snorre refers to, but does not name, King Harald's only son by a concubine[155]

d)         RAGNFRED Eriksson (-after 970).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[156].  Went to Orkney with his mother 954 on the death of his father.  Joint King in Norway [960-967].  After his brother King Harald II was killed, he left with his mother for Orkney from where he continued to plunder Norway but was defeated by Jarl Haakon at the Thinganes, near Sogn and Hordaland[157]

e)         RAGNHILD Eriksdatter ).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[158]Orkneyinga Saga records that Gunnhild, widow of ex-King Eirik of Norway, arranged the marriage of their daughter Ragnhild to “Earl Thorfinn Skull-Splitter” before she and her sons left Orkney[159], which can probably be dated to [955] or soon after.  Snorre records the marriage of "King Eirik's daughter, Ragnhild" and "Arnfin, a son of Thorfin Hausakljufer" at the time the king's sons left Orkney[160]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik´s daughter plotted the death of her husband Arnfinn at Murkle in Caithness” before marrying “his brother Havard the Fecund who succeeded to the earldom”, but that she plotted her second husband´s death with his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” (whom she promised to marry), that she then plotted with “Einar Hardmouth, the son of another of Havard´s sisters” to kill Einar Buttered-Bread, but that she finally married “Ljot the brother of Arnfinn and Havard[161]m firstly ([954/55]) ARNFINN Torfinnsson, son of THORFINN I "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Grelad of Caithness (-murdered).  He succeeded his father in [976] as Jarl of Orkney [and Caithness].  He was murdered on the orders of his wife.  m secondly HAVARD Torfinnsson "Season-prosperous" Jarl of Orkney, son of THORFINN I "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Grelad of Caithness (-murdered, bur Stennis, Hrossey).  He was murdered on the orders of his wife.  m thirdly LJOT Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney, son of THORFINN I "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Grelad of Caithness (-killed in battle). 

f)          ERLING Eriksson (-murdered Trondheim [963]).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[162].  The Historia Norwegie names "Erlingum" as fifth son of "Ericus…Blothex" & his wife[163].  Joint King in Norway.  The Historia Norwegie records that "duo filii Gunnilde…Gormr et Erlingr" were killed in battle "in…oppido…Fittium" while fighting their paternal uncle King Haakon[164].  According to Snorre, he was murdered in 969 by men of Tröndheim who were dissatisfied with the heavy penalties he had laid on them[165]

g)         GUDRÖD Eriksson (-murdered [Alrekstad] 999).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[166].  The Historia Norwegie names "Gunrodum" as fourth son of "Ericus…Blothex" & his wife[167].  He went to Orkney with his mother in 954 on the death of his father.  Joint King in Norway.  He murdered King Tryggve Olavson[168].  After his brother King Harald II was killed, he left with his mother for Orkney.  According to Snorre, he attempted an invasion of Norway in 999 but was killed[169].  The Historia Norwegie records that "Gunrodum" was murdered "in uillula Alrecstadum" by "Torkellus Clypr" in revenge for raping his wife, but that his murder was avenged by "Erlingus Senex"[170]

h)         SIGURD Eriksson "Sleva" [Snog] (-murdered Vors [965]).  Snorre names (in order) "Gamle the oldest, then Guthorm, Harald, Ragnfrod, Ragnhild, Erling, Gudrod and Sigurd Sleva" as the children of King Eirik & his wife[171].  The Historia Norwegie names "Siwardum Lioma" as third son of "Ericus…Blothex" & his wife[172].  Joint King in Norway.  According to Snorre, he was murdered in 965 by Herse Klyp in revenge for raping his wife[173].  The Historia Norwegie records that "Siwardus" was murdered by the peasants of Voss led by "Wemundo Volubriot"[174]

King Harald I had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

22.      INGEBORG.  Snorre names her, her husband and her daughter[175]m HALFDAN Jarl, son of ---.

a)         GUNHILD.  Snorre names Gunhild as the daughter of Halfdan & his wife[176].  In a later passage, he names Gunhild, daughter of Earl Halfdan and Ingebjorg, as the mother of Harek's father[177].  The primary source which confirms the name of her husband has not yet been identified.  m FIN Skjalge, son of ---. 

King Harald I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2): 

23.      HAAKON ([Alrekstad] [919]-[Alrekstad] 960, bur Saeheim, North Hordaland[178]).  Snorre records the birth of Haakon as King Harald's son by Thora Mosterstang, born after his father's division of territories[179].  The Historia Norwegie names "Hacon" as second son of "Haraldus Comatus", recording that he was adopted by "Adalstanus rex Anglorum"[180].  Known as "Adalstenfostre/Athalsteins fóstri", he lived in England at the court of Athelstan King of Wessex, converting to Christianity there[181].  According to Snorre, on hearing of his father's death in 934, he returned to Norway arriving in Tröndheim where he allied himself with Sigurd Jarl of Hlader "who was the ablest man in Norway" and was chosen as king by the people, at the age of 15[182].  He conquered the Uplands in early 935 and Viken where he received the support of his nephews Trygve and Gudrod[183].  His half-brother Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe" fled to Orkney in the face of growing opposition to his rule, and he succeeded in 936 as HAAKON I "Godi/the Good" King of Norway.  The Historia Norwegie records that "Hacone fratre suo" succeeded "Ericus…Blothex", who was deposed after ruling one year and fled to England[184].  He defeated the Danes, who regularly plundered Viken, in Jutland[185].  He attempted unsuccessfully to christianise Norway[186].  According to the Historia Norwegie, he returned to the pagan religion[187].  He initiated the coastal defence system of bonfires known as "leidang".  He also established a system of courts of appeal covering large districts of Norway.  He was defeated in battle by the sons of his half-brother King Erik "Blodøks/Blood-axe"[188].  According to the Historia Norwegie, he received a mortal wound "in…oppido…Fittium" while fighting the sons of his brother King Erik, and died at his manor "Alrecstathi" [Alrekstad] where he had also been born[189]m ---.  The name of King Haakon's wife is not known.  King Haakon I & his wife had one child: 

a)         THORA.  Snorre names Thora as the only child of King Haakon, but includes no reference to her mother[190]

 

 

OLAV I 996-1000

 

OLAV Geirstadaalf, son of HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway & his third wife Svanhild (-killed in battle Tunsberg 934, bur Tunsberg).  The Historia Norwegie names "Olauus" as third son of "Haraldus Comatus"[191].  Under his father's division of territories, Vingulmark, Raumarike, Vestfold and Thelamark were granted to Olav, Björn, Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils, Olav inherited the lands of his brother Gutthorm when the latter was killed in battle[192].  He succeeded on the death of his half-brother Guttorm as King in Glommen to Svinasund and Ranrike.  On the death of his brother Björn, he became king in Vestfold, becoming "upper King" in Viken with the consent of the people on the abdication of his father in favour of his half-brother Erik[193].  After his father's death he took "all the revenues eastward in Viken" with which Erik was "very ill-pleased"[194].  The latter sailed for Tunsberg in Vike where Olav had joined forces with his half-brother Sigröd and defeated and killed the two of them[195]

m ---.  The name of Olav's wife is not known. 

Olav Haraldsson had one son:

1.         TRYGVE Olavsson (-murdered Veggen [968]).  Snorre names Trygve as son of Olav[196].  The Historia Norwegie names "Turgonem" as son of "Olauus filius Haraldi Comari", recording that he was brought up "in prouincia Roumorum"[197].  Along with his cousin Gudrod, he supported his uncle Haakon after the latter's return to Norway and was installed as King in Ranrike and Vingulmark in 935, ruling through an appointee as he was "in the years of childhood"[198].  His uncle King Haakon I appointed Trygve to defend Viken in 946[199].  He was murdered by Gudröd, brother of King Harald[200].  The Historia Norwegie records that "Turgonem" was murdered by the sons of King Erik "Blodøks" at a place later called "Trugguaroyr id est tumulus Turgonis"[201].  Snorre records his death in 963[202]m ([960]) as her first husband, ÅSTRID Eiriksdatter, daughter of EIRIK Bjordaskalle, from Oprustader & his wife ---.  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "Turgonem" and "Astridam" in "prouincia Roumorum"[203].  Snorre records the marriage of King Trygve Olafson and "Astrid…a daughter of Eirik Bjodaskalle, a great man who dwelt at Oprustader", and her escape to her father after her husband's death, before fleeing Norway to Haakon "Gamle" in Svithjod[204].  She eventually escaped to settle with her brother Sigurd in Gardarike [Russia].  She was sold into slavery, but bought by Lodin who married her as her second husband and brought her back to Norway[205].  Trygve & his wife had three children: 

a)         INGIBJÖRG Trygvesdatter.  Snorre names "Ingebjorg and Astrid…daughters of Astrid by King Trygve"[206].  Snorre records the marriage of "Ingebjorg, Trygve's daughter, King Olaf's sister" and "Earl Ragnvald, Ulf's son"[207]m (1000) as his first wife, RAGNVOLD Ulfsson, Jarl in Västergötland, son of ULF & his wife ---. 

b)         ASTRID Trygvesdatter.  Snorre "Ingebjorg and Astrid…daughters of Astrid by King Trygve"[208].  Snorre names Astrid, sister of King Olav Trygvason, and in a later passage records her marriage "in Summer" with "Erling Skjalgson"[209]m (996) ERLING Skjalgsson of Sole, son of THORLEIF Skjalg & his wife --- (-killed in battle 1028).  On his marriage, his brother-in-law invested him with the land north of Sognefjord and east of the Lidandisnes. 

c)         OLAV Trygveson (posthumously [968] Orkney-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]).  The Historia Norwegie records that, after the murder of her husband, the widow of "Turgonem" fled to Orkney where she gave birth to their son "Olauum"[210].  Leaving Svithjod with his mother, he was captured by Vikings of Eistland [Estonia], but freed and taken to Holmgard by his maternal uncle Sigurd where he stayed at the court of Prince Vladimir[211].  The Historia Norwegie records that his mother sent him to Sweden to be brought up by "Thorolfo…Lusaskeg", after learning that Jarl Haakon Sigurdsson was planning to kill him, sailed for Russia but was captured by Vikings "in Eistriam" and sold as a slave.  He was ransomed by "Olauo suo cognato" who had been sent as ambassador to "rege Ruscie"[212].  He left Garderike for Norway, meeting his first wife in Vindland where he remained for 3 years until she died, after which he adopted a marauding lifestyle[213].  He was one of the leaders of the attacks on England, culminating in the battle of Maldon and the signing of a treaty with Æthelred II King of England, under which 22,000 pounds of gold and silver were paid in return for a promise to help thwart future attacks.  The treaty never came into full effect although the money was paid[214].  Olav claimed the throne when Haakon "the Mighty" Ladejarl, Regent of Norway, was murdered in 995.  He was first accepted by the people of Trondheim, and gradually imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway.  According to Snorre[215], King Olav proposed to marry Sigrid Storrada, widow of Erik King of Sweden, but they disputed when they met.  Saxo Grammaticus[216] recounts a similar story.  Adam of Bremen records that "Olaph Trucconis filius" was baptised in Norway by Adaldagus Bishop of Bremen, after accepting Christianity in England following his expulsion from Norway[217].  He succeeded in establishing Christianity in Norway, building the first churches in the country.  Olav I King of Norway attempted to invade Denmark but was defeated by King Svend in a naval battle "inter Sconiam et Seland", during which King Olav was drowned, after which Svend imposed himself as king of Norway[218].  The Historia Norwegie records the death in battle of King Olav[219]m firstly ([982]) GYDA [Geira] of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAW King of the Wends & his wife --- (-984).  Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif", recording that Geira was queen in the part of the country in which Olav landed when returning from Garderike.  He records that that they married in 982 and that Olav stayed in Vindland to rule jointly with his wife[220].  Snorre records that Geira died after Olaf Trygvason had been in Vindland for three years[221]m secondly (in England 988) as her second husband, GYDA, widow of ---, sister of OLAV Kvaran King of Dublin & his wife ---.  Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[222].  In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[223]m thirdly ([995]) GUDRUN Skeggesdatter, daughter of SKEGGE Asbjörnsson & his wife ---.  Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and Gudrun daughter of Jarnskegge, recording that she tried to stab her husband during their first night together, after which they separated[224]m fourthly (998) as her third husband, TYRE Haraldsdatter, widow [firstly] of STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, and divorced wife [secondly] of BURISLAW King of the Wends, daughter of HARALD I “Blåtand/Bluetooth” King of Denmark & his wife Gunhild of the Wends (-18 Sep [1000]).  Snorre records Tyre's flight from her second husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav in 999[225].  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[226].  Adam of Bremen records the marriage of "Olaph Trucconis filius" and "a Dania superbissimam Thore" soon after he returned to Norway after exile in England[227].  Adam of Bremen records that, after the death of her husband, his wife starved herself to death[228].  King Olav I & his second wife had one child:

i)          TRYGVE Olavsson (-killed in battle 1033).  Snorre records that he landed in Norway to claim the Norwegian throne but was defeated at Bokn in Soknarsund[229]

King Olav I & his fourth wife had one child:

ii)         HARALD Olavsson (999-1000).  Snorre records the birth of Harald, son of King Olav and his wife Tyre and his death "barely a year after its birth"[230]

 

 

OLAV II 1016-1028, MAGNUS II 1035-1047

 

BJÖRN, son of HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway & his third wife Svanhild .  The Historia Norwegie names "Berno" as fourth son of "Haraldus Comatus", recording that he was reared "in Grenlandia"[231].  Under his father's division of territories, Vingulmark, Raumarike, Vestfold and Thelamark were granted to Olav, Björn, Sigtryg, Frode and Thorgils[232].  King in Vestfold, based at Tunsberg, and "promised to become a good ruler".  He promoted merchant expeditions to procure "for himself costly articles", earning himself the nicknames "Farman/Seaman" and "Kaupman/the Chapman" among his brothers.  He was killed by retainers of his half-brother Erik after a dispute about who should deliver the tribute from his kingdom to their father.  He was buried "in the mound of Farmanshaug at Saeheim"[233]

m ---.  Snorre records that Björn "made a good and suitable marriage" but does not name his wife[234]

Björn Haraldsson had one child:

