POLAND

 v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                PRINCES & KINGS OF POLAND (PIAST) 3

A.         ORIGINS, PRINCES OF POLAND 966-1024. 3

B.         KINGS OF POLAND 1024-1370. 10

C.        PRINCES of GREATER POLAND, POZNAŃ [POSEN] and KALICZ [KALISCH] 27

D.        PRINCES of SANDOMIR and KRAKOW... 37

E.         PRINCES OF MAZOVIA 1248-1526. 51

Chapter 2.                KING of POLAND 1300-1305 (LUXEMBOURG) 59

Chapter 3.                KINGS of POLAND 1320-1370 (PIAST) 59

Chapter 4.                KING OF POLAND 1370-1386 (ANJOU-CAPET) 66

Chapter 5.                              KINGS OF POLAND 1386-1572 (LITHUANIA/JAGIELLO) 66

Chapter 6.                KING of POLAND 1573-1575 (VALOIS) 71

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The land which later became Poland was the original home of the Slav people.  The migration of populations to and from the area crystallised in the 7th century[1].  Their territory remained outside the sphere of Frankish influence although, according to Dzięcioł, there is little surviving historical and archaeological evidence relating to Poland before the second half of the 9th century[2].  The Slavs living in the area produced their own leadership in the 9th century, the Vistulans, Polanians, Mazovians and Pomeranians emerging as the most important tribes in the northern Slavic lands[3].  However, early references to these peoples in primary source documentation are scarce.  For example, Einhard's Annales record a council at Frankfurt in 822 attended by legates from "orientalium Sclavorum, id est Abodritorum, Soraborum, Wiltzorum, Beheimorum, Marvanorum, Prĉdenecentorum et in Pannonia residentium Avarum"[4], which does not appear to include any representatives from the area which was later to become Poland. 

 

The Vistulan state held extensive territory in southern Poland around Krakow, Tyniec and Wislica.  It was eventually overrun by Moravia and its deposed leader was baptised by St Methodius[5].  The Polanian state was formed in the first half of the 9th century in the area where the towns of Gniezno and Poznan were founded, with the Gopleani (in the Goplo region) and the Lendizi developing as its two political entities[6].  After Moravia was overrun by the Hungarians in 906, the Polanians extended their authority over parts of the former Vistulan state[7].  The Popiel family, ruling dynasty of the Gopleani, were replaced by the house of Piast who came from the Gniezno region and were of native peasant origin[8].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum records "in civitate Gneznensi…dux nomine Popel" who had two sons[9].  Dzięcioł dismisses the theory, prevalent among 19th century Polish historians, that the Piast family were of Norman origin[10].  The dynasty failed to extend its control to western Pomerania which had developed autonomously to the north-west, but its authority was accepted by eastern or Vistulan Pomerania, centred on Gdansk[11].  After Bohemia conquered Krakow and Silesia following the defeat of the Hungarians by Otto I King of Germany at Lechfeld in 955, the Polanian state absorbed the region of Sandomierz and land on the upper Bug and upper Dniester rivers[12]

 

Poland, composed of all these areas and united under its Piast rulers, emerged as a stable political entity in the second half of the 10th century.  The conversion of Poland to Christianity in 966 reinforced the unity of the new nation state. 

 

Before Bolesław III Prince of Poland died in 1138, he arranged a division of his lands between his five surviving sons, which marked the dissolution of the centralised Polish state which was to persist until the early 14th century.  Poland was reunited when Władysław Prince of Kujavia reasserted control over all the Polish territories, with the exception of Silesia, and was crowned king of Poland as Władysław I in 1320. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    PRINCES & KINGS OF POLAND (PIAST)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS, PRINCES OF POLAND 966-1024

 

 

PIAST, son of CHOSTCONIS & his wife [Repka ---].  The Annales Polanorum state that "Chosiscko genuit Peast"[13].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum add his mother's name, stating "hospitii domestici Pazt filius Chostconis et uxor eius Repca"[14] but, as stated below, this contradicts the Annales Polanorum which state that Repka was Piast's wife[15].  Dzieciol highlights a "plausible theory" that Piast was maior domus in the palace of the Popiel rulers before seizing power, although there is no evidence of this in the chronicles[16]

m [REPKA], daughter of ---.  According to the Annales Polanorum, which state that "Peast genuit Semovith de domna Repeka", Repka was the wife of Piast[17].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Kosiskonis filius…Past" married "mulier quedam Repisa"[18].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum, on the other hand, suggests that she was Piast's mother, referring to "hospitii domestici Pazt filius Chostconis et uxor eius Repca"[19]

Piast & his wife had one child: 

1.         ZIEMOWIT (-[892]).  The Annales Polanorum state that "Peast genuit Semovith de domna Repeka"[20].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Symovith" as son of "Kosiskonis filius…Past" and his wife "mulier quedam Repisa"[21].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Semovith filius Pazt Chossistcomis"[22].  He overthrew the house of Popiel, previous rulers of Polania, and became ruler of the Polanian state whose borders he extended[23]m ---.  The name of Ziemowit's wife is not known.  Ziemowit & his wife had one child: 

a)         LESZEK (-[921]).  The Annales Polanorum state that "Semovith genuit Lisekonem"[24].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Lestik filius Semovith", specifying that he succeeded his father[25].  He succeeded his father in [892] as ruler of the Polanians, until 913[26]m ---.  The name of Leszek's wife is not known.  Leszek & his wife had one child:

i)          ZIEMOMYSŁ (-before 963).  The Annales Polanorum state that "Listko genuit Semomil", specifying in an earlier passage dated 915 that he ruled "in regnum Polonie" after Leszek[27].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Semimizl filius Lestik", specifying that he succeeded his father[28].  He succeeded his father in [921] as ruler of the Polanians[29].  Emperor Constantine recorded the existence in [950] of a "White Croat state under its own pagan prince who recognised the authority of Emperor Otto I"[30]m [firstly] GORKA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  [m secondly ---.  No direct evidence of this supposed second marriage has yet been found.  However, as noted below, if it is correct that Adelajda, wife of Geza Prince of Hungary, was the sister of Prince Mieszko, her estimated birth date range indicates the probability that she was born from a later marriage.]  Ziemomysl & his wife had three children:

(a)       MIESZKO ([920/30]-25 May 992).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Meschonem" as son of "Semimizl", specifying that he was first called by another name (not specified) and was blind for seven years from birth[31].  He is cited in 963 as MIESZKO I Prince of Poland

-         see below

(b)       son (-killed in battle 963).   Widukind of Corvey records that "Misacam regem…fratrem" was killed in the battles against "the Slavs" led by Wichmann in 963[32]

(c)       CZCIBOR [Cidibur] (-after 24 Jun 972).  Thietmar names "Mieszko's brother Cidibur" when recording that he fought Hodo Markgraf der Ostmark at the battle of Zehden[33], dated to 24 Jun 972. 

(d)       [ADELAJDA [Adleta] ([950/60]-after 997).  The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[34].  The Breve chronicon Silesiĉ names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie" born in 975[35].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity[36].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.   According to Europäische Stammtafeln[37], Adelajda was the daughter not sister of Mieszko I Prince of Poland, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  If this is correct, she was an otherwise unrecorded daughter by his first wife (name not known), assuming that Prince Mieszko's marriage to Dobroslawa of Bohemia is correctly dated to 965.  Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband (before his death in [976/78]) and of her three known daughters by her second marriage after [985].  The date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted above.  If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate.  It is probable that her second marriage was arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative (originally polygamously) and take care of his children.  m firstly ([970/75]) MIHÁLY Prince of Hungary Duke between March and Gran, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman Princess] (-[976/78]).  m secondly ([985]) as his second wife, GEZA Prince of Hungary, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman Princess] ([940/45]-1 Feb 997).]  

 

 

MIESZKO of Poland, son of ZIEMOMYSŁ of Poland & his wife Gorka --- ([920/30]-25 May 992[38]).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Meschonem" as son of "Semimizl", specifying that he was first called by another name (not specified) and was blind for seven years from birth[39].  The Annales Polanorum state that "Semomislaus genuit Miscko cecum" in 920, and in 931 state that "Mesko dux mirabiliter illuminator"[40].  Dzieciol says that the traditional view of Polish historians is that Mieszko was aged about 70 when he died[41].  However, this appears old in light of the dates of his two known marriages and the dates of birth of his known children.  He is cited in 963 as MIESZKO I Prince of Poland by the chronicler Widukind of Corvey who records his defeat in two battles by "the Slavs" led by Wichman[42].  In 965, Prince Mieszko formed an alliance with Boleslav I Duke of Bohemia, confirmed by his marriage to the latter's daughter, the new queen influencing her husband's baptism at Easter 966 and being instrumental in the start of Poland's conversion to Christianity[43].  In 967, Pope John XIII established a missionary bishopric at Poznan under Bishop Jordan[44].  According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Gero Markgraf von Ostmark obliged Prince Mieszko to pay tribute to Emperor Otto I "der Große"[45].  While it is unclear whether any relationship of vassalage to the empire resulted, after his conversion Mieszko was referred to as "amicum imperatoris"[46].  Widukind records that "Misacam" and his Bohemian allies defeated the western Pomeranians in 967 and killed their leader Wichman[47].  Thietmar records that Prince Mieszko was attacked by Hodo Markgraf der Ostmark but defeated him at Zehden [Cydyna] 24 Jun 972[48].  The dispute was mediated in Quedlinburg in 973 by Emperor Otto.  Prince Mieszko left his son Bolesław at the German court as a hostage, but placed him under the protection of the Holy See by sending a lock of his son's hair to the Pope[49].  Better relations with Germany appear to have been restored by Prince Mieszko's third marriage[50].  This probably gave the necessary diplomatic backing to Mieszko's conquest of Krakow and Silesia from the Bohemians towards the end of his reign[51].  In 981, Vladimir Grand Prince of Kiev invaded Polish territory and conquered Czerwień, "Peremyshl" and other cities[52].  In [990], Prince Mieszko donated his whole country to the papacy, signalling an assertion of his autonomy from the empire (at that time still controlled by the regent Empress Theophano) while at the same time affirming papal pre-eminence[53].  "Dagome iudex et Ote senatrix et filii eorum Misica et Lambertus" donated "civitatem…Schinesghe" to the papacy by charter dated to [Aug 995/25 May 992][54].  Thietmar describes Mieszko as "senex" at his death[55]

[m firstly ---.  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Mesico" had seven wives whom he repudiated before marrying "christianisimam mulierem de Bohemia, Dubraucam" in 966[56], which suggests that they were polygamous marriages.  While this is probably an exaggeration to contrast his previous pagan ways with his post-baptismal way of life, it does seem probable that Mieszko married earlier than 965 especially if he was born in the earlier part of the estimated birth date range shown above.  There is, however, no evidence of any children born from an earlier marriage[57], unless one of them was Adelajda who is recorded elsewhere as Mieszko's sister (as discussed above).] 

m [secondly] ([965/66]) DOBRAVA [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia, daughter of BOLESLAV I "der Grausame" Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Biagota --- ([940/45]-977).  The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum" married "Danbrovcam filiam ducis Boemie" in 965[58].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Mesico" married "christianisimam mulierem de Bohemia, Dubraucam" in 966 and converted to Christianity[59].  Thietmar names "the sister of Boleslav the Elder…Dobrawa" as the wife of Mieszko of Poland[60].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "unam christianissimam de Bohemia Dubrovcam nomine" as wife of "Meschonem"[61].  Bearing in mind that Dobrawa gave birth to [four] children, it is unlikely that she was born much earlier than [940/45].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the alliance between her father and her prospective husband.  After her arrival in Poland, she converted Prince Mieszko to Christianity and was instrumental in the conversion of the whole country in 966[62].  The Chronica Boemorum records the death in 977 of "Dubrauca" wife of "Poloniensi duci"[63]

m [thirdly] ([978/79]) ODA [von Haldensleben], daughter of DIETRICH Markgraf über den Gau der Heveller [Nordmark] & his wife --- (-1023).  Thietmar records Mieszko's marriage to "Markgraf Dietrich's daughter…Oda", specifying that she was a nun at the convent of Calbe and married "without the approval of the church"[64].  Thietmar records that, after her husband's death, her stepson expelled her and her children from Poland[65]

Prince Mieszko & his [second] wife had [four] children: 

1.         BOLESŁAW ([967]-17 Jun 1025).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Boleslavum" as son of "Meschonem [et] Dubrovcam"[66].  He succeeded his father in 992 as BOLESŁAW I "Chrobry/the Brave" Prince of Poland

-        see below

2.         [TOVE (-[990]).  Her marriage and parentage are confirmed by a Runic stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark which records that "Tufa let gera [make] kuml [monument], Mistiuis do´tter,ept [daughter] Mo´thur [mother] sina.Kona [queen] Haralds hins Goda,Gorms sonar"[67]Europäische Stammtafeln identifies her as Tove, daughter of Mstivoj the Wendish prince[68].  The name of Tove´s father, "Mistiuis", on the Runic stone bears some similarity to Mstivoj.  However, one difficulty is the apparent chronological discrepancy.  The only other reference to Mstivoj is dated to 1000 and gives no idea about his age at the time.  Nor is there any indication of the date of Tove´s marriage, although it appears unlikely that she married much later than 980 considering the date her husband died.  This would place her birth in [960] which, in turn, would mean that Mstivoj would have been over 60 years old when he is mentioned in 1000.  This is not impossible, but it seems a little surprising.  Another possibility is that she was the daughter of Mieszko I Prince of Poland.  The name "Mieszko" is just as similar to "Mistiuis" as "Mstivoj".  This would place her birth after 966, later than suggested above, assuming that she was Mieszko´s daughter by his wife Dobrava of Bohemia.  If this hypothesis is correct, Tove could have been the sister of the first wife of King Harald´s son, King Svend, implying a father/son double marriage with two sisters.  This would place King Svend´s marriage rather earlier than the date suggested below, but the idea is not impossible.  m as his second wife, HARALD I "Blċtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark, son of GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark & his wife Tyre "Danebod" (before 935-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral).] 

3.         [--- (soon after 967-).  This is one of the possibilities for the origin of the first wife of Svend I King of Denmark, based solely on Thietmar who refers to the mother of "filiis Suenni" as "Miseconis filia ducis, soror Bolizlavi successori eius"[69]Europäische Stammtafeln names her "Šwiętosława [Gunhild] of Poland", although there is no indication of the basis for this suggested Polish name, and states that she married firstly Erik "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, as his second wife[70].  This latter suggestion is implausible as it would mean that both of King Erik's wives were in turn married to Svend King of Denmark, numerous primary sources attesting that the latter's second wife Sigrid "Storrċda/the Haughty" was the widow of King Erik[71]m ([988/90]) as his first wife, SVEND I "Tveskĉg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark, son of HARALD I "Blċtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his first wife Gunhild ([960]-Gainsborough 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde).] 

4.         WLADIWOY (-[Jan/Mar] 1003).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Thietmar records that the Bohemians "secretly called Wlodowej from Poland" after Duke Boleslav was deposed and that he "was unanimously elected in his place because of his consanguinity"[72].  He succeeded in 1002 as VLADIVOY Duke of the Bohemians

Prince Mieszko & his [third] wife had three children:

5.         MIESZKO (after 979-).  Thietmar names (in order) "Miesco, Swentepulk & ---" as the sons of Prince Mieszko and his wife Oda, recording that the brothers were expelled from Poland with their mother after their father's death by their half-brother Prince Bolesław[73].  "Dagome iudex et Ote senatrix et filii eorum Misica et Lambertus" donated "civitatem…Schinesghe" to the papacy by charter dated to [Aug 995/25 May 992][74]m (after 25 May 992) ---.  The name of Mieszko's wife is not known.  Mieszko & his wife had one child: 

a)         DYTRYK (-after 7 Jul 1032).  He is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[75] as the son of Mieszko but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. 

6.         ŠWIĘTOPOŁK (after 980-after 25 May 992 Thietmar names (in order) "Miesco, Swentepulk & ---" as the sons of Prince Mieszko and his wife Oda, recording that the brothers were expelled from Poland with their mother after their father's death by their half-brother Prince Bolesław[76]

7.         LAMBERT (after 981-after 25 May 992).  Thietmar names (in order) "Miesco, Swentepulk & ---" as the sons of Prince Mieszko and his wife Oda, recording that the brothers were expelled from Poland with their mother after their father's death by their half-brother Prince Bolesław[77].  His name is confirmed by the charter dated to [Aug 995/25 May 992] under which "Dagome iudex et Ote senatrix et filii eorum Misica et Lambertus" donated "civitatem…Schinesghe" to the papacy[78]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS OF POLAND 1024-1370

 

 

BOLESŁAW of Poland, son of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his [second] wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia ([967]-17 Jun 1025).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Boleslavum" as son of "Meschonem [et] Dubrovcam"[79].  The Annales Kamenzenses name "Bolezlaum Magnum" as son of "Mesco…rex Polanorum" and his wife "Danbrovcam filiam ducis Boemie", born in 967[80].  The Annales Polanorum date the birth of "Boleslaus Chabri" in 967[81].  His father left him as a hostage at the German court after the Quedlinburg mediation of 973 following Prince Mieszko's defeat of Hodo Markgraf der Ostmark[82].  He succeeded his father in 992 as BOLESŁAW I "Chrobry/the Brave" Prince of Poland.  On his accession, he expelled his stepmother and half-brothers from Poland[83].  He offered safe passage through Poland for St Adalbert, expelled as Bishop of Prague, who entered Prussia to convert the pagans.  After Adalbert's martyrdom in Apr 997, Bolesław ransomed his body for its weight in gold and buried it in Gniezno cathedral[84].  In 1000, Emperor Otto III visited Gniezno, recognised Polish independence, and established the archbishopric of Gniezno as an independent church metropolis covering the whole of Poland, on the authority of a special bull issued by Pope Sylvester II[85].  After the election in 1002 of Heinrich II as King of Germany, a group of German nobles tried to assassinate Prince Bolesław[86], triggering the Polish-German war which lasted until 1016.  During the course of this, Bolesław occupied Meissen, was invited into Prague by the population, deposed Boleslav III Duke of Bohemia, and installed his brother as duke in his place.  After his brother died, Bolesław assumed the position of duke of Bohemia himself until 1004 when he was driven out of Bohemia by Heinrich II King of Germany[87].  He captured Lausitz in 1007, confirmed in peace meetings at Merseburg in 1013 and Bautzen in 1018[88].  After the Polish-Russian war of 1013, peace was confirmed by the marriage of Duke Bolesław's daughter to the Grand Prince of Kiev, and in [1017] Prince Bolesław asked for the hand in marriage of the daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir, wishing to strengthen the bond between Poland and Russia, but this was refused[89].  He helped restore his son-in-law in Kiev in Jul/Aug 1018, forcing the temporary retreat of Iaroslav Vladimirovich to Novgorod[90].  After the death in 1024 of Emperor Heinrich II, with whom Prince Bolesław had always had poor relations, Pope John XIX agreed to grant Bolesław a royal crown and he was crowned King of Poland in 1024.  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "17 Jun" of "Bolizlauus dux"[91].  The Breve chronicon Silesiĉ records the death in 1025 of "Bolezlaus magnus"[92]

m firstly ([984], divorced [985/86]) --- [von Meissen], daughter of RICDAG Markgraf [von Meissen] & his wife ---.  The Annales Kamenzenses record the marriage of "Bolezlaus Magnus" in 984, presumably referring to his first marriage, but do not name his wife[93].  Thietmar records that Boleslaw married "the daughter of Markgraf Rikdag but later sent her away"[94]

m secondly (end 985, divorced [986/87]) [--- of Hungary, daughter of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his first wife Sarolt of Transylvania].  Thietmar records that Boleslaw married "a Hungarian woman" after repudiating his first wife but "also sent her away"[95].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified, but it is chronologically plausible for her to have been the daughter of Prince Géza.  This marriage probably ended because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary[96]

[m thirdly ([987/92]) HODICA, daughter of BILLUG Prince of the Obotrites & his wife ---.  Helmold names "Hodicam" as the daughter of "regulus Obotritorum…Billug" and his wife, recording that her maternal uncle installed her as abbess of Mecklenburg[97].  Helmold records in a later passage that "Missizlaus, Obotritorum princeps…sororem suam…Hodicam" was removed from her monastery to marry Bolesław of Poland, while many other nuns were sent "in terram Wilzorum sive Ranorum" and the monastery dissolved[98].  This is the only source so far identified which refers to this marriage of Prince Bolesław.] 

m [thirdly/fourthly] (987) EMNILDA, daughter of DOBROMIR [ruler of Lausitz and the lands of the Milseni][99] (-1017).  Thietmar names "Emnilde a daughter of the venerable lord Dobromir" as third wife of Boleslaw[100].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Boleslaus" married "felix mulier et prudens" (unnamed), by whom he fathered "filium Meziconem secundum" in 990, in 984[101]

m [fourthly/fifthly] (Burg Cziczani 3 Feb 1018) ODA von Meissen, daughter of EKKEHARD I Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Schwanehild [Billung] (-1025).  Thietmar records the marriage of "Oda, Markgraf Ekkehard's daughter" and Boleslav in Zützen in 1018 "after septuagesima" (2 Feb)[102].  The chronicler adds the comment "until now she has lived outside the law of matrimony and thus in a manner worthy only of a marriage such as this one", which suggests a reputation for moral dissolution. 

Prince Bolesław & his first wife had one child:

1.         [daughter ([984/85]-).  She and her marriage are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[103] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  The prince of Pomerania in question has not been identified.  m ([996/97]) --- Prince of Pomerania, son of ---.] 

Prince Bolesław & his second wife had one child:

2.         BEZPRYM ([987/87]-killed 1032).  Thietmar names Bezprym as son of Boleslaw and his second wife[104].  He was passed over in the succession by his father, who named Bezprym's younger half-brother as his heir.  Bezprym claimed the succession in 1025 after his father died.  The Annales Hildesheimenses name "Bezbriemo" as "fratre Mysecho", when recording his attempt to usurp the throne and his death[105]

Prince Bolesław & his [third/fourth] wife had five children:

3.         daughter (988-).  Thietmar refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of Boleslaw and his wife Emnilde, specifying (in order) that "one was an abbess, the second married Count Hermann and the third the son of King Vladimir"[106].  Abbess.   

4.         REGELINDA (989-21 Mar after 1014).  Thietmar refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of Boleslaw & his wife Emnilde, specifying (in order) that "one was an abbess, the second married Count Hermann and the third the son of King Vladimir"[107].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m ([1002 after 30 Apr/1003]) HERMANN von Meissen, son of EKKEHARD I Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Schwanehild [Billung] (-1038).  Graf in Bautzen 1007.  He succeeded his uncle in 1009 as HERMANN Markgraf von Meissen

5.         MIESZKO LAMBERT (990-10 May 1034).  Thietmar refers to the two sons of Boleslaw as his wife Emnilde as "Miesco and another…named after his beloved lord [Otto]"[108].  He succeeded his father 1025 as MIESZKO II LAMBERT King of Poland

-        see below

6.         daughter ([991/1001]-after 14 Aug 1018).  Thietmar refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of Boleslaw & his wife Emnilde, specifying (in order) that "one was an abbess, the second married Count Hermann and the third the son of King Vladimir"[109].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the peace which followed the Polish-Russian war of 1013[110].  She was accompanied to Kiev by Bishop Reinbern, who was thrown into prison when her husband was overthrown[111]m (before 15 Jul 1015) SVIATOPOLK I "Okayanniy/the Damned" Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev, illegitimate son of VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress --- (980-on the way to Poland after the battle on Alta River 1019). 

