PALATINATE

  v3.0 Updated 31 May 2014

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN [1138]-1155, STAHLECK. 3

Chapter 2.                PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN 1156-1195, STAUFEN. 5

Chapter 3.                PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN 1195-1214, WELF. 6

Chapter 4.                PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN, KURFÜRSTEN von der PFALZ, WITTELSBACH. 9

A.         PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN 1214-1410, DUKES of BAVARIA.. 9

B.         ELECTORS PALATINE [KURFÜRSTEN von der PFALZ] 1410-1559. 18

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

The original role of the holder of the title "Pfalzgraf", of which there was only one in each of the original German provinces, is not known although it is probable that it related to a function at the ducal court similar to that of the palatine at the court of the Carolingian emperors[1].  Whatever the origin and original reason for the title, it became attached as an honorific to the name of the geographical base of the family who held it from time to time.  The Pfalzgrafen in the lower Rhine area were originally associated with Lotharingia.  Most of the holders of the title held land in the duchy of Lower Lotharingia.  At some point during the first half of the 12th century, the Pfalzgrafen became associated with completely different territories in Franconia and gradually came to be known as "Pfalzgrafen bei Rhein".  Presumably by this time they had lost whatever administrative role they held in Lotharingia and acquired a broader role in relation to the central monarchy. 

 

The first Pfalzgraf shown by contemporary records as clearly associated with Franconia was Hermann von Stahleck, who succeeded Heinrich von Babenberg as Pfalzgraf in 1141.  His predecessor "Pfalzgrafen von Lothringen" are shown in the document LOTHARINGIA, but the families of Hermann and his successors are shown here.  Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" appointed his first cousin Konrad von Staufen as Pfalzgraf in 1156.  The territories assigned to Konrad were in the Rhineland and had no association with Lotharingia.  He can therefore be considered the first Pfalzgrafen bei Rhein. 

 

On the death of Pfalzgraf Konrad in 1195, the title passed to his son-in-law Heinrich von Sachsen, son of Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and Bavaria.  He abdicated as Pfalzgraf in 1212 in favour of his son Heinrich II.  On the death of Pfalzgraf Heinrich II in 1214, Ludwig Duke of Bavaria claimed the succession to the Pfalzgrafschaft, although he appears to have had no hereditary right.  His claim was challenged by the late Heinrich's father, formerly Pfalzgraf Heinrich I, who had previously given up the Pfalzgrafschaft in favour of his son.  This stalemate continued until the death of Pfalzgraf Heinrich I in 1227, when Duke Ludwig was left as unchallenged Pfalzgraf but resigned the position to his son Otto, who had married the younger daughter of Heinrich I. 

 

The "Bavarian" vote in elections to appoint the kings of Germany seems to have become attributed to the position of Pfalzgraf some time in the 1220s or early 1230s, both titles being held by Otto II Duke of Bavaria when he voted as such for the first time in 1237.  The process by which this occurred is far from clear.  The 1273 election of King Rudolf I marked an evolution in the role of the Pfalzgraf in the electoral process: after the electors agreed on the successful candidate, Pfalzgraf Ludwig II was appointed to elect the king on behalf of the whole body of electors.  A similar procedure was followed in the election of Henri de Luxembourg as King Heinrich VII[2].  

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN [1138]-1155, STAHLECK

 

 

1.         GOSWIN [I] .  Graf in Bamberg. 

 

2.         GOSWIN [II] (-after 1099).  Graf in Bamberg 1087.

 

3.         GOSWIN [III] (-after 1140).  Graf von Büchstadt an der Aisch.  Von Stahleck [1122], Graf von Stahleck 1135.  He and his son founded the Abbey of Münchenrach in [1133][3]m (before 15 May 1108) as her second husband, LIUTGARD von Hengebach, widow of HEINRICH [I] Graf von Katzenelnbogen, daughter of ADELGER von Hengebach & his wife Judith ---.  Her two marriages are confirmed by the undated charter under which Konrad III King of Germany confirmed an exchange of property between the archbishop of Köln and the abbot of Sprengirsbach, witnessed by "Herimannus Palatinus comes de Reno et frater suus Heinricus de Cacenelenboge…"[4].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Goswin [III] & his wife had one child: 

a)         HERMANN von Stahleck (-Ebrach 2 Oct 1156, bur Ebrach, transferred to Bildhausen).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Graf von Bildhausen 1137/1140.  Graf von Höchstadt 1137/1142.  Graf von Stahleck 1138.  He was installed in [1138] as HERMANN III Pfalzgraf [von Lothringen] by his brother-in-law Konrad III King of Germany.  "Heremannus palatinus comes de Stahelekke" assumed the Vogtei of Kloster Lorch, at the request of "domne Gertrudis…contoralis nostre fratrisque sui Friderici…ducis Swevie", by charter dated 1138[5].  "Hermannus palatinus comes, Heinricus comes frater suus de Catenelenbog, hirsutus comes" (the latter being Pfalzgraf Hermann's uterine half-brother) witnessed the charter dated 1149 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz settled a dispute between Kloster Hasungen and Stifte Fritzlar[6].  "Herimannus palatinus comes de Reno et frater eius Heinricus de Cacenelenboge" were among those recorded as present in the Sententia contra temeritates ministerialium pronounced by Konrad III King of Germany by charter dated 21 Aug 1149[7].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that "Otto palatinus comes de Rinegh castellanus in Benthem sororius Theodrici comitis Hollandie" was murdered by "Hermanno comite de Stalik"[8].  The Annales Sancti Disibodi (Continuatio) name "Hermannus palatinus comes…" among those present with the king when he celebrated Christmas at Worms in 1155[9].  The document dated 17 Sep 1156 established the duchy of Austria is witnessed by "…Hermannus comes palatinus de Reno…"[10].  He resigned as Pfalzgraf in 1155.  He founded Kloster Bildhausen in 1156.  The Annales Erphesfurdenses record the death of "Hermannus palatinus comes" in 1156[11].  Sources record two alternative wives for Pfalzgraf Hermann III: (1) m ([1127]) GERTRUD von Staufen, daughter of FRIEDRICH I Duke of Swabia & his wife Agnes of Germany (-after 1182).  "Heremannus palatinus comes de Stahelekke" assumed the Vogtei of Kloster Lorch, at the request of "domne Gertrudis…contoralis nostre fratrisque sui Friderici…ducis Swevie", by charter dated 1138[12].  She founded Kloster St Theodor in Bamberg, where she became a nun as FIDES.  (2) m Gertrud von Wettin, daughter of Konrad I "der Grosse" Graf von Wettin, Brehna, Camburg und Eilenburg, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz & his wife Luitgard von Elchingen.  The Genealogica Wettinensis names (in order) "Odam et Bertam abbatissam Gerbestadensem, Agnetam Quidelingenburgensem abbatissam, quarta…Gerdrudis…quinta Adela…sexta Sophia" as the six daughters of "Conradus Misnensis et Orientalius marchio [filius Thiemonis]" & his wife, specifying that Gertrud married "palatino Reni" and founded "ecclesiam in honore beati Theodori Bavenberg" after her husband died[13], but this apparent parentage of the wife of Pfalzgraf Hermann is disproved by the charter dated 1138 which is quoted above.]  A charter dated 22 May 1158 under which Arnold Archbishop of Mainz confirmed property of the convent of Rupertsberg bei Bingen refers to a donation by "Hermannus palatinus de Reno…cum uxore sua Gertrude", confirmed by "vidua predicti Hermanni" after the latter's death[14].  Hermann III & his wife had children: 

i)          children, alive in 1136, sons died before 1156[15]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN 1156-1195, STAUFEN

 

 

KONRAD von Staufen, son of FRIEDRICH II Duke of Swabia [Staufen] & his second wife Agnes von Saarbrücken ([1134/36]-8 Nov 1195, bur Kloster Schönau bei Heidelberg).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Conradum, qui palatinus comes Rheni…et Clariciam, Ludewici Thuringiæ comitis uxorem" as the two children of Duke Friedrich & his second wife[16].  The Urspergensium Chronicon names "Cuonradum" as son of "Friedrich I pater ipsius" & his second wife[17].  He was appointed KONRAD Pfalzgraf [von Lothringen] in 1156, but appears to have held jurisdiction in a territory in the Rhineland unlike his predecessors.  As he appears to have had no connection with Lotharingia, it is more appropriate to consider him as Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  Vogt of Worms cathedral.  Vogt of Lorsch. 

m firstly ELISABETH von Stahleck, or --- von Sponheim, daughter of GOTTFRIED I Graf von Sponheim & his wife --- (-[1159/60]). 

m secondly ([1159]) IRMGARD von Henneberg, of BERTHOLD [I] Graf von Henneberg Burggraf von Würzburg & his wife Bertha von Putelendorf (-15 Jul 1197, bur Kloster Schönau bei Heidelberg). 

