SCOTland, mormaers, earls, lords

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.                ANGUS. 4

A.         MORMAERS of ANGUS.. 4

B.         EARLS of ANGUS.. 5

C.        EARLS of ANGUS (UMFRAVILLE) 11

D.        EARLS of ANGUS (STEWART) 18

E.         EARLS of ANGUS (DOUGLAS) 20

Chapter 2.                ATHOLL. 22

A.         MORMAERS of ATHOLL. 23

B.         EARLS of ATHOLL. 24

C.        EARLS of ATHOLL (STRATHBOGIE) 31

D.        EARLS of ATHOLL 1457-1595 (STEWART) 35

Chapter 3.                CAITHNESS. 37

A.         MORMAERS of CAITHNESS.. 38

B.         EARLS of (part) CAITHNESS (ANGUS) 39

Chapter 4.                FIFE. 42

A.         MORMAERS [of FIFE] 42

B.         EARLS of FIFE (MACDUFF) 43

Chapter 5.                MAR. 54

A.         MORMAERS of MAR.. 54

B.         EARLS of MAR.. 58

Chapter 6.                MORAY. 69

A.         MORMAERS of MORAY.. 69

B.         MORAY FAMILY.. 73

C.        EARLS of MORAY (RANDOLPH) 82

D.        EARLS of MORAY (DUNBAR) 84

Chapter 7.                STRATHEARN. 86

A.         MORMAER and EARLS of STRATHEARN.. 86

Chapter 8.                ORKNEY. 105

A.         NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY [893]-[1030] – UNCERTAIN EARLY LINEAGE.. 105

B.         NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY [1030]-1156. 117

C.        EARLS of ORKNEY 1140-1231, HOUSE of DUNCAN (KINGS of SCOTLAND) 126

Chapter 9.                ARGYLL. 129

Chapter 10.              BUCHAN. 135

A.         MORMAERS of BUCHAN.. 135

B.         EARLS of BUCHAN.. 136

C.        EARLS of BUCHAN (COMYN) 137

D.        EARLS of BUCHAN 1469-1585 (STEWART) 141

Chapter 11.              GALLOWAY. 142

Chapter 12.              KINGS of the HEBRIDES, KINGS of the ISLE of MAN, LORDS of the ISLES. 152

A.         KINGS of the HEBRIDES.. 152

B.         KINGS of the ISLE of MAN.. 157

C.        LORDS of the ISLES.. 166

Chapter 13.              DUNBAR. 170

A.         ORIGINS.. 171

B.         EARLS of DUNBAR.. 183

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The chapters on the Scottish earls and lords which are set out below are arranged in approximately chronological order of creation of the titles.  The first group of seven earldoms, Angus, Atholl, Caithness, Fife, Mar, Moray and Strathearn, corresponds to the seven provinces into which Scotland north of the Firths of Forth and Clyde was divided in the 9th century, reputedly ruled by seven brothers.  The ruler of each province bore the title "Ri", inferior only to the "Ardri" or Supreme King.  In the 10th century, the title changed to "Mormaer" or Great Maer or Steward.  During the 10th century the province of Argyll was added, and in the 11th century Buchan separated from Mar, while Caithness was conquered by the Norwegians.  The earldom of Dunbar was a further creation of the early 11th century, although it was only called as such from the early 13th century.  Six of these local rulers are for the first time called "comes" in the foundation charter of the monastery of Scone dated [1114/15][1].  According to Skene, the relationship between these rulers and their provinces was not purely territorial but connected with the tribes which occupied the land.  After the accession of David I King of Scotland in 1124, the tie to the land was strengthened as the mormaerships were transformed into earldoms, the earls holding the land from the Scottish crown as tenants-in-chief in accordance with the Norman feudal system.  Heredity of the mormaerships was originally in the male line only.  After the introduction of the feudal system into Scotland in the 12th century, the earldoms were descendible to heirs general[2]

 

The lordships of Galloway and of the Isles were semi-autonomous regions which at first did not recognise the suzerainty of the Scottish crown.  They were never transformed into earldoms. 

 

The later earldoms created by King Malcolm IV and his successors are shown in the companion document SCOTLAND EARLS CREATED 1162-1398. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ANGUS

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS of ANGUS

 

Angus was one of the seven original provinces of Scotland, covering about the same territory as the modern Scottish county of Forfar.  Its ruler was one of the six Mormaers who were described as "comes" in the [1114/15] charter of Scone.  Gillbride was the first individual to be styled (in 1135) Earl of Angus and members of his family succeeded him in the title until the mid-13th century. 

 

 

1.         INDECHTRAIG, son of ---.  m ---.  The name of Indechtraig’s wife is not known.  Indechtraig & his wife had one child:

a)         DUBUCAN (-935).  Mormaer of Angus.  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Dubucan filius Indrechtaig mormair Oengusa, Adalstan filius Advar rig Saxan, et Eochaid filius Alpini"[3], dated to [937/40] if the second person named can be identified as Æthelstan King of Wessex.  m ---.  The name of Dubucan’s wife is not known.  Dubucan & his wife had one child:

i)          MAELBRIGDE .  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the death of "Maelbrigde filius Dubican", dated to before the death of King Colin from the context[4]

 

 

1.         CONCHAR .  The Pictish Chronicle names Conchar Mormaer of Angus as father of Fynebole Lady of Fettercairn, who murdered Kenneth II King of Scotland in 995 in revenge for the slaughter of her only son oat Dunsinane[5]m ---.  The name of Conchar’s wife is not known.  Conchar & his wife had one child:

a)         FYNEBOLE .  Lady of Fettercairn.  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Kynnath mac Malcolm" reigned for 24 years and 2 months, was killed "a suis hominibus in Fetherkern" through the treachery of "Finuele filie filie Cunthar comitis de Anguss" whose only son had been killed by the king[6].  The Pictish Chronicle names Conchar Mormaer of Angus and father of Fynebole Lady of Fettercairn who murdered Kenneth II King of Scotland in 995 in revenge for the slaughter of her only son oat Dunsinane[7]m ---.  The name of Fynebole’s husband is not known. 

 

 

1.         DUFUGAN .  Mormaer of Angus.  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[8].  "…Dufagan comes" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[9]

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of ANGUS

 

 

1.         GILLBRIDE, son of --- (-[1187])Earl of Angus [1135].  David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer by undated charter witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d’Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d’Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[10].  He fought at the battle of the Standard 22 Aug 1138.  "…Comite Duncano, Gillebrid comite de Anegus, M. comite de Ethoel, Gillecrist comite de Meneteth, Gillberto filio comitis Ferteth, Merlefwano Adam filio comitis de Anegus…" witnessed the charter dated 1164 under which "Malcolmus rex Scottorum" confirmed the foundation of Scone abbey[11].  He was one of the hostages for William "the Lion" King of Scotland in 1174[12].  "…Gylbride comite de Anegus…" witnessed the charter dated to [1187/89] under which William King of Scotland granted the churches of Elgin and Eren to the bishopric of Moray[13]m [firstly] [--- of Dunbar, daughter of GOSPATRICK Earl & his wife ---.  The Complete Peerage says that Gillbride “seems to have married a daughter of Gospatrick Earl of Dunbar” but does not specify the primary source on which this is based[14].  Although it does not specify which Earl Gospatrick was her father, it is more likely from a chronological viewpoint that, if the information is correct, he was the Gospatrick who died in 1166.]  [m secondly --- of Caithness, daughter of ERIK Slagbrellir & his wife Ingigerd Kalisdatter.  According to the Complete Peerage, Gillbride Earl of Angus married as his second wife "the heiress of the earls of Caithness", in another passage stating that she was "sister of Harald Ungi Earl of Caithness"[15].  No primary source is cited in support of these statements and it is possible that this marriage, and the supposed parentage of the bride, are entirely speculative, in an attempt to explain the transmission of the half of the earldom of Caithness to Earl Magnus (see below).  Skene says that "the probability is that the half of Caithness which belonged to the Angus family was that half possessed by the earls of the line of Erlend, and was given by King Alexander with the title of Earl to Magnus, as the son of one of Earl Harald "Ungi"‘s sisters" and that "the Norwegian name of Magnus indicates that [Earl Magnus] had a Norwegian mother"[16].  He cites no primary source either, and the implication is that Skene is speculating on all the points which he makes.  Concerning the supposed parentage of Earl Magnus’s mother, it appears unlikely that Magnus’s right to Caithness was derived from the junior branch of the comital family of Orkney/Caithness, to which Erik Slagbrellir belonged, as it ceased to hold any interest in the county after 1198, while Magnus’s grant appears to be dated to the 1230s (as discussed more fully below).  A more sensible suggestion is that, assuming Magnus’s right to Caithness was inherited from his mother, she was related to the last Earl John, who died in 1232, and whose rights would have been divided between his two heiresses.]   Earl Gillbride & his [first] wife had four children: 

a)         ADAM (-after [1187]).  "…Comite Duncano, Gillebrid comite de Anegus, M. comite de Ethoel, Gillecrist comite de Meneteth, Gillberto filio comitis Ferteth, Merlefwano Adam filio comitis de Anegus…" witnessed the charter dated 1164 under which "Malcolmus rex Scottorum" confirmed the foundation of Scone abbey[17].  "…Adam et Wills fil comitis de Anego…" witnessed the charter dated 1178 under which the abbot of Aberbrothoc controlled the church of Calcou[18].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus.  "…Comit Ada de Anego…" witnessed the charter dated to [1187] which confirms the donation of "ecclesiam de Foethmures" to Aberbrothoc[19]

b)         WILLIAM (-after 1178).  "…Adam et Wills fil comitis de Anego…" witnessed the charter dated 1178 under which the abbot of Aberbrothoc controlled the church of Calcou[20]

c)         GILCHRIST (-[1207/11]).  He succeeded his brother as Earl of Angus.  "Gillecrist comes de Anego" donated "ecclesiam de Monifod" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "Gilb fratre meo, Dun fil meo…"[21]

-        see below

d)         GILBERT .  "Gillecrist comes de Anego" donated "ecclesiam de Monifod" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "Gilb fratre meo, Dun fil meo…"[22].  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage states that William King of Scotland granted lands of "Purin, Ogguluin and Kinminethen" [Powrie, Ogilvie and Kilmundie] all in Forfarshire to "Gilbert son of the Earl of Angus" by charter dated to [1172/77], and that "from him are descended the Ogilvies of that Ilk, Airlie with its cadets, and Inverquharity"[23]

Earl Gillbride & his [second] wife had [two] children: 

e)         [MAGNUS ([1175/85]-1239).  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was the father of his successor, Earl Gillbride/Gibbon/Gilbert (see under the Earls of Caithness, below).  "Domino Magnus filio Comitis…domino Anegus filio Comitis…" witnessed the charter, dated to [1226/39], which confirmed the donation of "terra de Othirlony…terram de Kenny" to Aberbrothoc by "Valterum filium Turpini"[24].  A charter dated 1351 which confirmed the donation of "terram de Kenny" to Aberbrothoc by "Walterum filium Turpini" quotes a document witnessed by "Domino Magno filio Comitis…Domino Anegus filio Comitis…"[25].  He was apparently installed as Earl of (part) Caithness.  There appears to be no surviving contemporary evidence concerning the grant of the earldom.  However, Balfour Paul refers to a charter "noted in an old Inventory of Oliphant writs, made about 1594, and preserved in the General Register House" which states that King Alexander II granted "the erledom of South Kaythnes" to "Magnus sone to Gylcryst sum tyme erle of Angus"[26].  The inventory note does not date the charter in question.  However, the grant, if the report is accurate, must have taken place after 1231, the date of the death of Earl John, last of the previous lines of earls of Orkney and Caithness.  It was presumably after 7 Oct 1232, the date of a charter under which Alexander II King of Scotland donated revenue from mills in Invernarn to the bishopric of Moray which was witnessed by "…M comite de Anegus et Katania…"[27].  Although the name of the witness is given only in abbreviated form, the reference to the county of Angus suggests that it must be Malcolm Earl of Angus who is shown above.  It is assumed therefore that Earl Malcolm resigned Caithness, or his claims thereto, in favour of Magnus.  The precise parentage of Earl Magnus has been the subject of considerable speculation.  According to the Complete Peerage, "Magnus Jarl of Orkney and Earl of Caithness is stated to have been the son of Gillbride Earl of Angus by his second wife sister of Harald Ugni, to whom Magnus, though an infant, was apparently recognised as successor in his half of the Earldom"[28].  It does not cite the source on which this statement is based and, as discussed further above under the possible second wife of Earl Gilbride, the hypothesis appears to be entirely speculative.  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage says that "Magnus…is usually designed son of Gillebride Earl of Angus", adding that the "statement was first made by Sir James Dalrymple in his Collections, but he gives no proof"[29].  The Complete Peerage says that "it seems…quite probable that [Magnus] was the same person as Malcolm Earl of Angus, son of Duncan, son of Gilchrist, son of Gillbride…[who] is named as Earl of Angus and Caithness in 1232 [see above]", although conceding that "the whole matter is, however, very obscure"[30].  The separate primary source references to an individual named Magnus indicate that this suggestion is probably incorrect.  From a chronological point of view, Magnus’s estimated birth date range as shown above suggests that he was either the son of Gillbride Earl of Angus by a second marriage or that he was the son of Earl Gilchrist.  The fact that Magnus’s successor was named [Gillbride] suggests that this was the name of Magnus’s father.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1239 of "Magni comitis Orcadensis"[31].] 

-        EARLS of CAITHNESS

f)          [ANGUS .  "…Anego fil com…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1204/11], under which "Dunecano comes de Anego" confirmed its churches to Aberbrothoc, as donated by "Gillecrist comes de Anego patris meis"[32].  "…Anego fil comit et Ada filio eius…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1214/26], under which "Malcolmo comes de Anego" confirmed donations to Aberbrothoc made by "Gillecrist comes de Anego…et Dunecan patris mei"[33].  "Domino Magnus filio Comitis…domino Anegus filio Comitis…" witnessed the charter, dated to [1226/39], which confirmed the donation of "terra de Othirlony…terram de Kenny" to Aberbrothoc by "Valterum filium Turpini"[34].  A charter dated 1351 which confirmed the donation of "terram de Kenny" to Aberbrothoc by "Walterum filium Turpini" quotes a document witnessed by "Domino Magno filio Comitis…Domino Anegus filio Comitis…"[35].  The same difficulties relating to the parentage of the witness Magnus, as discussed above, also apply to Angus.  It is not even known whether Angus was a brother of Magnus, although if he was his junior position in the list of witnesses indicates that he must have been younger.]  m ---.  The name of Angus’s wife is not known.  Angus & his wife had one child: 

i)          ADAM .  "…Anego fil comit et Ada filio eius…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1214/26], under which "Malcolmo comes de Anego" confirmed donations to Aberbrothoc made by "Gillecrist comes de Anego…et Dunecan patris mei"[36].

 

 

GILCHRIST, son of GILLBRIDE Earl of Angus & his first wife [--- de Dunbar] (-[1207/11]).  He succeeded his brother as Earl of Angus.  "…Com Gillcrist de Anego et Dunec fil eius…" witnessed a charter dated to 1198 under which Roger Bishop of St Andrew’s confirmed agreement with Aberbrothoc over various churches[37].  "Gillecrist comes de Anego" donated "ecclesiam de Monifod" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "Gilb fratre meo, Dun fil meo…"[38].  He witnessed a charter of Arbroath Abbey in 1198[39].  "Davidem Ruffum de Forfar" donated "tota terra mea de Kinefe que fuit Ede" to Cupar abbey, for the souls of "Domini mei Willielmi et filii eius Alexandri", by undated charter witnessed by "Comite Duncano, Comite Gartneto, Comite Gilchristo de Anegus, Philippo Camerario, Villielmo Cumyn, David de Haya"[40]

m ---.  The name of Gilchrist’s wife is not known.  If Magnus Earl of (part) Caithness was the son of Earl Gilchrist as speculated below, his Norwegian name may have come from his mother.  As noted above, there has been some speculation about the parentage of Magnus’s mother, assuming that she was the second wife of Earl Gillbride.  However, the junior line of the earls of Orkney and Caithness ceased to hold the earldom in 1198, many years before the alleged grant of Caithness to Magnus.  A more sensible suggestion is that, assuming Magnus’s right to Caithness was inherited from his mother, she was related to the last Earl John, who died in 1232, and whose rights would have been divided between his two heiresses. 

Gilchrist & his wife had one child:

1.         DUNCAN (-[1207/14]).  "…Com     Gillcrist de Anego et Dunec fil eius…" witnessed a charter dated to 1198 under which Roger Bishop of St Andrew’s confirmed agreement with Aberbrothoc over various churches[41].  "Gillecrist comes de Anego" donated "ecclesiam de Monifod" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "Gilb fratre meo, Dun fil meo…"[42].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus[43].  "Dunecano comes de Anego" confirmed its churches to Aberbrothoc, as donated by "Gillecrist comes de Anego patris meis", by undated charter[44]m ---.  The name of Duncan’s wife is not known.  Duncan & his wife had three children:

a)         MALCOLM (-[1237/42]).  "Umfridus de Berkel" donated "terram de Balfeth" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "…Malcolmo fil comitis Dunec et Dunec fratre suo…"[45].  "…Malcolmo filio comitis Duncani…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey[46].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus, witnessed a charter as such 22 Apr 1231[47].  "Malcolmo comes de Anego" confirmed its churches to Aberbrothoc, as donated by "Gillecrist comes de Anego avus meis…et Dunecano pater meis", by undated charter[48].  "…M comite de Anegus et Katania…" witnessed the charter dated 7 Oct 1232 under which Alexander II King of Scotland donated revenue from mills in Invernarn to the bishopric of Moray[49]m MARY Berkeley, daughter and heiress of HUMPHREY Berkeley & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are shown in the Complete Peerage without citing the corresponding primary source[50].   Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage does not name the wife of Earl Malcolm[51].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Malcolm & his wife had one child: 

i)          MATILDA of Angus .  She succeeded her father as Ctss of Angus, suo iure.  The Complete Peerage records her first marriage without citing the corresponding primary source[52], although it is implied from the Chronicle of Melrose which records the death in 1242 of "John Cumin earl of Angus…in France"[53].   The Chronicle of Melrose records that "the lord Gillebert de Humframville took the countess of Angus to wife" in 1243[54].  A writ dated 31 Mar "29 Hen III", after the death of "Gilbert de Umfranvill alias de Umframvill" assigned dower to "Maud late the wife of the said Gilbert"[55].  "Matildis comitissa de Anego…in…viduitatis mee" confirmed its churches to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "dno Gilb de Haya, dno Johe de Haya, dno Willmo de Haya, dno Nigello de Mubray, dno Willmo Juuene de Haya…"[56].  "Matild comitissa de Anego" confirmed donations of "terre in territorio Kerimor" to Aberbrothoc, made by "Gillecrist…comes de Anego abavus meus…Gillecrist proavus meus…Malcolmo pater meus", by undated charter witnessed by "Dno G. de Haya, Dno Johe de Haya, Dno W. de Haya…Dno W. iuvene de Haya, Dno Malcolmo de Haya…"[57].  Her third marriage is confirmed by letters close dated 2 Dec 1247 under which Henry III King of England granted four bucks from Eleham Park to "the countess of Angus, the wife of Richard of Dover"[58]m firstly JOHN Comyn, son of --- (-killed in battle in France 1242).  He succeeded as Earl of Angus, de iure uxorism secondly (1243) GILBERT de Umfraville, Lord of Prudhoe and Redesdale, co. Northumberland, son of RICHARD de Umfraville & his wife --- (-before 31 Mar 1245).  He succeeded as Earl of Angus, de iure uxorism thirdly (before 2 Dec 1247) RICHARD Lord of Chilham, son of RICHARD FitzRoy & his wife Rohese [Rose] of Dover . 

b)         DUNCAN .  "Umfridus de Berkel" donated "terram de Balfeth" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "…Malcolmo fil comitis Dunec et Dunec fratre suo…"[59]

c)         HUGH (-after [1242/43]).  "…Hug fratre meo…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1214/26], under which "Malcolmo comes de Anego" confirmed "terram inter Aldenkonkro et Aldhendonen in territorio de Kerimor" to Aberbrothoc[60].  "…Hug avunculo…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1242/43], under which "Matildis comitissa de Anego" confirmed "terram ex australi parte ecclesie de Monifod quam Kelledei tenuut" to Aberbrothoc[61].   

 

 

 

C.      EARLS of ANGUS (UMFRAVILLE)

 

 

It is possible that Robert de Umfraville accompanied Sibyl, daughter of Henry I King of England, to Scotland when she married King Alexander I.  It has so far proved impossible to reconstruct the early generations of this family from the primary source references, but the names indicate a probable succession from father to son. 

 

 

1.         GILBERT de Umfraville (-after 1093).  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Gilbert Humphreville" was granted "the lordship of Pen Marc" by Robert FitzHamon after the defeat of Rhys ap Tewdwr in Wales in 1093[62]

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Umfraville (-after 29 Apr 1141).  "…Robertus de Unfranvilla…" witnessed the charter dated to [1100/02] under which Henry I King of England confirmed the gift of Pembroke, St Nicholas to the abbey of Saint-Martin de Séez[63].  "…Roberto de Umframvilla…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[64].  "…Robto de Umfravilla…" witnessed the charter dated to [1119/24] under which "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso[65].  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Rob de Ulfranvilla" in Yorkshire, Northumberland[66].  "Robertus de Humfrancville…" witnessed the charter of Ramsey abbey dated to [1133/37] which records that "Walterus de Bolebeche…Heylenius uxor sua et Hugo filius suus" donated "terram de Waltone"[67].  "…Robto de Humfravill…" witnessed the charter dated 29 Apr 1141 under which David King of Scotland donated "terram de Eldune…Dernewic" to Melrose abbey[68]m ---.  The name of Robert’s wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had one child: 

a)         ODINEL [I] de Umfraville (-after 1153).  His parentage is confirmed by a plea dated to [30 Oct] 1207 under which his grandson "Richard de Umfranville" took action against “Eustace de Vesci” relating to the “custody of Henry Bataille’s heir which is his by reason of the enfeoffment which Robert “with the beard” Richard’s proavus gave to Gilbert Bataille the heir’s ancestor[69].  "…Odenel de Unfranuilla…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to before [1142], under which David I King of Scotland confirmed "ecclesiam de Lohworuara" to the church of Glasgow[70].  "…Odinello Unfraville…" witnessed the undated charter under which Malcolm IV King of Scotland confirmed "decimas" to the church of Glasgow[71]m ---.  The name of Odinel’s wife is not known.  Odinel [I] & his wife had one child:

i)          ODINEL [II] de Umfraville (-1182).  His parentage is confirmed by a plea dated to [30 Oct] 1207 under which his son "Richard de Umfranville" took action against “Eustace de Vesci” relating to the “custody of Henry Bataille’s heir”, in which Eustace pleaded an agreement between “Odinell de Umfranville, Richard’s grandfather and William de Vesci, Eustace’s father[72].  "...Odenell de Umfranville..." witnessed the charter dated to [1166] under which William King of Scotland confirmed the grant of property to “Robert de Brus[73].  The 1171/72 Pipe Roll records "Odinell de Unfranuill" accounting for land in Yorkshire[74].  "…Odenel de Umfravill…" witnessed the undated charter under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesie…de terra de Machelin" to Melrose abbey made by "Walterus filius Alani"[75]m ALICE de Lucy, daughter of RICHARD de Lucy, justiciar & his wife ---.  Bracton records a claim, dated 1225, by "Ricardus filius Reginaldi et Roysia uxor eius" against "Robertum filium Walteri" for part of "terre…in Lewes" inherited from "Roysia de Douera auia sua", the defendant stating that "Matillis mater sua et Aleisia mater Ricardi de Umframuilla et Auelina auia Ricardi de Muntfichet fuerunt sorores" all of whom inherited part of the land in question[76].  Odinel & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RICHARD de Umfraville (-before 8 Jan 1227).  The 1194/95 Pipe Roll records "Ricardus de Vmfranuilla" in Cumberland[77].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1228] under which his son "Gilbt de Umfravill" confirmed donations to Kelso monastery by "dni Odenell de Umfravill avi mei"[78]

-         see below

 

 

1.         GILBERT de Umfraville (-after 1176).  "…Gilleberto de Umfranvilla…" witnessed the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland donated "toftam in Beruwic" to the priory of the Isle of May[79].  "Gilbertus de Umframvile" donated his part of "ecclesia de Keth" to the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1160][80].  It is likely that Gilbert de Umfraville was related to Simon Fraser who donated the same church to Kelso around the same time[81].  "…Gillibto de Humfravilla…" witnessed the undated charter, probably dated to the start of his reign, under which William King of Scotland confirmed the property of St Andrew’s priory[82].  Military fee certifications in the Red Book of the Exchequer, in 1166, record that "Gilbertus de Hunframville" held 9 knights’ fees from "Willelmi comitis Gloucestriæ" in Gloucestershire[83].  The 1176/77 Pipe Roll names "Gillebertus de Hunfranvill…pro habenda terra sua de comite Gloecr" in Devonshire[84]m ---.  The name of Gilbert’s wife is not known.  Gilbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         ASA de Umfraville (-after [1200]).  "Gauterius Corbet" donated property "in territorio ville de Schottun" to Kelso monastery by charter dated to [1200], witnessed by "Dna Asa coniuge mea, Rob et Gautio filiis meis…"[85].  Her parentage is confirmed by the undated charter under which her son "Robertus Corbet filius filie Gilebti de Umframvilla" donated "elemosina quondam parte terre mee in territorio de Cliftun" to Melrose abbey, for the soul of "avi mei Gilebti de Umframvilla"[86]m WALTER Corbet, son of --- (-after [1200]). 

 

 

1.         HENRY de Umfraville (-after 1210).  The Roll of Honour dated [1186/87] records that "Henricus de Umfrancville" held land from the Earl of Gloucester[87].  The 1194/95 Pipe Roll records "Henricus de Vnfranuill" in Dorset & Somerset[88].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Henricus de Unfranville" holding five knights’ fees from "honor Gloucestriæ" in Debonshire in [1210/12][89]

 

2.         EMMA de Umfraville (-after 1219).  "Petrus de Vallibus" paid a fine to marry "Emma de Umfravill q fuit ux Walteri fil Gillbert si ipsa voluit", in Northumberland, dated 1208[90].  The Testa de Nevill includes a list of landholdings in Yorkshire, dated 1219, which includes "Emma que fuit uxor Walteri filii Giliberti…maritata Petro de Vallibus" holding land in Northumberland[91].  The Testa de Nevill includes a list of landholdings in Northumberland, dated to [1226/28], which includes "Emma de Aydene est de donacione domini regis et maritata est Petro de Vallibus per Johannem Regem...Alina et Aleysia filie predicte Emme maritate sunt Jacobo de Kauz et Johanni de Kauz per Johannem Regem..."[92]m firstly WALTER FitzGilbert, son of GILBERT & his wife --- (-before 1208).  m secondly (1208 or after) PETER de Vaux, son of --- (-after 1219). 

 

3.         ODINEL [III] de Umfraville (-after 1194).  The 1194/95 Pipe Roll records that "Odinellus de Hunfranuill…super terram suam de Turnay" in Cumberland[93]

 

 

RICHARD de Umfraville, son of ODINEL de Umfraville & his wife --- (-before [Jan] 1227).  The 1194/95 Pipe Roll records "Ricardus de Vmfranuilla" in Cumberland[94].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1228] under which his son "Gilbt de Umfravill" confirmed donations to Kelso monastery by "dni Odenell de Umfravill avi mei"[95].  King John granted "foresta…de Redesdal et de Crokesdal" to "Ric de Hunfravill" by charter dated 25 Feb 1205[96].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Ricardus de Unfranville" holding land "Hameldone per dimidium militem" in Rutland, and "baroniam de Brudeho" with two and a half knights’ fees in Northumberland "per Henricum Regem primum", in [1210/12][97].  Lord of Prudhoe and Redsdale, co. Northumberland.  The Testa de Nevill includes a writ of King John dated 1212 which records "Ricardus de Umfraville" holding "baroniam de Prudehoe…villam de Parva Rihull" in Northumberland which had been granted by King Henry I to "antecessores sui", as well as "vallem de Redesdale"[98].  

m ---.  The name of Richard’s wife is not known. 

Richard & his wife had two children: 

1.         GILBERT de Umfraville (-before 31 Mar 1245).  "Gilbert de Umfraville" paid homage to the king "for the lands…that Richard de Umfraville, his father, who is dead, held of the king in chief", dated 8 Nov 1226 (but listed in the roll among fines for Jan 1227)[99].  Lord of Prudhoe and Redsdale, co. Northumberland.  "Gilbt de Umfravill" confirmed donations to Kelso monastery by "dni Odenell de Umfravill avi mei" by charter dated to [1228][100].  "Gilbert de Umfravill" confirmed donations to Kelso monastery by "dni Odenell de Umfravill avi mei" by charter dated to [1228], witnessed by "dno Robto de Umframuill fratre meo…"[101].  He succeeded as Earl of Angus, de iure uxoris.  Matthew Paris records the death "tempore…septimana Passionis Dominicæ…partium Angliæ borealium custos" of "Gilebertus de Humfranvilla" leaving "parvulum suum" as his heir, dated to 1245 from the context[102].  A writ dated 31 Mar "29 Hen III", after the death of "Gilbert de Umfranvill alias de Umframvill" assigned dower to "Maud late the wife of the said Gilbert"[103]m (1243) as her third husband, MATILDA Ctss of Angus, widow of JOHN Comyn Earl of Angus, daughter and heiress of MALCOLM Earl of Angus & his wife Mary Berkeley.  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "the lord Gillebert de Humframville took the countess of Angus to wife" in 1243[104].  A writ dated 31 Mar "29 Hen III", after the death of "Gilbert de Umfranvill alias de Umframvill" assigned dower to "Maud late the wife of the said Gilbert"[105].  She married thirdly (before 2 Dec 1247) Richard Lord of Chilham.  Earl Gilbert & his wife had one child:

a)         GILBERT de Umfraville ([1244]-before 13 Oct 1307).  Matthew Paris records that "Gilebertus de Humfranvilla" left "parvulum suum" as his heir when he died[106].  He is styled Earl of Angus in 1267.  He was summoned to the English parliament as Lord Umfraville in 1295, and in 1307 as Earl of Angus[107].  "Gilbertus de Hunfranevilla" donated property to the abbey of Loders, Dorset, for the souls of "…filii mei Roberti", by undated charter[108]m ELIZABETH Comyn, daughter of ALEXANDER Comyn Earl of Buchan & his wife Elizabeth de Quncy of Winchester (-before 17 Feb 1329).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the third of which married "Schyr Gylbert Wmfrayvyle" by whom she had "Robert…othir brethyr"[109].  Earl Gilbert & his wife had three children:

i)          GILBERT de Umfraville (-before 23 May 1303).  He was brought before parliament for contempt for striking one of the king's ministers at the parliament held at Berwick 22 Aug 1296[110]m (1289) as her first husband, MARGARET de Clare, daughter of THOMAS de Clare Lord of Thomond, Connaught & his wife Juliana FitzMaurice (-late 1333).  She married secondly (before 30 Jun 1308) Bartholomew Badlesmere.  Inquisitions made after a writ dated 10 Apr "14 Edw II", after the death of "Thomas son of Richard de Clare", name "Margaret the wife of Sir Bartholomew de Badelesmere and Maud the wife of Sir Robert de Welle, aunts of the said Thomas and sisters of the said Richard are his next heirs and aged 30 or more[111].  

ii)         ROBERT de Umfraville ([1276]-Mar 1325, bur Newminster Abbey).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the third of which married "Schyr Gylbert Wmfrayvyle" by whom she had "Robert…othir brethyr"[112].  "Gilbertus de Hunfranevilla" donated property to the abbey of Loders, Dorset, for the souls of "…filii mei Roberti", by undated charter[113].  He succeeded his father in 1307 as Earl of Angus, Lord Umfraville. 

-         see below

iii)        THOMAS de Umfraville .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Dominus Robertus de Umfranville Comes de Angus, Dominus Thomas germanus suus"[114]

2.         ROBERT de Umfraville (-after [1228]).  "Gilbert de Umfravill" confirmed donations to Kelso monastery by "dni Odenell de Umfravill avi mei" by charter dated to [1228], witnessed by "dno Robto de Umframuill fratre meo…"[115]

 

 

Parents not yet identified: 

1.         INGELRAM de Umfraville (-after 1295).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that John Balliol King of Scotland sent "Johannes de Soulis et Ingelramus Umfraville" to France in 1295 to negotiate the betrothal of his son Edward[116]

 

 

ROBERT de Umfraville, son of GILBERT de Umfraville Earl of Angus & his wife Elizabeth Comyn of Buchan ([1276]-Mar 1325, bur Newminster Abbey).  "Gilbertus de Hunfranevilla" donated property to the abbey of Loders, Dorset, for the souls of "…filii mei Roberti", by undated charter[117].  He succeeded his father in 1307 as Earl of Angus, Lord Umfraville.  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Dominus Robertus de Umfranville Comes de Angus, Dominus Thomas germanus suus"[118]

m firstly LUCY de Kyme, daughter of PHILIP de Kyme Lord Kyme & his wife Joan Bigod.  A manuscript genealogy of the Gant family records that "Luciæ sorori suæ, nuptæ Roberto de Umphravill comiti de Anguishe" succeeded on the death of "Willielmus de Kyma"[119]

m secondly as her first husband, ELEANOR, daughter of --- (-31 Mar 1368).  She married secondly (before 16 Aug 1327) Roger Matildauit of Eshot, co. Northumberland. 

Earl Robert & his first wife had two children:

1.         GILBERT de Umfraville ([1310]-6 Jan 1381).  A manuscript genealogy of the Gant family names “Gilbertus Umphravil” as son of “Roberto de Umphravil comiti de Anguishe” and his wife “Willielmus de Kyma…Luciæ sorori suæ”, adding that he died without heirs and was succeeded by “Waltero Taylboys filio filiæ sororis suæ[120].  He succeeded his father in 1325 as Earl of Angus, Lord Unfreville.  He was disinherited in Scotland in [1329].  m firstly JOAN Willoughby, daughter of ROBERT Willoughby Lord Willoughby & his wife Margaret Deincourt (-16 Jul 1350).  m secondly (before Oct 1369) MATILDA de Lucy Baroness Lucy, daughter of THOMAS de Lucy Lord Lucy & his first wife Margaret Multon (-18 Dec 1398).  She married secondly (before 3 Oct 1383) as his second wife, Henry Percy Earl of Northumberland.  Earl Gilbert & his first wife had one child:

a)         ROBERT de Umfraville (-before 25 May 1368)m (licence 20 Jan 1340) as her first husband, MARGARET Percy, daughter of HENRY Percy Lord Percy & his wife Idonia de Clifford (-Gyng [Buttsbury], Essex 2 Sep 1375, bur [Chelmsford Church of the Friars Preachers]).  Her parentage is confirmed, and her second marriage indicated, by the testament of Thomas Percy Bishop of Norwich, dated 25 May 1368, which names "…Dame Margaret de Ferrers my sister…Matilda Nevill my sister…" among his beneficiaries[121].  She married secondly (before 25 May 1368) as his second wife, William Ferrers Lord Ferrers of Groby.  The will of "William Ferrers Lord of Groby", dated 1 Jun 1368, proved 19 Jul 1372, chose burial “in the Conventual Church of our Lady at Ulvescroft”, bequeathed property to “Elizabeth my daughter a nun at the Minories, London...Margaret my wife...Philippa de Beauchamp my sister...Elizabeth d’Assells my sister...[122].  The will of "Margaret widow of Sir William de Ferrers Lord of Groby", dated 26 Apr 1374, and bequeathed property to “Sir Ingram d’Umfraville[123]

2.         ELIZABETH de Umfraville .  A manuscript genealogy of the Gant family records that “Gilbertus Umphravil” was succeeded by “Waltero Taylboys filio filiæ sororis suæ[124]m GILBERT de Boroughdon [Burdon], son of ---. 

Earl Robert & his second wife had two children:

3.         ROBERT de Umfraville (-before 10 Oct 1379). 

4.         THOMAS de Umfraville of Hessle, Yorkshire, and Holmside, co. Durham (-21 May 1387).  He inherited the castle of Harbottle and the manor of Otterburn 1375[125].  [m[126]] JOAN de Roddam, daughter of ADAM de Roddam & his wife ---.  Thomas & his wife had two children: 

a)         THOMAS de Umfraville of Harbottle ([1360]-12 Feb or 8 Mar 1391).  m AGNES, daughter of --- (-25 Oct 1420).  Thomas & his wife had six children: 

i)          GILBERT de Umfraville of Harbottle (Harbottle Castle 18 Oct 1390-killed in battle Baugé, Anjou 22 Mar 1421)m (before 3 Feb 1413) ANNE Neville, daughter of RALPH Neville Earl of Westmoreland & his first wife Margaret Stafford of the Earls of Stafford.  A mid-15th century manuscript names "Matillidem dominam de Maulay, Alesiam uxorem Thome Gray, Philippam dominam de Dacre, Johannem, Elizabetham minorissam, Annam uxorem Gilberti Vmfraville, Radulphum de Neuille militem, Margaretam uxorem Ricardi Lescrope de Bolton" as the children of "Radulphus dominus de Neuill et comes Westmorlandie" and "Margareta filia Hugonis comitis Stafford, uxor prima"[127]

ii)         ELIZABETH de Umfraville ([1391]-23 Nov 1424).  m WILLIAM Elmeden of Elmeden [Embleton], co. Durham, son of ---. 

iii)        MATILDA de Umfraville ([1393]-4 Jan 1435).  m WILLIAM Ryther of Ryther, Yorkshire, son of ---. 

iv)       JOAN de Umfraville ([1395]-after 1446).  m THOMAS Lambert, son of ---. 

v)        MARGARET de Umfraville ([1397]-23 Jun 1444).  m firstly WILLIAM Lodington of Gunby, co. Lincoln, son of --- (-9 Jan 1420).  m secondly (before 26 Apr 1423) JOHN Constable of Halsham in Holderness, son of ---. 

vi)       AGNES de Umfraville ([1399]-after 1446).  m THOMAS Haggerston of Haggerston, co. Durham, son of ---.   

b)         ROBERT de Umfraville (-before 10 Oct 1379). 

 

 

 

D.      EARLS of ANGUS (STEWART)

 

 

JOHN Stewart, son of ALEXANDER Stewart of Bonkyl, co. Berwick & his wife --- (-9 Dec 1331).  He succeeded his father in 1319 at Bonkyl, co. Berwick.  He was created Earl of Angus before 15 Jun 1329, when he is styled as such in a charter[128].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Johannem Stewart comitem Angusiæ, Thomam Ranulphi filium et heredum recolendæ memoriæ D. Thomas comitis Moraviæ" were knighted in 1331[129].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death "V Id Dec" in 1332 of "Johannes Stewart comes Angusie"[130]

m (Papal dispensation 24 Oct 1329) MARGARET Lady of Abernethy, daughter and heiress of ALEXANDER of Abernethy & his wife --- (-after 1370).  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Johanni Stwyarde domino de Bonkyl" and "Margarite nate quondam Alexandri de Abirnechy militis", issued by Pope John XXII, is dated 24 Oct 1329[131].  

Earl John & his wife had one child:

1.         THOMAS Stewart ([1329/31]-Dunbarton Castle 1361).  He succeeded his father in 1331 as Earl of Angus.  Lord of Abernethy.  He died of plague[132]m (Papal dispensation 3 Jun 1353) as her first husband, MARGARET de St Clair, [133][daughter/sister] of WILLIAM de St Clair [Sinclair] of Rosslyn & his wife Isabel of Strathearn .  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Thome Senescallis comitis Angusie" and "Margarete de Sancto Claro", issued by Pope Innocent VI, is dated 3 Jun 1353[134].  She married secondly John Sinclair of Herdmanstoun.  Earl Thomas & his wife had three children:

a)         MARGARET Stewart (-[1417/23 Mar 1418]).  She succeeded her brother in 1377 as Ctss of Angus, suo iure.  Robert II King of Scotland granted licence to “consanguinee nostre Elizabeth Senescalli filie iuniori et uni heredum quondam Thome Senescalli comitis Angusie consanguinei nostri” to enfeoff “seniorem sororem suam Margaretam comitissam de Marre alteram heredum dicti comitis consanguineam nostram” by charter dated 28 Feb 1378[135].  She resigned the Earldom 9 Apr 1389 in favour of her illegitimate son George Douglas[136]Margareta comitissa de Angus et de Marre” granted “terras nostras dominii de Inuerwike...in constabularia de Hadingtoun de Balnebyn et de Drumcarne in dominio de Abrenethy...” to “fratri nostro Alexandro de Hamilton et Elisabeth sorori nostre sponse sue” by charter dated to [1390][137]m ([1361/74]) as his second wife, THOMAS Earl of Mar, son of DONALD Earl of Mar & his wife Isabel Stewart ([1330]-[22 Oct 1373/21 Jun 1374]).  Mistress of WILLIAM Douglas Earl of Douglas, son of ARCHIBALD Douglas & his wife --- (-Douglas May 1384, bur Melrose). 

b)         ELIZABETH Stewart (-after [1390]).  Robert II King of Scotland granted licence to “consanguinee nostre Elizabeth Senescalli filie iuniori et uni heredum quondam Thome Senescalli comitis Angusie consanguinei nostri” to enfeoff “seniorem sororem suam Margaretam comitissam de Marre alteram heredum dicti comitis consanguineam nostram” by charter dated 28 Feb 1378[138]Margareta comitissa de Angus et de Marre” granted “terras nostras dominii de Inuerwike...in constabularia de Hadingtoun de Balnebyn et de Drumcarne in dominio de Abrenethy...” to “fratri nostro Alexandro de Hamilton et Elisabeth sorori nostre sponse sue” by charter dated to [1390][139]m ALEXANDER Hamilton of Innerwick, son of --- (-after [1390]).  Ancestors of the Earls of Haddington. 

c)         THOMAS Stewart (-1377).  He succeeded his father in 1361 as Earl of Angus

 

 

 

E.      EARLS of ANGUS (DOUGLAS)

 

 

GEORGE Douglas, illegitimate son of WILLIAM Douglas Earl of Douglas & his mistress Margaret Stewart Ctss of Angus ([1378 or before]-1402).  He was created Earl of Angus

m (contract 24 May 1397) as her first husband, Lady MARY Stewart, daughter of ROBERT III King of Scotland & his wife Annabel Drummond (-after 1458, bur Strathblane). 

Earl George & his wife had one child: 

1.         WILLIAM Douglas (-Oct 1437).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angusm (betrothed 12 Dec 1410, dispensation 1425) MARGARET Hay, daughter of WILLIAM Hay of Yester & his first wife Jean Gifford of Yeser (-after 22 Apr 1484).  William & his wife had two children: 

a)         JAMES Douglas (-[before 9 Sep] 1446).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus

b)         GEORGE Douglas (-14 Nov 1462, bur Abernethy).  He succeeded his brother as Earl of Angusm ([before 1446]) as her first husband, ISABEL Sibbald, daughter of JOHN Sibbald of Balgony, co. Fife & his wife --- ([1500/Feb 1503]).  She married secondly (1477 or before) John Carmichael of Balmedie, and thirdly (after 1479) as his second wife, Robert Douglas of Lechleven.  George & his wife had one child: 

i)          ARCHIBALD Douglas (-[Priory of St Ninian/Whithorn, Galloway] [29 Nov 1513/31 Jan 1514]).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus

-         see below

 

 

ARCHIBALD Douglas, son of GEORGE Douglas Earl of Angus & his wife Isabel Sibbald (-Priory of St Ninian/Whithorn, Galloway [29 Nov 1513/31 Jan 1514]).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus

m firstly (4 Mar 1468) ELIZABETH Boyd, daughter of ROBERT Boyd Lord Boyd & his wife Mariot Maxwell of Calderwood (-before 21 Feb 1497). 

m secondly ([1498], separated before 1 Jun 1501) [as her second husband,] JANET Kennedy, [widow] of ALEXANDER Gordon, daughter of JOHN Kennedy Lord Kennedy & his second wife Elizabeth Gordon of Huntly Dowager Countess of Erroll (-after 1531).  She was mistress of James IV King of Scotland

m thirdly (1500, [separated [10 Aug 1510/14 May 1513]) KATHERINE Stirling, daughter of WILLIAM Stirling of Keir & his wife Margaret Crichton of Ruthvendeny (-after 14 May 1513). 

Earl Archibald & his first wife had two children: 

1.         GEORGE Douglas ([1469]-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  Master of Angus.  Possibly styled Lord Douglas.  m (before Mar 1488) as her second husband, ELIZABETH Drummond, widow of DAVID Fleming of Monycabo, daughter of JOHN Drummond Lord Drummond & his wife Elizabeth Lindsay of the Earls of Crawford (-after 21 Aug 1514).  George & his wife had two children: 

a)         ARCHIBALD Douglas ([1490]-Tantallon Castle Jan 1557, bur Abernethy).  He succeeded his grandfather in 1514 as Earl of Angus.  Member of the Council of Regency for James V King of Scotland 1517-1521, and 1523-1526.  High Chancellor of Scotland Aug 1527-1528, when a sentence of forfeiture was passed against him and he retired to England.  Returned to Scotland 1542, after the death of King James V.  He died of erysipelas.  m firstly (contract 26 Jun 1509) MARGARET or MARY Hepburn, daughter of PATRICK Hepburn Earl of Bothwell & his wife Janet Douglas of the Earls of Morton (-1513).  She died in childbirth.  m secondly (Kinnoul Church 6 Aug 1514, divorced 11 Mar 1527) as her second husband, MARGARET Tudor, widow of JAMES IV King of Scotland, daughter of HENRY VII King of England & his wife Elizabeth of York (Palace of Westminster 28 Nov 1489-Methven Castle, Perthshire 18 Oct 1541, bur Carthusian Monastery of St John, Perth).  Queen Regent of Scotland.  She married thirdly (before 2 Apr 1528) as his second wife, Henry Stewart, who was created Lord Methven 17 Jul 1528.  m thirdly (9 Apr 1543) MARGARET Maxwell, daughter of ROBERT Maxwell Lord Maxwell & his wife Janet Douglas of Drumlanrig (-1593).  She married secondly (before Sep 1560) William Baillie of Lamington.  Archibald & his first wife had one child: 

i)          child (1513-1513). 

Archibald & his second wife had one child: 

ii)         MARGARET Douglas (Harbottle 18 Oct 1515-Hackney 9 Mar 1578, bur 3 Apr 1578 Westminster Abbey)Betrothed to Lord THOMAS Howard, son of THOMAS Howard Duke of Norfolk & his second wife Anne Tylney (-1537).  m (St James’s Palace 29 Jun 1544) MATTHEW Stewart Earl of Lennox, son of JOHN Stuart Earl of Lennox & his wife Elizabeth Stewart of Atholl (Dunbarton Castle 21 Sep 1516-murdered Stirling 4 Sep 1571, bur Stirling). 

Archibald & his third wife had one child: 

iii)        JAMES Douglas (-Feb 1548).  Master of Angus.  Possibly styled Lord Douglas. 

b)         GEORGE Douglas of Pittendriech (-10 Sep 1547)m ELIZABETH Douglas, daughter and heiress of DAVID Douglas of Pittendriech & his wife ---.  George & his wife had one child: 

i)          DAVID Douglas ([1515]-Cockburnspath Jun 1557).  He succeeded his uncle in 1557 as Earl of Angus.  m (contract Linlithgow 8 May 1552) as her second husband, MARGARET or ELIZABETH Hamilton, widow of JAMES Johnstone Laird of Johnstone, daughter of JOHN Hamilton of Clydesdale (illegitimate son of James Earl of Arran) & his wife Janet Home.  She married thirdly Patrick Whitelaw of that Ilk.  David & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ARCHIBALD Douglas ([1555]-Smeaton near Dalkeith 4 Aug 1588).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Angus.  He succeeded in 1585 as Earl of Morton.  m firstly (Stirling 13 Jun 1573) MARY Erskine, daughter of JOHN Erskine Earl of Mar & his wife Annabella Murray of Tullibardine (-3 May 1575, bur Holyrood).  m secondly (25 Dec 1575, divorced 1587) MARGARET Leslie, daughter of GEORGE Leslie Earl of Rothes & his first wife Margaret Crichton.  m thirdly (contract 29 Jul 1587) as her second husband, JEAN Lyon, widow of ROBERT Douglas [Master of Morton], daughter of JOHN Lyon Lord Glamis & his wife Elizabeth Abernethy (-[7 Aug 1607/23 Feb 1611]).  She married thirdly (31 May 1590) Alexander Lindsay Lord Spynie

2.         WILLIAM Douglas (-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  m ---.  William & his wife had one child: 

a)         ARCHIBALD Douglas of Glenbervie, co. Kincardine (-1570)m firstly AGNES Keith, daughter of WILLIAM Keith Earl Marischal & his wife ---.  Archibald & his first wife had one child: 

i)          WILLIAM Douglas ([1532]-Glenbervie 1 Jul 1591, bur Glenbervie).  He succeeded his cousin as Earl of Angus.  The succeeding Earls of Angus, and Marquesses of Douglas, descend from him. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    ATHOLL

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS of ATHOLL

 

 

Atholl was one of the seven original province of Scotland, associated with Gowry, covering the north eastern parts of what was later the county of Perth.  The rulers were styled Mormaers in the 10th century.  The last recorded Mormaer of Atholl was Maddad, grandson of Duncan I King of Scotland, who was one of the six rulers to be referred to as "comes" in the [1114/15] charter for Scone.  Members of his family succeeded him as Earls of Atholl until the earldom was inherited by the Strathbogie family in the mid-13th century. 

 

 

1.         DUNCAN, son of --- (-killed 965).  Abthane of Dule, lay abbot of Dunkeld.  From the house of the Kings of Ireland.  Governor of Strathclyde.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Donnchad the abbot of Dún Caillen" was killed in 965 in "a battle between the men of Scotland themselves"[140].  The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Niger filius Maelcolaim" defeated "Caniculum super Dorsum Crup", in which battle "Duchad abbas Duncalden et Dubdon satrapas Athochlach" were killed, after which Niger was expelled and "Caniculus" reigned for a short time[141]

 

 

2.         CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045).  Abthane of Dule.  Lay abbot of Dunkeld.  Steward of the Western Isles.  Mormaer of Atholl.  He was killed fighting King Macbeth.  m ([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife --- .  The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[142].  The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[143].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[144].  Lady of Atholl.  Crinan & his wife had two children:   

-        KINGS of SCOTLAND

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of ATHOLL

 

 

1.         MAELMUIRE [Melmare] (-after [1135]).  According to the Complete Peerage, Melmare, who it says was the father of Madach Earl of Atholl, was Maelmuire, son of Duncan I King of Scotland & his wife ---, but it cites no corresponding primary source[145].  The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  The only primary source reference to Maelmuire which has so far been found is the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer, which is witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d’Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d’Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[146].  From the names of the earls of Fife and Angus, it is unlikely that this document can be dated to before 1135 at the earliest.  If that is correct, it is evidently impossible from a chronological point of view that Maelmuire could have been the son of King Duncan I. 