1.         GUDRÖD Bjornsson (-murdered Tunsberg [960/65]).  The Historia Norwegie names "Gudrodus" as son of "Berno…filius Harald Comati"[235].  Snorre names Gudröd as the son of Björn & his wife, recording in a later passage that he was brought up by his paternal uncle Olav after his father was killed[236].  Along with his cousin Tryggve, he supported his uncle Haakon after the latter's return to Norway and was installed as King in Vestfold 935, ruling through an appointee as he was "in the years of childhood"[237].  He was murdered by King Harald II[238]m CECILIA, daughter of ---.  Snorre records that Gudröd made "a good and suitable marriage" but does not name his wife[239].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Gudröd Bjornsson had one child:

a)         HARALD "Grenske" ([947]-murdered 995).  The Historia Norwegie names "Haroldum Grensca" as son of "Gudrodus", commenting that he acquired his nickname from having been brought up "in Grenlandia"[240].  Snorre names Harald as son of Gudröd & his wife, recording that, after his father's death, he fled to the Uplands and from there eastwards into Svithjod[241].  He supported the invasion of Norway by Harald King of Denmark in 965, and was rewarded with Vingulmark, Vestfold and Agder with the title of king[242].  He was murdered on the orders of Sigrid "Storrada/the Haughty", widow of Erik King of Sweden, to whom Harald "Grenske" proposed marriage (despite already being married to Asta)[243]m as her first husband, ASTA Gudbransdatter, daughter of GUDBRAND Kula.  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "Haroldum Grensca" and "Asta filiam Gudbrandi Culu", and her second marriage to "Siwardus Scroffa rex montanus" who was the son of Halfdan, son of "Siwardus Risi…filius Haraldi Comati"[244].  She and her father are also named by Snorre, which also records both her marriages[245].  She returned to her father after learning that her husband had visited Sigrid "Storrada/the Haughty", widow of Erik King of Sweden, with a view to proposing marriage to her[246].  She married secondly Sigurd Syr King in Ringerike.  Morkinskinna records that “Sigurdr sýr” married “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr”, previously wife of “Haraldr grenski[247].  Harald & his wife had one child: 

i)          [St] OLAV Haraldson (maybe posthumously 995-killed in battle Stiklestad 29 Jul 1030, bur in a sandbank in the river at Trondheim, transferred to St Clement's church later transformed into Trondheim Cathedral).  Snorre records the birth of Olav son of Harald "Grenske" & his wife in Summer 995, implying that he was born after his father was killed[248].  The Historia Norwegie names "Olauum perpetuum regem Norwegie" as son of "Haroldum Grensca" & his wife[249].  According to William of Jumièges, Olav was christened [998] at Rouen[250].  He defeated Erik Haakonsson Ladejarl Regent of Norway at Nesjar[251] and succeeded in imposing himself 1016 as OLAV II King of Norway.  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Eulaf came to the island of Britain…to Menevia…and devastated Dyved" in 1021[252].  He reunified Norway, by incorporating the interior eastern parts of the country and the Vik area.  He imposed a feudal system of administration modelled on Normandy, where he had spent time in his youth.  The heads of the major farming families entered his service as vassals ("lendmenn") in return for receiving revenues from royal farms and a share of fines imposed by the courts.  He completed the process of Christianisation of Norway, became head of the church in Norway and appointed a national bishop, placed under the supervision of the Archbishop of Bremen.  Ecclesiastical administration was organised under an Act passed by a national meeting ("riksting") in 1024.  In alliance with Sweden, King Olav defeated Knud King of Denmark in a naval battle off Scania.  However, his Swedish allies deserted him, and revolt broke out against him in Norway.  He was forced into exile in 1028 by King Knud, who imposed himself as king of Norway.  Olav sought refuge in Russia with his brother-in-law Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was defeated and killed on his return to Norway in 1030.  Adam of Bremen records that King Olav died "IV Kal Aug" and that he reigned 12 years[253].  Soon after his death he was seen as a national hero, and considered a saint.  m (Feb 1019) ASTRID Olofsdottir, illegitimate daughter of OLOF "Skotkoning" King of Sweden & his mistress ---.  Snorre names "Emund, Astrid, Holmfrid" as the children of King Olof by his concubine Edla, specifying that Astrid was brought up in West Gautland in the house of Egil[254].  Adam of Bremen records that the wife of Olav King of Norway was "rege Sueonum…filiam"[255].  The Historia Norwegie records that Olav married "soror Margarete" after his betrothal to the latter was terminated by her marriage to "rex Iarezlafus de Ruscia"[256].  Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and "Astrid, daughter of the Swedish king Olaf"[257].  Her marriage was arranged to appease Swedish opposition to King Olav II's recently assumed rule.  She remained in Sweden with her daughter when her husband left for Russia[258]Mistress (1): ALVHILD [Elfhildis], daughter of --- (-after 1047).  Snorre names "Alfhild…the king's slave-woman…of good descent"[259].  According to William of Malmesbury, she was English and captured by the Norwegians.  Morkinskinna records that King Magnus´s mother grieved for her son when he died[260].  King Olav II & his wife had one child:

(a)       ULFHILD Olavsdatter (-24 May 1071).  Snorre names Ulfhild as the daughter of King Olav & his wife[261].  Adam of Bremen records the betrothal of "soror Magni regis" and "Ordulfo ducis filio" at a meeting in Schleswig between Bernhard Duke of Saxony and Magnus King of Norway[262]Morkinskinna names “King Magnus…sister…Úlfhildr…daughter of King Óláfr” and records her marriage to “a powerful duke named Otto south in Saxony[263].  The Annalista Saxo names "Wifhildem…filiam Olaph Nortmannorum regis et martiris" as wife of Duke Ordulf[264].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "24 May" of "Wulfhild ductrix"[265]m (Nov 1042) as his first wife, ORDULF Duke in Saxony, son of BERNHARD II Duke in Saxony [Billung] & his wife Eilika von Schweinfurt (28 Mar 1072, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis). 

King Olav II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

(b)       MAGNUS ([Apr/Jun] [1024]-25 Oct 1047).  Snorre records the birth of Magnus, son of King Olav by his concubine Alfhild[266].  Adam of Bremen names "Magnum" as son of "Olaphus martyris a concubina" when recording his election as king of Norway[267]Morkinskinna records that “Queen Ingigerđr the daughter of King Óláfr the Swede”, wife of “King Yaroslav [of] Russia”, requested “King Óláfr in Norway” to send his “young son [born] out of wedlock…Magnús” to Russia to be fostered[268].  His date of birth is suggested by Morkinskinna which records King Magnus´s twentieth birthday “the following spring”, dateable from the context to 1044[269].  He was recalled from Novgorod by chiefs from the Trondheim area who were dissatisfied with Danish rule, and installed in 1035 as MAGNUS II "the Good" King of Norway.  He claimed the throne of Denmark in 1042, on the basis of an alleged agreement with King Hardaknud in 1039.  He also claimed the throne of England on the same basis, maybe with the support of Queen Emma[270].  He threatened to invade England but was too preoccupied with conquering Denmark to carry out the threat[271].  He was master of Denmark before the end of 1046.  He defeated the Wends, a Slavish people from the southern shore of the Baltic, who were attempting to expand into Denmark.  He died on an expedition against Svend Estridsen who succeeded him as King of Denmark.  He was succeeded in Norway by his father's half-brother, Harald "Hardråde".  Mistress: ---.  No information has been identified concerning King Magnus's concubine.  King Magnus II had one illegitimate child by his Mistress:   

(1)       RAGNHILD MagnusdatterMorkinskinna records that King Magnus´s daughter “Ragnhildr” was “no more than a child” when her father died[272].  Snorre records the marriage of "Hakon Ivarson" and "Ragnhild [daughter of] King Magnus"[273]Morkinskinna records that “Hákon” as son of “Ívarr hvíti” married “King Magnus´s daughter Ragnhildr”, dated to [1062] from the context[274]m ([1062]) HAAKON Ivarsson Jarl of the Uplands in Norway, son of IVAR Hvide & his wife --- (-after 1065). 

 

 

SIGURD "Hrise", son of HARALD I "Hårfagre/Harfagri/Fairhair" King of Norway & his fourth wife Snefried .  Snorre names "Sigurd Hrise…Halfdan Haleg, Gudrod Ljome and Ragnvald Rettilbeine" as the four sons of King Harald and his wife Snæfrid[275].  The Historia Norwegie names "Siwardus…Gigas" as sixth son of "Haraldus Comatus"[276]Morkinskinna recites the descent of “Harald Sigurdarson” from “Harald hárfagri”, to “Sigurdr hrisi”, to “Hálfdan, father of Sigurdr sýr, the father of Haraldr”, adding that these ancestors were all “kings of Hringaríki in Norway[277].  Under his father's division of territories, Ringerike, Hadeland, Thoten and their dependencies were granted to his sons by Snæfrid[278]

m ---.  The name of Sigurd's wife is not known. 

Sigurd & his wife had one child: 

1.         HALFDAN Sigurdsson.  The Historia Norwegie names Halfdan son of "Siwardus Risi…filius Haraldi Comati"[279]Morkinskinna recites the descent of “Harald Sigurdarson” from “Harald hárfagri”, to “Sigurdr hrisi”, to “Hálfdan, father of Sigurdr sýr, the father of Haraldr”, adding that these ancestors were all “kings of Hringaríki in Norway[280]m ---.  The name of Halfdan's wife is not known.  Halfdan & his wife had one child:

a)         SIGURD Syr (-1018).  The Historia Norwegie names "Siwardus Scroffa rex montanus" as son of Halfdan, son of "Siwardus Risi…filius Haraldi Comati"[281]Morkinskinna recites the descent of “Harald Sigurdarson” from “Harald hárfagri”, to “Sigurdr hrisi”, to “Hálfdan, father of Sigurdr sýr, the father of Haraldr”, adding that these ancestors were all “kings of Hringaríki in Norway[282].  He was christened in 998.  King of Ringeringe.  m (995 or after) as her second husband, ASTA, widow of HARALD "Grenske", daughter of GUDBRAND Kula & his wife ---.  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "Haroldum Grensca" and "Asta filiam Gudbrandi Culu", and her second marriage to "Siwardus Scroffa rex montanus" who was the son of Halfdan, son of "Siwardus Risi…filius Haraldi Comati"[283]Morkinskinna records that “Sigurdr sýr” married “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr”, previously wife of “Haraldr grenski[284].  She and her father are named by Snorre, who also records both her marriages[285].  Sigurd & his wife had five children: 

i)          GUTTORM Sigurdsson.  Snorre names "Guthorm, the eldest, then Gunhild, the next Halfdan, Ingerid and Harald" as the children of Sigurd & his wife[286]Morkinskinna names (in order) “Gudrødr…Hálfdan…Ingibjorg…Gunnhildr, Haraldr” as the children of “Sigurdr sýr” and his wife “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr[287]

ii)         GUNHILD.  Snorre names "Guthorm, the eldest, then Gunhild, the next Halfdan, Ingerid and Harald" as the children of Sigurd & his wife[288]Morkinskinna names (in order) “Gudrødr…Hálfdan…Ingibjorg…Gunnhildr, Haraldr” as the children of “Sigurdr sýr” and his wife “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr[289].  Snorre records the marriage of "Ketil Kalf of Ringanes" and "Gunhild, a daughter of Sigurd Syr and King Olaf's mother Asta"[290]m ([1025]) KETTIL Kalf of Ringanes, son of ---.  Kettil & his wife had two children: 

(a)       GUTTHORM .  Snorre names Guthorm as son of "Ketil Kalf and Gunhild of Ringanes…a sister's son to King Olaf and Harald Sigurdson", recording that he "had his winter quarters often in Dublin and was in great friendship with King Margad"[291]Morkinskinna records that Tostig, son of Godwin, sent “Gunnhildr´s son Guthormr” to offer Northumbria to Harald III King of Norway in return for help in the conquest of England[292]

(b)       SIGRID Kettilsdatter.  Snorre names "Sigrid, a daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunhild, King Harald's sister" as the wife of Eindride, son of "Einar Tambaskelfer"[293]m EINAR Einarsson, son of EINAR Thambarskelfir & his wife Bergljot Haakonsdatter (-killed in battle [1050]).

iii)        HALFDAN Sigurdsson.  Snorre names "Guthorm, the eldest, then Gunhild, the next Halfdan, Ingerid and Harald" as the children of Sigurd & his wife[294]Morkinskinna names (in order) “Gudrødr…Hálfdan…Ingibjorg…Gunnhildr, Haraldr” as the children of “Sigurdr sýr” and his wife “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr[295]m ---.  The name of Halfdan's wife is not known.  Halfdan & his wife had one child:

(a)       THORBERG [Bergliot] Halfdansdatter ([1018/20-).  Snorre names "Bergliot, a daughter of Halfdan…son of Sigurd Syr" as the wife of "Fin Arnason"[296].  Her birth date is estimated from the marriage date of her paternal grandparents, but bearing in mind the tight chronology for the birth of her daughter Ingebjörg.  m FIN Arnesson, son of ARNE & his wife --- (-1062).  Of Yriar in Austratt Lendermann Norway.  Jarl of Halland in Denmark [1051].  Snorre names "Thorberg, Fin and Arne" as the sons of Arne[297]

iv)       INGERID Sigurdsdatter.  Snorre names "Guthorm, the eldest, then Gunhild, the next Halfdan, Ingerid and Harald" as the children of Sigurd & his wife[298]Morkinskinna names (in order) “Gudrødr…Hálfdan…Ingibjorg…Gunnhildr, Haraldr” as the children of “Sigurdr sýr” and his wife “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr[299].  Snorre names "Ingerid, a daughter of Sigurd Syr and Asta" as the mother of Gudrun, daughter of Nefstein[300]m NEFSTEIN, son of ---. 

v)        HARALD Sigurdson (1015-killed in battle Stamfordbridge 25 Sep 1066).  Snorre names "Guthorm, the eldest, then Gunhild, the next Halfdan, Ingerid and Harald" as the children of Sigurd & his wife[301]Morkinskinna names (in order) “Gudrødr…Hálfdan…Ingibjorg…Gunnhildr, Haraldr” as the children of “Sigurdr sýr” and his wife “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr[302].  The Historia Norwegie names Harald as son of "Siwardus Scroffa rex montanus" & his wife[303].  He succeeded in 1047 as HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway

-         see below, Part D.

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of NORWAY (KINGS of DENMARK) 1028-1035

 

 

After Olav II King of Norway was expelled from Norway in 1028, Knud I King of Denmark declared himself king of Norway, but installed his son Svend as Norwegian king in his place in 1030.  On the death of King Svend in 1035, the Norwegians recalled Magnus Olavsson (son of King Olav II) from Novgorod and installed him as Magnus II King of Norway. 

 

 

KNUD 1028-1030, SVEND 1030-1035

 

KNUD Svendsen, son of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his first wife Šwiętosława [Gunhild] of Poland ([995]-Shaftesbury, Dorset 12 Nov 1035, bur Winchester Cathedral, Old Minster).  After the death of King Edmund II, Knud was accepted in 1016 as CANUTE King of England.  He succeeded his brother in 1018 as KNUD I "den Storre/the Great" King of Denmark, leaving England for Denmark to take possession in 1019.  He expelled Olav King of Norway in 1028, declaring himself KNUD King of Norway

1.         SVEND Alfifasen ([1015]-in Denmark 1036).  His father appointed him SVEND King of Norway in 1030, under the regency of his mother.  Morkinskinna records “hostility between Sveinn Álfífuson and King Yaroslav [of Russia]” because the king “correctly judged that the Norwegians had betrayed Saint Óláfr[304].  He continued to rule in Norway until 1035, when Norwegian nobles from the Trondheim area, dissatisfied with Danish rule, recalled Magnus Olavsson from Novgorod and installed him as MAGNUS II "the Good" King of Norway. 

Other children:

-        see DENMARK

 

 

 

D.      KINGS of NORWAY 1047-1161

 

 

HARALD III 1047-1066, MAGNUS II 1066-1069, OLAV III 1069-1093, HAAKON II 1093-1095

 

HARALD Sigurdson, son of SIGURD Syr King of Ringeringe & his wife Asta Gudbrandsdatter (1015-killed in battle Stamfordbridge 25 Sep 1066, bur Nidaros [Trondheim] St Mary).  Snorre names "Guthorm, the eldest, then Gunhild, the next Halfdan, Ingerid and Harald" as the children of Sigurd & his wife[305]Morkinskinna names (in order) “Gudrødr…Hálfdan…Ingibjorg…Gunnhildr, Haraldr” as the children of “Sigurdr sýr” and his wife “Ásta daughter of Gudbrandr[306].  The Historia Norwegie names Harald as son of "Siwardus Scroffa rex montanus" & his wife[307]Morkinskinna refers to “Haraldr Sigurdarson” as uncle of Magnus II King of Norway, but in a later passage recites his descent from “Harald hárfagri” to “Sigurdr hrisi” to “Hálfdan, father of Sigurdr sýr, the father of Haraldr[308].  Wounded at the battle of Stiklestad in support of his half-brother King Olav II in 1030 when he was 15 years old, he fled to Russia where he served in the army against the Poles and Wends[309].  He made his way to Constantinople, where he served in the imperial army under George Maniakis and was made chief of the imperial guard by Empress Zoe[310].  He was imprisoned on accusations of having defrauded the emperor of treasure, but was able to escape and make his way back to Russia[311].  According to Snorre, he wanted to marry the "beautiful young niece" of Empress Zoe, "carried her away by force" while he made his escape from Constantinople but allowed her ashore "with a good retinue to escort her back to Constantinople"[312].  This story is not corroborated in Byzantine sources.  Morkinskinna recounts the same story but refers to the lady as “the maiden Maria” without specifying any relationship to the empress[313].  William of Malmesbury alludes to the same episode when he says that Harald "was exposed to a lion, for having ravished a woman of quality, [and] strangled the beast by the bare strength of his arms"[314].  He was in Jerusalem in 1034[315].  He became Joint King of Norway with his nephew Magnus I in 1046, and succeeded him in 1047 as HARALD III "Hardråde" King of Norway.  He founded the city of Oslo in 1048.  He defeated Svend II Estridsen King of Denmark at Nissa in 1062, but made peace at Gota in 1064.  He claimed to succeed to the throne of England after the death of Edward "the Confessor" King of England, landed in Scotland where he joined forces with Tostig Godwinsson, brother of Harold II King of England.  After defeating the Northumbrians at Gate Fulford near York 20 Sep 1066, he and his army were defeated by King Harold's forces at Stamford Bridge 25 Sep 1066, where both he and Tostig were killed.  Snorre records that King Harald was fifty years old when he died and that his body was transported to Nidaros and "buried in Mary church which he had built"[316]Morkinskinna records that King Harald´s body was brought back to Norway by Skuli Tostigson and that he “now lies buried at Elgisetr” where “Archbishop Eysteinn had him delivered[317]

m ([1044]) IELIZAVETA Iaroslavna, daughter of IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (-after 25 Sep 1066).  Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and Elisabeth "called by the Northmen Ellisif" daughter of "King Jarisleif ", specifying in a later passage that "the Swedish king Olaf…was brother of [her] mother"[318]Morkinskinna records the marriage of “Haraldr Sigurdarson” and “King Yaroslav and Queen Ingigerdr…daughter…Elisabeth, the Norsemen call her Ellisif” after Harald´s return from Constantinople[319].  Snorre records that "Queen Ellisif came from the West…with her stepson Olaf and her daughter Ingegerd" after her husband was killed[320]

