TOULOUSE, KINGS, dukes & counts

  v2.2 Updated 09 February 2013

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KINGS of the VISIGOTHS in TOULOUSE 418-531. 4

ATHANARIC -381, ALARIC 395-410, ATAULF 410-416. 5

SIGERIC 416, WALIA 416-418. 7

THEODERIC I 418-451, THORISMUND 451-453, THEODERIC II 453-466. 8

EURIC 466-484, ALARIC II 484-507, GESALIC 507-511, AMALRIC 507-531. 12

Chapter 2.                DUKES, MARQUIS of SEPTIMANIA (GOTHIE) 15

BERNARD -831, BERNARD -886, GUILLAUME 886- 16

BERENGAR [831]-837. 18

SENIOFREDO 844, UDALRIC 852-854, HUNFRID 854-864, BERNARD 864-877. 19

Chapter 3.                DUKES/COMTES of TOULOUSE. 21

CHORSO.. 21

GUILLAUME I -793. 21

ACFRED [843] 22

Chapter 4.                COMTES de TOULOUSE 855-1249. 22

A.         COMTES de TOULOUSE 855-1249. 22

RAYMOND I 855-863, BERNARD I 865-877. 22

ODON 886-918, RAYMOND II 918-[923] 26

RAYMOND PONS [923]-[944], RAYMOND III [944]-[972] 30

RAYMOND IV [972]-[979] 38

GUILLAUME III [978]-1037. 41

PONS 1037-1060, GUILLAUME IV 1060-1094. 45

RAYMOND IV 1093-1105, BERTRAND 1105-1112, ALPHONSE I 1112-1148. 50

RAYMOND V 1148-1194. 59

RAYMOND VI 1194-1222, RAYMOND VII 1222-1249. 63

B.         VICOMTES de BRUNIQUEL. 73

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Visigoths were the first non-Roman rulers in south-west France, King Ataulf establishing his court at Narbonne in [410/12] (see Chapter 1).  King Theoderic I established Toulouse as his capital, and settled the western part of what was later to become the duchy of Aquitaine, as far north as Poitiers and Nantes, down to the Pyrenees in the south[1].  King Theoderic II reconquered Narbonne and the area eastwards as far as Arles, and his brother King Euric pressed northwards into Auvergne, Périgord and Berry in the 470s[2].  King Euric proclaimed the Visigothic monarchy as an independent state in south-western France in 476, after the Ostrogoths deposed Emperor Romulus "Augustulus", the last Roman Emperor[3].  Wolfram suggests that the Visigothic kingdom did not de iure separate itself from the empire[4], although it is not clear what "empire" remained after the overthrow of the last Roman emperor.  With the Visigoths expanding northwards, and the Merovingian Franks spreading their influence south, the clash was inevitable.  The first Frankish attacks on Visigothic territory in south-west France started in the 490s, particularly in Saintes and Bordeaux, which probably encouraged Visigothic emigration to Spain[5].  Faced with continuing Frankish military expansion, King Alaric met Clovis King of the Franks in 502 on an island in the Loire near Amboise and established the river Loire as the frontier separating the two kingdoms[6].  This proved a temporary respite, and King Amalric was defeated by his brother-in-law Childebert King of the Franks at Narbonne in 531, and fled to Barcelona.  The area around Toulouse was incorporated into the Frankish kingdom, and in 629 formed part of the kingdom of Aquitaine which was established by King Dagobert II for his half-brother Charibert. 

 

Even after their southward migration into northern Spain, the Visigoths retained a foothold in Narbonne and adjacent areas, the territory coming to be known as Septimania and, later, Gothia[7].  The Muslims, having conquered the Visigothic kingdom of Spain in 711, pushed northwards and occupied large areas of south-western France from [719].  The precise timing of the different waves of Muslim invasion is discussed in the Histoire Générale de Languedoc[8].  Charles "Martel" maior domus of Neustria and Austrasia defeated the invaders near Poitiers in 732, but the Muslim occupation of Septimania persisted until their expulsion in [759] by Pepin "le Bref" King of the Franks.  The local Visigothic families submitted to Frankish rule, while more Visigothic-origin settlers arrived from Spain in the following years.  The first record of a duke of Septimania so far identified in primary sources relates to Guillaume, son of Theoderic [I], who was probably related to the Carolingian family of Nibelung/Childebrand (see Chapter 2).  It has not so far proved possible to trace an unbroken succession of marquis or dukes of Septimania, and it is probable that the title was not hereditary.  One of Guillaume's successors was Berengar, whose younger brother Eberhard was later installed as Marchese of Friulia in northern Italy and who was ancestor of later Italian kings.  In the 9th century, it is likely that Septimania continued to be closely linked with the march of Spain centred on Barcelona, providing a partial explanation for the later development of the autonomous Catalonian counties, on both sides of what was later to become the French/Spanish border. 

 

The names of isolated dukes of Toulouse are recorded in primary sources in the late 8th century, but the precise extent of their jurisdiction is unclear (see Chapter 3).  The county of Toulouse appears to have developed for the first time in the mid-9th century (see Chapter 4).  There is considerable uncertainty about the genealogy of the counts of Toulouse in the 10th century.  The difficulty appears traceable to two charters dated 1080 and 1085 which state that Comte Raymond Pons (who died after 944) was "proavus" of Counts Guillaume IV and his brother Count Raymond IV[9].  If "proavus" is used in its strict sense of great-grandfather, the chronological difficulties with this interpretation are evident, assuming that Raymond Pons's birth date is estimated to [900/10] (which appears reasonably robust) and that Guillaume IV and his brother must have been born in [1046/53].  Settipani sets out the background to the theory and proposes a more plausible line of descent on the assumption that "proavus" should be interpreted in the more general sense of ancestor[10].  The main elements of this new line have been adopted in this document, supported by the primary sources which are quoted below. 

 

The counts of Toulouse succeeded to the marquisate of Gothia in [918], extended their jurisdiction to the counties in the former marquisate, except those in the Catalonian region of northern Spain which were vassals of the counts of Barcelona (who also assumed the title "marquis", by custom rather than legal right).  Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse succeeded to the marquisate of Provence in the late 11th century.  It is assumed that he inherited the marquisate after the death in [1090/94] without male heirs of Bernard [II] Comte de Provence.  However, the precise basis for his succession has not yet been identified, as any relationship between the deceased count of Provence and the count of Toulouse appears too remote to justify transfer by inheritance.  By the early 12th century, the counts of Toulouse had extended their jurisdiction over the counties of Albi, Quercy and Rouergue/Rodez to the east and north of Toulouse, the county of Comminges to the west, the counties of Agde/Béziers, Carcassonne/Narbonne, Foix, Melgueil/Substantion to the south-east, and the counties of Gévaudan, Nîmes and Uzès further to the east. 

 

The only daughter and heiress of Raymond VII Comte de Toulouse married a younger son of Louis VIII King of France.  As the marriage was childless, Toulouse and all its dependencies passed to the French crown on her death in 1271.  Jean II King of France united the county of Toulouse with the French crown by letters patent dated Jun 1351[11]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of the VISIGOTHS in TOULOUSE 418-531

 

 

The Goths originally lived north of the Danube.  According to their legend, they migrated to the Black Sea area from the island of Scandza in the Baltic Sea[12].  They separated into two tribal groups, the Visigoths to the west and the Ostrogoths to the east.  Under pressure from the Huns, they sought permission from the Roman Emperor Valens to move into the Roman empire to the south of the river Danube in 376.  The inevitable conflicts culminated in 378, when the Goths defeated the Romans at Adrianople and killed the emperor.  Following this, the Visigoths drifted westwards through the Balkans and Italy, finally settling in south-west France around Toulouse[13].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that the Goths entered Narbonne in 413[14].  Visigothic expansion into Spain was slow, starting with the small army led by Ataulf in 415.  The main body of Visigoths arrived in Spain during the reign of Alaric II in the late fifth century, possibly encouraged by increased attacks by the Franks on Visigothic lands in France.  The Visigoths were expelled from France in 531, and established their new capital at Barcelona.  For later Visigoth kings, see the document SPAIN: VANDALS, SUEVI & VISIGOTHS. 

 

 

ATHANARIC -381, ALARIC 395-410, ATAULF 410-416

 

1.         ATHANARIC (-Constantinople 381).  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum names “Atthanaricus” as first king of the Goths, adding that he reigned for 13 years[15].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Athanaricus rex Gothorum” died at Constantinople under Emperor Theodosius in 381, but that the Goths broke the peace in 382[16].  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Atanaricus” as first king of the Goths, that he was an Arian, ruled for 13 years, that the Goths were expelled “ab Ugnis…de terra propria” under his rule, and that he died at Constantinople under Emperor Theodosius[17]

 

 

Brother and sister, parents not known. 

1.         ALARIC (-Bruttium, southern Italy end 410).  First mentioned in 391 when he moved southwards into Greece, he suffered several military setbacks but succeeded in resettling the Goths in Macedonia[18].  He was elected in 395 as ALARIC King of the Visigoths.  He entered the western part of the Roman Empire in 401, and by the end of the year had attacked Venetia and was threatening Milan.  Alaric was defeated by the Romans in 402 at Pollenza, and in 403 at Verona, after which the Goths abandoned Italy and settled in Dalmatia and Pannonia[19].  King Alaric returned to Italy in 408, the Goths' attacks culminating in the sack of Rome in Aug 410[20].  Procopius records that Alaric died from illness[21]m ---.  The name(s) of King Alaric's wife or wives is not known.  King Alaric had children:

a)         daughter[22]m THEODERIC (-killed in battle near Troyes 451).  He was elected to succeed in 418 on the death of King Walia as THEODERIC I King of the Visigoths

b)         other children. 

2.         sister m ([410]) as his --- wife, ATAULF, son of --- (-murdered Barcelona 416).  He succeeded his brother-in-law in 410 as ATAULF King of the Visigoths

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         ATAULF, son of --- (-murdered Barcelona [Aug/Sep] 416).  Iordanes names "Ataulfo" as "eius [Alaricus rex Vesegotharum] consanguineo" but does not specify the precise relationship[23].  He is first mentioned in 408 in relation to a military campaign in upper Pannonia[24].  He succeeded his brother-in-law in 410 as ATAULF King of the Visigoths.  Procopius records that Ataulf succeeded on the death of Alaric[25].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that the Goths left Italy during the reign of “Ataulphus” and occupied “Gallias, ac postea Hispanias”, adding that Ataulf reigned for six years[26].  He led his people out of Italy and established his court at Narbonne[27].  He crossed the Pyrenees into Spain from the Visigoth base in Toulouse with a small army, charged by the enfeebled Roman State in Hispania with expelling the Vandal invaders from the south and the Suevi from the north west[28].  They occupied Barcelona in 414[29].  He was assassinated by Dubius or Eberwolf in revenge for the earlier killing of Sarus, the brother of Ataulf's successor Sigeric[30].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Ataulfus” was murdered at Barcelona “per quemdam Gothum…inter familiars fabulas” in 416[31]m firstly ---.  The name of Ataulf's first wife is not known.  m secondly ([410]) --- of the Visigoths, sister of ALARIC King of the Visigoths, daughter of ---.  m thirdly (Narbonne 1 Jan 414) as her first husband, GALLA PLACIDIA, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his second wife Galla ([388/early May 394][32]-27 Nov 450).  Iordanes names "Placidiam" as the daughter of Emperor Theodosius & his second wife, recording in a later passage that she was captured by "Halaricus rex Vesegotharum" when he attacked Rome and later married his successor "Atauulfo"[33].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Placidia Honorii principis sorore" was abducted by "Halaricus" and later married "Athaulfo propinquo suo"[34].  Captured by Alaric King of the Visigoths during the sack of Rome in Aug 409, she passed to Ataulf on his accession as king[35].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Ataulfus” married “Placidiam” at Narbonne in 414[36].  Her first husband married her after failing to establish an alliance with Emperor Honorius[37].  As part of the peace negotiated by King Walia with the Romans in 416, Galla Placidia was returned to her brother Honorius in early 416[38].  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Ballia” as successor of “Sigericus”, adding that he made peace with Emperor Honorius and returned his sister Placidia to him[39].  She married secondly (1 Jan 417) Flavius Constantius, who succeeded in 421 as Emperor CONSTANTIUS III.  Iordanes records that Placidia was created "Augustam" and her son Valentinian "Cæsar" to lead the opposition to Iohannes who invaded the western empire[40].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in 450 of “Valentiniani Imperatoris mater Placidia…apud Romam[41].  King Ataulf & his first wife had six children[42]:

a)         six children (-murdered Barcelona [Aug/Sep] 415).  Sigesar, Bishop of the Goths, tried in vain to protect these children after their father's death[43]

King Ataulf & his third wife had one child:

b)         THEODOSIUS (Barcelona end 414-Barcelona before Aug 415).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         brother .  Designated by King Ataulf as his successor, but displaced by Sigeric[44]

 

 

SIGERIC 416, WALIA 416-418

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         SIGERIC (-murdered 416).  He was elected to succeed in 416 as SIGERIC King of the Visigoths after the murder of his predecessor.  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Sigericus” as successor of Ataulf, adding that he sought peace with the Romans but was killed “a suis[45].  He was murdered 7 days after his accession by his successor Walia. 

2.         SARUS (-murdered).  A Gothic chief who supported the Romans against Radagaisus in [405].  He fought against Alaric[46].  Revenge for his murder by Ataulf appears to have been the motive for the latter's murder in 415[47]

 

 

WALIA [Valia], son of ---  (-Gaul 418).  He was elected to succeed in mid-Sep 416 as WALIA King of the Visigoths after murdering his predecessor.  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Ballia” as successor of “Sigericus”, adding that he made peace with Emperor Honorius and returned his sister Placidia to him[48].  After unsuccessfully attempting to conquer north Africa, King Walia surrendered to Constantius, the Roman commander-in-chief of the West, in early 416 in return for urgently needed food supplies.  He also agreed to provide military help against the Vandals and Suevi in Spain[49].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ballia” entered Spain, extinguished “Wandalos et Silingos in Baetica bello” and reduced “Alanos ad nihilum[50].  The Romans recalled the Goths from Spain in summer 418 and settled them in the valley of the Garonne in south-west France, the Visigoths turning their attention away from Spain[51].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ballia” died “in Gallias” under Emperor Honorius[52]

 

 

THEODERIC I 418-451, THORISMUND 451-453, THEODERIC II 453-466

 

THEODERIC [Theoderid], son of --- (-killed in battle near Troyes summer 451).  According to Grote[53], King Theoderic I was the son of King Walia but Wolfram says that nothing is known about the earlier life of Theoderic[54].  He was elected to succeed in 418 as THEODERIC I King of the Visigoths.  Iordanes names "Theoderidum" as successor of "Vallia rex Gothorum" but does not specify any relationship between the two[55].  He completed the transfer of Visigothic activity from Spain to France based on Toulouse[56].  In 422, the Visigoths marched against the Vandals in Spain but deserted their Roman allies who suffered a serious defeat[57].  The Visigoths became more aggressive in their raids against Roman towns in Gaul, besieging Arles several times between 425 and 430, and Narbonne in 437.  The Romans counter-attacked Toulouse in 439, although their leader Litorius was killed[58].  The Visigoths fought for the Romans against the Suevi in Spain in 446, but made an alliance with the latter in 449, confirmed by the marriage of Theoderic’s daughter to the Suevi king[59].  King Theoderic marched with his two eldest sons into Champagne in summer 451 against Attila the Hun.  He was killed in the battle of the Catalaunian fields in which the combined Roman/Visigothic forces defeated the Huns[60].  Iordanes records that he was killed "in campis statim Catalaunicisis"[61].  Gregory of Tours records that Theoderic King of the Goths was killed in battle against Attila in support of his allies the Franks[62].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Theuderedus” reigned for 33 years[63]

[64]m --- of the Visigoths, daughter of ALARIC I King of the Visigoths & his wife ---. 

King Theoderic I had more than nine children, although it is not known whether these were by his wife or by concubines:

1.         daughter (-after 442).  She was sent back to her father at the time of the 442 revolt with her nose and ears mutilated[65]m ([429] or after[66], repudiated 442) as his first wife, HUNERIC, son of GENSERIC King of the Vandals. 

2.         THORISMUND (-murdered 453).  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[67]Herimannus names "Torismod filius Theodorus rex Gothorum" when recording that he succeeded his father[68].  He was elected to succeed his father in 451 as THORISMUND King of the Visigoths.  Iordanes records that he also fought "in campis statim Catalaunicisis" and succeeded after the death of his father in the same battle[69].  He made war on the Alans at Orléans and marched again on Arles[70].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Thorismo Rex Gothorum” was killed by “Theuderico et Frederico fratribus” in 453[71].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Thurismodus” reigned for three years[72]

3.         THEODERIC (-murdered 466).  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[73]Herimannus names "Theodericus frater Torismodo regi Gothorum" when recording that he succeeded his brother[74].  He was elected to succeed after murdering his brother in 453 as THEODERIC II King of the Visigoths.  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Thorismo Rex Gothorum” was killed by “Theuderico et Frederico fratribus” in 453 and that Theoderic succeeded to the throne[75].  Iordanes records that "Thederidus germanus eius" succeeded after the death of Thorismund but does not specify that he was responsible for his brother's death[76].  He invaded Spain in 454 in support of Emperor Avitus and inflicted a resounding defeat on the Suevi in 456[77].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Teudericus” entered Spain, defeated “Ricciarium Suevorum regem” in battle “Asturica apud Urbicum fluvium”, and pursued him into “Portucale” where he killed Requiario and captured “Bracarum[78].  He returned to Toulouse in Mar 457 but left a Visigoth contingent which advanced through Betica, eventually taking partial control of Seville[79].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Teudericus” returned to Gaul after leaving Portugal and was killed “ab Eurico…fratre[80].  Iordanes records that his brother Euric was suspected of involvement in the death of Theoderic[81].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Theudoricus” reigned for seven, otherwise thirteen, years[82]

4.         FRIDERIC [Federico].  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[83].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Thorismo Rex Gothorum” was killed by “Theuderico et Frederico fratribus” in 453[84].  He shared power jointly with his brother King Theoderic II[85].  He led a military incursion into Spain in 454[86]

5.         EURIC ([after 435]-Arles [Dec] 484).  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[87].  He was elected to succeed in 466 as EURIC King of the Visigoths after murdering his brother King Theoderic II.     

-        see below

6.         RETEMERIS [Ricimer].  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[88]

7.         HIMNERITH.  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[89]

8.         daughter.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that "Recciarius Reccilani filius" married "Theuderedi regis Gothorum filia"[90].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Rechiarius” married “Theodoris Regis filia” in 449[91].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm her father's alliance with the Suevi in Spain.  m (Toulouse 449[92]) REQUIARIO King of the Suevi in Spain, son of REQUILA King of the Suevi (-456). 

9.         other daughters[93].   

 

 

EURIC 466-484, ALARIC II 484-507, GESALIC 507-511, AMALRIC 507-531

 

EURIC, son of THEODERIC I King of the Visigoths & his [wife/concubine] --- ([after 435]-Arles [Dec] 484).  Iordanes names (in order) "Friderichum et Eurichum, Retemerim et Himnerith" as four of the sons of "Theoderido", specifying that their father took his two older sons "Thorismud et Theodericum maiores natu" when he fought at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields, dated to 451[94].  He was elected to succeed in 466 as EURIC King of the Visigoths.  Wolfram refers to the gift to his mother in [466/67] of a bowl inscribed with verses by Sidonius which refer to her son, and speculates that King Euric was about 26 years old when he assumed power[95].  Iordanes records that Euric was suspected of involvement in the death of Theoderic[96].  He expanded Visigoth controlled territory to the north and south of the Pyrenees, achieving substantial control over the Iberian Peninsula with the exception of Galicia[97].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Euricus” devastated “Lusitaniam” and captured “Pampilonam et Cæsaraugustam”, and also was the first to promulgate laws for the Goths[98].  Iordanes records that Euric captured Auvergne[99].  Emperor Anthemius conceded Auvergne to King Euric in 475, in return for Provence which the Visigoths had captured two years earlier but which was recaptured by Euric in 476[100].  King Euric proclaimed the Visigothic monarchy as an independent state in south-western France in 476, after the deposition of Emperor Romulus "Augustulus", last Roman Emperor, by the Ostrogoths[101].  Wolfram suggests that the Visigothic kingdom did not de jure separate itself from the empire[102], although it is not clear what "empire" remained after the overthrow of the last Roman emperor.  He made peace with Odovacar, the Ostrogoth King of Italy, agreeing the Alps as the border between the two kingdoms[103].  The Franks attacked Visigothic territory in south-west France in the 490s, particularly Saintes and Bordeaux, which probably encouraged Visigothic emigration to Spain[104].  According to Gregory of Tours, Euric King of the Goths crossed from Spain and persecuted Christians in Gaul[105], although this statement appears inconsistent with Visigothic expansion being in the other direction during Euric's reign.  During the reign of King Euric, Visigothic legal statutes, known as codex Euricianus, were first committed to writing.  He died a natural death, unlike all his predecessors.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Euricus” reigned for 26 years and died “Arelate” under Emperor Zeno[106].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Euricus” reigned for 15, otherwise 17, years[107]

m (before [458]) RAGNAHILD, daughter of King ---.  Sidonius names "reginæ Ragnahildæ" in a letter which also refers to her young son[108].  

King Euric and [his wife] had one son:

1.         ALARIC ([458]-killed in battle Poitiers late summer 507).  Iordanes names "Eurichus…filius Alarichus" when recording his succession after the death of his father[109].  He was elected to succeed his father at Toulouse 28 Dec 484 as ALARIC II King of the Visigoths.  The main body of Visigoths entered Spain during his reign, largely resulting from military pressure from the Franks in the north[110].  King Alaric II formed an alliance with the Ostrogoths and sent military help in 490 in support of Theodoric in his struggle with Odovacar King of Italy[111].  The alliance was later confirmed by King Alaric's marriage to King Theodoric's daughter.  Faced with continuing Frankish military expansion, King Alaric met Clovis King of the Franks in 502 on an island in the Loire near Amboise and agreed the River Loire as the frontier separating the two kingdoms[112].  He was responsible for compiling the Breviary Lex Romana Visigothorum, a Roman law-book, and supported a catholic church council at Agde in 506[113].  He was defeated and killed by Clovis King of the Franks at the campus Vogladensis[114], probably Voulan, near Poitiers, athough this is popularly known as the battle of Vouillé[115], which marked the end of Visigothic authority over the territory around Toulouse.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Alaricus” was killed by “Huduildus rex Francorum apud Pictavem” after reigning for 23 years[116].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Alaricus” reigned for 23 years[117]m ([494][118]) THEODEGOTHA [Thiudigotho] the Ostrogoth, illegitimate daughter of THEODORIC I King of the Ostrogoths in Italy & his concubine ---.  Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[119].  Procopius records that “regi Visigothorum Alarico” married "Theoderici…Theudichusam virginem filiam"[120]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Alaric's mistress is not known.  King Alaric II & his wife had one child: 

a)         AMALRIC (502-murdered Barcelona 531).  Iordanes names "Amalricus" as the son of "Alarico Vesegotharum" & his wife[121].  Procopius records that the mother of “Amalricus” was "filiam Theoderici"[122].  Gregory of Tours relates that Amalric, son of Alaric, escaped from the battle in which his father was killed and fled to Spain[123].  He succeeded his father in 507 as AMALRIC King of the Visigoths, challenged by his half-brother.  After his father's defeat, only Arles and Carcassonne remained under Visigoth control in France.  In Jun 508, King Amalric's maternal grandfather Theodoric King of Italy arrived in France, relieved the siege of Arles, recaptured Marseille and re-established Visigoth hegemony over Septimania[124].  King Theodoric acted nominally as regent for King Amalric, although he proclaimed himself King of the Visigoths in 511 after defeating King Gesalic.  Amalric was defeated by his brother-in-law Childebert King of the Franks at Narbonne in 531, and fled to Barcelona where he established his capital but was murdered soon after by his cousin Theudis.  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Amalricus” reigned for five years[125]m (511) CHROTHIELDIS [Clotilde] of the Franks, daughter of CLOVIS I [Chlodovech] King of the Franks & his second wife Chrotechildis [Clotilde] of Burgundy (-531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours refers to the marriage of the (unnamed) sister of the four brothers Theoderic, Chlodomer, Childebert and Lothar with Amalric King of the Visigoths, arranged after the death of their father, specifying that she was sent to Spain "with a great dowry of expensive jewellery"[126].  Procopius records that “rex…Visigotthorum Amalaricus” married "Regis Theodeberti sororem"[127].  Gregory names her Clotilde in a later passage which records that she was maltreated by her husband, brought back to France by her brother King Childebert who attacked and defeated King Amalric, but died on the journey and buried in Paris beside her father[128].   

King Alaric II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

b)         GESALIC (-murdered in Burgundy [511/12] or [513/14][129]).  He was proclaimed as GESALIC King of the Visigoths in Narbonne in 507, in opposition to his infant half-brother.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that "Gisaleicus…regis [Alarici] filius ex concubina" succeeded as king of the Visgoths at Narbonne[130].  Procopius names “Giselicum, Alarici ex concubine filium” when recording his accession[131].  He was defeated by the Ostrogoths in 510, was deposed and fled to Barcelona.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Gesalaicus” was defeated at Narbonne by “Gundibado Burgundionem rege” and fled to Barcelona, from where he went “ad Africam Wandalis” for help which was refused, and that he was killed after returning to Barcelona “a duce Teuderici Italiæ regis” during the reign of Emperor Anastasius[132].  From Barcelona he fled to the Vandal court at Carthage, and was given resources to return and renew his resistance[133].  He was eventually captured on his way to seek support from Gundobad King of Burgundy, and executed near the River Durance in Gaul by supporters of his half-brother King Amalric[134]The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Geselicus” reigned for three years “et in latebra annum I alibi XV[135]

2.         daughter.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Iordanes who records that Euric "cum Ricemere genero suo" invaded Rome[136]m RICIMER, son of ---  (-472).  He was magister militum, and defeated Emperor Avitus in 456. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DUKES, MARQUIS of SEPTIMANIA (GOTHIE)

 

 

The first recorded Marquis of Septimania (also referred to as Gothie/Gothia) so far identified in primary sources is Bernard, son of Guillaume Comte [de Toulouse].  It has not proved possible to trace a continuous succession of holders of the position after Bernard was deprived of the marquisate in 831.  In the 9th century, it is likely that Septimania was closely linked with the march of Spain centred on Barcelona, providing a partial explanation for the later development of the autonomous Catalonian counties on both sides of what was later to become the French/Spanish border.  However, it is not clear that the marquis of Septimania held jurisdiction over the march of Spain.  This point is discussed in more detail in the introduction to the document CATALONIA.  The marquisate appears to have been dissolved in the late 870s. 

