SAXONY, dukes & electors

  v2.0 Updated 16 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            EARLY SAXON LEADERS, family of WIDUKIND. 1

Chapter 2.            EARLY SAXON LEADERS, family of LIUDOLF, later KINGS of GERMANY. 1

Chapter 3.            EARLY SAXON LEADERS, family of BILLUNG, later DUKES of SAXONY. 1

A.       ORIGINS.. 1

B.       DUKES in SAXONY 973-1106. 1

BERNHARD I 973-1011, BERNHARD II 1011-1059. 1

ORDULF 1059-1072, MAGNUS 1072-1106. 1

Chapter 4.            DUKE of SAXONY 1106-1137, SÜPPLINGENBURG. 1

LOTHAR 1106-1137. 1

Chapter 5.            DUKES of SAXONY 1137-1138, 1142-1180, WELF. 1

HEINRICH 1137-1139, HEINRICH 1139-1180. 1

Chapter 6.  DUKES of SAXONY, BALLENSTEDT. 1

A.       DUKES of SAXONY 1180-1423, ELECTORS of SAXONY [1356]-1423. 1

ALBRECHT 1138-1142. 1

BERNHARD 1180-1212. 1

ALBRECHT 1212-1260. 1

ALBRECHT 1260-1298, RUDOLF 1298-1356, RUDOLF II 1356-1370, ALBRECHT III 1363-1385. 1

WENZEL 1370-1388, ALBRECHT II 1419-1423. 1

B.       HERZOGEN von SACHSEN in LAUENBURG, RATZEBURG und BERGEDORF 1260-1435. 1

JOHANN I 1260-1286, JOHANN II 1286-1322, ALBRECHT IV 1322-1343. 1

ERICH I 1305-1361, ERICH II 1361-1369, ERICH IV 1369-1412, ERICH V 1412-1435. 1

Chapter 7.            ELECTORS of SAXONY, WETTIN. 1

A.       ELECTORS of SAXONY 1423-1806. 1

FRIEDRICH I 1423-1428. 1

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Saxony was one of the original tribal provinces of Germany, the others being Bavaria, Franconia and Swabia.  From early medieval times, the term "Saxony" was applied exclusively to the land in north-west Germany which is now known as "Niedersachsen" (Lower Saxony).  From the 15th century onwards, it came to describe the part of central Germany which lay east of Thuringia, the area which later evolved into the kingdom of Saxony.  This unusual change in geographical emphasis can be traced to the appointment in 1423 of the head of the Wettin family as elector of Saxony, the Wettin family's territorial strongholds lying far from the traditional Saxon heartland.  The southern part of the original Saxony was Westphalia, although the duchy of Westphalia existed only briefly as a political entity in 1180 before the title was transferred to the archbishop of Köln[1].  The northern part of Saxony developed into Hannover, which was later incorporated into the territories of the dukes of Brunswick. 

 

The Saxons probably originated in what is now Schleswig-Holstein, migrating southwards from the 3rd century onwards.  Their expansion included the invasion and colonisation of England.  Their homeland in northern Germany was conquered neither by the Romans nor the barbarians who migrated into western Europe during the 4th and 5th centuries, presumably because its barrenness presented few attractions to potential invaders.  This insulation from outside influences may partly explain the decentralised way in which Saxony developed, in contrast to the more centralised administration which evolved in the other German provinces, particularly Bavaria.  By the early 8th century, Saxon territory extended from the northern coast around Kiel to the southern edge of the north German plain, and was bounded by the river Elbe to the east and the land of the Frisians to the west.  The Saxons paid tribute to the Merovingian Frankish kings at the rate of 400 cows a year until 631[2].  The Franks protected their northern borders with raids on Saxony recorded in 718, 738, 748 and 758, after the last of which a tribute of 300 horses was imposed[3].  Frankish campaigns against Saxony intensified in 772, followed by a mass execution of Saxons at Verden in 782 and the surrender of the Saxon leader Widukind in 785[4].  The Annalista Saxo records that Charles I King of the Franks (later Emperor Charlemagne) established the bishoprics of Bremen, Halberstadt, Hildesheim, Verden, Paderborn, Minden, Münster and Osnabrück in Saxony in 781[5].  Saxon resistance persisted but peace was established in 803, involving full integration of the territory into the Frankish empire[6].  After the partition of the Carolingian territories under the 843 Treaty of Verdun, Saxony formed part of the kingdom of the East Franks, which evolved into the kingdom of Germany.  Although significant central cohesion was achieved in Germany by the Ottonian emperors in the 10th century, Saxony maintained a considerable amount of autonomy. 

 

Early Saxon leadership probably constituted no more than a loose confederation of village chiefs, the extent of their cohesion at any one time depending on the level of threat from outside forces.  No precise information has been found on pre-Frankish conquest Saxon government.  Widukind, named both in Frankish sources and later German chronicles as Saxon leader in the later decades of the 8th century, may owe his reputed leadership position more to his subsequent almost legendary status rather than contemporary reality.  It is probable that he was the most powerful of the local chieftains but that he was "first among equals" rather than acknowledged ruler.  It is clear that Saxony had no long tradition of central leadership in contrast, for example, to the kingdom of Bavaria, although the descendants of Widukind appear to have been the first Saxon noble family to acquired semi-leadership status (see Chapter 1).  The situation did not change after the integration of Saxony into the Carolingian Frankish empire.  Imperial diplomas and other contemporary sources name numerous counts in Saxony during the first 150 years of Frankish rule, but none is acknowledged as leader prior to the Annales Alamannicorum which name "Ludolfus dux Saxoniæ avus Heinrici" among those who swore allegiance in 864[7].  This collegiate form of government in Saxony appears to be corroborated by the list recorded in Einhard's Annals of the Frankish signatories of the 811 peace with the Danes[8], in which at least five of the eleven names are recognisably Saxon but none is stated to be Saxon leader[9]

 

The Frankish local territorial administration unit, the pagus, was presumably introduced into Saxony only after a certain degree of internal stability was achieved after the 803 peace.  The "-gau" suffix, applied to the names of local administrative units, appears in imperial diplomas from the mid-9th century.  It is unlikely that this was a purely Saxon term as it is used in relation to pagi located in all the original German provinces.  The Carolingian Frankish kings also added levels of ecclesiastical administration.  Emperor Louis "the Pious" created the new bishoprics of Hildesheim and Halberstadt, whose territories were divided between the archiepiscopal provinces of Köln and Mainz, and founded the Saxon-based monastic communities at Essen, Herford and Corvey. 

 

During the mid-9th century, the Liudolfinger family replaced the Widukind family as the most powerful Saxon noble family (see Chapter 2), although the extent of their leadership status and their exact legal relationship with the German king are unclear.  Several early sources refer to Liudolf as dux, but there is no record of his formal appointment as Saxon leader.  Nevertheless, Ludolf's son Otto "der Erlauchte" was powerful enough to be a credible candidate for the royal succession after the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty in 911, and his own son Heinrich was elected king of Germany in 919.  His descendants are known to history as the "Saxon dynasty" of German king/emperors, in reference to their origin but not to the family's previous status as acknowledged dukes of Saxony. 

 

The third power force to emerge chronologically in Saxony was the family of Hermann Billung (see Chapter 3), who was appointed military chief in Saxony by Emperor Otto I and referred to as dux from 965.  The ducal title attributed to the Billung dukes was at first not linked specifically with the territory of Saxony in contemporary documentation, maybe because of the largely military authority of the title-holder and the focus of his efforts on protecting the eastern frontier against the Slavs.  From the late 10th century onwards, contemporary sources name a single "dux" in Saxony at any one time.  Nevertheless, it is more appropriate to refer to Duke Hermann and his immediate successors as dukes "in Saxony" rather than "of Saxony".  The title "Duke of Saxony" or "Duke of the Saxons" is first noted in documentation from the early 11th century. 

 

The choice of Lothar von Süpplingenburg to succeed as duke of Saxony after the extinction of the Billung family in the male line in 1106 marked a turning point in Saxon history (see Chapter 4).  Although his appointment was designed to limit the growing influence of the two more obvious candidates, Heinrich "der Schwarze" of the Welf dynasty and Otto Graf von Ballenstedt of the Askanian dynasty, both sons-in-law of the last Billung Duke Magnus, Lothar created a powerful new force in Saxon politics.  He was fortunate in expanding his own territorial holdings through inheritance.  He also extended ducal authority into the northern frontier area of Nordalbingia and brought under his control the western part of the duchy.  He created many new countships, directly responsible to him.  Within a few years, Duke Lothar had effectively transformed himself into the head of a Saxon nation, breaking imperial power in Saxony with his defeat of the imperial army at Welfesholz near Mansfeld in 1115.  He further demonstrated his autonomy from imperial control in 1123 when he conferred the Markgrafschaft of Lausitz on Albrecht "der Bär" Graf von Ballenstedt and the Markgrafschaft of Meissen on Konrad von Wettin.  By 1125, Duke Lothar had risen to such prominence that he was elected king of Germany after the death of Emperor Heinrich V. 

 

After his accession to the German throne, Lothar retained the duchy of Saxony in his own hands.  He pursued the policy of creating new countships, including Wöltingerode, Wernigerode, Scharzfels, Ilfeld-Honstein, and perhaps Rothenburg.  This further complicated the political scene in Saxony as these new creations were by definition imperial not ducal fiefs.  The result was that later dukes were never the sole imperial fiefholders in the province, although the personal territorial holding in Saxony of each successive duke was significant.  The rivalry between the duke and the other Saxon nobility intensified after the installation of the Welf Heinrich "der Löwe" as duke in 1139 (see Chapter 5), aggravated by his acquisition of numerous additional territories by inheritance or aggression.  The power struggle culminated in the 1166/1170 rebellion of princes who considered their positions threatened by Duke Heinrich's expansionism. 

 

The Ballenstedt family finally succeeded as dukes of Saxony in 1180, after Duke Heinrich "der Löwe" was deposed (see Chapter 6).  The Saxon ruler's role as one of the seven electors of the Empire was irrevocably confirmed in 1356 by the Golden Bull of Emperor Karl IV, which also decreed that the Duke of Saxony should be imperial administrator of the territory subject to Saxon law in the absence of the Emperor[10].  After the death in 1422 of Elector Albrecht IV, last descendant in the male line of the Ballenstedt dynasty, Emperor Sigmund appointed Friedrich IV "der Streitbare" Markgraf von Meissen and Landgraf of Thuringia as duke of Saxony (see Chapter 7).  His descendants continued to rule Saxony until after the First World War. 

 

The dukes of Saxony and their ancestors are set out in this document.  A collection of early Saxon counts is shown in GERMANY, EARLY NOBILITY.  For the families of later counts and other lesser nobility in Saxony, see SAXONY NOBILITY.  In addition, the families of the counts and princes of ANHALT, dukes of BRUNSWICK, counts of HOLSTEIN and counts of OLDENBURG, all nobility whose territories developed within the original Saxon heartland, are set out in their respective documents. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EARLY SAXON LEADERS, family of WIDUKIND

 

 

The relationship between the following individual Saxon chiefs and small family groups cannot be established.  However, the repeated use of names, in particular Theoderich and Widukind, over the course of two centuries suggests a close family connection, although this may have been through either the male or female line.  As noted in the Introduction to the present document, the family of Widukind constituted one of the three main power sources in Saxony until well into the 11th century. 

 

 

1.         HADUGATO (-after [531]).  Adam of Bremen names "Hadugato" as the duke of the Saxons to whom "Theodericus rex Francorum" sent legates[11], undated but recorded immediately after the Thuringian invasion of Theoderic I King of the Franks which is dated to 531. 

 

 

1.         THEODERIC (-after 743).  Einhard records that "Karlomannus" was in Saxony at "castrum Hohseoburg" and there accepted the surrender of "Theodericum Saxonem illius loci primarium" in 743[12].  Theoderic was captured again in 744 when Carloman invaded Saxony with his brother Pepin[13].  Pepin King of the Franks invaded Saxony once more in 758, captured Sythen and required an annual tribute of 300 horses from the Saxons[14]

 

2.         WIDUKIND (-7 Jan 810).  The Royal Frankish Annals record that Widukind rebelled against the authority of Charles I King of the Franks, who had invaded and subdued Saxony, and fled to Denmark ["Nordmannia"] in 777[15].  The Annales Laurissenses state that "Widochindis rebellis" was the only Saxon who did not submit to the Franks in 777[16].  Widukind incited another revolt in 778 while King Charles was campaigning in Spain, but was defeated near Leisa on the river Eder[17].  The Annales Laurissenses record that Charles I King of the Franks sent his missus "Amelwinum" to besiege "Widochindum et Abbionem" in 785, that they surrendered and were baptised at "Attiniacum villa"[18].  Adam of Bremen records that "Widichind" surrendered and accepted baptism in 785[19]m ([775]) GEVA, sister of SIGURD first "King of Haithabu", daughter of --- ([755]-).  This marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[20] in the outline genealogy of a family referred to as "Kings of Haithabu", doubts about which are discussed in chapter 1 of the document DENMARK KINGS.  The primary source on which it is based has not been identified.  Widukind & his wife had one child: 

a)         WICHBERT .  "Wibreht" is named as son of Widukind in the Translatio Sancti Alexandri[21]m OURADA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names the wife of Wigbert has not so far been identified.  Wigbert & his wife had one child: 

i)          WALTBERT (-before 20 Oct [871]).  Ekkehard names "Waltbertum" as the son of "Wigbertus"[22].  He is presumably the same Waltbert whose county is referred to in the charter dated 25 Apr 859 under which Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks donated property "quas Folcheri fidelis noster actemus in beneficium tenuit in ducatu Uuestfalorum, coniacentes in pagis Grainga et Threcuuiti nec non in comitatibus Burchardi, Uualtberti, et Albrici atque Letti" to Kloster Herford[23].  He and his wife founded Kloster Wildeshausen.  "Ludowicus…rex" granted protection and privileges to Kloster Wildeshausen founded by "Waldbrecht comes…suique filii Wicberti" by charter dated 20 Oct [871][24]m ALDBURG, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names the wife of Waltbert has not so far been identified.  Waltbert & his wife had three children: 

(a)       WICHBERT (-[908]).  "Ludowicus…rex" granted protection and privileges to Kloster Wildeshausen founded by "Waldbrecht comes…suique filii Wicberti" by charter dated 20 Oct [871][25].  Bishop of Verden 874-[908]. 

(b)       son .  872/91.  The primary source which identifies the second son of Waltbert, and his own son, has not so far been identified. 

(1)       son .  872. 

(c)       daughter .  872.  The primary source which identifies the daughter of Waltbert has not so far been identified. 

 

 

1.         ABO [Abbi] (-after 811).  The Annales Laurissenses record that Charles I King of the Franks sent his missus "Amelwinum" to besiege "Widochindum et Abbionem" in 785, that they surrendered and were baptised at "Attiniacum villa"[26].  It is not known if Abo was related to Widukind but it is assumed that both had similar leadership status in Saxony.  Einhard's Annales record "Abo comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[27]

 

 

1.         --- (-before 908).  The name of the husband of Mathilde is not known but, if the chronicler Widukind is to be believed, he was a descendant of Duke Widukind[28].  This appears corroborated by the transmission of the name Widukind to his grandson.  If this is correct, from a chronological point of view it is likely that he was the great-grandson of Widukind.  m MATHILDE, daughter of --- (-911 or after).  The mother of "Thietrici comitis" is named "abbatissa Mahthild" in the Vita Mathildis Reginæ, which specifies that she was abbess at Herford[29].  According to Grote[30], she was recorded as abbess in 908 and 911 but the primary sources on which this is based have not so far been identified.  Mathilde & her husband had one child: 

a)         THEODERIC (-8 Nov 917[31]).  Widukind names "Thiadrici" as father of Queen Mathilde, specifying that the family was "stirpis magni ducis Widukindi"[32].  The father of Queen Mathilde is named "Thietricus" in the Vita Mathildis Reginæ[33]m REGINLIND [Reinhild], daughter of --- (-11 May ----).  The wife of Theoderich is named "Reinhildam, Danorum Fresonumque germine procreatam" in the Vita Mathildis Reginæ[34].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[35], she was Reinhild, daughter of Gotfrid the Dane & his wife Gisela [Carolingian], which is presumably a guess based on this description in the Vita Mathildis.  However, the chronology is not ideal.  Regino records the marriage in 882 of "Gisla filia Hlotharii" and "rex Godofridus Nordmannorum"[36].  If this couple's daughter was the mother of Queen Mathilde, the latter's estimated birth date (see below) would need to be pushed forward by several years, which makes the chronology for her known descendants tight.  A better fit may be Reginlind, [sister of Bovo Bishop of Chalons-sur-Marne, daughter of ---].  The known sister of Bishop Bovo was Frederuna, wife of Charles III "le Simple" King of the Franks.  The hypothesis that there was another sister married to Theoderic would explain (1) the name Frederuna being transmitted to Regenhild's daughter, and (2) Berenger Bishop of Cambrai, recorded elsewhere as nepos of Queen Frederuna, being described as "…Ottonis imperatoris proxime consanguineus" in the Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium[37].  If this is correct, the reference to Reginlind being "Danorum Fresonumque germine procreatam" has not been explained.  A list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli sets out (in order) "Thieterich, Reginhilt, *, Oto, Amalrat, Perectheid, Friderun, Pia", immediately after a list of family members of Heinrich I King of Germany and his wife, which no doubt refers to the latter's parents and sisters, "Oto" being the only person not so far identified[38].  The list is undated but was presumably written during the period [929/36] as King Heinrich's son-in-law Duke Giselbert is included (married in [928/29]) but not his son-in-law Hugues Duc des Francs (married in 937).  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "11 May" of "Reinhild mater regine Mahtildis"[39].  Theoderic & his wife had seven children: 

i)          WIDUKIND .  Widukind names (in order) "Widukind, Immed et Reginbern" as brothers of Queen Mathilde[40]

ii)         IMMED [I] .  Widukind names (in order) "Widukind, Immed et Reginbern" as brothers of Queen Mathilde[41]

iii)        REGINBERN .  Widukind names (in order) "Widukind, Immed et Reginbern" as brothers of Queen Mathilde, specifying that Reginbern fought against the Danes[42]

iv)       MATHILDE ([896]-Quedlinburg 14 Mar 968, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  Widukind names "Mahthilda" as wife of King Heinrich, also naming her father and three brothers[43].  Thietmar names Mathilde as daughter of "Dietrich and Reinhild" when recording her marriage to Heinrich, and specifies that she was "a descendant of the lineage of King Widukind"[44].  Her alleged descent from Widukind is also referred to in the Vita Mahthildis[45].  Thietmar records that Quedlinburg was bestowed on Mathilde as part of her dower 16 Sep 929[46], and that she established the convent there thirty days after the death of her husband[47].  Lay Abbess of Nivelles.  The necrology of Fulda records the death "968 II Id Mar" of "Mahthild regina"[48]m (Wallhausen 909) as his second wife, HEINRICH Graf, son of OTTO "der Erlauchte" Graf im Südthüringau & his wife Hedwig [Babenberg] ([876]-Memleben 2 Jul 936, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  He was elected as HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany at Fritzlar 6 May 919. 

v)        AMELRADA ([7 Sep] ----).  A list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli sets out (in order) "Thieterich, Reginhilt, *, Oto, Amalrat, Perectheid, Friderun, Pia", immediately after a list of family members of Heinrich I King of Germany and his wife, which no doubt refers to the latter's parents and sisters[49].  The Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris names "Amelrada" as wife of "comite Everardo", sister of "Mathildis reginæ…filiæ Thiadrici ducis", and she and her husband as parents of "Deodericum ex pago Saxoniæ Hamalant"[50].  The necrology of Gorze records the death "VII Id Sep" of "Amarrada comitissa"[51]m EBERHARD, son of [EBERHARD Graf im Keldachgau und im Bonngau [Ezzonen] & his wife --- (-[3 Sep] before 964).  Graf in der Drenthe und im Salland. 

vi)       FREDERUNA (-18 Jan 971).  Thietmar refers to "Counts Wichmann and Ekbert…brothers" as sons of Emperor Otto I's maternal aunt[52], but does not name their mother.  A list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli sets out (in order) "Thieterich, Reginhilt, *, Oto, Amalrat, Perectheid, Friderun, Pia", immediately after a list of family members of Heinrich I King of Germany and his wife, which no doubt refers to the latter's parents and sisters[53].  It is also possible that the wife of Wichmann [II] was the sister Bia, unless she can be identified as the mother of Friedrich (see below).  The necrology of Fulda records the death "970 Id Jan" of "Fridarun comitissa [anc Christi]"[54], presumably showing that she became a nun before she died.  m WICHMANN [II], son of BILLUNG & his wife --- (-23 Apr 944). 

vii)      BIA [Pia] (-25 May ----)  A list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli sets out (in order) "Thieterich, Reginhilt, *, Oto, Amalrat, Perectheid, Friderun, Pia", immediately after a list of family members of Heinrich I King of Germany and his wife, which no doubt refers to the latter's parents and sisters[55].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in Gereslevo…in pago Svevia in comitatu Crhistiani" on the request of "Friderici fidelis nostri" to "nobili matronæ…Biæ ipsius…matri" by charter dated 21 Oct 937, in consultation with "Burchardi, Ebarhardi, Chuonradi, Heinrici atque Utonis…comitum"[56], although it is not known whether this was the same Bia.  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "25 May" of "Bia soror regine Mahtildis"[57]same person as…?  BIA (-after 21 Oct 937).  "Otto…rex" granted property "in Gereslevo…in pago Svevia in comitatu Crhistani" to "nobili matronæ Bia ipsius…matri" at the request of "Friderici fidelis nostri" by charter dated 21 Oct 937[58].  It is not certain that this refers to the same person as Bia, daughter of Theoderic, but this is likely to be the case.  No other noble lady of this name has been identified around the date of this charter, and "matrona" is the term usually applied to members of the high nobility.  The wording of the charter suggests that Bia's husband had died before the date of the grant.  m --- (-before 21 Oct 937).  The name of Bia's husband is not known.  Bia & her husband had one child: 

(a)       FRIEDRICH (-after 21 Oct 937).  "Otto…rex" granted property "in Gereslevo…in pago Svevia in comitatu Crhistani" to "nobili matronæ Bia ipsius…matri" at the request of "Friderici fidelis nostri" by charter dated 21 Oct 937[59]

 

 

1.         IMMED [II] (-killed in battle 954).  Immed [II] is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln as the possible father of Waldered and Immed [III][60].  His date of death (the source for which has not been identified) is consistent with his having been the same person as Immed, son of Theoderic and Reginlind (see above).  Widukind records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn (the supposed grandson of Immed [III], see below) was "paterno genere a Thiedrico Mathilde reginæ fratre"[61].  It is possible that "Thiedrico" in this source is an error for "Immed", as this is the only reference to Queen Mathilde having a brother named Theoderich.  As will be seen below, it has not been possible to corroborate many of the dates relating to his supposed descendants, as shown in the same table in Europäische Stammtafeln, against primary sources.  “Ymmadus comes” donated property “in Lithingi, in pago ---” to Corvey monastery, witnessed by “Thuring comes, Amalung comes…[62]m ---.  The name of Immed's wife is not known.  Immed [II] & his wife had [two possible children]: 

a)         [WALDERED .  [984].  m BERTHA, sister of BURKHARD Graf im Liesgau, daughter of ---.  [984].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Waldered & his wife had three children: 

i)          DIETRICH [Theoderich] (-[6 Mar] 995).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Pfalzgraf in Sachsen 992.  "Otto…rex" donated property "Vvalbisci in comitatu Karoli comitis" to Quedlinburg by charter dated 6 Jan 992, which names as present "Bernhardi ducis, Egberti comitis, Eggihardi marchionis, Herimanni palatini comitis, Huodonis marchionis, Deoderici palatini comitis eiusque fratris Sigeberti comitis, Herimanni comitis"[63].  Thietmar records the deaths of "the count Palatine Dietrich and his brother Siegbert" in the same year in which Heinrich II Duke of Bavaria died (995)[64].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 Mar" of "Thiedrich com"[65]m FREDERUNA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  [971].  Dietrich & his wife had three children: 

(a)       SIEGBERT (-before 1017).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Graf in Ostfalen und Hessen.  "Otto…rex" gave property "burgwardium Bitrizi…in pago Morazani ac in ipsius comitatu" to "fideli nostro Sigiberto comiti" by charter dated 26 Oct 995[66].  "Henricus…rex" granted property "castellum…Munelburgus…in pago Astuala, quod olim Thiedericus palatinus comes posteaque filius eius Sirus habuerat" to Bernward Bishop of Hildesheim by charter dated 1013[67]

(b)       DIETRICH .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Monk at Corvey. 