Mistress (1): THORA Thorbergsdatter, daughter of THORBERG Arnesson [Arnung] from Giske & his wife Ragnhild Erlingsdatter ([1020/25-after 1066).  Morkinskinna records that King Harald had married “the daughter of Thorbergr Árnason…Thóra[321].  Snorre names "Thora, daughter of Thorberg Arnason" as mother of King Harald's sons Magnus and Olav, in a later passage clarifying that she was "Fin Arnason's brother's daughter"[322].  Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that her relationship with King Harald started around the time of his accession to the Norwegian throne, corroborated by the fact that her son King Magnus was old enough to have fathered a son before his death in 1069.  She gave birth to a son by another relationship, as shown by Snorre recording that her grandson "Hakon…was fostered by Thorer of Steig in Gudbrandsdal, who was a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side"[323], although no indication has yet been found of the identity of Thorer's father.  It is assumed that this relationship predated her relationship with King Harald, as it is likely that Thorer was older than his half-brother King Magnus to have been chosen as foster-father for his nephew.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[324], Thora Thorbergsdotter is identified with Thora who was the wife of Svend II King of Denmark and mother of King Svend's son Magnus.  Christiansen considers that this identification is far-fetched, considering Thora's age at the time of the supposed marriage[325].  There appears to be another chronological problem: the proposed consecration of Thora's son Magnus at Rome is best explained if he was King Svend's oldest son, which would place his birth (and therefore his parents' marriage) in the late 1030s.  Morkinskinna records that King Harald left “his wife Thora and his daughter Máría” in Orkney when he sailed for England[326]

King Harald III & his wife had two children:

1.         INGEGÄRD Haraldsdatter.  Snorre names "one Maria, the other Ingegerd" as the daughters of King Harald & his wife[327].  Snorre records the marriage of "Olaf, the Danish King Svein's son" and "Ingegerd, a daughter of King Harald and sister of King Olaf of Norway"[328]Morkinskinna records that King Olav “married his sister Ingigerdr” to “óláfr, the son of Danish king Sveinn”, dated from the context to soon after Olav succeeded as sole king in Norway[329].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly ([1070]) OLUF I “Hunger” King of Denmark, illegitimate son of SVEND II Estridsen King of Denmark & his mistress --- (-18 Jul 1095).  m secondly FILIP Halstensson King of Sweden, son of HALSTAN Stenkilsson King of Sweden & his wife --- (-1118). 

2.         MARIA Haraldsdatter (-25 Sep 1066).  Snorre names "one Maria, the other Ingegerd" as the daughters of King Harald & his wife[330]Morkinskinna records that King Harald left “his wife Thora and his daughter Máría” in Orkney when he sailed for England[331]Morkinskinna records that King Harald had promised “his daughter Máría” to “Eystein Orri” when they returned after their invasion of England in 1066[332].  Snorre records that "Maria, a daughter of Harald Sigurdson" died "a sudden death the very day and hour her father King Harald fell"[333]Betrothed ([mid-1066]) to EYSTEIN Orre, son of THORBERG Arnesson [Arnung] from Giske & his wife Ragnhild Erlingsdatter (-killed in battle 25 Sep 1066). 

King Harald III had two illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

3.         MAGNUS Haraldsson ([1045/50]-Nidaros 28 Apr 1069, bur Nidaros).  Snorre names Magnus and Olav as the sons of King Harald and Thora[334]Morkinskinna names “the older…Magnus, the younger Óláfr” as the two sons of King Harald and “the daughter of Thorbergr Árnason…Thóra[335].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Macht son of Harallt came to Wales with a great army…and the Prince Grufudd and Macht with combined forces proceeded against the Saxons…and returned to Wales with great spoil" in 1059[336].  The dating of this passage seems early for it to apply to Magnus, son of Harald III King of Norway, but no other contemporary with this name has so far been identified to whom it can apply.  If the identification is correct, Magnus must have been born earlier than indicated above.  Another possibility is that the Gwentian Chronicle is indicating one of the brothers of the future Harold II King of England, incorrectly named.  Magnus may have fought with his father at Stamford Bridge 1066[337].  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that his father's relationship with his mother took place around the time of his accession to the Norwegian throne.  He succeeded his father in 1066 as MAGNUS II King of Norway, jointly with his brother Olav, ruling in the northern part of the country for two years[338].  Snorre records that King Magnus died "of the ringworm disease" at Nidaros and that he was buried in the same place[339]Mistress: ---.  No information has been identified concerning King Magnus's concubine.  King Magnus II had one illegitimate child by his Mistress: 

a)         HAAKON "Toresfostre" ([1068/69]-Feb 1095, bur Trondheim, Christ Church).  Snorre names "Hakon, who was fostered by Thorer of Steig in Gudbrandsdal, who was a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side" as the son of King Magnus[340].  He succeeded in 1093 as HAAKON II King of Norway.  Snorre records that, when Magnus son of King Olav III was proclaimed king at Viken, the "Upland people on hearing of King Olaf's death chose Hakon, Thorer's foster-son" and that he was proclaimed king of half Norway in Trondheim[341].  Snorre records that King Magnus travelled north to Trondheim to impose his authority but that Haakon died on the mountains while out hunting ptarmigan, aged "full twenty five years old", and was buried at Christ Church[342]Morkinskinna records that after Haakon died, the people of Trondheim took “Sveinn, the son of Haraldr flettir (Despoiler) as their king”, adding that King Magnus forced him to flee to Denmark where he remained “until he became reconciled with King Eysteinn Magnusson[343]

4.         OLAV (-Håkeby, Sweden 22 Sep 1093, bur Nidaros [Trondheim], Christ's Church).  Snorre names Magnus and Olav as the sons of King Harald and Thora[344]Morkinskinna names “the older…Magnus, the younger Óláfr” as the two sons of King Harald and “the daughter of Thorbergr Árnason…Thóra[345].  He fought with his father at Stamford Bridge 1066.  He succeeded his father in 1066 as OLAV III "Kyrre/the Gentle" King of Norway, jointly with his brother Magnus, ruling in the eastern part of the country[346].  Snorre records that King Olav remained as sole king after the death of his brother[347].  Pope Gregory VII addressed a document to "Olauo Noruecchorum regi" dated 15 Dec 1078[348].  Snorre records that King Olav "when he was east in Ranrike, on his estate of Haukby, took the disease which ended in his death" and that he was buried at "Nidaros…in Christ Church which he himself had built there"[349]m ([1070]) INGERID Svendsdatter, illegitimate daughter of SVEND II Estridsen King of Denmark & his mistress ---.  Morkinskinna records the betrothal of “King Óláfr” and “King Sveinn…his daughter Ingirídr”, dated to soon after his accession as sole king in Norway[350].  Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and "Ingerid, a daughter of Svein, the Danish king"[351]Mistress (1): THORA, daughter of [JOHAN or ARNI Lagi] & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Thora, Joan's daughter" as mother of King Olav's son Magnus[352]Morkinskinna names “Thóra, the daughter of Árni lági” as the concubine of King Olav[353].  King Olav had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

a)         MAGNUS (-killed in battle in Ireland 24 May 1103).  Snorre names Magnus as son of King Olav and Thora, commenting that he was brought up at the king's court[354]Morkinskinna names “Magnus nicknamed…berfœttr and…Styrjaldar (Battle-Age) Magnus” as son of King Olav and his concubine “Thóra, the daughter of Árni lági[355].  He succeeded his first cousin in 1095 as MAGNUS III "Berrføtt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of Norway

-        see below

b)         [SKJALDVOR .  Snorre names "the king's relative, Sigurd Hranason" when recording that he "came into strife with King Sigurd", adding in a later passage that King Eystein reminded King Sigurd that Sigurd "was married to their aunt, Skialdvor" and that ultimately Sigurd forgave him and gave him "leave to go north to his farm, gave him employment, and was always afterward his friend"[356]Morkinskinna records that “Skjaldvor…sister of King Magnús berfoettr” married “Sigurdr Hranason[357].  It is possible that Skjaldvor was only uterine sister of King Magnus, in view of the refusal of her son to become king on the grounds that "some one should be chosen king who was of the royal race" as reported by Snorre[358]m SIGURD Hranason, son of ---.]  Sigurd & his wife had one child: 

i)          NIKOLAS Skialdvarson (-killed in battle after 1161).  Snorre records that "Nikolas Skialdvarson, a sister's son of King Magnus Barefoot" was proposed as king in 1161 but he refused on the grounds that "some one should be chosen king who was of the royal race"[359].  If his parentage is as shown here, he must have been very old at the time.  In another passage, Snorre names "Nikolas…a son of Sigurd Hranason and of Skialdvor, a daughter of Brynjolf Ulfalde, and a sister of Haldor Brynjolfson by the father's side, and of King Magnus Barefoot by the mother's side", recording that he "had a farm at Ongul in Halogaland…called Steig" and "a house in Nidaros, below St Jon's church, where Thorgeir the scribe lately dwelt"[360].  Snorre records that he was killed fighting the Birkebeins[361]m ---.  The name of Nikolas's wife is not known.  Nikolas & his wife had one child:  

(a)       SKIALDVOR .  Snorre names "Skialdvor, Nikolas's daughter…married to Eirik Arnason…a lenderman"[362]m ERIK Arnasson, son of ARNE --- & his wife ---. 

 

 

MAGNUS III 1095-1103, EYSTEIN I 1103-[1122/23], SIGURD 1103-1130, OLAV IV 1103-1115, MAGNUS 1130-1135

 

MAGNUS Olavsson, illegitimate son of OLAV III "Kyrre/the Gentle" King of Norway & his mistress --- (-killed in battle Ulster 24 May 1103)Morkinskinna names “Magnus nicknamed…berfœttr and…Styrjaldar (Battle-Age) Magnus” as son of King Olav and his concubine “Thóra, the daughter of Árni lági[363].  Snorre names Magnus as son of King Olav and Thora, commenting that he was brought up at the king's court[364].  He succeeded his first cousin in 1095 as MAGNUS III "Berrføtt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of NorwayMorkinskinna records that Magnus expelled “Sveinn, the son of Haraldr flettir (Despoiler)” from Trondheim, forcing him to flee to Denmark where he remained “until he became reconciled with King Eysteinn Magnusson[365].  Saxo Grammaticus records that King Magnus attacked the Hallanders but was surprised, when barefoot, by an unexpected charge made by them, hence his nickname[366].  He invaded Orkney in 1098, captured joint Jarls Paul I and Erlend II, and declared his son as king of Orkney and the Isles.  He also captured the Isle of Man and Anglesey, forced the flight of Hugh Earl of Chester and killed Hugh Earl of Shrewsbury[367].  Florence of Worcester records that "rex Norreganorum Magnus filius regis Olavi filii regis Haroldi Harvagri" invaded the Orkneys and Anglesey in [1098][368]Morkinskinna records that Magnus III King of Norway “was much smitten” with “the emperor´s daughter…with whom he had exchanged messages…Matilda[369].  William of Malmesbury records that he was killed after attacking Ireland[370].  Snorre records his death in battle in Ireland[371]Orkneyinga Saga records that King Magnus was killed “in Ulster, on St Bartholomew´s day[372]

m (1101) as her first husband, MARGRETA "Fredkulla/peace-bringing woman" of Sweden, daughter of INGE I Stenkilsson King of Sweden (-4 Nov [1130], bur Roskilde).  Snorre records that the marriage of "King Inge's daughter Margaret" and King Magnus was agreed at "Konghelle on the Gaut river" under the agreement which settled disputes between the kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden[373].  According to Saxo, her first marriage took place after the peace meeting between the three Scandinavian kings at Gotaalv in 1101, hence her nickname[374].  She married secondly ([1105]) Niels King of Denmark.  Snorre names "Queen Margaret, a daughter of King Inge, who had before been married to King Magnus Barefoot" as the wife of "the Danish king Nikolas, a son of Svein Ulfson"[375]

Mistress (1): ---.  Snorre records that King Magnus's son Eystein "was of a mean mother"[376]

Mistress (2): THORA ---.  Snorre names Thora as the mother of King Magnus's son Sigurd[377]

Mistress (3): SIGRID Saxesdatter, daughter of ---.  Snorre names "Sigrid, a daughter of Saxe of Vik…a respectable man in the Trondheim country" as the mother of King Magnus's son Olav[378]Morkinskinna names “Sigrídr, the daughter of Saxi from Vik…sister of Kári from Austrátt…called Kári King´s brother” as mother of King Sigurd´s son King Olav[379]

Mistress (4): ---.  The name of King Magnus's fourth mistress is not known. 

[Mistress (5): ---, an Irish woman.  Snorre records that the mother of "Gillikrist…Harald" supported her son's claim to be the son of King Magnus[380].] 

[Mistress (6): ---.  Snorre names "Thora, a daughter of Saxe of Vik, a sister of Sigrid who was mother of King Olaf Magnsuson and of Kare the king's brother who married Borghild, a daughter of Dag Eilifson" as the mother of "Sigurd Slembidjarn"[381]Morkinskinna records that “Thora” daughter of “Saxi in Vik” was the mother of “Sigurdr…slembidjákn” who was “later alleged to be Magnus´s son[382]

King Magnus III had [two] illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

1.         EYSTEIN Magnusson ([1088/89]-[Hustadir in Stim] 29 Aug 1123, bur Trondheim, Christ Church).  Snorre names Eystein as son of King Magnus, specifying in a later passage that he "was of a mean mother"[383].  He succeeded his father in 1103 as EYSTEIN I Joint King of Norway jointly with his half-brothers Sigurd and Olav IV.  Morkinskinna records that Eystein “ruled the north around Trándheimr” after his father died[384]Morkinskinna records that Eystein was a year younger than his brother Sigurd[385].  Snorre records that "at a feast at Hustadir in Stim" King Eystein "was seized with an illness which soon carried him off", that he died 29 Aug 1123 and buried at "Nidaros…Christ Church"[386]m INGEBORG Guttormsdatter, daughter of GUTTORM Thorersson & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Ingebjorg, a daughter of Guthorm, son of Thorer of Steig" as the wife of King Eystein[387]Morkinskinna records that Eystein married “Ingibjorg, the daughter of Steigar Thórir[388].  Thorer was the half-brother of Eystein's paternal grandfather King Olav (see above).  King Eystein I & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUTHORMMorkinskinna names “Guthormr and Máría” as the children of Eystein and his wife “Ingibjorg, the daughter of Steigar Thórir[389]

b)         MARIE EysteinsdatterMorkinskinna names “Guthormr and Máría” as the children of Eystein and his wife “Ingibjorg, the daughter of Steigar Thórir”, adding that Maria married “Gudbrandr the son of Skafhøggr[390].  Snorre names Maria as the daughter of King Eystein & his wife, recording that she married "Gudbrand Skafhogson"[391]m GUDBRAND Skafhogsson (-killed in battle 4 Feb 1161).  Gudbrand & his wife had one child: 

i)          OLAV Ugjäve (-Aalborg 1173).  Snorre names "Olaf, a son of Gudbrand Skafhaug and Maria, a daughter of King Eystein Magnuson", recording that he was brought up "in the house of Sigurd Agnhot in the Uplands" and gathered troops and was chosen king by many Upland people[392].  He was a contender for the throne in 1170.