 

 

1.         BEGO, son of [GERARD [I] Comte de Paris & his wife Rotrud ---] ([755/60]-28 Oct 816).  The primary source which establishes that Bego was the son of Gerard has not so far been identified.  Bego governed the county of Toulouse as "marchio" for Septimania from 806.  Bigo...comes” donated property to “presbitero...Crisogonio” at the monastery of Alaon by charter dated to [806/14][137]He was chambrier, equivalent to viceroy, for Louis King of Aquitaine (son of Emperor Charlemagne)[138].  Comte de Paris in [815], succeeding comte Stephanus.  He founded the abbey of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés near Paris.  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "V Kal Nov" of "Begoni comitis"[139]

 

 

BERNARD -831, BERNARD -886, GUILLAUME 886-

 

1.         GUILLAUME, son of THEODERIC [I] Comte d'Autun & his wife Aldana --- ([750/55]-Gellone [28 May [812/13]/21 May 815])Comte [de Toulouse].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Willelmus primus, signifier Hadhemarus" fought the Saracens in Córdoba [in 801][140], although it is not certain that "Willelmus primus" refers to Guillaume Comte de Toulouse.  He founded the abbey of Gellone in 804, becoming a monk there in 806.  "Willelmus…comes" names "genitore meo Theuderico et genitrice mea Aldana" and "fratribus meis Theudoino et Adalelmo" (version two: "fratre meo Teodoino et Teoderico et Adalelmo") "sororibus meis Albana et Bertana" "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") "uxoribus meis Cunegunde et Guitburge" (version two: "Witburg et Cunegunde") "nepote meo Bertranno" in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone[141]

a)         BERNARD ([795]-executed Toulouse Saint-Sernin [Jan/Jun] 844).  "Willelmus…comes" names "filiabus meis et filiis Barnardo, Witchario, Gotcelmo, Helimbruch" (version two: "filios meos et filias Witcario, Hildehelmo et Helinbruch") in his charter dated 14 Dec 804 (version two: dated 15 Dec 804) for the foundation of the monastery of Gellone, Bernard being named in only one of the versions[142].  Flodoard refers to "Bernardo comiti Tolosano, propinquo suo [Teodulfo comite]"[143].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[144].  He was installed as Comte de Barcelona in 827 or before: Einhard's Annales name "Bernhardus…Barcinonæ comes" in 827[145].  It is not certain whether this means that the "March of Spain" was at that time part of the marquisate of Septimania.  It is possible that Bernard was appointed to Barcelona after the disgrace of Bero in 820, but no primary source has been identified which confirms that this is correct.  Comte d'Autun until 830.  Marquis of Septimania until 831.  The Gesta Francorum records that "Barnhardus comes Barcinonensis" was made camerarius in the palace in 829[146].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "præfatus Bernardus" fled to Barcelona in 830[147].  Emperor Louis I appointed "Bernard Duke of Septimania" his chamberlain and entrusted his son Charles to him, but he "recklessly abused the imperial power…and undermined it entirely".  He was banished to Septimania in [Apr 830] by the emperor's sons who rebelled against their father[148].  In Burgundy in 834, dispossessed 844.  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Bernardus comes marcæ Hispanicæ" was sentenced to death in 844[149].  The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus comes" was killed "a Karolo" in 844, after which "filio Bernhardi" and "Pippinus rex Aquitainiæ, filius Pippini" defeated the king's army[150].  The Gesta Francorum records that "Karolus" killed "Bernhardum Barcenonensium ducem" in 844 "incautem et nihil ab eo suspicantem"[151]

i)          BERNARD "Plantevelue" (Uzès 22 Mar 841-[20 Jun 885/16 Aug 886], maybe 6 Jan 886).  The Manual of Dhuoda records the birth "XI Kal Apr", in the year following the death of Emperor Louis, at "Uzecia urbes" of the second child [Bernard] of Doda and her husband Bernard[152].  The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[153], this being Bernard Marquis of Gothia, although the date of his appointment has not so far been traced.  He must have been deposed as Marquis of Gothia some time before 876, when Bernard de Poitou (see below) is recorded as Marquis.  Lay Abbot of Brioude 857/68.  Comte d'Autun 864/69, deposed.  Comte de Rodez 864/74.  Comte d'Auvergne after 872.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Bernardum Arvenicum comitem" in 877[154].  He obtained the county of Mâcon during the wars between the Carolingians and the Bosonids[155].  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "VIII Id Jan" of "Bernardus comes"[156]

(a)       GUILLAUME (-6 Jul 918, bur Abbaye de Brioude, Haute-Loire).  "Karolus…imperator Augustus" confirms that "Willelmo comite" replaces "patris sui Bernardi comitis" after the latter was killed, by charter dated 16 Aug 886[157].  He succeeded his father in 886 as Marquis de Gothie, Comte d'Auvergne, de Berry, de Mâcon, de Limousin, et de Lyon.  He was recorded as dux shortly after the accession of Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in 893, and as dux Aquitanorum for the first time in 909[158], later known as GUILLAUME I "le Pieux" Duke of Aquitaine

b)         other children: see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY

 

 

BERENGAR [831]-837

 

1.         BERENGAR, son of UNRUOCH & his wife Engeltrude --- (-killed in battle [836/37]).  The original manuscript of Thegan´s Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Beringarii, Hunroci quondam comitis filii"[159]Comte de Toulouse.  Einhard's Annales name "Berengario Tolosæ et Warino Arverni comite" as fighting "Lupus Centulli Wasco" in 819[160].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the rebellion of "Wasco, Lupus Centulli cognomento" and fighting "Werinum Arvernorum comitem et Berengarium Tholosanum"[161].  "Ragnarius episcopus et Berengarius comes" are named as imperial missi in "sex…comitatus…Remis, Catolonis, Suessionis, Silvanectis, Belvacus et Laudunum…[et] quatuor…episcopatus …Noviomacensem, Ambianensem, Tervanensem et Camaracensem" in documents of Emperor Louis dated May 825 and 827[162].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Badaradum episcopum Saxonicum et Gerhardum…ducem et Berengarium sapientem, propinquum suum" as missi of Emperor Louis[163], the passage being undated but included among text which records events in the first half of the 830s.  Berengarius...chomis” donated property to “abbate...Teuderedo” at the monastery of Alaon, as his predecessor “Crischonius abba” had received, by charter dated to [816/33][164][Duke of Septimania].  It is assumed that Berengar was installed as duke after the disgrace of Bernard in 831, but no primary source which confirms that this is correct has been identified.  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death in 836 of "Berengarius dux fidelius et sapiens" whom Emperor Louis and his sons "luxit multo tempore"[165]

 

 

SENIOFREDO 844, UDALRIC 852-854, HUNFRID 854-864, BERNARD 864-877

 

1.         SENIOFREDO, son of BORRELL & his wife --- (-killed in battle 849).  Emperor Louis I granted "villam…in pago Narbonensis…Fons-coopertus" to "fideli nostro Sunicfredo" by charter dated 829, which states that "Bosrello patri suo" had previously held the property[166].  He established himself as count in the area known as the "March of Spain", south of the Pyrenees.  He apparently led a revolt of the indigenous [Visigothic] population against Bernard de Septimanie (father of Bernard "Plantevelue")[167].  He conquered Cerdanya and Urgell in the 830s, checking the Moorish expansion.  "Suniefredus" donated property to Urgell by charter dated 3 Jan 840[168]Marquis [of Septimania]: Charles II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks confirmed rights of Spanish settlers in the diocesis of Béziers, after "Notoni archiepiscopo...et Elmerado...palatii nostri comiti, Suniefrido etiam marchioni et Suniario comiti" reported on the question, by charter dated 19 May 844[169].  It is supposed that Seniofredo´s marquisate was Septimania, but this cannot be confirmed beyond doubt.  There is no indication of the date of his appointment.  He was killed in a counter-attack by Guillaume, son of Bernard de Septimanie, in 849. 

 

 

2.         UDALRIC (-after 7 Jul 854).  A charter dated 10 Sep 852 records an audience held before "Udulricus commis in villa Crispiano in territorio Narbonense"[170]Marquis [of Septimania]: a charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, dated 7 Jul 854, names "marchionis nostri Odalrici"[171]

 

 

3.         HUNFRID [III], son of --- (-after 876).  A document of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Mar 858 is subscribed by "Hungarius, Engilramnus, Isembardus, Odo, Osbertus, Ratbodus, Hunfridus, Odalricus, Rhodulfus, Engilschalcus, Herluinus, Hitto"[172].  An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[173]Marquis [of Septimania]: Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks donated property "in pago Narbonensi…in villa Ripa-alta" to "fidelem…Isembertum" at the request of "Humfridi…comitis et marchionis", by charter dated 20 Jun 859[174].  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Hunfridus Gothiæ marchio" expelled Comte Raymond from Toulouse in 863[175].  He fled to Italy in 864, then Swabia[176].  Graf im Zürichgau 872/76. 

 

 

4.         BERNARD, son of BERNARD Comte en Poitou & his wife Bilichildis du Maine (-after 879)Marquis of Septimania [864].  A charter dated 13 Jun 867 records a judgment relating to a donation to the abbey of Saint Tiberi, made "cum consilio Vinfridi marchionis", in a tribunal held at Narbonne by "Bernardus comes marchio"[177].  The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[178].  "Bernardus…comes, dux, atque marchio" donated property to the abbey of Alahon "in pago Palliarense, valle Urritense" by charter dated 21 Jul 871[179].  He was deprived of his territories in 877 by Hugues "l'Abbé" who installed Rainulf II Comte de Poitou in his place.  The Annales Bertiniani name "Bernardum Gothiæ markionem" in 877[180].  Pope John VIII excommunicated "Bernardum filium Bernardi et Belihildis" in 879[181].  He rebelled against Bernard "Plantevelue" in 879 but was defeated.  The Annales Bertiniani record the rebellion of "Bernardi markionis" in 878[182].  The Gesta regum Francorum records in 880 the submission of "Bernhardum" to "filiis Hludowici" during their fight against "Buosenem in Gallia"[183], although it is not certain that this refers to the same person. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES/COMTES of TOULOUSE

 

 

CHORSO

 

1.         CHORSO (-killed in battle [789]).  Duke of Toulouse.  He was appointed to rule Toulouse in 778 or 781[184].  Magné & Dizel records that Chorso was twice accused of participation in the Gascon rebellion, was acquitted the first time but condemned on the second occasion by a diet at Worms in 780 and banished[185].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Chorso dux Tholosanus" was defeated by "cuiusdam Wasconis, Adelerici" and removed as duke[186]

 

 

GUILLAUME I -793

 

1.         GUILLAUME [I] (-killed in battle Carcassonne 793).  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Willelmus…qui Wasconum nationem" replaced "Chorsone" as duke of Toulouse[187]Duke of Toulouse.  He was killed fighting off Muslim attacks at Narbonne and Carcassonne.  m ---.  The name of Guillaume's wife is not known.  Comte Guillaume I & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [BERO (-820 or after).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [813] under which "Bera…comes et uxor mea Romella comitissa" submitted the abbey of Alet, naming "genitore meo Guillelmo comite"[188].  Bero is named as son of Guillaume Comte de Toulouse, Marquis of Septimania (the founder of Gellone, see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY) in Europäische Stammtafeln[189].  However, Bero is not named in Guillaume's 804 charter and no indication has been found that this parentage is correct.  It is more likely that Bero was the son of Guillaume [I] Comte de Toulouse.  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" issued a charter dated 2 Apr 812 to the counts in the Spanish march "Berane, Gauscelino, Gisclafredo, Odilone, Ermengario, Ademaro, Laibulfo et Erlino comitibus"[190]Comte de Barcelona.] 

-        COUNTS in the MARCH of SPAIN

 

 

ACFRED [843]

 

1.         ACFRED (-after [842]).  Comte de Toulouse.  Nithard records that "Egfridus comes Tolosæ" was sent as envoy to Pepin II King of Aquitaine, dated from the context to [842][191]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    COMTES de TOULOUSE 855-1249

 

 

 

A.      COMTES de TOULOUSE 855-1249

 

 

RAYMOND I 855-863, BERNARD I 865-877

 

FOUCAUD [Fulqualdus], son of --- (-after 837).  "Ragambaldo seu Fulcoaldo comite" are named as royal missi in "pago Rutenico seu Nemausense" (Rouergue and Nîmes) in a charter of Aniane dated 21 Oct 837[192]

m SENEGONDE, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Nov 862 under which "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres for the souls of "genitoris nostri Fulgualdi et…genetrice mea Senegundi et…germano meo Fredolone quondam"[193]

Comte Foucaud & his wife had two children:

1.         FREDELON ([815]-[849/52]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Nov 862 under which "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres for the souls of "genitoris nostri Fulgualdi et…genetrice mea Senegundi et…germano meo Fredolone quondam"[194].  He took part in the recapture of Toulouse by Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks from Pepin II King of Aquitaine in 845.  Fridelo...comes et marchio” granted immunities to “monasterio...Villanova...super fluvium Nocana” by charter dated to [848/Apr 849][195].  “Fredelo...comes et marchio” confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Gerri by charter dated Apr 849[196]The king appointed Fredelon as Governor of Toulouse [850]-[852] and he used the title “Custos Civitatis” of Toulouse.  m ---.  The name of Fredelon's wife is not known.  Fredelon & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [FULCRADE ([840]-after 878).  Settipani suggests that she may have been the daughter of Fredelon, and also speculates on her possible descendants[197].  He bases this on the charter dated Mar 924 under which [her daughter] "Senegundis" donated property to Conques for the souls of "filio meo Fredolone et…genitori meo Warmario et genetrice mea Folcradanæ…viro meo Amblardo sive Jorio et…filiorum meorum Stephano, Bernardo, Adalgario sive Jorio"[198]m GARNIER, son of RAINAUD & his wife ---.] 

2.         RAYMOND ([815/20]-before 17 Apr 865).  "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres for the souls of "genitoris nostri Fulgualdi et…genetrice mea Senegundi et…germano meo Fredolone quondam" by charter dated 3 Nov 862, which names "Bernardum filium nostrum…Fulgualdus filius noster…Odo filius noster" (all three of whom also subscribed the document), subscribed by "…Begonis vicecomitis…"[199].  He was appointed Comte de Rouergue et Comte de Quercy in 849 by Charles “le Chauve” King of France, in recognition for his help in fighting Pippin II King of Italy.  He succeeded in 855 as RAYMOND I Comte et Marquis de ToulouseRaimundus...comis et marchio” confirmed possessions “in comitatu nostro Paliarense” to the monastery of Burgal by charter dated Aug 859[200]He founded the abbey of Vabres in 862 (see charter quoted above).  The Annales Bertiniani record that "Hunfridus Gothiæ marchio" expelled "Tolosam Reimundo" in 863[201]m BERTHE [Bertheis], daughter of REMY [Remigius] & his wife Arsinde --- (-after 6 Apr 883).  "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres by charter dated 3 Nov 862[202].  "Berteiz comitissa et filius meus Bernardus comes et marchio Tolosensis" donated property "in pago Ruthenico…in Tarnesca" to Vabres, constructed by "genitor noster Raymundus marchio quondam Tolosensis…cum genetrice mea Berteiz iam dicta", by charter dated 17 Apr 865, subscribed by "…Begoni vicecomiti…"[203].  "Bertheiz sagaci" donated property to Vabres, for the souls of "genitoris mei Remigii hac genetricis meæ Arsinda" and for "iugale meo Raimundo et filio meo Bernardo qui fuerunt quondam, seu et filio meo Odone et Benedicto", by charter dated 6 Apr 883[204].  Comte Raymond I & his wife had [six] children:

a)         BERNARD (-[Aug/Dec] 874).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Nov 862 under which "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres, naming "Bernardum filium nostrum…Fulgualdus filius noster…Odo filius noster" (all three of whom also subscribed the document)[205].  He succeeded his father as BERNARD I Comte et Marquis de Toulouse.  "Berteiz comitissa et filius meus Bernardus comes et marchio Tolosensis" donated property "in pago Ruthenico…in Tarnesca" to Vabres, constructed by "genitor noster Raymundus marchio quondam Tolosensis…cum genetrice mea Berteiz iam dicta", by charter dated 17 Apr 865, subscribed by "…Begoni vicecomiti…"[206].  The Annales Bertiniani name "rex markiones Bernardum scilicet Tolosæ et iterum Bernardum Gothiæ, itemque Bernardum alium" in 868[207].  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the foundation of "mon. Vabrensi…in pago Ruthenico" by "Bernardus Tolosanus Marchio…pater eius Ragemundus", after the death of "Benedicto filio Ragemundi fratri suo", by charter dated 21 Jun 870[208].  A charter dated Aug 870 records a judgment given by "Bernardum comitem"[209]Bernardus...comis, dux atque marchio” granted immunities to “monasterio...in pago Paliares in valle Urritense...Alagone” by charter dated 21 Jul 871[210]He assumed the title Comte de Carcassonne et de Rodez in 871.  He was probably murdered on the orders of Bernard “Plantevelue” Comte d’Auvergne.  "Bertheiz sagaci" donated property to Vabres, for the souls of "genitoris mei Remigii hac genetricis meæ Arsinda" and for "iugale meo Raimundo et filio meo Bernardo qui fuerunt quondam, seu et filio meo Odone et Benedicto", by charter dated 6 Apr 883[211].  "Frotarius…Biturigensis ecclesiæ archiepiscopus" confirmed privileges to "villa Orbaciaco" for the souls of "Regimundi filiorumque eius Bernardi et Oddonis atque Arberti" by charter dated Aug 887[212]

b)         FOUCAUD [Fulqualdus] (-after [6 Apr 883]).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Nov 862 under which "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres, naming "Bernardum filium nostrum…Fulgualdus filius noster…Odo filius noster" (all three of whom also subscribed the document)[213].  "Bertheis" donated property for the souls of "genitoris mei Remigii hac genetricis meæ Arsinda" and for "iugale meo Raimundo et filio meo Bernardo qui fuerunt quondam seu et filio meo Odone et Benedicto" by charter dated 6 Apr 883, subscribed by "Fulquoaldus"[214]

c)         ODON [Odonus/Eudes] (-after 16 Jun 918).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Nov 862 under which "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres, naming "Bernardum filium nostrum…Fulgualdus filius noster…Odo filius noster" (all three of whom also subscribed the document)[215].  He succeeded as ODON Comte de Toulouse

-        see below

d)         BENEDICT (-[before 3 Nov 862]).  Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks confirmed the foundation of "mon. Vabrensi…in pago Ruthenico" by "Bernardus Tolosanus Marchio…pater eius Ragemundus", after the death of "Benedicto filio Ragemundi fratri suo", by charter dated 21 Jun 870[216]

e)         HERIBERT [Arbertus].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Aug 867 under which "Oddo comes, uxorque mea Garsindis" sold property "in comitatu Lemovicino…villa…Orbaciacus", with the consent of "fratre nostro Airberto" and subscribed by "Garsis comitis, Willelmi comitis…"[217].  "Bertheiz sagaci" donated property to Vabres, for the souls of "genitoris mei Remigii hac genetricis meæ Arsinda" and for "iugale meo Raimundo et filio meo Bernardo qui fuerunt quondam, seu et filio meo Odone et Benedicto", by charter dated 6 Apr 883[218].  The identity of "filio meo…Benedicto" in this document presents an interesting problem.  As can be seen above, the monastery of Vabres was founded in 862 after the death of Benedict, son of Berthe, as confirmed by the charter of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks dated 21 Jun 870.  However, the wording of Berthe´s charter of 883 suggests that both her sons Odon and "Benedicto" were alive at that date.  An answer appears to be provided by the subscriptions of the 883 charter, which include "…Airiberto, qui vocatus fuit Benedictus, qui hoc consensit".  This subscription does not state the relationship between the donor and this subscriber.  He is the only subscriber (out of sixteen) who is described as having consented to the donation.  This suggests a close relationship with the donor, except that his name is listed eighth in the list so appears not to be given any particular precedence.  Nevertheless, this subscription raises the possibility that "filio meo…Benedicto" was the same person as Berthe´s son who is named "Airberto" in other documents.  "Oddo…comes uxorque mea Garsindis" exchanged property with Frotaire Archbishop of Bourges by charter dated to [886] witnessed by "Airberti fratris eius, Garsiæ scriptoris comitis, Willelmi comitis…"[219].  "Frotarius…Biturigensis ecclesiæ archiepiscopus" confirmed privileges to "villa Orbaciaco" for the souls of "Regimundi filiorumque eius Bernardi et Oddonis atque Arberti" by charter dated Aug 887, although the charter of the same date shows that Oddon and Heribert were alive at that time[220]

f)          daughter .  Hincmar Archbishop of Reims addressed a letter to bishops in France dated 860 relating to the marriage of "Stephanum" and "Regimundis comitis…filiam" relating that the latter complained of non-consummation of the marriage dated "7 Kal Jun Indictione XIII"[221]m ETIENNE [Stephanus] Comte [d'Auvergne], son of HUGUES --- (-killed Auvergne 864). 

g)         [REGILINDIS ([860/65]-).  Her marriage and family origin is confirmed by the Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis which records that [her son] “Bernardo, nepote Odonis” killed “Lambertus vicecomes et Rannulfus frater eius[222].  The identification of “Bernardo” is confirmed by the Chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes which records the same incident, clarifying that Bernard was the son of Guillaume Comte de Périgord[223].  Settipani suggests that it is more likely that this "Odonis" was Eudes Comte de Toulouse than Eudes King of France[224]m ([892]) GUILLAUME I Comte de Périgueux et d’Agen, son of VULGRINUS Comte d'Angoulême & his wife Regelindis d'Autun (-[918]).] 

 

 

ODON 886-918, RAYMOND II 918-[923]

 

ODON [Odonus/Eudes], son of RAYMOND I Comte de Toulouse & his wife Berthe --- (-after 16 Jun 918).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 3 Nov 862 under which "Raymundus…comes et marchio et uxor mea Berteyz" founded the abbey of Vabres, naming "Bernardum filium nostrum…Fulgualdus filius noster…Odo filius noster" (all three of whom also subscribed the document)[225].  He succeeded as ODON Comte de Toulouse.  "Bertheiz sagaci" donated property to Vabres, for the souls of "genitoris mei Remigii hac genetricis meæ Arsinda" and for "iugale meo Raimundo et filio meo Bernardo qui fuerunt quondam, seu et filio meo Odone et Benedicto", by charter dated 6 Apr 883[226].  "Oddo…comes uxorque mea Garsindis" exchanged property with Frotaire Archbishop of Bourges by charter dated to [886] witnessed by "Airberti fratris eius, Garsiæ scriptoris comitis, Willelmi comitis…"[227].  "Oddo…comes uxorque mea Garsindis" sold property "in comitatu Lemovicino…villa…Orbaciacus" by charter dated Aug 887, with the consent of "fratre nostro Airberto" and subscribed by "Garsis comitis, Willelmi comitis…"[228].  The charter dated 16 Jun 918, which records an audience at Ausonne in the diocesis of Carcassonnne held by "Aridemandus episcopus sedis Tolosæ civitatis...missus advocatus Raymundo comite Tolosæ civitatis et marchio" with the consent of "Odone comite genitore suo"[229], suggests that Odon resigned the county in favour of his son Raymond before he died

m GERSENDE, daughter of ---.  "Oddo…comes uxorque mea Garsindis" exchanged property with Frotaire Archbishop of Bourges by charter dated to [886] witnessed by "Airberti fratris eius, Garsiæ scriptoris comitis, Willelmi comitis…"[230].  "Oddo…comes uxorque mea Garsindis" sold property "in comitatu Lemovicino…villa…Orbaciacus" by charter dated Aug 887, with the consent of "fratre nostro Airberto" and subscribed by "Garsis comitis, Willelmi comitis…"[231].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that she was Gersende d'Albi, daughter of Ermengaud Comte d’Albi & his wife, basing this on Gersende naming her second son Ermengaud[232].  Even if it is correct that Gersende was connected to the comte d´Albi, it is presumably possible that she was a more remote relation of Ermengaud than his daughter. 

Comte Odon & his wife had [three] children:

1.         RAYMOND de Toulouse (-[923/24]).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 16 Jun 918, which records an audience at Ausonne in the diocesis of Carcassonnne held by "Aridemandus episcopus sedis Tolosæ civitatis...missus advocatus Raymundo comite Tolosæ civitatis et marchio" with the consent of "Odone comite genitore suo"[233]The Vita Sancti Geraldi Aureliacensis Comitis records that "Raimundum…comitem filium…Odonis" captured "nepotem domni Geraldi…Benedictum, Tolosæ…vicecomitem" and that "Geraldus…cum sorore sua Avigerna" requested his release[234].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc dates the event to [894/909], the earlier date being when the monastery of Aurillac was founded and the latter the date of death of Benoît´s maternal uncle[235].  If the estimated date is correct, this was before the death of Raymond´s father and therefore before his succession as comte de Toulouse.  If at that date Raymond already held the comital title in his own right, it tends to corroborate the co-identity of Raymond II Comte de Toulouse with Raymond Comte d´Albi, as discussed below.  He succeeded his father in [918] as RAYMOND II Comte de Toulouse.  [same person as…?  RAYMOND Comte d´Albi (-after 915).  It is not certain whether the following documents all refer to the future Raymond II Comte de Toulouse:  Comte de [Nîmes].  A bull of Pope John VIII dated 18 Aug 878, relating to papal authority over the monastery of Saint-Gilles, is subscribed by "Raimundus comes, Berengarius vicecomes…Emenus vicecomes, Oddo vicecomes, Ugo comes"[236].  A charter dated Aug 878 records an audience held by "Reymundo comite" at Albi[237].  A charter dated Apr 890 records a judgment in the court of "Raimundus…comes ipsius pagi…Allidulfo suo viciscomiti" relating to a claim by "Bligardis…in comitatu Nemausensi"[238].  A charter dated 23 May 898 records business in the presence of "Bernardo vices-comite…Regemundo comite…Berengario comite"[239].  "Regimundo comite" subscribed a charter dated Jul 902 recording a donation to Nîmes Notre-Dame[240].  A charter dated 18 Jul 915 records business in the presence of "Regemundo comite" and "Daruardus vicecomes Rotenensi" as judge in "Andusie…castello"[241].  It is possible that Raymond inherited Albi from his mother´s family.  In later documentation, Albi and Nîmes are recorded under the same vicomtes, and it is also possible that they were linked under the same count in the late 9th century and that Nîmes was also inherited by Raymond.  The fact that no further record is found relating to Raymond in Nîmes after 915 could be explained by his succession in Toulouse, after which Nîmes would have ceased to be one of his main centres of activity.  No other Comte Raymond has so far been identified who could be this comte de Nîmes.  "Ugo comes" who also subscribed the 878 papal bull has not yet been identified.]  No document has been identified that Comte Raymond II also held the title Marquis de Gothie.  The death of Guillaume I "le Pieux" Duke of Aquitaine, Marquis de Gothie, is dated to 918.  The son of Comte Raymond II, Comte Raymond Pons, is recorded with the title in 924.  As shown below, Ermengaud, supposed brother of Comte Raymond II is referred to as "princeps Gothiæ" by Flodoard in 932.  It is suggested that Raymond II and his supposed brother received the title jointly in [918/19] from Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks.  No close family connection has been traced between Comte Raymond II and Duke Guillaume I.  It is therefore unlikely that the two supposed brothers succeeded to the title by inheritance.  m --- (-[after 28 Sep 926]).  The name and origin of the wife of Comte Raymond II are unknown.  She may have been GUINIDILDA, daughter of ---, as suggested by the charter dated 28 Sep 926, under which "Teudericus et uxor mea…Sposia" donated property to Narbonne cathedral, signed by "Vulveradus vicecomes…Widinildis comitissa, Richildis vicecomitissa…"[242].  As Narbonne was under the suzerainty of the comtes de Toulouse, it is possible that "Widinildis comitissa" was the legal representative of the county at the time, widow of the former comte and acting in the capacity of guardian for her minor son.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[243], she was [Guinidilda] [de Barcelona, daughter of Guifré [I] "el Velloso/el Pilós/the Hairy" Conde de Barcelona & his wife Guinidilda ---].  As Guinidilda was also the name of the wife of Conde Guifré I, a connection seems likely, although it is also possible that "Vuidinildis comitissa" belonged to the same family as Guinidilda senior (about whose family nothing is known either).  Comte Raymond II & his wife had one child:

a)         RAYMOND ([900/10]-[944/69], bur Saint-Pons-de-Thomières).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter under which "Pontius…comes Tolosanus, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the souls of "genitore nostro Raimundo et genetrice mea"[244].  He succeeded his father in [923/24] as RAYMOND PONS Comte de Toulouse

-        see below

2.         [ERMENGAUD (-after [Jul 935]).  There is no primary source which directly proves that Ermengaud was the son of Odon Comte de Toulouse.  However, two documents suggest that this affiliation is probably correct.  Catel records a donation by "Deda religieuse" "tant pour elle que pour le comte Ermengaud et Adelays sa femme et ses enfants, que pour le comte Pons", by charter dated to [930][245].  Flodoard records that "Ragemundus et Ermingaudus, principes Gothiæ" swore allegiance to Raoul King of France in 932[246].  Comte de Rouergue.] 