7.         OTTO ([1000]-murdered 1033).  Thietmar refers to the two sons of Boleslaw and his wife Emnilde "Miesco and another…named after his beloved lord [Otto]"[112].  Wipo names "Misiconem et Ottonem" as sons of "Bolizlaus dux Bolanorum", specifying that Mieszko expelled Otto to Russia[113]

Prince Bolesław & his [fourth/fifth] wife had one child:

8.         MATYLDA (-[1036]).  Her betrothal contract was broken by the council of Tribur in 1036, presumably on the grounds of consanguinity[114].  The Annalista Saxo records the end of the betrothal with "Machtildem" but does not give her origin[115].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Betrothed (18 May 1035, contract broken) OTTO von Schweinfurt Graf an den unteren Naab, son of HEINRICH von Schweinfurt, Markgraf auf dem Nordgau & his wife Gerberga im Grabfeld [Konradiner] (-28 Sep 1057).  He succeeded in 1048 as OTTO Duke of Swabia

 

 

MIESZKO LAMBERT of Poland, son of BOŁESLAW I "Chrobry" Prince [King in 1025] of Poland & his [third/fourth] wife Emnilda --- (990-10 May 1034).  Thietmar refers to the two sons of Boleslaw as his wife Emnilde as "Miesco and another…named after his beloved lord [Otto]"[116].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "secundus Mescho" as son of "magnus Bolezlavum"[117].  The Annales Kamenzenses record the birth in 990 of "Mesco filius Bolezlai"[118].  The Annales Silesiaci Compilati record the birth in 990 of "Boleslau filius Meczko"[119].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Boleslaus" had "filium Meziconem secundum" in 990[120].  He succeeded his father in 1025 as MIESZKO II King of Poland.  He launched raids on the territory of the Ostmark in 1030, devastating hundreds of villages[121].  A German-Russian coalition defeated King Mieszko in 1030, conquered territory, divided what remained of Poland between members of the Piast dynasty and forced the king to send his crown to Germany.  The country descended into civil war[122].  The Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the death in 1034 of "Mysko rex Poloniorum"[123].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "10 May" of "Lanpertus sive Misico dux poloniorum"[124]

m ([1013], [divorced]) RICHEZA, daughter of EZZO Pfalzgraf of Lotharingia & his wife Mathilde of Germany (-21 Mar 1063, bur Köln St Maria ad gradus).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the seven daughters (in order) "Richza, Adelheit, Ida, Mathild, Theophanu, Heylewig, Sophia" as children of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying in a later passage that "Richza" was divorced from her husband and was mother of "Gazimerum"[125].  The Annales Kamenzenses record the marriage in 1013 of "Mesco filius Bolezlai primi" and "sororem Ottonis tercii imperatoris"[126].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of Kloster Brauweiler by charter dated 18 Jul 1051 which names "Richeza regina quondam Poleniĉ…pro remedio anime sue fratrisque sui beate memorie Ottonis ducis aliorumque parentum suorum in monasterio Brunwilarensi sepultorum…per manum Heinrici palatini comitis filii patrui sui" and witnessed by "Heinricus comes palatinus, Sicco comes, Starchri comes…"[127].  She fled for shelter to a western monastery when Poland descended into civil war[128].  The Kalendarium of Köln Cathedral records the death “XII Kal Mai” of “Rigza regina soror Herimanni archiepiscopi”[129]

King Miesko II & his wife had four children: 

1.         KAZIMIERZ KAROL (25 Jul 1016-19 Mar 1058).  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth "1016 VIII Kal Aug" of "Kazimirus dux"[130].  The Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the birth in 1016 of "Kazimyr"[131].  The Annales Kamenzenses record the birth in 1015 of "Kasimir dux"[132].  He became a monk but was dispensed his monastic vows by the Pope in order to reconquer his country.  He obtained military support from Germany[133] and succeeded in 1039 as KAZIMIERZ I "Odnowiciel/the Renewer/the Restorer" Prince of Poland.  The Annalista Saxo records the return to Poland in 1039 of "Kazimer filius Miseconis ducis Polanorum", specifying that he married "regis Ruscie filiam" and naming their two sons[134].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death of "Kazimirus dux" in 1058[135].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "XIV Kal Apr" of "Gazmer dux"[136]m (1043) DOBRONEGA MARIA Vladimirovna of Kiev, illegitimate daughter of VLADIMIR I Sviatoslavich "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress --- (before 1012-1087).  The Annales Polanorum state that "Kazimirum duxit ex Russia Mariam" in 1025[137], although the date is clearly inaccurate.  The Chronicĉ Polanorum refers to the wife of King Kazimierz as "de Rusia nobilem"[138].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Kazimirus" married "Dobrognewam"[139].  The Primary Chronicle records the marriage of "Yaroslav's sister" to Kazimierz of Poland in 1043 but does not name her[140].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1087 of "Dobronega uxor Kazimir"[141].  Prince Kazimierz & his wife had five children: 

a)         BOLESŁAW ([1043]-1082).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names (in order) the four sons "Bolezlavus, Wladislaus, Mescho et Otto" of King Kazimierz, and an (unnamed) daughter who married "regi Bohemiĉ"[142].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that one source names "duos filios, Bolcelsum secundum et Wladislaum primum" as the children of "Kazimirus" and his wife "Dobrognewam", adding that another source names "quatuor…filios Boleslaum, Wladislaum, Meziconem et Ottonem unamque filiam" as his children by his unnamed wife "de Russia"[143].  "Vladizlaum et Bolizlaum" are named as sons of Kazimierz & his wife in the Annalista Saxo[144].  He succeeded in 1058 as BOLESŁAW II "Szczodry/the Liberal" Prince of PolandKing of Poland: the Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the coronation in 1077 of "Bolezlaus secundus"[145].  He murdered the Bishop of Krakow in 1079, was deposed and expelled from Poland[146].  The Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the death in 1082 of "Bolezlaus secundus"[147]m (before 1069) VIZESLAVA Sviatoslavna, daughter of SVIATOSLAV II Iaroslavich Prince of Chernigov, Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- von Dithmarschen.  Baumgarten names the wife of Bolesław II and gives her origin, citing primary sources in support[148].  King Bolesław II & his wife had one child: 

i)          MIESZKO (1069-1089).  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth of "Mesko…filius Bolezlai" in 1069[149].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Meschonem" as son of King Bolesław, specifying that his wife was "Ruthena puella"[150].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1089 of "Mesko regis Bolezlai filius"[151]m (1088) [EUDOXIA] Iziaslavna, daughter of IZIASLAV I Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Gertruda of Poland (-1089).  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that in 1088 "Mesko uxorem duxit" without naming his wife[152].  Baumgarten records the parentage of the wife of Mieszko and suggests that her name was EUDOXIA, citing primary sources in support[153]

b)         WŁADYSŁAW HERMAN ([1044]-4 Jun 1102).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names (in order) the four sons "Bolezlavus, Wladislaus, Mescho et Otto" of King Kazimierz, and an (unnamed) daughter who married "regi Bohemiĉ"[154].  "Vladizlaum et Bolizlaum" are named as sons of Kazimierz & his wife in the Annalista Saxo[155].  He succeeded in 1080 as WŁADYSŁAW I HERMAN Prince of Poland

-        see below

c)         MIESZKO (16 Apr 1045-28 Jan 1065).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names (in order) the four sons "Bolezlavus, Wladislaus, Mescho et Otto" of King Kazimierz, and an (unnamed) daughter who married "regi Bohemiĉ"[156].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth "1045 XVI Kal Mai" of "Mesko filius Kazimir"[157].  The Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the birth in 1045 of "Mysco"[158]

d)         OTTO ([1046/48]-1048).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names (in order) the four sons "Bolezlavus, Wladislaus, Mescho et Otto" of King Kazimierz, and an (unnamed) daughter who married "regi Bohemiĉ"[159].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death of "Otto dux" in 1048[160]

e)         SWIĘTOSŁAWA [Swatawa] ([1048]-1 Sep 1126).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names (in order) "Bolezlavus, Wladislaus, Mescho et Otto" sons of King Kazimierz, and an (unnamed) daughter who married "regi Bohemiĉ"[161].  The Annalista Saxo records the marriage of Duke Vratislav with "Zuatavam, Kazimer ducis Polanorum filiam", after the death of his Hungarian wife[162].  The Chronica Boemorum records the marriage of "Wratislaus dux" and "Zustavam, Kazimir Poloniorum ducis natam, Bloezlai vero et Uladizlai germanam" after the death of "ductrix Adleyth"[163].  The Monachi Sazavensis Continuatio Cosmĉ; records the death "Kal Sep 1126" of "Zvatava regina mater Sobezlai ducis"[164]m ([1062/63]) VRATISLAV II Duke of the Bohemians, son of BŘETISLAV Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Judith von Schweinfurt ([1032]-14 Jan 1092). 

2.         [daughter .  The Annales Sanctĉ Crucis Polonici record that "Stephanus rex…filium…Emrich" married "Meszkone rege Polonie…filiam"[165].  However, this report in the Annales may have been due to confusion with the marriage of another of King Miesko's daughters, reported in the Gesta Hungarorum as having married the future Béla I King of Hungary while he was in exile in Poland[166].  It does not appear likely that King István's political relations with Poland would have been sufficiently close for him to have arranged a Polish marriage for his heir.  The king's main political alliance was with Germany, whose relations with Poland were tense during the reigns of Emperor Heinrich II and Emperor Konrad II.  m IMRE of Hungary, son of ISTVÁN I King of Hungary & his wife Gisela of Bavaria ([1007]-killed Bihar 2 Nov 1031).] 

3.         [RYKSA] ([1018]-after 1059).  The Gesta Hungarorum records the marriage of Béla and "filia Miskĉ [Polonorum duce]" while he was in exile in Poland but does not name her[167].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska records that "Bela" married "rex Polonie filiam"[168].  Ryksa is shown as her possible name in Europäische Stammtafeln[169], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  m ([1039/42]) BÉLA of Hungary, son of VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary, Duke between March and Gran, & --- of the Bulgarians (1016-Kanisza creek Dec 1063, bur Szögszárd Abbey).  He succeeded in 1060 as BÉLA I King of Hungary.  

4.         GERTRUDA (-4 Jan 1108).  Baumgarten names the wife of Grand Prince Iziaslav and gives her origin, citing primary sources in support[170].  The Primary Chronicle records that "the Princess, Svyatopolk's mother" died 4 Jan 1107[171]m ([1043]) IZIASLAV Iaroslavich Prince of Turov, son of IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1024-killed in battle Nezhatinaia Niva 3 Oct 1078, bur Kiev).  He succeeded in 1054 as IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev

 

 

WŁADYSŁAW HERMAN of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ I KAROL "Odnowiciel/the Renewer" Prince of Poland & his wife Dobronega Maria Vladimirovna of Kiev ([1043]-4 Jun 1102).  The Chronica principum Polonie records that one source names "duos filios, Bolcelsum secundum et Wladislaum primum" as the children of "Kazimirus" and his wife "Dobrognewam", adding that another source names "quatuor…filios Boleslaum, Wladislaum, Meziconem et Ottonem unamque filiam" as his children by his unnamed wife "de Russia"[172].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names (in order) the four sons "Bolezlavus, Wladislaus, Mescho et Otto" of King Kazimierz, and an (unnamed) daughter who married "regi Bohemiĉ"[173].  "Vladizlaum et Bolizlaum" are named as sons of Kazimierz & his wife in the Annalista Saxo[174].  He succeeded in 1080 as WŁADYSŁAW I Prince of Poland.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1102 of "Hermannus dux Polonie cognominatus Vladislaus"[175]

m firstly ([1080]) JUDITH of Bohemia, daughter of VRATISLAV II Duke of the Bohemians & his second wife Adelaida of Hungary ([1056/58]-25 Dec 1086).  The Annalista Saxo names "Iudhitam et Ludmilam filias et Brazilaum iuniorem et Wratislaum" as children of Duke Vratislav and his Hungarian wife[176].  The Chronica Boemorum names (in order) "Iudithĉ et Ludmilĉ, similiter Bracislai iunioris et Wratislai, qui in primo flore iuventutis occidit XIII Kal Dec" as children of "ductrix Adleyth"[177].  In the same passage, the chronicler records that one of Duke Vratislav's daughters, unnamed and without specifying by which marriage, married "duci Polonico"[178].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum refers to the wife of King Władysław as "filiam Wratislavi Bohemici regis"[179].  The Chronica Boemorum records the death "1085 VIII Kal Ian" of "Iuditha coniux Wladizlai ducis Poloniorum, quĉ fuit filia Wratizlai ducis Boemorum"[180].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1086 of "Iudith mater sua [Bolezslaus tertius]"[181].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum records that she died from the effects of childbirth[182]

m secondly ([1089]) as her second husband, JUDITH [Maria/Sophia] of Germany, widow of SALOMON King of Hungary, daughter of Emperor HEINRICH III King of Germany & his second wife Agnès de Poitou ([1054]-14 Mar [1092/96], bur Admont Abbey).  The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of "Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum" as "regis Heinrici sororem"[183].  The Chronicĉ Polanorum records that King Władysław married "sororem imperatoris tertii Henrici, uxorem prius Salemonis Ungariĉ regis"[184].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name "Iudite"[185].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudita de Polonia soror Heinrici imperatoris IV"[186].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudita regina"[187].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudda regina imperatricis filia"[188]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Prince Władysław's mistress is not known. 

Prince Władysław & his first wife had one child:

1.         BOLESŁAW (20 Aug [1086]-28 Oct 1138).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Bolezlavum" as son of King Władysław and his wife "filiam Wratislavi Bohemici regis"[189].  He succeeded his father in 1102 as BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland.   

-        see below

Prince Władysław & his second wife had [four] children: 

2.         daughter (after 1088-before 12 Oct 1112).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum refers to (but does not name) the three daughters of King Władysław and his second wife, specifying that one of them "in Rusia viro nupsit"[190].  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the second wife of Prince Iaroslav but cites only one secondary source in support[191]m (before 1108) as his second wife, IAROSLAV I Sviatopolkovich Prince of Vladimir in Volynia, son of SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- (-killed in battle May 1123).  

3.         AGNES ([1090]-[1126/27]).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum refers to (but does not name) the three daughters of King Władysław and his second wife, specifying that one of them "sacro velamine caput texit"[192].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Gandersheim 1111/12, then Abbess of Quedlinburg.  

4.         [ADELAJDA ([1090/91]-25/26 Mar 1127).  The Notĉ Genealogicĉ Bavaricĉ refers to the first wife of "Marchio Dietpoldus" as "de Polonia"[193].  The primary source which confirms her parentage more specifically has not yet been identified.  She is not one of Władysław's daughters referred to in the Chronicĉ Polanorum[194].  The Fundatio Monasterii Richenbacensis names "Adelheidis" as wife of "marchio Dietpaldus" in connection with the foundation of Reichenbach[195].  The necrology of Admont records the death "VIII Kal Mar" of "Adelheit marchyonissa"[196]m (before 1118) as his first wife, DIETPOLD [III] Graf von Vohburg, Cham und Nabberg Markgraf der Nordgau, son of DIEPOLD [II] von Giengen Markgraf im Nordgau & his wife Liutgarde von Zähringen (-1146).] 

5.         daughter (1090-).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum refers to (but does not name) the three daughters of King Władysław and his second wife, specifying that one of them "suĉ gentis quidam sibi coniuvit"[197]m (1111) ---, a Polish lord. 

Prince Władysław had one Illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

6.          ZBIGNIEW (-1112 or after).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Zbignevus a Wladislavo duce de concubina progenitus", specifying that he was brought up in Cracow but fled to Bohemia where he plotted a rebellion against his half-brother[198].  The Chronica Boemorum names two sons of "Wladislaus dux Poloniĉ, unum de concubina progenitum nominee Sbignev, alterum ex Iuditha Wratizlai regis filia editum, nomine Bolezlaum", recording that their father divided the kingdom between them in 1102 but that Zbigniew rebelled against his half-brother in 1103 and requested support from Borivoy Duke of Bohemia[199].  Prince of Poland 1086-1112. 

 

 

BOLESŁAW of Poland, son of WŁADYSŁAW I HERMAN Prince of Poland & his second wife Judith of Bohemia (20 Aug [1086]-28 Oct 1138).  The Chronicĉ Polanorum names "Bolezlavum" as son of King Władysław and his wife "filiam Wratislavi Bohemici regis"[200].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth in 1086 of "Bolezlaus tertius" followed immediately by the death of "Iudith mater sua"[201].  He succeeded his father in 1102 as BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland.  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record that "Boleslaus duos Pomeranos duces devicit aput Nakel.  Iste tercius Boleslaus terras obtinuit"[202].  Duke of Pomerania 1122-1138.  Before his death Bolesław III arranged a division of his lands among his sons.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death "1138 V Kal Nov" of "dux Bolezlaus tercius"[203]

m firstly ([16 Nov 1102/1103]) ZBISLAVA Sviatopolkovna, daughter of SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- (-[1109/12]).  The Primary Chronicle names Sbyslava daughter of Svyatopolk when recording that she was taken to Poland 16 Nov 1102 to marry Boleslav[204].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that the mother of "Boleslaus suo primogenito Wladislao filio" was "ex  quadam Ruthena nobili"[205].  The Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the marriage in 1103 of "Bolezlaus tercius"[206].  The Annales Kamenzenses record the marriage in 1104 of "Bolezlaus tercius" and "uxorem Rutenam"[207]

m secondly ([Mar/Jul] 1115) SALOME von Berg, daughter of HEINRICH Graf von Berg & his wife Adelheid von Mochental (before 1101-27 Jul 1144).  The Chronica Boemorum names "Almuse" as wife of "dux Bolezlaus"[208].  Berthold's Chronicon of Zwiefalten names (in order) "Richinza ductrix Boemiĉ, Sophia ductrix Moraviĉ, Salome ductrix Poloniĉ" as sisters of "Heinricus comes [et] Rapot", specifying that Salome was "uxor Bolezlaus dux Boloniĉ"[209].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that the second wife of "Boleslaus" was "ex Theutunica"[210].  The necrology of Zwiefalten records the death "VI Kal 1144" of "Salome ducisse Bolonie"[211]

Prince Bolesław & his first wife had two children:

1.         WŁADYSŁAW (1105-30 May 1159).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Władysław succeeded in Silesia[212].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth in 1105 of "Vladizlaus secundus"[213].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that the mother of "Boleslaus suo primogenito Wladislao filio" was "ex  quadam Ruthena nobili"[214].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Vergescelaus…Mesico et Casemarus" as three brothers "in Polonia"[215].  He succeeded in 1138 as WŁADYSŁAW II "Wygnaniec/the Exile" Prince of Krakow and Silesia

-        DUKES of SILESIA

2.         daughter (before 1111-).  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the wife of Prince Vsevolod, but cites only one secondary source in support[216].  It is assumed from her marriage date that she must have been born from her father's first marriage.  m (1124) VSEVOLOD Davidovich Prince of Murom, son of DAVID Sviatoslavich Prince of Chernigov & his wife Feodosia --- . 

Prince Bolesław & his second wife had twelve children:

3.         LESZEK (1115-26 Aug before 1138).  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth in 1115 of "Lzstek filius Bolezlai"[217]

4.         RYKSA [Swantosława] ([1116/17]-after 25 Dec 1155).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rikissam" as the only daughter of "dux Vergescelaus de Polonia" and his wife Agnes, specifying that "primo fuit regina Suecie", that by her second husband "regi Russie nomine Musuch" she was mother of "Sophiam reginam Dacie et Rikissam", the latter marrying "imperatoris Castelle Alfunso"[218].  This appears to be a confused account which contradicts other sources in many aspects.  Baumgarten names Ryksa and records her parentage and three marriages, but only cites secondary sources in support[219].  The date of her first marriage suggests that she was one of Bolesław's older children by his second marriage.  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which records that “filia…Ducis Poloniĉ…Bolezlavi” was mother of “Sophia cuius pater fuit Waldemar…Ruthenorum Rex”[220]m firstly ([1129/30]) MAGNUS Nielsen King of Västergötland, son of NIELS King of Denmark & his first wife Margrete of Sweden (1106-killed in battle near Fotevik 4 Jun 1134, bur Vreta Abbey).  He succeeded his father in 1134 as MAGNUS I "den Stĉrke/the Strong" King of Denmarkm secondly (before 18 May 1136) VLADIMIR [Vsevolodich Prince of Novgorod], son of [VSEVOLOD Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod & his wife --- Sviatoslavna of Chernigov] (-after 1139).  m thirdly (after 1143) as his second wife, SVERKER I King of Sweden, son of KOL [Carl] King in Östergötland & his wife --- (-murdered 24/25 Dec 1156). 

5.         daughter (before 1119-).  The Annalista Saxo mentions "filia ducis Polanorum" as wife of "Conradus de Ploceke"[221].  It is assumed from her marriage date that she must have been born from her father's second marriage.  m (1131) KONRAD Graf von Plötzkau Markgraf der Nordmark, son of HILPERICH Graf von Plötzkau Markgraf der Nordmark & his wife Adela von Beichlingen [Northeim] (-killed in battle in Italy [10] Jan 1133, bur Kakelingen). 

6.         KAZIMIERZ (9 Aug 1122-19 Oct 1131).  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1131 of "Kazimirus secundus filius Bolezlai tertius"[222].  The necrology of Zwiefalten records the death "XIV Kal Nov" of "Kazimir Bolonie filius ducis"[223]

7.         GERTRUDA ([1123/24]-7 May 1160).  Ortlieb's Chronicon of Zwiefalten names "Gerdrut Boleslai ducis Boloniorum et Salomee filia" in a list of those who became nuns at Zwiefalten[224].  The date is indicated by the Translatio Manus sancti Stephani which records that "unam de filiabus [Salome uxor [Bolezlai Bolionorum ducis] Gerdrudam" became a nun at Zwiefalten after the death of her father[225].  Nun at Zwiefalten 1139.  The necrology of Zwiefalten records the death "Non May" of "Gerdrut m n c filia Salome ducisse"[226]

8.         BOLESŁAW ([1122]-5 Jan 1173).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Bolesław succeeded in Kujavia and Mazovia[227].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Boleslaum quartum, Mesiconem tercium, Henricum primum, et Kazimirum secundum, necnon Judittam" as the children of "Boleslaus" and his second wife "ex Theutunica", adding that his father granted "Coyaviam et Mazoviam" to Bolesław[228].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth in 1127 of "Bolezlaus quartus"[229], although it appears from the order of children named, and their estimated birth dates as shown here, that Bolesław must have been born earlier than 1127.  He succeeded in 1138 as BOLESŁAW IV "Kedzierwy/der Krause" Prince of Mazovia and Kujavia.  He expelled his half-brother, Władysław II, from Poland.  In 1146, Konrad III King of Germany (whose half-sister was Władysław's wife) unsuccessfully tried to reinstate him[230].  Prince of Krakow 1146.  He left Germany in May 1147 with Konrad III King of Germany on the Second Crusade[231].  The dating clause of a charter dated 1153 names "Bolezlao, Mesikone, Henrico, fratribus germanis in Polonia principantibus"[232].  After Bolesław IV refused tribute to Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany, the latter invaded Poland in Aug 1157, forced Bolesław and his other brothers to submit, and compelled them to accept arbitration with their brother Władysław[233].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1173 of "Bolezlaus Crispus dux Cracoviensis"[234]m firstly (1137) VIACHESLAVA Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod & his wife --- Sviatoslavna of Chernigov (-15 Mar after 1148).  Baumgarten names and records the parentage of the first wife of Bolesław IV, citing sources in support[235]m secondly MARIA, daughter of --- (-after 1167).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Prince Bolesław & his first wife had two children:

a)         BOLESŁAW ([1156]-1172).  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "filio suo iuniori Lestikoni" succeeded his father in "Mazovie necnon Coyavie" because "Boleslao primogenitor suo iam mortuo"[236].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1172 of "Boleslaus dux"[237]

b)         daughter.  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the wife of Vasilko, but cites only secondary sources in support[238]m VASILKO Iaropolkovich Prince of Druck, son of IAROPOLK Iziaslavich of Kiev & his first wife --- (before 1151-after 1178). 

Prince Bolesław & his second wife had one child:

c)         LESZEK ([1160/65]-1186).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "filio suo [=Boleslai] iuniori Listaconi", specifying that he inherited Mazovia and Kujavia from his father as his older brother had predeceased him[239].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "filio suo iuniori Lestikoni" succeeded his father in "Mazovie necnon Coyavie" because "Boleslao primogenitor suo iam mortuo"[240].  He succeeded his father in 1173 as LESZEK Prince of Mazovia and Kujavia.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1186 of "dux Lezstko", specifying that "Kazimirus optinet ducatum"[241]

9.         MIESZKO ([1126/27]-13 Mar 1202).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Mieszko succeeded in "Gneznam et Pomeraniam"[242].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Vergescelaus…Mesico et Casemarus" as three brothers "in Polonia"[243].  He succeeded in 1138 as MIESZKO III "Stary/the Old" Prince of Greater Poland

-        see below, Part C.   