Pfalzgraf Konrad & his first wife had one child:

1.         GOTTFRIED von Staufen (-[1187/88].  m as her first husband, AGNES ---.  She married secondly ([1188]) ---.  Gottfried & his wife had two children: 

a)         FRIEDRICH von Staufen .

b)         daughter.

Pfalzgraf Konrad & his second wife had three children:

2.         FRIEDRICH von Staufen (-3 Sep before 1189).  

3.         KONRAD von Staufen (-[1186], bur Kloster Schönau). 

4.         AGNES von Staufen (1176-Stade 9/10 May 1204, bur Stade St Marien).  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "filiam Conradi palatini fratris Friderici imperatoris, Agnetam" as wife of "Heinricum…palatinum Reni", specifying that she was buried "in ecclesie beate Virginis apud Stadium"[18].  Heiress of the Pfalzgrafschaft.  Her marriage was arranged by her mother who wanted to avoid a marriage with Philippe II King of France[19].  Although her marriage was opposed by her cousin Emperor Heinrich VI, it presented an opportunity for a reconciliation between the Welf and Staufen families[20].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VI Id Mai" of "Agnes palatina Reni"[21].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VI Id Mai" of "Agnes palatina Reni"[22]m (Burg Stahleck end 1193) as his first wife, HEINRICH von Sachsen, son of HEINRICH "der Löwe" ex-Duke of Saxony and Bavaria & his second wife Matilda of England ([1173]-Braunschweig 28 Apr 1227, bur Braunschweig cathedral).  He succeeded in 1195 as HEINRICH I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1213. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN 1195-1214, WELF

 

 

HEINRICH von Sachsen, son of HEINRICH "der Löwe" ex-Duke of Saxony and Bavaria [Welf] & his second wife Matilda of England ([1173/74]-Braunschweig 28 Apr 1227, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names (in order) "Heinricum comitem Palatinum Reni, Othonem imperatorem, Willehelmus de Luneburch, Luderum" as children of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" & his wife "soror Rikardi regis Anglie"[23].  He accompanied his parents to England in 1182[24].  Vogt of Gotzlar 1204.  He campaigned with Heinrich VI King of Germany in Italy in 1190, but deserted in southern Italy and was outlawed at Worms in May 1192[25].  He was restored to favour by the Emperor in Jan 1194 at Würzburg following his marriage[26].  He succeeded in 1195 as HEINRICH I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  He was deposed in 1212.  Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1213.  The Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii records the death in Apr 1227 of "Hinricus dux Saxonie et comes palatine Reni"[27].  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis records that "Heinricum…palatinum Reni" was buried "Bruneswic…in ecclesie beati Blasii"[28]

m firstly (Burg Stahleck [Dec 1193/Jan 1194]) AGNES von Staufen, daughter of KONRAD von Staufen Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his second wife Irmgard von Henneberg (1176-Stade 9/10 May 1204, bur Stade St Marien).  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "filiam Conradi palatini fratris Friderici imperatoris, Agnetam" as wife of "Heinricum…palatinum Reni", specifying that she was buried "in ecclesie beate Virginis apud Stadium"[29].  Heiress of the Pfalzgrafschaft.  Her marriage was arranged by her mother who wanted to avoid a marriage with Philippe II King of France[30].  Although opposed by her cousin Emperor Heinrich VI, it presented an opportunity for a reconciliation between the Welf and Staufen families[31].  The Annales Stadenses records the death of "Agnes uxor Heinrici ducis et palatini comitis" and her burial "in ecclesia beatæ Virginis apud Stadium"[32].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VI Id Mai" of "Agnes palatina Reni"[33]

m secondly (1211) AGNES von Wettin, daughter of KONRAD von Landsberg Graf von Groitzsch und Sommerschenburg [Wettin] & his wife Elžbieta of Poland (-1 Jan 1248, bur Wienhausen).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Machtildem…et Agnetem" as the two daughters of "Conradus marchio filius Dedonis" & his wife, specifying that Agnes married "Heinricus palatinus Reni frater Othonis imperatoris"[34]

Heinrich I & his first wife had three children:

1.         HEINRICH ([1196]-25 Apr 1214, bur Kloster Schönau bei Heidelberg).  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "Henricum" as son of "Heinricum…palatinum Reni" & his wife, specifying that he died poisoned[35].  He succeeded his father in 1212 as HEINRICH II Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VII Kal Mai" of "Heinricus iunior palatinus"[36]m (Aachen end-Nov 1212) as her first husband, MATHILDE de Brabant, daughter of HENRI I "le Guerroyeur" Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre (-22 Dec 1267, bur Loosduinen Cistercian Abbey).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names "Mariam, conthoralem Ottonis Quartus Romanorum imperatoris, Aleydam comitssam Auernie, Margaretam comitissam Gerardi comitis Ghelrie et Mechteldim, primo quidem comitissam Palatinam Rheni, postea…comitissam Hollandie" as the daughters of "Henricus…primus, dux Lotharingie" and his wife "Mechteldim, filiam Mathei Boloniensis comitis"[37].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Machtildem [uxor] Florentius comes Hollandie" as the fourth of the four daughters of "Henricus dux" & his wife Mathilde[38].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris IV and "Machtildim filiam Henrici ducis Brabancie"[39].  She married secondly (5 Dec 1214) Floris IV Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the death "1267 VI Kal Ian" of "Machtildis comitissa" and her burial "apud puellæ cystersiensis ordinis Losdunensis monasterii"[40]

2.         IRMGARD ([1200]-Lichtenthal 24 Feb 1260, bur Kloster Lichtental).  The Annales Stadenses records the betrothal in Hamburg in 1202 of "duci Danorum" and "filiam fratris sui [=regis Otto] Heinrici"[41].  Although the daughter in question is not named, it is probable that it was the older daughter Irmgard.  The Altahenses Annales name "Iringarde sorore domine Agnetis ducisse Bawarie" as mother of "Hermannus marchio de Baden"[42].  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Heinricus…comes palatinus Rheni…alteram filiam…Yrngardam" as wife of "Hermannus marchio de Baden"[43].  "Irmengardis relicta Hermanni Marchioni de Baden, soror ducissæ Bavaricæ" founded Kloster Lichtenthal in 1245, confirmed in 1246 by "Irmengardis marchionissa cum duobus filiis suis marchionibus…Hermanno et Rudolpho"[44].  The Chronicle of Lichtenthal records the donation of land "in Sunnesheim" made for the anniversary of "marchionis antiqui Hermanni et piæ memoriæ domnæ marchionissæ uxoris eius Irmingardis, fundatricis claustri hujus, et filii eius…ducis Austriæ Hermanni"[45]Betrothed (Hamburg 1202) to VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark, son of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark & his wife Sofia Volodarovna of Novgorod [Rurikid] ([28 Jun] 1170-Vordingborg 28 Mar 1241, bur Ringsted Church).  m ([1217]) HERMANN V Markgraf von Baden, son of HERMANN IV Markgraf von Baden & his wife Udalhildis --- (-15/16 Jan 1243, bur Backnang, transferred 1248 to Kloster Lichtental).