 

2.         MADDAD [Madach] (-[1142/52]).  According to the Complete Peerage, Madach Earl of Atholl was the son of Maelmuire, but it cites no corresponding primary source[147].  The sources quoted below, dated to before the charter in which Maelmuire is named (see above), suggest that this affiliation cannot be correct.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Mormaer of Atholl.  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[148].  He is known as the first Earl of Atholl.  "…Madach comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[149].  "…Madeth comes…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David… Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[150].  "Madeth comite…" witnessed a charter dated 1130 by which "David… Rex Scottorum" confirmed the shire of Kirkcaldy to the church of Dunfermline[151].  "…Madd comite…" witnessed a charter dated to [1135] by which "David Rex Scottorum" granted Swinton to "Arnulfo…mee militi"[152].  [m firstly ---.  No direct evidence has yet been found to corroborate Maddad’s first marriage.  However, the chronology of his son Malcolm suggests that he was not born from Maddad’s marriage to Margaret of Orkney.]  m [secondly] ([1133]) as her first husband, MARGARET of Orkney, illegitimate daughter of HAKON Paulsson Jarl of Orkney & his mistress Helga ---.  Orkneyinga Saga names “Harald…Smooth-Tongue and two daughters…Ingibjorg…Margaret” as the children of Earl Hakon and his mistress Helga[153].  It is unlikely that Margaret was born after [1115] if it is correct that her son was born in 1134.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Margaret Hakon’s-Daughter” married “Earl Maddad of Atholl[154].  She married secondly Erland "Ungi/the Young" (-killed 1156).  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Erlend the Young” abducted Margaret from Orkney and took her to Shetland, and that her son eventually granted permission for their marriage[155].  Earl Maddad & his [first wife] had one child: 

a)         MALCOLM (-[1186/Aug 1198]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Liber Vitæ of Durham, as corrected by Balfour Paul (see below).  Earl of Atholl.  "Malcolmus comes Atholie…sponsa mea E. comitissa" donated "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter witnessed by "…H filio meo…"[156]

-        see below

Earl Maddad & his [second] wife had one child:

b)         HARALD Maddadsson (1134-1206)Orkneyinga Saga names “Harald” as son of “Margaret Hakon’s-Daughter” and her husband “Earl Maddad of Atholl” when recording that his mother proposed him as earl of Orkney when he was three years old[157].  He was given ½ Orkney by Jarl Kali-Ragnvald in Dec 1139, and installed in early 1140 as Jarl of Orkney. 

-        JARLS of ORKNEY

 

 

MALCOLM, son of [MADDAD Earl of Atholl & his [first wife] ---] (-[1186/Aug 1198]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Liber Vitæ of Durham, as corrected by Balfour Paul (see below).  Earl of Atholl.  "Malcolmus comes Atholie…sponsa mea E. comitissa" donated "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter witnessed by "…H filio meo…"[158].  "…Comite Duncano, Gillebrid comite de Anegus, M. comite de Ethoel, Gillecrist comite de Meneteth, Gillberto filio comitis Ferteth, Merlefwano Adam filio comitis de Anegus…" witnessed the charter dated 1164 under which "Malcolmus rex Scottorum" confirmed the foundation of Scone abbey[159].  "…Malcolmo comite de Athewethle…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to after [1170], under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Sconin" to St Andrew’s priory[160].  William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesia de Login" made to Scone Abbey by "Malcolmus comes Atholie" by undated charter[161].  "Malcolmi comitis Atholie" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, witnessed by "Henrico filio comitis, Malcolmo et Dunecano fratribus eius…"[162].  "Malcolmus comes de Athoil" donated "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif, Hextilda comitissa sponsa mea…Henrico et Dunecano filiis meis…"[163].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[164].  Balfour Paul corrects the first name in the list to "Malcolmus filius Madi. comes Athodlie" after comparing the printed version to "a fine autotype of folio 60…lent by Sir Archibald Hamilton Dunbar of Northfield"[165]

m firstly [E---], daughter of ---.  "Malcolmus comes Atholie…sponsa mea E. comitissa" donated "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter witnessed by "…H filio meo…"[166].  It is not certain that this document refers to Earl Malcolm’s first wife.  "E" could also be an abbreviation which refers to his second wife "[H]extilda". 

m secondly (after 1179) as her second husband, HEXTILDA of Tynedale, widow of RICHARD Comyn, daughter of [UHTRED Lord of Tynedale & his wife Bethoc of Scotland].  The proofs relating to the claim to the Scottish throne in 1291 made by "dñi Johannis Comyn" name "Hextilde" as daughter and heiress of "Gothrik", son of "Dovenald filius Duncani filii Erici", and "Willelmo" as her son and heir[167].  However, in the Great Roll, John Comyn traced his descent from Bethoc, daughter and heiress of Donald[168].  This conflict in the claimant’s genealogy is suspicious.  In any case, the chronology for Hextilda’s supposed descent from King Donald Bane is stretched to the limit of credibility.  It is suggested that the supposed parentage of Hextilda should be treated with caution.  “R. Cumin” donated property to Hexham Priory, with the consent of “uxoris meæ Hextildis”, by undated charter which names “fratrem meum Walterum[169].  "Ric Cymyn" donated "ecclesiam de Lyntunruderie" to Kelso monastery, for the souls of "Henrici comitis dni mei et…Johis filii mei quorum corpa apud eos tumulant", by charter dated to [1160], witnessed by "Hextild sponsa mea, Od filio meo…"[170].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which “Hextildis comitissa de Eththetela” donated property to Rievall Abbey, for the soul of “domini mei Richardi Cumin[171].  "Malcolmus comes de Athoil" donated "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif, Hextilda comitissa sponsa mea…Henrico et Dunecano filiis meis…"[172].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Hextild, Willelmus, Odenellus, Simon, Ricardus Cumin…", and in a later passage "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius…"[173]

Earl Malcolm & his first wife had [eight] children:

1.         [SIMON .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[174].  It is possible that Simon was the same person as the son of Hextilda by her first marriage.] 

2.         HENRY (-before Jan 1211).  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[175].  "Malcolmus comes Atholie…sponsa mea E. comitissa" donated "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter witnessed by "…H filio meo…"[176].  "Malcolmi comitis Atholie" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, witnessed by "Henrico filio comitis, Malcolmo et Dunecano fratribus eius…"[177].  "Malcolmus comes de Athoil" donated "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif, Hextilda comitissa sponsa mea…Henrico et Dunecano filiis meis…"[178].  He succeeded his father in [1190] as Earl of Atholl.  "Henricus comes de Hathodi" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Comitissa Margareta sponsa mea, Alexandro de Setona, Malisio iudice, Colino nepote meo…"[179].  Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed donations to St Andrew’s priory, including the donation of "ecclesiam de Dul" by "Malcolmi comitis de Hathoil et ex confirmacione Henrici filii sui", by undated charter, probably dated to the start of his reign[180]m MARGARET, daughter of --- (-after 9 Aug 1232).  "Henricus comes de Hathodi" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Comitissa Margareta sponsa mea, Alexandro de Setona, Malisio iudice, Colino nepote meo…"[181].  Balfour Paul suggests that she may have been a member of the Comyn family because "Walter Comyn Earl of Menteith took an interest in her affairs after Earl Henry’s death"[182].  He also cites John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) which describes "heres de Buchan et Johannes Ruffus nepos eius" [referring to Alexander Comyn heir of Buchan and John Comyn "the Red") as "cognati comitis Atholiæ"[183].  "Walterus Cumyn comes de Menteith et Margaretta comitissa uxor comitis Henrici…" donated property to Cupar abbey by charter dated 9 Aug 1232 "coram nobis Isabell comitissa, heres legittima Atholiæ…post obitum domini sui Thomæ comitis de Galawayea"[184]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Henry’s mistress is not known.  Earl Henry & his wife had two children: 

a)         ISABEL (-before 1242).  She succeeded her father in [1210] as Ctss of Atholl suo iure.  "Thomas de Galway comes de Athol et Isabel uxor eius comitissa Atholie" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter[185].  "Willelmi Olifard" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, with the consent of "domini mei Thomæ comitis Atholiæ et Isabellæ sponsæ suæ"[186].  "Walterus Cumyn comes de Menteith et Margaretta comitissa uxor comitis Henrici…" donated property to Cupar abbey by charter dated 9 Aug 1232 "coram nobis Isabell comitissa, heres legittima Atholiæ…post obitum domini sui Thomæ comitis de Galawayea"[187].  Her possible second marriage is discussed by Noel Paton[188]m [firstly] (before Jan 1211) THOMAS of Galloway, son of ROLAND Lord of Galloway & his wife Elena de Moreville (-1231).  Earl of Atholl de iure uxoris.  m secondly ([1231/33]) [as his first wife,] ALAN Durward, son of THOMAS de Lundie & his wife --- (-[1268/75], bur Cuprose).  He was designated Earl of Atholl in 1233 and 1235, but may have held the earldom in wardship for his supposed stepson[189].  "…A hostiar comite Athol…" witnessed the charter dated 5 Jan 1234 under which Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed "terram…de Kalentyr" to Holyrood abbey[190].]

b)         FERNELITH (-before 1254[191]).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Melrose which states that "David de Hastings…in right of his wife who was aunt by the mother’s side of the murdered youth" succeeded as earl of Atholl after the death of Patrick of Galloway[192].  She succeeded her nephew in 1242 as Ctss of Atholl suo iure.  The earldom of Atholl passed to her daughter on her death.  "Nessi medici domini regis" donated "terra de Dunfolemthim" to Cupar abbey, for the souls of "Domini David de Hasting comitis Atholiæ et Forflisæ sponsæ suæ" who granted me the land in question, by undated charter[193]m (before 1242) DAVID de Hastings, son of JOHN de Hastings & his wife --- .  Earl of Atholl de iure uxoris.  Balfour Paul names "John of Hasting who…apparently…held the lands of Dun in Forfarshire and was a frequent witness to the charters by King William the Lion to the monks of Aberbrothoc and to those of Cupar Angus…" as father of David Hastings[194].  He was one of the guarantors of the peace with Henry III King of England in 1244[195].  David Hastings & his wife had one child: 

i)          ADA Hastings .  Balfour Paul says that Ada "is said to have married John of Strathbogie, son of David of Strathbogie…third son of Duncan sixth Earl of Fife…there is no proof of this statement, but it is rendered probable by the fact that the later Earls of Atholl designed themselves as of Strathbogie, and the evidence of seals"[196].  She succeeded as Ctss of Atholl, suo iurem JOHN of Strathbogie, son of DAVID of Fife & his wife --- (-[1260]).  He succeeded as Earl of Atholl, de iure uxoris

-         see below, Part C

Henry had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

c)          CONAN (-after 1211).  "Conanus filius Henricus quondam comitis de Athoyle" donated property "de bosco meo Tulyhen" to Lindores Abbey, for the soul of "uxoris mee et puerorum meorum", by undated charter, dated to after 1211, witnessed by "Dominis Colino de Lundyn, Radulfo de Fefwerel, militibus, Johanne de Hastinges, Ewyn filio meo, Hath filio Gilbrid genero meo…"[197].  Conan must have been illegitimate as he did not succeed to the earldom on the death of his father.  "Cumingi filii Henrici comitis Atholiæ" donated "bosci mei, de toto Glenherthy et de Tolikyne" to Cupar abbey by undated charter[198].  m ---.  The name of Conan’s wife is not known.  Conan & his wife had two children: 

i)          EWEN .  "Conanus filius Henricus quondam comitis de Athoyle" donated property "de bosco meo Tulyhen" to Lindores Abbey, for the soul of "uxoris mee et puerorum meorum", by undated charter, dated to after 1211, witnessed by "...Ewyn filio meo, Hath filio Gilbrid genero meo…"[199].  "Eugenius filius Cumingi filius Henrici comitis Atholiæ" confirmed his father’s donation to Cupar abbey by undated charter[200].  m MARY, daughter of CONVALL of Tullibardine & his wife ---.  "Maria relicta quondam Eugenii filii Coning" complained about the interference by "dominum Willelmum de Moravia militem filium domini Malcolmi de Moravia militis…dominam Adam sponsam suam neptem meam" in "ville de Tulybardin" by undated charter[201].  According to Balfour Paul, Mary was "daughter and co-heiress of Convall, son of Duncan, Laird of Tullibardine", but he cites no primary source apart from the charter just quoted which does not name her father[202].  However, other related charters in the Liber Insule Missarum refer to donations by (her presumed sister) "Muriela quondam filia Coneuall filii Duncani" and her grandson "domino Willelmo de Moravia militi filio domini Malcolmi de Moravia" (see Chapter 6.B of the present document)[203]. 

ii)         daughter .  "Conanus filius Henricus quondam comitis de Athoyle" donated property "de bosco meo Tulyhen" to Lindores Abbey, for the soul of "uxoris mee et puerorum meorum", by undated charter, dated to after 1211, witnessed by "...Ewyn filio meo, Hath filio Gilbrid genero meo…"[204]m HETH MacGilbride, son of GILBRIDE & his wife ---. 

3.         MALCOLM .  "Malcolmi comitis Atholie" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, witnessed by "Henrico filio comitis, Malcolmo et Dunecano fratribus eius…"[205]

4.         DUNCAN (-after [1179]).  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[206].  "Malcolmi comitis Atholie" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, witnessed by "Henrico filio comitis, Malcolmo et Dunecano fratribus eius…"[207].  "Malcolmus comes de Athoil" donated "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif, Hextilda comitissa sponsa mea…Henrico et Dunecano filiis meis…"[208]

5.         BEDOCH .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[209]m ---.  The name of Bedoch’s husband is not known.  One child: 

a)         COLIN .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[210].  "Henricus comes de Hathodi" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Dul" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Comitissa Margareta sponsa mea, Alexandro de Setona, Malisio iudice, Colino nepote meo…"[211]

6.         [CHRISTINA .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[212].  In the case of the last three names on the list, it is difficult to identify "eius" applied to each name, but it is reasonable to suppose that it refers back to Henry and Duncan, and that Christina, Margaret and the unidentified parent of Constantine were siblings of the two brothers.] 

7.         [MARGARET .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[213].  In the case of the last three names on the list, it is difficult to identify "eius" applied to each name, but it is reasonable to suppose that it refers back to Henry and Duncan, and that Christina, Margaret and the unidentified parent of Constantine were siblings of the two brothers.] 

8.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         CONSTANTINE .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham lists (in order) "Malcolmus filius Mal. et comes Athodlie, Hextilda filia Ucthredi uxor eius, Simon filius eius, Henricus filius eius, Dunecanus frater eius, Bedoch soror eius, Kelethaoni filius eius, Cristina soror eius, Margareta soror eius, Constantinus nepos eius…"[214].  In the case of the last three names on the list, it is difficult to identify "eius" applied to each name, but it is reasonable to suppose that it refers back to Henry and Duncan, and that Christina, Margaret and the unidentified parent of Constantine were siblings of the two brothers.] 

 

 

 

C.      EARLS of ATHOLL (STRATHBOGIE)

 

 

JOHN of Strathbogie, son of DAVID of Fife & his wife --- (-[1260]).  He succeeded as Earl of Atholl, de iure uxoris

m ADA Hastings Ctss of Atholl, daughter of DAVID Hastings Earl of Atholl & his wife Fernelith Ctss of Atholl.  Balfour Paul says that Ada "is said to have married John of Strathbogie, son of David of Strathbogie…third son of Duncan sixth Earl of Fife…there is no proof of this statement, but it is rendered probable by the fact that the later Earls of Atholl designed themselves as of Strathbogie, and the evidence of seals"[215]

Earl John & his wife had one child:

1.         DAVID of Strathbogie (-Carthage 6 Aug 1270, bur Scotland).  He succeeded his father in [1260] as Earl of Atholl.  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "Alexander David comitem Atholiæ" was knighted "die natalis Domini" in 1264[216].  "David de Strathbolgy comes Atholiæ" confirmed the donation of "terra de Dunfolemthim" to Cupar abbey made by "Nessus medicus domini regis" [see above], for the souls of "Domini David de Hastings quondam comitis Atholiæ et Forflissæ comitissæ suæ et Elenæ quondam sponsæ nostræ", by undated charter witnessed by "…Domino Alano Hostiario…Domino Thoma Hostiario…"[217].  He took part in the Seventh Crusade with Louis IX King of France, during the course of which he died[218].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death, dated to [1267] from the context, "apud Cortage" of "David comes Atholiæ"[219].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "VIII Id Aug, in Carthagine" in 1270 of "David comes de Atholia", adding in a later passage that his bones were returned to Scotland[220]m firstly HELEN, daughter of ---.  "David de Strathbolgy comes Atholiæ" confirmed the donation of "terra de Dunfolemthim" to Cupar abbey made by "Nessus medicus domini regis" [see above], for the souls of "Domini David de Hastings quondam comitis Atholiæ et Forflissæ comitissæ suæ et Elenæ quondam sponsæ nostræ", by undated charter witnessed by "…Domino Alano Hostiario…Domino Thoma Hostiario…"[221]m secondly ISABEL of Chilham, daughter of RICHARD Lord of Chilham & his wife Matilda Ctss of Angus (after 1245-18 Mar 1292).  She was heiress of her brother at Chilham.  She married secondly (after 7 Nov 1270) Alexander Balliol of Cavers, co Roxburgh.  "Alexander de Balliol and Isabella his wife…going to Scotland" appointed attorneys for their affairs in England[222].  Leland quotes a manuscript which records the death "XV Kal Apr…apud Chilham" in 1292 of "Domina Isabella de Dovora comitissa de Assele" and her burial "Cantuar: in ecclesia Christi"[223].  A charter dated 1 May 1292 ordered the valuation of the assets of "the late Isabella countess of Athol to her husband Alexander de Balliol"[224].  Earl David & his second wife had one child:

a)         JOHN of Strathbogie (-executed London 7 Nov 1306).  He succeeded his father in 1270 as Earl of Atholl.  He swore fealty to Edward I King of England in 1292 but fought for the Scots when they were defeated at Dunbar 28 Apr 1296 and taken prisoner to London.  He was released 31 Jul 1297.  He became a staunch supporter of Robert Bruce, who was his wife's brother-in-law.  He was taken prisoner again when the English invaded Scotland in 1306 and taken to London again where he was executed.  His titles were forfeited[225]m MARGARET of Mar, daughter of DONALD Earl of Mar & his wife Helen [of North Wales] (-after 1306).  A charter dated 3 Sep 1296 records petitions to King Edward I by women whose estates had been seized in Scotland, including an order of restoration of property to "la contesse de Atheles"[226].  "Gilbertus de Haia constabularius Scotie" confirmed donations to Cupar abbey, including the donation made by "Mariore comitisse Atholie, relicte quondam Johannis comitis Atholie et confirmatione David filii sui primogeniti et heredis", by charter dated 5 Oct 1309[227].  Earl John & his wife had three children: 

i)          DAVID of Strathbogie and of Chilham, Kent (-28 Dec 1326).  "Gilbertus de Haia constabularius Scotie" confirmed donations to Cupar abbey, including the donation made by "Mariore comitisse Atholie, relicte quondam Johannis comitis Atholie et confirmatione David filii sui primogeniti et heredis", by charter dated 5 Oct 1309[228].  He was restored as Earl of Atholl [21 Aug 1307/20 May 1308]. 

-         see below

ii)         JOHN (-after 1316).  Malise Earl of Strathearn and John de Inchmartyn were ordered to produce "Andrew son of the Steward of Scotland and John son of John Earl of Athol" by charter dated 25 Aug 1306[229]

iii)        ISABEL Mistress of EDWARD Bruce, son of ROBERT Bruce Earl of Carrick & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (-killed in battle Dundalk 14 Oct 1318).  He was created Earl of Carrick shortly before 24 Oct 1313 by his brother. 

 

 

DAVID of Strathbogie and of Chilham, Kent, son of JOHN of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl & his second wife Isabel of Chilham (-28 Dec 1326).  He was a prisoner in England 23 Dec 1300.  "Gilbertus de Haia constabularius Scotie" confirmed donations to Cupar abbey, including the donation made by "Mariore comitisse Atholie, relicte quondam Johannis comitis Atholie et confirmatione David filii sui primogeniti et heredis", by charter dated 5 Oct 1309[230].  He was restored as Earl of Atholl [21 Aug 1307/20 May 1308].  King Robert I appointed him High Constable of Scotland before Feb 1316, but Earl David rebelled against him in 1314 and his titles were forfeited.  He was summoned to the English parliament as Lord Strathbogie in 1322.  He commanded English troops in Gascony in 1325[231]

m JOAN Comyn, daughter of JOHN Comyn of Badenoch & his wife Joan de Valence of Pembroke ([1292]-[8 Jun/24 Jul] 1326).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Johannem…Comyn…filiam" married "David comiti Atholiæ"[232]

Earl David & his wife had two children:

1.         DAVID of Strathbogie (Newcastle-on-Tyne 1 Feb 1309-killed in battle Killblane 30 Nov 1335).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "David" as eldest son of "Johannem…Comyn…filiam" and her husband "David comiti Atholiæ"[233].  He was summoned to the English parliament as Earl of Atholl in 1330.  He was restored as Earl of Atholl by Edward Balliol King of Scotland in 1332, rebelled in 1335 but was pardoned under the treaty of peace 18 Aug 1335[234].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "the Earl of Athol" was killed in battle "in the forest of Kilblen" 30 Nov 1335[235]m CATHERINE Beaumont, daughter of HENRY Beaumont Lord Beaumont Earl of Buchan & his wife Alice Comyn of Buchan (-11 Nov 1368).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "David", eldest son of "Johannem…Comyn…filiam" and her husband "David comiti Atholiæ", married "filiam Henrici de Bellomonte…ex filia primogenita…comitis Johannis de Buchan"[236].  Earl David & his wife had one child: 

a)         DAVID of Strathbogie (1332-10 Oct 1369).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "David" as son of "David", eldest son of "Johannem…Comyn…filiam" and her husband "David comiti Atholiæ", and his wife "filiam Henrici de Bellomonte…ex filia primogenita…comitis Johannis de Buchan"[237].  He succeeded his father in 1335 as Earl of Athollm ([24 Sep 1342/1361]) ELIZABETH Ferrers, daughter of HENRY Ferrers Lord Ferrers of Groby & his wife Isabel Verdun (-22 Oct 1375).  The will of "Elizabeth de Burg Lady of Clare", dated 25 Sep 1355, proved 3 Dec 1360, bequeathed property to “dame Elizabeth countess of Ulster, the debt which my son, her father, owed me at his death...my daughter Bardolf...Monsr John Bardolf and to my said daughter his wife...my joesne fille Isabel Bardolf to her marriage, Agnes her sister to her marriage...Monsieur William de Ferrers...Monsr Thomas Furnival...my daughter Countess of Athol...[238].  Earl David & his wife had two children:

i)          [239]ELIZABETH (-after 1415)m firstly ([1376/77]) THOMAS Percy, son of HENRY Percy Earl of Nothumberland & his first wife Margaret de Neville of Raby (-in Spain [1388]).  m secondly (before Nov 1391) JOHN de Scrope, son of HENRY de Scrope Lord Scrope of Masham & his wife Joan or Agnes --- (-[18] Dec 1405).  m thirdly ROBERT de Thorley, son of ---. 

ii)         [240]PHILIPPA (1362-2 Nov 1395)m firstly (before 20 Mar 1377, annulled) RALPH Percy, son of HENRY Percy Earl of Northumberland & his first wife Margaret de Neville of Raby (-15 Sep 1397).  m secondly as his first wife, JOHN Halsham of Coombs, Sussex, son of --- (-16 Apr 1415). 

2.         ADOMAR of Atholl (-after 1381).  m MARY, daughter of ---.  Adomar & his wife had two children: 

a)         ISABELm RALPH de Euer, son of ---. 

b)         MARY .  A charter dated 26 Jun 1365 confirmed lands to "Robert de Insula of Wodburn for life" and after his death to "Robert consanguineo of said Robert de Insula, son and heir of Robert son of the said Robert de Insula and Marie daughter of Adamar D’athels knight"[241]m ROBERT de l’Isle, son of ROBERT de l’Isle & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

D.      EARLS of ATHOLL 1457-1595 (STEWART)

 

 

JOHN Stewart, son of JAMES Stewart, the Black Knight of Lorn & his wife Joan Beaufort ([1440]-the Laighwood 15 Sep 1512, bur Dunkeld Cathedral)Earl of Atholl 1457. 

m firstly ([1459/60]) as her third husband, MARGARET Douglas "the Fair Maid of Galloway", widow of WILLIAM Douglas Earl of Douglas and divorced wife (secondly) of JAMES Douglas Earl of Douglas, daughter of ARCHIBALD Douglas Earl of Douglas & his second wife Eupheme Graham of Strathearn (-[21 Jan 1473/early 1475]). 

m secondly (before 19 Apr 1475) ELEANOR Sinclair, daughter of WILLIAM Sinclair Earl of Caithness & his second wife Marjory Sutherland of Dunbeath (-21 Mar 1518, bur Dunkeld Cathedral). 

Earl John & his first wife had six children:

1.         JANET (-Strathbogie 27 Oct 1510)m (contract 14 Oct 1474) as his first wife, ALEXANDER Gordon Master of Huntly, son of GEORGE Gordon Earl of Huntly & his first wife Elizabeth Douglas Dowager Ctss of Moray née Dunbar of the Earls of Moray (-Perth 21 Jan 1524, bur Perth Dominican Friars).  He succeeded his father in 1501 as Earl of Huntly. 

2.         CATHERINEm as his first wife, JOHN Forbes, son of WILLIAM Forbes Lord Forbes & his wife Christian Gordon of the Earls of Huntly (-1547).

3.         three daughters . 

4.         ELIZABETHm (before 1483) as his second wife, ANDREW Gray Lord Gray, son of PATRICK Gray Master of Gray & his second wife Annabel Forbes (-Feb 1514).

Earl John & his second wife had eleven children:

5.         JOHN (-1521)Earl of Atholl.   

-        see below

6.         ANDREW (-1542).  Bishop of Caithness 1518.

7.         JEANm as his first wife, ROBERT Gordon of Pitlurgo, son of ---.

8.         ELSPETHm ([1510]) ROBERT Innes of Innermarky, son of ---.

9.         MARJORY (-1524)m COLIN Campbell of Glenurchy, son of --- (-1523).

10.      MARGARETm WILLIAM Murray of Tullibardine, son of --- (-killed in battle 1513).

11.      ISABELm as his second wife, ALEXANDER Robertson of Struan, son of ---. 

12.      ELISABETH m firstly JOHN Stuart Earl of Lennox, son of MATTHEW Stuart Earl of Lennox & his second wife Elizabeth Hamilton (-1526).  m secondly (1529) as his second wife, NINIAN Lord Ross, son of --- (-1556).

13.      CHRISTIAN (-1538)m as his first wife, NEIL Stuart of Garth, son of --- (-1554).

14.      MARGARET [Isabel]m ROBERT Robertson of Struan, son of ---. 

 

 

JOHN Stewart, son of JOHN Stewart of Balveny Earl of Atholl & his second wife Eleanor Sinclair (-1521)Earl of Atholl

m JANET Campbell, daughter of ARCHIBALD Campbell Earl of Argyll & his wife Elizabeth Stewart of the Earls of Lennox (-[2 Feb 1546]). 

Earl John & his wife had six children: 

1.         HELEN (-1577)m firstly JOHN Lord Lindsay , son of --- (-1562).  m secondly THOMAS Morieux, son of ---.

2.         JEANm (1507) JAMES Arbuthnott of Arbuthnott, son of --- (-before 1521).

3.         ELIZABETHm (1538) KENNETH Mackenzie of Kinkall, son of --- (-1568).

4.         JOHN (6 Oct 1507-[Nov] 1542)Earl of Athollm firstly (1521) GRIZEL Rattray, daughter of JOHN Rattray of that Ilk & his wife --- (-after 1533).  m secondly (1541) as her first husband, JEAN, daughter of JOHN Lord Forbes & his third wife Elizabeth Lady Elphinstone née Barlow.  She married secondly (after 17 Nov 1545) Alexander Hay of Dalgety, and thirdly (before 17 Jan 1550) as his first wife, William Leslie of Balquhar.  Earl John & his first wife had eight children:

a)         BARBARAm (1536) JAMES Menzies, son of ---.

b)         ISABELm (1552) WILLIAM Stuart of Grandtully, son of ---. 

c)         MARGARET (-1540)m (1539) JOHN Grant Lord of Freuchie, son of ---.

d)         HELENm JOHN Macfarlane, son of ---. 

e)         JOHN (-Stirling 24 Apr 1579, bur Edinburgh St Giles’s Church)Earl of Athollm firstly (before 26 May 1547) ELIZABETH Gordon, daughter of GEORGE Gordon Earl of Huntly & his wife Elizabeth Keith.  m secondly (contract 1 Apr 1557) as her third husband, MARGARET, widow firstly of ROBERT Graham Lord Graham and secondly of THOMAS Erskine Master of Erskine, daughter of MALCOLM Lord Fleming & his wife Joan Stewart [of Scotland] (-after 15 Aug 1584).  Earl John & his first wife had one child:

i)          ELIZABETH (-1595)m firstly (1567) HUGH Fraser Lord Lovat (-1577).  m secondly (1578, divorced 1581) ROBERT Stuart Earl of Lennox [Bishop of Caithness].  m thirdly (1581) JAMES Stuart Earl of Arran, son of ANDREW Stewart Lord Ochiltree & his wife Agnes Cuningham (-1595). 

Earl John & his second wife had five children: 

ii)         MARGARETm (before 1578) GEORGE Abernethy Lord Saltoun, son of ---. 

iii)        JEAN (-1593)m (1573) DUNCAN Campbell of Glenorchy, son of --- (-1631). 

iv)       JOHN (Dunkeld 22 May 1563-Perth 25 Aug 1595)Earl of Athollm (Perth 24 Jan 1580) as her first husband, MARY Ruthven, daughter of WILLIAM Ruthven Earl Gowrie & his wife Dorothea Stewart of Methven.  She married secondly (contract 31 Mar 1596) as his second wife, John Stewart Earl of Atholl.  Earl John & his wife had five children: 

(a)       MARGARET (-young). 

(b)       DOROTHEAm (1604) WILLIAM Murray Earl of Tullibardine, son of ---. 

(c)       MARY Stewartm firstly (1603) JAMES Stewart Earl of Atholl, son of JOHN Stewart Lord Innermeath, Earl of Atholl & his first wife Margaret Lindsay of Crawford (1583-1625).  m secondly (1626) Captain PETER Rollock, son of ---. 

(d)       JEAN Stewart (-1623)m firstly (1603) HENRY Stuart Lord St Colme, son of JAMES Stuart Lord Doune & his wife Margaret Campbell of Argyll (-1612).  m secondly NICOL Bellenden of Standenflat, son of ---.

(e)       ANNE (-1635)m (1604) ANDREW Stewart Master of Ochiltree, son of --- (-1639).

v)        GRIZELm (1581) DAVID Lindsay Earl of Crawford, son of --- (-1607).

vi)       MARY (-[1588])m (1587) FRANCIS Hay Earl of Erroll, son of ---.

f)          JEANm firstly JOHN Otterburn, son of --- (-1595).  m secondly GEORGE Crawford, son of ---. 

g)         daughterm --- Lord of Balfour, son of ---. 

h)         daughterm WALTER Wood of Balbegno, son of ---. 

5.         ISABELm JAMES Herring of Lethendy, son of ---.

6.         JANET m firstly (1520) ALEXANDER Gordon Master of Sutherland, son of --- (1501-1530).  m secondly (1532, divorced) HUGH Kennedy of Girvanmaily, son of --- (-after 1568).  m thirdly (1546) as his third wife, HENRY Stewart Lord Methven, son of ANDREW Stewart Lord Avondale & his wife Lady Margaret Kennedy ([1495/1500]-soon after 10 Oct 1551).  m fourthly (1557) as his second wife, PATRICK Baron Ruthven, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    CAITHNESS

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS of CAITHNESS

 

 

Caithness, with Sutherland, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century, but does not appear to have been counted as one of the seven Mormaerships of the kingdom[242].  This is presumably because it fell under the influence of the Norsemen who had colonised Orkney.  The descendants of Thorfinn Jarl of Orkney controlled Caithness until [1015].  Around that date, Malcolm II King of Scotland granted the title Earl of Caithness to Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and the king invaded and seized Caithness and Sutherland on his behalf.  Thorfinn's descendants ruled Caithness until 1231 (when Earl John was murdered) nominally under the suzerainty of the kings of Scotland throughout this period, although it is doubtful whether the king exercised much direct control in Caithness.  In 1232, Magnus, related to the earls of Angus, was installed as earl in part of Caithness by Alexander II King of Scotland (see below, Part B).  The other part of Caithness was controlled by Freskin of Moray, Lord of Duffus, probably the son-in-law of Earl John who was murdered in 1231 (see Chapter 6.B).  After the death of Magnus Earl of Caithness, Malise Earl of Strathearn styled himself Earl of Caithness and Orkney, the Complete Peerage suggesting that he may have inherited the earldom through his mother[243].  After his attainder in 1332, the earldom remained vacant until it was granted in [1375] to David Stewart Earl of Strathearn, son of Robert II King of Scotland.  It was held by different members of the Stewart family until 1437. 

 

 

1.         DUNGAD [Duncan] .  Mormaer of Caithness.  m GROA, daughter of [THORSTEIN "the Red" & his wife ---].  Dungad & his wife had one child: 

a)         GRELAD .  Snorre names "Grelad, a daughter of Earl Dungad of Caithness…[and of] Groa, a daughter of Thorstein Raud" as mother of the five sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[244]m (941) THORFINN "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" Jarl of Orkney, son of EINAR "Turf-Einar" Jarl of Orkney & his wife --- (-soon after 977).  He appears to have become Jarl of Caithness. 

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of (part) CAITHNESS (ANGUS)

 

 

1.         MAGNUS of Angus, son of [GILLBRIDE Earl of Angus & his [second] wife ---] ([1175/85]-1239).  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was the father of his successor, Earl Gillbride/Gibbon/Gilbert (see below).  "Domino Magnus filio Comitis…domino Anegus filio Comitis…" witnessed the charter, dated to [1226/39], which confirmed the donation of "terra de Othirlony…terram de Kenny" to Aberbrothoc by "Valterum filium Turpini"[245].  A charter dated 1351 which confirmed the donation of "terram de Kenny" to Aberbrothoc by "Walterum filium Turpini" quotes a document witnessed by "Domino Magno filio Comitis…Domino Anegus filio Comitis…"[246].  He was apparently installed as Earl of (part) Caithness.  There appears to be no surviving contemporary evidence concerning the grant of the earldom.  However, Balfour Paul refers to a charter "noted in an old Inventory of Oliphant writs, made about 1594, and preserved in the General Register House" which states that King Alexander II granted "the erledom of South Kaythnes" to "Magnus sone to Gylcryst sum tyme erle of Angus"[247].  The inventory note does not date the charter in question.  However, the grant, if the report is accurate, must have taken place after 1231, the date of the death of Earl John, last of the previous lines of earls of Orkney and Caithness.  It was presumably after 7 Oct 1232, the date of a charter under which Alexander II King of Scotland donated revenue from mills in Invernarn to the bishopric of Moray which was witnessed by "…M comite de Anegus et Katania…"[248].  Although the name of the witness is given only in abbreviated form, the reference to the county of Angus suggests that it must be Malcolm Earl of Angus who is shown above.  It is assumed therefore that Earl Malcolm resigned Caithness, or his claims thereto, in favour of Magnus.  The precise parentage of Earl Magnus has been the subject of considerable speculation.  According to the Complete Peerage, "Magnus Jarl of Orkney and Earl of Caithness is stated to have been the son of Gillbride Earl of Angus by his second wife sister of Harald Ugni, to whom Magnus, though an infant, was apparently recognised as successor in his half of the Earldom"[249].  It does not cite the source on which this statement is based and, as discussed further above under the possible second wife of Earl Gilbride, the hypothesis appears to be entirely speculative.  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage says that "Magnus…is usually designed son of Gillebride Earl of Angus", adding that the "statement was first made by Sir James Dalrymple in his Collections, but he gives no proof"[250].  The Complete Peerage says that "it seems…quite probable that [Magnus] was the same person as Malcolm Earl of Angus, son of Duncan, son of Gilchrist, son of Gillbride…[who] is named as Earl of Angus and Caithness in 1232 [see above]", although conceding that "the whole matter is, however, very obscure"[251].  The separate primary source references to an individual named Magnus indicate that this suggestion is probably incorrect.  From a chronological point of view, Magnus’s estimated birth date range as shown above suggests that he was either the son of Gillbride Earl of Angus by a second marriage or that he was the son of Earl Gilchrist.  The fact that Magnus’s successor was named [Gillbride] suggests that this was the name of Magnus’s father.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1239 of "Magni comitis Orcadensis"[252]

 

 

1.         [GILLBRIDE] [Gibbon/Gilbert] ([1205/10]-1256).  The identity of [Gillbride]’s father is not known.  However, assuming that his name, recorded in the sources as Gibbon and Gilbert, can be correctly interpreted as Gillbride, this suggests a close relationship with the earls of Argyll and that he was probably the son of Earl Magnus whose death is recorded in 1239.  It is unlikely that [Gillbride] was born before [1205/10], considering that the marriage of his daughter can be estimated to [1252/55].  Earl of Caithness and Orkney.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1256 of "Gibbon comes Orcadensis"[253]m ---.  The name of [Gillbride]’s wife is not known.  [Gillbride] & his wife had two children: 

a)         MAGNUS (-1273).  Earl [of Caithness].  Frisbok’s Saga records that "Magnus earl of the Orkneys went with king Hakon from Bergen, and the king gave him a good long-ship" and in a later passage that he sailed with the king across the Pentland Firth, dated to 1263 from the context[254].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1273 of "Hagnus Gibboni filius comes in Orcadibus"[255]m ---.  The name of Magnus’s wife is not known.  Magnus & his wife had two children: 

i)          MAGNUS (-1284).  He succeeded his father in 1273 as Earl of [part] Caithness.  The Icelandic Annals record that Magnus King of Norway installed "Magno Magni Orcadum comitis" as count "Tunsbergi festo sancti Olavi" in 1276[256].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1284 of "Magnus comes Orcadum"[257]

ii)         JOHN (-before 28 Oct 1312).  A diploma dated 4 May 1403 Concerning the Genealogies of the Ancient Earls or Counts of Orkney records that Magnus was succeeded as earl by "John his brother"[258].  He succeeded his brother in 1284 as Earl of [part] Caithness.  A charter dated 5 Aug 1296 records the submission of "Johan Counte de Katteneys" to Edward I King of England[259]m --- (-before 1300).  The name of John’s wife is not known.  Betrothed (1300) INGEBORG of Norway, daughter of ERIK Magnusson King of Norway & his second wife Isabel Bruce (1297-[1356/57]).  The Icelandic Annals record the birth in 1297 of "Ingiburga filia Erici regis"[260].  The Icelandic Annals record the betrothal in 1300 of "filia Erica regis" and "Jonæ filio Magni comiti de Orcadibus"[261].  John & his wife had [two] children: 

(a)       MAGNUS (-[6 Apr 1320/1329]).  A diploma dated 4 May 1403 Concerning the Genealogies of the Ancient Earls or Counts of Orkney records that Earl John was father of "Magnus the fifth earl"[262].  He succeeded as Earl of [part] Caithness in [1300][263].  A diploma dated 4 May 1403 Concerning the Genealogies of the Ancient Earls or Counts of Orkney records that Earl Magnus was succeeded by "Lord Malis Earl of Stratherne, as legitimate heir, by hereditary right"[264]m KATHERINE, daughter of --- (-after 1329).  "Katerin cunncteis j Orkn/oe/yium oc Katanese" purchased lands at "Stufum…Kuikobba…Klaete…Thordar…Borgh…Leika…Lidh…Haughs æidhi…Petlandz skær" from "herra Erlings Vidkunnar sonar Noreghs konongs drotzeta" [high steward of the king of Norway] by charter dated 4 Apr 1329[265]

(b)       [MARGARET .  Fraser records that Simon Fraser married "Margaret co-heiress of an Earl of Caithness", suggesting that her father must have been Earl Magnus[266].  From his text, it is difficult to ascertain the source on which this information is based.  From a chronological point of view, assuming that her parentage is correctly stated, it seems more likely that she was the daughter of Earl John.  m SIMON Fraser, son of ANDREW Fraser & his wife --- (-killed in battle Halidon 19 Jul 1333).] 

b)         MATILDA of Caithness (-before 1261).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 12 Dec 1257 under which "Malisius comes de Stratherne" granted the advowson of the church of Cortachy to Inchaffray, obliging "heredes nostros quos habuerimus de Matilda sponsa nostra filia domini Gilleberti quondam comitis Kattanie et Orkadie"[267].  m ([1252/55]) as his second wife, MALISE Earl of Strathearn, son of ROBERT Earl of Strathearn & his wife --- (-[in France] [before 23 Nov] 1271, bur Dunblane). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    FIFE

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS [of FIFE]

 

 

Fife, with Forthreve, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century.  Its early rulers were styled "Mormaer" and in [1114/15] the ruler of Fife was one of the six signatories of the charter of Scone who signed as "comes".  The earldom of Fife was held by the family of Gillemichel Macduff from [1129] until Isabel Ctss of Fife sold the earldom to Robert Stewart Earl of Menteith, son of Robert II King of Scotland, in 1371 after which the earldom remained in the Stewart family until 1425. 

 

 

1.         BETH, son of --- (-after 1124).  Possibly Mormaer of Fife or Moray.  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[268].  "…Beth comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[269].  "Beth comite…" witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[270]same person as…?  HETH (-1130 or after).  "Ed comes…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David… Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[271].  "Madeth comite, Malis comite, Head comite…" witnessed a charter dated 1130 by which "David…Rex Scottorum" confirmed the shire of Kirkcaldy to the church of Dunfermline[272].  The Complete Peerage suggests that he may have been Ethelred, son of King Malcolm III, who was abbot of Dunkeld[273].  However, if this is correct, it is unclear why his relationship with King David was not specified in the two charters referred to above, close family members being identified as such in other charters of the king.  In any case, the death of Ethelred is estimated to before 1107.  David King of Scotland instructed "Constantinus comes" to respect the rights of the church of Dunfermline by undated charter witnessed by "…Madeth comit, Malis comit, Head comit, Hug de Morevill, Herbt cancell, Rob Corbet…"[274]m ---.  The name of Heth’s wife is not known.  Heth & his wife had [two children]: 

a)         [MALCOLM MacHeth (-23 Oct 1168[275]).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Malcolmus filius Macheth" lied to claim he was "filium Angusii comitis Moraviæ" who was killed "tempore…regis David…apud Strucathroth a Scotis" and, after his alleged father’s death, rebelled against King David who imprisoned him "in turre castri de Marchemond, quond nunc Roxburgh nuncupator"[276].  Duncan suggests that Malcolm MacHeth was the son of "Heth" who witnessed two charters in the early years of the reign of King David I[277].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "Malcolm Macheth" made peace with the king the year after his son was captured[278].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that Malcolm MacHeth made peace with King Malcolm the year after his son was captured[279].  He was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before[280].] 

-        EARLS of ROSS

b)         [GILLCOMDED Macheth .  David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer by undated charter, witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d’Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d’Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[281].] 

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of FIFE (MACDUFF)

 

 

1.         CONSTANTINE, son of --- (-[1128/29]).  "…Constantini comitis de Fyf…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Edelradus…filius Malcolmi Regis Scotiæ Abbas de Dunkeldense et insuper Comes de Fyf" made donations to the Keledei of Loch Leven[282].  He may have been Earl of Fife or Earl of Forthreve[283].  "…Constantinus comes…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David… Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[284].  David King of Scotland instructed "Constantinus comes" to respect the rights of the church of Dunfermline by undated charter witnessed by "…Madeth comit, Malis comit, Head comit, Hug de Morevill, Herbt cancell, Rob Corbet…"[285]

 

 

1.         GILLIEMATHIL [Gilliemichael] Macduff, son of --- (-before [1135]).  Earl [of Fife].  "…Gillemichel Mac duf…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David…Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[286].  "Gillemichel comite…" witnessed a charter dated to [1130] by which "David…Rex Scottorum" made grants to the monks of Dunfermline[287]m ---.  The name of Gilliemathil’s wife is not known.  Gilliemathil & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [DUNCAN (-1154).  No primary source has been identified which confirms Duncan’s parentage but as, apparently, he was the successor of Earl Gilliemathil it is likely that he was his son.  Earl of Fife.  "…Dunecano comite…" witnessed a charter dated to [1135] by which "David Rex Scottorum" granted Swinton to "Arnulfo…mee militi"[288].  David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer by undated charter, witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d’Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d’Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[289].  He may have been Regent of Scotland in 1153 during the minority of King Malcolm IV[290]m ---.  The name of Duncan’s wife is not known.  Duncan & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          DUNCAN Macduff (-[Aug/Dec] 1203).  He succeeded his father in 1154 as Earl of Fife.  "Duncano comite de Fyfe…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey[291]

-         see below

ii)         ADAM ).  "William Masculus de Foules" donated "capellam de Foules" to the church of St Andrew’s by undated charter witnessed by "Comite Duncano, Adam fratre comitis…"[292].  "Dunecanus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam de Cupre" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Hela comitissa, Adam fratre comitis…"[293].  "Dunecanus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam de Marchinch" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Hela comitissa…Adam clerico fratre comitis…"[294].  "Malcolmus filius Dunecani comitis de Fif" confirmed the donations of "ecclesiam de Cupre…Marking…Sconin, capellam de Katel" made to St Andrew’s priory by "Dunecanus comes pater meus", by undated charter but presumably dated to soon after his father’s death, witnessed by "…Adam fratre comitis…"[295].  "Nesius filius Willelmi" donated "ecclesiam de Lochres" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif…Adam filio Dunec et Horabili sponsa sua…"[296].  The date of his death is not known.  m as her [third] husband, ORABILIS, separated wife firstly of ROBERT de Quincy, widow [secondly] of [MORGUND] Earl of Mar, daughter of NES of Mar and his wife --- (-before 30 Jun 1203).  "Nesius filius Willi et Orabile filia sua heres" donated "ecclesiam de Losresc" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter[297].  Her first marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which her son "Seherus de Quency comes Wintonie" donated "totam terram de Duglyn", held by "Nesus filius Willelmi avus meus" to Cambuskenneth priory[298].  Her second marriage is indicated by the undated charter under which "Orabilis comitissa de Mar filia Nesii filii Willi" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Lochres" made by "pater meus Nesius filius Willi" to St Andrew’s priory, witnessed by "Duncano comite de Fif…"[299].  The question of the precise identity of Orabilis’s second husband is discussed below.  Her third marriage is indicated by the undated charter under which "Nesius filius Willelmi" donated "ecclesiam de Lochres" to St Andrew’s priory witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif…Adam filio Dunec et Horabili sponsa sua…"[300].  There seems little doubt that the witness was Orabilis, daughter of the donor, and her third husband, as the name is so unusual.  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated property to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…Patricio filio Nesii, Dunc filio Elin…"[301].  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated "Davach ictar Hathyn" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…G. com de Mar…Patricio filio Nesii, Duncan filio Emelin…"[302].  Pope Innocent III confirmed the possessions of Inchaffray Abbey, including the donation of land "in territorio de Gasgt" by "quondam Orable matris Seer de Quinci", by bull dated 30 Jun 1203[303].  Orabilis presumably died before her first husband, given the undated charter under which her son "Seerus de Quinci" confirmed the donation of "Davac Icthar Hathyn" made by "matris mea" to St Andrew’s priory which was witnessed by "…Roberto de Quincy patre meo…"[304]

iii)        [AFREKA Orkneyinga Saga records that Earl Harald married “a woman called Afreka[305].  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage states that she was the daughter of Duncan Earl of Fife but cites no primary source apart from the Orkneyinga Saga, as shown previously which does not state the parentage of Jarl Harald’s wife[306].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  m (repudiated [1154/55]) as his first wife, HARALD Maddadsson Jarl of Orkney, son of MADDAD [of Scotland] Earl of Atholl & his second wife Margaret of Orkney (1134-1206).] 

b)         HUGH .  His parentage is confirmed by the undated charter, probably dated to [1165/66], under which William King of Scotland confirmed the property of St Andrew’s priory, including a donation of "ecclesiam de Marchinche" by "militis…Egii filii Hugonis filii Gillemihel comitis de Fif"[307]m ---.  The name of Hugh’s wife is not known.  Hugh & his wife had one child: 

i)          GILES .  William King of Scotland confirmed the property of St Andrew’s priory, including a donation of "ecclesiam de Marchinche" by "militis…Egii filii Hugonis filii Gillemihel comitis de Fif", by undated charter probably dated to [1165/66][308]

c)         ETE Macduff (-after 1132).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Book of Deer which records the donation made by "Gartnait son of Cainnech and Ete daughter of Gille Michel" for "the consecration of a Church of Christ and Peter"[309]m GARTNACH Mormaer of Buchan, son of CAINNEACH [Kenneth] & his wife (-after 1132). 