10.      HENDRYK ([1127/31]-18 Oct 1166).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Hendryk succeeded in "Sudomiriam"[244].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Boleslaum quartum, Mesiconem tercium, Henricum primum, et Kazimirum secundum, necnon Judittam" as the children of "Boleslaus" and his second wife "ex Theutunica", adding that their father granted "Sandomiriam" to Hendryk[245].  He succeeded in 1138 as HENDRYK Prince of Sandomir.  The dating clause of a charter dated 1153 names "Bolezlao, Mesikone, Henrico, fratribus germanis in Polonia principantibus"[246].  The Annales Lubinenses record that "Henricus dux de Sandomir" went to Jerusalem in 1154[247]

11.      DOBRONEGA LUDGARDA (before 1129-after 26 Oct 1147).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "sororem Meseconis ducis Polonie, Dobernegam…que etiam Lukardis dicta est" as wife of "Tidericus Orientalis marchio"[248].  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "soror…Mesoconis ducis Polonie Dobergana que et Lucardis vocabatur" as the wife of "Tidericus Orientalis marchio, filius Conradi marchione defuncti"[249]m ([1142]) as his first wife, DIETRICH Markgraf von Niederlausitz, son of KONRAD I "der Grosse" Graf von Wettin, Brehna, Camburg und Eilenburg, Markgraf der Ober- und Niederlausitz & his wife Luitgard von Elchingen (-Petersberg 9 Feb 1185, bur Petersberg). 

12.      JUDYTA ([1133]-8 Jul [1171/75], bur Brandenburg Cathedral).  The Annales Polanorum name "[filiam] Iuditham" in addition to naming the six sons of Prince Bolesław[250].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Boleslaum quartum, Mesiconem tercium, Henricum primum, et Kazimirum secundum, necnon Judittam" as the children of "Boleslaus" and his second wife "ex Theutunica", adding that Judyta married "regi Ungarie"[251].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record that "Boleslaus dat filiam suam regi Ungarie" in 1136, but does not name her[252].  "Otto…Brandenburgensis marchio" donated churches "in villa Cechowe" to the bishop of Brandenburg by charter dated 28 Dec 1170, witnessed by "Juditha marchionissa, Otto et Heirnicus filii eius…"[253].  The Regesta Historia Brandenburgensis records the death "VIII Id Jul" of "Juditha marchionissa gemma Polonorum"[254].  An undated charter, dated to [1190], refers to rights previously granted by "marchio Otto Brand." for the soul of "uxoris sue Juditte marchionisse"[255]m firstly (1136, divorced before 1148) LÁSZLÓ of Hungary, son of BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary & his wife Jelena of Serbia ([1132]-14 Nov 1163).  He succeeded in 1162 as LÁSZLÓ II King of Hungarym secondly (6 Jan 1148) as his first wife, OTTO von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg ([1126/28]-7 Mar 1184, bur Kloster Lehnin).  He succeeded his father in 1170 as OTTO I Markgraf von Brandenburg

13.      AGNIESZKA ([1137/38]-after 1182).  The Translatio Manus sancti Stephani names "filiam suam [=Salome uxor [Bolezlai Bolionorum ducis] Agnetam"[256].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "primogenitum sororis sue [=Mieszko III] nomine Romanum patrem Danielis", but does not specify which sister was his mother, when recording Mieszko's military campaign to help restore Roman in Galicia[257].  Baumgarten names and records the parentage of the wife of Mstislav and cites sources in support[258]m ([1151/52]) MSTISLAV Iziaslavich Prince of Vladimir in Volynia, son of IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- of Lithuania (-13 Aug [1172]).  He succeeded in 1168 as MSTISLAV II "Chabry" Grand Prince of Kiev

14.      KAZIMIERZ (1138-5 May 1194).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Kazimierz had no inheritance[259].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the birth in 1138 of "Kazimirus filius Boleslay"[260].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Vergescelaus…Mesico et Casemarus" as three brothers "in Polonia"[261].  He succeeded in 1177 as KAZIMIERZ II "Sprawiedliwy/the Just" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow.  He succeeded his nephew Leszek in 1186 as Prince of Kujavia and Mazovia. 

-        see below, Part D

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of GREATER POLAND, POZNAŃ [POSEN] and KALICZ [KALISCH]

 

 

MIESZKO of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1126/27]-13 Mar 1202).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Mieszko succeeded in "Gneznam et Pomeraniam"[262].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Boleslaum quartum, Mesiconem tercium, Henricum primum, et Kazimirum secundum, necnon Judittam" as the children of "Boleslaus" and his second wife "ex Theutunica", adding that their father granted "Gnesnam et Pomeraniam" to Mieszko[263].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Vergescelaus…Mesico et Casemarus" as three brothers "in Polonia"[264].  He succeeded in 1138 as MIESZKO III "Stary/the Old" Prince of Greater Poland.  "Miecislaus Senex Dux Poloniĉ" donated property to Ladensi monastery by charter dated 1145[265].  The dating clause of a charter dated 1153 names "Bolezlao, Mesikone, Henrico, fratribus germanis in Polonia principantibus"[266].  Prince of Krakow 1173-1177, 1190, and 1198/99-1202.  Duke of Pomerania 1138-1202.  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record that "Mesko dux frater senior Kazimiri" demanded Krakow from the sons of Kazimierz, specifying that Leszek defeated Mieszko at Moscow, but that Mieszko obtained Krakow[267].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that Mieszko III Prince of Poland invaded Russia in support of "sororis sue primogeniti Romani, patris Danielis" who has been expelled by "fratres de Russia"[268].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1202 of "dux Mesko frater Kazimiri"[269]

m firstly ([1136/40]) ELISABETH of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary & his wife Jelena of Serbia ([1128]-before 1155).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the first wife of Mieszko III as "filia regis Ungarorum" but does not name her[270].  She is named Elisabeth in Europäische Stammtafeln[271], but the source on which this is based has not been identified. 

m secondly ([1151/54]) IEVDOKIA Iziaslavna, daughter of IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- of Lithuania.  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the second wife of Mieszko III as "filia regis Russie"[272].  Baumgarten names and records the parentage of the second wife of Mieszko III but cites only one secondary source in support[273]

Prince Mieszko & his first wife had five children:

1.         ODON ([1141/49]-20 Apr 1194).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the sons of Mieszko III as "Ottonem, Stephanum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem et Vladislaum", specifying that (the first) two were born from "filia regis Ungarorum"[274].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "duces Guenesie Odoiscius…Logeslaus" as sons of "Mesico"[275].  He succeeded in 1177 as ODON Prince of Posen and Kalischm (after 1184) VIACHESLAVA Iaroslavna, daughter of IAROSLAV Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" Prince of Galich & his first wife Olga Iurievna of Kiev (-after 1200).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to "dux Galatie" as the father-in-law of one of Mieszko's sons but does not specify which son (although he is named first in the list) or name the son's wife[276].  Baumgarten cites Polish sources which give her parentage[277].  Baumgarten cites another Polish source which names her and records that she survived her husband[278].  Prince Odon & his wife had three children: 

a)         WŁADYSŁAW ([1190]-5 Jun 1239).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "ducis Gneznensis Loczislai filii Odonis" when recording his daughter's marriage[279].  He succeeded in 1194 as Prince of Kalisch.  Prince of Poznan 1227.  Prince of Greater Poland 1229. 

-        see below.    

b)         ODON ([1191/92]-1225).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record in 1225 "Ordo de Kacich transfertur in Mogilan"[280].  Provost of Magdeburg. 

c)         RYKSA (-18 Nov after 1238).   Ryksa is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[281] as the daughter of Odon but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. 

2.         STEFAN .  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the sons of Mieszko III as "Ottonem, Stephanum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem et Vladislaum", specifying that (the first) two were born from "filia regis Ungarorum" and recording that the two whose fathers-in-laws are not referred to (by process of elimination Stefan and Mieszko) remained unmarried[282].  Stefan has not been found in other sources. 

3.         WIERCHOSŁAWA LUDMILLA (before 1153-in Poland before 1211).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to, but does not name, the daughters of Mieszko III, naming (third in the list) "dux Lothoringie Fredericus, nepos imperatoris" as his son-in-law[283].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Virgotslavia" as one of the sisters of "duces Guenesie Odoiscius…Logeslaus", specifying that she was mother of "ducis de Nanceio"[284].  This marriage was arranged by Ferry's maternal uncle Emperor Friedrich "Barbarossa" during his visit to Poland in 1167.  She returned to Poland after her husband died[285]m ([1167]) FERRY de Lorraine Sire de Bitsch, son of MATHIEU I Duke of Lorraine & his wife Berta [Judith] von Staufen (before 1152-7 Apr 1206).  He succeeded his brother in 1206 as FERRY I Duke of Lorraine

4.         ELŹBIETA ([1152]-2 Apr 1209, bur Kloster Dobrilugk)The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to, but does not name, the daughters of Mieszko III, naming (first in the list) "dux Boemorum Sobeslaus" as his son-in-law[286].  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Elizabeth filiam Meseconis ducis Polonie, viduam Zibizlai ducis Bohemie" as wife of "Conradus marchio filius Dedonis"[287].  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Elizabeth marchionissa…soror Wlodizlai ducis" as wife of "Conradi marchionis" when recording her death "1209 IV Non Apr" and her burial "Doberluge"[288].  The Genealogica Wettinensis records the death in 1209 of "Elizabeth marchionissa"[289]m firstly ([1173/77]) SOBĚSLAV II Duke of Bohemia, son of SOBĚSLAV I UDALRICH Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Adelaida of Hungary (1128-29 Jan 1180).  m secondly KONRAD II von Landsberg Markgraf der Niederlausitz, son of DEDO V "der Feiste" Markgraf der Niederlausitz, Graf von Eilenburg [Wettin] & his wife Mathilde von Heinsberg heiress of Sommerschenburg (-6 May 1210). 

5.         JUDYTA (before 1154-after 12 Dec 1201).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to, but does not name, the daughters of Mieszko III, naming (second in the list) "dux Saxonie" as his son-in-law[290].  A 13th century genealogy refers to the wife of "Berenhardum [filius Albertus de Hanhalde marchio]" as "ducis Polonie filiam"[291].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam filiam Mesechonis ducis Polonie" as wife of "Bernardus dux Saxonie"[292]m ([1173/77]) BERNHARD von Ballenstedt Graf von Aschersleben und Anhalt, son of ALBRECHT Markgraf von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg (1140-Bernburg 9 Feb 1212, bur Ballenstedt St Nikolai).  He was installed as BERNHARD Duke of Saxony in 1180. 

Prince Mieszko & his second wife had five children:

6.         BOLESŁAW (1159-13 Sep 1195).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the sons of Mieszko III as "Ottonem, Stephanum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem et Vladislaum", specifying that (the last) three were born from "filia regis Russie"[293].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the birth in 1159 of "Boleslaus filius Meskonis"[294].  He succeeded in 1194 as Prince of Kujavia.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that "Bolezlaus suus [=Mesko] filius" was killed in battle at Moscow in 1195 by Leszek son of Kazimierz[295]m ([1187/89]) --- von Pommern, daughter of BOGISLAW I Duke of Pomerania & his first wife Walburgis --- ([1162/72]-[1220/26] or after).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to "dux Pomeranie" as the father-in-law of one of Mieszko's sons but does not specify which son (although he is named second in the list) or name the son's wife[296].  The chronology suggests that she must have been born from her father´s first marriage.  Prince Bolesław & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         EUDOXIA [Audacia] ([1190/95]-1270)Europäische Stammtafeln[297] names Eudoxia, daughter of Bołeslaw, as the wife of Heinrich [I] Graf von Schwerin, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  Another table in the series names[298] "Margareta von Schlawe (als Witwe Audacia)", daughter of "Fürst Bogislaw" as the wife of Graf Heinrich.  m ([1208]) HEINRICH Graf von Schwerin, son of GÜNZEL [I] von Hagen Graf von Schwerin & his wife Margareta von Schlawe (-17 Feb 1228). 

b)         [daughter (before 1196-after 1249 or [1253])Europäische Stammtafeln[299] shows her as a possible daughter of Bołeslaw, and her marriage, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  m ([1210/15]) JAKSA [Jaczo] [I] Herr von Gützkow Vogt von Salzwedel (-1237).] 

c)         [WIERZCHOSŁAWA (-2 Jan ----).  Nun at Strelno in Kujavia.  Europäische Stammtafeln[300] shows her as a possible daughter of Bołeslaw, but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.] 

7.         MIESZKO ([1160/65]-2 Aug 1193).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the sons of Mieszko III as "Ottonem, Stephanum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem et Vladislaum", specifying that (the last) three were born from "filia regis Russie" and recording that the two whose fathers-in-laws are not referred to (by process of elimination Stefan and Mieszko) remained unmarried [301].  Prince of Kalisch.  

8.         WŁADYSŁAW ([1161/67]-3 Nov 1231).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the sons of Mieszko III as "Ottonem, Stephanum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem et Vladislaum", specifying that (the last) three were born from "filia regis Russie"[302].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "duces Guenesie Odoiscius…Logeslaus" as sons of "Mesico"[303].  "Wodislaus filius Mesticonis, Wartislaus Zlavinie" witnessed the charter dated to [1200] under which Bogislaw II Duke of Pomerania donated property to the abbot of Colbaz[304].  He succeeded his father in 1202 as WŁADYSŁAW III "Laskonogi/Thinboned" Prince of Greater Poland.  Prince of Poznan, Gnesen and Krakow.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that in 1229 "dux Wladizlaus filius Odonis captus est a sene Wladizlao in bello", and the death of "dux Wodizlaus" in 1231[305].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1235 of "Wladyslaus filius Meskonis"[306].  The Epytaphia ducum Slezie record the death "XV Kal Sep" of "Gneznensis et Poznaniensis Wlodislaus dux exul, filius Mesichonis monarchi Cracowie primogenitus, frater Odonis"[307]m (before 1195) [LUCIA] von Rügen, daughter of JAROMIR [I] [Fürst von Rügen] & his wife --- (-19 Feb after 1208).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to "dux Ruggie" as the father-in-law of one of his sons but does not specify which son (although he is named third in the list) or name the son's wife[308]

9.         SALOMEA (-11 May ----).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (before 1177) RATIBOR von Pommern, son of BOGISLAW I Duke of Pomerania & his first wife Walburgis --- ([1160]-14/15 Jan 1183, bur Stolp). 

10.      ANASTASIA (before 1164-after 31 May 1240).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to, but does not name, the daughters of Mieszko III, naming (fourth in the list) "dux Maritime Boguslaus" as his son-in-law[309].  "Anastasia…ducissa Pomeranorum" donated property to Kloster Belbog, with the consent of "dominarum relicte…filii mei Bugzlai et alterius filii Kazemari relicte" by charter dated 7 Jul 1224 witnessed by "…Barnota filius domini Jaromiri de Ruia…"[310]m (26 Apr 1177) as his second wife, BOGISLAW I Duke of Pomerania, son of WARTISLAW I Duke of Pomerania & his wife --- ([1130]-18 Mar 1187). 

 

 

WŁADYSŁAW of Poland, son of ODON Prince of Posen and Kalisch & his wife Viacheslava Iaroslavna of Galich ([1190]-5 Jun 1239).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "ducis Gneznensis Loczislai filii Odonis" when recording his daughter's marriage[311].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "segundi Logeslai" as son of "[dux] Guenesie Odoiscius"[312].  He succeeded in 1194 as Prince of Kalisch.  Prince of Poznan 1227.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "iuniore Logescelao, Odoysei filio" killed "cognate suo…dux Cracovie…Listet" in 1227, recording that he succeeded "patruum suum magnum Logescelaum" as "dux Guenessie"[313].  "Wladizlaus dux Polonie" adopted "Bolezlaum filium fratris mei ducis Lestconis" as his son and took guardianship over his lands by charter dated 23 Mar 1228[314].  Prince of Greater Poland 1229.  "Wlodislaus…Odonis filius…Dux Polonie" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 3 Jul 1232[315]

m ([1218/20]) HEDWIG, daughter of --- (-29 Dec 1249).  "Ludezlaus…dux Polonie" donated property "villam meam…Crozno" to the Templar Knights with the consent of "uxoris mee Hedewigis et filiorum meorum Primizlai et Bolezlai" by charter dated 1233[316].   

Prince Władysław & his wife had four children: 

1.         PRZEMYSŁ ([4 Jun/9 Aug] [1221]-4 Jun 1257).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Boleslaum ducem Kalisiensem et Primsil ducem Poznaniensem" as the two sons of "Wladislaus", son of "Odo el Otto Gneznensis et Poznaniensis dux"[317].  "Ludezlaus…dux Polonie" donated property "villam meam…Crozno" to the Templar Knights with the consent of "uxoris mee Hedewigis et filiorum meorum Primizlai et Bolezlai" by charter dated 1233[318].  "Premisl et Boleslaus…Duces Majoris Polonie" confirmed the rights of the monastery of Lubyn by charter dated 30 Apr 1242[319].  He succeeded in 1247 as PRZEMYSŁ I Prince of Poznan.  Prince of Kalisch 1249-1253.  Prince of Gnesen/Gniezien 1250.  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1258 of "dux Premisl Polonie maioris"[320]m (1244) ELISABETH von Schlesien, daughter of HEINRICH II Duke of Silesia, Krakow and Greater Poland [Piast] & his wife Anna of Bohemia ([1224/32]-16 Jan 1265).  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Elisabeth et Agnethem" as two daughters of "Henricus occisus a Thartharis" and his wife "domina Anna sorore regis Bohemie monoculi"[321].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies that one of the four daughters of Heinrich married "duci Gnesnensi Primisloni"[322].  The primary source which confirms that Elisabeth was the daughter who married Przemysł has not yet been identified.  Prince Przemysł & his wife had five children: 

a)         KONSTANCJA ([1245/46]-8 Oct 1281).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Constanciam filiam Primizlai ducis" as wife of "Conradum [filium Iohannis]", specifying that her dowry was "magna parte terre iuxta Wartam"[323]m (Papal dispensation 4o 19 Dec 1255, Zantoch 1260) KONRAD von Brandenburg, son of JOHANN I Markgraf von Brandenburg & his first wife Sophie of Denmark ([1236/45]-Schwedt [15 Mar/21 May] 1304, bur Kloster Chorin).  He succeeded his father in [1266/67] as KONRAD joint Markgraf von Brandenburg, jointly with his brothers. 

b)         EUFROZYNA ([1247/48]-17 Feb or 19 Feb [1278/98]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of St Clara at Trebnitz.  

c)         ANNA (1253-after 26 Jun 1295).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun at Owinsk before 1280, later Abbess. 

d)         EUFEMIA (1253-5 Sep 1298).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun of St Klara at Breslau. 

e)         PRZEMYSŁ (14 Oct 1257-murdered Rogoźno 8 Feb 1296, bur Posen Cathedral).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Primsil" as the son of "Primsil ducem Poznaniensem", adding that he was murdered by his nobles and died without heirs[324].  "Secundus Premizlo…dux Polonie" confirmed donations to the Knights Templars by "avus noster…Vlodislaus dux Polonie…consortis sue domine Hadwigis et filiorum suorum domini Premizlii patris nostri…necnon domini Bolezlay patrui nostri" by charter dated 12 Nov 1284[325].  He succeeded before 1277 as Prince of Poznan.  Prince of Greater Poland 1279.  Heinrich IV "Probus" Duke of Breslau, Prince of Krakow appointed Przemysł his successor in Little Poland in 1290[326].  He styled himself "Duke of Greater Poland and Krakow" 23 Sep 1290, briefly visited Krakow[327].  "Premizlius…Dux Polonie et Cracouie" donated property to the deacon of Krakow by charter dated 24 Aug 1290[328].  He succeeded as Duke of Pomorze [Pommerellen] after the death in 1294 of Mszczuj [Mestwin] II Duke of Pomorze[329].  He was crowned 26 Jun 1295 in Gniezno cathedral as PRZEMYSŁ II King of Poland, a move opposed by many in Poland but which was eventually ratified by the Papacy.  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1296 VI Id Feb" of "Premislius rex Polonie" killed in Rogoszno[330].  He was assassinated, apparently planned by the nobles of Greater Poland in league with the Markgraf of Brandenburg[331]m firstly (Stettin [1273]) LUITGARD von Mecklenburg, daughter of HEINRICH I Fürst von Mecklenburg & his wife Anastasia von Pommern ([1261]-murdered [Dec] 1283, bur Gnesen).  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1283 of "coniunx ducis Primislii maioris Polonie, filia Nicolay Kassubite, nomine Lucardis", specifying that she was buried at Gnezen[332]m secondly (1285) RIKISSA of Sweden, daughter of VALDEMAR King of Sweden & his first wife Sophie of Denmark (-[1 Sep 1288/19 Apr 1293]).  The Annales Polonorum record the marriage "1285 in octavis sancti Francisci" of "filiam regis Swecie nomine Rithcam" and "dux Primislius maioris Polonie"[333]m thirdly (before 19 Apr 1293) as her first husband, MARGARETA von Brandenburg, daughter of ALBRECHT III Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Mathilde of Denmark ([1273/81]-1 May 1315, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).  The Annales Lubicenses record that "Nicholaus dominus de Rostocke" broke his betrothal to "filia Alberti marchionis [Brandenburgensis]" before marrying "filiam Buxslai Slavonum principis", a later passage clarifying that she was "Margaretam relictam regis de Kalys" who later married "Albertus dux [Saxoniĉ]"[334].  She married secondly (24 Sep 1302) Albrecht III Herzog von Sachsen-Ratzeburg.  King Przemysł & his second wife had one child:

i)          RYKSA ELŹBIETA (1 Sep 1288-Hradec Kralove/Königgrätz 19 Oct 1335, bur Brno).  The Annales Polonorum record the birth "1288 in die sancti Egidii" of a daughter to "ducissa Polonie nomine Richca, uxor ducis Primislii secundi"[335].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Elizabet filia ducis Kalisiensis" as the second wife of "Wenczeslai regis Bohemie"[336].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the betrothal in 1300, and the marriage three years later, of King Wenzel and "Elizabeth filia Regis Poloniĉ", aged 13[337].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the marriage of "Albertus Rex Romanorum…Rudolphus filius suus" and "Elizabeth relictam Regis Wencezslai"[338].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the relationship in 1319 between "Henricus de Lipa" and "Dominam Elizabeth novercam…Reginĉ", adding that they caused much scandal[339]m firstly (26 May 1303) as his second wife, WENZEL II King of Bohemia, son of OTAKAR PŘEMYSL II King of Bohemia & his second wife Kunguta [Kunigunde] Rostislavna of Galich [Rurikid] (17 Sep 1271-21 Jun 1305, bur Prague Königsaal).  He succeeded in 1300 as WACLAW King of Polandm secondly (shortly after 8 Sep 1306, maybe 6 Oct 1306) as his second wife, RUDOLF III Duke of Austria, son of ALBRECHT I King of the Romans, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Austria & his wife Elisabeth Queen of Hungary and Bohemia ([1282]-Heerlager/Horazdiowitz/Horaždovice an der Otava/Mottawa 4 Jul 1307, bur Prague, St Veit’s Cathedral).  He succeeded in 1306 as RUDOLF King of Bohemia.  [m thirdly (1319) [as his second wife,] HEINRICH de Lipa .] 