-        COMTES de ROUERGUE

3.         [GERSENDE (-[after 13 May 962]).  Wifredo "y su esposa la condesa Garsenda" bought property by charter dated 28 Nov 898[247].  "Idelherus epicopus, Geresendes cometissa, Suniarius comes et marchio, Ermemirus vicescomes" signed a document dated 1 Dec 911 as executors of "Vuifredo comite condam filius fuit Vuifredo comite condam"[248].  The origin of Garsinde, wife of Guifre II Borel Conde de Barcelona, is unknown.  Szabolcs de Vajay suggested, for onomastic reasons only, that she was the daughter of Odon Comte de Toulouse[249].  However, Garsinde/Gersende was such a common name at the time in southern France that this must be only one of numerous possibilities.  A charter dated 18 Nov 908 records the sale of "villa de Palacio" to "domno Wifredo comite hac marchio que vocant Borrello et uxori tue Gersinda"[250].  "Garsindis comitissa" sold property to Vic by charter dated 17 Apr 926 which names "viro meo Vuifredo qui vocabulum fuit Borrello"[251]A charter dated 13 May 962 refers to the testament of "condam Richildis vicecomitissa…de civitate Narbona" which appoints "suos elemosiniarios Gersindis comitissa…"[252], which, if it refers to Riquilda´s mother, indicates that she must have lived to extreme old age.  m (898) GUIFRE [II] BOREL Conde de Barcelona, son of GUIFRE I "el Velloso/the Hairy" Conde de Barcelona & his wife Guinidilda (-911).]

 

 

RAYMOND PONS [923]-[944], RAYMOND III [944]-[972]

 

RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND II Comte de Toulouse & his wife [Guinidilda] [de Barcelona] ([900/10]-[944/69], bur Saint-Pons-de-Thomières).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter under which "Pontius…comes Tolosanus, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the souls of "genitore nostro Raimundo et genetrice mea"[253].  He succeeded his father in [923/24] as RAYMOND PONS Comte de Toulouse.  [Agio Archbishop of Narbonne wrote to "Agamberto necnon et Elefonso episcopus" by undated charter which names "comites nostros Ermingaudum et Raimundum"[254].  This charter is dated to 922 in the 3rd edition of the Histoire Générale de Languedoc.  However, the fact that Ermengaud is given precedence over Raymond in the document suggests that the latter must have been Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse, nephew of the former, rather than his older brother Comte Raymond II.  If that is correct, the document would be dateable to after [924].  Archbishop Agio died in [926/27][255], which if correct would be place the document in [924/27].]  "Oddo…vicecomes…cum uxore mea…Richelde" donated property inherited from "mei genitoris…Franconis et meæ genitricis…Ersindis", with the consent of "domni Agonis archiepiscopi et Poncii comitis" and for the soul of "senioris mei Poncii comitis", by charter dated 17 Dec 924, signed by "Poncii comitis et marchionis…"[256].  The subscription suggests that Raymond Pons had also adopted the title Marquis de Gothie [Septimanie].  It is not known whether the marquisate passed to the family of the comtes de Toulouse immediately after the death of Guillaume I "le Pieux" Duke of Aquitaine, Marquis de Gothie, whose death is dated to 918.  Flodoard records that "Ragemundus et Ermingaudus, principes Gothiæ" swore allegiance to Raoul King of France in 932[257]"Frotardus vicecomes Caturcorum civitatis…et coniux mea Adalberga" donated property "in comitatu Caturcino in vicaria Casliacense in villa…Mercurio" to "monasterium…Belluslocus", with the advice of "Raimundo comiti senioris nostri", for the soul of "Odolrici patris mei" and for the salvation of "Beledrudi genitricis meæ", by charter dated Mar 932[258].  King Raoul appointed him Duke of Aquitaine[259], Comte d'Auvergne and with the territory of the marquisate of Gothia.  He was also the suzerain lord of the counties of Carcassonne, Albi, Rouergue and Quercy.  He is recorded as "princeps Aquitanorum Raymundus…" in the foundation charter of Chanteuge abbey dated 28 Aug 936, which was signed by "Raymundi ducis Aquitanorum cui aliud…nomen est Pontii…"[260], indicating that he challenged the authority of Guillaume III “Tête d’Etoupes” Duke of Aquitaine.  "Pontius…comes Tolosanus, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the souls of "genitore nostro Raimundo et genetrice mea", by charter dated Nov 936[261].  "Poncio comes et marchio" donated property to the church of Béziers by charter dated 17 Jan 937, signed by "Garsindis, Jonus vicecomes…Ato vicecomes"[262].  "Raimundus qui et Pontius, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" dedicated the church of Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 937[263].  "…Domni Pontii ducis Aquitanorum et comitis Tolosani, Guarsindis uxoris eius, Hugonis comitis, Arnaudi vicecomitis, Sicardi vicecomitis, Atonis, Pontii" signed the charter dated Aug 940 under which Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and Rodoald Bishop of Béziers donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières[264].  Richer records that Hugues Duc des Francs received "Raymond duc des Goths" in the town of Nevers after entering Aquitaine in (944), and reinstalled him and other Aquitainian leaders in their positions[265].  Flodoard records that in 944 King Louis and his wife Queen Gerberga entered Aquitaine and returned to France with "Regimundo, Gothorum principe, ceterisque proceribus Aquitanorum"[266].  A charter dated 969, which records an agreement between Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and the monastery of Saint-Pons de Thomières, refers to the advice of "Gersindæ comitissæ et Adalais vicecomitissæ" and "quondam Poncius comes"[267].  "Guillelmus Tolosaniensium…comes et dux" names "proavo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" in a charter dated 1080 and  "Raymundus Ruthenensis…comes" names "proavo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum mango duce" in a charter dated 1085 (see below), although, as Settipani points out[268], "proavus" must be interpreted as "ancestor" in general rather than great-grandfather for consistency with the other sources cited below. 

m GERSENDE de Gascogne, daughter of GARCIA Sanchez "le Tors/el Curvo" Comte de Gascogne & his wife Amuna --- (-after 972).  "Pontius…comes Tolosanus, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the souls of "genitore nostro Raimundo et genetrice mea", by charter dated Nov 936[269].  Her parentage is ascertained as follows.  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio Garsias et Arnaldo Garsies ac Gilelmo Garsies, ac domna Andregoto, seu domna Acibella, seu et ---" as the children of "Garsea Sanzoz" and his unnamed wife[270].  Another passage in the Codex de Roda records that "Pontio" married "filia Garsie Sanzionis" by whom he was father of "Regimundus"[271].  This could refer to any of the three daughters referred to in the former passage.  The name of the wife of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse is confirmed by her undated codicil testament (see below).  Settipani discusses hypotheses suggesting that the two sources do not in fact refer to the same wife of Raymond Pons, who in this scenario would have married twice, firstly to a daughter of Garcia de Gascogne and secondly to Gersende[272].  He suggests that Raymond Pons's first wife was Garcia's daughter who is named Andregoto in the Codex de Roda (the widow of Raymond Comte de Bordeaux), and that his second wife Gersende was the daughter of Ermengaud Comte de Rouergue.  The Rouergue origin is proposed to explain why most of the property referred to in Gersende's codicil testament was located in Rouergue and Albigeois, although it is recognised that if this origin is correct the spouses would have been first cousins (insufficient information has yet been identified on which to base a conclusion concerning the acceptability to the church of first cousin marriages at that time).  The hypothesis represents an interesting speculation.  However, it is not felt that there is a sufficiently strong basis to justify showing these two marriages as a likely possibility, even in square brackets, in this document.  In addition, the Codex de Roda indicates that the daughter of Comte Garcia Sanchez was the mother of Comte Raymond III, while the testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ" suggests that she was the grandmother of Comte Raymond IV who, it is suggested, was the son of Comte Raymond III, indicating that Gersende must have been the same person as the daughter of the Gascon count.  "Poncio comes et marchio" donated property to the church of Béziers by charter dated 17 Jan 937, signed by "Garsindis, Jonus vicecomes…Ato vicecomes"[273].  "Raimundus qui et Pontius, primarchio et dux Aquitanorum et uxor mea Garsindis" dedicated the church of Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 937[274].  "…Domni Pontii ducis Aquitanorum et comitis Tolosani, Guarsindis uxoris eius, Hugonis comitis, Arnaudi vicecomitis, Sicardi vicecomitis, Atonis, Pontii" signed the charter dated Aug 940 under which Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and Rodoald Bishop of Béziers donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières[275].  A charter dated 969, which records an agreement between Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and the monastery of Saint-Pons de Thomières, refers to the advice of "Gersindæ comitissæ et Adalais vicecomitissæ" and "quondam Poncius comes"[276].  A charter dated 972 records donations to the church of Saint-Michel de Gaillac, confirmed by "Regimundus comes", subscribed by "Gersindis comitissæ"[277].  "Domina Garcendis comitissa quæ fui uxor domni Pontii comitis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the soul of "dicti mariti mei Pontii comitis", by charter dated Jul [972], which reserves property which "Adalaydis et filius eius Ermengaudus et Raymundus" held in "castrum de Cenceno" for their lives[278].  The testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", dated to [972], bequeathed property for life to the following beneficiaries (few of whom can be identified): "ecclesiam…Sancti Symphoriani cum alode…Cabannes excepto Dauker" to "Ugoni comiti nepoti meo" [Hugues Comte de Quercy?]; "alodem meum…Cencinnonem" to "Adalais vicecomitissæ et filiis eius Ermengaudo et Regimundo" [Adelais, widow of Matfred Vicomte de Narbonne]; "ecclesiam…Sanctum Martialum de Greza" to "Aimerico" and after his death to "Regimundo filio eius"; "villam…Gerbuxam" to "Mironi filio Amelii" and after his death to "fratri ipsius…Matfredi"; "villam meam…Brutia" to "Amelio nepoti meo" [see below]; "alodem meum…Vilarem" to "Froterio"; "alodum meum…Cantullum" to "Adraldo filio"; "alodum meum…Cantullum" to "Bernardo vicecomiti"; "castellarum…Becus…excepto convenientia Grimaldi…Bernardo filio ipsius Grimaldi" to the church of Saint-Vincent; "ecclesiam meam de Vinarcha" to "Bernardo et Dagberto filiis Dagberti"; "mansum quam tenuit Robertus" to "Regimundo filio Bernardi"; "fevum quam tenuit Rostagnus de Veharca" to "Aimardo et Bernardo filiis Bernardi"; "alium fevum quem tenuit Pontius" to "Raymundo filio Bernardi et alio Raymundo et Attoni"; "ecclesiam meam de Bar" to "Isarnus vicecomes"; "alios mansos" to "Aicfredo et fratri eius Matfredo, filiis Unigerii"; "Cotnag et Vallelias" to "Raymundo filio Gundinildis nepoti meo" [Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse?]; "mansum ubi Godalbertus visus est manere" to "Sicfredo" and after his death to "filio suo Rainardo"; "Campumalbum et Bragos" to "Barnardo filio Regimundo"; "mansum de Genestoso" to "Adalrico filio Pontii"; "alodem quem dedit mihi Regimundus, ecclesiam de Becia" to "Alanberganæ"; "alodum de Fraxino…medietatem" to "Arnaldo filio Bernardi"; "ecclesiam de Muscle…Sanctum Stephanum" to "Sanctioni filio Foramundi", "alium alodem" half to "Olibano" and half to "ipsi Sanctioni"; "mansum ubi mansit Andreas de Miliares" to "Gauzeleno et filio eius Umberti"[279]

Comte Raymond Pons & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         RAYMOND de Toulouse ([925/30]-[972]).  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundus" as the son of "Pontio" and his wife "filia Garsie Sanzionis"[280]Europäische Stammtafeln[281] omits Counts Raymond III and Raymond IV from its schema of the counts of Toulouse, showing Count Guillaume III "Taillefer" as the son of Count Raymond Pons.  The chronological difficulties with this interpretation are evident, assuming that Raymond Pons's birth date is as estimated above and that Guillaume III is recorded as dying in 1037.  Settipani sets out the background to this theory and proposes a robust new line of descent, the main elements of which are as shown here, supported by the primary sources which are quoted below[282].  Raymond presumably succeeded his father as RAYMOND III Comte de Toulouse, although there appears to be no mention of him with this title in primary sources[283].  [A charter dated 2 Jul 972 records a hearing at Nîmes by "Raymondus comes et marchio" relating to "ecclesiam Sancti Martini…in comitatu Agatense" in the presence of "…Siguinus vicecomes et Bernardus frater eius…"[284].  It is not known whether this document refers to Raymond [II] Comte de Rouergue or to Raymond III Comte de Toulouse.]  A charter dated 972 records donations to the church of Saint-Michel de Gaillac, confirmed by "Regimundus comes", subscribed by "Gersindis comitissæ"[285]m [GUNDINILDIS], daughter of ---.  The wife of Comte Raymond III was named Gundinildis, assuming that her son Raymond was "…Raymundo filio Gundinildis nepoti meo" who is named in the codicil testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", widow of Comte Raymond Pons[286].  Comte Raymond III & his wife had [four] children:

a)         RAYMOND ([945/55]-killed "in Garazo" [972/79]).  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundo…et domnus Ucus episcopus" as the children of "Regemundus" (son of "Pontio" and his wife "filia Garsie Sanzionis") and his unnamed wife, specifying that the younger Raymond was killed "in Garazo"[287].  As pointed out by Settipani[288], it is reasonable to suppose that Raymond was the same person as "…Raymundo filio Gundinildis nepoti meo" who is named in the codicil testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", widow of Comte Raymond Pons, dated to [972][289].  He succeeded his father [before 972] as RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse

-        see below

b)         HUGUES (-killed before 992).  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundo…et domnus Ucus episcopus" as the children of "Regemundus" (son of "Pontio" and his wife "filia Garsie Sanzionis") and his unnamed wife, specifying that the bishop was killed while hunting[290].  Settipani highlights that Hugues's bishopric has not yet been identified[291].  It is possible that he was the same person as "Ugoni nepoti meo…Raymundo fratre suo" of Raymond I Comte de Rouergue who is named in the latter's 961 testament[292], although if this is correct it is unclear why Hugues would have been named in the document before his brother Raymond.  Settipani suggests[293] that Hugues was "Ugoni comiti nepoti meo…" who is named in the codicil testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", widow of Comte Raymond Pons[294], although if this is correct it is unclear why Hugues is named in the document before his supposed brother Raymond and why he is given the comital title whereas his supposed brother is not. 

c)         [LEDGARDE ([950/53]-after 16 Apr 980).  “Borrellus comes et marchio” donated property to the monastery of San Saturnino de Urgell, for the souls of "…uxoris meæ Letgarda vel prolis meæ, que de me et illa procreata est, et…fratris mei Mironis comitis atque marchionis", by charter dated 6 Jun 964[295].  Her birth date is estimated on the assumption that she was 15 years old or younger at the time of her marriage, but old enough to have given birth to her first child before the date of this charter.  Bofarull records a suggestion by Marca that Ledgarde was the daughter of "Ramon Pons y Garsinda condes de Auvernia"[296].  It is chronological impossible for Ledgarde to have been the daughter of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse et d´Auvergne whose children must have been born in the range [920/30].  If Ledgarde did belong to the Toulouse family, she must have been the daughter of Raymond III Comte de Toulouse, whose children would have been born in the range [940/60].  "Borrellus…chomes et marchio" sold property to "Unicfredo que vocant Amado" by charter dated 11 Jun 977, subscribed by "Ledgardis comitissa, Ansulfo, Vuitardus vicescomes…"[297].  "Borrellus comes et marchio et uxori mee Ledegards" donated property "in comitatu Ausona" to Vic by charter dated 16 Apr 980[298]m (968 or before) as his first wife, BORRELL [II] Comte de Barcelona, son of SUNYER [I] Comte de Barcelona & his wife Richilde --- (-30 Sep 993).] 

d)         [--- .  m AIMERY Comte de Saintes, son of ---.] 

i)          [--- de Saintes .  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "de Alverniensi pago filiam Hamerici consulis Santonici, neptem Raimundi Pictavensis comitis" as wife of "Mauricius Gofridi Grisæ Tunicæ filius", stating (incorrectly) that "Fulconem Neram" was their son[299].  "Raimundis Pictavensis comitis" may refer to Raymond-Pons Comte de Toulouse, who was also for a time duke of Aquitaine, the Aquitainian title being closely associated with the county of Poitou.  This would also be chronologically acceptable, assuming that "neptem" in the Gesta can be translated as granddaughter.  m MAURICE d'Anjou, son of GEOFFROY I "Grisegonelle" Comte d'Anjou & his second wife Adelais --- ([980]-1012, bur Châteauneuf, église Saint-Martin). 

2.         [daughter .  The precise relationship between Gersende Ctss de Toulouse and Amelius which is indicated by "nepos" in her testament has not yet been identified.  One possibility is that he was Gersende´s grandson, son of a deceased daughter.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         AMELIUS (-after [972]).  The testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", dated to [972], bequeathed property for life "villam meam…Brutia" to "Amelio nepoti meo"[300]

 

 

Four sisters.  Szabolcs de Vajay suggests that they were the possible daughters of Arnaud [I] Comte de Comminges (see the document TOULOUSE NOBILITY), basing the hypothesis on onomastics and favorable chronology[301].  As shown below, there are indications of a close relationship to the family of the comtes de Toulouse. 

1.         ADELAIS (-after 29 Mar 990)The question of the parentage of the wife of Matfred Vicomte de Narbonne is difficult.  The two documents quoted below, in which she and her two sons are named by Gersendis Ctss de Toulouse, suggests that she may have been the countess´s daughter or at least closely related to her.  This suggestion would explain the transmission of the name Raymond into the family of the vicomtes de Narbonne.  However, two factors point away from this hypothesis.  Firstly, Adelais´s three sisters, named in her own first testament dated 13 Jun 977, are not named in the [972] testament of their supposed mother Gersende.  Secondly, Adelais´s second testament, dated 29 Mar 990, states that her donations were made for the souls of "genitoris atque genetricis meæ et…Matfredi viri mei…sive filiis meis, sive sororibus et parentibus meis", omitting to mention any brothers of which, if she was the daughter of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse, she would have had at least oneSzabolcs de Vajay suggests that she was the daughter of Arnaud [I] Comte de Comminges, basing the hypothesis on onomastics and favorable chronology[302], but his hypothesis does not satisfactorily explain why Adelais and her two sons were named in the testament of Ctss Gersende.  "Aduvira" sold property "in comitatu Narbonense villam…Creixano" to "Matfredo vicecomite et uxori tuæ Adalaicis vicecomitissa" by charter dated 10 Nov 952[303].  "Matfredus vicecomes et uxor mea Adalaiz" sold property to Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne by charter dated 22 Apr 959, signed by "…Soniefredus comes…"[304]A charter dated 13 May 962 refers to the testament of "condam Richildis vicecomitissa…de civitate Narbona" which appoints "suos elemosiniarios Gersindis comitissa, Matfredo et Adalaiz"[305].  The testament of "Matfredus comes et uxor sua Adalaiz", dated 20 Aug 966, bequeathed property to "Ermengaudo filio nostro et fratri suo Raymundo…Trudgardæ filiæ nostræ"[306].  A charter dated 969, which records an agreement between Aimery Archbishop of Narbonne and the monastery of Saint-Pons de Thomières, refers to the advice of "Gersindæ comitissæ et Adalais vicecomitissæ" and "quondam Poncius comes"[307].  "Domina Garcendis comitissa quæ fui uxor domni Pontii comitis" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the soul of "dicti mariti mei Pontii comitis", by charter dated Jul [972], which reserves property which "Adalaydis et filius eius Ermengaudus et Raymundus" held in "castrum de Cenceno" for their lives[308].  The testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", dated to [972], bequeathed property for life "alodem meum…Cencinnonem" to "Adalais vicecomitissæ et filiis eius Ermengaudo et Regimundo"[309].  A charter dated 13 Jun 977 records the execution of the testament of "quondam Aymerici sanctæ Narbonenis ecclesiæ archipresulis" by his executors "Adalaidis vicecomitissa Narbonæ, filiique mei consentientes Ermengaudus…archipræsul suus successor et Raymundus vicecomes…"[310].  The testament of "Adelais", dated 4 Oct 978, named "Ermengaudus archipresul et Raymundus et Vassadellus…" as her executors, made the following bequests: donated her foundation "Narbonam…sanctique Salvatoris" to "sororibus meis et domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ", bequeathed "mea hereditas de Vidiliano" to "Arsindi sorori meæ", "alodes de Tolomiano" to "Ermesindi", and "mea hereditas de Artimiciano" to "Garsindi"; "alodum…inter Biaurum et Syronem" to "Ermengaudo filio meo"; "villa Columbaria cum…ecclesia Sancti Petri" to "Raymundo filio meo"; requested "filia mea" to become abbess at Narbonne[311].  A second testament of "Adalaidis vicecomitissa", dated 29 Mar 990, appointed "Ermengaudo archiepiscopo filio meo et Raymundo vicecomiti fratri eius…" as her executors, donated property bought from "sorore mea…Garsindis", bequeathed property to "nurum meam Ricardem" and after her death to "Ermengaudum nepotem meum, filium suum", and to "Raymundum vicecomitem filium meum", adding that the donations were made for the souls of "genitoris atque genetricis meæ et…Matfredi viri mei…sive filiis meis, sive sororibus et parentibus meis"[312]m MATFRED Vicomte de Narbonne, son of ODON Vicomte de Narbonne & his wife Riquilda de Barcelona (-969). 

2.         ARSINDE (-after 4 Oct 978).  The testament of "Adelais", dated 4 Oct 978, donated her foundation "Narbonam…sanctique Salvatoris" to "sororibus meis et domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ", bequeathed "mea hereditas de Vidiliano" to "Arsindi sorori meæ", "alodes de Tolomiano" to "Ermesindi", and "mea hereditas de Artimiciano" to "Garsindi"[313].  The wording of the passage suggests that "Arsindi…Ermesindi…Garsindi" were all sisters of the testator, although the relationship is only specified in the case of Arsinde.  The testator can be identified as the widow of Matfred Vicomte de Narbonne, as the document also names the couple´s two sons whose affiliation is confirmed by other primary sources.  As noted above, other documentation suggests that Adelais was the daughter of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse, and if this is correct Arsinde, Ermesende and Gersende would of course also have been his children.  The question then arises, who was "domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ" who is named in this document and was she the same person as "Arsindi sorori meæ"?  It is probable that "Arsindæ comitissæ" was the wife of Guillaume II Comte de Provence as no other Ctss Arsende has been identified at the time.  Szabolcs de Vajay assumes (as reported by Settipani: the Szabolcs article has not yet been consulted) that she was the same person as "Arsindi sorori meæ"[314].  However, the passage, when read as a whole, suggests that they were different persons.  Szabolcs also suggests that the testator was the possible daughter of Arnaud [I] Comte de Comminges, although as mentioned above there appear to be more connections with Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse.  If the latter affiliation is correct, the chronology suggests that Arsinde, sister of Adelais, would have been too old to have married Guillaume II Comte de Provence. 

3.         ERMESENDE (-after 4 Oct 978).  The testament of "Adelais", dated 4 Oct 978, donated her foundation "Narbonam…sanctique Salvatoris" to "sororibus meis et domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ", bequeathed "mea hereditas de Vidiliano" to "Arsindi sorori meæ", "alodes de Tolomiano" to "Ermesindi", and "mea hereditas de Artimiciano" to "Garsindi"[315].  The wording of the passage suggests that "Arsindi…Ermesindi…Garsindi" were all sisters of the testator, although the relationship is only specified in the case of Arsinde.  The testator can be identified as the widow of Matfred Vicomte de Narbonne, as the document also names the couple´s two sons whose affiliation is confirmed by other primary sources.  As noted above, other documentation suggests that Adelais was the daughter of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse, and if this is correct Arsinde, Ermesende and Gersende would of course also have been his children. 