3.         AGNES ([1201]-16 Nov 1267, bur Scheyern).  The Notæ Sancti Emeranni record the marriage of "Otto dux Bawarie" and "filiam Heinrici palatine Rheni"[46].  The Altahenses Annales name "Agnes ducissa Bawarie" when recording the birth of her son Ludwig[47].  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Agnes ducissa mater fundatoris nostri"[48].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "XVI Kal Dec" of "Agnnes ducissa Wabarie"[49].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVI Kal Nov" of "Agnetis coma palatina Reni ducissa Bawarie"[50]m (Worms May 1222) OTTO von Bayern, son of LUDWIG I Duke of Bavaria, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his wife Ludmila of Bohemia (Kelheim 1206-Landshut 29 Nov 1253, bur Scheyern).  Pfalzgraf bei Rhein 1228.  He succeeded his father in 1231 as OTTO II "der Erlauchte" Duke of Bavaria

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN, KURFÜRSTEN von der PFALZ, WITTELSBACH

 

 

 

A.      PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN 1214-1410, DUKES of BAVARIA

 

 

LUDWIG von Wittelsbach, son of OTTO I Duke of Bavaria [Wittelsbach] & his wife Agnes de Looz (23 Nov 1173-murdered on the Kelheimer Bridge 15 Sep 1231, bur Scheyern).  The Chronicon Schirense names "Ludwicum…parvulum" as heir of "Otto palatinus comes"[51].  He succeeded his father in 1183 as LUDWIG I Duke of Bavaria.  On the death of Pfalzgraf Heinrich II [Welf] in 1214, Duke Ludwig claimed to succeed as LUDWIG Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  "Ludewicus…palatinus comes Reni et dux Bavarie" donated property to Kloster Schönau by charter dated 1214[52].  Ludwig was challenged as Pfalzgraf by Heinrich's father, formerly Pfalzgraf Heinrich I, who had given up the Pfalzgrafschaft in favour of his son.  On the death of Pfalzgraf Heinrich I in 1227, Duke Ludwig was unchallenged Pfalzgraf but resigned the position to his son Otto. 

1.         OTTO von Bayern (Kelheim 1206-Landshut 29 Nov 1253, bur Scheyern).  He succeeded his father as OTTO Pfalzgraf bei Rhein in 1228.  He succeeded his father in 1231 as OTTO II "der Erlauchte" Duke of Bavaria.  . 

a)         LUDWIG von Bayern (Heidelberg 13 Apr 1229-Heidelberg 2 Feb 1294, bur Kloster Fürstenfeld).  He succeeded his father in 1253 as LUDWIG II "der Strenge" joint Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Heinrich I.  Divided the family's territories with his younger brother 1255, and became Duke of Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern) and LUDWIG II Pfalzgraf bei Rhein

i)          RUDOLF von Bayern (4 Oct 1274-[11/13] Aug 1319).  He succeeded his father in 1294 as RUDOLF I Duke of Bavaria and Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, with the Electorship. 

          -        see below

ii)         other children: see BAVARIA

iii)        LUDWIG von Bayern ([Feb/Mar] 1282-Puch bei Fürstenfeldbruck 11 Oct 1347, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau).  His brother associated him with the Government 1300 or 1304 as LUDWIG IV "der Bayer" joint Duke of Upper Bavaria and joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein (the single electoral vote being held jointly), and partitioned his Bavarian territories with him 1310.  In 1313, Ludwig became sole Duke of Bavaria.  Elected LUDWIG King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Oct 1314, crowned at Aachen 25 Nov 1314.  He deprived his brother Rudolf I of the Palatinate in 1314, and forced him to abdicate in his favour in 1317, from which time King Ludwig governed all the territories alone.  Crowned King of Italy at Milan 31 May 1327.  Crowned Emperor LUDWIG[53] at Rome 17 Jan 1328.  In 1329, he agreed the Convention of Pavia with his nephews Rudolf II and Ruprecht I under which the latter jointly received the Palatinate while Ludwig IV continued as sole ruler of Upper Bavaria.   

-         DUKES of BAVARIA

 

 

RUDOLF von Bayern, son of LUDWIG II "der Strenge" Duke of Bavaria, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his third wife Mechtild von Habsburg (4 Oct 1274-[11/13] Aug 1319).  The Annales Basilienses record that "filia regis Rudolfi, ducissa Bavarie" gave birth to a son "circa IV Non Oct" in 1274[54].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "Rudolfum…primogenitus…et Ludovicum ducem iuniorem" as sons of Duke Ludwig & his third wife[55].  The Ratisponensis Annales name "primogenitus Rudolfus" as one of the two sons of "Ludwicus comes palatinus Reni dux Bawarie"[56].  He succeeded his father in 1294 as RUDOLF I joint Duke of Upper Bavaria and joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  Abdicated 1317.  The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death "Id Aug" of "Rudolfus dux filius fundatoris nostri"[57]

m (Nürnberg 1 Sep 1294) MATHILDE von Nassau, daughter of ADOLF King of Germany Graf von Nassau in Wiesbaden & his wife Imagina von Isenburg-Limburg (before 1280-Heidelberg 19 Jun 1323, bur Klarenthal).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record the marriage of "filiam Romanorum regis Adolfi…Mechtildim" and Duke Rudolf within a few days of his father's death[58].  The Chronicon Elwacense records the marriage "in Nurnberg 4 Non Sep 1294" of "Rudolfo duci Bavariæ" and "Adolfus rex Romanorum filiam suam"[59]

Rudolf I & his wife had five children: 

1.         LUDWIG (1297-before 5 Apr 1311, bur Fürstenfeld).  Betrothed (28 Nov 1308) to MARIE de Luxembourg, daughter of HEINRICH IX King of Germany & his wife Marguerite de Brabant (1305-Issoudun, Indre Mar 1324, bur Montargis, Loiret, église des religieuses de Saint-Dominique).  The Chronica de Gestis Principum of the monks of Fürstenfeld records the election of Henri de Luxembourg as Heinrich IX King of Germany (dated to 27 Nov 1308) followed by the betrothal of "Rudolfus dux Bawarie…filium suum" to "filie eius"[60]

2.         ADOLF (Wolfratshausen 27 Sep 1300-Neustadt/Weinstr 29 Jan 1327, bur Kloster Schönau bei Heidelberg).  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Adolfum, Rudolfum et Rubertum" as the three sons of "Rudolfo duci Bawarie palatino Reni" and his wife[61].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name (in order) "Rudolfum, Adolfum, Rupertum" as the three sons of Duke Rudolf & his wife[62].  He succeeded in 1319 as ADOLF Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, in the Lower Palatinate and as Elector, reconciling himself with his uncle on the death of his father.  m ([Jul 1320]) IRMENGARD von Oettingen, daughter of LUDWIG VI Graf von Oettingen & his second wife Agnes von Württemberg ([1304]-Kloster Liebenau 6 Nov 1399, bur Kloster Liebenau). The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "filium et filiam, uxorem Adolfi Bawari Reni Palatini" as the children of "Ludowico seniori de Oetingen" and his wife "sorore comitis de Wirtenberg"[63].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record the marriage of "filiam comitis de Otingen" and Duke Adolf[64].  She became a nun at Kloster Liebenau, near Worms.  Adolf & his wife had one child: 

a)         RUPRECHT ADOLF Pfalzgraf (Amberg 12 May 1325-Amberg 6 Jan 1398, bur Schönau).  The chronicle of Matthias Nuewenburgensis names "dux Rupertus Bawarie iunior, filius quondam Adolfi Palatini" when recording his marriage[65].  He agreed the Convention of Pavia 4 Aug 1329 with his great-uncle Emperor Ludwig IV, under which the latter became sole ruler of Upper Bavaria, while he succeeded as RUPRECHT II joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein und in der Oberpfalz, Herzog in Bayern, jointly with his two uncles. 

-        see below

3.         RUDOLF (Wolfratshausen 8 Aug 1306-Neustadt 4 Oct 1353, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Adolfum, Rudolfum et Rubertum" as the three sons of "Rudolfo duci Bawarie palatino Reni" and his wife[66].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name (in order) "Rudolfum, Adolfum, Rupertum" as the three sons of Duke Rudolf & his wife[67].  He agreed the Convention of Pavia 4 Aug 1329 with his uncle Ludwig IV, under which the latter became sole ruler of Upper Bavaria, while he succeeded as RUDOLF II "der Blinde" Pfalzgraf bei Rhein und in der Oberpfalz, Herzog in Bayern, jointly with his nephew and younger brother.  He partitioned his territories with his nephew and younger brother 1338, retaining the larger part of the Palatinate and a part of the Oberpfalz.  m firstly (1328) ANNA von Görz-Tirol, daughter of OTTO II Duke of Carinthia & his wife Euphemia von Liegnitz [Piast] ([1300-[16 May 1331/4 Jul 1335], [26 Jun ----), bur Schönau).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record the marriage of "filiam ducis Karinthie dictam de Sarentein" and Duke Rudolf[68].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "VI Kal Jun" of "Anna coma Reni ducissa Bavarie"[69]m secondly (Betrothed Neustadt 14 Dec 1344, 1348) MARGHERITA of Sicily, daughter of FEDERIGO I King of Sicily [Aragon] & his wife Eléonore of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] (1331-Neustadt 1377, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).  The betrothal of Pfalgraf Rudolf and "Margarethe tochter könig Friedrichs von Sicilien" was dated at Neustadt 14 Dec 1344, which provides details of her dowry[70].  Rudolf II & his first wife had one child: 