(c)       THIETBURG .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified. 

ii)         SIEGBERT (-14 Oct 995).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Graf im Liesgau 990.  "Otto…rex" donated property "Vvalbisci in comitatu Karoli comitis" to Quedlinburg by charter dated 6 Jan 992, which names as present "Bernhardi ducis, Egberti comitis, Eggihardi marchionis, Herimanni palatini comitis, Huodonis marchionis, Deoderici palatini comitis eiusque fratris Sigeberti comitis, Herimanni comitis"[68].  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave judgment in a dispute between Werner Abbot of Fulda and Gozbert Abbot of Hersfeld, concerning ship travel along the Hörsel, by charter dated 30 Dec 979, which names "comites nostros Sigebertum, Sigefridum et Brunonem"[69].  Thietmar records the deaths of "the count Palatine Dietrich and his brother Siegbert" in the same year in which Heinrich II Duke of Bavaria died (995)[70]m ---.  The name of Siegbert's wife is not known.  Graf Siegbert & his wife had three children: 

(a)       SIEGBERT .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Monk at Corvey [983]. 

(b)       daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  m LOTHAR-UDO [I] Graf von Stade, son of HEINRICH [I] "der Kahle" Graf von Stade & his wife Judith [Konradiner] ([950]-killed in battle Stade 23 Jun 994). 

(c)       [UNWAN (-17 or 26 Jan 1029).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen 1013.] 

iii)        GISELA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  [984]. 

b)         [IMMED [III] (-27 Jan 983).  Widukind records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn was "paterno genere a Thiedrico Mathilde reginæ fratre"[71].  Graf in Utrecht.   The necrologium Abdinhofense records the death "IV Kal Feb" of "Immeth comes pater Meinwerci episocopi"[72]m as her first husband, ADELA, daughter of WICHMANN [V] Graaf van Hamaland & his wife Liutgard of Flanders (-22 Mar [1014/16]).  The Vita Meinwerci names "uxorem de terra Saxoniæ, Athelam nomine" as wife of Immed[73].  Widukind records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn was "materno a Wichmanno, Herimanni ducis nepote, propinquo Ottonis I"[74]Alpertus names "Adela sorori domnæ Liutgardæ", commenting that Adela was "clamosa in voce, lasciva in verbis, veste composite, animo dissoluta", the subsequent paragraph recording that, after her sister died, Adela took all her property which she had intended for the church before "vidua lasciva" married Baldric as her second husband[75].  She married secondly (before 996) Baldric Count in Drenthe.  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and privileges of Kloster Elten naming "filiam Lutgardam…abbatissam [et] filia Adela…[et] Baldericus…maritus Adele" by charter dated 18 Dec 996[76].  The wife of "Baldericus" was the daughter of "Wicmanni, cuius maiores magnam partem Germaniæ et maxime circa littoral oceani imperia tenebant"[77].  Thietmar records that the wife of Baldric encouraged her husband to arrange for the murder of "Count Wichmann" in 1016[78].  She is named "Adelæ uxoris Baldrici" in a later (undated) passage recording her death[79].  The work of Thiodericus names "Ida comitissa eius [=Baldricus] coniunx" ("Ida" presumably being an error for "Adela") and records her death "11 Kal Apr" without specifying the year[80].  Immed [III] & his wife had five children: 

i)          THEODERICH (-killed Upladen 7 Apr 1014).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Thiedericum, Meinwercum, Glismod et Azelam" as children of Immed and Athela, specifying that Theoderich succeeded his father, a later passage adding that he was killed "VII Id Apr Uplage urbe" on the orders of his mother[81]

ii)         MEINWERK (-5/6 Jun 1036).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Thiedericum, Meinwercum, Glismod et Azelam" as children of Immed and Athela, specifying that Meinwerk was "in ecclesia beati Stephani protomartiris in civitate Halverstadensi ad clericatus est oblatus"[82].  Canon at Halberstadt.  Chaplain at the royal court and canon at St Maria, Aachen 1001/09.  Bishop of Paderborn 1009. 

iii)        GLISMOD (-5 Feb before 1041).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Thiedericum, Meinwercum, Glismod et Azelam" as children of Immed and Athela, specifying that Glismod married "nobilis principis in Baioaria"[83]m ---.  The identity of the husband of Glismod is not known.  He has been associated with Adalbert "der Siegreiche" Markgraf der Ostmark, son of Liutpold I Markgraf der bayerischen Ostmark, Graf im Traungau, Sundergau und Donaugau & his wife Richwara im Sualafeldgau (-26 May 1055, bur Stift Melk).  The Annales Stadenses name "Lippoldo filio domine Glismodis" as husband of "Ida [de Elsthorpe]"[84].   It is unlikely that this refers to Liutpold, son of Markgraf Adalbert, who was installed as Markgraf der Ungarischen Mark in Dec 1043 and died soon afterwards, presumably childless as his younger brother succeeded their father in the Markgrafschaft.  [One possible child]: 

(a)       [LIUTPOLD (-before 1055).  The Annales Stadenses name "Lippoldo filio domine Glismodis" as husband of "Ida [de Elsthorpe]"[85].   Graf von Stade.  It seems unlikely that Liutpold's mother was the same Glismod who was the daughter of Immed.  As the Immed died in 983, as it is likely that his daughter's children would have been born [1000/15].  If Liutpold was one of these children, he would have been considerably older than his wife.  m as her first husband, IDA von Elstorf, daughter of LIUDOLF Markgraf in Friesland [Braunschweig] & his wife Gertrud von Egisheim (before 1038-).] 

iv)       ADELA (-after 1027).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Thiedericum, Meinwercum, Glismod et Azelam" as children of Immed and Athela, specifying that Azela became a nun at "ecclesia martiris Viti Eltene"[86].  Canoness at Elten. 

v)        EMMA (-3 Dec 1038, bur Bremen Cathedral).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Emma" wife of "comes Liutderus", but does not give her origin[87].  Her parentage is confirmed by Adam of Bremen who names "Emma" as wife of "Liudgerus frater [Benno dux Saxonum]" when recording her husband's death in 1011, calling her "Emma…soror Meginwerki episcopi Padarburnensis" when recording her death and her burial in Bremen Cathedral[88]m LIUTGER, son of HERMANN Billung Duke in Saxony & his [first/second] wife [Oda ---/Hildesuit ---] (-1011). 

 

 

1.         RETINGm ---.  The name of Reting's wife is not known.  Reting & his wife had one child: 

a)         FREDERUNA .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Ekkehard who names "duo fratres Aerbo…et Boto paterno de sanguine Noricæ gentis…Hartwici palatini comitis filii…maternum…stemma de Saxonia Immidingorum tribus…mater a Retingo filio Botonis filii Retingi de secundo Botone nati procreatur", when recording the death of her son "Boto comes cognomento fortis Aerbonis…germanus"[89].  She is named as wife of Pfalzgraf Hartwig in Europäische Stammtafeln[90].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m HARTWIG [II] Pfalzgraf von Bayern, son of ARIBO [I] Pfalzgraf von Bayern & his wife Adela --- (-24 Dec 1024, bur Seeon). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EARLY SAXON LEADERS, family of LIUDOLF, later KINGS of GERMANY

 

 

This family provided acknowledged leaders of Saxony during the late 9th and early 10th centuries but the head of the family bore no title as such. 

 

 

1.         BRUNO (-after 775).  The Annales Laurissenses record that "Angrarii…cum Brunone" came "in pago qui dictum Bucki" in 775[91].  The Introduction to the MGH SS edition of the Vita Sanctæ Idæ cites "annalibus Corbeiensibus in bibliotheca Regia" naming "Egberti quem Brunonis Angrariorum principis filium fuisse" as husband of Ida[92]m ---.  The name of Bruno's wife is not known.  Bruno & his wife had one child:

a)         EKBERT (-after 834).  The Vita Sanctæ Idæ names "Egbertus…orientis procures præfectus"[93].  Einhard records that "Egbertum comitem" crossed the Elbe and was put in charge of "locus super ripam Sturiæ fluminis…Esesfelth" in 809[94].  "Ekkibertus…comes" donated property "in pago…Folcfeld" to Regensburg St Emmeram by charter dated 810[95].  Einhard's Annales record "Egbertus comes" as one of the signatories of peace with the Vikings in 811[96].  The charter of Emperor Louis I dated 834 relating to the mission of "S. Anscharii" in Saxony names "Ecberto comite"[97]m IDA, daughter of [BERNHARD & his [first/second] wife ---] ([750/80]-).  The Vita Sancti Idæ names Ida as only daughter of an unnamed count[98].  The Introduction to the MGH SS edition of this source cites "annalibus Corbeiensibus in bibliotheca Regia" naming Ida as "Adalhard et Walæ soror, uxor Egberti quem Brunonis Angrariorum principis filium fuisse", commenting that she died aged 100[99].  She is not named as the sister of Adalhard in the Vita Adalhardi.  Ida is named as wife of Ekbert in the Historia Translationis Sanctæ Pusinnæ[100].  Ekbert & his wife had two children: 

i)          WARIN (-20 Sep 856).  The Historia Translationis Sanctæ Pusinnæ names Warin as the son of Ekbert & Ida[101].  The Historia Translationis Sancti Viti names "Warinus" as "adolescens monachus" at Corvey "ex nobilissimo Francorum atque Saxonum genere"[102].  Abbot of Corvey 826. 

ii)         [daughter .  m ---.] 

(a)       HADUIN .  The Historia Translationis Sanctæ Pusinnæ names "Venerabili Haduini" as neptis of Warin[103]

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known, although the primary source which confirms this relationship has not yet been identified.  It is assumed that the brothers were related to Bruno and his son Ekbert (see above).  If this is correct, from a chronological point of view they may have been brothers of Ekbert.  It is also possible that the relationship was through Ekbert's mother. 

1.         BRUNO .  Bruno was named as father of Liudolf in the early 13th century Gandersheimer Reimchronik[104], but no earlier source has so far been identified which confirms the relationship.  m ---.  The name of Bruno's wife is not known.  Bruno & his wife had one child:

a)         LIUDOLF (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen).  Graf. 

-        see below.

2.         UFFO [Ovo] or LIUDOLF (-27 Jun [before 852])m RICHEIT, daughter of RICFRID & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  Uffo/Liudolf & his wife had five children: 

a)         ALTFRID (-15 Aug 874, bur Essen Stiftskirche).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Co-founder of Gandersheim.  He founded Kloster Seligenstadt, and the convent of Essen in 870.  Co-founder of Kloster Lamspringe in 879.  The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Altfridus" was ordained as fourth Bishop of Hildesheim in 847[105].  He built Hildesheim cathedral.

b)         ADI .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  [852].

c)         TADI .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  [852].

d)         FRIEDRICH .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  [852].

e)         GERSUIT (-30 Dec ----, bur Essen St Quintinus).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  First Abbess of Essen 873. 

3.         BOVO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  850. 

 

 

LIUDOLF, son of BRUNO & his wife --- (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen).  Brun was named as father of Liudolf in the early 13th century Gandersheimer Reimchronik[106], but no earlier source has so far been found which confirms the relationship.  The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that Liudolf founded the abbey of Gandersheim in 852, first at Brunshausen[107].  Widukind records that "Liudulfus" transferred relics of Pope Innocent to Rome[108].  The Annales Alamannicorum record "Ludolfus dux Saxoniæ avus Heinrici" among those who swore allegiance in 864[109].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in 866 of "Liudolfus comes a septentrione"[110]

m ODA, daughter of BILLUNG princeps & his wife Aeda (-17 May 913).  The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[111].  "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[112].  "Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[113].  "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[114]

Liudolf & his wife had [twelve] children: 

1.         BRUNO (-killed in battle in Saxony 2 Feb 880).  The Annalista Saxo records "Brunonis ducis" as brother of "Otto filius Liudolfi ducis"[115].  "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostri fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[116].  The Annales Fuldenses name "Brun ducem et fratrem reinæ, Wicmannum, Bardonem, alterum Bardonem et tertium Bardonem, Thiotherium, Gerrichum, Liutolfum, Folcwartum, Avan, Thiotricum, Liutharium" as those killed in battle in 880 in Saxony against "Nordmannis"[117].  The Gesta Francorum lists "Brun ducem et fratrem reginæ" as one of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[118].  Thietmar records that "Duke Bruno…great uncle" of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes[119].  The Erchanberti Breviarum records that "Ludovicus rex Franciæ" had one son "Hug…de concubina" who [in 880] fought the Vikings "cum Theoderico et Marcwardo…episcopis et Bardone fratre Liutkardæ reginæ"[120], "Bardone" presumably being an error for "Brunone", although this version appears to conflate two battles (one at the river Scheldt and one in Saxony) which are reported separately in the Annales Fuldenses.  The Gesta Francorum lists "Bardonum…alterum Bardonum [et] tertium Bardonum" as three of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[121].  The other two counts named "Bardo" or "Bruno" have not been identified. 

2.         OTTO "der Erlauchte" (-30 Nov 912[122], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).  The Annalista Saxo records "Otto" as "filius Liudolfi ducis"[123].  Graf im Südthüringau.  Graf im Eichsfeld 888. 

-        see below

3.         THANKMAREuropäische Stammtafeln[124] names Thankmar as a son of Liudolf & his wife but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.  [Abbot of Corvey 877/79].  “Ludolphus comes” donated property “in Daelhem et in Adonhusen” to Corvey monastery “pro filio suo Tancmaro[125]

4.         LIUTGARD (-17 or 30 Nov 885, bur Aschaffenburg).  Widukind names "Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis" as wife of "orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus"[126].  "Hludowicus…rex" made a donation of property in "villa…Winenheim" to Kloster Lorsch in the name of "comiti…Werinhario" by charter dated 4 Jan 877, naming "coniuge nostra Liutgarda"[127].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 885 of "Liutgart regina"[128].  The death and burial place of "Liudgardis regina" are recorded in the Annalista Saxo[129]m (before 29 Nov 874) LUDWIG, son of LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks & his wife Emma [Welf] ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan 882, bur Kloster Lorsch).  He succeeded his father in 876 as LUDWIG III "der Jüngere" King of the East Franks, Saxony and ½ Lotharingia.  King of Bavaria 879.  King of Lotharingia 880. 

5.         ENDA Europäische Stammtafeln[130] names Enda as a daughter of Liudolf & his wife, and her marriage, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.  m ---. 

6.         HATHUMOD (840-29 Sep 874, bur Brunnshausen).  The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Hathamodam eius ducis [Liudolfi] filiam" was was installed as first abbess of Gandersheim in 852, and that she died 18 years later[131].  Her life and death are recounted in the Vita et Obitus Hathamodæ[132].  Her death is recorded in the Annalista Saxo[133]

7.         GERBERGA (-5 Sep [896/97]).  The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Gerbergam sororem [Hathamodæ]" succeeded her sister as second abbess of Gandersheim[134].  "Gerburgis" is named sister of "Hathumod"[135], whom she succeeded as Abbess of Gandersheim in 874[136].  "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostril fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[137]

8.         CHRISTINA (-1 Apr [919/20], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).  Thankmar records that "Sororem autem eius [=Gerburgis [et] Hathumod] Cristinam" entered Gandersheim, specifying that they were all daughters of "Oda"[138].  Abbess of Gandersheim 897-897.

9.         daughter (-young).  Europäische Stammtafeln[139] refers to an unnamed daughter of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. 

10.      son (-young).  Europäische Stammtafeln[140] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. 

11.      son (-young).  Europäische Stammtafeln[141] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. 

12.      [son (-young).  Europäische Stammtafeln[142] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.] 

 

 

OTTO "der Erlauchte", son of Graf LIUDOLF & his wife Oda [Billung] (-30 Nov 912, bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).  The Annalista Saxo records "Otto" as "filius Liudolfi ducis"[143].  "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostri fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[144].  Graf im Südthüringau.  "Hludowicus…rex" donated property "Tennisteti et Heriki in pago Suththuringa in comitatu Ottonis" to Kloster Gandersheim by charter dated 26 Jan 877[145].  "Rihdahc" denoted property to Kloster St Maria an der Rosel, in the castle of Coblenz, by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated [981/89], subscribed by "domini Ottonis Liutolfi filius…"[146].  Graf im Eichsfeld.  Emperor Arnulf confirmed an exchange including property "in pago Eichesfelden in comitatu Ottonis" between the abbot of Fulda and "Chunrado comite" on the intervention of "Ottonis…marchionis" by charter dated 28 Jan 897[147].  Lay Abbot of Hersfeld 908.  He was chosen to succeed Ludwig "das Kind" [Carolingian] as king of Germany in 911, but declined on the grounds of his advanced age and recommended the election of Konrad ex-Duke of the Franconians[148].  "Chuonradus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Murbach by charter dated 12 Mar 913 with the consent of "fidelium nostrorum Hathonis, Salomonis, Thiodolfi, Hildini, Einhardi, Erchangarii, Chuonradi, Hugonis, Ottonis, Heinrici, Bopponis, Udalrici, Eberhardi"[149].  Thietmar records the death of Otto on 30 Nov but does not give the year[150].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "30 Nov" of "Oddo comes pater Heinrici regis Saxonum"[151]

m HEDWIG [Hathui], daughter of HEINRICH dux [Babenberg] & his wife Engeltrudis --- ([850/55]-24 Dec 903).  "Hathwiga" is named as wife of Otto in the Annalista Saxo, which in an earlier passage records that the mother of Heinrich was the son of the sister of Adalbert [Babenberg][152].  Her birth date is estimated from the birth of her third son in 876.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 903 of "Hadwih com"[153].  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "24 Dec" of "Hathuui mater Heinrici regis"[154]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Otto's mistress is not known. 

Graf Otto & his wife had [seven] children:

1.         [daughter ([865/70][155]-).  "Wundilgartam Henrici regis de filia neptim" is named in the Chronicle of St Gall, which also names her husband[156].  The commentary in the printed text interprets this as "granddaughter of Heinrich I King of Germany", but this is chronologically impossible assuming that the approximate death date of Wundelgart's husband is correct.  If there is any truth in the text, it is more likely that Wundelgart was the niece of King Heinrich by his sister, although this is far from certain considering the broad range of interpretation possible for the word "neptis".  However, the chronology is tight even for this interpretation, as shown by the estimated birth date range of this daughter, which must mean that she was one of her parents' older children.  Another possibility is that she was illegitimate.  The same source in a later passage names "Ekkehardo…diacono et Purchardo puero post abate consobrinis suis"[157].  As Wundelgart was the mother of abbot Burkhard, this gives the essential clue about the name of this daughter's husband, who in the same source is named as the father of the sisters who were mothers of the younger Ekkehard and abbot Burkhard.  m as his first wife, EKKEHARD [I], son of ---.] 

2.         THANKMAR (-before 30 Nov 912).  "Thancmarus et Liudolfus", sons of Otto & Hathwiga, died before their father according to the Annalista Saxo, which implies they were older than their brother Heinrich who "ecce fratribus defunctis, tota hereditas in ipsum iam ducem derivatur"[158]

3.         LIUDOLF (-before 30 Nov 912).  "Thancmarus et Liudolfus", sons of Otto & Hathwiga, died before their father according to the Annalista Saxo, which implies they were older than their brother Heinrich who "ecce fratribus defunctis, tota hereditas in ipsum iam ducem derivatur"[159]m ---.  The name of Liudolf's wife is not known.  Liudolf & his wife had one child:

a)         EKKEHARD (-killed in battle 25 Sep 936).  Widukind names "Ekkardus filius Liudulfi", when recording his death[160]m ---.  The name of Ekkehard's wife is not known.  Ekkehard & his wife had [one possible child]:

i)          [EKKEHARD (-[30 Aug 954] or 4 Sep 954).  The descent of Ekkehard from an older brother of Heinrich I King of Germany is proposed by Hlawitschka[161]

-         see MEISSEN.] 

4.         HEINRICH ([876]-Memleben 2 Jul 936, bur Quedlinburg Stiftskirche).  Thietmar records that Heinrich was "born of the noble lineage of Otto and Hadwig"[162].  According to the Annalista Saxo, he was son of the unnamed sister of Adalbert [Babenberg], with whom he and his brothers fought against the Konradiner family, his complete parentage being recorded in a later passage[163].  He was elected as HEINRICH I King of Germany at Fritzlar 6 May 919. 

-        KINGS of GERMANY

5.         ODA ([884]-[2 Jul] after 952).  Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [884], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage[164]Regino records the marriage in 897 of "Ottonem comitem…filiam Odam" and King Zwentibold[165]Regino records that "Gerhard comes" married "Odam uxorem Zuendiboldi regis" after killing her first husband in battle in 900[166].  "Otto…rex" confirmed the donation of property " in loco Dauindre…in pago…Hamalant in comitatu Vuigmanni" to St Moritz at Magdeburg by "nostra amita…Uota" by charter dated 30 Dec 952[167].  Jackman speculates[168] that Graf Eberhard married Oda as her third husband, Oda von Sachsen, for onomastic reasons as the name of Eberhard's supposed daughter (her affiliation also being based only on his own separate onomastic hypothesis) was that of Oda's maternal grandmother.  This is an interesting theory but it accumulates one onomastic hypothesis on another and must be considered highly speculative.  m firstly ([Worms] [27 Mar/13 Jun] 897) ZWENTIBOLD King of Lotharingia [Carolingian], illegitimate son of Emperor ARNULF King of Germany & his mistress --- ([870/71]-killed in battle 13 Aug 900, bur [Süsteren or Echternach]).  m secondly (900) Graf GERHARD [Matfride], son of --- (-killed in battle 22 Jun 910).  [m thirdly (after Jun 910) EBERHARD Graf im Oberlahngau Pfalzgraf, son of KONRAD Graf in der Wetterau und im Wormsgau [Konradiner] & his wife Glismod --- (-killed in battle near Andernach 23 Oct 939).] 

6.         LIUTGARD [Dodica] (-21 Jan 923).  Europäische Stammtafeln[169] names Liutgard as daughter of Otto & his wife, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.  Abbess of Gandersheim 919/923.

7.         [IRMINBURG (-before 936)Europäische Stammtafeln[170] names Irminburg as daughter of Otto & his wife, and records her marriage, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.  m as his first wife, SIEGFRIED, son of THIETMAR [Ostmark] & his wife --- (-[3 Dec 936/941]).]

Graf Otto had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):   

8.          daughter.  932.  Widukind names "sorore regis quæ nupserat Widoni Thuringo…ex concubina nata"[171]m WIDO, from Thuringia.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    EARLY SAXON LEADERS, family of BILLUNG, later DUKES of SAXONY

 

The ancestral home of the Billung family was around Lüneburg.  Otto I King of Germany appointed Hermann Billung as Markgraf in the northern part of the new "east March" which was created to protect northern Germany from Slav attacks from the east.  Less aggressive than Gero, his counterpart in the southern part of the March (see the document MEISSEN), Hermann directed his attacks mainly against the Vagrians and Obotrites[172].  The family's power increased as a result of Hermann's appointment to represent the king in Saxony on many occasions[173].   Hermann's descendants accumulated extensive territories in north-eastern Saxony on the middle Weser and acquired numerous church advocacies.  The residence of the Billung dukes remained at Lüneburg[174].  They had less influence in western Saxony, and even after bearing the title "dux" it is hardly appropriate to describe the title-holders as dukes "of Saxony", the title being more a reflection of the personal power of the title-holder than of his territorial possessions.  The Billung dukes had no right to summon vassals to appear at court or on the battlefield, in contrast to the power exercised for example by the dukes of Bavaria.  Neither do they appear to have exercised any special ducal rights of jurisdiction over the more powerful local counts, for example the counts of Stade who created extensive domains for themselves between the lower Elbe and the Weser[175].  The three eastern border provinces of Nordmark, Lausitz and Meissen, which came into existence towards the end of the 12th century, were imperial fiefs with no vassal status towards the Billung dukes[176].  On the extinction of the male line of the Billung family in 1106, the ducal title was awarded to Lothar von Süpplingenburg, although the Billung family territories were inherited by the sons-in-law of the last duke, the Welf Duke Heinrich "der Schwarze" and Otto von Ballenstedt. 

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

Onomastics suggest a family connection between the family of the founders of Brunswick and the Billung family, as well as with the family of Otto I King of Germany, but any such relationship cannot be proved.  As will be seen below, there is considerable uncertainty about the early generations of this family, in particular the supposed descendants of Count Wichmann [II].  However, the suggested relationships set out here appear to be reasonably robust. 

 

 

1.         AMELUNG (-before 1 Dec 811).  m ---.  The name of Amelung's wife is not known.  Amelung & his wife had one child: 

a)         BENNIT .  "Bennit comes" made a donation of property to Werra and Fulda, naming his father "Amalungus", confirmed by charter dated 1 Dec 811[177]

b)         ENNO (-after [823/26]).  "Enno comes Amalungi filius" witnessed the donation of property "in pago Nordthuringi" by "Bernardus" to the monastery of Corbey, dated to [823/26][178].  "Enno comes" witnessed the donation of property "in villa Honesleva" by "Wulfhard" to the monastery of Corbey, dated to [823/26][179]

 

 

1.         BILLUNG .  Princeps.  m AEDA, daughter of --- & his wife --- [daughter of Pepin King of Italy] ([798/810]-).  The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[180].  Her precise origin is mentioned in the charter dated 885 by which "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, although the accuracy of this document is not known[181].  Billung & his wife had one child: 

a)         ODA (-17 May 913).  The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[182].  "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[183].  "Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[184].  "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[185]m LIUDOLF, son of [BRUN[HART] & his wife ---] (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen). 