2.         BOLESŁAW (after 1221-13 Apr 1279).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Boleslaum ducem Kalisiensem et Primsil ducem Poznaniensem" as the two sons of "Wladislaus", son of "Odo el Otto Gneznensis et Poznaniensis dux"[340].  "Ludezlaus…dux Polonie" donated property "villam meam…Crozno" to the Templar Knights with the consent of "uxoris mee Hedewigis et filiorum meorum Primizlai et Bolezlai" by charter dated 1233[341].  "Premisl et Boleslaus…Duces Majoris Polonie" confirmed the rights of the monastery of Lubyn by charter dated 30 Apr 1242[342].  He succeeded in 1247 as BOLESŁAW "Poboźny/the Pious" Prince of Kalisch, until 1249 and 1253.  Prince of Gnesen 1249/50 and Prince of Greater Poland 1257.  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[343].  The Annales Polonorum record the death "1279 VII Id Apr" of "Bolezlaus Polonie qui habebat uxorem Ioheleth, filiam Bele regis Ungarorum"[344].  Nun at St Clara, Gnesen.  m (1256) IOLANDA [Helena] of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & Maria Laskarina of Nikaia ([1238/44]-16/17 Jun after 1303).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the marriage in 1259 of "dux Boleslaus Polanorum" and "Iohelam filiam regis Hungarie"[345].  She was beatified 26 Sep 1827.  Prince Bolesław & his wife had three children: 

a)         ELŹBIETA (1263-28 Sep 1304).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the birth in 1263 of "Elizabet filia ducis Bolezlai ducis maioris Polonie"[346].  The Annales Wratislavienses record the death in 1304 of "Elizabeth ducissa Silesie, mater filiorum Henrici V"[347].  The Notĉ Sanctĉ Clarĉ records the death "1300 in festo sancti Ieronimi" of "Elizabeth consors ducis Henrici V"[348]m ([1273/79]) HEINRICH von Liegnitz, son of BOLESLAW II "Rogatka" Duke of Silesia, Liegnitz and Glogau & his first wife Hedwig von Anhalt ([1248]-22 Feb 1296).  He succeeded in 1278 as HEINRICH V "the Fat" Duke of Liegnitz

b)         JADWIGA ([1266]-10 Dec 1339).  The Annales Polonorum name "ducis Boleslai Kalisiensis filiam nomine Hedwigim" as wife of King W/ladysław[349].  Her marriage was arranged by her future husband to strengthen his relations with Przemysł II Prince of Greater Poland, who was her first cousin, in the face of the growing threat to Poland from Václav II [Wenzel] King of Bohemia[350]m ([Jan 1293]) WŁADISŁAW of Poland Prince of Kujavia, son of KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz [Piast] & his third wife Euphrosyne von Oppeln [Piast] ([3 Mar 1260/19 Jan 1261]-2 Mar 1333).  Prince of Krakow and Sandomir in 1305 and Prince of Greater Poland in 1314.  He was crowned in 1320 as WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/the Short" King of Poland

c)         ANNA (1278-).  The Annales Polonorum record the birth in 1276 of "Anna" daughter of "Ioheleth uxor Bolezlay[351].  Nun at St Clara, Gnesen. 

3.         SALOMEA (before 1236-[Apr 1267/1274]).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "sororem ducis Gnesnensis Primislonis…Salomeam" and her husband "Conradus"[352].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Conradus" married "sororem Prymslonis, ducis Gneznensis…Salomea"[353]m (1249) as his first wife, KONRAD I Herzog von Glogau, son of HEINRICH II Duke of Lower Silesia, Krakow and Greater Poland & his wife Anna of Bohemia ([1228/31]-[6 Aug 1273/1274]).  

4.         EUFEMIA (-15 Feb after 1281).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the wife of "Vlodeslaus duces Ratheborgenses" as "filia ducis Gneznensis Loczislai filii Odonis" without naming her[354].  The Epytaphia ducum Slezie adds that she was buried in Glogau "aput Predicatores"[355].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m (1251) WLADISLAW Duke of Oppeln, son of KASIMIR I Duke of Oppeln [Piast] & his wife Viola --- (-27 Aug or 13 Nov [1281/82]). 

 

 

 

D.      PRINCES of SANDOMIR and KRAKOW

 

 

KAZIMIERZ of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen (1138-5 May 1194).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names (in order) the five sons of Bolesław III "Vladislaum, Boleslaum, Mesiconem, Kazimirum, Henricum", specifying that Kazimierz had no inheritance[356].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the birth in 1138 of "Kazimirus filius Boleslay"[357].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Boleslaum quartum, Mesiconem tercium, Henricum primum, et Kazimirum secundum, necnon Judittam" as the children of "Boleslaus" and his second wife "ex Theutunica"[358].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Vergescelaus…Mesico et Casemarus" as three brothers "in Polonia"[359].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum records that Kazimierz succeeded his brother Hendryk in Sandomir[360].  "Casimirus Dux Poloniĉ" founded the monastery of Sulejów by charter dated 10 Aug 1176[361].  He succeeded in 1177 as KAZIMIERZ II "Sprawiedliwy/the Just" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1186 of "dux Lezstko", specifying that "Kazimirus optinet ducatum"[362].  He succeeded his nephew Leszek in 1186 as Prince of Kujavia and Mazovia.  Duke of Lesser Poland/Malopolska.  "Dux Polonie Kazimirus" donated property in "Chropensium provinciam" to the church of Krakow St Wacław by charter dated 12 Apr 1189, witnessed by "domine Helene eiusdem ducis uxore"[363].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1194 of "dux Kazimirus frater ducis Meskonis"[364].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1195 of "Kazimir pater Lestkonis et Conradi in Cracovia"[365]

m ([1163]) HELENA, daughter of --- ([1140/42]-[1202/06]).   "Dux Polonie Kazimirus" donated property in "Chropensium provinciam" to the church of Krakow St Wacław by charter dated 12 Apr 1189, witnessed by "domine Helene eiusdem ducis uxore"[366].  Baumgarten cites Polish chronicles which name her, from which her marriage can be dated, and which record that she died before [1206/07][367].  There is some contradiction about the identity of the wife of Kazimierz II.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[368], she was HELENA of Moravia, daughter of KONRAD Duke of Moravia [Přemyslid] & his wife Marija of Serbia, although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  According to Baumgarten, she was IELENA Rostislavna, daughter of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Prince of Smolensk, later Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife ---, citing in particular the Ipatiewskaia Chronicle which records that Mstislav was the first cousin of Prince Leszek "Bialy", the son of Helena[369]

Prince Kazimierz II & his wife had five children: 

1.         daughter (1164-1194).  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the wife of Vasilko, but cites only one secondary source in support[370].  Baumgarten records her death in 1194, citing a Russian source in support[371]m ([11 Oct/24 Dec] 1178) as his first wife, VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich of Kiev, son of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his --- wife --- (-[1214/15]).  He succeeded in 1204 as Prince of Chernigov, and in 1206 as VSEVOLOD "Chermnyi" Grand Prince of Kiev

2.         KAZIMIERZ (after 1164-1 Mar 1167).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1168 of "dux Kazimirus filius Kazimiri"[372]

3.         BOLESŁAW ([1168]-16 Apr 1182).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dux Boleslaus…Conradus dux Masovie et Koyavie nec non Lestiko vel Lesko dux Cracovie et Sandomirie, albus dictus" as the sons of "Kazimiro…filius Boleslai curvi", adding that Bolesław died without heirs[373].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1182 of "Bolezlaus filius Kazimiri"[374]

4.         LESZEK ([1186/87]-killed in battle 23 Nov 1227).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dux Boleslaus…Conradus dux Masovie et Koyavie nec non Lestiko vel Lesko dux Cracovie et Sandomirie, albus dictus" as the sons of "Kazimiro…filius Boleslai curvi", adding that Bolesław died without heirs[375].  In another passage, the Chronica principum Polonie name "Lestikonem…Kazimiri primogenitum"[376].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati name "Kazimir pater Lestkonis et Conradi"[377].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "duces Cracovie Listec et Conradus" as sons of "Casemiris"[378].  He succeeded in 1194 as LESZEK I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow, until 1198/99, again in 1201, and 1202-1227.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the battle "inter Mesconem et Lezstkonuem filium Kazimiri" at Moscow in 1195, specifying that Leszek defeated Meszko[379].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that "dux Lezstco filius Kazimiri" obtained Krakow in 1202 after the death of "dux Mesko frater Kazimiri"[380].  In 1205, he and his brother Konrad thwarted the invasion of Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich and Volynia whom they defeated and killed at Zawichost on the Vistula while he was marching towards Krakow, the victory being commemorated on an altar erected in Krakow cathedral[381].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that "Romanus princeps Ruthenorum" was killed in battle at Zavichost by "Lezstcone et Cunrado filiis Kazimiri"[382].  He played an active part in the subsequent dismemberment of Galich-Volynia, Hungary and Poland eventually agreeing the division of the territories between them under the treaty of Spisz in 1214, although Hungary expelled Prince Leszek from Peremyshl and Lyubachev in 1215/1216[383].  "Dominus Lestco dux Polonie" settled a property dispute involving the bishop of Krakow by charter dated 13 Jun 1224[384].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that "Lezstko dux Cracovie interfectus est in colloquio a filio Odonis sub fraude" in 1227[385].  The Annales Silesiaci Compilati record that he was killed "in Gusava a Pomerania"[386].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "in Polonia dux Cracovie…Listet" was killed in 1227 by "cognate suo…iuniore Logescelao, Odoysei filio", specifying that Leszek and his brother Konrad had previously defeated "rege Russie Romano"[387]m (1207) GREMISLAVA Ingvarovna, daughter of INGVAR Iaroslavich Prince of Luck and Dorogobuz Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-8 Nov 1258).  Baumgarten names her, and shows her parentage, citing numerous sources in support[388].  "Grimislava Cracovie Ductrix et Sandomirie" restored property to the bishop of Kujavia, in the presence of "Duce Conrado Masovie et Cuiavie cum Boleslao et Casimiro suis filiis", by charter dated 1228[389].  "Bolezlaus filius Lesconis…Dux Cracoviĉ et Sandomiriĉ" founded the monastery of Krzyzanowice, at the request of "matris nostrĉ Grzymislavĉ", for the souls of "patris nostri Lesconis et uxoris nostrĉ Gunebundis", by charter dated 28 Jun 1254[390].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", by charter dated 18 May 1255[391][392].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[393].  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1258 of "ducissa Grimislava Cracovie", specifying that she was buried "in Zawichost aput fratres Minores"[394].  Prince Leszek & his wife had three children: 

a)         SALOMEA ([1211/12]-10 Nov 1268).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Boleslaum, Cracovie et Sandomirie ducem et Salomeam sanctam reginam" as the children of "Lesko albus dictus"[395].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death "1269 IV Id Nov" of "Salomea regina relicta Colomanni regis Hungarorum, germana princeps Bolezlai ducis Cracovie et Sandomirie"[396].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati clarify that she was "Salomena regina Galicie" and "soror ordinis Minorem"[397].  She became a nun after the death of her husband.  "Bolezlaus…Dux Cracovie et Sudomirie" renewed the privileges of Busk monastery granted by "Principis domini Lestkonis quondam…Polonorum Ducis, patris nostri", at the request of "germane nostre…sororis Salomee, quondam Regine et consortis…Hungarorum Regis Colommani", by charter dated 1252[398].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", at the request of "germane nostre sororis…Salomee, quondam Galacie regine", by charter dated 18 May 1255[399]m (1214) KÁLMÁN of Hungary King of Galich, Duke of Croatia, son of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (1208-killed in battle Sajó River 11 Apr 1241). 

b)         HELENA (-1265).  Her origin is confirmed by the Russian source cited by Baumgarten which specifies that Prince Bolesław V was the maternal uncle of the children of Prince Vasilko[400].  Baumgarten records the death in 1265 of Helena, wife of Vasilko, citing a Russian source[401]m (1248) as his second wife, VASILKO Romanovich of Galicia Prince of Bielsk, Luck and Vladimir in Volynia, son of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Galich, Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- [of Byzantium] (1203-1269).  He succeeded his brother in 1260 as VASILKO King of Galich

c)         BOLESŁAW (21 Jun 1226-7 Dec 1279).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Boleslaum, Cracovie et Sandomirie ducem et Salomeam sanctam reginam" as the children of "Lesko albus dictus"[402].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the birth "1226 XI Kal Iul" of "Bolezlaus filius Lezstkonis"[403].  "Wladizlaus dux Polonie" adopted "Bolezlaum filium fratris mei ducis Lestconis" as his son and took guardianship over his lands by charter dated 23 Mar 1228[404].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis name "Boleslaus dux filius Lezstkonisi" when recording his fighting "1243 VIII Kal Iun" in Suzdal in support of "duce Cunrado suo patruo"[405].  He succeeded in 1243 as BOLESŁAW V "Wstydliwy/the Modest" Prince of Krakow and Sandomir.  "Bolezlaus filius Lestconis…Dux Cracovie et Sudomirie" donated property to Wachock monastery by charter dated 25 Jul 1249[406].  "Bolezlaus…Dux Cracovie et Sudomirie" renewed the privileges of Busk monastery granted by "Principis domini Lestkonis quondam…Polonorum Ducis, patris nostri", at the request of "germane nostre…sororis Salomee, quondam Regine et consortis…Hungarorum Regis Colommani", by charter dated 1252[407].  "Bolezlaus filius Lesconis…Dux Cracoviĉ et Sandomiriĉ" founded the monastery of Krzyzanowice, at the request of "matris nostrĉ Grzymislavĉ", for the souls of "patris nostri Lesconis et uxoris nostrĉ Gunebundis", by charter dated 28 Jun 1254[408].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", at the request of "germane nostre sororis…Salomee, quondam Galacie regine", by charter dated 18 May 1255[409].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[410]m (1239) KINGA [Kunigunde] of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & his wife Maria Laskarina of Nikaia (1224-Krakow 24 Jul 1292).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati records the birth in 1234 of "Kinga filia Bolezlay"[411], the Annales Polonorum clarifying that she was "Kinga fila regis Ungarie Bele et de matre Maria" born "in dominica quinquagesima"[412].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the marriage in 1239 of "Blezlaus filius Lezstkonis" and "filiam regis Hungarie"[413].  Her name is confirmed by the Annales Cracovienses Compilati which record that "dux Boleslaus accepit Kingam" in 1238[414].  "Bolezlaus filius Lesconis…Dux Cracoviĉ et Sandomiriĉ" founded the monastery of Krzyzanowice, at the request of "matris nostrĉ Grzymislavĉ", for the souls of "patris nostri Lesconis et uxoris nostrĉ Gunebundis", by charter dated 28 Jun 1254[415].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", by charter dated 18 May 1255[416].  She became a nun in 1270.  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1292 of "domina Kinga ducissa" at Krakow[417].  She was beatified 10 Jun 1690.   

5.         KONRAD ([1187/88]-31 Aug 1247).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dux Boleslaus…Conradus dux Masovie et Koyavie nec non Lestiko vel Lesko dux Cracovie et Sandomirie, albus dictus" as the sons of "Kazimiro…filius Boleslai curvi", adding that Bolesław died without heirs[418].  In another passage, the Chronica principum Polonie name "alter filius Kazimiri, Conradus", specifying that he inherited "Coyavia…et Mazovia"[419].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati name "Kazimir pater Lestkonis et Conradi"[420].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "duces Cracovie Listec et Conradus" as sons of "Casemiris"[421].  He succeeded in 1202 as KONRAD I Prince of Mazovia, Kujavia, Sieradz and Łęczyca.  In 1205, he and his brother Leszek thwarted the invasion of Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich and Volynia whom they defeated and killed Zawichost on the Vistula while he was marching towards Krakow[422].  "Conradus Dux Mazowie et Cuyawííe" donated property to the monastery of Czyrwen, in the presence of "uxore mea Shaphia et liberis meis Bolezlao et Semovitho", by charter dated 1221[423].  "C…Dux Mazovie et Quiavie" confirmed the privileges granted to the monastery of Czyrwen by "avus meus B. et Kasimarus pater meus", by charter dated 1222[424].  He took part in the unsuccessful crusade against the Prussians in 1222, and subsequently hired the Teutonic Order to defend his territories against incursions by the heathens[425].  This left him free to aggrandise his lands at the expense of the other Polish princes, including the conquest of Krakow in 1229, and eventually enabled the Order to acquire vast territories in the eastern Baltic.  "Grimislava Cracovie Ductrix et Sandomirie" restored property to the bishop of Kujavia, in the presence of "Duce Conrado Masovie et Cuiavie cum Boleslao et Casimiro suis filiis", by charter dated 1228[426].  "Conradus…Cracovie et Lancicie Dux…cum filiis nostris Bolezlao Mazovie, Kazimiro Cujavie Ducibus et Duce Semovitho" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 10 Nov 1241, which names "Dux Kazimirus pater noster"[427].  "Premisl et Boleslaus…Duces Majoris Polonie" confirmed the rights of the monastery of Suljovia by charter dated 23 Oct 1242[428].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1247 of "dux Conradus Mazoviensis"[429]m (1207) AGAFIA Sviatoslavna, daughter of SVIATOSLAV Igorievich Prince of Novgorod-Sieviersk & his wife [Iaroslava Riurikovna of Kiev] (-after 31 Aug 1247).  Baumgarten names her, and shows her parentage, citing Polish sources in support[430].  "Conradus Dux Mazowie et Cuyawííe" donated property to the monastery of Czyrwen, in the presence of "uxore mea Shaphia et liberis meis Bolezlao et Semovitho", by charter dated 1221[431].  Prince Konrad & his wife had eleven children: 

a)         PRZEMYSŁ (-killed in battle Scala 1228).  The Chronica principum Polonie record that "Prymsl…Conradi primogenitus" was killed in battle "in Scala, ante castrum quod dux…Heynricus construxerat"[432]

b)         BOLESŁAW (-1248 after 25 Feb).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Cazimirum, Boleslaum, Szemovitum" as the three sons of "Conradus"[433].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Boleslao et Casimiro" as sons of Konrad, specifying that they married two sisters descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia) and that Boleslaw's wife died without children[434].  "Conradus Dux Mazowie et Cuyawííe" donated property to the monastery of Czyrwen, in the presence of "uxore mea Shaphia et liberis meis Bolezlao et Semovitho", by charter dated 1221[435].  "Grimislava Cracovie Ductrix et Sandomirie" restored property to the bishop of Kujavia, in the presence of "Duce Conrado Masovie et Cuiavie cum Boleslao et Casimiro suis filiis", by charter dated 1228[436].  He succeeded 1230-1232 as BOLESŁAW I Prince of Sandomir, 1233-34 Prince of Sieradz, 1234 Prince of Mazovia.  "Bolezlaus Dux Zyrrazie" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 1233[437].  "Conradus…Cracovie et Lancicie Dux…cum filiis nostris Bolezlao Mazovie, Kazimiro Cujavie Ducibus et Duce Semovitho" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 10 Nov 1241, which names "Dux Kazimirus pater noster"[438].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1247 of "Bolezlaus filius Conradi"[439]m firstly ([1232]) GERTRUD von Schlesien, daughter of HEINRICH II Duke of Lower Silesia, Krakow and Lesser Poland & his wife Anna of Bohemia ([1218/20]-[23/30] Apr [1244/47]).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Boleslao et Casimiro" as sons of Konrad, specifying that they married two sisters descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia), a later passage clarifying that they were daughters of Heinrich[440].  The Chronica principum Polonie record that "Conradi filiis…Boleslao et Kazimiro" married "Heynricus…duas neptes" but that the former died childless[441].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m secondly ([1245/Jul 1247]) as her first husband, ANASTASIA Alexandrovna, daughter of ALEKSANDR Vsevolodovich Prince of Belck and Vladimir in Volynia & his wife --- Vladimirovna of Smolensk.  Baumgarten names her, shows her parentage, and both her marriages, citing Russian primary sources in support[442].  She married secondly (after 1248) Demetri, magnate in Hungary. 

c)         ZIEMOWIT (-1224).  "Conradus Dux Mazowie et Cuyawííe" donated property to the monastery of Czyrwen, in the presence of "uxore mea Shaphia et liberis meis Bolezlao et Semovitho", by charter dated 1221[443].  "Zemomislus…Dux Cuiavie" conferred privileges on three towns by charter dated 1223[444]

d)         KAZIMIERZ ([1211]-14 Nov 1267).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Cazimirum, Boleslaum, Szemovitum" as the three sons of "Conradus"[445].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Boleslao et Casimiro" as sons of Konrad, specifying that they married two sisters descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia)[446].  He succeeded in [1233] as KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, 1247-1260 Prince of Łęczyca and Sieradz. 

-        see below

e)         EUDOXIA (before 1222-after 1238).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m DIETRICH I Graf von Brehna, son of FRIEDRICH II Graf von Brehna und Wettin & his wife Judith von Ziegenhain (-[1266/11 Jul 1267]). 

f)          LUDMIŁA (before 1223-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Nun at Płock.  m (1238) TRAIDENIS [Troiden] Grand Duke of Lithuania, son of ŽIVINBUDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his wife --- (-[1282]). 

g)         SALOMEA (before 1224-after 30 Aug 1268).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun.  

h)         ZIEMOWIT ([1228]-23 Jun 1262).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Cazimirum, Boleslaum, Szemovitum" as the three sons of "Conradus"[447].  He succeeded 1248 as ZIEMOWIT I Prince of Mazovia.   

-        see below, Part C. PRINCES OF MAZOVIA 1248-1526

i)          ZIEMOMYSŁ (1225-[19 Jan/10 Jul] 1241).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

j)          JUDYTA ([1222/25]-[4 Dec 1257/65]).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the wife of "Mesico Crassus [dux] Ratheborgensis" as "filiam ducis Cuiavie et Mazovie Conradi", without naming her, and records her second marriage with "Heinricus tercius Wratislaviensis"[448].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Heinricus tercius" married "filia Conradi Coyaviensis ducis, relicta Mesiconis Rathiboriensis" who was the mother of his children[449].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m firstly ([1238/24 Sep 1239]) MIESZKO I Duke of Oppeln and Ratibor, son of KASIMIR Duke of Oppeln [Piast] & his wife Viola --- (-22 Oct 1246).  m secondly ([2/8] Feb 1252) HEINRICH III Duke of Breslau, son of HEINRICH II Duke of Lower Silesia, Krakow and Greater Poland [Piast] & his wife Anna of Bohemia ([1222/30]-3 Dec 1266). 

k)         MIESZKO Chošcisko (after 1229-1238).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

KAZIMIERZ of Poland, son of KONRAD I Prince of Mazovia & his wife Agafia Sviatoslavna of Novgorod-Sieviersk ([1211]-14 Nov 1267).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Cazimirum, Boleslaum, Szemovitum" as the three sons of "Conradus"[450].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Boleslao et Casimiro" as sons of Konrad, specifying that they married two sisters descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia)[451].  "Grimislava Cracovie Ductrix et Sandomirie" restored property to the bishop of Kujavia, in the presence of "Duce Conrado Masovie et Cuiavie cum Boleslao et Casimiro suis filiis", by charter dated 1228[452].  He succeeded in [1233] as KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, 1247-1260 Prince of Łęczyca and Sieradz.  "Conradus…Cracovie et Lancicie Dux…cum filiis nostris Bolezlao Mazovie, Kazimiro Cujavie Ducibus et Duce Semovitho" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 10 Nov 1241, which names "Dux Kazimirus pater noster"[453].  "Kazimirus…Dux Lancicie et Cujavie" granted rights to the monastery of Sulejovie, in the presence of "filio nostro Duce Semomislo", by charter dated 6 Feb 1261[454].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[455].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis name "dux Cunradus, Kazimirus filius eius" when recording their building a castle in Krakow with "Mesko dux de Opol"[456].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1268 of "dux Kazimirus"[457]

m firstly JADWIGA, daughter of --- (-8 Jan before 1235).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

m secondly (1239) KONSTANZE von Schlesien, daughter of HEINRICH II Duke of Lower Silesia, Krakow and Lesser Poland [Piast] & his wife Anna of Bohemia ([1221/27]-[1253/3 May 1257]).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Boleslao et Casimiro" as sons of Konrad, specifying that they married two sisters descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia), a later passage clarifying that they were daughters of Heinrich[458].  The Chronica principum Polonie record that "Conradi filiis…Boleslao et Kazimiro" married "Heynricus…duas neptes"[459].  "Casimirus…Dux Lanciciĉ et Cujaviĉ" donated property, the dowry of "Ducissĉ Constantiĉ uxoris nostrĉ et matris nobilium Ducum Lestkonis et Semomisli filiorum nostrorum", to Dobrovie church by charter dated 25 May 1252[460]

m thirdly (1257) as her first husband, EUPHROSYNE von Oppeln, daughter of KASIMIR Duke of Oppeln [Piast] & his wife Viola --- ([1228/30]-4 Nov 1292).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  She acted on behalf of her son Władysław "Lokietek" during his minority, for example in 1273 in a jurisdictional dispute with the Knights of the Teutonic Order[461].  She married secondly (1275, divorced before Aug 1288) as his second wife, Mestwin [Mszczuj] II Duke of Pomerelia [Pomorze]. 