a)         ANNA (26 Sep 1329-Prague 2 Feb 1353, bur Prague St Veit).  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records the marriage in 1349 of "Dominus Karolus, Romanorum et Boemiæ Rex" and "Annam filiam Comitis Palatini Reni", adding that he dowry was "civitatem et districtum Sulczbach cum pluribus castris"[71].  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the marriage in May 1349 of "Karolus Romanorum rex" and "filia ducis Rudolfi…frater ducis Ruperti comitis Palatini Reni"[72].  She was crowned Queen of Germany 26 Jul 1349 at Aachen.  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records the death "in vigilia Purificationis beatæ Virginis" in 1352 (O.S.) of "Domina Anna, filia Comitis Palatini de Reno, coniunx Domini Karoli" and her burial "in ecclesia Pragensi"[73]m (contract Bacharach [4] Mar 1349, May 1349) as his second wife, KARL IV King of Germany and Bohemia Comte de Luxembourg, son of JAN I King of Bohemia [JEAN I Comte de Luxembourg] & his first wife Eliska [Elisabeth] of Bohemia [Přemyslid] (Prague 14 May 1316-Prague 29 Nov 1378, bur Prague St Veit's Cathedral).  Crowned Emperor Karl IV at Rome 5 Apr 1355.  

Rudolf II had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

b)         ANNA (-after 20 Dec 1368)Ruprecht I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein granted dowry to "Anne seines bruders Rudolf…tochter, die er Richwin von Mannendal zum weibe gegeben" dated 15 Nov 1361[74]m (before 15 Nov 1361) RICHWIN von Mannendal, son of --- (-after 20 Dec 1368).

c)          KONRAD Hannes .  Ruprecht I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein granted property to "Conrad Hannes seines bruders Rudolfs sohn" dated 2 Nov 1362[75].

4.         RUPRECHT (Wolfratshausen 9 Jun 1309-Neustadt 16 Feb 1390, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).  The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis names "Adolfum, Rudolfum et Rubertum" as the three sons of "Rudolfo duci Bawarie palatino Reni" and his wife[76].  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name (in order) "Rudolfum, Adolfum, Rupertum" as the three sons of Duke Rudolf & his wife[77].  He agreed the Convention of Pavia 4 Aug 1329 with his uncle Ludwig IV, under which the latter became sole ruler of Upper Bavaria, while he succeeded as RUPRECHT I "der Rote" joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein und in der Oberpfalz, Herzog in Bayern, jointly with his nephew and older brother.  He partitioned the territories with his nephew and older brother 1338.  He succeeded his older brother 1353 in the territories which had been allocated to the latter in 1338, and became sole Elector.  Bought the County of Simmern 1359 from the Raugrafen.  By Treaty with his nephew 1368, he irrevocably set the list of territories which comprised the Electorate.  He acquired Zweibrücken 1385 from Eberhard last Graf von Zweibrücken.  He founded the University of Heidelberg 1386.  The necrology of Neustadt records the death 16 Feb 1390 of "dux Rupertus senior, fundator huius ecclesiæ Nova civitatis"[78]m firstly ([Autumn 1350/Summer 1358]) ELISABETH de Namur, daughter of JEAN I Marquis de Namur [Flandre-Dampierre] & his second wife Marie d'Artois [ Capet] (1329-Heidelberg 29 Mar 1382, bur Heidelberg Franciscan Kloster) .  The necrology of Neustadt records the death 29 Mar 1382 of "Elizabeth comitissa de Namen, nata de domo Franciæ, uxor Ruperti senioris, electoris imperii, comitis palatini Reni, fundatoris huius ecclesiæ"[79]m secondly (contract 23 May 1385, before 14 Nov 1385) BEATRIX von Berg, daughter of WILHELM VII Duke of Jülich, Graf von Berg und Ravensberg & his wife Anna Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein (-Heidelberg 16 May 1395, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses record the marriage of "filiam comitis de Guliche" and Duke Ruprecht[80].  "Ruprecht der Elter…pfaltzgreve by Rine, des heiligen Romschen richs obirster trochsess und hertzog in Beyren" agreed to marry "Wilhelm von Gulche hertzogen zum Berge und greuen zu Rauensperg unsrem…swager…Beatrix sine…dochter" by charter dated 23 May 1385[81].  The necrology of Neustadt records the death 16 May 1395 of "Beatrix filia ducis de Monte, uxor Ruperti senioris, fundatoris huius ecclesiæ"[82].  Ruprecht I had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:    

a)         RUPRECHT [Heinrich] .  Ruprecht I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein granted revenue to "Ruprecht unserm sun, den man Heinrich nennt" from customs duties at Mannheim dated 11 Mar 1355[83].  Ruprecht I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein granted "den hof genannt der ´marschalk´zu Heidelberg" to "seinem sohne Ruprecht, den man nennet Heinrich" dated 27 Jul 1358[84]von Schonenberg 1358.  m (before 1 Feb 1358) --- von Grasbock von Weinheim, daughter of ---.  Ruprecht I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein granted property to "Ruprecht von Schonenberg, den man nennet Heinrich" for "dessen frau, Frolin Graslocks…tochter von Weinheim" from customs duties at Mannheim dated 1 Feb 1358[85]

5.         MECHTILD (1312-25 Nov 1375, bur Himmerod).  The Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses name "Mechthildim" as the daughter of Duke Rudolf & his wife, referring to her husband as "comiti de Spanheim"[86]m ([28 Jun 1330/20 Sep 1331]) JOHANN III Graf von Sponheim zu Starkenburg (-20 Dec 1398, bur Himmerod). 

 

 

RUPRECHT ADOLF Pfalzgraf, son of ADOLF Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his wife Irmengard von Oettingen (Amberg 12 May 1325-Amberg 6 Jan 1398, bur Schönau).  The chronicle of Matthias Nuewenburgensis names "dux Rupertus Bawarie iunior, filius quondam Adolfi Palatini" when recording his marriage[87].  He agreed the Convention of Pavia 4 Aug 1329 with his great-uncle Emperor Ludwig IV, under which the latter became sole ruler of Upper Bavaria, while he succeeded as RUPRECHT II joint Pfalzgraf bei Rhein und in der Oberpfalz, Herzog in Bayern, jointly with his two uncles.  He partitioned the territories with his two uncles 1338.  The custom that the Pfalzgraf bei Rhein was one of the seven Electors of the Empire was irrevocably confirmed in 1356 by the Golden Bull of Emperor Karl IV, which also decreed that the Pfalzgraf should be imperial administrator of Swabia and all lands under Frankish law in the absence of the Emperor[88].  By Treaty with his uncle 1368, he irrevocably set the list of territories which comprised the Electorate.  He became sole Pfalzgraf bei Rhein 1390 on the death of his uncle Pfalzgraf Ruprecht I. 

m (Papal dispensation 14 May 1345, before 1346) BEATRICE of Sicily, daughter of PIETRO II King of Sicily [Aragon] & his wife Elisabeth von Görz [Tirol] (1326-Heidelberg 12 Oct 1365, bur Schönau).  The chronicle of Matthias Nuewenburgensis records that "dux Rupertus Bawarie iunior, filius quondam Adolfi Palatini habens uxorem Siculam"[89].  The necrology of Neustadt records the death 12 Oct 1365 of "Beatrix regina de Sicilia mater Ruperti regis Romanorum et conthoralis ducis Ruperti Brandicii"[90]

Ruprecht II & his wife had seven children: 

1.         ANNA (1346-30 Nov 1415).  "Ruprecht…pallentzgreff bi Rine, des heiligen Romschen richs obrister truchsezze und hertzog in Beihern, und…Ruprecht der jungere von derselben…pallentzgreff bi Rine und hertzog in Beihern" agreed with "Wilhelm von Gulch grefe von dem Berge und von Rauensberg" the marriage of the latter and "Annen unsers hertzogen Ruprechts des jungern…tochter" by charter dated 24 May 1363[91]m (contract St Goar 24 May 1363) WILHELM [VII] Graf von Berg und Ravensberg, son of GERHARD [VI] Graf von Jülich & his wife Margareta von Ravensberg (-25 Jun 1408, bur Kloster Altenberg).  He succeeded as Duke of Jülich. 