 

 

[Three] brothers, parents not yet identified: 

1.         AMELUNG (-after [850]).  A charter dated to [850] records that "Meginfridus advocatus" recognised the rights of "Amalung comite et fratre suo Wicman" in "ecclesia de Kapungen"[186]m ---.  The name of Amelung´s wife is not known.  Amelung & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALBERADA .  Abbess of Kloster Kaufungen.  "Athelbert comes cum filio meo Billunc" donated property in "Mardachuson, Spielli et Wanhusen situm in pago Hassim" to Kloster Kaufungen, "ad consolationem progenitorum meorum Wigman et Immihilt", at the request of "Alberat abbatisse et sororis Hemme filiarum…patrui mei Amalung", by charter dated to [880/89][187]

b)         HEMMA .  "Athelbert comes cum filio meo Billunc" donated property in "Mardachuson, Spielli et Wanhusen situm in pago Hassim" to Kloster Kaufungen, "ad consolationem progenitorum meorum Wigman et Immihilt", at the request of "Alberat abbatisse et sororis Hemme filiarum…patrui mei Amalung", by charter dated to [880/89][188]

2.         WICHMANN [I] (-after 10 Nov 855).  A charter dated to [850] records that "Meginfridus advocatus" recognised the rights of "Amalung comite et fratre suo Wicman" in "ecclesia de Kapungen"[189]Graaf van Hamaland.  "Folcherus" donated property "…in pago Hamulande in comitatu Wigmanni…" to Werden abbey by charter dated 10 Nov 855[190].  [same person as…?  WICHMANN (-killed in battle in Saxony 2 Feb 880).  The Annales Fuldenses name "Brun ducem et fratrem reinæ, Wicmannum, Bardonem, alterum Bardonem et tertium Bardonem, Thiotherium, Gerrichum, Liutolfum, Folcwartum, Avan, Thiotricum, Liutharium" as those killed in battle in 880 in Saxony against "Nordmannis"[191].]  m IMMIHILT, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated to [880/89] under which her son "Athelbert comes cum filio meo Billunc" donated property in "Mardachuson, Spielli et Wanhusen situm in pago Hassim" to Kloster Kaufungen, "ad consolationem progenitorum meorum Wigman et Immihilt"[192].  Wichmann & his wife had one child: 

a)         ATHELBERT .  "Athelbert comes cum filio meo Billunc" donated property in "Mardachuson, Spielli et Wanhusen situm in pago Hassim" to Kloster Kaufungen, "ad consolationem progenitorum meorum Wigman et Immihilt", at the request of "Alberat abbatisse et sororis Hemme filiarum…patrui mei Amalung", by charter dated to [880/89][193]m ---.  The name of Athelbert´s wife is not known.  Athelbert & his wife had one child: 

i)          BILLUNG .  "Athelbert comes cum filio meo Billunc" donated property in "Mardachuson, Spielli et Wanhusen situm in pago Hassim" to Kloster Kaufungen, "ad consolationem progenitorum meorum Wigman et Immihilt", at the request of "Alberat abbatisse et sororis Hemme filiarum…patrui mei Amalung", by charter dated to [880/89][194]

 

 

1.         HERMANN (-935).  The Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses record that "dominus Hermannus" founded the "monasterio Sancti Michaelis in Lunenborg" in 905 and died in 935[195].  It is not known which family Hermann belonged to.  However, the other deaths recorded in the same source are of the first counts of Brunswick, who are probably descended from the Billung family as shown below.  This could indicate that Hermann was also related to the Billungs.  m HILDEGARDIS, daughter of --- (-940).  The Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses record the death in 940 of "domina Hildegardis uxor domini Hermanni fundatoris"[196]

 

 

[BILLUNG] .  The Chronica Principum Saxoniæ names "vir…nomine Bilingus" as father of "Hermannum"[197], although the accuracy of this statement is not known.  The name of the father of the brothers Amelung, Wichmann [I] and Hermann Billung has not so far been found in any other source.  The possibility that some or all of them were uterine brothers cannot be excluded. 

m ---.  The name of [Billung]'s wife is not known. 

[Billung] & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         AMELUNG (-5 May 962).  Bishop of Verden 933.  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 962 of "Amalungus Fardensis episcopus…frater Herimanni ducis"[198].  Thietmar also records that Amelung Bishop of Verden, "the duke's [Hermann Billung] brother", died on 5 May "at a good old age"[199]

2.         WICHMANN [II] (-23 Apr 944).  Widukind names "Wichmanni fratris sui [=Herimannum]", when recording his rebellion against King Otto[200]

-        see below

3.         HERMANN [Billung] ([905/10]-Quedlinburg 27 Mar 973, bur Lüneburg St Michael).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Bilingus…filium Hermannum"[201].  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was adult when appointed military commander in 936.  He was given military command in Saxony ("princeps militiæ") by Otto I King of Germany in 936, which triggered the revolt of his brother Wichmann[202].  Graf in Wetigau 940.  Procurator of the king in Saxony 953, 961 and 966.  "Otto…rex" granted property "Ozmina marcam…et Tarata marcam cum castello Grodista" to "vassallo Billing" by charter dated 26 Jun 952[203].  "Otto…rex" granted property to the church of St Moritz, Magdeburg by charter dated 953, which names "Billingus…noster miles"[204].  Graf in dem Gauen Tilithi und Marstem 955.  Markgraf 956: "Otto…rex" granted rights to salt duties to Lüneburg St Mikhael at the request of "Herimanni marchionis" by charter dated 13 Aug 956[205].  "Otto…rex" gave property "in pago Usiti in comitatu comitis Willihelmi" to "nostro fideli vasallo comitique Billinc" by charter dated 2 Dec 958[206], which may refer to Hermann Billung although he is not titled Markgraf in the document.  "Otto…rex" granted property "in locis Vurmerstat, Otunpach, Gozarstat, Haholtestat…in pago Usiti in comitatu comitis Uuillihelmi" to "vasallo comitisque…Billinc" by charter dated 2 Dec 958[207].  "Otto…rex" granted property "Asundorf marcam et Dornsteti marcam Liubissa…in pago Hassigeuui in comitatu comitis Sigiuuridi…loco Biscopstat…in pago Altgeuui in comitatu comitis Uuillihelmi" to "vassallo Billing" by charter dated 23 Apr 961[208].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property "in pago Neletici in comitatu Billingi comitis" to Magdeburg St Moritz by charter dated 28 Jul 965[209].  Dux in Saxony 965.  He founded St Michaeliskloster at Lüneburg.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 973 of "Heriman dux"[210].  Thietmar records the death of Duke Hermann, father of Bernhard, at Quedlinburg on 1 Apr,  the transportation of his body to Lüneburg, and the refusal by Bruno Bishop of Verden (maybe his nephew) to allow his burial in church because of his prior excommunication[211].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "27 Mar" of "Herimannus dux"[212]m firstly ODA, daughter of --- (-15 Mar ----).  The primary source which confirms the name of Hermann's first wife has not so far been identified.  m secondly HILDESUIT, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms the name of Hermann's second wife has not so far been identified.  "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed the donation of property "aliquando Bilingo nostro comiti…in Neletici…quitquid coniunx sua hereditarii iuris habere" to Magdaburg St Moritz by charter dated 28 Jul 966[213].  Duke Hermann & his [first/second] wife had five children:

a)         BERNHARD (-Corvey 9 Feb 1011, bur Lüneburg St Michael).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Bennonis ducis, qui et Bernhardus et Liudigeri comitis et Machtildis comitisse" as brothers and sister of "domna Suanehildis [filia] Herimanni ducis de Liuniburh"[214].  He succeeded as BERNHARD I Herzog in Sachsen

-        see below.

b)         LIUTGER (-26 Feb 1011, bur Lüneburg St Michael).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Bennonis ducis, qui et Bernhardus et Liudigeri comitis et Machtildis comitisse" as brothers and sister of "domna Suanehildis [filia] Herimanni ducis de Liuniburh"[215].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" gave property "Stipenlo in comitatu ipsius Liutgeri comitis et in pago Westfalon" to "Liutgero comiti" by charter dated 27 Apr 1001 on the petition of "Berenhardi nostri ducis et…capellani nostri"[216].  The Vita Meinwerci records the death "IV Kal Apr" of "frater…ducis Bernhardi, comes Liutderus"[217].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "26 Feb" of "Liudger com"[218]m EMMA, daughter of IMMED [III] & his wife Agnes --- (-3 Dec 1038, bur Bremen Cathedral).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Emma" as wife of "comes Liutderus", but does not give her origin[219].  Her parentage is confirmed by Adam of Bremen who names "Emma" as wife of "Liudgerus frater [Benno dux Saxonum]" when recording her husband's death in 1011, calling her "Emma…soror Meginwerki episcopi Padarburnensis" when recording her death and her burial in Bremen Cathedral[220].  Liutger & his wife had two children: 

i)          IMMED (-3 Feb 1076, bur Paderborn cathedral).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Bishop of Paderborn 1051.

ii)         [EMMA].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  1024, 1039, 1047.

c)         MECHTILD of Saxony ([942]-Gent 25 May 1008, bur Gent St Peter).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Bennonis ducis, qui et Bernhardus et Liudigeri comitis et Machtildis comitisse" as brothers and sister of "domna Suanehildis [filia] Herimanni ducis de Liuniburh", recording the names of Mechtild's two husbands[221].  The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names "Mathildis, filiam principis Herimanni" as wife of "Balduinum [filius comitis Arnulfi]", specifying that it was hoped that the couple would have many children[222].  This suggests that their marriage date may have been some years earlier than 961 considering that the Genealogia was supposedly compiled in [951/59], probably during the earlier part of this date range considering which children of Louis IV King of the West Franks are named in the document[223].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Mathildis comitissa Saxonie" as wife of "Godefridi Ardennensis"[224].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights and property of Kloster Mouzon donated by (among others) "dux Fredericus pro anima Ottonis…[et] Godefridus comes et coniux sua Mathildis pro anima sui fratris Adalberonis archiepiscopi" by charter dated 1023[225].  The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1008 of "Mathildis comitissa"[226].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "25 May" of "Mattild com"[227]m firstly ([951/59]) BAUDOUIN III joint Count of Flanders, son of ARNOUL I "le Grand" Count of Flanders & his second wife Adela de Vermandois [Carolingian] ([940]-1 Jan 962).  m secondly ([963]) GODEFROI Comte de Verdun, son of comte GOZELON [Wigeriche] & his wife Uda --- [Matfriede] (-3 Sep 995, bur Gent St Peter). 

d)         SCHWANEHILDE [Suanhild] ([945/50]-26 Nov 1014, bur Kloster Jena, transferred 1028 to Naumburg Georgskirche).  The Annalista Saxo names "domna Suanehildis" as daughter of "Herimanni ducis de Liuniburh", names her brothers "Bennonis ducis et Bernhardus et Liudigeri comitis et Machtildis comitisse" and her two husbands[228].  Her birth date range is estimated on the basis of her sister being born in [942] and Schwanehilde herself giving birth to seven children by her second husband.  Thietmar records the marriage of Ekkehard and "Swanhild widow of Count Thietmar and Duke Bernhard's sister"[229].  Thietmar records the death of Suanhild 26 Nov 1014[230]m firstly THIETMAR [III] Markgraf [der Ostmark], son of CHRISTIAN Graf im Nordthüring- und Schwabengau & his wife Hidda [der Ostmark] (-3 Aug after 979, bur Kloster Nienburg an der Saale).  m secondly (before 1000) EKKEHARD [I] Markgraf von Meissen, son of GUNTHER Markgraf im Bischofstum Merseburg & his wife --- (-murdered Pöhlde 30 Apr 1002, bur Kloster Jena, transferred 1028 to Naumburg Georgskirche).

e)         IMMA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  Nun at Herford.  995.

4.         [BRUNO ([905/15]-after 16 Nov 958, maybe after 30 Dec 979).  There is no proof that Bruno was the brother of Hermann Billung but this looks probable.  It is assumed that Bruno's sons were adolescent or young adults when mentioned with their father in the two sources referred to below.  This would place Bruno's birth in the range [905/15], which is too early for him to have been the son of Wichmann [II].  The reference to "pago Derlingum" in the [951/57] charter is a clear indication of a family connection as this territory appears several times in documents in which the supposed descendants of Wichmann [II] are named (see below).  "Otto…rex" granted property "Hebesheim in pago Derlingum in comitatu Brunonis" to Moritzkirche, Magdeburg by undated charter, but dated to [951/57] as it names "coniugis nostræ Aelheidis…filii nostri Liudolfi", in the presence of "eiusdem Brunonis comitis filiique Liudolfi, Geronis marchionis, Cristiani comitis nec non Liutharii et Friderici comitum"[231].  "Otto…rex" gave property "in pago Hessi in comitatu comitis qui dicitur Bern in loco Uuestnetri" which "ibidem Bruninc comes filiusque eius Amalunc in beneficium habere visi sunt" to "fideli nostro Retolt" by charter dated 16 Nov 958[232].  "Otto…imperator augustus" gave judgment in a dispute between Werner Abbot of Fulda and Gozbert Abbot of Hersfeld, concerning ship travel along the Hörsel, by charter dated 30 Dec 979, which names "comites nostros Sigebertum, Sigefridum et Brunonem"[233], although if this refers to the same Count Bruno he would have been very old at the time.  m ---.  The name of Bruno's wife is not known.]  Bruno & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         LIUDOLF (-after [951/57]).  "Otto…rex" granted property "Hebesheim in pago Derlingum in comitatu Brunonis" to Moritzkirche, Magdeburg by undated charter, but dated to [951/57] as it names "coniugis nostræ Aelheidis…filii nostri Liudolfi", in the presence of "eiusdem Brunonis comitis filiique Liudolfi, Geronis marchionis, Cristiani comitis nec non Liutharii et Friderici comitum" [234]

b)         AMELUNG (-after 958).  "Otto…rex" gave property "in pago Hessi in comitatu comitis qui dicitur Bern in loco Uuestnetri" which "ibidem Bruninc comes filiusque eius Amalunc in beneficium habere visi sunt" to "fideli nostro Retolt" by charter dated 16 Nov 958[235].  “Ymmadus comes” donated property “in Lithingi, in pago ---” to Corvey monastery, witnessed by “Thuring comes, Amalung comes…[236]

5.         [son .  The identity of the husband of Gerberga is unknown.  The name of his son, Wichmann, suggests a close family relationship with the Billung family of dukes of Saxony.  The connection appears confirmed by Widukind who records that Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn was "materno a Wichmanno, Herimanni ducis nepote, propinquo Ottonis I"[237], the bishop's mother being corroborated in other sources as Adela, daughter of Wichmann [V].  There are so many uncertainties regarding the genealogy of the Billung family that detailed speculation on any precise relationship does not seem worthwhile.  Gerberga's husband is shown as a possible son of Billung only for the purposes of making the hyperlink connection.  m GERBERGA, daughter of MEGINHARD Graf van Hamaland & his wife ---.  Her parentage is confirmed by the Necrologium of Elten which records the death of "Meginhard, pater Gerberch, cuius filius Wichmannus comes fundator ecclesia"[238].  One child: 

a)         WICHMANN [V] ([930]-after 27 Sep 979).  His parentage is confirmed by the Necrologium of Elten which records the death of "Meginhard, pater Gerberch, cuius filius Wichmannus comes fundator ecclesia"[239]Graaf van Hamaland

-        GRAVEN van HAMALAND

6.         [---.  m ---.] 

a)         [daughter .  Alpertus names "Godizo, Richizonis filius" as "consanguineus" of the sisters Liutgard and Adela[240].  This would be explained if, as shown here, their father Wichmann [IV] was the son of an otherwise unknown sister of Duke Hermann Billung (see below) and Richizo's wife was also related to the duke's family although the precise nature of this relationship is speculation.  m RICHIZO, son of ---.] 

 

 

WICHMANN [II], son of BILLUNG & his wife --- (-23 Apr 944).  Widukind names "Wichmanni fratris sui [=Herimannum]", when recording his rebellion against King Otto[241].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in pago Vnimoti in comitatu Wigmanni dua loca Vrlaha et Ottingha" for the foundation of Magdeburg by charter dated 11 Oct 937[242].  He rebelled against Otto I King of Germany in 938, dissatisfied that the king had given military command in Saxony to his brother Hermann, but made peace with the king later the same year[243].  The Annales Magdeburgenses record the reconciliation of "Wigmannus frater Hermanni Saxonis ducis" and the king in 941[244].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 944 of "Wigman com"[245].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "23 Apr" of "Wigmam com"[246]

m FREDERUNA, daughter of Graf THEODERICH [Immedinger] & his wife Reginlind --- (-18 Jan 971).  Her origin is deduced from Thietmar referring to "Counts Wichmann and Ekbert…brothers" as sons of Emperor Otto I's maternal aunt[247], although he does not name their mother.  A list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli sets out (in order) "Thieterich, Reginhilt, *, Oto, Amalrat, Perectheid, Friderun, Pia", immediately after a list of family members of Heinrich I King of Germany and his wife, which no doubt refers to the latter's parents and sisters[248].  It is also possible that the wife of Wichmann [I] was the sister Bia, unless she can be identified as the mother of Friedrich (see above).  The necrology of Fulda records the death "970 Id Jan" of "Fridarun comitissa [anc Christi]"[249], presumably showing that she became a nun before she died. 

Wichmann [II] & his wife had [four possible children]:

1.         [WICHMANN [III] (-killed in battle 22 Sep 967).  Thietmar records that "Count Wichmann" took part in the siege of Mainz during the rebellion of Liudolf, son of Emperor Otto I, in 953[250].  No direct proof has been found that Wichmann [III] was the son of Wichmann [II].  However, it is clear that Wichmann [III] was the brother of Ekbert "der Einäugige", as in a later passage Thietmar refers to "Counts Wichmann and Ekbert…brothers" instigating the Slavs to war[251].  Wichmann revived his supposed father's feud with his uncle Hermann Billung, was captured in [953] and not included in the general settlement of 954[252].  He was "the outlaw Count Wichman", under whose leadership "the Slavs" (probably the Pomeranians) defeated Mieszko I Prince of Poland twice in 963[253].  Widukind records that "Misacam" and his Bohemian allies defeated the western Pomeranians in 967 and killed their leader Wichman[254].  Emperor Otto inherited Wichmann's land, presumably by confiscation, and divided the inheritance into two parts, one of which he granted to the monastery constructed at Lüneburg by Hermann Billung, the other to the abbey "que dicitur Keminada iuxta Wisarum fluvium"[255].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "22 Sep" of "Wichmannus comes et multi aliis occisi"[256].]  same person as…?  WICHMANN .  The Notice concerning the foundation of Corvey lists "Wicmannus comes Dungon, Hatuwih comitissa Beverunge, Heremannus Mylenhusen" among the donors to the monastery (undated)[257].  Reading this together with the entry for Graf Amelung and his mother Hathwig, it appears probable that the latter was the wife of Wichmann, that both were parents of Amelung, and that Wichmann was the same person as Wichmann [III], but none of this is certain.  m HATHWIG, daughter of ---.  The Notice concerning the foundation of Corvey lists "Amulung comes Bikethop, Hathuwig mater eius Amulungessen" among the donors to the monastery (undated)[258].  Wichmann & his wife had one child: 

a)         AMELUNG .  The Notice concerning the foundation of Corvey lists "Amulung comes Bikethop, Hathuwig mater eius Amulungessen" among the donors to the monastery (undated)[259]

2.         [BRUNO ([920/25]-[26 Jan] 976).  Monk at Corvey before 942.  "Bruno Corbeiensis monachus", "cognatus" of Hermann Billung Duke in Saxony, was appointed to succeed Amelung (brother of Hermann Billung) as Bishop of Verden in 962[260].  No direct indication has been found that Bruno was the son of Wichmann [II].  However, the chronology is favorable.  Thietmar records the death of Duke Hermann, father of Bernhard, at Quedlinburg on 1 Apr,  the transportation of his body to Lüneburg, and the refusal by Bruno Bishop of Verden (maybe his nephew) to allow his burial in church because of his prior excommunication[261].] 

3.         [EKBERT [I] "der Einäugige" ([930/35]-4 Apr 994).  No direct proof has been found that Ekbert [I] was the son of Wichmann [II] but the chronology is favorable.  However, it is clear that he was the brother of Wichmann [III], as Thietmar refers to "Counts Wichmann and Ekbert…brothers" instigating the Slavs to war[262].  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was of a similar age to Liudolf, son of Emperor Otto I, when he joined Liudolf's rebellion.  Ekbert lost an eye in a battle for which he blamed Emperor Otto I[263].  "Otto…rex" confirmed the immunities of Kloster Essen including over land "excepta in loco Ruoldinghus quam Eggihart et eius coniunx Rikilt" possessed by hereditary right and in land "in comitatu Ecberti et Cobbonis" by charter dated 15 Jan 947[264], although Ekbert [I] would have been rather young at that date for this to be the same person.  Thietmar records that "Count Ekbert" joined the rebellion of Liudolf, son of Emperor Otto I[265], dated from other sources to [953/54].  "Otto…imperator augustus" made a donation to St Pantaleon at Köln of property "insule medietatem in Almere que Urch vocatur…quod Gardolfus iam quondam comes…tenuisse…in comitatu Ekberti comitis" by an undated charter, dated to 966[266].  Thietmar records that "Count Ekbert" was tried for complicity in the rebellion of Heinrich Duke of Bavaria and sent into exile[267], dated to 978.  In a later passage, the same chronicler records that Count Ekbert was present with Duke Heinrich when the latter kidnapped King Otto III and that subsequently the king's sister Adelheid was held at Ekbert's fortress of Ala[268].  Graf im Hastfalagau.  "Otto…rex" donated property "Vvalbisci in comitatu Karoli comitis" to Quedlinburg by charter dated 6 Jan 992, which names as present "Bernhardi ducis, Egberti comitis, Eggihardi marchionis, Herimanni palatini comitis, Huodonis marchionis, Deoderici palatini comitis eiusque fratris Sigeberti comitis, Herimanni comitis"[269], Ekbert's position as second in the list of nobles indicating his importance at the time.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 994 of "Egbertus com"[270].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "4 Apr" of "Ekbert com"[271]m ---.  The name of Ekbert's wife is not known.]  Ekbert & his wife had [six possible children].  No direct proof has been found that the following are children of Ekbert but this is probable.  That Ekbert had surviving sons is shown by the charter of "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" dated 23 Jan 1001 which donates property "castellum Dalehem…in pago Hastfala sive Ambargam in comitatu filiorum Ekbrahti comitis et nepotis nostri" to the church of Hildesheim[272].  The relationship of "nepos" to Emperor Otto III would have been a remote one through Ekbert's supposed mother Friderun, who was the sister of Emperor Otto's paternal great-grandmother. 

a)         [BRUNO ([975/85]-murdered near Niethorp[273] [1010/11][274]).  There is no proof that Bruno von Braunschweig was the son of Ekbert "der Einäugige" but this appears probable in view of the names which are common to the two families and also the common references to the Derlingau.  He is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln as the brother of Wichmann [IV] Graf im Duffelgau and Ekbert Graf im Derlingau, while another table shows Wichmann [IV] as son of Ekbert "der Einäugige"[275].  His birth date range is estimated from his estimated marriage date.  Bruno founded Braunschweig.  He was a candidate for the German throne in 1002[276] in opposition to Heinrich IV Duke of Bavaria, who was elected as Heinrich II King of Germany.] 