4.         GERSENDE (-after 4 Oct 978).  The testament of "Adelais", dated 4 Oct 978, donated her foundation "Narbonam…sanctique Salvatoris" to "sororibus meis et domnæ Arsindæ comitissæ", bequeathed "mea hereditas de Vidiliano" to "Arsindi sorori meæ", "alodes de Tolomiano" to "Ermesindi", and "mea hereditas de Artimiciano" to "Garsindi"[316].  The wording of the passage suggests that "Arsindi…Ermesindi…Garsindi" were all sisters of the testator, although the relationship is only specified in the case of Arsinde.  The testator can be identified as the widow of Matfred Vicomte de Narbonne, as the document also names the couple´s two sons whose affiliation is confirmed by other primary sources.  As noted above, other documentation suggests that Adelais was the daughter of Raymond Pons Comte de Toulouse, and if this is correct Arsinde, Ermesende and Gersende would of course also have been his children.  A second testament of "Adalaidis vicecomitissa", dated 29 Mar 990, donated property bought from "sorore mea…Garsindis"[317]

 

 

RAYMOND IV [972]-[979]

 

RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND III Comte de Toulouse & his wife Gundinildis --- ([945/55]-killed "in Garazo" [972/79]).  The Codex de Roda names "Regemundo…et domnus Ucus episcopus" as the children of "Regemundus" (son of "Pontio" and his wife "filia Garsie Sanzionis") and his unnamed wife, specifying that the younger Raymond was killed "in Garazo"[318].  As pointed out by Settipani[319], it is reasonable to suppose that Raymond was the same person as "…Raymundo filio Gundinildis nepoti meo" who is named in the codicil testament of "Gersindæ comitissæ", widow of Comte Raymond Pons, dated to [972][320].  Apart from these references, there appears to be no documentary record relating to this Comte Raymond.  He succeeded his father [before 972] as RAYMOND IV Comte de Toulouse

[m firstly (repudiated) ---.  The Vita Fulcranni records that "comitem Tholosanum" (unnamed) repudiated his wife to marry another who had been repudiated by her first husband[321].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc dates this passage to [975], although, because of the reconstruction of the family of the comtes de Toulouse which it has adopted, it assumes that the count in question was Comte Guillaume III "Taillefer"[322].  Even if the chronology had been favourable to this identification, it is unclear how the passage could refer to Comte Guillaume´s two marriages as there is no record of his second wife, Emma de Provence, having been married before.  On the other hand, it is not impossible that the passage could refer to the comte de Toulouse who was the husband of Adelais d´Anjou.  No record has been found which dates the death of Adelais´s first husband, and it is not impossible that their marriage was terminated by repudiation rather than his death.  If this is correct, the passage could refer to an otherwise unrecorded first marriage of Comte Raymond IV.] 

m [secondly] ([970/75]) as her second husband, ADELAIS d'Anjou, widow of ETIENNE de Brioude, daughter of FOULQUES II "le Bon" Comte d’Anjou & his first wife Gerberge --- ([940/50]-1026, bur Montmajour, near Arles).  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Saint-Pierre du Puy which names "comes Gaufridus cognomento Grisogonella…Pontius et Bertrandus eius nepotes…matre eorum Adalaide sorore ipsius"[323], the brothers Pons and Bertrand being confirmed in other sources as the sons of Etienne de Brioude, for example the charter dated 1000 under which "duo germani fratres…Pontius, alter Bertrandus" donated property to Saint-Chaffre for the souls of "patris sui Stephani matrisque nomine Alaicis"[324].  Adelais's second and third marriages are confirmed by Richer who records the marriage of Louis and "Adelaidem, Ragemundi nuper defuncti ducis Gothorum uxorem" and their coronation as king and queen of Aquitaine[325].  She married thirdly Vieux-Brioude, Haute-Loire 982, divorced 984) Louis associate King of the Franks [who later succeeded as Louis V King of the Franks].  The Chronicon Andegavensi names "Blanchiam filiam Fulconis Boni comitis Andegavensis" as wife of the successor of "Lotharius rex Francorum", but confuses matters by stating that the couple were parents of "filiam Constantiam" wife of Robert II King of France[326].  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence names "Blanchiam" as the wife of "Lotharius rex…Ludovicum filium" but does not give her origin[327].  She was crowned Queen of Aquitaine with her third husband on the day of their marriage.  The Libro de Otiis Imperialibus names "Blanchiam" as wife of "Ludovicus puer [filius Lotharii]"[328].  Rodulfus Glaber refers to the unnamed wife of "Ludowicum" as "ab Aquitanis partibus uxorem", recounting that she tricked him into travelling to Aquitaine where "she left him and attached herself to her own family"[329].  Adelais married fourthly ([984/86]) as his second wife, Guillaume II "le Libérateur" Comte d'Arles Marquis de Provence.  Richer records her marriage with "Wilelmum Arelatensem" after her divorce from Louis[330].  Her fourth marriage is confirmed by the Historia Francorum which names "Blanca sorore Gaufridi comitis Andegavensis" as wife of "Guillelmi comitis Arelatensis"[331].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Blanche comitisse Arelatensis" as mother of "Constantia [uxor Robertus rex]", specifying that she was "soror Gaufridi Grisagonelli"[332].  The Gesta Consulum Andegavorum names "Blanca sorore eius" ("eius" referring incorrectly to Foulques "Nerra" Comte d'Anjou) as wife of "Guillelmi Arelatensis comitis" and as mother of Constance, wife of Robert II King of France[333].  "Adalaiz comitissa" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1003 subscribed by "Emma comitissa…Wilelmus comes"[334].  "Pontius…Massiliensis ecclesie pontifex" issued a charter dated 1005 with the consent of "domni Rodhbaldi comitis et domne Adalaizis comitisse, domnique Guillelmi comitis filii eius"[335].  "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[336].  [Adelais may have married fifthly (before 1016) as his second wife, Othon Guillaume Comte de Mâcon et de Nevers [Bourgogne-Comté]].  Her supposed fifth marriage is deduced from the following: Count Othon-Guillaume's wife is named Adelais in several charters[337], and Pope Benedict VIII refers to "domnæ Adeleidi comitissæ cognomento Blanchæ" with "nuruique eius domnæ Gerbergæ comitissæ" when addressing her supposed husband in a document dated Sep 1016[338], Gerberga presumably being Count Othon-Guillaume's daughter by his first wife who was the widow of Adelaide-Blanche d´Anjou's son by her fourth husband.  However, the document in question appears not to specify that "domnæ Adeleidi…" was the wife of Othon Guillaume and the extracts seen (the full text has not yet been consulted) do not permit this conclusion to be drawn.  It is perfectly possible that the Pope named Adelais-Blanche in the letter only in reference to her relationship to Othon Guillaume´s daughter.  If her fifth marriage is correct, Adelais would have been considerably older than her new husband, and probably nearly sixty years old when she married (Othon-Guillaume's first wife died in [1002/04]), which seems unlikely.  Another difficulty is presented by three entries dated 1018, 1024 and 1026 which appear to link Adelais to Provence while, if the fifth marriage was correct, she would have been with her husband (whose death is recorded in Sep 1026) in Mâcon.  These entries are: firstly, "Adalax comitissa mater Villelmi quondam Provintie comitis et Geriberga eque comitissa…eiusdem principis olim uxor" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille for the soul of their late son and husband respectively by charter dated 1018[339]; secondly, "Vuilelmus filius Rodbaldi" donated property "in comitatu Aquense in valle…Cagnanam" to Marseille Saint-Victor by charter dated 1024, signed by "Adalaiz comitissa, Vuilelmus comes filius Rodbaldi"[340]; and thirdly, a manuscript written by Arnoux, monk at Saint-André-lès-Avignon, records the death in 1026 of "Adalax comitissa"[341].]  The necrology of Saint-Pierre de Mâcon records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Adalasia comitissa vocata regali progenie orta"[342].  An enquiry dated 2 Jan 1215 records that "comitissa Blanca" was buried "apud Montem Majorem"[343].  No explanation has been found for her having been named Adelais in some sources and Blanche in others, as it is difficult to interpret these documents to mean that they referred to two separate individuals. 

Comte Raymond & his wife had [two] children:

1.         GUILLAUME ([970/75]-Sep 1037, bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin).  His mother names her son Guillaume de Toulouse and his wife Emma in an act dated 1021[344].  He succeeded his father in [979] as GUILLAUME III “Taillefer” Comte de Toulouse

-        see below

2.         [LIEDGARDE .  Recorded as "matertera" of Etienne Bishop of Clermont[345], who was the son of her uterine half-brother Pons Comte de Gévaudan.  It is assumed that she was the daughter of Adelais by her second marriage, but this is not beyond all doubt.] 

 

 

GUILLAUME III [978]-1037

 

GUILLAUME de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND Comte de Toulouse & his wife Adelais d'Anjou ([970/75]-Sep 1037, bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin).  His mother names her son Guillaume de Toulouse and his wife Emma in an act dated 1021[346].  He succeeded his father in [978] as GUILLAUME III “Taillefer” Comte de Toulouse"Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[347].  The list of subscribers of this document presents dating difficulties as the last two named couples appear from other primary sources to belong to a later period.  The probable explanation is that two lists from two different documents were copied and incorrectly combined.  The testament of "Ermengaudus archipresul", dated to [1005], bequeathed property to "…Willelmo comiti Tolosano…"[348].  A charter dated to [1006] records the council of the archiepiscopal provinces of Narbonne and Auch held by "Raimundus episcopus Tolosanus et Guillelmus comes Albiensium ac Caturcensium et Tolosanorum" at Toulouse[349].  A bull of "Benedictus episcopus", warning against those who usurped the rights of the monastery of Saint-Gilles, names "Guilelmo comiti necnon matri sue Adelati"[350].  The compilation consulted assumes that this bull was issued by Pope Benedict IX, and therefore dated to [1033/44].  It is unlikely that this can be correct, considering the estimated birth date of Comte Guillaume's mother (see above).  For chronological consistency, it is more probable that the document was issued by Pope Benedict VIII whose papacy ran from 1012 to 1024.  Dating the document to the early years of this papacy would explain explain why the count's mother is named in place of his wife (on the assumption that Guillaume's first wife predeceased the bull, and that it was issued before his second marriage), and would also be consistent with his mother's supposed fifth marriage assuming that this is dated to [1014/16].  "Wilelmi comitis Tholosani…" witnessed the charter dated 18 Dec 1029 which records the foundation of the monastery of Sauve by "Garsindis et filius meus Bremundus et frater eius Almeradus"[351].  "Willelmo patri suo, Bertramno…" subscribed the charter dated 14 Sep 1037 under which "Poncius" donated property to "sponse mee Maiore" at the time of their marriage[352].  An epitaph in Toulouse Saint-Sernin records the burial of "Willelmus comes cognomine Taliafer atque Raimundus Bertrandi", undated[353]

[m firstly ARSENDE, daughter of ---.  The Liber miraculorum Sanctæ Fidæ names "Arsendis, uxor Vuillelmi Tholosani comitis, fratris…Pontii", the latter being identified as Pons de Gévaudun, son of Adelais d'Anjou by her first marriage and uterine brother of Comte Guillaume III, when recording that she sought the intervention of the saint because she was childless[354].  This passage, as quoted in translation in the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, also records that Arsende gave birth successively to two sons Raymond and Henri after her return from visiting the saint[355].  This version of events is, however, contradicted by the charter dated 999, quoted below, according to which all four of the sons of Comte Guillaume were born from his marriage to his wife Emma.  In addition, Comte Guillaume and Emma are first named in a charter dated 992, which leaves little time for children to have been born from an earlier marriage, assuming that Guillaume´s birth date is correctly estimated as shown above.  It therefore seems doubtful whether the Liber, which represents the only reference so far found to this supposed first wife, can be an accurate report.  Until more information comes to light, it is therefore prudent to show this first marriage in square brackets in the present document.] 

m [secondly] (992 or before) EMMA de Provence, daughter of ROTBOLD [II] Comte de Provence, de Venaissin et de Forcalquier & his [first] wife Ermengarde --- ([975/80]-after 1063).  "Dominus princeps et marchio istius provinciæ…Willelmus cum coniuge sua…Adelaix et filio suo…Willelmo" restored property to the abbey of Saint-Césaire d´Arles by charter dated 992, subscribed by "Domnus Rotbaldus comes…Willelmus comes filius Rotbaldi et uxor sua Lucia, Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor sua Ema…"[356].  "Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[357].  These two charters show that Emma was married much earlier than is generally shown in secondary sources.  "Ema comitissa filia Rotboldi comitis et Hermengardæ uxoris eius, matris meæ" donated property "ex hereditate…in comitatu Forojuliensi in castro…Favart" to the priory of Courrenz (in Provence) by charter dated 22 Apr 1015, signed by "Ema comitissa, Heldebertus de Castro-Rainaldo"[358].  "Emma comitissa et filius meus Pontius" donated property to Saint-André d´Avignon by charter dated Nov 1024[359].  "Wilelmus comes Tolosanus et uxor mea Ema" donated property to Saint-Victor de Marseille by charter dated 1024[360].  "Emma comitissa et filius meus Pontius" donated property in Avignon to "ecclesiæ sancti Martini in monte Andaone" by undated charter[361]

Comte Guillaume III & his [first/second] wife had two children:

1.         RAYMOND ([990/95]-before Nov 1024).  The Liber miraculorum Sanctæ Fidæ, as quoted in translation in the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, records that Arsende, first wife of Comte Guillaume, "accoucha successivement de deux fils…Raimond et…Henri" after her return from visiting the saint[362].  "Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[363].  These two sources are contradictory concerning the identity of the mother of Comte Guillaume´s two older children.  Raymond presumably died before the charter dated Nov 1024 in which Emma names her son Pons (see below). 

2.         AIALRIC [Henri?] ([993/96]-before Nov 1024).  The Liber miraculorum Sanctæ Fidæ, as quoted in translation in the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, records that Arsende, first wife of Comte Guillaume, "accoucha successivement de deux fils…Raimond et…Henri" after her return from visiting the saint[364].  "Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[365].  These two sources are contradictory concerning the identity of the mother of Comte Guillaume´s two older children.  This son presumably died before the charter dated Nov 1024 in which Emma names her son Pons (see below). 

Comte Guillaume III & his second wife had two children:

3.         PONS GUILLAUME ([995/97]-1060, bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin).  "Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[366].  He succeeded his father in 1037 as PONS Comte de Toulouse

-        see below

4.         BERTRAND ([997/98]-after 23 Apr 1040, [bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin]).  "Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 (although the date appears impossible) which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[367].  "Willelmus comes Provincie et uxor mea…Lucia" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1030, signed by "Poncius comes, filius Tolosani, Bertrannus frater eius"[368].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc states that Bouche claimed that Bertrand, son of Comte Guillaume III, inherited Forcalquier from his mother and that he was ancestor of the later comtes de Forcalquier, but adds that this hypothesis was refuted by Ruffi[369].  "Willelmo patri suo, Bertramno…" subscribed the charter dated 14 Sep 1037 under which "Poncius" donated property to "sponse mee Maiore" at the time of their marriage[370].  "Bertrannus comes" donated property "in comitatu Avenionensi in villis Laurata et Grevesone…in comitatu Arausico…in comitatu Cavilico in villa Avellanico…in comitatu Aquense in villa Pertuso…in comitatu Tolonense in villa Gerildæ…in villa Albinoseo…partem meam in castello novo quod Gualterius construxit" to Monmajour by charter dated 23 Apr 1040[371].  [m ---.  The name of Bertrand´s wife is not known.  Bertrand & his wife had one child]: 

a)         [RAYMOND Bertrand (-[before 1050 or 1060], bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin).  An epitaph in Toulouse Saint-Sernin records the burial of "Willelmus comes cognomine Taliafer atque Raimundus Bertrandi", undated[372].  It is not known to whom "Raimundus Bertrandi" refers.  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that he was the son of Bertrand, younger son of Comte Guillaume "Taillefer" and already dead by 1050 (without stating the basis for the last comment)[373].  Another volume in the same series states that Raymond Bertrand died before 1060[374].] 

Comte Guillaume III had one [illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]: 

5.          [EMMA] ([1010/30]-)The Vita Sancti Bertrandi names "Ato Raymundus…oriundus e castello Ictio…castrum…Insula" and "filia…Vileumi comitis Tholosæ…cognomine…Scindens-ferrum" as the parents of "Bertrandus"[375].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that this daughter was born either from Comte Guillaume´s first or second marriage[376].  However, her son Bertrand was installed as bishop of Comminges in [1073] and died in 1123.  This is unlikely to place his birth much earlier than [1140/50].  If that is correct, his mother would have been born in [1010/30].  This would be much later than Comte Guillaume´s other known children by his second marriage.  If she was indeed Comte Guillaume´s daughter, it seems more likely that she was illegitimate.  She is named "Emme de Toulouse" by Père Anselme[377]According to the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, this is the only supposed reference to her name, which is in fact not known[378].  According to another volume in the same series, she was named "Gervaise" and the daughter of "Raimond-Taillefer comte de Toulouse" (no primary source reference cited)[379].  It is not known to whom "Raimond-Taillefer comte de Toulouse" may refer, but it would be chronologically impossible for Odon Raymond´s wife to have been the daughter of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse.  m ([1030/50]) ODON RAYMOND Seigneur de l'Isle-Jourdain, son of ---. 

 
 

PONS 1037-1060, GUILLAUME IV 1060-1094

 

PONS GUILLAUME de Toulouse, son of GUILLAUME III "Taillefer" Comte de Toulouse & his second wife Emma de Provence ([995/97]-1060, bur Toulouse, Saint-Sernin).  "Wilelmus comes Tholose" donated "villam…Pertusus…in regno Provinciæ in pago Aquense" to the monastery of Saint-Pierre de Psalmody by charter dated 999 which names "Emam uxorem eius et…filios eorum…Raimundum et Aialricum et Pontium et Bertrannum"[380].  "Emma comitissa et filius meus Pontius" donated property to Saint-André d´Avignon by charter dated Nov 1024[381].  "Willelmus comes Provincie et uxor mea…Lucia" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 1030, signed by "Poncius comes, filius Tolosani, Bertrannus frater eius"[382].  He succeeded his father in 1037 as PONS Comte de Toulouse.  "Poncius comes Tolosanus" founded the priory of Vigan, with the support of "Bertrannus Heleziars et Ava uxor eius…", by charter dated to [1050] and reproduced in a charter dated 12 Jan 1261[383].  "Poncius Tolosanus urbis comes" recorded the union of the abbey of Moissac with the abbey of Cluny, with the advice of "uxoris meæ Adalmodis comitissæ", by charter dated 29 Jun 1053[384].  The dating clause of a charter dated 1060 refers to "Tolosanorum Pontio palatino comite"[385]

m firstly (before 14 Sep 1037) MAYOR, daughter of --- (-1044 or before).  "Poncius" donated property to "sponse mee Maiore" at the time of their marriage by charter dated 14 Sep 1037, signed by "Willelmo patri suo, Bertramno…"[386].  Pérez de Urbel[387] suggests that the name "Majorie" (by which she is known in French sources) is similar to "Mayor" which may indicate a connection with Castile or Navarre.  He proposes that she was Mayor Sánchez de Navarra, daughter of Sancho III King of Navarre & his wife Munidomna Mayor de Castilla .  If this is correct, Mayor would have been a child at the time of her marriage, assuming that this did indeed take place in [1022].  Although this origin is not impossible, it does seem unlikely that such a prominent origin of the wife of Comte Pons should not have been recorded in contemporary sources. 

m secondly ([1045] repudiated 1053 after 29 Jun) as her second husband, ALMODIS de la Marche, repudiated wife of HUGUES V "le Pieux" Sire de Lusignan, daughter of BERNARD I Comte de la Marche & his wife Amelia --- (-murdered 1071).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of "Almodim…sororem Audeberti comitis de Marcha" and "Pontius comes Tolosanus", specifying that she was previously the wife of "Hugo Pius de Liziniaco" from whom she was separated for consanguinity and that afterwards she married "Raimundo Barcinonensi"[388].  "Poncius Tolosanus urbis comes" recorded the union of the abbey of Moissac with the abbey of Cluny, with the advice of "uxoris meæ Adalmodis comitissæ", by charter dated 29 Jun 1053[389]She married thirdly (1053 after 29 Jun) Ramón Berenguer "el Viejo" Conde de BarcelonaShe was murdered by her stepson Pedro Ramón de Barcelona. 

[m thirdly as her first husband, Infanta doña SANCHA de Aragón, daughter of don RAMIRO I King of Aragon & his first wife Gerberge [Ermesenda] de Foix (-[5 Apr/16 Aug] 1097, bur Monastery of Santa Cruz, transferred 1622 to Benedictine convent of Jaca[390]).  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "Sancha…et…Teresa" as the two daughters of King Ramiro and his wife "la filla del Comte de Bigorra nombrada Hermissenda et por baptismo Gelberda", stating that Sancha married "al Comte de Tolosa"[391].  This marriage has not been confirmed by other primary sources.  The Crónica is an unreliable source regarding many genealogical details and it is suggested the marriage be treated with caution until it can be corroborated elsewhere.] 

Comte Pons & his first wife had [one] child:

1.         [PONS de Toulouse (-1063).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pons was the oldest son of Pons Comte de Toulouse according to Europäische Stammtafeln[392] but is not mentioned in Magné & Dizel[393].  The latter describes the succession of the brothers Guillaume IV and Raymond IV on the death of their father in 1060.  If Pons the younger did exist, it is not clear why he would have been excluded from the succession.  His existence is extremely doubtful.] 

Comte Pons & his second wife had four children:

2.         GUILLAUME de Toulouse (-killed in battle Huesca 1094).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Guilelmum et Raymundum" as the two sons of "Guilelmi…Tolose comitis" & his wife "Alymodis multinuba"[394].  "Wilelmo…Raimundo…Ugoni" are named as sons of "Pontio" in the charter of "Vilelmo comite Tolosano" dated 9 Jun 1063[395].  He succeeded his father in 1060 as GUILLAUME IV Comte de Toulouse.  "Willelmus Tolosanus comes" donated property to the abbey of Moissac, at the request of "quodam nobili viro Bernardo Gauzelini et…filiis eius Arnaldo abbate ac Gauzelino", by charter dated 1061[396].  On the death of his cousin Berthe Ctss de Rouergue in [1063/64], the counties of Agde, Béziers, Narbonne, Rouergue and Uzès reverted to Toulouse.  "Rogerius comes Fuxensis et coniux mea Sicardis comitissa" donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated to [1074], subscribed by "domni G. comitis Tolosani et domni Raymundi fratris eius comitis Ruthenæ"[397].  "Willelmus Tolosanus civitatis comes" donated property to the abbey of Moissac by charter dated 14 Mar 1078[398].  "Guillelmus Tolosanensis, Albiensis, seu Caturcensis ac Lutevensis necne Carcassonæ...comes et dux" confirmed donations made by "Rogerius comes Fossensis" to Saint-Pons de Thomières, founded by “antiquo duce et comite Aquitanensium...Pontio”, by charter dated 15 May 1079, the signature clause of which states "...et in filium meum Pontium eis [which appears to refer back to “sanctum Pontium et aliorum martyrum”] commendavi"[399].  "Guillelmus Tolonanensium, Albensium seu Caturcensium, Lutevensium, Petragorensium, Carcassonensium, Aginnensium necne Astarachensium comes et dux…cum uxore mea…Emma" confirmed donations by "proavuo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 16 Jun 1080, signed by "Regimundus comes frater eius, Bertrandus comes nepos Willelmi et filius Raimundi, Guillelmi de Rehenti, Ademari vicecomitis…"[400].  The relationship "proavuo/proavo" in this charter is incorrect in light of the reconstruction shown in the present document.  The rather ornate language of these two documents, and the lengthy titles accorded to the donor, suggest that they may be spurious in whole or part.  "Guillelmus...Tolosanorum Carcassonensium et Albigensium comes et dux et...Emma uxor eius" donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières, for the souls of “Pontii comitis patris mei---Guillelmi et matris meæ Adelmudis”, by charter dated 16 Jun 1080, signed by "Raymundus comes et frater Guillelmi comitis prædicti, Bertrandus comes nepos Guillelmi comitis prædicti et filius Raymundi comitis, Guillelmi de Rebenti, Ademari vicecomitis, Bernardi-Pontii de Granoiled, Bernardi-Raymundi de Tolosa, Aymerici de Roquefort..."[401]m firstly (before 1067) MATHILDE, daughter of ---.  "Willelmus comes et Adalmodis mater eius" donated property to the abbey of Moissac by charter dated 1067, signed by "Mantilis comitissa eius uxor"[402].  Catel records another donation dated 1067 by "Wilielmus comes et Ysarnus episcopus et comitissa Matels" to the Hôpital Saint-Raimond[403]m secondly (before 1080) EMMA de Mortain, daughter of ROBERT Comte de Mortain & his first wife Mathilde de Montgomery (-after [1126/27]).  Robert of Torigny names "unum filium Guillermum et tres filias" as the children of "Robertus comes Moritonii uterinus frater Willermi regis", specifying that one unnamed daughter (mentioned third) married "comes Tolosanus frater Raimundi comitis Sancti Ægidii"[404].  "Guillelmus Tolonanensium, Albensium seu Caturcensium, Lutevensium, Petragorensium, Carcassonensium, Aginnensium necne Astarachensium comes et dux…cum uxore mea…Emma" confirmed donations by "proavuo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 16 Jun 1080[405].  Her name is confirmed by the charter dated 1114 under which her daughter “Philippæ comitissæ…Emmæ filia” reached agreement with “Bernardus-Atonis filius Ermengardis[406].  “Willelmus...dux Aquitanorum” donated “ecclesiam S. Juliani de Stapio...ecclesiam S. Mariæ de Clida” to Notre-Dame de Saintes “et abbatissæ Sibillæ amitæ meæ” by charter dated “XII Kal Sep”, signed by “eadem abbatissa Sibillla, et comitissa Tholosæ avia mea, et Agnete amita mea...Petro episcopo...[407].  This charter does not specify the year but can be dated to [1126/27], given that Guillaume X Duke of Aquitaine (identified as the donor) succeeded his father in 1126 and that the successor of Pierre Bishop of Saintes (assuming that he can be identified as the subscriber “Petro episcopo”) is named in a document dated 1127[408].  Comte Guillaume IV & his first wife had one child:

a)         PONS (-[before 15 May 1079]).  "Guillelmus Tolosanensis, Albiensis, seu Caturcensis ac Lutevensis necne Carcassonæ...comes et dux" confirmed donations made by "Rogerius comes Fossensis" to Saint-Pons de Thomières, founded by “antiquo duce et comite Aquitanensium...Pontio”, by charter dated 15 May 1079, the signature clause of which states "...et in filium meum Pontium eis [which appears to refer back to “sanctum Pontium et aliorum martyrum”] commendavi"[409].  This last phrase in the document appears open to two different interpretations.  Firstly, the donor may have “committed” his son´s body for burial at the monastery after his death, an interpretation which seems likely especially because of the addition of the word “in” which implies some sort of finality, although in that case it is difficult to understand why the confirmation should not have been made for his son´s soul.  Secondly, the donor may have “entrusted” his son to the care of the monastery, maybe because he was physically or mentally disabled.  Whichever the correct answer, the chronology indicates that Pons was born from his father´s first marriage.  An epitaph in Toulouse Saint-Sernin records the burial of "Poncius filius Willelmi comitis Tolosæ et frater eius", undated[410].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that this epitaph relates to two otherwise unrecorded sons of Comte Guillaume IV, who must have predeceased their father, commenting that if the inscription had referred to Pons Comte de Toulouse it would have accorded him his comital title[411].] 

Comte Guillaume IV & his [first/second] wife had one child:

b)         [son (-before 1094).  An epitaph in Toulouse Saint-Sernin records the burial of "Poncius filius Willelmi comitis Tolosæ et frater eius", undated[412].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that this epitaph relates to two otherwise unrecorded sons of Comte Guillaume IV, who must have predeceased their father, commenting that if the inscription had referred to Pons Comte de Toulouse it would have accorded him his comital title[413].  It is not known whether this child, if he was the son of Guillaume IV, was born to his father´s first or second marriage.] 

Comte Guillaume IV & his second wife had one child:

c)         PHILIPPA [Mathilde] de Toulouse (-28 Nov 1117).  The Chronicle of Saint-Maxence records the marriage of "Guillelmus" and "Philippam…filiam Willelmi comitis Tolosani et neptem Raimundi de Sancto Egidio"[414].  Robert of Torigny refers to, but does not name, "filiam unam" of "comes Tolosanus frater Raimundi comitis Sancti Ægidii" & his wife, who married "Guillermus comes Pictavensis et dux Aquitanorum"[415].  "Guillelmus…Aquitainie similiter et Vasconie dux et comes" confirmed donations to Sainte-Croix, Bordeaux by "genitor noster Guillelmus qui et Gaufridus vocatus est" with the consent of "Mathildis uxor…" by charter dated 23 Mar 1096[416].  It is assumed that Mathilde and Philippa refer to the same person.  "Willelmus comes et uxor mea Philippia, filia Willelmi comitis Tolosæ" donated property to Toulouse Saint-Sernin by charter dated Jul 1098[417].  She is also named in an undated donation by Bertrand Comte de Toulouse which names her father but not her husband[418].  “Philippæ comitissæ…Emmæ filia” reached agreement with “Bernardus-Atonis filius Ermengardis” by charter dated 1114[419].  Orderic Vitalis recounts that "Hildegarde Ctss de Poitou" complained to the synod of Reims, held in Oct 1119 by Pope Calixtus II, that her husband had abandoned her for "Malberge wife of the vicomte de Châtellerault"[420].  This is inconsistent with the date of death of Philippa, shown above, not to mention the difference of first name.  She became a nun.  The necrology of the Prieuré de Fontaines records the death "28 Nov" of "Philippa monacha, Pictavensis comitissa"[421]m (1094, divorced 1115) as his second wife, GUILLAUME IX Duke of Aquitaine, GUILLAUME VII Comte de Poitou, son of GUILLAUME VIII Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME VI Comte de Poitou] & his third wife Hildegarde de Bourgogne [Capet] ([22 Oct 1071]-10 Feb 1127). 