2.         FRIEDRICH (1347-young).  

3.         JOHANN (1349-young).  

4.         MECHTILD (1350-after 2 Oct 1413)m firstly [HEINRICH II] Graf von Veldenz [Geroldseck über Rhein] (-[1378]).  m secondly (Heidelberg 1379, before 24 Sep) SIGOST Landgraf von Leuchtenberg, son of JOHANN [I] von Leuchtenberg & his first wife Mecella [Metze] von Rosenberg (-after 8 Feb 1398).  Landvogt in Swabia 1389-1392. 

5.         ELISABETH ([1351]-after 4 Jul 1360).

6.         RUPRECHT (Amberg 5 May 1352-Schloß Landskron bei Oppenheim 18 May 1410, bur Heidelberg Heiliges Geist).  He succeeded his father in 1398 as RUPRECHT III "Klemb" Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  Elected King of Germany at Rhens 21 Aug 1400, crowned 7 Jan 1401 at Köln. 

-        see below.  

7.         ADOLF (1355-1358, bur Kloster Liebenau).

Ruprecht II had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

8.          ELSE von Stromberg .  1392.  Nun at Liebenau near Worms..

 

 

RUPRECHT Pfalzgraf, son of RUPRECHT II Pfalzgraf bei Rhein und in der Oberpfalz, Herzog in Bayern & his wife Beatrice of Sicily (Amberg 5 May 1352-Schloß Landskron bei Oppenheim 18 May 1410, bur Heidelberg Heiliges Geist).  He succeeded his father in 1398 as RUPRECHT III "Klemb" Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  He was elected RUPRECHT King of Germany at Rhens 21 Aug 1400 after King Wenzel was deposed, crowned 7 Jan 1401 at Köln.  He launched an unsuccessful campaign in Italy against the Visconti of Milan, in alliance with Florence[92].  Johann Archbishop of Mainz formed the league of Marbach, with Baden, Württemberg and the Swabian towns, in opposition to King Ruprecht[93].  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" was buried "Haidelbergæ in collegio S. Spiritus…cum regina"[94]

m (Amberg 27 Jun 1374) ELISABETH von Nürnberg, daughter of FRIEDRICH V Burggraf von Nürnberg & his wife Elisabeth von Meissen (1358-Heidelberg 26 Jul 1411, bur Heidelberg Heiliges Geist).  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" was buried "Haidelbergæ in collegio S. Spiritus…cum regina"[95]

Ruprecht III & his wife had nine children: 

1.         RUPRECHT PIPAN (Amberg 20 Feb 1375-Amberg 25 Jan 1397, bur Amberg St Martin)m (Alzey 1392, before 30 Aug) as her second husband, ELISABETH von Sponheim, widow of ENGELBERT III Graf von der Mark in Fredeburg und Bilstein, daughter and heiress of SIMON [III] Graf von Sponheim [“vordere Grafschaft”] Graf von Vianden & his wife Maria von Vianden (1365-Kreuznach 3 Sep 1417, bur Kreuznach Pauluskirche).  On her death, one-fifth of the county of Sponheim [“vordere Grafschaft”] passed to the Palatinate.  The other four-fifths of the county passed to Johann [V] Graf von Sponheim-Starkenburg [“hintere Grafschaft”]. 

2.         MARGARETA Pfalzgräfin (1376-Nancy 26 Aug 1434, bur Nancy St Georges)m ([Kaiserslauten 5 Feb 1394]) CHARLES I Duke of Lorraine, son of JEAN I Duke of Lorraine & his wife Sophie von Württemberg ([1364]-Nancy 25 Jan 1431, bur Nancy St Georges).

3.         FRIEDRICH (Amberg [1377]-Amberg 7 Mar 1401, bur Amberg St Martin).  

4.         LUDWIG (23 Jan 1378-Heidelberg 30 Dec 1436, bur Heidelberg Heiliges Geist).  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" had four sons "Ludwicum…Johannem…tercium…quartus Otto iunior inter omnes"[96].  He succeeded his father in 1410 as LUDWIG III "der Bärtige" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.   

-        see below, Part B.  ELECTORS PALATINE [KURFÜRSTEN von der PFALZ] 1410-1559

5.         AGNES (1379-Heidelberg 12 Feb 1401, bur Kleve)m (Heidelberg before 1 Mar 1400) as his first wife, ADOLF Graf von Kleve, son of ADOLF [I] Graf von Kleve & his wife Margareta von Jülich (-23 Sep 1448, bur Wesel Dominican Church).  Duke of Kleve 1417. 

6.         ELISABETH Pfalzgräfin (Amberg before 27 Oct 1381-Innsbruck 31 Dec 1408, bur Stams).  The necrology of Stams records the death "II Kal Jan" of "domina Elizabeth filia regis Romanorum Ruperti, contoralis…principis et domini Friderici ducis Austriæ, et Elizabeth filia eorum"[97].  The necrology of Wilten records the death "Kal Jan 1409" of "Elisabethæ ducissæ Austriæ"[98]m (Innsbruck 24 Dec 1406) as his first wife, FRIEDRICH IV "mit den leeren Tasche" Graf von Tirol, son of LEOPOLD III Duke of Austria & his wife Verde Visconti (1382-Innsbruck 24 Jun 1439, bur Stams).

7.         JOHANN (Neunburg vorm Wald [1383]-Benedictine Kloster Kastl, Oberpfalz 13 Mar 1443, bur Neunburg vorm Wald St Georg).  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" had four sons "Ludwicum…Johannem…tercium…quartus Otto iunior inter omnes", adding that Johann had "sedem suam in Amberg"[99].  He succeeded his father in 1410 as JOHANN Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt.  m firstly (contract Lund 11 Nov 1406, Ripen 15 Aug 1407) KATHARINA von Pommern, daughter of WARTISLAW VII Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern & his wife Marie von Mecklenburg ([1390]-Kloster Gnadenburg 4 Mar 1426, bur Neumarkt Hofkirche, transferred to Kloster Gnadenburg).  m secondly (Riedenburg 7 Sep 1428) as her second husband, BEATRIX von Bayern, widow of HERMAN [III] Count of Celje [Cilly], of ERNST I Duke of Bavaria-Munich & his wife Elisabetta Visconti of Milan ([1403]-Neumarkt 12 Mar 1447, bur Kloster Gnadenburg).  Johann & his first wife had six children:

a)         MARGARETA (24 Aug 1408-young, bur Gnadenburg).

b)         ADOLF (b and d Amberg 1409, bur Amberg St Martin).

c)         OTTO (1410-young, bur Gnadenburg).

d)         JOHANN (1411-, bur Gnadenburg).

e)         FRIEDRICH (1412-young, bur Gnadenburg).

f)          CHRISTOPH (Neumarkt 26 Feb 1416-Helsingborg 5/6 Jan 1448, bur Roskilde Cathedral).  He succeeded his maternal uncle 10 Apr 1440 as CHRISTOFFER III King of Denmark, 4 Oct 1440 as CHRISTOF King of Sweden and 4 Jun 1441 as CHRISTOF King of Norway.  He succeeded his father in 1443 as Pfalzgraf in Neunburg vorm Wald und in Neumarkt.   

          -        KINGS of DENMARK

8.         STEFAN ([13 Jun] 1385-Simmern 14 Feb 1459, bur Meisenheim am Glan).  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" had four sons "Ludwicum…Johannem…tercium…quartus Otto iunior inter omnes", adding that the third (unnamed) lived "in Kaisersluter" and had many children[100].  He succeeded his father in 1410 as Pfalzgraf in Simmern und Zweibrücken. 