-        GRAFEN von BRAUNSCHWEIG

b)         [AMELUNG (-[21 Sep ----], after 14 Sep [1029]).  No direct proof has been found that Amelung was the son of Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige" but he was certainly the brother of Ekbert [II] as shown by the charter dated 1 Jul 1028 of "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" relating to Corvey abbey witnessed by "Bernhardus dux, Adalbero dux, Ernastus dux, Liudulfus comes privignus imperatoris, Hiddi, Amulungus comes et frater eius Ecbertus, Wigger, Gerlo, Uffo, Tiammo, Poppo, Bern, Thiathard, Brun, Gebo"[277].  "…Amulungo comes et frater eius Ekbracht…" witnessed the charter dated 14 Sep (no year) under which "dñs…Brun cum nepte sua Idæ" donated property to the church of Sts Maria, Kilian and Libor, the same document recording that "post quinquennium obitu imperatoris secundi Heinrici" [1029/30] "predicta Ida cum viro suo Brunone" withdrew the donation[278].  "Amulungo et fratre eius Ekberto" also witnessed a donation of property dated "XVIII Kal Oct [1029]" by "Brun comes cum uxore sua Ida"[279], which suggests that they may have been closely related to Bruno.  Graf 1015/31.  Vogt at Paderborn cathedral.  The necrology of Merseburg records the death "21 Sep" of "Amalog com"[280], although it is not known whether this refers to this Amelung.] 

c)         [EKBERT [II] (-[7 Feb ----], after 24 Jul 1042).  No direct proof has been found that Ekbert [II] was the son of Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige" but he was certainly the brother of Amelung as shown by the charter dated 1 Jul 1028 of "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" relating to Corvey abbey witnessed by "Bernhardus dux, Adalbero dux, Ernastus dux, Liudulfus comes privignus imperatoris, Hiddi, Amulungus comes et frater eius Ecbertus, Wigger, Gerlo, Uffo, Tiammo, Poppo, Bern, Thiathard, Brun, Gebo"[281].  "Amulungo et fratre eius Ekberto" also witnessed a donation of property dated "XVIII Kal Oct [1029]" by "Brun comes cum uxore sua Ida"[282], which suggests that they may have been closely related to Bruno.  Europäische Stammtafeln shows Ekbert as brother of both Wichmann [IV] Graf im Duffelgau and Bruno, founder of Braunschweig[283].  It is not known whether this is based on any sources other than those already cited here.  "Henricus…rex" granted privileges to Kloster St Michaelis at Hildesheim, listing its properties "in pago Astfalo in prefectura Tammonis…in prefectura Liudulfi in pago Flenithi…in pago Scotilingon in prefectura ducis Bernhardi…in prefectura Herimanni comitis in pago Logne…in pago Derningon in prefectura Ekberti…in pago Derningon in prefectura Liudgeri comitis…in pago Flutwidde in prefectura Thammnis…in pago Tilithe in prefectura Bernhardi comitis" to Bernward Bishop of Hildesheim by an undated charter, placed in the collection with other charters dated 1013[284].  "Heinricus…rex" granted property "in pago Derelingun in comitatu Ecberti comitis…in villis Abolderstetin" to "Sehart…Herimannus pater illius" by charter dated 24 Jul 1042[285].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "7 Feb" of "Eilika Magni ducis filia"[286].  Although it is not known whether this entry refers to this Ekbert, no other possible Graf Ekbert has been identified.] 

d)         [WICHMANN [IV] (-murdered Upladen 9 Oct 1016, bur Verden).  Wichmann is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[287] as son of Ekbert "der Einäugige", although the source on which this is based has not so far been identified.  [Vogt of Metelen 993].  Vogt of Borghorst 999.  Graf in Königsdahlum 1001/09.  "Henricus…rex" granted property "Daleheym in pago Amberga in comitatu Wichmanni comitis" to Kloster Gandersheim by charter dated 3 Sep 1009[288]Alpertus records that, in the conflict between "Wicmannus et Baldericus", Baldric received the support of "Coloniensis sacerdotis itemque Gerhardi Mosellensis, potentis viri" while Wichmann was supported by the king[289].  Thietmar records that "Count Wichmann" intervened to prevent Duke Bernhard being granted the island called Parey after the murder in Nov 1014 of Werner von Walbeck ex-Markgraf der Nordmark[290].  Thietmar records that "Count Wichmann…was killed by a presumptuous serf", in a passage dated to 1016[291].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "9 Oct" of "Vuichmannus comes et occisus"[292]m ([1006]) ---, daughter of GOTTFRIED Graf von Hattuaria & his wife --- (-18 May ----).  Alpertus refers to "Wicmannus" marrying "præfecti Godefridi, avunculi Balderici, filiam", without giving her name; nor is it clear to which Wichmann this refers, apart from it being chronologically impossible for it to have been the same Wichmann whose daughter is recorded in the same passage as marrying "Baldericus" at an earlier date[293].  Wichmann's wife is named "Remmod" in Europäische Stammtafeln[294] but the basis for this is not known.]  Wichmann [IV] & his wife had one son: 

i)          son .  1016.  Thietmar refers to the minor son of "Count Wichmann " after the murder of his father, specifying that Duke Bernhard "was the rightful guardian…and also of his entire inheritance"[295]same person as…?  BRUNO (-after 14 Sep [1029]).  "Amulungo et fratre eius Ekberto" witnessed a donation of property dated "18 Kal Oct [1029]" by "Brun comes cum uxore sua Ida"[296], which suggests that the three may have been closely related.  The unnamed son of Wichmann [III] is one of the possibilities.  m IDA, daughter of [THIETMAR & his wife ---].  "Dñs…Brun cum nepte sua Idæ" donated property to the church of Sts Maria, Kilian and Libor by charter dated 14 Sep (no year), the same document recording that "post quinquennium obitu imperatoris secundi Heinrici" [1029/30] "predicta Ida cum viro suo Brunone" withdrew the donation, witnessed by "Bernhardus dux, Heriman comes et filii eius, Henric, Conrad, Adalbracht, Bernhard, Ekkica comes de Aslan, Bernhard comes, Erp comes, Tiedric comes Fresonie, Widukin comes, Amulungo comes et frater eius Ekbracht, Ekkica comes…Tiamma comes et frater eius"[297].  "Amulungo et fratre eius Ekberto" witnessed a donation of property dated "18 Kal Oct [1029]" by "Brun comes cum uxore sua Ida"[298]

e)         [GERTRUD (-after 1018).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Godescalcum Ekkihardi comitis filium" when recording his separation in 1018 from "Gertrudam filiam comitis Ekkiberti"[299]m (separated 1018) GOTTESCHALK, son of Graf EKKEHARD & his wife Mathilde ---.] 

f)          [GERBERGA .  The Vita Godefridi comitis Capenbergensis names "filia Gerberga [comitis Egeberti] abbatissa"[300], although it is not known to which abbey this refers.] 

4.         [HEDWIG [Hathui] (939-9 Jul 1014, bur Quedlinburg Klosterkirche).  Thietmar names "Hathui…niece of Queen Mathilde", records her marriage to "Siegfried son of Markgraf Gero" when aged 13, and that she became a nun after her husband's death[301].  There is no proof that she was the daughter of Wichmann [II] but the latter's wife is the most likely of the sisters of Queen Mathilde who could have been Hedwig's mother.  It should also be noted that Thietmar records the death of "my cousin Mathilde" on 28 Apr 1014, noting that "she had long resided at Gernrode with Abbess Hathui to whom she was related by blood"[302].  If Hathui was the daughter of Wichmann [II], she would have been the first cousin of Mathilde's supposed father Duke Bernhard.  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Hetwigam" as widow of "Gero filium unicum Sifridum"[303] but gives no indication about her origin.  Abbess of Gernrode 959.  Abbess of Vreden.  m (952) SIEGFRIED, son of GERO I Markgraf der sächsiscen Ostmark & his wife Judith --- (-[959]).] 

 

 

 

B.      DUKES in SAXONY 973-1106

 

 

BERNHARD I 973-1011, BERNHARD II 1011-1059

 

BERNHARD Billung, son of HERMANN Billung dux in Saxony & his [first/second] wife [Oda ---/Hildesuit---] (-Corvey 9 Feb 1011, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Bennonis ducis, qui et Bernhardus et Liudigeri comitis et Machtildis comitisse" as brothers and sister of "domna Suanehildis [filia] Herimanni ducis de Liuniburh"[304].  He succeeded as BERNHARD I Herzog in Sachsen.  Adam of Bremen names "dux Benno et Sigafridus marchio" when recording their victory against the Vikings at Stade[305].  The passage is undated but adjacent paragraphs suggest that it relates to an incident in the late 908s/early 990s.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1011 of "Berinhart dux"[306].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "9 Feb" of "Bernhardus dux"[307].  The Vita Meinwerci records the death "Id Feb" of "Bernhardus dux Saxonicus, filius Herimanni ducis"[308]

m ([990]) HILDEGARDE von Stade, daughter of HEINRICH [I] "dem Kahlen" Graf von Stade [Nordmark] & his second wife Hildegard [von Reinhausen] ([974/77]-3 Oct 1011, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  The primary source which confirms Hildegarde's parentage and her marriage has not so far been identified.  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "3 Oct" of "Hildegarth ducissa"[309]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name and origin of Duke Bernhard's mistress are not known. 

Duke Bernhard I & his wife had [five] children: 

1.         HERMANN (-young).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified. 

2.         BERNHARD (after 990-29 Jun 1059, bur Lüneburg St Michael).  The Annalista Saxo names "duce Bernhardo, filius eius Bernhardus" when recording his succession to his father in 1011 as BERNHARD II Herzog in Sachsen[310].  As "Bernard Duke of Westfalia", he signed the 1013 document of Heinrich II King of Germany under which the king renewed his settlement of a dispute over Gandersheim, listed first among the lay signatories[311].  The Annalista Saxon records that he rebelled against Emperor Heinrich in 1020, captured "Scalkesburh", but withdrew and was restored to his properties after the intercession of the empress[312].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" renewed the privileges of Kloster Fulda by undated charter, placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1020, witnessed by "Godifridi ducis, Berinhardi ducis, Thiederici ducis, Welphonis comitis, Cunonis comitis, Kunrati comitis, Ottonis comitis, Adilbrahtis comitis, Bobonis comitis, Friderici comitis, Bezilini comitis, Ezonis comitis palatini"[313], the order of witnesses presumably giving some idea of the relative importance of these named nobles at the court of Emperor Heinrich II at the time.  Adam of Bremen records the death in 1059 of "Bernardus Saxonum dux"[314].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "29 Jun" of "Bernhardus dux"[315]m ([1020]) EILIKA von Schweinfurt, daughter of HEINRICH von Schweinfurt Markgraf der Nordgau & his wife Gerberga [von Hammerstein] ([1000]-10 Dec after [1055/56]).  The Annalista Saxo names "Eilica…filia marchionis Heinrici de Suinvorde" as wife of "Bernhardus iunior"[316].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "10 Dec" of "Eila ducissa"[317].  Duke Bernhard II & his wife had five children: 

a)         ORDULF [Otto] ([1020]-28 Mar 1072, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  The Annalista Saxo names "Odulfum ducem et Herimannum comitem" as the two sons of Duke Bernhard & his wife, when recording that he succeeded his father in 1059 as ORDULF Herzog von Sachsen[318]

-        see below

b)         HERMANN (-1086).  The Annalista Saxo names "Odulfum ducem et Herimannum comitem" as the two sons of Duke Bernhard & his wife, specifying that the latter died "sine legitimis liberis"[319].  In a later passage it records the death in 1086 of "Herimannus comes, patruus Magni ducis, sine legitimis liberis"[320].  Graf 1059/80.

c)         GERTRUD of Saxony (Schweinfurt [1028]-Veurne 4 Aug 1113, bur Veurne).  The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names "filiam Bernardi Saxonum comitis Gertrudem" as wife of "Robertus", specifying that she was "viduam Florentii comitis Fresonum"[321].  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records the marriage of Count Floris and "Gertrudim filiam Hermanni ducis Saxonum"[322], "Hermanni" being an error for "Bernardi" as the former would be impossible chronologically.  "Gertrudis" is named as wife of "Roberti Frisonis" in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin, which does not give her origin[323].  The Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Idam Namucensem…uxorem Angelberti marchionis et Gertrudem comitissam Flandrensem" as children of "Bernardum"[324].  The Annales Egmundani specify that Robert acquired the "comitatum Hollandiæ et Fresiæ" by marrying Gertrud[325].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Gertrudis comitissa"[326].  Beke's Egmondsch Necrologium records the death "IV die Aug" of "Gheertrudis…" and her burial in Flanders[327]m firstly ([1050]) FLORIS I Count of Holland, son of DIRK III "Hierosolymita" Count of Holland & his wife Othelindis [von Haldensleben-Nordmark] ([1025]-murdered near Hemert 28 Jun 1061).  m secondly (1063) ROBERT de Flandre, son of  BAUDOUIN V "le Pieux/Insulanus" Count of Flanders & his wife Adela de France ([1035]-13 Oct 1093).  Count of Holland 1062-1071, during the minority of his stepson.  He succeeded his nephew 1071 as ROBERT I "le Frison" Count of Flanders

d)         [HEDWIG (-1 Jun [after 1100]).  The Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Idam Namucensem…uxorem Angelberti marchionis et Gertrudem comitissam Flandrensem" as children of "Bernardum"[328].  It is not certain to whom "Angelberti marchionis" refers, but it is possible that it is Engelbert [I] Graf von Sponheim whose father was Markgraf.  It is not certain to whom "Angelberti marchionis" refers, but it is possible that it is Engelbert [I] Graf von Sponheim whose father was Markgraf.  Wegener points out that a Saxon origin for Engelbert is consistent with the introduction of the names Bernhard and Heinrich into the family of the Grafen von Sponheim[329].  However, if she was the daughter of Duke Bernhard, she must have been born in the range [1020/40].  This seems early in light of the known career dates of Engelbert [I]'s children.  Engelbert's wife is named "Hadwich cometissa Engelberti relicta" in the Fundatio Sancti Pauli in Carinthia[330].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "Kal Jun" of "Hadewich coma"[331]m ENGELBERT [I] Graf von Sponheim und im Pustertal, son of SIEGFRIED Graf von Sponheim und im Pustertal ex-Markgraf & his wife Richgard [Sieghardinger] (-1 Apr 1096).] 

e)         IDA (-31 Jul 1102, bur Namur).  The Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi names "Idam Namucensem…uxorem Angelberti marchionis et Gertrudem comitissam Flandrensem" as children of "Bernardum"[332].  "Ida" is named as wife of "Albertus comes Namucensis" in the Chronicon Sancti Huberti, which specifies that "prius fuerat uxor ducis Frederici", but her origin is not given[333].  On her marriage, she brought her husband extensive lands north-east of Bouillon which later formed the county of Laroche[334].  According to the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, her husband's claim to Bouillon was through the property brought by his wife[335].  The necrology of Brogne records the death "II Kal Aug" of "Ida comitissa Namurcensis"[336]m firstly as his second wife, FREDERIC II Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Vogt of Stablo and Malmédy, son of FRIEDRICH Graf im Moselgau, Vogt of Stablo and Malmédy [Luxembourg] & his wife  [-- von Hammerstein] [Konradiner] (-28 Aug 1065, bur Stablo).  m secondly ([1065/66]) ALBERT III Comte de Namur, son of ALBERT II Comte de Namur & his wife Regilindis of Lower Lotharingia (before 10 Aug 1035-22 Jun 1102).

3.         THIETMAR (-killed in battle Pöhlde 1 Oct 1048).  The Vita Meinwerci names "Thietmarus senior frater Bernhardi ducis Saxonie" when recording his donation to Paderborn, stating that his brother Bernhard was his heir, witnessed by "Udone, Herimanno, Bernhardo, Liudero comitibus"[337].  Thietmar names "Thietmar, Duke Bernhard's brother" when recording that he despoiled Meinwerk Bishop of Paderborn[338].  "Thietmarus comes" is named brother of Bernhard in the Annalista Saxo, which records that he was killed in a duel at the court of Emperor Heinrich[339]m ---.  The name of Thietmar's wife is not known.  Thietmar & his wife had one child: 

a)         THIETMAR .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not so far been identified.  Outlaw 1053.

4.         GODESDIN (-30 Jun after 1040).  "Abbess Godesti" is named sister of Duke Bernhard by Thietmar[340].  [Abbess of Metelen 993].  Abbess of Herford 1002-1040.  She founded the Abbey of Herford 2 Jun 1011. 

5.         [MATHILDE (-Gernrode 28 Apr 1014).  Thietmar records the death of "my cousin Mathilde" on 28 Apr 1014, noting that "she had long resided at Gernrode with Abbess Hathui to whom she was related by blood"[341].  There is no direct proof that Mathilde was the daughter of Duke Bernhard I.  However, Duke Bernhard's children are the only cousins of Thietmar who appear to have been related to Hathui, who as shown above was probably the daughter of Wichmann [I].] 

Duke Bernhard I & Mistress (1) had one illegitimate daughter: 

6.          EMMA .  "Otto…rex" gave property "Hedun in pago Hedergo et in comitatu Hoiconis comitis" to "Imme sanctimoniali filiæ Bernhardi ducis" by charter dated 26 Oct 995[342].  This date appears early for Emma to have been Duke Bernhard's legitimate daughter by his marriage.  It is therefore assumed that she was illegitimate. 

 

 

ORDULF 1059-1072, MAGNUS 1072-1106

 

ORDULF [Otto], son of BERNHARD II Duke in Saxony [Billung] & his wife Eilika von Schweinfurt ([1020]-28 Mar 1072, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  The Annalista Saxo names "Odulfum ducem et Herimannum comitem" as the two sons of Duke Bernhard & his wife, when recording that he succeeded his father in 1059 as ORDULF Herzog von Sachsen[343].  The Chronica Principum Saxoniæ records the death in 1072 of "Ordolfus"[344].  The Annales Rosenveldenses records the death "V Kal Apr" of "Ordulfus dux Saxonum"[345].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "28 Mar" of "Ordulf dux pater M"[346]

m firstly (Nov 1042) ULFHILD Olavsdatter of Norway, daughter of OLAV II Haraldson King of Norway & his wife Astrid Olofsdottir of Sweden (-24 May 1071).  Adam of Bremen records the betrothal of "soror Magni regis" and "Ordulfo ducis filio" at a meeting in Schleswig between Bernhard Duke of Saxony and Magnus King of Norway[347].  The Annalista Saxo names "Wifhildem…filiam Olaph Nortmannorum regis et martiris" as wife of Duke Ordulf[348]Morkinskinna names “King Magnus…sister…Úlfhildr…daughter of King Óláfr” and records her marriage to “a powerful duke named Otto south in Saxony[349].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "24 May" of "Wulfhild ductrix"[350]

m secondly (1071 after May) as her second husband, GERTRUD von Haldensleben, widow of FRIEDRICH [von Formbach], daughter of KONRAD Graf von Haldensleben [Nordmark] & his wife --- (-21 Feb 1116).  According to the 14th century Genealogia comitum Neuburgensium sive Formbacensium, "Fridericus senioris Tiemonis filius" married "neptem ipsius regis Gertrudem", the king referred to being Heinrich IV King of Germany, and was buried at Formbach[351].  The primary source which confirms her precise parentage has not yet been identified.  She was imprisoned at Mainz in 1076.  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 1116 of "Gertrudis ductrix, avia Liuderi ducis"[352]

Duke Ordulf & his first wife had one child:

1.         MAGNUS ([1045]-Erthensburg 23 Aug 1106, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  He is named, and his parentage given, in the Annalista Saxo[353]Morkinskinna names “Magnus” as son of “King Magnus…sister…Úlfhildr…daughter of King Óláfr” and “a powerful duke named Otto south in Saxony[354].  He participated in the rebellion of Otto von Northeim Duke of Bavaria and was imprisoned by Heinrich IV King of Germany in 1070.  He succeeded his father in 1072 as MAGNUS Herzog von Sachsen although still in captivity[355].  The Annales Rosenveldenses records the death "1106 VIII Kal Sep in Ertheneburg" of "Magnus dux" and his burial "Luneburg in monasterio"[356].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "23 Aug" of "Magnus dux"[357]m (after 6 Mar 1070[358]) as her second husband, SOPHIA of Hungary, widow of ULRICH I Marchese di Carniola e Istria, daughter of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife [Ryksa] of Poland ([1045/50]-18 Jun 1095, bur Lüneburg St Michael).  The Annalista Saxo names "sororem Ladizlai regis Ungarie Sophiam" as wife of Ulrich, and in a later passage records her second marriage[359].  The marriage presumably took place soon after the death of her first husband in Mar 1070 as Duke Magnus was imprisoned later in 1070.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis which names "Sophia filia regis Ungarorum Wadreslai" as wife of "Magnus dux"[360], although King László was her brother not her father.  Sophia's second marriage presumably took place soon after the death of her first husband in Mar 1070 as Duke Magnus was imprisoned later in 1070.  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "Sophia quoque ductrix…14 Kal Iunii"[361].  Duke Magnus & his wife had two children: 

a)         WULFHILD ([1075]-Altdorf 29 Dec 1126).  The Annalista Saxo names "Wifhildem et Eilicam" as the two daughters of Duke Magnus & his wife, specifying that Wulfhild married "Heinrico duci, filio Welfi ducis senioris de Bawaria"[362].  The Historia Welforum records that Wulfhild died at Altdorf "decimo sexton die post mortem mariti" and was buried "in monasterio sancti Martini"[363].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "29 Dec" of "Wlfhild ducissa"[364].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "IV Kal Jan" of "Wuolfhildis ducissa hic sepulta"[365]m HEINRICH, son of WELF I Duke of Bavaria & his [second/third] wife Judith de Flandre ([1074]-Ravensburg 13 Dec 1126, bur Weingarten).  He succeeded his brother in 1120 as HEINRICH IX "der Schwarze" Duke of Bavaria.  

b)         EILIKA ([1075/80]-16 Jan 1143).  The Annalista Saxo names "Wifhildem et Eilicam" as the two daughters of Duke Magnus & his wife, specifying in a later passage that Eilika married "Ottoni comiti de Ballenstide"[366].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "16 Jan" of "Eilika Magni ducis filia"[367]Betrothed to LOTHAR UDO III Graf von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark, son of LOTHAR UDO II Graf von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark & his wife Oda von Werl ([1070]-2 Jun 1106).  The Annales Stadenses record that "marchio Udo" was proposing to marry "Eilikam filiam Magni ducis" but his intention was diverted in the house of Hilperich Graf von Plötzkau to the latter's beautiful sister[368]m (before [1096/1100]) OTTO "der Reiche" Graf von Ballenstedt, son of ADALBERT Graf von Ballenstedt [Brandenburg] & his wife Adelheid von Weimar (-9 Feb 1123).  He was appointed Duke of Saxony in 1112 by Emperor Heinrich V in opposition to Lothar von Süpplingenberg who had rebelled against the Emperor. 

Duke Ordulf & his second wife had one child:

2.         BERNHARD (1072-Lüneburg after falling from his horse 15 Jul ----).  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "15 Jul" of "Bernhardus puer frater Ma ducis"[369]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DUKE of SAXONY 1106-1137, SÜPPLINGENBURG

 

A family of minor nobility in Saxony whose county was located in the Harzgau, the adjacent north-eastern foreland of the Harz mountains, centred on their ancestral castle of Süpplingenburg near Königslutter.  The choice of Lothar von Süpplingenburg to succeed as Duke of Saxony, after the extinction of the Billung family in the male line in 1106, was presumably designed to limit the growing influence of the two more obvious candidates, Heinrich "der Schwarze" of the Welf dynasty and Otto Graf von Ballenstedt of the Askanian dynasty, the two sons-in-law of the last Billung Duke Magnus.  The plan backfired as Lothar created a powerful new force in Saxon politics.  He expanded his authority through inheritance and conquest.  From his maternal grandmother, Duke Lothar inherited the important county of Haldensleben in the north-eastern Harz, and from his mother-in-law the Brunswick territories.  He extended ducal authority into the frontier area of Nordalbingia, with the help in particular of Adolf von Schauenburg, whom he enfeoffed in 1111 with the county of Holstein-Stormarn to the north and east of Hamburg.  Within a few years, Lothar had effectively transformed himself into the head of a Saxon nation, in 1115 inflicting a severe defeat on the imperial army at Welfesholz near Mansfeld.  He further demonstrated autonomy from imperial control by conferring in 1123 the Markgrafschaft of Lausitz on Albrecht "der Bär" Graf von Ballenstedt and the Markgrafschaft of Meissen on Konrad von Wettin[370].  Duke Lothar rose to such prominence that he was a sufficiently credible candidate to succeed as king of Germany after the death of Emperor Heinrich V in 1125.  After his election as king, Lothar retained the duchy of Saxony which formed itself into the nucleus of the German kingdom. 

 

 

LOTHAR 1106-1137

 

LOTHAR von Süpplingenburg, son of GERHARD von Süpplingenburg Graf im Harzgau & his wife Hedwig von Formbach ([1/8] Jun 1075-Breitenwang am Loch in Tirol 4 Dec 1137, bur Königslutter).  He is named as son of Gebhard in the Annalista Saxo[371].  The Notæ Genealogicæ Bavaricæ name "Lotharii regis et Ite comitisse de Purchausen" as children of "Hadewic"[372].  He was invested as LOTHAR Duke of Saxony in 1106 by Heinrich V King of Germany after the death of Magnus Billung Duke of Saxony[373].  Duke Lothar immediately sought to build-up his lordship, and triggered in 1112 the intervention of the emperor to whom he submitted in 1114.  The dispute culminated in the defeat of the imperial army by the Saxons at Welfesholz in 1115[374].  He was elected LOTHAR III King of Germany at Mainz 24 Aug 1125, largely through the manœuvrings of Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz and because he was seen by the German nobility as less of a dynastic threat than his rival Friedrich II Duke of Swabia [Staufen][375].  He was crowned 13 Sep 1125 at Aachen.  In 1130, King Lothar became embroiled in the dispute between rival Popes Anacletus II and Innocent II, in the hope of securing a return to the full right of lay investiture.  He was crowned Emperor at the Lateran in Rome 4 Jun 1133 by Pope Innocent II, as Pope Anacletus II was occupying St Peter's[376].  He installed his son-in-law as administrator of the lands previously held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, after conceding papal ownership of them in return for a usufruct[377].  Following Roger II King of Sicily's expulsion of Pope Innocent II from Rome, Emperor Lothar launched an expedition to Italy in 1136.  King Roger offered peace negotiations after the army took Benevento and Bari, but jurisdictional disputes broke out between the emperor and the Pope and the army returned to Germany, Emperor Lothar dying en route[378].  He invested his son-in-law as Duke of Saxony in 1137 shortly before his death[379]

m (1100) RICHENZA von Northeim, daughter of HEINRICH "der Fette" Graf von Northeim & his wife Gertrud von Braunschweig (-1141).  The Annalista Saxo names "Richenzam postea imperaticem et Gertrudem palatinam comitissam" as the two daughters of Heinrich & his wife Gertrud[380].  The Annalista Saxo names "Richeza ductrix" wife of Lothar, specifying that she gave birth in 1115 during the Easter festival after 15 years of sterility[381].  Heiress to Brunswick, inherited from her mother. 