2.         RAGNHILD.  Snorre records that "Magnus Barefoot's daughter, Ragnhild was married by her brothers to Harald Kesia, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good"[393]m HARALD "Kesja" of Denmark, illegitimate son of ERIK I "Ejegod/the Good" King of Denmark & his mistress --- (-murdered Skibet 1135, bur Skibet churchyard). 

King Magnus III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

3.         SIGURD ([1089/90]-Oslo 14 Aug 1130, bur Hallvardskyrka, Oslo).  Snorre names Sigurd as son of King Magnus, when recording that his father installed as chief over the Orkney islands after expelling earls Paul and Erlend[394].  In a later passage, Snorre records that he was the son of Thora, and a year younger than his half-brother Eystein[395].  He succeeded his father in 1103 as SIGURD "Jorsalafare/the Crusader" Joint King of Norway jointly with his half-brothers Eystein I and Olav IV.  Morkinskinna records that Sigurd “ruled the eastern part of the country and was entitled to official entertainment and revenue” after his father died[396].  Snorre records that his sons Eystein, Sigurd and Olav took the kingdom of Norway after their father's death, recording that Sigurd was 13 or 14 years old when he was chosen king[397].  Albert of Aix records that "frater regis de Nortwega, Magnus" arrived at the port of Ascalon and, in a later passage, that he helped besiege Sidon by sea[398].  Assuming that the reference to Norway is correct, "Magnus" is presumably an error for "Sigurd".  Snorre recounts his journeys to Spain, Sicily, Jerusalem and Constantinople, stating that he was 20 years old when he returned to Norway and had been three years on his travels[399].  He died insane.  Snorre records that King Sigurd suffered from delusions[400].  Snorre records the death of King Sigurd "the night before Mary's mass" and his burial "in Halvard's church"[401]Morkinskinna records that King Sigurd was forty years old when he died[402]Betrothed (1102) BIADMUNIA [Blathmin], daughter of MUIRCHERTACH MacTordelbach High King of Ireland & his wife --- ([1094/97]-).  Snorre records that King Magnus "contracted in marriage his son Sigurd to Biadmynia, King Myrkjartan's daughter"[403]Orkneyinga Saga records that Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway “arranged the betrothal of Bjadmunja, daughter of King Myrkjartan of Connaught to his son Sigurd”, adding that she was five at the time and his son nine[404].  Snorre records that Sigurd left "the Irish king's daughter behind" when he left for Norway following his father's death[405].  According to Morkinskinna, King Magnus arranged the marriage of “his son Sigurdr” to “Malcolm king of the Scots…his daughter” when in Orkney[406].  This clearly refers to the same person as Biadmunia as Morkinskinna adds that the ages of the children as five and nine, as recorded in Orkneyinga Saga.  However, the suggestion that her father was King Malcolm is clearly anachronistic in view of the king´s death in 1093.  Morkinskinna records that Sigurd “left the daughter of King Malcolm of the Scots behind in the west and did not wish to be married to her” after his father died[407]m firstly (divorced 1128) as her first husband, MALMFRID Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV II "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-after 1137).  Snorre records the marriage of King Sigurd and "Malmfrid, a daughter of King Harald Valdemarson, eastward in Novgorod"[408]Morkinskinna records that Sigurd married “Malmfrídr, the daughter of Haraldr Valdimarsson from the east in Kiev…[and] Kristín, the daughter of King Ingi Steinkelsson king of the Swedes[409].  Snorre records that King Sigurd divorced her[410].  She married secondly ([1130]) Erik Eriksson of Denmark, who succeeded in 1134 as Erik II "Emun" King of Denmark.  Baumgarten records her second marriage but only cites one secondary source in support[411]m secondly ([1128]) CECILIA, daughter of ---.  Snorre records the marriage of King Sigurd and "Cecilia, who was a great man's daughter", overruling the objections of the bishops of Bergen and Stavanger[412]Mistress (1): BORGHILD Olavsdatter, daughter of ---.  Snorre names Borghild as the daughter of a "rich bonde called Olaf of D|al who dwelt in Great Dal in Aumord", recording that she had "conversations and intimacy with King Eystein" but that King Sigurd made her his concubine[413]Morkinskinna names “Borghildr, the daughter of Óláfr of Dalr” as King Sigurd´s concubine[414].  King Sigurd & his first wife had one child:

a)         KRISTIN Sigurdsdatter ([1125]-1178).  Snorre names "Christina, a daughter of King Sigurd the Crusader and Queen Malmfrid" as the wife of Erling[415]Morkinskinna names “Kristín” as the daughter of “King Sigurdr jórsalafari and Queen Malmfrídr[416].  This is confirmed by the Saga of King Sverre which records the marriage of "Ragnhild daughter of Earl Erling and Kristin Kings-daughter" and "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[417].  [She may have been the Mistress: of SIGURD Haraldsson Mund joint King of Norway, son of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his mistress Thora Guttormsdatter (-murdered 10 Jun 1155).  Snorre names "Harald…who called himself a son of King Sigurd Haraldson and the princess Kristin, and a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side", when recording that he was captured by Nikolas "Kufung" who brought him to Bergen "into Earl Erling's hands", who ordered him to be taken to Nordnes where he was beheaded[418].]  m (1155) ERLING Ormsen "Skakke/the Sharp" of Studla in South Hordaland, son of ORM Sveinsson & his wife Ragnhild Sveinkesdatter (-killed in battle near Nidaros [Trondheim] 18 or 19 Jun 1179, bur Trondheim Cathedral).  Left for Palestine 1151 with Kali-Ragnvald Jarl of Orkney.  Regent of Norway 1162 for his son King Magnus V.  Jarl in Norway 1170.  He was killed in battle against King Sverre. 

King Sigurd had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

b)         MAGNUS Sigurdsson ([1115]-murdered Holmengrå, Svinesund 12 Nov 1139, bur Oslo, Halvards Church).  Snorre records the birth of Magnus son of King Sigurd and Borghild, stating that he "was sent immediately to Halogaland to be fostered at Bjarkey by Vidkun Jonson"[419]Morkinskinna names “Magnus” as the son of King Sigurd and his concubine “Borghildr, the daughter of Óláfr of Dalr”, adding that he was “raised in his youth north on Bjarkey with Vidkunnr Jónsson[420].  He succeeded his father in 1130 as MAGNUS "Blinde/the Blind" King of Norway, deposed 1135.  Snorre records that Magnus was proclaimed king on the death of his father, commenting that he was "a great drinker, greedy of money, hard and obstinate", but that he was opposed by Harald "Gille" although an agreement was reached 3 Oct 1130 to divide the country between them[421].  Snorre records that King Magnus was taken prisoner by King Harald's forces, who later blinded him, cut off one of his feet and castrated him[422].  In a later passage, he recounts that Magnus "went north to Nidaros…went into the cloister on the holm and assumed the monk's dress"[423].  Snorre records that Sigurd "Slembidjakn", after murdering King Harald, took ex-king Magnus from his monastery "to make his cause appear better" but that, after his forces were defeated, Magnus fled "eastward to Gautland and then to Denmark" where he was well received by King Erik "Emun" who agreed to invade Norway[424].  Snorre describes how ex-king Magnus was killed at Hvalar, near Holm the Grey, the day after Martinmas[425]m (1133, repudiated 1133) KIRSTIN Knudsdatter of Denmark, daughter of KNUT "Lavard" Duke of South Jutland/Sønderjylland [Schleswig] and King of the Obotriten & his wife Ingeborg Mstislavna of Kiev ([1118]-).  Snorre refers to the wife of King Magnus as "a daughter of Knut Lavard…sister of the Danish King Valdemar" and records that her husband sent her back to Denmark[426]Morkinskinna records that King Magnus married “Kirstín, the daughter of Knút lávardr and the sister of the Danish king Váldimarr” but adds that he sent her back to Denmark[427]

King Magnus III had [two] illegitimate sons by Mistress (3):

4.         OLAV Magnusson ([1098/1100]-24 Dec 1115, bur Trondheim, Christ Church).  Snorre names Olav, "much younger than [Eystein and Sigurd]", as son of King Magnus and "Sigrid, a daughter of Saxe of Vik"[428].  He succeeded his father in 1103 as OLAV IV Joint King of Norway jointly with his half-brothers Eystein I and Sigurd.  Snorre records that his sons Eystein, Sigurd and Olav took the kingdom of Norway after their father's death, recording that Olav was then four or five years old[429]Morkinskinna records that Olav “was no older than three years” when his father died, that his half-brothers acted as his regents, and that he did not “live more than twelve years after his father´s death[430].  Snorre records the death of King Olav, when he was “17 years old…on 24 Dec", and his burial "in Christ Church in Nidaros" after the three brothers had been kings for twelve years[431]

5.         [KARE .  Snorre names "Sigrid who was mother of King Olaf Magnsuson and of Kare the king's brother who married Borghild, a daughter of Dag Eilifson"[432].  It is not clear entirely clear from this passage whether Kare was a full brother or only uterine brother of King Olav.  The latter appears more likely as there is no reference to Kare, or any of his descendants, having claimed the Norwegian throne during the civil wars between Kings Magnus, Harald and Sigurd.  This appears supported by a later passage of Snorre which records that "Queen Ingerid had a son to Ivar Sneis…called Orm [surnamed]…King-brother", indicating that the term "king's brother" was also used for uterine brothers[433]m BORGHILD, daughter of DAG Eilifson & his wife ---.]  Kare & his wife had two sons: 

a)         SIGURD of Austrat .  Snorre names "Kare the king's brother who married Borghild, a daughter of Dag Eilifson" and "their sons…Sigurd of Austrat and Dag"[434]m ---.  The name of Sigurd's wife is not known.  Sigurd & his wife had three children: 

i)          JON of Austrat .  Snorre names "Jon of Austrat, Thorstein and Andres the Deaf" as sons of "Sigurd of Austrat"[435]m SIGURD, daughter of ---.  Snorre names "Sigrid, a sister of King Inge and of Duke Skule" as wife of "Jon of Austrat"[436]

ii)         THORSTEIN .  Snorre names "Jon of Austrat, Thorstein and Andres the Deaf" as sons of "Sigurd of Austrat"[437]

iii)        ANDRES "the Deaf" .  Snorre names "Jon of Austrat, Thorstein and Andres the Deaf" as sons of "Sigurd of Austrat"[438]

b)         DAG .  Snorre names "Kare the king's brother who married Borghild, a daughter of Dag Eilifson" and "their sons…Sigurd of Austrat and Dag"[439]

King Magnus III had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (4):

6.         THORA Magnusdatter (-1175).  Snorre names "Jon Loptson, a daughter's son of King Magnus Barefoot", recording that he was at Bergen in 1164 when King Magnus Erlingsson "and Jon's other relations acknowledged the relationship with him"[440]m LOFT Sämundsson of Odde.  Later a priest in Iceland. 

King Magnus III had [one illegitimate son by Mistress (5)]:

7.         [HARALD Magnusson (-murdered Bergen 14 Dec 1136).  Snorre records that "a man came…out of Ireland called Gillikrist" and met "Halkel Huk, a son of Jon Smiorbalte, who was lenderman in More" in the South Hebrides, that "his mother came with him and said his other name was Harald", claiming that King Magnus was his father, and that he was taken to Norway where King Sigurd "said he must tread over hot irons to prove his birth"[441].  He succeeded in 1130 as HARALD "Gille" King of Norway.] 

-        see below

King Magnus III had one [possible illegitimate son by Mistress (6)]:

8.         [SIGURD "Slembidjakn" (-killed in battle 12 Nov 1139, bur Aalborg, St Mary).  Snorre names "Sigurd who was brought up in Norway and was called priest Adalbrikt's son", whose mother was "Thora, a daughter of Saxe of Vik, a sister of Sigrid who was mother of King Olaf Magnuson…".  Morkinskinna records that “Thora” daughter of “Saxi in Vik” was the mother of “Sigurdr…slembidjákn” who was “later alleged to be Magnus´s son[442].  Snorre says that Sigurd became a clerk and was consecrated a deacon, was called "Slembidjakn" because of "a haughty ungovernable spirit", but that he left Norway for Palestine when he heard that his mother claim that his father was king Magnus.  After returning to Norway, he "applied himself to trading expeditions" and while in Denmark "submitted to the iron ordeal to confirm his paternal descent"[443].  He murdered [his half-brother] King Harald in 1136 and succeeded as king of part of Norway[444].  Snorre records that he sailed for Trondheim to seek support and took ex-king Magnus from his monastery "to make his cause appear better"[445].  He was captured after ex-king Magnus was killed, tortured and killed, his body being carried to "Alaborg and interred…in Mary church in that town"[446].]  Mistress (1): AUDHILD Thorlufsdatter from Scotland.  The primary source which confirms her relationship with Sigurd has not yet been identified.  Sigurd had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

a)         INGEGERD.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m HAAKON Havardsson "Klo/Claw" of Orkney, son of HAVARD Gunnison & his wife Bergljot.

 

 

HARALD 1130-1136, INGE 1142-1161, EYSTEIN 1142-1157, MAGNUS 1142-1145

 

HARALD Magnusson, illegitimate son of MAGNUS III King of Norway & his mistress --- (-murdered Bergen 14 Dec 1136, bur [Tronheim], Christ Church).  Snorre records that "a man came…out of Ireland called Gillikrist" and met "Halkel Huk, a son of Jon Smiorbalte, who was lenderman in More" in the South Hebrides, that "his mother came with him and said his other name was Harald", claiming that King Magnus was his father, and that he was taken to Norway where King Sigurd "said he must tread over hot irons to prove his birth"[447].  He succeeded in 1130 as HARALD "Gille" King of Norway.  Snorre records that, when Magnus was proclaimed king on the death of his father King Sigurd, Harald was "chosen king of half the country" at Tunsberg and that an agreement was reached with Magnus 3 Oct 1130 to divide the country between them[448].  He was murdered by Sigurd "Slembdjakn", who claimed to be his half-brother, and buried "in the old Christ church"[449]

m ([Jun 1134/36]) as her second husband, INGRID Ragnvaldsdatter of Sweden, widow of HENRIK "Skadelår/the Limper" of Denmark, daughter of RAGNVALD Ingesson "Knaphövde" Under King of Västergötland & his wife --- (-after 1161).  Her first marriage is confirmed by Snorre naming "Magnus…and…Ragnvald" as sons of "Queen Ingerid and Henrik Halte…a son of the Danish king Svein Sveinson"[450].  Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and "Ingerid, a daughter of Ragnvald, who was the son of the Swedish King Inge Steinkelson"[451]Morkinskinna records that Harald married “Ingirídr, Rognvaldr´s daughter[452].  She married thirdly as his second wife, Ottar Birtting, and fourthly Arne Kongsmåg Ivarsson from Ståreim.  Snorre records that Queen Ingerid married "Ottar Birting…a lendermen and a great chief, and of a Trondheim family" after the death of King Harald, but that he was killed "north in the merchant town"[453].  Snorre records that "Queen Ingerid had a son to Ivar Sneis…called Orm [surnamed]…King-brother", and afterwards married "Arne of Stodreim, who was from this called King's-mate", their children being "Inge, Nikolas, Philip of Herdla, and Margaret who first married Bjorn Buk and afterwards Simon Karason"[454]

Mistress (1): THORA Guttormsdatter, daughter of GUTTHORM "Grabarde" & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Thora, a daughter of Guthorm Grabarde" as the mother of Harald's son Sigurd[455]

Mistress (2): BJADOCK, daughter of ---.  Snorre names "Bjadock" as mother of "Eystein…a son of Harald Gille" when recording that she followed her son to Norway[456]

Mistresses (3)+: ---.  The names of King Harald's other mistresses are not known. 