 

 

DUNCAN Macduff, son of DUNCAN Macduff Earl of Fife & his wife --- (-[Aug/Dec] 1203).  He succeeded his father in 1154 as Earl of Fife.  "…Comite Duncano, Gillebrid comite de Anegus, M. comite de Ethoel, Gillecrist comite de Meneteth, Gillberto filio comitis Ferteth, Merlefwano Adam filio comitis de Anegus…" witnessed the charter dated 1164 under which "Malcolmus rex Scottorum" confirmed the foundation of Scone abbey[310].  "Duncano comite de Fyfe…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey[311].  "Dunecan…comes de Fif" confirmed "terram…Gillecamstone", donated by "comes Dunecan pat meus", to North Berwick St Mary by undated charter witnessed by "Hela comitissa, Malcolmo filio comitis…Adam fratre comitis…"[312].  "William Masculus de Foules" donated "capellam de Foules" to the church of St Andrew’s by undated charter witnessed by "Comite Duncano, Adam fratre comitis…"[313].  "…Dunec, Malcolmo filio eio, com. Gilleb, Eth filio com. de Leueñ…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to 1193, under which "Dunecanus filius Gillebti filii Fergi" donated "totam terram de Moybothelbeg…[et] de Bethoc" to Melrose abbey[314].  "Dunecanus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam de Cupre" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Hela comitissa, Adam fratre comitis…"[315].  Justiciar of Scotland.  "Davidem Ruffum de Forfar" donated "tota terra mea de Kinefe que fuit Ede" to Cupar abbey, for the souls of "Domini mei Willielmi et filii eius Alexandri", by undated charter witnessed by "Comite Duncano, Comite Gartneto, Comite Gilchristo de Anegus, Philippo Camerario, Villielmo Cumyn, David de Haya"[316].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death in 1204 of "Duncanus comes de Fyff"[317]

m (Edinburgh [1159/60]) ELA, daughter of ---.  Malcolm IV King of Scotland granted "Scradimigglock et Falecklen et Radhulit et Strathbranen et totam firmam meam de Cattel…in maritagium" to "Duncano comiti et heredi suo qui de uxore sua Ada nepte mea nasceretur" by charter dated 1160 ("anno septimo regni regis")[318].  King Malcolm was too young to have had a niece who married around the date of this charter.  However, it is possible that "nepte" should be interpreted more loosely in this document and that the bride was a more remote relative of the king, maybe his first cousin, daughter of an otherwise unrecorded paternal uncle or aunt.  The following charters demonstrate that the wife of Earl Duncan was named Ela not Ada, presumably indicating a mistranscription in the reproduction of the 1160 charter.  "Dunecanus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam de Cupre" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Hela comitissa, Adam fratre comitis…"[319].  "Ada comitissa mater regis Scottorum" donated "toftum in burgo meo de Hadintuna" to St Andrew’s priory, for the soul of "Henrici comitis sponsi mei", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Hela comitissa de Fif…"[320].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam Miggehwith" to St Andrew’s priory, confirmed by "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter witnessed by "Ada comitissa, Hela comitissa, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hugone Giffard, Willo Giffard…Willo filio Hugonis Giffard…"[321]

Duncan & his wife had four children: 

1.         MALCOLM Macduff (-1228, bur Culross [Kilenross] Abbey[322])"…Dunec, Malcolmo filio eio, com. Gilleb, Eth filio com. de Leueñ…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to 1193, under which "Dunecanus filius Gillebti filii Fergi" donated "totam terram de Moybothelbeg…[et] de Bethoc" to Melrose abbey[323].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Malcomus filius eius, qui postea fundavit Culros" succeeded on the death of "Duncanus comes de Fyff"[324].  He succeeded his father in 1203 as Earl of Fife.  "Malcolmus filius Dunecani comitis de Fif" confirmed the donations of "ecclesiam de Cupre…Marking…Sconin, capellam de Katel" made to St Andrew’s priory by "Dunecanus comes pater meus", by undated charter but presumably dated to soon after his father’s death, witnessed by "…Adam fratre comitis…"[325].  "Malcolmus comes de Fif" donated various properties to North Berwick St Mary by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano et dd fratribus meis…"[326].  "Malcolmus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam…in Inuerhouen" to the church of Moray by undated charter, dated to before 1223, witnessed by "Duncano et David fratribus meis…"[327].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death in 1229 of "comes de Fif, Malcolmus" and his burial "apud Cullenros"[328].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1229 of "Malcolmus comes de Fife" and his burial "apud Culros in ecclesia sancti Servani" which he had founded[329].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1228 of "Malcolmus comes de Fyfe" and his burial "in ecclesia Sancti Servani de Culenros"[330]m [firstly] MARJORY, [illegitimate daughter of WILLIAM I King of Scotland & his mistress ---].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by an undated charter under which Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed the donation by "Malcolmus comes de Fyf" of "terras de Petgornoc et de Drundol in Fyf", given by the donor to "Marjerie cognate nostre…quas dominus Willelmus Rex pater noster dedit predicte Marjerie in liberum maritagium", after the death of "dicte Marjorie comitisse", to Balmerino Abbey[331]m [secondly] MATILDA of Strathearn, daughter of GILBERT Earl of Strathearn & his first wife Matilda de Albini.  "Comes Gilbertus de Straderne" confirmed "cum Matilda filia mea…terras…Glendouan" to "Malcolmo filio comitis Duncani" by undated charter[332].  [[333]m [thirdly] MARGUERITE de Tosny, daughter of ROGER [IV] de Tosny & his wife Constance de Beaumont (-16/17 Jan after 1246).]  Malcolm & his wife had one child: 

a)         DAVID (-[1223/28]).  "David filio comitis…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to after 1223, which settled the dispute between Andrew Bishop of Moray and "Malcolmum comitem de Fyf" concerning "terris…Adauyn"[334]

2.         DUNCAN Macduff .  "Malcolmus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam…in Inuerhouen" to the church of Moray by undated charter, dated to before 1223, witnessed by "Duncano et David fratribus meis…"[335].  "…Dunecano filio comitis Dunecani, Willo filio comitis Patricii marito meo…Dunecano filio comit Alwino de Aberbutennauth…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Cristina filia Walteri Corbet" donated serfs to St Andrew’s priory, with the consent of "Willi filii comitis Patricii mariti mei et Aliiz de Valoniis matris mee"[336]m ALICE Corbet, daughter of WALTER Corbet of Makerstoun & his wife Alice de Valognes.  "Wills filius comitis Patricii et Cristina Corbet sponsa eius" confirmed the donation made by his wife to St Andrew’s, with the consent of "dni Dunecani filii comitis Dunec et dne Aliz Corbet uxoris eius" donated serfs to St Andrew’s priory, by undated charter[337].  Duncan & his wife had one child: 

a)         MALCOLM Macduff (-1266).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1228 of "Malcolmus comes de Fyfe" and the succession of "Malcolmus nepos eius, filius…fratris eius"[338].  He succeeded his uncle in 1230 as Earl of Fife

-        see below

3.         DAVID (-[after 12 Feb 1236]).  "David fratre meo…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1213/28], under which "Comes Malcolmus de Fyffe" confirmed "terram…de Levingstoun…et…de Hirmanstoun", which "idem Willelmus de me tenuit", to "Archebaldo de Douglas filio Willelmi de Douglas"[339].  "Malcolmus comes de Fif" donated "ecclesiam…in Inuerhouen" to the church of Moray by undated charter, dated to before 1223, witnessed by "Duncano et David fratribus meis…"[340].  A charter dated 18 Mar 1226 records an agreement between the bishop of Moray and "David filium Duncani quondam comitis de Fyf" concerning "advocationibus ecclesiarum de Strathbolgyn…in feudo suo de Strathbolgyn"[341].  Andrew Bishop of Moray and "David de Strathbolgyn filium inclyte memorie Duncani comitis de Fif" reached agreement concerning the boundaries of "terrarum…ecclesiarum de Rynyn et de Dunbanan…" by charter dated 10 Oct 1232[342].  Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed donations to Kinloss, including the donation of "totam illam partem terre de Belach" by "David filii comitis Dunecani de Fif", by charter dated 12 Feb 1236[343].  The charter does not indicate that the donor was deceased at the time of the confirmation.  m ---.  The name of David’s wife is not known.  David & his wife had one child: 

a)         [JOHN of Strathbogie (-[1260]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Earl of Atholl, de iure uxorism ADA Hastings Ctss of Atholl, daughter of DAVID Hastings Earl of Atholl & his wife Fernelith Ctss of Atholl.  Balfour Paul says that Ada "is said to have married John of Strathbogie, son of David of Strathbogie…third son of Duncan sixth Earl of Fife…there is no proof of this statement, but it is rendered probable by the fact that the later Earls of Atholl designed themselves as of Strathbogie, and the evidence of seals"[344].] 

-        EARLS of ATHOLL

4.         daughter .  The 1187/88 Pipe Roll records "Earl Dunecan (of Fife) accounts for 500 marks for the custody of Roger de Merlay’s land and his son; and that the son may marry the said Earl’s daughter" in Northumberland[345].  The 1189/90 Pipe Roll records "Earl Duncan accounts for 250 marks for the ward of Roger de Merlay’s land and his son; and that the son may marry the Earl’s daughter"[346].  It is not known whether the marriage ever took place.  [m (after [1189/90]) --- de Merlay, son of ROGER de Merlay & his wife ---.] 

 

 

MALCOLM Macduff, son of DUNCAN Macduff of Fife & his wife Alice Corbet (-1266).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1228 of "Malcolmus comes de Fyfe" and the succession of "Malcolmus nepos eius, filius…fratris eius"[347].  He succeeded his uncle in 1230 as Earl of Fife.  He was one of the Guardians of the Realm in 1255[348].  A charter dated 1316 records an inquiry into the homage sworn by the earls of Fife to Dunfermline monastery and names "predecessores dni Duncani tunc comitis de Fif" as "dñs Malcolm…comitis de Fif…dñs Colban comes de Fif filius et heres predicti dni Malcolmi…Dunc comes de Fyf fil predicti dni Colbani"[349]

m [firstly] as her first husband, ---  of Wales, [illegitimate] daughter of LLEWELYN ap Iorwerth Fawr ("the Great") Prince of North Wales & [his mistress ---] (before [1230]-).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1228 of "Malcolmus comes de Fyfe" and the succession of "Malcolmus nepos eius, filius…fratris eius", adding that the latter later married "filiam Leulini regis Walliæ"[350].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1230 of "Malcolm earl of Fife" and the succession of "his nephew Malcolm, the son of his brother", adding that the latter "afterwards married the daughter of Leulin"[351].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death in 1229 of "comes de Fif, Malcolmus", the succession of "nepos eiusdem…Malcolmus", adding that the latter married "filia Leulini senioris domini Walliæ"[352].  The last source is the only one of the three which does not state that the new earl’s marriage was later than his succession.  Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to her known son in [1244/46], which suggests that the couple married at least ten years after Malcolm became earl.  It is assumed that she was illegitimate.  If she had been her father’s legitimate daughter, the absence in the sources of any reference to her descent from John King of England would be surprising. 

[m secondly HELEN, daughter of --- (-after 16 Feb 1295).  This marriage of the widow of Malcolm Earl of Fife is confirmed by the documents under which "Elenæ comitissæ de Marre" accounted for payment of "xl s pro parte dotis suæ" in the accounts of lands formerly belonging to Duncan Earl of Fife 20 Nov 1293 and 16 Feb 1294[353].  It is not certain that this widow of Earl Malcolm was the same person as his wife who was the daughter of Prince Llywelyn.  The birth of Earl Malcolm’s son Colban is estimated to [1244/46].  However, Earl Malcolm’s widow had four known children by her second husband.  This would mean that she gave birth to children over an approximately thirty year span, which although not impossible would be unusual.  In addition, it seems unlikely that Earl Donald would have married, as his first marriage, a woman who would have been more than 35 years old.  She married secondly Donald Earl of Mar.] 

Earl Malcolm & his [first] wife had one child:

1.         COLBAN Macduff ([1244/46]-1270).  The Liber Pluscardensis records that "Colvanum filium Malcolmi comitis de Fife" was knighted "die natalis Domini" in 1264[354].  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was between 18 and 20 years old at the time.  He succeeded his father in 1266 as Earl of Fife.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1270 of "Colbanus comes de Fyfe" and the succession of "filius Colbani…puer octo annorum"[355].  A charter dated 1316 records an inquiry into the homage sworn by the earls of Fife to Dunfermline monastery and names "predecessores dni Duncani tunc comitis de Fif" as "dñs Malcolm…comitis de Fif…dñs Colban comes de Fif filius et heres predicti dni Malcolmi…Dunc comes de Fyf fil predicti dni Colbani"[356]m as her first husband, ANNE, daughter of ---.  She married secondly (1270) as his first wife, William Ferrers of Groby, Leicestershire.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage in 1270 of "Willelmus Ferreris, filius comitissæ de Ferreris quæ fuit filia Rogeri de Quinci constabularii Scotiæ" and "relictam Colbani nuper defuncti et dignitatem constabulariæ"[357].  Earl Colban & his wife had two children:

a)         DUNCAN Macduff ([1262/63]-murdered Petpolloch 25 Sep [1288/89], bur Cuprose).  A charter dated 1316 records an inquiry into the homage sworn by the earls of Fife to Dunfermline monastery and names "predecessores dni Duncani tunc comitis de Fif" as "dñs Malcolm…comitis de Fif…dñs Colban comes de Fif filius et heres predicti dni Malcolmi…Dunc comes de Fyf fil predicti dni Colbani"[358].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death in 1270 of "Colbanus comes de Fyfe" and the succession of "filius Colbani…puer octo annorum"[359].  He succeeded his father in 1270 as Earl of Fife.  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "filius Colbani" was eight years old when his father died[360].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the appointment of "domino Willelmo Fraser episcopo Sancti Andreæ, Duncano comite de Fyfe, et Johanne Comyn comite de Buchan, ex parte boreali aquæ de Forth, Roberto episcopo Glasguensi, domino Johanne Comyn, et Jacobo senescallo Scotiæ, ex parte australi eiusdem" as the six guardians of the realm after the death in 1286 of King Alexander III[361].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death "infra beatæ Virginis nativitatem…apud Wytyngham" in 1289 of "comes…de Fife Dunekanus…interfectus" and his burial "in abbatia de Cupir", adding that he was "cum effet adolescens supra omnes…crudelis et cupidus"[362].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Duncanus comes de Fyfe filius Colbani filii Malcolmi" was killed "VII Id Sep…apud Petpolloch" in 1288 by "Patricio de Abirnethy et Waltero de Percy militibus", with the consent of "domini Willelmi de Abirnethy militis"[363]m as her first husband, (1284) JOAN de Clare, daughter of GILBERT de Clare Earl of Gloucester & his first wife Alix de Lusignan (1264-after 1322).  The Chronicle of Lanercost records that "comes…de Fife Dunekanus" had recently married "dominam Johannam, filiam comitis Gloverniæ" when he was killed, adding that she gave birth to a son posthumously who succeeded his father[364].  A charter dated 6 Jun 1292 records that King Edward I granted permission to "Johanna de Clare comitissa de Fif uxor quondam Duncani comitis de Fif" to marry whom she pleases on payment of a fine of 1000 marks[365].  She married secondly (after 23 Apr 1299) Gervase Avenell.  Earl Duncan & his wife had two children:

i)          ISABEL Macduff .  Orders for the "farther…custody of the countesses of Carrick and Buchan, Marie and Christine the sisters, and Margerie the daughter, of Robert de Brus", specifying that "three of the ladies to be in kages", are dated 7 Nov 1306[366].  She was released in Apr 1313[367]m JOHN Comyn Earl of Buchan, son of ALEXANDER Comyn Earl of Buchan & his wife Elizabeth de Quincy ([1259]-in England [11 Aug/3 Dec] 1308). 

ii)         DUNCAN Macduff (after 25 Sep [1288/89]-1353).  The Chronicle of Lanercost records that "comes…de Fife Dunekanus" had recently married "dominam Johannam, filiam comitis Gloverniæ" when he was killed, adding that she gave birth to a son posthumously who succeeded his father[368].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Fife.  A charter dated 1316 records an inquiry into the homage sworn by the earls of Fife to Dunfermline monastery and names "predecessores dni Duncani tunc comitis de Fif" as "dñs Malcolm…comitis de Fif…dñs Colban comes de Fif filius et heres predicti dni Malcolmi…Dunc comes de Fyf fil predicti dni Colbani"[369].  He was taken prisoner at Dupplin 12 Aug 1332 and submitted to Edward Balliol, but finally joined David II King of Scotland.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Duncanus comes de Fyfe…cum uxore et filia eiusdem comitis" were captured when Perth was captured from King Edward Balliol "Non Oct" in 1332[370].  He was taken prisoner at Durham 12 Oct 1346, condemned as a traitor but pardoned and released for a ransom of £1000.  m (Papal dispensation 12 Oct 1307) MARY Monthermer, daughter of RALPH Lord Monthermer & his wife Joan [of Acre] of England ([1298]-after 1371).  The dispensation for the marriage of “Duncan de Fyf” and “Marie de Monthermer” is dated 12 Oct 1306[371].  King Edward II granted safe conduct to “comitissa de Fyff neptis nostra...quæ in Anglia jam existit” to travel to Scotland “pro deliberatione Elenæ quæ fuit uxor Roberti de Nevill, per Scotos ibidem detentæ” by charter dated 28 Jan 1320[372].  Earl Duncan & his wife had one child:

(a)       ISABEL Macduff (-after 12 Aug 1389).  She succeeded her father in 1353 as Ctss of Fife.  She resigned the earldom of Fife to Robert Stewart Earl of Menteith 30 Mar 1371[373]m firstly WILLIAM Ramsay of Colluthie (-after Mar 1360).  He succeeded as Earl of Fife, de iure uxorism secondly ([1360/61]) WALTER Stewart, son of ROBERT [later ROBERT II King of Scotland] & his first wife Eupheme of Ross (-1362 after 14 Aug).  He succeeded as Earl of Fife, de iure uxorism thirdly (after 10 Jan 1363) THOMAS Biset of Upsetlington, son of --- (-17 Apr 1365).  He succeeded as Earl of Fife, de iure uxorism fourthly ([after Apr 1365]) JOHN Dunbar, son of [PATRICK Dunbar Earl of Dunbar & his first wife Ermengarde ---] (-before Jul 1368).  Ctss Isabel & her first husband had one child:

(1)       [374]ELIZABETH Ramsay (-before 30 Mar 1371).  It is assumed that she died before her mother sold the earldom.  Betrothed (Papal dispensation 27 Jun 1358) to DAVID de Berclay, son of ---. 

b)         --- Macduff (-killed in battle Falkirk 22 Jul 1298).  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that King John Balliol "sought to deprive Macduff, brother of Duncan the lately murdered Earl of Fife, of his lands and property of Kilconquhar", which was appealed to the English king[375]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    MAR

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS of MAR

 

 

Mar, with Buchan, was one of the original seven provinces of Scotland in the 9th century.  It covered the territory of the future counties of Aberdeen and Banff.  Buchan separated from Mar, probably at the same time as Caithness was conquered by the Norwegians[376].  The early rulers of Mar were styled "Mormaer".  In [1114/15] the ruler of Mar was one of the six signatories of the charter of Scone who signed as "comes". 

 

 

1.         CAINNECH [Kenneth] .  m ---.  The name of Cainnech’s wife is not known.  Cainnech & his wife had one child: 

a)         EMKIN .  His parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death of his son "Domnall son of Eimen son of Cainnech, earl of Marr in Scotland" in 1014[377]m ---.  The name of Emkin’s wife is not known.  Emkin & his wife had one child: 

i)          DONALD MacEmkin MacCainnech (-killed in battle Clontarf 1014).  Mormaer of Mar.  He is said to have been one of the 10 Mormaers who crossed to Ireland to assist Brian Boroihme against the Danes: the Annals of Ulster record that "Domnall son of Eimen son of Cainnech, earl of Marr in Scotland" was killed in battle at Clontarf in 1014[378].  The (probably mid-12th century) War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill records the participation of "Domhnall son of Emin" at Clontarf in 1014, adding in a later passage that "Domhnall son of Eimhin" was among those who were killed in the battle[379]

 

 

1.         ROTHRI, son of --- (-after [1131/32]).   His relationship with the earlier Mormaers is not known.  Mormaer of Mar.  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[380].  "…Rothri comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[381].  "…Rotheri comes…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David…Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[382].  "…Ruadri mormaer of Mar…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Gartnait son of Cainnech and Ete daughter of Gille Michel" donated property to Deer for "the consecration of a Church of Christ and Peter"[383]

 

 

1.         WILLIAM [of Leuchars] .  No source has yet been identified which names William in his own right.  His name suggests that he was a Norman immigrant to Scotland but no information has so far been found which could indicate his origin.  m ---.  The name of William’s wife is not known.  The names of the couple’s sons suggest that she may have been from a Celtic family.  William & his wife had two children: 

a)         NES [of Mar] (-after [1177]).  "…Neis fil Wil, Constantino fratre suo…" witnessed the undated charter under which Malcolm IV King of Scotland donated "Ledmaedunegil" to Dunfermline monastery[384].  "…Nes filio Willmi…" witnessed the undated charter under which property in "villa de Bolgyne" was donated to St Andrew’s priory[385].  "…Nees filio Willi…" witnessed the undated charter under which Malcolm IV King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam…in Kilrimund cum terra Kindargog" to St Andrew’s priory[386].  "…Nes filio Willi…" witnessed the undated charter, probably dated to the start of his reign, under which William King of Scotland confirmed the property of St Andrew’s priory[387].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam sancti M’Huluoch de Tharuelund" to St Andrew’s priory, for the souls of "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Dunecano comite de Fif, Marleswano, Nesio filio Willi, Galfredo de Maleuill…"[388].  "…Nesio filio Willi…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to after [1170], under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Sconin" to St Andrew’s priory[389].  "Nesius filius Willi et Orabile filia sua heres" donated "ecclesiam de Losresc" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter[390].  "Nesius filius Willelmi" donated "ecclesiam de Lochres" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif…Adam filio Dunec et Horabili sponsa sua…"[391].  William King of Scotland confirmed donations to St Andrew’s priory, including the donation of "ecclesiam de Louchref" by "Neisi filii Willi", by undated charter[392]m ---.  The name of Nes’s wife is not known.  Nes & his wife had one child: 

i)          ORABILIS (-before 30 Jun 1203).  "Nesius filius Willi et Orabile filia sua heres" donated "ecclesiam de Losresc" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter[393].  Her first marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which her son "Seherus de Quency comes Wintonie" donated "totam terram de Duglyn", held by "Nesus filius Willelmi avus meus" to Cambuskenneth priory[394].  Her second marriage is indicated by the undated charter under which "Orabilis comitissa de Mar filia Nesii filii Willi" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Lochres" made by "pater meus Nesius filius Willi" to St Andrew’s priory, witnessed by "Duncano comite de Fif…"[395].  Her third marriage is indicated by the undated charter under which "Nesius filius Willelmi" donated "ecclesiam de Lochres" to St Andrew’s priory witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif…Adam filio Dunec et Horabili sponsa sua…"[396].  There seems little doubt that the witness was Orabilis, daughter of the donor, and her third husband, as the name is so unusual.  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated property to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…Patricio filio Nesii, Dunc filio Elin…"[397].  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated "Davach ictar Hathyn" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…G. com de Mar…Patricio filio Nesii, Duncan filio Emelin…"[398].  Pope Innocent III confirmed the possessions of Inchaffray Abbey, including the donation of land "in territorio de Gasgt" by "quondam Orable matris Seer de Quinci", by bull dated 30 Jun 1203[399].  Orabilis presumably died before her first husband, given the undated charter under which her son "Seerus de Quinci" confirmed the donation of "Davac Icthar Hathyn" made by "matris mea" to St Andrew’s priory which was witnessed by "…Roberto de Quincy patre meo…"[400]m firstly ([1160/70], separated) as his first wife, ROBERT de Quincy, son of SAHER de Quincy & his wife Maud de Senlis ([1140]-after 1200).  m secondly --- Earl of Mar, son of ---.  The Complete Peerage says that "it has been asserted" that Orabilis’s second husband was Gilchrist Earl of Mar, but adds that "the chronology is difficult"[401].  The chronology in fact appears impossible: Earl Gilchrist is recorded up to 1199, whereas Orabilis is named with her [third] husband in a charter of her father which, although undated, is  probably not dated much later than 1177.  It seems more likely that Orabilis’s second husband was Morgund Earl of Mar (-[1177/30 Mar 1183]), which if correct means that she was his second wife.  An alternative possibility is that Orabilis’s second and third husbands were in fact reversed, which is the assumption of Balfour Paul[402]m thirdly ADAM of Fife, son of DUNCAN Macduff Earl of Fife & his wife ---. 

Nes had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

ii)         CONSTANTINE (-after [1202/03]).  "Seerus de Quinci" confirmed the donation of "Davac Icthar Hathyn" made by "matris mea" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…Roberto de Quincy patre meo…Constant et Patricio filiis Nesii avi mei…"[403].  Constantine is unlikely to have been legitimate as Nes’s daughter Orabilis is noted in the charter quoted above as her father’s heir. 

iii)        PATRICK (-after 1218).  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated property to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…Patricio filio Nesii, Dunc filio Elin…"[404].  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated "Davach ictar Hathyn" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…G. com de Mar…Patricio filio Nesii, Duncan filio Emelin…"[405].  "Seerus de Quinci" confirmed the donation of "Davac Icthar Hathyn" made by "matris mea" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…Roberto de Quincy patre meo…Constant et Patricio filiis Nesii avi mei…"[406].  "Seyerus de Quinci comes Wintonie" donated revenue from "molendino meo de Locres" to St Andrew’s priory, with the consent of "Rogeri filii et heredis mei", by undated charter, dated to [1217/18], witnessed by "Rogero de Quinci herede meo, Simone de Quinci persona de Louchres, Patricio filio Nesii…Simonis de Quinci"[407].  "Rogerus de Quinci filius Seyeri comitis Wintonie" confirmed his father’s donation of a mill to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter, dated to [1217/18], witnessed by "Dño Seyero patre meo comite Wintonie, Symone de Quinci persona de Louchres, Patricio filio Nesii…Gilleberto clerico, Symonis de Quinci, Henrico clerico, Symonis de Quinci"[408].  Patrick is unlikely to have been legitimate as Nes’s daughter Orabilis is noted in the charter quoted above as her father’s heir. 

b)         CONSTANTINE (-after 1153).  "…Neis fil Wil, Constantino fratre suo…" witnessed the undated charter under which Malcolm IV King of Scotland donated "Ledmaedunegil" to Dunfermline monastery[409]

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of MAR

 

 

1.         MORGUND [Morgrund] MacGylocher (-[1177/30 Mar 1183]).  He succeeded as Earl of Mar, witnessing charters before 1152 and [1154/58].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam sancti M’Huluoch de Tharuelund" to St Andrew’s priory, for the souls of "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Dunecano comite de Fif, Marleswano, Nesio filio Willi, Galfredo de Maleuill…"[410].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam Miggehwith" to St Andrew’s priory, confirmed by "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter witnessed by "Ada comitissa, Hela comitissa, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hugone Giffard, Willo Giffard…Willo filio Hugonis Giffard…"[411].  Morgund’s right to the earldom of Mar was challenged, maybe by Gilchrist Earl of Mar (see below)[412].  However, Morgund was later restored as earl of Mar, as shown by a memorandum dated 1291 which records that, when William King of Scotland returned "comitatum suum de Mar" to "Morgundo M[ac] Gyloclery predecessori Domini Donenaldi comitis de Marre", certain portions of land were omitted[413].  Selden published a document which purports to record the regrant of his earldom (as well as the earldom of Moray) by King William to "Morgund son of Gillocher, formerly Earl of Mar", confirming him as the lawful son and heir of "Gillocher, Earl of Mar…[Earl] of Moray", dated 23 May 1171[414].  Skene recites the arguments which indicate the spurious nature of this document, concluding that it is "open to serious objections" while admitting that "it is difficult to devise a motive for inventing such a document"[415].  Nevertheless the 1291 memorandum quoted above suggests some historical basis for the factual background of the spurious 1171 document.  The question was revived in 1257 when Alan Durward, most likely a descendant of Gilchrist Earl of Mar, challenged the possession of Duncan Earl of Mar (see below) on the basis of his father’s claimed illegitimacy.  This was presumably the occasion when the alleged 1171 document was produced.  The date of Morgund’s death is confirmed by a bull of Pope Lucius III dated 30 Mar 1183 which confirms donations to St Andrew’s and including donations by "Murgundi quondam comitis de Mar"[416]m [firstly] AGNES, daughter of ---.  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam sancti M’Huluoch de Tharuelund" to St Andrew’s priory, for the souls of "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter, witnessed by "…Dunecano comite de Fif, Marleswano, Nesio filio Willi, Galfredo de Maleuill…"[417].  "Morgrundus comes de Mar" donated "ecclesiam Miggehwith" to St Andrew’s priory, confirmed by "Agnetis comitisse sponse mee", by undated charter witnessed by "Ada comitissa, Hela comitissa, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hugone Giffard, Willo Giffard…Willo filio Hugonis Giffard…"[418].  "Agnes comitissa de Mar" donated "dimidiam carucatam terre in ville de Inuerinche" to St Andrew’s priory, for the souls of "mee et Morgrundi comitis sponsi mei", by undated charter witnessed by "Ada comitissa, Hela comitissa, Alexandro de sco Martino, Hugone Giffard…"[419].  [m secondly as her second husband, ORABILIS, separated wife of ROBERT de Quincy, daughter of NES of Mar and his wife --- (-before 30 Jun 1203).  Her marriage is indicated by the undated charter under which "Orabilis comitissa de Mar filia Nesii filii Willi" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Lochres" made by "pater meus Nesius filius Willi" to St Andrew’s priory, witnessed by "Duncano comite de Fif…"[420].  The Complete Peerage says that "it has been asserted" that Orabilis’s second husband was Gilchrist Earl of Mar, but adds that "the chronology is difficult"[421].  The chronology in fact appears impossible: Earl Gilchrist is recorded after 1204, whereas Orabilis is named with her [third] husband in a charter of her father which, although undated, is probably not dated much later than 1177.  It seems more likely that Orabilis’s second husband was Earl Morgund, who died soon after her marriage, after which she married her third husband.  An alternative possibility is that Orabilis’s second and third husbands were in fact reversed, which is the assumption of Balfour Paul[422].  Orabilis married thirdly Adam of Fife.  Her third marriage is indicated by the undated charter under which "Nesius filius Willelmi" donated "ecclesiam de Lochres" to St Andrew’s priory witnessed by "Dunecano comite de Fif…Adam filio Dunec et Horabili sponsa sua…"[423].  There seems little doubt that the witness was Orabilis, daughter of the donor, and her third husband, as the name is so unusual.  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated property to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…Patricio filio Nesii, Dunc filio Elin…"[424].  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated "Davach ictar Hathyn" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…G. com de Mar…Patricio filio Nesii, Duncan filio Emelin…"[425].  Pope Innocent III confirmed the possessions of Inchaffray Abbey, including the donation of land "in territorio de Gasgt" by "quondam Orable matris Seer de Quinci", by bull dated 30 Jun 1203[426].  Orabilis presumably died before her first husband, given the undated charter under which her son "Seerus de Quinci" confirmed the donation of "Davac Icthar Hathyn" made by "matris mea" to St Andrew’s priory which was witnessed by "…Roberto de Quincy patre meo…"[427].]  Morgund & his [first] wife had three children: 

a)         MALCOLM (-after [1207]).  "…Gillechristo comite de Mar, Fergusio comite de Buchan, Malcolmo Jacobo filiis Margundi……" witnessed the charter dated to [1182/89] under which the bishop of Aberdeen confirmed the foundation of the hospital of St Peter[428].  "Malcolmus filius Moregrundi comitis de Mar" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam Sancti Muluoch de Tarueland" to St Andrew’s made by "pater meus" by charter dated to [1207/28], witnessed by "…Jacobo filio Moregrundi, Dunecane fratre ipsius"[429]

b)         DUNCAN (-[1242/7 Feb 1244]).  "Malcolmus filius Moregrundi comitis de Mar" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam Sancti Muluoch de Tarueland" to St Andrew’s made by "pater meus" by charter dated to [1207/28], witnessed by "…Jacobo filio Moregrundi, Dunecane fratre ipsius"[430].  A charter dated 1222 records an agreement between St Andrew’s and "Gillemor Scolgo de Tarualont" and "hominem eorum ligium…I. filio bone memorie M. quondam comitis de Mar…", witnessed by "domino D. filio M. quondam comitis de Mar, domino I. fratre eius…"[431].  He was installed as Earl of Mar in [1222/28]: Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed property of St Andrew’s by charter dated 29 Aug 1228, including the donation of "terram pratum de Dolfgmuld" made by "Dunecani comitis filii Morgrunt"[432]

-        see below

c)         JAMES (-after 9 Oct 1232).  "…Gillechristo comite de Mar, Fergusio comite de Buchan, Malcolmo Jacobo filiis Margundi……" witnessed the charter dated to [1182/89] under which the bishop of Aberdeen confirmed the foundation of the hospital of St Peter[433].  "Malcolmus filius Moregrundi comitis de Mar" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam Sancti Muluoch de Tarueland" to St Andrew’s made by "pater meus" by charter dated to [1207/28], witnessed by "…Jacobo filio Moregrundi, Dunecane fratre ipsius"[434].  A charter dated 1222 records an agreement between St Andrew’s and "Gillemor Scolgo de Tarualont" and "hominem eorum ligium…I. filio bone memorie M. quondam comitis de Mar…", witnessed by "domino D. filio M. quondam comitis de Mar, domino I. fratre eius…"[435].    "James the son of Morgund" witnessed the charter dated 9 Oct 1232 under which King Alexander II granted property in Alyth, Banff to Ness his physician[436]

 

 

1.         GILCHRIST (-after 1204).  Earl Morgund’s right to the earldom of Mar was challenged.  Skene suggests that the challenge was made by Gilchrist Earl of Mar who replaced him briefly as Earl of Mar[437].  However, he cites no contemporary primary source which confirms that this supposition is correct.  Balfour Paul also states that there is "no valid evidence that Gilchrist was Earl before 1182"[438].  Whatever the position of Earl Gilchrist before the death of Earl Morgund, he succeeded as Earl of Mar some time before [1182/89]: "…Gillechristo comite de Mar, Fergusio comite de Buchan, Malcolmo Jacobo filiis Margundi……" witnessed the charter dated to [1182/89] under which the bishop of Aberdeen confirmed the foundation of the hospital of St Peter[439].  The question remains, what was the hereditary basis for Gilchrist’s succession?  Documents connected with the challenge made in 1257 by Alan Durward to the position of William Earl of Mar rely on a claim that William’s paternal grandfather Earl Morgund was illegitimate.  However, if as shown above Earl Morgrund was restored as Earl of Mar by William King of Scotland towards the end of his life, it would seem surprising that his supposed illegtitimacy would be revived as the basis for the debarring the succession of his son after Morgrund died.  One possibility is that all the later claims were completely fabricated and that Gilchrist was simply the oldest son of Earl Morgrund.  "Orabilis filia et heres Dñi Nesii" donated "Davach ictar Hathyn" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter witnessed by "…G. com de Mar…Patricio filio Nesii, Duncan filio Emelin…"[440].  "Gilcrist comes de Marr" donated "ecclesiam de Loychel" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter[441].  William Bishop of St Andrew’s confirmed property donations to the church of Munimusc by undated charter, which recites earlier donations including donations made by "Gilcrist com de Marr"[442].  An undated charter records the donation of the church of Loychel to the church of Munimusc, for the health of "dñi mei Willi reg et filii", a later undated charter confirming that the donor was "Gilcrist comit de Marr"[443].  "Thomæ filii Malcolmi de Lyndyne, hostiarii domini regis Scotiæ" donated "terra mea de Balelmeryremath" to Cupar abbey by undated charter witnessed by "Malcolmo comite de Fyffe, Gartneo comite de Mar et Malcolmo filio eius, Villielmo de Bois, Valtero hostiario de Lundyn"[444].  William King of Scotland confirmed the previous donation by charter dated 3 Apr [no year, dated to 1204/11] witnessed by "Gartneo comite de Mar, Malcolmo filio comitis Gartnei, David Mariscallo, Philippo de Lundyne, Alexandro filio Thore"[445].  "Davidem Ruffum de Forfar" donated "tota terra mea de Kinefe que fuit Ede" to Cupar abbey, for the souls of "Domini mei Willielmi et filii eius Alexandri", by undated charter witnessed by "Comite Duncano, Comite Gartneto, Comite Gilchristo de Anegus, Philippo Camerario, Villielmo Cumyn, David de Haya"[446].  Burnett points out that in these abbreviated forms of the last charters the name "G. comes de Mar" has been wrongly extended to "Gartneo" instead of Gilchrist[447].  No later information has been found concerning Earl Gilchrist and his date of death is unknown.  It is possible that the earldom of Mar was confiscated from him, which would explain why it was restored to the descendants of Earl Morgrund before 1228 (see below).  m ---.  The name of Gilchrist’s wife is not known.  As noted above, it has been suggested that she was Orabilis, who is shown above as the suggested second wife of Morgund Earl of Mar.  The various related arguments are discussed more fully above.  In addition, Earl Gilchrist’s supposed grandson Thomas de Lundie issued a charter dated to [1204/11] (see below).  Presuming that he was adult at the time, Thomas could not therefore have been born much later than 1285.  This would place the birth of his mother in [1270] or before, probably when Orabilis was still married to her first husband.  Another possibility is that, if Orabilis was the wife of Earl Gilchrist, she was not the mother of his children.  Gilchrist & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         MALCOLM (-after 1204).  "Thomæ filii Malcolmi de Lyndyne, hostiarii domini regis Scotiæ" donated "terra mea de Balelmeryremath" to Cupar abbey by undated charter witnessed by "Malcolmo comite de Fyffe, Gartneo [error for Gilchrist, see above] comite de Mar et Malcolmo filio eius, Villielmo de Bois, Valtero hostiario de Lundyn"[448].  William King of Scotland confirmed the previous donation by charter dated 3 Apr [no year, dated to 1204/11] witnessed by "Gartneo [error for Gilchrist, see above] comite de Mar, Malcolmo filio comitis Gartnei, David Mariscallo, Philippo de Lundyne, Alexandro filio Thore"[449].  He presumably predeceased his father as there is no record of his having succeeded to the earldom of Mar, unless the earldom was confiscated from Earl Gilchrist before it was restored to the descendants of Earl Morgrund. 

b)         [daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are suggested by the undated charter under which her son "Thom hostiar dñi regis" confirmed donations to the church of Munimusc made by "avus meus et matre mea"[450].  Other charters quoted above indicate donations to the same church by Gilchrist Earl of Mar.  The reference in the charter quoted to the donor’s mother indicates that "avus meus" must have been his maternal grandfather, suggesting in turn that he was Earl Gilchrist.  This hypothesis appears supported by the claim made in 1257 by her grandson Alan Durward to the earldom of Mar[451]m MALCOLM de Lundie, son of ---.] 

 

 

DUNCAN, son of MORGUND Earl of Mar & his [first wife Agnes ---] (-[1242/7 Feb 1244]).  "Malcolmus filius Moregrundi comitis de Mar" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam Sancti Muluoch de Tarueland" to St Andrew’s made by "pater meus" by charter dated to [1207/28], witnessed by "…Jacobo filio Moregrundi, Dunecane fratre ipsius"[452].  A charter dated 1222 records an agreement between St Andrew’s and "Gillemor Scolgo de Tarualont" and "hominem eorum ligium…I. filio bone memorie M. quondam comitis de Mar…", witnessed by "domino D. filio M. quondam comitis de Mar, domino I. fratre eius…"[453].  He was installed as Earl of Mar in [1222/28]: Alexander II King of Scotland confirmed property of St Andrew’s by charter dated 29 Aug 1228, including the donation of "terram pratum de Dolfgmuld" made by "Dunecani comitis filii Morgrunt"[454].  "Duncanus comes de Marr" donated "ecclesiam de Loychel" to St Andrew’s priory, for the soul of "patris mei Morgrund et matris mee Agnetis", by undated charter[455]

m ---.  The name of Duncan’s wife is not known. 

Duncan & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         WILLIAM (-before 25 Jul 1281, maybe before Jan 1279).  "…Willelmo filio Duncani comitis de Mar…" subscribed the undated charter, dated to [1223/40], under which "Fergusius filius Gilberti quondam comitis de Stathern" donated "terram…de Beny" to Lindores Abbey[456].  He succeeded his father in [1243] as Earl of Mar, first recorded as such as witness of a royal charter dated 7 Feb 1244.  However, he cites no contemporary primary source which confirms that this supposition is correct.  Alan Durward claimed the earldom of Mar in 1257, impugning the legitimacy of his predecessors, a bull of Pope Alexander IV dated 4 Oct 1257 detailing the whole case[457].  "Willelmus comes de Mar" confirmed the donations of "ecclesiam de Taruelond…de Migueth" made by "dñs Morgrundus avus noster…dña Agnes avia nostra quondam comitissa de Mar" to St Andrew’s priory by charter dated 23 Jan 1267 witnessed by "…Douenaldo Duncano filiis eiusdem comitis…"[458].  He was appointed Chamberlain of Alexander III King of Scotland in [1252] and from 1262 to 1264[459].  A memoranda dated "Michaelmas Term" [Oct/Dec] in 1281 records that "the king commands the barons, as William earl of Mar provided his service in the army of Wales for a knight’s fee, to quit him of the scutage"[460].  This document, if correctly dated, suggests that Earl William was still alive at that time.  However, his son Donald is recorded as Earl of Mar 25 Jul 1281, which suggests that the previous document should be redated to an earlier year or that "William earl of Mar" in the text was an error for "Donald earl of Mar".  Another indication that William Earl of Mar died a few years earlier than 1281 is the document which indicates his widow’s second marriage (see below).  m firstly ELIZABETH Comyn, daughter of WILLIAM Comyn Earl of Buchan & his second wife Margaret Ctss of Buchan (-[1265/66]).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death, dated to [1265/66] from the context, of "comitissa de Mar, soror comitis de Buchania"[461].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m secondly (after 1267) as her first husband, MURIEL of Strathearn, daughter of MALISE Earl of Strathearn & his first wife Marjory de Muschamp of Wooler ([1244]-[16 May/12 Nov] 1291).  A charter dated 16 May 1291 records the homage sworn to King Edward by "Muriellæ quæ fuit uxor Willelmi quondam comitis de Mar, filiæ et heredis Margeriæ filiæ Roberti de Muschaumps defunctæ" for the lands of "Margeria mater sua"[462].  She married secondly (before Jan 1279, [divorced before 1291]) James ---.  [same person as…?  James Stewart, later High Steward of Scotland.]  Her second marriage is indicated by an assize roll dated "7 Edw I" [Nov 1278/Nov 1279] which records a claim relating to the barony of Muschamp brought by "Jacobus filius Alexandri et Muriella uxor eius" and "Maria uxor Nicholai de Grame", both represented by "Stephanum de Muschaump vel Thomam de Hagarston", against "Thomam de Rok"[463].  Pleas taken at Newcastle 20 Jan 1279 (N.S.) include a jury finding that "the heirs of Muschampe hold their barony by service of four knights, and making suit to the county of Newcastle"[464].  Andrew MacEwen indicates that "Muriella…Maria" were the two daughters of Malise Earl of Strathearn by his first wife Marjory de Muschamp, and identifies "Jacobus filius Alexandri", the husband of Muriel, as James Stewart the future High Steward of Scotland, although he cites no primary source which confirms that the latter identification is correct[465].  The absence of any reference to Muriel’s husband "James" in the document dated 16 May 1291 quoted below, suggests that the marriage must have terminated before that date by divorce or annulment.  A charter dated 16 May 1291 records the homage sworn to King Edward by "Muriellæ quæ fuit uxor Willelmi quondam comitis de Mar, filiæ et heredis Margeriæ filiæ Roberti de Muschaumps defunctæ" for the lands of "Margeria mater sua"[466].  The Inquisitions on the death of "Muriella quondam comitissa de Mar" are dated 23 Nov 1291 and name "Maria uxor Nicholai de Graham [soror] dictæ Muriellæ…propinquor heres" aged 40[467].  Earl William & his first wife had two children: 

a)         DONALD (-after 25 Jul 1297).  "Willelmus comes de Mar" confirmed the donations of "ecclesiam de Taruelond…de Migueth" made by "dñs Morgrundus avus noster…dña Agnes avia nostra quondam comitissa de Mar" to St Andrew’s priory by charter dated 23 Jan 1267 witnessed by "…Douenaldo Duncano filiis eiusdem comitis…"[468].  He succeeded his father in 1281 as Earl of Mar

-        see below

b)         DUNCAN (-before Aug 1296).  "Willelmus comes de Mar" confirmed the donations of "ecclesiam de Taruelond…de Migueth" made by "dñs Morgrundus avus noster…dña Agnes avia nostra quondam comitissa de Mar" to St Andrew’s priory by charter dated 23 Jan 1267 witnessed by "…Douenaldo Duncano filiis eiusdem comitis…"[469]m CHRISTINE, daughter of ---.  The Ragman Roll names "…Cristine de Mar wido of Duncan de Mar…" among those who swore allegiance to Edward I King of England at Berwick-upon-Tweed 28 Aug 1296[470]

2.         [JOHN .  "…Johanne filio comitis de Mar…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1213/28], under which "Comes Malcolmus de Fyffe" confirmed "terram…de Levingstoun…et…de Hirmanstoun", which "idem Willelmus de me tenuit", to "Archebaldo de Douglas filio Willelmi de Douglas"[471].  The name of John’s father is not known with certainty.  From a chronological point of view, it appears likely that he was the son of Earl Duncan.] 

 

 

DONALD, son of WILLIAM Earl of Mar & his first wife Elizabeth Comyn of Buchan (-after 25 Jul 1297).  "Willelmus comes de Mar" confirmed the donations of "ecclesiam de Taruelond…de Migueth" made by "dñs Morgrundus avus noster…dña Agnes avia nostra quondam comitissa de Mar" to St Andrew’s priory by charter dated 23 Jan 1267 witnessed by "…Douenaldo Duncano filiis eiusdem comitis…"[472].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Dovenaldus filius Willelmi comitis de Mar" was knighted "die Sancti Michaelis apud Sconam" in 1270[473].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Mar.  Donald Earl of Mar agreed the marriage of Margaret Pss of Scotland to Erik of Norway, dated 25 Jul 1281[474].  He swore fealty to Edward I King of England as his overlord 13 Jun 1291, but was active in the Scottish revolt against England.  He was taken prisoner at the battle of Dunbar 27 Apr 1296, but did homage to the English king after the submission of John Balliol in Jul 1296[475]

m (after 1266) as her second husband, HELEN, widow of MALCOLM Macduff Earl of Fife, daughter of --- (-after 16 Feb 1295).  The second marriage of the widow of Malcolm Earl of Fife is confirmed by the documents under which "Elenæ comitissæ de Marre" accounted for payment of "xl s pro parte dotis suæ" in the accounts of lands formerly belonging to Duncan Earl of Fife 20 Nov 1293 and 16 Feb 1294[476].  However, it is not certain that this widow of Earl Malcolm was the same person as his wife who was the daughter of Prince Llywelyn.  The birth of Earl Malcolm’s son Colban is estimated to [1244/46].  However, Earl Malcolm’s widow had four known children by her second husband.  This would mean that she gave birth to children over an approximately thirty year span, which although not impossible would be unusual.  In addition, it seems unlikely that Earl Donald would have married, as his first marriage, a woman who would have been more than 35 years old. 

Earl Donald & his wife had [five] children:

1.         GRATNEY (-before Sep 1305).  He succeeded his father in 1297 as Earl of Marm (1292 or after) as her first husband, CHRISTIAN Bruce, daughter of ROBERT Bruce Earl of Carrick & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (-[1356/27 Jan 1357], bur Dunfermline).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertum comitem de Carric…filia…seniore" married "Garthenai comiti de Marria"[477].  She married secondly Christopher Seton, and thirdly (dispensation 20 Sep 1326, Cambuskenneth 1326) Andrew Moray of Bothwell.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage of "Andreas de Moravia" and "dominam Christianam sororem…regis" at Cambuskenneth in 1326[478].  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Andree de Moravia domino de Bothvile" and "Cristiane de Setono nate quondam Robert de Bruys", issued by Pope John XXII, is dated 20 Sep 1326[479].  The same source records the death in 1357 of "the Lady Christiana of Bruce, King Robert’s sister" and her burial "at Dunfermline with her parents"[480].  Earl Gratney & his wife had two children:

a)         DONALD (-killed in battle Duplin 12 Aug 1332).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Dovenaldum comitem" as son of "Garthenai comiti de Marria", adding that he was killed "in bello de Duplyn"[481].  He succeeded his father in [1305] as Earl of Mar.  He was brought up at the English court and remained in England after the English defeat at Bannockburn in 1314.  He left for Scotland after the deposition of Edward II King of England.  He was appointed Regent for David II King of Scotland in 1332.  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Donaldus comes de Marre" was chosen "apud Pertht IV Non Aug" in 1332 to succeed "comite Morauie" as regent for King David[482].  He was killed in battle fighting the invading Edward Balliol[483]m as her first husband, ISABEL Stewart, daughter of --- (-[15 Jun 1347/15 Jan 1348]).  She married secondly (before 15 Sep 1334, divorced before Easter 1336) Geoffrey Mourray, and thirdly (licence 3 Jun 1339) William Careswell.  Edward III King of England granted “custodiam castri de Rokesburgh” to "Willelmo de Kareswell qui Isabellam comitissam de Mar duxit in uxorem" by charter dated 2 Apr 1347[484].  Edward III King of England granted “terrarum...in terra Scotie que fuerunt Isabelle nuper comitisse de Mar consortis eiusdem Willelmi defuncte” until "Thome filii et heredis eiusdem comitisse" came of age by charter dated 15 Jan [1348] (O.S.?)[485].  Earl Donald & his wife had two children:

i)          THOMAS ([1330]-[22 Oct 1373/21 Jun 1374]).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) names "Thomam comitem de Marr" as son of "Dovenaldum comitem", son of "Garthenai comiti de Marria"[486].  He succeeded his father in 1332 as Earl of Mar.  Edward III King of England granted “terrarum...in terra Scotie que fuerunt Isabelle nuper comitisse de Mar consortis eiusdem Willelmi defuncte” until "Thome filii et heredis eiusdem comitisse" came of age by charter dated 15 Jan [1348] (O.S.?)[487].  He was appointed Great Chamberlain of Scotland 1358 and 1359. Edward III King of England granted property to “Thomas counte de Mar”, who swore homage, by charter dated 24 Feb 1359 which refers to the possibility of the future marriage of the earl[488].   m firstly (Papal dispensations 15 Aug 1352 and 29 May 1354, divorced before 24 Feb 1359) as her second husband, MARGARET Graham Ctss of Menteith, widow of JOHN Moray of Bothwell, daughter of JOHN Graham & his wife Mary Ctss of Menteith (-[20 Jul 1372/4 May 1380]).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Thomam comitem de Marr", son of "Dovenaldum comitem", married "heredem de Meneteth" but that he divorced her[489].  Edward III King of England granted property to “Thomas counte de Mar”, who swore homage, by charter dated 24 Feb 1359 which refers to the possibility of the future marriage of the earl[490].  She married thirdly (1359 or before) John Drummond of Concraig, and fourthly (Papal dispensation 9 Sep 1361) as his first wife, Robert Stewart, later Earl of Fife and Duke of Albany.  m secondly ([1361/74]) MARGARET Stewart of Angus, daughter of THOMAS Stewart Earl of Angus, Lord of Abernethy & his wife Margaret St Clair (-[1417/23 Mar 1418]).  She succeeded her brother in 1377 as Ctss of Angus, suo iure.  She was the mistress of William Douglas Earl of Douglas, and resigned the earldom of Angus 9 Apr 1389 in favour of her illegitimate son by him George Douglas[491]

ii)         MARGARET (-[5 Dec 1389/19 Oct 1393]).  She succeeded her brother in [1374] as Ctss of Mar, suo iure.  A charter dated 18 Mar 1390 (O.S.?) records that “Dominus Thomas de Erskyne miles” recorded a contract between “Schir Malcome of Dromonde and Schir Johne of Swyntone apone the landis of the erledome of Marre and the lordshipe of Garvyauch” acknowledging that “Issabell the said Schir Malcoms wyf is verray and lauchfull ayre and failliand of the ayrez of hir body the half of the fornemmyt erldome and lordship perteignys to my wyfe of richt of heretage” and requested the king’s confirmation of his wife’s rights[492]m firstly (before 13 Nov 1357) WILLIAM Douglas of Douglas, son of ARCHIBALD Douglas, Regent of Scotland & his wife Beatrice Lindsay of Crawford (-Douglas May 1384, bur Melrose).  He was created Earl of Douglas in 1358.  m secondly ([1385/27 Jul 1388]) as his first wife, JOHN Swinton of Swinton (-killed in battle Homildon Hill 14 Sep 1402). 

b)         ELLEN of Mar .  Depositions dated 6 Oct 1447 made by “Andreas de Keth de Inverwgy etatis octoginta annorum” state that “domini Roberti de Erskyne comitis de Marr” was descended from “domino comiti de Marr dicto Gartnay”, recording that “dictus comes Gartnay de Marr genuit Donaldum comitem de Marr et duas filias”, that the sisters of Earl Donald married “una cum Roberto de Broyss Rege [incorrect] que sine liberis decessit et alia soror...Domino Johanne de Menteth” by whom she had two daughters, of whom the older married “Dominus Edwardus de Keth qui genuit ex ea Jonetam” who married “Domino Thoma de Erskyn” who fathered “Dominum Robertum de Erskyn comitem de Marr sepedictum[493].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m JOHN de Menteith of Strathgartney and Arran, son of JOHN de Menteith of Rusky & his wife --- (-before 1344). 