Prince Kazimierz & his first wife had [one] child:

1.         [ADELAJDA (before 7 Apr 1249-8 Dec 1291).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun at Sandomir after 1278.] 

Prince Kazimierz & his second wife had two children:

2.         LESZEK ([1240/42]-30 Sep 1288).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Lestkonem et Semomislonem" as the two sons of "Casimiro" and his wife who was descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia)[462].  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Lestikonem dictum negrum, ducem Cracovie, Sandomirie et Coyavie" as the son of "Kazimirus…dux Coyaviensis", adding that he had no children[463].  "Casimirus…Dux Lanciciĉ et Cujaviĉ" donated property, the dowry of "Ducissĉ Constantiĉ uxoris nostrĉ et matris nobilium Ducum Lestkonis et Semomisli filiorum nostrorum", to Dobrovie church by charter dated 25 May 1252[464].  He succeeded his father in 1267 as LESZEK II "Czarny/the Black" Prince of Sieradz and Łęczyca, 1279/88 Prince of Krakow and Sandomir.  "Lestco…dux Cracouie, Sandomirie ac Syradie" donated property to the church of Krakow, for the soul of "nostre consortis et coniugis domine Griphine…Ducisse dictarum terrarum", by charter dated 30 Nov 1286[465].  The Annales Grissowienses record the death "1288 pridie Kal Oct" of "Lestico dux Cracovia"[466]m (1268) GRYFINA [Agrippina] Rostislavna, daughter of ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ex-Grand Prince of Kiev, ex-Prince of Galich, Ban of Mačva & his wife Anna of Hungary (after 1243-[26 May 1303/1309]).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the marriage of "Lestko" and "dominam Grifinam" in 1268, recording in a later passage that "domna Grifina rediit ad ducem Lestkonem" in 1276[467].  The Annales Polonorum record the marriage in 1265, in a later passage specifying that she was daughter of "ducis Roczislay et…Anna"[468].  The Annales Polonorum record that in 1271 "Griphina uxor ducis Lestconis Syradiensis" declared her own virginity to record the impotence of her husband[469].  "Lestco…dux Cracouie, Sandomirie ac Syradie" donated property to the church of Krakow, for the soul of "nostre consortis et coniugis domine Griphine…Ducisse dictarum terrarum", by charter dated 30 Nov 1286[470]

3.         ZIEMOMYSŁ ([1241/45]-[29 Oct/24 Dec] 1287).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "Lestkonem et Semomislonem" as the two sons of "Casimiro" and his wife who was descended from St Hedwig (wife of Heinrich I Duke of Silesia)[471].  "Casimirus…Dux Lanciciĉ et Cujaviĉ" donated property, the dowry of "Ducissĉ Constantiĉ uxoris nostrĉ et matris nobilium Ducum Lestkonis et Semomisli filiorum nostrorum", to Dobrovie church by charter dated 25 May 1252[472].  "Kazimirus…Dux Lancicie et Cujavie" granted rights to the monastery of Sulejovie, in the presence of "filio nostro Duce Semomislo", by charter dated 6 Feb 1261[473].  He succeeded his father in 1267 as ZIEMOMYSŁ Prince of northern Kujavia, based at Inowrocław.  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1287 of "Semovitus dux Cuyavie"[474]m ([29 Feb 1268]) SALOME von Pommerellen, daughter of SAMBOR II Duke of Pommerellen [Pomorze] in Dirschau & his wife Mechtild von Mecklenburg (before [1256/57]-[3 Oct 1312/1314]).  "Salomea…ducissa Cuyauie et domina Wladizlauie…cum pro filiis nostris adhuc iuvenibus" donated property to Kloster Byszewo "post obitum bone memorie domini ac mariti nostri ducis Zemomizli" by charter dated 15 Sep 1288[475].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Prince Ziemomysł & his wife had six children: 

a)         EUFEMIA (-3 Mar before 1278).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         FENENNA ([1276]-[1295]).  The primary source which confirms her name, parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  m ([19 Aug/24 Nov] 1290) as his first wife, ANDRÁS III King of Hungary, son of ISTVÁN of Hungary Duke of Slavonia & his second wife Tomosina Morosoni (Venice [1265]-Ofen 14 Jan 1301, bur Ofen Minoritenkirche).

c)         LESZEK ([1275/76]-after 27 Apr 1339).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "ducem Lestkonem, ducem Primsil et ducem Kazimirum" as the children of "Simisil", son of Kazimierz, adding that none of them had heirs[476].  He succeeded his father in 1287 as Prince of Inowrocław.  He styled himself Duke of Pomorze [Pommerellen], claiming the succession through his mother in opposition to Wladysław "Lokietek" who had been recognised as successor to Przemysł II King of Poland (who had inherited Pomorze from Mszczuj II Duke of Pomorze in 1294)[477]

d)         PRZEMYSŁ ([1276/79-before 16 Feb 1339).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "ducem Lestkonem, ducem Primsil et ducem Kazimirum" as the children of "Simisil", son of Kazimierz, adding that none of them had heirs[478].  Prince of Inowrocław 1303-1327.  Prince of Sieradz 1327.    

e)         KAZIMIERZ ([1277/80]-[22 Aug 1345/13 May 1350]).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "ducem Lestkonem, ducem Primsil et ducem Kazimirum" as the children of "Simisil", son of Kazimierz, adding that none of them had heirs[479]KAZIMIERZ III Prince of Inowrocław and Gniewkowom (before 1309) --- (-[23 Apr 1329/13 Jul 1343]).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   Prince Kazimierz & his wife had three children: 

i)          --- (-[1329]).  The primary source which confirms this child's parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         ELŹBIETA ([1315/20]-after 22 Aug 1345).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (Jun 1324) STJEPAN Kotromanić Ban of Bosnia, son of STJEPAN Kotroman Ban of Bosnia & his wife Jelisaveta of Serbia (-28 Sep 1353, bur Visoko, Franciscan monastery). 

iii)        WŁADYSŁAW "Biały/the White" (-[29 Feb/1 Mar] 1388).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Prince of Gniewkowo until 1363.  Monk at Cîteaux 1366.  Benedictine monk at Dijon 1366/67.  Abbot of Martinsberg/Monte Pannonie 1377/79.  m (before 1 Dec 1359) ELISABETH von Oppeln, daughter of ALBRECHT Duke of Gross-Strehlitz [Piast] & his wife Agnes von Hardegg (before 1317-[9 Mar 1360/17 Apr 1361]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

f)          KONSTANCJA (-1331).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Trebnitz. 

Prince Kazimierz & his third wife had four children:

4.         WŁADYSŁAW ([3 Mar 1260/19 Jan 1261]-Wawel Castle 2 Mar 1333, bur Krakow Cathedral).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Lestkonem Nigrum [et] Wladislaum qui Loketk cognominatus est" among the sons of "Cazimirus"[480].  He succeeded his father in 1267 as WŁADYSŁAW Prince of southern Kujavia, Brześć and Dobrzyń.  He was crowned in 1320 as WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/the Short" King of Poland.

-        see Chapter 3. KINGS of POLAND 1320-1370

5.         KAZIMIERZ ([1261/62]-killed in battle Lithuania 10 Jun 1294).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Kazimirum…et Semovitem ducem Dobrinensem" as the children of "Kazimirus dux Koyavie", adding that Kazimierz was killed in Lithuania[481].  He succeeded as KAZIMIERZ II Prince of Kujavia.  

6.         ZIEMOWIT ([1262/67]-[1309/14]).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Kazimirum…et Semovitem ducem Dobrinensem" as the children of "Kazimirus dux Koyavie", adding that Ziemowit died without heirs[482]m (before 1301) ANASTASIA Levovna, daughter of LVOV Daniilovich Prince of Halicz and Vladimir in Volynia & his wife Konstantia of Hungary (-12 Mar 1335).  Baumgarten names the wife of Iuri, and states her parentage, but cites only a Polish secondary source[483].  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1335 IV Id Mar" of "domina Anastasia, ducissa Lanciciensis et quondam Dobrinensis relicta domini ducis Semoviti, fratris domini Wladislai regis Polonie"[484].  Prince Ziemowit & his wife had four children: 

a)         LESZEK (before 1302-before 10 Jul 1316).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         WŁADISŁAW (before 1303-1352).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Duke of Leczyk.  m ANNA, daughter of --- (-after 1349).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

c)         KAZIMIERZ [IV] (before 1304-before 10 Jul 1316).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

d)         BOLESŁAW (before 1305-[20 Mar 1326/12 Mar 1329]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

7.         EUFEMIA (-18 Mar 1308).  Baumgarten names the wife of Iuri, and states her parentage, but cites only one Polish secondary source in support[485]m (before 1300) as his second wife, IURI I Levovich Prince of Galich and Vladimir in Volynia, son of LEV Daniilovich Prince of Galich and Vladimir in Volynia & his wife Konstantia of Hungary ([24 Apr 1252/57]-24 Apr 1308).  He succeeded his father in 1301 as IURII I King of Galich

 

 

 

E.      PRINCES OF MAZOVIA 1248-1526

 

 

ZIEMOWIT of Poland, son of KONRAD I Prince of Mazovia & his wife Agafia Sviatoslavna of Novgorod-Sieviersk ([1228]-killed in battle Iazdow 23 Jun 1262).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Cazimirum, Boleslaum, Szemovitum" as the three sons of "Conradus"[486].  "Conradus…Dux Cracovie et Lanchicie cum filio nostro Duce Semovito" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 10 Nov 1241[487].  "Conradus…Cracovie et Lancicie Dux…cum filiis nostris Bolezlao Mazovie, Kazimiro Cujavie Ducibus et Duce Semovitho" donated property to Sulejovia by charter dated 10 Nov 1241, which names "Dux Kazimirus pater noster"[488].  He succeeded in 1248 as ZIEMOWIT I Prince of Mazovia.  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that "Semovitus dux Mazovie" was killed "a Lituanis in Iazdow in Vigilia beati Iohannis baptiste"[489]

m ([1248]) PEREIASLAVA Daniilovna, daughter of DANIIL Romanovich Prince [later King] of Galich & his first wife Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod (-12 Apr 1283).  Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Ziemowit, and states her parentage, but cites only one Polish secondary source in support[490]

Prince Ziemowit & his wife had three children: 

1.         KONRAD ([1248/50]-23 Jun 1294).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dux Conradus…et Boleslaus dux Masovie" as the sons of "Semovito duce Mazovie", adding that Konrad died without heirs[491].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that "Cunradus filius [Semoviti ducis Mazovie]" escaped when his father was killed[492].  He succeeded his father in 1262 as KONRAD II Prince of Mazoviam ([1265/70]) JADWIGA von Schlesien-Liegnitz, daughter of BOLESLAW II "Rogatka" Duke of Silesia and Liegnitz-Glogau & his first wife Hedwig von Anhalt ([1250/55]-after 1280).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the three daughters of "Boleslaus Calvus" & his first wife, specifying that one (listed second) married "duci Mazovie Conrado"[493].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Prince Konrad & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANNA ([1270]-after 13 Jul 1324).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1289/91]) PRZEMISLAW Duke of Ratibor, son of WLADISLAW Duke of Oppeln [Piast] & his wife Euphemia of Poland [Piast] ([21 Oct 1258/12 Jun 1268]-7 May 1306). 

2.         BOLESŁAW (after 1251-20 Apr 1313).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dux Conradus…et Boleslaus dux Masovie" as the sons of "Semovito duce Mazovie"[494].  He succeeded in 1262 as Prince of Plock.  He succeeded his brother in 1294 as BOLESŁAW II Prince of Mazovia.  On his death, the territory of Mazovia was divided between his three sons.  m firstly (1279) GAUDEMANTÈ of Lithuania, daughter of TRAIDENIS [Troiden] Grand Duke of Lithuania & his wife [Ludmiła of Poland] (-1288).  She was baptised ZOFIA.  Mazovia arranged this marriage to reduce the threat of Lithuanian raids on Mazovian territory and increase trading contacts between the two principalities[495]m secondly (1291, divorced before 19 Dec 1302) KUNIGUNDE of Bohemia, daughter of PŘEMYSL OTAKAR II King of Bohemia & his second wife Kunigunde [Kunguta] Rostislavna of Mačva (Jan 1265-27 Nov 1321, bur Prague St Veit).  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records that "filia Regis…Chungundis" became a nun "ad sanctum Franciscum" in 1276, but that she was later taken from the monastery by her brother and married to "Duci Mazouiĉ", after whose death she became "Abbatissa ad sanctum Georgium in castro Pragensis"[496].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the death in 1321 of "Regis Przemysl filia, Abbatissa ad sanctum Georgium in castro Pragensi…Chunegundis" and her burial in the monastery[497].  Prince Bolesław II & his first wife had three children:

a)         ZIEMOWIT (1283-18 Feb 1345).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Treydam et Semovitam" as the sons of "Boleslaus dux Masovie", son of "Semovito duce Mazovie", adding that Ziemowit died without heirs[498].  He succeeded his father in 1313 as ZIEMOWIT II Prince of Rawa, Sochaczew and Wiżna[499], the southern part of Mazovia. 

b)         TROJDEN ([1284/86]-13 Mar 1341).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Treydam et Semovitam" as the sons of "Boleslaus dux Masovie", son of "Semovito duce Mazovie"[500].  He succeeded his father in 1313 as TROJDEN I Prince of Czersk, Warsaw, Ciechanów, Łomża, Rożań, Nursk and Liw[501], the eastern part of Mazovia.  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1341 3 Id Mar" of "Troydinus dux Mazovie"[502]m (before 1310) MARIA Iurievna, daughter of IURII II Levovich King of Galich & his second wife Euphemia of Poland (before 1293-11 Jan 1341).  Baumgarten names the wife of Trojden citing a Polish source[503].  Baumgarten records that her origin is determined by her son Bolesław Jerzy naming King Iurii Levovich as "noster avus"[504].  Prince Trojden & his wife had four children: 

i)          EUPHEMIA ([1310]-after 1373)m ([1321/24]) KASIMIR I Duke of Teschen, son of MIEZKO I Duke of Teschen & his wife --- ([1276/80]-1358). 

ii)         BOLESŁAW JERZY (before 1313-murdered 7 Apr 1340).  He was elected in [late 1323/early 1325] to succeed his maternal uncles as Prince of Galich and Vladimir in Volynia, supported by his uncle Waclaw Prince of Plock, Wladysław "Lokietek" King of Poland and Gediminas Grand Duke of Lithuania, and converted to Orthodoxy[505].  Local boiars, discontented with the increase in Polish influence in Galich, poisoned Prince Boleslaw allegedly with a dose so strong that his corpse disintegrated[506].   After his death, Kazimierz III King of Poland invaded his territories and annexed Galich and Volynia[507]m (betrothed 1324, Plock Cathedral 1331) EUFEMIA [Gaudemunda] of Lithuania, daughter of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna] ([1316]-murdered near Zawichost 5 Feb 1342).  She was drowned under the ice in the River Vistula[508]

iii)        ZIEMOWIT (before 1314-16 Jun 1381).  He succeeded in 1370 as ZIEMOWIT III "Starszy" Prince of Mazovia.   

-         see below

iv)       KAZIMIERZ ([1314]-26 Nov 1355).  He inherited Rawa in 1345 from his uncle Ziemowit II, jointly with his brother[509].  He succeeded in 1349 as Prince of Ciechanów and Warsaw.  

c)         ANNA m (after 13 Aug 1325, divorced before 13 Jan 1329) WLADISLAW von Liegnitz, son of HEINRICH V "the Fat" Duke of Liegnitz [Piast] & his wife Elźbieta of Poland [Piast] (1296-13 Jan after 1352). 

Prince Bolesław II & his second wife had three children:

d)         EUFROZYNA ([1292/94]-26 Dec after 1327)m ([1304/09]) WLADISLAW Duke of Auschwitz, son of MIEZKO I Duke of Teschen [Piast] & his wife --- (-[Nov 1321/14 May 1324]). 

e)         WACŁAW ([1293]-23 May 1336).  He succeeded his father in 1313 as WACŁAW Prince of Plock, the western part of Mazovia.  Civil war broke out between the three brothers in 1316, with Gediminas of Lithuania supporting Prince Waclaw, and in the 1320s Lithuanian troops aided the prince against the Duke of Dobrzyń[510].  Plock was conquered by Jan King of Bohemia in 1329 on his return from a crusading campaign in Lithuania, and Duke Wacław was forced to accept Bohemian suzerainty 29 Mar 1329[511]m (before 6 Dec 1320, maybe 1316[512]) DANNILA of Lithuania, daughter of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna] ([1306]-1364).  This marriage was arranged to confirm her father's alliance with Prince Waclaw in the Mazovian civil war[513].  She was baptised ELŻBIETA.  After the death of her son, she inherited Wyszogród and Gostynin for life[514].  Prince Wacław & his wife had two children: 

i)          ANNA (1324-16 Feb 1363)m (before 6 Sep 1337) HEINRICH von Glogau und Sagan, son of HEINRICH II Duke of Glogau and Sagan [Piast] & his wife Mathilde von Brandenburg ([1312/21]-13 Apr 1369).  He succeeded his father in 1342 as HEINRICH III Duke of Glogau and Sagan

ii)         BOLESŁAW ([1322/30]-20 Aug 1351).  He succeeded his father in 1336 as BOLESŁAW III Prince of Plock (Bohemian fief), Wyszogród, Zakroczym and Gostynin[515].  He inherited Sochaczew and Wiżna from his uncle Ziemowit II in 1345[516].  

f)          BEATA (1299-1311). 

3.         SALOMEA (-Mazowia 1301).  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1301 of "domicella Salomea filia ducis Semovithi" in Mazowia[517].  Nun before 9 Jan 1286. 

 

 

ZIEMOWIT of Mazovia, son of TROJDEN I Prince of Czersk [Piast] & his Maria Iurievna of Galich (before 1314-16 Jun 1381).  He inherited Rawa in 1345 from his uncle Ziemowit II, jointly with his brother[518].  In 1355 he inherited the lands of his younger brother Kazimierz, but agreed to transfer all his holdings to Kazimierz III King of Poland who granted them back to Ziemowit as a Polish fief[519].  He succeeded in 1370 as ZIEMOWIT III "Starszy" Prince of Mazovia

m firstly (1335) EUPHEMIA von Troppau, daughter of NIKOLAUS II Herzog von Troppau und Ratibor [Přemyslid] & his first wife Anna von Ratibor [Piast] ([1319]-before 11 Sep 1352). 

m secondly (before 1365) --- von Münsterberg, daughter of NIKOLAUS Herzog von Münsterberg [Piast] & his wife Agnes von Leuchtenberg ([1344/53]-[1368/72]). 

Prince Ziemowit III & his first wife had five children:

1.         EUPHEMIA (-[21 Jun 1418/9 Dec 1424])m (after [1367/69]) as his second wife, WLADISLAW Duke of Oppeln Palatine of Hungary, son of BOLESLAW II Duke of Oppeln [Piast] & his wife Elisabeth von Schweidnitz [Piast] ([1326/30]-8 or 18 May 1401).

2.         ANNA (before 1345-after 16 Mar 1403).  Nun at Ratibor. 

3.         JANUSZ (-8 Dec 1429).  He succeeded in 1374 as JANUSZ I Prince of Ciechanów and Warsaw. 

-        see below

4.         MAŁGORZATA (before 1358-[14 May 1388/4 Apr 1396]).  Her first marriage was arranged by her future husband's maternal grandfather, King Kazimierz III, as part of the agreement for the former's adoption by the king[520]m firstly (Apr 1369) as his second wife, KASIMIR von Pommern, son of BOGISLAW V Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern & his first wife Elźbieta of Poland ([1351]-2 Jan 1377).  He succeeded his father in 1373 as KASIMIR IV Duke of Pomerania in Stargard.  m secondly (Jul 1379) as his second wife, HEINRICH VII Duke of Lüben and Brieg, son of LUDWIG I Duke of Brieg [Piast] & his wife Agnes von Glogau und Sagan [Piast] ([1343/45]-11 Jul 1399). 

5.         ZIEMOWIT (before 1352-5 Dec 1425).  He succeeded as Prince of Plock and Kujavia.  m ([1387]) ALEKSANDRA of Lithuania, daughter of ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] Grand Duke of Lithuania & his second wife Iuliana Aleksandrovna of Tver [Rurikid] (-19 Jun 1434).  Prince Ziemowit & his wife had twelve children: 

a)         ZIEMOWIT ([1389]-17 Feb 1442).  He succeeded as Prince of Gostyn.  m ([1435/37]) as her second husband, MARGARETA von Ratibor, widow of KASIMIR Herzog von Auschwitz, daughter of JOHANN II Herzog von Troppau, Ratibor und Jägerndorf [Přemyslid] & his wife Helena of Lithuania ([1410]-5 Jul 1459).  Prince Ziemowit & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGARETA ([1436/41]-1483 after 5 May)m ([1447/53]) KONRAD IX Herzog von Oels, son of KONRAD V Herzog von Oels und Wohlau [Piast] & his wife Margareta --- ([1415/20]-14 Aug 1471).

b)         JADWIGA (shortly before 16 Nov 1393-after 19 Feb 1439)m (after 3 Jan 1410) JANOS Garay, son of MIKLÓS [I] Garay & his wife --- (-before 9 Apr 1428). 

c)         CIMBURKA (Warszawa [1394/97]-Türnitz 28 Sep 1429, bur Lilienfeld Stiftskirche).  The Necrologium Austriacum refers to the wife of Duke Ernst as "des hertzog von der Nasaw tochter…fraw Cinburga von Polen", records her death in 1426 and her burial at Lilienfeld[521].  The necrology of Rein records the death "III Kal Oct" of "Cimburga ducissa Austrie et Stirie"[522]m (Krakow 25 Jan 1412) as his second wife, ERNST I "der Eiserne" Duke of Austria, son of LEOPOLD III Duke of Austria & his wife Verde Visconti (Bruck an der Mur 1377-Bruck an der Mur 10 Jun 1424, bur Rein, Steiermark). 

d)         EUPHEMIA ([1395/98]-[25 Jul/17 Sep] 1447)m (dispensation 27 Jan 1412) as his second wife, BOLKO I Herzog von Teschen und Auschwitz, son of PREMISLAW I Herzog von Teschen & his wife Elisabeth von Beuthen [Piast] (-6 May 1431). 

e)         ALEKSANDER (1400-2 Jun 1444).  Provost at Gnesen Cathedral 1414/29.  Rektor of Krakow 1422.  Bishop of Triento 1423.  Patriarch of Aquileia 1436.  Cardinal 1440.  Provost of St Stephan in Vienna [1443]. 

f)          AMELIA ([1396/99]-after 17 May 1424)m (16 May 1413) WILHELM II "der Reiche" joint Markgraf von Meissen, son of FRIEDRICH III "der Strenge" joint Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Katharina von Henneberg (23 Apr 1371-30 Mar 1425, bur Meissen Cathedral). 

g)         KAZIMIERZ ([1396/1407]-15 Sep 1442).  He succeeded as Prince of Plock and Kujavia.  m (26 Jun 1442) MARGARETA Szamotuły, daughter of WINCENZ Szamatuły Castellan of Meseritz (-5 Nov 1464).  She married secondly (before 12 Jan 1445) Wenzel II Herzog von Troppau und Ratibor (-29 Oct 1456).

h)         TROJDEN ([1397/1410]-24 Jul 1427).  He succeeded as Prince of Plock. 

i)          WŁADYSŁAW ([1398/1411]-11/12 Dec 1455).  He succeeded as Prince of Plock.  m ([1444]) ANNA von Oels, daughter of KONRAD Herzog von Oels und Wohlau [Piast] & his wife Margareta --- ([1420/30]-1481 before 29 Mar).  Prince Władysław & his wife had two children: 

i)          ZIEMOWIT (2 Jan 1446-1 Jan 1462).  He succeeded in 1459 as Prince of Plock. 

ii)         WŁADYSŁAW (after 31 Oct 1448-27 Feb 1462).  He succeeded as Prince of Plock and Gostyn. 

j)          ANNA ([13 Jun 1407/1413]-before 7 Feb 1435)m (before 26 May 1427) as his first wife, MICHAEL BOLESŁAW of Lithuania, son of KORYBUT ŽYGIMANTES [Siegmund] of Lithuania Prince of Trock, Motchaisk and Starodub [later Grand Duke of Lithuania] & his first wife --- Andreievna Pss Odynczewicza (before 1406-shortly before 10 Feb 1452). 

k)         MARIA ([1408/19]-18 Feb [1454])m ( Posen 24 Jun 1432) BOGISLAW IX Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern, son of BOGISLAW VIII Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern & his wife Sophie von Holstein (1407-7 Dec 1446). 

l)          KATARZYNA (-after 29 Mar 1475)m ([1440/45]) as his third wife, MICHAEL BOLESŁAW of Lithuania, son of KORYBUT ŽYGIMANTES [Siegmund] of Lithuania Prince of Trock, Motchaisk and Starodub [later Grand Duke of Lithuania] & his first wife --- Andreievna Pss Odynczewicza (before 1406-shortly before 10 Feb 1452).