-        PFALZGRAFEN von SIMMERN und ZWEIBRÜCKEN

9.         OTTO (Mosbach 24 Aug 1390-Kloster Reichenbach 5 Jul 1461, bur Kloster Reichenbach).  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" had four sons "Ludwicum…Johannem…tercium…quartus Otto iunior inter omnes", adding that Otto resided "prope Haidelbergam"[101].  He succeeded his father in 1410 as OTTO I Pfalzgraf in Mosbach.  He inherited Neumarkt and Neuburg 1448 from his nephew Christoph.  He died from over-eating.  m (Burghausen 15 Jan 1430) JOHANNA von Bayern-Landshut, daughter of HEINRICH IV "dem Reichen" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut & his wife Margareta of Austria (1413-Mosbach 20 Jul 1444, bur Mosbach Stiftskirche).  Otto & his wife had seven children: 

a)         MARGARETE (1430-14 Sep 1457, bur Hanau Marienkirche)m (11 Jul 1446) REINHARD IV Graf von Hanau-Münzenberg (-20 May 1452, bur Hanau Marienkirche).

b)         AMALIE (1431-15 May 1483, bur Grünsfeld)m (contract 26 Apr 1436, before 3 Jan 1445) PHILIPP I "der Ältere" Graf von Rieneck (-15 Dec 1488, bur Grünsfeld).

c)         OTTO (26 Jun 1435-Neumarkt 8 Apr 1499, bur Neumarkt Hofkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1461 as OTTO II Pfalzgraf von Mosbach.  He shared the Government of his territories 1490 with Philipp Kurfürst von der Pfalz.  

d)         RUPRECHT (25 Nov 1437-Ybbs 1 Nov 1465, bur Regensburg Cathedral).  Canon at Passau Cathedral, at Regensburg Cathedral 1447, at Bamberg Cathedral 1451-1461, at Köln Cathedral 1455, at Freising Cathedral 1456.  Provost of Regensburg Cathedral 1452, Administrator 1457.  Elected Bishop of Regensburg 1465.

e)         DOROTHEA (24 Aug 1439-Liebenau 15 May 1482, bur Liebenau).  Nun at Liebenau 1457, later Prioress.

f)          ALBRECHT (6 Sep 1440-Zabern 20 Aug 1506, bur Zabern Stiftskirche).  Canon at Augsburg Cathedral 1452-1468, at Köln Cathedral 1453-1493, at Eichstätt Cathedral 1464, at Bamberg Cathedral 1472/74.  Provost of Strasbourg Cathedral 1464.  Bishop of Strasbourg 1479.

g)         JOHANN (1 Aug 1443-Jerusalem 4 Oct 1486, bur Jerusalem Franciscan Monastery).  Canon at Speyer Cathedral 1454-1469, at Mainz Cathedral 1458, at Eichstätt and Regensburg Cathedrals 1460, at Augsburg Cathedral 1461-1468.  Provost of Augsburg Cathedral 1468.  Canon at Bamberg Cathedral 1472-1474.  Provost of Regensburg Cathedral 1472.

 

 

 

B.      ELECTORS PALATINE [KURFÜRSTEN von der PFALZ] 1410-1559

 

 

LUDWIG Pfalzgraf, son of RUPRECHT III Pfalzgraf bei Rhein King of Germany & his wife Elisabeth von Nürnberg [Hohenzollern] (23 Jan 1378-Heidelberg 30 Dec 1436, bur Heidelberg, Heiliges Geist).  A contemporary manuscript records that "Rupertus Bavariæ dux, comes Pallentinus Reni, electus in regem Romanorum" had four sons "Ludwicum…Johannem…tercium…quartus Otto iunior inter omnes", adding that Ludwig was "Pallentinus Reni et unus de electoribus"[102].  He succeeded his father in 1410 as LUDWIG III "der Bärtige" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern. 

m firstly (contract 7 Mar 1401, Heidelberg [22 Jul] 1402) BLANCHE of England, daughter of HENRY IV King of England & his first wife Mary de Bohun (Peterborough Castle Spring 1392-Hagenau, Neustadt, Alsace 22 May 1409, bur Neustadt St Aegidius).  The Chronicle of Adam de Usk records that “Rex” married “duas filias suas, unam regi Daci et alteram [filio] ducis Bavarie tunc imperatoris electi[103].  The marriage contract between “Henrici Angliæ Franciæque regis ac domini Hiberniæ...filiæ suæ senioris dominæ Blanchiæ” and “Ruperti regis Romanorum...filii sui...Ludowici comitis Palatini Reni ac ducis Bavariæ” is dated 7 Mar 1401[104]

m secondly (Pinerolo 30 Nov 1417) MATHILDE de Savoie, daughter of AMEDEE de Savoie Signore di Piemonte, titular Prince of Achaia & his wife Catherine de Genève ([1391/1400]-Germersheim 14 May 1438, bur Heidelberg, Heiliges Geist).  The marriage contract between "Domicellæ Matildis natæ quondam bonæ memoriæ…domini Amedei Principis Achayæ" and "domini Ludovici comitis Palatini Rheni…ac Bavariæ Ducis" is dated 30 Nov 1417[105]

Ludwig III & his first wife had one child:

1.         RUPRECHT "der Engländer" (Heidelberg 22 Jun 1406-Heidelberg 20 May 1426, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist). 

Ludwig III & his second wife had five children:

2.         MECHTILD Pfalzgräfin (Heidelberg 7 Mar 1419-Heidelberg 22 Aug 1482, bur Güterstein, transferred 1554 to Tübingen Stiftskirche)m firstly (Stuttgart 21 Oct 1434) LUDWIG I "der Ältere" Graf von Württemberg, son of EBERHARD IV "dem Jüngeren" Graf von Württemberg & his wife Henriette Gräfin von Mömpelgard (1412-Urach 24 Sep 1450, bur Gütenstein, transferred 1554 to Tüblingen Stiftskirche).  m secondly (Böblingen Aug 1452) ALBRECHT VI "der Freigebige" Duke of Inner-Austria, son of ERNST I "dem Eisernen" Duke of Inner-Austria & his second wife Cimburka of Masovia [Piast] (Vienna 18 Dec 1418-Vienna 2 Dec 1463, bur Vienna St Stefan).

3.         LUDWIG (Heidelberg 1 Jan 1424-Worms 13 Aug 1449, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  He succeeded his father in 1436 as LUDWIG IV "der Sanftmüthige" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern, minor until 1445. 

          -        see below

4.         FRIEDRICH (Heidelberg 1 Aug 1425-Heidelberg 12 Dec 1476, bur Heidelberg katholische Pfarrkirche).  He succeeded his brother 1449/1451 as FRIEDRICH I "der Friedfertige/der Siegreiche" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  The family of Baden ceded a further three tenths of the County of Sponheim, added to the “vordere Grafschaft”, to the Palatinate in 1463.  m (secretly 1471) KLARA Tott, daughter of GERHARD Tott, Councillor at Augsburg[106] & his wife --- (-29 Apr 1520).  A former maid of honour at the court of Munich, she had been Friedrich’s mistress since 1458 and had borne him two sons who were legitimated by the Pope and the Bishop of Speyer before 9 Oct 1470.  Friedrich I & his wife had two children: 

a)         FRIEDRICH (1461-1474). 

b)         LUDWIG (1463-1524).  Graf von Löwenstein.  m firstly (1488) ELISABETH von Montfort, daughter of --- (-1503).  m secondly (1509) SOPHIA Böcklin, daughter of --- (-1510).  

-        FÜRSTEN VON LÖWENSTEIN

5.         RUPRECHT (Heidelberg 27 Feb 1427-in prison in Blankenstein 16 Jul 1480, bur Bonn St Martin).  Canon at Köln cathedral 1442.  Provost at Würzburg cathedral 1448-1460.  Provost at Strasbourg Cathedral 1458-1463.  Archbishop of Köln 1463.