2.         DUNCAN (-after Aug 1296).  The Ragman Roll names "…Duncan fiz le Comte de Mar…" among those who swore allegiance to Edward I King of England at Berwick-upon-Tweed 28 Aug 1296[494]

3.         ISABEL of Mar (-before 1302).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Robertus…rex, quuando fuit comes de Carric" married "Isabellam sororem Garthenai comitis de Marr"[495]m ([1295]) as his first wife, ROBERT Bruce Earl of Carrick, son of ROBERT de Brus, Earl of Carrick, Lord of Annandale & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex 11 Jul 1274-Cardross Castle, Dumbartonshire 7 Jun 1329, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  He succeeded in 1306 as ROBERT I King of Scotland

4.         MARGARET of Mar (-after 1306).  A charter dated 3 Sep 1296 records petitions to King Edward I by women whose estates had been seized in Scotland, including an order of restoration of property to "la contesse de Atheles"[496].  "Gilbertus de Haia constabularius Scotie" confirmed donations to Cupar abbey, including the donation made by "Mariore comitisse Atholie, relicte quondam Johannis comitis Atholie et confirmatione David filii sui primogeniti et heredis", by charter dated 5 Oct 1309[497]m JOHN of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl, son of DAVID of Strathbogie Earl of Atholl & his second wife Isabel of Chilham (-executed London 7 Nov 1306). 

5.         [MARGARET of Mar .  She is named as wife of Malcolm Earl of Lennox by Fraser[498].  She may have been the daughter or the sister of Donald Earl of Mar.  m MALCOLM Earl of Lennox, son of MALCOLM Earl of Lennox & his wife --- (-killed in battle Halidon Hill 19 Jul 1333).] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    MORAY

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS of MORAY

 

Moray was the territory of the northern Picts who maintained their independence when Kenneth MacAlpin became King of the Scots in [843/44].  Together with Ross, it was one of the seven original provinces of Scotland, covering the territory of what later became the counties of Inverness and Ross.  Although the Mormaership of Moray was conquered by the Scots in 1130, it was not until 1312 that Robert I King of Scotland created the earldom of Moray, installing Thomas Randolph as first earl. 

 

Irish genealogies show the descent of Findlaech MacRory from "cenel Loairn, one of the ruling kindreds of Dalriada…in the 8th century"[499], but it is unknown how accurate this may be. 

 

 

RUAIDHRI .  Mormaer of Moray. 

m ---.  The name of Ruaidhri’s wife is not known. 

Ruadhri & his wife had two children: 

1.         FINDLAECH MacRory (-[1018/20]).  Thane of Angus, Mormaer of Moray.  Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd Jarl of Orkney defeated “a Scottish earl called Finnleik[500].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Findlaech mac Ruaidhrí mormaer Moreb” was killed “a filiis fratris sui MaelBrighdi” in [1018/20][501].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1020 of "Finnlaech son of Ruadrí king of Alba…killed by his own people"[502]m ---.  The name of Findlaech’s wife is not known.  Many secondary sources name the wife of Findlaech as Donada of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm II King of Scotland & his wife ---, adding that she was the mother of King Macbeth.  It seems that the proof for this connection is slim.  The only source so far identified which refers to Macbeth’s maternal origin is the Chronicle of Huntingdon which names "Maket Regem [=King Macbeth] nepotem dicti Malcolmi" when recording that he was expelled from Scotland after ruling 15 years[503].  The word "nepos" is of course treacherous, and could indicate a variety of relationships in addition to grandson.  However, it appears that early historians assumed that "grandson" was the correct translation.  For example, Ralph Holinshed’s 1577 Chronicle of Scotland names "Doada" as second daughter of Malcolm II King of Scotland and adds that she married "Sinell the thane of Glammis, by whom she had issue one Makbeth"[504].  Another variation is provided by the Cronykil of Andrew of Wyntoun, which records that "Makbeth-Fynlak, his systyr sowne" murdered King Duncan[505].  From a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that Macbeth could have been a nephew of King Duncan, but it is possible that the passage represents an interpretation of "nepos" from an earlier source and has confused the king with whom Macbeth enjoyed this relationship.  No source earlier than Holinshed has been found which names her Donada.  Mormaer Findlaech & had one child: 

a)         MACBETH ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona).  The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Macheth filius Findleg xvii…" as king[506].  The Annals of Tigernach names “Mac bethadh son of Findlaech overking of Scotland” when recording his death[507].  Mormaer of Moray [1029/32].  He succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland.  He was defeated in battle 27 Jul 1054 by the army of Siward Earl of Northumbria who had invaded Scotland to support the claim to the throne of Malcolm son of King Duncan I.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Mac Bethad son of Finnlaech, over-king of Scotland was killed by Mael Sechlainn son of Donnchad in battle" in 1058[508]m ([after 1032]) [as her second husband,] GRUOCH, [widow of GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray,] daughter of BOITE [Bodhe] of Scotland & his wife --- ([1015]-).  "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[509].  Her possible first marriage appears to be based on the following logic.  The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[510].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[511].  Dunbar, basing his argument on this and the other sources which are quoted in this section, states that "from the above it seems most probable that Lulach was son of Gillacomgan and step-son of Macbeth"[512].  In addition, the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Lulac nepos filii Boide" ["nephew of the son of Boite"] as successor of King Macbeth[513].  However, there does not appear to be a surviving source which more specifically confirms that Macbeth’s queen was the widow of Gillacomgain and mother of Lulach. 

2.         MAELBRIGTE .  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Findlaech mac Ruaidhrí mormaer Moreb” was killed “a filiis fratris sui MaelBrighdi” in [1018/20][514]m ---.  The name of Maelbrigte’s wife is not known.  Maelbrigte & his wife had two children: 

a)         MALCOLM (-1029).  A grant by "Maelcoluim son of Maelbrigte" to the church of Deer is recalled in a notice of grants between 565 and 1100[515].  The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1029 of “Mael Colaim mac Mael-Brighdi maic Ruaidrí, rí Alban[516]

b)         GILLACOMGAIN (-burned alive 1032).  Mormaer of Moray.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Gilla Comgán son of Mael Brigte, earl of Moray was burned together with fifty people" in 1032[517]m [as her first husband, GRUOCH, daughter of BOITE [Bodhe] & his wife --- ([1015]-)].  Her possible first marriage appears to be based on the following logic.  The Continuation of the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach records Lulach as son of Macbeth[518].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[519].  Dunbar, basing his argument on this and the other sources which are quoted in this section, states that "from the above it seems most probable that Lulach was son of Gillacomgan and step-son of Macbeth"[520].  In addition, the 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "Lulac nepos filii Boide" ["nephew of the son of Boite"] as successor of King Macbeth[521].  However, there does not appear to be a surviving source which more specifically confirms that Macbeth’s queen was the widow of Gillacomgain and mother of Lulach.  She married [secondly] ([after 1032]) Macbeth, who succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland.  "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[522].  Mormaer Gillacomgain & his [wife] had [one child]: 

i)          [LULACH ([1032]-killed in battle Essie, Strathbogie 17 Mar 1058, bur Isle of Iona).  As noted above, the primary sources are unclear concerning the parentage of Lulach.  He succeeded [his stepfather] in 1057 as LULACH "the Simple" King of Scotland, crowned Aug 1057 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire.  The Annals of Ulster record that "Lulach son of Gilla Comgain, over-king of Scotland was killed in battle by Mael Coluim son of Donnchad" in 1058[523].]  m ---.  The name of Lulach’s wife is not known. Lulach & his wife had two children: 

(a)       MAELSNECHTAI (-1085).  A grant by "Maelsnecte son of Luloeg" to the church of Deer is recalled in a notice of grants between 565 and 1100[524].  Mormaer of Moray until 1078.  Monk. 

(b)       daughter .  Her parentage is confirmed by the Annals of Ulster which record the death in 1130 of "Angus son of the daughter of Lulach” in a battle “between the men of Scotland and the men of Moray[525].  The name of her husband is not known.  m ---.  One child: 

(1)       ANGUS (-killed in battle Strickathrow 1130).  Mormaer of Moray.  Moray was conquered by the Scots in 1130 after Mormaer Angus's defeat at Strickathrow[526].  Orderic Vitalis records that in 1130 “Aragois comes Morafiæ cum Melcolfo” invaded Scotland with an army but was defeated by “Eduardus Siwardi filius...consobrinus David regis” and that Angus was killed during the battle[527].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1130 of "Angus son of the daughter of Lulach” in a battle “between the men of Scotland and the men of Moray[528].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Malcolmus filius Macheth" lied to claim he was "filium Angusii comitis Moraviæ" who was killed "tempore…regis David…apud Strucathroth a Scotis"[529]

 

 

 

B.      MORAY FAMILY

 

 

WILLIAM, son of FRESKIN & his wife --- (-after 1204).  "…Willelmo filio Freskini…" witnessed the undated charter under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation by "Johanni heremite" to the church of Moray[530].  "…Willelmo filio Fresekini…" witnessed the undated charter under which William King of Scotland donated "ecclesiam de Foreys et ecclesiam de Dich" to the church of Moray[531].  "…Willelmo filio Freskyn, Hugone filio suo…" witnessed the undated charter under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Foreys et ecclesiam de Dich" to the church of Moray[532].  "…Hugone Freskyn et Willelmo fratre eius…" witnessed the charter dated 25 Aug (no year) under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesia de Kynguscy cum capella de Benchory" to the church of Moray by "Bricio Moraviensi episcopo"[533].  "Hugo Freskyn" donated "terram meam de Scelbol in Sutherland" to the church of Moray by charter dated to [1203/14], witnessed by "Willelmo fratre meo, Andrea fratre meo…Hugone Duglas, Freskyno Duglas…"[534]

m ---.  The name of William’s wife is not known. 

William & his wife had three children: 

1.         HUGH de Moray (-before Oct 1226, bur Duffus).  "…Willelmo filio Freskyn, Hugone filio suo…" witnessed the undated charter under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Foreys et ecclesiam de Dich" to the church of Moray[535].  "Willelmus filius Willelmi Freskyny" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Artendol…exceptis decimis…juxta castellum meum de Bucharm" to the church of Moray by undated charter witnessed by "…Hugone fratre meo…"[536].  Brice Bishop of Moray confirmed the foundation of "in una trium ecclesiarum…Brennath et de Spyny et de Kenedor" by undated charter which reserves the rights of "Willelmi filii Willelmi filii Freskyny" in "terris…Lynyn et Duldauy" and of "Hugonis filii Willelmi filii Freskyny" in "Duffus"[537]m ---.  The name of Hugh’s wife is not known.  Hugh & his wife had one child: 

a)         WALTER de Moray (-after 19 Sep 1240).  A charter dated 7 Oct 1226 records a dispute between "Andreas episcopus Moraviensis" and "Walterum de Moravia filium quondam Willelmi de Moravia" concerning "terris de Ardtrillen et Lunnin et Duldaui et Croyn…et super advocatione ecclesiarum de Croyn, Abirlouer, Buthrothyn et Arteldol", signed by "Walteri de Moravia filii quondam Hugonis de Moravia", witnessed by "…Alexandro vicecomite de Elgyn, H. de Duglas fratre eius…"[538].  "Walterus de Moravia filius quondam Willelmi de Moravia" donated "terram meam de Agynway" to the hospital of Spey by undated charter witnessed by "Andrea episcopo Moraviensi, magistris Willelmo et Edwardo et Willelmo fratre meo canonicis Moraviensis ecclesie, domino Waltero de Moravia filio quondam Hugonis de Moravia…"[539].  "Walterus de Moravia filius Hugonis de Moravia" confirmed revenue to the chapel of St Peter of Duffus by charter dated 19 Sep 1240[540]m EUPHEME, daughter of --- (-after 3 Feb 1263).  "Fergus de Ardrossen miles" founded the chapel of Clon, for the soul of "quondam Friskini de Moravia domini mei domini de Duffus", by charter dated 16 Mar 1262 which names "domine Eufamie matris dicti Friskini"[541].  "Domina Eufemia quondam sponsa domini Walteri de Moravia domini de Duffus" confirmed "terram…in Ros…dotis mee…de Clonys juxta Dyngvall" to the church of Elgin by charter dated 3 Feb 1263[542].  Walter & his wife had one child: 

i)          FRESKIN de Moray (-before 16 Mar 1262, bur Duffus).  A charter dated 20 Mar 1248 records an agreement between the bishop of Moray and "Freskynum de Moravia dominum de Duffus" concerning "Spyny et…Fynroffy", confirming an earlier agreement between Bishop Andrew and "Walterum de Moravia dicti Freskyni genitorem"[543].  "Fergus de Ardrossen miles" founded the chapel of Clon, for the soul of "quondam Friskini de Moravia domini mei domini de Duffus", by charter dated 16 Mar 1262 which names "domine Eufamie matris dicti Friskini"[544]m JOAN, daughter of [JOHN Jarl of Orkney and Caithness & his wife ---].  According to the Complete Peerage, Joan wife of Freskin of Moray was "possibly…daughter and heiress of Earl John"[545].  Skene says that "the probability is that…half [of the earldom of Caithness]" was inherited by the Moray family from "Johanna…as indicated by her name, the daughter of John Earl of Caithness of the line of Paul"[546].  Neither source cites any primary source which confirms Joan’s parentage, which presumably is just speculative.  She was taken hostage by Alexander II King of Scotland in [Aug 1214 or 1222].  A charter dated 1269 confirmed a donation to the church of Moray by "domino Reginaldo le Chen minori domino de Duffus et Marie sponse sue filie quondam Friskyni de Moravia" and named "domina Johanna quondam sponsa domini Friskyni de Moravia"[547].  Freskin & his wife had two children: 

(a)       MARY (-after 1312).  A charter dated 1269 confirmed a donation to the church of Moray by "domino Reginaldo le Chen minori domino de Duffus et Marie sponse sue filie quondam Friskyni de Moravia" and named "domina Johanna quondam sponsa domini Friskyni de Moravia"[548].  "Reginaldus de Chen filius dominus de Duffus et Maria uxor eius" donated property to Kinloss by charter dated 1283[549]m REGINALD de Chen, son of ---.  He possessed ¼ Caithness, de iure uxoris, after the death of his father-in-law, but acquired another ¼ from his brother-in-law[550]

(b)       CHRISTIANA (-after Oct 1294).  "Willelmus de Fedreth et Cristina de Moravia uxor sua" donated "ecclesia Sancti Petri de Doffus" to the church of Moray by charter dated Oct 1294[551]m WILLIAM de Federeth, son of ---.  Constable of Roxburgh 1262.  He possessed ¼ Caithness, de iure uxoris, after the death of his father-in-law, but acquired another ¼ from his brother-in-law[552]

2.         WILLIAM de Moray (-before Oct 1226).  "Willelmus filius Willelmi Freskyny" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Artendol…exceptis decimis…juxta castellum meum de Bucharm" to the church of Moray by undated charter witnessed by "Domino Bricio Moraviensi episcopo, Hugone fratre meo, Arkembaldo de Duseglas, Freskyno decano Moraviensis ecclesie, Andrea de Moravia, Alexandro, Henrico, Hugone…"[553].  Brice Bishop of Moray confirmed the foundation of "in una trium ecclesiarum…Brennath et de Spyny et de Kenedor" by undated charter which reserves the rights of "Willelmi filii Willelmi filii Freskyny" in "terris…Lynyn et Duldauy" and of "Hugonis filii Willelmi filii Freskyny" in "Duffus"[554]m ---.  The name of William’s wife is not known.  William & his wife had two children: 

a)         WALTER de Moray (-after 1242, bur Duffus).  A charter dated 7 Oct 1226 records a dispute between "Andreas episcopus Moraviensis" and "Walterum de Moravia filium quondam Willelmi de Moravia" concerning "terris de Ardtrillen et Lunnin et Duldaui et Croyn…et super advocatione ecclesiarum de Croyn, Abirlouer, Buthrothyn et Arteldol", signed by "Walteri de Moravia filii quondam Hugonis de Moravia", witnessed by "…Alexandro vicecomite de Elgyn, H. de Duglas fratre eius…"[555].  "…Waltero de Moravia filio quondam Willelmi de Moravia, Willelmo de Moravia milite…" witnessed the charter dated 31 Oct 1226 which confirmed an agreement between the bishop of Moray and "Gylbertum Hostiarium" about "terra de Strathboc et…Buleske"[556].  "Walterus de Moravia filius quondam Willelmi de Moravia" donated "terram meam de Agynway" to the hospital of Spey by undated charter witnessed by "Andrea episcopo Moraviensi, magistris Willelmo et Edwardo et Willelmo fratre meo canonicis Moraviensis ecclesie, domino Waltero de Moravia filio quondam Hugonis de Moravia…"[557]

b)         WILLIAM de Moray .  "Walterus de Moravia filius quondam Willelmi de Moravia" donated "terram meam de Agynway" to the hospital of Spey by undated charter witnessed by "Andrea episcopo Moraviensi, magistris Willelmo et Edwardo et Willelmo fratre meo canonicis Moraviensis ecclesie, domino Waltero de Moravia filio quondam Hugonis de Moravia…"[558].  Canon at Moray. 

3.         ANDREW (-after 1213).  Richard Bishop of Moray confirmed the donation of "Logynauedal et le Logyndykis" made by "Willelmo filio Freskyni" by undated charter confirmed by "Andree persone clerico nostro et filio suo"[559].  Parson of Duffus. 

 

 

1.         WALTER de Moray (-after 1278).  The editor of the cartulary of the bishopric of Moray suggests that Walter was the son of Walter de Moray, son of William de Moray, who died after 1242 (see above) but he cites no primary source on which he bases this speculation[560].  A charter dated to [1275] records the donation of "terram meam de Ouchterwaddale" to Beauly priory by "Gillicrist Macgilliduffi", sealed by "Domini Walteri de Moravia", and witnessed by "Domino Andrea de Moravia, Willielmo comite Sutirland, Alano fratre dicti domini Andreæ"[561].  Lord of Bothwell.  m ---.  The name of Walter’s wife is not known.  Walter & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         WILLIAM de Moray (-[29 Sep 1299/10 Nov 1300]).  Inquisitions dated 28 Nov 1300 (writ 10 Nov 1300) following the death of "William de Moray" record that "Andrew de Moray, slain at Stirling against the king, son of the late Sir Andrew de Moray, has a lawful son…Andrew who dwells in Moray…two years of age at Pentecost last" was his heir[562]

b)         ANDREW de Moray (-[6 Nov 1297/10 Nov 1300]).  A charter dated to [1275] records the donation of "terram meam de Ouchterwaddale" to Beauly priory by "Gillicrist Macgilliduffi", sealed by "Domini Walteri de Moravia", and witnessed by "Domino Andrea de Moravia, Willielmo comite Sutirland, Alano fratre dicti domini Andreæ"[563]

-        see below

c)         ALAN de Moray (-after [1275]).  A charter dated to [1275] records the donation of "terram meam de Ouchterwaddale" to Beauly priory by "Gillicrist Macgilliduffi", sealed by "Domini Walteri de Moravia", and witnessed by "Domino Andrea de Moravia, Willielmo comite Sutirland, Alano fratre dicti domini Andreæ"[564]

d)         [ALEXANDER de Moray .  The primary source which confirms Alexander’s parentage has not yet been identified, but from a chronological point of view it appears possible that he was another son of Walter de Moray.  m as her first husband, EVA, daughter of --- (-after 3 Sep 1296).  She married secondly (before 1295) Alexander Comyn.  A charter dated 3 Sep 1296 records petitions to King Edward I by women whose estates had been seized in Scotland, including by "Eva ‘uxor’domini Alexandri Comyn de Badenaghe", who was captured "apud Dunbar", who requested restoration of "terræ de dote domini Alexandri de Morreve, quondam viri sui"[565].] 

 

 

ANDREW de Moray, son of WALTER de Moray & his wife --- (-[6 Nov 1297/10 Nov 1300]).  A charter dated to [1275] records the donation of "terram meam de Ouchterwaddale" to Beauly priory by "Gillicrist Macgilliduffi", sealed by "Domini Walteri de Moravia", and witnessed by "Domino Andrea de Moravia, Willielmo comite Sutirland, Alano fratre dicti domini Andreæ"[566].  A charter dated 11 Nov 1286 records redress sought by the six Guardians of Scotland from the Guardian  of England for "Sir Andrew de Moray and Euphemia his wife"[567].  A charter dated 16 May 1296 names "…Andrew de Moray…" among those captured at Dunbar castle (27 Apr 1296[568]) and sent to the Tower of London[569].  A charter dated 6 Nov 1297 ordered the Sheriffs of London to pay "…Andrew de Moray…knights, Scottish prisoners in the Tower" for their sustenance[570]

m firstly --- Comyn, daughter of JOHN Comyn Lord of Badenoch & his first wife Eva ---.  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "the Red Cwmyn" had four daughters, of whom the fourth married "the Lord…off Murrawe" by whom she had "Andrew off Murrawe, that efftyr that wes at the Bryg off Stryvelyne slayne"[571]

m secondly (after [1283]) as her second husband, EUPHEMIA, widow of WILLIAM Comyn of Kilbride, daughter of --- (-before Jan 1289).  The Fine Roll 25 May 1289 states that "Eufemia quæ fuit uxor Willelmi Comyn de Kyrkebride" married "Andreæ de Murreve sine licentia regis"[572].  A charter dated 11 Nov 1286 records redress sought by the six Guardians of Scotland from the Guardian  of England for "Sir Andrew de Moray and Euphemia his wife"[573].  The Inquisitions after the death of "Eufemiæ quæ fuit uxor Willelmi Comyn de Killebridge" are dated 27 Jan 1289, 7 Feb 1289 and 10 Mar 1289, and name "Johannes filius dicti Willelmi et dictæ Eufemiæ…heres ipsius Eufemiæ" aged 23[574]

Andrew & his first wife had two children: 

1.         ANDREW de Moray (-after 11 Oct 1297).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "the Red Cwmyn" had four daughters, of whom the fourth married "the Lord…off Murrawe" by whom she had "Andrew off Murrawe, that efftyr that wes at the Bryg off Stryvelyne slayne"[575].  A charter dated 16 May 1296 names "…Andrew de Moray…" among those captured at Dunbar castle (27 Apr 1296[576]) and sent to Chester castle[577].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Andreas de Moravia, pater Andreæ nobilis" was fatally wounded "III Id Sep" in 1297 "apud pontem de Strivelyne"[578].  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage states that "Andrew of Moray and William Wallace as leaders of the army of the kingdom of Scotland" wrote to the mayor and commons of Lübeck and Hamburg 11 Oct 1297[579]m ---.  The name of Andrew’s wife is not known.  Andrew & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANDREW Moray of Bothwell (1298-Avoch 1338, bur Rosemarkie in Moray, transferred to Dunfermline).  His parentage is confirmed by John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) which records that "Andreas de Moravia, pater Andreæ nobilis" was killed "III Id Sep" in 1297 "apud pontem de Strivelyne"[580].  Inquisitions dated 28 Nov 1300 (writ 10 Nov 1300) following the death of "William de Moray" record that "Andrew de Moray, slain at Stirling against the king, son of the late Sir Andrew de Moray, has a lawful son…Andrew who dwells in Moray…two years of age at Pentecost last" was his heir[581].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "nobilis Andreas de Moravia custos Scotiæ, post obsidionem castri de Edinburgh" died in 1338 "apud Davach" and was buried "in Rosmarky", his bones later transferred to "Dunfermelyn…altari B. Virginis"[582].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death "apud locum de Davach" in 1338 of "dominus Andreas de Moravia, custos Scociæ" and his burial "apud Rosmarkin"[583].  Regent of Scotland.  [m firstly ---.  As Andrew’s known wife was probably past child-bearing age when they married, it is likely that his two sons were born from an otherwise unrecorded first marriage.]  m [secondly] ([22 Jul 1326], Papal dispensation 20 Sep 1326) as her third husband, CHRISTIAN Bruce, widow firstly of GRATNEY Earl of Mar and secondly of CHRISTOPHER Seton, daughter of ROBERT Bruce Earl of Carrick & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick (-[1356/27 Jan 1357], bur Dunfermline).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage of "Andreas de Moravia" and "dominam Christianam sororem…regis" at Cambuskenneth in 1326[584].  Robert I King of Scotland granted “terras nostras de Garviauch...in liberum maritagium” to "Andree de Moravia militi panetario nostro Scotie...et Cristiane sponse sue sorori nostri" by charter dated 22 Jul 1326[585].  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Andree de Moravia domino de Bothvile" and "Cristiane de Setono nate quondam Robert de Bruys", issued by Pope John XXII, is dated 20 Sep 1326[586].  Andrew & his [first] wife had two children: 

i)          JOHN de Moray (-[20 Apr/5 Sep] 1351).  Lord of Bothwell.  "Thomas de Moravia panetarius Scotie" confirmed a donation by "bone memorie Johannis de Moravia fratris mei senioris" to Moray, for the soul of "bone memorie domini Andree de Moravia patris mei", by charter dated 8 May 1353[587]m (Papal dispensation 21 Nov 1348) as her first husband, MARGARET Graham Ctss of Menteith, widow of firstly of JOHN Moray of Bothwell, divorced wife secondly of THOMAS Earl of Mar, and widow thirdly of JOHN Drummond of Concraig, daughter of JOHN Graham & his wife Mary Ctss of Menteith (-[21 Jul 1372/4 May 1380]).  She married secondly (Papal dispensations 15 Aug 1352 and 29 May 1354, divorced before Feb 1359) as his first wife, Thomas Earl of Mar, thirdly (Papal dispensation 1360) John Drummond of Concraig, and fourthly (Papal dispensation 9 Sep 1361) as his first wife, Robert Stewart, who succeeded as Earl of Menteith in 1361, de iure uxoris, and was appointed Duke of Albany in 1398. 

ii)         THOMAS de Moray of Bothwell (-1361).  "Thomas de Moravia panetarius Scotie" confirmed a donation by "bone memorie Johannis de Moravia fratris mei senioris" to Moray, for the soul of "bone memorie domini Andree de Moravia patris mei", by charter dated 8 May 1353[588]m as her first husband, JOAN Moray of Drumsagard, daughter of MAURICE Moray Earl of Strathearn & his wife Joan Menteith (-[Jan 1403/Aug 1409]).  She married secondly (Papal dispensation 23 Jul 1362) Archibald Douglas "the Grim", who succeeded in 1388 as Earl of Douglas.  "Archebaldus de Douglas dñs Galwidie et de Bothevile" confirmed "terras de Arbuthnot" to "Philippo de Arbuthnot et Margarete de Douglas filie Jacobi de Douglas militis dñi de Dalkeith" by charter dated 25 Oct 1372 which names "Joneta sponsam nostram"[589]

2.         JOHN de Moray .  According to the editor of the cartulary of the bishopric of Moray, John son of Andrew was ancestor of the "De Moravias of Drumsargard and Abercairney" but he cites no corresponding primary source[590]

 

 

1.         MALCOLM de Moray (-before 1289).  "Domino Alexandro Comyn comite de Buchan tunc Justiciario Scotie, domino Freskyno de Moravia…domino Reginaldo le Chen…domino Malcolmo de Moravia…" witnessed the charter [dated to 1251/63[591]] under which Malise Earl of Strathearn donated property to the bishopric of Moray[592].  "Alexandro Comyne comite de Bochane iusticiario Scocie, Fergusi fratre eius, Malcolmo de Moravia tunc vicecomite de Perth…Ranulpho de Laceles…Willielmo de Moravia filio domini Malcolmi de Moravia, Duncano filii Fergusii, Lorne fratre eius…" witnessed the charter dated to [1270/82] under which Malise Earl of Strathearn granted property to "domino Malisio de Logy, filio quondam domini Malisii senescalli de Stratherene"[593].  "Malcolmo de Moravia miles" donated "terram meam de Beth occidentali" held "de domino Alex de Moravia tenui herediarie" to Dunfermline by charter dated 20 Jul 1274[594].  Alexander III King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "terra de Beth occidentali" made to Dunfermline by "Malcomo de Moravia miles…de Alex de Moravia milite" by charter dated 10 Mar 1277[595]m ---.  The name of Malcolm’s wife is not known.  Malcolm & his wife had two children: 

a)         JOHN de Moray (-after 29 Oct 1289).  "Johannes de Moravia filius domini Malcolmi de Moravia" donated lands in Perth to Balmerino Abbey by charter dated 29 Oct 1289 witnessed by "domino Alexandro Comyn, Willelmo de Moravia herede meo…"[596]

b)         WILLIAM de Moray (-after 24 May 1297).  "Alexandro Comyne comite de Bochane iusticiario Scocie, Fergusi fratre eius, Malcolmo de Moravia tunc vicecomite de Perth…Ranulpho de Laceles…Willielmo de Moravia filio domini Malcolmi de Moravia, Duncano filii Fergusii, Lorne fratre eius…" witnessed the charter dated to [1270/82] under which Malise Earl of Strathearn granted property to "domino Malisio de Logy, filio quondam domini Malisii senescalli de Stratherene"[597].  "Muriella quondam filia Coneuall filii Duncani" confirmed the donation of "terram meam de Tulibardyn" made to the bishopric of Moray by "domino Willelmo de Moravia militi filio domini Malcolmi de Moravia militis…et Ade filie mee sponse dicti domini Willelmi de Moravia" by charter dated Oct 1284[598]m ADA, daughter of MALISE Seneschal of Strathearn & his wife Muriel --- (-after Oct 1284).  "Muriella quondam filia Coneuall filii Duncani" confirmed the donation of "terram meam de Tulibardyn" made to the bishopric of Moray by "domino Willelmo de Moravia militi filio domini Malcolmi de Moravia militis…et Ade filie mee sponse dicti domini Willelmi de Moravia" by charter dated Oct 1284[599].  William & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANDREW de Moray (-executed [7] Oct 1332).  "Andreas de Moravia de Tulybardyn" donated "unius marce annui redditus" from his lands to Inchaffrary by charter dated 16 Dec 1329[600].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Andreas de Tullibardin" was captured when Perth was captured from King Edward Balliol "Non Oct" in 1332 and executed[601].  m ---.  The name of Andrew’s wife is not known.  Andrew & his wife had one child: 

(a)       WILLIAM de Moray (-[10 Nov 1358/3 Dec 1362]).  "Malisius comes Strathern" confirmed "terram de Tulibardy…infra comitatum nostrum de Strathern que fuit domine Ade de Moravia sponsa quondam domini Willelmi de Moravia de Tulibardy militis" to "Willelmo de Moravia filio Andree de Moravia de Tulibardy" by undated charter, witnessed by "…domino Johanne de Moravia de Dromfergarth…"[602]m MARGARET, daughter of --- (-after Nov 1358).  "Walterus de Moravia dominus de Tulybardy" donated "terras meas de Stratherne…Tulybardy, Nethyr, Gask, Dalreaghy, Aldy…" to "dilectam meam Margaretam…in libera dote", with the consent of "domini mei domini Roberti Sen. Scocie tunc comitis de Stratherni", by charter dated 10 Nov 1358[603].  William & his wife had [one child]: 

(1)       [WALTER de Moray (-[1390]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   David II King of Scotland confirmed the grant by "nepos nostri Roberti senescall Scocie comes de Stratherne" of "terris de Tolibardyne, Petver, Aldy, Dundovane…" to "Waltero de Moravia de Tolibardyne", by charter dated 3 Dec 1362[604].]  m MARGARET le Barde, daughter of --- (-1412 or after). 

-         MURRAY FAMILY of TULLIBARDINE, later EARLS, DUKES of ATHOLL[605]

(b)       MARGARET Moray .  Robertson indexes a charter from David II King of Scotland which records a grant "of the thanedom of Collie…[which] was Alexander Frazer’s his father’s" to "William Frazer and Margaret Murray his spouse"[606]m WILLIAM Fraser, son of ALEXANDER Fraser & his wife Mary Bruce (-killed in battle Neville's Cross 17 Oct 1346). 

 

 

2.         JOHN de Moray of Drumsagard, co. Lanark .  He was presumably related to the Moray family of Tullibardine, as shown by the undated charter under which "Malisius comes Strathern" confirmed "terram de Tulibardy…infra comitatum nostrum de Strathern que fuit domine Ade de Moravia sponsa quondam domini Willelmi de Moravia de Tulibardy militis" to "Willelmo de Moravia filio Andree de Moravia de Tulibardy", witnessed by "…domino Johanne de Moravia de Dromfergarth…"[607], but the precise relationship has not yet been ascertained.  "Malisius comes Strathern" granted "terram de Abbercarny…que fuit Roberti filii Magni dicti de Strathern" to "Johanni de Moravia de Dromsygart…[et] heredibus suis de Maria filia nostra" by undated charter[608]

-        EARLS of STRATHERN

 

 

 

C.      EARLS of MORAY (RANDOLPH)

 

 

1.         RANDOLPHm ---.  The name of Randolph’s wife is not known.  Randolph & his wife had one child: 

a)         THOMAS (-after 3 Feb 1231).  "…Thoma filio Randulfi…" witnessed the charter dated 3 Feb 1231 under which Alexander II King of Scotland founded Balmerino Abbey[609]

 

2.         THOMAS Randolph of Strathdon, son of --- .  He was present at John Balliol's homage to Edward I King of England in 1292[610].  Chamberlain of Scotland.  m --- Bruce, daughter of ROBERT Bruce Earl of Carrick & his first wife Margaret Ctss of Carrick .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 12 Apr 1316 under which Robert I King of Scotland granted annual revenue from the farms of Perth to Perth Blackfriars witnessed by "…Thoma Randulph comite Moraviæ nepote nostro…"[611].  Thomas Randolph & his wife had three children:

a)         THOMAS Randolph (-Musselburgh 20 Jul 1332).  He was present with his father at John Balliol's homage to Edward I King of England in 1292, but rebelled with Robert Bruce.  Barbour’s The Brus records "Schir Thomas Randol…Shir Alexander Fraser and Schir David the Berclay…and Hew de la Hay" amolng those who were taken prisoner at the battle of Methven in 1306[612].  He was created Earl of Moray [12 Apr/29 Oct] 1312.  "…Thoma Randulph comite Moraviæ nepote nostro…" witnessed the charter dated 12 Apr 1316 under which Robert I King of Scotland granted annual revenue from the farms of Perth to Perth Blackfriars[613].  He captured Edinburgh Castle from the English in Mar 1314 and commanded the left wing at the battle of Bannockburn 24 Jun 1314.  He took part in Edward Bruce's invasion of Ireland 1315-1317, and captured Berwick by surprise in 1318.  "Thomas Randulphi comes Moravie dominus Wallie Anandie et Mannie" confirmed the donation made by "Reginaldi…regis Insularum" to St Bees by charter dated 2 May 1329[614].  He became Regent of Scotland for David II King of Scotland in 1329[615].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "XIII Kal Aug" in 1332 of "Thomas Ranulphi comes Moraviæ et custos Scotiæ"[616]m ISABEL Stewart Lady of Gailies, daughter of JOHN Stewart of Bonkyl & his wife Margaret Bonkyl (-after 16 Jul 1351).  Earl Thomas & his wife had four children:

i)          THOMAS Randolph (-killed in battle 12 Aug 1332).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Johannem Stewart comitem Angusiæ, Thomam Ranulphi filium et heredum recolendæ memoriæ D. Thomas comitis Moraviæ" were knighted in 1331[617].  He succeeded his father in 1332 as Earl of Moray.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Thomas Randulphi junior, comes Moraviæ…" were killed at Duplin Moor 11 Aug 1332 fighting Edward Balliol[618]

ii)         JOHN Randolph (-killed in battle Neville's Cross 17 Oct 1346).  He succeeded his brother in 1332 as Earl of Moray.  He was made Regent for David II King of Scotland in [1333], jointly with Robert Stewart, but was captured in Aug 1335 and kept in captivity by the English until early 1342 when he was exchanged for the Earl of Salisbury[619].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Johannes Ranulphi comes Moraviæ ac etiam comes de Strathern constabularius Scotiæ…David filius et heres David de Lindsay…Willelmus Fraser…" were killed at Durham 17 Oct 1346[620]m as her first husband, EUPHEME of Ross, daughter of HUGH Earl of Ross & his second wife Margaret Graham.  She married secondly (Papal dispensation 2 May 1355) as his second wife, Robert Stewart Earl of Atholl, who later succeeded as Robert II King of Scotland.  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Roberti Stivardi Senescalli Scocie" and "Eufemie comitisse Moravie, relicte quondam Johannis comitis Moravie", issued by Pope Innocent VI, is dated 2 May "anno tertio" (1355)[621]

iii)        AGNES Randolph (-after 24 May 1367).  She was co-heiress of her brother in 1346.  m (after Sep 1320) as his second wife, PATRICK Dunbar Earl of Dunbar, son of PATRICK Dunbar Earl of Dunbar & his wife Marjorie Comyn ([1285]-11 Nov 1368). 

iv)       ISABEL Randolph .  She was co-heiress of her brother in 1346.  Her issue became sole heirs after the death of her older sister Agnes Ctss of Dunbar without surviving issue in [1367].  m PATRICK Dunbar of Dunbar, son of ALEXANDER Dunbar & his wife --- (-Candia, Crete [Oct/Dec] 1356). 

b)         NICHOLAS Randolph .  A charter dated 16 May 1296 names "…Nicholas Randolf son of Thomas Randolf…" among those captured at Dunbar castle (27 Apr 1296[622]) and sent to the Tower of London[623]

c)         daughter .  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage states that "Sir William Murray…said to be the first of this family" married "the sister of Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray"[624].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by an undated charter under which "Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray" granted land "de Cumlungan et de Ryvel in Valle Anandie" to "Willelmo de Moravia nepoti nostro…Patricium fratrem suum"[625]m WILLIAM Murray, son of ---. 

 

 

 

D.      EARLS of MORAY (DUNBAR)

 

 

JOHN Dunbar, son of PATRICK Dunbar & his wife Isabel Randolph of Moray (-before 15 Feb 1392).  He was created Earl of Moray by his father-in-law Robert II King of Scotland 9 Mar 1372.  He was chief of the commission which met the English in Ayton church, near Berwick, in Jul 1384 to arrange truce terms[626]

m (Papal dispensation 11 Jul 1370) as her first husband, Lady MARJORIE Stewart, daughter of ROBERT II King of Scotland & his first wife Elizabeth Mure (-after 6 May 1417).  The Papal dispensation for the marriage of "Johannis de Dovibar" and "Mariorie Senescalli", issued by Pope Urban V, is dated 11 Jul 1370[627].  She married secondly (before 24 Apr 1403) Alexander Keith of Grandown. 

Earl John & his wife had three children:

1.         THOMAS Dunbar (-after early 1415).  Sheriff of Inverness.  He succeeded his father as Earl of Moray before 15 Feb 1392, when he was declared himself as such in an exchange of lands which names both his parents and his wife.  He was taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Homildon Hill in 1402[628]m (before Feb 1392) MARGARET, daughter of --- (-before Jan 1422).  Earl Thomas & his wife had three children:   

a)         THOMAS Dunbar (-[1427/29]).  He succeeded his father after early 1415 as Earl of Moray[629]Betrothed (1415) to EUPHEME Leslie Ctss of Ross, daughter of ALEXANDER Leslie Earl of Ross & his wife Isabel Stewart of Albany.  m MARGARET Seton, daughter of WILLIAM Seton of Seton or of WILLIAM Seton Lord Seton (-before 1471).  She married secondly (before 1447) John Ogilvy of Lintrathen. 

b)         JAMES Dunbar (-[10 Aug 1429]).  He succeeded his cousin in [1427] as Earl of Moraym [KATHERINE or JANET] Seton, daughter of ALEXANDER Seton of Gordon & his wife ---.  Mistress (1): [630][ISOBEL of Innes].  Earl James & his wife had two children:

i)          Lady JANET Dunbar (-[18 Mar 1494/1506]).  She succeeded her father in Frendraught.  After the death of her first husband, she continued to style herself Ctss of Moray despite the earldom being conferred on David Stewart, son of James II King of Scotland, in Feb 1456[631].  She resigned the Barony of Frendraught to her grandson James Crichton in 1493[632]m firstly ([1442/46]) JAMES Crichton, son of WILLIAM Crichton Lord Crichton & his wife Agnes --- (-Dunbar Aug 1454).  He was installed as Earl of Moray 12 Jun 1452 after the rebellion of his brother-in-law Archibald Douglas Earl of Moray[633].  He succeeded his father in 1454 as Lord Crichton.  m secondly (before 17 Jan 1459) JOHN Sutherland, son of ---. 

ii)         Lady ELIZABETH Dunbar (-before 17 Feb 1486)m firstly ([Aug 1434/26 Apr 1442]) ARCHIBALD Douglas, son of JAMES Douglas Earl of Douglas & his [second] wife Beatrice Sinclair of Orkney (-killed Arkinholm 1 May 1455).  He was installed in parliament as Earl of Moray 3 Jul 1445, a reflection of the power of the Douglas family rather than his wife's hereditary right.  He rebelled against the king following the murder of his brother William Earl of Douglas.  He was attainted posthumously and his assets and title declared forfeited[634][635]m secondly (contract 20 May 1455, divorced before 10 Mar 1460) as his first wife, GEORGE Gordon Master of Huntly, son of ALEXANDER Seton [later Gordon] Earl of Huntly & his second wife Lady Elizabeth Crichton (-Stirling [8] Jun 1501, bur Cambuskenneth).  He succeeded his father in 1470 as Earl of Huntly.  [636]m thirdly ([1462]) as his second wife, JOHN Colquhoun of Luss, son of MALCOLM Colquhoun & his wife --- (-[1478/79]). 

Earl James had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

iii)        ALEXANDER Dunbar of Westfield, Morayshire (-10 Mar 1498).  He inherited Carnoustie and Cluny from his father  Hereditary Sheriff of Moray.  [637]m (contract 3 Jan 1452) ISOBEL Sutherland, daughter of ALEXANDER Sutherland of Duffus & his wife Muriel Chisholm.  Their descendants are set out in Burke's Peerage, Dunbar of Mochrum, baronetcy created 29 Mar 1694[638].  

c)         [639]JANET Dunbarm HUGH Fraser 8th of Lovat, son of HUGH Fraser of Lovat & his first wife Janet de Fenton of Beaufort ([1417]-[1450]). 

2.         [640]ALEXANDER Dunbar of Frendraught . 

3.         EUPHEME Dunbar .  The marriage contract between “Schir Thomas of Dunbarr erll of Murreff...his sister Euffame” and “Alexander Cumyne” is dated 28 May 1408[641]m (contract 28 May 1408) ALEXANDER Comyn, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    STRATHEARN

 

 

 

A.      MORMAER and EARLS of STRATHEARN

 

 

Strathearn was, with Menteith, one of the seven original provinces of Scotland in the 9th century.  It covered what was later the southern part of the county of Perth.  Nothing is known of the Mormaers of Strathearn until the early 12th century when Mallus [Malise] was one of the six signatories of the [1114/15] charter of Scone who signed as "comes". 

 

 

1.         MALLUS [Malise], son of --- (-after 14 Jun 1141).  Mormaer of Strathearn.  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[642].  "…Mallus comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[643].  "…Malis comite…" witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[644].  "…Malise comes…" witnessed a charter dated to [1128] by which "David… Rex Scottorum" made grants to the church of Dunfermline[645].  "…Malis comite…" witnessed a charter dated 1130 by which "David…Rex Scottorum" confirmed the shire of Kirkcaldy to the church of Dunfermline[646]m ---.  The name of Mallus’s wife is not known.  Mallus & his wife had one child: 

a)         FERTETH [Ferquhard] (-before Dec 1170).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "sex comites, Ferchard…comes de Strathern et alii quinque" conspired against King Malcolm IV after the accession of Henry II King of England[647].  The Chronicle of Melrose records the death in 1171 of "Ferchet earl of Strathern"[648]m (before 1150) ETHEN, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1198] under which her son "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen"[649].  Ferteth & his wife had two children: 

i)          GILBERT ([1150 or before]-1223).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1198] under which "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen"[650].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn

-         see below

ii)         MALISE (after [1150]-after [1211]).  "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen", by charter dated to [1198], witnessed by "Malis fratre comitis, Gillecrist filio comitis…Dunecano filio Malisii, Maulde comitissa de Strathern…"[651].  "Gilebertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam de Madernin" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1199], witnessed by "Malisio fratre meo, Mathilde comitissa, Willelmo et Ferthed et Roberto filiis meis…"[652].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[653].  "…M. comitissa de Stratherr, Malisio fratre comitis, Ferthet filio comitis, Matilda filia comitis…Dunecano filio Malihs…" subscribed the charter dated to [1200] under which "Gilbertus comes de Stratheren" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[654].  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[655].  "…Malisio filio comitis Fertheth, W. Olifart…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scocie" donated "Culsamuel et…Munkegyn" to Lindores Abbey[656].  "Malisius filius comitis Fertheth frater comitis Gilberti de Strathern" donated "Rathangothen" to Lindores Abbey, for the soul of "uxoris mee filie comitis David", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero Olifard, David de Lindeseia…David Olifard…"[657].  "…M. fratre meo, M. comitissa, Roberto filio et herede meo et aliis filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated 1210 under which "G. comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Beani de Foulis" to Inchaffray Abbey[658].  "G. comite, Malisio fratre eius, Roberto filio comitis, Fergus fratre eius…" subscribed the charter dated to [1211] under which confirms the donation by "G. comitis de Strathern" of "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberrotheuin" to Inchaffray Abbey[659].  m ADA, daughter of DAVID of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon & his [first wife ---].  The undated charter, dated to before 1203 from the names of the subscribers, under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey refers to land "in villa de Neutile" donated by "Ada filia mea, uxor Malisii filii comitis Fertheth"[660].  "Malisius filius comitis Fertheth frater comitis Gilberti de Strathern" donated "Rathangothen" to Lindores Abbey, for the soul of "uxoris mee filie comitis David", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero Olifard, David de Lindeseia…David Olifard…"[661].  "Ada filia comitis David uxor Malisii filii comitis Fertheth" donated land "in villa de Balemagh" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter[662].  Malise & his wife had [two] children (there is no direct proof that the father of these two children was the brother of Earl Gilbert, but the proximity of their names in the charter subscriptions quoted below suggests that this might be the case): 

(a)       [DUNCAN (-after 1223).  "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen", by charter dated to [1198], witnessed by "Malis fratre comitis, Gillecrist filio comitis…Dunecano filio Malisii, Maulde comitissa de Strathern…"[663].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[664].  "…M. comitissa de Stratherr, Malisio fratre comitis, Ferthet filio comitis, Matilda filia comitis…Dunecano filio Malihs…" subscribed the charter dated to [1200] under which "Gilbertus comes de Stratheren" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[665].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Doncano filio Malisi…" subscribed the charter dated 1218 under which confirms the donation by "Gillebertus comes de Strathern" donated "Maresii" to Inchaffray Abbey[666].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii…" subscribed the charter dated 1219 under which "Gillebertus comes de Stratheren" donated numerous properties to Inchaffray Abbey[667].  "Robertus filius Gilleberti comitis" confirmed donations of numerous churches to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], subscribed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Dunecano et Gilletoma filiis Malisii…"[668].  "Robertus comes de Stratheren" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1223/24], witnessed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii"[669].  ]  

(b)       [GILLETHOMA (-after 1223).  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii…" subscribed the charter dated 1219 under which "Gillebertus comes de Stratheren" donated numerous properties to Inchaffray Abbey[670].  "Robertus filius Gilleberti comitis" confirmed donations of numerous churches to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], subscribed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Dunecano et Gilletoma filiis Malisii…"[671].  "Robertus comes de Stratheren" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1223/24], witnessed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii"[672].  ]  

 

 

GILBERT of Strathearn, son of FERTETH Earl of Strathearn & his wife Ethen --- ([1150 or before]-1223).  "…Comite Duncano, Gillebrid comite de Anegus, M. comite de Ethoel, Gillecrist comite de Meneteth, Gillberto filio comitis Ferteth, Merlefwano Adam filio comitis de Anegus…" witnessed the charter dated 1164 under which "Malcolmus rex Scottorum" confirmed the foundation of Scone abbey[673].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn.  "…Gillebto comite de Stradtherin…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to after [1170], under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Sconin" to St Andrew’s priory[674].  "…Dunec, Malcolmo filio eio, com. Gilleb, Eth filio com. de Leueñ…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to 1193, under which "Dunecanus filius Gillebti filii Fergi" donated "totam terram de Moybothelbeg…[et] de Bethoc" to Melrose abbey[675].  "Gilbertus comes de Stratheryn" donated property "apud Fowlis" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1195], witnessed by "Matildis comitissa de Stratheryn, Gilbertus filius comitis Gilberti…"[676].  "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen", by charter dated to [1198], witnessed by "Malis fratre comitis, Gillecrist filio comitis…Dunecano filio Malisii, Maulde comitissa de Strathern…"[677].  "Gilebertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam de Madernin" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1199], witnessed by "Malisio fratre meo, Mathilde comitissa, Willelmo et Ferthed et Roberto filiis meis…"[678].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Gilbertus comes de Stratherne" divided his county in three equal parts, between the bishopric of Dunblane, the canons of Inchaffray, and keeping the third part for himself and his heirs[679].  "…Gilberto comite de Strathern…" subscribed the undated charter under which "Comes David frater regis Scottorum" founded Lindores Abbey[680].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[681].  The prominent position accorded in the list of subscribers to this charter to the members of the Quincy family (see the document ENGLAND EARLS 1207-1466) suggests a close connection with the family of the earls of Strathearn, which has not yet been explained.  "Rogerius de Quinci" confirmed donations of land "in territorio de Gasc", where the men of "domini patris mei comitis Wintonie" pastured animals, to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], witnessed by "Gilberto comite de Stratherne, Roberto et Fergus filiis suis…"[682].  "Ysenda sponsa comitis Gilleberti de Strathern" donated land "in villa mea de Abercharni", over which "…domino Ricardo milite et Galfrido de Gasc fratribus meis…" had rights of passage, by charter dated to [1221/23], confirmed by "comes dominus meus"[683].  "Robertus filius Gilberti comitis de Stratheryn" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1221/23][684].  These last two documents suggest that Earl Gilbert may have been incapacitated in some way towards the end of his life and handed control of affairs to his second wife and his son. 

m firstly MATILDA de Albini, daughter of WILLIAM de Albini ["Brito"] & his wife [Matilda de Senlis] (-after 1210).  "Gilbertus comes de Stratheryn" donated property "apud Fowlis" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1195], witnessed by "Matildis comitissa de Stratheryn, Gilbertus filius comitis Gilberti…"[685].  "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen", by charter dated to [1198], witnessed by "Malis fratre comitis, Gillecrist filio comitis…Dunecano filio Malisii, Maulde comitissa de Strathern…"[686].  "Gilebertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam de Madernin" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1199], witnessed by "Malisio fratre meo, Mathilde comitissa, Willelmo et Ferthed et Roberto filiis meis…"[687].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis"[688].  No more precise information has been found about the parentage of Matilda, first wife of Gilbert Earl of Strathearn.  From a chronological point of view, it is possible that "Willelmi de Aubengni" was William de Albini Brito, who died in 1168.  If this is correct, Matilda must have been born not long before her father’s death as she gave birth to her last child after Oct 1198.  It appears that William, son of William who died in 1168, would have been too young to have been Matilda’s father.  "…M. comitissa de Stratherr, Malisio fratre comitis, Ferthet filio comitis, Matilda filia comitis…Dunecano filio Malihs…" subscribed the charter dated to [1200] under which "Gilbertus comes de Stratheren" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[689].  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[690].  "…M. fratre meo, M. comitissa, Roberto filio et herede meo et aliis filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated 1210 under which "G. comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Beani de Foulis" to Inchaffray Abbey[691].  

m secondly YSENDE of Gask, sister of RICHARD and GEOFFREY of Gask, daughter of ---.  "Ysenda sponsa comitis Gilleberti de Strathern" donated land "in villa mea de Abercharni", over which "…domino Ricardo milite et Galfrido de Gasc fratribus meis…" had rights of passage, by charter dated to [1221/23], confirmed by "comes dominus meus"[692].  