Duke Lothar & his wife had one child: 

1.         GERTRUD (18 Apr 1115-18 Apr 1143, bur Klosterneuburg).  The Annalista Saxo names "filiam suam [=Lothar] Gertrudem", when recording her marriage in 1127 to "Bawaie duci Heinrico, ducis Heinrici et Wulfilde Magni ducis filio"[382].  The Annales Sancti Disibodi record the marriage "in Penthecosten apud Merseburg" in 1127 of "rex…filiam suam" and "duci Bavariorum"[383].  It is likely that her first marriage was arranged by her father to obtain the decisive Welf vote in his election as king of Germany in 1125[384].  She was heiress to territories in Brunswick, inherited from her maternal grandmother, which she transferred to her son by her first marriage and which became the main domains of the Welf family.  The Annales Mellicenses record the marriage in 1142 of "Marchio Heinricus" and "Gerdrudam, filiam Lotharii imperatoris"[385].  This marriage was agreed as part of the temporary settlement of the dispute between Konrad III King of Germany and the Welf family agreed in 1142[386].  The necrology of Melk records the death "XII Kal May" of "Gerdrut ducissa"[387].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "XII Kal May" of "Gerdrudis ducisse Heinrici ducis Austrie ux"[388].  She died in childbirth.  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum records that "domna Gertrudis" was buried "in castro Nuenburg"[389]m firstly (Gunzenle 29 May 1127) HEINRICH X Duke of Bavaria, son of HEINRICH IX "der Schwarze" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Wulfhild of Saxony [Billung] (-Quedlinburg 20 Oct 1139, bur Königslutter).  Duke of Saxony 1137.  m secondly (1 May 1142) as his first wife, HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria & his second wife Agnes of Germany [Staufen] (1112-13 Jan 1177, bur Vienna Schottenkloster (-19 Jan 1177, bur Vienna Schottenkloster).  Markgraf Heinrich became Duke of Austria in 1156.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DUKES of SAXONY 1137-1138, 1142-1180, WELF

 

HEINRICH 1137-1139, HEINRICH 1139-1180

 

HEINRICH, son of HEINRICH IX "der Schwarze" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Wulfhild of Saxony [Billung] ([1108]-Quedlinburg 20 Oct 1139, bur Königslutter).  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild[390].  He succeeded his father in 1126 as HEINRICH X "der Stolze" Duke of Bavaria.  His father-in-law installed him as administrator of the lands previously held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, after conceding papal ownership of them in return for a usufruct[391].  His father-in-law invested him as HEINRICH Duke of Saxony in 1137 shortly before his death.  Although Emperor Lothar had designated Duke Heinrich as his successor, his less powerful rival Konrad von Staufen was elected King in 1137.  Heinrich accepted the result of the election, but demanded enfeoffment with the duchy of Saxony which was refused.  Heinrich was outlawed at the diet of Würzburg in Jul 1138 and deprived of the duchy of Bavaria at the diet of Goslar in Dec 1138[392].  Heinrich attacked Saxony in early 1139.  Peace was agreed after skirmishes at Creuzburg on the Werra, by which time most of Saxony was controlled by Heinrich although he died before being able to consolidate his position[393].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "20 Oct" of "Heinricus dux"[394]

m (Gunzenle, near Augsburg 29 May 1127) as her first husband, GERTRUD von Süpplingenburg, daughter of Emperor LOTHAR King of Germany, Duke of Saxony, Graf von Süpplingenburg & his wife Richenza von Northeim (18 Apr 1115-18 Apr 1143, bur Klosterneuburg).  The Historia Welforum names "Gerdrudem…filiam Lotharii imperatoris" as wife of Duke Heinrich[395].  The Annales Sancti Disibodi record the marriage "in Penthecosten apud Merseburg" in 1127 of "rex…filiam suam" and "duci Bavariorum"[396].  It is likely that this marriage was arranged by her father to obtain the decisive Welf vote in his election as king of Germany in 1125[397].  She was heiress to territories in Brunswick, inherited from her maternal grandmother, which she transferred to her son by her first marriage and which became the main domains of the Welf family.  As part of the 1142 agreement which marked a temporary settlement of the dispute between Konrad III King of Germany and the Welf family, Gertrud married secondly (1 May 1142) Heinrich II "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria, who had been installed as Duke of Bavaria[398].  The Annales Mellicenses record the marriage in 1142 of "Marchio Heinricus" and "Gerdrudam, filiam Lotharii imperatoris"[399].  This marriage was agreed as part of the temporary settlement of the dispute between Konrad III King of Germany and the Welf family agreed in 1142[400].  The necrology of Melk records the death "XII Kal May" of "Gerdrut ducissa"[401].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "XII Kal May" of "Gerdrudis ducisse Heinrici ducis Austrie ux"[402].  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum records that "domna Gertrudis" was buried "in castro Nuenburg"[403].  She died in childbirth. 

Duke Heinrich & his wife had [two] children:

1.         HEINRICH ([1129/30]-Braunschweig 6 Aug 1195, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  His date of birth is calculated from his dying in his 66th year, according to the chronicle of the Steterburg foundation near Wolfenbüttel[404], Jordan pointing out that the chronicle's author provost Gerhard was close to Heinrich during the last years of his life.  After his father's death the dispute with Konrad III King of Germany over the Welf duchies of Bavaria and Saxony continued.  A temporary settlement was achieved in 1142 when Albrecht "der Bär" relinquished Saxony, which was awarded to Heinrich, who was installed as HEINRICH "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony on condition that he formally renounce his claim to the duchy of Bavaria.  He renewed his claim to Bavaria after the death of his mother, whose second marriage had been arranged as part of the settlement of the issue in 1142.  "Henricus dux Saxonie" confirmed the privileges of Kloster Bursfeld, founded by "comes Henricus filius Ottonis ducis, proavus meus", by charter dated 23 Jul 1144[405].  After a lengthy dispute with Albrecht "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg over the inheritance of the counts of Plötzkau and Hermann von Winzenburg, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany assigned the Plötzkauer inheritance to Markgraf Albrecht and the Winzenburger inheritance to Duke Heinrich at the diet of Würzburg in Oct 1153[406].  In order to terminate the longstanding dispute between the German kings and the Welf family, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany deprived Heinrich "Jasomirgott" Markgraf of Austria of the duchy of Bavaria in favour of Duke Heinrich in 1156[407].  The latter was installed as HEINRICH XII Duke of Bavaria, although he spent much less time in Bavaria than in Saxony[408], presumably because of Bavaria's greater internal administrative unity which demanded less oversight than Saxony.  In 1158, he exchanged some territories with Emperor Friedrich I, receiving land in the southern Harz for the domains which he had received as dowry on his first marriage[409].  From 1166 to 1170, the rebellion of the league of princes severely disrupted the administration of Saxony.  Heinrich Duke of Bavaria and Saxony donated property to the church "sancte Marie…in Ourenkierken", with the consent of "heredis nostri…filie nostre Gerthrudis", by charter dated 3 Aug 1171[410].  Duke Heinrich made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1172 but refused the invitation of Amaury I King of Jerusalem to fight[411].  He lost the duchies of Saxony and Bavaria in 1180, but retained his mother's inheritance of Brunswick where he established his court.  He was tried in absentia at Worms in Jan 1179 for having expelled Ulrich Bishop of Halberstadt, and outlawed.  Heinrich was dispossessed of his properties in summer 1180.  He submitted at the general assembly at Erfurt in Nov 1181, was restored to his allodial lands around Brunswick and Lüneburg, but was exiled for three years.  He left with his wife in Jul 1182 and sought refuge with his father-in-law first in Normandy, later in England, before returning to Germany in 1185[412].  "Heinricus dux de Brunswic…" witnessed the charter dated 1186 under which Konrad [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed property of Tettenborn church[413].  When Emperor Friedrich I was preparing to leave on crusade in late 1189, Heinrich refused to accompany him and chose exile in England once more[414].  He returned to Germany in Oct 1189 after the death of his wife.  He destroyed Bardowick, captured Lübeck and Lauenburg, and attracted Hamburg to his support.  Heinrich VI King of Germany appealed for help against Duke Heinrich at a diet at Merseburg in Oct 1189, unsuccessfully besieged Brunswick, but sacked Hannover.  King Heinrich made a peace settlement with Duke Heinrich at Fulda in Jul 1190[415].  Heinrich failed to observe the terms of the peace agreement.  Although the Saxon princes assembled troops led by Wichmann Archbishop of Magdeburg, a truce was agreed[416].  Duke Heinrich and Emperor Heinrich VI were finally reconciled in Mar 1194 at Tilleda on the Kyffhäuser mountain, when the former was reconfirmed in his allodial possessions and agreed to take part in the imperial campaign in Italy later that year[417].  The Chronicon Montis Serreni records the death in 1195 of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" and his burial "in mon. sancti Blasii iuxta uxorem"[418].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 Aug" of "Heinricus dux"[419]m firstly ([1148/49], divorced Konstanz 23 Nov 1162) as her first husband, KLEMENTIA von Zähringen, daughter of KONRAD Herzog von Zähringen & his wife Clémence de Namur (-[1173/75]).  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "filiam ducis Zaringie, Clementiam" as wife of "Heinricus dux"[420].  Heiress of Badenweiler, although her first husband sold these Swabian estates to Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in 1158, receiving in exchange Herzberg, Scharzfels and Pöhlde south of the Harz[421].  Her first marriage was arranged to confirm her father's alliance with the Welf party in southern Germany[422].  The Annales Palidenses record the repudiation by "Heinricus dux" of his first wife "Bertoldi ducis Zaringe sorore"[423].  Her first husband repudiated Klementia because of the growing difficulties between her brother Duke Berthold IV and Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa", with whom Duke Heinrich was by then in close alliance[424].  She married secondly (1164) as his third wife, Humbert III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not so far been identified.  m secondly (betrothed 1165, Minden Cathedral 1 Feb 1168) MATILDA of England, daughter of HENRY II King of England & his wife Eléonore Dss d’Aquitaine (Windsor Castle Jun 1156-Brunswick 28 Jun 1189, bur Brunswick Cathedral).  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "Megthildem filiam Henrici regis Anglorum" as second wife of "Heinricus dux"[425].  Her birth is recorded by Matthew of Paris[426].  The Chronicle of Gervase records the marriage in 1168 of "Matildis filia regis Anglie" and "dux Saxonum Henrico"[427].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the 1165 treaty of alliance between Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany and her father[428].  The Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses record that "ecclesia Sancti Blasii episcopi" was founded in 1173 and in a later passage record the death in 1188 of "domina nostra Mechtildis fundatrix"[429].  The Chronicon Montis Serreni records that "soror Rikardi Regis Anglie" wife of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" was buried "in mon. sancti Blasii"[430]Mistress (1): [--- von Blieskastel, daughter of GOTTFRIED Graf von Blieskastel & his wife ---] ([1130]-[1190]).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Mathildem [de Luscelenburch]" as mother of "comitem Folmerum et sorores eius Helvidem, quam habuit comes Gerardus de Reneke dyocesis Herbipolensis et illam qua dux de Bronsviic genuit filiam, que in Sclavia hereditavit"[431], although the Chronicle appears to skip a generation in this account.  The likely birth date of this individual suggests it is unlikely that she was the daughter of Graf Gottfried [I], given the other dates attributed to his children.  Until corroboration of her parentage is found in other sources, the accuracy of Alberic must be considered doubtful.  Jordan clarifies that the name "Ida" attributed to Duke Heinrich's mistress[432] is incorrect, being an error deriving from Origines Guelficæ[433] which, in recopying from the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, miscopied the word "illam" as "Idam"[434].  Duke Heinrich & his first wife had three children:

a)         HEINRICH (-Lüneburg 1 Nov ----, bur Lüneburg Klosterkirche).  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis refers to the son of "Heinricus dux" & his first wife as "puerum eiusdem vocabuli [=Heinricus]" specifying that he was buried "ante altare sancta crucis"[435].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "1 Nov" of "Heinricus infans filius H ducis" and specifies that his father Duke Heinrich donated a mill to St Michael at Lüneburg in his memory[436].  He died after falling from a table. 

b)         GERTRUD ([1155]-1 Jul 1197, bur Wå Gårds Harde).  Heinrich Duke of Bavaria and Saxony donated property to Loccum, with the consent of his daughter Gertrud, by charter dated 1 Feb 1168[437].  Heinrich Duke of Bavaria and Saxony donated property to the church "sancte Marie…in Ourenkierken", with the consent of "heredis nostri…filie nostre Gerthrudis", by charter dated 3 Aug 1171[438].  The Annales Stadenses refers to the betrothal of "Heinricus dux filiam suam" and "Daciæ regi" in 1171[439].  Helmold records the marriage of "Heinricus dux Bawarie et Saxonie…[et] domna Clementia…filiam" and "filio Conradi regis"[440].  Helmold records the marriage of "[Heinricus dux Bawarie et Saxonie] filiam suam, viduam Fretherici…principis de Rodenburg" and "rex Danorum…filio suo…designatus…rex" as part of the peace process between Saxony and Denmark[441].  Her second marriage was arranged to seal the renewed peace agreed between her father and Valdemar I King of Denmark in 1171[442]m firstly (1166) FRIEDRICH IV Duke of Swabia, Graf von Rothenburg, son of KONRAD III King of Germany [Staufer] & his second wife Gertrud von Sulzbach (1145-Rome 19 Aug 1167).  m secondly (Lund Feb 1177) KNUD Valdemarsen of Denmark, son of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark & his wife Sofia Vladimirovna of Novgorod ([1162]-2 Nov 1202, bur Ringsted).  He succeeded in 1182 as KNUD IV King of Denmark.

c)         RICHENZA (-before 1 Feb 1168).  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "14 Feb" of "Ricinzit infans filia H ducis"[443].  Her betrothal is referred to by Jordan[444], but the primary source on which this is based has not so far been identified.  Betrothed ([1167]) to KNUD Valdemarsen of Denmark, son of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark & his wife Sofia Vladimirovna of Novgorod ([1162]-2 Nov 1202, bur Ringsted).  He succeeded in 1182 as KNUD IV King of Denmark

Duke Heinrich & his second wife had six children:

d)         RICHENZA (1172-13 Jan [1209/10]).  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum names "Rikenzam" as the daughter of Heinrich and his wife Matilda[445].  In 1182, she accompanied her parents into exile, after which she was known as MATHILDE[446].  It is assumed that this refers to the same daughter, but the question is not beyond all doubt as it is not clear what would have prompted her name change.  Benedict of Peterborough records the betrothal of "Willelmus rex Scotiæ" and "Matildem filiam Matildis ducissa Saxoniæ"[447], although the marriage was not pursued as the Pope refused a dispensation on grounds of consanguinity[448].  Benedict of Peterborough records that "Bela rex Ungarie" sent envoys to the king of England to request the hand in marriage of "Matildem filiam ducis Saxoniæ"[449].  Benedict of Peterborough records the marriage in 1189 of "filio hæredi comitis de Pertico" and "Matildam filiam ducis Saxoniæ"[450].  "Matildis Perticensis comitissa" founded an anniversary at Chartres Notre-Dame for "Gaufridi olim mariti mei", with the consent of "Thoma filio nostro…et Stephano de Pertico fratre predicti mariti mei", by charter dated Jun 1202[451].  She founded the Abbey of Clairets in 1204.  The necrology of the Abbaye des Clairets records the death "Id Jan" of "Mathildis comitissa fundatrix Claretorum"[452]Betrothed (1184) to WILLIAM "the Lion" King of Scotland, son of HENRY of Scotland, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland & his wife Ada de Warenne (1143-Stirling 4 Dec 1214, bur Arbroath Abbey).  m firstly (Rouen 1189) as his second wife, GEOFFROI Comte du Perche, son of ROTROU II Comte du Perche & his wife Mathilde de Blois (-27 Mar or 5 Apr 1202).  m secondly (1204) as his second wife, ENGUERRAND [III] Seigneur de Coucy, son of RAOUL [I] Seigneur de Coucy et de Marle & his second wife Alix de Dreux [Capet] (-1243). 

e)         HEINRICH ([1173/74]-Braunschweig 28 Apr 1227, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names (in order) "Heinricum comitem Palatinum Reni, Othonem imperatorem, Willehelmus de Luneburch, Luderum" as children of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" & his wife "soror Rikardi regis Anglie"[453].  Heinrich accompanied his parents to England in 1182[454].  He campaigned with Heinrich VI King of Germany in Italy in 1190, but deserted in southern Italy and was outlawed at Worms in May 1192[455].  He was restored to favour by the emperor in Jan 1194 at Würzburg following his marriage[456].  He succeeded in 1195 as HEINRICH I Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  Vogt of Gotzlar 1204.  Deposed 1212.  Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg 1213. 

-        PALATINATE

f)          LOTHAR ([1174/75]-Augsburg 15 Oct 1190, bur Augsburg St Afra).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names (in order) "Heinricum comitem Palatinum Reni, Othonem imperatorem, Willehelmus de Luneburch, Luderum" as children of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" & his wife "soror Rikardi regis Anglie", specifying that Lothar died in adolescence[457].  The Notæ Sancti Blasii name "Luderum" as son of "dominus Hincricus Leo [et]…Mechtildem filiam regis Anglie" but specifies he died "puer" in 1177[458], which is inconsistent with the other recorded details about his life unless this refers to another son named Lothar.  He remained in Saxony when his parents went to England in 1182[459].  He was given as hostage to Heinrich VI King of Germany to guarantee his father's performance of the peace terms agreed at Fulda in Jul 1190[460].  He died while still a hostage.  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "Luderum" as [second] son of "Heinricus dux" specifying that he was given as a hostage to "inperatori Henrico" and died and was buried at Augsburg[461].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Augsburg churches records the death "Id Oct" of "Liuther filius ducis Saxonie"[462]

g)         OTTO (Normandie [1176/77]-Harzburg 19 May 1218, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names (in order) "Heinricum comitem Palatinum Reni, Othonem imperatorem, Willehelmus de Luneburch, Luderum" as children of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" & his wife "soror Rikardi regis Anglie"[463].  He accompanied his parents to England in 1182[464].  He was brought up at the English court.  He may have been granted the comitatus of York by his uncle Richard I King of England 1190, although the Complete Peerage says that the only authority for this is Roger “de Hoveden”, that the grant of a comitatus did not in itself create an earldom unless the recipient was already of comital rank, and that no record has been found of Otto’s creation or investiture as Earl of York[465].  He and his brother William were given to Emperor Heinrich VI as hostages in 1194 in return for the release of King Richard[466].  He was released later in 1194 and rejoined the English  king[467].  He was installed by King Richard as Comte de Poitou in 1196, maybe exchanging the comitatus of York for this.  With the support in particular of Richard I King of England, and later that of Adolf Archbishop of Köln, he was elected OTTO IV King of Germany 9 Jun 1198, crowned at Aachen 12 Jul 1198, at which time King Richard I took back Poitou[468].  However, with the death of King Richard in 1199, he lost his main supporter and was unable to maintain his position against his rival Philipp von Hohenstaufen who had been elected king in Mar 1198.  Although also supported by Pope Innocent III, to whom Otto promised support relating to Sicily, he was unable to gain backing in Germany.  Otto is said to have sent his two brothers to his uncle King John in 1200 to claim both York and Poitou, unsuccessfully[469].  After the murder of King Philipp in 1208, Otto became the agreed candidate of the German princes and was elected king again at Frankfurt 11 Nov 1208[470].  He was crowned Emperor at Rome 4 Oct 1209.  After his election, he opposed Pope Innocent III in Italy, intending to conquer Sicily.  He was forced to return to Germany in early 1212 because of growing opposition led by the Archbishop of Mainz, the king of Bohemia and the Landgraf of Thuringia[471].  The opposition focussed around Friedrich von Hohenstaufen King of Sicily, who was elected king of Germany at Frankfurt 5 Dec 1212 and crowned at Mainz later the same month.  Friedrich forced Otto's retreat from Thuringia and Meissen, and Otto was defeated 27 Jul 1214 at Bouvines by Philippe II "Auguste" King of France[472].  After the second coronation of Friedrich II at Aachen in Jul 1215, Otto fled from Köln[473].  The Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii records the death in May 1218 of "Otto quartus Romanorum imperator filius Hinrici ducis Saxonie"[474].  The Annales Veterocellenses record the death "1217 XIII Kal Iun" of "Otto imperator"[475]m firstly (Nordhausen 23 Jul 1212) BEATRIX von Staufen, daughter of PHILIPP King of Germany Duke of Swabia & his wife Maria [Eirene] Angelina ([1198]-11 Aug 1212, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  The Annales Marbacenses record that one of the four daughters of King Philipp (first in the list) married "Ottoni postea imperatoris", having been betrothed first to "palatino de Witilisbach" but that she died young[476].  Her betrothal with Otto von Wittelsbach was ended to enable her betrothal with a nephew of Pope Innocent III, being negotiated in Rome as part of the settlement arrangements with her father's rival Otto of Brunswick[477].  The Annales Stadenses record the betrothal of "rex Otto" and "regis Philippi filia" in 1208[478].  The Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis record the marriage in 1212 "circa festum sancta Margarete…apud Northusin" of "imperator" and "filiam regis Philippi" and that the bride died ten days later[479].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records the marriage of "filiam Philippi" and "Otto rex", but does not name her[480].  The Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii records the death in Aug 1212 of "Beatrix imperatrix uxor domini Ottonis Romanorum imperatoris quarti"[481]m secondly (Maastricht 19 May 1214) MARIE de Brabant, daughter of HENRI I Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1191]-[9 Mar/14 Jun] 1260, bur Louvain, église collégiale de Saint Pierre).  The Gesta Abbatem Trudonensium records that "Henricus dux Brabancie…filiam suam Ottoni in uxorem dare promisit"[482].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names "Mariam, conthoralem Ottonis Quartus Romanorum imperatoris, Aleydam comitssam Auernie, Margaretam comitissam Gerardi comitis Ghelrie et Mechteldim, primo quidem comitissam Palatinam Rheni, postea…comitissam Hollandie" as the daughters of "Henricus…primus, dux Lotharingie" and his wife "Mechteldim, filiam Mathei Boloniensis comitis"[483].  The Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis record the marriage in 1214 of "Otto imperator" and "filiam ducis Brabantie"[484].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Maria imperatrix Romanorum" as the eldest of the four daughters of "Henricus dux" and his wife Mathilde[485].  She married secondly (Jul 1220) Willem I Count of Holland.  The Chronologia Johannes de Beke records that Count Willem married secondly "Mariam", but does not state her origin[486].  The Oude Kronik van Brabant records that Marie was buried "Lovanii…in ecclesia Sancti Petri" with her husband[487]

h)         son (Argentan [Jul/Dec] 1182-young).  The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. 

i)          WILHELM "der Dicke" (Winchester [Jul] 1184-12 Dec 1213, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names (in order) "Heinricum comitem Palatinum Reni, Othonem imperatorem, Willehelmus de Luneburch, Luderum" as children of "Heinricus dux de Bruneswich" & his wife "soror Rikardi regis Anglie"[488].  The Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis names "Willehelmus" as fourth son of "Heinricus dux" specifying that he was born in England, and was buried "in medio monasterio"[489].  Herzog von Lüneburg. 

-        DUKES of BRUNSWICK

Duke Heinrich had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1): 

j)           MATHILDE (before 1164-before 1219)The Annales Stadenses refers to the wife of "Borewini" as "filiam…naturalem [ducis Henrici]"[490].  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum names "filiam Heinrici ducis…Mechthildam" as the wife of "Burvinus filius Pribizlavi"[491]Her marriage was arranged in furtherance of the alliance agreed between Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony after he enfeoffed Heinrich Borwin's father in 1167[492]m (before 30 Dec 1178) [as his first wife,] HEINRICH BORWIN I Fürst von Mecklenburg, son of PRIBISLAW Fürst von Mecklenburg & his wife Woizlawa von Pommern ([1150]-28 Jan 1227).

2.         [KUNIGUNDE (-2 Oct [1140/47], bur Ottobeuren).  She was "from another marriage" according to Europäische Stammtafeln[493].  The chronology appears unfavourable for Kunigunde to have been a daughter of Heinrich "der Stolze" Duke of Saxony, assuming that her marriage shown here is correct.  The primary source on which the speculation is based has not been identified.  The necrology of Ottenbeuren records the death "VI Non Oct" of "Cunigunt de Rumesperc"[494]m GOTTFRIED [I] Graf von Ronsberg Vogt von Ottobeuren, son of RUPERT von Ursin & his wife Irmingart --- (-3 Apr [1168/72], bur Ottobeuren).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.  DUKES of SAXONY, BALLENSTEDT

 

 

 

A.      DUKES of SAXONY 1180-1423, ELECTORS of SAXONY [1356]-1423

 

 

ALBRECHT 1138-1142

 

ALBRECHT von Ballenstedt, son of OTTO "der Reiche" Graf von Ballenstedt, Duke of Saxony & his wife Eilika of Saxony [Billung] ([1100]-1170).  The Annalista Saxo names "Adelbertum marchionem et filiam Adelheidem" as children of "Ottoni comiti de Ballenstidi" and his wife Eilika[495].  He succeeded his father as ALBRECHT "der Bär" Graf von Ballenstedt.  Lothar von Süpplingenburg Duke of Saxony appointed Albrecht as Herr der Mark Lausitz in 1123, in usurpation of the rights of Emperor Heinrich V.  He was temporarily deposed, but rehabilated, by Emperor Lothar in 1133.  Konrad III King of Germany invested Albrecht "der Bär" as ALBRECHT Duke of Saxony in 1138 after refusing to enfeoff Heinrich "der Stolze" Duke of Bavaria [Welf] with the duchy[496].  Duke Albrecht relinquished Saxony in 1142, as part of the compromise reached between the Welf family and King Konrad III, and returned to the Nordmark[497].  Pribislav-Heinrich Prince of the Hevelli made Albrecht his heir in Brandenburg, and he succeeded in 1140 as ALBRECHT Markgraf von Brandenburg, although he was obliged to defend the territory against Jaxa Prince of Köpenick in 1157[498].  Markgraf von Stade, Graf von Aschersleben. 