3.         RAYMOND de Toulouse (-castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli, Palestine 28 Feb 1105, bur Mount Pèlerin or Jerusalem).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Guilelmum et Raymundum" as the two sons of "Guilelmi…Tolose comitis" and his wife "Alymodis multinuba"[422].  "Wilelmo…Raimundo…Ugoni" are named as sons of "Pontio [comite Tolosano]" in a charter dated 9 Jun 1063[423].  Comte de Rouergue, de Nîmes et de Narbonne, presumably resulting from an agreement with his brother to partition their father's territories following his death in 1060.  He succeeded his brother in 1094 as RAYMOND IV "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse

-        see below

4.         HUGUES de Toulouse .  "Wilelmo…Raimundo…Ugoni" are named as sons of "Pontio [comite Tolosano]" in a charter dated 9 Jun 1063[424].  Abbot at Cluny.  Abbot of Saint-Gilles de Nîmes 1066. 

5.         ALMODIS de Toulouse (-[after 1132]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  "Petrus comes…filius Raymundo comite, genetrice…mea Beatrice" donated property to the church of Maguelonne by charter dated 23 Jul 1079, signed by "uxore sua Adalmudis"[425].  "Petrus Substantionis comes filius Beatricis et uxor mea Almodis" donated property to the church of Maguelonne by charter dated Jan 1083[426].  "Petrus…comes Melguoriensis…cum uxore mea Almodis et filiis meis" donated property to the monastery of Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 26 Feb 1083[427].  "Petrus comes Melgoriensis" donated "comitatum Substantionem Quam episcopatum Magalonensem" to Pope Gregory VII, who regranted him the counties for life, by charter dated 27 Apr 1085, subscribed by "Adalmodis comitissa, Raymundus comes filius eius"[428].  The testament of “Bernardus comes Melgorii” dated 1132 was made in the presence of “…comitissa avia mea…[429], although this could possibly refer to the testator´s maternal grandmother who has not otherwise been identified.  m ([1065]) PIERRE Comte de Melgueil, son of RAYMOND [I] Comte de Melgueil & his wife Beatrix [de Poitou] (-after 1085). 

 

 

RAYMOND IV 1093-1105, BERTRAND 1105-1112, ALPHONSE I 1112-1148

 

RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of PONS Comte de Toulouse & his third wife Almodis de La Marche (-castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli, Palestine 28 Feb 1105, bur Mount Pèlerin or Jerusalem).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Guilelmum et Raymundum" as the two sons of "Guilelmi…Tolose comitis" and his wife "Alymodis multinuba"[430].  "Wilelmo…Raimundo…Ugoni" are named as sons of "Pontio [comite Tolosano]" in a charter dated 9 Jun 1063[431].  Comte de Rouergue, de Nîmes et de Narbonne, presumably resulting from an agreement with his brother to partition their father's territories following his death in 1060.  "Raimundum comitem de Rutenis, filium Almodis" and "Guifredum archiepiscopum de Narbona, filium Guille comitissæ" confirmed an agreement by charter dated to [1066], confirmed by "uxorem suam comitissam"[432].  "Raimundus comes Rutenensis et Nemosensis, Narbonensiumque filius meus" joined "Almodis comitissa" in a transaction with Cluny for the soul of "Poncii comitis" dated 15 Dec 1066[433].  "Raimundi comitis Rutenensis…" subscribed the charter dated 7 Sep 1071 which records an agreement between "Wuiellmum Tolosanum comitem" and "Raimundum comitem Barchinonensem et Carchanonensem et Raimundem filium eius" settling their dispute about "castello de Laurago" [Lauragais][434].  "Rogerius comes Fuxensis et coniux mea Sicardis comitissa" donated property to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated to [1074], subscribed by "domni G. comitis Tolosani et domni Raymundi fratris eius comitis Ruthenæ"[435].  A charter dated 27 Jun 1078 records a hearing held by "Raymundo Ruthenensium comiti et Biterrensium vicecomitissæ Hermengardi" relating to a claim by "Petrus…Bermundi filius"[436].  "Guillelmus Tolonanensium, Albensium seu Caturcensium, Lutevensium, Petragorensium, Carcassonensium, Aginnensium necne Astarachensium comes et dux…cum uxore mea…Emma" confirmed donations by "proavuo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 16 Jun 1080, signed by "Regimundus comes frater eius, Bertrandus comes nepos Willelmi et filius Raimundi, Guillelmi de Rehenti, Ademari vicecomitis…"[437].  He took an active part in the crusade against the Moors in Spain.  "Raymundus comes Rothenensis" abandoned rights in favour of the church of Béziers by charter dated 1084, signed by "…Guillelmi de Sabrano…"[438].  "Raymundus Ruthenensis, Gabalitanus, Ucetiensis, Nemausensis, Agathensis, Biterrensis necnon Narbonensis comes" confirmed the foundation of the abbey of Saint-Pons de Thomières by "proavo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum magno duce vel principe" by charter dated 1085[439].  He succeeded his brother in 1094 as RAYMOND IV "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse.  "Raimundus comes Tolosanæ, dux Narbonæ, marchio Provinciæ" donated property to Saint-André d´Avignon by charter dated 1088 (which presumably should be redated to after 1094), signed by "…Guillelmus de Sabrano, Alisiardus de Usetico, Rostagnus de Posqueriis, Gibellinus de Sabrano…"[440].  A bull of Pope Urban II dated 18 Feb 1095 announced that "Raimundus Tolosanus comes…cum uxore sua Hervira et filio Bertranno" abandoned his rights to altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles[441].  Presumably Comte Raymond's epithet "de Saint-Gilles" is attributable to his continuing public support for this monastery rather than use of a title such as "Comte de Saint-Gilles" before succeeding his brother in Toulouse.  He was the first nobles to answer the call of Pope Urban IV for a crusade to relieve Jerusalem from occupation by the Muslim Arabs, asking to join the expedition 1 Dec 1095 only days after the Pope's rallying speech at the Council of Clermont.  He succeeded as Marquis de Provence, no doubt after the death of Bernard [II] Comte de Provence in [1090/94] although the precise process by which this succession occurred has not yet been identified.  "Raimundus…comes et Provincie marchio" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 28 Jul 1094, also confirming donations by "Dulcis comitissa", signed by "Alvira comitissa"[442].  A bull of Pope Urban II dated 22 Jul 1096 confirmed the rights of the monastery of Saint-André near Avignon after its abandonment by "comes Nimirum Tholosanorum ac Ruthenensium et marchio Provintie Raimundus"[443].  In Jul 1096, Comte Raymond transferred many of his possessions to the monastery of Saint-Gilles[444].  He left on crusade in Oct 1096, leaving the government of Toulouse in the hands of his older son Bertrand (not named but referred to as "naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto")[445].  Comte Raymond never returned to France.  While crossing Byzantine territory, his army attacked Roussa in Thrace, but was defeated and dispersed by the Imperial army[446].  He played a decisive role in the capture of Antioch 28 Jun 1098 after a siege lasting eight months.  The leaders of the crusade disagreed about who should control Antioch.  After Comte Raymond finally marched south in Jan 1099 to continue the crusade[447], Bohémond of Apulia remained in possession of Antioch.  Comte Raymond tried unsuccessfully to be accepted as overall leader of the crusade, but in Jul 1099 refused to be considered as a candidate to be "King of Jerusalem" knowing that he did not have enough support among the crusaders[448].  After the election as leader of his rival Godefroi de Bouillon 22 Jul 1099, Comte Raymond left Jerusalem for Jericho[449].  His objective was to create his own principality in central Syria[450].  He established his household at Lattakia[451].  The second wave of the First Crusade, Lombards who had left Italy under Alberto Conte di Biandrate in Sep 1100 and the French under Etienne Comte de Bourgogne who left in Spring 1101, appointed Comte Raymond as their leader when they arrived at Constantinople, where he was staying during the winter of 1100/01 as the guest of Emperor Alexios I[452].  After the combined armies left Constantinople in May 1101, they captured Ankara from the Seljuk Turks 23 Jun 1101 but were scattered after their defeat by the Turks at Mersivan[453].  Comte Raymond returned to Constantinople, left by ship for Lattakia, but in early 1102 was arrested in Tarsus for having "betrayed Christendom" and taken to Tancred Regent of Antioch who released him only after he swore an oath not to interfere further in affairs in Syria,  In compliance, he evacuated his garrison from Lattakieh, which was besieged by Tancred in early Spring 1102[454].  He gained a notable victory against the Turks outside Tripoli in 1102, constructed the castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli in 1103/04, and laid siege to the town itself.  He died during the course of the siege[455], his death being recorded by William of Tyre[456].  Albert of Aix records that "comes Reimundus" died at "Mons Peregrinorum", which he had built, in February "post Purificationem sanctæ Mariæ" and was buried there[457].  Bar Hebræus records the death in A.H. 499 (1105/06) of "Hisn Sandjil", ten days after falling from a roof which had been set alight by "Abou-Ali Ibn Ammar, souverain de Tripoli", and his burial in Jerusalem[458]

m firstly ([1066] or before, [repudiated [1076/80]) ---.  "Raimundum comitem de Rutenis, filium Almodis" and "Guifredum archiepiscopum de Narbona, filium Guille comitissæ" confirmed an agreement by charter dated to [1066], confirmed by "uxorem suam comitissam"[459].   The name of Raymond´s first wife is not known.  It is assumed that the marriage was terminated, maybe for consanguinity, which could explain the doubts expressed in the sources quoted below about the legitimacy of Raymond´s son Bertrand, who is assumed to have been born from this first marriage.  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc suggests that this wife was Raymond´s first cousin, the daughter of his paternal uncle Bertrand, suggesting that Raymond naming his first son Bertrand would then have been consistent with the contemporary convention of using the name of one of the child´s grandfathers for the first-born son[460].   The same source suggests that such a marriage could explain why Raymond was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in 1076 and 1078.  It also suggests that Comte Raymond´s right to the marquisate of Provence may have been based on the dowry of his first marriage.  This may explain why Europäische Stammtafeln and other primary sources show Raymond´s first wife as --- de Provence, daughter of Geoffroy I Marquis de Provence, Comte d'Arles & his wife Etiennette [Douce] [de Marseille].  However, Raymond´s right could also have been hereditary through his paternal grandmother, who was the sister of Guillaume [V] Comte et Marquis de Provence. 

m secondly ([1080], divorced [1088]) as her second husband, MATHILDE of Sicily, repudiated wife of ROBERT Comte d'Eu, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his first wife Judith d'Evreux (1062-before 1094).  Malaterra records the marriage of "Raimundus comes Provinciarum" and "Matildem filiam suam [Rogerii Siculorum comitis]…de prima uxore" which he dates to 1080[461].  According to Houben[462], Mathilde who married Robert Comte d'Eu was the daughter of Roger I Count of Sicily by his second wife, and a different person from Mathilde wife of Raymond de Toulouse.  No source is quoted, but this seems unlikely from a chronological point of view as Roger's second marriage took place in [1077], and Robert Comte d'Eu died in [1089/93].  In addition, it seems unlikely that Roger, at the height of his power as count of Sicily in the late 1080s, would have agreed to his daughter's marriage to an obscure count in northern France while he was arranging royal marriages for his other daughters. 

m thirdly (1094) as her first husband, doña ELVIRA Alfonso, illegitimate daughter of don ALFONSO VI King of Castile and León & his mistress doña Jimena Muñoz (-15 Nov [1156]).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Jimena Muñoz" as the first of two concubines of King Alfonso, and their daughters "Elvira the wife of count Raymond of Toulouse…and Teresa the wife of Count Henry"[463].  "Raimundus…comes et Provincie marchio" donated property to Saint-Victor, Marseille by charter dated 28 Jul 1094, also confirming donations by "Dulcis comitissa", signed by "Alvira comitissa"[464].  The bull of Pope Urban II dated 18 Feb 1095 announces that "Raimundus Tolosanus comes…cum uxore sua Hervira et filio Bertranno" abandoned his rights to altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles[465].  Her birth date is estimated from the birth of her first child "before 1097".  According to Guibert, Comte Raymond left on the First Crusade with his wife and son (both unnamed) "Qui quidem, naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto, propriam conjugem cum filio, quem ab ea exegerat, unico secum duxit"[466].  She left Palestine after her husband's death, arriving back in Toulouse with her infant son in 1108[467].  She married secondly (before 30 Jun 1117, [separated before 1121]) [as his first wife,] don Fernando Fernández.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 30 Jun 1117 under which "Enxemenia Gonçalvez" sold property granted "ad me et ad filio meo Monio Petriz…in territorio Lampreana villa…Villa Rein" by Queen Urraca to "Fernando Fernandiz…cum socia mea infans domna Elvira"[468], and by the charter dated 8 Jul 1117 under which "Fernanz Fernanniz…et uxor mea infanta donna Gelvira filia regis Alfonsi" donated "quartem partem de monasterio de Ferreries…in Gallicia in terra de Lemes juxta Pantonem" to Cluny[469].  Elvira´s second marriage is also indicated by the charter dated 18 Apr 1127 under which her mother "Ximena Munniz" donated property in "Trebalio et Turres" to "nepotis mei…Garcie Fernandiz"[470], and by the charter dated 1201 under which her great-granddaughter "Domna Xemena Osoriz" donated her property in Valdejunco, Valdunquillo, Villa Velasco, Fontamian, Villa Sanz, Carvajal, Villela, Otero, Mozos, Valdescapa, Barriales, Valle Vaniego, Ranero and in tierra de Cea to Sahagún monastery, naming "aviam tuam Infantem Gelviram"[471], although the second document does not clarify which of the two "Infantas Elvira" is referred to.  On the other hand, Reilly says that doña Elvira, wife of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse, did not return to Castile until after the death of Queen Urraca[472].  He maintains that the wife of don Fernando Fernández was Elvira who was the legitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI by his wife "Elisabeth".  As discussed in the document CASTILE KINGS, it is more likely that the younger legitimate daughter Elvira was the wife of Roger King of Sicily.  Canal Sánchez-Pangín concludes that the wife of don Fernando Fernández was indeed the widow of Raymond IV Comte de Toulouse[473].  One difficulty is that Alphonse Comte de Toulouse, son of Comte Raymond IV and doña Elvira, was declared of age only in 1121, although it is not known whether his mother remained in Toulouse acting as regent throughout his minority.  .  The dating clauses of charters dated 24 Oct 1137, 1 Nov 1137, 20 Nov 1137, 6 Nov 1139, 1 Oct 1143, 1 Nov 1149, 6 Jun [1153], and 19 Jun [1156], which record donations to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, name "…Imperante Ribera donna Gelvira Infante"[474].  "Infante dompna Gelvira…domini Adefonsi regis filia" donated "in territorio de Ripeira…villa de Nozeta" to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes, confirmed by "Didacus Fernandiz…quod…mater mea prefata infante domina Gelvira facit" and by "Adefonsus…Yspanie imperator…mater tere mee et filiorum eius…infans domina Sancia soror ipsius imperatoris", by charter dated 29 Apr 1150, subscribed by "Poncius comes…Osorius Martiniz comes…Nunno Petriz armiger regis…Vela Guterriz dominante Capreyra, Petro Roderiquiz, Roderico Roderiquiz, Petro Didaz…"[475].  The necrology of León Cathedral records the death “XVII Kal Dec” of “infans domna Geloira[476]

Comte Raymond IV & his first wife had one child:

1.         BERTRAND de Toulouse ([1065]-in Palestine 21 Apr 1112).  "Guillelmus Tolonanensium, Albensium seu Caturcensium, Lutevensium, Petragorensium, Carcassonensium, Aginnensium necne Astarachensium comes et dux…cum uxore mea…Emma" confirmed donations by "proavuo…meo Pontio Aquitanorum duce" to Saint-Pons de Thomières by charter dated 16 Jun 1080, signed by "Regimundus comes frater eius, Bertrandus comes nepos Willelmi et filius Raimundi, Guillelmi de Rehenti, Ademari vicecomitis…"[477].  Other sources suggest doubt regarding Bertrand's legitimacy.  Caffaro names "Beltramo Çauata…bastardus comitis Raymundi comitis sancti Egidii" when recording that he captured Tripoli[478].  Guibert records that, in Oct 1096, his father left the government of Toulouse in the hands of "naturali cuidam filio suo comitatu quem regebat relicto" when he left on the First Crusade[479].  As suggested above, these problems could best be explained if Cotme Raymond was separated from his first wife, mother of Bertrand, on grounds of consanguinity, which may have affected some contemporary views about the legitimacy of their offspring.  He succeeded his father in 1105 as BERTRAND Comte de Toulouse.  A series of bulls of Pope Pascal II dated between 15 Apr 1105 and 14 May 1108 reveal that "Bertrannus comes" failed to respect his father's abandonment of rights concerning the altar offerings at the monastery of Saint-Gilles, that he was excommunicated, recanted but attacked the monastery again[480].  After the arrival in Toulouse of his step-mother and infant half-brother, Bertrand left for Palestine in Summer 1108, and swore fidelity to Emperor Alexis I at Constantinople.  Albert of Aix records that "Bertrannus filius comitis Reimundi" arrived in Tortosa in March, dated to 1109 from the context, and demanded the territories formerly held by his father[481].  At a council of crusader rulers outside Tripoli in Jun 1109, it was decided that Bertrand should receive Jebail, and Tripoli once it was captured, under the suzerainty of Baudouin I King of Jerusalem, while Guillem Jordan retained Tortosa and Arqa.  On the death of either, the other would inherit his lands[482].  Tripoli finally surrendered 12 Jul 1109, and he was installed as BERTRAND Count of Tripoli.  Jebail was given to Ugo Embriaco, the Genoese admiral who had helped Bertrand[483].  Comte Bertrand inherited Tortosa and Arqa on the death of Guillem Jordan shortly after[484].  "Bertrandus…comes Raimundi Sancti Egidii filius" donated property for the soul of "Guillelmi Iordanis consanguinei mei" to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem with the consent of "Poncio filio suo", by undated charter[485]

          -        COUNTS of TRIPOLI

Comte Raymond IV & his third wife had two children:

2.         son (before 1097-young).  According to Guibert, Comte Raymond left on the First Crusade with "…propriam conjugem cum filio…"[486].  Runciman refers to the count's "other children" but give no more details[487]

3.         ALPHONSE JOURDAIN de Toulouse (castle of Mount Pèlerin near Tripoli 1103-Caesarea 16 Apr 1148).  Caffaro records the birth in 1103 of "Anfose" son of Comte Raymond[488].  He was named after the River Jordan in Palestine in which he was christened.  Comte de Rodez after the death of his father in 1105.  He succeeded his brother in 1112 as ALPHONSE I Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne et Marquis de Provence, minor until 1121.  He returned to France from Palestine to claim his inheritance, but Guillaume XI Duke of Aquitaine had proclaimed himself Comte de Toulouse and taken control in 1114.  Alphonse installed himself at Orange, but in 1122 the citizens of Toulouse rebelled against their châtelain-gouverneur Guillaume de Montmaurel and proclaimed Alphonse as their legitimate lord[489].  A bull of Pope Calixtus II dated 21 Jun 1121 threatened excommunication against "Ildefonsus comes…Raimundi de Balcio, Elesiari de Castries, Guilelmi Rainoardi de Merenas" for having attacked the monastery of Saint-Gilles, a subsequent bull dated 22 Apr 1122 noting that Comte Alphonse had been excommunicated for the same offence[490].  The Chronica Adefonsi Imperatoris records that "the count of Toulouse Alfonso Jordan…son of Count Raymond of Toulouse and the Infanta Elvira" was with Alfonso VII King of Castile on his accession in 1126 and was sent by the king to negotiate with those who were still in rebellion against him[491].  The Chronica Nemausensis records that "Ildephonsus comes" arrived "in portu de Boc" in Aug 1147 to travel to Jerusalem "in expeditione cum regibus"[492].  He landed at Acre in Apr 1148 and was travelling south to Jerusalem when he died suddenly, poison being suspected.  His great-nephew Raymond Count of Tripoli was accused of his murder but the charge was not proved[493].  One of the Continuators of Sigebert´s Chronicon records that "Hildefonsus comes de Sancti Egidii" died "apud Cesaream Palestinæ" after being poisoned on the orders "reginæ" [Eléonore d´Aquitaine Queen of France] and that "filius eius adolescens" fled to "castrum comitis Tripolitani patruelis sui" but was captured "cum sorore a Turcis"[494].  William of Tyre records the death "apud Cæsaream urbem maritimam" by poison of "comes Tolosanus Anfossus…domini Raimundi senioris comitis filius" a few days after landing at Acre[495]m (before 16 Sep 1125) FAYDIVE [Faydide], daughter of [RAYMOND Seigneur d’Uzès & his wife ---].  She is named in a charter dated 12 Dec 1172 under which Ctss Beatrix agreed terms with "Raymond comte de Toulouse fils de Faidite" for the marriage of her daughter Ermensende and his son "Raymond fils de Constance"[496].  Raymond Bishop of Viviers called himself "avunculus" of the Comte de Toulouse [Raymond V] in 1160 when writing to Louis VII King of France[497].  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc identifies the bishop as the son of "Raymond Decan Seigneur d´Usez et de Posquières" and then assumes that Faydive was therefore the bishop´s sister[498].  However, it is not impossible that the bishop used avunculus in the more general sense of a more distant relative in the preceding generation, especially when it may have been beneficial to him to claim a close family relationship with such an influential person as Raymond V Comte de Toulouse.  It is not therefore without doubt that Faydive was the daughter of Raymond Seigneur d´Uzès, especially as it seems surprising that the wife of Alphonse Comte de Toulouse should not have been the member of a more illustrious family.  Faydive left France with her husband in Jun 1147 on the Second Crusade[499].  Comte Alphonse & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         RAYMOND de Toulouse (1134-Nimes Dec 1194, bur Notre Dame de Nîmes).  The Chronicle of Nîmes records the birth in 1134 of "R. comes filius Ildefonsi comitis"[500].  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 12 Dec 1172 under which Ctss Beatrix agreed terms with "Raymond comte de Toulouse fils de Faidite" for the marriage of her daughter Ermensende and his son "Raymond fils de Constance", under which she agreed to transfer half of the county of Melgueil to comte Raymond[501].  He succeeded his father in 1148 as RAYMOND V Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne, Marquis de Provence, jointly with his brother Alphonse II. 

-        see below

b)         son (-[1138], bur Toulouse, la Daurade).  An epitaph at the church of la Daurade, Toulouse records the death of "Ildefunsi natus comitis…hic tumulatus…parvulus etate vitæ puer", dated to [1138][502]

c)         ALPHONSE de Toulouse (-after [Aug 1177/Jun 1181]).  "…Ildefonsi fratris R. comitis…" subscribed the charter dated 1171 under which Raymundus...dux Narbonnæ, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ, filius Ildefonsi comitis et Faiditæ" swore allegiance to "Rogerio filio Trencavelli et Sauræ"[503]"…Aldefonso fratre comitis Sancti Egidii…" subscribed the charter dated to [Aug 1177/Jun 1181] under which Henry II King of England confirmed donations to the cathedral of Chartres[504]

d)         [FAYDIVE [Faydide] (-1154).  The origin of Faydive, first wife of Humbert III Comte de Maurienne, is not known.  Her unusual name suggests that she may have been the daughter of Alphonse I Jourdain Comte de Toulouse and his wife Faydive [Faydide] d'Uzès.  However, she was not the only noble recorded with this name in south-western France during the early 12th century so this co-identity is not without doubt.  m (Jan 1151) as his first wife, HUMBERT III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie, son of AMEDEE III Comte de Maurienne et de Savoie & his second wife Mathilde d'Albon [Viennois] (Avigliana 4 Aug 1136-Chambéry 4 Mar 1189, bur Abbaye de Hautecombe).]  

e)         AGNES de Toulouse (-before Aug 1187).  Raymond V Comte de Toulouse donated his property "de la succession de feue Agnes sa sœur" to the abbey of Franquevaux by charter dated Aug 1187[505]

Comte Alphonse had [four] illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

f)          PONS (-16 Apr 1203, bur Nîmes Cathedral).  An epitaph records the burial 16 Apr 1203 of Domini Pontii filii...Ildefonsi ducis Narbonæ" at Nîmes cathedral[506]

g)         BERTRAND de Toulouse (-after 1159).  One of the Continuators of Sigebert´s Chronicon records that "Hildefonsus comes de Sancti Egidii" died "apud Cesaream Palestinæ" after being poisoned on the orders "reginæ" [Eléonore d´Aquitaine Queen of France] and that "filius eius adolescens" went to "castrum comitis Tripolitani patruelis sui" but was captured "cum sorore a Turcis"[507].  He left on the Second Crusade with his father in 1147.  Wanting revenge against Raymond Count of Tripoli, whom he accused of murdering his father, he marched north from Acre after the French King had left Palestine, and seized the castle of Araima.  Count Raymond sought help from Unur and Nur-ed-Din who sacked the castle and captured Bertrand and imprisoned him at Aleppo[508]William of Tyre records that "Bertrandum comitis Sancti Egidii naturalem filium" was captured by "Noradinum…forte Halapiæ"[509]He was one of the prisoners released when Emperor Manuel I agreed a truce with Nur-ed-Din in 1159[510].   

h)         daughter Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by an undated charter which names "comes Convenarum Bernardus nepos Ramundi de Sancto Egidio"[511], presumably referring to her son Comte Bernard [IV].  If this is correct, it is chronologically consistent to interpret "nepos" in this document as grandson, although this is not the only possibility.  This interpretation is, however, confirmed by a charter dated Jan 1191 which names "Bernardus comes de Cominge, filius sororis comitis Tolosæ"[512], and a charter dated 1202 which names "B. lo comte de Comenge lo cal fo filh de la filha N Anfos"[513]According to Père Anselme[514], she was the daughter of Raymond V Comte de Toulouse (which is contradicted by the last cited charter), and was named LAURENTIA, although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  It is assumed that this daughter must have been illegitimate.  m BERNARD [III] Comte de Comminges, son of BERNARD [I] Comte de Comminges & his wife Dias de Samatan (-after 1176).    

i)           daughter .  She accompanied her brother Bertrand when he seized the castle of Araima and was captured with him by Nur-ed-Din[515].  One of the Continuators of Sigebert´s Chronicon records that "Hildefonsus comes de Sancti Egidii" died "apud Cesaream Palestinæ" after being poisoned on the orders "reginæ" [Eléonore d´Aquitaine Queen of France] and that "filius eius adolescens" fled to "castrum comitis Tripolitani patruelis sui" but was captured "cum sorore a Turcis"[516]Robert of Torigny records the death of "Loradin, rex Alapriæ" and the succession of "filius eius, natus ex sorore comitis Sancti Ægidii"[517], which from the chronology and context is presumed to refer to the sister (presumably born illegitimate) of Raymond V Comte de Toulouse.  m NUR-ED-DIN Sultan of Aleppo and Damascus, son of FAKHR ed-Din KARA ARSLAN (-[1185/86]). 