Earl Gilbert & his first wife had [ten] children:  

1.         GILCHRIST (-5 Oct 1198, bur Inchaffray Abbey).  "Gilbertus comes de Stratheryn" donated property "apud Fowlis" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1195], witnessed by "Matildis comitissa de Stratheryn, Gilbertus filius comitis Gilberti…"[693].  The following charters suggest that "Gilbertus filius comitis" in this document was an error for "Gillecrist filius…", particularly the 1200 charter which refers to Gilchrist as "primogeniti nostri".  "Gilbertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberruadeuien" to Inchaffray, for the souls of "pater meus Ferthet et mater mea Ethen", by charter dated to [1198], witnessed by "Malis fratre comitis, Gillecrist filio comitis…Dunecano filio Malisii, Maulde comitissa de Strathern…"[694].  His father granted him the lands of Kinveachy and Glencairnie[695].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[696].  

2.         WILLIAM (-before 1210).  "Gilebertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam de Madernin" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1199], witnessed by "Malisio fratre meo, Mathilde comitissa, Willelmo et Ferthed et Roberto filiis meis…"[697].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[698].  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[699].  He died before 1210, the date of his father’s charter subscribed by "…Roberto filio et herede meo…"[700].  

3.         FERTETH (-before 1210).  "Gilebertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam de Madernin" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1199], witnessed by "Malisio fratre meo, Mathilde comitissa, Willelmo et Ferthed et Roberto filiis meis…"[701].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[702].  "…M. comitissa de Stratherr, Malisio fratre comitis, Ferthet filio comitis, Matilda filia comitis…Dunecano filio Malihs…" subscribed the charter dated to [1200] under which "Gilbertus comes de Stratheren" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[703].  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[704].  He died before 1210, the date of his father’s charter subscribed by "…Roberto filio et herede meo…"[705].  

4.         ROBERT (-before Aug 1244).  "Gilebertus comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam de Madernin" to Inchaffray by charter dated to [1199], witnessed by "Malisio fratre meo, Mathilde comitissa, Willelmo et Ferthed et Roberto filiis meis…"[706].  A charter dated 1200 records the foundation of Inchaffray Abbey by "Gilbertus filius Ferthead…comes de Stradern et…Matilidis filia Willelmi de Aubengni comitissa", for the soul of "Gillecrist primogeniti nostri ibidem quiescentis", the dating clause of which refers to "ad obitu prenominati filii nostri Gillecrist anno secundo, obiit autem III Non Oct", witnessed by "…Robertus de Quinci, Seierus de Quinci, Malisius frater comitis, Willelmus, Ferthead et Robertus filii comitis…Dunecanus filius Malisii…"[707].  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[708].  "…M. fratre meo, M. comitissa, Roberto filio et herede meo et aliis filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated 1210 under which "G. comes de Strathern" donated "ecclesiam sancti Beani de Foulis" to Inchaffray Abbey[709].  "G. comite, Malisio fratre eius, Roberto filio comitis, Fergus fratre eius…" subscribed the charter dated to [1211] under which confirms the donation by "G. comitis de Strathern" of "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberrotheuin" to Inchaffray Abbey[710].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Doncano filio Malisi…" subscribed the charter dated 1218 under which confirms the donation by "Gillebertus comes de Strathern" donated "Maresii" to Inchaffray Abbey[711].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii…" subscribed the charter dated 1219 under which "Gillebertus comes de Stratheren" donated numerous properties to Inchaffray Abbey[712].  "Robertus filius Gilleberti comitis" confirmed donations of numerous churches to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], subscribed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Dunecano et Gilletoma filiis Malisii…"[713].  "Rogerius de Quinci" confirmed donations of land "in territorio de Gasc", where the men of "domini patris mei comitis Wintonie" pastured animals, to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], witnessed by "Gilberto comite de Stratherne, Roberto et Fergus filiis suis…"[714].  "Robertus filius Gilberti comitis de Stratheryn" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1221/23][715].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn.  "Robertus comes de Stratheren" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1223/24], witnessed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii"[716].  The date of his death is set by the charter, dated to after 1244, under which [his brother] "Fergus filius G. quondam comitis de Stratherne" donated "terram…Cotken in Kather Mothel" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, dated to after 1244, witnessed by [Robert’s son] "domino M. comite de Strathern…"[717]m --- (-after 1247).  The name of Robert’s wife is not known.  A charter of her son "M. comes de Stratherin" dated 1247 refer to the rights "in vita comitisse matris nostre" and provides for after her death[718].  Robert & his wife had [six] children: 

a)         [FERGUS .  "Domini mei Roberti comitis de Stradhern, domino Fergus filio comitis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1226/34] under which "Thebaldus filius Willelmi filii Clementis" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[719].  However, "Domino R. comite de Stradhern, domino F. fratre ipsius…" subscribed the charter dated to [1226/34] under which "Robertus de Meggefen" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[720], which suggests that "filio comitis" in the former charter may have been an error for "fratre comitis".]  

b)         MALISE (-in France [before 23 Nov] 1271, bur Dunblane).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1247 under which "M. comes de Stratherin" confirmed the donations made by "Gilberti avi nostri et…bone memorie Roberti patris nostri comitum de Stratherin" to Inchaffray Abbey[721].  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn

-        see below

c)         GILBERT (-after 1268).  "Malisius comes de Stratherne" granted the advowson of the church of Cortachy to Inchaffray, obliging "heredes nostros quos habuerimus de Matilda sponsa nostra filia domini Gilleberti quondam comitis Kattanie et Orkadie", by charter dated 12 Dec 1257 witnessed by "…fratre Hugone et Gilleberto fratribus nostris…"[722].  "Malisius comes de Strathernt" donated a serf to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated 1258, witnessed by "Malisio filio comitis…Gilberto fratre comitis…[723].  "M. comes Strathernie" granted rights to "domine Marie sorori nostri" by charter dated 1268, witnessed by "dominis M. avunculo nostro, G. fratre nostro…"[724].  "Malicius comes" granted "terra to Kelou in Syro de Soulis" to "Cecilie filie sue" by undated charter witnessed by "…dño Gilberto fratre meo…"[725]

d)         HUGH (-after 12 Dec 1257).  "Malisius comes de Stratherne" granted the advowson of the church of Cortachy to Inchaffray, obliging "heredes nostros quos habuerimus de Matilda sponsa nostra filia domini Gilleberti quondam comitis Kattanie et Orkadie", by charter dated 12 Dec 1257 witnessed by "…fratre Hugone et Gilleberto fratribus nostris…"[726].  Monk. 

e)         ANNABELLA ([1230/40]-after 3 Sep 1296).  "Malisius comes Strathern" granted "terram de Kynkardyn in Kather ieuenas…juxta Huctahardouer" to "Amabilie sorori mee ad ipsam maritandam" by undated charter[727].  "Annabella, quæ fuit uxor Patricii de Graham qui occisus fuit in exercitu contra regem apud Dunbar" petitioned for succession to her husband’s estates by charter dated 3 Sep 1296[728].  Her birth date is difficult to estimate.  The birth of the oldest child of her brother Malise Earl of Strathearn is dated to [1244], which suggests that Malise was probably not born later than [1220/25], while their father’s death is dated to “before Aug 1244”.  Annabella was therefore probably born within the wide range of [1215/40].  If her brother’s charter quoted above is correctly dated by Balfour Paul, she would have been born during the later part of this range (specified for presentation purposes above as [1230/40]).  This suggestion appears corroborated by her son still being alive in 1325.  Balfour Paul says that "it is possible that she had previously been married to John of Lestalrig [Restalrig], for on 22 Nov 1293 there was an appeal taken to Edward I, as Lord Superior of Scotland, by Simon de Lestalrig, in a complaint by him to John Baliol, that Patrick de Graham, in time of the fatuity of the said John, had impetrated certain rights over Restalrig through Annabella, wife of the said John, to the loss and damage of Simon, John’s son and heir"[729].  [m firstly[, as his second wife,] JOHN of Lestalrig, son of ---.]  m [secondly] ([1251/60]) PATRICK [II] Graham, son of [DAVID [III] de Graham & his wife Agnes ---] (-killed in battle Dunbar 28 Apr 1296). 

f)          MARY (-after 1284).  "M. comes Strathernie" granted rights to "domine Marie sorori nostri" by charter dated 1268, witnessed by "dominis M. avunculo nostro, G. fratre nostro…"[730].  "Johannes de Jonstone miles" ratified the donation by "domina Maria sponsa mea" of "tenemento suo de Strathy" to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated 1284[731].  m JOHN de Johnstone, son of --- (-after 1284). 

5.         MATILDA of Strathearn .  "…M. comitissa de Stratherr, Malisio fratre comitis, Ferthet filio comitis, Matilda filia comitis…Dunecano filio Malihs…" subscribed the charter dated to [1200] under which "Gilbertus comes de Stratheren" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[732].  "Comes Gilbertus de Straderne" confirmed "cum Matilda filia mea…terras…Glendouan" to "Malcolmo filio comitis Duncani" by undated charter[733]m [as his second wife,] MALCOLM Earl of Fife, son of DUNCAN Macduff Earl of Fife & his wife Ada [Ella] --- (-1228, bur Culross [Kilenross] Abbey[734]). 

6.         FERGUS of Strathearn (-after [1247]).  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[735].  "G. comite, Malisio fratre eius, Roberto filio comitis, Fergus fratre eius…" subscribed the charter dated to [1211] under which confirms the donation by "G. comitis de Strathern" of "ecclesiam sancti Cathani de Aberrotheuin" to Inchaffray Abbey[736].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Doncano filio Malisi…" subscribed the charter dated 1218 under which confirms the donation by "Gillebertus comes de Strathern" donated "Maresii" to Inchaffray Abbey[737].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii…" subscribed the charter dated 1219 under which "Gillebertus comes de Stratheren" donated numerous properties to Inchaffray Abbey[738].  "Robertus filius Gilleberti comitis" confirmed donations of numerous churches to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], subscribed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Dunecano et Gilletoma filiis Malisii…"[739].  "Rogerius de Quinci" confirmed donations of land "in territorio de Gasc", where the men of "domini patris mei comitis Wintonie" pastured animals, to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], witnessed by "Gilberto comite de Stratherne, Roberto et Fergus filiis suis…"[740].  "Robertus comes de Stratheren" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1223/24], witnessed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii"[741].  "Domino R. comite de Stradhern, domino F. fratre ipsius…" subscribed the charter dated to [1226/34] under which "Robertus de Meggefen" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[742].  "Fergus filius comitis Gilberti" donated revenue to Lindores Abbey, "quam de hure ex donacione domini Malisii patrui mei", by undated charter, subscribed by "Domino Roberto comite de Strathern fratre meo, Waltero Oliphard…Gilberto fratre meo…"[743].  "…Domino Fergus filio comitis Gilberti, Malisio fratre eius…" subscribed the charter dated 1234 under which the bishop of Dunblane granted remissions from decimarum to Inchaffray Abbey[744].  "Fergus filius G. quondam comitis de Stratherne" donated "terram…Cotken in Kather Mothel" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, dated to after 1244, witnessed by "domino M. comite de Strathern, Malisio fratre meo…"[745].  "Fergusius filius Gilberti quondam comitis de Stratheryn" donated property at Ouchtirmachan to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1247], witnessed by "…Malisio nepoti meo"[746].  

7.         MALISE of Strathearn (-after [1272]).  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[747].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Doncano filio Malisi…" subscribed the charter dated 1218 under which confirms the donation by "Gillebertus comes de Strathern" donated "Maresii" to Inchaffray Abbey[748].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii…" subscribed the charter dated 1219 under which "Gillebertus comes de Stratheren" donated numerous properties to Inchaffray Abbey[749].  "Robertus filius Gilleberti comitis" confirmed donations of numerous churches to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], subscribed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Dunecano et Gilletoma filiis Malisii…"[750].  "Robertus comes de Stratheren" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1223/24], witnessed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii"[751].  "…Domino Fergus filio comitis Gilberti, Malisio fratre eius…" subscribed the charter dated 1234 under which the bishop of Dunblane granted remissions from decimarum to Inchaffray Abbey[752].  "Gilbertus de Haya" confirmed the donation of "terciam partem piscarie…de Glesbanin…[et] de Rugesablun" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter witnessed by "…Malisio de Strathern consanguineo meo…"[753].  "Fergus filius G. quondam comitis de Stratherne" donated "terram…Cotken in Kather Mothel" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, dated to after 1244, witnessed by "domino M. comite de Strathern, Malisio fratre meo…"[754].  "…Domino Malisio avunculo domini M. comitis de Stratherin…" subscribed the charter dated to [1246] under which "Gillecrist filius Malcolmi Macnacthan" donated "ecclesiam sancti Mordaci de Kellemurthe" to Inchaffray abbey[755].  "M. comes de Stratherin" confirmed the donations made by "Gilberti avi nostri et…bone memorie Roberti patris nostri comitum de Stratherin" to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated 1247, witnessed by "…domino Malisio avunculo domini M. comitis…"[756].  "M. comes Strathernie" granted rights to "domine Marie sorori nostri" by charter dated 1268, witnessed by "dominis M. avunculo nostro, G. fratre nostro…"[757].  "…Domino Ewgenio de Argadia, Domino M. avunculo nostro…" subscribed the charter dated 4 Apr "1218" (suggested redating to 1268 by the editor of the cartulary) under which "Malisius comes de Stratheryn" donated property at Abircarnich to Inchaffray[758].  "Malisius filius G. quondam comitis de Statheryn miles" donated land "in tenemento de Rossy" to Inchaffray Abbey, for the soul of "Malisii filii mei", by charter dated to [1272], witnessed by "…domino N rectore ecclesie de Creffe filio meo…"[759].  m ---.  The name of Malise’s wife is not known.  Malise & [his wife] had two children: 

a)         MALISE (-after [1272]).  "Malisius filius G. quondam comitis de Statheryn miles" donated land "in tenemento de Rossy" to Inchaffray Abbey, for the soul of "Malisii filii mei", by charter dated to [1272], witnessed by "…domino N rectore ecclesie de Creffe filio meo…"[760].  

b)         N--- (-after [1272]).  "Malisius filius G. quondam comitis de Statheryn miles" donated land "in tenemento de Rossy" to Inchaffray Abbey, for the soul of "Malisii filii mei", by charter dated to [1272], witnessed by "…domino N rectore ecclesie de Creffe filio meo…"[761].  

8.         GILCHRIST [Gilbert] of Strathearn (after Oct 1198-after [1233]).  "…Malisio fratre comitis, Matilda comissa…Willelmo, Fertet, Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gillecrist filiis meis…" subscribed the charter dated to [1203/08] under which "Gilebertus comes de Stradhern" donated property to Inchaffray Abbey[762].  It is assumed that Gilchrist was born after the death in 1198 of his older brother of the same name.  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Doncano filio Malisi…" subscribed the charter dated 1218 under which confirms the donation by "Gillebertus comes de Strathern" donated "Maresii" to Inchaffray Abbey[763].  "…Roberto, Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto filiis meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii…" subscribed the charter dated 1219 under which "Gillebertus comes de Stratheren" donated numerous properties to Inchaffray Abbey[764].  "Robertus filius Gilleberti comitis" confirmed donations of numerous churches to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1220], subscribed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Dunecano et Gilletoma filiis Malisii…"[765].  "Robertus comes de Stratheren" confirmed possessions of Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1223/24], witnessed by "…Fergus, Malisio, Gilleberto fratribus meis…Donecano et Gillethoma filiis Malisii"[766].  "Fergus filius comitis Gilberti" donated revenue to Lindores Abbey, "quam de hure ex donacione domini Malisii patrui mei", by undated charter, subscribed by "Domino Roberto comite de Strathern fratre meo, Waltero Oliphard…Gilberto fratre meo…"[767]

9.         CECILIA .  "Robertus comes de Strathern" confirmed "terra de Kulgasc" to "Waltero filio Alani et Cecilie sorori mee", granted to them by "Dñs comes Gilbtus de Strathern pater meus", by undated charter[768]m (before 1223) WALTER de Ruthven, son of ALAN & his wife Cecilia Maule (-after 1245). 

10.      [ETHEN .  It is possible that the wife of David de Haye was the daughter or granddaughter of Ferteth Earl of Strathearn and his wife Ethen ---.  This is suggested by the undated charter under which her son "Gilbertus de Haya" confirmed the donation of "terciam partem piscarie…de Glesbanin…[et] de Rugesablun" to Lindores Abbey, made by "bone memorie David de Haya pater meus", which is witnessed by "…Malisio de Strathern consanguineo meo…"[769].  If this hypothesis is correct, it looks more likely from a chronological point of view that she was the granddaughter rather than daughter of Earl Ferteth.  The name "Ethen" is unusual, and it is possible that the relationship with Malise was through Gilbert’s mother.  If the subscriber Malise of Strathearn was the son of Earl Gilbert, this possibility would present no chronological difficulties.  If the hypothesis was correct, Gilbert was born from this first marriage of his father.  m as his first wife, DAVID de Haye, son of WILLIAM de Haye & his wife Eva --- (-1230).] 

 

 

MALISE, son of ROBERT Earl of Strathearn & his wife --- (-in France [before 23 Nov] 1271, bur Dunblane).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn.  "Fergus filius G. quondam comitis de Stratherne" donated "terram…Cotken in Kather Mothel" to Lindores Abbey by undated charter, dated to after 1244, witnessed by "domino M. comite de Strathern, Malisio fratre meo…"[770].  "M. comes de Stratherin" confirmed the donations made by "Gilberti avi nostri et…bone memorie Roberti patris nostri comitum de Stratherin" to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated 1247, witnessed by "…domino Malisio avunculo domini M. comitis…"[771].  He was one of the Regents of Scotland from 14 Sep 1255 to 1262.  "Malisius comes de Strathernt" donated a serf to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated 1258, witnessed by "Malisio filio comitis…Gilberto fratre comitis…[772].  "M. comes Strathernie" granted rights to "domine Marie sorori nostri" by charter dated 1268, witnessed by "dominis M. avunculo nostro, G. fratre nostro…"[773].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death of "Malisius comes de Stratherne in partibus Gallicanis", dated to [1271] from the context[774]

m firstly (1244 or before) MARJORY de Muschamp, daughter of ROBERT de Muschamp of Wooler & his wife Isabel --- ([1226]-[12 Oct 1251/20 Mar 1255]).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the undated charter under which "Robertus de Muscampo" confirmed a donation to Melrose abbey of property "in territorio ville de Halsington", given in maritagium to "dño Willmo filio Johnis cum Gilia quondam sorore mea", and held by "qd. Malys comes de Strathern de Margeria filia mea", by undated charter[775]

m secondly ([1252/55]) MATILDA of Caithness, daughter of GILBERT Earl of Caithness and Orkney & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 12 Dec 1257 under which "Malisius comes de Stratherne" granted the advowson of the church of Cortachy to Inchaffray, obliging "heredes nostros quos habuerimus de Matilda sponsa nostra filia domini Gilleberti quondam comitis Kattanie et Orkadie", witnessed by "…fratre Hugone et Gilleberto fratribus nostris…"[776].  

m thirdly ([1261/62] or before) EMMA, daughter of --- (-[1267/68]).  Emma wife of Earl Malise is recorded in 1261/62 and 1267[777]

m fourthly ([1268]) as her second husband, MARY of Argyll, widow of MAGNUS King of Man, daughter of EWEN of Argyll & his wife --- (-[28 Sep 1300/10 Oct 1303], bur London, Grey Friars Church).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage of "regulus Manniæ…viduam…filiam domini de Arcadia" and "comes de Strathern Malisius"[778].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death of "Rex Mannie" and the marriage of "eius relictam, filiam comitis Ergadie Eugenii" to "Malisius comes de Stratherne", among passages dealing with events in 1268[779].  She married thirdly (before 5 Apr 1281) Hugh Abernethy of that Ilk, and fourthly (before 10 Apr 1299) as his second wife, William FitzWarin.  "Maria Regina de Man quondam uxor domini Willelmi filii Warini" is named in the Wardrobe Accounts in Dec 1299[780].  The deaths of “dñs Willm Fizwarryn Baro et Isabella ux sua quoda Regina Man” are recorded in Grey Friars Church, London[781]

Earl Malise & his first wife had [three] children:

1.         MURIEL ([1244]-[16 May/12 Nov] 1291).  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the document dated 16 May 1291 which is quoted below.  Her second marriage is indicated by an assize roll dated "7 Edw I" [Nov 1278/Nov 1279] which records a claim relating to the barony of Muschamp brought by "Jacobus filius Alexandri et Muriella uxor eius" and "Maria uxor Nicholai de Grame", both represented by "Stephanum de Muschaump vel Thomam de Hagarston", against "Thomam de Rok"[782].  Pleas taken at Newcastle 20 Jan 1279 (N.S.) include a jury finding that "the heirs of Muschampe hold their barony by service of four knights, and making suit to the county of Newcastle"[783].  Andrew MacEwen indicates that "Muriella…Maria" were the two daughters of Malise Earl of Strathearn by his first wife Marjory de Muschamp, and identifies "Jacobus filius Alexandri", the husband of Muriel, as James Stewart the future High Steward of Scotland, although he cites no primary source which confirms that the latter identification is correct[784].  The absence of any reference to Muriel’s husband "James" in the document dated 16 May 1291 quoted below, suggests that the marriage must have terminated before that date by divorce or annulment.  A charter dated 16 May 1291 records the homage sworn to King Edward by "Muriellæ quæ fuit uxor Willelmi quondam comitis de Mar, filiæ et heredis Margeriæ filiæ Roberti de Muschaumps defunctæ" for the lands of "Margeria mater sua"[785].  The Inquisitions on the death of "Muriella quondam comitissa de Mar" are dated 23 Nov 1291 and name "Maria uxor Nicholai de Graham [soror] dictæ Muriellæ…propinquor heres" aged 40[786]m firstly (after 1267) as his second wife, WILLIAM Earl of Mar, son of DUNCAN Earl of Mar & his wife --- (-1281 before 25 Jul, maybe before Jan 1279).  m secondly (before Jan 1279, [divorced before 1291]) JAMES, son of ALEXANDER & his wife ---.  [same person as…?  JAMES Stewart, later High Steward of Scotland, son of ALEXANDER Stewart High Steward of Scotland & his wife Jean [of Bute] ([1243]-16 Jul 1309).]

2.         MARY ([1250/51]-after 1306).  An assize roll dated "7 Edw I" [Nov 1278/Nov 1279] records a claim relating to the barony of Muschamp brought by "Jacobus filius Alexandri et Muriella uxor eius" and "Maria uxor Nicholai de Grame", both represented by "Stephanum de Muschaump vel Thomam de Hagarston", against "Thomam de Rok"[787].  Pleas taken at Newcastle 20 Jan 1279 (N.S.) include a jury finding that "the heirs of Muschampe hold their barony by service of four knights, and making suit to the county of Newcastle"[788].  The Inquisitions on the death of "Muriella quondam comitissa de Mar" are dated 23 Nov 1291 and name "Maria uxor Nicholai de Graham [soror] dictæ Muriellæ…propinquor heres" aged 40[789]m NICHOLAS de Graham Lord of Dalkeith, son of HENRY de Graham & his wife --- (-after 20 Jan 1292). 

3.         [CECILIA .  "Malicius comes" granted "terra to Kelou in Syro de Soulis" to "Cecilie filie sue" by undated charter witnessed by "…dño Gilberto fratre meo…"[790].  The identity of Cecilia’s mother is not known.  As Earl Malise died in 1271, it is likely that she would have been too young to have been granted property, presumably providing for her future marriage although this is not specified in the document, if she had been born from his second, third or fourth marriages.  Another possibility is that she was illegitimate.] 

Earl Malise & his second wife had one child:

4.         MALISE ([1257]-[28 Jan/25 Mar] 1313, bur Inchaffray Abbey).  "Malisius comes de Strathernt" donated a serf to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated 1258, witnessed by "Malisio filio comitis…Gilberto fratre comitis…[791].  He succeeded his father in 1271 as Earl of Strathearn.  "Malisius filius quondam Malisii comitis de Stratherne" donated "advocacionem ecclesie de Struy" to Inchaffray Abbey by charter dated to [1282/83][792].  He swore fealty to Edward I King of England at Stirling 12 Jul 1291, and did homage to King Edward in 1296.  He was imprisoned in Rochester Castle in Nov 1306 for his alleged submission to Robert Bruce, but freed in Dec 1308 provided he lived in England.  He is said to have been captured by his son, who fought for the Scots, at Perth 28 Jan 1313.  m (1275 or before) AGNES Comyn, daughter of ALEXANDER Comyn Earl of Buchan & his wife Elizabeth de Quincy of Winchester (-after [28 Jan/25 Mar] 1313).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the second of which married "Off Stratherne the Erle Malys" by whom she had "a swne…Malys"[793].  Malise & his wife had four children: 

a)         MALISE ([1275/80]-before 1329).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the second of which married "Off Stratherne the Erle Malys" by whom she had "a swne…Malys"[794].  He succeeded his father in 1313 as Earl of Strathearnm firstly AGNES, daughter of --- (-after Aug 1320).  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "dominus Willelmus de Sowlis et comitissa de Strathern" were convicted of high treason at a parliament in Scone in Aug 1320 and sentenced to life imprisonment[795]m secondly ([1323]) as her first husband, JOAN Menteith, daughter of JOHN Menteith of Rusky & his wife --- (-after 20 Mar 1367).  She married secondly John Campbell Earl of Atholl, thirdly Maurice Moray Earl of Strathearn, and fourthly (before 9 Nov 1347) as his second wife, William Sutherland Earl of Sutherland.  Earl Malise & his first wife had two children:

i)          MALISE (-killed in battle Neville’s Cross 17 Oct 1346).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Strathearn.  He succeeded his cousin Magnus as Earl of Caithness and Orkney in [1323/29].  He resigned the earldom of Strathearn [24 Sep/16 Dec] 1332 into the hands of Edward Balliol, was tried for treason in 1344 for so doing, but found innocent[796].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Johannes Ranulphi comes Moraviæ ac etiam comes de Strathern constabularius Scotiæ…David filius et heres David de Lindsay…Willelmus Fraser…" were killed at Durham 17 Oct 1346[797][798]m firstly MARY, daughter of ---.  m secondly ([1325/28]) MATILDA [Marjory] of Ross, daughter of HUGH Earl of Ross & his first wife Matilda Bruce (-after 1350).  Earl Malise & his first wife had four children:

(a)       MATILDAm --- de la Arde, son of ---. 

(b)       EUPHEME

(c)       AGNES (-before 1360).  m ERNGILS, son of ---.  He was granted the title Earl of Orkney by the king of Norway in right of his wife but forfeited it in 1375[799]

(d)       ISABEL m WILLIAM St Clair, son of ---.  Lord St Clair. 

ii)         MARY .  "Malisius comes Strathern" granted "terram de Abbercarny…que fuit Roberti filii Magni dicti de Strathern" to "Johanni de Moravia de Dromsygart…[et] heredibus suis de Maria filia nostra" by undated charter[800][801]m ([1319/22]) as his second wife, JOHN Moray of Drumsagard, co. Lanark, son of ---. 

b)         MATILDA (-[1340/48]).  A charter dated 2 May 1293 records the recognisance of "Radulpho de Tony…versus Malisium comitem de Stratherne" (respecting his marriage, although the document does not specify that this is the case)[802]m (contract 28 Apr 1293, after 2 May 1293) ROBERT de Tosny, son of RAOUL [VII] de Tosny & his wife Mary --- (Thornby, Scotland 4 Apr 1276-before 28 Nov 1309).  He was summoned to parliament in 1299, whereby he is held to have become Lord Tosny/Tony. 

c)         GILBERT (-after 13 Aug 1296).  The Wardrobe Accounts of King Edward I for 1296/97 include payments to "Gilberto filio comitis de Straderne" for his expenses in coming to London in August, dated 13 Aug, and payments to "Gilberto et Roberto filiis comitis de Straterne" dated 17 Jul[803]

d)         ROBERT (-after 17 Jul 1296).  The Wardrobe Accounts of King Edward I for 1296/97 include payments to "Gilberto et Roberto filiis comitis de Straterne" dated 17 Jul[804]

Earl Malise & his [second/third] wife had one child:

5.         ROBERT (-after 1306).  Balfour Paul states that Robert is named as brother of Earl Malise in a charter dated 31 Oct 1284, and witnessed a charter of his brother dated 1306[805]

 

 

JOHN Moray of Drumsagard, co. Lanark, son of --- .  "Malisius comes Strathern" granted "terram de Abbercarny…que fuit Roberti filii Magni dicti de Strathern" to "Johanni de Moravia de Dromsygart…[et] heredibus suis de Maria filia nostra" by undated charter[806]

m firstly ---. 

m secondly ([1319/22]) MARY of Strathearn, daughter of MALISE Earl of Strathearn & his first wife Agnes ---.  "Malisius comes Strathern" granted "terram de Abbercarny…que fuit Roberti filii Magni dicti de Strathern" to "Johanni de Moravia de Dromsygart…[et] heredibus suis de Maria filia nostra" by undated charter[807]

John & his first wife had one child:

1.         MAURICE Moray of Drumsagard, co. Lanark (-killed in battle Neville's Cross 17 Oct 1346).  He was created Earl of Strathearn 9 Feb 1344.  m (Papal dispensation 11 Jul 1339) as her third husband, JOAN Menteith, widow firstly of MALISE Earl of Strathearn and secondly of JOHN Campbell Earl of Atholl, daughter of JOHN Menteith of Rusky & his wife --- (-after 20 Mar 1367).  She married fourthly (before 9 Nov 1347) as his second wife, William Sutherland Earl of Sutherland.  Maurice & his wife had one child: 

a)         JOAN Moray of Drumsagard (-[Jan 1403/Aug 1409]).  "Archebaldus de Douglas dñs Galwidie et de Bothevile" confirmed "terras de Arbuthnot" to "Philippo de Arbuthnot et Margarete de Douglas filie Jacobi de Douglas militis dñi de Dalkeith" by charter dated 25 Oct 1372 which names "Joneta sponsam nostram"[808]m firstly THOMAS Moray of Bothwell, son of ANDREW Moray of Bothwell & his wife (-1361).  m secondly (Papal dispensation 23 Jul 1362) ARCHIBALD Douglas "the Grim", illegitimate son of JAMES Douglas & his mistress --- (-Threave [24 Dec 1400/9 Feb 1401], bur Bothwell).  He succeeded in 1388 as Earl of Douglas. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    ORKNEY

 

 

 

A.      NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY [893]-[1030] – UNCERTAIN EARLY LINEAGE

 

 

The foundation of the medieval Orkney state, allegedly in the late 9th century by Norse settlers who were granted the title “jarl” by the Norwegian kings, and the succession of Norwegian leaders in the islands until the mid-12th century is described in Orkneyinga Saga[809].  This work was probably written not long after 1200 and predates Snorre’s Heimskringla, although the precise evolution of each work is complicated because the later reviser of Orkneyinga Saga made use of Snorre’s text[810].  The Saga provides genealogical details which purport to link the successive jarls of Orkney into a single family whose ancestry is traced back to “Earl Rognwald the Powerful”, a leading supporter of Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway[811].  However, no corroboration has been found in other primary sources to indicate that the individuals whose exploits are narrated in the early chapters of the Saga were actual historical figures.  They are placed against an authentic historical backdrop, as the Saga recounts their supposed interfaces with the early Norwegian kings whose existence can be corroborated from other sources.  However, the narrative is embellished with colourful adventures and reported dialogue which, while ensuring that the work is a compulsive read, do not create confidence in its historical accuracy.  In addition, even it could be established that all of these early Jarls of Orkney were truly historical figures, the emphasis on social continuity in the narratives of the Sagas suggests that reported family relationships could have been simplified or even fabricated by the author in order to emphasise the impression that succession was seamless within the same family. 

 

Precise chronology also presents a significant problem in the early chapters of Orkneyinga Saga, which adds to the sense that it is a work of historical semi-fiction.  This problem of chronology is best illustrated by working backwards through the generations from Jarl Thorfinn “the Black”, whose date of birth is fixed with some accuracy in the text, which records that he was five years old when Jarl Sigurd, his father, was killed in Ireland in the battle of Clontarf, dated in other primary sources to 1014.  Thorfinn is reported in the Saga as his father’s youngest son, and as having much older brothers, which suggests that his father was born in [965/70].  Working backwards through the family, with a suggested cumulative 20 to 30 year spread between generations, Thorfinn’s paternal grandfather (named Hlodvir in the Saga), great-grandfather (Thorfinn) and great-great-grandfather (Einar) would likely have been born in [935/50], [905/30] and [875/910] respectively.  Orkneyinga Saga records Einar as a “grown man” when his legitimate brothers were born.  However, the dating of the death in battle of the oldest of these legitimate brothers is estimated to the early 870s, consistent with the dating of other parts of the narrative of the Saga (details of Einar’s ancestors are recorded in the document NORWEGIAN NOBILITY).  The arithmetic therefore fails to compute, clearly demonstrating the likelihood of one missing generation in the Saga’s narrative, if not two, assuming that the individuals were related at all. 

 

The inevitable conclusion is that the tight family network of Jarls of Orkney, described in such detail in the Sagas, is unlikely to be accurate and that the relationships in the first few generations of this family at least should be treated with considerable caution.  As with all the Sagas, it is impossible to distinguish the precise point where fiction gives way to historical fact in the narrative.  For purposes of presentation in this document, the generation of Jarl Thorfinn “the Black” has been selected as a reasonable transition point.  The descent of the family is therefore shown in two parts in this chapter.  This Part A shows what is described as “uncertain early lineage” which represents the first four generations as described only in Orkneyinga Saga.  Part B sets out the later generations descended from Jarl Thorfinn which appear to have a greater chance of historical accuracy. 

 

 

1.         RAGNVALD "the Wise", son of [EYSTEIN "Glumra/Clatterer" Jarl in Norway & his wife ---] (-[894])Orkneyinga Saga names “Eystein the Clatterer, father of the wise counsellor Earl Rognwald the Powerful…”, adding that “Earl Rognwald campaigned with King Harald Fine-Hair who gave him charge of North More, South More and Romsdale[812].  Snorre names "Ragnvald Earl of More, a son of Eystein "Glumra" when recording that he had become a supporter of King Harald who had invested him with the districts of North More and Raumsdal[813].  Snorre records that he was created Jarl of North and South Möre and of Raumsdal in Norway by Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway after his victory at Solskiel [869] against Hunthiof King of Möre and Nokve King of Raumsdal[814]Orkneyinga Saga and Snorre both record that King Harald granted Shetland and Orkney to Ragnvald in compensation for the death of his son Ivar[815].  The Historia Norwegie records that "principi Rogwaldi" crossed the Solund Sea, destroyed the peoples of the Orkney islands, in the days of "Haraldi Comati regis…Norwegie"[816].  Snorre records that Ragnvald was ambushed in his hall and burned alive by Halfdan Haaleg and Gudred Liomi, two of King Harald's sons[817]

a)         other children: NORWEGIAN NOBILITY

[Ragnvald had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:] 

b)         [HALLADOrkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald[818].  Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[819].  Jarl [of Orkney].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent “his son Hallad west to the islands” after hearing of the death of his brother and nephew, and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl” to Hallad who “came to Orkney and took up residence on Mainland[820].  Snorre records that Earl Ragnvald installed his son Hallad as Jarl of Orkney after the death of his brother Sigurd, but that he resigned the earldom and returned to Norway[821].  Orkneyinga Saga records that, following complaints by farmers about Viking raids, Hallad “tiring of his rule, gave up the earldom and went back to Norway as a common landholder” which “made him a laughing stock[822].  m ---.  The name of Hallad’s wife is not known.  Hallad & his wife had one child: 

i)          THORE .  Are’s Landnama-book records that "Thor-rid the daughter of Thore, the son of Earl Hallad, the son of Rogn-wald Earl of More" married "Thor-gils…"[823]

(a)        THOR-RID .  Are’s Landnama-book records that "Thor-rid the daughter of Thore, the son of Earl Hallad, the son of Rogn-wald Earl of More" married "Thor-gils of Thor-gils-stead in Deep-frith, the father of Coll", son of "Thor-beorn Loke…the son of Bead-mod of Scut [who] went to Iceland and took in settlement Deep-frith and Gruoch-ness, up to Gowe-frith", and names their descendants[824]m THORGILS, son of THORBEORN Loke & his wife ---. 

c)          [EINAR "Turf-Einar” Orkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald[825].  Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[826].  Jarl [of Orkney].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent his “youngest son Einar” to “the islands” after his brother Hallad returned to Norway and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl”, adding that his mother was “slave-born on each side of her family”, and stating that he killed “Thorir Tree-Beard and Kalf Scurvy” and succeeded in imposing his authority in Orkney where “he was the first man to dig peat for fuel…at Tarbat Ness in Scotland”, and that he “was tall and ugly…and…one-eyed[827].] 

-        JARLS of ORKNEY

2.         [SIGURD "Riki/the Mighty" (-[892], bur Sydero, Dornoch Firth).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald gave “all the islands” (indicating Shetland and Orkney from the context) to “his brother Sigurd, the forecastleman on King Harald’s ship” and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl” to Sigurd who remained in the islands after the king returned to Norway[828]Jarl [of Orkney].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd “joined forces with Thorstein the Red, the son of Olaf the White and Aud the Deep-Minded” and together conquered “the whole of Caithness and a large part of Argyll, Moray and Ross”, Sigurd building “a stronghold…in the south of Moray[829]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd defeated and beheaded “Mælbrigte Earl of the Scots” but that he died from an infected wound because a tooth in Mælbrigte’s head, strapped to Sigurd’s saddle, scratched his leg, and was buried “in a mound on the bank of the River Oykel[830].  The Complete Peerage identifies the place as “Sydero on the Dornoch Firth at the estuary of the Ekkialsbakki[831].  The Complete Peerage dates Sigurd’s appointment as Jarl to [875] and his death to [892][832], but there seems no basis for either date apart from internal consistency with its reconstruction of events in the lives of this family.  Both dates should therefore be considered as extremely approximate.]  [One child:] 

a)         [GUTHORM (-[893]).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd was succeeded by his son “Guthorm who ruled the earldom for a year but died childless[833]Jarl [of Orkney].  According to Snorre’s Harald Harfager’s Saga, Sigurd died “without children” but his Saga of Olaf Haraldson names Guthorm as son of Sigurd, recording that he succeeded his father as earl for one year[834].] 

 

 

EINAR "Turf-Einar", illegitimate son of RAGNVALD "the Wise" Jarl of North and South Möre & his mistress ---Orkneyinga Saga names “Hallad, Hrollaug and the youngest Einar” as “natural sons” of “Earl Rognwald[835].  Snorre names "Hallad, the second Einar, the third Hrollaug" as the three sons of "Earl Ragnvald" by concubines, adding that they were all "grown men" when their legitimate brothers were still children[836]Jarl [of Orkney].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald sent his “youngest son Einar” to “the islands” after his brother Hallad returned to Norway and that Harald I "Hårfagre" King of Norway gave “the title of earl”, adding that his mother was “slave-born on each side of her family”, and stating that he killed “Thorir Tree-Beard and Kalf Scurvy” and succeeded in imposing his authority in Orkney where “he was the first man to dig peat for fuel…at Tarbat Ness in Scotland”, and that he “was tall and ugly…and…one-eyed[837]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Halfdan Long-Leg and Gudrod Gleam, King Harald’s sons by Snæfrid” attacked “Earl Rognvald of More, killed him and assumed his authority”, that Halfdan left for Orkney and “conquered the islands and set himself up as king over them”, Jarl Einar “fled the islands over to Scotland” but returned “later in the year…[and] came out as victor”, and that Halfdan’s body was found in the sea and mutilated (including graphic details of the mutilation)[838]Orkneyinga Saga records that the ensuing dispute with King Harald was settled by payment of a tax of “sixty gold marks” to the king, which Einar paid “out of his own pocket on condition that he should hold all the estates [in Orkney] in fee[839].  It should be noted that there are considerable chronological difficulties with the career of Turf-Einar and his sons, as reported in Orkneyinga Saga.  The starting point for the analysis of these problems is the date of the battle in Northumbria in which Turf-Einar’s two oldest sons were killed, which can with reasonable accuracy be placed in the early 950s.  If these two sons were at least in their late thirties or forties when they died (a difficult assumption to make considering that they had no reported direct heirs), their births could not be placed before [905/15] at the earliest.  The likelihood would then be that their father, Turf-Einar, was not born much earlier than [975/95].  The difficulty is that this date is completely incompatible with (a) the fact that the illegitimate sons of Ragnvald were reported as “grown men” when their legitimate half-brothers were children, and (b) that the date when Ivar, the oldest legitimate son, was killed is estimated to [874] (see NORWEGIAN NOBILITY for further details concerning the reported events in the lives of Turf-Einar’s ancestors). 

m ---.  The name of Einar’s wife is not known. 

Einar [& his wife] had [three] children: 

1.         [ARNKEL (-killed Stainmore, Westmoreland 954).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Arnkel…Erlend and…Thorfinn Skull-Splitter” as the three sons of Einar[840].  Snorre names "Earls Arnkel and Erlend, the sons of Earl Torfeinar" when recording that they accompanied King Eirik "Blodøks" from Orkney to plunder the Hebrides and Ireland, but were defeated and killed with King Eirik[841].  Joint Jarl of Orkney with his brothers.  Snorre records that "Arnkel, Erlend and Thorfin Hausakljufer" succeeded their father but that the first two were killed "in a war expedition"[842]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earls Arnkel and Erlend, the sons of Turf-Einar” joined ex-King Eirik after he was expelled from Northumbria by Edmund King of England and that they sailed to the Hebrides, looted in Ireland and Strathclyde, until they were killed in battle against Olaf King of Northumbria[843].] 

2.         [ERLEND (-killed Stainmore, Westmoreland 954).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Arnkel…Erlend and…Thorfinn Skull-Splitter” as the three sons of Einar[844].  Snorre names "Earls Arnkel and Erlend, the sons of Earl Torfeinar" when recording that they accompanied King Eirik "Blodøks" from Orkney to plunder the Hebrides and Ireland, but were defeated and killed with King Eirik[845].  Joint Jarl of Orkney with his brothers.  Snorre records that "Arnkel, Erlend and Thorfin Hausakljufer" succeeded their father but that the first two were killed "in a war expedition"[846]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earls Arnkel and Erlend, the sons of Turf-Einar” joined ex-King Eirik after he was expelled from Northumbria by Edmund King of England and that they sailed to the Hebrides, looted in Ireland and Strathclyde, until they were killed in battle against Olaf King of Northumbria[847].] 

3.         [THORFINN "Hausakliffer/Skullcleaver" ([910/20]-[soon after 977], bur Hoxa, North Ronaldsway)Orkneyinga Saga names “Arnkel…Erlend and…Thorfinn Skull-Splitter” as the three sons of Einar[848].  Snorre names "Thorfin Hausakljufer, a son of Torfeinar" when recording that he was Jarl in Orkney when the islands were invaded by the sons of King Eirik " Blodøks"[849].  Joint Jarl of Orkney with his brothers.  Sole Jarl of Orkney 954, and 955-976.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Thorfinn Skull-Splitter…died in his bed” and was “laid in a burial mound at Hoxa in North Ronaldsway[850].  The Complete Peerage estimates Thorfinn’s death to “soon after 977” which appears broadly consistent with the events in which his children are reported as involved[851]m ([941]) GRELAD of Caithness, daughter of DUNGAD [Duncan] Mormaer of Caithness & his wife Groa.  Snorre names "Grelad, a daughter of Earl Dungad of Caithness…[and of] Groa, a daughter of Thorstein Raud" as mother of the five sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[852].]  Thorfinn & [his wife] had [seven] children: 

a)         [daughter .  If the reports of the plots involving her son are correct, she was probably older than her brothers.  m ---.  One child:] 

i)          [EINAR "Klining/Buttered-Bread" (-murdered).  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik’s daughter” plotted her second husband’s death with his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” (whom she promised to marry), that she then plotted with “Einar Hardmouth, the son of another of Havard’s sisters” to kill Einar Buttered-Bread[853].] 

b)         [daughter .  If the reports of the plots involving her son are correct, she was probably older than her brothers.  m ---.  One child:] 

i)          [EINAR "Hardchaft/Hard-Jaw" (-murdered).  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik’s daughter” plotted her second husband’s death with his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” (whom she promised to marry), that she then plotted with “Einar Hardmouth, the son of another of Havard’s sisters” to kill Einar Buttered-Bread, but that she finally married “Ljot the brother of Arnfinn and Havard” who “had Einar Hard-Mouth put to death[854].]    

c)         [ARNFINN Torfinnsson (-murdered Murkle, Caithness ----)Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Arnfinn…Havard the Fecund…Hlodvir…Ljot…Skuli” as the five sons of Thorfinn[855].  Snorre names "the Earls Hlodver, Arnfid, Ljot and Skule, the sons of Thorfin Hausakljufer" as rulers in Orkney when Queen Gunhild and her sons returned to Orkney[856].  In a later saga, Snorre names (in order) "Arnfin, Havard, Hlodver, Liot and Skule" as sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[857].  He succeeded his father in [976] as Jarl of Orkney [and Caithness].  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik’s daughter plotted the death of her husband Arnfinn at Murkle in Caithness” before marrying “his brother Havard the Fecund who succeeded to the earldom[858]m ([954/55]) as her first husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, daughter of ERIK I "Blodøks/Blood-axe" King of Norway & his wife Gunhild Gormsdatter.  Orkneyinga Saga records that Gunnhild, widow of ex-King Eirik of Norway, arranged the marriage of their daughter Ragnhild to “Earl Thorfinn Skull-Splitter” before she and her sons left Orkney[859], which can probably be dated to [955] or soon after.  Snorre records the marriage of "King Eirik's daughter, Ragnhild" and "Arnfin, a son of Thorfin Hausakljufer" at the time the ex-king's sons left Orkney[860].  She married secondly her brother-in-law, Havard Jarl of OrkneyOrkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik’s daughter plotted the death of her husband Arnfinn at Murkle in Caithness” before marrying “his brother Havard the Fecund who succeeded to the earldom”, but that she plotted her second husband’s death with his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” (whom she promised to marry), that she then plotted with “Einar Hardmouth, the son of another of Havard’s sisters” to kill Einar Buttered-Bread, but that she finally married “Ljot the brother of Arnfinn and Havard[861].  She married thirdly her brother-in-law, Ljot Jarl of Orkney.] 

d)         [HAVARD Torfinnsson "Season-prosperous" (-murdered, bur Stennis, Hrossey)Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Arnfinn…Havard the Fecund…Hlodvir…Ljot…Skuli” as the five sons of Thorfinn[862].  Snorre names "the Earls Hlodver, Arnfid, Ljot and Skule, the sons of Thorfin Hausakljufer" as rulers in Orkney when Queen Gunhild and her sons returned to Orkney[863].  In a later saga, Snorre names (in order) "Arnfin, Havard, Hlodver, Liot and Skule" as sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[864].  He succeeded his brother as Jarl of Orkney.  Orkneyinga Saga records that Havard was killed by his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” at “Stenness on Mainland[865]m as her second husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, widow of ARNFINN Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney, daughter of ERIK I "Blodøks/Blood-axe" King of Norway & his wife Gunhild Gormsdatter.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik’s daughter plotted the death of her husband Arnfinn at Murkle in Caithness” before marrying “his brother Havard the Fecund who succeeded to the earldom”, but that she plotted her second husband’s death with his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” (whom she promised to marry), that she then plotted with “Einar Hardmouth, the son of another of Havard’s sisters” to kill Einar Buttered-Bread, but that she finally married “Ljot the brother of Arnfinn and Havard[866].  She married thirdly her brother-in-law, Ljot Jarl of Orkney.] 

e)         [LJOT Torfinnsson (-killed in battle)Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Arnfinn…Havard the Fecund…Hlodvir…Ljot…Skuli” as the five sons of Thorfinn[867].  Snorre names "the Earls Hlodver, Arnfid, Ljot and Skule, the sons of Thorfin Hausakljufer" as rulers in Orkney when Queen Gunhild and her sons returned to Orkney[868].  In a later saga, Snorre names (in order) "Arnfin, Havard, Hlodver, Liot and Skule" as sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[869].  He succeeded his brother as Jarl of Orkney.  Orkneyinga Saga records that, after the death of “Skuli, Ljot’s brother” whose invasion of Orkney was repelled, “Earl Ljot took over in Caithness” and defeated “Earl Macbeth [who] came north from Scotland with a large army…at Skitten in Caithness” but died from his wounds after returning to Orkney[870].  It is assumed that “Earl Macbeth” was not the future Scottish King Macbeth, who was Mormaer of Moray in the early 1030s, but an earlier earl of the same name who has not yet been identified in other primary sources.  Otherwise the chronology of Orkneyinga Saga must be even more shaky than appears, and the family relationships of the Jarls of Orkney as described therein even less likely to be correct.  m as her third husband, RAGNHILD Eiriksdatter, widow firstly of ARNFINN Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney and secondly of HAVARD Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney, daughter of ERIK I "Blodøks/Blood-axe" King of Norway & his wife Gunhild Gormsdatter.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild Eirik’s daughter plotted the death of her husband Arnfinn at Murkle in Caithness” before marrying “his brother Havard the Fecund who succeeded to the earldom”, but that she plotted her second husband’s death with his “nephew…Einar Buttered-Bread” (whom she promised to marry), that she then plotted with “Einar Hardmouth, the son of another of Havard’s sisters” to kill Einar Buttered-Bread, but that she finally married “Ljot the brother of Arnfinn and Havard[871].] 

f)          [HLODVIR Torfinnsson ([945/50]-[988], bur Hofn, Caithness)Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Arnfinn…Havard the Fecund…Hlodvir…Ljot…Skuli” as the five sons of Thorfinn[872].  Snorre names "the Earls Hlodver, Arnfid, Ljot and Skule, the sons of Thorfin Hausakljufer" as rulers in Orkney when Queen Gunhild and her sons returned to Orkney[873].  In a later saga, Snorre names (in order) "Arnfin, Havard, Hlodver, Liot and Skule" as sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[874]Orkneyinga Saga records that “after Ljot’s death, Hlodvir took charge of the earldom”, presumably indicating Ljot’s brother but this is not explicitly stated in the text, recording that “he died in his bed” and was buried “in a burial mound at Ham in Caithness[875]m EITHNE, daughter of KIARVAL King of Ireland & his wife ---.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Hlodvir” married “Eithne, the daughter of King Kjarval of Ireland”, adding in a later passage that “Sigurd’s mother was a sorceress[876].  Hlodve’s supposed father-in-law has not been identified among known Irish kings.  Hlodve & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          [SIGURD "Digri/the Stout" ([965/70]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014)Orkneyinga Saga names “Sigurd the Stout” as the son of Hlodvir and his wife, adding that he “took over the earldom” after his father died[877].  Snorre names "Sigurd the Thick" as the son of Hlodver[878].  He succeeded his father [988] as Jarl of Orkney and Caithness.]   