1.         other children: see BRANDENBURG.  

2.         BERNHARD von Ballenstedt (1140-Bernburg 9 Feb 1212, bur Ballenstedt St Nikolai).  A 13th century genealogy names (in order) "Albertum, Berenhardum, Fridericum, Hermannum de Horlamund et Zeifridum Bremensem archiepiscopum" as the five sons of "Albertus de Hanhalde marchio"[499].  He was installed as BERNHARD Duke of Saxony in 1180. 

-        see below

 

 

BERNHARD 1180-1212

 

BERNHARD von Ballenstedt, son of ALBRECHT "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg (1140-Bernburg 9 Feb 1212, bur Ballenstedt St Nikolai).  A 13th century genealogy names (in order) "Albertum, Berenhardum, Fridericum, Hermannum de Horlamund et Zeifridum Bremensem archiepiscopum" as the five sons of "Albertus de Hanhalde marchio"[500].  "Adelbertus…marchio Brandenburgensis" donated property to the convent at Magdeburg, with the consent of "filiorum meorum Heinrici canonici sancti Mauritii in Magdaburg, Ottonis marchionis, Hermanni, Adelberti, Theoderici et Bernhardi comitum", by charter dated [end May/early Jun] 1151[501].  Graf von Aschersleben und Graf von Anhalt 1170.  "Alberto Brandenburgensi marchione, Ottone filio eius…Hermanno comite de Horlemunde filio eius, Theoderico comite de Werben filio eius, Alberto comite de Balstede filio eius, Bernardo comite de Anehalt filio eius…" witnessed the charter dated 1170 under which "Cazimerus…Pomeranorum princeps" donated property to the church of Havelberg, with the consent of "fratre nostro Boguzlao"[502].  "Bernhardus…comes in Aschersleve" confirmed possessions of Marienthal, by charter dated 1174[503].  In 1175, Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony invaded Graf Bernhard's territory in support of the claim by Ludwig III Landgraf of Thuringia to the county of Weimar, sacked Gröningen near Halberstadt and captured Aschersleben, although Graf Bernhard was able to retain possession of Weimar[504].  Herzog von Westfalen und Engern 1179.  He was installed as BERNHARD Duke of Saxony at Gelnhausen 13 Apr 1180 after Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" deprived Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Bavaria and Saxony of his titles, although the territory of the duchy was split with the separated duchy of Westfalia being transferred to the archbishop of Köln[505].  "Bernhardus dux Angarie et Westfalie et comes de Aschersleve" confirmed the donation to Kloster Obernkirchen by "frater noster Theodericus comes de Werbene" by charter dated end-Sep 1181[506].  Bernhard constructed the castle of Lauenburg with material from the fortress of Ertheneburg[507]

m JUDYTA of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO III "Stary/the Old" Prince of Greater Poland, Prince of Krakow & his first wife Elisabeth of Hungary (-after 12 Dec 1201).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to, but does not name, the daughters of Mieszko III, naming (second in the list) "dux Saxonie" as his son-in-law[508].  A 13th century genealogy refers to the wife of "Berenhardum [filius Albertus de Hanhalde marchio]" as "ducis Polonie filiam"[509].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam filiam Mesechonis ducis Polonie" as wife of "Bernardus dux Saxonie"[510]

Duke Bernhard & his wife had five children: 

1.         MAGNUS (-young).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Albertum ducem Saxonie et Henricum comitem de Anahalt et Magonem" as sons of "Bernardus dux Saxonie" & his wife[511]

2.         HEINRICH ([1170]-[8 May 1251/17 May 1252], bur Ballenstedt).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Heinricum comitem Ascharie et Albertum ducem" as sons of "Bernhardi ducis"[512].  He succeeded his father in 1212 as HEINRICH I "der Fette" Graf von Anhalt.  Graf von Aschersleben 1213. 

-        GRAFEN von ANHALT

3.         ALBRECHT (-[27 Sep/7 Nov] 1260, bur Lehnin).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Heinricum comitem Ascharie et Albertum ducem" as sons of "Bernhardi ducis"[513].  He succeeded his father in 1212 as ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony

-        see below.

4.         ADELHEID (-16 Jul 1244).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  Abbess of Gernrode 1221.  

5.         HEDWIG .  The Genealogica Wettinensis refers to the wife of "Olricus comes filius Heinrici marchionis" as "filiam Bernhardi ducis Saxonie" but does not name her[514].  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "filia Bernhardi ducis Hetwige" as wife of "Ulricus comes de Witin, filius Heinrici, filii marchionis Conradi senioris"[515]m (before 1204) as his second wife, ULRICH Graf von Wettin, son of HEINRICH [I] Graf von Wettin & his wife Sophie --- (-Wettin 28 Sep 1206, bur Petersberg).

 

 

ALBRECHT 1212-1260

 

ALBRECHT of Saxony, son of BERNHARD von Ballenstedt Duke of Saxony, Graf von Aschersleben und Anhalt & his wife Judyta of Poland (-[27 Sep/7 Nov] 1260, bur Lehnin).  The Chronicon Montis Serreni names "Heinricum comitem Ascharie et Albertum ducem" as sons of "Bernhardi ducis"[516].  He succeeded his father in 1212 as ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony.  Herzog zu Bernburg 1219.  He left on Crusade 1219.  Herzog zu Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen 1227.  Pope Innocent IV granted Duke Albrecht the right of investiture in the bishoprics of Lübeck, Ratzeburg and Schwerin in order to attract his support to the papal party against Konrad IV King of Germany in [1252/53].  The result was that Duke Albrecht participated in the second election of Willem II Count of Holland as king of Germany in Brunswick 25 Mar 1252, although he gave no support to Willem during the latter's campaign in Flanders in 1253[517]

m firstly (Vienna 1222) AGNES of Austria, daughter of LEOPOLD VI " der Glorreiche" Duke of Austria [Babenberg] & his wife Theodora [Angelina] (1206-29 Aug 1226).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Agnem filiam Friderici ducis Austrie" as wife of "Albertus dux"[518].  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis specifies that the marriage was celebrated in Vienna[519].  The necrology of Lilienfeld records the death "IV Kal Sep" of "Agnes filia ducis Leupoldi fundatoris"[520].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "IV Kal Sep" of "Agnes ducissa Saxonia filia Liupoldi ducis Austrie"[521]

m secondly (Acre after 1229) as her second husband, AGNES of Thuringia, widow of HEINRICH "der Grausame" of Austria, daughter of HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia & his second wife Sophie of Bavaria ([1204]-24 Feb before 1244, bur Heiligenkreuz).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Agnes" as second daughter of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that she married "ducis Austrie"[522].  The Annales Mellicenses in 1226 record the marriage of "Heinricus filius Liupoldi ducis" and "Agnetem filiam langravii de Duringia"[523].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Agnem, sororem Henrici lantgravii Thuringie" as second wife of "Albertus dux"[524].  The necrology of Heiligenkreuz records the death "VI Kal Mar" of "ducissa Richardis sor Ludovici Thuringiæ lantgravii mariti s Elizabethæ, ux Henrici…quinti cognomento Crudelis" and her burial "in capitulo no", specifying that her husband was last of the line and that their child was named Gertrud[525].  Although the other details are correct, the name "Richza" is a mistake for "Agnes", resulting from confusion with the wife of Heinrich Duke of Mödling, paternal uncle of Duke Heinrich "der Grausame".  It is curious that this entry does not refer to Agnes's second husband, suggesting that there may have been a separation before she died. 

m thirdly (Papal dispensation 4o 15 May 1244, [1247/48]) as her second husband, HELENE von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, widow of HERMANN II Landgraf of Thuringia, daughter of OTTO I “dem Kind” Herzog von Braunschweig & his wife Mathilde von Brandenburg [Askanier] (18 Mar 1223-6 Sep 1273, bur Wittenberg Franciscans).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Helenam filiam Ottonis de Brunswick" as third wife of "Albertus dux"[526].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Mechtildim…Helenam…Alheidem…Helenam" as the daughters of "Ottonem de Lunenburch" & his wife, specifying that the first "Helenam" married firstly "Hermannus dominus Hassie, filius beate Elisabeth" and secondly "Albertus dux Saxonie"[527].  She founded the Franciscan Monastery at Wittenberg. 

Duke Albrecht I & his first wife had two children:

1.         BERNHARD (-before 1256).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

2.         JUTTA (-before 2 Feb 1267).  The Chronica Jutensis records that "Ericum", son of "Waldemarus rex", married "Juttam filiam ducis Saxonie"[528].  The Icelandic Annals record the marriage in 1239 of "Ericus Danorum rex Valdemari filius" and "Juttam filiam Henrici ducis Anhaltini"[529].  Pope Gregory IX issued a dispensation for the marriage of "Ericum filium Waldemari regis" and "Juttam filiam ducis Saxoniæ" dated 31 Jul 1239[530].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam [uxor] Ericus rex Dacie" as daughter of "Albertus dux" & his first wife Agnes[531].  The Annales Stadenses records the marriage "1239 die Dyonisii" of "Ericus rex Daciæ [frater Abel]" and "filiam ducis Alberti de Anehalt"[532].  The Annales Ryenses record the marriage in 1239 of "rex Ericus" and "Iudith filiam ducis Saxoniæ"[533].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not so far been identified.  m firstly (Papal dispensation 4o Anagni 31 Aug 1239, 9 Oct 1239) ERIK IV "Plovpennig/Plough-Penny" King of Denmark, son of VALDEMAR II "Sejr/the Conqueror" King of Denmark & his second wife Infanta dona Berengaria de Portugal (1216-murdered 10 Aug 1250, bur Schleswig St Peter, transferred to Ringsted Church).  m secondly BURCHARD von Querfurt Burggraf von Magdeburg, son of ---.   

Duke Albrecht I & his second wife had two children:

3.         JUTTA (-before 23 Dec 1287, bur Stendal Franciscan Monastery).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam…Elizabeth" as daughters of "Albertus dux" and his second wife Agnes, specifying that Jutta married "Iohannis marchio Brandenburgensis"[534], in a later passage naming "Iuttam filiam Alberti ducis Saxonie" as second wife of "Iohannes" and specifying that she had previously been betrothed to "Friderico imperatori"[535], although the latter is improbable.  m (Papal dispensation 7 May 1255) as his second wife, JOHANN I Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT II Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Mathilde von Lensberg ([1208/13]-[3 Jun 1266/2 Feb 1267], bur Kloster Chorin). 

4.         ELISABETH (-before 1306).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Iuttam…Elizabeth" as daughters of "Albertus dux" and his second wife Agnes, specifying that Elisabeth married "Iohannes comes Holtsacie"[536].  The Annales Stadenses record the betrothal "1241 IV Id Nov in Hamborch" of "Iohannes comes filius fratris Adolfi" and "filia ducis Saxoniæ"[537]m (Betrothed 10 Nov 1241, [1249/50]) JOHANN von Holstein, son of ADOLF [IV] Graf von Holstein und Schaumburg & his wife Hedwig zur Lippe (-20 Apr 1263, bur Kloster Reinfeld).   

Duke Albrecht I & his third wife had five children:

5.         ELISABETH (-[16 Oct 1293/2 Feb 1306]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  m ([27 Apr 1261/1264]) KONRAD Graf von Brehna, son of DIETRICH [I] Graf von Brehna [Wettin] & his wife Eudoxia of Mazovia [Piast] (-[1277/26 Mar 1278]).

6.         HELENE (-12 Jun 1309, bur Nürnberg Barfüsserkirche).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the second wife of Duke Heinrich III as "filiam ducis Saxonie" specifying that she married secondly "burgravio de Nurenberg"[538].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "tercius Heinricus" married secondly "filiam…ducis Saxonie", who later married "Burgravio Nurenbergensi"[539].  "Ludwicus…comes de Otingen" pledged "castrum nostrum de Dahspach" to "socero nostro Friderico Burcgravio de Nurenberch, domine Elene uxori sue" for a loan by charter dated 10 Apr 1280[540].  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 15 May 1292 under which her brother "Albertus…Saxonie Angarie et Westfalie Dux, comes de Bren Burcgraviusque Maideburgensis" confirmed that Rudolf I King of Germany had enfeoffed "Fridericum Burcgravium de Nurenberch sororium nostrum" with "villis Leukersheim Erlebach et Brucke"[541].  "Fridericus Burgravius de Nureberch" donated "curiam in Slavigersrauth", previously held by "Elizabeth quondam uxoris nostre", to Kloster Langeim, with the consent of "uxoris nostre Elene ac heredum nostrorum", by charter dated 7 Mar 1296[542]m firstly (before 3 Dec 1266) as his second wife, HEINRICH III Duke of Breslau, son of HEINRICH II Duke of Lower Silesia, Krakow and Greater Poland [Piast] & his wife Anna of Bohemia ([1222/30]-3 Dec 1266).  m secondly (before 10 Apr 1280) as his second wife, FRIEDRICH III Burggraf von Nürnberg, son of KONRAD I Burggraf von Nürnberg & his [first] wife --- (-14 Aug 1297).

7.         MECHTILD .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  1261/74.  m (contract Lauenburg 23 Nov 1264, [9 Jun 1266/5 Feb 1274]) as his first wife, HELMOLD [III] Graf von Schwerin, son of GÜNZEL [III] Graf von Schwerin & his wife Margarete von Mecklenburg (-1297 or after).

8.         JOHANN von Sachsen (-30 Jul 1286, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Albertum et Iohannem" as the two sons of "Albertus dux" & his third wife[543].  He succeeded in 1263 as JOHANN I Herzog von Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen.  Titular Burggraf von Magdeburg 1269. 

-        see below, Part B.  HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-LAUENBURG.

9.         ALBRECHT (-killed in battle near Acre, Palestine 25 Aug 1298, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery, transferred 1883 to Wittenberg Schloßkirche).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Albertum et Iohannem" as the two sons of "Albertus dux" & his third wife[544].  He succeeded in 1266 as ALBRECHT II "Degener" Herzog von Sachsen.  Titular Burggraf von Magdeburg 1269.  Graf von Brehna 1290.  Herr zu Wittenberg und Brehna 1295-1296. 

-        see below.

 

 

ALBRECHT 1260-1298, RUDOLF 1298-1356, RUDOLF II 1356-1370, ALBRECHT III 1363-1385

 

The primary sources which confirm the descendants of Duke Albrecht II and their marriages have not so far been identified, unless otherwise specified below. 

 

ALBRECHT von Sachsen-Wittenberg, son of ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony [Askanier] & his third wife Helene von Braunschweig (-in battle near Acre, Palestine 25 Aug 1298, bur Wittenberg, Franciscan Monastery, transferred 1883 to Wittenberg Schloßkirche).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Albertum et Iohannem" as the two sons of "Albertus dux" & his third wife[545].  He succeeded in 1266 as ALBRECHT II "Degener" Herzog von Sachsen.  Titular Burggraf von Magdeburg 1269.  Graf von Brehna 1290.  "Albertus…Saxonie Angarie et Westfalie Dux, comes de Bren Burcgraviusque Maideburgensis" confirmed that Rudolf I King of Germany had enfeoffed "Fridericum Burcgravium de Nurenberch sororium nostrum" with "villis Leukersheim Erlebach et Brucke" by charter dated 15 May 1292[546].  Herr zu Wittenberg und Brehna 1295-1296. 

m (Oct 1273) AGNES [Gertrud] von Habsburg, daughter of RUDOLF I Graf von Habsburg [later King of Germany] & his first wife Gertrud [Anna] von Hohenberg [Zollern] ([1257]-Wittenberg 11 Oct 1322, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery, removed 1883 to Wittenberg Schloßkirche).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie refers to the wife of "Albertum [filium Alberti dux]" as "filiam Rodolphi regis Romanorum"[547].  The Chonicon Colmariense records that one daughter of King Rudolf I married "ducis Saxonie" in 1273[548].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged to secure her future father-in-law’s support for her father’s election as King of Germany. 

Duke Albrecht II & his wife had five children: 

1.         RUDOLF ([1280]-11 Mar 1356, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery, transferred 1544 to Wittenberg Schloßkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1298 as RUDOLF I Herzog von Sachsen in Wittenberg und Brehnam firstly (Papal dispensation Avignon 21 May 1303) JUTTA von Brandenburg, daughter of OTTO V Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Judith von Henneberg ([1275/86]-9 May 1328, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  Pulcawa's Bohemian Chronicle names "Beatricem…Mechthildim…Gitam…Gunegundim" as the four daughters of "Otto longus filius Ottonis tercii" & his wife, specifying that Jutta married "Rudolphus dux Saxonie"[549]m secondly (after 10 Aug 1328) as her second husband, KUNIGUNDE of Poland, widow of BERNHARD Duke of Schweidnitz [Piast], daughter of WŁADYSŁAW Prince of Kujavia, Krakow and Sandomir [later WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/Ellenbogen" King of Poland] & his wife Jadwiga of Poland (before 1298-9 Apr 1331, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  m thirdly ([1333]) as her third husband, AGNES von Lindau-Ruppin, widow firstly of WIZLAW III Fürst von Rügen and secondly of HEINRICH II Herr von Mecklenburg, daughter of [ULRICH I] Graf von Lindau-Ruppin (-9 Apr 1343, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  Duke Rudolf I & his first wife had eight children:

a)         ANNA .  1309.

b)         ALBRECHT (-4 Jul 1329, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery). Graf von Anhalt.

c)         OTTO (-30 Mar 1350, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery)m (10 Oct 1339, dispensation 3o & 4o Avignon 22 Sep 1346) as her first husband, ELISABETH von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, daughter of WILHELM Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg in Lüneburg & his first wife Hedwig von Ravensberg (-17 Apr 1384).  She married secondly (1354) Nikolaus von Holstein-Rendsburg, who succeeded in 1390 as Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg.  Otto & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALBRECHT (-Wittenberg 28 Jul 1385, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis). He succeeded in 1363 as ALBRECHT III Herzog zu Sachsen, Herzog von Lüneburgm (Hannover 10 Nov 1373, Celle 11 May 1374) as her second husband, KATHARINA von Anhalt, widow of MAGNUS II "Torquatus/mit der Kette" Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg, daughter of BERNHARD III Fürst von Anhalt-Bernburg & his second wife Mathilde von Anhalt in Köthen und Zerbst (-30 Jan 1390, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  Duke Albrecht III & his wife had one child: 

(a)       HELENE .

d)         JOHANN (-young).

e)         BEATRIX (-after 26 Feb 1345)m (before 25 Jan 1337, Papal dispensation 4o Avignon 22 Jun 1344) as his second wife, ALBRECHT II Graf von Anhalt, son of ALBRECHT I Graf von Anhalt in Köthen und Zerbst & his second wife Agnes von Brandenburg [Askanier] (-[22 Aug 1360/17 Jul 1362]). 

f)          AGNES ([1310]-4 Jan 1338)m (Papal dispensation 4o Avignon 8 May 1328) as his first wife, BERNHARD III Fürst von Anhalt in Bernburg, son of BERNARD II Fürst von Anhalt & his wife Helena von Rügen ([1300]-20 Aug 1348, bur Nienburg Klosterkirche).

g)         ELISABETH (-after 30 May 1351)m (Papal dispensation 4o Avignon 22 Jun 1344) as his first wife, WOLDEMAR I Graf von Anhalt, son of ALBRECHT I Graf von Anhalt in Köthen und Zerbst & his second wife Agnes von Brandenburg [Askanier] (-after 7 Jan 1368).

h)         RUDOLF (-6 Dec 1370, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  He succeeded his father in 1356 as RUDOLF II "der Jüngere" Herzog zu Sachsen.  The Saxon ruler's role as one of the seven electors of the Empire was irrevocably confirmed in 1356 by the Golden Bull of Emperor Karl IV, which also decreed that the Duke of Saxony should be imperial administrator of the territory subject to Saxon law in the absence of the Emperor[550].  He called himself Elector of Saxonym (before 8 May 1336) ELISABETH von Hessen, daughter of OTTO I Landgraf Herr von Hessen & his wife Adelheid von Ravensberg (-30 May 1373, bur 1883 Wittenberg Schloßkirche).  Duke Rudolf II & his wife had one child:

i)          ELISABETH (-1353, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).

Duke Rudolf I & his second wife had one child:

i)          MIESKO (-1350)m EUDOXIA, daughter of ---. 

Duke Rudolf I & his third wife had four children:

j)          WENZEL (-killed in battle Acre 15 May 1388).  He succeeded his half-brother in 1370 as WENZEL Herzog zu Sachsen, Elector

-        see below

k)         WILHELM (-young).

l)          HELENE (-2 Apr 1367, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery)m (1353) JOHANN [I] Graf von Hardeck Burggraf von Magdeburg (-1 Jan 1394).

m)       AGNESm GEBHARD [Graf] von Schraplau Herr zu Alsleben (-[1410/15]).

2.         ALBRECHT (-19 May 1342, bur Passau Cathedral).  Provost of Heiligenkreuz at Nordhausen 1305/1318.  Provost of St Stephan at Vienna 1308/1318.  Canon at Bremen Cathedral 1315/1321.  Canon at Magdeburg Cathedral 1318.  Elected Bishop of Passau 1320, installed 1322.

3.         WENZEL (-17 Mar 1327, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  Canon at Halberstadt 1319.

4.         ANNA (-22 Nov 1327, bur Wismar)m firstly ([8 Aug 1308]) FRIEDRICH "der Lahme" von Meissen, son of FRIEDRICH I "der Freidige" Markgraf von Meissen Landgraf of Thuringia [Wettin] & his first wife Agnes von Görz (9 May 1293-killed in battle Zwenkau 13 Jan 1315, bur Altzelle).  m secondly (contract near Kraak 6 Jul 1315, Dömitz [6 Jul 1315/6 Jan 1317], Papal dispensation Avignon 5 Sep 1318) as his second wife, HEINRICH II "der Löwe" Fürst von Mecklenburg Herr von Stargard, son of HEINRICH I Fürst von Mecklenburg & his wife Anastasia von Pommern (1267-[21/22] Jan 1329, bur Kloster Doberan).

5.         OTTO (-after 29 Aug 1311). 

 

 

WENZEL 1370-1388, ALBRECHT II 1419-1423

 

WENZEL von Sachsen, son of RUDOLF I Herzog von Sachsen-Wittenberg, Elector of Saxony & his third wife Agnes von Lindau-Ruppin (-killed in battle Acre 15 May 1388).  He succeeded his half-brother in 1370 as WENZEL Herzog zu Sachsen, Elector

m (before 11 May 1371) CECILIA da Carrara, daughter of FRANCESCO da Carrara & his wife Fina Buzzacavini (-1427-Zahna, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery). 

Duke Wenzel & his wife had six children: 

1.         RUDOLF (-9 Jun 1419, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery). He succeeded his father in 1388 as RUDOLF III Herzog zu Sachsen, Electorm firstly (before 30 Nov 1389) ANNA von Thüringen, daughter of BALTHASAR Landgraf of Thuringia [Wettin] & his first wife Margareta von Nürnberg (1377-4 Jul 1395, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  m secondly (6 Mar 1396) BARBARA von Liegnitz, daughter of RUPRECHT I Duke of Liegnitz [Piast] & his wife Hedwig von Glogau [Piast] ([1372/84]-Trebitz 9 May 1436, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  Duke Rudolf III & his first wife had one child:

a)         SCHOLASTIKA ([1391/95]-[12 May 1461/1463]).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium which names "in Sagano dux Johannes filius ducis Hinrici dicti Sperling" and "domini Rudulphi ducis Saxonie, soceri sui", adding that she was called "Scolasticam"[551].  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records the death 28 Aug 1460 of "prima uxor ducis Baltazaris in puerperio" and around that time that of "domina Scolastica mater predictorum ducum"[552]m ([1405/09]) JOHANN I Duke of Sagan, son of HEINRICH VI Duke of Glogau and Sagan [Piast] & his wife Katharina von Oppeln [Piast] (1385-12 Apr 1439).

Duke Rudolf III & his second wife had four children:

b)         RUDOLF (-1406, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).

c)         WENZEL (-killed Schweinitz 1407, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  He was killed in the collapse of the tower of Schloß Schweinitz an der Schwarzen Elster[553]

d)         SIEGMUND (-killed Schweinitz 1407, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  He was killed in the collapse of the tower of Schloß Schweinitz an der Schwarzen Elster553

e)         BARBARA (after 1406-Bayreuth 10 Oct 1465, bur Bayreuth Pfarrkirche)m (contract 25 Aug 1411, before 26 May 1416) JOHANN "der Alchymist" von Brandenburg, son of FRIEDRICH I Elector of Brandenburg [Hohenzollern] & his wife Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut (1406-Baiersdorf 16 Nov 1464, bur Heilsbronn). 