King Harald & his wife had [one] child:

1.         INGE Haraldsson ([1135]-killed in battle 4 Feb 1161).  Snorre names Inge as son of King Harald & his wife, recording that he was fostered by "Amunde Gyrdson, a grandson of Logberse" and was "in the second year of his age" when his father was murdered[457].  King of Vigen.  He succeeded in 1142 as INGE Joint King of Norway, jointly with his half-brothers Eystein and Magnus.  Snorre records that King Inge was "small, and he had difficulty in walking alone, because he had one foot withered, and…a hump both on his back and his breast"[458]m ---.  The name of Inge's wife or concubine is not known.  King Inge & his [wife/concubine] had three [illegitimate] children: 

a)         HARALD (-killed in battle near Fimreite on Sognefjord 15 Jun 1184).  The Saga of King Sverre records that "Harald son of King Ingi" was one of King Magnus's supporters and was killed in battle with him by King Sverre at Norafiord[459]

b)         JON (-[Sep/Nov] 1184 or after).  The Saga of King Sverre records the rebellion "in the autumn following the death of King Magnus [1184]…east in the Vik" of "Jon son of King Ingi the son of Harald Gilli"[460]

c)         SIGURD "Brenni" (-after 1184).  The Saga of King Sverre names "Sigurd Brenni…a son of King Ingi Haraldsson" as leader of a band which made raids "into the Vik"[461]

King Harald had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

2.         SIGURD Haraldsson "Mund" (-murdered 10 Jun 1155).  Snorre names Sigurd as the son of Harald by "Thora, a daughter of Guthorm Grabarde", implying that he was born before his father's accession and was older than his half-brothers[462].  He succeeded in 1136 as SIGURD Joint King of Norway

-        see below

King Harald had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

3.         EYSTEIN Haraldsson (-murdered 21 Aug 1157, bur Fors).  Snorre names "Eystein…a son of Harald Gille" when recording that he came in spring from Scotland after Kings Sigurd and Inge had ruled over Norway about six years, and was well received at Trondheim where he was chosen as king "at the Eyra-thing of Ascension-day", commenting that King Harald himself had testified to his paternity so "he did not resort to the ordeal of iron"[463].  He succeeded in 1142 as EYSTEIN Joint King of Norway, jointly with his half-brothers Inge and Eystein.  Snorre records that King Eystein fled by ship but was murdered, and buried in Fors church[464]m RAGNA Nikolasdatter, daughter of NIKOLAS "Mase" & his wife --- (-after 1161).  Snorre names "Ragna, a daughter of Nicolas Mase" as the wife of King Eystein[465].  Snorre records that "Ragna, a daughter of Nikolas Mase, who had been married before to King Eystein Haraldson" was betrothed to "Orm the king's brother"[466], who was the son of Queen Ingrid and Ivar Sneis (see above).  King Eystein had [two] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

a)         [EYSTEIN "Meyla/the Maid" (-killed in battle Jan 1177).  Snorre names "Eystein, who gave himself out for a son of King Eystein Haraldson", recording that he was welcomed by "Brigida, Eystein's aunt…[and] Earl Birger", before he "proceeded north into Norway" and proclaimed king at Viken[467].  Snorre records that Eystein was proclaimed king by the Birkebeins but killed in battle the following year[468].] 

b)         [THORLEIF Breidskjegg (-1191).  The Saga of King Sverre records the rebellion "east in the Marches" led by "Thorleif Breidskegg…said to be a son of King Eystein Haraldsson" in the summer in which "Earl Eirik" died[469].]

King Harald had four illegitimate children by Mistresses (3)+: 

4.         MAGNUS Haraldsson (-1145).  Snorre names Magnus as King Harald's fourth son, stating that he was fostered by "Kyrpingaorm", was chosen as king and received a fourth part of the country, but was deformed in his feet and lived only a short time before dying in his bed[470].  He succeeded in 1142 as MAGNUS Joint King of Norway, jointly with his half-brothers Inge and Eystein. 

5.         MARIA Haraldsdatter.  Snorre names "Harald Gille's second daughter…Maria who was married to Simon Skalp, a son of Halkel Huk"[471]m ([1155]) SIMON Halkelsson, son of HALKEL Huk & his wife Sigrid Asulfsdatter of Rein (-killed in battle 4 Feb 1161). 

6.         MARGRETE Haraldsdatter.  Snorre names "Harald Gille's third daughter…Margaret who was married to Jon Halkelson, a brother of Simon"[472]m ([1155]) JON Halkelsson, son of HALKEL Huk & his wife Sigrid Asulfsdatter of Rein.

7.         BRIGIDA (-22 Oct ----, bur Riseberga Abbey).  Snorre records that "King Harald Gille's daughter Brigida" was first married to "the Swedish king Inge Halsteinson, and afterwards to Earl Karl Sonason, and then to the Swedish king Magnus", noting that she and King Inge Haraldson were cousins by the mother's side, and "at last [she] married Earl Birger Brose"[473].  It is not chronologically possible for Brigida to have married Inge Halsteinson King of Sweden, who died in 1118.  Europäische Stammtafeln appears to suggest that Brigida was the daughter of King Harald by his wife Ingrid[474].  However, this is extremely improbable assuming that Brigida's second marriage is correct, as it would mean that Magnus Henriksson would have been her uterine half-brother.  This appears to be the first example of the name Brigida (or derivatives) being used in the Scandinavian royal families.  The name, more commonly associated with Ireland at that time, suggests that Brigida's mother may have been a Gaelic concubine of King Harald's, and that maybe she was born before her father travelled to Norway, although there is no proof that this is correct[475].  Brigida could not have been more than a child at the time of her marriage to Karl Sunasson.  The Saga of King Sverre records that "Earl Birgi Brossa" had married "Brigit", the sister of King Sverre's father[476]m firstly KARL Sunasson Jarl in Västergötland, son of SUNE Ivarsson & his wife Astrid Ogmundsdatter (-after 1137).  m secondly MAGNUS Henriksson, King in Östergötland, son of HENRIK "Skadelårs/the Lame" of Denmark & his wife Ingrid Ragnvaldsdatter of Västergötland (-killed in battle [near Örebro] 1161, bur Vreta Abbey).  m thirdly (after 1161) BIRGER Brosa Jarl in Sweden [Folkungaätten], son of BENGT Folkason "Snivel" Jarl in Sweden (-9 Jan 1202). 

 

 

SIGURD 1136-1155, HAAKON III 1157-1162, SIGURD 1162-1163, INGE 1204-1217

 

SIGURD Haraldsson, son of HARALD "Gille" King of Norway & his mistress Thora Guttormsdatter (-murdered 10 Jun 1155, bur Trondheim, Christ Church).  Snorre names Sigurd as the son of Harald by "Thora, a daughter of Guthorm Grabarde", implying that he was born before his father's accession and was older than his half-brothers[477].  He succeeded in 1136 as SIGURD Joint King of Norway.  Snorre records that he was "in the north…fostered by Sadagyrd Bardson" when his father was murdered, but that his stepmother Queen Ingerid supported his candidacy to succeed as king[478].  Snorre records that King Sigurd was murdered and buried "in the old Christ church out on the holm"[479]

Mistress (1): THORA, daughter of ---.  Snorrer names "Thora…Simon the bonde's servant girl" as mother of Haakon "Herdebreid", son of King Sigurd[480]

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of King Sigurd's second mistress is not known. 

[Mistress (3): KRISTIN Sigurdsdatter, daughter of SIGURD King of Norway & his second wife Malmfred Mstislavna of Kiev ([1125]-1178).  Snorre names "Harald…who called himself a son of King Sigurd Haraldson and the princess Kristin, and a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side", when recording that he was captured by Nikolas "Kufung" who brought him to Bergen "into Earl Erling's hands", who ordered him to be taken to Nordnes where he was beheaded[481].] 

Mistress (4): ---.  The name of King Sigurd's fourth mistress is not known. 

Mistress (5): ---.  The name of King Sigurd's fifth mistress is not known. 

[Mistress (6): GUNHILD, wife of UNAS Kambar, sister of Nikolas Sultan, daughter of --- (-after [1176]).  The Saga of King Sverre records that Bishop Hroi in the Faroe Islands had a brother named "Unas Kambari" married to "a Norse wife…Gunnhild late in the reigns of the brothers Ingi, Sigurd and Eystein", naming her son "Sverri" whom she later claimed was the son of King Sigurd[482].  Her death is dated from the Saga of King Sverre recording that she told her son who was his true father after he was 24 years old[483].  A clue about her parentage is provided by the Saga of King Sverre which records that "Nikolas Sultan…brother of King Sverri's mother" spoke at the funeral of King Magnus [in Jun 1184][484]

King Sigurd had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

1.         HAAKON "Herdibreid" (1147-7 Jul 1162).  Snorre records the birth in 1147 of Haakon "Herdebreid", son of King Sigurd and Thora, who was brought up by "Simon Thorbergson and his wife Gunhild"[485].  He succeeded in 1157 as HAAKON III "Broad-Shoulders" King of Norway.  Snorre records that Haakon was chosen to lead King Eystein's forces, after the latter was murdered, at the age of ten[486]

King Sigurd had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2): 

2.         SIGURD "Markusfostre" (-executed Grafdal 29 Sep 1163).  Snorre names Sigurd as a son of "King Sigurd Mun", recording that he was brought up by "an Upland man called Markus of Skog" and chosen king by the Upland people[487].  He succeeded in 1162 as SIGURD Joint King of Norway.  Snorre records that Sigurd Sigurdson was captured on the island of Skarpa, brought to Bergen, beheaded outside of Grafdal 29 Sep 1163[488]

King Sigurd had [one illegitimate son by Mistress (3)]: 

3.         [HARALD Sigurdsson (-beheaded Nordnes [1172]).  Snorre names "Harald…who called himself a son of King Sigurd Haraldson and the princess Kristin, and a brother of King Magnus by the mother's side", when recording that he was captured by Nikolas "Kufung" who brought him to Bergen "into Earl Erling's hands", who ordered him to be taken to Nordnes where he was beheaded[489].] 

King Sigurd had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (4): 

4.         [ERIK "Kongsson" (-Tunsberg summer 1190).  The Saga of King Sverre names "Eirik said to be a son of King Sigurd Haralsson" and records that he proved his claim by ordeal of fire, in a later passage stating that King Sverre "gave oversight of Trondheim to his brother Eirik"[490].  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Sverre gave his brother "Eirik Kings-son" the title Jarl after the death of King Magnus [in Jun 1184][491].  The Saga also records that "Eirik Kings-son" died in the summer at Tunsberg[492].]  m ASA, daughter of --- (-Tunsberg summer 1190).  The Saga of King Sverre names "Asa" as wife of "Eirik Kings-son", recording in a later passage that she died at Tunsberg on the same day as her husband[493].  Erik & his wife had one child: 

a)         MAGNUS Eriksson (-Tunsberg summer 1190).  The Saga of King Sverre records the death of "their son…Magnus" two days after his parents[494]

King Sigurd had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (5): 

5.         CECILIA Sigurdsdatter (-1185).  The Saga of King Sverre records that Sverre went to "his sister Cecilia" the year after arriving in Norway[495].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Sverre arranged the marriage of "his sister Cecilia" to "Bard Guthormsson of Rein"[496], dated from the context to just after the death of King Magnus [15 Jun 1184].  m firstly (divorced) FOLKVID Lagmand in Värmland, son of ---.  m secondly (after 15 Jun 1184) as his second wife, BAARD Guttormsson of Rein, son of GUTTORM Asulfsson of Rein & his [first/second/third wife] --- (-1194).  Cecilia & her second husband had one child: 

a)         INGE Baardsson (-23 Apr 1217)Morkinskinna names “Guthormr at Rein” as father of “Bárdr, the father of King Ingi and Skúli jarl[497].  Snorre names "Guthorm of Reine" as grandfather of "King Inge and Duke Skule", their father presumably being Baard although this is not stated in this passage[498].  King of the Birkebeiner.  He succeeded as INGE King of Norway in 1204.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1204 of "rex Haquinus, Sverreri filius" and the succession of "Ingo Bardi filius" aged 13 [although this age appears inconsistent with the chronology of the family][499].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1217 of "rex Ingo et Philippus rex Vicensium"[500]

King Sigurd had one possible illegitimate son by Mistress (6): 

6.         [SVERRE Sigurdsson ([1152]-Bergen 9 Mar 1202, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  The Saga of King Sverre records that Sverre was born in Norway as the son of Unas Kambar, and taken to the Faroe Islands when aged five, there being brought up as the foster-son of his paternal uncle Bishop Hroi.  The Saga records that his mother first told him that he was the son of King Sigurd Haraldsson when aged twenty-four, and that a year later he sailed for Norway to claim the throne[501].  It appears from the Saga that this claimed paternity was never challenged, although the claim was made more than twenty years after the death of his putative father and is recorded only as being based on the word of his mother.  Nor was Sverre recorded in the Saga as having been required to prove his paternity by ordeal, which had been a frequent practice in similar situations in the Norwegian royal family.  King of the Birkebeine.  He succeeded in 1184 as SVERRE King of Norway.] 

-        see below, Part F.

 

 

 

E.      DESCENDANTS of ORM SVEINSSON

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

MAGNUS 1161-1184

 

1.         SVEN Svensson, son of ERLING of Gerd & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Svein Svenson…a son of Erling of Gerd"[502]m RAGNA Ormsdatter, daughter of ORM Eilifsson & his wife Sigrid Finnsdotter.  Snorre names "Ragna, a daughter of Earl Orm Eilifson and Sigrid, a daughter of Earl Fin Arnason" as mother of "Otto"[503].  Sven & his wife had one child: 

a)         ORM Svensson "Krypinge-Orm" (-[1140]).  Snorre names "Kyrpingaorm…a son of Svein Svenson"[504]m firstly RAGNHILD Skulesdatter, daughter of SKULI Tostesson "Kongsfostre".  m secondly RAGNHILD Svenkesdatter, daughter of SVENKE Steinarsson & his wife ---.  Snorre names "Ragnhild, a daughter of Sveinke Steinarson" as the wife of "Kyrpingaorm"[505].  Orm & his first wife had two children:

i)          OGMUND Dreng (-1155).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Guardian of Inge I King of Norway.

ii)         ASA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m NIKOLAS, son of ---.

Orm & his second wife had one child:

iii)        ERLING Ormson "Skakke/the Sharp" of Studla in South Hordaland (-killed in battle near Nidaros [Trondheim] 19 Jun 1179, bur Trondheim Cathedral).  Snorre names Erling as the son of "Kyrpingaorm and Ragnhild, a daughter of Sveinke Steinarson", when recording that he possessed a farm at Studla in South Hordaland and journeyed to Palestine with Kali-Ragnvald Jarl of Orkney[506].  Regent of Norway in 1162 for his son King Magnus V.  Jarl in Norway 1170.  The Saga of King Sverre records that "Earl Erling" was killed in battle near Nidaros fighting King Sverre, and was buried in Trondheim church[507].  The precise date of his death is recorded in an Icelandic Obituarium[508]m (1155) KRISTIN Sigurdsdatter, daughter of SIGURD King of Norway & his second wife Malmfred Mstislavna of Kiev ([1125]-1178).  Snorre names "Christina, a daughter of King Sigurd the Crusader and Queen Malmfrid" as the wife of Erling[509].  This is confirmed by the Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of "Ragnhild daughter of Earl Erling and Kristin Kings-daughter" and "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[510]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Erling's mistress is not known.  Erling & his wife had two children: 

(a)       MAGNUS Erlingsson (1156-killed in battle near Fimreite on Sognefjord 15 Jun 1184, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  Snorre names Magnus Erlingson as son of "Kristin…daughter of King Sigurd the Crusader" when recording that he "was nearest by propinquity of descent to the crown of Norway", and elected king of the whole country when aged five[511].  He succeeded in 1161 as MAGNUS King of Norway.  Snorre Sturlsons's Heimskringla ends with King Magnus's victory against King Eystein [in 1177][512].  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Sverre defeated King Magnus at Iluvelli [27 May 1180], after which Magnus "sailed…to Denmark to his kinsman Valdamar"[513].  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Magnus was killed in battle at "Norafiord" by King Sverre and was buried at Christ's Church, Bergen[514].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Magni regis, Erlingi filii" was killed "a Sverrero" in 1184[515]m as her second husband, ELDRID Bjørnsdatter, widow of TORE Skinnfeld,  daughter of BJØRN Byrdasvein & his wife Rangrid Guttormsdatter.  Mistress (1): GYRID Aslaksdatter, daughter of ASLAK & his wife ---.  King Magnus & his wife had two children: 

(1)       INGEBJÖRG Magnusdatter (-on crusade with her husband 1213).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1213 of "Petrus Steyperus, uxorque eius Ingeburga, filia regis Magni Erlingii filii"[516]m (before 1204) PETER Stöype [stormand of the Birkebene], possibly son of a sister of Sverre King of Sweden (-on crusade with his wife 1213).