6.         MARGARETE ([1428]-Kloster Liebenau 23 Nov 1466, bur Kloster Liebenau).  Nun at Liebenau.

 

 

LUDWIG Pfalzgraf, son of LUDWIG III "der Bärtige" Kurfürst und Pfalzgraf von der Pfalz, Herzog in Bayern & his second wife Mathilde de Savoie (Heidelberg 1 Jan 1424-Worms 13 Aug 1449, bur Heidelberg, Heiliges Geist)

He succeeded his father in 1436 as LUDWIG IV "der Sanftmüthige" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern, minor until 1445.  On the death of Johann V Graf von Sponheim-Starkenburg [“hintere Grafschaft”] 1437, a second fifth of the County of Sponheim  passed to the Palatinate and was added to the “vordere Grafschaft”, in fulfilment of a 1422 agreement.  Elector Ludwig IV acquired the County of Löwenstein in 1441. 

m (Heidelberg, Heiliges Geist 18 Oct 1445) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Savoie, widow of LOUIS III Duc d'Anjou titular King of Sicily, daughter of AMEDEE VIII Duke of Savoy & his wife Marie de Bourgogne [Valois-Capet] (Morges, Vaud 7 Aug 1420-Stuttgart 30 Sep 1479, bur Stuttgart Stiftskirche).  The marriage contract between "Ludovicus Comes Palatini Rheni…" and "Ludovicus Dux Sabaudiæ…Margaretam de Sabaudia, Jerusalem et Siciliæ Reginam, sororem" is dated 21 Oct 1444[107].  She married thirdly (Stuttgart 9 Jul 1453) as his third wife, Ulrich V "der Vielgeliebte" Graf von Württemberg-Stuttgart

Ludwig IV & his wife had one child: 

1.         PHILIPP (14 Jul 1448-Germersheim 28 Feb 1508, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  He succeeded his uncle in 1476 as PHILIPP "der Aufrichtige" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "V Kal Mar 1508" of "dux Philippus comes palatinus Rheni" adding that "hic Georgii ducis Bavarie sororem habuit uxorem"[108]m (Amberg 17 Apr 1474) MARGARETA von Bayern, daughter of LUDWIG IX "dem Reichen" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut & his wife Amalia von Sachsen (Amberg 7 Nov 1456-Heidelberg 24/25 Jan 1501, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  Philipp & his wife had fourteen children: 

a)         LUDWIG (Heidelberg 2 Jul 1478-Heidelberg 16 Mar 1544, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  He succeeded his father in 1508 LUDWIG V "der Friedfertige" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  m (Heidelberg Heilige Geist 23 Feb 1511) SIBYLLE von Bayern, daughter of ALBRECHT IV "der Weise" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Kunigunde Adss of Austria (16 Jun 1489-Heidelberg 18 Apr 1519, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  Ludwig V had one illegitimate child by MARGARETA von der Leyen, daughter of ---.  In prison 1547.

i)           MARGARETA (-Harburg 3 Jul 1550).  Legitimated 31 Jul 1543 at Speyer, and 10 Apr 1544 at Nürnberg, and created Gräfin von Lützelstein.  m (contract Oettingen 11 Sep 1543, Oettingen 25 Nov 1543) LUDWIG XVI Graf von Oettingen (-Harburg 1 Oct 1569, bur Harburg).

b)         PHILIPP (Heidelberg 7 May 1480-Freising 5 Jan 1541, bur Freising cathedral).  Provost of St Alban at Mainz 1489.  Canon at Mainz, Strasbourg and Trier cathedrals 1490, at Augsburg cathedral 1491-1526, at Köln cathedral 1491-1508.  Provost of Mainz cathedral 1491-1506.  Canon at Freising cathedral 1491, at Würzburg cathedral 1491-1509, at Eichstätt cathedral 1491-1498.  Bishop of Freising 1498.  Bishop of Naumburg 1517).

c)         RUPRECHT (Heidelberg 14 May 1481-Landshut 20 Aug 1504, bur Seligenthal).  Canon at Würzburg cathedral 1491, at Freising cathedral 1492.  Provost of St Mariengreden at Mainz 1493.  Bishop of Freising 1496-1498.  He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments 1498.  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XIII Kal Sep 1504" of "Rupertus palatinus Reni Inferioris Superiorisque Bavarie dux, ligt bei uns begraben"[109]m (Heidelberg 10 Feb 1499) ELISABETH von Bayern, daughter of GEORG "dem Reichen" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut & his wife Jadzwiga of Poland (1478-Landshut 15 Sep 1504, bur Seligenthal).  Ruprecht & his wife had four children: 

i)          GEORG (Nov 1500-1504, before 20 Aug, bur Seligenthal).

ii)         RUPRECHT (Nov 1500-1504, before 20 Aug, bur Seligenthal).

iii)        OTTO HEINRICH (Neuburg an der Donau 10 Apr 1502-Heidelberg 12 Feb 1559, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  The terms of his maternal grandfather’s will were confirmed 1509, when he succeeded as OTTO HEINRICH joint Pfalzgraf von Neuburg, minor until 1522, jointly with his younger brother until the latter’s abdication.  He converted to Lutheranism in 1542.  He was obliged to abandon the Government of his land 20 Aug 1544 to the Landstände, because of the ruinous financial state in which he found himself.  The Emperor occupied the town of Neuburg and took it under his personal control until 15 Aug 1552, when Otto Heinrich was reinstalled under the Treaty of Passau.  He succeeded his uncle in 1556 as OTTO HEINRICH Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  He abandoned the Duchy of Neuburg in 1557 to his distant cousin Wolfgang Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken.  m (Neuburg 16 Oct 1529) as her second husband, SUSANNA of Bavaria, widow of KASIMIR Markgraf von Brandenburg, daughter of ALBRECHT IV "der Weise" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Kunigunde of Austria (2 Apr 1502-Neuburg an der Donau 12 Apr 1543, bur Munich Unsere Liebe Frau). 

iv)        PHILIPP (Heidelberg 12 Nov 1503-Heidelberg 4 Jul 1548, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  The terms of his maternal grandfather’s will were confirmed in 1509, when he succeeded as PHILIPP "der Aufrichtige" joint Pfalzgraf von Neuburg, minor until 1523, jointly with his older brother.  He abdicated in 1541 in favour of his older brother. 

d)         FRIEDRICH (Schloß Winzingen bei Neustadt 9 Dec 1482-Alzey 26 Feb 1556, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  He succeeded his brother in 1544 as FRIEDRICH II "der Weise" Elector Palatine und Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, Herzog in Bayern.  He converted to Lutheranism 1547.  m (Heidelberg Heilige Geist 26 Sep 1535) DOROTHEA of Denmark, daughter of CHRISTIAN II ex-King of Denmark & his wife Isabel Archduchess of Austria Infanta of Spain (10 Nov 1520-Neumarkt 31 May 1580, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  Friedrich II had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:   

i)           son.  Living 1544.

ii)          son.  Living 1544.

iii)         ANNA von Bayern .  Nun at Alzey 1556.

e)         ELISABETH (Heidelberg 16 Nov 1483-Baden-Baden 24 Jun 1522, bur Baden-Baden Stiftskirche).  She received Sponheim-Kreuznach (Vordere Grafschaft) from her father as her dowry on her second marriage.  m firstly (Frankfurt-am-Main [16 Oct] 1498) WILHELM III "der Jüngere" Landgraf zu Hessen in Oberhessen, Katzenelnbogen und Dietz, son of HEINRICH III "dem Reichen" Landgraf zu Hessen in Oberhessen, Katzenelnbogen und Dietz & his wife Anna von Katzenelnbogen ([8 Sep] 1471-Rauschenberg 17 Feb 1500, bur Marburg).  m secondly (Heidelberg 30 Jan 1503) PHILIPP von Baden, son of CHRISTOPH I Markgraf von Baden & his wife Ottilie von Katzenelnbogen (6 Nov 1479-17 Sep 1533, bur Baden-Baden Stiftskirche).  Graf von Sponheim-Kreuznach (Vordere Grafschaft) 1503, in right of his wife.  He succeeded in 1515 as PHILIPP I Markgraf von Baden in Baden, ½ Eberstein, Lahr und Mahlberg. 

f)          GEORG (Heidelberg 10 Feb 1486-Schloß Kisslau bei Bruchsal 27 Sep 1529, bur Speyer cathedral).  Canon at Trier cathedral 1496, at Speyer cathedral 1497.  Provost of Mainz cathedral 1499-1529.  Provost of St Donat at Bruges 1502.  Bishop of Speyer 1515.

g)         HEINRICH (Heidelberg 15 Feb 1487-Ladenburg 5 Jan 1552, bur Worms cathedral).  Provost of St Alban at Mainz 1506, canon at Köln cathedral 1508.  Provost at Strasbourg cathedral 1518-1542.  Provost of St Adalbert at Aachen 1519, of Ellwangen 1521.  Canon at Augsburg cathedral 1523-1524, at Freising cathedral 1525.  Coadjutor at Freising cathedral 1540, administrator 1541-1552. 

h)         JOHANN (Heidelberg 7 May 1488-Regensburg 3 Feb 1538).  Canon at Passau cathedral.  Abbot of Klingenmünster and Coadjutor 1506. Bishop of Regensburg 1507.  Canon at Strasbourg cathedral, and at Köln cathedral after 1510. 

i)          AMALIE (Heidelberg 25 Jul 1490-Alt-Stettin 6 Jan 1524, bur Alt-Stettin St Otto)m (13 Jun 1513) as his first wife, GEORG I Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast, son of BOGISLAW X Duke of Pomerania & his second wife Anna of Poland [Piast] (-Alt-Stettin 9/10 May 1521, bur Alt-Stettin St Otto).