Prince Ziemowit had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:    

m)        MIKLUSZ (before 1387-).  He was legitimated 29 Jun 1417 by Emperor Sigismund. 

Prince Ziemowit III & his second wife had three children:

6.         son ([1361/64]-before 14 Mar 1378). 

7.         son ([1362/65]-before 14 Mar 1378). 

8.         HENRYK ([1368/70]-Winter [1392/93]).  Provost at Plock 1378.  Bishop of Plock 1390.  m ([4 Feb/Jun] 1392) as her first husband, RYNGAILÈ [Ryngajla] ELISABETH of Lithuania, daughter of KESTUTIS [Kiejstut] ALEKSANDER of Lithuania & his second wife Birutè --- (-1433).  She married secondly (before 13 Dec 1421) Alexander Lord of Moldavia. 

 

 

JANUSZ of Mazovia, son of ZIEMOWIT III "Starszy" Prince of Mazovia & his first wife Euphemia von Troppau [Přemyslid] (-8 Dec 1429).  He succeeded in 1374 as Prince of Ciechanów and Warsaw. 

m (before 27 Sep 1376) DANUTÈ [Danuta] ANNA of Lithuania, daughter of KESTUTIS [Kiejstut] ALEKSANDER of Lithuania & his second wife Birutè --- ([1362]-25 May 1448).  The Origo Regis Jagyelo records that "magni duci Kyerstruki" married "filiam suam" to "ducis Mazowie domini Janusii", adding that "astorodensis comendator…Smydsten" was "compater magnis duci Kyerstruki"[523]

Prince Janusz & his wife had three children: 

1.         JANUSZ (before 1383-1422)m (before 19 Mar 1408) as her first husband, KATARZYNA von Melsztyn, daughter of SPYTKA von Melsztyn Voivode of Krakow (before 1395-23 Mar after 1464).  She married secondly Mikolaj "Bialucha" von Michalów Castellan of Krakow.  Prince Janusz & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOROTHEA (-after 16 Jul 1450)m (before 7 Mar 1450) as his second wife, KONRAD Duke of Öls, Kosel und Wartenberg, son of KONRAD III Duke of Oels [Piast] & his wife Guta --- ([1390]-14 Feb 1452).  

2.         BOLESŁAW [III] ([1385/86]-1428)m (before 1413) ANNA Ivanovna Holczánska, daughter of IVAN Olgimontovich Holczánski (-[3 May/1 Aug] 1458).  Prince Bolesław & his wife had three children: 

a)         KONRAD (1413-21 Jul 1427). 

b)         EUFEMIA (before 1420-before 3 Mar 1436)m (before 7 Feb 1435) as his second wife, MICHAEL BOLESŁAW of Lithuania, son of KORYBUT ŽYGIMANTES [Siegmund] of Lithuania Prince of Trock, Motchaisk and Starodub [later Grand Duke of Lithuania] & his first wife --- Andreievna Pss Odynczewicza (before 1406-shortly before 10 Feb 1452). 

c)         BOLESŁAW (before 1421-10 Sep 1454).  He succeeded in 1428 as Prince of Warsaw, Ciechanów and Lomscha.  Prince of Plock 1444.   

-        see below

3.         KONRAD

 

 

BOLESŁAW of Mazovia, son of BOLESŁAW [III] Prince of Ciechanów and Warsaw & his wife Anna Ivanovna Holczánska (before 1421-10 Sep 1454).  He succeeded in 1428 as Prince of Warsaw, Ciechanów and Lomscha.  Prince of Plock 1444. 

m (before 1446) BARBARA ---, a Russian princess. 

Prince Bolesław & his wife had eight children: 

1.         BOŁESLAW (-before 1453).  

2.         JANUSZ (-before 1454). 

3.         BOLESŁAW (-before 1454). 

4.         JANUSZ (-before 1455). 

5.         ANNA ([1446/50]-[19 Nov 1477/14 Sep 1480])m ([1460/68]) PREMISLAW II Duke of Teschen, son of BOLKO I Duke of Auschwitz and Teschen [Piast] & his second wife Euphemia of Mazovia [Piast] (1420-11 or 18 Mar 1477). 

6.         KONRAD "Rudy" (before 1448-28 Oct 1503).  He succeeded in 1462 as Prince of Warsaw, Plock, Ciechanów and Lomscha.  m firstly (before 13 Jun 1468) MAGDALENA Stawrot, daughter of STANISŁAW Stawrot (-before 1477).  m secondly (before 20 Jul 1477) --- ([1480/3 May 1493]).  m thirdly ([6 Oct 1496/2 Apr 1497]) ANNA Radziwiłł, daughter of NIKOLAUS Radziwiłł Voivoide of Vilna (1476-14/15 Mar 1522).  Prince Konrad & his third wife had four children:

a)         SOPHIA ([1497/98]-before 11 Mar 1543)m firstly ([1521]) STEPHAN Batory Palatine of Hungary (-before 15 Aug 1530).  m secondly (after 1530) LUDWIG Pekri (-[1551]). 

b)         ANNA ([1498/99]-after 26 Jan 1557)m ([Feb 1536]) STANISŁAW Odrowaź von Sprowy (-[12 Feb/2 Apr] 1545).

c)         STANISŁAW (17 May 1501-8 Aug 1524).  He succeeded as Prince of Warsaw, Ciechanów, Lomscha and Novgorod.  

d)         JANUSZ (1502-9/10 Mar 1526).  He succeeded as Prince of Warsaw, Ciechanów, Lomscha and Novgorod. 

7.         ZOFIA (before 1453-after 10 Sep 1454). 

8.         KAZIMIERZ ([1448/49]-9 Jun 1480).  He succeeded as Prince of Plock.   Canon at Plock before 1471.  Bishop of Plock 1471. 

9.         BOLESŁAW (before 10 Sep 1454-27 Apr 1488).  He succeeded as Prince of Warsaw and Plock.  m (20 Jul 1477, divorced [1480]) ANNA Uhnowska, daughter of ZYGMUNT Uhnowski, Voivode of Belz. 

10.      JANUSZ (before 1455-16 Feb 1495).  He succeeded as Prince of Lomscha and Ciechanów.  

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KING of POLAND 1300-1305 (LUXEMBOURG)

 

 

WENZEL of Bohemia, son of OTAKAR PŘEMYSL II King of Bohemia & his second wife Kunguta [Kunigunde] Rostislavna of Galich [Rurikid] (17 Sep 1271-21 Jun 1305).  He succeeded in 1283 as WENZEL II King of Bohemia.  Imperial elector 1289.  Crowned King of Bohemia 2 Jun 1297.  He succeeded in 1300 as WACLAW King of Poland.    

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of POLAND 1320-1370 (PIAST)

 

 

WŁADISŁAW of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz [Piast] & his third wife Euphrosyne von Schlesien-Oppeln ([3 Mar 1260/19 Jan 1261]-Wawel Castle 2 Mar 1333, bur Krakow Cathedral[524]).  The Annales Polonorum name (in order) "Lestkonem Nigrum [et] Wladislaum qui Loketk cognominatus est" among the sons of "Cazimirus"[525].  He succeeded his father in 1267 as WŁADYSŁAW Prince of southern Kujavia, Brześć and Dobrzyń.  On the death without heirs in 1288 of his half-brother Leszek, Wladysław inherited Sieradz[526].  He challenged the inheritance of Krakow by his distant cousin Heinrich IV "Probus" Duke of Breslau and occupied the town, although he was expelled within a few months[527].  He was captured in [1291] by Václav II [Wenzel] King of Bohemia and forced him to renounce any claims to the duchy of Krakow[528].  He was recognised by the nobles of Greater Poland as the successor of Przemysł II King of Poland in 1296[529].  He was forced into exile in early 1300 after King Václav occupied Greater Poland, Pomorze and Kujavia and was crowned King of Poland in Sep 1300[530].  Prince Wladysław, supported by Hungarian troops, returned to Poland in Sep 1304 and captured Krakow in 1306.  By this time, he had reasserted control over all of Poland except Greater Poland and Silesia, and on one occasion styled himself "heir to the kingdom of Poland"[531].  After the rebellion of Gdańsk in 1308, and the Askanian invasion of Pomorze, Prince Wladyslaw enlisted the help of the Teutonic Knights who, after lifting the siege, occupied the town and by end 1311 had captured eastern Pomorze for themselves[532].  In 1311, Krakow rebelled with the aim of restoring Bohemian rule, but by summer 1312 the rebellion was crushed[533].  By 1314, Wladysław succeeded in expelling the sons of Heinrich I Duke of Glogau from Greater Poland, and by 1315 he styled himself "Duke of all Greater Poland"[534].  He applied to the Pope in 1316 for a royal crown, and after several years of negotiation he was crowned in Wawel Cathedral at Kraków 20 Jan 1320 as WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/the Short" King of Poland.  In the continuing dispute with the Teutonic Order, the Pope found in favour of Poland over Pomorze in Mar 1320 but the Knights ignored the ruling[535].  Jan King of Bohemia invaded Silesia in early 1327 and imposed Bohemian suzerainty on most of the Silesian dukes between 1327 and 1329[536].  Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at Płowce 27 Sep 1331, but lost Brześć and Inowrocław in 1332[537].  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1333 IV Non Mar" of "Wladislaus rex Polonie in castro Cracoviensi"[538], the Annales Terra Prussicĉ adding that he was also buried at Krakow[539].  . 

m ([Jan 1293]) JADWIGA of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW "Poboźny/the Pious" Prince of Kalisch, Gnesen and Greater Poland & his wife Iolanda [Helena] of Hungary ([1266]-Monastery of St Klara, Stary Sącz[540] 10 Dec 1339).  The Annales Polonorum name "ducis Boleslai Kalisiensis filiam nomine Hedwigim" as wife of King W/ladysław[541].  Her marriage was arranged by her future husband to strengthen his relations with Przemysł II Prince of Greater Poland, who was her first cousin, in the face of the growing threat to Poland from Václav II [Wenzel] King of Bohemia[542]

King Władysław & his wife had six children: 

1.         STEFAN (after 1296-1306).  

2.         WŁADISŁAW (-[1311/12]).  

3.         KUNIGUNDE (before 1298-9 Apr 1331, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "ducissam Swidnicensem" as the daughter of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie" but does not name her or her husband[543]m firstly ([1310]) BERNHARD Duke of Schweidnitz, son of BOLKO I Duke of Jauer und Schweidnitz [Piast] & his wife Beatrix von Brandenburg ([1288/91]-6 May 1326).  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1326 2 Non Mai" of "Bernardus dux Slezie…gener domini Wladislai regis Polonie"[544]m secondly (after 10 Aug 1328) as his second wife, RUDOLF I Herzog von Sachsen-Wittenberg, son of ALBRECHT II "Degener" Herzog von Sachsen & his wife Agnes [Gertrud] von Habsburg ([1280]-11 Mar 1356). 

4.         ELŹBIETA (1305-29 Dec 1380).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" married thirdly in 1320 "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie"[545].  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dominam Elizabeth alias Phenemiam reginam Ungarie" as the daughter of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie"[546].  She lost four fingers during the course of the 1330 attack on the king and his family[547].  She was designated heir to the Polish crown, in case her brother King Kazimierz died without male issue, at Wyszegrad in Mar 1339 by agreement between her husband and her brother[548].  This succession arrangement was confirmed in 1351 and 1355 when her son King Lajos was named heir apparent to Poland[549].  She was regent of the Kingdom of Poland during her son’s absence 1370-1375.  Royal Lieutenant of Croatia and Dalmatia 1375 until her death.  m (6 Jul 1320) as his third wife, KÁROLY I King of Hungary, son of CHARLES MARTEL of Sicily, Principe di Salerno, KÁROLY I titular King of Hungary & his wife Klementia von Habsburg (1288-Visegrad 16 Jul or 15 Aug 1342, bur Székesfehérvár).  

5.         JADWIGA (-[3 Jun 1320/22]). 

6.         KAZIMIERZ (30 Apr 1310-5 Nov 1370).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Kazimirum ultimum regem Polonie" as the son of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie"[550].  He succeeded his father in 1333 as KAZIMIERZ III "Wielki/the Great" King of Poland

-        see below

 

 

KAZIMIERZ of Poland, son of WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/Ellenbogen" King of Poland & his wife Jadwiga of Greater Poland [Piast] (30 Apr 1310-Krakow 5 Nov 1370, bur Krakow Cathedral).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "Kazimirum ultimum regem Polonie" as the son of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie"[551].  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the birth "1310 II Kal Mai" of "Kazimirus filius Wladislai regis Polonie"[552].  He succeeded his father in 1333 as KAZIMIERZ III "Wielki/the Great" King of Poland, crowned [24/25] Apr 1333 in Gniezno Cathedral[553].  A stable peace with the Teutonic Knights was finally agreed at Wyszegrad in 1335 and Kalisz in 1343[554].  The early part of the reign of King Kazimierz was dominated by the need to juggle the competing interests of Bohemia and Hungary, the former having taken control of most of Silesia, and the latter increasing its influence in Poland after Kazimierz's sister, the queen of Hungary, was designated his heir presumptive in 1339.  After the murder in 1340 of Bolesław Jerzy Prince of Galich [Piast], King Kazimierz invaded his territories and annexed Galich and Volynia[555], although this was challenged by the Mongols whom the king defeated in Jan 1341[556] and by Lithuania whose rights to the area the king recognised in 1345[557].  In Sep 1349, King Kazimierz invaded Galich and captured Volynia, after which he called himself "Lord of the Land of Ruthenia"[558].  According to the Novgorod Chronicle, he obtained Volynia "with a large force by deceit"[559].  King Kazimierz arranged the integration of Mazovia into the Polish state in 1355, confirmed in 1356 at the Congress of Prague under which the king also accepted the eventual succession of Karl I King of Bohemia to Schweidnitz and Jauer, the last Silesia territories not under Bohemian control[560].  The Congress of Krakow in 1364, which symbolised the emergence of Poland as an important central European power, was proposed to discuss the proposal of Peter King of Cyprus for a crusade against the Ottomans but also provided the backdrop for the negotiation of treaties between Hungary, Bohemia and Poland and the announcement of the foundation of the university of Krakow approved by papal bull[561].  The Chronica principum Polonie record that "Kazimirus rex Polonie" died in 1370 "feria tercia post omnium sanctorum" and was buried "in castro Cracoviensi et kathedrali ecclesia"[562]

[563]Betrothed (contract broken 1322) to GUTA of Bohemia, daughter of JAN King of Bohemia [Luxembourg] & his first wife Elisabeth [Eliska] of Bohemia [Přemyslid] (Prague 20 May 1315-Abbaye de Maubuisson, Saint-Ouen l'Aumône, Val-d'Oise 11 Sep 1349, bur Abbaye de Maubuisson). 

m firstly (16 Oct 1325) ANNA [Aldona] of Lithuania, daughter of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna] ([1309/10]-26 May 1339).  The Annales Polonorum record the marriage in 1325 of "Kazimirus filius regis Polonie Wladyslay dicti Loctek" and "Annam…filiam Gedimini ducis Litwanorum in Vigilia apostolorum Philippi et Iacobi", specifying that she was 15 years old[564].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the Lithuanian/Polish alliance 1324/25.  Although she had a reputation for piety after her conversion, some were scandalised by her devotion to music, cymbals being played before her in procession[565].  She was crowned queen with her husband in Gniezno Cathedral [24/25] Apr 1333[566].  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1339 VII Kal Iun" of "domina Anna regina Polonie in castro Cracoviensi, filia Gedimini ducis Litwanorum"[567]

Betrothed (1340) to MARGARETA of Bohemia, widow of HEINRICH II Duke of Bavaria-Landshut, daughter of JAN King of Bohemia [Luxembourg] & his first wife Elisabeth [Eliska] of Bohemia [Přemyslid] (8 Jul 1313-Prague 11 Jul 1341, bur Königsaal).  This betrothal was arranged by Margareta's brother Karl to counterbalance Hungarian influence in Poland after the Hungarian queen (the sister of King Kazimierz) was designated the king's heir presumptive.  Margareta died before the marriage could take place[568]

m secondly (Poznań[569] 29 Sep 1341, separated 1356) ADELHEID von Hessen, daughter of HEINRICH II "der Eiserne" Landgraf Herr von Hessen & his wife Elisabeth von Meissen (after 1323-after 25 May 1371).  The Chronica principum Polonie record that "Kazimirus rex Polonie" married "filia lantgravii de Hassia"[570].  It is assumed that this marriage was encouraged by Karl of Bohemia to ensure that King Kazimierz did not fall under the influence of a more powerful father-in-law which would have threatened Bohemian interests[571].  The marriage contract between "Heinricus…Lantgravius terre Hassie…Adelheide…filia nostra" and "domino Kazimiro Regi Polonie" is dated 3 Oct 1341, and names "Heinricum et Ernestum patrueles nostros de Brunswig, Hermannum fratrem nostrum, Johannem comitem de Cyginhain avunculum nostrum et Syfridum comitem de Wydalginstein fidelem nostrum" as guarantors for payment of the dowry[572].  Her husband exiled her to a distant castle soon after their marriage and never visited her, ostensibly because his father-in-law had failed to pay her promised dowry[573].  She complained of her treatment to Pope Innocent VI, demanding a thorough Papal investigation into her husband's conduct.  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record that "1356 Oct XVIII Kal…domina Anna sive Anastasia regina Polonie, uxor…Kazimiri regis Polonie" returned to her father "domino margrabio Hasie" without the permission of her husband[574].  She complained once more to the Pope after her husband's fourth marriage[575]

m thirdly (secretly and bigamously [1356/57], separated before 8 May 1364) as her second husband, KRYSTYNA Rokiczana, widow of MIKŁUSZ Rokiczani, daughter of ---.  She was one of the ladies in waiting at the Bohemian court in Prague, the widow of a rich merchant.  King Kazimierz brought her back to Poland and persuaded the abbot of the monastery of Tyniec to marry them in a secret ceremony[576]

m fourthly (Spring/Summer 1365[577]) as her first husband, HEDWIG von Glogau, daughter of HEINRICH III Duke of Glogau and Sagan [Piast] & his wife Anna of Mazovia [Piast] ([before 1350-27 Mar 1390).  This marriage was arranged by King Kazimierz to strengthen his ties with Emperor Karl IV, who was a close associate of her father, and with a view to eventually inheriting a share of her father's Silesian lands[578].   The couple were married on the basis of a forged Papal dispensation, needed because the king's second marriage had not been dissolved and because the parties were related in the fourth degree.  Pope Urban V tacitly absolved the king of misconduct by letter 28 May 1368, presumably because Polish troops supported his military campaign against Bernabò Visconti in Italy, but still refused to annul his second marriage[579].  Hedwig married secondly (before 10 Feb 1372) Ruprecht I Duke of Liegnitz [Piast]. 

Mistress (1): ([1347/52][580]) CUDKA, wife of --- castellan, daughter of ---. 

Mistress (2): ESTERKA, a Jewess from Krakow.  She supposedly lived in the Szara Kamienica (Grey House) in Krakow, but Knoll suggests that she was a legendary figure[581]

King Kazimierz III & his first wife had two children: 

1.         ELŹBIETA ([1326/34]-1361).  In 1335 her father proposed her marriage to Ludwig, son of Emperor Ludwig IV, as part of his negotiations for an alliance with Brandenburg but no agreement was signed[582].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm a defensive pact sign by her father and her future husband in early 1343 in order to strengthen Poland's position against the Teutonic Knights[583]m (28 Feb 1343[584]) as his first wife, BOGISLAW V Duke of Pomerania in Hinterpommern, son of WARTISLAW IV Duke of Pomerania in Wolgast und Hinterpommern & his wife Elisabeth von Lindau-Ruppin ([1318/19]-7 Dec 1373). 

2.         KUNIGUNDE (before 16 May 1335-Berlin 26 Apr 1357, bur Berlin Church of the Franciscan Order).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that "comes Hannonie et Hollandie…soror…[et] dominum Ludewicum de Bawaria…filio…primogenito" married "rex Cracovie filiam"[585].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the renewed alliance between her father and the Wittelsbach Markgraf of Brandenburg[586]m ([Krakow 1 Jan 1345/25 Jul 1345]) as his first wife, LUDWIG von Bayern, son of Emperor LUDWIG IV King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his second wife Marguerite de Hainaut [Avesnes] Ctss de Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland (Rome 7 May 1328-Berlin 17 May 1365, bur Berlin Church of the Franciscan Order).  He succeeded in 1347 as LUDWIG VI "der Römer" joint-Duke of Bavaria, and in 1351 as Markgraf von Brandenburg. 

King Kazimierz III & his fourth wife had three children:

3.         ANNA (1366-9 Jun 1422, bur Mindelheim St Stefan).  Legitimated by Pope Urban V 5 Dec 1369.  m firstly (27 Mar or 6 Apr 1380) WILHELM Count of Celje, son of ULRIC [I] Count of Celje [Cilly] & his wife Adelheid von Ortenburg [in Carinthia] ([1361/62]-19 Sep 1392).  m secondly (before 16 Sep 1394) as his first wife, ULRICH II Herzog von Teck, son of FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Teck & his wife Anna von Helfenstein (-7 Aug 1432, bur Mindelheim St Stefan). 

4.         KUNIGUNDE (1367-before 3 Nov 1370).  Legitimated by Pope Urban V 5 Dec 1369. 

5.         JADWIGA (1368-after 1407).  Legitimated by Pope Gregory XI 11 Oct 1371.  m ([1382]) --- (-before 1408).  

King Kazimierz III had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

6.          NIEMIERZ (after 1342-after 4 Mar 1386).  He inherited villages in the region of Stopnica under the will of his father[587]

7.          PEŁKA (1342-1365)m ANNA, daughter of --- (-1379).  Pelka & his wife had two children: 

a)         NIEMIERZ (-1389). 

b)         PEŁKA (-1389). 

8.          JAN (after 1342-28 Oct 1383).  He inherited villages in the region of Stopnica under the will of his father[588]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KING OF POLAND 1370-1386 (ANJOU-CAPET)

 

 

LAJOS of Hungary, son of KÁROLY I King of Hungary [Anjou-Sicily] & his third wife Elźbieta of Poland (4/5 Mar 1326-Tarnow/Tyrnau 10/11 Sep 1382, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame)

He succeeded his father in 1342 as LAJOS "the Great" King of Hungary, crowned at Székesfehérvár.  He succeeded his maternal uncle Kazimierz III King of Poland in 1370, in accordance with the 1355 dynastic agreement, and was crowned LUDWIK King of Poland at Krakow 17 Nov 1370 by Iaroslav Archbishop of Gniezno, primate of Poland.  After conferring the Government of Poland on his mother, he returned to Hungary.   