(2)       MARGRET Magnusdatterm firstly (before 1206) FILIPPUS of Vegin [stormand of the Bagler] (-1207).  m secondly (before 1208) REIDAR Sendemand [stormand of the Bagler] (-Constantinople 1214).

King Magnus had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

(3)        SIGURD Magnusson (-killed in battle Florevåg near Bergen 3 Apr 1194, bur Bergen Church of St Mary).  The Saga of King Sverre names "a boy named Sigurd a son of King Magnus Erlingson" as one of the conspirators with "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[517].  King of the Øyskjegger in Norway 1192.  The Saga of King Sverre records that "Sigurd Kingsson" was killed in battle "in the water at Floruvoe" and was buried in "Marinkirk yard"[518]

King Magnus had four possible illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

(4)        [VIKAR] Magnusson (-killed in battle near Bridstein 1190).  King of the Varbelger in Norway 1189.  He claimed the throne.]

(5)        INGE [Magnusson] (-murdered Helgøya, Mjøsa 1202).  The Saga of King Sverre records that "the Bagals…at Borg" chose "King Magnus's son Ingi" as their king and that the whole of the Vik and the Uplands submitted to him[519].  King of the Bagals in Norway 1196. 

(6)        [ERLING "Steinvegg/Stonewall" (-Tønsberg 1207, bur Tønsberg, Olavskyrka).  King of the Bagler in Norway 1204.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Erlingus Steinveggus" was raised to "regiam dignitatem" in 1204[520].]  m ---.  The name of Erling's wife is not known.  Erling & his wife had two children: 

a.          MAGNUS Erlingsson (1199-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

b.          SIGURD Erlingsson "Ribbung" (1203-Oslo 1226).  King of the Ribbunger in Norway: the Icelandic Annals record that "Sigurdus Erlingi filius" became "rex Ribbungorum" in 1221[521].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1226 of "Sigurdus…rex Ribbungorum" and the succession of "domicellus Canutus Haquini filius" as leader of "Ribbungis" and his elevation to "regiam dignitatem"[522]. 

(7)        [BENE "Skinnkniv" (-murdered 1222).  Priest.  Stormann of the Slittunger in Norway 1218.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Benonis ducis Slittungorum" was killed in 1222[523].]

(b)       RAGNHILD Erlingsdatter.  Snorre names Ragnhild as "a daughter of princess Kristin and Earl Erling who was married to Jon Thorbergson of Randaberg", recording that she "went away from the country with a man called Grim Rusle…to Constantinople where they were for a time and had some children"[524].  The Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of "Ragnhild daughter of Earl Erling and Kristin Kings-daughter" and "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[525]m firstly JON Thorbergsson from Randaberg (-killed in battle near Nidaros [Trondheim] 18 or 19 Jun 1179).  m secondly HALLKEL Jonsson from Blindheim Jarl in Norway, son of JON Hallkelsson & his wife Margrete of Norway [daughter of King Harald Gille] (-killed in battle Florevåg near Bergen 3 Apr 1194). 

Erling had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

(c)        SIGURD .  The Saga of King Sverre names "an illegitimate son of Earl Erling named Sigurd a foster-son of King Sverri" as one of the conspirators with "Halkel son of Jon Hallkelsson"[526]

 

 

 

F.      KINGS of NORWAY 1184-1319

 

 

SVERRE 1184-1202

 

SVERRE Sigurdsson, [possible illegitimate son of SIGURD Haraldsson Mund King of Norway & his mistress Gunhild ---] (Norway [1152]-Bergen 9 Mar 1202, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  The Saga of King Sverre records that Sverre was born in Norway as the son of Unas Kambar, and taken to the Faroe Islands when aged five, there being brought up as the foster-son of his paternal uncle Bishop Hroi.  The Saga records that his mother first told him that he was the son of King Sigurd Haraldsson when aged twenty-four, and that a year later he sailed for Norway to claim the throne[527].  It appears from the Saga that this claimed paternity was never challenged, although the claim was made more than twenty years after the death of his putative father and is recorded only as being based on the word of his mother.  Nor was Sverre recorded in the Saga as having been required to prove his paternity by ordeal, which had been a frequent practice in similar situations in the Norwegian royal family.  King of the Birkebeine.  He succeeded in 1184 as SVERRE King of Norway after defeating King Magnus Erlingsson.  The Saga of King Sverre records the death "the eighth day before the Ides of March in MCCXV" of King Sverre, and his burial in "Kristkirk"[528].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "VIII Id Mar" in 1202 of "Sverrerus rex…in Norvegia"[529]

m (1185) MARGARETA Eriksdatter, daughter of ERIK II King of Sweden & his wife Kirstin of Denmark ([1155]-1209).  The Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of King Sverre to "Margret daughter of Eirik the Saint son of Jutvard and King of the Swedes" the year after King Magnus was killed [1185][530]

Mistress (1): ASTRID Roesdottir, daughter of dominus ROE Bishop of Kirkjebøur and the Faroese & his wife --- ([Faroe Islands] [1050]-).  She was Sverre's concubine in the Faroe Islands, and assumed to be the mother of his four illegitimate children shown below, although no direct confirmation of this has so far been found[531]

King Sverre had four illegitimate children by [Mistress (1)]:

1.         CECILIA Sverresdatter ([Kirkjubøur,] Faroe Islands [1170/75]-).  The Saga of King Sverre names (in order) "Cecilia and Ingibiorg" as the daughters of King Sverre[532].  The primary source which confirms her marriages has not yet been identified.   m firstly EINAR Prest "Kongsmaag" (-1205).  m secondly GREGORIUS Kik (-1223).

2.         INGEBORG Sverresdatter ([Kirkjubøur,] Faroe Islands [1170/75]-).  The Saga of King Sverre names (in order) "Cecilia and Ingibiorg" as the daughters of King Sverre[533].  The Saga of King Sverre records the marriage of "Karl son of King Sorkvi" and "Ingibiorg daughter of King Sverri"[534]m KARL Sverkersson of Sweden, son of SVERKER II "den yngre/the younger" King of Sweden & his first wife Bengta Ebbesdatter [Galen] (-murdered in the mountains near Trondheim 1198).

3.         UNAS [SIGURD] "Lavard" Sverresson ([Kirkjubøur,] Faroe Islands [1170/75]-Norway [1200]).  Saxo Grammaticus names "Siwardo" as son of "Suerus", stating that he was previously named "Unas"[535], presumably after the person then thought to be his paternal grandfather.  Presumably he was renamed "SIGURD" in honour of his new putative paternal grandfather.  The Saga of King Sverre names "King Sverri's son Lavard", stating that he had been "Gudlaug's foster-son"[536].  The Saga of King Sverre names "Sigurd Lavard the king's son" at a meeting of the Birkibeins at Borg[537].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1200 of "Sigurdus Lavardus, Sverreri regis filius"[538].  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Sverre, on his deathbed, declared that he had no son alive other than "Hakon"[539], showing that Sigurd predeceased his father.  Sigurd had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

a)         GUTTORM Sigurdsson (-11 Aug 1204).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1204 of "Guthormus…rex Sigurdi Lavardi filius"[540].  King of the Birkebeiner.

4.         HAAKON [III] Sverresson (-Bergen 1 Jan 1204, bur Bergen Cathedral).  The Saga of King Sverre records that King Sverre, on his deathbed, declared that he had no son alive other than "Hakon"[541].  He was proclaimed king by the Birkebeiner party and his rule was recognised in almost all of Norway[542].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1204 of "rex Haquinus, Sverreri filius"[543]Mistress (1)INGE from Varteig (-1235).  The Icelandic Annals record that "Inga mater Haquini regis" carried hot iron ("ferrum candens gessit") in 1218[544].  The source does not specify the reason, but presumably this was ordeal by fire to prove the paternity of her son which must have been challenged by rivals for the throne, a test which she must have passed in view of his succession to the throne.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1235 of "Inga mater Haqvini regis"[545].  Haakon had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

a)         HAAKON Haakonsson (posthumously 1204-Orkney [5/16] Dec 1263).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1204 of "Haquinus rex, Haquini filius, Sverreri nepos"[546].  He succeeded in 1223 as HAAKON IV "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway

-        see below

King Sverre [& his wife] had one child:

5.         KRISTIN Sverresdatter (-1213).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1209 of "Philippus rex Vicensium" and "Christinam Sverreri regis filiam"[547].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1213 of "Christina Sverreri regis filia"[548]m (1209) FILIPPUS Simonsson King of the Bagler in Norway, son of SIMON Kaaresson [stormand in Norway] & his wife Margrete Arnesdatter (-1217).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1217 of "rex Ingo et Philippus rex Vicensium"[549]

 

 

HAAKON IV 1217-1263

 

HAAKON Haakonsson, illegitimate son of HAAKON Sverkersson & his mistress Inge --- (posthumously 1204-Orkney [5/16] Dec 1263).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1204 of "Haquinus rex, Haquini filius, Sverreri nepos"[550].  He succeeded in 1217 as HAAKON IV "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1217 of "rex Ingo et Philippus rex Vicensium" and the succession of "Haquini, regis Haquini filii et Skulonis comitis"[551].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haquinum regem et Schulonem comitem" divided "provinciarum Norvegiæ" in 1223[552].  "Hakon Konongr son Hakonar konongs" donated property to Guttorm Archbishop of Nidaros by charter dated to the [1220s][553].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haquini regis" made peace with "domicelli Canuti Haquini" in 1227[554].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "in Orcadibus…XVII Kal Jan" in 1263 of "Haqvinus rex"[555]

m (25 May 1225) MARGRET Skulesdatter, daughter of SKULE Baardsson & his wife Ragnhild --- (-1270).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1225 of "rex Haquinus" and "Margareta Schulonis comitis filia"[556].  "Skule jarll broder Inga konongs" and "Hakon kongr" donated property to St Olav's church, Nidaros by charter dated 29 Sep 1225 which names "Margrettar dettor"[557]

King Haakon IV & his wife had four children: 

1.         OLAV Haakonsson (1227-before 1240).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         HAAKON Haakonsson (Bergen 10 Nov 1232-Tønsberg 30 Apr or 5 May 1257, bur Oslo, St Hallvards Church).  He succeeded in 1240 as HAAKON "den Unge/the Young" Joint King of Norway, jointly with his father.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haquinus rex"  appointed "Haqvino filio suo regis" in 1240[558].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1257 of "Haqvinus rex junior"[559]m (Oslo 1251) as her first husband, RIKISSA Birgersdotter, daughter of BIRGER Magnusson Jarl and Regent of Sweden [Folkungaätten] & his first wife Ingeborg of Sweden (-before 13 Dec 1288).  She married secondly (1262) as his first wife, Heinrich von Werle, Herr zu Werle zu Güstrow 1281.  King Haakon & his wife had one child: 

a)         SVERRE MAGNUS Haakonsson (-1261).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1261 of "Sverrerus Magnus filius Haqvini regis junioris"[560]

3.         CHRISTINA (1234-Seville 1262, bur Covarrubias, monastery of San Cosme and San Damian).  The Icelandic Annals record that "virgo Christina Haqvini regis filia" was sent to Spain in 1257[561].  The Chronicon de Cardeña records the arrival in Burgos in 1254 of “la Infant fija del Rey de Noruega” and her marriage to “D. Felipe hermano del Rey…electo de Sevilla[562].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in Spain in 1262 of "Christina Haqvini regis filia"[563][564]Betrothed (1251) to VASILY Aleksandrovich, son of ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich "Nevskiy" Prince of Novgorod and Pereiaslavl [later Grand Prince of Vladimir] & his first wife Paraskeviya [Aleksandra] Bryacheslavna of Polotsk ([1239/45]-1271).  Prince of Novgorod 1255.  m (contract 6 Feb 1258, 31 Mar 1258) as his first wife, Infante don FELIPE de Castilla, son of don FERNANDO III “el Santo” King of Castile & his first wife Elisabeth von Staufen (1231, before 5 Dec-28 Nov 1274, bur Villalcázar de Sirga, near Carrión de los Condes, convent Santa María la Blanca of the Order of the Templars).

4.         MAGNUS (Tønsberg 1 May 1238-Bergen 9 May 1280, bur Bergen, St Olav's Abbey).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1238 of "Magnus rex Haqvini filius"[565].  He succeeded his brother in 1257 as MAGNUS IV "Lagabøte/Lagabæter/the Law-reformer" Joint King of Norway, jointly with his father, sole King from his father's death in 1263. 

-        see below

King Haakon IV had [three] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

5.          SIGURD Kongsson (before 1225-1254).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1254 of "Sigurdus regis filius"[566]

6.          CECILIA Haakonsdatter (-drowned 1249).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Harald King of Man married “rex Norwegiæ…filiam suam[567].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records that "Haraldum regem Manniæ" married "Haco rex Nortweyæ…filiam suam" in 1247[568].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Harald and his wife were drowned while returning to Man from Norway in 1249[569]m firstly (1241) GREGORIUS Andersson (-1246).  m secondly (1248) HARALD King of Man, son of OLAV King of Man & his third wife Christina of Ross (-drowned 1249). 

7.          [MARGARETA (-1256).  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1256 of "Margreta filia regis"[570].  The source does not name her father but from a chronological point of view he could have been King Haakon IV.] 

 

 

MAGNUS IV 1263-1280, ERIK II 1280-1299, HAAKON V 1299-1319

 

MAGNUS, son of HAAKON "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway & his wife Margret Skulesdatter (Tønsberg 1 May 1238-Bergen 9 May 1280, bur Bergen, St Olav's Abbey).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1238 of "Magnus rex Haqvini filius"[571].  He succeeded his brother in 1257 as MAGNUS IV "Lagabøte/Lagabæter/the Law-reformer" Joint King of Norway, jointly with his father, sole king from his father's death in 1263.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Rex Haqvinus" named "filio suo Magno" as king in 1257[572].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "VII Id Mar" in 1280 of "rex Magnus bonus Haqvini filius", adding that he introduced "leges et jura civila" and was therefore called "Magnus Legum restaurator"[573]

m (Bergen 11 Sep 1261) INGEBORG of Denmark, daughter of ERIK IV "Pflugpfennig" King of Denmark & his wife Jutta von Sachsen ([1244]-24/26 Mar 1287).  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1261 of "Rex Magnus" and "Ingeborgam filiam sancti Erici Valdemari filii Danorum regis"[574].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1287 of "Regina Ingeburga Erici filia"[575]

King Magnus IV & his wife had four children: 

1.         OLAV (Bergen 1262-15 Mar 1267).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         MAGNUS (b and d 1264).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