 

 

RAYMOND V 1148-1194

 

RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of ALPHONSE I JOURDAIN Comte de Toulouse & his wife Faydive [Faydide] d'Uzès (1134-Nimes Dec 1194, bur Notre Dame de Nîmes).  The Chronicle of Nîmes records the birth in 1134 of "R. comes filius Ildefonsi comitis"[518].  His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 12 Dec 1172 under which Ctss Beatrix agreed terms with "Raymond comte de Toulouse fils de Faidite" for the marriage of her daughter Ermensende and his son "Raymond fils de Constance", under which she agreed to transfer half of the county of Melgueil to comte Raymond[519].  "Silvius de Cleireu et…Matelina eius uxor et…Silvius eorum filius" donated property to the Templars at Richerenches by charter dated 15 Oct 1141, witnessed by "Rostagnus de Sabran, --- filius eius, Raimundus filius comitis de Tolosana…"[520].  He succeeded his father in 1148 as RAYMOND V Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne, Marquis de Provence, jointly with his brother Alphonse II.  In 1152, he passed the regulations which led to the establishment of the capitoulat of Toulouse.  A charter dated 1164 in the cartulary of Cluny records an agreement between "Raigmondus comes Sancti Ægidii" and the monks of Cluny concerning "domo Sancti Saturnini"[521].  A "Chronique en Languedocien, tirée du cartulaire de Raymond le Jeune comte de Toulouse" records the death in 1194 of "R. coms de Tholosa à Nemse"[522].  The Chronicle of Toulouse Saint-Saturnin records the death "apud Nemausum" in 1194 of "Raimundus comes Tolosanus"[523]

m (10 Aug 1154, separated 1165) as her second husband, CONSTANCE de France, widow of EUSTACHE IV Comte de Boulogne [Blois-Champagne], daughter of LOUIS VI “le Gros” King of France & his wife Adélaïde de Maurienne [Savoie] ([1128]-Reims 16 Aug after 1177).  The Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis refers to the sister of King Louis as wife firstly of "Eustachieus comes Bolonie" and secondly of "comiti de Sancto Egidio", specifying that she had children by the latter, but does not name her[524].  The De Genere Comitum Flandrensium, Notæ Parisienses names "filiam unam [Ludovicum regem Grossum] nomine Constantiam"[525].   Her brother Louis VII arranged her first marriage to symbolise his support for Stephen King of England against his cousin Empress Matilda and her husband Geoffroy Comte d'Anjou.  William of Newburgh records the betrothal of Eustache, son of King Stephen, and "regi Francorum…sororem eius Constantiam"[526].  The Continuator of Florence of Worcester records the marriage in Feb [1140] of "regis Anglie Stephani…filius" and "Francorum regis sororem"[527].  Her marriage is recorded by Matthew of Paris, who specifies that she was sister of Louis VII King of France[528].  Her brother also arranged her second marriage, to cement his alliance with Toulouse against Henri d'Anjou Duke of Normandy [later Henry II King of England] who had just allied himself with Aragon.  Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem confirmed a sale of property, with the consent of "…Constantiæ sorori regis Franciæ et S. Egidii comitissæ", by charter dated [Sep/Dec] 1177[529].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XVII Kal Sep" of "Constantia filia Ludovici regis"[530]

Comte Raymond V & his wife had four children: 

1.         ADELAIDE (-after Aug 1199).  The marriage contract between Raymundus...dux Narbonnæ, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ...filiam meam Adalaisiam" and "Rogerio Biterrensi vicecomiti" is dated 1171[531]The Chronicon Gaufredi Vosiensis records that "filia Tolosani Alaizia" and "Rogerius Biterrensis vir eius" surrendered "castrum Legato" during a campaign against the Albigeois by "Henricus Albanensis Episcopus" (in 1181 from the context)[532]Her date of death is set by the charter dated Aug 1199 under which "Raymundus Rogerius vicecomes" donated property, on the advice of "Adelaicis dominæ matris meæ..."[533]m (1171) ROGER Vicomte de Béziers et de Carcassonne, son of RAYMOND TRENCAVEL Vicomte de Béziers & his [first] wife Saura --- (-20 Mar 1194).

2.         RAYMOND de Toulouse (27 Oct 1156-Toulouse 2 Aug 1222).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "heretici comitis de Tolosa Raymundi" as son of "Constantia [filia rex Ludovicus cognomento Grossus"[534].  He succeeded his father in 1194 as RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne, Marquis de Provence. 

-        see below

3.         ALBERIC "Taillefer" de Toulouse (-1183 before 1 Sep).  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puilaurens names "Raymundum…Taillaferrum et Balduinum" as the sons of Comte Raymond V and his wife Constance[535]"Tallifers Viennensium comes et Albonensium comes" donated property to Oulx by charter dated 11 Oct 1179[536].  "Taillafers Viennensium et Albonensium comes" confirmed privileges to the abbey of Durbon, granted by "pater meus Raymondus dux Narbonæ, comes Tholosæ, marchio Provinciæ", by charter dated 1183[537][Comte de Saint-Gilles.]  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death of "Albrico Tailhefer comite Sancti Egidii"[538]m (before 11 Oct 1179) as her first husband, BEATRIX Ctss d’Albon, daughter of GUIGUES [VII] Dauphin de Viennois & his wife Beatrix --- ([1161]-Château de Vizille 15 Dec 1228, bur Abbaye des Hayes, near Grenoble).  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by a chronicle written by "Guillaume, chanoine de l´église cathédrale de Grenoble" which records that "filiam filii sui" (referring to Marguerite, paternal grandmother of Beatrix) married "comitem S. Ægidii"[539].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that the wife of "Albrico Tailhefer comite Sancti Egidii" was "filia senioris Dalfini" and her second marriage to "dux"[540].  The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the marriage of Duke Hugues with "Beatricem, filiam Delfini comitis Alboni apud Sanctum Egidium"[541].  She married secondly (Saint-Gilles-en-Languedoc 1 Sep 1183) as his second wife, Hugues III Duke of Burgundy, and thirdly (1193) Hugues Seigneur de Coligny-le-Neuf.  The primary source which confirms her third marriage has not yet been identified. 

4.         BAUDOUIN de Toulouse (Paris 1165-hanged Montauban 12 Mar 1214, bur Ville-Dieu).  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puilaurens names "Raymundum…Taillaferrum et Balduinum" as the sons of Comte Raymond V and his wife Constance[542]The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that the comte de Toulouse refused to recognise his brother "Baudoin, né et élévé en France" when he returned to Toulouse, whereupon he returned to France where he requested certification from "les Barons et les Prélats" that he was the son of "dame Constance mere dudit Comte Raymond et sœur de Louis roi de France"[543].  Vicomte de Bruniquel 1194[544].  The testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 and names "Baldoyno fratri meo…"[545].  "Comes Baudoinus..." witnessed the charter dated 15 Jul 1210 under which "Willelmum de Baucio filium Bertrandi de Baucio" and "D. R. comitem Tolosæ reginæ Constanciæ filium" confirmed the settlement of their dispute[546]The Historia Albigensium of Pierre de Vaux-Cernay records that "frater comitis Tolosæ…Balduinus" held "castrum…Mons-ferrandus" and supported Simon de Montfort against his brother[547].  Vicomte de Saint-Antonin 1212.  Seigneur de La Grave.  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that "Baudoin frère du comte de Toulouse" retired to "le pays d´Agen où le comte de Montfort lui avait concede un fief" and "habitait au château d´Olyma", but that he was captured, taken to Montauban and hanged on the orders of his brother, his body being recovered by the Templars and buried "près de l´église de leur commanderie de la Ville-Dieu"[548].  Magné & Dizel names Baudouin, son of Comte Raymond V, as ancestor of the Comtes de Toulouse-Lautrec but does not cite the primary source which confirms this[549].  [m (1196) ALIX de Lautrec, daughter of SICARD [V] Vicomte de Lautrec & his wife Adelaide de Béziers.  According to the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, Alix and her marriage are shown only in secondary sources and no primary source has been identified which confirms her existence or that this couple´s children were the later Vicomtes de Lautrec[550].] 

Comte Raymond V had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses:   

5.          PIERRE RAYMOND (-[after 1224]).  According to the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, Tome IV, "Pierre Raymond frère du comte de Toulouse" is named in a document dated 1204, wrongly dated to 1224[551].  The text of the document is reproduced in the Notes et Additions to Tome V, without any comment about the date being incorrect: witnesses, "dominus Petrus Geraldus Armeniacensis comes, et Odo Leomaniæ eius consanguineus, et Raymundus Tolosanus episcopus, et Bernardus de Marestanno, et Petrus Raymundus frater domini Raymundi Tolosani comitis"[552].  If the first person named was Pierre Géraud Comte d´Armagnac, 1204 appears an unlikely date as he only succeeded his father in the county in 1219. 

6.          INDIA de Toulouse .  The marriage contract of "Petrus Ermengavus de Lautrico…Guilabertum filium meum" and "Indiæ sorori…D. comitis Tolosæ" by charter dated 1203 in the presence of "eiusdem D. Raymundi comitis"[553]A charter dated 11 Feb 1207 confirms the marriage of "D. N. Bernardus Jordanus de Insula" and "India", witnessed by "Bernardus comes Convenarum…Jordanus frater Bernardi Jordani"[554]The co-identity with the widow of Guilabert is confirmed by a charter dated Jan 1211 which notes that "D. India soror D. comitis Tolosæ" reached agreement with "Ugoni Ermengavo filio Petri Ermengavi de Lautreg" about her dowry, naming "Guilaberto suo marito", with the agreement of "Bernardi Jordani de Insula sui mariti"[555].  A charter dated 1209 notes that "D. Raymundus…dux Narbonæ, comes Tolosæ" absolved "Aymerico de Castro-novo et D. Castellanæ filiæ eius, et Ugoni Ermengavo marito ipsius D. Castellanæ" from payment of the dowry for "dominam Indiam sororem eius, quondam uxorem Guilaberti, filii Petri Eremengavi de Lautrico"[556]m firstly (1203) GUILABERT de Lautrec, son of PIERRE ERMENGAUD de Lautrec & his wife --- (-[1206]).  m secondly (11 Feb 1207 or before) BERNARD JOURDAIN Seigneur de l'Isle-Jourdain, son of JOURDAIN [III] Seigneur de l´Isle-Jourdain & his wife Esclarmonde de Foix (-before Apr 1249). 

 

 

RAYMOND VI 1194-1222, RAYMOND VII 1222-1249

 

RAYMOND de Toulouse, son of RAYMOND V Comte de Toulouse & his wife Constance de France (27 Oct 1156-Toulouse 2 Aug 1222).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "heretici comitis de Tolosa Raymundi" as son of "Constantia [filia rex Ludovicus cognomento Grossus"[557].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puilaurens names "Raymundum…Taillaferrum et Balduinum" as the sons of Comte Raymond V and his wife Constance, adding that Raymond was born in 1156[558].  The Thalamus de Montpellier records the birth "las vespras de Symonis e Jude" in 1156 of "R. coms fill de Constansa"[559]The Chronicle of Toulouse Saint-Saturnin records the birth "in vigilia SS. Simonis et Judæ" in 1156 of "Raimundus comes filius dominæ Constantiæ"[560].  He succeeded his father in 1194 as RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne, Marquis de Provence.  He was in Palestine in Oct 1202, without his fifth wife[561].  "Raymundus…dux Narbonensis, comes Tholosanus, marchio Provincie" granted exemptions to Valence Saint-Rufus by charter dated 12 Mar 1205[562].  The testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 and names "Baldoyno fratri meo…Raymundo filio meo…Alienor uxor mea", bequeathes "Castluscium et Bruniqueldum" to "Bertrando filio meo", his properties "ad Montemlaurum et ad sanctum Georgium" to "Willelmæ filiæ meæ"[563]Simon de Montfort Earl of Leicester defeated the Comte de Toulouse at Castelnaudary, and adopted the titles Vicomte d'Albi, Comte de Toulouse, Duc de Narbonne and Marquis de Provence[564]"Simonem comitem de Monteforti" swore homage to Philippe V King of France for "ducatu Narbonensi, comitatu Tolosano, vicecomitatu Biterrensi et Carcassonæ" by charter dated Apr 1216[565]Simon lost Toulouse to Comte Raymond in Sep 1217, and was killed during an unsuccessful siege of the city[566].  The Chronicle of Toulouse Saint-Saturnin records that "comes Sancti Aegidii" recovered Toulouse in 1217[567]The Thalamus de Montpellier records the death "a Tolosa" in Sep 1222 of "R. coms de San Gili"[568]The Chronicle of Toulouse Saint-Saturnin records the death in 1222 of "Raimundus comes Tolosæ, filius dominæ Constanciæ reginæ"[569]

Betrothed (early 1172) to DOUCE [Dolça/Dulce] Ctss de Provence, daughter of RAYMOND BERENGER II Comte de Provence & his wife Ryksa of Silesia (after 1162-[1 Apr/12 Dec] 1172).  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Apr 1172 under which "Beatrix comitissa Melgorii" divided the county of Melgueil between "filie mee Ermessende" and "Dulcie neptis mee, filie quondam filii mei Raimundi comitis Provincie", which also records the betrothal between Dulcie and "Raimundo, duci Narbone, comiti Tolose, marchioni Provincie…filio"[570]

m firstly (12 Sep 1172) as her second husband, ERMESSINDE de Pelet Ctss de Melgueil, widow of PIERRE BERMOND [IV] Seigneur de Sauve, daughter of BERNARD Pelet Seigneur d’Alais Comte de Melgueil & his wife Beatrix Ctss de Melgueil (-Château de Malaucème [Sep/3 Nov] 1176).  "Beatrix comitissa Melgorii" divided the county of Melgueil between "filie mee Ermessende" and "Dulcie neptis mee, filie quondam filii mei Raimundi comitis Provincie" by contract dated 1 Apr 1172, which names "Petro Bermundo de Salvis genero meo" and records the betrothal between Dulcie and "Raimundo, duci Narbone, comiti Tolose, marchioni Provincie…filio"[571]This was superseded by a second donation: "Beatrix comitissa Melgorii" donated "totum comitatum Melgorii" to "Raymundo duci Narbonæ comiti Tolosæ, marchioni Provinciæ", and granted "filiam meam Hermessindam" in marriage to "filio tuo Raymundo" with the county as dowry with a reservation for "filius eius quem ex Petro Bermundo" and "Dulcia neptis mea, filia quondam fili mei Raymundi comitis Provinciæ", by charter dated 12 Dec 1172, witnessed by "Bermundi de Salve, Bermundi de Vidinobrio, Eleziarii de Usecia, Raymundi eius fratris..."[572].  On the same day, Ermessende gave her inheritance to her husband.  Ermessende predeceased her mother and, by her testament dated Sep 1176 and read 3 Nov 1176, granted the county to her husband, and bequeathed an annual income to her mother[573]

m secondly ([Sep 1176/1179], repudiated Jan 1193 or before) BEATRIX de Béziers, daughter of RAYMOND TRENCAVEL Vicomte de Béziers et de Carcassonne & his second wife Saure --- ([after 21 Apr 1154]-after Jan 1193).  The Historia Albigensis records the marriage of Comte Raymond and "sororem vicecomitis Biterrensis…Beatricem" whom he repudiated[574].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that Comte Raymond VI married "Béatrice sœur de Trencavel vicomte de Béziers" whom he repudiated, but he confuses her with her daughter when he adds that she married secondly "Pierre Bermond de Salvio"[575].  As only two daughters were mentioned in Raymond Trencavel´s testament dated 21 Apr 1154, it is presumed that the third daughter was born after this date.  It is possible that this was either Adelais or Beatrix as no source has yet been identified which confirms the order of birth of these two younger daughters.  "Rogerius comes Biterrensis" conceded "castro Mesoa" to "Beatrici sorori meæ" by charter dated Jan 1193[576], which is likely to indicate the date of her separation from her husband.  She retired to a Cathar convent after her repudiation. 

[Note: According to Europäische Stammtafeln[577], Comte Raymond married thirdly (1193, repudiated 1196) as her first husband, Bourgogne de Lusignan, daughter of Amaury de Lusignan [later Amaury I King of Cyprus] & his first wife Eschive d’Ibelin.  It is possible that this speculation originates from the Historia Albigensis which records the marriage of Comte Raymond and "filiam ducis Cipri" after his repudiation of Beatrix de Béziers and before his marriage to Joan of England[578].  It appears that there must be confusion with Comte Raymond's marriage to "la Damsel de Chypre" (see below) and that later genealogists identified Bourgogne as the only Cypriot princess who might have been unmarried at that date and assumed therefore that she married Comte Raymond.  William of Tyre (Continuator) names Bourgogne, confirms Bourgogne´s parentage, and records her (only) marriage to Gauthier [II] de Montbéliard bailli of Cyprus, Constable of Jerusalem[579].  No primary source evidence has been found which shows that Bourgogne ever left the eastern Mediterranean area.  It is assumed that the Historia Albigensis has confused the order of the marriages of Comte Raymond and that it intended to refer to his marriage to "la Damsel de Chypre" which is recorded in other sources and must have taken place after the death of his wife Joan.] 

m thirdly (Oct 1196) as her second husband, JOAN of England, widow of GUILLAUME II King of Sicily, daughter of HENRY II King of England & his wife Eléonore Dss d’Aquitaine (Château d’Angers, Anjou Oct 1165-Fontevrault Abbey in childbirth 4 Sep 1199, bur Fontevrault Abbey).  Robert of Torigny records the birth "1165…mense Octobris" of "filiam [reginæ Alienoræ]…Johanna"[580].  Her birth is also recorded by Matthew of Paris, although he states neither the place nor the precise date[581].  Matthew of Paris records her first marriage in 1176, and refers to her second marriage in a later passage[582].  Her first marriage is also recorded by William of Tyre (Continuator)[583].  She was crowned Queen of Sicily 13 Feb 1177 at Palermo Cathedral.  After the death of her first husband, she was kept in confinement by his successor King Tancred.  After her brother Richard I King of England (who was travelling through Italy on his way to join the Third Crusade in Palestine) demanded her release, she was sent to join him at Messina.  The English king captured Messina to force Tancred to negotiate terms over the inheritance of King Guillaume[584].  Berengaria of Navarre, future bride of her brother King Richard, stayed with her after landing in Naples in early 1191.  They sailed together for Palestine with King Richard's fleet, landing at Limassol, Cyprus in Apr 1191[585].  During her brother's negotiations with Saladin, after the latter's defeat at Arsuf in Sep 1191, he proposed that Queen Joanna should marry al-Adil, Saladin's brother, who would be installed as ruler of Jerusalem, but the proposal was rejected[586].  She sailed from Acre for France 29 Sep 1191 with her sister-in-law Queen Berengaria[587].  Her second marriage was arranged by her brother King Richard as part of the peace terms negotiated with Raymond VI Comte de Toulouse in 1196[588].  The Chronicle of Ralph of Coggeshall records the betrothal in 1196 of "soror regis Ricardi Johanna quæ et regina exstiterat Siciliæ" and "comiti Sancti Ægidii"[589].  The Annals of Margan record the betrothal “apud Rothomagum” in 1196 of “Johanna relicta Willelmi regis Apulia” and “comiti Sancti Egidii[590].  The Annals of Burton record the marriage in 1196 of “comes de Sancto Egidio” and “Johannam sororem Ricardi Regis, quondam reginam Siciliæ[591]The Thalamus de Montpellier records the marriage in 1196 "el mes duchoire" of "R. coms de Tolosa" and "la regina Johanna"[592]She took the veil on her deathbed.  The necrology of the Prieuré de Collinances records the death "4 Sep" of "Johanna regina Sicilie"[593].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that Joan died in 1199 after her brother King Richard and was buried "dans l´église de Fontevrault"[594].  Roger of Hoveden records the death "in Normannia apud Rothomagum" in Sep 1199 of "Johanna uxor Raimundi comitis de Sancto Egidio, quondam regina Siciliæ, soror…Johannis regis Angliæ" and her burial "ad abbatiam Frontis Ebraudi"[595].  The Clypeus Nascentis Fontebraldensis Ordinis records that a living child was removed from Joan´s body after she died and lived long enough to be baptised, but died and was buried at the church of Notre-Dame de Rouen[596]

m fourthly ([1200], divorced before [Oct 1202][597]) as her first husband, --- "la Damsel de Chypre", daughter of ISAAKIOS Dukas Komnenos ex-Emperor [of Cyprus] & his first wife --- of Armenia ([1177/78]-after 1204).  She is referred to as "fille de l'empereor de Chypre" by William of Tyre (Continuator), when he records her first marriage with "li cuens de Saint Gile" who "come il l'ot tenue tant come il vost si la mist hors de sa terre", and her presence at Marseille where she met and married her second husband en route to the Crusade[598]The Historia Albigensis records the marriage of Comte Raymond and "filiam ducis Cipri", but places the marriage after his repudiation of Beatrix de Béziers and before his marriage to Joan of England[599].  This marriage is not mentioned by the Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens[600].  Her name is not recorded.  Rüdt-Collenberg[601] speculates that she was the "Beatrice domicella" who received a substantial bequest under the will of Joan of England, dowager Queen of Sicily, Ctss de Toulouse, with whom "la Damsel de Chypre" spent many years.  After the release of their father by Bohémond III Prince of Antioch in 1182, she and her brother were left as hostages with Prince Bohémond at Antioch where they remained for at least two years before returning to Cyprus.  She was captured by Richard I King of England at Kyrenia in May 1191[602].  Matthew of Paris records that, after her father's defeat in 1191, his daughter (unnamed) was detained in the custody of two queens[603].  She sailed with the fleet of Richard King of England, with the court of his sister Joanna dowager Queen of Sicily, and arrived at Acre in Jun 1191, staying in Palestine until 29 Sep 1192 when they left for Sicily[604].  After her betrothal to Leopold of Austria was arranged, she joined Eléonore de Bretagne (betrothed to Leopold's older brother) at Rouen or Chinon, and left for Vienna in Dec 1194 in the charge of Baudouin de Béthune, but turned back when they learnt of the death of Leopold V Duke of Austria[605].  She was known as "La Damsel de Chypre".  She married secondly (Marseille 1203) Thierry bâtard de Flandre (-1207).  She is referred to as "fille de l'empereor de Chypre" by William of Tyre (Continuator) when he records her presence at Marseille where she met and married her second husband en route to the Crusade[606]. 

m fifthly (Jan 1203) Infanta doña LEONOR de Aragón, daughter of don ALFONSO II King of Aragon & his wife Infanta doña Sancha de Castilla ([1182]-Feb 1226).  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records that Pedro II King of Aragon arranged the marriage of his "segunda hermana Elionor" to "Remon conte de Tolosa", stating that their marriage was childless[607].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that "li cuens de Saint Gile" married the sister of the king of Aragon after repudiating the "fille de l'empereor de Chypre"[608]The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium names "Helienor" as second of the three daughters of "Ildefonsi"[609].  The testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 and names "…Alienor uxor mea"[610]

Comte Raymond VI & his second wife had one child:

1.         CONSTANCE de Toulouse ([1180]-after 12 May 1260).  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that the daughter of Comte Raymond VI and his wife Beatrix de Béziers married "le roi de Navarre", but confuses her with her mother when he adds that the latter married secondly "Pierre Bermond de Salvio" after her repudiation[611].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the letter by Pierre Bermond Seigneur de Sauve to Pope Innocent III dated 1212 in which he refers to his "uxorem…quondam filiam comitis Tolosani" when requesting that he be recognised as nearest heir to the comte de Toulouse[612].  Her name is confirmed by the charter dated Nov 1219 under which "Raymundus, filius domini Raymundi...ducis Narbonæ, comitis Tolosæ, marchionis" confirmed dispositions by "pater meus" to "Petro Bermundi di Salvi nepoti meo, nato ex sorore mea domina Constancia"[613]m firstly ([1195], divorced [1200]) don SANCHO VII "el Fuerte" King of Navarre, son of don SANCHO VI "el Sabio" King of Navarre & his wife Infanta doña Sancha de Castilla (after 1170-Tudela 7 Apr 1234, bur Roncevalle).  m secondly PIERRE BERMOND [VI] d'Anduze Sire de Sauve et d'Anduze, son of BERNARD [VII] d’Anduze Sire d'Anduze et de Sauve & his wife Marquise --- (-1215). 