1.         other children: see HUNGARY

2.         JADVIGA of Hungary (Krakow 18 Feb 1373-Krakow 12 Jun 1400, bur Krakow, Cathedral St Stanislas).  Her mother installed her as JADWIGA King (rex) of Poland 1384, contrary to the last wishes of her father who wished to maintain the unity of the two crowns, crowned at Krakow 15 Oct 1384.  She won Galicia and Silesia back from Hungary.  She died in childbirth.  The procedure for her beatification was opened at Krakow 22 Apr 1949 by Prince Cardinal Sapieha, Archbishop of Krakow.  Betrothed (contract Buda 29 Jul 1385) to WILHELM von Habsburg, son of LEOPOLD III Duke of Austria & Steiermark & his wife Verde [Viridis] Visconti of Milan (1370-Vienna 15 Jul 1406, bur Vienna).  He succeeded his father in 1386 as WILHELM Duke of Steiermark and Inner-Austriam (Krakow 14 Feb 1386) as his first wife, JOGAILA [Jagiello] Grand Duke of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] Grand Duke of Lithuania & his wife Uljana of Tver [Rurikid] ([1351]-Grodek 31 May 1434, bur Krakow Cathedral).  He was baptised at Krakow in Feb 1386 as WŁADYSŁAW, shortly before his marriage, at which time he was recognised as WŁADISŁAW II King of Poland

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    KINGS OF POLAND 1386-1572 (LITHUANIA/JAGIELLO)

 

 

JOGAILA [Jagiello] Grand Duke of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] Grand Duke of Lithuania & his second wife Iuliana Aleksandrovna of Tver [Rurikid] ([1351]-Grodek 31 May 1434, bur Krakow Cathedral).  Prince of Kiev 1377.  He supported the Tatar Khan Mamai against Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, although his forces failed to arrive in time to help the Khan at the battle of Kulikovo in 1380[589].  Grand Duke of Lithuania 1382/3-1386 and 1392/1401.  He was baptised at Krakow in Feb 1386 as WŁADYSŁAW, shortly before his first marriage, at which time he was recognised as WŁADISŁAW II King of Poland

m firstly (18 Feb 1386) JADVIGA of Hungary King (rex) of Poland, daughter of LAJOS I King of Hungary [LUDWIK King of Poland] & his second wife Jelisaveta Kotromanić of Bosnia (Krakow 18 Feb 1373-Krakow 12 Jun 1400, bur Krakow, Cathedral St Stanislas).  Her mother installed her as King (rex) of Poland in 1384, contrary to the last wishes of her father who wished to maintain the unity of the two crowns.  She was crowned at Krakow 15 Oct 1384.  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records that "filia minor regis Ungarorum" was betrothed to "duci Austrie" but later married "Poloni…duci…Vladislao vel Wolislao" but that the marriage was childless[590].  She won Galicia and Silesia back from Hungary.  She died in childbirth.  The procedure for her beatification was opened at Krakow 22 Apr 1949 by Prince Cardinal Sapieha, Archbishop of Krakow. 

m secondly (Krakow 29 Jan 1401) ANNA of Celje, daughter of WILHELM Graf von Cilly & his wife Anna of Poland [Piast] ([1380/81]-[20/21] Mar 1416). 

m thirdly (2 May 1417) as her fourth husband, ELŹBIETA Pilcka, widow firstly of WYSZLE Czemborg, secondly of JANCZYK Janczykowicz Hiczyński and thirdly of WINCENTY Granowski castellan of Nakel, daughter of OTTO Pilcka, Voivode of Sandomir ([1372]-12 May 1420). 

m fourthly (1420) SOFIA Ivanovna of Kiev, daughter of IVAN Borisovich Prince of Kiev . 

m fifthly (7 Feb 1422) ZOFIA [Sonka] Holczańska, daughter of ANDRZEJ Ivanovich Prince of Kiev & his wife Alexandra Dmitrievna of Druck ([1405]-21 Sep 1461). 

King Władisław & his first wife had one child:

1.         ELŹBIETA BONIFACIA (22 Jun 1399-13 Jul 1399). 

King Władisław & his second wife had one child:

2.         JADWIGA (8 Apr 1408-8 Dec 1431). 

King Władisław & his fifth wife had three children:

3.         WŁADISŁAW (31 Oct 1424-killed in battle Varna 10 Nov 1444).  He succeeded his father in 1434 as WŁADISŁAW III “Warneczyk” King of Poland.  He was elected LÁSZLÓ VI King of Hungary by a council of Nobles at Buda in early 1440, before the birth of László "Posthumous" Archduke of Austria, posthumous son of his predecessor Albrecht Duke of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia.  After his arrival in Buda, he was recognised as King by most of László's supporters.  The resulting civil war was mediated by the church, which resulted in the acceptance of the King of Poland as king.  A papally sponsored Hungarian/Serb led crusade in 1443 recaptured Smederovo, Niš and Sofija, but was turned back at Adrianople.  Sultan Murad II negotiated peace terms under which he agreed to the restoration of the Serb state and a ten-year truce[591].  The Pope encouraged King Władisław to launch a second crusade the following year, in which Serbia refused to participate, in defiance of the agreed truce, but he was defeated and killed in battle by Sultan Murad at Varna 10 Nov 1444.

4.         KAZIMIERZ (16 May 1426-2 Mar 1427).

5.         KAZIMIERZ (30 Nov 1427-Grodno 7 Jun 1492, bur Krakow Cathedral).  He was chosen to succeed in 1440 as Grand Duke of Lithuania after the murder of Grand Duke Korybut[592].  He succeeded his brother in 1444 as KAZIMIERZ IV "the Great" King of Poland.  He claimed ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Kiev and all the Rus lands, challenging the authority of Metropolitan Iona in Moscow and seeking the allegiance of the Orthodox princes of western Rus.  He gave refuge to many dissidents from the Riurikid dynasty, in particular Dmitry Iurievich "Shemiakha" who briefly succeeded as Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1446.  In 1480, a group of dissidents led by Prince Fedor Ivanovich Belsky rebelled unsuccessfully against Kasimierz in Lithuania.  Belsky fled to Moscow in 1481, from where he continually raided the Lithuanian borders[593]m (Krakow 10 Feb 1454) ELISABETH Adss of Austria, daughter of ALBRECHT V Duke of Austria [ALBRECHT II King of the Romans, ALBERT King of Hungary, and ALBRECHT King of Bohemia] & his wife Elisabeth Pss of Bohemia and Hungary [Luxembourg] ([1435/36]-30 Aug 1505, bur Krakow Cathedral).  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records that one daughter of "Albertus dux Austrie" married "Kazimiro regi Polonie"[594].  King Kazimierz IV & his wife had thirteen children: 

a)         WŁADISŁAW (Cracow 1 Mar 1456-Buda 13 Mar 1516)He succeeded in 1471 as LADISLAUS II King of Bohemia.  He was elected as ULÁSZLÓ II King of Hungary and Croatia in 1490. 

-        KINGS of HUNGARY

b)         JADZWIGA (Cracow 21 Sep 1457-Burghausen 18 Feb 1502, bur Raitenhaslach).  The necrology of Aldersbach records the death "XI Kal Feb" of "regali ex progenie potentis Casimiri Polonie regis filia Hedwigis…Georgii Bavariĉ ducis comitisque rheni quondam conthoralis"[595].  The necrology of Baumburg records the death "XII Kal Mar 1502" of "Hedwigis ducissa Bauarie"[596]m (Landshut 14 Nov 1475) GEORG von Bayern-Landshut, son of LUDWIG IX "dem Reichen" Duke of Bavaria-Landshut & his wife Amalia von Sachsen (Landshut 15 Aug 1455-Ingolstadt 1 Dec 1503, bur Seligenthal).  He succeeded in 1479 as GEORG Duke of Bavaria-Landshut.  

c)         St KAZIMIERZ (Cracow 3 Oct 1458-Grodno 4 Mar 1483, bur Vilna).  An attempt failed in 1471 to place him on the throne of Hungary.  Viceroy of Poland during his father’s absence in Lithuania.  He followed a life of religious retirement.  He died of phthisis.  Miracles were reported at his tomb.  Canonised 7 Nov 1602, patron saint of Poland, feast day 4 March. 

d)         JAN OLBRACHT (27 Dec 1459-Torun 17 Jun 1501).  He succeeded 1483-1491 as Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1490-1498 as Duke of Glogau, and in 1492 as JAN I OLBRACHT King of Poland.    

e)         ALEKSANDER (5 Aug 1461-19 Aug 1506).  He succeeded his father in 1492 as Grand Duke of Lithuania, continuing and intensifying his father's policy of conflict with Moscow, sending an army across the border to attack Mozhaisk.  The border war was settled in 1494, when Lithuania renounced its claims to Novgorod, Pskov and Tver.  The peace was sealed by Grand Duke Aleksander's betrothal to Ivan III's daughter.  Hostilities resumed between Moscow and Lithuania resumed in 1500, following Aleksander's alleged breaches of the terms of the 1494 peace settlement.  The 1503 peace settlement guaranteed Moscow possession of Starodub, Briansk, Novgorod-Seversk and Chernigov, then located deep in Lithuanian territory[597].  He succeeded his brother in 1501 as ALEKSANDER I King of Polandm (15 Feb 1495) IELENA Ivanovna of Moscow, daughter of IVAN III Vasilievich Grand Prince of Moscow & his second wife Zoe Palaiologina (19 May 1476-20 Jan 1513).  Her marriage was arranged to seal the peace between her father and her future husband, following his attack on Mozhaisk[598].  The arrangement included her right to retain the Orthodox faith.  Reports of her husband pressurising her to accept Catholicism constituted one of the reasons for the renewal of hostilities between Moscow and Lithuania in 1500[599].  She was imprisoned by the Lithuanian government in 1512 and soon died in prison, which gave her brother Vasily III the pretext for launching another military attack on Lithuania[600]

f)          ZOFIA (6 Apr 1464-5 Oct 1512)m (Frankfurt an der Oder 14 Feb 1479) FRIEDRICH von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT Elector of Brandenburg & his second wife Anna von Sachsen (Ansbach 8 May 1460-Ansbach Schloß 4 Apr 1536, bur Heilsbronn).  He succeeded in 1486 as FRIEDRICH V "der Ältere" Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach.  He succeeded his younger brother in 1495 in Bayreuth.   

g)         ELŹBIETA (9 May 1465-9 May 1466). 

h)         ZYGMUNT (1 Jan 1467-1 Apr 1548).  Duke of Glogau 1498-1506, Duke of Oppeln 1501-1506.  He succeeded his brother in 1506 as ZYGMUNT I “Stary/the Old” King of Poland, Grand Prince of Lithuania.  Hostilities with Moscow resumed in 1514 when Vassily III Grand Prince of Moscow captured Smolensk from Lithuania[601]m firstly (28 May 1512) BARBARA Zápolya, daughter of ISTVÁN Zápolya Lord of Trenczin & his second wife Jadwiga von Teschen [Piast] (1495-2 Oct 1515).  m secondly (18 Apr 1518) BONA Sforza, daughter of GIAN GALEAZZO Sforza Duke of Milan & his wife Isabella of Naples [Aragon] (13 Feb 1495-Bari 7 Nov 1558).  Mistress (1): KATARZYNA Telniczenka, daughter of --- (after 1480-25 Aug/10 Sep 1528).  She married (after 27 Oct 1509) Andrzej Kościelecki (-6 Sep 1515).  King Zygmunt I & his first wife had two children:

i)          JADWIGA (25 Mar 1513-7 Feb 1573)m (29 Aug or 1 Sep 1535) JOACHIM II  Elector of Brandenburg (-3 Jan 1571). 

ii)         ANNA (1 Jul 1515-8 May 1520).

King Zygmunt I & his second wife had six children:

iii)        IZABELLA (18 Jan 1519-15 Sep 1559)m (23 Feb 1539) JÁNOS I Zápolya King of Hungary, son of ISTVÁN Zápolya Lord of Trenczin & his second wife Jadwiga von Teschen [Piast] (1487-17 or 21 Jul 1540).

iv)       ZYGMUNT (1 Aug 1520-7 Jul 1572).  He succeeded in 1522 as Grand Prince of Lithuania.  He succeeded his father in 1548 as ZYGMUNT II AUGUST King of Poland.  Moscow started the Livonian war in 1558 to acquire land west of Pskov.  However, Poland, Lithuania and the other Baltic powers intervened to prevent Muscovite expansion.  Over the course of the following twenty years, Moscow temporarily captured Polotsk in 1563 but in 1582 was forced to agree a truce with Poland-Lithuania, united since the Union of Lublin of 1569[602].  m firstly (5 May 1543) ELISABETH Adss of Austria, daughter of FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria King of Bohemia and Hungary (9 Jul 1526 –15 Jun 1545).  m secondly (28 Jul/6 Aug 1547) as her second husband, BARBARA Radziwiłł, widow of STANISŁAW Gasztold Voivode of Novogrodek, daughter of JERZY VICTOR Radziwiłł castellan of Vilna, Hetman of Greater Lithuania (6 Dec 1523 -8 May 1551).  m thirdly (1553, shortly after 23 Jun) as her second husband, KATHARINA Adss of Austria, widow of FRANCESCO III Gonzaga Duke of Mantua, daughter of FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria King of Bohemia and Hungary (15 Sep 1533 –28 Feb 1572).  Mistress (1): BARBARA Giźawka, daughter of JAN Giźawka, counsellor in Warsaw (-May 1589), who married (before 14 Jul 1573) Michał Prince Woroniecki.  King Zygmunt II had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

(a)        BARBARA (-after 5 Jun 1615).  m (before 6 Dec 1593) JAKUB Zawadzki .

v)        SOFIA (Krakow 13 Jul 1522-Schöningen 28 May 1575)m (Wolfenbüttel 25 Feb 1556) as his second wife, HEINRICH II "der Jüngere" Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, son of HEINRICH I Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his wife Katharina von Pommern (10 Nov 1489-Wolfenbüttel 11 Jun 1568).    

vi)       ANNA (18 Oct 1523-9 Sep 1596).  She succeeded in 1575 as ANNA Queen of Polandm (1 May 1576) STEFAN Bátory Prince of Transylvania (-12 Dec 1586).  He succeeded in 1575 as STEFAN King of Poland

vii)      KATARZINA (1 Nov 1526-16 Sep 1583)m (4 Oct 1562) JOHAN Prince of Sweden (-17 Nov 1592).  He succeeded in 1569 as JOHAN III King of Sweden.  

viii)     OLBRACHT (b and d 20 Sep 1527). 

King Zygmunt I had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1): 

ix)        JAN (1499-1538).  Legitimated 29 Jul 1510.  Canon at Cracow 1510.  Provost at Plock 1514/36.  Bishop of Vilan 1519.  Bishop of Posen 1536.

x)         REGINA (1500/1-20 May 1526)m ([20 Oct 1518]) HIERONIM Szafraniec, Starost of Teschen (-1559).  Royal secretary.  

xi)        KATARZINA ([1503]-before 9 Sep 1548)m (after 1522) GEORG Graf von Montfort-Bregenz (-30 May 1544). 

i)          FRYDERYK (27 Apr 1468-14 Mar 1503).  Bishop of Cracow 1488.  Archbishop of Gnesen and Cardinal 1493.

j)          ELŹBIETA (13 May 1472-after 1480). 

k)         ANNA (Nessau 12 Mar 1476-Ückermunde 12 Aug 1503)m (Stettin 2 Feb 1491) BOGISLAW X “der Große” Duke of Pomerania, son of ERICH II Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast & his wife Sophie von Pommern (Stolp 3 Jul 1454-Stettin 5 Oct 1523, bur Stettin).

l)          BARBARA (Sandomir 15 Jul 1478-Leipzig 15 Feb 1534)m (Leipzig 21 Nov 1496) GEORG of Saxony (Meissen 27 Aug 1471-Dresden 17 Apr 1539).  He succeeded in 1500 as GEORG “der Bärtige” Duke of Saxony.

m)       ELŹBIETA (13 Nov 1482-16 Feb 1517)m (26 Nov 1515) as his first wife, FRIEDRICH von Brieg, son of JOHANN II Duke of Lüben [Piast] & his wife Hedwig von Brieg [Piast] (14 Feb 1480-17/18 Sep 1547).  He succeeded in 1521 as FRIEDRICH II Duke of Liegnitz

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KING of POLAND 1573-1575 (VALOIS)

 

 

1.         EDOUARD ALEXANDRE de France, son of HENRI II King of France & his wife Caterina de’ Medici (Château de Fontainebleau 19 Sep 1551-murdered Saint-Cloud 2 Aug 1589, bur Compiègne, transferred 23 Jun 1610 to l'église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  At first called "Monsieur, Monseigneur le Duc d'Angoulême".  He took the title Duc d'Orléans 8 Dec 1560.  He adopted the first name HENRI, after his late father, at his confirmation 18 Mar 1566 at Toulouse Cathédrale Saint-Etienne.  Entering the Royal Council at Moulins Feb 1567, he was created Duc d'Anjou et de Bourbon[603].  He adopted the title Duc d'Anjou but was referred to as "Monseigneur" or "Monseigneur frère du roi".  He was elected HENRYK King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania by the Diet of Warsaw 11 May 1573, crowned at Krakow St Wenceslas Cathedral 21 Feb 1574.  Having reserved his rights to succeed in France 22 Aug 1573 before he left for Poland, he succeeded his brother in 1574 as HENRI III King of France.  Although he left Poland for France immediately, he did not formally abdicate as king of Poland but continued to refer to himself by the title, even after the election of Stefan Bátory as king in his place. 

 

 



[1] Dzięcioł, Witold (1963) The Origins of Poland (Veritas, London), p. 38. 

[2] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 87-90, which cites, among other descriptive sources, the Historia adversus paganos of Orosius, translated by Alfred King of Wessex, and the Descriptio civitatum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii by the Bavarian Geographer. 

[3] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 100. 

[4] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS, p. 209. 

[5] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 102-4 and 109, the latter dating the event to before 885 when Methodius died. 

[6] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 106-7. 

[7] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 105.  Possible marriages between the Piasts and the Moravian Moimirids are discussed in Kętrzyńsky, S. (1961) Polska X-XI Wleku (Warsaw), p. 63, cited in Dzięcioł (1963), p. 288 footnote 32. 

[8] Gallus Chronicon Polonorum, I, 1-3, cited in Dzięcioł (1963), p. 108. 

[9] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.1, MGH SS IX, p. 426. 

[10] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 204-6. 

[11] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 115. 

[12] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 124. 

[13] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615. 

[14] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.2, MGH SS IX, p. 426. 

[15] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615. 

[16] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 292 footnote 18. 

[17] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615. 

[18] Stenzel, G. A. (ed.) (1835) Scriptores Rerum Silesiacarum, Erster Band (Breslau) Chronicon principum Poloniĉ, (“Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I”), p. 45. 

[19] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.2, MGH SS IX, p. 426. 

[20] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615. 

[21] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 45. 

[22] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.3, MGH SS IX, p. 427. 

[23] Gallus Chronicon, I, 3, cited in Dzięcioł (1963), p. 208, which highlights the legendary character of the early parts of the chronicle. 

[24] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615. 

[25] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.3, MGH SS IX, p. 427. 

[26] Gallus Chronicon, I, 3, cited in Dzięcioł (1963), p. 209. 

[27] Annales Polanorum II 915 and 975, MGH SS XIX, pp. 612 and 615. 

[28] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.3, MGH SS IX, p. 427. 

[29] Gallus Chronicon, I, 3, cited in Dzięcioł (1963), p. 209. 

[30] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 110-11, citing Emperor Constantine De Administrando imperio, 13, 30 and 32. 

[31] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.4, MGH SS IX, p. 427. 

[32] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 66, p. 463. 

[33] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 2.29, p. 114. 

[34] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniĉ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[35] Breve chronicon Silesiĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34. 

[36] Bielowski, A. (ed.) (1864) Monumenta Poloniĉ Historica (Lwów) Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9. 

[37] ES II 153.  She is not shown in ES II 120. 

[38] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[39] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.4, MGH SS IX, p. 427. 

[40] Annales Polanorum II 920 and 931, MGH SS XIX, p. 612. 

[41] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 211 and 293 footnote 27. 

[42] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 66, p. 463.  Dzięcioł (1963), p. 128, deduces that "the Volynians" were the western Pomeranians. 

[43] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 130-1 and 177. 

[44] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 138 and 184. 

[45] Thietmar, 2.14, p. 102. 

[46] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 69, p. 464.  The point is discussed in Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 133-4. 

[47] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 69, p. 464. 

[48] Thietmar 2.29, p. 114. 

[49] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 142. 

[50] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 144. 

[51] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 148. 

[52] The Primary Russian Chronicle, 981, Dzieciol highlighting, p. 285 footnote 87, that "Peremyshl" may have been either Przemyśl-on-San or Peremil-on-Styr. 

[53] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 153. 

[54] Appelt, H. (ed.) (1971) Schlesisches Urkundenbuch, Erster Nabd 971-1230 (Wien, Köln, Graz) (“Schlesisches Urkundenbuch“) I 971-1230, 2, p. 2. 

[55] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[56] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 47. 

[57] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 212. 

[58] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[59] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 47. 

[60] Thietmar 4. 55, p. 191. 

[61] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.5, MGH SS IX, p. 428. 

[62] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 130-1. 

[63] Cosmĉ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum I.27, MGH SS IX, p. 51. 

[64] Thietmar 4.57, p. 192. 

[65] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[66] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.6, MGH SS IX, p. 428. 

[67] Runic Stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark, information supplied by Jan Hedbor of Uppsala, in a private email to the author dated 4 May 2008. 

[68] ES II 97. 

[69] Thietmar VII.39, p. 334. 

[70] ES II 114 and 120. 

[71] For example, Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98, available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003). 

[72] Thietmar 5.23, p. 221. 

[73] Thietmar 4.57 and 4.58, pp. 192-3. 

[74] Schlesisches Urkundenbuch I 971-1230, 2, p. 2. 

[75] ES II 120. 

[76] Thietmar 4.57 and 4.58, pp. 192-3. 

[77] Thietmar 4.57 and 4.58, pp. 192-3. 

[78] Schlesisches Urkundenbuch I 971-1230, 2, p. 2. 

[79] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.6, MGH SS IX, p. 428. 

[80] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[81] Annales Polanorum II 967, MGH SS XIX, p. 615. 

[82] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 142. 

[83] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[84] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 156. 

[85] Dzięcioł (1963), pp. 155-7 and 194-5. 

[86] Thietmar 5.18, cited in Dzeciol, p. 238. 

[87] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 260. 

[88] Reuter (1991), p. 260. 

[89] Gallus Chronicon, I, 7, quoted in Dzięcioł (1963), p. 223.

[90] Franklin, S and Shepard, J. (1998) The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (Longman), pp. 186-87.  Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London) (“Novgorod Chronicle”) 1016, pp. 1-2.   

[91] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[92] Breve chronicon Silesiĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34. 

[93] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[94] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[95] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[96] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 215. 

[97] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 13, MGH SS XXI, p. 20. 

[98] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 22. 

[99] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Vol. 3, pp. 1150-51, cited in Thietmar, p. 193 footnote 159.  . 

[100] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[101] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 53. 

[102] Thietmar 8.1, p. 361. 

[103] ES II 120. 

[104] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[105] Annales Hildesheimenses 1031 and 1032, MGH SS III, p. 98. 

[106] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[107] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[108] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[109] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[110] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 223. 

[111] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 197. 

[112] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[113] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 29, MGH SS XI, p. 269. 

[114] Reuter (1991), p. 226. 

[115] Annalista Saxo 1036. 

[116] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[117] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.17, MGH SS IX, p. 436. 

[118] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[119] Annales Silesiaci Compilati 990, MGH SS XIX, p. 538. 

[120] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 53. 

[121] Annalista Saxo 1030. 

[122] Dzięcioł (1963), pp 199 and 228

[123] Annales Cracovienses Vetusti, p. 2.  

[124] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[125] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 16, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 403. 

[126] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 8.  

[127] D H III 273, p. 370. 

[128] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 200. 

[129] Lacomblet, T. J. (1857) Archiv für die Geschichte des Niederrheins (Düsseldorf), Band II, p. 12. 