3.         ERIK Magnusson (1268-Bergen 13 Jul 1299, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1268 of "Ericus Magni regis filius"[576].  He succeeded in 1273 as ERIK Joint King of Norway, jointly with his father, sole king after his father's death in 1280.  The Icelandic Annals record the coronation "VI Non Jul" in 1280 of "Ericus rex filius eius" who succeeded after the death of "rex Magnus bonus Haqvini filius"[577].  Claimant to the throne of Scotland in 1291, 13th in order on the Great Roll of Scotland.  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "regis Norouwegiæ" claimed the Scottish throne "ascendens…ad successionem filiæ suæ Margaretæ"[578].  "Eirikr Magnus…Noreghs konongr son Magnus konongs" donated property to St Olav's church, Nidaros by charter dated 25 Nov 1297[579].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "III Id Jul" in 1299 of "dominus Ericus rex Norvegiæ Magni filius"[580]m firstly (Bergen Sep 1281) MARGARET of Scotland, daughter of ALEXANDER III "the Glorious" King of Scotland & his first wife Joan of England (Windsor Castle 28 Feb 1261-Tönsberg 9 Apr 1283, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester names " Margaretæ filiæ Alexandri regis Scotiæ et Margaretæ reginæ filiæ Henrici regis Anglorum" as wife of "Irici regis Norwegiæ"[581].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the marriage in 1281 of "Margareta filia regis Alexandri" and "Hanigo, Henrico vocato, regi Noricorum"[582].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1281 of "Ericus Norvegiæ rex" and "dominam Margaretham Alexandri Scotorum regis filiam"[583].  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "V Id Apr" in 1283 of "domina Margareta Noricorum regina" leaving "unicam filiam…Margaretam"[584].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "Tunsbergis" in 1283 of "Margareta regina…filia Alexandri Scotorum regis"[585].  She died in childbirth.  m secondly (Bergen before 25 Sep 1293) ISABEL Bruce, daughter of ROBERT Bruce Lord of Annandale Earl of Carrick & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (-1358).  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the marriage "post festum sancti Martini" in 1293 of "filia comitis Roberti de Carrich" and "regi Norwagiæ Magno"[586].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1293 of "Ericus rex Norvegiæ" and "Isabellam filiam domini Rodberti filii Rodberti, comitis Brunsvicensis"[587].  A charter dated 25 Sep 1293 records articles delivered to "Lady Isabella de Brus, Queen of Norway"[588].  King Erik & his first wife had one child:

a)         MARGARETA Eriksdatter (Tönsberg before 9 Apr 1283-on board ship off Orkney May or [26 Sep] 1290, bur Bergen, Christ's Church).  John of Fordun´s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "V Id Apr" in 1283 of "domina Margareta Noricorum regina" leaving "unicam filiam…Margaretam"[589].  Acknowledged as heir to the throne by the magnates of Scotland in Feb 1284, she succeeded her grandfather in 1286 as MARGARET Queen of Scotland, although her succession was considered provisional depending whether her grandfather's widow was pregnant.  Six guardians of the realm were elected, William Fraser Bishop of St Andrews, Duncan Earl of Fife, John Comyn of Buchan, John Comyn of Badenoch, Robert Bishop of Glasgow and James High Steward of Scotland[590].  Negotiations for her return from Norway were preceded by the Treaty of Salisbury 9 Nov 1289 under which Edward I King of England confirmed that the government of the guardians in Scotland should be obeyed.  This was followed by the Treaty of Birgham in Jul 1290 which confirmed the Queen's betrothal and that Scotland would retain its independence after the marriage took place[591].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records the betrothal between "Edward I king of England…Edward his son and heir" and "Margaret the daughter of the king of Norway…the true heiress of Scotland" in 1290[592].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the death in Orkney of "Margareta filia Irici regis Norwegiæ et Margaretæ filiæ Alexandri regis Scotiæ et Margaretæ reginæ filiæ Henrici regis Anglorum", adding that she was betrothed to "Eadwardo regis Eadwardi filio"[593].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1290 of "virgo Margareta filia Erici regis Norvegiæ"[594].  Queen Margaret's premature death plunged Scotland into a succession crisis, during which thirteen rival claimants to the throne emerged.  King Edward I intervened more forcibly in Scottish affairs, acquiring the right to reappoint the guardians 11 Jun 1291 after which he became effective direct ruler of Scotland[595].  The choice of the new ruler was submitted in Aug 1291 to a specially appointed court, Robert Bruce and John Balliol emerging as leading candidates, the final judgment 17 Nov 1292 favouring the latter.  Betrothed (Birgham Jul 1290) to EDWARD Prince of Wales, son of EDWARD I King of England & his first wife Infanta doña Leonor de Castilla (Caernarvon Castle 25 Apr 1284-murdered Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire 21 Sep 1327, bur Gloucester Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1307 as EDWARD II King of England

King Erik & his second wife had one child:

b)         INGEBORG Eriksdatter (1297-after 1353).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1297 of "Ingiburga filia Erici regis"[596].  The Icelandic Annals record the betrothal in 1300 of "filia Erica regis" and "Jonæ filio Magni comiti de Orcadibus"[597].  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the wife of "Waldemarus [dux]" as "filiam Erici quondam regis Norwegiæ"[598]Betrothed (1300) JOHN Earl of Caithness, son of MAGNUS Earl of Caithness & his wife --- (-before 28 Oct 1312).  m (Oslo 29 Sep 1312) as his second wife, VALDEMAR Magnusson Duke of Finland, son of MAGNUS Ladulås King of Sweden [Folkungaätten] & his wife Hedwig von Holstein (-murdered Nyköping Castle Feb 1318, bur Stockholm, Storkyrka). 

4.         HAAKON Magnusson (Tönsberg [10 Apr] 1270-Tönsberg 8 May 1319, bur Oslo, Maria Church).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth "Tunsbergis" in 1270 of "Haqvinus Magni regis filius"[599].  Duke of Norway 1273.  "Hakon…Noregs hertoge, son Magnuser konongs" issued a charter dated 12 May 1292[600].  He succeeded his brother in 1299 as HAAKON V King of Norway.  The Icelandic Annals record the coronation "in festo omnium sanctorum" in 1299 of "Haqvinus dux frater eius…cum Euphemia regina" after the death of "dominus Ericus rex Norvegiæ Magni filius"[601].  "Hakon…Noregs konongr son Magnus konongs" donated property to the church of Stavanger by charter dated 1 Jun 1300[602].  The Icelandic Annals record the death "VIII Id Mai" in 1319 of "Haqvinus Magni filius…rex"[603]m firstly ([1295/97]) ISABELLE de Joigny, daughter of JEAN [I] Comte de Joigny & his wife Marie de Mercœur (-[1295/97]).  The Chronicle of Lanercost records that "rex Norwagiæ…frater" married "filiam comitis de Clermunth"[604].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (early 1299) EUPHEMIA von Rügen, daughter of WIZLAW II Fürst von Rügen & his wife Agnes von Braunschweig (-1 May 1312).  The Icelandic Annals record the coronation "in festo omnium sanctorum" in 1299 of "Haqvinus dux frater eius…cum Euphemia regina…[filia] comitis Vindlandiæ" after the death of "dominus Ericus rex Norvegiæ Magni filius"[605].  The testament of "Wizlavus senior Ruyanorum princeps", dated 27 Dec 1302, names "…domine regine Norwegie filie mee…", appoints "filium meum…dominum Haquinum regem Norwegie…dominum Ericum ducem Suecie et dominos Waldemarum ducem Suecie ac Ericum ducem Langlandie nepotes meos" as executors, in the presence of "domino Haquino rege et domina Eufemia regina Norwegie, dominis Erico duci Suecie et Iacobo comiti Hallandie"[606].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1312 of "Euphemia regina Haqvini regis Norvegiæ"[607].  King Haakon V & his second wife had one child: 

a)         INGEBORG Haakonsdatter (1301-17 Jun after 1360).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1301 of "domicella Ingeborga, filia regis Haqvini"[608].  The Icelandic Annals record the betrothal in 1302 of "dux Ericus" and "domicellam Ingiburgam filiam Haqvini regis"[609].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1311 of "Dux Ericus in Suecia" and "domicellam Ingeburgam filiam Haqvini regis"[610].  The Annales Lubicenses refer to the wife of "Ericus [dux]" as "filiam Haquini regis Norwegiæ"[611].  By her first husband she was ancestress of subsequent Kings of Norway and Sweden.  m firstly (Betrothed 1302, 29 Sep 1312) ERIK Magnusson Duke of Sweden, son of MAGNUS Lådulas [Folkunge] King of Sweden & his wife Hedwig von Holstein ([1282]-murdered Nyköping Castle Feb 1318, bur Stockholm, Storkyrka, transferred 1322 to Uppsala Cathedral).  m secondly ([21 Jun] 1327) KNUT Porse Duke of South Halland, son of PETER Knudsen Porse (-murdered Copenhagen 30 May 1330).  

King Haakon V had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

b)         AGNES Haakonsdatter.  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1302 of "Hafthorerus domini Johannis Rufi filius" and "Agnesam Haqvini regis filiam"[612].  She must have been illegitimate as there is no record of having made a dynastic betrothal unlike her younger half-sister.  m (1302) HAFTHOR Jonsson [Roos], son of Baron JON Ivarsson Raud [Roos] & his wife --- (-[1320/21]).  Knight in the Norwegian royal council.  Syslaman in Romerike. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of NORWAY 1319-1448

 

 

Full details about these individuals can be found in the documents SWEDEN, POMERANIA, and DENMARK, respectively. 

 

 

1.         MAGNUS Eriksson, son of ERIK Magnusson of Sweden Duke of Södermanland & his wife Ingeborg of Norway (1316-drowned near Bergen 1 Dec 1374, bur Varnhem Abbey).  He succeeded his uncle in 1319 as MAGNUS II King of Sweden, and MAGNUS V King of Norway.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Domicellus Magnus Erici filius, regis Haqvini de fila nepos" became "rex Norvegiæ Sveciæ atque Gothiæ" in 1320[613].  He was deposed in 1344 as King of Norway.  He was deposed in 1363 as King of Sweden.   

a)         ERIK Magnusson ([1339]-20 Jun 1359).  He succeeded in 1344 as ERIK XII King of Sweden, ruling jointly with his father. 

b)         HAAKON Magnusson ([15] Aug 1340-Oslo [Aug/Sep] 1380, bur Oslo, Maria Church).  His father designated him his heir in Norway, which was formally approved by the Norwegian estates.  He succeeded his father in 1344 as HAAKON VI King of Norway.  He succeeded in 1362 as HAAKON I King of Sweden, deposed 1363.  m (Copenhagen [9] Apr 1363) MARGRETHE of Denmark, daughter of VALDEMAR IV King of Denmark & his wife Heilwig von Schleswig (1353-28 Oct 1412).  She succeeded in 1387 as MARGRETHE I Queen of Denmark, 1388 as MARGRETHE I Queen of Norway and in 1389 as MARGRETHE Queen of Sweden

i)          OLAV (Dec 1370-3 Aug 1387).  He succeeded in 1376 as OLAF II King of Denmark, and in 1381 as OLAV IV King of Norway.

 

 

1.         ERICH BOGISLAW von Pommern, son of WARTISLAW VII Duke of Pomerania & his wife Marie von Mecklenburg ([1381]-Rügenwalde 1459 [after 4 Apr] bur Rügenwalde Marienkirche).  He was adopted by Margrethe I King of Denmark as her heir in Norway, following the death of her son King Olav IV, and succeeded in 1389 as ERIK III King of Norway, although Queen Margrethe continued to rule as Regent.  He succeeded in 1396 as ERIK VII King of Denmark, and in 1397 as ERIK XIII King of Sweden.  Abdicated 1439. 

 

 

1.         CHRISTOPH von Bayern, son of JOHANN Herzog von Bayern Pfalzgraf bei Rhein in Neumarkt & his wife Katharina von Pommern-Stolp [Denmark] (Neumarkt 26 Feb 1416-Helsingborg 5/6 Jan 1448, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  He succeeded his maternal uncle 10 Apr 1440 as CHRISTOFFER III King of Denmark, 4 Oct 1440 as CHRISTOF King of Sweden and 4 Jun 1441 as CHRISTOF King of Norway.  He succeeded his father in 1443 as Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt.   

 

 

 



[1] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003). 

[2] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell). 

[3] Morkinskinna, Introduction, pp. 66-7. 

[4] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books). 

[5] Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen). 

[6] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vols. I-XXI, available at <http://www.dokpro.uio.no./dipl_norv/diplom_field_eng.html> (9 Jan 2007). 

[7] Morkinskinna, Introduction, p. 1. 

[8] Historia Norwegie, IX-XI, pp. 74-81. 

[9] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 2, 5, and 10. 

[10] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 10-24. 

[11] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 28-51. 

[12] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[13] “Nóregs konungatal” in Jónsson, F. (ed.) (1908) Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning Vol. I (reprint Copenhagen, Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1967), pp. 579-89, quoted in Morkinskinna, Introduction, p. 1. 

[14] Benediktsson, J. (ed.) (1968) Íslendingabók (Reykjavik), Íslenzk formrit Vol. 1, quoted in Morkinskinna, Introduction, p. 1. 

[15] Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books). 

[16] Orkneyinga Saga 3, p. 26. 

[17] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 18. 

[18] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 34. 

[19] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[20] Stephton, J. (trans.) (1898) The Saga of King Sverri of Norway (London) (“Sverissaga”) 1-6, consulted at <http://www.northvegr.org/lore/Sverri/ (9 Feb 2007). 

[21] Sverissaga 180. 

[22] Historia Norwegie X, p. 78. 

[23] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 52. 

[24] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 52. 

[25] Historia Norwegie X, pp. 78 and 80. 

[26] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 53. 

[27] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 53. 

[28] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 53. 

[29] Dunham, S. A. (1840) History of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (London), Vol. I, p. 162. 

[30] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 53. 

[31] Historia Norwegie X, p. 80. 

[32] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 53. 

[33] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 54. 

[34] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 55. 

[35] Snorre, Ynglinga Saga, 53. 

[36] Historia Norwegie X, p. 80. 

[37] Snorre, Halfdan the Black Saga, 1.   

[38] Snorre, Halfdan the Black Saga, 9. 

[39] Snorre, Halfdan the Black Saga, 3.   

[40] Vigfusson, G. & York Powell, F. (eds. and trans.) (1905) Origines Islandicæ (1905), Vol. I, Are´s Landnama-book, V, 11.1, p. 219. 

[41] Snorre, Halfdan the Black Saga, 5.   

[42] Snorre, Halfdan the Black Saga, 3.   

[43] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[44] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[45] Snorre, Halfdan the Black Saga, 7.   

[46] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 1.

[47] Stenton, p. 349. 

[48] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[49] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 44 and 45.

[50] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 3.

[51] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 9.

[52] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[53] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[54] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25.  

[55] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[56] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[57] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[58] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 40.

[59] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[60] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 18.

[61] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[62] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 29.  

[63] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[64] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 33.  

[65] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 18.

[66] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[67] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 39.

[68] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 44.

[69] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 18.

[70] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[71] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 33.  

[72] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 18.

[73] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[74] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[75] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[76] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 30.  

[77] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[78] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[79] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[80] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[81] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[82] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[83] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[84] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[85] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[86] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[87] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[88] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[89] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[90] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25.  

[91] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25.  

[92] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[93] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[94] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25.  

[95] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[96] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 30.  

[97] Orkneyinga Saga 8, pp. 29-30. 

[98] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 31.  

[99] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[100] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25 and 26.  

[101] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[102] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 30.  

[103] Orkneyinga Saga 8, pp. 29-30.  

[104] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[105] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 37. 

[106] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25.  

[107] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[108] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[109] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 36.

[110] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[111] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 69 and 70.

[112] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[113] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[114] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[115] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[116] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 34. 

[117] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part II, 74. 

[118] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 34. 

[119] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part II, 74. 

[120] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[121] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[122] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 21.

[123] Historia Norwegie XI and XII, p. 80. 

[124] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[125] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 34.  

[126] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[127] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46. 

[128] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[129] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 3, which does not specify the year in which this took place. 

[130] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 4.  This is not reflected in Stenton, p. 361. 

[131] Orkneyinga Saga 8, pp 32-3. 

[132] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1848) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus I (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Vol. I, p. 134. 

[133] Simeon of Durham, p. 556. 

[134] Historia Norwegie XII, pp. 80 and 82. 

[135] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 34. 

[136] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46. 

[137] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 29 and 31. 

[138] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 5. 

[139] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[140] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 1 and 3. 

[141] CP X Appendix A, p. 6. 

[142] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[143] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[144] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 10. 

[145] Historia Norwegie XIII, p. 84. 

[146] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 26. 

[147] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[148] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[149] Historia Norwegie XIII, p. 84. 

[150] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[151] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[152] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 10. 

[153] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 7. 

[154] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 13. 

[155] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 11. 

[156] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[157] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 17 and 18. 

[158] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[159] Orkneyinga Saga 8, p 33. 

[160] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 10. 

[161] Orkneyinga Saga 9, pp 33-5. 

[162] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[163] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[164] Historia Norwegie XIII, p. 84. 

[165] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 16. 

[166] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[167] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[168] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 9. 

[169] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 94. 

[170] Historia Norwegie XIV, p. 84. 

[171] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[172] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[173] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 14. 

[174] Historia Norwegie XIV, p. 84. 

[175] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 1. 

[176] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 1. 

[177] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part IV, 110. 

[178] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 32. 

[179] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 40.

[180] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[181] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 42, 43.

[182] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 1. 

[183] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 2. 

[184] Historia Norwegie XII, p. 82. 

[185] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 5. 

[186] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 15. 

[187] Historia Norwegie XIII, p. 82. 

[188] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 32. 

[189] Historia Norwegie XIII, p. 84. 

[190] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 32. 

[191] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[192] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[193] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 44.

[194] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[195] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 46.

[196] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 44.

[197] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 88. 

[198] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 2. 

[199] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 9. 

[200] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 9. 

[201] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 88. 

[202] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 1. 

[203] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 88. 