Comte Raymond VI & his third wife had three children:

2.         RAYMOND de Toulouse (Beaucaire, Gard Jul 1197-Millau, Aveyron 27 Sep 1249, bur Fontevraud).  The Annals of Burton record the birth in 1197 of “Reimundum suum primogenitum” to “Johanna comitissa de Sancto Egidio, soror Ricardi regis Angliæ[614].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that Raymond was born in 1197 at "Beaucaire dans le diocese d´Arles"[615].  A "Chronique en Languedocien, tirée du cartulaire de Raymond le Jeune comte de Toulouse" records the birth in Jul 1197 of "R. coms de Tholosa fils de la regina Johanna"[616].  The testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 and names "…Raymundo filio meo…"[617].  "Raymundus...comes iuvenis Tolosæ, filius Raymundi comitis Tolosæ et reginæ Johannæ uxoris quondam eiusdem" donated property to "Raymundo de Rochafolio" by charter dated 5 Jan 1217[618]He succeeded his father in 1222 as RAYMOND VII Comte de Toulouse.  Emperor Friedrich II granted the county of Venaissin to Comte Raymond by charter dated Sep 1234[619].  The testament of "R…comes Tholose, marchio Provincie, filius quondam domine regine Johanne", dated 23 Sep 1249, chooses burial at Fontevraud, and appoints "filiam nostram Johannam uxorem…Alfonsi comitis Pictavensis" as his heir[620].  Matthew of Paris records the death in 1249 of "comes Sancti Egidii sive Thosolanus Reimundus", specifying that he was "miles strenuus et circumspectus et domino Papæ amicissumus" and that he requested burial at Fontevrault at the feet of "regis Ricardi cuius consanguineus erat"[621].  The Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses record the death in 1249 of "Raymundus comes Tolosanus"[622]A manuscript chronicle records the death in 1249 of "D. Raymundus comes Tolesanus"[623].  A "Chronique en Languedocien, tirée du cartulaire de Raymond le Jeune comte de Toulouse" records the death "lo quart dia en la fi de Setembre en Dimenge" in 1249" of "R. coms de Tholosa fils de la Regina Joanna as Amihau"[624]An early 13th century genealogy of the comtes de Toulouse written by Bernardus Guidonis records the death "1249 VI Kal Oct...apud Amiliacum" of "Raymundus ultimus comes Tolosanus" aged 52 and his burial "apud Fontem-Ebrauldum"[625]Betrothed (Oct 1206) to Infanta doña SANCHA de Aragón, daughter of don PEDRO II King of Aragon & his wife Marie de Montpellier (1205-[1206]).  "Petrus…Rex Aragoniæ et comes Barchinoniæ et dominus Montispessulani" and "Raimundo…Duci Narbonæ, Comiti Tolosæ et Marchioni Provinciæ" arranged the marriage of "filiam meam…et dominæ Mariæ uxoris…Sanciæ" and "Raimundo filio tuo et Reginæ Joannæ", by charter dated Oct 1205[626]Betrothed (1209, contract broken) to --- de Montfort, daughter of SIMON [IV] Sire de Montfort & his wife Alix de Montmorency.  The Historia Albigensium of Pierre de Vaux-Cernay records that "comes…Tolosanus" betrothed "filius suus" to "filiam comitis Montis-fortis" but later reneged on the promise, dated to 1209 from the context[627].  It is not known whether this daughter was the same as one of the other daughters who are named in other sources.  m firstly (Jan [1211], divorced 1241) Infante doña SANCHA de Aragón, daughter of don ALFONSO II King of Aragon & his wife Infanta doña Sancha de Castilla ([1196]-shortly after 1241).  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium names "Sanxa" as third of the three daughters of "Ildefonsi"[628].  The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña records that Pedro II King of Aragon arranged the marriage of his "tercera hermana Sancha" to "al hijo del conde de Tolosa", by whom she was mother of "una hija que fué mujer de Alfonso conde de Poitiers, hermano de Luis rey de Francia"[629].  The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that "Raymond-le-Jeune" married "dona Sancha sœur du roi Pierre d´Aragon", dated to 1211 from the context[630]A "Chronique en Languedocien, tirée du cartulaire de Raymond le Jeune comte de Toulouse" records the marriage in Jan 1203 (although the year must be incorrect) of "Raymundum comes Tholosanus filius regine Constancie" and "sororem regis Aragonum"[631]She was the sister of her husband's stepmother.  "Sancia soror quondam...regis Aragoniæ, et uxor Raymundi filii domini Raymundi...ducis Narbonæ, comitis Tolosæ, marchionis Provinciæ" confirmed the privileges of Nîmes by charter dated 13 Nov 1218[632]Betrothed (1241) to SANCHA de Provence, daughter of RAYMOND BERENGER IV Comte de Provence & his wife Beatrix de Savoie (Aix-en-Provence [1225]-Berkhamstead Castle, Buckinghamshire 5 or 9 Nov 1261, bur Hayles Abbey, Gloucestershire).  A charter dated 11 Aug 1241 records the marriage contract between "R comitis Tolosæ" and "Sanciam filiam…R Berengarii Comitis Provinciæ…et…Beatrix Comitissa"[633].   m secondly (1243, non-consummated, divorced 25 Sep 1245 on grounds of consanguinity) as her first husband, MARGUERITE de Lusignan, daughter of HUGUES [XI] "le Brun" Sire de Lusignan, Comte de la Marche et d'Angoulême & his wife Isabelle Ctss d’Angoulême (-22 Oct 1288).  A charter dated 13 Jun 1245 relates to the dissolution of the marriage between “Margaretæ filiæ…Hugonis comitis Marchiæ et Engolismæ” and “Raimundum Tholosæ comitem[634].  A charter dated 13 Jul 1245 records the enquiry into the consanguinity between “dominus Raymundus comes Tholosanus” and “Margaritam filiam domini comitis Marchie”, and states that “domina regina Constancia avia sua et dominus Petrus de Cortiniaco, avus domine Ysabellis uxoris comitis Marchie fuerunt fratres carnales[635].  A charter dated 25 Sep 1245 confirms the dissolution of the marriage between “comiti Tholosano” and “filiam…comitis Marchie[636].  The obituaire de Saint-Marcial records the death "XII Kal Nov" of "Margarita Engolismensis comitissa, mater Ademari vicecomitis"[637].  She married secondly Aimery [IX] Vicomte de Thouars, and thirdly Geoffroy [V] Sire de Châteaubriand.  Comte Raymond VII & his first wife had one child:

a)         JEANNE de Toulouse (1220-Castle of Corneto, near Siena 25 Aug 1271, bur Notre-Dame de Gercy, Brie)A "Chronique en Languedocien, tirée du cartulaire de Raymond le Jeune comte de Toulouse" records the birth in 1220 of "Johanna filia Sancie regine, sororis regine Aragonum"[638]The Chronicon Turonense records the betrothal in 1225 of "filiam Comitis Sanctis Ægidii" and "filium Comitis Marchiæ"[639].  The papal dispensation for the marriage of "L. regem Francorum...A. frater." and "R. filium quondam comitis Tolosani...filia" despite their 4o consanguinity is dated 26 Jun 1229[640]The Chronicle of Guillaume de Puylaurens records that "la fille du comte…Jeanne" was 9 years old in 1229[641].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "alter regis frater Alphonsus" and "filia Raymundi comitis Tolosani", but does not name her[642].  The Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis records in 1241 the marriage of "Saint Louis roi de France…Alphonse son frère" and "Jeanne fille du comte de Toulouse", together with "la terre d'Auvergne, du Poitou, et les terres des Albigeois"[643].  She succeeded her father in 1249 as JEANNE Ctss de ToulouseA "Chronique en Languedocien, tirée du cartulaire de Raymond le Jeune comte de Toulouse" records the death in 1271 of "domina Johanna comitissa Tholose, uxor supradicti comitis" (immediately following the record of the death of her husband) at "Savonam...feria 2"[644]The testament of Jeanne Ctss de Toulouse, dated 23 Jun 1270, bequeathed property to "domino Guidoni de Viliers et domine Gile uxori sue…et proli sue…domino Johanni d´Uisi et domine Ales uxoris sue…domino Gauterio Bellicadri…Margarite custodi Philippe, domine Marie quondam vicecomitisse Altivillaris filie, uxoris domini Archambaudi comitis Petragoricensis…Guillelmo de Andusia consanguineo nostro…Beraudi de Andusia fratri eiusdem Guillelmi consanguineo nostro…Philippe, filii Rogerii de Vouta, consanguinei nostri…Gaucerande filie…domini Amalrici vicecomitis Narbone consanguine nostre…Margarite filie dicti domini Amalrici sorori dicte Gaucerande, consanguine nostre…Guilelmo de Narbona clerico fratri dictarum Gaucerande et Margarite, consanguineo nostro...Sycardi Alamanni filio dicti domini Sycardi et domine Beatricisi, quondam uxoris sue, qui dabitur in maritum Galharde filie...domini Bertrandi vicecomitis de Brunequello, consanguinei nostri...domino Karoli regi Cecilie et comiti Provincie et Andegavie et filiis...suis et...domine Beatricis filie quondam domini Raimundi Berengarii bone memorie quondam comitis Provincie, consanguinee nostre", declared "Philippam filiam domini Arnaldi Othonis quodam vicecomitis Leomannie et predicte domine Marie consanguinee nostre, quondam uxoris sue, vicecomitisse quondam Leomannie, uxoris domini Archambaudi comitis Petragoricensis" as her universal heir, appointed "dominum Bernardum comitem Convenarum et dominum Amalricum vicecomitem Narbone et dominum Sicardi Alemanni" as her executors, witnessed by "...Bertrandus de Insula prepositus ecclesie Tholosane..."[645]Betrothed (1225) to HUGUES [XII] de la Marche, son of HUGUES [XI] "le Brun" de Lusignan Sire de Lusignan, Comte de La Marche et d'Angoulême & his wife Isabelle Ctss d’Angoulême ([1221]-Damietta Apr 1250, bur Abbaye de la Couronne, Charente).  He succeeded his father in 1248 as Sire de Lusignan, Comte de la Marche et d'Angoulêmem (Papal dispensation 26 Jun 1229, contract 13 Mar 1234 or 1241) ALPHONSE de France, son of LOUIS VIII King of France & his wife Infanta doña Blanca de Castilla (11 Nov 1220-Castle of Corneto, near Siena 21 Aug 1271, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  He was invested as Comte de Poitiers et d’Auvergne by his brother Louis IX 24 Jun 1241.  During King Louis IX’s absence on crusade, Alphonse at first remained in France to assist their mother the Regent.  He left on crusade with his wife from Aigues-Mortes 26 Aug 1249.  He was captured with the King 5 Apr 1250 at Mansurah.  He succeeded as ALPHONSE III Comte de Toulouse by right of his wife 1249 during his absence abroad.  He took possession of Toulouse Oct 1250, making his official entry 23 May 1251.  Following the death of his mother in 1252, he took an active part in governing France (with his brother Charles Comte d’Anjou), taking charge in particular of foreign affairs and military operations.  No issue. 

3.         JEANNE de Toulouse (1198-28 May 1255).  Her birth date is dictated by the marriage date of her parents and the chronology of the births of her mother´s other children.  The necrology of Vaissy abbey in Auvergne records the death "V Kal Jun" 1255 of "Johanna filia Raymundi comitis et Reginæ Johannæ, uxor quondam domini Bernardi de Turre"[646]m [as his second wife,] BERNARD [II] Seigneur de la Tour, son of BERTRAND [II] Seigneur de la Tour & his wife --- (-29 Dec 1253). 

4.         child (4 Sep 1199-[Sep] 1199, bur Rouen Notre-Dame).  The Clypeus Nascentis Fontebraldensis Ordinis records that a living child was removed from Joan´s body after she died and lived long enough to be baptised, but died and was buried at the church of Notre-Dame de Rouen[647]An early 13th century genealogy of the comtes de Toulouse written by Bernardus Guidonis records that "Joannam sororem Richardi regis Angliæ" died in childbirth[648]

Comte Raymond VI had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

5.          BERTRAND de Toulouse ([1198]-[Oct/Nov] 1249)The testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 bequeathes "Castluscium et Bruniqueldum" to "Bertrando filio meo"[649].  Vicomte de Bruniquel Dec 1224.  1210/46. 

-        VICOMTES de BRUNIQUEL

6.          GUILLEMETTEThe testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 and bequeathes his properties "ad Montemlaurum et ad sanctum Georgium" to "Willelmæ filiæ meæ"[650].  Dame de Montlaur et de Saint-Jory.  The Historia Albigensium of Pierre de Vaux-Cernay records that "senescallo suo…Hugo d´Alfar" married "comes Tolosæ…filiam suam non de legitimo matrimonio", dated to 1211 from the context[651]m ([1211]) HUGUES d’Alfar, son of ---.  Sénéchal d’Agenais, later Sénéchal de Toulouse. 

7.          RAYMONDE .  The Histoire Générale de Languedoc, Tome V, reports "un ancien monument" which records that Raymond VI Comte de Toulouse had a daughter named Raymonde who became a nun at the monastery of Espinasse[652]She is named and her parentage referred to by Roquebert[653].  A nun at Lespinasse, near Fenouillet[654]

 

 

 

B.      VICOMTES de BRUNIQUEL

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

BERTRAND [I] de Toulouse, illegitimate son of RAYMOND VI Comte de Toulouse & his mistress --- ([1198]-[Oct/Nov] 1249).  The testament of "Raymundus…dux Narbone, comes Tolosæ, marchio Provinciæ" is dated 11 Sep 1209 bequeathes "Castluscium et Bruniqueldum" to "Bertrando filio meo"[655]Vicomte de Bruniquel Dec 1224.  "Bertrandus frater domini comitis Tolosæ..." witnessed the charter dated 3 Sep 1230 under which "Centullo comiti Astarasci" swore allegiance to the comte de Toulouse[656]1246. 

m (contract Salvagnac Dec 1224) COMTORESSE de Rabastens, daughter of MATFRED [Mainfroi] de Rabastens & his wife ---.  The contract of marriage between "Matfredus de Rabastenx...Comtoressæ filiæ [suæ]" and "D. Ramundo...duci Narbonæ, comiti Tolosæ...Bertrando fratrem nostrum" is dated Dec 1224, which also names "Willelmus de Rabastenx filius Matfredi de Rabastenx"[657]

Bertrand & his wife had one child: 

1.         BERTRAND [II] (-after 1295).  Vicomte de Bruniquelm ---.  The name of Bertrand´s wife is not known.  Bertrand [II] & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUILLAUME "Barasc" (-1310 or before).  m ---.  The name of Guillaume´s wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had two children: 

i)          RENAUD (-[after 1325])m (contract 7 Apr 1307) BRAIDE de Goth, daughter of BERAUD de Goth & his wife --- (-after 12 Aug 1325).  "Regina de Gutto comitissa Armaniaci Fesenciaci et Ruthenensis vicecomitissaque Leomaniæ et Altavillaris", under her testament dated 12 Aug 1325, substituted "Arnaldum Bernardi de Preyssaco militem dictum Soldanum, Amanevum et Bertrandum de Mota fratres, Aymericum de Duroforti dominum de --- …Reginam de Gutto uxorem nobilis Amanevi de Pinibus…et Braydam vicecomitissam Bruniquelli, necnon et Indiam uxorem domini de Monteferrando…Marquesiæ de Sevinhaco uxori Othonis domini de Montealto" as her heirs in case her husband died childless[658]

ii)         BERTRANDEm --- Troselle, son of ---. 

(a)       ISABELLE Troselle (-after 1392).  m RAYMOND ROGER de Comminges Vicomte de Couserans, son of --- (-1392).  Ancestors of the later Vicomtes de Couserans et de Bruniquel[659]

b)         GAILLARDE (-after 23 Jun 1270).  The testament of Jeanne Ctss de Toulouse, dated 23 Jun 1270, bequeathed property to "...Sycardi Alamanni filio dicti domini Sycardi et domine Beatricisi, quondam uxoris sue, qui dabitur in maritum Galharde filie...domini Bertrandi vicecomitis de Brunequello, consanguinei nostri..."[660]m SICARD d´Alaman, son of SICARD d´Alaman & his wife Beatrix de Lautrec. 

 

 



[1] Sinclair, S. (1985) Atlas de Géographie Historique de la France et de la Gaule (Paris), p. 31. 

[2] Sinclair (1985), p. 31. 

[3] Payne, S. G. (1973) A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1 - Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century (University of Wisconsin Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm (15 Dec 2002), Chapter 1, p. 9. 

[4] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 204. 

[5] García-Guijarro Ramos, L. 'Las invasions bárbaras en Hispania y la creación del Reino Visigodo', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona), p. 18. 

[6] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin), II.35, p. 150 (undated), and García-Guijarro (2002), p. 19, Wolfram (1998), p. 192. 

[7] Sinclair (1985), p. 35. 

[8] Vic, Dom C. de and Dom Vaissete (1840) Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. (Paris), Tome II, pp. 391-7, and Devic, Dom C., Dom Vaissete, Dulaurier, E. (1875) Histoire générale de Languedoc, 3rd Edn. (Toulouse), Tome II, Note LXXXIV, p. 204. 

[9] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, CCLXXVIII, and CCXCVIII, col. 697. 

[10] Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 28pp. 28-36. 

[11] Magné, J-R. & Dizel, J-R. (1992) Les Comtes de Toulouse (Paris), p. 72. 

[12] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, in particular p. 77. 

[13] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 6. 

[14] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 353. 

[15] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[16] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 347. 

[17] Chronicon Albeldense 14, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133B. 

[18] Wolfram (1998), pp. 136-143. 

[19] Wolfram (1998), pp. 150-53, and García-Guijarro (2002), p. 6. 

[20] Wolfram (1998), pp. 156-59. 

[21] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. 1, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Persico III.3, p. 318. 

[22] Wolfram (1998), p. 174. 

[23] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 99. 

[24] Wolfram (1998), p. 165. 

[25] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. 1, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Persico III.3, p. 318. 

[26] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[27] Wolfram (1998), pp. 161-3. 

[28] Payne (1973), Chapter 1, p. 8. 

[29] Atkinson, W. C. (1960) A History of Spain and Portugal (Penguin 1973), p. 37. 

[30] Wolfram (1998), p. 165. 

[31] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 354. 

[32] The two dates being those of her parents' marriage and her mother's death in childbirth. 

[33] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41. 

[34] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 410, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 70. 

[35] Zosso, F. and Zingg, C. (1995) Les Empereurs Romains (Editions Errance, Paris), p. 186. 

[36] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 353. 

[37] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 7. 

[38] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[39] Chronicon Albeldense 17, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C. 

[40] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[41] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 367. 

[42] Wolfram (1998), p. 442, footnote 302. 

[43] Wolfram (1998), p. 455, footnote 190. 

[44] Wolfram (1998), p. 166. 

[45] Chronicon Albeldense 17, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C. 

[46] Wolfram (1998), p. 166. 

[47] Wolfram (1998), p. 165. 

[48] Chronicon Albeldense 18, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C. 

[49] Wolfram (1998), pp. 170-1, Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 186. 

[50] Chronicon Albeldense 18, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C. 

[51] Wolfram (1998), p. 173, García-Guijarro (2002), p. 11. 

[52] Chronicon Albeldense 18, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C. 

[53] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 17. 

[54] Wolfram (1998), pp. 174-5. 

[55] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 103. 

[56] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 11. 

[57] Wolfram (1998), p. 175. 

[58] Wolfram (1998), pp. 175-6. 

[59] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[60] Wolfram (1998), p. 178. 

[61] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 113. 

[62] Gregory of Tours, II.7, p. 118. 

[63] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[64] Wolfram (1998), p. 174. 

[65] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[66] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[67] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[68] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 449, MHG SS V, p. 83. 

[69] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 113. 

[70] Wolfram (1998), p. 178. 

[71] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 368. 

[72] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[73] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[74] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 452, MHG SS V, p. 83. 

[75] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 368. 

[76] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 113. 

[77] Wolfram (1998), p. 179. 

[78] Chronicon Albeldense 21, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[79] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 15. 

[80] Chronicon Albeldense 21, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[81] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118. 

[82] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[83] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[84] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 368. 

[85] Wolfram (1998), p. 202. 

[86] Wolfram (1998), p. 178. 

[87] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[88] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[89] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[90] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum 486, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 301. 

[91] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 365. 

[92] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[93] King Theoderic I had a "wealth of daughters" according to Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[94] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, XXXVI, p. 107. 

[95] Wolfram (1998), p. 203. 

[96] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118. 

[97] Atkinson (1960, 1973), p. 37.

[98] Chronicon Albeldense 22, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[99] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 119. 

[100] Wood (1994), p. 18. 

[101] Payne (1973), Chapter 1, p. 9. 

[102] Wolfram (1998), p. 204. 

[103] Wolfram (1998), p. 309. 

[104] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 18. 

[105] Gregory of Tours, II.25, p. 138. 

[106] Chronicon Albeldense 22, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[107] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[108] Sidonius Apollinarius Epistulæ VIII, MGH Auct. Ant. VIII, p. 60. 

[109] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 122. 

[110] Payne (1973), Chapter 1, p. 9. 

[111] Wolfram (1998), p. 309. 

[112] Gregory of Tours, II.35, p. 150 (undated), and García-Guijarro (2002), p. 19, Wolfram (1998), p. 192. 

[113] Wolfram (1998), pp. 196-7 and 200-1, cited in Wood (1994), p. 47. 

[114] Gregory of Tours, II.37, pp. 153-4. 

[115] Wood (1994), p. 46. 

[116] Chronicon Albeldense 23, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[117] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[118] Wolfram (1998), p. 203. 

[119] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[120] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65. 

[121] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[122] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 67 (the Greek text specifies "του Θευδερίχου", wrongly transposed into the Latin text as "Alarici"). 

[123] Gregory of Tours, II.37, p. 154. 

[124] García-Guijarro (2002), pp. 19-20. 

[125] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[126] Gregory of Tours, III.1, p. 162. 

[127] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.13, p. 69. 

[128] Gregory of Tours, III.10, p. 170. 

[129] Wolfram (1998), p. 245. 

[130] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum 544, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 282. 

[131] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 67. 

[132] Chronicon Albeldense 24, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[133] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[134] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum 544, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 282. 

[135] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 172. 

[136] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 119. 

[137] D´Abadals i Vinyals, R. (2009) Els Comtats de Pallars i Ribagorça, Catalunya Carolíngia, Vol. III (Barcelona), Part 2, 2, p. 281. 

[138] Settipani (1993), p. 201. 

[139] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés, p. 276.       

[140] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 13, MGH SS II, p. 612. 

[141] Reproduced in Thomassy, R. 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert', Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, Série 1, Tome II (Paris 1840-1844), p. 179. 

[142] Reproduced in Thomassy 'Critique des deux chartes de foundation de l'abbaye de Saint-Guillem-du-Désert' (1840-1844), p. 179. 

[143] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III, XXVI, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 338. 

[144] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597. 

[145] Einhardi Annales 827, MGH SS I, p. 216. 

[146] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 829, MGH SS I, p. 360. 

[147] Annales Bertiniani I 830. 

[148] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) ("Nithard") I.3, p. 131. 

[149] Annales Bertiniani II 848 and 850. 

[150] Annales Xantenses 844, MGH SS II, p. 227. 

[151] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 839 and 841, MGH SS I, pp. 361 and 362. 

[152] Bondurand, E. (ed.) (1887) Le Manuel de Dhuoda 843 (Paris), Introduction, 5, p. 52. 

[153] Annales Bertiniani III 868, footnote 1 naming "tertius Bernardus qui honoribus privatus fuerat 864 in conventu Pistensi filius erat Bernardus Septimaniæ ducis qui in 844 a Carolo Calvo occisus est". 

[154] Annales Bertiniani III 877. 

[155] Annales Fuldenses 880, cited in Bouchard, C. B. (1987) Sword, Miter, and Cloister: Nobility and the Church in Burgundy 980-1198 (Cornell University Press), p. 261. 

[156] Obituaires de Lyon I, Eglise primatiale de Lyon, footnote 2 identifying the entry with Bernard "Plantevelue". 

[157] Lespinasse, R. de (ed.) (1916) Cartulaire de Saint-Cyr de Nevers (Nevers, Paris) 15, p. 31. 

[158] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 375 footnote 89. 

[159] Favre, E. ´La famille d´Evrard marquis de Frioul dans le royaume franc de l´ouest', Etudes d'histoire du moyen âge dédiées à Gabriel Monod (Paris, 1896), p. 156, citing Wenck, W. B. (1852) Die Erhebung Arnulfs und der Zerfall des karolingischen Reiches, p. 69 n., correcting Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, 57, MGH SS II, p. 603.    

[160] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS, p. 205. 

[161] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624. 

[162] Capitula Missorum 1, and Capitula 25, MGH LL 1, pp. 246 and 295. 

[163] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 54, MGH SS II, p. 602. 

[164] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 2, 8, p. 283. 

[165] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 58, MGH SS II, p. 603. 

[166] RHGF VI, CLIII, p. 561. 

[167] Bisson, T. N. (1986) The Medieval Crown of Aragon (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 21. 

[168] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, 98, p. 212. 

[169] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, 110, p. 228. 

[170] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXVI, p. 643. 

[171] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXVIII, p. 645. 

[172] Karoli II Conventus Carisiaensis acta, MGH LL 1, p. 450. 

[173] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469. 

[174] RHGF VIII, CLI, p. 556. 

[175] Annales Bertiniani III 863. 

[176] ES XII 23. 

[177] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CI, p. 663. 

[178] Annales Bertiniani III 868, footnote 1 naming "Bernardus dux Gothiæ alterius Bernardi Cenomannensis filius". 

[179] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, XCVI, p. 659. 

[180] Annales Bertiniani III 877. 

[181] Conventu Compendiensi IV, RHGF IX, p. 304. 

[182] Annales Bertiniani III 879, footnote 2 naming "Bernardus iste, alterius Bernardi et Bilichildis…filius, Gothæ marchionatu donatus fuerat 865 post Humfidum". 

[183] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum, pars tertia 880, MGH SS I, p. 394. 

[184] Magné and Dizel (1992), pp. 32 and 73. 

[185] Magné and Dizel (1992), pp. 32 and 73. 

[186] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 5, MGH SS II, p. 609. 

[187] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 5, MGH SS II, p. 609. 

[188] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, XVII, p. 602. 

[189] ES III 731. 

[190] DD Kar. 1, 217, p. 289. 

[191] Nithard, quoted in Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, p. 410

[192] L´abbé Cassan, Meynial, E. (eds.) (1900) Cartulaires des abbayes d´Aniane et de Gellone, Cartulaire de Aniane (Montpellier) ("Aniane"), XIII, p. 62, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 3. 

[193] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[194] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[195] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 2, 40, p. 303. 

[196] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 2, 41, p. 304. 

[197] Settipani (2004), pp. 9-11. 

[198] Desjardins, G. (ed.) (1879) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Conques en Rouergue (Paris) ("Conques") 5, p. 6. 

[199] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[200] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 2, 55, p. 313. 

[201] Annales Bertiniani III 863. 

[202] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[203] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, XC, p. 655, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 164, p. 339. 

[204] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXI, p. 669, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 203, p. 405. 

[205] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[206] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, XC, p. 655, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 164, p. 339. 

[207] Annales Bertiniani III 868, footnote 1 naming "Bernardus dux Tolosanus Raimundi filius". 

[208] RHGF VIII, CCXXX, p. 626. 

[209] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, XCV, p. 659. 

[210] D´Abadals i Vinyals (2009), Part 2, 70, p. 321. 

[211] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXI, p. 669, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 203, p. 405. 

[212] Deloche, M. (ed.) (1859) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Beaulieu en Limousin (Paris) ("Beaulieu"), XI, p. 26. 

[213] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[214] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, 203, col. 405, and Vabres 40, p. 128, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 3. 

[215] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[216] RHGF VIII, CCXXX, p. 626. 

[217] Beaulieu, X, p. 24. 

[218] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXI, p. 669, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 203, p. 405. 

[219] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, 204, p. 407. 

[220] Beaulieu, XI, p. 26. 

[221] Epistola V, RHGF VII, p. 594. 

[222] Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis, XVI, p. 21. 

[223] Adémar de Chabannes III, 23, p. 145. 

[224] Settipani (2004), p. 12. 

[225] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, LXXXVII, p. 652, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 160, p. 329. 

[226] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXI, p. 669, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 203, p. 405. 

[227] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, 204, p. 407. 

[228] Beaulieu, X, p. 24. 

[229] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CLXIII, p. 709, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 43, col. 137. 

[230] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, 204, p. 407. 

[231] Beaulieu, X, p. 24. 

[232] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, p. 321. 

[233] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CLXIII, p. 709, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 43, col. 137. 

[234] Odo Cluniacensis Abbas, De Vita Sancti Geraldi Aureliacensis Comitis, Liber II, XXVIII, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 133, col. 0685D. 

[235] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, Liv. XI, LXXIX, p. 76. 

[236] L'abbé Goiffon (ed.) (1882) Bullaire de l´abbaye de Saint-Gilles (Nîmes) ("Bullaire de Saint-Gilles"), IV, p. 11. 

[237] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CIX, p. 667, and 3rd Edn., Preuves, 201, p. 400. 

[238] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 12, col. 83. 

[239] Nîmes Notre-Dame VIII, p. 16. 

[240] Nîmes Notre-Dame IX, p. 19. 

[241] Nîmes Notre-Dame VIII, p. 16. 

[242] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 52, col. 151. 

[243] ES II 68. 

[244] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 67, col. 173. 

[245] Catel, G. (1623) Histoire des comtes de Tolose (Paris), p. 85. 

[246] Flodoardi Annales 932, MGH SS II, p. 381. 

[247] Bofarull y Mascaró (1836) Tomo I, p. 34, citing Archivo de Ripoll en uno de los pequeños legajos sin rótulo del cajón 2 del armario 2. 

[248] Udina I Abelló, A. (ed.) (2001) Els testaments dels comtes de Barcelona I dels reis de la corona de Aragó de Guifré Borrell a Joan II (Barcelona) (“Els Testaments”), I, p. 69. 

[249] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Comtesses d'origine occitane dans la Marche d'Espagne aux 10e and 11e siècles. Essai sur le rattachement de Richilde, de Garsende et de Letgardis, comtesses de Barcelone, et de Thietberge comtesse d'Urgel au contexte généalogique occitan', Hidalguía 28 (1980), pp. 585-616, 601-2, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 22, where the author highlights that the hypothesis is based solely on onomastic reasons and is uncertain. 

[250] Sant Cugat del Vallés Vol. I, 3, p. 6. 

[251] Vic, 117, p. 103. 

[252] Vic, 346, p. 290. 

[253] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 67, col. 173. 

[254] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 47, col. 145. 

[255] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, 57, XXII, p. 247. 

[256] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 50, col. 147. 

[257] Flodoardi Annales 932, MGH SS II, p. 381. 

[258] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 55.III, col. 157. 

[259] Richard, A. (1903, republished Princi Negue, 2003) Histoire des Comtes de Poitou, Tome I, 99. 

[260] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 66, col. 171. 

[261] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 67, col. 173. 

[262] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 68, col. 173. 

[263] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 69, col. 173. 