2.         ERICH (-young). 

3.         WENZEL (-1402, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).

4.         ANNA (-after 18 Apr 1426, bur Reinhardsbrunn)m firstly (contract Hannover 10 Nov 1386) FRIEDRICH Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, son of MAGNUS II "Torquatus/mit der Kette" Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg & his wife Katharina von Anhalt (-murdered near Kloster Englis, Hessen 5 Jun 1400, bur Braunschweig Cathedral).  m secondly (Sangerhausen 14 Jul 1404) as his second wife, BALTHASAR Landgraf of Thuringia, son of FRIEDRICH II "der Ernsthafte" Markgraf von Meissen [Wettin] & his wife Mechtild von Bayern (Weissenfels 21 Dec 1336-Wartburg 18 May 1406, bur Reinhardsbrunn). 

5.         ALBRECHT (-27 Nov 1423, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  Canon at Magdeburg Cathedral until 1392.  Canon at Wittenberg 1392.  Herzog zu Sachsen 1402.  He succeeded in 1419 as ALBRECHT II Elector of Saxonym (14 Jan 1420) as her first husband, EUFEMIA von Oels, daughter of KONRAD III Duke of Oels [Piast] & his wife Guta --- ([1390/1404]-1444).  She married secondly (1432) as his second wife, Georg I Fürst von Anhalt-Zerbst

6.         MARGARETE (-12 Jun 1418, bur Lüneburg St Michael)m (contract Hannover 10 Nov 1373, 12 Jul 1385) BERNHARD Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, son of MAGNUS II "Torquatus/mit der Kette" Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg & his wife Katharina von Anhalt (-11 Jun Winsen 1434, bur Lüneburg St Michael).

 

 

 

B.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN in LAUENBURG, RATZEBURG und BERGEDORF 1260-1435

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the descendants of Duke Johann I and their marriages have not so far been identified, unless otherwise specified below. 

 

 

JOHANN I 1260-1286, JOHANN II 1286-1322, ALBRECHT IV 1322-1343

 

JOHANN von Sachsen, son of ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony [Askanier] & his third wife Helene von Braunschweig (-30 Jul 1286, bur Wittenberg Franciscan Monastery).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Albertum et Iohannem" as the two sons of "Albertus dux" & his third wife[554].  He succeeded in 1263 as JOHANN I Herzog von Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen.  Titular Burggraf von Magdeburg 1269. 

m ([1270]) INGEBORG of Sweden, daughter of BIRGER Magnusson Jarl, Regent of Sweden & his first wife Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden (-30 Jun 1302, bur Mölln).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie refers to the wife of "Iohannem [filium Alberti dux]" as "filiam regis Suecie"[555].  The Annales Lubicenses record the death in 1302 of "Ingeburgis, mater Alberti, Iohannis et Erici ducum Saxoniæ, filia Regis Sweonum"[556]

Duke Johann I & his wife had six children: 

1.         ELISABETH (-before 1306).  The Annales Lubicenses records in 1288 the marriage "priori anno" of "Waldemarus rex dux Iutiæ" and "filiam Iohannis ducis Saxoniæ"[557].  The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified.  m (1287, Papal dispensation 13 Nov 1289) as his first wife, WALDEMAR IV Herzog von Schleswig, son of ERIK I Herzog von Schleswig & his wife Margareta von Rügen (-1312, bur Schleswig Cathedral).

2.         JOHANN von Sachsen (-22 Apr 1322).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Alberti, Iohannis et Erici ducum Saxoniæ" as sons of "Ingeburgis…filia Regis Sweonum"[558].  He succeeded in 1296 as JOHANN II Herzog von Sachsen in Lauenburg.  In Vogtei Mölln 1305.  In Bergedorf 1321.  m ([1315]) as her first husband, ELISABETH von Holstein-Rendsburg, daughter of HEINRICH I Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg & his wife Heilwig von Bronckhorst ([1300]-before 1340).  She married secondly (1330, divorced 1331) Erik of Denmark.  Duke Johann II & his wife had one child: 

a)         ALBRECHT von Sachsen (-Feb 1343, bur Mölln).  He succeeded his father in 1322 as ALBRECHT IV Herzog von Sachsen in Bergedorf und Mölln (until 1339), minor until 1334.  m firstly (before 30 May 1334) BEATE von Schwerin, daughter of GÜNZEL [VI] Graf von Schwerin in Wittenburg & his wife Richardis von Tecklenburg [Bentheim-Holland] (-before 1340).  m secondly (1341) as her first husband, SOPHIE von Werle-Güstrow, daughter of JOHANN [II] Herr von Werle zu Güstrow [Mecklenburg] & his wife Mechtild von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen ([1329]-5 Sep 1364, bur Marienthron).  She married secondly ([1343]) Barnim IV Duke of Pomerania in Wolgast und Rügen.  She died of plague.  Duke Albrecht IV & his first wife had three children: 

i)          JOHANN III von Sachsen (-[1356]).  In Bergedorf 1348. 

ii)         ALBRECHT [V] von Sachsen (-[1370]).  Canon at Osnabrück Cathedral until 1356.  In Mölln 1358/1359.  In Bergedorf 1366/1370.  m (before 25 Jan 1366) KATHARINA von Werle-Güstrow, daughter of NIKOLAUS [III] Herr von Werle zu Güstrow & his second wife Mechtild von Holstein-Schauenburg (-after 17 Dec 1402). 

iii)        ERICH [III] von Sachsen (-31 May 1401, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).  In Bergedorf 1370. 

3.         ALBRECHT von Sachsen (-Oct 1308, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Alberti, Iohannis et Erici ducum Saxoniæ" as sons of "Ingeburgis…filia Regis Sweonum"[559].  He succeeded as ALBRECHT III Herzog von Sachsen in Ratzeburgm (Papal dispensation Anagni 24 Sep 1302) as her second husband, MARGARETA von Brandenburg, widow of PRZEMYSŁ II King of Poland, daughter of ALBRECHT III Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Mathilde of Denmark ([1273/81]-1 May 1315, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).  The Annales Lubicenses name "Margaretam relictam regis de Kalys, filia Alberti marchionis de Brandenburg" as wife of "Alberti…ducum Saxoniæ"[560].  Pulcawa's Bohemian Chronicle records that "Albertus…frater Ottonis longi" had two daughters, of whom the younger married "duci de Lawemburg"[561]

4.         HELENE (-after 13 Sep 1337, bur Loccum).  Her parentage and second marriage are indicated by the charter dated 14 Feb 1297 under which "Adolphus comes Holtsacie et Schowenborg" sold "castrum Sassenhagen", granted by "quondam dominorum nostrorum Saxonie ducum…cum eorum sorore uxore nostra domina Elena in contractu matrimonii"[562].  "Adolfus comes de Schawenboch" exchanged property with the bishop of Minden, with the consent of "Helene uxoris nostre et Adolfi filii nostri", by charter dated 23 Nov 1298[563].  "Adolphus comes Holtsacie et in Schowenburg" donated property to Ouerenkerken, with the consent of "Helene uxoris nostre, Adolphi, Gerhardi et Erici filiorum nostrorum", by charter dated 5 Mar 1308[564].  "Juncker Alff, Fruwe Helena unse moder, Gerhardt und Erich, Graven tho Holsten und Schomborch" donated property to Ouerenkerken by charter dated 1315[565]m firstly (Papal dispensation 4o Orvieto 22 Nov 1283) as his second wife, GÜNTHER [V] Graf von Schwarzburg, son of GÜNTHER [IV] Graf von Schwarzburg in Blankenburg und Schwarzburg & his wife Sofia Daniilovna of Galich [Rurik] (-[1 Oct 1292/19 Sep 1293], bur Kloster Ilm).  m secondly (14 Feb 1294) ADOLF VI Graf von Holstein-Schauenburg in Schaumburg und Pinneberg, son of GERHARD I Graf von Holstein in Itzehoe & his first wife Elisabeth von Mecklenburg (-13 May 1315, bur Loccum).

5.         SOPHIE (-1319).  Prioress at Plötzkau. 

6.         ERICH von Sachsen (-Nienburg 1361).  The Annales Lubicenses name (in order) "Alberti, Iohannis et Erici ducum Saxoniæ" as sons of "Ingeburgis…filia Regis Sweonum"[566].  He succeeded in 1305 as ERICH I Herzog von Sachsen in Ratzeburg und Lauenburg

-        see below

 

 

ERICH I 1305-1361, ERICH II 1361-1369, ERICH IV 1369-1412, ERICH V 1412-1435

 

ERICH von Sachsen, son of JOHANN I Herzog von Sachsen, Engern und Westfalen & his wife Ingeborg of Sweden (-Nienburg 1361).  He succeeded in 1305 as ERICH I Herzog von Sachsen in Ratzeburg und Lauenburg.  Subdeacon and canon at Magdeburg Cathedral 1306/1308. 

m (1316 before 16 Jun, Papal dispensation 3o 1 Jul 1346) ELISABETH von Pommern, daughter of BOGISLAW IV Duke of Pomerania in Wolgast & his second wife Margareta von Rügen (-after 16 Oct 1349). 

Duke Erich I & his wife had five children: 

1.         HELENE .  1322/59.  m (1338) JOHANN [II] Graf von Hoya in Nienburg (-27 Dec 1377).

2.         JOHANN (-14 Mar 1364).  Canon at Köln Cathedral before 1343.  Elected Bishop of Cammin 1343, installed 1344.

3.         ERICH von Sachsen (-1369).  He succeeded his father in 1361 as ERICH II Herzog von Sachsen in Ratzeburg und Lauenburgm (contract Trittau 22 Mar 1327, before 1349) AGNES von Holstein, daughter of JOHANN III Graf von Holstein in Plön & his first wife Katharina von Glogau [Piast] (-1386, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).  Duke Erich II & his wife had four children: 

a)         AGNES (-after 7 Jan 1387, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis)m (24 Jun 1363) as his fourth wife, WILHELM Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, son of OTTO II "der Strenge" Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg in Lüneburg & his second wife Mechtild von Bayern (-23 Nov 1369, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis). 

b)         ERICH von Sachsen ([1354]-21 Jun 1412).  He succeeded his father in 1369 as ERICH IV Herzog von Sachsen in Lauenburg und Ratzeburgm (8 Apr 1373) SOPHIE von Braunschweig, daughter of MAGNUS II "Torquatus/mit der Kette" Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg & his wife Katharina von Anhalt ([1358]-before 28 May 1416).  Duke Erich IV & his wife had nine children: 

i)          ERICH von Sachsen (-end 1435).  He succeeded his father in 1412 as ERICH V Herzog von Sachsen in Lauenburg und Ratzeburgm firstly (1404) as her second husband, ELISABETH von Holstein-Rendsburg, widow of ALBRECHT IV Herzog von Mecklenburg, daughter of NIKOLAUS Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg & his wife Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (-25 Jan 1416).  m secondly (before 1422) ELISABETH von Weinsberg, daughter of KONRAD [VII] von Weinsberg & his wife --- (-after 26 Jan 1498).  Duke Erich V & his second wife had one child: 

(a)       HEINRICH (-Weikersheim 22 Aug 1437, bur Weikersheim Stadkirche).

ii)         JOHANN IV von Sachsen (-killed in battle Apr 1414). 

iii)        ALBRECHT (-killed in battle Grohnde 20 Mar 1421).  Canon at Köln Cathedral.  Canon of St Mauritz, Münster 1406, scholasticus and provost 1414.  

iv)       MAGNUS (-21 Sep 1452).  Bishop of Cammin 1410.  Bishop of Hildesheim 1424.

v)        BERNHARD von Sachsen (-16 Jul 1463, bur Ratzeburg Cathedral).  He succeeded his brother in 1435 as BERNHARD II Herzog von Sachsen in Lauenburg und Ratzeburg

-         HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-LAUENBURG[567].  

vi)       OTTO (-before 1431).

vii)      AGNES (-before 1415).  The Chronicon Holtzatiæ refers to, but does not name, the wife of "Albertum [fratrem Gherardi ducis Sleszwiccensis et Holtzacie]" as "de domo ducum Saxonie", specifying that they left no heirs[568]m (before 23 Mar 1399) ALBRECHT II Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg, son of HEINRICH II "dem Eisernen" Graf von Holstein-Rendsburg & his second wife Ingeburg von Mecklenburg (-Dithmarschen 28 Sep 1403, bur Itzehoe). 

viii)     KATHARINA (-after 18 Nov 1448)m firstly JOHANN [VII] Herr von Werle zu Güstrow, son of LORENZ Herr von Werle zu Güstrow [Mecklenburg] & his wife Mechtild von Werle [Mecklenburg] (-[26 Jun/16 Jul] 1414).  m secondly (Papal dispensation 12 Aug 1417) as his second wife, JOHANN IV Herzog von Mecklenburg, son of MAGNUS I Herzog von Mecklenburg & his wife Elsabe von Pommern-Rügen (-Schwerin 16 Oct 1422).

ix)       SOPHIE ([1395]-1462)m ([1416/18]) WARTISLAW IX Duke of Pomerania, son of BARNIM VI Duke of Pomerania & his wife Veronica --- (Wolgast [1400]-Schloß Darsim 17 Apr 1457).

c)         JUTTA (-1388)m ([1377]) as his first wife, BOGISLAW VI Duke of Pomerania, son of BARNIM IV Duke of Pomerania in Wolgast und Rügen & his wife Sophie von Werle-Güstrow [Mecklenburg] ([1350/56]-7 Mar 1393).

d)         MECHTHILDIS (-8 Oct ----).  Nun 1381.  Abbess of Wienhausen 1386/1405, resigned.

4.         ALBRECHT (-1383 or after).  Teutonic Knight 1346.  Waldmeister at Balga 1376/1379.  Comtur at Brandenburg 1380/1383. 

5.         MAGNUS (-1346 or after). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    ELECTORS of SAXONY, WETTIN

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the descendants of Elector Friedrich I and their marriages have not so far been identified, unless otherwise specified below. 

 

 

A.      ELECTORS of SAXONY 1423-1806

 

 

FRIEDRICH I 1423-1428

 

FRIEDRICH von Meissen, son of FRIEDRICH III "der Strenge" joint Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Katharina von Henneberg (11 Apr 1370-Altenburg 4 Jan 1428, bur Meissen Cathedral).  The Annales Veterocellenses record the birth "1370 in cena Domini" of "Fridericus filius Friderici marchioni Misniensis"[569].  He succeeded his father in 1381 as FRIEDRICH IV "der Streitbare" Markgraf von Meissen and Landgraf of Thuringia, jointly with his brothers.  From 1382 im Osterland Landsberg.  He was installed in 1423 by the Emperor as FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Sachsen, Elector of Saxony, in succession to Albrecht IV last Elector of Saxony of the Askanier family who had died in 1422. 

m (8 Feb 1402) KATHARINA von Braunschweig, daughter of HEINRICH Herzog von Braunschweig in Lüneburg & his first wife Sophie von Pommern (-Grimma 28 Dec 1442, bur Meissen Cathedral). 

Elector Friedrich I & his wife had seven children: 

1.         KATHARINA (-young, bur Altzelle). 

2.         FRIEDRICH (Leipzig 1412-Leipzig 1464, bur Meissen Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1428 as FRIEDRICH II "der Sanftmütige" Elector of Saxony, Joint Herzog zu Sachsen jointly with his brothers. 

-        ELECTORS of SAXONY[570]

3.         SIGISMUND (Grimma 3 Mar 1416-in prison in Rochlitz 24 Dec 1471, bur Meissen Cathedral).  Canon at Köln cathedral 1437.  Bishop of Würzburg 1440, resigned 1443.  

4.         ANNA (5 Jun 1420-17 Sep 1462, bur Spangenberg Stadtkirche)m (Kassel 8 Sep 1433) LUDWIG III "der Friedsame" Landgraf Herr von Hessen, son of HERMANN II "der Gelehrte" Landgraf Herr von Hessen & his second wife Margareta von Nürnberg (-Spangenberg 17 Jan 1458, bur Marburg Elisabethkirche). 

5.         KATHARINA (1421-Berlin 23 Aug 1476, bur Kloster Lehnin).  Nun at Seusslitz 1428/1429.  m (Wittenberg 11 Jun 1441) FRIEDRICH II Elector of Brandenburg, son of FRIEDRICH I Markgraf and Elector von Brandenburg & his wife Elisabeth von Bayern-Landshut (Tangermünde 19 Nov 1413-Neustadt am Aisch 10 Feb 1471, bur Heilsbronn).

6.         HEINRICH (Meissen 21 May 1422-Dresden 22 Jul 1435, bur Dresden Cathedral).  

7.         WILHELM (Meissen 30 Apr 1425-Weimar 17 Sep 1482, bur Weimar Franziskanerkirche).  Herzog von Luxemburg 1439-1443, and 1457-1469.  He succeeded in 1440 as WILHELM III "der Tapfere" Joint Landgraf of Thuringia, jointly with his brother.  His brother relinquished Thuringia to Wilhelm as sole Landgraf in 1445.  m firstly (Jena 20 Jun 1446) ANNA Adss of Austria, daughter of ALBRECHT V Duke of Austria [ALBRECHT II King of the Romans, ALBERT King of Hungary, ALBRECHT King of Bohemia] & his wife Elisabeth Pss of Bohemia and Hungary [Luxembourg] (Vienna 12 Apr 1432-Eckartsberga 13 Nov 1462, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Necrologium Austriacum names Anna as older daughter of Duke Albrecht[571].  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records that one daughter of "Albertus dux Austrie" married "Wilhelmo lantgravio Thuringie"[572]m secondly (Weimar 6 Jul 1463) KATHARINA von Brandenstein, daughter of EBERHARD von Brandenstein zu Oppurg und Brandenstein & Jutta --- (-Saalfeld 2 Nov 1492, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  Landgraf Wilhelm & his first wife had two children:

a)         MARGARETA (Weimar 1449-Spandau 13 Jul 1501, bur Berlin Cathedral)m (Berlin 26 Aug 1476) JOHANN CICERO von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT ACHILLES Elector of Brandenburg & his first wife Margareta von Baden (Ansbach 2 Aug 1455-Schloß Arneburg 9 Jan 1499, bur Berlin Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1486 as JOHANN CICERO Elector of Brandenburg

b)         KATHARINA (1453-17 Jan 1534)m (26 Feb 1471) HEINRICH II "Hynek" Duke of Münsterberg Graf von Glatz, son of JIŘI von Podiebrad King of Bohemia & his second wife Johanna von Rožmital zu Blatna (17 May 1452-11 Jul 1492, bur Glatz).  Herr zu Podiebrad und Kolin 1472.

 

 



[1] Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), p. 232. 

[2] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 18. 

[3] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 758, p. 42. 

[4] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.12, MGH SS VII, p. 288. 

[5] Annalista Saxo 781. 

[6] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 66. 

[7] Annales Alamannicorum continuation Sangallensis prima 864, MGH SS I, p. 50, alternative text quoted in footnote 1. 

[8] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[9] "…Egbertus comes, Theotheri comes, Abo comes, Ostdag comes, Wigman comes". 

[10] Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), p. 159. 

[11] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.4, MGH SS VII, p. 285. 

[12] Annales Einhardi 743, MGH SS I, p. 135. 

[13] RFA, 743 and 744, p. 38. 

[14] RFA 758, p. 42. 

[15] RFA 777, p. 55. 

[16] Annales Laurissenses 777, MGH SS I, p. 156. 

[17] RFA 778, p. 56. 

[18] Annales Laurissenses 785, MGH SS I, p. 168. 

[19] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.12, MGH SS VII, p. 288. 

[20] ES II 104. 

[21] Translatio S. Alexandri 4, MGH SS II, p. 677. 

[22] Ekkehardi Chronicon Universale, MGH SS VI, p. 179. 

[23] D LD 95, p. 137. 

[24] D LD 142, p. 198. 

[25] D LD 142, p. 198. 

[26] Annales Laurissenses 785, MGH SS I, p. 168. 

[27] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[28] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 431. 

[29] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 2, MGH SS IV, p. 285. 

[30] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 505. 

[31] ES II 104. 

[32] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 431. 

[33] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 2, MGH SS IV, p. 285. 

[34] Vita Mathildis Reginæ 2, MGH SS IV, p. 285. 

[35] ES II 104. 

[36] Reginonis Chronicon 882, MGH SS I, p. 593. 

[37] Gesta Episcoporum Cameracensium I,80 , MGH SS VII, p. 431. 

[38] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[39] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[40] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 431. 

[41] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 431. 

[42] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 431. 

[43] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, pp. 430-1. 

[44] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 1.9, p. 74. 

[45] Vita Mahthildis Reginæ Antiquior 1, MGH SS X, p. 575. 

[46] Thietmar, p. 83, footnote 64. 

[47] Thietmar 1.21, p. 82. 

[48] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[49] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[50] Vita Domni Deoderici Episcopi Maioris I, MGH SS IV, p. 464. 

[51] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 268. 

[52] Thietmar 2.12, p. 100. 

[53] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[54] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[55] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[56] D O I 17, p. 105. 

[57] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[58] D O I 17, p. 105. 

[59] D O I 17, p. 105. 

[60] ES XIX 1 B. 

[61] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[62] Wigand, P. (ed.) (1843) Traditiones Corbeienses (Leipzig) (“Traditiones Corbeienses”), 271, p. 57. 

[63] D O III 81, p. 489. 

[64] Thietmar 4.20, p. 166. 

[65] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[66] D O III 180, p. 590. 

[67] D H II 259, p. 303. 

[68] D O III 81, p. 489. 

[69] D O II 209, p. 237. 

[70] Thietmar 4.20, p. 166. 

[71] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[72] Necrologium Abdinhofense, quoted in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 10. 

[73] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 10 quoting her death "8 Idus Aug" in necrologium Abdinhofense

[74] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[75] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.2 and 1.3, MGH SS IV, pp. 702 and 703, the latter passage with "18 May 997" added in the margin. 

[76] D O III 235, p. 649. 

[77] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 701. 

[78] Thietmar 7.47, p. 340. 

[79] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum II.5, MGH SS IV, p. 711. 

[80] Thioderici Aeditui Tuitiensis Opuscula, MGH SS XIV, p. 564. 

[81] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 10 quoting his death "VII Idus Apr" in necrologium Abdinhofense, and 132, p. 133.   

[82] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108. 

[83] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 10 quoting her death "Non Feb" in necrologium Abdinhofense

[84] Annales Stadenses 1112, MGH SS XVI, p. 319. 

[85] Annales Stadenses 1112, MGH SS XVI, p. 319. 

[86] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 2, MGH SS XI, p. 108. 

[87] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 14, MGH SS XI, p. 114. 

[88] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.44 and II.76, MGH SS VII, pp. 321 and 333. 

[89] Ekkehardi Chronicon, MGH SS VI, pp. 225-6.  . 

[90] ES III 26. 

[91] Annales Laurissenses 775, MGH SS I, p. 154. 

[92] MGH SS II, p. 569. 

[93] Vita Sanctæ Idæ I.1, MGH SS II, p. 570. 

[94] Einhardi Annales 809, MGH SS I, p. 197. 

[95] Ried, T. (ed.) (1816) Chronologico Diplomaticus Episcopatus Ratisbonensis Tomus I Diplomata Sæculi VIII-XIII (Regensburg) (“Regensburg Cartulary”), Section I, no. XV, p. 10. 

[96] Einhardi Annales 811, MGH SS I, p. 198. 

[97] RHGF VI, CLXXXVIII, p. 593. 

[98] Vita Sancti Idæ auctore Uffingo Monacho Werthinensi 1, MGH SS II, p. 570. 

[99] MGH SS II, p. 569. 

[100] Historia Translationis Sanctæ Pusinnæ 2, MGH SS II, p. 682. 

[101] Historia Translationis Sanctæ Pusinnæ 2, MGH SS II, p. 682. 

[102] Historia Translationis Sancti Viti 12, MGH SS II, p. 580. 

[103] Historia Translationis Sanctæ Pusinnæ 3, MGH SS II, p. 683. 

[104] Wolff, L. (ed.) (1969) Die Gandersheimer Reimchronik des Priesters Eberhard 2nd Ed. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Tübingen), 9, lines 139-44, cited in Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 146 footnote 40. 

[105] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851. 

[106] Wolff, L. (ed.) (1969) Die Gandersheimer Reimchronik des Priesters Eberhard 2nd Ed. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Tübingen), 9, lines 139-44, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 146 footnote 40. 

[107] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851. 

[108] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.16, MGH SS III, p. 425. 

[109] Annales Alamannicorum continuation Sangallensis prima 864, MGH SS I, p. 50, alternative text quoted in footnote 1. 

[110] Annales Xantenses 866, MGH SS II, p. 231. 

[111] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306. 

[112] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Raumer, G. W. von (1836) Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis Tome I (Berlin) (“Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis”), p. 24. 

[113] D Arn 107, p. 157. 

[114] D O I 89, p. 171. 

[115] Annalista Saxo 907. 

[116] D LJ 3, p. 335. 