[204] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 1 and 3. 

[205] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 58, where it is said that she had three children by her second husband, Thorkel Nefia, Ingerid (married Thorgeir) and Ingegerd (married Hyrning, brother of Thorgeir). 

[206] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 58. 

[207] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 105. 

[208] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 58. 

[209] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 62 and 64. 

[210] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 88. 

[211] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 5 and 6. 

[212] Historia Norwegie XVI, p. 90. 

[213] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 21, 30 and 31. 

[214] Stenton, p. 377. 

[215] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 66 and 68.

[216] Olrik, J. and Ræder, H. (eds.) Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, available at <http://www.kb.dk/elib/lit/dan/> (15 Aug 2003), Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84), 10, XII, p. 22. 

[217] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.34, MGH SS VII, p. 318. 

[218] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.38 and II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320. 

[219] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 98. 

[220] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22. 

[221] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 30. 

[222] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 33 and 34. 

[223] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 52. 

[224] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 78. 

[225] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100. 

[226] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94. 

[227] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.34, MGH SS VII, p. 318. 

[228] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320. 

[229] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VIII, 262 and 263. 

[230] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 105. 

[231] Historia Norwegie XI and XV, pp. 80 and 86. 

[232] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[233] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 38.

[234] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 38.

[235] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[236] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 38 and 44.

[237] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 2. 

[238] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 10. 

[239] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[240] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[241] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11. 

[242] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 15, which states he was 18 years old at the time. 

[243] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 48. 

[244] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[245] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 48 and 67. 

[246] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 49. 

[247] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[248] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 49. 

[249] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[250] William of Jumièges, Book V, c. 12, although the date for this event is not specified. 

[251] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 47. 

[252] Archaeologia Cambrensis, The Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, Vol. X, Third Series (London, 1864), Supplement Brut y Tywysogion ("Gwentian Chronicle"), p. 45. 

[253] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.59, MGH SS VII, p. 327. 

[254] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89. 

[255] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.59, MGH SS VII, p. 327. 

[256] Historia Norwegie XVIII, p. 104. 

[257] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 92. 

[258] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 191. 

[259] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part V, 131. 

[260] Morkinskinna, 26, p. 184. 

[261] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 190. 

[262] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.75, MGH SS VII, p. 333. 

[263] Morkinskinna, 5, pp. 115-7. 

[264] AS 1059. 

[265] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[266] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part V, 131. 

[267] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.74, MGH SS VII, p. 332. 

[268] Morkinskinna, 1, p. 90. 

[269] Morkinskinna, 7, p. 127. 

[270] Barlow (1983), pp. 51-6.   

[271] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D, 1046.  The threat must have been a serious one as Edward "the Confessor" King of England gathered a "great naval force" at Sandwich because of it. 

[272] Morkinskinna, 26, p. 184. 

[273] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 52. 

[274] Morkinskinna, 42, p. 235. 

[275] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 25.  

[276] Historia Norwegie XI, p. 80. 

[277] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[278] Snorre, Harald Harfager's Saga, 35.

[279] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[280] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[281] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[282] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[283] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[284] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[285] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 48 and 67. 

[286] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 31. 

[287] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[288] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 31. 

[289] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[290] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part V, 137. 

[291] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 56. 

[292] Morkinskinna, 49, p. 261. 

[293] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 40. 

[294] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 31. 

[295] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[296] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 46. 

[297] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part VII, 190. 

[298] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 31. 

[299] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[300] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102.  

[301] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 31. 

[302] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[303] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[304] Morkinskinna, 1, p. 91. 

[305] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part I, 31. 

[306] Morkinskinna, 9, p. 130. 

[307] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 86. 

[308] Morkinskinna, 8 and 9, pp. 129 and 130. 

[309] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 1 and 2. 

[310] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 3 and 4. 

[311] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 13-15. 

[312] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 13 and 15. 

[313] Morkinskinna, 13, pp. 145-8. 

[314] Malmesbury, 260, p. 244. 

[315] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 47. 

[316] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 103. 

[317] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[318] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 17 and 18. 

[319] Morkinskinna, 9 and 13, pp. 131 and 149. 

[320] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[321] Morkinskinna, 32, p. 204. 

[322] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33 and 46. 

[323] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 105. 

[324] ES II. 

[325] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 232 footnote 24. 

[326] Morkinskinna, 49, p. 264. 

[327] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[328] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[329] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 281. 

[330] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[331] Morkinskinna, 49, p. 264. 

[332] Morkinskinna, 50, p. 268. 

[333] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[334] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[335] Morkinskinna, 32, p. 204. 

[336] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57. 

[337] Malmesbury, 260, p. 245, according to which he was "compassionately sent home by Harold King of England" after the death of his father. 

[338] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 105. 

[339] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 106. 

[340] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 105. 

[341] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 1. 

[342] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 2. 

[343] Morkinskinna, 55, pp. 286 and 291. 

[344] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part I, 33. 

[345] Morkinskinna, 32, p. 204. 

[346] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 105. 

[347] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 1. 

[348] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. VI, 1. 

[349] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 11. 

[350] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 279. 

[351] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[352] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[353] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 281. 

[354] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[355] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 281. 

[356] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 22. 

[357] Morkinskinna, 70, p. 334.  

[358] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 1. 

[359] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 1. 

[360] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 38. 

[361] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 40. 

[362] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 38. 

[363] Morkinskinna, 53, p. 281. 

[364] Snorre, Saga of Olaf Kyrre, 5. 

[365] Morkinskinna, 55, pp. 286 and 291. 

[366] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 13, I, p. 108. 

[367] Malmesbury, 260, p. 245, and 329, p. 283.   

[368] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London), p. 42. 

[369] Morkinskinna, 58, p. 307. 

[370] Malmesbury, 260, p. 244. 

[371] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 27. 

[372] Orkneyinga Saga 43, p. 88. 

[373] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 17 and 18. 

[374] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), p. 291 footnote 2. 

[375] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 28. 

[376] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 18. 

[377] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 18. 

[378] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 18. 

[379] Morkinskinna, 69, p. 334. 

[380] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 34. 

[381] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[382] Morkinskinna, 69, p. 334. 

[383] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 7 and 18. 

[384] Morkinskinna, 60, p. 313. 

[385] Morkinskinna, 63, p. 325. 

[386] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 27. 

[387] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 17. 

[388] Morkinskinna, 64, p. 326. 

[389] Morkinskinna, 64, p. 326. 

[390] Morkinskinna, 64, p. 326. 

[391] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 17. 

[392] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 31. 

[393] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[394] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 9. 

[395] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 18. 

[396] Morkinskinna, 60, p. 313. 

[397] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 1. 

[398] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber XI, Caps. XXVI and XXX, pp. 675 and 677. 

[399] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 4-14. 

[400] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 26. 

[401] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 42. 

[402] Morkinskinna, 82, p. 359. 

[403] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 12. 

[404] Orkneyinga Saga 41, p. 87. 

[405] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 27. 

[406] Morkinskinna, 58, p. 303. 

[407] Morkinskinna, 59, p. 313. 

[408] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 21. 

[409] Morkinskinna, 66, pp. 328-9. 

[410] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 40. 

[411] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII siècles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 25, citing Langebek, Genealogia Regum Danorum, IV, 250. 

[412] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 40. 

[413] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 24. 

[414] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[415] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[416] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[417] Sverissaga 118. 

[418] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 35. 

[419] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 24. 

[420] Morkinskinna, 66, p. 329. 

[421] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[422] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 7 and 8. 

[423] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 12. 

[424] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 2 and 3. 

[425] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 10. 

[426] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[427] Morkinskinna, 82a, p. 359. 

[428] Snorre, Magnus Barefoot's Saga, 18. 

[429] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 1. 

[430] Morkinskinna, 60, p. 313. 

[431] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 23. 

[432] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[433] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 16. 

[434] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[435] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[436] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[437] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[438] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[439] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[440] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 21. 

[441] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 34. 

[442] Morkinskinna, 69, p. 334. 

[443] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 14. 

[444] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 18. 

[445] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 2. 

[446] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 10 and 11. 

[447] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd the Crusader and his brothers Eystein and Olaf, 34. 

[448] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[449] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 18. 

[450] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 18. 

[451] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[452] Morkinskinna, 82a, p. 359. 

[453] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 14. 

[454] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 16. 

[455] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[456] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 13. 

[457] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 1. 

[458] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[459] Sverissaga 83 and 93. 

[460] Sverissaga 101. 

[461] Sverissaga 110. 

[462] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[463] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 13. 

[464] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 32. 

[465] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[466] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 18. 

[467] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 36. 

[468] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 41 and 42. 

[469] Sverissaga 116. 

[470] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 13. 

[471] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[472] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[473] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 22. 

[474] ES II 110. 

[475] M. Sjöström in a private email to the author dated 10 Feb 2007. 

[476] Sverissaga 6. 

[477] Snorre, Saga of Magnus the Blind and of Harald Gille, 1. 

[478] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 1. 

[479] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 28. 

[480] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 18. 

[481] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 35. 

[482] Sverissaga 1. 

[483] Sverissaga 2 and 4. 

[484] Sverissaga 97. 

[485] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 18. 

[486] Snorre, Saga of Hakon Herdebreid, 1. 

[487] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 9. 

[488] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 18. 

[489] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 35. 

[490] Sverissaga 59 and 61. 

[491] Sverissaga 113. 

[492] Sverissaga 115. 

[493] Sverissaga 113 and 115. 

[494] Sverissaga 115. 

[495] Sverissaga 7. 

[496] Sverissaga 100. 

[497] Morkinskinna, 52, p. 276. 

[498] Snorre, King Harald's Saga Part II, 102. 

[499] Íslenzkir Annálar sive Annales Islandici (Copenhagen, 1847) ("Annales Islandici"), 1204, p. 85. 

[500] Annales Islandici, 1217, p. 93. 

[501] Sverissaga 1-4. 

[502] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[503] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[504] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[505] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[506] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[507] Sverissaga 37 and 38. 

[508] Icelandic Obituarium quoted in the Oxford edition of the Sturlunga Saga, Vol. II, p. 394, cited in Sverissaga 37. 

[509] Snorre, Saga of Sigurd, Inge and Eystein, the sons of Harald, 17. 

[510] Sverissaga 118. 

[511] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 1. 

[512] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 44. 

[513] Sverissaga 48. 

[514] Sverissaga 93 and 94. 

[515] Annales Islandici, 1184, p. 75. 

[516] Annales Islandici, 1213, p. 91. 

[517] Sverissaga 118. 

[518] Sverissaga 120. 

[519] Sverissaga 132. 

[520] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[521] Annales Islandici, 1221, p. 97. 

[522] Annales Islandici, 1226, p. 101. 

[523] Annales Islandici, 1222, p. 99. 

[524] Snorre, Magnus Erlingson's Saga, 30. 

[525] Sverissaga 118. 

[526] Sverissaga 118. 

[527] Sverissaga 1-4. 

[528] Sverissaga 182. 

[529] Annales Islandici, 1202, p. 83. 

[530] Sverissaga 100. 

[531] Sverris Saga and Bagler Sagas, cited by M. Sjöström in a private email to the author dated 4 Feb 2007. 

[532] Sverissaga 100. 

[533] Sverissaga 100. 

[534] Sverissaga 153. 

[535] Saxo Grammaticus 14.53.0. 

[536] Sverissaga 62. 

[537] Sverissaga 119. 

[538] Annales Islandici, 1200, p. 81. 

[539] Sverissaga 180. 

[540] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[541] Sverissaga 180. 

[542] Sverris Saga and Bagler Sagas, cited by M. Sjöström in a private email to the author dated 4 Feb 2007. 

[543] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[544] Annales Islandici, 1218, p. 95. 

[545] Annales Islandici, 1235, p. 109. 

[546] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[547] Annales Islandici, 1209, p. 87. 

[548] Annales Islandici, 1213, p. 91. 

[549] Annales Islandici, 1217, p. 93. 

[550] Annales Islandici, 1204, p. 85. 

[551] Annales Islandici, 1217, p. 93. 

[552] Annales Islandici, 1223, p. 99. 

[553] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. III, 1. 

[554] Annales Islandici, 1227, p. 103. 

[555] Annales Islandici, 1263, p. 133. 

[556] Annales Islandici, 1225, p. 101. 

[557] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. I, 8. 

[558] Annales Islandici, 1240, p. 115. 

[559] Annales Islandici, 1257, p. 127. 

[560] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[561] Annales Islandici, 1257, p. 127. 

[562] Chronicon de Cardeña, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 373. 

[563] Annales Islandici, 1262, p. 133. 

[564] Baumgarten (1934), Table 1, p. 10. 

[565] Annales Islandici, 1238, p. 113. 

[566] Annales Islandici, 1254, p. 123. 

[567] Oliver, J. R. (ed.) (1860) Monumenta de Insula Manniæ, Vol. I (Douglas, Isle of Man), Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum, p. 184. 

[568] Maitland Club (1839) Chronicon de Lanercost (Edinburgh) ("Lanercost Chronicle"), 1247, p. 54. 

[569] Oliver, J. R. (ed.) (1860) Monumenta de Insula Manniæ, Vol. I (Douglas, Isle of Man), Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum, p. 185. 

[570] Annales Islandici, 1256, p. 125. 

[571] Annales Islandici, 1238, p. 113. 

[572] Annales Islandici, 1257, p. 127. 

[573] Annales Islandici, 1280, p. 157. 

[574] Annales Islandici, 1261, p. 131. 

[575] Annales Islandici, 1287, p. 163. 

[576] Annales Islandici, 1268, p. 139. 

[577] Annales Islandici, 1280, p. 157. 

[578] Skene, F. J. H. (ed.) (1877) Liber Pluscardensis, Historians of Scotland Vol. VII (Edinburgh) Vol. I, Liber VIII, CVIII, p. 128. 

[579] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. I, 87. 

[580] Annales Islandici, 1299, p. 175. 

[581] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 244. 

[582] Turnbull, W. B. (1842) Extracta e Variis Cronicis Scocie, from the Ancient Manuscript in the Advocates Library at Edinburgh (Edinburgh) ("Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie"), p. 114. 

[583] Annales Islandici, 1281, p. 159. 

[584] Goodall, W. (ed.) (1759) Joannis de Fordun Scotichronicon cum Supplementis et Continuatione Walteri Boweri, Vols. I, II (Edinburgh) ("Joannis de Fordun (Goodall)"), Vol. II, Lib. X, Cap. XXXVII, p. 125. 

[585] Annales Islandici, 1283, p. 159. 

[586] Maitland Club (1839) Chronicon de Lanercost (Edinburgh) ("Lanercost Chronicle"), 1293, p. 155. 

[587] Annales Islandici, 1293, p. 169. 

[588] Bain, J. (1884) Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland preserved in the Public Record Office (Scottish Record Office) ("Calendar of Documents Scotland (Bain)"), Vol. II, 675, p. 158. 

[589] Johannis de Fordun (Goodall), Vol. II, Lib. X, Cap. XXXVII, p. 125. 

[590] Chronicle of Fordun, quoted in Young, p. 93. 

[591] Young, pp. 104-5. 

[592] John of Fordun, Annals, LXXXIII, p. 313. 

[593] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Continuatio, p. 244. 

[594] Annales Islandici, 1290, p. 165. 

[595] Young, pp. 112 and 130. 

[596] Annales Islandici, 1297, p. 175. 

[597] Annales Islandici, 1300, p. 179. 

[598] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[599] Annales Islandici, 1270, p. 141. 

[600] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. I, 80. 

[601] Annales Islandici, 1299, p. 175. 

[602] Diplomatarium Norvegicum Vol. I, 91. 

[603] Annales Islandici, 1319, p. 213. 

[604] Lanercost Chronicle, 1295, p. 169. 

[605] Annales Islandici, 1299, p. 175. 

[606] Fabricius, C. G. (ed.) (1851) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Fürstenthums Rügen (Stettin) ("Rügen Urkunden"), Band III, CCCVIII, p. 128. 

[607] Annales Islandici, 1312, p. 203. 

[608] Annales Islandici, 1301, p. 181. 

[609] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 181. 

[610] Annales Islandici, 1311, p. 201. 

[611] Annales Lubicenses 1305, MGH SS XVI, p. 419. 

[612] Annales Islandici, 1302, p. 183. 

[613] Annales Islandici, 1320, p. 215.