[264] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 74, col. 185. 

[265] Guadet, J. (ed.) Richeri Historiarum (1845) (Paris), Tome 1, II, XXXIX, p. 182. 

[266] Flodoardi Annales 944, p. 390. 

[267] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 117, col. 259. 

[268] Settipani (2004), p. 33. 

[269] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 67, col. 173. 

[270] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 28, p. 248. 

[271] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 32, p. 251. 

[272] Settipani (2004), pp. 37-50. 

[273] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 68, col. 173. 

[274] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 69, col. 173. 

[275] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 74, col. 185. 

[276] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 117, col. 259. 

[277] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 123, col. 269. 

[278] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 125, col. 272. 

[279] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[280] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 32, p. 251. 

[281] ES III 763. 

[282] Settipani (2004), pp. 28-36. 

[283] Settipani (2004), p. 36. 

[284] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 121, col. 267. 

[285] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 123, col. 269. 

[286] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[287] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 33, p. 251. 

[288] Settipani (2004), p. 43. 

[289] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[290] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 33, p. 251. 

[291] Settipani (2004), p. 33 footnote 1. 

[292] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 111, col. 240. 

[293] Settipani (2004), p. 43. 

[294] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[295] Marca, P. de (1688) Marca Hispanica (Paris), Appendix, CIII, col. 884. 

[296] Bofarull y Mascaró (1836) Tomo I, p. 145, citing Marca Hisp. col. 101 y 102 [references not traced]. 

[297] Sant Cugat del Vallés Vol. I, 126, p. 101. 

[298] Vic, 465, p. 388. 

[299] Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, Chroniques d'Anjou, p. 88. 

[300] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[301] Vajay, S. de 'Comtesses d'origine occitane dans la Marche d'Espagne aux 10e et 11e siècles', Hidalguia 28 (1980), p. 756, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 63 footnote 1. 

[302] Vajay, S. de 'Comtesses d'origine occitane dans la Marche d'Espagne aux 10e et 11e siècles', Hidalguia 28 (1980), p. 756, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 63 footnote 1. 

[303] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 93, col. 215. 

[304] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 104, col. 228. 

[305] Vic, 346, p. 290. 

[306] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 115, col. 255. 

[307] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 117, col. 259. 

[308] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 125, col. 272. 

[309] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[310] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 127, col. 280. 

[311] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 130, col. 284. 

[312] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 151, col. 320. 

[313] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 130, col. 284. 

[314] Vajay, S. de 'Comtesses d'origine occitane dans la Marche d'Espagne aux 10e et 11e siècles', Hidalguia 28 (1980), p. 756, cited in Settipani (2004), p. 63 footnote 1. 

[315] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 130, col. 284. 

[316] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 130, col. 284. 

[317] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 151, col. 320. 

[318] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 33, p. 251. 

[319] Settipani (2004), p. 43. 

[320] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 126, col. 274. 

[321] Vita S. Fulcranni Episc. Lodevensis, II, 8, Acta Sanctorum, Ioannes Bollandus, Februarius, Tomus II, p. 712. 

[322] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 174. 

[323] Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1884) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Chaffre du Monastier et Chronique de Saint-Pierre du Puy (Montbéliard, Paris) ("Saint-Chaffre"), Chronicon Monasterii Sancti Petri Aniciensis, CCCCXII, p. 152. 

[324] Saint-Chaffre CXLIV, p. 70. 

[325] Richer III.XCII and XCIV, pp. 112 and 114. 

[326] Chronico Andegavensi 987, RHGF X, p. 271. 

[327] Marchegay, P. and Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, p. 382. 

[328] Libro Otiis Imperialibus, RHGF IX, p. 45.  

[329] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) I.7, p. 17. 

[330] Richer III.XCV, p. 116. 

[331] Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus 9, MGH SS IX, p. 385, additional manuscript quoted in footnote ***. 

[332] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1013, MGH SS XXIII, p. 780. 

[333] Marchegay, P. and Salmon, A. (eds.) (1856) Chroniques d'Anjou Tome I (Paris), Chronica de Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, p. 110. 

[334] Guérard, M. (1857) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (Paris) Tome I, 653, p. 645. 

[335] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 15, p. 18. 

[336] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 630, p. 626. 

[337] Mâcon 471, 490, pp. 271, and 284-5, and Cluny Tome IV, 2694, p. 721-22. 

[338] Benedict VIII, Letter 16, Patrologia Latina CXXXIX1603, cited in Bouchard (1987), p. 270, and quoted in Manteyer, G. de (1908) La Provence du 1ère au 12ème siècles (Paris), p. 274. 

[339] Guérard, M. (1857) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (Paris) Tome I, 630, p. 626. 

[340] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 225, p. 252. 

[341] Manteyer (1908), p. 273, quoting Bibl. nat. de Madrid, ms. Ee 40, fo 118 vo

[342] Obituaires de Lyon II, Prieuré Saint-Pierre de Mâcon, p. 482.       

[343] Manteyer (1908), p. 274, quoting Biblioth. Méjanes ms. 812, recueil Bouquier, t. 1, pp. 145-6, Catal. des mss. Départements, t. XVI, Aix, 1894 ms. 915. 

[344] Settipani (2004), p. 30, which does not cite the primary source. 

[345] Settipani (2004), pp. 52-3 footnote 6. 

[346] Settipani (2004), p. 30, which does not cite the primary source. 

[347] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[348] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 164, col. 349. 

[349] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 165, col. 351. 

[350] Bullaire de Saint-Gilles IX, p. 21. 

[351] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 191, col. 388. 

[352] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 211, col. 428. 

[353] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Inscriptions, 10, p. 4. 

[354] Robertini, L. (ed.) (1994) Liber miraculorum sanctæ Fidæ (Spoleto), p. 56, quoted in Settipani (2004), p. 313. 

[355] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 175, quoting Liber miraculorum Sanctæ Fidæ

[356] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 153, col. 325. 

[357] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[358] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 172, col. 361. 

[359] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 180, col. 376. 

[360] Marseille Saint-Victor I, 652, p. 644. 

[361] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 388. 

[362] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 175, quoting Liber miraculorum Sanctæ Fidæ

[363] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[364] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 175, quoting Liber miraculorum Sanctæ Fidæ

[365] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[366] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[367] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[368] Marseille Saint-Victor II, Chartularium Majus, 682, p. 22. 

[369] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, 14.XX, p. 67, citing Bouche (1664) Histoire de Provence, Tome I, p. 840, and Ruffi Dissertation sur l´origine des comtes de Venaission et de Forcalquier, pp. 39 and 51. 

[370] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 211, col. 428. 

[371] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 216.III, col. 437. 

[372] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Inscriptions, 10, p. 4. 

[373] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, pp. 290-1. 

[374] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, 14.XX, p. 68. 

[375] Vita Sancti Bertrandi episcopi Convenis, I, 1, Acta Sanctorum, 10 Oct, Tome 7, p. 1173. 

[376] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 294. 

[377] Anselme, Père & Du Fourny (1725) Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la Couronne, de la maison du roy et des anciens du Royaume, 3rd edn. (Paris) ("Père Anselme"), Tome II, pp. 683 and 703. 

[378] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 295. 

[379] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, p. 373. 

[380] Manteyer (1908), p. 518, quoting Archives du Gard, H. 142, and H. 106, fo. 81. 

[381] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 180, col. 376. 

[382] Marseille Saint-Victor II, Chartularium Majus, 682, p. 22. 

[383] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 230, col. 460. 

[384] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 235, col. 470, and Cluny Tome IV, 3344bis, p. 825. 

[385] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 252.I, col. 502. 

[386] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 211, col. 428. 

[387] Pérez de Urbel, Fray Justo (1969/70) El condado de Castilla 3 vols. (Madrid), Vol. III, p. 157. 

[388] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 401. 

[389] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 235, col. 470, and Cluny Tome IV, 3344bis, p. 825. 

[390] González Miranda, M. 'La condesa doña Sancha y el monasterio de Santa Cruz de la Seros', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. VI (Zaragoza, 1956), p. 194. 

[391] Ximénez de Embún y Val, T. (ed.) (1876) Historia de la Corona de Aragón: Crónica de San Juan de la Peña: Part aragonesa, available at Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes <http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=12477> (3 Aug 2007), XVI, p. 45. 

[392] ES III 763. 

[393] Magné and Dizel (1992). 

[394] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1100, MGH SS XXIII, p. 813. 

[395] Cluny Tome IV, 3392, p. 495. 

[396] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 260, col. 515. 

[397] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 312.I, col. 607. 

[398] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 332, col. 641. 

[399] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.I, col. 648. 

[400] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.II, col. 649. 

[401] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.III, col. 652. 

[402] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 277, col. 544. 

[403] Catel (1623), p. 121. 

[404] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Tome I, 1159, p. 319. 

[405] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.II, col. 649. 

[406] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, XXVII, p. 362. 

[407] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, Instrumenta, col. 484. 

[408] Gallia Christiana, Tome II, col. 1068. 

[409] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.I, col. 648. 

[410] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Inscriptions, 14, p. 5. 

[411] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 290. 

[412] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Inscriptions, 14, p. 5. 

[413] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome III, p. 290. 

[414] Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou, p. 411. 

[415] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1159, p. 319. 

[416] Cartulaire de l'abbaye Sainte-Croix de Bordeaux, Archives historiques du département de la Gironde Tome XXVII (Bordeaux, 1892) ("Bordeaux Sainte-Croix") 3, p. 4. 

[417] Douais, C. (ed.) (1867) Cartulaire de l'Abbaye de Saint-Sernin de Toulouse (844-1200) (Paris, Toulouse) ("Saint-Sernin"), 291, p. 206. 

[418] Saint-Sernin, 435, p. 312. 

[419] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, XXVII, p. 362. 

[420] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) (1969) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Clarendon Press), Vol. VI, Book XII, p. 259. 

[421] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Fontaines, p. 193.       

[422] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1100, MGH SS XXIII, p. 813. 

[423] Cluny Tome IV, 3392, p. 495. 

[424] Cluny Tome IV, 3392, p. 495. 

[425] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 334, col. 644. 

[426] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 353.I, col. 677. 

[427] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 353.II, col. 678. 

[428] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 365, col. 695. 

[429] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, LXXXVIII, p. 413. 

[430] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1100, MGH SS XXIII, p. 813. 

[431] Cluny Tome IV, 3392, p. 495. 

[432] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 273, col. 535. 

[433] Cluny Tome IV, 3410, p. 517. 

[434] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 301, col. 588. 

[435] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 312.I, col. 607. 

[436] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 333, col. 642. 

[437] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.II, col. 649. 

[438] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 359, col. 685. 

[439] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 366, col. 697. 

[440] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 370.I, col. 703. 

[441] Bullaire de Saint-Gilles XV, p. 30. 

[442] Marseille Saint-Victor II, Chartularium Majus, 686, p. 25. 

[443] Bullaire de Saint-Gilles XVII, p. 35. 

[444] Runciman, S. (1952) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 110-1. 

[445] Guiberto Historia quæ dicitur gesta dei per Francos, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, IV (Paris, 1879) ("Guibert") II.XVIII, p. 150. 

[446] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 162. 

[447] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 261. 

[448] Raimundi de Aguilers Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, III (Paris, 1866), XX, p. 301, discussed in Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 292. 

[449] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 293. 

[450] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 298. 

[451] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 5. 

[452] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 20-1. 

[453] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 21-23. 

[454] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 31. 

[455] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 59-61.  Comte Raymond's castle was known as Qalat Sanjil [=Saint-Gilles] in Arabic. 

[456] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WT”) XI.II, p. 452. 

[457] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber IX, Cap. XXXII, p. 610. 

[458] Annales d'Abou'l-Feda (Bar Hebræus), RHC Historiens orientaux I (Paris, 1872), p. 9. 

[459] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 273, col. 535. 

[460] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, 41, p. 197. 

[461] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna) (“Malaterra”), III.22, p. 70. 

[462] Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press), p. xxv, Table 2. 

[463] Chronicon Regum Legionensium: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester UP), p. 87. 

[464] Marseille Saint-Victor II, Chartularium Majus, 686, p. 25. 

[465] Bullaire de Saint-Gilles XV, p. 30. 

[466] Guibert II.XVIII, p. 150. 

[467] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 65. 

[468] Ayala Martínez, C. de (1995) Libro de los privilegios de la orden de San Juan de Jerusalén in Castilla y León (Siglos XII-XV) (Instituto Complutense) ("San Juan de Jerusalén Castilla León"), 10, p. 152. 

[469] Cluny Tome V, 3927, p. 280. 

[470] Rodríguez González, M. C. ´Concubina o esposa. Reflexiones sobre la unión de Jimena Muñiz con Alfonso VI´, Studia Historica, Historia Medieval No. 25 (2007), p. 164, citing Ayala Martínez, C. (1995) Libro de privilegios de la Orden de San Juan de Jerusalén en Castilla y León (siglos XII-XV) (Madrid), doc. 21. 

[471] Sahagún (Pérez), Apéndice III, Escritura CCX, p. 570. 

[472] Reilly, B. F. (1982) The Kingdom of León-Castilla under Queen Urraca 1109-1126 (Princeton University Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, available at <http://libro.uca.edu/urraca/urraca.htm> (7 Dec 2002), Chapter 7, p. 218, footnote 35.  . 

[473] Canal Sánchez-Pangín, J. M, 'La Infanta doña Elvira, hija de Alfonso VI y de Jimena Muñoz, a la luz de los diplomas', Archivos leoneses 33 (1979), pp. 271-87. 

[474] Quintana Prieto, A. (ed.) (1971) Tumbo Viejo de San Pedro de Montes (León) ("San Pedro de Montes"), 150, 151, 152, 157, 160, 168, 177, and 185, pp. 248, 249, 250, 255, 259, 268, 279, and 287.

[475] San Pedro de Montes, 171, p. 271.

[476] Herrero Jiménez, M. (ed.) (1994) Colección documental del archivo de la catedral de León, Vol. X, Obituarios medievales (León) (“León Cathedral Necrology”). 

[477] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chartes et Diplômes, 336.II, col. 649. 

[478] Belgrano, L. T. (ed.) (1891) Annali Genovesi di Caffaro e de´ suoi continuatori, Vol. 1, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Genoa), Regni Iherosolymitani brevis historia, p. 128. 

[479] Guibert II.XVIII, p. 150. 

[480] Bullaire de Saint-Gilles XX, XXIV, XXV, XXVIII, and XXX, pp. 38, 42, 44, 46 and 48. 

[481] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. IV, p. 664. 

[482] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 68. 

[483] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 69.   

[484] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 70.   

[485] Rozière, E. de (ed.) (1849) Cartulaire de l'église de Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem (Paris), 97, p. 190. 

[486] Guibert II.XVIII, p. 150. 

[487] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 61. 

[488] Cafari de Caschifelone De Liberatione Civitatum Orientis Liber XXIV, p. 70. 

[489] Magné and Dizel (1992), p. 43. 

[490] Bullaire de Saint-Gilles XL and XLVI, pp. 59 and 65. 

[491] Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester U. P.), Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris I, 2 and 3, p. 164. 

[492] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, Chroniques, Chronique de Nîmes, 5, col. 29. 

[493] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 280. 

[494] Sigeberti Continuatio Præmonstatensis, 1148, MGH SS VI, p. 454. 

[495] WT XVI.XXVIII, p. 754. 

[496] D'Aigrefeuille Histoire de Montpellier, p. lvii, which gives no citation of the charter. 

[497] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, IV.XV, p. 311, citing Duches. tom. 4, p. 653. 

[498] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, VI, pp. 313-5, in its discussion of the families of the seigneurs d´Uzès et de Posquiêres. 

[499] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 262. 

[500] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXVIII, p. 677, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, 5, col. 29. 

[501] D'Aigrefeuille Histoire de Montpellier, p. lvii, which gives no citation of the charter. 

[502] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Inscriptions, 40, p. 12. 

[503] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXI, p. 521. 

[504] Berger, E. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes de Henri II roi d´Angleterre et duc de Normandie (Paris) ("Actes Henri II"), Tome II, DLVII, p. 137. 

[505] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, p. 8, citing Gall. chr. nov. ed. tom 6 instr. p. 197. 

[506] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXIV, p. 517, correcting "Mucii" to "Poncii" in Tome V, Notes, III, p. 404. 

[507] Sigeberti Continuatio Præmonstatensis, 1148, MGH SS VI, p. 454. 

[508] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 287-8. 

[509] WT XVIII.XXV, p. 864. 

[510] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 355. 

[511] Montsaunès, no. 2, p. 2.

[512] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XIII, p. 540. 

[513] La Grande Charte de Saint-Gaudens, p. 14, 1202, quoted in Higounet (1949), I, p. 71, n. 7.  [J.-C. Chuat]

[514] Anselme II, p. 160. 

[515] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 287-8. 

[516] Sigeberti Continuatio Præmonstatensis, 1148, MGH SS VI, p. 454. 

[517] Chronique de Robert de Torigny, II, p. 53. 

[518] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXVIII, p. 677, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, 5, col. 29. 

[519] D'Aigrefeuille Histoire de Montpellier, p. lvii, which gives no citation of the charter. 

[520] Ripert-Monclar (ed.) (1907) Cartulaire de la commanderie de Richerenches de l´ordre du Temple (Avignon) ("Richerenches"), 30, p. 31. 

[521] Cluny Tome V, 4219, p. 567. 

[522] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXX, p. 679, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, 7, col. 34. 

[523] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, Chronicon Sancti Saturnini Tolosæ, col. 50. 

[524] Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis 2, MGH SS XIII, p. 252. 

[525] De Genere Comitum Flandrensium, Notæ Parisienses MGH SS, p. 258. 

[526] Howlett, R. (ed.) (1884) (London) Historia rerum Anglicarum of William of Newburgh (“William of Newburgh”) I.XI, p. 44. 

[527] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Continuatio, p. 125. 

[528] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. II, 1139, p. 170. 

[529] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1893) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) 545, p. 145. 

[530] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 323.       

[531] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXII, p. 521. 

[532] Ex Chronico Gaufredi Vosiensis, 72, RHGF XII, p. 448. 

[533] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XXXIII, p. 553. 

[534] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1162, MGH SS XXIII, p. 846. 

[535] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, XII.VI, p. 329, quoting Guill. de Podiolaur. c. 5. 

[536] Collino, G. (ed.) (1908) Le carte della prevostura d´Oulx (Pinerolo) ("Oulx"), CLXXIV, p. 184. 

[537] Hoffman, G. (ed.) (1731) Nova scriptorum ac monumentorum collectio, Tome I, Sam. Guichenoni Bibliothecam Sebusianam et Paridis de Crassis diarium cur. rom (Leipzig) ("Bibliotheca Sebusiana"), Centuria I, V, p. 36. 

[538] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1184, MGH SS XXIII, p. 858. 

[539] Chorier, N. (1641) Histoire générale de Dauphiné (Grenoble, republished 1878 Valence) Tome I, p. 616 (which does not cite the source). 

[540] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1184, MGH SS XXIII, p. 858. 

[541] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 1183, MGH SS V, p. 46. 

[542] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, XII.VI, p. 329, quoting Guill. de Podiolaur. c. 5. 

[543] Lagarde, C. (trans.) (1864) Chronique de Maître Guillaume de Puylaurens sur la guerre des Albigeois (1202-1272) (Béziers), Chap. XII, p. 47. 

[544] Magné and Dizel (1992), p. 111. 

[545] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[546] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIX, p. 578. 

[547] Petri Monachi Cœnobii Vallium Cernaii Historia Albigensium, LIV, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 213, col. 0611D. 

[548] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. XXIII, pp. 116-7. 

[549] Magné and Dizel (1992), pp. 47 and 196. 

[550] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Notes, X.V, p. 427. 

[551] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, XII.VI, p. 329. 

[552] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Notes et Additions du Livre XXIII, 19, p. 97. 

[553] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XL, p. 559. 

[554] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XL, p. 559. 

[555] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XL, p. 559. 

[556] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XL, p. 559. 

[557] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1162, MGH SS XXIII, p. 846. 

[558] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Notes, XII.VI, p. 329, quoting Guill. de Podiolaur. c. 5. 

[559] Société Archéologique de Montpellier (1841) Le petit Thalamus de Montpellier, extracts available at <http://www3.webng.com/lengadoc/talamus.htm> (23 Apr 2008). 

[560] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, Chronicon Sancti Saturnini Tolosæ, col. 50. 

[561] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1968) 'L'Empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), I, p. 169. 

[562] Valence Saint-Rufus XCII, p. 100. 

[563] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[564] CP VII 539 footnote e. 

[565] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LXXXII, p. 598. 

[566] CP VII 540. 

[567] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, Chronicon Sancti Saturnini Tolosæ, col. 51. 

[568] Société Archéologique de Montpellier (1841) Le petit Thalamus de Montpellier, extracts available at <http://www3.webng.com/lengadoc/talamus.htm> (23 Apr 2008). 

[569] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, Chronicon Sancti Saturnini Tolosæ, col. 52. 

[570] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXIV, p. 522.

[571] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXIV, p. 522. 

[572] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXIX, p. 527.

[573] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome IV, Preuves, CCXXXVII, p. 534.

[574] Petrus Vallis Caernaii Historia Albigensium, Patrologia Latina Vol. 213, Chap. IV, Col. 0552C. 

[575] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. V, p. 20. 

[576] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XVIII, p. 543. 

[577] ES III 764. 

[578] Petrus Vallis Caernaii Historia Albigensium, Patrologia Latina Vol. 213, Chap. IV, Col. 0552C. 

[579] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WTC”) XXVI.XXI, p. 208. 

[580] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1165, p. 357. 

[581] MP, Vol. II, 1165, p. 233. 

[582] MP, Vol. II, 1176, p. 298, "Quinto idus novembris apud Sanctum Egidium", and Vol. III, 1236, p. 326. 

[583] WTC XXIV.V, p. 112. 

[584] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 38-40. 

[585] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 42-4. 

[586] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 59. 

[587] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 74. 

[588] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 167. 

[589] Stevenson, J. (ed.) (1875) Radulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum (London), p. 70. 

[590] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1864) Annales Monastici Vol. I, Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, Annales de Burton (London) Annales de Margan, p. 23. 

[591] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1864) Annales Monastici Vol. I, Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, Annales de Burton (London) Annales de Margan, p. 192. 

[592] Société Archéologique de Montpellier (1841) Le petit Thalamus de Montpellier, extracts available at <http://www3.webng.com/lengadoc/talamus.htm> (23 Apr 2008). 

[593] Obituaires de Sens Tome IV, Prieuré de Collinances, p. 201.       

[594] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. V, p. 21. 

[595] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (London) (“Roger of Hoveden”), Vol. IV, p. 96. 

[596] Clypeus Nascentis Fontebraldensis Ordinis, Tome II, p. 160, cited in Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome VI, p. 190. 

[597] When her husband was in Palestine without his wife, Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 169. 

[598] WTC XXVIII.V, p. 256. 

[599] Petrus Vallis Caernaii Historia Albigensium, Patrologia Latina Vol. 213, Chap. IV, Col. 0552C. 

[600] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. V, p. 21. 

[601] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), pp. 174-5. 

[602] Edbury, P. W. (1994) The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades 1191-1374 (Cambridge University Press), p. 7. 

[603] MP, Vol. II, 1191, p. 371, "filiam autem eius retinuit, cum duabus reginis in thalamo suo honorifice custoditam". 

[604] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 47, and Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 157.   

[605] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 163. 

[606] WTC XXVIII.V, p. 256. 

[607] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña XXXIV, p. 136. 

[608] WTC XXVIII.V, p. 256. 

[609] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 380. 

[610] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[611] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. V, p. 20. 

[612] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Notes, II.IV, p. 403, quoting "Innoc. III liv. xi. ep. 222". 

[613] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XCII, p. 605. 

[614] Annales de Burton, p. 192. 

[615] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. V, p. 20. 

[616] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXX, p. 679, and 3rd Edn., Tome V, Preuves, Chroniques, 7, col. 34. 

[617] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[618] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LXXXV, p. 599. 

[619] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, CLXXVI, p. 679. 

[620] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome VIII, Preuves, Chartes, 413, col. 1255. 

[621] MP, Vol. V, 1249, p. 90. 

[622] Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses 1249, MGH SS XXIII, p. 5. 

[623] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, IV, "Chronique tirée d´un ancien manuscrit de l´Abbaye de Berdoüez, au diocèse d´Auch", p. 531. 

[624] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXX, p. 680. 

[625] RHGF XIX, De genealogia comitum Tolosanorum, auctore Bernardo Guidonis ordinis prædicatorum monitum, p. 228. 

[626] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 567.    

[627] Petri Monachi Cœnobii Vallium Cernaii Historia Albigensium, XXXIV, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 213, col. 0582B. 

[628] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 380. 

[629] Crónica de San Juan de la Peña XXXIV, p. 136. 

[630] Lagarde, C. (trans.) (1864) Chronique de Maître Guillaume de Puylaurens sur la guerre des Albigeois (1202-1272) (Béziers), Chap. XVIII, p. 82. 

[631] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXX, p. 680. 

[632] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, XCI, p. 603. 

[633] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 621. 

[634] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 3360, p. 571. 

[635] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 3367, p. 574. 

[636] Layettes du Trésor des Chartes II, 3382, p. 585. 

[637] Leroux, A., Molinier, E, and Thomas, A. (1883) Documents Historiques bas-latins, provençaux et français concernant principalement La Marche et Le Limousin (Limoges), Tome I, Obituaire de Saint-Marcial, p. 77. 

[638] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXX, p. 680. 

[639] Chronicon Turonense, RHGF XVIII, p. 307. 

[640] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, CLII, p. 658. 

[641] Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens, Chap. XL, p. 235. 

[642] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1237, MGH SS XXIII, p. 941. 

[643] Guizot, M. (ed.) (1825) Chronique de Guillaume de Nangis, Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France (Paris) (“Guillaume de Nangis”), p. 150. 

[644] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome II, Preuves, CXX, p. 680. 

[645] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome VIII, Preuves, Chartes, 535, col. 1695. 

[646] Baluze, S. (1708) Histoire généalogique de la maison d´Auvergne (Paris) ("Baluze (1708) Auvergne"), Tome II, p. 497. 

[647] Clypeus Nascentis Fontebraldensis Ordinis, Tome II, p. 160, cited in Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome VI, p. 190. 

[648] RHGF XIX, De genealogia comitum Tolosanorum, auctore Bernardo Guidonis ordinis prædicatorum monitum, p. 226. 

[649] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[650] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[651] Petri Monachi Cœnobii Vallium Cernaii Historia Albigensium, LXIII, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 213, col. 0635C. 

[652] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Notes, II.IV, p. 404, quoting "Percin, de hær. Albig. part 4, append. p. 80". 

[653] Roquebert, M. (1970-1986) L'Epopée Cathare, 4 tomes (Toulouse, Privat), Tome III, appendice 2, p. 445, cited in Magné and Dizel (1992), p. 92. 

[654] Magné and Dizel (1992), p. 92. 

[655] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, LIV, p. 571. 

[656] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, CLXII, p. 667. 

[657] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Preuves, CXXI, p. 630. 

[658] Monlezun Histoire de Gascogne, Tome VI, p. 318, citing Baluze, E. (1693) Vitæ paparum avenionensium (Paris) Vol. II, pièce LXX, col. 462. 

[659] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 2nd Edn. Tome V, Notes, X.III, p. 427. 

[660] Histoire Générale de Languedoc 3rd Edn. Tome VIII, Preuves, Chartes, 535, col. 1695.