-         see below

ii)         [SVANLAUG or Nereidm (Orkney 990) GILLI Jarl of the Hebrides, son of ---.  988-1014.] 

iii)        [daughterm HAVARD, son of --- (-winter 988/89).  Steward of Caithness for Jarl Sigurd.  Killed by Jarls Melsnati and Hundi, who were defeated when Jarl Sigurd attacked them in revenge.]

g)         [SKULI Torfinnsson (-killed in battle).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Arnfinn…Havard the Fecund…Hlodvir…Ljot…Skuli” as the five sons of Thorfinn[879].  Snorre names "the Earls Hlodver, Arnfid, Ljot and Skule, the sons of Thorfin Hausakljufer" as rulers in Orkney when Queen Gunhild and her sons returned to Orkney[880].  In a later saga, Snorre names (in order) "Arnfin, Havard, Hlodver, Liot and Skule" as sons of Thorfin "Hausakljufer"[881]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Skuli, Ljot’s brother” was given “the title earl by the King of Scots”, before going north to Caithness from where he sailed to Orkney to claim the islands, but was defeated and fled “first over to Caithness and then south to Scotland” and later killed[882].  The uncertain chronology of events recorded in Orkneyinga Saga make it difficult to be certain about the identity of the Scottish king in question, although Kenneth II (who ruled from 971 to 995) appears the most likely possibility.  It is interesting to note that the text does not specify that Skuli was made “Earl of Caithness” just earl without a territorial epithet, reminiscent of the position in many other European countries at the time where the title was not linked to the landholding.] 

Einar had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

4.          THOR-DIS .  Are’s Landnama-book records that "Earl Turf-Einar begat a daughter in his youth…Thor-dis" who married "Thor-gar Cloven-foot, their son was Einar [who] went to the Orkneys to see his kinsmen, but they would not receive him as their kinsman…he sailed to Iceland…", and names their descendants[883]m THORGAR, son of ---. 

 

 

SIGURD "Digri/the Stout", son of [HLODVIR Torfinnsson Jarl of Orkney & his wife Eithne of Ireland] ([965/70]-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014)Orkneyinga Saga names “Sigurd the Stout” as the son of Hlodvir and his wife, adding that he “took over the earldom” after his father died[884].  Snorre names "Sigurd the Thick" as the son of Hlodver[885].  His birth date is estimated from the fact that his older sons were already sufficiently mature in 1014 to be placed in charge of Orkney by their father when he left for war in Ireland.  He succeeded his father in [988] as Jarl of Orkney and Caithness.  He defeated Findlaech Mormaer of Moray before 995 at the second battle of Skidmoor in Caithness, consolidating his power on the Scottish mainland.  Orkneyinga Saga records Sigurd’s battle against “a Scottish earl called Finnleik[886]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Olaf Tryggvason” pressured Sigurd to accept baptism and returned to Norway with Sigurd’s son as a hostage[887]Orkneyinga Saga records that Sigurd went to Ireland “five years after the Battle of Svoldur” to support “King Sigtrygg Silk-Beard” against “King Brian of Ireland”, and left “his elder sons in charge of the earldom”, but was killed in the battle in which King Brian was killed[888].  Snorre records that "Sigurd the Thick" went to Ireland and fell "in Brian's battle"[889]

m firstly ---.  The name of Sigurd’s first wife is not known. 

m ([1005 or after]) --- of Scotland, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Sigurd” married “the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots” (whose succession is recorded in 1005)[890].  Snorre records the marriage of "Sigurd the Thick" and "a daughter of the Scottish king Malcolm"[891].  It appears unlikely that Sigurd’s wife could have been King Malcolm’s daughter Donada (as shown in many secondary sources, including the Complete Peerage[892]) if it is correct that Donada’s recorded husband Findlaech was killed in 1020 and that their son was born in [1005][893]

Sigurd & his [first wife] had four children: 

1.         SOMERLED (-[1015/20]).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Earl Sigurd had “three other sons…Sumarlidi, Brusi and Einar Wry-Mouth”, adding that he left them “in charge of the earldom” when he left for Ireland and that they divided the earldom between them after he was killed[894].  Snorre names "Sumarlide, Bruse and Einar Rangmund" as "older sons" of "Sigurd the Thick", recording that they succeeded on the death of their father when the country was divided into three parts[895].  He succeeded his father 1014 as Jarl of 1/3 Orkney.  Orkneyinga Saga records that Somerled “had the shortest life” of the brothers, “dying in his bed[896]

2.         BRUSI (-[1030/35]).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Earl Sigurd had “three other sons…Sumarlidi, Brusi and Einar Wry-Mouth”, adding that he left them “in charge of the earldom” when he left for Ireland and that they divided the earldom between them after he was killed[897].  Snorre names "Sumarlide, Bruse and Einar Rangmund" as "older sons" of "Sigurd the Thick", recording that they succeeded on the death of their father when the country was divided into three parts[898].  He succeeded his father 1014 as Jarl of 1/3 Orkney, and disputed the share of his deceased brother Einar with his half-brother Thorfinn.  Orkneyinga Saga records the death of “Brusi”, dated from the context to after the death of Malcolm II King of Scotland[899]m ---.  The name of Brusi’s wife is not known.  Brusi & his wife had one child: 

a)         RAGNVALD Brusason ([1010/15]-Dec 1046, bur Papa Westray).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Rognvald” as son of Brusi, adding that he was two years old when his father took him to Norway after the death of his brother Einar[900].  A later passage records that Olaf II King of Norway kept Ragnvald in Norway when his father returned to Orkney and that “at an early age he grew to be tall and strong…and he stayed with King Olaf for a long time[901].  As King Olaf’s reign ended in 1028, this passage is inconsistent with Ragnvald having been two years old when he arrived in Norway.  The best estimate that can be made is that Ragnvald must have been at least 15 years old in 1030, so must have been born in [1010/15].  Snorre names Ragnvald son of Earl Bruse when recording that he was given as a hostage to Olav King of Norway in 1021, and accompanied the king into exile in Novgorod[902]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Rognvald Brusason” took part “in the battle of Stiklestad in which King Olaf the Saint was killed” (elsewhere dated to 29 Jul 1030), then travelled to Novgorod “where King Jaroslav gave them a kindly welcome”, before returning to Norway with King Magnus II (who succeeded in 1035), and eventually sailing to Orkney to claim his father’s inheritance[903]Morkinskinna records “Rognvaldr Brúsason…a very valiant and popular man” as leader of the “Russian defence forces” under “King Yaroslav[904]Morkinskinna records that Magnus King of Norway “put Rognvaldr Brúsason in authority to the west in Orkney and gave him the title of jarl” but that “great strife broke out between Rognvaldr jarl and Thorfinnr jarl his uncle[905]Orkneyinga Saga records that Ragnvald left Orkney to seek help from Magnus King of Norway after a dispute with his uncle, was defeated when he returned to Orkney, succeeded in expelling Thorfinn after returning with a second invasion fleet, but was murdered by Thorfinn’s forces, and buried at “Papa Westray[906].  The Complete Peerage dates Ragnvald’s death to Dec 1046 but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[907]

3.         EINAR "Rangmund/Wrymouth" (-murdered Sandwick [1023/25]).  Orkneyinga Saga records that Earl Sigurd had “three other sons…Sumarlidi, Brusi and Einar Wry-Mouth”, adding that he left them “in charge of the earldom” when he left for Ireland and that they divided the earldom between them after he was killed[908].  Snorre names "Sumarlide, Bruse and Einar Rangmund" as "older sons" of "Sigurd the Thick", recording that they succeeded on the death of their father when the country was divided into three parts[909].  He succeeded his father 1014 as Jarl of 1/3 Orkney.  Orkneyinga Saga records that Thorfinn unsuccessfully claimed a share of Orkney from his half-brother Einar after the death of their brother Somerled, but that “when Earl Thorfinn came of age” he reasserted his claim and a settlement was reached through the intervention of their brother Brusi[910].  Assuming that he came of age when around 15 years old, this event would be dated to [1023/24].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Einar was killed at “Sandwick” by Thorkel Amundsson[911].  It is difficult to date this event precisely, but references in the text to “King Olaf” must indicate Olaf II King of Norway who ruled from 1016 to 1028. 

4.         HUNDI [Hlodvir] ([990]-[996/1000]).  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Olaf Tryggvason” pressured Sigurd to accept baptism and returned to Norway with Sigurd’s son “Hvelp or Hundi…baptised…[as] Hlodvir” as a hostage, adding that “Hlodvir didn’t live long” and that his father refused to pay homage to King Olaf after his son died[912].  He was taken to Norway as a hostage by Olaf Tryggvesson [995], baptised as Hlodve, but died there soon after[913]

Sigurd & his second wife had one child:    

5.         THORFINN "the Black" ([1009]-[1060/65], bur Birsay, Christchurch)Orkneyinga Saga names “Earl Thorfinn” as the son of Sigurd and his wife “the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots”, adding that his father sent him to Scotland “to be fostered by the King, the boy’s maternal grandfather” when he left for Ireland, and that he was five years old when his father was killed[914].  Snorre names Thorfin as son of "Sigurd the Thick" & his wife, recording that he was five years old when his father was killed[915].  He succeeded [1030] as sole Jarl of Orkney

-        see below.   

 

 

 

B.      NORWEGIAN JARLS of ORKNEY [1030]-1156

 

 

THORFINN "the Black", son of SIGURD "Digri" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness & his wife Donada of Scotland ([1009]-[1060/65], bur Birsay, Christchurch)Orkneyinga Saga names “Earl Thorfinn” as the son of Sigurd and his wife “the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots”, adding that his father sent him to Scotland “to be fostered by the King, the boy’s maternal grandfather” when he left for Ireland, and that he was five years old when his father was killed[916].  Snorre names Thorfin as son of "Sigurd the Thick" & his wife, recording that he was five years old when his father was killed[917]Orkneyinga Saga records that “his grandfather King Malcolm of Scotland” gave “Caithness and Sutherland…[with] the title earl” to Thorfinn and “appointed counsellors to govern with him[918]Orkneyinga Saga records that Thorfinn unsuccessfully claimed a share of Orkney from his half-brother Einar after the death of their brother Somerled, but that “when Earl Thorfinn came of age” he reasserted his claim and a settlement was reached through the intervention of their brother Brusi[919].  Assuming that he came of age when around 15 years old, this event would be dated to [1023/24].  This suggested age of majority appears confirmed by a later passage in Orkneyinga Saga which records that “at fifteen [Thorfinn] began leading raiding expeditions abroad[920].  He succeeded [1030] as sole Jarl of Orkney.  He disputed the succession of Duncan I King of Scotland in 1034, joined forces with Macbeth Mormaer of Moray, and obtained dominion over the whole of northern Scotland after the latter's accession in 1040[921].  Having given 1/3 of Orkney to his nephew Ragnvald II in 1036, he expelled the latter in 1046 and became sole Jarl once more.  Orkneyinga Saga records the death of Thorfinn “towards the end of the reign of Harald Sigurdarson” (who was killed in 1066) and his burial “at Christchurch, Birsay” which he had built[922].  His date of death is not consistent with the birth of Duncan II King of Scotland, son of Thorfinn's wife by her second marriage, in 1060, unless Thorfinn repudiated his wife before he died. 

m ([1045/50]) [as her first husband,] INGIBJÖRG Finnsdatter, daughter of FINN Arnesson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark] & his wife Bergliot Halfdansdatter ([1030/35]-).  Orkneyinga Saga names Earl Thorfinn’s wife as “Ingibjorg, the Earls’-Mother, daughter of Earl Finn Arnason” and niece of Kalf Arnason[923].  Snorre names "Ingebjorg, the earl-mother…a daughter of Fin Arnason" as wife of Earl Thorfin[924]Morkinskinna records that “Thorfinn jarl [of] Orkney” was married to “Kálfr’s sister Ingibjorg Árnasdóttir” at the time Kalf Arnesson fled Norway[925].  The chronology is certainly tight for Ingibjörg to have been Kalf’s niece, if it is correct that she was already married when Kalf fled Norway, which must be dated to [1040/42] from the context in Morkinskinna.  Her birth date is estimated on the basis of the estimated birth dates of her mother and her older son, both of which are restricted.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls’-Mother” (widow of Thorfinn) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” (Malcolm III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland) and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William[926].  There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct.  Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65].  King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court.  Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight.  In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained in SCOTLAND KINGS.  If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising.  It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties.  The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail. 

Thorfinn & his wife had [three or more] children: 

1.         PAUL Thorfinnsson (-in prison Bergen 1098)Orkneyinga Saga names “Paul and…Erlend” as the two sons of Jarl Thorfinn and his wife who survived childhood[927].  He succeeded his father in [1065] as Joint Jarl of Orkney, jointly with his brother.  He may have fought with his father at Stamford Bridge 1066[928].  He was deposed and imprisoned in 1098 by Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway, and died in Bergen according to Snorre[929]

-        see below

2.         ERLEND Thorfinnsson (-in prison Trondheim [Nidaros] 1098, bur Trondheim)Orkneyinga Saga names “Paul and…Erlend” as the two sons of Jarl Thorfinn and his wife who survived childhood[930].  He succeeded his father in [1065] as Joint Jarl of Orkney, jointly with his brother.  Morkinskinna records that Harald III King of Norway sailed to Orkney en route for his invasion of England in 1066 and “recruited the aid of Jarl Thorfinn’s sons Páll and Erlendr[931]Orkneyinga Saga records that Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway “seized the Earls, Paul and Erlend” on his arrival in Orkney, “sent them east to Norway, and made his own son Sigurd overlord of the islands with regents to govern the earldom”, adding in a later passage that Erlend “had died and been buried at Trondheim[932].  He was deposed and imprisoned in 1098 by Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway, and "died of sickness at Nidaros and is buried there" according to Snorre[933]m THORA, daughter of SOMERLED Uspaksson & his wife ---.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” married “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”, adding that “the mother of this Ospak was Thordis, daughter of Hall of Sida[934].  She married secondly Sigurd of Paplay.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “his mother was married…to a man called Sigurd” when her son Magnus returned to Orkney, adding that she and her second husband had a son “Hakon Karl…[and] a farm at Paplay[935].  Erlend & his wife had four children: 

a)         ERLING (-[Ulster [May] 1103]).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Erling and Magnus” as the two sons of “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” and his wife “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson[936]Jarl of OrkneyOrkneyinga Saga states that “according to some people, Erling, the son of Earl Erlend, was killed in the battle of the Menai Straits, but Snorri Sturluson says that he met his death with King Magnus in Ulster[937]

b)         St MAGNUS Erlendsson (-murdered Egilsay 16 Apr [1117], bur Christchurch at Birsay, transferred to Kirkwall Cathedral).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Erling and Magnus” as the two sons of “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” and his wife “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson[938].  He was installed as Jarl of ½ Orkney in Spring 1108 by Eistein I Magnusson Joint King of Norway.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Magnus” was killed on the orders of his cousin Hakon “two days after St Tiburtius’ Mass…1091”, after ruling Orkney jointly for seven years, and was buried on “Mainland…at Christ Church[939].  He was put to death by his cousin Hakon Paulsson Joint Jarl of Orkney, with whom he had quarrelled.  Canonised.  m ---.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “St Magnus Earl of Orkney” married “a girl from the noblest family there in Scotland” but that they lived together for ten years without consummating the marriage[940]

c)         GUNHILDOrkneyinga Saga names “Gunnhild and Cecilia” as the two daughters of “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” and his wife “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson[941]Orkneyinga Saga records that Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway “gave Earl Erlend’s daughter Gunnhild in marriage to Kol, son of Kali Sæbjarnarson, in compensation fof the death of his father”, adding that her dowry was “some property in Orkney including a farm at Paplay” and that the couple “settled down on his estate at Agder[942]m (Spring 1099) KOL Kalisson, son of KALI of Agdir in Norway & his wife ---.  Lenderman in Agder.  Kol & his wife had two children: 

i)          KALI [Rognvald] ([1100]-murdered Force, Calder, Caithness 20 Aug 1158, bur St Magnus Cathedral).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Kali and…Ingirid” as the two children of “Kol, son of Kali Sæbjarnarson” and his wife[943].  Invested as Jarl, given the name Ragnvald and ½ Orkney in 1129 by Sigurd I Jorsalafari King of Norway.  The latter's successor, Magnus IV "the Blind", cancelled the gift in [1130].  Harald "Gilli" King of Norway invested him as Jarl of ½ Orkney in Spring 1135.  Jarl Paul refused to give up any territory to him.  In revenge Kali-Rognvald seized the Shetlands, but his men were defeated in Yell Sound 27 Jun 1135 by Jarl Paul.  He seized the Shetlands again in 1137, and captured and deposed Paul, becoming Jarl of all Orkney and Caithness.  He granted ½ Orkney in 1139 to Harald Maddadsson.  Leaving Harald in charge of Orkney, he sailed for Palestine in 1151, returning in Dec 1155.  He was murdered by Thorbiorn Clerk.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Rognvald died on the fifth day after the Feast of the Assumption” and was buried “at St Magnus’ Cathedral[944].  m ---.  The name of Kali-Rognvald’s wife is not known.  Kali-Rognvald & his wife had one child: 

(a)       INGIGERDOrkneyinga Saga records the marriage of “Earl Rognvald…his daughter Ingerid” and “Eirik Stay-Brails[945].  m (Sutherland Spring 1156) ERIK Slagbrellir, son of ERIL Streita & his wife Audhild [daughter of Thorliot].  Erik & his wife had [seven] children: 

(1)       HARALD Eriksson "Ungi" ([1156]-killed in battle Wick 1198).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Harald the Young, Magnus Mangi and Rognvald” as the three sons of “Eirik Stay-Brails”, adding that King Magnus Erlingsson gave Harald the title Jarl[946].  Invested with his grandfather's ½ of Orkney by Magnus V Erlingsson King of Norway, although he did not press this claim against Jarl Kali-Ragnvald.  He obtained a grant of his grandfather's half of Caithness from William "the Lion" King of Scotland[947].  He asserted his claim to Orkney after this was regranted to him by [Sverre] King of Norway.  Jarl Harald Maddadson rejected his claim and defeated him at the battle of Wick in 1198. 

(2)       MAGNUS Mangi (-killed in battle near Fimreite on Sognefjord 15 Jun 1184).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Harald the Young, Magnus Mangi and Rognvald” as the three sons of “Eirik Stay-Brails”, adding that Magnus was killed with Magnus V Erlingsson King of Norway “at Sogn[948]. 

(3)       ROGNVALDOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Harald the Young, Magnus Mangi and Rognvald” as the three sons of “Eirik Stay-Brails[949]. 

(4)       INGEBIORGOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Ingibjorg, Elin and Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Eirik Stay-Brails[950].  m GUNNI .  Their son Snaekoll Gunnisson murdered John Jarl of Orkney in 1231. 

(5)       ELINOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Ingibjorg, Elin and Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Eirik Stay-Brails[951]. 

(6)       RAGNHILDOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Ingibjorg, Elin and Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Eirik Stay-Brails[952].  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ragnhild, the sister of Earl Harald the Young” married “Lifolf Pate[953].  m HLIFOLF Skalli of Sutherland.  Chief Counsellor of his brother-in-law Jarl Harald III. 

(7)       [daughter .  According to the Complete Peerage, Gillbride Earl of Angus married as his second wife "the heiress of the earls of Caithness", in another passage stating that she was "sister of Harald Ungi Earl of Caithness"[954].  No primary source is cited in support of these statements and it is possible that this marriage, and the supposed parentage of the bride, are entirely speculative, in an attempt to explain the transmission of the half of the earldom of Caithness to Earl Gillbride’s son Magnus.  Skene says that "the probability is that the half of Caithness which belonged to the Angus family was that half possessed by the earls of the line of Erlend, and was given by King Alexander with the title of Earl to Magnus, as the son of one of Earl Harald "Ungi"‘s sisters" and that "the Norwegian name of Magnus indicates that [Earl Magnus] had a Norwegian mother"[955].  He cites no primary source either and the implication is that Skene is speculating on all the points which he makes.  Concerning the supposed parentage of Earl Magnus’s mother, it appears unlikely that Magnus’s right to Caithness was derived from the junior branch of the comital family of Orkney/Caithness, to which Erik Slagbrellir belonged, as they ceased to hold any interest in the county after 1198, while Magnus’s grant appears to be dated to the 1230s (as discussed more fully below).  A more sensible suggestion is that, assuming Magnus’s right to Caithness was inherited from his mother, she was related to the last Earl John, who died in 1232, and whose rights would have been divided between his two heiresses.   m as his second wife, GILLBRIDE Earl of Angus, son of --- (-[1187]).] 

ii)         INGIGERDOrkneyinga Saga names “Kali and…Ingirid” as the two children of “Kol, son of Kali Sæbjarnarson” and his wife[956]m JON Petersson, lenderman in Sogne. 

d)         CECILIAOrkneyinga Saga names “Gunnhild and Cecilia” as the two daughters of “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson” and his wife “Thora, the daughter of Sumarlidi Ospaksson”, adding that Cecilia married “Isaac” and that they had “two sons Eindridi and Kol[957]m ISAAC, son of ---. 

Erlend had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:   

e)         JADDVOROrkneyinga Saga names “Jaddvor” as “natural daughter” of “Earl Erlend Thorfinnson”, adding that she “had a son…Borgar[958].  m ---. 

3.          son or sons (-young).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Paul and…Erlend” as the two sons of Jarl Thorfinn and his wife who survived childhood, implying that other sons died young[959]

 

 

PAUL Thorfinnsson, son of THORFINN II "the Black" Jarl of Orkney & his wife Ingibjörg Finnsdatter (-in prison Bergen 1098, bur Bergen)Orkneyinga Saga names “Paul and…Erlend” as the two sons of Jarl Thorfinn and his wife who survived childhood[960].  He succeeded his father [1065] as Joint Jarl of Orkney, jointly with his brother.  Morkinskinna records that Harald III King of Norway sailed to Orkney en route for his invasion of England in 1066 and “recruited the aid of Jarl Thorfinn’s sons Páll and Erlendr[961].  He may have fought with his father at Stamford Bridge 1066[962]Orkneyinga Saga records that Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway “seized the Earls, Paul and Erlend” on his arrival in Orkney, “sent them east to Norway, and made his own son Sigurd overlord of the islands with regents to govern the earldom”, adding in a later passage that Paul “was buried at Bergen[963].  He was deposed and imprisoned in 1098 by Magnus "Barelegs" King of Norway, and died in Bergen according to Snorre[964]

m --- Haakonsdatter, daughter of HAAKON Ivarsson & his wife Ragnhild Magnusdatter of Norway.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” married “a daughter of Earl Hakon Ivarsson[965]

Paul & his wife had children: 

1.         HAKON Paulsson (before [1070]-Orkney [1126])Orkneyinga Saga names “Hakon” as son of “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” and his wife[966].  It is extremely unlikely that Hakon was born before [1070], given the estimated birth date of his granddaughter Margaret (see below).  Snorre names "Hakon, a son of Earl Paul" when recording that "a year or two after King Magnus's fall…[he] came from Orkney" and was given the earldom of Orkney by Kings Eystein, Sigurd and Olav, before sailing back to Orkney[967]Orkneyinga Saga records that Hakon left Orkney for Norway where he visited “King Olaf the Peaceful…towards the end of Olaf’s reign” (King Olaf’s death is dated to 1093) before sailing east to Sweden and “King Ingi Steinkelsson[968].  He was appointed Joint Lieutenant for Sigurd Magnusson King of Orkney and the Isles, when the latter returned to Norway in 1103 on his accession as king.  He was installed in [Spring 1105] as Jarl of Orkney by King Sigurd.  He ruled as Joint Jarl from Spring 1108, when his cousin Magnus Erlendsson was installed as Jarl of ½ Orkney.  He later quarrelled with his cousin, took him prisoner on Egilsay and had him killed.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Hakon Paulsson died in his bed in Orkney[969]m ---.  The name of Hakon’s wife is not known.  Mistress (1): HELGA, daughter of MODDAN of Dalr in Caithness & his wife ---.  Orkneyinga Saga names “Helga” daughter of “a farmer…Moddan…living in the Dales of Caithness” as “Earl Hakon’s mistress[970].  Her stepson banished her and her sister Frakok to the latter's estates in Helmsdale, Sutherland after the death of her son [1131].  Hakon & his wife had one child:

a)         PAUL [II] Hakonsson "the Silent" (-after 1137).  Orkneyinga Saga records that earl Hakon “had another son Paul…the Silent[971].  He succeeded his father in [1126] as Joint Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, jointly with his half-brother, sole Jarl after the latter's death in [1131].  His second cousin, Kali-Ragnvald, rebelled in 1135 and demanded a half share of Orkney.  In revenge for being refused, the latter seized Shetland in 1136, but Paul [II] defeated him in Yell Sound 27 Jun 1136.  The following year he again seized the Shetlands, and captured and deposed Paul [II] in 1137.

Hakon had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

b)         HARALD [I] "Slettmali/Smooth-spoken" (before [1090]-[1131]).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Harald…Smooth-Tongue and two daughters…Ingibjorg…Margaret” as the children of Earl Hakon and his mistress Helga[972].  It is unlikely that Harald was born later than [1090] if the estimated birth date of his daughter Margaret is correct.  He succeeded his father in [1126] as Joint Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, jointly with his half-brother.  Orkneyinga Saga records that he died after trying on a poisoned garment prepared by his mother and intended for his half-brother Paul[973]m ---.  The name of Harald’s wife is not known.  Harald & his wife had one child: 

i)          ERLEND Haraldsson (-murdered Damsay Dec 1156).  Orkneyinga Saga names “Erlend” as son of “Harald Smooth-Tongue” when recording that he was reared by Frakokk, sister of his paternal grandmother[974].  Eystein II King of Norway gave him permission in Autumn 1151 to administer ½ Orkney during the absence of Jarl Kali-Ragnvald, but he was unable to impose his claim.  He was recognised as Earl of ½ Caithness by Malcolm IV King of Scotland 24 May 1153, in opposition to his first cousin Harald Maddadsson, during the absence of Jarl Kali-Ragnvald.  He was invested as Jarl of Orkney in 1153 by King Eystein II, invaded Orkney and defeated Jarl Harald [II] at Kiarrek-Stadir 28/29 Sep 1154, forcing him to surrender his share of Orkney.  He was dispossessed of Orkney by Jarl Kali-Ragnvald in Sep 1156 after the latter's return.  After a brief revival as Jarl following his defeat of Jarl Harald [III] 24 Oct 1156, he was once more defeated by Kali-Ragnvald and killed. 

c)          INGIBJÖRGOrkneyinga Saga names “Harald…Smooth-Tongue and two daughters…Ingibjorg…Margaret” as the children of Earl Hakon and his mistress Helga, adding that Ingibjörg married “Olaf Tit-Bit King of the Hebrides[975]m [as his second wife], OLAV Bitling King of Sodor and Man 1097-1098 and 1103-1153, son of ---.  Olav & his wife had one child: 

i)          GODROD .  His parentage is deduced from the Orkneyinga Saga which records that the mother of “Rognvald Godrodarson, King of the Hebrides” was “Ingibjorg, Earl Hakon Paulsson’s daughter[976]m ---.  The name of Godrod’s wife is not known.  Godrod & his wife had one child: 

(a)        RAGNVALD Godradarson .  King of Man and the Isles. Orkneyinga Saga records that the mother of “Rognvald Godrodarson, King of the Hebrides” was “Ingibjorg, Earl Hakon Paulsson’s daughter[977].  William "the Lion" King of Scotland sold Caithness to him after the battle of Wick in 1198.  He lost Caithness to Harald [II] Maddadsson Jarl of Orkney in 1200. 

d)         MARGARET (before [1115]-)Orkneyinga Saga names “Harald…Smooth-Tongue and two daughters…Ingibjorg…Margaret” as the children of Earl Hakon and his mistress Helga[978].  It is unlikely that Margaret was born after [1115] if it is correct that her son was born in 1134.  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Margaret Hakon’s-Daughter” married “Earl Maddad of Atholl[979]Orkneyinga Saga records that “Erlend the Young” abducted Margaret from Orkney and took her to Shetland, and that her son eventually granted permission for their marriage[980]m firstly ([1133]) as his second wife, MADDAD [Madach] Earl of Atholl, son of --- (-[1142/52]).  m secondly ERLAND "Ungi/the Young" (-killed 1156). 

2.         THORA PaulsdatterOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thora…Ingirid…Herbjorg…Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” and his wife, adding that Thora married “in Norway…Halldor, the son of Brynjolf Camel” and that their son was “Brynjolf, the father of Halldor who married Gudrid Dag’s-Daughter[981]m HALLDOR, son of BRYNIOLF Camel & his wife ---.

3.         INGRID PaulsdatterOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thora…Ingirid…Herbjorg…Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” and his wife, adding that Ingrid married “Einar Vorse-Raven[982]m EINAR Vorsa-Krakr. 

4.         HERBJÖRG Paulsdatter .  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thora…Ingirid…Herbjorg…Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” and his wife, adding that Herbjörg was the mother of “Ingibjorg the High-born, who married Sigurd of Westness, their sons were Hakon Pike-Staff and Brynjolf” and of “Hakon the Child and of Herborg whom Kolbein Heap married[983]m ---. 

5.         RAGNHILD Paulsdatter .  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thora…Ingirid…Herbjorg…Ragnhild” as the daughters of “Earl Paul Thorfinnson” and his wife, adding that Ragnhild was mother of “Benedikt, father of Ingibjorg, mother of Erling the archdeacon” and “a daughter…Bergljot, who married Havard Gunnason, and their sons were Magnus, Hakon Claw, Dufniall and Thorstein[984]m ---. 

 

 

 

C.      EARLS of ORKNEY 1140-1231, HOUSE of DUNCAN (KINGS of SCOTLAND)

 

 

HARALD Maddadsson, son of MADDAD [Madach] Earl of Atholl & his second wife Margaret of Orkney (1134-1206[985])Orkneyinga Saga names “Harald” as son of “Margaret Hakon’s-Daughter” and her husband “Earl Maddad of Atholl” when recording that his mother proposed him as earl of Orkney when he was three years old[986].  He was given ½ Orkney by Kali-Ragnvald in Dec 1139, and was installed in early 1140 as Jarl of Orkney.  Jarl Kali-Ragnvald left him in charge of Orkney during his absence in Palestine 1151-1155.  He was captured by Eystein II Haraldsson King of Norway in [1152] at Thurso, and forced to recognise him as his overlord.  He was forced to surrender his share of Orkney 30 Sep 1154 after his first cousin Erlend defeated him at Kiarrek-Stadir, although he retained his ½ Caithness.  He allied himself with Kali-Rognvald 25 Sep 1156 against Jarl Erlend.  He was defeated by Erlend 24 Oct 1156, but in a surprise counter-attack he murdered Jarl Erlend 21 Dec 1156 and was recognised as joint Jarl of Orkney at Kirkwall.  Sole Jarl after the murder of Jarl Kali-Rognvald 20 Aug 1158, until the investiture of Jarl Harald [III] "Ungi" Eriksson.  He was deprived of Shetland in 1195 by Sverre King of Norway.  He seized ½ of Caithness from Jarl Harald [III] "Ungi" after killing him at the battle of Wick 1198.  "Haraldus Orcarder Hetlander et Catañ comes" confirmed a donation to Scone Abbey by undated charter witnessed by "Turfino filio meo…"[987].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1206 of "Haraldus, Maddadi filius, comes Orcadum, et Gisur Halli filius" and the succession of "comites…David et Johannes"[988]

m firstly (repudiated [1154/55]) AFREKA, daughter of [DUNCAN Earl of Fife & his wife ---].  Orkneyinga Saga records that Earl Harald married “a woman called Afreka[989].  Balfour Paul’s Scots Peerage states that she was the daughter of Duncan Earl of Fife but cites no primary source apart from the Orkneyinga Saga, as shown previously which does not state the parentage of Jarl Harald’s wife[990].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

m secondly HVORFLAED [Hvafleda or Gormflaeth/Gormlath], daughter of MALCOLM MacEth Earl of Ross [illegitimate son of Alexander I King of Scotland] & his wife --- of Argyll .  Orkneyinga Saga records that “Hvarflod, the daughter of Earl Malcolm of Moray” was the second wife of Earl Harald[991].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "Harald the earl" was "goaded on by his wife, the daughter of Mached" to rebel against King William in 1196[992]

Earl Harald & his first wife had four children:

1.         HEINREK [Henry] (-maybe beheaded Jun 1215).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Heinrek, Hakon, Helena and Margaret” as the children of Earl Harald and his wife “a woman called Afreka[993].  Orkneyinga Saga records that “another son, Heinrek” (of Earl Harald) “ruled over Ross in Scotland[994].  Maybe Earl of Ross 1206.  Maybe beheaded after the defeat of Donald Bane MacHeth by Ferquhard MacIntagart, afterwards created Earl of Ross. 

2.         HAKON (-maybe killed outside Dublin autumn 1170).  He roved the sea with his foster-father Sweyn Asleifsson. 

3.         HELEN .

4.         MARGARET .

Earl Harald & his second wife had six children:

5.         THORFINN (-Roxburgh Castle 1202).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thorfinn, David, Jon, Gunnhild, Herborga and Langlif” as the children of Earl Harald and his second wife[995].  He invaded Moray in 1197, maybe Earl of Moray.  He was defeated by William "the Lion" King of Scotland near the castle of Inverness in Moray in 1197, and kept hostage for his father[996].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Rodericus et Torfinium filios…Heraldi [comite Cathinensi]" were defeated by King William in 1197 "in Moravia" where Roderick was killed[997].  "Haraldus Orcarder Hetlander et Catañ comes" confirmed a donation to Scone Abbey by undated charter witnessed by "Turfino filio meo…"[998].  He was blinded by the king in revenge for his father's recapture of Caithness from Ragnvald Gudredsson King of Man. 

6.         DAVID (-1214).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thorfinn, David, Jon, Gunnhild, Herborga and Langlif” as the children of Earl Harald and his second wife[999].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1206 of "Haraldus, Maddadi filius, comes Orcadum, et Gisur Halli filius" and the succession of "comites…David et Johannes"[1000].  He divided Orkney with his brother John in 1206, invested as Jarl of Orkney after 1210 by Inge II Bardsson King of Norway.  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1214 of "David…Haraldi filius, comes Orcadum"[1001]

7.         JOHN (-murdered Thurso 1231).  Orkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thorfinn, David, Jon, Gunnhild, Herborga and Langlif” as the children of Earl Harald and his second wife[1002].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1206 of "Haraldus, Maddadi filius, comes Orcadum, et Gisur Halli filius" and the succession of "comites…David et Johannes"[1003].  He divided Orkney with his brother David 1206, invested as Jarl of Orkney after 1210 by Inge II Bardsson King of Norway.  Sole Jarl from the death of his brother in 1214.  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "comes Cathaniæ" was regranted his lands by King Alexander II in 1222 after payment, following their confiscation for his involvement in the burning and killing of Adam Bishop of Caithness in his cathedral[1004].  The Icelandic Annals record that "Iohannes Orcadum comitis" was killed in 1231[1005].  He was murdered by Snaekoll Gunnisson, nephew of Harald III "Ungi" Jarl of Norway, and his body burned in retaliation for the death of the Bishop[1006]m ---.  The name of John’s wife is not known.  John & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         HARALD (-drowned 1226).  His father left him as hostage at Bergen 1224 with Hakon Hakonsson King of Norway.  The Icelandic Annals record that "Haraldus Johannis filius comes Orcadum" was drowned in 1226[1007]

b)         [JOAN .  According to the Complete Peerage, Joan wife of Freskin of Moray was "possibly…daughter and heiress of Earl John"[1008].  Skene says that "the probability is that…half [of the earldom of Caithness]" was inherited by the Moray family from "Johanna…as indicated by her name, the daughter of John Earl of Caithness of the line of Paul"[1009].  Neither source cites any primary source which confirms Joan’s parentage, which presumably is just speculative.  She was taken hostage by Alexander II King of Scotland in [Aug 1214 or 1222].  A charter dated 1269 confirmed a donation to the church of Moray by "domino Reginaldo le Chen minori domino de Duffus et Marie sponse sue filie quondam Friskyni de Moravia" and named "domina Johanna quondam sponsa domini Friskyni de Moravia"[1010]m FRESKIN of Moray Lord of Duffus, son of ---.  He appears to have taken control of part of Caithness after the murder of Earl John in 1231[1011].] 

8.         GUNNHILDOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thorfinn, David, Jon, Gunnhild, Herborga and Langlif” as the children of Earl Harald and his second wife[1012]. 

9.         HERBORGAOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thorfinn, David, Jon, Gunnhild, Herborga and Langlif” as the children of Earl Harald and his second wife[1013]. 

10.      LANGLIFOrkneyinga Saga names (in order) “Thorfinn, David, Jon, Gunnhild, Herborga and Langlif” as the children of Earl Harald and his second wife[1014]. 

Earl Harald had one possible illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

11.       [RODERICK (-killed in battle 1197).  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Rodericus et Torfinium filios…Heraldi [comite Cathinensi]" were defeated by King William in 1197 "in Moravia" where Roderick was killed[1015].  He was killed in battle against William "the Lion" King of Scotland.]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    ARGYLL

 

 

Arregaithel or Argyll was previously the kingdom of Dalriada in the west of Scotland.  It was added as a province in the 10th century and at that time covered the whole western coast of Scotland as far north as Caithness.  It is unclear whether the rulers of the province originally used the title Mormaer or were throughout referred to as "Lord".  A manuscript dated 1450 claims that Fergus Mor, son of Erc and one of three brothers who founded the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada in the 6th century, was fourth in descent from Colla Uais, a High King of Ireland, that Fergus’s older son Domnagart was ancestor of Kenneth MacAlpin and succeeding Scottish kings, and that his younger son Godfrey was ancestor of the Clan Donald and known in his day as "Toshach of the Isles"[1016].  An ancient Irish poem entitled Baile, Suthain Sith Eamhna, relating to the kingdom of the Isles, recounts that Reginald son of Somerled (see below) was a descendant of Godfrey, Fergus and Conn[1017].  The different versions of the alleged ancestry of Somerled are reviewed by Sellar[1018].  Following the defeat of Somerled Lord of Argyll in 1164, it was nearly three centuries before James II King of Scotland created the earldom of Argyll, with Colin Campbell Lord Campbell as Earl of Argyll, in 1457.  He and his descendants are outside the scope of this work. 

 

 

Brother [and sister], parents not known: 

1.         SOMERLED (-killed in battle 1164).  Balfour Paul says that the first reference to Somerled records him as living in the district of Morven with his father Gillebride, but he does not cite the precise source[1019]Lord of Argyll.  He acquired control of the Western Isles and assumed the title "King of the Isles".  The Chronicle of Melrose records that Somerled Lord of Argyll landed at Renfrew in 1164, after 12 years of rebellion against Malcolm IV King of Scotland, with a large army from Ireland but was defeated and killed with his son[1020].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Sumerlendus regulus Ergadie" rebelled against King Malcolm for 12 years, landed at Renfrew from Ireland, and was killed "et filium suum Gillecolanem", among passages dealing with events in 1164[1021].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Somharlidh Mac Gilla-Adhamhnain and his son were killed" in 1164[1022].  The Book of Clanranald records that that no battle was fought and that Somerled was killed in his tent, after which his followers dispersed[1023]m --- of Man, illegitimate daughter of OLAV King of Man & his mistress ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” had many concubines by whom he fathered “filios tres…Reignaldum, Lagmannum et Haraldum et filias multas”, adding that one daughter married “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel[1024].  Balfour Paul names her "Ragnhildis" but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[1025].  Somerled & his wife had five children: 

a)         DUGALD (-after 1175).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Dulgallum, Reginaldum, Engus et Olavum” as the four sons of “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel” and his wife the daughter of Olav King of Man[1026]

-        see below

b)         REGINALD .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Dulgallum, Reginaldum, Engus et Olavum” as the four sons of “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel” and his wife the daughter of Olav King of Man[1027].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Engus, son of Somerled, defeated his brother Reginald in 1192[1028]

-        LORDS of the ISLES

c)         ANGUS (-killed 1210).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Dulgallum, Reginaldum, Engus et Olavum” as the four sons of “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel” and his wife the daughter of Olav King of Man[1029].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Engus, son of Somerled, defeated his brother Reginald in 1192, adding in a later passage that Engus was killed in 1210[1030].  Balfour Paul states that Angus inherited "Bute, with a part of Arran, and the Rough Bounds (Garmoran) extending from Ardnamurchan to Gleneig"[1031]m ---.  The name of Angus’s wife is not known.  Angus & his wife had one child: 

i)          JAMES .  Balfour Paul names James as son of Angus, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1032].  Lord of Bute and Arran.  m ---.  The name of James’s wife is not known.  James & his wife had [one child]: 

(a)       [JEAN .  Balfour Paul names Jean as daughter of James Lord of Bute and Arran, and records her marriage to Alexander Stewart, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1033].  Andrew McEwen suggests that there is no evidence to indicate that the wife of Alexander Stewart was the daughter of James Lord of Bute[1034].  Heiress of the isles of Bute and Arran.  m ALEXANDER Stewart High Steward of Scotland, son of WALTER FitzAlan High Steward of Scotland & his wife Beatrice of Angus (-1283).] 

d)         OLAV .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Dulgallum, Reginaldum, Engus et Olavum” as the four sons of “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel” and his wife the daughter of Olav King of Man[1035]

e)         GILLECOLAN (-killed in battle 1164).  The Chronicle of Melrose records that he was killed in battle with his father[1036].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Sumerlendus regulus Ergadie" rebelled against King Malcolm for 12 years, landed at Renfrew from Ireland, and was killed "et filium suum Gillecolanem", among passages dealing with events in 1164[1037]

f)          [GALL Macsgillin .  Balfour Paul names "Olave and Gall Macsgillin" as two other possible sons of Somerled, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1038].  Olav is named in the Chronicon Manniæ (see above) but not Gall.] 

g)         BEATRICE .  Balfour Paul names "Beatrice prioress of Iona" as the daughter of Somerled, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1039].  Olav is named in the Chronicon Manniæ (see above) but not Gall.] 

2.         [--- .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Summerledus regulus Ergadiæ et sui nepotes, filii…Malcolmi Macheth" rebelled against King Malcolm IV in the first year of his reign[1040].  This assumes that the term "nepos" should be interpreted as "nephews" in that source.  Her marriage date is estimated assuming that it is correct that her husband was imprisoned from 1134, before which his two children must have been born.  There would be no such restriction on the date if Malcolm son of King Alexander I and Malcolm MacHeth were two different persons as suggested by Duncan[1041]m ([1130]) MALCOLM MacEth, [illegitimate son of ALEXANDER I "the Fierce" King of Scotland & his mistress ---] ([1105/15]-23 Oct 1168).  He was created Earl of Ross in 1162 or before.] 

 

 

DUGALD, son of SOMERLED Lord of Argyll & his wife --- of Man (-after 1175).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Dulgallum, Reginaldum, Engus et Olavum” as the four sons of “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel” and his wife the daughter of Olav King of Man[1042].  The Obituario of Durham records that "Dusgal filius Sumerledi et Stephanus capellanus suus et Adam de Stanford" donated two gold rings to St Cuthbert in 1175[1043].  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Dunegal filius Sumerledi, et filii sui, Olaf et Dunechal et Raynald et Adam de Stanford. Stephanus Capellanus"[1044]

m ---.  The name of Dugald’s wife is not known. 

Dugald & his wife had four children: 

1.         OLAF .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Dunegal filius Sumerledi, et filii sui, Olaf et Dunechal et Raynald et Adam de Stanford. Stephanus Capellanus"[1045]

2.         DUGALD "Screech" .  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son records that "the kings of the Hebrides were Dugald Screech and his brother Duncan, the father of John who was king afterwards…the sons of Dungal, Somerled’s son"[1046].  Malcolm IV King of Scotland with "Uhtred filio Fergi et Gilebto fratris eius et Rad filio Dunegal et Duuenaldo fratris eius" confirmed the donation of "terra de Dunroden" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1047]

3.         DUNCAN (-[1237/48]).  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Dunegal filius Sumerledi, et filii sui, Olaf et Dunechal et Raynald et Adam de Stanford. Stephanus Capellanus"[1048].  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son records that "the kings of the Hebrides were Dugald Screech and his brother Duncan, the father of John who was king afterwards…the sons of Dungal, Somerled’s son"[1049]m ---.  The name of Duncan’s wife is not known.  Duncan & his wife had three children:

a)         EWEN of Argyll (-after 4 Apr [1268]).  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son records that "the kings of the Hebrides were Dugald Screech and his brother Duncan, the father of John who was king afterwards…the sons of Dungal, Somerled’s son"[1050].  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son records that "John, Duncan’s son, and Dugald, Ruadri’s son" met Alexander II King of Scotland in 1248 and "endeavoured…that the king should give them the title of king over the northern part of the Hebrides"[1051].  "…Domino Ewgenio de Argadia, Domino M. avunculo nostro…" subscribed the charter dated 4 Apr "1218" (suggested redating to 1268 by the editor of the cartulary) under which "Malisius comes de Stratheryn" donated property at Abircarnich to Inchaffray[1052].  m ---.  The name of Ewen’s wife is not known.  Ewen & his wife had three children: 

i)          MARY (-[28 Sep 1300/10 Oct 1303], bur London, Grey Friars Church).  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death of "Rex Mannie" and the marriage of "eius relictam, filiam comitis Ergadie Eugenii" to "Malisius comes de Stratherne", among passages dealing with events in 1268[1053].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage of "regulus Manniæ…viduam…filiam domini de Arcadia" and "comes de Strathern Malisius"[1054].  "Maria Regina de Man quondam uxor domini Willelmi filii Warini" is named in the Wardrobe Accounts in Dec 1299[1055].  The deaths of “dñs Willm Fizwarryn Baro et Isabella ux sua quoda Regina Man” are recorded in Grey Friars Church, London[1056]m firstly MAGNUS King of Man, son of OLAV King of Man & his third wife Christina of Ross (-24 Nov 1265, bur Rushen St Mary).  m secondly ([1268]) as his fourth wife, MALISE Earl of Strathearn, son of ROBERT Earl of Strathearn & his wife --- (-[in France] [before 23 Nov] 1271, bur Dunblane).  m thirdly (post nuptial dispensation 5 Apr 1281) HUGH Abernethy of that Ilk, son of --- (-[28 Jun 1291/10 Feb 1292]).  m fourthly (before 10 Apr 1299) as his second wife, WILLIAM FitzWarin, son of --- (-before 1 Dec 1299, bur London, Grey Friars Church).  His relationship, if any, to the FitzWarin family who is shown in UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY has not yet been established.  The deaths of “dñs Willm Fizwarryn Baro et Isabella ux sua quoda Regina Man” are recorded in Grey Friars Church, London[1057]

ii)         ALEXANDER Macdougall )m --- Comyn, daughter of JOHN Comyn Lord of Badenoch & his first wife Eva ---.  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "the Red Cwmyn" had four daughters, of whom the third married "Alysawndyr off Argayle" by whom she had "Jhon off Lorne…Ewyn off Lorne"[1058].  Alexander & his wife had two children: 

(a)       JOHN .  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "the Red Cwmyn" had four daughters, of whom the third married "Alysawndyr off Argayle" by whom she had "Jhon off Lorne…Ewyn off Lorne"[1059]

(b)       EWEN .  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "the Red Cwmyn" had four daughters, of whom the third married "Alysawndyr off Argayle" by whom she had "Jhon off Lorne…Ewyn off Lorne"[1060]

iii)        JULIANA

4.         RAYNALD .  The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Dunegal filius Sumerledi, et filii sui, Olaf et Dunechal et Raynald et Adam de Stanford. Stephanus Capellanus"[1061].  Malcolm IV King of Scotland with "Uhtred filio Fergi et Gilebto fratris eius et Rad filio Dunegal et Duuenaldo fratris eius" confirmed the donation of "terra de Dunroden" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1062]

Dugald had one [illegitimate] son by an unknown mistress: 

5.          USPAK HAAKON .  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son names "Uspak…who had long been with the Birchlegs" adding that "it came out that he was a son of Dungal", which from the context indicates "Dungal, Somerled’s son" who is named in the previous passage[1063].  The rather convoluted phrasing suggests that Uspak was illegitimate.  m ---.  The name of Uspak’s wife is not known.]  Uspak & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [RUDRI .] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  BUCHAN

 

 

 

A.      MORMAERS of BUCHAN

 

 

Buchan was part of the province of Mar, one of the original seven provinces of Scotland.  Buchan separated from Mar, probably at the same time as Caithness was conquered by the Norwegians[1064].  In [1114/15], Gartnach Mormaer of Buchan was one of the six signatories of the charter of Scone who signed as "comes".  Thereafter the earldom of Buchan became well-established in the family of Gartnach's son-in-law until it was inherited in [1243]  by the Comyn family. 