[117] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[118] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[119] Thietmar 2.23, p. 108. 

[120] Erchanberti Breviarum, MGH SS II, p. 330. 

[121] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[122] Thietmar 1.7. 

[123] Annalista Saxo 907. 

[124] ES I.1 10. 

[125] Traditiones Corbeienses 235, p. 96. 

[126] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.16, MGH SS III, p. 425. 

[127] D LJ 2, p. 334. 

[128] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[129] Annalista Saxo 885, which gives the exact date. 

[130] ES I.1 10. 

[131] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851. 

[132] Agii, Vita et Obitus Hathamodæ, MGH SS IV, p. 166 et seq. 

[133] Annalista Saxo 870. 

[134] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851. 

[135] Thangmari, Vita Bernwaldi Episcopi Hildesheimensis 12, MGH SS IV, p. 763. 

[136] Annalista Saxo 870. 

[137] D LJ 3, p. 335. 

[138] Thangmari, Vita Bernwaldi Episcopi Hildesheimensis 12, MGH SS IV, p. 763. 

[139] ES I.1 10. 

[140] ES I.1 10. 

[141] ES I.1 10. 

[142] ES I.1 10. 

[143] Annalista Saxo 907. 

[144] D LJ 3, p. 335. 

[145] D LJ 4, p. 337. 

[146] Beyer, H. (ed.) (1860) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte der, jetzt die Preussischen Regierungsbezirke Coblenz und Trier bildenden Mittelrheinischen Territorien (Coblenz), Vol. I, (“Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch, I”), 257, p. 314, consulted at <http:/www.rlb.de/mrHist/> (12 Dec 2007). 

[147] D Arn 149, p. 226, marked "verunechtet" in the compilation. 

[148] Widukind 1.16, pp. 26-27, quoted in Thietmar, p. 71, footnote 20.  Reuter (1991), p. 135, suggests that this "should be taken as panegyric rather than history". 

[149] D K I 13, p. 13. 

[150] Thietmar 1.7, p. 71. 

[151] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[152] Annalista Saxo 902 and 907. 

[153] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[154] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[155] Estimated birth date range based on the likely birth date range of her daughter. 

[156] Ekkehardi IV Casus S. Galli, MGH SS II, p. 119. 

[157] Casuum Sancti Galli, Continuatio I, Ekkehardo IV 10, MGH SS II, p. 124. 

[158] Annalista Saxo 907. 

[159] Annalista Saxo 907. 

[160] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.4, MGH SS III, p. 439. 

[161] Hlawitschka, E. (1987) Untersuchungen zu den Thronwechseln der ersten Hälfte des 11. Jahrhunderts und zur Adelsgeschichte Süddeutschlands.  Zugleich klärende Forschungen um "Kuno von Öhningen", Vorträge und Forschungen, Sonderband 35 (Sigmaringen) pp. 20-43, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 153. 

[162] Thietmar 1.3, p. 68. 

[163] Annalista Saxo 902 and 907. 

[164] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 88. 

[165] Reginonis Chronicon 897, MGH SS I, p. 607. 

[166] Reginonis Chronicon 900, MGH SS I, p. 609. 

[167] D O I 159, p. 240 

[168] Jackman (1997), p. 88. 

[169] ES I.1 10. 

[170] ES I.1 10. 

[171] Widukind I.38, MGH SS III, p. 434. 

[172] Dzięcioł, Witold (1963) The Origins of Poland (Veritas, London), pp. 129-30. 

[173] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 12. 

[174] Jordan (1986), p. 107. 

[175] Jordan (1986), p. 13. 

[176] Jordan (1986), p. 13. 

[177] DD Kar. 1 213, p. 284. 

[178] Falke [the full reference is not given], p. 42, quoted in Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, p. 19.  . 

[179] Falke [the full reference is not given], p. 56, quoted in Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, p. 19.  . 

[180] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306. 

[181] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, p. 24. 

[182] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306. 

[183] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, p. 24. 

[184] D Arn 107, p. 157. 

[185] D O I 89, p. 171. 

[186] Roques, H. von (ed.) (1900) Urkundenbuch des Klosters Kaufungen in Hessen (Cassel) ("Kaufungen"), Band I, 2, p. 3. 

[187] Kaufungen, Band I, 3, p. 4. 

[188] Kaufungen, Band I, 3, p. 4. 

[189] Kaufungen, Band I, 2, p. 3. 

[190] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 65, p. 30. 

[191] Annales Fuldenses Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[192] Kaufungen, Band I, 3, p. 4. 

[193] Kaufungen, Band I, 3, p. 4. 

[194] Kaufungen, Band I, 3, p. 4. 

[195] Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses 905 and 935, MGH SS XXIV, p. 824. 

[196] Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses 905 and 935, MGH SS XXIV, p. 824. 

[197] Chronica Principum Saxoniæ Amplicata, Genealogia Ducum Saxonie, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 28. 

[198] Annalista Saxo 962. 

[199] Thietmar 2.32, p. 115. 

[200] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.4, MGH SS III, p. 439. 

[201] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 472. 

[202] Reuter (1991), p. 152. 

[203] D O I 152, p. 231. 

[204] D O I 165, p. 246. 

[205] D O I 183, p. 266. 

[206] D O I 198, p. 278.   

[207] D O I 198, p. 278.   

[208] D O I 223, p. 307. 

[209] D O I 303, p. 418. 

[210] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[211] Thietmar 2.31, p. 115, footnote 121 commenting that the date is mistaken for 27 Mar. 

[212] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[213] D O I 329, p. 443. 

[214] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[215] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[216] D O III 401, p. 834. 

[217] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 14, MGH SS XI, p. 114. 

[218] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[219] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 14, MGH SS XI, p. 114. 

[220] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.44 and II.76, MGH SS VII, pp. 321 and 333. 

[221] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[222] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 304. 

[223] MGH SS IX, p. 302, Introduction to Witgeri Genealogia Arnulfi Comitis

[224] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1005, MGH SS XXIII, p. 778. 

[225] D H II 492, p. 626. 

[226] Annales Blandinienses 1008, MGH SS V, p. 25. 

[227] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[228] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[229] Thietmar 4.39, p. 179. 

[230] Thietmar 7.7, p. 312. 

[231] D O I 56, p. 138. 

[232] D O I 306, p. 421.   

[233] D O II 209, p. 237. 

[234] D O I 56, p. 138. 

[235] D O I 306, p. 421.   

[236] Traditiones Corbeienses 271, p. 57. 

[237] Widukind I.III, c. 69, cited in Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 5, MGH SS XI, p. 108, footnote 11. 

[238] Vanderkindere, A. (1902) La formation territoriale des principautés belges au moyen-âge (Brussels), Tome I, p. 75, quoting Van Spaen Introduction à l'histoire de la Gueldre, I, p. 67, no. 20. 

[239] Vanderkindere (1902) Tome I, p. 75, quoting Van Spaen Introduction à l'histoire de la Gueldre, I, p. 67, no. 20. 

[240] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.2, MGH SS IV, p. 702, and I.4, p. 703, the latter recording that the capture of Elten took place after the death of Emperor Otto III (who died in 1002). 

[241] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ II.4, MGH SS III, p. 439. 

[242] D O I 16, p. 103. 

[243] Reuter (1991), p. 152. 

[244] Annales Magdeburgenses 941, MGH SS XVI, p. 144. 

[245] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[246] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[247] Thietmar 2.12, p. 100. 

[248] Piper, P. (ed.) (Berlin) Libri confraternitatum Sancti Galli, Augiensis, Fabariensis (Berlin), p. 84. 

[249] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[250] Thietmar 2.6, p. 96. 

[251] Thietmar 2.12, pp. 99-100. 

[252] Reuter (1991), pp. 155-6 and 160. 

[253] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 128. 

[254] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 69, p. 464. 

[255] Annalista Saxo 967 and 970. 

[256] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[257] Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Corbeienses, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1044. 

[258] Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Corbeienses, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1044. 

[259] Notitiæ Fundationis Monasterii Corbeienses, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1044. 

[260] Annalista Saxo 962. 

[261] Thietmar 2.31, p. 115, footnote 121 commenting that the date is mistaken for 27 Mar. 

[262] Thietmar 2.12, pp. 99-100. 

[263] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ III.19, cited in Thietmar, p. 96 footnote 36 (continuation from previous page). 

[264] D O I 85, p. 166. 

[265] Thietmar 2.6, p. 95. 

[266] D O I 324, p. 438.    

[267] Thietmar 3.7, p. 132. 

[268] Thietmar 4.1 and 4.3, pp. 149 and 151. 

[269] D O III 81, p. 489. 

[270] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[271] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg.  

[272] D O III 390, p. 820. 

[273] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[274] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Mathilde, Reine de France inconnue', Journal des Savants (Oct-Dec 1971), pp. 241-60, 250 footnote 31. 

[275] ES VIII 131a and ES I.1 11 respectively. 

[276] Vajay 'Mathilde', p. 251 footnote 35. 

[277] D K II 124, p. 169. 

[278] Erhard, H. A. (ed.) (1847) Regesta historiæ Westfaliæ (Münster) ("Westfaliæ Regesta") Band I, CVII, p. 85. 

[279] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 202, MGH SS XI, p. 153. 

[280] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[281] D K II 124, p. 169. 

[282] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 202, MGH SS XI, p. 153. 

[283] ES I.1 11. 

[284] D H II 260, p. 304. 

[285] D H III 92, p. 118. 

[286] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[287] ES I.1 11. 

[288] D H II 206, p. 241. 

[289] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 701. 

[290] Thietmar 7.8, p. 313. 

[291] Thietmar 7.47, pp. 340-1. 

[292] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[293] Alpertus, De Diversitate Temporum I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 702.  The date 1006 is in the margin of I.8, p. 704, another passage referring to his marriage. 

[294] ES VIII 131a. 

[295] Thietmar 7.48, p. 341. 

[296] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 202, MGH SS XI, p. 153. 

[297] Westfaliæ Regesta, Band I, CVII, p. 85. 

[298] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 202, MGH SS XI, p. 153. 

[299] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 164, MGH SS XI, p. 144. 

[300] Vita Godefridi comitis Capenbergensis 2, MGH SS XII, p. 516, undated but the same paragraph has "1121" in the margin against a later passage. 

[301] Thietmar 7.3, p. 309. 

[302] Thietmar 7.3, p. 309. 

[303] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1171, MGH SS XXIII, p. 153. 

[304] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[305] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.30, MGH SS VII, p. 317. 

[306] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[307] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[308] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 14, MGH SS XI, p. 114. 

[309] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[310] Annalista Saxo 1010. 

[311] D H II 255, p. 293. 

[312] Annalista Saxo 1020. 

[313] D H II 427, p. 542. 

[314] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum III.42, MGH SS VII, p. 351. 

[315] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[316] Annalista Saxo 1059. 

[317] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[318] Annalista Saxo 1059. 

[319] Annalista Saxo 1059. 

[320] Annalista Saxo 1086. 

[321] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306. 

[322] Bruch, H. (ed.) (1973) Chronologia Johannes de Beke (The Hague), 45, p. 85, available at < http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten /KroniekVanJohannesDeBekeTot1430/latijn> (31 Aug 2006). 

[323] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris), II.92, p. 288. 

[324] Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[325] Annales Egmundani 1063, MGH SS XVI, p. 447. 

[326] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 321.       

[327] Beka's Egmondsch Necrologium, in Oppermann, O. (1933) Fontes Egmundenses (Utrecht), p. 107. 

[328] Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[329] Wegener, W. (1965/67) Genealogischen Tafeln zur mitteleuropäischen Geschichte (Verlag Degener), p. 265. 

[330] Fundatio Monasterii Sancti Pauli in Carinthia 8, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1060. 

[331] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[332] Genealogia ex stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 384. 

[333] Chronicon Sancti Huberti Andaginensis 17 (24), MHG SS VIII, p. 577.  Although this passage is not dated, the editor has placed "c 1066" in the margin. 

[334] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), p. 17. 

[335] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1076, MGH SS XXIII, p. 798. 

[336] Barbier, J. (ed.) ´Obituaire de l´abbaye de Brogne ou de Saint-Gérard´, Analectes pour servir à l´histoire ecclésiastique de la Belgique, Tome XVIII (2e série, Tome II) (Louvain, 1882) ("Brogne Necrology"), p. 332. 

[337] Vita Meinwerci Episcopi Paderbornensis 100, MGH SS XI, p. 128. 

[338] Thietmar 8.26, p. 379. 

[339] Annalista Saxo 1010. 

[340] Thietmar, p. 379 footnote 54. 

[341] Thietmar 7.3, p. 309. 

[342] D O III 179, p. 589. 

[343] Annalista Saxo 1059. 

[344] Chronica Principum Saxoniæ Amplicata, Genealogia Ducum Saxonie, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 28. 

[345] Annales Rosenveldenses 17, MGH SS XVI, p. 100. 

[346] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[347] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.75, MGH SS VII, p. 333. 

[348] Annalista Saxo 1059. 

[349] Andersson, T. M. and Gade, K. E. (trans.) (2000) Morkinskinna (Cornell) 5, pp. 115-7. 

[350] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[351] Notæ Genealogicæ Bavaricæ II, MGH SS XXIV, p. 77. 

[352] Annalista Saxo 1116. 

[353] Annalista Saxo 1059. 

[354] Morkinskinna, 5, p. 123. 

[355] Annalista Saxo 1071. 

[356] Annales Rosenveldenses 1106, MGH SS XVI, p. 103. 

[357] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[358] The date her first husband died. 

[359] Annalista Saxo 1062 and 1070. 

[360] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 390. 

[361] Annalista Saxo 1095. 

[362] Annalista Saxo 1070. 

[363] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[364] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[365] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[366] Annalista Saxo 1070 and 1106. 

[367] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[368] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[369] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[370] Jordan (1986), p. 15. 

[371] Annalista Saxo 1009 and 1106. 

[372] Notæ Genealogicæ Bavaricæ, MGH SS XXIV, p. 77. 

[373] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[374] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), pp. 89-90. 

[375] Haverkamp (1988), p. 137. 

[376] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 120. 

[377] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[378] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[379] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 124. 

[380] Annalista Saxo 1101. 

[381] Annalista Saxo 1115. 

[382] Annalista Saxo 1127. 

[383] Annales Sancti Disibodi, MGH SS XVII, p. 23. 

[384] Haverkamp (1988), p. 138. 

[385] Annales Mellicenses 1142, MGH SS IX, p. 503. 

[386] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 127. 

[387] Necrologium Mellicense Antiquissimum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 522. 

[388] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[389] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 2, MGH SS XXI, p. 116. 

[390] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[391] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[392] Jordan (1986), p. 20. 

[393] Jordan (1986), p. 21. 

[394] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[395] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 16, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[396] Annales Sancti Disibodi, MGH SS XVII, p. 23. 

[397] Haverkamp (1988), p. 138. 

[398] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 127. 

[399] Annales Mellicenses 1142, MGH SS IX, p. 503. 

[400] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 127. 

[401] Necrologium Mellicense Antiquissimum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 522. 

[402] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[403] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 2, MGH SS XXI, p. 116. 

[404] Jordan (1986), p. 22. 

[405] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) (“Mainz Urkunden 12th Century”), 28, p. 31. 

[406] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 140, and Jordan (1986), p. 44. 

[407] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 140. 

[408] Jordan (1986), pp. 131-2. 

[409] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 163. 

[410] Erhard, H. A. (ed.) (1851) Regesta historiæ Westfaliæ (Münster) ("Westfaliæ Regesta") Band II, CCCXLVIII, p. 111. 

[411] Runciman (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol. 2, p. 393. 

[412] Jordan (1986), p. 183, and Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 168-9. 

[413] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 99, p. 102. 

[414] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 10. 

[415] Jordan (1986), pp. 189-92, and Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 176 and 180-1. 

[416] Jordan (1986), pp. 193-5. 

[417] Jordan (1986), p. 197. 

[418] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[419] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[420] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 396. 

[421] Jordan (1986), pp. 65 and 95. 

[422] Haverkamp (1988), p. 146. 

[423] Annales Palidenses 18 1160, MGH SS XVI, p. 94. 

[424] Haverkamp (1988), p. 223. 

[425] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 396. 

[426] MP, Vol. II, 1156, p. 212, although he gives neither the place nor the precise date. 

[427] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1879) The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, Vol. I (London) (“Gervase”), p. 205. 

[428] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159. 

[429] Annales Sancti Blasii Brunsvicenses 1173 and 1188, MGH SS XXIV, p. 824. 

[430] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[431] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1168, MGH SS XXIII, p. 851. 

[432] For example in Brandenburg, E. (1935) Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen, p. 44. 

[433] Origines Guelficæ, Vol. III, pp. 181. 

[434] Jordan (1986), p. 256. 

[435] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 396. 

[436] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[437] Hodenberg, W. von (ed.) (1858) Calenberger Urkundenbuch, Dritte Abtheilung (Stift Loccum) (Hannover) (“Calenberger Urkundenbuch III (Stift Loccum)”), 2, p. 4. 

[438] Westfaliæ Regesta, Band II, CCCXLVIII, p. 111. 

[439] Annales Stadenses 1171, MGH SS XVI, p. 347.  

[440] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum II, 10, MGH SS XXI, p. 95. 

[441] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum II, 14, MGH SS XXI, p. 99. 

[442] Jordan (1986), p. 83. 

[443] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[444] Jordan (1986), p. 64. 

[445] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 1, MGH SS XXI, p. 116. 

[446] Jordan (1986), p. 183. 

[447] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1847) Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the reigns of Henry II and Richard I 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough (London) (“Benedict of Peterborough”), Vol. 2 1189, p. 72.   

[448] Jordan (1986), p. 185. 

[449] Benedict of Peterborough I 1185, p. 346.   

[450] Benedict of Peterborough 2 1189, p. 70.   

[451] Chartres Notre-Dame, Tome II, 159, p. 21. 

[452] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Abbaye des Clairets, p. 281.       

[453] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[454] Jordan (1986), p. 183. 

[455] Jordan (1986), pp. 192-4. 

[456] Jordan (1986), p. 197. 

[457] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[458] Notæ Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 827. 

[459] Jordan (1986), p. 183. 

[460] Jordan (1986), p. 192. 

[461] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 397. 

[462] Liber Anniversariorum ecclesie maiores Augustensis, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 55. 

[463] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[464] Jordan (1986), p. 183. 

[465] CP XII/2 p 895 footnote (b).   

[466] Jordan (1986), p. 196. 

[467] Jordan (1986), p. 197. 

[468] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 239-40. 

[469] CP XII/2, p. 895.

[470] Haverkamp (1988), p. 242. 

[471] Haverkamp (1988), p. 242. 

[472] Haverkamp (1988), p. 243. 

[473] Haverkamp (1988), p. 244. 

[474] Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 825. 

[475] Annales Veterocellenses 1217, MGH SS XVI, p. 43. 

[476] Annales Marbacenses 1201, MGH SS XVII, p. 170. 

[477] Haverkamp (1988), p. 241. 

[478] Annales Stadenses 1208, MGH SS XVI, p. 354.  

[479] Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis Continuatio Prima 1212, MGH SS XXIV, p. 16. 

[480] Continuatio Admuntensis 1208, MGH SS IX, p. 591. 

[481] Libro Memoriarum Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 825. 

[482] Gestorum Abbatem Trudonensium Continuatio Tertia II, 7, MGH SS X, p. 392. 

[483] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 62. 

[484] Chronicæ Regiæ Coloniensis Continuatio Prima 1214, MGH SS XXIV, p. 18. 

[485] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 7, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[486] Chronologia Johannes de Beke 65b, p. 163. 

[487] Oude Kronik van Brabant, p. 64. 

[488] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 166. 

[489] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 397. 

[490] Annales Stadenses 1164, MGH SS XVI, p. 345.  

[491] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum III, 4, MGH SS XXI, p. 146. 

[492] Jordan (1986), pp. 81-2. 

[493] ES 1.1 18.  ES XII 74 shows her as possible daughter of Duke Heinrich "der Stolze". 

[494] Necrologium Ottenburanum, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 99. 

[495] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[496] Haverkamp (1988), pp. 141-2. 

[497] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 127. 

[498] Fuhrmann (1995), pp. 123-4. 

[499] Cod Giessensis Nr. 176, fol. 234, included as Genealogiæ Comitum et Marchionum sæc XII et XIII, in MGH SS XXIV, p. 78. 

[500] Cod Giessensis Nr. 176, fol. 234, included as Genealogiæ Comitum et Marchionum sæc XII et XIII, in MGH SS XXIV, p. 78. 

[501] Heinemann, O. van (ed.) (1867) Codex Diplomaticus Anhaltinus (Dessau), Teil I, 362, p. 272. 

[502] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erster Haupttheil - Band 3, VII, p. 84. 

[503] Codex Diplomaticus Anhaltinus, Teil I, 547, p. 404. 

[504] Jordan (1986), p. 155. 

[505] Haverkamp (1988), p. 232. 

[506] Codex Diplomaticus Anhaltinus, Teil I, 605, p. 446. 

[507] Jordan (1986), p. 186. 

[508] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[509] Cod Giessensis Nr. 176, fol. 234, included as Genealogiæ Comitum et Marchionum sæc XII et XIII, in MGH SS XXIV, p. 78. 

[510] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[511] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[512] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1210, MGH SS XXIII, p. 177. 

[513] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1210, MGH SS XXIII, p. 177. 

[514] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[515] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1206, MGH SS XXIII, p. 173. 

[516] Chronicon Montis Serreni 1210, MGH SS XXIII, p. 177. 

[517] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), pp. 36-7. 

[518] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476.  

[519] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis II Codex B, 1222, MGH SS IX, p. 623. 

[520] Necrologium Monasterii Campi Liliorum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 368. 

[521] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[522] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[523] Annales Mellicenses 1226, MGH SS IX, p. 507. 

[524] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[525] Necrologium Monasterii S Crucis Recentius, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 112. 

[526] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[527] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[528] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronica Jutensis, p. 443. 

[529] Íslenzkir Annálar sive Annales Islandici (Copenhagen, 1847) ("Annales Islandici"), 1239, p. 113. 

[530] Cuba, Societatis Regiæ Scientiarum Danicæ (1847) Regesta Diplomatica Historiæ Danicæ, Tome I (Copenhagen) (“Regesta Diplomatica Danica“), 791, p. 105. 

[531] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[532] Annales Stadenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 365.  

[533] Annales Ryenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 407. 

[534] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[535] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 479. 

[536] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[537] Annales Stadenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 365.  

[538] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 569. 

[539] Stenzel, G. A. (ed.) (1835) Scriptores Rerum Silesiacarum, Erster Band (Breslau) Chronicon principum Poloniæ, (“Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I”), p. 110. 

[540] Stillfried, R. M. von (1843) Monumenta Zollerana, Quellensammlung zur Geschichte des erlauchten Hauses der Grafen von Zollern und Burggrafen von Nürnberg, Erster Theil (Halle) ("Monumenta Zollerana (1843))", CI, p. 138. 

[541] Monumenta Zollerana (1843), CLI, p. 186. 

[542] Monumenta Zollerana (1843), CLXII, p. 198. 

[543] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[544] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[545] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[546] Monumenta Zollerana (1843), CLI, p. 186. 

[547] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[548] Chronicon Colmariense 1273, MGH SS XVII, p. 244. 

[549] Riedel, Dr. A. F. (1862) Novus Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, Vierter Haupttheil, Band 1, (Berlin), Bruchstücke einer Brandenburgischen Chronik in Pulcawa's Böhmischer Chronik, p. 15. 

[550] Leuschner, J. (1980) Germany in the Late Middle Ages (North Holland Publishing Company), p. 159. 

[551] Stenzel, G. A. (ed.) (1835) Scriptores Rerum Silesiacarum, Erster Band (Breslau) ("Silesiacarum Scriptores I"),, p. 276. 

[552] Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 343. 

[553] ES I.2 196. 

[554] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[555] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[556] Annales Lubicenses 1302, MGH SS XVI, p. 418. 

[557] Annales Lubicenses 1288, MGH SS XVI, p. 415. 

[558] Annales Lubicenses 1302, MGH SS XVI, p. 418. 

[559] Annales Lubicenses 1302, MGH SS XVI, p. 418. 

[560] Annales Lubicenses 1302, MGH SS XVI, p. 418. 

[561] Riedel, Dr. A. F. (1862) Novus Codex diplomaticus Brandenburgensis, Vierter Haupttheil, Band 1, (Berlin), Bruchstücke einer Brandenburgischen Chronik in Pulcawa's Böhmischer Chronik, p. 16. 

[562] Wippermann, C. W. (1853) Regesta Schaumburgensia (Cassel), 259, p. 121. 

[563] Regesta Schaumburgensia, 262b, p. 123. 

[564] Regesta Schaumburgensia, 282, p. 130. 

[565] Regesta Schaumburgensia, 296, p. 136. 

[566] Annales Lubicenses 1302, MGH SS XVI, p. 418. 

[567] See ES I.2 197-199. 

[568] Chronicon Holtzatiæ 29, MGH SS XXI, p. 286. 

[569] Annales Veterocellenses 1370, MGH SS XVI, p. 44. 

[570] See ES I.1 153-174. 

[571] Necrologium Austriacum Gentis Habsburgicæ Alterum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 124. 

[572] Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 310.