[130] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1016, MGH SS XIX, p. 586. 

[131] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniĉ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Cracovienses Vetusti, p. 2.  

[132] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 8.  

[133] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 200. 

[134] Annalista Saxo 1039. 

[135] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1058, MGH SS XIX, p. 587. 

[136] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[137] Annales Polanorum II 1025, MGH SS XIX, p. 618. 

[138] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[139] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 58. 

[140] Cross, S. H. and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, O. P. (trans. & eds.) (1973) The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text (Cambridge, Massachusetts), 1043, p. 139. 

[141] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1087, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[142] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[143] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 58. 

[144] Annalista Saxo 1039. 

[145] Annales Cracovienses Vetusti, p. 2.  

[146] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 225. 

[147] Annales Cracovienses Vetusti, p. 2.  

[148] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII siècles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 20, citing Sommersberg, Silesiacorum Rerum Scriptores V. I, pp. 650-1, Monum. Polon. IV 10, Tatyszczew III 119, and Linniczenko, Relations mutuelles de Russie et de Pologne 53. 

[149] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1069, MGH SS XIX, p. 587. 

[150] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.29, MGH SS IX, pp. 441-2. 

[151] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1089, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[152] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1088, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[153] Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing Sommersberg, Silesiacarum Rerum Scriptores T. I, p. 300, Dlugosz Lib. IV, p. 312, and Monum. Polon. II 773, 796 and 874. 

[154] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[155] Annalista Saxo 1039. 

[156] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[157] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1045, MGH SS XIX, p. 587. 

[158] Annales Cracovienses Vetusti, p. 2.  

[159] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[160] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1048, MGH SS XIX, p. 587. 

[161] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[162] Annalista Saxo 1061. 

[163] Cosmĉ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum II.20, MGH SS IX, p. 80. 

[164] Monachi Sazavensis Continuatio Cosmĉ 1126 MGH SS IX, p. 157. 

[165] Annales Sanctĉ Crucis Polonici, MGH SS XIX, p. 678. 

[166] Kézai, S., Veszprémy, L. and Schaer, F. (eds. and trans.) (1999) Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum (CEP) 52, p. 121. 

[167] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121. 

[168] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489. 

[169] ES II 154. 

[170] Baumgarten (1927), p. 9, citing chron. russes. V 138, VII 361, IX 83, chron. de Danilewicz, p. 116, and Monum. Polon. (Martin Gall) I 419. 

[171] Russian Primary Chronicle, 1107, p. 204. 

[172] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 58. 

[173] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.19, MGH SS IX, p. 438. 

[174] Annalista Saxo 1039. 

[175] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1102, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[176] Annalista Saxo 1061. 

[177] Cosmĉ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum II.20, MGH SS IX, p. 80. 

[178] Annalista Saxo 1061. 

[179] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.30, MGH SS IX, p. 442. 

[180] Cosmĉ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum II.36, MGH SS IX, p. 91. 

[181] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1086, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[182] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[183] Annales Yburgenses 1074, MGH SS XVI, p. 436. 

[184] Chronicĉ Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[185] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[186] Necrologium Weltenbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[187] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[188] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 319. 

[189] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.30, MGH SS IX, p. 442. 

[190] Chronicĉ Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[191] Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 105. 

[192] Chronicĉ Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[193] Notĉ Genealogicĉ Bavaricĉ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 76. 

[194] Chronicĉ Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[195] Fundatio et notĉ Monasterii Richenbacensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1078. 

[196] Necrologium Admuntense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 287. 

[197] Chronicĉ Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[198] Chronicĉ Polanorum II.4, MGH SS IX, p. 446. 

[199] Cosmĉ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum III.15, MGH SS IX, p. 109. 

[200] Chronicĉ Polanorum I.30, MGH SS IX, p. 442. 

[201] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1086, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[202] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1119, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[203] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1138, MGH SS XIX, p. 590. 

[204] Russian Primary Chronicle, 1102, p. 199. 

[205] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[206] Annales Cracovienses Vetusti, p. 3.  

[207] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 8.  

[208] Cosmĉ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum III.51, MGH SS IX, p. 126. 

[209] Bertholdi, Zwifaltensis Chronicon 12, MGH SS X, p. 103. 

[210] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[211] Necrologium Zwifaltense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 240. 

[212] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[213] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1105, MGH SS XIX, p. 588. 

[214] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[215] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[216] Baumgarten (1927), p. 20, citing Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 137. 

[217] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1115, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[218] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1141, MGH SS XXIII, p. 834. 

[219] Baumgarten (1927), p. 26, citing N. de Baumgarten, Sophie Reine de Danemark, and Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 150. 

[220] Diplomatarium Suecanum 101, p. 125. 

[221] Annalista Saxo 1133. 

[222] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1131, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[223] Necrologium Zwifaltense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 240. 

[224] Ortliebi Zwifaltensis Chronicon I.20, MGH SS X, p. 85. 

[225] Translatio Manus sancti Stephani, MGH SS X, p. 90. 

[226] Necrologium Zwifaltense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 240. 

[227] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[228] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[229] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1127, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[230] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 54. 

[231] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 259. 

[232] Rzyszczewski, L. & Muczkowski, A. (eds.) (1847) Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I (Warsaw), II, p. 4. 

[233] Jordan (1986), p. 54, and Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 150. 

[234] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1173, MGH SS XIX, p. 592. 

[235] Baumgarten (1927), p. 26, citing Chr. russes II 14 and III 7, and Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 158. 

[236] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 96. 

[237] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1172, MGH SS XIX, p. 592. 

[238] Baumgarten (1927), p. 26, citing Tatyszczew III 247, and Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 188. 

[239] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[240] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 96. 

[241] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1186, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[242] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[243] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[244] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[245] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[246] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, II, p. 4. 

[247] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniĉ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Lubinenses, p. 5.  

[248] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 229. 

[249] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1184, MGH SS XXIII, p. 159. 

[250] Annales Polanorum II 1128, MGH SS XIX, p. 624. 

[251] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[252] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1136, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[253] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erster Haupttheil - Band 8, XXI, p. 108. 

[254] Raumer, G. W. von (1836) Regesta Historiĉ Brandenburgensis Tome I (Berlin) (“Regesta Historiĉ Brandenburgensis”), p. 236. 

[255] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erster Haupttheil - Band 24, Mittelmärkische Urkunden, IV, p. 325. 

[256] Translatio Manus sancti Stephani, MGH SS X, p. 91. 

[257] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 563. 

[258] Baumgarten (1927), p. 26, citing Chr. rus. I 154, II 105 and II 312, and Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 158. 

[259] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[260] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1138, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[261] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[262] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[263] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[264] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[265] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, I, p. 1. 

[266] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, II, p. 4. 

[267] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1195 and 1196, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[268] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 101. 

[269] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1202, MGH SS XIX, p. 594. 

[270] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[271] ES II 154. 

[272] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[273] Baumgarten (1927), p. 26, citing Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 165-7. 

[274] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[275] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[276] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[277] Baumgarten (1927), p. 16, citing Monum. Polon. II 378, II 526, III 479, III 634, Dlugosz, Histor. Polon. II 85, and Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 194. 

[278] Baumgarten (1927), p. 21, citing Liber fraternitatis Lubienensis, Kwartalnik historyczny, Roczn. XI, "Rodowód Piastów", pp. 763-4. 

[279] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 565. 

[280] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1225, MGH SS XIX, p. 596. 

[281] ES II 121. 

[282] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[283] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562.  

[284] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[285] Poull, G. (1991) La Maison ducale de Lorraine (Presses universitaires de Nancy), p. 45. 

[286] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[287] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[288] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1209, MGH SS XXIII, p. 176. 

[289] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[290] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[291] Cod Giessensis Nr. 176, fol. 234, included as Genealogiĉ Comitum et Marchionum sĉc XII et XIII, in MGH SS XXIV, p. 78. 

[292] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[293] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[294] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1159, MGH SS XIX, p. 591. 

[295] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1195, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[296] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[297] ES II 121. 

[298] ES VIII 120. 

[299] ES II 121. 

[300] ES II 121. 

[301] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[302] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[303] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[304] Hasselbach, K., Kosegarten, J. (eds.) (1862) Codex Pomeraniĉ Diplomaticus, Band I (Greifswald), 78, p. 189. 

[305] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1229 and 1231, MGH SS XIX, pp. 596 and 597. 

[306] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1235, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[307] Epytaphia ducum Slezie, MGH SS XIX, p. 551. 

[308] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[309] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[310] Fabricius, C. G. (ed.) (1859) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Fürstenthums Rügen (Berlin) ("Rügen Urkunden"), Band II, XVI, p. 9. 

[311] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 565. 

[312] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[313] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1227, MGH SS XXIII, p. 921. 

[314] Piekosiński, F. (ed.) (1874) Monumenta medii ĉvi historica, Tome I, Cathedralis ad S. Venceslaum ecclesiĉ Cracoviensis diplomatici codicis partem primam 1166-1366 (Cracow) ("Krakow St Wacław"), XIX, p. 26. 

[315] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXII, p. 36. 

[316] Riedel, A. F. (ed.) (1838-1863) Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis (Berlin) (“Codex Brandenburgensis”) Erste Haupttheil - Band 24, I, p. 1. 

[317] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[318] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erste Haupttheil - Band 24, I, p. 1. 

[319] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXX, p. 45. 

[320] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1258, MGH SS XIX, p. 600. 

[321] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 107. 

[322] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 568. 

[323] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 479. 

[324] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[325] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erster Haupttheil, Band 19, XL, p. 7. 

[326] Knoll, P. W. (1972) The Rise of the Polish Monarchy: Piast Poland in East Central Europe 1320-1370 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London), p. 17. 

[327] Knoll (1972), pp. 17-18. 

[328] Krakow St Wacław, XCI, p. 127. 

[329] Knoll (1972), p. 17. 

[330] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[331] Knoll (1972), p. 20. 

[332] Annales Polonorum I 1283, MGH SS XIX, p. 648, this being recorded at the end of the passage dealing with events of 1283. 

[333] Annales Polonorum I 1285, MGH SS XIX, p. 650. 

[334] Annales Lubicenses 1300 and 1302, MGH SS XVI, pp. 417 and 418. 

[335] Annales Polonorum I 1288, MGH SS XIX, p. 650. 

[336] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 123. 

[337] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber I, Caput XV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 58. 

[338] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber I, Caput XVIII, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 73. 

[339] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput IV, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, pp. 121-2. 

[340] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[341] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erste Haupttheil - Band 24, I, p. 1. 

[342] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXX, p. 45. 

[343] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1279, MGH SS XIX, p. 605. 

[344] Annales Polonorum I 1279, MGH SS XIX, p. 642. 

[345] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1259, MGH SS XIX, p. 600. 

[346] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1259, MGH SS XIX, p. 600. 

[347] Annales Wratislavienses 1304, MGH SS XIX, p. 528. 

[348] Notĉ Monialium Sanctĉ Clarĉ Wratislaviensium, MGH SS XIX, p. 534. 

[349] Annales Polonorum I 1333, MGH SS XIX, p. 660. 

[350] Knoll (1972), p. 19. 

[351] Annales Polonorum I 1276, MGH SS XIX, p. 640. 

[352] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 568. 

[353] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 109. 

[354] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 565. 

[355] Epytaphia ducum Slezie, MGH SS XIX, p. 551. 

[356] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[357] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1138, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[358] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[359] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[360] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[361] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, IV, p. 11. 

[362] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1186, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[363] Krakow St Wacław, IV, p. 8. 

[364] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1194, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[365] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1195, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[366] Krakow St Wacław, IV, p. 8. 

[367] Baumgarten (1927), p. 40, citing Monum. Polon, II 21, 22, II 834, II 915 (marriage date), and Kod. dypl. Malop. I N 3 (date of death). 

[369] Baumgarten (1927), p. 40, citing Ipatiewskaia Chronicle, p. 489, and also Codex dypl. Wielk. III N 2020, Kodex dypl. Kat. Krak. I N 4, Dlugosz, Hist. Pol. II 73. 

[370] Baumgarten (1927), p. 21, citing Balzer, Genealogia Piastów 258. 

[371] Baumgarten (1927), p. 21, citing chron. rus. VII 118. 

[372] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1168, MGH SS XIX, p. 591. 

[373] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[374] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1182, MGH SS XIX, p. 592. 

[375] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[376] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 101. 

[377] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1195, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[378] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[379] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1195, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[380] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1202, MGH SS XIX, p. 594. 

[381] Fennell, J. (1983) The Crisis of Medieval Russia 1200-1304 (Longman), p. 28, and Martin, J. (1995) Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge), p. 119. 

[382] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1205, MGH SS XIX, p. 594. 

[383] Martin (1995), p. 127, and Fennell (1983), p. 37. 

[384] Krakow St Wacław, XIII, p. 18. 

[385] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1227, MGH SS XIX, p. 596. 

[386] Annales Silesiaci Compilati 990, MGH SS XIX, p. 538. 

[387] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1227, MGH SS XXIII, p. 921. 

[388] Baumgarten (1927), p. 61, citing Recueil compl. de chr. russes II 157, and Monum. Polon. II 552, II 836, II 876, III 46, III 162, 163, IV 776. 

[389] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIX, p. 31. 

[390] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XLIV, p. 73. 

[391] Krakow St Wacław, XLIII, p. 60. 

[392] Piekosiński, F. (ed.) (1874) Monumenta medii ĉvi historica, Tome I, Cathedralis ad S. Venceslaum ecclesiĉ Cracoviensis diplomatici codicis partem primam 1166-1366 (Cracow) ("Krakow St Wacław"), XIX, p. 26. 

[393] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1279, MGH SS XIX, p. 605. 

[394] Annales Polonorum I 1258 and III 1259, MGH SS XIX, p. 635. 

[395] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 155. 

[396] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1269, MGH SS XIX, p. 604. 

[397] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1269, MGH SS XIX, p. 604. 

[398] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XL, p. 65. 

[399] Krakow St Wacław, XLIII, p. 60. 

[400] Baumgarten (1927), p. 48, citing chr. russes II (ed. 1908) 880. 

[401] Baumgarten (1927), p. 48, citing chr. russes II 202. 

[402] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 155. 

[403] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1226, MGH SS XIX, p. 596. 

[404] Krakow St Wacław, XIX, p. 26. 

[405] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1243, MGH SS XIX, p. 598. 

[406] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXXV, p. 54. 

[407] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XL, p. 65. 

[408] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XLIV, p. 73. 

[409] Krakow St Wacław, XLIII, p. 60. 

[410] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1279, MGH SS XIX, p. 605. 

[411] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1234, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[412] Annales Polonorum I 1234, MGH SS XIX, p. 632. 

[413] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1239, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[414] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1238, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[415] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XLIV, p. 73. 

[416] Krakow St Wacław, XLIII, p. 60. 

[417] Annales Polonorum I 1292, MGH SS XIX, p. 651. 

[418] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[419] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 101. 

[420] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1195, MGH SS XIX, p. 593. 

[421] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1146, MGH SS XXIII, p. 838. 

[422] Fennell (1983), p. 28, and Martin (1995), p. 119. 

[423] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIV, p. 25. 

[424] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XV, p. 26. 

[425] Christiansen, E. (1997) The Northern Crusades, 2nd Ed, Penguin Books, p. 82. 

[426] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIX, p. 31. 

[427] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXIX, p. 44. 

[428] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXXI, p. 47. 

[429] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1247, MGH SS XIX, p. 598. 

[430] Baumgarten (1927), p. 21, citing Monum. Polon. III 353, and Balzer, Genealogia Piastów, pp. 268-75. 

[431] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIV, p. 25. 

[432] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 103. 

[433] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[434] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 563. 

[435] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIV, p. 25. 

[436] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIX, p. 31. 

[437] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXIII, p. 37. 

[438] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXIX, p. 44. 

[439] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1247, MGH SS XIX, p. 598. 

[440] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, pp. 563 and 568. 

[441] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 103. 

[442] Baumgarten (1927), p. 58, citing chr. russes II 185, and III 85. 

[443] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIV, p. 25. 

[444] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XVII, p. 29. 

[445] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[446] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 563. 

[447] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[448] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 565. 

[449] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 109. 

[450] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[451] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 563. 

[452] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XIX, p. 31. 

[453] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXIX, p. 44. 

[454] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XLIX, p. 84. 

[455] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1279, MGH SS XIX, p. 605. 

[456] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1246, MGH SS XIX, p. 598. 

[457] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1268, MGH SS XIX, p. 603. 

[458] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, pp. 563 and 568. 

[459] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 103. 

[460] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXXIX, p. 62. 

[461] Knoll (1972), p. 15. 

[462] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 563. 

[463] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[464] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXXIX, p. 62. 

[465] Krakow St Wacław, LXXXVIII, p. 120. 

[466] Annales Grissowienses maiores 1288, MGH SS XIX, p. 541. 

[467] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1268 and 1276, MGH SS XIX, pp. 604 and 605. 

[468] Annales Polonorum I 1265 and 1279, MGH SS XIX, pp. 636 and 644. 

[469] Annales Polonorum I 1271, MGH SS XIX, p. 638. 

[470] Krakow St Wacław, LXXXVIII, p. 120. 

[471] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 563. 

[472] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXXIX, p. 62.  

[473] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XLIX, p. 84. 

[474] Annales Polonorum I 1287, MGH SS XIX, p. 650. 

[475] Perlbach, M. (ed.) (1882) Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, Zweite Abteilung (Danzig) ("Pommerellisches Urkundenbuch, II"), 440, p. 393. 

[476] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[477] Knoll (1972), p. 21. 

[478] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[479] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[480] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[481] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, pp. 154-5. 

[482] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, pp. 154-5. 

[483] Baumgarten (1927), p. 50, citing Balzer, Genealogia Piastów pp. 345-7. 

[484] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[485] Baumgarten (1927), p. 50, citing Dlugosz, Hist.Polon. III 39. 

[486] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[487] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXIX, p. 44. 

[488] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, XXIX, p. 44. 

[489] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1262, MGH SS XIX, p. 601. 

[490] Baumgarten (1927), p. 49, citing Balzer, Genealogia Piastów pp. 313-20. 

[491] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[492] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1262, MGH SS XIX, p. 601. 

[493] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 569. 

[494] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[495] Rowell, S. C. (1994) Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire within East-Central Europe (Cambridge University Press), p. 5. 

[496] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber I, Caput III, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 29. 

[497] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber II, Caput VIII, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 130. 

[498] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, pp. 153-4. 

[499] Knoll (1972), p. 202. 

[500] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 153. 

[501] Knoll (1972), p. 202. 

[502] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[503] Baumgarten (1927), p. 53, citing Mon. Polon. V 880, 881. 

[504] Baumgarten (1927), p. 53, citing Voigt, Cod. dipl. Pruss. II n. 119. 

[505] Rowell (1994), p. 99. 

[506] Rowell (1994), p. 266. 

[507] Knoll (1972), p. 126. 

[508] Rowell (1994), p. 93. 

[509] Knoll (1972), p. 202. 

[510] Rowell (1994), p. 8. 

[511] Knoll (1972), pp. 51-2. 

[512] Rowell (1994), p. 91, cites a 6 Dec 1320 charter granted at Wyszgród in which Prince Wacław refers to his wife and children. 

[513] Rowell (1994), p. 8. 

[514] Knoll (1972), p. 203. 

[515] Knoll (1972), p. 202. 

[516] Knoll (1972), p. 202. 

[517] Annales Polonorum I 1301 and III 1301, MGH SS XIX, pp. 653 and 654. 

[518] Knoll (1972), p. 202. 

[519] Knoll (1972), p. 206. 

[520] Knoll (1972), p. 230. 

[521] Necrologium Austriacum Gentis Habsburgicĉ Alterum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 124. 

[522] Necrologium Runense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 341. 

[523] Origo regis Jagyelo et Witholdi ducum Lithuaniĉ, available at <http://litopys.org.ua/psrl3235/lytov21.htm> (8 Oct 2007). 

[524] Knoll (1972), p. 62. 

[525] Annales Polonorum IV 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 637. 

[526] Knoll (1972), p. 15. 

[527] Knoll (1972), p. 16. 

[528] Knoll (1972), p. 18. 

[529] Knoll (1972), p. 21. 

[530] Knoll (1972), p. 22. 

[531] Knoll (1972), pp. 27-8. 

[532] Rowell (1994), p. 4. 

[533] Knoll (1972), p. 33. 

[534] Knoll (1972), p. 34. 

[535] Rowell (1994), p. 4. 

[536] Knoll (1972), pp. 61-2. 

[537] Knoll (1972), pp. 57-8. 

[538] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[539] Annales Terrĉ Prussicĉ 1333, MGH SS XIX, p. 692. 

[540] Knoll (1972), p. 110. 

[541] Annales Polonorum I 1333, MGH SS XIX, p. 660. 

[542] Knoll (1972), p. 19. 

[543] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[544] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[545] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historiĉ Hungaricĉ fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Leipzig) Chronica Ungarorum, 69, p. 249. 

[546] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[547] Bak, János B. 'Queens as Scapegoats in Medieval Hungary', in Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 229. 

[548] Knoll (1972), pp. 97-8. 

[549] Knoll (1972), pp. 197 and 200-1. 

[550] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[551] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 154. 

[552] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[553] Knoll (1972), p. 66, who points out that the succession of King Kazimierz was by hereditary right and that the Polish monarchy was at that date not yet elective. 

[554] Knoll (1972), p. 58. 

[555] Knoll (1972), p. 126. 

[556] Knoll (1972), pp. 132-3. 

[557] Knoll (1972), p. 135. 

[558] Knoll (1972), p. 141. 

[559] Novgorod Chronicle 1349, p. 143. 

[560] Knoll (1972), pp. 206-7. 

[561] Knoll (1972), pp. 216-7. 

[562] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 155. 

[563] Rowell (1994), p. 232. 

[564] Annales Polonorum I 1325, MGH SS XIX, p. 656. 

[565] Rowell (1994), p. 232. 

[566] Knoll (1972), p. 66. 

[567] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 688. 

[568] Knoll (1972), pp. 110-1. 

[569] Knoll (1972), p. 111. 

[570] Chronica principum Poloniĉ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 155. 

[571] Knoll (1972), p. 111. 

[572] Codex Diplomaticus Poloniĉ Tome I, CX, p. 190. 

[573] Knoll (1972), pp. 112 and 208. 

[574] Ephemerides Wladislavienses, MGH SS XIX, p. 689. 

[575] Knoll (1972), p. 221. 

[576] Knoll (1972), p. 208. 

[577] Knoll (1972), p. 220. 

[578] Knoll (1972), p. 219. 

[579] Knoll (1972), pp. 221-2. 

[580] Knoll (1972), p. 207.  These dates are not consistent with the dates of birth of the couple's three sons shown below. 

[581] Knoll (1972), p. 207. 

[582] Knoll (1972), pp. 69-70. 

[583] Knoll (1972), p. 115. 

[584] Knoll (1972), p. 115, citing Dogiel, M. (1758-64) Codex diplomaticus regni Poloniĉ et magni ducatas Lithuaniĉ, 3 vols. (Vilno), I, 568. 

[585] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven 1316-1361, p. 36. 

[586] Knoll (1972), pp. 182-3. 

[587] Knoll (1972), p. 235. 

[588] Knoll (1972), p. 235. 

[589] Martin (1995), p. 214. 

[590] Stenzel, G. A. (ed.) (1835) Scriptores Rerum Silesiacarum, Erster Band (Breslau) ("Silesiacarum Scriptores I"), p. 218. 

[591] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 548-9. 

[592] Novgorod Chronicle 1440, p. 197. 

[593] Martin (1995), pp. 304-05. 

[594] Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 310. 

[595] Necrologia Aldersbacensia, Passau Necrologies I, p. 4. 

[596] Necrologium Baumburgense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 236. 

[597] Martin (1995), pp. 304-07. 

[598] Martin (1995), p. 306. 

[599] Martin (1995), p. 307. 

[600] Crummey, R. O. (1987) The Formation of Muscovy 1304-1613 (Longman), pp. 95-6.  

[601] Martin (1995), p. 308. 

[602] Martin (1995), pp. 357-59. 

[603] Revived as duchy and pairie at Moulins 8 Feb 1566 (registered 21 Mar).