j)          BARBARA (Heidelberg 28 Aug 1491-Heidelberg 15 Aug 1505, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  

k)         HELENE (Heidelberg 9 Feb 1493-Schwerin 15 Aug 1524, bur Schwerin Cathedral)m (Wismar 12 Aug 1513) as his second wife, HEINRICH V "der Friedfertige" Herzog von Mecklenburg, son of MAGNUS II Herzog von Mecklenburg & his wife Sophie von Pommern-Stettin (3 May 1479-Schwerin 6 Feb 1552, bur Schwerin Cathedral).  

l)          WOLFGANG (Heidelberg 31 Oct 1494-Neumarkt 2 Apr 1558, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).  Canon at Würzburg cathedral 1509-1524, at Augsburg cathedral.  Provost of Klingenmünster 1511.  Canon at Speyer cathedral 1515-1524.  Knight of the Teutonic Order 1522-1524.  He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments 1524, when he succeeded in 1524 as Pfalzgraf in Neumarkt.  Statthalter at Amberg 1544.  

m)       OTTO HEINRICH (6 May 1496-31 May 1496, bur Heidelberg Heilige Geist).

n)         KATHARINA (Heidelberg 14 Oct 1490-Kloster Neuburg bei Heidelberg 16 Jan 1526, bur Neuburg).  Nun at Kloster Neuburg 1515, abbess 1526. 

 

 



[1] Arnold, B. (2003) Princes and territories in medieval Germany (Cambridge U. P.), pp. 125-8. 

[2] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 206. 

[3] ES XVI 120B. 

[4] Acta Academiæ Theodoro-Palatinæ (1773), Vol. III, Documenta, XXIV, p. 116. 

[5] Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band III (Stuttgart, 1871) ("Württembergisches Urkundenbuch"), Nachtrag, 6, p. 466. 

[6] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) ("Mainz Urkunden 12th Century"), 41, p. 45. 

[7] MGH Const. Vol. I, 127, p. 181. 

[8] Bruch, H. (ed.) (1973) Chronologia Johannes de Beke (The Hague), 54b, p. 109, available at < http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten /KroniekVanJohannesDeBekeTot1430/latijn> (31 Aug 2006). 

[9] Annales Sancti Disibodi (Continuatio) 1155, MGH SS XVII, p. 29. 

[10] Constitutio Ducatus Austriæ, MGH LL 2, p. 99. 

[11] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1156, MGH SS XVI, p. 21. 

[12] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band III, Nachtrag, 6, p. 466. 

[13] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228, footnote 38 specifying that her husband was "Hermanno de Stahleck". 

[14] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 66, p. 68. 

[15] ES XVI 120B. 

[16] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362.  

[17] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 345. 

[18] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 396-7. 

[19] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 196. 

[20] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 182. 

[21] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[22] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[23] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[24] Jordan (1986), p. 183. 

[25] Jordan (1986), pp. 192-4. 

[26] Jordan (1986), p. 197. 

[27] Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 825. 

[28] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 397. 

[29] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 396-7. 

[30] Jordan (1986), p. 196. 

[31] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 182. 

[32] Annales Stadenses 1204, MGH SS XVI, p. 354.  

[33] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[34] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[35] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 397. 

[36] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473. 

[37] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 62. 

[38] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[39] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[40] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 69b, p. 183. 

[41] Annales Stadenses 1202, MGH SS XVI, p. 353.  

[42] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1235, MGH SS XVII, p. 393. 

[43] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[44] Schoepflin, J. D. (1765) Historia Zaringo Badensis, Tome V, Codex Diplomaticus (Karlsruhe) ("Zaringo Badensis Codex"), CXVI, p. 207. 

[45] Mone, F. J. (1848) Quellensammlung der badische Landesgeschichte (Karlsruhe) ("Badische Quellensammlung"), Band I, Chronik von Lichtenthal, p. 194. 

[46] Notæ Sancti Emeranni, MGH SS XVII, p. 574. 

[47] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1229, MGH SS XVII, p. 391. 

[48] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[49] Necrologium Weltenburgense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[50] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[51] Chounradi, Chronicon Schirense 21, MGH SS XVII, p. 621. 

[52] Wittmann, F. M. (ed.) (1857) Monumenta Wittelsbacensia, Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte des Hauses Wittelsbach, Erste Abteilung, Quellen zur bayerisches und deutschen Geschichte, Band V (Munich) ("Wittelsbach Urkundenbuch, I"), 6, p. 19. 

[53] He called himself Ludwig IV as Emperor, although he was in fact the fifth Emperor Ludwig.

[54] Annales Basileenses 1274, MGH SS XVII, p. 196. 

[55] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[56] Eberhardi Archidiaconi Ratisponensis Annales 1294, MGH SS XVII, p. 594. 

[57] Necrologium Fürstenfeldense, Freising Necrologies, p. 97. 

[58] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[59] Chronicon Elwacense 1294, MGH SS X, p. 38.  

[60] Chronica de Gestis Principum, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. I, p. 30. 

[61] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 167. 

[62] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[63] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 191. 

[64] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[65] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 260. 

[66] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 167. 

[67] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[68] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[69] Necrologium Sældentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[70] Winkelmann, E., Koch, A. & Wille, J. (1894) Regesten der Pfalzgrafen am Rhein 1214-1508, Band I 1214-1400 (Innsbruck) ("Pfalzgrafen Regesten") 2295, p. 138. 

[71] Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon Ecclesiæ Pragensis, Caput XIV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 349. 

[72] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 73. 

[73] Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon Ecclesiæ Pragensis, Caput XIV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, pp. 357-8. 

[74] Pfalzgrafen Regesten, 3354, p. 199, citing Karlsruhe Copialbuch 463, 42v. 

[75] Pfalzgrafen Regesten, 3403, p. 203, quoting Karlsruhe Copialbuch 464, 7. 

[76] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, p. 167. 

[77] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[78] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Totenbuch von Neustadt, Bl. 15 a. 

[79] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Totenbuch von Neustadt, Bl. 33 a. 

[80] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[81] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1853) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band III (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 893, p. 786. 

[82] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Totenbuch von Neustadt, Bl. 40 a. 

[83] Pfalzgrafen Regesten, 2850, p. 172, quoting Karlsruhe Copialbuch 462, 13, 462,39. 

[84] Pfalzgrafen Regesten, 3096, p. 185, quoting Karlsruhe Copialbuch 462, 56. 

[85] Pfalzgrafen Regesten, 3071, p. 184, quoting Karlsruhe Copialbuch 462, 16. 

[86] Notæ Fuerstenfeldenses de Ducibus Bavariæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 75. 

[87] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 260. 

[88] Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), p. 159. 

[89] Matthias Nuewenburgensis, Fontes rerum Germanicarum, Vol. IV, p. 260. 

[90] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 220, quoting Totenbuch von Neustadt, Bl. 59 b. 

[91] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band III, 639, p. 538. 

[92] Leuschner (1980), p. 184. 

[93] Leuschner (1980), p. 184. 

[94] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[95] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[96] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[97] Necrologium Stamsense , Brixen Necrologies, p. 47. 

[98] Necrologium Wiltinense, Brixen Necrologies, p. 60. 

[99] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[100] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[101] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[102] Badische Quellensammlung, Band I, p. 221, quoting Handschrift zu Zürich, C. 35, fol. 113. 

[103] Thompson, E. M. (1904) Chronicon Adæ de Usk 1377-1421, 2nd edn (London) (“Chronicon Adæ de Usk”), p. 85. 

[104] Rymer, T. (1740) Fœdera, Conventiones, Literæ 3rd Edn (London), Tome III, Pars IV, p. 197. 

[105] State Archives, volume 102, page 81, fascicule 2, and Guichenon, S. (1780) Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie (Turin) ("Guichenon (Savoie)"), Tome IV, Preuves, p. 128. 

[106] Who was hanged in 1449 for malversation (Huberty, M. (1985) L´Allemagne Dynastique, Tome IV, p. 43 footnote note 40).

[107] State Archives, volume 102, page 97.2, fascicule 2, and Guichenon (Savoie), Tome IV, Preuves, p. 347. 

[108] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[109] Necrologia Saeldentalense, Passau Necrologies I, p. 473.