 

 

1.         CAINNEACH [Kenneth], son of ---.  m ---.  The name of Cainneach’s wife is not known.  Cainneach & his wife had one child: 

a)         GARTNACH (-after 1132).  Mormaer of Buchan.  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[1065].  "…Gartnach comes…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[1066]m ETE Macduff, daughter of GILLIEMATHIL [Gilliemichael] [Earl of Fife] & his wife --- (-after 1132).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Book of Deer which records the donation made by "Gartnait son of Cainnech and Ete daughter of Gille Michel" for "the consecration of a Church of Christ and Peter"[1067].  Earl Gartnach & his wife had one child:

i)          EVE .  "Colbain Mormaer of Buchan and Eva daughter of Garnait his wedded wife…" exempted a church of secular burdens by charter dated to [1135][1068]m COLBAN, son of ---.  He succeeded as Earl of Buchan in [1135], de iure uxoris

 

 

 

B.      EARLS of BUCHAN

 

 

COLBAN, son of --- (-[1180]).  He succeeded as Earl of Buchan in [1135], de iure uxoris

m EVE of Buchan, daughter of GARTNACH Mormaer [Earl] of Buchan & his wife Ete [of Fife].  "Colbain Mormaer of Buchan and Eva daughter of Garnait his wedded wife…" exempted a church of secular burdens by charter dated to [1135][1069]

Earl Colban & his wife had [one] child:

1.         [ROGER (-[1190]).  He succeeded his father as Earl of Buchan.  "Rogerus comes de Bouchan" donated harvest from land "de Foedarg" to St Andrew’s priory, confirming the donation made by "Gartenach avus meus", by undated charter[1070].  It is assumed that this document indicates that Roger was the son of Colban and his wife Eva, although no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct.]  m ---.  The name of Roger’s wife is not known.  Roger & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [FERGUS (-before 1210).  According to the Complete Peerage[1071], Fergus was either the son or brother of Earl Roger.  Balfour Paul says that Fergus was "supposed to be the son and heir of Roger"[1072], which suggests that there is no surviving primary source which confirms that this is correct.  Earl of Buchan.  "Fergus comes de Buchan" donated "unam marcam argenti singulis annis in perpetuam elemosina" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter witnessed by "dno Willelmo rege, dno David fratre eius…"[1073].  William King of Scotland confirmed donations to Aberbrothoc, including the donation of an annuity of a mark of silver made by "comes Fergus de Buchan", by charter dated to before 1199[1074].  ]  m ---.  The name of Fergus’s wife is not known.  Fergus & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGARET (-[8 Apr 1242/1244]).  "Margareta comitissa de Buchan…in…viduitatis mee" donated "una marca argenti annuatim" to Aberbrothoc, as "comes Fergus pater meus" had done, by undated charter[1075].  The Complete Peerage dates this charter to "before 1199" and uses this as the basis for her supposed first marriage[1076].  She succeeded her father as Ctss of Buchan, suo iure.  "Wills Cumyn comes et Margar sponsa sua comitissa de Buchan" donated "ecclesiam de Buthelny" to Aberbrothoc by undated charter[1077].  "Willelmus Cumin comes de Buchan" donated revenue from property in "Inuermer" to St Andrew’s priory, with the consent of "Margerie uxoris nostre", by undated charter[1078].  "Margeria comitissa de Buchan" donated revenue from property in "Inuermer" to St Andrew’s priory by undated charter, presumably dated to after her husband’s death as he is not named in the document, witnessed by "…Roberto Cumyn…"[1079].  [m firstly --- (-before 1199).]  m [secondly] (1210 or before) as his second wife, WILLIAM Comyn, son of RICHARD Comyn & his wife Hextilda of Tynedale (-1233[1080]).  He succeeded as Earl of Buchan, de iure uxoris

Fergus had [two] illegitimate sons by unknown mistresses: 

ii)         MERLEFWIN .  "…Merlefwyne filio comitis de Buchane…" witnessed the undated charter, dated to [1213/28], under which "Comes Malcolmus de Fyffe" confirmed "terram…de Levingstoun…et…de Hirmanstoun", which "idem Willelmus de me tenuit", to "Archebaldo de Douglas filio Willelmi de Douglas"[1081].  The name of Merlefwin’s father is not known with certainty.  From a chronological point of view, it appears likely that he was the son of Earl Fergus: sons of William Comyn Earl of Buchan would have been too young to have witnessed the document.  If this is correct, Merlefwin must have been illegitimate as the earldom passed to Fergus’s daughter. 

iii)        [ADAM .  "Willelmus Cumyn comes de Buchane" confirmed the donation of "unam petra cere anuatim" to the church of Glasgow by undated charter witnessed by "Ric Cumyn fil meo, Adam fil comit de Buhchan, Willo fil Robto de Hasting…"[1082].  As the document is also witnessed by one of the donor’s sons, the "comit de Buhchan" of whom Adam was son was most probably Fergus, who was the donor’s predecessor as earl.] 

 

 

 

C.      EARLS of BUCHAN (COMYN)

 

 

ALEXANDER Comyn, son of WILLIAM Comyn Earl of Buchan & his second wife Margaret Ctss of Buchan (-[1 Jan/5 Apr] 1290).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil names "Alysawndyr that Erle wes off Buchane" as "the thryd brothyr" of "Rychard and Waltyre", sons of "Willame Cwmyn"[1083].  He succeeded his mother in [1244] as Earl of Buchan.  "Alex Cumyn comes de Buchan" confirmed the donation of property in "Inuerinhe" made by "bone memorie Willi patris nostri et Margarie matris nostre" to St Andrew’s priory, by undated charter witnessed by "…Jacobo de Lascelles…"[1084].  He was appointed Justiciar of Scotland 1251-1255 and 1257-1289.  He succeeded to the office of Constable of Scotland in 1270, de iure uxoris, on the resignation of Margaret Ctss of Derby his wife's sister.  He was one of the six Guardians on the death of Alexander III King of Scotland[1085]

m ELIZABETH de Quincy, daughter of ROGER de Quincy Earl of Winchester & his first wife Helen of Galloway (-after Apr 1282).  The Annales Londonienses name "Margarete countesse de Ferreres et Eleyne la Zusche et la countesse de Bougham" as the three daughters of "Eleyn countesse de Wynton"[1086].  A charter dated 3 Dec 1274 records the partition of the lands "lately held in dower by Alianora de Vaux late countess of Wynton widow of the said Roger" agreed by "Alexander Comyn earl of Buchan and Elizabeth his wife the third daughter of Roger [de Quency earl of Wynton]" for her part of the lands[1087]

Earl Alexander & his wife had nine children:

1.         JOHN Comyn ([1259]-in England [11 Aug/3 Dec] 1308).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil names "Willame" as son of "Alysawndyr that Erle wes off Buchane", adding that he had "swynnys twa, Jhon and Alysandyre"[1088].  The Annales Londonienses name "Johan Comyn counte de Boghan" as the son of "la countesse de Boghham"[1089].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the appointment of "domino Willelmo Fraser episcopo Sancti Andreæ, Duncano comite de Fyfe, et Johanne Comyn comite de Buchan, ex parte boreali aquæ de Forth, Roberto episcopo Glasguensi, domino Johanne Comyn, et Jacobo senescallo Scotiæ, ex parte australi eiusdem" as the six guardians of the realm after the death in 1286 of King Alexander III[1090].  He succeeded his father in 1290 as Earl of Buchan.  He swore fealty to Edward I King of England, fought Robert Bruce who defeated him at Inverury 22 May 1308.  He retired to England and his estates in Scotland were forfeited.  m ISABEL Macduff of Fife, daughter of DUNCAN Earl of Fife & his wife Joan de Clare.  Orders for the "farther…custody of the countesses of Carrick and Buchan, Marie and Christine the sisters, and Margerie the daughter, of Robert de Brus", specifying that "three of the ladies to be in kages", are dated 7 Nov 1306[1091].  She was released in Apr 1313[1092]

2.         ROGER Comyn (-after [1 Jul 1282]).  Royal letters dated to [1 Jul 1282] indicate that "Alexander Cumyn Earl of Buchan, constable of Scotland" sent "Roger his son" to join the king against the Welsh[1093]

3.         ALEXANDER Comyn (-[1305/08]).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil names "Willame" as son of "Alysawndyr that Erle wes off Buchane", adding that he had "swynnys twa, Jhon and Alysandyre"[1094].  Sheriff of Aberdeen.  m JOANNA, [sister of WILLIAM le Latimer, daughter of ---][1095] (-after 10 May 1342).  King Edward II granted safe conduct to “Johanna quæ fuit uxor Alexandri Comyn” to travel to Scotland to negotiate “cum Scotis super restitutione terræ ipsius Johannæ in Scotia” by charter dated 24 Oct 1320[1096].  A charter dated 10 Jul 1330 ordered payment of a pension to "Johanna Comyn of Boghan", granted to her 27 Mar 1327[1097].  Alexander & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALICE Comyn .  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "David", eldest son of "Johannem…Comyn…filiam" and her husband "David comiti Atholiæ", married "filiam Henrici de Bellomonte…ex filia primogenita…comitis Johannis de Buchan"[1098].  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Alysandyre", son of "Willame" son of "Alysawndyr that Erle wes off Buchane", had two daughters, the elder of which married "Henry de Bewmownt"[1099]m (before 14 Jul 1310) HENRY Beaumont Lord Beaumont, son of LOUIS de Brienne Vicomte de Beaumont & his wife Agnes de Beaumont (-before 10 Mar 1340).  He was summoned to Parliament in England in 1334 as Earl of Buchan, although this was never recognised in Scotland. 

b)         MARGARET Comyn .  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Alysandyre", son of "Willame" son of "Alysawndyr that Erle wes off Buchane", had two daughters, the younger of which married "Schyre Jhon de Ross"[1100].  Her right to the earldom of Buchan may have been recognised in Scotland in preference to her older sister as the latter had married an Englishman.  The Complete Peerage suggests that she may have been the "Margaret Ctss of Buchan" in a charter dated 1310 with her [second] husband William Lindsay[1101]: "Willelmus de Lindesay" donated property to Deer, for the souls and anniversaries of "Margarete comitisse de Bucquhan quondam sponse mee et Alisie de Lyndesay prioris sponse mee", by charter dated to [1310], witnessed by “domino Duncano Lindsay fratre meo...[1102].  It is not an ideal fit.  John Comyn Earl of Buchan, uncle of Margaret daughter of Alexander Comyn, died in 1308.  His heir appears to have been Alice, older sister of Margaret.  It is therefore unclear how Margaret could legitimately have claimed to be countess of Buchan after he died.  In any case, the date of death of William Lindsay’s second wife is not known, so it cannot be stated definitely that she survived Earl John.  In addition, no indication has been found of the date of death of Margaret’s first husband which could show whether the suggestion is possible.  Two other possibilities present themselves.  Firstly, Margaret, wife of William Lindsay, could have been an otherwise unrecorded second wife of Alexander Comyn Earl of Buchan, the father of Earl John, who died in 1290.  In that case, there would have been no doubt about her right to bear the title “countess of Buchan”.  Secondly, she could have been Marjory, oldest sister of Earl John, who may have asserted a claim to the earldom of Buchan after the death of her brother as the oldest surviving heir of his generation.  Marjory’s known husband, Patrick Earl of Dunbar, died in 1308 so a second marriage before the [1310] charter is possible, although no indication has been found of her own date of death so it is not known whether she survived Earl Patrick.  m [firstly] JOHN Ross, son of WILLIAM Ross Earl of Ross & his wife Eupheme ---.  [m secondly as his second wife, WILLIAM Lindsay Lord of Symington, Ayrshire, son of DAVID Lindsay & his wife Margaret Lindsay (-after [1310]).] 

4.         WILLIAM Comyn (-after 1312).  "Willo clerico fratre nostro…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Alex Cumyn comes de Buchan" confirmed revenue from "Inuerinhe" to St Andrew’s priory[1103]

5.         MARJORY Comyn .  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the eldest of which married "Erle Patryke" by whom she had "Patryk, that Erle wes efftyr"[1104].  She was forced to surrender the castle of Dunbar to Edward I King of England 29 Apr 1296.  m (1282 or before) PATRICK de Dunbar, son of PATRICK Earl of Dunbar & his wife Joan [FitzRobert] ([1242]-10 Oct 1308).  He succeeded his father in 1289 as Earl of Dunbar.  He also styled himself Earl of March from Mar 1290. 

6.         AGNES Comyn (-after [28 Jan/25 Mar] 1313).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the second of which married "Off Stratherne the Erle Malys" by whom she had "a swne…Malys"[1105]m (1275 or before) MALISE Earl of Strathearn, son of MALISE Earl of Strathearn & his second wife Matilda of Caithness and Orkney ([1257]-[28 Jan/25 Mar] 1313, bur Inchaffray Abbey). 

7.         ELIZABETH Comyn (-before 17 Feb 1329).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the third of which married "Schyr Gylbert Wmfrayvyle" by whom she had "Robert…othir brethyr"[1106]m GILBERT de Umfraville Earl of Angus, son of GILBERT de Umfraville Earl of Angus & his wife Matilda Ctss of Angus ([1244]-before 13 Oct 1307). 

8.         HELEN Comyn (-after 24 Aug 1302).  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the fourth of which married "Schyr Willame off Brechyne" by whom she had "Schyr Dawy"[1107].  "Elena relicta quondam domini Willelmi de Brechin, domina de Kyndeloch" donated "tenementum meum de Kyndeloch" to Lindores Abbey by charter dated 24 Aug 1302[1108].  m WILLIAM de Brechin, son of HENRY de Brechin & his wife Juliana de Cornhill (-before 10 Dec 1292). 

9.         MARGARET Comyn .  Andrew Wyntoun’s Cronykil records that "Jhon and Alysandyre" had five sisters, the fifth of which married "Schyr Nychol de Sowlys" by whom she had "swnnys twa, Willame and Jhon"[1109]m NICHOLAS de Soulis, son of [WILLIAM] de Soulis & his wife Ermengarde Durward (-after 1296).  . 

 

 

 

D.      EARLS of BUCHAN 1469-1585 (STEWART)

 

 

JAMES Stewart, son of JAMES Stewart of Lorn & his wife Joan Beaufort (-[Jan 1497/Jan 1500])Earl of Buchan 1469. 

m (before 1 Mar 1467) MARGARET Ogilvy, daughter and heiress of ALEXANDER Ogilvy of Auchterhouse & his wife ---. 

James & his wife had one child: 

1.         ALEXANDER (-1505)Earl of Buchanm firstly (before 20 May 1491) ISABEL Ogilvy, daughter of --- (-after 20 May 1491).  m secondly (before 1499) as her first husband, MARGARET Ruthven, daughter of WILLIAM Lord Ruthven & his first wife Isabel --- (-1548).  She married (before 21 Jun 1508) John Erskine the younger of Dun.  Alexander & his second wife had four children: 

a)         JOHN ([1498]-1551 after 14 Jul)Earl of Buchanm MARGARET Scrymgeour, daughter of JAMES Scrymgeour of Dudhope & his wife ---.  John & his wife had two children: 

i)          JOHN (-killed in battle Pinkie 10 Sep 1547).  Master of Buchan.  m firstly ELIZABETH Stuart, illegitimate daughter of JAMES Stuart Earl of Moray & his mistress Marion Stewart .  m secondly (before 15 May 1547) MARGARET Ogilvy, daughter of WALTER Ogilvy of Boyne & his wife --- (-after 26 Dec 1549).  John & his second wife had one child:

(a)       CHRISTIAN ([1547/48]-Aberdeen 20 Sep 1580)Ctss of BuchanBetrothed (16 Jan 1550) to JAMES Stewart, illegitimate son of JAMES V King of Scotland & his mistress Margaret Erskine ([1531]-murdered Linlithgow 21 Jan 1570, bur 14 Feb 1570 Edinburgh, St Giles).  He was created Earl of Moray in 1562.  m ROBERT Douglas of Morton, son of ROBERT Douglas of Lochleven & his wife Margaret Erskine (-Mills of Drum 18 Aug 1580).  Earl of Buchan. 

ii)         JAMESm CHRISTIAN, daughter of JOHN Strang of Balcaskie & his wife ---.  James & his wife had four children:   

(a)       JAMES .  1618. 

(b)       ALEXANDER

(c)       daughter . 

(d)       daughter . 

b)         son (1501-young).

c)         AGNES .

d)         JANET (-after 14 Jan 1513).  m as his first wife, ALEXANDER Livingston Lord Livingston, son of WILLIAM Livingston Lord Livingstone & his wife Agnes Hepburn of Whitsome (-[25 Jul 1549/4 Jan 1551]).  

James had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

2.          daughter (-after 1530)m ALEXANDER Abernethy Lord Saltoun, son of JAMES Abernethy Lord Saltoun & his wife --- (-before 25 Jul 1527). 

James had two illegitimate children by MARGARET Murray, widow of WILLIAM Murray, daughter of ---.

3.          JAMES Stewart (-killed in battle Flodden 1513).  First of Traquair.  m CATHERINE Rutherford, daughter of PHILIP Rutherford of that Ilk & his wife ---. 

-           EARLS of TRAQUAIR

4.          AGNES (-Feb 1557)Mistress ([1509]) of JAMES IV King of Scotland, son of JAMES III King of Scotland & his wife Margarethe of Denmark (17 Mar 1473-killed in battle Flodden 9 Sep 1513).  m firstly (1511) ADAM Hepburn Earl of Bothwell, son of PATRICH Hepburn Earl of Bothwell & his second wife Margaret Gordon of the Earls of Huntly  ([1492]-killed in battle Pinkie 9 Sep 1513).  m secondly ([9 Sep 1513/14 Feb 1514]) ALEXANDER Lord Home, son of ALEXANDER Home Lord Home (-beheaded Edinburgh 8 Oct 1516, bur Greyfriars).  m thirdly ([1520/15 Nov 1525]) as his second wife, ROBERT Maxwell Lord Maxwell, son of JOHN Maxwell Lord Maxwell & his wife Agnes Stewart of Garlies ([1493/94]-Logan 9 Jul 1546).  m fourthly (before 13 Dec 1549) as his first wife, CUTHBERT Ramsay, son of NICHOLAS Ramsay of Dalhousie & his wife --- (-after Feb 1557).

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  GALLOWAY

 

 

The province of Galloway included part of Dumfriesshire as well as the earldom of Carrick.  Contemporary charters, especially those included in the Liber Sancte Marie de Melros, show that the Norman settlers seem to have obtained "a more insecure footing" in Galloway that in other districts in Scotland, as after two or three generations their names disappear from the documentation where Gaelic names resume their predominance[1110]

 

 

1.         FERGUS, son of --- (-[1136])Lord of Galloway.  "…Fergus de Galweia…Uchtred filio Fergus" witnessed a charter dated to [1136] by which "David Rex Scotiæ" granted Perdeyc to the church of Glasqow[1111].  "…Fgus de Galweia…" witnessed the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland donated "decimam meam de meo Chan" to the church of Glasgow[1112]m ELIZABETH, daughter of ---.  Fergus & his wife had three children: 

a)         UHTRED of Galloway (-1174).  "…Fergus de Galweia…Uchtred filio Fergus" witnessed a charter dated to [1136] by which "David Rex Scotiæ" granted Perdeyc to the church of Glasqow[1113].  "Uhctredus filius Fergusi" donated "ecclesiam de Colmanele" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1114].  "Uctredus filius Fergi et Gunnild filia Waldef sponsa sua" donated "ecclesiam de Torpennoth" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1115].  Malcolm IV King of Scotland with "Uhtred filio Fergi et Gilebto fratris eius et Rad filio Dunegal et Duuenaldo fratris eius" confirmed the donation of "terra de Dunroden" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1116].  "...Huctred son of Fergus, Gilebert son of Fergus..." witnessed the charter dated to [1166] under which William King of Scotland confirmed the grant of property to “Robert de Brus[1117].  William of Newburgh names "duo fratres Gilbertus et Uctredus Galwadensis provinciæ dofuini…Fergusi olim principis eiusdem provincie filii" when recording their quarrels [in 1174] and that Uhtred was killed[1118]Lord of Galloway John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that, in the year in which King William was released from custody, "duce Gilberto filio Fergusii" led "Galwidienses" in rebellion and "X Kal Oct" captured "Ochtredus…filius Fergusii…verus…Scotus", blinded him, cut out his tongue, and murdered him[1119]m GUNHILD, daughter of WALTHEOF & his wife Sigrid ---.  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Alanus filius et hæres eiusdem Waldevi” enfeoffed “Ugthredo filio Fergus domino Galwediæ” with property and “Guynolda sorore sua[1120].  "Uctredus filius Fergi et Gunnild filia Waldef sponsa sua" donated "ecclesiam de Torpennoth" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1121].  Uhtred & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          ROLAND of Galloway (-Northampton 1200, bur St Andrews).  William of Newburgh names "fratri nefarie interempto filius Rollandus"[1122]Lord of Galloway.   The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1200 of "Roland son of Uchtrach king of the Foreign-Irish[1123].  

-         see below

ii)         --- of Galloway (-killed in battle 1185).  The Chronicle of Melrose records that he fought with his brother Roland against "Gillecolm" but was killed in the battle together with their opponent[1124].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that, after the death of "dominus Galwalliæ Gilbertus, filius Fergusii" in 1185, "Rotholandus filius Othredi" fought with "Gilpatricio, et Henrico Kennedy, necnon Samuele" and that "frater Rotholandi" was killed[1125]

iii)        [FERGUS (-after 22 Sep 1196).  "…Roll constabul, Philipp de Mubray, Willmo de Valloñ, Henr Biset, Thomas de Colville, Adam fil Herb, Ferg fratre Roll, Alexander de Finton" witnessed the charter dated 22 Sep (no year) under which William King of Scotland confirmed the donation of "in territorio de Cliftun" to Melrose abbey made by "Walterus Corbet filius Walteri"[1126].  It is not certain that Fergus was the brother of Fergus of Galloway, but the conjunction of the names (which are unusual) make this probable.  If this is correct, Fergus was not the same person as the unnamed brother who was killed in 1185, as Roland is named in the document as constable, an appointment which he assumed after the death of William de Morville in 1196.] 

b)         AUFRICA of Galloway .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” married “Affricam…filiam Fergus de Galwedia[1127]m OLAV “Morsel” King of Man, son of GODFRED “Crovan” King of Man & his wife --- ([1080]-killed 1153). 

c)         GILBERT of Galloway (-1 Jan 1185).  Malcolm IV King of Scotland with "Uhtred filio Fergi et Gilebto fratris eius et Rad filio Dunegal et Duuenaldo fratris eius" confirmed the donation of "terra de Dunroden" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1128].  "...Huctred son of Fergus, Gilebert son of Fergus..." witnessed the charter dated to [1166] under which William King of Scotland confirmed the grant of property to “Robert de Brus[1129].  William of Newburgh names "duo fratres Gilbertus et Uctredus Galwadensis provinciæ dofuini…Fergusi olim principis eiusdem provincie filii" when recording their quarrels [in 1174], commenting that "Gilbertus natu major"[1130].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that, in the year in which King William was released from custody, "duce Gilberto filio Fergusii" led "Galwidienses" in rebellion and captured "Ochtredus…filius Fergusii…verus…Scotus", blinded him, cut out his tongue, and murdered him[1131].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death of "dominus Galwalliæ Gilbertus, filius Fergusii" in 1185[1132]m ---.  The name of Gilbert’s wife is not known.  Gilbert & his wife had one child: 

i)          DUNCAN (-13 Jun 1250).  "Dunecanus filius Gillebti filii Fergi" donated "totam terram de Moybothelbeg…[et] de Bethoc" to Melrose abbey by undated charter[1133].  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "Duncan the son of Gilebert of Galwey" gave to the monks of Melrose a certain portion of his lands in Karec in 1193[1134].  He obtained Carrick from William "the Lion" King of Scotland before 1196, becoming Earl of Carrick. 

-         EARLS of CARRICK

 

 

ROLAND Lord of Galloway, son of UHTRED Lord of Galloway & his wife Gunhild of Dunbar (-Northampton 1200, bur St Andrews).  William of Newburgh names "fratri nefarie interempto filius Rollandus"[1135].  "...Huctred son of Fergus, Gilebert son of Fergus...Rolland son of Huctred..." witnessed the charter dated to [1166] under which William King of Scotland confirmed the grant of property to “Robert de Brus[1136].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that, after the death of "dominus Galwalliæ Gilbertus, filius Fergusii" in 1185, "Rotholandus filius Othredi" fought with "Gilpatricio, et Henrico Kennedy, necnon Samuele"[1137]Lord of Galloway.  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Rothonaldus…dominus Galuidie, pater magni Alani" succeeded "Willelmo de Moreuilla constabulario Scocie" and married his sister[1138].  "Roland de Galweia fil Uchtredi costabularius reg Scott" donated property "apud Lochkendeloch" to Kelso monastery by charter dated to [1200][1139].  "Rodland de Galloway gives the K. 500 marks to have a recognizance by twelve free men of the vicinage of Bosiate, whether Richard de Moreville father of his wife Helena was seized of a knight’s fee in Bosiaute" in Northampton, dated [Dec] 1200[1140].  "Rollandus filius Uctredi" donated "unam salinam in Preston" to Melrose abbey by undated charter[1141].  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1200 of "Roland son of Uchtrach king of the Foreign-Irish[1142].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "apud Northamptonam" in 1200 of "Rotholandus de Galweia" and his burial "apud Sanctum Andream"[1143]

m HELEN de Morville, daughter of RICHARD de Morville, Constable of Scotland[1144] & his wife Hawise de Lancaster (-11 Jun 1217[1145]).  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "Rotholand lord of Galloway" married "William de Morville…[his] sister" who was her brother’s heir[1146].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Rothonaldus…dominus Galuidie, pater magni Alani" succeeded "Willelmo de Moreuilla constabulario Scocie" and married his sister[1147].  "Rodland de Galloway gives the K. 500 marks to have a recognizance by twelve free men of the vicinage of Bosiate, whether Richard de Moreville father of his wife Helena was seized of a knight’s fee in Bosiaute" in Northampton, dated [Dec] 1200[1148].  "Elena de Morevilla" donated "elemosinam quondam patre mee in territorio de Killebeccokestun", and "de Widhope…ubique avia mea et avia hoinum meorum", to Melrose abbey for the souls of "…Willi fratris mei et Rollandi sponsi mei", by undated charter[1149].  Pleas taken in Westmoreland 14 Dec 1279 record the claim to "the moiety of the manors of Wyntone, Kingesmedburne, Appelby, Burgh and Kyrkeby Stephan" made by "Derverguilla widow of John de Balliol, Margaret de Ferrers countess of Derby, Elena widow of Alan la Zusche, Alexander Comin earl of Buchan and Elizabeth his wife" against "Roger de Clifford and Isabella his wife…and…Roger de Leyburne and Idonea his wife", and recites the inheritance of the manors from "one Hugh" [Hugh de Morville] to "Richard his brother and heir", to "William his son and heir…who died without heir of his body", and to "Elena…his sister and heir"[1150]

Lord Roland & his wife had four children: 

1.         ALAN of Galloway (-[2] Feb 1234, bur Dundraynan[1151]).  He succeeded his father in 1200 as Lord of Galloway.  "Alanus filius Rollandi de Galwythia" donated "partem terre in territorio de Gillebeccokestun…de Widhope" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "Ricardi de Morevill avi mei et Willemi avunculi mei, Rollandi patris mei et…mea et Helene matris mee", by undated charter[1152]

-        see below

2.         THOMAS of Galloway (-1231, bur Abbey of Cupre[1153]).  Brother of Alan of Galloway according to Matthew Paris, when he describes his (unnamed) son's rebellion[1154].  The Red Book of the Exchequer records "Thomas de Galewey" holding two knights’ fees and four parts in Warwickshire in [1210/12][1155].  Earl of Atholl de iure uxoris.  "Thomas de Galway comes de Athol et Isabel uxor eius comitissa Atholie" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter[1156].  "Willelmi Olifard" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, with the consent of "domini mei Thomæ comitis Atholiæ et Isabellæ sponsæ suæ"[1157].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1231 of "Alani de Galuway frater…comes Atholiæ" and his burial "in Cupro"[1158]m (before Jan 1210) [as her first husband,] ISABEL Ctss of Atholl, daughter of HENRY Earl of Atholl & his wife Margaret --- (-before 1242).  "Thomas de Galway comes de Athol et Isabel uxor eius comitissa Atholie" confirmed the donation of "ecclesiam de Molin" to Dunfermline monastery by undated charter[1159].  "Willelmi Olifard" donated property to Cupar abbey by undated charter, with the consent of "domini mei Thomæ comitis Atholiæ et Isabellæ sponsæ suæ"[1160].  She may have married secondly ([1231/32]) [as his first wife,] Alan Durward.  Thomas & his wife had one child: 

a)         PATRICK of Galloway (-murdered Haddington 1242).  Matthew Paris records that "Walterus Biset" murdered "Paterico filio Thomæ de Galeweia" after a tournament in 1242 and that Walter was allowed to go into exile by Alexander II King of England[1161].  He succeeded his father in 1231 as Earl of Atholl.  The Chronicle of Melrose records that, after defeating Walter Bisset in a tournament, he was burnt to death by the latter in his own residence[1162].  He was succeeded in Atholl by his maternal aunt. 

Thomas had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

b)         ALAN (-after Jan 1252).  "Alan son of Thomas Earl of Atholl" was granted a pardon for killing some men in Ireland[1163].  It is assumed that he was illegitimate as he did not succeed his [half-]brother as Earl of Atholl in 1242. 

3.         DEVORGUILLA of Galloway (-after 1241).  King Henry III commanded "B. de Insula...to receive from Devorguil widow of Nicholas de Stuteville, Margaret his younger daughter, and deliver her to William de Mastac to whom the K. has given her marriage”, dated 20 Nov 1233[1164].  Mentioned 1241.  m NICHOLAS [IV] Stuteville of Brincklow, son of NICHOLAS [III] Stuteville of Liddel & his wife --- (-Priory of St Andrew [8 Sep/18 Oct] 1233). 

4.         daughter .  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage in 1233 of "Alanus de Galwidia…sororem suam" and "Waltero de Biseth"[1165].  The Chronicle of Melrose records in 1233 that "Alan of Galloway gave…his sister to Walter Biseth"[1166]m (1233[1167]) WALTER Bisset, son of ---.  He was outlawed with his nephew John Bisset whom he had incited to murder Patrick of Galloway Earl of Atholl, his wife's nephew[1168].  Walter Bisset incited Henry III King of England to march north intending to invade Scotland in 1244, but a treaty of peace was concluded 24 Aug 1244[1169]

 

 

ALAN of Galloway, son of ROLAND Lord of Galloway & his wife Helen de Moreville (-[2] Feb 1234, bur Dundraynan[1170]).  He succeeded his father in 1200 as Lord of Galloway.  "Alanus filius Rollandi de Galwythia" donated "partem terre in territorio de Gillebeccokestun…de Widhope" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "Ricardi de Morevill avi mei et Willemi avunculi mei, Rollandi patris mei et…mea et Helene matris mee", by undated charter[1171].  "Alanus filius Rolandi dominus Galwath[ie] et Scocie constabularius" donated annual revenue to St Bees by undated charter, witnessed by "Alano filio Ketelli, Alano de Camerton, Gilberto filio Gospatrici…"[1172].  "Thomas de Colevilla cognomento Scot" donated "quartam partam de Almelidum…Keresban" to Melrose abbey by undated charter witnessed by "…Alano filio Rolandi de Galewai, Fergus filio Uctredi, Edgaro filio Douenad, Dunkano filio Gilbti comite de Carric…"[1173].  "Alanus fili Rolandi de Galweia constabularius dni regis Scottorum" donated property "in Ulkelyston" to Kelso monastery, for the souls of "patris mei Rolandi, avi mei Huhtredi", by charter dated to [1206][1174].  The Annals of Dunstable record that “dominus Galwinæ” died in 1235[1175].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in [1234] of "Alanus de Galway filius Rotholandi de Galway…qui…fuit constabilarius Scociæ" and his burial "apud Dundranan"[1176].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records the death "circa purificacionem beatæ Virginis" [2 Feb] in 1233 of "Alanus dominus Galwydiæ"[1177].  On his death Galway was divided between his daughters, but the people of Galway invited Alexander II King of Scotland to become their sole lord but he refused.  The king finally defeated the insurgents after Jul 1235[1178]

[m firstly (before [19 Dec 1200/1206]) --- de Lacy, daughter of ROGER de Lacy Constable of Chester & his wife Maud de Clare (-[1201/06]).  Keith Stringer says that "one of the daughters of Roger de Lacy was evidently Alan’s first wife" and that "the manor of Kippax" was her dowry, quoting a charter, dated to [19 Dec 1200/1206], under which "Alanus filius Rollandi, dominus Galuuaith Scotie constabularius…et heredibus meis" gave quitclaim to "Rogero de Lascy Cestrie constabularius et heredibus suis" for "advocationem ecclesie de Kipeis"[1179].] 

m [secondly] --- [of the Isles, daughter of REGINALD Lord of the Isles & his wife Fonie ---] (-before 1209).  Balfour Paul says that Alan Lord of Galloway married first "a lady unknown, said to be a daughter of Reginald Lord of the Isles by whom he had two daughters"[1180].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

m [thirdly] (Dundee 1209) MARGARET of Huntingdon, daughter of DAVID of Scotland Earl of Huntingdon & his wife Matilda of Chester ([1194]-[after 6 Jan 1233]).  The Chronicle of Melrose records the marriage in 1209 of "Alan FitzRoland" and "the daughter of earl David, the brother of the king of Scotland"[1181].  The Annales Londonienses name "Margaretam, Isabellam, Matildam, et Aldam" as the four daughters of "comiti David", recording the marriage of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei"[1182].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the marriage in 1208 "apud Dunde" of "Alanus magnus de Galweyia, filius Rotholandi" and "Margaretam filiam David comitis de Huntingtona"[1183].  The primary source which confirms her appearance in Jan 1233 has not been identified.  The date is inconsistent with Alan’s subsequent marital history, unless his marriage to Margaret was dissolved. 

m [fourthly] (before 30 Mar 1222, annulled for consanguinity/affinity [1225/29]) JULIANA, daughter of ---.  Her husband challenged the validity of this marriage on grounds of consanguinity/affinity.  The family relationship between the couple has not been ascertained.  Pope Honorius III mandated the archbishop of York and others that “Alan constable of Scotland was of such close kindred and affinity to his wife that they could not cohabit without mortal sin”, and to refer the case to the Papal legate, dated 30 Apr 1222[1184].  Pope Honorius III wrote to the archbishop of Canterbury 28 Feb 1225 requesting him “to proceed to a decision of a suit relating to the alleged marriage of Alan knight and Juliana heard before the abbot of Bruern”, recording details of the proceedings including the appearance of the wife before the Pope who doubted “whether the acts and attestations she brought with her were true”, and ordered “the archbishop, if the said knight will not be induced to treat the woman as his wife, to have the original acts produced and decide the matter[1185].  Anderson suggests that "Juliana seems to have lost the case"[1186]

m [fifthly] ([1228/29]) ROSE de Lacy, daughter of HUGH de Lacy & [his first wife Lesceline de Verdun] (-after 1237).  According to Matthew Paris, the wife of Alan of Galloway "iam defunctus" was the (unnamed) daughter of "Hugonem de Lasey"[1187].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records in 1229 that "Alan the lord of Galloway…set out for Ireland and there married the daughter of Hugh de Lacy"[1188].  John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records that "Alanus de Galweia profectus in Hiberniam" married "filiam Hugonis de Lacy" in 1228[1189].  If her parentage and marriage is correctly stated in the two sources quoted, the chronology suggests that this daughter must have been born from Hugh’s first marriage, assuming that she was legitimate.  She is named "Rose de Lacy" by Keith Stringer, who cites a charter of St Bees which indicates that she was still alive in 1237[1190]

Lord Alan & his [first/second] wife had two children:

1.         HELEN of Galloway (-after 21 Nov 1245, bur Brackley).  The Annales Londonienses name "Eleyn countesse de Wynton" as eldest of the three daughters of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei", naming "Margarete countesse de Ferreres et Eleyne la Zusche et la countesse de Bougham" as her three daughters[1191].  It is assumed that she was not born from Alan’s marriage to Margaret of Huntingdon as her descendants did not raise a claim to the Scottish throne in 1291.  This is consistent with the date of marriage of one of her daughters being estimated to [1238].  No indication has been found to confirm whether Helen was born from her father’s first or second marriage.  The Liber Pluscardensis records that the eldest daughter of "Alanus de Galway filius Rotholandi de Galway" married "Rogerus de Quinci comes Wintoniæ"[1192].  "Elena quondam filia Alani de Galeweya" donated "villam de Edeluestune" to the church of Glasgow by undated charter[1193].  "Rogerus de Quency constabularius Scocie et Elena uxor eius filia quondam Alani de Galweya" recognised the rights of the church of Glasgow to "villam de Edeluestune" by undated charter[1194]m as his first wife, ROGER de Quincy Earl of Winchester, son of SAHER de Quincy Earl of Winchester & Margaret of Leicester (-25 Apr 1264, maybe bur Brackley).  He is named son-in-law of Alan of Galloway by Matthew Paris, who does not name his wife[1195] but says in a later passage that she was "primogenita soror"[1196].  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1234 as hereditary Constable of Scotland, de iure uxoris

2.         daughter (-before 13 Jun 1213).  Balfour Paul says that a daughter of Alan Lord of Galloway by his [first] marriage (referring to "a lady unknown, said to be a daughter of Reginald Lord of the Isles by whom he had two daughters", shown above as his [second] wife) died "a hostage in charge of Robert FitzRoger shortly before 13 June 1213"[1197].  No indication has been found to confirm whether this daughter was born from her father’s first or second marriage. 

Lord Alan & his [first/second/third] wife had two children: 

3.         WALTER (-[1231/34]).  The Liber Pluscardensis records that King Alexander II installed "Walterum filium Alani de Galuway" as "primus…Senescallus in Scocia" in 1231[1198].  The chronology suggests that Walter may have been Alan’s son by his first marriage.  Walter must have predeceased his father as no further mention of him is found. 

4.         THOMAS of Galloway (-[after 1234]).  Pleas taken in Westmoreland 14 Dec 1279 record the claim to "the moiety of the manors of Wyntone, Kingesmedburne, Appelby, Burgh and Kyrkeby Stephan" made by "Derverguilla widow of John de Balliol, Margaret de Ferrers countess of Derby, Elena widow of Alan la Zusche, Alexander Comin earl of Buchan and Elizabeth his wife" against "Roger de Clifford and Isabella his wife…and…Roger de Leyburne and Idonea his wife", naming "Thomas…son and heir" of Alan [of Galloway], adding that he "died without heir of his body" and was succeeded by his sisters "Elena, Cristiana and Deverguilla"[1199].  This document suggests that Thomas was a different person from Alan’s illegitimate son of the same name (who would not have been described as his father’s "heir", and that he outlived his father, if only briefly.  It is possible that he was the same person as Alan’s son named Walter in the source which is referred to above.  If that is correct, it is not known whether Thomas or Walter was his correct name.  

Lord Alan & his [third] wife had two children: 

5.         DEVORGUILLA of Galloway ([1218]-28 Jan 1290, bur Sweetheart Abbey, Kirkland).  The Annales Londonienses name "Devorgoille de Baillol" as second of the three daughters of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei"[1200].  The Chronicle of Melrose records that "Alan of Galloway gave his daughter to John de Bailiol in marriage" in 1233[1201].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage in 1233 of the second daughter of "Alanus de Galway filius Rotholandi de Galway" and "Johannes de Balliolo"[1202].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records that "Diuorgilla filia Alani domini de Galwidia" founded "monasterium Dulcicordis ordinis Cisterciensis et fratrum minorum de Dundee"[1203].  Alexander III King of Scotland confirmed the donations made by "Deruorguilla de Balliolo filia et una heredes quondam Alani de Galwathya…in viduitate sua" to the church of Glasgow by charter dated 18 May 1277[1204].  A charter dated 22 Feb 1290 records the extent of the manor of Kempstone held by "dominæ Dervergullæ de Balliolo defunctæ", noting that she had died "die Sabbati proxima post conversionem Sancti Pauli, anno prædicto"[1205]m (1233) JOHN de Balliol of Barnard Castle, co Durham, son of HUGH Balliol of Barnard Castle & his wife Cecilie de Fontaines (-before 24 Oct 1268 or 1269).  Named son-in-law of Alan of Galloway by Matthew Paris, who does not name his wife[1206]

6.         CHRISTIAN of Galloway (-shortly before 29 Jul 1246).  The Annales Londonienses name "countesse de Albermarle" as third of the three daughters of "la primere fille Davi" and "Aleyn de Gavei"[1207].  The Liber Pluscardensis records that the third daughter of "Alanus de Galway filius Rotholandi de Galway" married "comes Albemarliæ"[1208].  "William de Fortibus, son of William de Fortibus late count of Aumale…and Christiana his wife" were granted "the manor of Driffield, co York and the manor of Tingden co Northampton", dated 5 Oct 1241[1209].  Matthew Paris records the death in 1246 of "comitissa quoque Albemarliæ filia Alani de Galeweia sororque comitisse Wintoniæ"[1210]m (before Apr 1236) as his first wife, WILLIAM de Forz, son of GUILLAUME de Forz Comte d'Aumâle & his wife Aveline de Montfichet ([1214/15]-Amiens 23 May 1260, bur Meaux Abbey).  "W filio comitis de Aubemarliæ" is named son-in-law of Alan of Galloway by Matthew Paris, who does not name his wife[1211].  He succeeded his father in 1241 as Lord of Holderness, titular Comte d'Aumâle.  No issue. 

Lord Alan had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

7.          THOMAS .  Matthew Paris records Thomas as the illegitimate son of Alan of Galloway[1212].  The Chronicle of Melrose records that, on the death of his father, he led the rebellion of the people of Galloway and fled to Ireland after they were defeated by Alexander II King of Scotland[1213][1214]m (1226[1215]) --- of Man, daughter of RAGNVALD King of Man & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Ragnvald married his daughter to Alan of Galloway’s son[1216]

 

 

1.         WALTHEOF of Galloway (-after 3 Nov 1278).  The pleas of assises taken at Carlisle 3 Nov 1278 include a claim by "Waldeve of Galloway and Elena his wife" against "William Lokard" for "land in Blencogou as Elena’s right", the claim being rejected[1217].  The name of Waltheof’s father is not known, but as the father-in-law of Uhtred of Galloway was named Waltheof (see above), it is a reasonable assumption that he was a descendant of one of Uhtred’s younger sons.  m HELEN, daughter of ---.  The pleas of assises taken at Carlisle 3 Nov 1278 include a claim by "Waldeve of Galloway and Elena his wife" against "William Lokard" for "land in Blencogou as Elena’s right"[1218]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  KINGS of the HEBRIDES, KINGS of the ISLE of MAN, LORDS of the ISLES

 

 

A.      KINGS of the HEBRIDES

 

The Annals of the Four Masters record in 939 that “a fleet was conducted by Muircheartach son of Niall, and he carried off much plunder and booty from the Insi-Gall, after gaining victory and triumph[1219].  The Chronicon Scottorum records in 941 that "a fleet was brought by Muirchertach son of Niall, and he brought back plunder from Inse Alban"[1220].  Evidently recording the same event, Clare Downham highlights that "during the late tenth and early eleventh centuries Innsi Gall appears to describe Man and some or all of the Hebrides" and concludes that the passages just quoted represent "the earliest reliable evidence for a unified ‘kingdom of the Isles’"[1221].  The texts do indicate that "the Isles" were considered at that time as a collective geographic entity, but the language appears insufficient to draw any conclusions about whether they were governed as a single entity or indeed how the entity was governed at all.  Clare Downham reviews the documentary sources and archaeological evidence which indicate settlements in the Isles, including the Isle of Man, up to and including the 10th century and the extent of Viking raids during the same period[1222].  The first definite record of Viking activity in the Isle of Man is provided by the Annals of Ulster which record in 914 that "Ragnall grandson of Imar” defeated “Barid son of Oitir” in “a naval battle at Manu[1223].  Archæological evidence suggests that the first Viking settlements in Man date from between 900 and "possibly as late as the 930s"[1224].  Clare Downham suggests that "the Isles" may have been settled by the sons of Olaf Guthfrithson King of Dublin and York who died in 940 (see the document IRELAND), although the evidence which she cites appears circumstantial[1225].  Whoever controlled the Hebrides after [940], a different group of Vikings, the sons of "Harald", make their first appearance in the records relating to the Isles after 969. 

 

Godfried, son of Harald, presumably a Dane judging by the names, won the battle of Man in 987 and established himself as "King of the Hebrides".  As shown below, the Annals of Ulster call him "king of Inse Gall" when recording his death in battle two years later.  The literal translation from the Gaelic is "King of the Islands of the Foreigners", and is generally referred to as "King of the Hebrides" or "King of the Isles".  A single reference has been found to Godfrid’s son, Ragnvald, in the Annals of Ulster which record his death in 1005.  It is not known whether he succeeded his father as king.  The precise geographical extent of this "kingdom of the Hebrides" is not known.  McDonald suggests that its sphere of influence extended over Man and the Isles[1226].  No further information has been found relating to the kingdom after 1005.  It is assumed that the influence of the Earls of Orkney extended south into the Hebrides after that time and eclipsed the power of the Hebridean chieftains, until the rise to power of the kings of Man, who are dealt with in Part B. of this chapter.  "Harald", father of Godfried and of his brother Magnus who is also named below, has not been identified with certainty.  There are three possibilities among the individuals named Harald who are recorded elsewhere during the relevant time period:

·         Firstly, Benjamin Hudson proposes that he was "Harald of Bayeux, a leader from Denmark who was active in northern France during the 940s and 950s"[1227].  The sources which name this "Harald of Bayeux" are Flodoard, who records the intervention in 945 of "Hagroldus Nortmannus, qui Baiocis praeerat" against Louis IV King of the West Franks in support of the Normans[1228], and Richer who reports the same incident involving "virum consularem Hagraldum" and, in a later passage, names "Hagroldo qui Baiocensibus praeerat"[1229]

·         Secondly, Collingwood suggests that Harald was "Harald Sigrtryggsson O’Ivar lord of Limerick, who was killed in Connaught in 940" (Harald King of Limerick)[1230].  Clare Downham suggests that this is correct, adducing several arguments which favour a connection between Irish Vikings and the Isle of Man and countering the arguments put forward by Hudson in favour of "Harald of Bayeux"[1231]

·         Thirdly, as discussed further below, it is possible that "Harald" may have been Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark.  This co-identity is suggested by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales, which records the exploits of both brothers "sons of Harold" in northern Wales between 969 and 986 (see below), and then in 994 records that "the isle of Man was devastated by Swain son of Harold"[1232].  The latter is most likely identified as Svend I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark.  The reading all passages together suggest the possibility that Magnus, Godfrid and Svend were brothers, all three sons of the same "Harold".  If this speculation is correct, the brothers Magnus and Godfrid would have been older than Svend, and therefore most likely illegitimate as there appears to have been no question of their having succeeded King Harald as king in Denmark.  From a chronological point of view, the hypothesis is feasible given King Harald’s estimated birth in [925/35].  A royal origin could also explain why Godfrid declared himself, and was accepted as, king of the Hebrides. 

There is in fact some possibility that the first and third hypotheses are the same, as some sources identify "Harald of Bayeux" as King Harald I.  Dudo of Saint-Quentin records "Haigroldus…rex Daciæ" coming to the aid of Richard I [Comte] de Normandie ("Ricardi sui propinqui")[1233].  Guillaume de Jumièges also records that "le duc Richard" sent envoys to "Hérold roi des Danois" to request his help[1234].  Orderic Vitalis records that "Haigroldus rex Danorum" came with his army "in Normanniam" to fight "Ludovicum regem pro ultione Guillelmi Longæ-Spatæ", in a later passage adding that "Bernardus…Danus" sent envoys "in Daciam" after the death of "Guillelmi ducis" and that "Haroldo Danorum regi" came "cum magna classe…in Normanniam"[1235].  Various mid-18th century letters published by Depping highlight that the academic debate regarding this possible co-identity is longstanding[1236].  It should, however, be noted that all these sources are later than Flodoard and Richer who are quoted above which suggests that confusion between different individuals may have been introduced by later historians. 

 

 

1.         HARALD .  He is named in primary sources only in his capacity as father of the sons named below.  As discussed above, and under his possible son Svend below, it is possible that he was the same person as either Harald King of Limerick or Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark.  [m ---.  The name of Harald’s wife is not known.]  Harald & [his wife] had [three] children: 

a)         MAGNUS [Maccus] (-after [973]).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Mark son of Harold devastated Penmon" in 969[1237]King [of the Hebrides].  The Annals of the Four Masters record in 972 “the plundering of Inis-Cathaigh by Maghnus son of Aralt, with the Lag-manns of the islands along with him; and Imhar, lord of the foreigners of Luimneach was carried off from the island, and the violation of Seanan thereby[1238].  Florence of Worcester records that "subreguli eius octo…Kynath…rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insularum et alii quinque Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil" submitted to King Eadgar at Chester and rowed him on the river Dee, dated to [973] from the context[1239]

b)         GODFRID (-killed in battle Dál Riata [987/89]).  The Chronicle of the Princes Of Wales records that "Godfrey son of Harald devastated Mona and by great craft subjugated the whole island" in 970, "devastated Lleyn and Mona" in 979, "Dyved and Menevia" in 981, and "with the black host…the isle of Mona" in 986[1240].  The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Constantine son of Iago son of Idwal came to Mona accompanied by a host of black Danes" in 978 and "Gotfrid son of Harallt and Constantine went from thence to Lleyn and ravaged the country in the same manner"[1241]King of the Hebrides.  The Annals of Ulster record that "the battle of Manu was won by Aralt’s son and the Danes, and a thousand were slain there” in 987[1242].  The Annals of Tigernach record that “Gofraidh son of Harald king of the Hebrides” was killed in battle by “the Dál Riata” in [987/88][1243].  The Annals of the Four Masters record that “Gofraid son of Aralt lord of the Hebrides fell by the Dá Riada” in 988[1244].  The Annals of Ulster record that "Gothfrith son of Aralt king of Inse Gall was killed in Dál Riata” in 989[1245]m ---.  The name of Godfrid’s wife is not known.  Godfrid & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          RÆGNALD (-1005).  King of Hebrides.  The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1005 of "Ragnall son of Gofraid, king of the Isles[1246]

ii)         [OLAF Lagman (-after Feb 1014).  The (probably mid-12th century) War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill names "Dubhgall, son of Amlaf, and Gilla Ciarain son of Glun-iaraind, son of Amlaf, and Donchad, grandson of Erulf, and Amlaf Lagmund, son of Goffraidh, the four crown princes of the foreigners" as leader of the battalion "formed of all the foreigners of Ath Cliath" which fought at Clontarf in 1014, adding in a later passage that "Amhlaibh, son of Laghman" was among those who were killed in the battle[1247].  It is not certain that "Goffraidh" named as father of "Amlaf Lagmund" was the same person as Godfrid King of the Hebrides.  However, the name "Lagman" is associated in Irish sources with Vikings operating in the Isle of Man and the Isles.  [Guillaume de Jumièges records that Knud of Denmark requested the help of "Lacman roi des Suédois et Olaüs roi des Norwégiens" after the death of Svend King of Denmark in England (dated to 3 Feb 1014 in other sources)[1248].]  m ---.  The name of Olaf Lagman’s wife is not known.  Olaf Lagman & his wife had one child: 

(a)       OLAF (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).  The (probably mid-12th century) War of the Gaedhil with the Gaill names "Dubhgall, son of Amlaf, and Gilla Ciarain son of Glun-iaraind, son of Amlaf, and Donchad, grandson of Erulf, and Amlaf Lagmund, son of Goffraidh, the four crown princes of the foreigners" as leader of the battalion "formed of all the foreigners of Ath Cliath" which fought at Clontarf in 1014, adding in a later passage that "Amhlaibh, son of Laghman" was among those who were killed in the battle[1249].  The Annals of Ulster name "Amlaib son of Lagmann" among those killed in the battle of Clontarf[1250]

c)         [SVEND (-after 994).  The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the isle of Man was devastated by Swain son of Harold" in 994[1251].  The Gwentian Chronicle also records that "Swaen son of Harallt accompanied by the black Danes came to Gwynedd, where the battle of Penmynydd in Mona took place" in 994[1252].  The apparently seamless transition in those two Chronicles from the exploits in northern Wales of "Mark son of Harold" in 969 and "Godfrey son of Harald" between 970 and 986 to those of "Swain son of Harold" in 994, suggests that "Harold" may have been the same person and that the three individuals "Mark…Godfrey…Swain" were brothers.  Contemporary chronicles appear to name the fathers of individuals for two reasons: either to distinguish the persons in question where the family relationships were complex (for example, in the case of the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales, with members of the extensive Welsh ruling families) or to provide a point of reference for outsiders (in the Chronicle, the English, Irish and Danish).  If the "Harold" in question had been a Dane of relatively obscure origin, there would probably have been no incentive for the chronicler to have named him.  The assumption, therefore, is that "Harold" was a person of note, and yet the Chronicle includes no reference to any exploits of his own in Wales.  The most notorious "Harold" at the time was Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark, and the 994 entry most probably refers to his son Svend I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark whose first attack on England (more specifically London), in the company of Olav Tryggveson (who succeeded in [995] as Olav I King of Norway), is dated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to 8 Sep 994[1253].  The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that the Danish fleet’s subsequent passage along the coast through Essex, Kent, Sussex and Hampshire ended with their establishing winter-quarters at Southampton and subsequently returning home.  The entry in the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales suggests that their 994 campaign may have started earlier in the summer with an attack in the north and north-west of the British Isles, culminating in the Isle of Man, from where the marauding fleet moved round the coast back to London.] 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of the ISLE of MAN

 

 

Autonomous kings of the Isle of Man, of Scandinavian origin, are recorded between 1076 and 1265, under the suzerainty of the kings of Norway.  As will be seen below, some of these rulers also conquered the Western Isles of Scotland during part of this period, and possibly also the kingdom of Dubli n in Ireland for a brief time.  Government of the Isle of Man was transferred to Alexander III King of Scotland after the death of Magnus, the last of these kings, in 1265.  According to Mallet’s Northern Antiquities (written in 1770), King Alexander paid “4000 marks sterling” to the Norwegians for “the Hebrides and the Isle of Man[1254].  The transfer of sovereignty was publicly proclaimed in the churchyard of Christ’s Church, Bergen by order of Magnus IV King of Norway in 1270[1255].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Alexander III conquered the island in 1275[1256].  King Edward I granted the Isle of Man to "Waltero de Huntercumbe" by charter dated 4 Jun 1290[1257].  Resistance to Scottish control must have persisted, as the same source records that King Robert I successfully besieged the castle of Rushen in 1313[1258].  According to Camden’s Britannia (written in 1607), Edward II King of England gave the island to Piers Gaveston before it was reconquered by Robert Bruce[1259].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun (Continuator - Annals) records that "the king entered the Isle of Man, took the castles thereof and victoriously brought the land under his sway" in 1313[1260].  Thomas Randolph Earl of Moray governed the island in 1329, as shown by the charter dated 2 May 1329 "apud Russyn in Mannia" under which "Thomas Randulphi comes Moravie dominus Wallie Anandie et Mannie" confirmed the donation made by "Reginaldi…regis Insularum" to St Bees[1261].  Camden’s Britannia recounts that “William de Montacute the younger earl of Salisbury” conquered the island from the Scots and sold it to William Scrope in 1393, the island reverting to the English crown when he was beheaded by Henry IV King of England. 

 

 

1.         SIHTRICm ---.  The name of Sihtric’s wife is not known.  Sihtric & his wife had one child: 

a)         GODRED (-1076).  King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records the death in 1076 of “Godredus filius Sytric rex Mannius” and the succession of “filius eius Fingal[1262]m ---.  The name of Godred’s wife is not known.  Godred & his wife had one child: 

i)          FINGAL (-1076 or after).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records the death in 1076 of “Godredus filius Sytric rex Mannius” and the succession of “filius eius Fingal[1263]King of Man.  Fingal’s fate after his accession and replacement by Godred “Crovan” is not known. 

 

 

1.         HARALD “the Black” .  m ---.  The name of Harald’s wife is not known.  Harald & his wife had one child: 

a)         GODRED “Crovan/white-handed” (-before [1098]).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Godredus cognomento Crovan filius Haraldi Nigrio de Ysland” and records that he conquered Man in 1076, reigned 16 years and died “in insula…Yle[1264]King of Man.  The date of his death is indicated by the reference to his son Lagman which is dated to 1098 (see below).  [From a chronological point of view, it is possible that he was the same person as GODFRID King of Dublin, whose death is recorded in the Annals of Ulster in 1095 "Gofraidh Meranach king of the foreigners"[1265].  If this is correct, he was the son of Imar King of Dublin.]  m ---.  The name of Godred’s wife is not known.  Godred & his wife had three children:  

i)          LAGMAN (-Jerusalem 1111 or after).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Lagmannum, Haraldum et Olavum” as the three sons of “Godredus Crovan”, recording that Lagman succeeded his father and reigned seven years, before abdicating and leaving for Jerusalem where he died[1266]King of Man.  Morkinskinna records that Magnus III King of Norway captured “Logmadr, the son of King Gudrødr [who] ruled over the northern islands”, dated to 1098 from the context[1267]

ii)         HARALD .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Lagmannum, Haraldum et Olavum” as the three sons of “Godredus Crovan”, recording that Harald rebelled against his brother who blinded and emasculated him[1268]m ---.  The name of Harald’s wife is not known.  Harald & [his wife] had three children: 

(a)       RAGNALD (-murdered [1154]).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi” who had been brought up in Dublin demanded part of the kingdom of the Isles from their paternal uncle King Olav and that one of them “Reginald” murdered his uncle, dating the murder to 29 Jun 1153 in a later passage[1269]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Godred filius eius” returned from Norway after his father was killed, murdered one of his cousins and blinded the other two[1270].  

(b)       son .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi” who had been brought up in Dublin demanded part of the kingdom of the Isles from their paternal uncle King Olav[1271].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Godred filius eius” returned from Norway after his father was killed, murdered one of his cousins and blinded the other two[1272]

(c)       son .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi” who had been brought up in Dublin demanded part of the kingdom of the Isles from their paternal uncle King Olav[1273].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Godred filius eius” returned from Norway after his father was killed, murdered one of his cousins and blinded the other two[1274]

iii)        OLAV ([1080]-murdered 29 Jun 1153).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Lagmannum, Haraldum et Olavum” as the three sons of “Godredus Crovan[1275].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Murecardum O’Brien regem Hibernie” sent “Dompnaldum filium Tade” to island as regent for Olav after the death of Lagman, dating the event to 1111[1276]King of Man. 

-         see below

 

 

OLAV of Man, son of ([1080]-murdered 29 Jun 1153).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Lagmannum, Haraldum et Olavum” as the three sons of “Godredus Crovan[1277].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Murecardum O’Brien regem Hibernie” sent “Dompnaldum filium Tade” to island as regent for Olav after the death of Lagman, dating the event to 1111[1278]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that the regent ruled for three years with great tyranny until he was expelled to the Ireland by the people of Man[1279].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav was recalled from exile at the court of Henry I King of England in 1114 and ruled for forty years[1280].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Olav in 1134 gave land in the Isle of Man to Yvo Abbot of Furness on which to build the abbey of Rushen[1281].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “tres filii Haraldi fratris Olavi” who had been brought up in Dublin demanded part of the kingdom of the Isles from their paternal uncle King Olav and that one of them “Reginald” murdered his uncle, dating the murder to 29 Jun 1153 in a later passage[1282]

m AUFRICA, daughter of FERGUS Lord of Galloway & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” married “Affricam…filiam Fergus de Galwedia[1283]

Olav & his wife had one child: 

1.         GODRED (-Isle of St Patrick, Isle of Man 10 Nov 1187, bur Iona).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Godredum” as the child of “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” and his wife “Affricam…filiam Fergus de Galwedia[1284].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Godred filius eius” returned from Norway after his father was killed, murdered one of his cousins and blinded the other two, after which he reigned for 33 years[1285]King of Man.  "Guthredus…rex Insularum" exchanged land "Eschedala" for "ecclesia sancti Olavi et villula…Euastad" with St Bees by undated charter, witnessed by "…Gillochristo fratre et collactaneo meo…"[1286].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Godred was defeated by Somerled Lord of Argyll in 1158 and fled to Norway to seek help[1287].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records the death “IV Id Nov” in 1187 of King Godred “in insula Sancti Patricii in Mannia” and his burial the following summer in “insulam…Hy[1288]m (1176) FINGOLA, daughter of --- of Ireland & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Godred married “Phingola filia MacLotlen filii Murkartac regis Hiberniæ”, mother of his son, in a Christian marriage ceremony in 1176[1289].  Godred & his wife had one child: 

a)         OLAV ([1172/73]-21 May 1237, bur Rushen St Mary).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names Olav as the son of King Godred and his wife, adding that he was three years old when his parents were married[1290]King of Man. 

-        see below

Godfred had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

b)         RAGNALD (-killed in battle Tynwald 1228, bur St Mary of Furness).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Reginaldum, Olavum et Yvarum” as the three sons of King Godred, adding that their father had nominated his legitimate son Olav as his successor, but that the Manxman chose Ragnall as king because he was older[1291]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav recovered Man from his half-brother in 1226[1292].  "Ragdnaldus…rex Insularum" donated "totam medietatem terre…Ormeshan…apud portum de Corna et aciam terram Asmundertoftes" to St Bees by undated charter, witnessed by "…Gospatricio filio Henrici…"[1293].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav was murdered in 1228 and buried at St Mary of Furness[1294]m ---, daughter of --.  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum which records that King Ragnall arranged the marriage of his half-brother Olav to “filiam cujusdam nobilis de Kentyre germanam uxoris suæ, nomine Jauon[1295].  Ragnall & his wife had two children: 

i)          GODRED (-killed Lewes after 1230).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names Godred as son of King Ragnall when it records that his mother sent him to kill his uncle Olav, but that he was surprised by Olav’s followers, blinded and emasculated, dated to 1223[1296].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Olav agreed to divide his territories in 1230 with Godred, who ruled in the Isles but was killed in Lewes[1297]m ---.  The name of Godred’s wife is not known.  Godred & his wife had one child: 

(a)        HARALD (-1252 or after).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Haraldus filius Godredi Don” usurped the kingdom in 1249 after the death of King Ragnall, but that Magnus returned in 1252 and was installed as king[1298]King of Man. 

ii)         daughter .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Ragnvald married his daughter to Alan of Galloway’s son[1299]m (1226[1300]) THOMAS of Galloway, illegitimate son of ALAN Lord of Galloway & his mistress ---. 

c)          IVAR .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Reginaldum, Olavum et Yvarum” as the three sons of King Godred[1301]

d)         AUFRICA (-after 1219, bur Grey Abbey of the Cistercians, Strangford Lough[1302]).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Johannes…de Curci” married “filiam Godredi…Affricam” who had founded “abbatiam Sanctæ Mariæ de Jugo Dei” where she was buried[1303].  Aufrica’s husband was one of the first conquerors of Ireland under Henry II King of England in the 1170s[1304]m (1180[1305]) JOHN de Curcy, son of --- (-before 22 Sep 1219). 

Olav had [six or more] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

2.          RAGNALD (-1165 or after).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” had many concubines by whom he fathered “filios tres…Reignaldum, Lagmannum et Haraldum et filias multas[1306]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Reginaldum fratrem Godfredi” seized the throne but was defeated four days later by Godred who returned from Norway and blinded and emasculated his brother[1307]

3.          LAGMAN .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” had many concubines by whom he fathered “filios tres…Reignaldum, Lagmannum et Haraldum et filias multas[1308]

4.          HARALD .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” had many concubines by whom he fathered “filios tres…Reignaldum, Lagmannum et Haraldum et filias multas[1309]

5.          daughter .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” had many concubines by whom he fathered “filios tres…Reignaldum, Lagmannum et Haraldum et filias multas”, adding that one daughter married “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel[1310].  Balfour Paul names her "Ragnhildis" but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[1311].  m SOMERLED Lord of Argyll, son of --- (-killed in battle 1164). 

6.          daughters .  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Olavus filius Godredi Crovan” had many concubines by whom he fathered “filios tres…Reignaldum, Lagmannum et Haraldum et filias multas[1312].  The precise number of Olav’s daughters is not known. 

 

 

OLAV, son of GODRED King of Man & his wife Fingola --- ([1172/73]-21 May 1237, bur Rushen St Mary).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names Olav as the son of King Godred and his wife, adding that he was three years old when his parents were married[1313].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that the Manxman chose Olav’s older brother Ragnall as king, against the wishes of their father, adding in a later passage that Ragnall granted the island of Lewes to Olav but that Olav was later imprisoned by William I King of Scotland, was freed by the latter’s son King Alexander I and returned to Lewes[1314]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav recovered Man from his half-brother in 1226[1315].  The History of Olave the Black King of Man records that “Olave son of Godred was…King of Man” in 1229 when he resisted Alan Lord of Galloway[1316].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav kept Man when he agreed to divide his kingdom with his nephew Godred in 1230, the latter ruling in the Isles[1317].  "Olavus rex Insularum" donated "boves…oves et porcos" to St Bees by undated charter, witnessed by "…Therkillo filio Nigelli…"[1318].  Henry III King of England made a grant of property to "Olaf King of Man and the Isles" for "his homage and services in guarding at his expense the coast of the English sea towards Ireland and the Isle of Man…" by charter dated 11 Jul 1235[1319].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records the death “XII Kal Jun” in 1237 of “Olavus Godredi filius rex Manniæ et Insularum” and his burial “in abbatia Sanctæ Mariæ de Russin[1320]

m firstly ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav had previously married “consobrinam” of his second wife, which provided the reason for his divorce[1321]

m secondly JOAN, daughter of ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Ragnall arranged the marriage of his half-brother Olav to “filiam cujusdam nobilis de Kentyre germanam uxoris suæ, nomine Jauon” from whom he was later divorced on grounds of consanguinity[1322]

m thirdly CHRISTINA, daughter of FERQUHARD MacTaggart Earl of Ross & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Olav of Man married thirdly “Scristinam filiam Ferkar comitis de Ros[1323]

Olav & his third wife had four children: 

1.         HARALD ([1222/23]-drowned 1249).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Haraldus filius eius” succeeded as king on the death of Olav in 1237, being 14 years old and reigning for 12 years[1324]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Harald and his wife were drowned while returning to Man from Norway in 1249[1325]m ([1246/47]) as her second husband, CECILIA Haakonsdatter, widow of GREGORIUS Andersson, illegitimate daughter of HAAKON "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway & his mistress --- (-drowned 1248).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Harald King of Man married “rex Norwegiæ…filiam suam[1326].  The Chronicle of Lanercost records that "Haraldum regem Manniæ" married "Haco rex Nortweyæ…filiam suam" in 1247[1327].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Harald and his wife were drowned while returning to Man from Norway in 1249[1328]

2.         GODRED (-drowned 1237 or after).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Godredum Holavi filium…puerum” when recording that “Loglenum consanguineis suis”, whom his brother had left as regent in Man, fled with him to Wales but were drowned on the way[1329]

3.         RAGNALD (-killed Rushen 30 May 1249, bur Rushen St Mary).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Reginaldus frater eius” succeeded after the death of King Harald in 1249[1330]King of Man.  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that King Ragnall was killed 30 May 1249 “ab Yvaro milite…in prato quodam prope ecclesiam Sanctæ Trinitatis in Russin” and was buried “in ecclesia Sanctæ Mariæ de Russin[1331]

4.         MAGNUS (-24 Nov 1265, bur Rushen St Mary).  A charter dated 14 Nov 1251 records that "Magnus Mac Olave Duff proposed to raise a force in Ireland to invade the territory of the King of Norway in the Isle of Man" and the order of King Henry III that "no force shall be permitted to leave Ireland for that purpose"[1332].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that “Magnus filius Olavi” returned to Man in 1252 and installed as king[1333]King of Man.  Haco’s Expedition against Scotland names “Magnus King of Man” in 1263[1334].  The Continuator of the History of William of Newburgh records the death in 1265 of “the King of Man” after which the island “became tributary to the king of Scotland, who paid for it yearly a certain sum to the king of Norway [and] kings ceased to reign in Man[1335].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records the death “VIII Kal Dec” in 1265 of King Magnus and his burial “in abbatia Sanctæ Mariæ de Russyn”, after which Man was transferred to Alexander III King of Scotland[1336].  The Liber Pluscardensis records the death in 1267 of "regulus Manniæ"[1337]m as her first husband, MARY of Argyll, daughter of EWEN of Argyll & his wife --- (-[28 Sep 1300/10 Oct 1303], bur London, Grey Friars Church).  The Liber Pluscardensis records the marriage of "regulus Manniæ…viduam…filiam domini de Arcadia" and "comes de Strathern Malisius"[1338].  The Extracta ex Cronicis Scocie records the death of "Rex Mannie" and the marriage of "eius relictam, filiam comitis Ergadie Eugenii" to "Malisius comes de Stratherne", among passages dealing with events in 1268[1339].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   She married secondly ([1268]) as his fourth wife, Malise Earl of Strathearn, thirdly (before 5 Apr 1281) Hugh Abernethy of that Ilk, and fourthly (before 10 Apr 1299) as his second wife, William FitzWarin.  "Maria Regina de Man quondam uxor domini Willelmi filii Warini" is named in the Wardrobe Accounts in Dec 1299[1340].  The deaths of “dñs Willm Fizwarryn Baro et Isabella ux sua quoda Regina Man” are recorded in Grey Friars Church, London[1341].  Magnus & his wife had [one child]:    

a)         [MARY .  The editor of Monumenta de Insula Manniæ shows Mary as daughter of King Ragnall, brother of King Magnus, and his wife “Mary, daughter of Alexander de Ergadia Lord of Lorn”, adding that King Ragnall’s widow “afterwards became the second wife of Malise earl of Strathearn”.  He also shows the marriage of the daughter Mary to “John de Waldeboef” by whom she had “William Waldeboef”.  He cites no sources for this information[1342].  Camden’s Britannia (written in 1607) records that “Mary daughter of Reginald king of Man…preferred a suit for the island to [John King of England]”, which is clearly garbled as King John died in 1216[1343].  The same source adds that “her son’s son John Waldebeof…prosecuted his grandmother’s claim in parliament 33 Edward the first” unsuccessfully and that “William de Montacute his kinsman, descended from the kings of Man, did by arms” but mortgaged the island to “Anthony Bec bishop of Durham and patriarch of Jerusalem”.  According to the Complete Peerage, the fourth (not second) wife of Malise Earl of Strathearn was the widow of Magnus (not Ragnall) King of Man[1344].  Unfortunately it cites no sources either.  However, if the Complete Peerage is correct in its listing of Earl Malise’s four wives, it would be chronologically consistent for his wife Mary to have been the widow of Magnus rather than Ragnall.  Until more information comes to light, it is considered more appropriate to show Mary as the possible daughter of King Magnus than of King Ragnall.  m JOHN de Waldeboef, son of ---.] 

 

 

 

C.      LORDS of the ISLES

 

 

Somerled, a Celtic chief, acquired the Western Isles in the mid-1100s and assumed the title “King of the Isles”.  His son Reginald was the first whose title "Lord of the Isles" is attested in a contemporary document.  Although Angus the fourth Lord was the first to acknowledge the subjection of the Isles to the kings of Scotland, no Scottish peerage over the region was created until 1476[1345].  The title "Lord of the Isles" was later one which was vested in the first-born son of the king of Scotland. 

 

 

REGINALD, son of SOMERLED Lord of Argyll & his wife --- of Man (-after 1192).  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum names “Dulgallum, Reginaldum, Engus et Olavum” as the four sons of “Sumerledo regulo Herergaildel” and his wife the daughter of Olav King of Man[1346].  Balfour Paul states that Reginald inherited "Kintyre and Isla" but drove his brother Angus out of Bute and Arran, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1347]Lord of the Isles.  "Reginaldus filius Sumerled dominus de Inchegal…et uxor mea Fonie" donated cows and other revenue to Paisley monastery by undated charter[1348].  Balfour Paul dates this charter to [1180], although he does not state the basis for this speculation[1349].  The Chronicon Manniæ et Insularum records that Engus, son of Somerled, defeated his brother Reginald in 1192[1350].  The Book of Clanranald records the death of Reginald in 1207[1351]

m FONIE, daughter of ---.  "Reginaldus filius Sumerled dominus de Inchegal…et uxor mea Fonie" donated cows and other revenue to Paisley monastery by undated charter[1352]

Reginald & his wife had [three] children:

1.         DONALD (-Island of Kerrara 1249, bur Iona).  He succeeded his father as Lord of the Isles.  "Douenaldus filius Reginaldi filii Sumerled…et uxor mea" confirmed his father’s donation of cows and other revenue to Paisley monastery by undated charter[1353].  The Annals of Ulster record that "the sons of Raghnall, son of Somurlech” fought "the men of Sciadh" [Skye] in 1209 "wherein slaughter was inflicted on them"[1354].  The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Alexander II led an army into Argyll, dated to 1221 from the context, and subdued the land[1355].  Balfour Paul states that Donald died "in the island of Kerrara in 1349" and was buried "in Iona", but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[1356]m --- Stewart, daughter of WALTER FitzAlan Stewart Hugh Steward of Scotland & his wife ---.  Balfour Paul states that Donald married "a daughter of Walter High Steward of Scotland", but he does not cite the corresponding primary source[1357].  Donald & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         ANGUS Macdonald (-[1296]).  He succeeded his father as Lord of the Isles.  A charter dated 1292 records safe conduct granted to "Anegus filius Dovenaldi et Alexander filius eius"[1358].  "Angus filius Douenaldi" donated revenue to Paisley monastery by undated charter, witnessed by "Alexandro fratre meo…"[1359].  Balfour Paul says that the Lord of the Isles became the vassal of the Scottish king under the terms of the treaty with Magnus IV King of Norway in 1266[1360]m --- Campbell, daughter of COLIN Campbell of Lochow & his wife ---.  Balfour Paul says that Angus married "a daughter of Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow" but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1361].  Angus & his wife had three children:

i)          ALEXANDER Macdonald (-after 1308).  A charter dated 1292 records safe conduct granted to "Anegus filius Dovenaldi et Alexander filius eius"[1362].  He succeeded his father as Lord of the Isles.  He opposed Robert Bruce and was appointed Admiral of the Western Isles under the English crown[1363].  A charter dated [Jun 1297] records the crimes committed by "Alexandrum de Ergadia" against the English, signed by "Julianæ sponsæ nostræ"[1364]m JULIANA, daughter of --- (-after [Jun 1297]).  A charter dated [Jun 1297] records the crimes committed by "Alexandrum de Ergadia" against the English, signed by "Julianæ sponsæ nostræ"[1365].  Balfour Paul says that Alexander married "Juliana of Lorn, and by her had six sons John Dubh, Reginald, Somerled, Angus, Godfrey and Charles", adding that "these sons found their way to Ireland where they left numerous descendants", but does not cite the corresponding primary sources[1366]

ii)         ANGUS Macdonald (-Finlaggan Castle, Isla 1330).  He succeeded his brother as Lord of the Isles

-         see below

iii)        JOHN Macdonald .  Balfour Paul names "John known as Iain Sprangach" as the third son of Angus and his wife, adding that he was the ancestor of "the Macdonalds of Ardmamurchan", but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1367]

b)         ALEXANDER Macdonald .  "Angus filius Douenaldi" donated revenue to Paisley monastery by undated charter, witnessed by "Alexandro fratre meo…"[1368].  Balfour Paul says that Alexander was known as "Alastair Mor" and was ancestor of "the Alexanders of Menstrie, Earls of Sterling, and the Alexanders, Earls of Caledon, the MacAlisters of Loup, with their cadet families of Strathaird, Glenbarr and Torrisdal", but he does not cite the corresponding primary sources[1369]

c)         [MURCHAID Macdonald .] 

2.         RUAIRI .  Balfour Paul states that "Roderick" inherited "North Kintyre, Bute and the lands of Garmoran, extending from Ardnamurchan to Gleneig", previously the possessions of his paternal uncle Angus, but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1370].  The Annals of Ulster record that "the sons of Raghnall, son of Somurlech” fought "the men of Sciadh" [Skye] in 1209 "wherein slaughter was inflicted on them"[1371]m ---.  The name of Ruairi’s wife is not known.  Ruairi & his wife had two children: 

a)         DUGALD (-1268).  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son records that "John, Duncan’s son, and Dugald, Ruadri’s son" met Alexander II King of Scotland in 1248 and "endeavoured…that the king should give them the title of king over the northern part of the Hebrides"[1372].  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son names "king Dugald, Alan Dugald’s brother, Angus and Murchaid" among those who met Haakon IV King of Norway when he invaded in 1263, adding in a later passage that the king gave "to [Dugald] the dominion that king John had had"[1373].  The Icelandic Annals record the death in 1268 of "Dubgallus rex Hebudum"[1374]m ---.  The name of Dugald’s wife is not known.  Dugald & his wife had one child: 

i)          ERIK

b)         ALAN (-after 1263).  The Saga of Eirspennill’s Hakon Hakon’s son names "king Dugald, Alan Dugald’s brother, Angus and Murchaid" among those who met Haakon IV King of Norway when he invaded in 1263[1375]m ---.  The name of Alan’s wife is not known.  Alan & his wife had three children: 

i)          CHRISTIANA .  Robert I King of Scotland confirmed land "de Knodworache" to "Roderico filio Alani" by charter dated to [1320], which names "Cristina de Mar filia quondam Alani filii Roderici"[1376]m DUNCAN of Mar, son of ---. 

ii)         RUAIRI .  Robert I King of Scotland confirmed land "de Knodworache" to "Roderico filio Alani" by charter dated to [1320], which names "Cristina de Mar filia quondam Alani filii Roderici"[1377]

iii)        LACHLAN

3.         [--- (-before 1209).  Balfour Paul says that Alan Lord of Galloway married first "a lady unknown, said to be a daughter of Reginald Lord of the Isles by whom he had two daughters"[1378].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m as his [second] wife, ALAN Lord of Galloway, son of ROLAND Lord of Galloway & his wife Helen de Moreville (-[2] Feb 1234, bur Dundraynan).] 

 

 

ANGUS Macdonald, son of ANGUS Lord of the Isles & his wife --- (-Finlaggan Castle, Isla 1330).  He succeeded his brother as Lord of the Isles.  He fought for Robert Bruce at the battle of Bannockburn in 1314. 

m AGNES, daughter of GUY of Cathan of Ulster & his wife ---. 

Angus & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         JOHN Macdonald (-1387).  He succeeded his father as Lord of the Isles.  David II King of Scotland granted "Yle insulam de Geday insulam de Jura insulam de Colinsay" to "Johannem de Yle consanguineum nostrum" by charter dated 1344[1379].  Robert II King of Scotland granted "insulam de Colowsay" to "Johanni del Yle…et…filis nostre Margarete sponse sue" by charter dated Jul 1376[1380]m firstly (Papal dispensation 4 Jun 1337, divorced) EUPHEME, daughter of RODERICK MacRuare of Garmoran & his wife ---.  m secondly Lady MARGARET Stewart, daughter of ROBERT II King of Scotland & his first wife Elizabeth Mure (-after 8 Jan 1401).  Robert II King of Scotland granted "insulam de Colowsay" to "Johanni del Yle…et…filis nostre Margarete sponse sue" by charter dated Jul 1376[1381].  Lord John & his first wife had one child: 

a)         JOHN Macdonald of the Isles (-before 30 Mar 1373).  m as her first husband, ELLEN Campbell, daughter of ARCHIBALD [Gillespie] Campbell & his [second] wife [Isabel Lamont] (-after 1434).  She married secondly Duncan Earl of Lennox

Lord John & his second wife had eight children:

b)         DONALD Macdonald (-Ardtornish, Morven [1423][1382]).  He succeeded his father in 1387 as Lord of the Isles.  He claimed the Earldom of Ross, de iure uxoris, and fought the battle of Harlaw in 1411 to enforce his rights.  m MARY Leslie Ctss of Ross, daughter of WALTER Leslie & his wife Eupheme Ctss of Ross (-[1435]).  Donald & his wife had one child: 

i)          ALEXANDER Macdonald (-May 1449).  He succeeded his father as Lord of the Isles, and his mother as Earl of Ross

-         EARLS of  ROSS

c)         JOHN "Ian Mor Tanisteir" (-1427)m MARJORIE Bisset, daughter of HUGH Bisset & his wife ---. 

d)         ALEXANDER "Alastair Carrach" .  m ---. 

e)         ANGUS

f)          HUGH .  Thane of Glentilt.  m ---. 

g)         MARCUS

h)         MARYm LACHLEAN Maclean of Duart. 

i)          ELIZABETHm (contract 8 Jan 1401) ANGUS Duff Mackay of Strathnaver, son of ---. 

2.         [ALEXANDER Macdonald .] 

3.         MARY Macdonald m (Papal dispensation 25 May 1342) WILLIAM Earl of Ross, son of HUGH Earl of Ross & his first wife Matilda Bruce (-Delny 9 Feb 1372). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  DUNBAR

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

MALDRED, son of CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl [Scotland] & his wife Bethoc of Scotland Lady of Atholl (-killed in battle [1045]).  He is named son of Crinan by Roger of Hoveden[1383]Lord of Allerdale.  Regent of Strathclyde 1034/35. 

m ([before 1040]) EALDGYTH [Ælfgifu], daughter and heiress of UHTRED Earl of Northumbria & his third wife Ælfgifu of England (1016 or before-).  Simeon of Durham names "Algiva daughter of earl Uchtred [and] of Algiva daughter of king Agelred" when recording that her father arranged her marriage to "Maldred the son of Crinan"[1384], although her father was long since dead when she married.  Named daughter of Uhtred and Elgiva by Roger of Hoveden, who also names her husband and his father[1385]

Lord Maldred & his wife had two children:

1.         GOSPATRICK ([1040/48]-[1075]).  Simeon of Durham names "Cospatric son of Maldred son of Crinan" when recording that he was appointed Earl of Northumberland[1386].  Earl of Northumberland from Dec 1067. 

-        see below

2.         MALDRED .  Balfour Paul names "Maldred" as second son of Maldred but does not cite the corresponding primary source[1387].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m ---.  The name of Maldred’s wife is not known.  Maldred & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROBERT .  The History of Richard Prior of Hexham records the devastations of "Eadgarus filius nothus Cospatrici comitis et Robertus et Uctred filii Meldred, principales ac duces" in Northumbria, dated to the 1130s from the context[1388]

b)         UHTRED (-6 Nov ----).  The History of Richard Prior of Hexham records the devastations of "Eadgarus filius nothus Cospatrici comitis et Robertus et Uctred filii Meldred, principales ac duces" in Northumbria, dated to the 1130s from the context[1389].  The Obituary in the Liber Vitæ of Durham records the death "VIII Id Nov" of "Uhtredus filius Maldredi"[1390]m ---.  The name of Uhtred’s wife is not known.  Uhtred & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          [1391]DOLFIN .  The Prior of Durham granted him Staindrop (in which Raby is a township) in 1131[1392]m ---.  The name of Dolfin’s wife is not known.  Dolfin & his wife had one child: 

(a)       [1393]MALDREDm ---.  The name of Maldred’s wife is not known.  Maldred & his wife had one child: 

(1)       [1394]ROBERT FitzMaldred (-[25 Jun 1242/26 May 1248]).  Lord of Raby and Brancepeth, co. Durham.  m as her first husband, ISABEL de Neville, daughter of GEOFFREY de Neville & his wife Emma de Bulmer (-before May 1254).  "Robert fitz Maldred, who has to wife Isabella, sister and heiress of…Henry de Neville" paid homage to the king "for the lands formerly of Henry de Neville", dated to [Mar] 1227[1395].  She married secondly Gilbert de Brakenberg.  Robert & his wife had one child: 

a.         GEOFFREY FitzRobert (-1242).  He assumed the name Neville after his mother's family.   

-         ENGLAND, EARLS of WESTMORELAND (NEVILLE)

ii)         [GOSPATRICK .  "…Cospatric filius Uctred…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[1396].]  m ---.  The name of Gospatrick’s wife is not known.  Gospatrick & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GODEREDA (-after 1129).  The 1130 Pipe Roll records "Godereda filia Gospat’c fil Aldreti" in Yorkshire, Northumberland[1397]

 

 

No relationship has been proved between the following small family groups and the Dunbar family, however the common use of the first names Gospatrick and Dolfin indicate that a connection is likely. 

 

1.         GOSPATRICK (-[28] Dec 1065).  "Noble Northumbrian thane", Florence of Worcester records that he was murdered on the orders of Queen Eadgyth at the king's court "on the fourth night of Christmas for the sake of her brother Tostig"[1398]

 

2.         DOLFINm ---.  The name of Dolfin’s wife is not known.  Dolfin & his wife had one child: 

a)         ULF (-murdered York 1064).  Florence of Worcester records that Tostig "perfidiously caused him to be assassinated in his own chamber"[1399]

 

 

GOSPATRICK, son of MALDRED Lord of Allerdale & his wife Ealdgyth of Northumbria ([1040/48]-[1075]).  Simeon of Durham names "Cospatric son of Maldred son of Crinan" when recording that he was appointed Earl of Northumberland[1400].  His parentage is given by Roger of Hoveden[1401].  He paid William I King of England a heavy fine so he could succeed as Earl of Northumberland in Dec 1067, although he did have a hereditary claim through his mother's family.  He rebelled against King William and joined the invading Norwegians who sailed up the river Humber in Sep 1069 and captured York by storm[1402]: Orderic Vitalis records that “Rodbertus Ricardi filius Eboracensis præsidii custos” was killed, that “Marius Suenus, Gaius Patricius, Edgarus Adelinus, Archillus et quatuor filii Karoli” attacked “munitionem regis in Eboraco”, and that “Willelmus cognomento Maletus, præses castrensis regi” announced to the king that he would be forced to withdraw unless reinforcements were sent, dated to 1069[1403].  Orderic Vitalis records that “Suenus rex Danorum” sent a fleet led by “duos...filios suos et Osbernum fratrem suum” to attack England, that they were repulsed at Dover, Sandwich and Ipswich, and at Norwich by “Radulfus de Guader”, that they were joined by “Adelinus, Guallevus, Siguardus” but defeated on the Humber, entered York headed by “Guallevus...Gaius Patricius, Marius Suenus, Elnocinus, Archillus et quatuor filii Karoli” but were eventually expelled, dated to 1069, a later passage adding that “Guallevus præsens et Gaius Patricius absens” made peace with King William at the river Tees[1404].  In [Oct/Nov] 1072 old charges were brought against him and he was deprived of the earldom of Northumberland, fleeing to Scotland.  Simeon of Durham records that he fled to Malcolm King of Scotland who granted him "Dunbar with the lands adjacent in Lothian"[1405].  

m ---, sister of EDMUND, daughter of ---.  Her family connection is confirmed by the charter dated Feb 1136 under which King Stephen confirmed the donation by "Gospatricio fr[atr]I Dolfini" of "terram Edmundi avunculi sui" and "terram Liolfi filii Uctredi"[1406]

Earl Gospatrick & his wife had one child:

1.         GOSPATRICK (-[killed in battle Cowton Moor, near Northallerton 22 Aug 1138]).  Simeon of Durham names "Dolfin, Walther and Cospatric" as the sons of Gospatrick[1407].  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar in Scotland had a brother Dolfin earl of Northumbarland…both…bastards", that they had "a legitimate brother Waldeve and a legitimate sister Etheldreda…of one father and one mother"[1408].  It seems more likely that Gospatrick was his father’s oldest legitimate son as his father’s title was transmitted to his descendants. 

-        see below

Earl Gospatrick & [his wife] had three children:

2.         ETHELREDA (bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar in Scotland had a brother Dolfin earl of Northumbarland…both…bastards", that they had "a legitimate brother Waldeve and a legitimate sister Etheldreda…of one father and one mother"[1409].  No other information has been found to identify Ethelreda’s mother more precisely.  Her marriage to the heir to the Scottish throne does suggest that she must have been legitimate.  However, that suggestion appears inconsistent with her sharing the same mother as Gospatrick’s son Waltheof, in relation to whom there do seem to be indications of his illegitimacy whatever is stated in the [1275] memorandum.  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Waldeve filio Gileminii” with property and “Ethreda sorore sua[1410].  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ethreda sorore Waldevi patris sui” married “Doncani comes de Murrayse” and that their son “Willielmus” succeeded his cousin “Alanus filius Waldevi[1411].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.   It is assumed that Duncan was Ethelreda’s first husband and Waltheof her second husband.  m firstly ([1090]) DUNCAN of Scotland, son of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his first wife --- ([1060]-murdered Monthechim/Mondynes, Kincardineshire 12 Nov 1094, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife).  He succeeded in 1094 as DUNCAN II King of Scotlandm secondly WALTHEOF, son of GILLEMIN & his wife ---. 

3.         GUNHILDA .  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Ormo Ketelli” with property and “Gurwelda sorore sua[1412].  No information has been found on the identity of Gunhilda’s mother, nor whether she was legitimate or not.  m as his first wife, ORM, son of KETIL & his wife ---. 

4.         MATILDA .  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Waldevus filius comitis Cospatricii” enfeoffed “Dolfino filio Alwardi” with property and “Matilda sorore sua[1413].  No information has been found on the identity of Matilda’s mother, nor whether she was legitimate or not.  m DOLFIN, son of AILWARD & his wife ---.  "Alanus filius Waldevi" confirmed the donation of "unam plenariam toftam apud Scadebuas" made to St Bees by "pater meus" by undated charter witnessed by "…Gospatricio filio Horm, Uctredo filio Uctredi, Ailwardi filio Dolf[ini], Gospatricio fratre suo…"[1414].  "Alanus filius Waldeui" donated land "in Goseford" to St Bees, for the souls of "mea…et uxoris mee Emme", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero priore Carl[eoensi], Gosp[atricio] fratre suo. Gospatricio filio Horm, Radulfo de Lund, Uctredo filio Uct[redi], Chetello filio Ulfchil…"[1415].  "Gospatricio filio Horm, Elwardo filio Dolfini, Gospatricio et Walthevo et Horm fratribus suis…" witnessed the undated charter under which "Alanus Walthevi filius" donated salmon at Cockermouth to St Bees[1416]

Earl Gospatrick had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses:

5.          DOLFIN (-after 1092).  Simeon of Durham names "Dolfin, Walther and Cospatric" as the sons of Gospatrick[1417].  He is named first of the three sons of Gospatrick given by Roger of Hoveden[1418].  He was expelled from Carlisle in 1092[1419].  His illegitimacy is confirmed by a memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar in Scotland had a brother Dolfin earl of Northumbarland…both…bastards", that they had "a legitimate brother Waldeve and a legitimate sister Etheldreda…of one father and one mother"[1420]m ---.  The name of Dolfin’s wife is not known.  Dolfin & his wife had one child: 

a)         UHTRED FitzDolfin de Cungeston [Conistone] .  He held land at Conistone in the honour of Skipton and in Burnsall in the Bulmer fief[1421]m ---.  The name of Uhtred’s wife is not known.  Uhtred & his wife had two children: 

i)          SIMON .  He was ancestor of the Hebden family[1422]

ii)         KETEL

6.          WALTHEOF .  Simeon of Durham names "Dolfin, Walther and Cospatric" as the sons of Gospatrick[1423].  He is named second of the three sons of Gospatrick given by Roger of Hoveden[1424].  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar in Scotland had a brother Dolfin earl of Northumbarland…both…bastards", that they had "a legitimate brother Waldeve and a legitimate sister Etheldreda…of one father and one mother"[1425].   It seems unlikely that Waltheof was his father’s legitimate son as his father’s earldom was transmitted to his son Gospatrick.  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Ranulphus de Meschines” enfeoffed “Waldevum filium Cospatricii de Dunbar comitem in Scotia” with “tota baronia de Allerdale” and that “Willielmus de Meschines dominus de Coupland” enfeoffed “Waldevum filium Cospatricii” with “tota terra inter Cocar et Derwent[1426].  "…Cospatric frater Dalfin, Waldef frater suus…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[1427].  Lord of Allerdale.  Abbot of Crowland [1126] to Dec 1138, when he was deposed at the legatine council of Westminster[1428].  An undated agreement between Geoffrey abbot of St Albans and "Gospatric the earl" recites that the abbot granted Gospatric and "his son Adam (…formerly called Waldief)" the "land of Archil Morel…Beuuicke"[1429].  “Waldevus filius Cospatrici comitis” donated property to Gysburn Priory, with the consent of “uxore mea Sigrida et filiis meis Cospatrico et Alano”, by undated charter which names “El. filio Erlafi presbyteri cognate meo[1430].  A charter of King Henry II records donations to York St Mary, including the donation of “villam de Stainburn” by “Walthef filius Gospatrici” and "villam de Saltergh et…de Whyrkingtona" by "Gospatricius filius eorundem"[1431]m as her first husband, SIGRID, daughter of ---.  “Waldevus filius Cospatrici comitis” donated property to Gysburn Priory, with the consent of “uxore mea Sigrida et filiis meis Cospatrico et Alano”, by undated charter[1432].  Sigrid married secondly Roger FitzGilbert.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the undated charter under which [her son] "Alanus filius Walthef et Sigrid mater et Rogerus vir eius" donated land "in Aspatrick" to St Bees by undated charter[1433].  "Rogerus filius Gilberti" donated "terram de Walton" to St Bees, with the consent of "uxoris mee Sigeride", by undated charter, witnessed by "Roberto fratre meo…Roberto filio meo…"[1434].  Waltheof & his wife had three children: 

a)         ALAN .  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar" was succeeded by "his son and heir Alan…under age and in the ward of K. David of Scotland…and on obtaining majority obtained all his father’s lands in Allerdale"[1435].   “Waldevus filius Cospatrici comitis” donated property to Gysburn Priory, with the consent of “uxore mea Sigrida et filiis meis Cospatrico et Alano”, by undated charter[1436].  "…Alano filio Waldeof et Gospatrico fratre suo…" witnessed a charter dated 1139 under which "David Rex Scotie" confirmed the grant of Coldingham by "Gospatricus comes frater Dolfini" to St Cuthbert[1437].  “Alanus filius Walleovi, filii Cospatrici comitis” donated property to Gysburn Priory by undated charter, witnessed by “matre mea Sigarith…”, which names “Athelwardo clerico, filio Erlavi sacerdotis[1438].  "Alanus filius Walthef et Sigrid mater et Rogerus vir eius" donated land "in Aspatrick" to St Bees by undated charter[1439].  "Alanus filius Waldevi" confirmed the donation of "unam plenariam toftam apud Scadebuas" made to St Bees by "pater meus" by undated charter witnessed by "…Gospatricio filio Horm, Uctredo filio Uctredi, Ailwardi filio Dolf[ini], Gospatricio fratre suo…"[1440].  A charter of King Henry II records donations to York St Mary, including the donation of land “in Goseford…” by “Alanus filius Waldevi"[1441].  "Alanus filius Waldeui" donated land "in Goseford" to St Bees, for the souls of "mea…et uxoris mee Emme", by undated charter, witnessed by "Waltero priore Carl[eoensi], Gosp[atricio] fratre suo. Gospatricio filio Horm, Radulfo de Lund, Uctredo filio Uct[redi], Chetello filio Ulfchil…"[1442].  m EMMA, daughter of ---.  "Alanus filius Waldeui" donated land "in Goseford" to St Bees, for the souls of "mea…et uxoris mee Emme", by undated charter[1443].  Alan & his wife had one child: 

i)          son .  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Alan" donated certain property "with the corpse present of his son"[1444].  

b)         ETHELREDA .  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Alanus filius et hæres eiusdem Waldevi” enfeoffed “Ranulpho” with property and “Etheldreda sorore sua[1445].  "Willelmus de Essevilla" confirmed the donation of "capellam de Lousewater" made to St Bees by "Radulphus de Lyndesay et Hethreda sponsa mea" by undated charter[1446].  "Willelmus de Esseby" donated land "in Loretona" to St Bees, with the consent of "Hectrudis uxoris mee et Symonis heredis mei", by undated charter[1447].  m firstly RANULF de Lindsay, son of --- (-before 1158).  m secondly (before 1158) WILLIAM de Eseby, son of ---. 

c)          GUNHILD .  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Alanus filius et hæres eiusdem Waldevi” enfeoffed “Ugthredo filio Fergus domino Galwediæ” with property and “Guynolda sorore sua[1448].  "Uctredus filius Fergi et Gunnild filia Waldef sponsa sua" donated "ecclesiam de Torpennoth" to Holyrood abbey by undated charter[1449].  m UHTRED, son of FERGUS Lord of Galloway & his wife --- (-1174).  He succeeded his father in [1136] as Lord of Galloway. 

Waltheof had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

d)         GOSPATRICK .  The Cronicon Cumbriæ records that “Alanus filius et hæres eiusdem Waldevi” had “unum fratrem bastardum…Cospatricium” to whom he granted property[1450].  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Alan", son of "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar", had "a bastard brother on his father’s side…Cospatryk to whom he gave the township of Bolton within the forest, and Bastenthwyt outside the forest, and Hestholm in Derwentwatre"[1451].   "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[1452].  A charter of King Henry II records donations to York St Mary, including the donation of “villam de Stainburn” by “Walthef filius Gospatrici” and "villam de Saltergh et…de Whyrkingtona" by "Gospatricius filius eorundem"[1453].  "…Gospatricius filius Waltheof…" witnessed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[1454].  "…Gospatricio filio Waltheui" witnessed the charter dated 1124 under which "Alexander…Rex Scottorum" granted jurisdiction to the prior of Scone[1455].  "…Alano filio Waldeof et Gospatrico fratre suo…" witnessed a charter dated 1139 under which "David Rex Scotie" confirmed the grant of Coldingham by "Gospatricus comes frater Dolfini" to St Cuthbert[1456].  “Waldevus filius Cospatrici comitis” donated property to Gysburn Priory, with the consent of “uxore mea Sigrida et filiis meis Cospatrico et Alano”, by undated charter[1457].  1156.  m ---.  The name of Gospatrick’s wife is not known.  Gospatrick & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [WALTHEOF (-before 1200).  Balfour Paul says that Gospatrick was "probabl[y]…the father of" this Waltheof, on the basis of common holding of lands at Dundas[1458].  This appears to be corroborated by an agreement dated 1 Dec 1208 between "Duncan de Lascelles and Christina his wife" and “Hugh abbot of Jedburgh” relating to the donation of “the advowson of the church of Bastenethwait” made by “Waldef son of Gosepatric father of Cristiana[1459].]  m ---.  The name of Waltheof’s wife is not known.  Waltheof & his wife had two children: 

(a)        CHRISTIANA .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by an agreement dated 1 Dec 1208 between "Duncan de Lascelles and Christina his wife" and “Hugh abbot of Jedburgh” relating to the donation of “the advowson of the church of Bastenethwait” made by “Waldef son of Gosepatric father of Cristiana[1460].  m as his second wife, DUNCAN Lascelles, son of --- (-after 1 Dec 1208). 

(b)        GALIENAm PHILIP Moubray, son of ---. 

 

 

GOSPATRICK, son of GOSPATRICK Earl of Northumberland & his wife --- (-[killed in battle Cowton Moor, near Northallerton 22 Aug 1138]).  Simeon of Durham names "Dolfin, Walther and Cospatric" as the sons of Gospatrick[1461].  He is named third of the three sons of Gospatrick by Roger of Hoveden[1462].  A memorandum dated to [1275] records that "Earl Cospatryk formerly earl of Dunbar in Scotland had a brother Dolfin earl of Northumbarland…both…bastards", that they had "a legitimate brother Waldeve and a legitimate sister Etheldreda…of one father and one mother"[1463].  It seems more likely that Gospatrick was his father’s oldest legitimate son as his father’s title was transmitted to his descendants.  Domesday Book records “Gospatric” holding numerous properties in Yorkshire[1464].  "Alexander nepos regis Alexandri, Beth comes, Gospatricius Dolfini, Mallus comes, Madach comes, Rothri comes, Gartnach comes, Dufagan comes, Willelmus frater regine, Edwardus constabularius, Gospatricius filius Walthef, Ufieth Alfricus pincerna" witnessed the charter dated to [1114/15] under which "Alexander…rex Scottorum filius regis Malcolmi et regine Margerete et…Sibilla regina Scottorum filia Henrici regis Anglie" reformed Scone Abbey[1465].  He appears to have held the position of an earl but is not referred to as such in any known document in his lifetime[1466].  Henry I King of England gave him the serjeanty of Beanley, Northumberland[1467].  "…Cospatrico fratre Dalfini…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[1468].  "…Gospatricius [frater] Dolfini…" subscribed the possibly spurious charter dated to [1120] of "Alexander…Rex Scottorum…Sibilla regina Scottorum…"[1469].  "…Cospatric frater Dalfin…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow