WEST ASIA & north africa (2)

  v2.0 Updated 05 December 2010

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            EARLY TURKIC TRIBES from CENTRAL ASIA. 3

A.       KHAZARS.. 4

B.       PECHENEGS.. 5

C.      KUMANS.. 6

Chapter 2.            ASIA MINOR. 8

A.       DANIŞMEND.. 8

B.       SELJUKID SULTANS of RUM.. 10

C.      KARAMAN.. 25

D.      EŞREF. 26

E.       GERMIYAN.. 27

F.       MENTEŞE.. 27

G.      AYDIN.. 28

H.      SARUCHAN.. 29

I.    KARASI 30

J.       SINOP.. 30

K.       OTTOMANS.. 32

OTHMAN I -1326. 32

ORKHAN 1326-1362. 33

MURAD I 1362-1389. 35

BAYEZID I 1389-1403. 37

MOHAMMED I 1413-1421. 41

MURAD II 1421-1446, 1446-1451, MOHAMMED II 1446, 1451-1481. 42

Chapter 3.            AZERBAIJAN. 45

A.       FAMILY of SOKMAN.. 45

B.       FAMILY of ILDEGUIZ. 46

Chapter 4.            EGYPT. 50

A.       FATIMID CALIPHATE in EGYPT. Error! Bookmark not defined.

B.       SULTANS of EGYPT (AYUBIDS) 50

Chapter 5.            IRAN and IRAQ. 54

A.       SELJUKID SULTANATE.. 54

B.       KHAREZMIAN SULTANATE.. 76

Chapter 6.            SYRIA and MESOPOTAMIA. 78

A.       RULERS of DAMASCUS and ALEPPO (SELJUKIDS) 78

B.       RULERS of ALEPPO, MAREDIN and MEAFAREKIN (ORTOKIDS) 82

C.      ATABEGS of DAMASCUS (DESCENDANTS of TOGHTIKIN) 88

D.      ATABEGS of DAMASCUS, ALEPPO, MOSUL and SINJAR (DESCENDANTS of ZENGI) 89

E.       RULERS of ALEPPO, DAMASCUS, HAMAH, HOMS, KHELAT (AYUBIDS) 96

Chapter 7.            OTHER CENTRAL ASIAN STATES. 113

A.       WHITE SHEEP.. 114

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document shows the Arab and Turkish rulers in western Asia and north Africa, from about the 11th century.  The earlier Arab rulers and caliphs, who claimed descent from the Prophet Mohammed, are shown in the separate document WEST ASIA & NORTH AFRICA (1).   The Mongol states established after the Mongol invasion of the early to mid-13th century are set out in the separate document MONGOLS. 

 

Turkestan in Central Asia was ruled by the Persian dynasty of the Samanids in the 10th century.  Mahmud the Ghaznavid, who died in 1030, displaced the Samanids in the early 11th century.  His successors were displaced by the Seljuks.  The Turkmen moved westward, and settled in what is now Turkey.  The different Turkmen and Arab peoples which are dealt with in this document are introduced separately in the chapters below. 

 

The chronicle of Abu'l-Feda, also known as Bar Hebræus[1], was written in the early 14th century.  Its author was a junior member of the Ayubite dynasty which provided rulers of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Syria from the mid-12th century until the Mongol conquest in the 13th century.  It provides a broad outline of the history of all these territories, but with particular emphasis on the Ayubites.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle[2] was written at Djezirat Ibn Omara, a town on the right bank of the river Tigris about 100 kilometres north-west of Mosul.  The author was Abu'l-Hassan Ali, son of Abu'l-Karim Mohammed Athir ed-Din es-Cheibani el-Djezeri, who received the title Eizz ed-Din, and is sometimes referred to as Ibn-Alatyr.  He wrote towards the end of the first quarter of the 13th century.  Its coverage is broadly similar but it includes more detail on the lives of the atabeg rulers of Mosul, and less on the Ayubid dynasty.  It includes particulars of some marriages which are not mentioned in Abul-Feda.  The versions of these sources which have been consulted are the French translations included in the 19th century compilation Receuil des historiens des croisades, one difficulty with which is that they translate no material dealing with events before the end of the 11th century.  In addition, in some cases parts of the works have been omitted.  The omissions are indicated in the Arabic original texts (but not in the French translations) although it is not possible to see how much has been omitted. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EARLY TURKIC TRIBES from CENTRAL ASIA

 

 

A.      KHAZARS

 

 

The Khazars were a confederation of Hunnic and Turkic tribes formed around the 6th century. The Khazar dynasty, the Ansa (Chinese: Nu-she-pi), was probably the same as the Ansina, the dynasty of western Turks.  The Khazar great chief (Khagan) was a prince delegate (Yabgu) of the Turkish dynasty.  The Khazars were autonomous from [630] after a civil war with other tribes, including those which were ancestors of the Bulgarian state and those linked to the tribe of Attila and his descendants.  The Khagan’s power declined with time.  By the 9th century, the real chief was his subordonate, the beg or shad.  One of these beg, general Bulan, son of a Jewish woman, seized the throne by 850 and converted his people to Judaism and was ancestor of the later Jewish dynasty. 

 

 

Two siblings: 

1.         ZIEBEL [Jebu/Tung] .  Son of the Turkish khagan.  He was Khagan in 618 when Emperor Heraclius promised him his daughter Eudocia. 

2.         ---.  One child: 

a)         SHAD .  First counsellor of his uncle Ziebel.  He devastated Georgia in 626/628. 

 

 

1.         IBI-SHEGI .  Khagan in 650. 

 

 

1.         BIHEROS [Bouzeros] .  Khagan of the Khazars.  Two children: 

a)         CHICHEK (-[750/6 Jun 751], bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  Theophanes records the marriage of "Leo imperator…Constantino filio suo" and "filiam Chagani Scytharum principis" and that she was baptised as EIRENE[3].  The primary source which confirms her original name and the name of her father has not yet been identified.  This marriage was arranged by Emperor Leon III to confirm his alliance with the Khazars against their common enemy the Arabs[4].  Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Irene uxor Constantini Caballini" was buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[5]m ([731/32]) as his first wife, KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor LEON III & his wife Maria --- (Jul 718-14 Sep 775, bur Constantinople, Church of the Holy Apostles).  He was crowned co-Emperor by his father at Easter 720.  He succeeded his father 741 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS V. 

b)         BARDJIK

 

 

2.         BAGATHUR .  One child: 

a)         daughter .  m YAZID, Armenian ruler. 

 

 

 

B.      PECHENEGS

 

 

The Pechenegs originally inhabited the steppes to the east of the River Volga north of the Caspian and Aral Seas.  Their name is derived from the Old Turkic Bečenek, diminutive of the personal name Beče[6].  Their migration westward was triggered by Emir Ismail ibn-Ahmed, Samanid ruler of Bokhara, who began a campaign against his Turkic steppe neighbours in 893[7].  Pecheneg attacks on the Magyar tribes living to the east of the Carpathian basin, described in detail by Emperor Konstantinos VII[8], resulted in the Magyars migrating to Transylvania and the Pechenegs settling in their original lands north of the Black Sea.  They formed themselves into a federation of hordes, possibly under some form of central leadership although this was not sufficiently strong for a stable, hereditary central authority to emerge[9].  The Pechenegs were defeated by a Byzantine/Kuman army in 1091 at Mount Levunion and fell under Kuman suzerainty[10].  The Pechenegs who settled in Hungary eventually assimilated with the local population. 

 

 

1.         THONUZOBA [Disznó-apa/Pig-father] (-after [955/70]).  Recorded in the 13th century Gesta Hungarorum as "a knight from one of the leading clans" who "came from the land of the Pechenegs…from whom the Tomaj [Thomoy] clan is descended.  Prince Taksony gave him dwelling-land in the parts of the Kemej up to the River Tisza where the village of Abád-rév stands"[11].  One child: 

a)         URCUND .  Son of Thonuzoba, according to the Gesta Hungarorum11, he was baptised into Christianity[12]

 

 

 

C.      KUMANS

 

 

The Kumans or Kipchaks originated near the great eastern bend in the Yellow River.  Their name "Kuman" meaning "pale yellow" in Turkic, they became known as the "yellow people" (polovtsy, in Russian).  They moved west when the Ch'itans invaded China from Mongolia in [986][13].  By the mid-11th century they were living in the area north of the Caspian sea, and in the early 1200s on the northwest side of the Black Sea, at the mouth of the Danube[14].  In 1091 the Kumans, led by Bönek [Boniak] Khan and Tugorkan, allied themselves with the Byzantines to rout the Pechenegs, who thereafter fell under Kuman suzerainty[15].  In the first half of the 12th century, the Kuman federation split into branches living to the east and west of the River Dnieper, reunited by Könchek Khan at the end of the century.  Although Könchek Khan was succeeded by his son, and strove to reinforce his dynastic position by matrimonial alliances with the Russian principalities, there was no movement towards a state organisation[16].  Like the Pechenegs, the Kumans were bound by clan and tribal loyalties, within the central authority.  Mongol attacks on the Kumans started after 1219 under Jenghiz Khan.  The Kuman people were baptised in 1227 by Róbert Archbishop of Esztergom in a mass baptism in Moldavia on the orders of Bortz Khan, who swore allegiance to András II King of Hungary[17].  The names of Kuman chiefs at that time were: Zeyhan, Arbuz, Turtel, Kemenche, Alpra, Tolun.  Very few other names of the Kuman leaders are recorded in the primary sources which have so far been consulted in the compilation of the present document.  Numerous examples of marriages into the families of the rulers of the Rurikid principalities are found (see the document RUSSIA, RURIKID), but in only isolated cases is the name of the bride´s father recorded. 

 

 

1.         KUTHEN [Köten] Khan of the Kumans (-murdered [1240/41]).  He negotiated a protective alliance with his son-in-law Prince Mstislav of Galich against the Mongols, but their forces were crushed at the River Kalka 16 Jun 1223[18].  He defeated the Mongols near the Black Sea in [1229], he and his followers took refuge in Hungary after the battle of the Volga in 1239, entering through the Radna Pass[19].  The Kuman presence caused internal resentment in Hungary which culminated in the murder of Khan Kuthen in the royal palace at Pest by a group of Hungarian and German soldiers[20].  After this the Kumans left Hungary, raiding neighbouring countries as they went.  King Béla IV later recalled them to Hungary and settled them on empty land either side of the River Tisza, the agreement being sealed by the marriage of his son and heir to a Kuman princess[21]

a)         daughter m MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloy" Prince of Galich, son of MSTISLAV Rostislavich "Khrabriy/the Brave" & his first wife --- Iaroslavna of Kiev (before 1176-1228). 

 

 

1.         --- Khan of the Kumans .  His name is not known, but he was probably elected Khan by the Kumans who left Hungary in [1241] after the murder of Kuthen Khan.  He was baptised in 1254 at the Dominican monastery in Buda[22]

a)         daughter (1240-after 1290).  Her marriage was agreed as part of King Béla's arrangements for settling the Kumans on empty land on either side of the River Tisza[23].  She was baptised with the name ELISABETH.  Regent for her son King László IV 1272, she was hated by the Hungarians[24]m (1253) ISTVÁN of Hungary, son of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & his wife Maria Laskarina of Nikaia (18 Oct 1239-1 Aug 1272, Csepel Island, Dominican Monastery).  He succeeded his father in 1270 as ISTVÁN V King of Hungary.    

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    ASIA MINOR

 

 

The Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine forces of Emperor Romanos IV at Manzikert in 1071 and invaded Asia Minor. 

 

 

A.      DANIŞMEND

 

 

The origins of the principality of Danişmend are not known but a source dated to [1095] names Danişmend, otherwise known as Tailu[25].  Abul-Feda names "Gumichtikin Ibn Tilou…Ibn ed-Danichmend" as sovereign of "Malatiya", commenting that "danichmend" was Turkish for schoolmaster, the occupation of his father[26].  The principality was established in central Asia Minor, between Sivas and Cappadocia, in opposition to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. 

 

 

1.         TAILU [Danişmend] (-[24 Feb 1104/22 Feb 1105]).  Vardan's History records that "Danishman lord of Sebastia, whom they say was of Armenian nationality, came against Melitene" in 1100 and captured "Pemond and Rajard who were at Edessa [and] who came against him"[27], presumably referring to Bohemond I Prince of Antioch and Richard of the Principate (later regent of Edessa).  Vardan's History records that "Danishman died" in 1104 "leaving twelve sons"[28].  Danişmend had twelve children: 

a)         GÜMÜŞTEKIN [Muhammad/Amir Ghazi] (-[1134/35]).  Vardan's History records that "the senior son Ghazi assumed authority" in 1104 after the death of his father[29].  Abul-Feda records that "Gumichtikin Ibn Tilou…Ibn ed-Danichmend" was sovereign of "Malatiya" in A.H. 492 (15 Jul 1099) and captured the Frankish leader[30].  He captured Caesarea, Sebastea and Amasea.  William of Tyre records that he defeated and killed Bohémond II Prince of Antioch, who had invaded the territories of Leo I Lord of the Mountains [Armenia - Rupen] in Feb 1130, and had the prince's head embalmed and sent as a gift to the Caliph[31].  The Caliph and the Great Seljuk Sultan sent the insignia of king (malik) to Gümüştekin in early 1135 and officially invested him with 'the northern country'[32].  Gümüştekin had five children: 

i)          MOHAMMED (-[Aug 1140/Oct 1143]).  He succeeded his father in 1135 as malik of Danişmend.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 537 (1142/43) of "Mohammed ibn ed-Danichmend seigneur de Malatiya" after which his lands passed to "le prince seldjoukide Mesoud fils de Kilidj-Arslan et souverain d'Icone"[33].  Mehmed had three children: 

(a)       IBRAHIM Ibn Mohammed .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Kilidj Arslan, fils de Massoud prince de Conieh" made peace with "Melik Ibrahim, fils de Mohammed" after he inherited the lands of "Yaghi Arslan (fils de Kumuchtekin) fils de Danichment prince de Malatiah" after the death of the latter in A.H. 560 (1164/65)[34]

(b)       DHU'L NUN (-1174).  He succeeded his father as malik of Danişmend.  Abul-Feda records that "son autre neveu Doun Noun" captured "Kaissariya" after the death of "Yaghi Arslan Ibn ed-Danichmend souverain de Malatiya" in A.H. 560 (1164/65)[35].  He ruled in Cæsarea and Mazacha.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Dhou'l-noun, frère d'Ibrahim" captured Cæsarea in A.H. 560 (1164/65)[36].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Yakoub-Arslan" captured "Danoun [Dsoulnoun] fils de son frère" who had rebelled "à Césarée"[37].  He was deposed by Sultan Kilij Arslan II in 1168 and exiled to Constantinople[38].  Abul-Feda records that Sultan Kilij Arslan expelled "Dou'n-Noun" in A.H. 568 (1172/73)[39]m ([1164/65]) as her second husband, ---, divorced wife of KILIJ ARSLAN II Sultan of Rum, daughter of Al-Malik SALTUK.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Kilidj Arslan, fils de Massoud prince de Conieh" married "la fille d'Almelik Saltouk, fils d'Ali, fils d'Abou'l-Cassem" in A.H. 560 (1164/65), but that "Yaghi Arslan (fils de Kumuchtekin) fils de Danichment prince de Malatiah" captured her on her way to her husband and married her to "son neveu Dhou'lnoun, fils de Mohammed"[40]

(c)       YUNUS (-after 1144).  Lord of Masara.  He helped his uncle Ayn al-Dawla in his revolt against his brother Dhu'l Nun[41]

ii)         --- m MASUD I Seljuk Sultan of Rum, son of KILIC ARSLAN I Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-1155). 

iii)        YAGHI ARSLAN (-[1164/65]).  Governor of Sivas 1141.  He and his brother rebelled against his nephew Dhu'l Nun[42].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Yakoub-Arslan" captured "Danoun [Dsoulnoun] fils de son frère" who had rebelled "à Césarée"[43].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Kilidj Arslan, fils de Massoud prince de Conieh" defeated "Yaghi Arslan (fils de Kumuchtekin) fils de Danichment prince de Malatiah" after he captured his wife "la fille d'Almelik Saltouk, fils d'Ali, fils d'Abou'l-Cassem" in A.H. 560 (1164/65), and married her to "son neveu Dhou'lnoun, fils de Mohammed"[44].  Yaghi Arslan had one child: 

(a)       YAGHI SIYAN .  Sivas. 

iv)       AYN al-DAWLA (-[1151]).  He rebelled against his brother Mehmed in the Jahan, but was driven out two years later and sought refuge with Joscelin Count of Edessa[45].  He ruled in Melitene 1141.  He and his brother rebelled against his nephew Dhu'l Nun[46].  Ayn al-Dawla had one child: 

(a)       DHU'L QARNAYN (-end 1160).  After his father died, he refused to submit to the Seljuk Sultan Masid[47]

v)        IBRAHIM .  Ibrahim had one child: 

(a)       ISMAIL .  He succeeded his uncle Yagibasan in 1164[48]

b)         eleven other sons .  Vardan's History records that "Danishman died" in 1104 "leaving twelve sons"[49]

 

 

 

B.      SELJUKID SULTANS of RUM

 

 

SÜLEYMAN, son of KUTLUMUŞ (-killed in battle Syria 1086).  Abul-Feda names "Soleiman, fils de Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his great-grandson Sultan Kilij Arslan[50].  He and his brothers rebelled against the Seljuk Sultans.  He invaded Asia Minor in 1073.  Emperor Mikhael sought help from the Seljuks during the rebellion of Roussel de Bailleul in 1073, promising them east Anatolia, and they surrounded Roussel's forces on Mount Sophon in Cappadocia[51].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah sent "Soleiman fils de Coutoulmich" to capture Antioch from the Greeks in A.H. 467 (1074), and that in A.H. 471 (1078/79) they captured Samarkand together[52].  He provided support for Nikephoros Botaneiates in his claim to the imperial crown.  He subsequently supported Nikephoros Melissenos as anti-emperor.  As master of most of Asia Minor, he founded the Seljuk Sultanate of "Rum", the name derived from "Rome", with its capital at Konya.  He increased his territory at the expense of the Byzantine empire, taking advantage of the latter's decline.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Antioch was captured from the Christians by “l´émir Soliman, fils de Koutoulmisch” in “l´année 533 [29 Feb 1084/28 Feb 1085]”[53].  In 1085, Emperor Alexios agreed a treaty with the Seljuks under which Nikomedia and parts of the Anatolian coast were returned to Byzantium, although Chaka, a rival Turkish leader, captured the islands of Lesbos, Chios, Samos and Rhodos in the 1080s[54].  He was defeated by Tutush. 

m --- Seljuk, daughter of TUTUSH.  The Alexeiad names Tutush as father-in-law of Sultan Süleyman when recording that he planned to have the Sultan his brother murdered after the death of his son-in-law[55]

Sultan Süleyman had two children: 

1.         KILIC ARSLAN (-killed in battle River Khabur Jun 1107, bur Es-Shomeisaniya).  Abul-Feda names "Kilidj-Arslan, fils de Soleiman, fils de Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his grandson Sultan Kilij Arslan[56].  The Alexeiad names Kilij Arslan as older son of Sultan Süleyman when recording that he received the title sultan after the death of his father[57].  After his father's death, he was captured at Antioch by the forces of his cousin Malik-Shah.  He succeeded in 1092 as KILIC ARSLAN I Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  Ruler of Nikaia in 1092.  Vardan's History records that "Ghilich Arslan sultan of the West, grandson of Ddlmush, came into Melitene" in 1095 but "the prince of the city Ghavril, father-in-law of the curopalate of Edessa turned them back in disgrace"[58].  Orderic Vitalis records that he besieged German crusaders at the castle of Xerigordon, which surrendered 29 Sep [1096], its defenders (including "Count Berthold") being led away into captivity[59].  Albert of Aix records "Solimanni ducis Turcorum" (presumably referring to Kilic Arslan not his father Süleyman) as ruler of "Nicæ urbis", when the first crusaders arrived there after leaving Constantinople on their journey to Jerusalem, and his crushing defeat of the crusading army[60].  Orderic Vitalis records that he fled from Nikaia after the Turks were defeated by the crusading army at the battle of Dorylaeum 1 Jul 1097[61].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 500 (1106/07) "Kilidj-Arslan le Seldjoukide, fils de Soleiman et souverain du pays des Roum" captured Mosul and appointed "son fils Malec-Chah…onze ans" as his lieutenant, but that Kilij Arslan drowned in the river Khabur after "Djaoueli-Sakaouch" defeated him and was buried "à Es-Chomeiçaniya"[62]m ---, daughter of CHAKA Emir of Smyrna.  Sultan Kilic Arslan I had five children: 

a)         --- ([1095/96]-killed in battle before 1107).  Kilic Arslan's oldest son was killed in battle by Gümüştekin the Danişmendid[63]

b)         SHAHANSHAH [Malik Shah] (-1116).  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand names "Arab, Schahin-Schah et Massoud" as the three brothers of "Doughlaslan [Toghrul-Arslan] son fils" who succeeded after the death of "Kilidj-Arslan"[64].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 500 (1106/07) "Kilidj-Arslan le Seldjoukide, fils de Soleiman et souverain du pays des Roum" captured Mosul and appointed "son fils Malec-Chah…onze ans" as his lieutenant, but that he was obliged to returned Mosul to "Djaoueli-Sakaouch" after the defeat of his father[65].  He was captured in the battle in which his father was killed[66].  During his captivity, power in the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was exercised by his cousin, but in 1109 Shahanshah was freed, returned and put his cousin to death[67].  He succeeded in 1109 as SHAHANSHAH Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  Sultan of Konya 1110.  While visiting Emperor Alexios I for peace negotiations, Sultan Shahanshah was deposed by his brother Masud, and later captured, blinded and strangled[68]

c)         MASUD (-[Apr] 1155, bur Iconium).  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand names "Arab, Schahin-Schah et Massoud" as the three brothers of "Doughlaslan [Toghrul-Arslan] son fils" who succeeded after the death of "Kilidj-Arslan"[69].  Abul-Feda names "Mesoud, fils de Kilidj-Arslan, fils de Soleiman, fils de Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his son Sultan Kilij Arslan[70].  He deposed his brother in 1116 and succeeded as MASUD I Seljuk Sultan of Rum

-        see below

d)         ARAB (-1129).  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand names "Arab, Schahin-Schah et Massoud" as the three brothers of "Doughlaslan [Toghrul-Arslan] son fils" who succeeded after the death of "Kilidj-Arslan"[71].  He rebelled against his brother Sultan Masud, who fled to Constantinople but succeeded in expelling Arab with Byzantine help[72].  He fled to Constantinople in 1129 where he died.  According to the Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand, "Arab" was killed by "l´émir Ghazi fils de Danischmend"[73]

e)         TOGRIL ARSLAN (-after 1116).  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Doughlaslan [Toghrul-Arslan] son fils" succeeded after the death of "Kilidj-Arslan"[74].  After the death of his father, Togril Arslan's mother exercised power at Malatya on his behalf[75].  He expelled the Armenians from the Jahan[76]

2.         son .  The Alexeiad implies that Süleyman had another son when it names Kilij Arslan as his older son[77]

 

 

MASUD, son of Kilic ARSLAN I Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-[Apr] 1155, bur Iconium).  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand names "Arab, Schahin-Schah et Massoud" as the three brothers of "Doughlaslan [Toghrul-Arslan] son fils" who succeeded after the death of "Kilidj-Arslan"[78].  Abul-Feda names "Mesoud, fils de Kilidj-Arslan, fils de Soleiman, fils de Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his son Sultan Kilij Arslan[79].  He deposed his brother in 1116 and succeeded as MASUD I Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  Emperor Ioannes II launched his first campaign against the Turks in Spring 1119, capturing Laodicea and Sozopolis from the Seljuks as well as attacking the Danishmends in the east[80].  He fled to Constantinople in 1125 after his brother Arab rebelled, but succeeded in expelling Arab with Byzantine help[81].  Emperor Ioannes II renewed his attacks on the Danishmend Turks in 1130, defeated the Seljuks in Asia Minor, recaptured Cilician Armenia in 1137 and besieged Antioch in Aug 1137[82].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 551 (1156/57) of "le roi Mesoud, fils de Kilidj Arslan et souverain d'Icone…dans le pays d'Er-Roum" and the succession of "son fils Kilidj Arslan"[83]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Masud sultan of Iconium" died in [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156] and was buried "in Iconium"[84]

m --- of Danishmend, daughter of GHAZI II Danishmend Emir.  

Sultan Masud I had seven children: 

1.         ALP ARSLAN (-after 1145).  At Mosul.  He was deposed by Zengi in 1145. 

2.         ---.  Ioannes Komnenos deserted to the Turks, converted to Islam in 1140, married the daughter of the Seljuk Sultan as his second wife[85], and became a noted scholar.  m (1140) as his second wife, IOANNES Komnenos Tzelepes, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos caesar, & his wife --- (after 1114-[1145]).  One child: 

a)         SULEIMAN Shah.  Founder of the Qonya branch.  Mohammed the Conqueror Sultan of Turkey claimed to be descended from him. 

3.         --- .  m (1150) NUR ed-DIN of Aleppo and Damascus (-1174). 

4.         KILIC ARSLAN (-end Aug 1192, bur Iconium).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 551 (1156/57) of "le roi Mesoud, fils de Kilidj Arslan et souverain d'Icone…dans le pays d'Er-Roum" and the succession of "son fils Kilidj Arslan"[86].  He succeeded his father in 1155 as KILIC ARSLAN II Seljuk Sultan of Rum

-        see below

5.         son (-murdered 1155).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that Sultan Kilij Arslan had one of his brothers strangled after he was enthroned in [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156][87]

6.         SHAHANSHAH (-after 1174).  His father installed him as ruler in Çankiri and Ankara but he rebelled against his brother after their father died[88]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that one of Sultan Kilij Arslan's brothers "fled to Gangra and Ankara" after his brother was enthroned in [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156][89].  Abul-Feda records that "Chahanchah Ibn Medoud, frère de Kilidj Arslan" was granted sovereignty over "Ancouriya" in A.H. 560 (1164/65)[90].  He was deposed by Sultan Kilij Arslan II in 1169 and banished[91].  He fled to Constantinople in 1174[92]m --- of Danishmend, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Sehain Shah" married "une princesse de la maison de Danischmend"[93]

7.         SANCAR-SHAH .  He received Ereğli under the division of territories organised by his brother Sultan Kilij Arslan II in [1186/87][94].  Sancar-Shah had one child: 

a)         NIZAM al-DIN ARĞUN-SHAH .  He received Amasya under the division of territories organised by his paternal uncle Sultan Kilij Arslan II in [1186/87][95]

 

 

KILIC ARSLAN, son of MASUD I Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-end Aug 1192, bur Iconium).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 551 (1156/57) of "le roi Mesoud, fils de Kilidj Arslan et souverain d'Icone…dans le pays d'Er-Roum" and the succession of "son fils Kilidj Arslan"[96]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "his son Kilij Arslan…called Machat because of a deformed hand" was enthroned after the death of Sultan Masud in [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156][97].  He succeeded his father in 1155 as KILIC ARSLAN II Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  On meeting Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, who was visiting Konya while returning from his pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1173, the Sultan greeted him as a blood relation, declaring himself descended from a high-born German lady[98].  No details of this supposed descent are known.  However, it reminds one of the reports relating to the fate of Ida, widow of Luitpold II Markgraf of Austria, who disappeared after the army with which she was travelling was scattered after being defeated by the Turks near Tarsus in Asia Minor in [Sep] 1101 (see the document AUSTRIA).  Albert of Aix says that the fate of Ida is completely unknown, but adds that "some say that she was taken into permanent exile in the kingdom of Khorazan among the thousand women who were taken"[99].  According to later legend, Ida ended her days in a harem where she gave birth to the Muslim hero Zengi (which is chronologically impossible): the Historia Welforum records that "Itam comitissam, matrem Leopaldi marchionis orientalis" was kidnapped by "unus de principibus Sarracenorum…ex eaque Sanguinem illum sceleratissumum, ut aiunt, progenuit"[100].  Sultan Kilic Arslan II divided his territories between his sons in [1186/87][101].  Abul-Feda records the death "vers le milieu de cha'ban" in A.H. 588 (end Aug 1192) of "Eizz ed-Din Kilidj Arslan sultan d'Icone…fils de Mesoud, fils de Kilidj-Arslan, fils de Soleiman, fils de Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", leaving ten sons, and his burial at Iconium[102]

m (a) ---, a Greek.  The mother of Sultan Kay Khusraw I was Greek[103]

m (b) ([1164/65], non-consummated, divorced) ---, daughter of Al-Malik SALTUK.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Kilidj Arslan, fils de Massoud prince de Conieh" married "la fille d'Almelik Saltouk, fils d'Ali, fils d'Abou'l-Cassem" in A.H. 560 (1164/65), but that "Yaghi Arslan (fils de Kumuchtekin) fils de Danichment prince de Malatiah" captured her on her way to her husband and married her to "son neveu Dhou'lnoun, fils de Mohammed"[104].  She married secondly ([1164/65]) Dhu'l Nun ruler of Danişmend

Sultan Kilij Arslan II had twelve children: 

1.         QUTB al-DIN MALIK-SHAH (-1195).  Abul-Feda names "Kotb ed-Din Malec-Chah" as oldest son of "Eizz ed-Din Kilidj Arslan sultan d'Icone", when recording that he received "Siouas" under the partition of territories effected by his father, but captured his father, attacked his brother "Nour ed-Din Soltan-Chah seigneur de Césarée" and proclaimed himself sultan at Iconium[105].  His father's oldest son, he received Aksaray under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][106].  Attempting to secure his position in the succession, he attacked his father in 1189 and obtained possession of Konya[107].  Abul-Feda records that "Kotb ed-Din Malec-Chah" died "peu de temps après" his father[108]

2.         GHIYATH al-DIN KAY KHUSRAW (-killed in battle near Antioch on the Menderes Spring 1211).  The mother of Sultan Kay Khusraw I was his father's Greek wife[109].  He received Burğlu under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][110].  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Ghiath ed-Did Cai-Khosrou, seigneur de Beraklou" helped his father "Eizz ed-Din Kilidj Arslan sultan d'Icone" regain his throne from his oldest brother[111].  He succeeded in 1192 as KAY KHUSRAW I Seljuk Sultan of Rum, Abul-Feda recording that he declared that his father had designated him as heir to the throne[112].  This was disputed by his brothers who acted as independent princes in the territories allocated to them by their father[113].  He was expelled from Konya by his brother Süleyman in 1197 and took refuge in Constantinople[114].  He was baptised into Christianity in Constantinople, Emperor Alexios III standing as godfather.  After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins, Kay Khusraw sought refuge with Mavrozomes whose daughter he married[115].  He reconquered Konya in 1205 from his nephew Sultan Kilic Arslan III[116].  Abul-Feda records that "Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou, fils de Kilidj-Arslan obtient la souverainté du pays d'Er-Roum" in A.H. 601 (1204/05) after a period in exile, first in Aleppo "auprès d'El-Malec ed-Daher" and afterwards in Constantinople, after his brother had seized the throne[117].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Xosrov-Shah the sultan of Iconium and son of Kilij Arslan took Berdous from the Armenians and seized its lord, Grigor, Lewon's son" in [29 Jan 1208/27 Jan 1209][118].  He favoured the claim of Theodoros Laskaris to establish himself at Nikaia following the 1204 fall of Constantinople[119].  Together with ex-Emperor Alexios III, who had sought refuge with the Sultan, Kay Khusraw attacked Nikaia and defeated Emperor Theodoros Laskaris but was killed in pursuit of the enemy[120].  Abul-Feda records that "Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou" captured "Antalia, ville appurtenant aux Grecs et située sur le bord de la mer" in A.H. 603 (1206/07)[121].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lascari battled against the sultan of Iconium in Xonas, and the sultan was killed" in [28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210][122].  Abul-Feda records that "Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou prince de l'Asie Mineure" was killed in A.H. 607 (1210/11) by "El-Askeri"[123]m (1203) --- Mavrozomissa, daughter of MANUEL Mavrozomes-Komnenos & his wife ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by Niketas Choniates who names "Iconii Sultano Caichoaroe" and "Manueli Maurozomæ illius socero"[124].  Sultan Kay Khusraw I had three children: 

a)         IZZ ed-DIN KAY KAWUS (-Dec 1220).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Cai-Caous" succeeded on the death of "Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou prince de l'Asie Mineure" in A.H. 607 (1210/11)[125].  His father installed him at Malatya, and after his father died in 1211 he was chosen to succeed as KAY KAWUS I Seljuk Sultan of Rum, but was opposed by his brother Kay Qubadh[126].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Azetin Gagazuz" succeeded as sultan after the previous sultan was killed in [28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210], but does not state the relationship between the two[127].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 610 (1213/14) "Eizz ed-Din Cai-Caous souverain du pays d'Er-Roum" captured and killed "son oncle Toghril-Chah" and seized his lands[128].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Sultan Kakauz" besieged "Kapan fortress" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217] and captured "the prince of the Armenians, Kostandin the Constable…the senior paron and Kostandin, son of the lord of Lambron, and Kyr Sahak lord of Maghvay, and others", and that in [26 Jan 1218/25 Jan 1219] "king Lewon gave the sultan the fortresses of Loulon and Lauzada as the prince for freeing his imprisoned princes"[129].  Abul-Feda records the death of "Cai-Caous, fils de Cai-Khosrou et surnommé El-Malec el-Ghaleb Eizz ed-Din" in A.H. 616 (1219/20)[130]

b)         ALA al-DIN KAY QUBADH (-31 May 1237)Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 609 (1212/13) "un frère de Cai-Caous…Cai-Kobad" took "Ancyre" from his brother, but that Kay-Kawus recaptured the town and imprisoned Kay Qubadh[131].  His father installed him at Tokat, but he opposed his brother after their father died, and was sent "to honourable imprisonment at Minşar in the province of Malatya, or at Höyük near Sivas"[132].  He succeeded in 1220 as KAY QUBADH I Seljuk Sultan of Rum

-        see below

c)         KAY FARIDUN IBRAHIM .  His father installed him at [Antalya][133]

3.         RUKN al-DIN SULAYMAN-SHAH (-1204).  He received Tokat under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][134].  On the death of his brother Qutb al-Din, he conquered all of the latter's territories, in 1197 captured Konya from his brother Sultan Kay Khusraw, succeeding as SÜLEYMAN II Seljuk Sultan of Rum, captured Niksar and Amasya, Malatya in 1201 and Ankara in 1204[135].  Abul-Feda records that "le prince Cai-Khosrou" lost the town of Iconium to "Rocn ed-Din Soleiman, un autre de ses frères"[136].  Abul-Feda records that "au mois de ramadan" in A.H. 598 (Jun 1201) "Rocn ed-Din Soleiman, fils de Kilidj-Arslan" captured Malatiya from "son frère Kaisar-Chah", and Erzerum from "Mohammed Ibn Saltok"[137].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 600 (1203/04) of "Rocn ed-Din Soleiman, fils de Kilidj-Arslan et sultan du pays d'Er-Roum", and the succession of "son fils Kilidj Arslan…encore en bas âge"[138].  Sultan Süleyman II had one child: 

a)         KILIC ARSLAN (-1205).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 600 (1203/04) of "Rocn ed-Din Soleiman, fils de Kilidj-Arslan et sultan du pays d'Er-Roum", and the succession of "son fils Kilidj Arslan…encore en bas âge"[139].  He succeeded his father in 1204 as KILIC ARSLAN III Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  Abul-Feda records that "Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou, fils de Kilidj-Arslan" deposed his nephew in A.H. 601 (1204/05) and seized the throne[140].  Sultan Kilic Arslan III had one child: 

i)          son . 

4.         NASIR al-DIN BERK YARUK-SHAHHe received Niksar under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][141]

5.         MUGHITH al-DIN TOGRIL-SHAH (-[1213/14] or 1225).  He received Elbistan under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][142].  He was attacked by his brother Qutb al-Din in the winter of 1194/95 but escaped defeat with the help of Leon II Lord of the Mountains[143].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 609 (1212/13) "Toghril-Chah fils de Kilidj-Arslan et prince d'Erzeroum" besieged "son neveu Cai-Caous dans Siouas", but withdrew after "El-Malec el-Achref, fils d'El-Adel" came to his aid[144].  The Chronicle of Abu'I-Feda records that "le prince d'Arzen Erroum…Mogits-eddin Thoghril-chah, fils de Kilidj-Arslan…des rois seldjoukides" arranged the marriage of his son to the Georgian queen, which if correctly dated as shown below helps to set the date of Mugith's death[145].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "le prince dArzen-Erroum Moghits-eddin Thogril, fils de Kilidj-Arslan", who had sent "son fils aux Géorgiens" to marry their queen, died in AH 622 (1225)[146].  This is contradicted by Abul-Feda who records that in A.H. 610 (1213/14) "Eizz ed -Din Cai-Caous souverain du pays d'Er-Roum" captured and killed "son oncle Toghril-Chah" and seized his lands[147].  One child: 

a)         son .  The Chronicle of Abu'I-Feda records that "le prince d'Arzen Erroum…Mogits-eddin Thoghril-chah, fils de Kilidj-Arslan…des rois seldjoukides" sent ambassadors to Georgia to request the marriage of "son fils" and "leur reine", which was accepted after he agreed that his son would convert to Christianity[148].  The History of Ibn-Khaldoun records that the Sultan released "un fils du prince d'Arzen-Erroum", who had married "Roussoudan", after he conquered Georgia, that he returned to Georgia but found "Roussoudan remariée"[149]m (before 1225) [as her second husband,] RUSUDAN I Queen of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT Soslan of Ossetia & his wife Thamar I Queen of Georgia (1195-Tbilisi [1244/47], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "le prince d'Arzen Erroum…Mogits-eddin Thoghril-chah, fils de Kilidj-Arslan…des rois seldjoukides" sent ambassadors to Georgia to request the marriage of "son fils" and "leur reine", which was accepted after he agreed that his son would convert to Christianity[150].  The date of the marriage is pinpointed by the History of Ibn-Alathir which in a later passage records the death in AH 622 (1225) of "le prince dArzen-Erroum Moghits-eddin Thogril, fils de Kilidj-Arslan", who had sent "son fils aux Géorgiens" to marry their queen[151].  The same source then recounts that "la reine géorgienne aimait un de ses esclaves", with whom her husband found her asleep "sur le meme tapis", that she sent her husband to another town under guard, and brought "deux hommes qu'on lui avait vantés à cause de leur belle figure" from "le pays des Alains", one of whom she married but deserted for "un homme de Guendjeh…musulman" who refused to convert to Christianity[152].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of Queen Rusudan and "le fils d'Orthoul" by whom she had "une fille…Thamar…[et] un fils…David"[153]

6.         NUR al-DIN MAHMUD SULTAN-SHAH (-killed winter 1193/94).  He received Sivas under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][154].  Abul-Feda records that "Kotb ed-Din Malec-Chah", oldest son of "Eizz ed-Din Kilidj Arslan sultan d'Icone", attacked his brother "Nour ed-Din Soltan-Chah, seigneur de Césarée"[155].  He was put to death by his brother Qutb al-Din who attacked Kayseri in the winter of 1193/94[156]

7.         MU'IZZ al-DIN QAYSAR-SHAH Abul-Feda records that "Moizz ed-Din Kaisar-Chah, fils de Kilidj Arslan souverain du pays des Roum" sought refuge with sultan Salah ed-Din in A.H. 588 (1192/93), after one of his brothers had dispossessed him of the town of Malatiya, which he had received under the division of territories made by his father[157].  He received Malatya under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][158]m ([1192/93]) ---, daughter of El MALIK el-ADIL.  Abul-Feda records that "Moizz ed-Din Kaisar-Chah, fils de Kilidj Arslan souverain du pays des Roum" married "sa niece [of Sultan Salah ed-Din], la fille d'El-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 588 (1192/93)[159]

8.         ARSLAN-SHAH .  He received Niğde under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][160]

9.         MUHYI al-DIN MAS'UD-SHAH (-killed 1204).  He received Ankara under the division of territories organised by his father in [1186/87][161].  He was killed by his brother Süleyman II Seljuk Sultan of Rum, who captured Ankara in 1204[162]

10.      son .  Abul-Feda records that "Eizz ed-Din Kilidj Arslan sultan d'Icone" died leaving ten sons[163].  The name of his tenth son has not yet been identified. 

11.      daughter .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Nour-eddin Mohammed, fils de Kara-Arslan, fils de Daoud, prince d'Hisn-Keifa" married "une fille de…Kilidj-Arslan, fils de Massoud" but later fell in love with "une chanteuse", married her, and neglected his first wife[164]m NUR ed-Din MOHAMMED, son of FAKHR ed-Din KARA ARSLAN (-[1185/86]). 

 

 

ALA al-DIN KAY QUBADH, son of Kay KHUSRAW I Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-31 May 1237).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 609 (1212/13) "un frère de Cai-Caous…Cai-Kobad" took "Ancyre" from his brother, but that Kay-Kawus recaptured the town and imprisoned Kay Qubadh[165].  He succeeded in 1220 as KAY QUBADH I Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  Abul-Feda records that "son frère Cai-Kobad" succeeded on the death of "Cai-Caous, fils de Cai-Khosrou et surnommé El-Malec el-Ghaleb Eizz ed-Din" in A.H. 616 (1219/20)[166].  He conquered southern coastal areas opposite the island of Cyprus, around Kalonoros (renamed Alaiye) and Silifke, led expeditions across the Black Sea to Crimea, and annexed the principality of Erzincan[167].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 634 ([1236/37]) of "Ala ed-Din Cai Kobad souverain du pays d'Er-Roum", adding that "son fils Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou" succeeded him[168]

m ---, daughter of KIR FARID, Greek Lord of Kalonoros.  The mother of Sultan Kay Khusraw II was Greek, her father being Kir Farid former lord of Kalonoros[169]

Sultan Kay Qubadh I had four children: 

1.         GHIYATH al-DIN KAY KHUSRAW (-1256).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 634 ([1236/37]) of "Ala ed-Din Cai Kobad souverain du pays d'Er-Roum", adding that "son fils Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou" succeeded him[170].  The mother of Sultan Kay Khusraw II was his father's Greek wife[171].  He succeeded his father in 1237 as KAY KHUSRAW II Seljuk Sultan of RumHethum the Historian's History records that "Kiadati…had in his service among others a group of Latins led by two commanders…Yohannes Liminad from Cyprus and…Vonipakios from Venice", but was defeated by the Mongols "at Konsedrak", after which the country was conquered in 1244[172].  Abul-Feda records that the Tartars conquered the lands of "Ghiath ed-Din Cai-Khosrou le seldjoukide" in A.H. 641 (1243/44)[173].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "the forces of sultan Xiwtatin [Kaykhusraw] besieged Arus" in [20 Jan 1245/19 Jan 1246][174].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 654 (1256/57) of "Cai-Khosrou souverain du pays d'Er-Roum"[175]m firstly as her first husband, ---.  She was the daughter of a Greek priest[176].  She married secondly Shams al-Din al-Isfahani, who ensured that her son succeeded his father[177]m secondly ---.  She was a Turkish woman from Konya[178]m thirdly (1237) as her first husband, THAMAR of Georgia, daughter of MUHAMMAD MUGHITH ud-DIN Turkan Shah & his wife Rusudan I Queen of Georgia (after 1228-).  She married secondly Mu'in ud-Din Süleyman.  Sultan Kay Khusraw II & his first wife had one child: 

a)         IZZ al-DIN KAY KAWUS ([1234/35]-[1279/80]).  Abul-Feda records that "ses deux fils Eizz ed-Din Cai-Caous et Rocn ed-Din Kilidj-Arslan…en bas âge" succeeded on the death in A.H. 654 (1256/57) of "Cai-Khosrou souverain du pays d'Er-Roum"[179].  He succeeded his father in 1256 as KAY KAWUS II Seljuk Sultan of Rum, jointly with his two half-brothers[180].  The Seljuk Sultanate started paying fixed tribute to the Mongols during the early part of his reign[181].  He fled to Byzantine territory after his half-brother was proclaimed as sole sultan[182].  Eventually a treaty of partition was agreed, imposed by the Mongols, (maybe in 1257) between Kay Kawus and his half-brother Kilic Arslan, under which the latter was granted the eastern provinces with Sivas, Kayseri and Sinop, while the former ruled the remaining Seljuk territory[183].  Sultan Kay Kawus was imprisoned by Emperor Mikhael VIII in 1261, liberated by Mongol troops, but left for Crimea where he lived in exile[184].  Abul-Feda records that a Tartar army freed "Eizz ed-Din Cai-Cous, fils de Cai-Khosrou" in A.H. 668 (1269/70) and transported him and his family to the court of "Mancotimur", from whom he received a wife, and died in A.H. 677 (1278/79)[185].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 677 (1278/79) of "Eizz ed-Din Cai-Caous fils de Cai Khosrou" in exile at the court of "Mancotimur roi tartare"[186]m ---, a Mongol.  Abul-Feda records that "Eizz ed-Din Cai-Cous, fils de Cai-Khosrou" received a wife when he was in exile at the court of "Mancotimur", after A.H. 668 (1269/70)[187].  Sultan Kay Kawus II had three children: 

i)          GHIYATH al-DIN MASUD (-1307).  Abul-Feda records that "un fils…Mesoud" refused to marry his father's widow after the death in A.H. 677 (1278/79) of "Eizz ed-Din Cai-Caous fils de Cai Khosrou" and returned to "le pays d'Er-Roum" where Abaga granted him the towns of "Siouas, Erzen er-Roum et Erzencen"[188].  On the death of his father, he proclaimed himself MASUD II Seljuk Sultan of Rum in Crimea, in opposition to his first cousin, landed in 1280 and was granted government over the province of Qamar al-Din (of the Karamanids) by the Mongols[189].  He was expelled in 1295 and fled to Armenia and was replaced by his nephew[190].  He was restored to power in 1303 when his nephew was killed, but the sultanate ended in circumstances which are unclear from the sources[191]

ii)         FARAMURZ .  Faramurz had one child: 

(a)       ALA al-DIN KAY QUBADH (-killed 1303).  He landed in the province of Qamar al-Din and was proclaimed Sultan in 1280 but was defeated and fled to Cilicia[192].  He succeeded his uncle in 1295 as KAY QUBADH III Seljuk Sultan of Rum[193].  He was killed at the Ilkhanid court[194].  Sultan Kay Qubadh III had two children: 

(1)       GHIYATH al-DIN MASUD (-after 1307).  He succeeded his great uncle in 1307 as MASUD III Seljuk Sultan of Rum

(2)       SHEMS ed-din .  He may have left descendants, the family of Sultanoi-Palaiologoi. 

iii)        SIYAWUSH (-executed 1300).  He may have been the brother of Sultan Masud II who landed at Sinop in his brother's name in spring 1280 but was taken prisoner near Amasya[195].  He revolted in 1299 but was defeated by an Ilkhanid army at Sivas and fled to Syria, but was captured and executed in the following year[196]

Sultan Kay Khusraw II & his second wife had one child:

b)         RUKN al-DIN KILIC ARSLAN ([1236/47]-1265).  Abul-Feda records that "ses deux fils Eizz ed-Din Cai-Caous et Rocn ed-Din Kilidj-Arslan…en bas âge" succeeded on the death in A.H. 654 (1256/57) of "Cai-Khosrou souverain du pays d'Er-Roum"[197].  He succeeded his father in 1256 as KILIC ARSLAN IV Seljuk Sultan of Rum jointly with his two half-brothers[198].  He was proclaimed as sole sultan in 1257[199].  A treaty of partition was agreed, imposed by the Mongols, (maybe in 1257) between Kilic Arslan and his half-brother Kay Kawus, under which the former was granted the eastern provinces with Sivas, Kayseri and Sinop, while the latter ruled the remaining Seljuk territory[200].  Kilic Arslan became sole sultan again 13 Aug 1261 after his brother was banished[201].  He was strangled at a banquet given by the pervane[202].  Sultan Kilic Arslan IV had one child: 

i)          KAY KHUSRAW ([1259/63]-killed Mar 1284).  He succeeded his father in 1265 as KAY KHUSRAW III Seljuk Sultan of Rum, under the regency of the pervane[203].  He was put to death by the emirs after returning from a visit to the Mongol court[204]m (1263) --- Mongol, daughter of BARKA Khan of the Golden Horde.  Sultan Kay Khusraw III had two children: 

(a)       son (-1 Oct 1285).  He and his brother were enthroned in Jun 1285, but the Mongols sent his mother to govern Sivrihisar and put to death the child[205]

(b)       son (-[Jan 1286]).  He and his brother were enthroned in Jun 1285, but he was sent to Sultan Masud's mother at Aksaray and probably put to death in Jan 1286[206]

Sultan Kay Khusraw II & his third wife had two children:

c)         ALA al-DIN KAY QUBADH ([1239/40]-[1257]).  He was chosen by his father as his successor but he was a weakling and was displaced by his older half-brother after their father died[207].  He succeeded as KAY QUBADH II Seljuk Sultan of Rum jointly with his two half-brothers[208]

d)         GURJI Khatun .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Pharwana son ésclave" took control of the sultanate after the death of "le grand sultan seldjoukide Gaiath ed-Din" and married his wife "fille de Rousoudan", but according to d'Ohsson the wife of the perwaneh Gurji-Khatun was "fille de Gaiath ed-Din et de la reine des Géorgiens"[209]m MU'IN ed-DIN SÜLEYMAN (-killed 1276).  He was pervane, the official of the Sultan responsible for carrying his personal messages[210]

2.         IZZ al-DIN

3.         RUKN al-DIN

4.         MALEKA Khatun .  Abul-Feda records that "la princesse Maleca Khatoun, fille de Cai-Kobad roi du pays d'Er-Roum" was brought to her "fiancé El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof souverain de Damas" in A.H. 652 ([1254/55])[211]m ([1254/55]) El-Malek en-NASER SALAH ed-Din YUSUF of Damascus, son of El-Malek el-AZIZ MOHAMMED Prince of Aleppo & his wife Daifa Khatun ([1228/29]-).  

 

 

 

C.      KARAMAN

 

 

The Karamanid principality came into being after the arrival of the Mongols in the western Taurus[212].  The family of Karaman invaded Cilicia in south-eastern Anatolia and in [1308] captured Konya.  They were driven out by Ulajtu Ilkhan of Persia whose military help had been solicited by Emperor Andronikos II to deal with the growing Turkish threat in Asia Minor.  After the death of Ulajtu in 1316, Karaman developed into a formidable power[213].  The Karamanids reoccupied Konya in 1327. 

 

 

1.         KARAMAN (-[1260/80]). 

 

2.         MEHMED BEG (-1283 or before).  Karamanid emir. 

 

3.         GÜNERI BEG .  Karamanid emir. 

 

4.         MAHMUD .  Karamanid emir.  He possessed Eremenel and Mut in the Cilician and Isaurian Taurus, and added Lârende on the interior plateau and Alanya on the coast[214].  Mahmud had one child: 

a)         MUSA .  He occupied Konya in the early 14th century[215]

 

5.         ALA ud-DIN SHUJA ud-DIN HALIL MIRZA BEYEmir of Karaman.  One child: 

a)         DAMAD ALA ud-DIN ALI [I] BEY (-killed Oct 1397)Emir of Karamanm NAFISA Khanum, daughter of Sultan MURAD I (1363-1400).  Three children: 

i)          NAZIR ud-DIN GHIYAS ud-DIN MUHAMMAD [II] BEY (1379-9 Feb 1423)Emir of Karamanm INJU, daughter of Sultan MOHAMMED I .  Three children: 

(a)       DAMAD TAJ ud-DIN SARIM ud-DIN IBRAHIM [II] BEY (-16 Jul 1464)Emir of Karamanm (1426) his aunt, ILALDI Khanum, daughter of Sultan MOHAMMED I (1412-1471). 

(b)       DAMAD ISA Bey (-1437)m (1426) his aunt, --- Khanum, daughter of Sultan MOHAMMED I (1413-). 

(c)       DAMAD BENGI ALA ud-DIN ALI [II] BEY .  Amir of Karaman.  m (1426) his aunt, AISHA Khanum, daughter of Sultan MOHAMMED I (1414-1469). 

ii)         son . 

iii)        son . 

 

 

 

D.      EŞREF

 

 

The Eşref or Eşrefoğullari established themselves to the west of the Karamanids in the province of Konya at Beyşehir, in the late 13th century.  After the death of Mehmed in 1326, their territories were divided between the Karamanids and the Hamidoğullari[216]

 

 

1.         EŞREF .  Eşref had one child: 

a)         SÜLEYMAN (-1302).  He is named in an inscription over the fortress gate of Beyşehir, which was renamed Süleymanşehir[217].  Süleyman had one child: 

i)          MUBARIZ al-DIN MEHMED (-killed 1326).  He extended his power over Akşehir and Bolvadin, and paid homage to Temür-Tash in 1314, but the latter revolted in 1326, captured Beyşehir and killed Mehmed[218]

 

 

 

E.      GERMIYAN

 

 

The Germiyanoğullari, a people probably of Kurdish descent, were brought by the Seljukid-Mongol government westwards from eastern Anatolia in [1275][219].  The emirate was founded at the end of the 13th century in Phrygia with its capital at Kütahya [Kotyaion].  The first emir was Ali Shir, known as "Karmanos Alisourios" to the historian Gregoras and "Alisuras" to Pachymeres.  Its weakness was lack of access to the sea, and it declined with the rise of the new coastal emirates in Asia Minor[220]

 

 

1.         ALI SHIREmir of Germiyan

 

2.         YA'QUB [I] .  Emir of Germiyan

 

3.         AMIR SÜLEYMAN SHAH BEY ADILEmir of Germiyanm MUTAHHARI Abida Khanum, daughter of VALAD Sultan of Rumelia.  Amir Süleyman had two children: 

a)         DAMAD YA'QUB [II] BEY (-Feb 1429).  Amir of Germiyan.  m (after 1425) --- Khanum, daughter of Sultan MOHAMMED I . 

b)         DAULAT SHAH (Kutahya 1365-Bursa 1414)m (1378) as his third wife, Sultan BAYEZID I, son of Sultan MURAD I & his first wife Gülchichek (Bursa 1360-Akshahir 9 Mar 1403, bur Brusa Mausoleum). 

 

 

 

F.      MENTEŞE

 

 

Menteşe was a Ghazi warrior who migrated to south-west Asia Minor and established his emirate in the district of Karia in [1277/90][221].  After taking to the sea as pirates, they attacked Rhodos in [1300], although their power was curtailed in 1308 when the island was seized by the Knights of St John[222].  This was the smallest and least known of the minor emirates which emerged after the fall of the Seljuk Sultanate.  No other information has so far been found about Menteşe and his successors.  It is assumed that his emirate was subsumed into the emirate of Othman in the early 14th century. 

 

 

1.         MENTEŞE (-after [1300]). 

 

 

 

G.      AYDIN

 

 

Aydin was originally a vassal of the emirate of Germiyan, but his sons (known as the "Aydinoglou") captured Ephesos in Oct 1304 in alliance with Sasa Beg, a relative of Menteşe, and eventually established their capital at Smyrna[223].   

 

 

1.         AYDIN .  One child: 

a)         MEHMED BEG AYDINOGLOU .  He killed his former ally Sasa Beg in 1308 and proclaimed the independence of the emirate of Aydin from Germiyan.  He captured the citadel of Smyrna in [1317] and carried out raids along the Aegean coast against the Zaccaria family of Chios and the Knights of St John at Rhodos[224].  Emperor Andronikos III negotiated a peace agreement with the emirate of Aydin in 1329[225].  Mehmed had two children: 

i)          UMUR Beg (-killed in battle Smyrna 1348).  He completed the conquest of Smyrna from the Latins in 1329[226].  Umur attacked the Venetian island of Negroponte and the Greek mainland in 1333[227].  In 1335, a further agreement with Emperor Andronikos III was negotiated and Umur provided military support for the recapture of the island of Lesbos from the Genoese Domenico Cattaneo[228].  He intervened in the civil war in Byzantium which followed the death of Emperor Andronikos, supporting Ioannes Kantakuzenos[229].  The league of western powers, sponsored by Pope Clement VI, destroyed his fleet in Oct 1344 and seized the harbour of Smyrna.  He was killed defending the city against a final attack[230].  Umur Beg's exploits were celebrated in the epic poem The Destan by the Turkish poet Enveri, written in the 1460s[231]

ii)         FAKHR ud-DIN ISA BEYEmir of Aydin.  Isa had one child: 

(a)       HAFISA Khanum m (1390) as his seventh wife, Sultan BAYEZID I, son of Sultan MURAD I & his first wife Gülchichek (Bursa 1360-Akshahir 9 Mar 1403, bur Brusa Mausoleum).  

 

 

 

H.      SARUCHAN 

 

 

Saruchan [Sarakhan] conquered the district of Lydia, including the cities of Manisa [Magnesia], previously the second capital of the emperors of Nicaea, and Pergamon[232]

 

 

1.         SARUCHAN .  Emperor Andronikos III negotiated a peace agreement with Saruchan in 1329[233]

 

 

1.         MUZAFFAR ud-DIN ISHAQ SHALABIEmir of Sarihan

2.         DAMAD HIZIR SHAH BEY Emir of Sarihanm --- Khanum, daughter of Sultan MURAD I. 

 

 

 

I.        KARASI 

 

 

The emirate of Karasi controlled the area of Mysia and the plain of Troy south of the Hellespont[234].

 

 

1.         --- .  The emirate of Karesi was defeated off Adramyttion by the newly formed "league of Christian powers" led by Venice in 1334[235]

2.         --- Emir of Karesi m --- Batatzaina, daughter of IOANNES Batatzes, Grand Stratopedarchos, Epitropos of Thessaloniki.

 

 

 

J.      SINOP

 

 

The emirate of Sinop lay on the Black Sea coast.  It was led by Ghazi Chelebi and was famous for its piratical exploits. 

 

 

1.         --- .  Emir of Sinop.  One child: 

a)         MEHMED BEGEmir of Sinop.  Mehmed had one child: 

i)          MASUD MUAD ad-DIN SÜLEYMAN (-after 1296)Emir of Sinopm ([1268/69], consummated [1271/72][236]) --- of Armenia, illegitimate daughter of LEO II King of Armenia & his mistress ---.  Rüdt-Collenberg cites the Chronicle of Abul-Feda which records this marriage, dates its consummation to [1271/72], and her return to Armenia in 1278[237].  Masud had one child: 

(a)       GAZI ÇELEBIEmir of Sinop

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         OMAR (-after Dec 1361)Emir of Chalybia.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "we departed for Chalybia with the emperor to the castle-house of Chatzymyris, Baryam´s son" 13 Dec 1361 and that "from Chalybia we went by land to Kerasunt followed almost servilely by the emir Chatzymyris and some Turks"[238]m firstly ---.  m secondly (after 29 Aug 1358) THEODORA Komnene, illegitimate daughter of BASILEIOS Emperor in Trebizond & his second (bigamous) wife Eirene ---.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the daughter of the emperor lord Basil, the Lady Theodora" left 29 Aug 1358 to be married to "the emir Chatzymyris, Bayram´s son" with "lord Basil Choupakas Scholaris as the bridal escort"[239].  Omar & his [first] wife had one child: 

a)         SULEIMAN beg (-after 1397).  Emir of Chalybiam MARIA Komnene, [illegitimate] daughter of ALEXIOS III Emperor at Trebizond & his [wife Theodora Komnene Kantakazune/concubine ---].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that "the emperor´s son-in-law from Limnia the emir Taceddin" set out 24 Oct 1386 "against the emperor´s other son-in-law, the son of Chatzymeris from Chalybia, Suleiman Beg" but was killed in battle in "Chalybia"[240].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

2.         son .  One child: 

a)         TADJEDDIN Pasha of Sinop (-killed in battle 1386 after 24 Oct).  Emir of Limnia.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor´s son-in-law from Limnia the emir Taceddin" set out 24 Oct 1386 "against the emperor´s other son-in-law, the son of Chatzymeris from Chalybia, Suleiman Beg" but was killed in battle in "Chalybia"[241].  He was killed by his uncle Haji Omar.  m (8 Oct 1378) as her first husband, EVDOKIA Megala Komnene, daughter of ALEXIOS III Emperor at Trebizond & his wife Theodora Komnene Kantakazune.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the marriage 8 Oct 1378 of "the emperor…his daughter the Lady Eudokia" and "çelebi Taceddin" at "Oinaion" after which "the emperor…took over Limnia"[242].  She married secondly (1387) Konstantin Dragaš Lord of Vardar and Serres [Serbia].  Her second marriage is indicated by Georgius Phrantzes who names "Eudocia despœna, quæ avi tui uxor fuit", which from the context appears to refer to the maternal grandfather of Emperor Konstantinos XI, commenting that she was previously "Turcum coniuge…parvæ et exilis regionis principem" by whom she had children[243]

 

 

 

K.      OTTOMANS

 

 

The origins of Ertughrul are unknown.  In the 14th and 15th centuries, elaborate descents were composed by court flatterers, from earlier Turkish heroes such as Oghuz Khan, founder of the Oghuz Turks, from Arab ancestors (though not the Prophet Mohammed's family, all of whose descendants were known), and even from a member of the Komnenos family of Byzantium who supposedly emigrated to Konya and converted to Islam[244].  The emirate founded by the first members of what was later known as the Ottoman dynasty was one of the smallest Ghazi emirates in Asia Minor. 

 

 

OTHMAN I -1326

 

ERTUGHRUL (-1281).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Duzalpes…Oguziorum dux" as father of "Oguzalpes", and "Orthogules" as son of Oguzalpes[245].  A Ghazi commander, he gathered a sufficient number of followers to found a small emirate in the border lands to the east of Bithynian Olympus[246].  He is said to have commanded a band of Ghazi warriors in the service of the Seljuk Sultans and defeated a Byzantine/Mongol army in the district of Dorylaion [Eskishehir], which was granted to him as a fief by the Sultan in reward.  According to later legend, he was officially named as successor to the last Seljuk Sultan[247]

Ertughrul had one child: 

1.         OSMAN (-Nov 1326, bur Brusa[248]).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Otamanus, Orthogulis filius"[249].  He established himself in the former Byzantine province of Bythinia.  His territory attracted immigrants of other Turkish tribes, escaping the Mongol threat.  He declared himself Sultan OTHMAN I at Karajahisar [Malagina] in the lower Sakarya valley[250].  His title, according to the inscription on a mosque in Brusa, was "Sultan, son of the Sultan of the Ghazis, Ghazi, son of Ghazis, Margrave of the horizons, hero of the world"[251].  He defeated the Byzantines at Baphaeum, between Nikaea and Nikomedia, in 1301, and began to settle his people north of Mount Olympus.  He captured the fortress of Melangeia [Yenishehir] which became his base of operations[252].  The Catalan Company defeated him near Leuke in 1305, but after their revolt against the Emperor, Othman took advantage of the civil war to consolidate his hold on land bordering the Sea of Marmara.  He captured Ephesus, the last remaining Byzantine city on the Aegean coast, in 1308, but gave it to the Emir of Aydin.  His forces captured Brusa 6 Apr 1326 and Lopadion in May 1326[253], Brusa becoming the new capital.  Sultan Othman I had three children: 

a)         ORKHAN (-Bursa Mar 1362, bur Bursa)Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Otomano filius eius natu minimus ex tribus Orchanes" when recording that he succeeded his father[254].  He succeeded his father in 1326 as Sultan ORKHAN

-        see below

b)         ALA ed-Din .  He declined to share power with his older brother, to avoid dividing the Sultanate[255]

c)         SAVJI Beym ---.  Savji Bey had one child: 

i)          Damad SÜLEYMAN Bey m his first cousin, KHADIJA Khanum, daughter of Sultan ORKHAN. 

 

 

ORKHAN 1326-1362

 

ORKHAN, son of Sultan OTHMAN I (-Bursa Mar 1362, bur Bursa).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Otomano filius eius natu minimus ex tribus Orchanes" when recording that he succeeded his father[256].  He succeeded his father in 1326 as Sultan ORKHAN.  He captured Nikaia in 1329, and Nikomedia in 1337.  He entered an alliance with Ioannes Kantakuzenos in 1344, sealed by marriage with the latter's daughter, and sent troops to help him install himself as Emperor.  In 1345/46, he annexed the Turkish emirate of Karesi[257].  He was master of western Thrace by the time he died, and had absorbed the emirates of Sarakhan and Karasi in north-west Asia Minor. 

m firstly (1316) ASPORSHA, daughter of ---. 

m secondly (1299) ---, daughter of an Akritic chieftain in Greece.  She was known as NILÜFER [Water-lily]. 

m thirdly (early summer 1346) THEODORA Kantakuzene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES VI Kantakuzenos & his wife Eirene Asanina (-after May 1381).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records the marriage of "Orchanes" and "Cantacuzeni Græcorum regis filiam"[258].  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Cantacuzenus" married "sorore illi" to "Orchanum Turcarum"[259].  Her marriage was arranged by her father to win the support of Sultan Orkhan in the civil war with the supporters of Emperor Ioannes V[260].  She was imprisoned by Emperor Andronikos IV 1379/81. 

m fourthly BAYALUN, daughter of ---. 

m sixthly AFTANDISA Khanum, daughter of MOHAMMED Alp. 

Sultan Orkhan & his first wife had two children:

1.         IBRAHIM (1316-1362).  He was murdered by his brother Murad. 

2.         FATIMA

Sultan Orkhan & his --- wife/concubine had three children:

3.         SÜLEYMAN (Karajahisar 1316-Bolayur Sep 1357).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Sulaimane et Amurata" as sons of "Orchanes"[261].  He occupied Ankara in 1354[262]m [---, daughter of IOANNES Batatzes].  Süleyman had five children: 

a)         MALIK-i-NASIR Bey (-murdered 1365).  Governor of Ankara 1365. 

b)         ISMAIL Bey (-1360). 

c)         ISHAQ Bey (-1360). 

d)         EFFENDIZADI Khanum (-Akshahir Jul 1397).  m (1372) Damad KOTURUM Amir JALAL ud-DIN BAYEZID VALI Bey Emir of Candar

e)         SULTANA Khanum (-Sinop Jun 1395).  m (1385) Damad SÜLEYMAN SHAH PASHA [II] Emir of Candar, son of Damad KOTURUM Amir JALAL ud-DIN BAYEZID VALI Bey Emir of Candar (-1392). 

4.         SULTAN Bey (1324-1362). 

5.         KHADIJA Khanum m her first cousin, Damad SÜLEYMAN Bey, son of SAYJI Bey. 

Sultan Orkhan & his second wife had two children: 

6.         MURAD (Sogut Mar 1326-murdered Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, bur Borsa).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Sulaimane et Amurata" as sons of "Orchanes"[263].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names  "Orchanes…filioque suo Morati" as his father's successor[264].  He succeeded his father 1362 as Sultan MURAD I after murdering his older half-brother. 

-        see below

7.         KASIM (-1346). 

Sultan Orkhan & his third wife had one child:

8.         KHALIL of Bithynia (1347-soon after 1362).  He was imprisoned by robbers 1356/58, and freed by Ioannes V Emperor of Byzantium who offered him his daughter in marriage.  Betrothed ([1358]) to EIRENE Palaiologina, daughter of IOANNES V Emperor of Byzantium & his wife Helene Kantakuzene ([1349]-). 

 

 

MURAD I 1362-1389

 

MURAD, son of Sultan ORKHAN & his second wife Nilüfer (Sogut Mar 1326-murdered Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, bur Borsa).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Sulaimane et Amurata" as sons of "Orchanes"[265].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names  "Orchanes…filioque suo Morati" as his father's successor[266].  He succeeded his father 1362 as Sultan MURAD I after murdering his older half-brother.  After repressing rival emirates in Asia Minor during the first years of his reign, he re-entered Europe in 1365.  In 1371 his forces defeated and killed Vukašin King of Serbia at the battle of Marica, marking the start of serious Ottoman involvement in the Balkans.  Emperor Ioannes V of Byzantium recognised Sultan Murad as his overlord in 1373, promising him an annual tribute and military aid when needed, and sending his son Manuel to the Sultan's court as a hostage.  In 1377, the Ottomans acquired Adrianople, which had fallen to other Turkish forces in 1369[267], Sultan Murad establishing his capital there in place of Brusa[268].  He conquered Philadelphia, the last Byzantine stronghold in Asia Minor.  He captured Sofija in 1385, Niš in 1386, Thessaloniki in 1387 after a four year siege, and Preslav in 1388.  He organised Turkish immigration into Europe as a means of consolidating his hold on the territories he conquered.  He was murdered by Miloš Obilić, a Serbian, while preparing for the battle of Kosovo against Lazar Prince of Serbia[269]

m firstly (1359) ---, a Greek slave.  Known as GÜLCHICHEK [Rose flower]. 

m secondly MALIKA Khanum, daughter of MURAD Bey. 

m thirdly (Mar 1366) ---, daughter of SAYYID Sultan AHI. 

m fourthly ([1371/76]) KERATAMAS [Tamara] of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN ALEXANDER ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife Sarah [Teodora] ---.  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records the marriage of "Susmanum Mysiæ regem…filia" and "Amuratem"[270]

m fifthly (1372) ---, daughter of KONSTANTIN Lord of Kostendil in Bulgaria. 

Betrothed (Aug 1376) --- Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor IOANNES V & his wife Helene Kantakuzene.  A daughter of Emperor Ioannes V was offered to Sultan Murad in Aug 1376 but died before the marriage took place[271].  

m sixthly (1383) ---, daughter of Amir Damad SÜLEYMAN Shah Pasha II Emir of Candar. 

Sultan Murad I & his --- wife/concubine had two children: 

1.         SAUJI Chelebi (-murdered Nov 1385).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names  (in order) "Sabuzium…Kuntuzem et Baiazitem" as the sons of "Morates"[272].  He rebelled against his father in May 1373, but the rebellion was quickly crushed and he was blinded. 

a)         MURAD Bey (-1386). 

b)         ORKHAN Bey . 

c)         DAVUD Bey . 

2.         KUNTUZ ([1347/48]-).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names  (in order) "Sabuzium…Kuntuzem et Baiazitem" as the sons of "Morates", specifying that Kuntuz was the same age as Andronikos, son of Emperor Ioannes V, and that he was blinded after the two conspired together[273]

Sultan Murad I & his first wife had three children:

3.         BAYEZID (Bursa 1360-Mar 1403, bur Brusa Mausoleum).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names  (in order) "Sabuzium…Kuntuzem et Baiazitem" as the sons of "Morates"[274].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Paiaxites et Iagupes" as the two sons of "Amurates"[275].  He fought in the battle of Kosovo 1389, immediately after succeeding his father as Sultan BAYEZID I "Yilderim/the Thunderbolt". 

-        see below

4.         YAJUB (1362-Kosovo Jun 1389).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Paiaxites et Iagupes" as the two sons of "Amurates"[276].  Governor of Balikizir.  He fought in the battle of Kosovo, but was strangled on the orders of his brother immediately after the latter's accession[277]m (1372) ---, daughter of KONSTANTIN Lord of Kostendil in Bulgaria. 

5.         YAHSHI (-1389). 

Sultan Murad I & his --- wives/concubines had five children:

6.         NAFISA (1363-1400).  m (31 Dec 1378) Amir Damad ALA ud-din Ali Bey Amir of Karaman, son of Amir ALA ud-din Shuja ud-Din Halil Mirza Bey Amir of Karaman (-killed October 1397). 

7.         daughter .  m (1389) Damad HIZIR Shah Bey Amir of Sarihan, son of Amir MUZAFFAR ud-Din Ishaq Shalabi Amir of Sarihan. 

8.         OZARm (after 1385) ---. 

9.         SULTANAm (after 1385) Damad TURGUT Bey Karamanoglu

10.      IBRAHIM (1385-). 

 

 

BAYEZID I 1389-1403

 

BAYEZID, son of Sultan MURAD I & his first wife Gülchichek (Bursa 1360-Akshahir 9 Mar 1403, bur Brusa Mausoleum).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names  (in order) "Sabuzium,,,Kuntuzem et Baiazitem" as the sons of "Morates"[278].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas names "Paiaxites et Iagupes" as the two sons of "Amurates"[279].  He fought in the battle of Kosovo 1389, immediately after succeeding his father as Sultan BAYEZID I "Yilderim/the Thunderbolt", keeping the death of his father secret, but was obliged to withdraw after the battle to secure his succession[280].  Learning of Ivan Šišman Tsar of Bulgaria's secret negotiations with Sigismund King of Hungary for a joint attack on the Ottomans, Sultan Bayezid launched a major offensive into Bulgaria, captured Trnovo 17 Jul 1393 after a three month siege, and annexed the country[281].  He invaded the Peloponese in 1394 and imposed his suzerainty on the local princes.  He defeated a combined Christian army led by Sigismond King of Hungary at Nikopolis in Sep 1396, after which he annexed the remaining Bulgarian kingdom of Vidin.  He built the castle of Anadolu Hisar on the Asian side of the Bosphorus, and from here launched his siege of Constantinople in 1402.  He was defeated by Timur Khan of the Tartars at the battle of Ankara 28 Jul 1402, captured and died a prisoner.  Interregnum 1402-1413. 

m firstly (1372) as her first husband, ANGELINA, daughter of --- [of Greek origin].  She married secondly don DIEGO González de Contreras. 

m secondly (1372) ---, daughter of KONSTANTINOS. 

m thirdly (1378) DAULAT Shah, daughter of Amir SULEYMAN Shah II bey Adil Emir of Germiyan & his wife Mutakkari Abida Khanum of Rumelia (Kutahya 1365-Bursa 1414). 

m fourthly as her first husband, MARIA, daughter of JÁNOS, from Hungary.  She married secondly don Payo Gómez de Sotomayor. 

m fifthly HAFISA Khanum, daughter of Amir FAKHR ud-din Isa bey Emir of Aydin. 

m sixthly --- Karamanoglu.  

m seventhly SULTAN Khanum, daughter of Amur SULEYMAN Shah Suli bey Emir of Dulkadir. 

m eighthly (1390) OLIVERA of Serbia, daughter of LAZAR Hrebljanović Knez of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- (-after 1443).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records that "Maria Lazari filia…Stephani soror" married "Baiaziti"[282].  Her marriage was arranged by her mother when she accepted Ottoman suzerainty over Serbia in 1390, after her husband was killed at the battle of Kosovo[283]

m ninthly DAULAT Khanum (-Bursa Jan 1414). 

Sultan Bayezid I & his --- wife/concubine had one child: 

1.         ERTUGHRUL (1376-killed in battle Sivas 1395).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Musulmanus, secundus Esses, tertius Mehemetes, quartus Moses…duos adhuc infants Mustapham et Orchanem" as the sons of "Baiazites"[284].  Governor of Sivas.  Governor of Sarihan 1390.  He was killed defending the town against Timur Khan of the Tartars.  . 

a)         son . 

Sultan Bayezid I & his third wife had three children:

2.         ISA (1378-murdered Kutahya 1405).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Musulmanus, secundus Esses, tertius Mehemetes, quartus Moses…duos adhuc infants Mustapham et Orchanem" as the sons of "Baiazites"[285].  Governor of Anatolia 1390.  Governor of Balikizir 1402.  He was appointed ruler of Bursa by Tamerlane in 1403, deposed 1404.  He was killed by his brother Sultan Süleyman I.  m firstly (1402) ---, daughter of IOANNES Tuntares.  m secondly BAZIRJI Khanum, daughter of ---. 

3.         MUSTAFA (1380-killed in battle Ankara 28 Jul 1402).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Musulmanus, secundus Esses, tertius Mehemetes, quartus Moses…duos adhuc infants Mustapham et Orchanem" as the sons of "Baiazites"[286].  He was killed fighting Timur Khan of the Tartars at the battle of Ankara.  m [firstly] (1400) ---, daughter of AHMAD Jalyir Ilhan.  m [secondly] --- Doria, daughter of ILARIO Doria & his wife --- Palaiologina.  Du Cange records that Emperor Manuel II arranged the marriage of the unnamed daughter of "Hilario Doriæ nobili Genuensi" and his wife to "Mustapha Bajazethi Gilderuni Sultani filio"[287].  The precise primary source on which this information is based has not been traced, but the chronology for such a marriage is not ideal given the supposed marriage date of her parents in 1393 and her husband´s death in 1402. 

4.         BUYUK MUSA

Sultan Bayezid I & his --- wives/concubines had six children:

5.         YUSUF

6.         HASAN

7.         SÜLEYMAN (Bursa 1375-murdered 17 Feb 1411).  After his father's defeat at Ankara, he was rescued by Stefan Despot of Serbia, and took power in Europe proclaiming himself Sultan SÜLEYMAN I.  He fought against his brothers who took power in Asia Minor.  He concluded treaties with Byzantium, Serbia, Venice and Genoa in 1403, restoring Thessaloniki and parts of the coastline along the Aegean and Black Seas to Byzantium, in return for Byzantine support in his fight with his brothers.  He was making progress against his brother Mohammed in Anatolia, but forced to return to Europe in 1409 when his brother Musa invaded Bulgaria from the north with his new ally Wallachia.  He sought further aid from Constantinople, but lost the support of Stefan Lazarević of Serbia who defected to his brother Musa[288].  He defeated his brother twice in 1410, but was later deserted by his own troops and captured by his brother Musa near Adrianople and strangled.  m firstly (1396) ---, daughter of GEORGE [II] Strasimir Prince of Amavudluk in Serbia.  m secondly (1404) --- Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of THEODOROS Palaiologos Despot of Morea & his mistress ---.  Georgius Phrantzes records the marriage of "Musulmanus" and "Theodori despotam filiam"[289].  Sultan Süleyman I & his --- wives/concubines had three children: 

a)         ORKHAN (1395-Bursa 1429).  He was sent with his sister as a hostage to Constantinople.  He was supported by Emperor Manuel II as a rival candidate for the throne after his father's murder.  He defended Thessaloniki for the Christians, but was taken prisoner and blinded in 1411 by his uncle Musa[290].  He died of the plague.  m (Bursa 1420) --- (1402-Cairo 1460).  Orkhan had three children: 

i)          SULEYMAN (Bursa 1422-Cairo 1437). 

ii)         FATIMA (Bursa 1424-Cairo Jul 1455).  m firstly (1438) Sultan ASHRAF Barsbay Mameluk Sultan (-1438).  m secondly (1438, divorced 25 Dec 1450) Sultan ZAHIR Jakmak Mameluk Sultan (-13 Feb 1453).  m thirdly (1451) Damad Amir BARSBAY Bujashi (-1455).  

iii)        KHADIJAm (1440) ---. 

b)         MALIKA (1405-).  m (Bursa 1420) ---, Governor of Sanjak. 

c)         MUHAMMAD (1408-killed 30 Dec 1421). 

8.         MUSA (1388-strangled 5 Jul 1413).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Musulmanus, secundus Esses, tertius Mehemetes, quartus Moses…duos adhuc infants Mustapham et Orchanem" as the sons of "Baiazites"[291].  He was captured with his father by Timur Khan of the Tartars, but freed Mar 1403 after the death of his father.  Governor of Bursa 1403-1404.  He was proclaimed Sultan at Adrianople 18 May 1410 in succession to his older brother.  After defeating Suleiman I, he besieged Constantinople, ravaged Serbia and recaptured Thessaloniki, in revenge for Byzantine and Serbian help for his brother.  He was defeated and captured near Vitoša on the upper Iskar in Jul 1413 by his brother Mohammed, allied with Stefan Lazarević and Djuradj Vuković of Serbia[292]m (1407) --- of Wallachia, daughter of MIRCEA "the Great" Prince of Wallachia (-1408). 

9.         OMAR

10.      IRHONDUm (after 1405) Damad YAKUB bey, son of PARS bey. 

Sultan Bayezid I & his eighth wife had three children:

11.      --- (1391-Samarkand ----).  m (1403) Damad ABU Makar Mirza, son of JALAL ud-DIN MIRAN SHAH bin TIMUR of Iran (-1408). 

12.      MALIKA (1392-).  m (1403) Amir Damad JALAL ud-DIN ISLAM, son of SHAMS ud-DIN MUHAMMAD [General in the service of Timur]. 

13.      ORUZm (after 1405) ---. 

Sultan Bayezid I & his --- wives/concubines had four children:

14.      MOHAMMED (Adrianople 1382-Adrianople Dec 1421).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Musulmanus, secundus Esses, tertius Mehemetes, quartus Moses…duos adhuc infants Mustapham et Orchanem" as the sons of "Baiazites"[293].  He succeeded in 1413 as Sultan MOHAMMED I "Chelebi/Gentleman".   

-        see below.

15.      FATIMA (1393-).  She was sent as a hostage to Constantinople with her brother Kasim.  m (Bursa 1420) --- Sanjak bey. 

16.      HUNDIm (1402) DAMAD SEYYID SHAMS ud-DIN MUHAMMAD BOKHARI AMIR SULTAN, son of ALI HASAN ul-BOKHARA (Bokhara 1369-Bursa 1429). 

17.      KASIM (1397-1417).  His brother Sultan Suleiman sent him as a hostage to Constantinople.  Kasim had one child: 

a)         ORKHAN (1412-beheaded Constantinople 29 May 1453).  He sought refuge in Constantinople, helping to defend the city against the assault of Sultan Mohammed II in 1453, but was decapitated after being caught trying to escape disguised as a Greek monk after the city fell[294].  According to Fine, Orkhan had been executed after being betrayed to his uncle Musa in 1411[295].  Orkhan had four children: 

i)          ALI Shah. 

ii)         JAHAN Shah. 

iii)        VALI Khan. 

iv)       BUGA Khan. 

 

 

MOHAMMED I 1413-1421

 

MOHAMMED, son of Sultan BAYEZID & --- (Adrianople 1382-Adrianople Dec 1421, bur Yeshil Turbe, Bursa).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Musulmanus, secundus Esses, tertius Mehemetes, quartus Moses…duos adhuc infants Mustapham et Orchanem" as the sons of "Baiazites"[296].  He was installed as Sultan of Amasya by Timur after the battle of Ankara, limited to a small territory in north-west Anatolia[297].  He defeated his brother Isa and seized Bursa in 1404.  He defeated his brother Musa in 1413, ending the fratricidal conflict, and declared himself Sultan MOHAMMED I "Chelebi/Gentleman" in both Anatolia and Rumelia.  He renewed his alliances with Byzantium and with Serbia, recognising the territorial integrity of Emperor Manuel II and Stefan Lazarević.  He spent his reign consolidating his internal position, recovering a large portion of the territory in Anatolia lost to Timur Khan.  He returned Thessaloniki to Byzantium.  He died of apoplexy. 

m firstly SHAHZADI Kumru Khanum, daughter of Sadgeldi AHMED Pasha of Amasya. 

m secondly (1403) AMINA Khanum, daughter of NASIR ud-din Muhammad bey Amir of Dulkadir (1389-1419). 

Sultan Mohammed I & his --- wives/concubines had five children: 

1.         MUHAMMAD (-1402). 

2.         AHMAD (-1402). 

3.         KASIM (Amasya 1405-Amasya 12 Jan 1407).  Governor of Amasya 1406. 

4.         HAFISA . 

5.         INJU m NAZIR ud-din Ghiyas ud-din Muhammad II bey Amir of Karaman, son of Amir Damad ALA ud-din Ali bey Amir of Karaman & his wife Nafisa Malika Sultana Khanum (1379-9 Feb 1423). 

Sultan Mohammed I & his second wife had one child:

6.         MURAD (Amasya Jun 1404-Adrianople 13 Feb 1451).  Governor of Amasya 1417.  He succeeded his father 1421 as Sultan MURAD II

-        see below

Sultan Mohammed I & his first wife had one child:

7.         SELJUK (Amasya 1407-Bursa 25 Oct 1485).  m firstly (1424) Amir Damad TAJ ud-din IBRAHIM II bey Amir of Candar, son of ABU'L FATH Iftikhar ud-din Mubariz ud-din Isfandiyar Shalabi bey Amir of Candar (139-30 May 1443).  m secondly (Bursa 1444) Damad MAHMUD bey Governor of Sanjak. 

Sultan Mohammed I & his --- wives/concubines had fourteen children:

8.         SULTANA (1408-1444).  m (Adrianople Dec 1423) Damad KIWAM ud-DIN KASIM BEY CANDAROGLU, son of Samad TAJ ud-din Ibrahim Pasha II Amir of Candar (-1464). 

9.         MUSTAFA (Amasya 1408-killed Iznik Oct 1423).  He was declared heir apparent [Aghabeyina] 4 May 1421.  He rebelled against his brother 1422. 

10.      KHADIJA (1408-).  m (Adrianople Jan 1423) Damad KARAJA Pasha (-10 Nov 1444). 

11.      FATIMA (1409-).  m (Adrianople Jan 1423) Damad ORUSH Pasha, son of TIMURTASH Pasha (-1426).  He was Vizier 1421-1423. 

12.      HAFSA (1410-Mecca 1445).  m (Adrianople Jan 1423) Damad MAHMUD bey, son of IBRAHIM Pasha Shandarli (-Jan 1444). 

13.      ILALDI (1412-1471)m (1426) her nephew, Amir Damad TAJ ud-din Sarim ud-din Ibrahim II bey Amir of Karaman, son of NAZIR ud-din Ghiyas ud-din Muhammad II bey Amir of Karaman & his wife Pss Inju Khanum (-16 Jul 1464). 

14.      SHAHZADIm (1427) Damad SINAN Pasha (-1442). 

15.      --- (1413-)m (1426) her nephew, Damad ISA bey, son of NAZIR ud-din Ghiyas ud-din Muhammad II bey Amir of Karaman & his wife Pss Inju Khanum (-1437). 

16.      MAHMUD (1413-Aug 1429).  Governor of Amasya 1415.  He was declared heir apparent [Aghabeyina] Oct 1423. 

17.      YUSUF (1414-Aug 1429). 

18.      AISHA (1414-1469)m (1426) her nephew, Damad BENGI Ala ud-din Ali II bey Amir of Karaman, son of NAZIR ud-din Ghiyas ud-din Muhammad II bey Amir of Karaman & his wife Pss Inju Khanum. 

19.      daughter m (after 1425) Damad YAKUB II bey Amir of Germiyan, son of Amir SÜLEYMAN Shah bey Adil Amir of Germiyan (-Feb 1429). 

20.      AHMAD (1416-Bursa 1420). 

21.      ORKHAN . 

 

 

MURAD II 1421-1446, 1446-1451, MOHAMMED II 1446, 1451-1481

 

MURAD, son of Sultan MOHAMED I (Amasya Jun 1404-Adrianople 13 Feb 1451, bur Bursa, near Muradiya Mosque).  Governor of Amasya 1417.  He succeeded his father 1421 as Sultan MURAD II.  He laid siege to Constantinople 8 Jun 1422, lifted to crush the rebellion of his younger brother Mustafa.  He captured Yanina in Epirus and Thessaloniki from the Venetians 1430.  He unsuccessfully besieged Belgrade in 1440, but 11 Nov 1444 defeated and killed Laszlo King of Hungary at Varna, restoring Ottoman control as far as the Danube.  He abdicated in favour of his son in 1444 and retired to Manisa, but was recalled 5 May 1446.  He defeated Jan Hunyadi regent of Hungary at Kosovo in 1448.  He also absorbed the emirates of Aydin and Germiyan in Asia Minor.  Georgius Phrantzes records the death in Feb in "anni 6959" of "Amurates ameras"[298]

m firstly (1421) ALIMA Khanum of Dulkadir. 

m secondly ---, daughter of Damad KARAJA Pasha. 

m thirdly YENI Khanum, daughter of MAHMUD Shah bey of Amasya. 

m fourthly HÜMA Hatun, a slave girl (-Sep 1449, bur Bursa).  Freely suggests that she was probably a Greek of humble birth[299]

m fifthly (Adrianople 1423) TAJ un-nisa Khadija HALIMA Khanum, daughter of Amir Damad TAJ ud-din Ibrahim II bey Amir of Candar. 

m sixthly (betrothed Jun 1433, Adrianople 4 Sep 1435) MARA of Serbia, daughter of DJURADJ Vuković Despot of Serbia & his wife Eirene Kantakuzene ([1416/17]-Ježovo 14 Sep 1487, bur Kosinitza, Eikosiphoinissa monastery of the Virgin[300]).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Georgii Serviæ despotæ filiam" and "Moratis"[301].  Theodoros Spandounes records the marriage of "la figliola di Jurgo Dispoto di Servia…Maria" and "lo imperator Amurath"[302].  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Amurates ameras" had married "despotæ Serviæ filiam", recording that she was sent back "ad parentes" after the death of her husband and rejected a proposal for a second marriage with Emperor Konstantinos XI[303].  Nicol refers to her betrothal in Jun 1444 but states that Mara was born from her father's first marriage (without citing the source on which this is based)[304].  If this was correct, she would have been rather old to have presented an attractive marriage prospect for the Sultan.  Her father agreed her marriage in 1433 in the face of growing Ottoman pressure on his territory.  Her dowry was the districts of Toplica and Dubočica[305].  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Capistranus et Serviæ princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus…filia…cum cæco fratre natu maximo et Thoma Cantacuzeno avunculo" went "ad ameram et amerissam" after the death of Djuradj's wife 3 May 1457[306].  She lived at the court of her stepson Sultan Mohammed II, and was given an estate at Ježevo (formerly Daphni) near Mount Athos[307].  Joined by her [half-]sister in 1469, the two ladies acted as intermediaries during the Turkish/Venetian war which lasted until 1479[308]

m seventhly HALIMA Hatun, daughter of IBRAHIM [II] ruler of the Çandaroğlu Türkmen tribe in Anatolia[309].  She was ordered to marry Ishak Pasha, one of Sultan Murad's closest advisers who was appointed Governor of Anatolia after the Sultan's death. 

Sultan Murad II & his fourth wife had three children:

1.         AHMED (-Amasya May 1437).  Provincial governor at Amasya in Anatolia[310]

2.         ALA ed-Din (-murdered Amasya Jun 1443).  Provincial governor at Manisa, transferred to Amasya in 1439, he was murdered by his adviser Kara Hizir Pasha[311]

3.         MOHAMMED (Adrianople 30 Mar 1432-Gebze 3 May 1481).  He was appointed provincial governor at Amasya in Anatolia in succession to his brother Ahmed, being transferred to Manisa in 1439[312].  He succeeded on the abdication of his father 1446 as Sultan MOHAMED II, but was replaced by his father 1446.  He succeeded once more on his father's death in 1451.  He placed the conquest of Constantinople as his first objective.  He launched his assault Apr 1453, breaking through the lines 29 May 1453, the Emperor being killed during the attack.  Mohammed captured Trebizond 15 Aug 1461.  [m firstly] GÜLBEHAR a slave girl, daughter of ABDULLA [probably an Albanian convert to Islam].  m [secondly] (Sep 1449) SITT Hatun, daughter of Emir IBRAHIM ruler of the Dulkadirh Türkmen tribe in eastern Anatolia[313] (-1467).  [m thirdly] GÜLŞAH ---.  [m fourthly] ÇIÇEK ---.  [m fifthly] (30 May 1460) HELENE Palaiologina, daughter of DEMETRIOS Palaiologos Despot of Morea & his second wife Theodora Asanina [Bulgaria] (Apr 1442-Adrianople 1470).  Georgius Phrantzes records that in Oct "anni 6967 ameras" sent to "Demetrium despotam" to request in marriage his daughter born "ex Pauli Asanis, patris Matthæi, filia, uxore legitima"[314].  She was taken into the harem of Sultan Mohammed II 30 May 1460, later released[315].  Sultan Mohamed II & his first [wife] had one child:

a)         BAYEZID (Jan 1448-1512).  He succeeded his father in 1481 as Sultan BAYEZID II

-        LATER OTTOMAN SULTANS.

Sultan Mohamed II & his third [wife] had one child:: 

b)         MUSTAFA (1450-Karamania Jun 1474, bur Bursa). 

Sultan Mohamed II & his fourth [wife] had one child:: 

c)         CEM (Istanbul 22 Dec 1459-near Naples 25 Feb 1495, bur 1499 Bursa).  He declared himself Sultan of Anatolia in opposition to his half-brother but was defeated and fled to Rhodos where he was given refuge by the Knights of St John[316]

Sultan Murad II & his seventh wife had one child: 

4.         AHMED (1450-murdered 1451).  He was murdered on the orders of his half-brother Sultan Mohamed II[317]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    AZERBAIJAN

 

 

 

A.      FAMILY of SOKMAN

 

 

1.         SOKMAN el-KOTBI (-[1103/04]).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 493 (1099/1100) "Sokman…el-Kotbi…ancien mamlouc d'Ismail…prince seldjoukide qui regnait à Merend dans l'Azerbaidjan" captured Khelat from "la famille des Merouan princes de Diar-Bekr", explaining that he had received the name "el-Kotbi" because his master bore the title "Kotb ed-Din" (pivot of the religion)[318].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 497 (1103/04) of "Sokman el-Kotbi seigneur de Khelat"[319]m (a) INANEDJ, daughter of ORCOMAZ.  Abul-Feda records that "leur mère Inanedj, fille d'Orcomaz" seized power after the death of her son Ahmed and took as her associate "son petit-fils Socman Ibn Ibrahim" who was six years old[320].  Sokman & wife (a) had two children: 

a)         DAHIR ed-Din IBRAHIM (-1127).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 521 (1127) of "Dahir ed-Din Ibrahim fils de Socman et souverain de Khelat"[321].  One child: 

i)          SOCMAN ibn Ibrahim ([1121/22]-).  Abul-Feda records that "leur mère Inanedj, fille d'Orcomaz" seized power after the death of her son Ahmed and took as her associate "son petit-fils Socman Ibn Ibrahim" who was six years old[322]

b)         AHMED (-1128).  Abul-Feda records that "son frère Ahmed" succeeded on the death of "Dahir ed-Din Ibrahim fils de Socman et souverain de Khelat" in A.H. 521 (1127) but that he died after ten months[323]

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of ILDEGUIZ

 

 

1.         ILDEGUIZ (-Hamadan [1172/73]).  Abul-Feda records that "Ildeguiz" was "ancien Mamlouc du sultan Mesoud qui l'avait acheté au commencement de sa carrière" and had been granted "Arran et une partie de l'Azerbeidjan" by him[324].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "Ildeguiz" took control "du Djébel, de Reï, d'Isfagan, de l'Azerbéidjan, de l'Arran" and that "les princes de Khélath, du Fars, du Khouzistan" submitted to him, but that he failed to recapture Tbilisi from the Georgians[325].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 568 (1172/73) of "Chems ed-Din Ildeguiz" and the accession of "son fils Mohammed el-Pehlevan", commenting that from the rank of "simple mamlouc" he had become "roi d'Aderbeidjan dans le Djebel, d'Ispahan et de Reï" where sultan "Arslan, fils de Toghril" did not exercise authority[326].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle adds that he died at Hamadan, and that he had been "esclave de Kemal-eddin Alsomaïremy, vizir du sultan Mahmoud" who, after the vizir was killed, passed to the sultan who appointed him "gouverneur de l'Arran" after which he had conquered "la majeure partie de l'Aderbeidjan, des villes du Djebel, telles que Hamadan, ainsi que de Ispahan, Rei"[327].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Ildeguiz" died in A.H. 568 (1172/73) one month after his wife[328]m as her second husband, ---, widow of Sultan TUGHRIL, daughter of --- (-[1172/73]).  Abul-Feda records that "Ildeguiz avait épousé la mère d'Arslan-Chah"[329].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "la mère du sultan Arslan" died in A.H. 568 (1172/73)[330].  Two children: 

a)         MOHAMMED (-[1186/87]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 568 (1172/73) of "Chems ed-Din Ildeguiz" and the accession of "son fils Mohammed el-Pehlevan"[331].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "son fils et successeur Al-Behlévan" (referring to "Ildeguiz") failed to recapture Tbilisi from the Georgians[332].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that, after the accession of "Thogril, fils d'Arslan", "les rênes des affaires…furent tenues par son oncle paternal l'atabeg Mohammed, fils d'Ildéguiz", adding that he lived for ten years after the sultan's accession[333].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Mohammed" died "dans l'Iran…à Reï, au mois de dzou'lhidjdjeh de cette meme année", the only year being specified earlier in the text being AH 581 (1185)[334].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 582 (1186/87) of "El-Pehlevan Mohammed fils d'Ildeguiz et seigneur du paus d'El-Djebel, de Hamadan, de Reï, d'Ispahan, de l'Aderbeidjan, d'Arraniya" and the accession of "son frère Othman, surnommé Kizil-Arslan"[335]m (b) as her first husband, [FIRNAH] Khatun, daughter of INANEJ.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Mohammed" married "la fille d'Inanedj [Firnah] Khatoun", stating that "Inanedj-Cotloug" was born to this marriage[336].  She married secondly her brother-in-law, Kijil Arslan.  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Kizil-Arslan" married "la veuve de son frère --- Khatoun, fille d'Inanedj" after the death of "l'atabeg Mohammed"[337].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Toghril married "--- Khatoun, mère d'Inandedj-Cotlough" in an attempt to make peace but that she conspired with her son and was poisoned by her new husband[338].  It is not clear from this text whether she was the same wife of Mohammed who had married Kilij Arslan after her first husband's death.  Mohammed had one child by an unknown mother: 

i)          TOGHRIL .  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi names "Mohammed fils de Thogril, fils de Mohammed…oncle paternel du sultan Thogril"[339].  One child: 

(a)       MOHAMMED .  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that, after the accession of "Thogril, fils d'Arslan", "Mohammed fils de Thogril, fils de Mohammed…oncle paternal du sultan Thogril" went "vers la province d'Iraq", apparently in rebellion from the context of the passage[340]

Mohammed & his wife (b) had one child: 

ii)         KUTLUG INANEDJ .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Mohammed" married "la fille d'Inanedj [Firnah] Khatoun", stating that "Inanedj-Cotloug" was born to this marriage[341].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "Cotloug-Inanedj, fils de l'atabeg Mohammed" rebelled against Sultan Toghril and captured Isfahan, withdrew "à Zendjan, par la route de Saveh", and defeated the sultan[342].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Toghril married "--- Khatoun, mère d'Inandedj-Cotlough" in an attempt to make peace, that she conspired with her son and was poisoned by her new husband, and that Toghril imprisoned Kutlug Inanedj but later released him "sur l'intercession des grands de l'Etat", after which Kutlug disputed "à son frère Nosret-eddin Abou-Becr la possession de l'Azerbaïdjan" and defeated him[343]

Mohammed had two children by an unknown mother or mothers: 

iii)        NOSRET ed-DIN ABU BAKR (-1210).  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Nosret-eddin-Abou-Becr, fils de Mohammed" left for Azerbaijan the same night when Kijil Arslan was murdered and succeeded to the throne[344].  Abul-Feda records that the Georgians captured "Dovin, dans l'Azerbeidjan" in A.H. 599 (1202/03) from "l'émir Abou Becr Ibn el-Pehlevan'" who drank continually and completely neglected the administration of his lands[345].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records Kutlug defeated "son frère Nosret-eddin Abou-Becr" who fled from Azerbaijan to "Kharezm-Chah-Tacach-Khan"[346].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Nosret-eddin-Abou-Becr, fils de Mohammed, fils d'Ildeguiz" led Azerbaijan for 20 years after the death of his uncle Kijil Arslan and died in AH 607 (1210)[347]m ([1205]) [as her first husband,] [RUSUDAN] of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT Soslan of Ossetia & his wife Thamar I Queen of Georgia [(1195-Tbilisi [1244/47], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral)].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "Abou-Becr, fils d'Al-Behlévan, prince de l'Azerbeïdjan et de l'Arran" married "la fille du roi des Géorgiens" in AH 602 (1205) to prevent further Georgian incursions into his territory[348].  Abul-Feda records that "Abou Becr Ibn el-Pehlevan" married "la fille du roi des Géorgiens" in A.H. 602 (1205/06), commenting that he neglected the administration of his lands "ne songeant qu'à boire" and that the marriage put an end to hostilities with the Georgians[349].  The date indicates that the "roi des Géorgiens" in question must have been Davit Soslan, although it is not known whether the bride was Rusudan or another daughter. 

iv)       MUZAFFAR ed-DIN UZBEG (-Alendjak 1225).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 588 (1194) war broke out between "Modaffar ed-Din Uzbec, fils d'El-Pehlewan Mohammed et petit-fils d'Ildeguiz" and "Toghril Ibn Arslan"[350].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "le prince d'Azerbeidjan, Uzbek, fils d'Al-Behlévan" did not attempt to attack the Tatars as they travelled through his territory, but afterwards agreed an alliance with Georgia to combat them, dated to before AH 617 (1221)[351].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "son frère Mozaffer-eddin-Uzbeg" succeeded "l'atabeg Nosret-eddin-Abou-Becr, fils de Mohammed, fils d'Ildeguiz" in Azerbaijan and ruled for 15 years, dying "dans le château d'Alendjak de chagrin et des suites d'une colique" in AH 622 (1225) after "le sultan Djelal-eddin-Mankberni Kharezm-Chah" seized Azerbaijan[352].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 622 (1225) "Djelal ed-Din" invaded Azerbaidjan and captured its capital Tauris which "le souverain Modaffer Din Uzbec Ibn el-Pehlwan Ibn Ildeguiz" had abandoned, the latter fleeing to "Kendja, ville située dans la province d'Arran près de Berda'a, ville avoisinant la Géorgie"[353]m as her first husband, ---, daughter of Sultan TOGHRIL.  Abul-Feda records that "Modaffer Din Uzbec Ibn el-Pehlwan Ibn Ildeguiz" married "la fille du sultan Toghril", and that "Djelal ed-Din" married her in A.H. 622 (1225) as her second husband after proving to the kadi of Tauris that her first husband had divorced her[354].  She married secondly (1225) Djelal ed-Din King of Kharezm.  One child: 

(a)       KHAMUSH .  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "son fils Khamouch et son esclave Caradjah" tried to seize power in Azerbaijan after the death of "Mozaffer-eddin-Uzbeg" but that the kingdom fell into the hands of the "Kharezmchahi"[355]

b)         KIJIL ARSLAN (-murdered Hamadan 12 Jul 1192).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 582 (1186/87) of "El-Pehlevan Mohammed fils d'Ildeguiz et seigneur du paus d'El-Djebel, de Hamadan, de Reï, d'Ispahan, de l'Aderbeidjan, d'Arraniya" and the accession of "son frère Othman, surnommé Kizil-Arslan"[356]The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that, after the accession of "Thogril, fils d'Arslan", "le commandement de l'armée fut confié à son autre oncle Kizil-Arslan"[357].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Kizil-Arslan" was defeated by Sultan Toghril "dans les environs de Dameghan", and withdrew "à Reï, puis dans l'Azerbaïdjan"[358].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "Kizil Arslan" captured Sultan Toghril and "son fils Melik-Chah", sent them to Azerbaijan where they were imprisoned "dans le château de Kehran", and himself succeeded as sultan but was found murdered on the day he was to ascend the throne "dans le mois de chevval de l'année 587" (1191), his death being blamed on the "fedaï Mélahideh"[359].  Abul-Feda records the death "vers la fin du mois de djomada second" in A.H. 588 (12 Jul 1192) of "Othman fils d'Ildeguiz et surnommé Kizil-Arslan", killed in his bed at Hamadan after declaring himself sultan[360]m as her second husband, ---, widow of MOHAMMED, daughter of INANEJ.  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "l'atabeg Kizil-Arslan" married "la veuve de son frère --- Khatoun, fille d'Inanedj" after the death of "l'atabeg Mohammed"[361]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    EGYPT

 

 

The Ayubids conquered Egypt in 1169.  Abul-Feda records that "Salah ed-Din" deposed El Aded (last Fatimid caliph in Egypt) in A.H. 566 (1170/71) and proclaimed the caliphate of Baghdad in Egypt[362].  His nephew el-Kamel was proclaimed sultan in Egypt. 

 

 

 

A.      SULTANS of EGYPT (AYUBIDS)

 

 

El-Malek el-KAMEL MOHAMMED, son of ABU BEKR el-Malek el-ADEL ([1177/78]-8 Mar 1238).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 612 (1215/16) "El-Malec el-Camel, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel (et son lieutenant en Egypte)" sent "son fils El-Malec el-Mesoud Iouçef, surnommé Aksis" to Yemen as governor[363]Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records the death "le 21 de redjeb" in A.H. 636 (8 Mar 1238) of "El-Camel" aged "environ 60 ans"[364]

m (a) ---, daughter of Sultan YUSUF ibn Ayub SALAH ed-Din.  Abul-Feda records that the daughter of Salah ed-Din later married "son cousin El-Malec el-Camel souverain d'Egypte"[365]

[m] (b) WERD-el-Muna, daughter of ---.  Abul-Feda names "une esclave négresse Ouerd-el-Mouna" as mother of "El-Malec es-Saleh…Ayoub"[366]

El-Kamel had two children by unknown mothers: 

1.         El-Malek el-MESOUD YUSUF (-Mecca 1229).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 612 (1215/16) "El-Malec el-Camel, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel (et son lieutenant en Egypte)" sent "son fils El-Malec el-Mesoud Iouçef, surnommé Aksis" to Yemen as governor, where he captured "Soleiman fils de Sa'd ed-Din Chahanchah" and sent him in chains to Egypt[367].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 626 (1229) of "El-Malec el-Mesoud Youçof, fils d'El-Malec el-Camel et souverain du Yémen"[368].  Three or more children: 

a)         YUSUF .  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 626 (1229) of "El-Malec el-Mesoud Youçof, fils d'El-Malec el-Camel et souverain du Yémen" and the succession of "un fils en bas âge…Youçof" adding that he ruled until the reign of "son oncle El-Malec es-Saleh Ayub souverain d'Egypte" then died leaving "un fils en bas âge El-Malec el Achraf Mouça" whom the Mameluks placed on the throne of Egypt after the assassination of "El-Malec el-Moaddem"[369].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek el-ASHRAF MUSAAbul-Feda records the death in A.H. 626 (1229) of "El-Malec el-Mesoud Youçof, fils d'El-Malec el-Camel et souverain du Yémen" and the succession of "un fils en bas âge…Youçof" adding that he ruled until the reign of "son oncle El-Malec es-Saleh Ayub souverain d'Egypte" then died leaving "un fils en bas âge El-Malec el Achraf Mouça" whom the Mameluks placed on the throne of Egypt after the assassination of "El-Malec el-Moaddem"[370]Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records that "Moussa fils de Youssof et petit-fils de Youssof prince de Yémen" as sultan after "El-Malec el-Moaddem Touran-Chah, fils d'El-Malec es-Saleh Nedjm-ed-Din Ayoub" was killed in A.H. 648 (1250/51) at Fareskur, and that he took the title "El-Malec el Achraf" and was enthroned 5 Aug 1250[371].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Moezz Aibec el-Torcomani" deposed "le prince El-Achraf Moussa" in Egypt in A.H. 652 ([1254/55]) and sent him to "ses tantes le Kothiennes"[372]

b)         daughters .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Moezz Aibec el-Torcomani" deposed "le prince El-Achraf Moussa" in Egypt in A.H. 652 ([1254/55]) and sent him to "ses tantes le Kothiennes"[373]

2.         El-Malek el-ADEL ABU BAKR ([1216/17]-[1247/48]).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr fils d'El-Camel" succeeded on the death of his father in A.H. 636 (8 Mar 1238)[374]Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records that "Es-Salah Ayoub" defeated "le souverain de l'Egypte El-Malec el-Adel…le 8 de dou'l-kada" in A.H. 637 (31 May 1240)[375].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 645 (1247/48) of "El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr, fils du sultan El-Malec el-Camel (et frère ainé d'Eli-Malec es-Saleh)" in the prison where he had been confined for eight years after his capture at Belbeis, aged 30 years[376].  One child: 

a)         El-Malek el-MOGHITH FETH ed-Din OMAR .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr, fils du sultan El-Malec el-Camel (et frère ainé d'Eli-Malec es-Saleh)" left "un fils en bas âge El-Malec el-Moghith Feth ed-Din Omar"[377]

El-Kamel & his concubine (b) had one child: 

3.         El-Malek es-SALEH NEJM ed-Din AYUB ([1206/09]-23 Nov 1249).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 618 (1222) "El-Malec el-Camel" sent "son fils El-Malec es-Saleh Ayoub", aged 15, as a hostage to the Franks[378].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Camel" captured Amed from "El-Malec el-Mesoud, fils d'El-Malec es-Saleh Mahmoud et petit fils de Mohammed fils de Kara Arslan" in A.H. 629 (1231/32), replacing him by "son fils El-Malec es-Saleh Ayoub"[379].  Abul-Feda records that "Es-Salah Ayoub" defeated "le souverain de l'Egypte El-Malec el-Adel…le 8 de dou'l-kada" in A.H. 637 (31 May 1240)[380]Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records the death "la veille du…15 de chaban" in A.H. 647 (23 Nov 1249) of "El-Malec es-Saleh…Ayoub…titre honorifique Nedjm ed-Din, fils d'El-Malec el-Camel Mohammed et petit-fils d'el-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr…fils d'Ayoub", aged 40[381].  [m] (b) as her first husband, SHEJE ed-DORR, daughter of --- (-3 May 1257).  Abul-Feda names "sa concubine Chedje ed-Dorr", referring to "El-Malec es-Saleh…Ayoub", adding that she arranged the accession of "El-Malec el-Moaddem Touran-Chah" after Es-Saleh died[382].  Abul-Feda records that "Chedjer-ed-Dorr veuve d'el-Malec es-Saleh" was placed at the head of the government after "El-Malec el-Moaddem Touran-Chah, fils d'El-Malec es-Saleh Nedjm-ed-Din Ayoub" was killed in A.H. 648 (1250/52)[383].  She married secondly ([1255/56]) El-Moezz-Aibek.  Abul-Feda records that "El-Moezz Aibec" married "Chedjer ed-Dorr, la princesse qui avait été sultane d'Egypte" in A.H. 653 ([1255/56])[384].  Abul-Feda records that "Chedjer-ed-Dorr" assassinated her husband "Moezz Aibe el Torcoman", in A.H. 655 (1257/58), after being informed that he had asked "Bedr ed-Din Loulou prince de Mosul" for his daughter in marriage, after which she sent his finger and ring to "l'émir Eizz ed-Din" at Aleppo proposing that he assume her late husband's place but he did not dare[385].  Abul-Feda records that "Chedjer-ed-Dorr" was removed from the royal palace to "la Tour Rouge", in A.H. 655 (1257/58), after "un fils d'Aibec…Nour ed-Din Ali…El-Malec el-Mansour" was installed as sultan, and murdered there "le 16 de rebia second" (3 May 1257), her body being thrown from the tower, adding that she was "d'origine turque ou, dit-on, arménienne"[386].  Es-Saleh Ayub had one child by an unknown mother: 

a)         El-Malek el-MOGHITH FETH ed-Din OMAR (-[1244/45]).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malek es-Saleh (Ayub)" appointed "son fils El-Malec el-Moghith Feth ed-Din Omar" as his lieutenant in Damascus after leaving for Egypt in A.H. 636 (1238/39)[387].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec es-Saleh Ayoub" learnt in A.H. 642 (1244/45) that "son fils El-Malec el-Moghith Feth ed-Din Omar" had died in the jail in which "Es-Saleh Ismail prince de Damas" had imprisoned him[388]

Es-Saleh Ayub & his concubine (b) had one child: 

b)         KHALIL (-before 23 Nov 1249).  Abul-Feda records that the second son of "El-Malec es-Saleh…Ayoub…titre honorifique Nedjm ed-Din…" predeceased his father[389], recording in a later passage that "Chedjer-ed-Dorr veuve d'el-Malec es-Saleh" had "un fils mort en bas âge Khalil"[390]

c)         El-Malek el-MOADDEM TURAN-SHAH (-[1250/51]).  Abul-Feda records that his only surviving son "El-Malec el-Moaddem Touran-Chah" was the lieutenant of "El-Malec es-Saleh…Ayoub…titre honorifique Nedjm ed-Din" at Hisn-Kaifa and that his father's concubine "Chedje ed-Dorr" arranged his accession after his father died[391]Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Moaddem Touran-Chah, fils d'El-Malec es-Saleh Nedjm-ed-Din Ayoub" was killed in A.H. 648 (1250/51) at Fareskur[392]

4.         FATIMA Khatun .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Camel" betrothed "sa fille Fatema Khatoun" to "El-Malec el-Aziz prince d'Alep" in "le mois de djomada premier" in A.H. 626 (Apr 1229), adding in a later passage that she was taken to her husband in A.H. 629 (1231/32)[393]m (betrothed Apr 1229, married [1231/32]) El-Malik el-AZIZ Prince of Aleppo, son of El-Malek ed-DAHER GHAZI ([1213]-Aleppo Nov 1236). 

5.         GHAZIA Khatun .  Abul-Feda records the marriage in A.H. 626 (1229) of "El-Malec el-Camel…sa fille Ghazia Khatoun" and "El-Modaffer" Prince of Hamah, adding in a later passage that she was taken to her husband in A.H. 629 (1231/32)[394]m (1229, consummated [1231/32]) El-Malek El-MODAFFER MAHMUD Prince of Hamah, son of El-Malek el-MANSUR MOHAMMED Prince of Hamah & his wife Maleka Khatun. 

6.         ASHWARA .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Camel" remarried "En-Nacer" to "sa fille Achouara" in A.H. 634 (1236/37), after having forced them to divorce[395]m (before [1236], divorced, remarried [1236/37]) , son of . 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    IRAN and IRAQ

 

 

In 999, the Ghaznevid dynasty overthrew the Samanid dynasty, who had ruled from the Caspian Sea to the river Indus from 874.  They conquered Afghanistan, Transoxiana, Khorasan, Sidjistan and north-west India, and at one time extended their authority over the lands of the Bouid dynasty in the western part of Persia and Iraq.  The Arab Okailids conquered Mosul in 990, and Aleppo in 1079, continuing to rule in northern Syria and western Iraq until 1086 when their lands were conquered by the Seljukids. 

 

The Oghuz people occupied the steppes of Central Asia from the Altai mountains to the lower Volga in the 10th century.  According to Cahen they underwent "at least a superficial conversion" to Islam in the late 10th century[396].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that the four sons of Saljuq migrated from Turkistan because of poor pasturage in 985/86 and settled "auprès du Nour de Bokhara et du Soghd de Samarcand" where they lived at peace with the Ghaznevid Sultan Mahmud, but that the three surviving brothers migrated further through "le Djeihoun" and settled "aux environs de Niça et d'Abivard"[397].  In 1040, led by the Seljukids, they defeated the Ghaznavids who ruled Iran and migrated westwards into what is now Iraq, the Seljuk chief Tughril Beg entering Baghdad in 1055.  His successor Alp Arslan defeated the Byzantine forces of Emperor Romanos IV at Manzikert in 1071 and invaded Asia Minor. 

 

 

 

A.      SELJUKID SULTANATE

 

 

1.         SALJUQ .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Seldjouk" was "un Turc de la tribu des Kabaks et de la race d'Afraciab"[398].  Saljuq had four children: 

a)         ISRAIL .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Israil, Micail, Mouça-Bigou et Iounis" as the four sons of "Seldjouk", recording that in A.H. 375 (985/86) "ils passèrent du Turkistan dans le Maverannahr, á cause de l'insuffisance des pâturages du premier de ces deux pays" and settled "auprès du Nour de Bokhara et du Soghd de Samarcand", adding that Israil visited the Ghaznevid Sultan Mahmud but was imprisoned "dans la forteresse de Calendjer" where he died after seven years[399]

b)         MIKAIL .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Israil, Micail, Mouça-Bigou et Iounis" as the four sons of "Seldjouk", recording that in A.H. 375 (985/86) "ils passèrent du Turkistan dans le Maverannahr, á cause de l'insuffisance des pâturages du premier de ces deux pays" and settled "auprès du Nour de Bokhara et du Soghd de Samarcand"[400]

-        see below

c)         MUSA ARSLAN BAIGU .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Israil, Micail, Mouça-Bigou et Iounis" as the four sons of "Seldjouk", recording that in A.H. 375 (985/86) "ils passèrent du Turkistan dans le Maverannahr, á cause de l'insuffisance des pâturages du premier de ces deux pays" and settled "auprès du Nour de Bokhara et du Soghd de Samarcand"[401].  Vardan's History names "Sarchuk's son Museapaghoy"[402].  Abul-Feda names "Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his great-great-great-grandson Sultan Kilij Arslan[403].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that the Seljukids defeated "le sultan Maçoudaux environ de Merve, dans la plaine de Zendaiecan" in A.H. 432 (1041/42), adding that "Herat avec le royaume de l'Inde" was given "au vieux Mouça-Bighou"[404].  Musa Arslan Baigu had [one possible child]: 

i)          [KUTLUMUŞ .  The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Kutlumuş.  Abul-Feda names "Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his great-great-grandson Sultan Kilij Arslan[405].  However, Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "le cousin germain de Thoghril-Beg, Cotoulmich, fils d'Israil" when recording that he rebelled against his cousin "Soleiman, fils de Djeghir-Beg" after the death of Tughril-Beg, but was defeated by Alp Arslan at Dameghan and killed during the battle after falling from his horse[406].]  Four children: 

(a)       SÜLEYMAN (-killed in battle 1086).  Abul-Feda names "Soleiman, fils de Koutloumich, fils d'Arslan-Baighou, fils de Seldjouk", when recording the death of his great-grandson Sultan Kilij Arslan[407].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah sent "Soleiman fils de Coutoulmich" to capture Antioch from the Greeks in A.H. 467 (1074), and that in A.H. 471 (1078/79) they captured Samarkand together[408].  He and his brothers rebelled against the Seljuk Sultans.  He invaded Asia Minor in 1073, and founded the Seljuk Sultanate of "Rum".    

-         SELJUK SULTANS of RUM

(b)       MANSUR (-killed in battle [1078]).  He was killed in battle by the Seljuk general Bursuq, on the instructions of Sultan Malik Shah[409]

(c)       son (-1075 or after).  He and his brother were defeated by the Turcoman Atsiz, the master of Palestine, in 1075 and sent to Sultan Malik Shah[410]

(d)       son (-1075 or after).  He and his brother were defeated by the Turcoman Atsiz, the master of Palestine, in 1075 and sent to Sultan Malik Shah[411]

d)         IOUNIS .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Israil, Micail, Mouça-Bigou et Iounis" as the four sons of "Seldjouk", recording that in A.H. 375 (985/86) "ils passèrent du Turkistan dans le Maverannahr, á cause de l'insuffisance des pâturages du premier de ces deux pays" and settled "auprès du Nour de Bokhara et du Soghd de Samarcand"[412]

 

 

MIKAIL, son of SALJUQ .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Israil, Micail, Mouça-Bigou et Iounis" as the four sons of "Seldjouk", recording that in A.H. 375 (985/86) "ils passèrent du Turkistan dans le Maverannahr, á cause de l'insuffisance des pâturages du premier de ces deux pays" and settled "auprès du Nour de Bokhara et du Soghd de Samarcand"[413].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that, after the death of their brother Israil, the three surviving brothers migrated further through "le Djeihoun" and settled "aux environs de Niça et d'Abivard"[414].  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar names "Mikaïl ben Seldjouk" as father of "Rokn ed-Din Togrul-Beg Mohammed"[415]

m ---, daughter of INAL.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "son frère de mère, Ibrahim fils d'Inal", referring to "le sultan Toghril-Beg"[416]

Mikail had four children: 

1.         ABU SALIM .  Vardan's History records that "Sarchuk's son Museapaghoy" had "five nephews (brother's sons)…Abu Salim, Daud, Chagri Beg, Abutalip and Tughril Beg who took the authority of the sultanate"[417]

2.         DAUD .  Vardan's History records that "Sarchuk's son Museapaghoy" had "five nephews (brother's sons)…Abu Salim, Daud, Chagri Beg, Abutalip and Tughril Beg who took the authority of the sultanate"[418].  Abul-Feda records that Sultan Malik Shah was "fils d'Alb-Arslan, fils de Dawoud, fils de Micail, fils de Seldjouk"[419]same person as…?  JEGHIR BEG (-1061).  The sources suggest that Mikail's alleged sons Daud and Jeghir were in fact the same person.  Vardan's History records that "Sarchuk's son Museapaghoy" had "five nephews (brother's sons)…Abu Salim, Daud, Chagri Beg, Abutalip and Tughril Beg who took the authority of the sultanate"[420].  Two Arab sources do not mention Daud when naming Mikail's sons.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Djeghir-Beg et Thogril-Beg" as the two sons of "Micail", adding that they defeated the Ghaznavid Sultan Masud[421].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that the Seljukids defeated "le sultan Maçoudaux environ de Merve, dans la plaine de Zendaiecan" in A.H. 432 (1041/42), adding that "l'aîné des deux frères Djeghir" held Khorasan where Merve was his capital[422].  However, the clue about this co-identity is provided by the Chronicle of Ibn-Alathir which records that "Soleiman, fils de Daoud-Djaghri-Beg, frère du sultan Thoghril-Beg" succeeded on the death of the latter, but that "Baghi Sian et Ardem marchèrent sur Cazouin" and installed "Alp Arslan Mohammed, fils de Daoud Djeghri-Beg, qui était alors prince de Khoraçan", who gave "la ville de Baikh" to his brother Soleiman[423].  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Rokn ed-Din Togrul-Beg Mohammed" sent "Djafar Beg (son frère) du côté de Hérat" and appointed "son oncle" as governor after it was conquered, but that "Djafar-Beg" died in Khorasan in A.H. 453 (1061)[424]m (a) as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly (1061) her brother-in-law, Rokn ed-Din Toghrul Beg Mohammed Seljuk Sultan.  The Chronicle of Ibn-Alathir records that the mother of "Soleiman, fils de Daoud-Djaghri-Beg" married "Thoghril-Beg" after her first husband died[425].  Daud/Jeghir Beg had three children: 

a)         KAVERD (-murdered [late 1072/early 1073]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that the Seljukids defeated "le sultan Maçoudaux environ de Merve, dans la plaine de Zendaiecan" in A.H. 432 (1041/42), adding that "Thabes et le Kerman" were granted to "Caverd, fils de Djeghir-Beg"[426].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Alp Arslan sent "dans le Fars son frère Caverd, fils de Djeghir-Beg", who fought "Fadhlouieh le Chebancareh" and conquered the province of Fars, but adding that Kaverd later rebelled against his brother[427].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son oncle paternal Caverd, fils de Djeghir-Beg" rebelled after the accession of Sultan Malik Shah in 1072 but was captured "dans les environs de Caradj" and poisoned[428]

i)          SULTAN SHAH .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah conferred "l'autorité sur le Kerman" on "son cousin germain Sultan-Chah, fils de Caverd"[429]

Jeghir Beg & his wife (a) had one child: 

b)         SOLEIMAN .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son neveu Soleiman, fils de Djeghir-Beg" succeeded on the death of Tughril Beg, in accordance with the latter's testament[430].  The Chronicle of Ibn-Alathir records that "Soleiman, fils de Daoud-Djaghri-Beg, frère du sultan Thoghril-Beg" succeeded on the death of the latter, but that "Baghi Sian et Ardem marchèrent sur Cazouin" and installed "Alp Arslan Mohammed, fils de Daoud Djeghri-Beg, qui était alors prince de Khoraçan", who gave "la ville de Baikh" to his brother Soleiman[431]

c)         ABU SHEJA ALP ARSLAN MOHAMMED (10 Jan 1030-murdered Nezrem [Nov/Dec] 1072, bur Marand).  The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Alp-Arslan.  Abul-Feda names "Alb-Arslan, fils de Dawoud, fils de Micail, fils de Seldjouk"[432].  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan, Tughril's father's brother's son" succeeded him[433].  However, the Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "son fils le sultan Alp-Arslan" succeeded his father "Djafar Beg [frère de Tughril]" when the latter died in A.H. 453 (1061)[434].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi also names "Alp-Arslan, fils de Djeghir"[435].  He succeeded as second Seljuk Sultan in 1063. 

-        see below

3.         ABUTALIP .  Vardan's History records that "Sarchuk's son Museapaghoy" had "five nephews (brother's sons)…Abu Salim, Daud, Chagri Beg, Abutalip and Tughril Beg who took the authority of the sultanate"[436]

4.         ROKN ed-Din TUGHRIL Beg MOHAMMED ([992/93]-Kasran-Birouni or Rei 4 Sep 1063).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi names "Djeghir-Beg et Thogril-Beg" as the two sons of "Micail", adding that they defeated the Ghaznavid Sultan Masud and that "le sultan Toghril-Beg" sat on the throne of Masud at "Nichabour" in A.H. 429 (1037/38) and received the title king, entrusting the government to "son frère de mère, Ibrahim fils d'Inal"[437].  Vardan's History records that "Sarchuk's son Museapaghoy" had "five nephews (brother's sons)…Abu Salim, Daud, Chagri Beg, Abutalip and Tughril Beg who took the authority of the sultanate"[438].  Seljuk chief.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that the Seljukids defeated "le sultan Maçoudaux environ de Merve, dans la plaine de Zendaiecan" in A.H. 432 (1041/42), that Sultan Mahmud "se livra entièrement à la boisson", and that Tughril chose "l'Iraq-Adjem" has his share where he made Rei his capital, before conquering "l'Irak, l'Azerbeidjan, le Curdistan et le Khouzistan"[439].  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Rokn ed-Din Togrul-Beg Mohammed" and "Djafar Beg (son frère)" defeated "le sultan Massoud le Gaznévide", conquered "la ville de Balkh…capitale de l'empire et la province de Kharizm", and entered Baghdad in A.H. 447 (1055) where "Caim-Biamr-Allah khalife Abbaside" gave him "le surnom de Rokn-ed-Din"[440].  He entered Baghdad in 1055 and received the title Sultan from the Caliph[441].  The Georgian Chronicle records that "a certain man from Turkistan…Dughlubak grew strong" and became sultan[442].  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Ibrahim-Inal…oncle maternel de Togrul-Beg" rebelled and marched on "la ville de Hamadan" but was defeated and killed in A.H. 453 (1061)[443].  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Togrul-Beg" died in Rei in A.H. 455 (1063), aged 70 years having reigned 26 years, and that his wedding was changed to a funeral[444].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi specifies that Tughril-Beg died "le 8 de ramadhan" in A.H. 455 (4 Sep 1063) after suffering a hemorrhage at "Casran-Birouni"[445]m (a) (1061) as her second husband, ---, widow of JEGHIR Beg, daughter of ---.  m (b) (1063, non-consummated) SEIDEH, daughter of KAIM Biamr-Allah Caliph of Baghdad.  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Togrul-Beg" married "la fille du khalife" in A.H. 455 (1063) in Rei, but that her husband died and the wedding was turned into a funeral[446].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the marriage of "la fille du khalife Seideh-Khatoun" and Tughril-Beg, adding that the marriage was not consummated and that she returned to Baghdad after her husband died[447]

 

 

ABU SHEJA ALP ARSLAN MOHAMMED, son of [DAUD/JEGHIR Beg] (10 Jan 1030-murdered Nezrem [Nov/Dec] 1072, bur Marand).  The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Alp-Arslan.  Abul-Feda names "Alb-Arslan, fils de Dawoud, fils de Micail, fils de Seldjouk"[448].  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan, Tughril's father's brother's son" succeeded him[449].  However, the Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "son fils le sultan Alp-Arslan" succeeded his father "Djafar Beg [frère de Tughril]" when the latter died in A.H. 453 (1061)[450].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi also names "Alp-Arslan, fils de Djeghir"[451].  He succeeded his uncle in 1063 as second Seljuk Sultan.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the succession of "Alp Arslan" who was given the title "sultan Adhed-Eddaulah-Alp-Arslan Borhan émir el-Mouminin" by the caliph[452].  The Georgian Chronicle records that "his son Arpaslan" succeeded "Dughlubak" as sultan and captured "all of Kartli…Ani capital of Armenia" and demanded as a wife from Bagrat IV King of Georgia "his uncle's daughter who was daughter of Kiwrike the Armenian king" whom he abducted (although she was recovered)[453].  Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan intensified raids on Byzantine territory, destroying the former Armenian capital Ani in 1064, and by 1066 was in full control of Armenia[454].  The Seljuk Turks raided the Byzantine cities of Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ in 1070[455].  He inflicted a crushing defeat on Emperor Romanos IV at Manzikert 19 Aug 1071, capturing the emperor and forcing a tribute from Byzantium.  Alp Arslan released Emperor Romanos, but when the latter was overthrown considered that his agreement with Byzantium was nul and void.  He proceeded with his invasion of Asia Minor.  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records the death in A.H. 465 (1072) of "Alp-Arslan", murdered at the siege of Nezrem on the banks of the river Djihoun by the town's governor "Iousouf-Kutwal", adding that he was born "le second jour du mois de moharrem" in A.H. 421 (10 Jan 1030)[456].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi adds that Alp Arslan was killed "dans le mois de rebi" in A.H. 465 (Nov/Dec 1072)[457]

m ([before 1063], repudiated) as her first husband, --- of Lorhi, daughter of --- of Lorhi & his wife [Cata] of Georgia.  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…came to Armenia" took "the daughter of the Georgian king Bagarat's sister", the text implying that the invasion of Armenia took place before Alp Arslan succeeded as Seljuk sultan in 1063[458].  The identity of Alp Arslan's wife is not completely certain.  However, it appears likely that she was the daughter of King Bagrat's sister who married the Armenian lord of Lorhi as his other known surviving sister is associated with Emperor Konstantinos X Monomachos (see GEORGIA).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “le sulthan…Alp Arslan” married “Goriguê, fils de David Anbogh´in…sa fille[459], which confirms that the princess was a member of the family of the princes of Lorhi but substitutes Kiwrike King of Lorhi for his supposed brother Smbat as her father.  However, as noted above, the identity of Smbat as a separate person depends only on the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which, as discussed more fully in the document GEORGIA, cannot be considered an entirely reliable source.  It is therefore possible that Kiwrike and Smbat refer to the same person, who was the father of Alp Arslan´s wife.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Alp Arslan conquered Armenia and marred "the king's daughter", without being more specific about her identity, but states that he repudiated her "après un certain temps" and ordered "Nizam el-mulc" to marry her, adding that they had "plusieurs enfants…entre autres, Khodjah-Ahmed"[460].  She married secondly Nizam el-Mulk, vizir.    

Alp Arslan had nine children: 

1.         MALIK SHAH ([1053/54]-Baghdad Nov 1092, bur Marand or Isfahan).  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…had eight sons of whom the good and peace-loving Malik Shah" succeeded him[461].  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1072. 

-        see below

2.         TAKASH (-murdered Tikrit 1095).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Tacach frère du sultan" rebelled against Sultan Malik Shah in A.H. 467 (1074) and besieged Nikbabur but was captured and blinded[462].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "l'oncle paternal de Barkiaroc, Tacach", who had been blinded by Sultan Malik Shah, rebelled against his nephew in A.H. 487 (1094) and forced his retreat to Isfahan[463].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Barkiaroc defeated "son oncle Tacach aux environs d'Hamadan" in A.H. 488 (1095) and imprisoned him in the castle of Tikrit where he was killed[464]

3.         TUTUSH (-killed in battle near Rei 1095).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah conferred "la souveraineté de la Syrie" on "son frère Toutouch"[465].  Abul-Feda records that Sultan Malik Shah wanted to establish "son frère Tutuch" in the government of Syria in A.H. 485 (1092/93)[466]

-        SYRIA and MESOPOTAMIA

4.         MOHAMMED .  Abul-Feda names "Mohammed ibn Alb-Arslan" as father of "Yaghi-Sian" Lord of Antioch[467]

a)         YAGHI SIAN (-killed [1097/98]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah sent "Baghi-Sian" to Antioch[468].  Lord of Antioch.  Abul-Feda records that "les Francs" invaded Syria in A. H. 491 (1097/98) and captured Antioch from "Yaghi-Sian" in "le mois de djomada premier" (Apr/May 1098) after a nine month siege, commenting that he was "Turcoman d'origine et fils de Mohammed ibn Alb-Arslan", and that he was beheaded by an Armenian[469].  Albert of Aix names "Darsiani regnatoris Antiochiæ" recording that his palace was "in montanis" and in a later passage "Sansadoniæ et Buldagis filiorum regis Darsiani"[470].  Yaghi Sian had three children: 

i)          SHAMS ed-Din .  Albert of Aix names "Darsiani regnatoris Antiochiæ" recording that his palace was "in montanis" and in a later passage "Sansadoniæ et Buldagis filiorum regis Darsiani"[471].  Albert of Aix records that "Sansadonias, filius Darsani regis Antiochiæ" ransomed "matrem suam cum duobus filiis" from "Willelmi…compatriotæ comitis Reimundi de Provincia" who had captured them when Antioch was occupied, dated to late 1098 from the context[472]

ii)         BULDAGIS .  Albert of Aix names "Darsiani regnatoris Antiochiæ" recording that his palace was "in montanis" and in a later passage "Sansadoniæ et Buldagis filiorum regis Darsiani"[473]

iii)        daughter .  Abul-Feda records that "la fille de Yaghi Sian" was the mother of "Alb-Arslan…El-Akhres (le muet)"[474]m FAKHR al-MULK RADWAN Ruler of Aleppo, son of TUTUSH Ibn Alp-Arslan (-[1113/14]). 

5.         ARSLAN ARGUN (-murdered Merv [1095/97]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son autre oncle Arslan Arghou" (referring to Sultan Barkiarok) rebelled against his nephew but was murdered by a page at Merv, dated to [1095/97] from the context[475]

6.         three other sons .  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…had eight sons"[476]

7.         daughter .  Amatus refers to the emperor (unnamed) giving "his son in marriage to the daughter of the King of the Turks" in order to obtain his release and that of Roussel[477].  Although not specified in the text, it is assumed that this relates to the release of Emperor Romanos IV following the battle of Manzikert in Aug 1071, in which case the son in question was unlikely to have been Konstantinos who was then already married.  It is not known which of the emperor's sons this passage refers to, but it presumably must have been a son by his first marriage as his sons by his second marriage were still infants at the time.  The accuracy of this report must be doubtful, but if it is correct it is not necessarily the case that the marriage was finalised as the bridegroom would have had to convert to Islam.  [m ([1071/72]) --- Diogenes, son of Emperor ROMANOS Diogenes & his first wife Anna Alusiane.] 

8.         daughter .  Her marriage is confirmed by Hamd Allah Mustaufi which records that, after the death of Sultan Malik Shah, his widow Turkan Khatun returned to "le khalife Moctadi…un fils qu'il avait eu de la sœur de Melic-Chah" in the hope of obtaining his support for the accession of her son Mohammed[478]m Caliph El MOKTADI Bi-Amr, son of --- (-[1094/95]). 

 

 

MALIK SHAH, son of Seljuk Sultan ALP ARSLAN ([1053/54]-Baghdad Nov 1092, bur Marand or Isfahan).  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…had eight sons of whom the good and peace-loving Malik Shah" succeeded him[479]Kirakos Ganjaketsis's History of Armenia records that "his fortunate son…Malik-Shah" succeeded Alp Arslan, "did good things for all his subjects, especially for the Armenians", ruled for 20 years, but died "through his wife's poison"[480].  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1072.  The Georgian Chronicle records that "Sultan Melik Shah" captured "captured Shamshoyte, looted Kartli and turned to Gandzak" but that Giorgi King of Georgia agreed a peace treaty, leaving his son as hostage[481].  Abul-Feda records that Sultan Malik Shah died in Baghdad from illness after hunting in A.H. 485 (1092/93)[482].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah died "dans le mois de chevval" in A.H. 485 (Nov 1092) after hunting in Baghdad, aged 38, adding that the title he received from the caliph was "sultan Djelal-Eddaulah-Moizz-eddin-Melic-Chah-Iemin emir al-mouminin" and that he was buried in his capital Isfahan[483].  Vardan's History records that "the peace loving sultan was poisoned by his wife" in 1092 and was buried "at Marand near his father Alp Arslan"[484].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Melik-Schah” died at Baghdad after being poisoned by “la fille du sulthan de Samarkande, sa femme” and was buried “dans la ville de Marand, auprès de son père Alp-Arslan”, in “l´année 541 [27 Feb 1092/25 Feb 1093]”[485]

[m (a) (after 19 Aug 1071) --- [Diogenissa], daughter of Emperor ROMANOS IV Diogenes & his [first] wife ---.  The Khelassat-oul-akhbar records that "Alp-Arslan" defeated and captured "le roi de Roum Ormanus", presumably referring to the battle of Manzikert, requesting "sa fille en mariage pour son fils Malek-Arslan"[486].  The accuracy of this report is doubtful, especially in light of the report of Alp-Arslan requesting the emperor's son in marriage for his daughter, in Amatus (see below), which suggests that the whole episode may have been garbled or romanticised by one or both of the sources.  If the late Persian source is accurate, the difference in religion would not necessarily have prevented the marriage from taking place as other primary sources show that the sultans of the various dynasties often married Christian wives.] 

m (b) ---, daughter of ARGUN.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “la fille d´Argoun, grand émir et parent d´Alp Arslan” as the mother of Malik Shah´s son “Barkiarok”, adding that “l´émir Ismayl, frère d´Argoun, son oncle maternel” was his regent, although a later passage names him “l´émir Ismayl, fils d´Argoun et frère de sa mere” adding that he was strangled by “Bouzan [et] Ak-Sonkor[487]

m (c) his cousin, ZOBEIDAH, daughter of YAKUTI.  Her origin is indicated by Hamd Allah Mustaufi which records that "Turcan-Khatoun" seduced "l'émir Cothb-eddin Ismail [Iacouti]…oncle maternel de Barkiaroc" and promised to marry him if he fought his nephew her step-son, adding that Barkivarok defeated him "dans les environs de Caradj" and killed him "dans le mois de Ramadan" in A.H. 486 (Sep/Oct 1093)[488]

m (d) ([1078/79]) TURKAN Khatun, daughter of TOGMAJ Khan (-[Sep/Oct] 1094).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah married "Turcan-Khatoun, fille de Thogmadj-Khan, fils de Bogra-Khan, fils de Nasr, fils d'Ilek-Khan, fils de Boghra-Khan l'Ancien" in A.H. 471 (1078/79)[489].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Turkan Khatun conspired for the dismissal of her husband's vizir Nizam-el-Mulc and his replacement by "Tadj-eddin Abou'l Ghanaim, naib de Turcan-Khatoun"[490].  Abul-Feda records that "Turcan Khatoun, femme de Malec Chah" concealed the death of her husband, and left for Isfahan where the troops swore homage to her son Mohammed[491].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "dans le mois de ramadan" in A.H. 487 (Sep/Oct 1094) of "Turcan-Khatoun"[492]

m (e) ---.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “la fille du sulthan de Samarkande” as the mother of Malik Shah´s son “Daphar[493]

m (f) --- (-[1121/22]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death in A.H. 515 (1121/22) of "la mère du Sultan Sinjar"[494]

Sultan Malik Shah & his wife (b) had one child: 

1.         BARKIAROK ([1079/80]-Berujerd [Feb/Mar] 1105]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that his vizir Nizam-el-Mulc persuaded Sultan Malik Shah to choose "son fils aîné Barkiaroc" as his heir, while "Turcan-Khatoun" wanted him to choose "son propre fils Mahmoud"[495].  Vardan's History names "Bekiarux and Sapan" as the two sons of Malik Shah, recording that "Dudush Malik Shah's brother became sultan in the Byzantine parts, while Bekiarux ruled over Persia and Armenia"[496]Kirakos Ganjaketsis's History of Armenia records that Malik Shah's "brother Dtush and his son Bekiaruk" succeeded on the death of their brother and father, but "tore the land apart" during "four years of unnarratable disturbances", ending when "Bakiarukh…murdered Tutush"[497].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "ses fils Barkiaroc et Mohammed" fought each other after the death of "Mélic-Chah"[498].  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1092.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Barkiaroc" left Isfahan on the death of his father and was placed on the throne at Rei, in defiance of his step-mother[499].  Vardan's History records that "the senior brother Bakarux" crushed "Sultan Mahmud" and "took the throne for five years"[500].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that, after the death of Mahmud, Barkiaroc received the titles "sultan Rocn-eddin Iemin emir Al-Mouminin" from the caliph[501].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 499 (1104/05) of "sultan Barkvarok…à Beroudjerd" aged 25 years[502].  Vardan's History records that "Sultan Berk-Yaruq" died in [24 Feb 1104/22 Feb 1105] and was succeeded by "his brother Tapar"[503].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "dans le mois de djomada second" in A.H. 498 (Feb/Mar 1105) of Sultan Barkiarok "à Ouroudjerd", aged 25[504]m ---.  The name of Barkiarok's wife is not known.  Vardan's History records that Tutush received a "message…from Berk-Yaruq's wife telling him to come to Persia, be her man and take all her land", following which Tutush went "to the plain of Ispahan" where he was killed[505].  One child: 

a)         MALIK SHAH ([1099/1100]-).  Abul-Feda records that "sultan Barkvarok" had required his troops to swear fidelity "à son fils Malec-Chah, enfant de quatre ans et huit mois" before dying, but his son recognised his paternal uncle Mohammed as sultan[506].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that his uncle Mohammed imprisoned "Melik-Chah, fils de Barkiaroc" after the death of his father[507]

Sultan Malik Shah & his wife (e) had one child: 

2.         MOHAMMED [Tapar] ([1081/82]-18 Apr 1118, bur Isfahan).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Mohammed, fils de Melik-Chah…son frère" defeated Sultan Barkiarok "dans le mois de redjeb" in A.H. 493 (May 1100), that Mohammed was defeated in 1101 and again in 1102, but that under the peace agreed "dans le mois de djemada" in A.H. 496 "la Syrie, le Diarbecr, les cantons de l'Irac arrosés par l'Euphrate, l'Azerbaidjan, le Moughan, l'Arran, l'Arménie et la Géorgie" would belong to Mohammed while Barkiarok would retain the other provinces[508].  He succeeded his brother as Seljuk Sultan in 1105. 

-        see below.    

Sultan Malik Shah & his wife (d) had one child: 

3.         MAHMUD ([9 Nov 1086]-[1094/95]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the birth "le 25 de redjeb" in A.H. 479 (9 Nov 1086) "dans Sindjar" of "Sindjar" son of Sultan Malik Shah and his wife Turkan Khatun[509].  However, a later passage in the same source records the death in A.H. 515 (1121/22) of "la mère du Sultan Sinjar"[510], which confirms that Turkun Khatun (whose death is recorded in 1094) could not have been the mother of Sultan Sinjar.  The birth in 1086 must refer to Sinjar's half-brother Mahmud, or to another son of Turkun Khatun who died young.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that his vizir Nizam-el-Mulc persuaded Sultan Malik Shah to choose "son fils aîné Barkiaroc" as his heir, while "Turcan-Khatoun" wanted him to choose "son propre fils Mahmoud", and that after the sultan died in 1092 his mother persuaded the caliph to recognise Mahmud as his father's successor[511].  Abul-Feda records that Mahmud, son of "Turcan Khatoun, femme de Malec Chah", was four years and a few months when his father died, was proclaimed sultan in Isfahan but died in A.H. 487 (1094/95) from smallpox[512]

Sultan Malik Shah & his wife (f) had one child: 

4.         SINJAR ([1084/85]-8 May 1157).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the birth "le 25 de redjeb" in A.H. 479 (9 Nov 1086) "dans Sindjar" of "Sindjar" son of Sultan Malik Shah and his wife Turkan Khatun[513].  However, a later passage in the same source records the death in A.H. 515 (1121/22) of "la mère du Sultan Sinjar"[514], which confirms that Turkun Khatun (whose death is recorded in 1094) could not have been the mother of Sultan Sinjar.  The birth in 1086 must refer to Sinjar's half-brother Mahmud, or to another son of Turkun Khatun who died young.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sinjar succeeded as Seljuk Sultan after the death of his brother Mohammed in 1118, the caliph Mostarkhid granting him the title "sultan Moizz-eddin Sindjar Borhan émir al-mouminin", and that he defeated "son neveu Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed" who fled "à Saveh"[515].  Vardan's History records the death in [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120] of "Tapar the sultan of Persia", recording also that "he had his senior wife Gohar Khatun killed…so that…she not take as a husband my brother who holds the inner lands of Persia", although the passage does not name Tapar's brother[516].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that war broke out between "le sultan Sindjar et son neveu Mahmoud" in "le mois de djoumada premier" in A.H. 513 (Aug 1119)[517].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar defeated "le sultan Behram-Chah le Ghaznévide" in A.H. 530 (1135/36), settled a dispute with "le Kharezm-Chah Atsiz" by a peace treaty under which the sultan confirmed him in his principality, and in A.H. 535 (1140/41) was defeated by "le khan du (Cara) Khitai"[518].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "le 26 rebi premier" in A.H. 552 (8 May 1157) of Sultan Sinjar aged 72[519]m TURKAN Khatun, daughter of --- (-1156).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Turcan-Khatoun, femme du sultan Sindjar…" was among those taken prisoner, but later released, in A.H. 535 (1140/41) when Sultan Sinjar was defeated by "le khan du (Cara) Khitai"[520].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death in early A.H. 551 (1156) of "Turcan-Khatoun"[521]m ([1151/54]) as her second husband, RUSUDAN of Georgia, widow of IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev, daughter of DEMETRE I King of Georgia & his wife --- (-after 1157).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  Sultan Sinjar had two children: 

a)         daughter .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that Mahmud had married the daughter of "sultan Sindjar" before he succeeded as sultan[522].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Mahmud married the two daughters of Sultan Sinjar, by each of whom he had one son[523]m (before 1118) MAHMUD, son of Seljuk Sultan MOHAMMED ([1102/03]-Hamadan [Aug/Sep] 1131).  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1118. 

b)         daughter .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Mahmud married the two daughters of Sultan Sinjar, by each of whom he had one son[524]m MAHMUD, son of Seljuk Sultan MOHAMMED ([1102/03]-Hamadan [Aug/Sep] 1131).  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1118. 

Sultan Malik Shah & his wife --- had two children: 

5.         daughter .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Ala-eddaulé Kerschasf, fils de Feramouz prince de Yezd…[de] la famille des princes du Dilem" had married "les sultans Mohammed et Sindjar…leur sœur"[525]m ALA ed-Daule KERSHAF, son of FERAMUZ Prince of Yezd. 

6.         daughter .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "le 26 rebi premier" in A.H. 552 (8 May 1157) of Sultan Sinjar and the succession of "le fils de sa sœur, Mahmoud-Khan, fils de Mohammed-Khan, de la postérité de Boghra-Khan"[526]m MOHAMMED Khan, son of ---.  One child: 

a)         MAHMUD Khan (-after Sep 1162).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "le 26 rebi premier" in A.H. 552 (8 May 1157) of Sultan Sinjar and the succession of "le fils de sa sœur, Mahmoud-Khan, fils de Mohammed-Khan, de la postérité de Boghra-Khan", who was deposed "dans le mois de Ramadan" by "Mouveiyed-Aibeh" in A.H. 557 (Sep 1162) and blinded, at which time Khorazan was divided between the latter, the Kharezmshah and the Ghourids[527]

 

 

MOHAMMED [Tapar], son of Seljuk Sultan MALIK SHAH ([1081/82]-18 Apr 1118, bur Isfahan).  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "ses fils Barkiaroc et Mohammed" fought each other after the death of "Mélic-Chah"[528].  Vardan's History names "Bekiarux and Sapan" as the two sons of Malik Shah[529].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Mohammed, fils de Melik-Chah…son frère" defeated Sultan Barkiarok "dans le mois de redjeb" in A.H. 493 (May 1100), that Mohammed was defeated in 1101 and again in 1102, but that under the peace agreed "dans le mois de djemada" in A.H. 496 "la Syrie, le Diarbecr, les cantons de l'Irac arrosés par l'Euphrate, l'Azerbaidjan, le Moughan, l'Arran, l'Arménie et la Géorgie" would belong to Mohammed while Barkiarok would retain the other provinces[530].  Vardan's History records that "Sultan Berk-Yaruq" died in [24 Feb 1104/22 Feb 1105] and was succeeded by "his brother Tapar"[531].  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…had eight sons of whom the good and peace-loving Malik Shah" and "after him was Sultan Mahmud"[532].  He succeeded his brother as Seljuk Sultan in 1105.  Abul-Feda records the death "24 du mois de dou'l-hiddja" in A.H. 511 (18 Apr 1118) of "le sultan Mohammed, fils de Malec-Chah" aged 36 years and 4 months and the succession of "son fils Mahmoud…dans sa quinzième année"[533].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi adds that Sultan Mohammed was buried in Isfahan, and was aged 37[534].  Vardan's History records the death in [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120] of "Tapar the sultan of Persia", recording also that "he had his senior wife Gohar Khatun killed…so that…she not take as a husband my brother who holds the inner lands of Persia"[535]

m GOHAR Khatun, daughter of --- (-killed [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120]).  Vardan's History records the death in [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120] of "Tapar the sultan of Persia", recording also that "he had his senior wife Gohar Khatun killed…so that…she not take as a husband my brother who holds the inner lands of Persia"[536]

Sultan Mohammed had six children: 

1.         MAHMUD ([1102/03]-Hamadan 6 Sep 1131).  Abul-Feda records the death "24 du mois de dou'l-hiddja" in A.H. 511 (18 Apr 1118) of "le sultan Mohammed, fils de Malec-Chah" aged 36 years and 4 months and the succession of "son fils Mahmoud…dans sa quinzième année"[537].  Vardan's History records that "Tapar the sultan of Persia" gave "the cities of Awzkan and Xzne…to his senior son Mahmud"[538].  Vardan's History records that "Sultan Mahmud, Mahmud's son, while still a youth, struck at Berk-Yaruq and took the sultanate for 13 years"[539].  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1118.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar defeated "son neveu Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed" who fled "à Saveh", but granted him "la souveraineté de l'Irac jusqu'à l'extremité de la Syrie", a later passage clarifying that this covered "la souverainté de l'Irac, de l'Azerbaidjan, de Bagdad, du Diarbekr, du Fars, de l'Arran, de l'Arménie et du Gurdjistan" and that the caliph Mostarkhid granted him the title "Moin-Eddin Mahmoud Iemin emir al-mouminin"[540].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that the Georgians had recaptured Tbilisi from "sultan…Mahmoud, fils de Mahmoud" in AH 515 (1121)[541].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de chaouwal" in A.H. 525 (Aug/Sep 1131) of "sultan Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed Ibn Malec-Chah" at "Hamadan" aged 27 years and 9 months, and the accession of "son fils…Dawoud"[542]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the Persian sultan Mahmud, the son of Tapar" died in [1128][543].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "au mois de schoual" in A.H. 525 (Sep 1131) of "le sultan Mahmoud, fils du sultan Mohammed" at Hamadan, aged "d'environ 27 ans"[544].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Mahmud died "le 11 de chevval" in A.H. 525 (6 Sep 1131)[545]m (a) (before 1118) his first cousin, ---, daughter of Sultan SANJAR.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that Mahmud had married the daughter of "sultan Sindjar" before he succeeded as sultan[546].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Mahmud married the two daughters of Sultan Sinjar, by each of whom he had one son[547]m (b) ---, daughter of Sultan SANJAR.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Mahmud married the two daughters of Sultan Sinjar, by each of whom he had one son[548].  Mahmud had three children: 

a)         DAUD (-murdered [1138/39]).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son fils le prince Daouad" succeeded in A.H. 525 (Sep 1131) on the death of "le sultan Mahmoud, fils du sultan Mohammed"[549].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de chaouwal" in A.H. 525 (Aug/Sep 1131) of "sultan Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed Ibn Malec-Chah" at "Hamadan" and the accession of "son fils…Dawoud"[550].  Vardan's History records that "his son Daud" succeeded "Sultan Mahmud, Mahmud's son" and was killed by the Assassins[551].  He succeeded his father as Seljuk Sultan in 1131.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son vizir Cavam-eddin Nacir, fils d'Ali Derkedjini" recognised "le fils de Mahmoud, Daoud" as successor after the death of Sultan Mahmud but that Sultan Sinjar elevated "le frère de Mahmoud, Thogril" to the throne[552].  He abdicated in 1132.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that after the death of Sultan Tughril in 1134, some of his supporters called "Daoud fils de Mahmoud" from Azerbaijan hoping to engineer his accession[553].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud appointed his nephew Daud as his successor, married him to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun", and appointed him as governor of "l'Arran et l'Arménie…l'Azerbeidjan" where he reigned for seven years before being killed in A.H. 533[554]m (1134) as her first husband, his first cousin, GOHAR Khatun, son of Seljuk Sultan MASUD.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud married Daud to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun"[555].  She married secondly her first cousin, Mohammed.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud married "son neveu Mohammed, fils de Mahmoud" to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun, qui avait été la femme de Daoud" and granted him "le Fars"[556]

b)         MALIK SHAH ([1127/28]-murdered 21 Mar 1160).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar designated "Melik-Chah fils de Mahmoud" to succeed after the death of Sultan Masud, from the context his jurisdiction being limited to "l'Irac jusqu'à l'extremité de la Syrie", a later passage specifying that he succeeded as Seljuk Sultan in 1152 but that "il avait du penchant pour le jeu et les plaisirs" and was deposed and imprisoned after four months by "Khasbeg fils de Belenkiri" who installed his brother in his place, although he later escaped and fled to Khouzistan[557].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 551 (1156/57) "le sultan Mohammed ibn Mahmoud" lifted the siege of Baghdad to fight "son frère Malec-Chah" who had invaded Hamadan with "Ildeguiz, seigneur du pays d'Arran…[et] le prince Arslan, fils du prince Toghril Ibn Mohammed"[558].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Malik Shah returned to Isfahan after the death of his brother and was restored to the throne but died after 15 days "le 11 de rebi" in A.H. 555 (21 Mar 1160) aged 32[559].  Abul-Feda records that "Malec-Shah frère du mort" took possession of Isfahan after his brother died in A.H. 554 (1159)[560].  Abul-Feda records that "sultan Malec Chah" was poisoned in Isfahan in A.H. 555 (1160)[561].

c)         MOHAMMED (-Hamadan Jan 1159).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar designated "son frère Mohammed" to succeed after the death of Sultan Malik Shah, from the context his jurisdiction being limited to "l'Irac jusqu'à l'extremité de la Syrie", a later passage specifying that he succeeded as Seljuk Sultan in 1152 after his brother was deposed and was awarded the title "Ghaiats-eddin Mohammed Cacim emir al-mouminin" by the caliph[562].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 551 (1156/57) "Soleiman Chah, fils du sultan Mohammed Ibn Malec-Chah" was defeated by "son cousin le sultan Mohammed ibn Mahmoud" who besieged Baghdad[563].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 554 (1159) of "Mohammed, le sultan seldjoukide…à la porte de Hamadan" leaving only "un fils en bas âge" whom he handed for protection to "Ak-Sonkor Ahmedili" who took him to "Meragha"[564].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "dans le mois de dzoulhidjeh" in A.H. 554 (Jan 1159) of Sultan Mohammed[565]m (a) as her second husband, his first cousin, GOHAR Khatun, widow of DAUD, son of Seljuk Sultan MASUD.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud married "son neveu Mohammed, fils de Mahmoud" to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun, qui avait été la femme de Daoud" and granted him "le Fars"[566]m (b) (1159, non-consummated) as her first husband, KERMAN Khatun, daughter of Caliph El MOKTAFI bi-Amr-Allah ABU-ABDULLAH MOHAMMED.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the marriage end-1158/early 1159 of Sultan Mohammed and "le khalife…sa fille Kerman-Khatoun" but that her husband was unable to consummate the marriage owing to his illness[567].  She married secondly (Sep 1160) Seljuk Sultan Arslan Shah.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Arslan, fils de Thogril" married "la fille du khalife, Kerman-Khatoun" after his uncle was deposed in Sep 1160[568]

i)          son .  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 554 (1159) of "Mohammed, le sultan seldjoukide…à la porte de Hamadan" leaving only "un fils en bas âge" whom he handed for protection to "Ak-Sonkor Ahmedili" who took him to "Meragha"[569]

2.         JAGRI Beg ([1109/10]-after Mar 1115).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death of "le fils du sultan, Djagry-bek" aged five after "le mois de schoual" in A.H. 508 (Mar 1115)[570]

3.         MELIK .  Vardan's History records that "Tapar the sultan of Persia…made the younger son Melik lord of Gandzak"[571].  Vardan's History records that "Dawit the king of Georgia…took Tiflis from the Persians and struck Melik the sultan of Gandzak with severe blows"[572]

4.         MASUD TEMIREK (1108-Hamadan 2 Oct 1152, bur Hamadan).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le sultan Mahmoud" defeated "son frère le prince Masoud…maître de Moussoul et de l'Aderbaydjan" in battle "au mois de rebi premier" in A.H. 514 (Jun 1120)[573].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi adds that the battle took place "près d'Hamadan" and that Masud fled to Gorgan after his defeat[574].  Emir of Sinjar 1135.  Vardan's History records that "Masud" succeeded Sultan Tughril, but does not specify the relationship between the two[575].  He succeeded as Seljuk Sultan.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar designated "son frère Maçoud" to succeed after the death of Sultan Tughril, from the context his jurisdiction being limited to "l'Irac jusqu'à l'extremité de la Syrie", and in a later passage that "son neveu Maçoud" paid homage to Sultan Sindjar in Iraq in A.H. 543 (1148/49)[576].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud appointed his nephew Daud as his successor, married him to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun", and appointed him as governor of "l'Arran et l'Arménie…l'Azerbeidjan" where he reigned for seven years before being killed in A.H. 533[577].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "son frère et successeur, le sultan Maçoud" (referring to Sultan Mahmud) failed to recapture Tbilisi from the Georgians[578].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud received the title "sultan Ghaiats-eddin Maçoud Cacim emir al-mouminin" from caliph Moktafi[579].  Abul-Feda records that "le sultan Sindjar…[et] son neveu Toghril fils du sultan Mohammed" deposed Sultan Masud in A.H. 526 (1131/32) but that he was restored in the following year[580].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 547 (1152/53) of "le sultan seldjoukide Mesoud, fils de Mohammed et petit-fils de Malec-Shah" at "Hamadan"[581].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records the death "aux portes d'Hamadan, dans la première nuit du mois de redjeb" in A.H. 547 (2 Oct 1152) of Sultan Masud, aged 45, and his burial "dans le médrécéh de Serberzeh" in Hamadan[582].  Masud had two children: 

a)         ALP ARSLAN (-[5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178]).  Vardan's History records that "his son Arslan" succeeded Sultan Masud[583].  He succeeded as Seljuk Sultan.  Vardan's History records that "Tughril succeeded Sultan Alp Arslan" in [5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178][584]

b)         GOHAR Khatun .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud appointed his nephew Daud as his successor, married him to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun", and appointed him as governor of "l'Arran et l'Arménie…l'Azerbeidjan" where he reigned for seven years before being killed in A.H. 533[585].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud married "son neveu Mohammed, fils de Mahmoud" to "sa fille Gueuher-Khatoun, qui avait été la femme de Daoud" and granted him "le Fars"[586]m firstly (1134) her first cousin, DAUD, son of Seljuk Sultan MAHMUD (-[1138/39]).  m secondly her first cousin, MOHAMMED, son of Seljuk Sultan MAHMUD (-Hamadan Jan 1159). 

5.         TUGHRIL (1109-Hamadan [Oct/Nov] 1134).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le prince Thogril, fils du sultan Mohammed" was born in A.H. 503 (1109), adding that in the following year his father created for him a principality comprising "les villes de Sava, Ava et Zendjan"[587].  Abul-Feda records that "le sultan Sindjar…[et] son neveu Toghril fils du sultan Mohammed" deposed Sultan Masud in A.H. 526 (1131/32) and installed Tughril as Seljuk Sultan[588]

-        see below

6.         SELDJUK SHAH .  Abul-Feda names "un autre fils de Mohammed…Seldjouk" as "seigneur de la province de Fars" and entered Baghdad in A.H. 526 (1131/32) to claim the sultanate[589].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Masud sent "son frère Seldjouk-Chah et l'atabeg Carasoncor" to fight "Mankou-berz" who had rebelled "dans le Fars"[590].  Of Azerbaijan. 

a)         MOHAMMED .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Mohammed, fils de Seldjouk-Chah" rebelled against Sultan Arslan Shah but was defeated "près du château de Farrazin, dans le canton de Caradj" and fled[591]

7.         SULEIMAN SHAH (-murdered 1160, bur Hamadan).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son oncle Soleiman-Chah" fled from "le château de Cazouin" in 1152 after the accession of Sultan Mohammed whom he attacked with (among others) "Ioucef-Kharezm-Chah, beau-frère de Soleiman", that he was granted the title "Al-Melic al-Mostadjir" by the caliph, but was defeated by Mohammed[592].  Abul-Feda records that "Soleiman Chah, fils du sultan Mohammed Ibn Malec-Chah" was proclaimed sultan at Baghdad in A.H. 551 (1156/57) but was defeated by "son cousin le sultan Mohammed ibn Mahmoud" and imprisoned in Mosul[593].  Abul-Feda records that "Soleiman-Chah fils de Mohammed et petit fils de Malec Chah Ibn Alb Arslan" was one candidate for the sultanate in A.H. 554 (1159) and that the following year he was freed from prison in Mosul and taken to Hamadan, but that he "s'adonnait au vin et en buvait, meme de jour, pendant le mois de Ramadan" and was finally killed by "Gurdbazou, un des doyens du corps d'eunuques"[594]Seljuk Sultan.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Soleiman-Chah" succeeded Sultan Mohammed after his death in A.H. 554 (Jan 1159), received from Bagdad the title "sultan Moizz-eddin-Soleiman-Chah-Borhan emir al-Mouminin" but was deposed in Sep 1160 after reigning for eight months, died in prison in A.H. 556 (1160/61), and was buried in Hamadan[595]

 

 

TUGHRIL, son of Seljuk Sultan MOHAMMED (1109-Hamadan [Oct/Nov] 1134).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le prince Thogril, fils du sultan Mohammed" was born in A.H. 503 (1109), adding that in the following year his father created for him a principality comprising "les villes de Sava, Ava et Zendjan"[596].  Abul-Feda records that "le sultan Sindjar…[et] son neveu Toghril fils du sultan Mohammed" deposed Sultan Masud in A.H. 526 (1131/32) and installed Tughril as Seljuk Sultan[597].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar designated "son frère Thoghril" to succeed after the death of Sultan Mahmud, from the context his jurisdiction being limited to "l'Irac jusqu'à l'extremité de la Syrie", adding in a later passage that the caliph granted him the title "sultan Roch-eddin Iemin emir al-mouminin"[598].  Lord of Kazuran 1132.  Vardan's History records that "Sultan Tughril" succeeded after Sultan Daud was killed, but does not specify the relationship between the two[599].  Abul-Feda records the death of "sultan Toghril, fils du sultan Mohammed" in A.H. 529 (1134/35)[600].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Tughril died "à Hamadan dans le mois de moharrem" in A.H. 529 (Oct/Nov 1134) aged 25[601]

m (a) as her first husband, ---, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Ildeguiz.  Abul-Feda records that "Ildeguiz avait épousé la mère d'Arslan-Chah" and was granted "Arran et une partie de l'Azerbeidjan"[602]

Tughril & his wife (a) had one child: 

1.         ARSLAN SHAH (-Hamadan 31 Dec 1175).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 551 (1156/57) "Malec-Chah" (brother of sultan Mohammed ibn Mahmud) invaded Hamadan with "Ildeguiz, seigneur du pays d'Arran…[et] le prince Arslan, fils du prince Toghril Ibn Mohammed"[603].  Abul-Feda records that "Arslan fils de Toghril, qui était resté avec Ildeguiz" was one candidate for the sultanate in A.H. 554 (1159) after the death of Sultan Mohammed, and that the following year he Ildeguiz brought him to Hamadan where he was proclaimed sultan[604].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Arslan, fils de Thogril" was declared as successor of Sultan Mohammed after his death in A.H. 554 (Jan 1159), and succeeded after Sultan Suleiman was deposed in Sep 1160, receiving the title "Rocn-Eddin-Arslan-Cacim emir al-mouminin" from the caliph[605].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Arslan Shah died "au milieu de djomada second" at Hamadan in A.H. 571 (31 Dec 1175) fifteen days after his marriage[606]m (a) (Sep 1160) as her second husband, KERMAN Khatun, widow of Seldjuk Sultan MOHAMMED, daughter of Caliph El MOKTAFI bi-Amr-Allah ABU-ABDULLAH MOHAMMED.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "Arslan, fils de Thogril" married "la fille du khalife, Kerman-Khatoun" after his uncle was deposed in Sep 1160[607]m (b) (Hamadan 16 Dec 1175) SITI-FATIMEH, daughter of ALA ed-Daulah.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Arslan Shah married "Sitti-Fatimeh, fille d'Ala-Eddaulah" at Hamadan in A.H. 571 fifteen days before he died (16 Dec 1175)[608]

a)         TUGHRIL (-killed in battle end Mar 1194).  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "Thogril, fils d'Arslan" succeeded his father and received "de Bagdad les surnoms de sultan Rocn-eddin-Thogril-Cacim emir Al-Mouminin"[609]. He succeeded as Seljuk Sultan in 1177.  Abul-Feda names "Toghril fils d'Arslan Ibn Toghril" as Seljuk sultan[610].  Vardan's History records that "Tughril succeeded by forcible means" after Sultan Arslan[611].  Another passage in Vardan's History records that "Tughril succeeded Sultan Alp Arslan" in [5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178][612].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "Seïf-eddin-Mahmoud" rescued "sultan Thogril et son fils" after the accession of "l'atabeg Nosret-eddin-Abou-Becr, fils de Mohammed" and brought them to Baghdad, but that Tughril was defeated by Kutlug-Inanedj "au milieu de djomada second 588 près de Cazouïn" (15 Jun 1192)[613].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Toghril was victorious "dans le mois de mobarrem 590 [Dec 1193]…près de Khar-Reï", commenting that the sultan afterwards went to "Reï, et s'y livra à la boisson"[614].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Toghril was defeated and killed by "Tacach…[et] Inanedj-Cotlough…à la tête de l'armée kharezmienne…à la fin de rebi 1er 590" (end Mar 1194), his head sent to the Caliph and his body "mit en croix…dans la ville de Reï", commenting that after this the province of Iraq fell to the "Kharezmchahi"[615].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 590 (1194) of "Toghril Ibn Arslan", killed in battle, commenting that he was the last Seljuk sultan[616]m as her [third] husband, ---, widow [firstly] of MOHAMMED [and secondly of KILIJ ARSLAN], daughter of ---.  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Toghril married "--- Khatoun, mère d'Inandedj-Cotlough" in an attempt to make peace but that she conspired with her son and was poisoned by her new husband[617].  It is not clear from this text whether she was the same wife of Mohammed who had married Kilij Arslan after her first husband's death.  One child: 

i)          MALIK SHAH .  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "Kizil Arslan" captured Sultan Toghril and "son fils Melik-Chah" and sent them to Azerbaijan where they were imprisoned "dans le château de Kehran"[618].  The History of Hamd-Allah Mustaufi records that "Seïf-eddin-Mahmoud" rescued "sultan Thogril et son fils" after the accession of "l'atabeg Nosret-eddin-Abou-Becr, fils de Mohammed" and brought them to Baghdad[619]

ii)         --- .  Abul-Feda records that "Modaffer Din Uzbec Ibn el-Pehlwan Ibn Ildeguiz" married "la fille du sultan Toghril", and that "Djelal ed-Din" married her in A.H. 622 (1225) as her second husband after proving to the kadi of Tauris that her first husband had divorced her[620]m firstly MUZAFFAR ed-DIN UZBEG, son of MOHAMMED (-Alendjak 1225).  m secondly (1225) DJELAL ed-Din King of Kharezm

 

 

 

B.      KHAREZMIAN SULTANATE

 

 

The Ghourids ruled southern Afghanistan from the end of the 11th century and extended their authority into northern India as far as Delhi.  They were overthrown by Ala ed-Din Mohammed sultan of Kharezm in 1210/12. 

 

 

1.         ANUSHTIKIN GHARSH .  Born in Gharshistan, to the east of Herat.  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah conferred "la vice-royauté du Kharezm" on "Nouchteguin-Gartcheh, qui fut la souche des Kharezm-Chah"[621]

a)         MOHAMMED KOTB ed-Din (-1127).  Named Governor of Kharezm, with the title KHAREZM-SHAH, by Dada el-Habeshi, general of the Seljuk Sultan Barkavarok in 1097. 

i)          AZIZ (-1156).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Sinjar settled a dispute with "le Kharezm-Chah Atsiz" by a peace treaty under which the sultan confirmed him in his principality, after A.H. 530 (1135/36) from the context[622]

(a)       ARSLAN (-[1172/73]).  He fell ill in A.H. 567 while opposing an invasion of the Khitai and died the following year. 

(1)       TUKUSH ALA ed-Din (-[1199/1200]).  He expelled his younger brother.  He conquered Kharezm and Khorasan, as well as Persian Iraq and other lands of the Seljuk Sultan Toghril.  Abul-Feda records that "Ala ed-Din Tucuch souverain de Kharezm" defeated and killed "Toghril ibn Arslan" in A.H. 588, and captured Hamadan[623].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 596 (1199/1200) of "Tukuch Ibn Arslan souverain du Kharezm, d'une partie du Khoraçan, d'Er-Rei" and the succession of "son fils Mohammed, qui échangea son titre de Kotb ed-Din contre celui d'Ala ed-Din"[624]

a.         MOHAMMED ALA ed-Din (-[1221/22]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 596 (1199/1200) of "Tukuch Ibn Arslan souverain du Kharezm, d'une partie du Khoraçan, d'Er-Rei" and the succession of "son fils Mohammed, qui échangea son titre de Kotb ed-Din contre celui d'Ala ed-Din"[625].  Abul-Feda records that "le roi de Kharezm Ala ed-Din Mohammed fils de Tucuch" conquered "le pays d'El-Djebel, Saoua, Kazouin, Zendjan, Abher, Hamadan, Ispahan, Komin et Kachan" in A.H. 614 (1217/18) but failed to conquer Baghdad although he no longer recognised the caliph as his suzerain[626].  Abul-Feda records that the Tartars attacked "Ala ed-Din Mohammed fils de Tucuch et roi de Kharezm" in A.H. 616 (1219/20), and in a later passage that he was pursued to an island in the Caspian Sea where he died in A.H. 618 (1221/22)[627]

(i)         JELAL ed-Din MANCOBERTI (-1231).  Abul-Feda records that "Djelal ed-Din Mancoberti, fils d'Ala ed-Din Mohammed le souverain de Kharezm" defeated the Tartars at Ghazna in A.H. 618 (1221/22) but he was forced to flee to India after part of his army led by "Boghrak" left him[628].  Abul-Feda records that "Djelal ed-Din" left India in A.H. 622 (1225) and reconquered Kerman, Isfahan, Persia and Khuzestan[629]

(ii)        TIZ SHAH .  Abul-Feda records that "Djelal ed-Din" captured Persia from "son frère Tiz-Chah" in A.H. 622 (1225)[630]

(2)       MAHMUD SOLTAN SHAH (-1193).  He succeeded his father but his older brother expelled him in 568. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    SYRIA and MESOPOTAMIA

 

 

In 945, Ikhshid governor of Egypt established a dynasty which ruled in Egypt and Syria until 969, when it was overthrown by the Fatimid dynasty.  The Fatimid dynasty of Egypt established themselves in southern Syria after capturing Egypt.  In 947, a branch of the Hamdanid dynasty which ruled Mosul conquered Aleppo which was taken by the Fatimids in 1003.  In 970, the Fatimid Caliph El-Moez conquered southern Syria.  In Spring 975, Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces captured Damascus, Tiberias, Nazareth, Acre, Caesarea, Beirut and Sidon from the Fatimid dynasty[631].  In 987, Caliph Aziz conquered Aleppo.  At the end of the 11th century, the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah established his brother in the government of Syria. 

 

The Mongols captured Damascus in 1260 but were expelled later the same year by the Mameluk Sultan Kotoz. 

 

 

A.      RULERS of DAMASCUS and ALEPPO (SELJUKIDS)

 

 

TUTUSH, son of Seljuk Sultan ALP ARSLAN (-killed in battle near Rei 1095).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah conferred "la souveraineté de la Syrie" on "son frère Toutouch"[632].  Abul-Feda records that Sultan Malik Shah wanted to establish "son frère Tutuch" in the government of Syria in A.H. 485 (1092/93)[633].  Vardan's History names "Bekiarux and Sapan" as the two sons of Malik Shah, recording that "Dudush Malik Shah's brother became sultan in the Byzantine parts, while Bekiarux ruled over Persia and Armenia"[634].  Abul-Feda records that "Tutuch" defeated and killed "Ak-Sonkor", governor of Aleppo, and captured Aleppo, Harran and Edessa "et soumit les provinces de la Mésopotamie septentrionale et se rendit maître du Diar-Bekr et de Khelat" in A.H. 487 (1094/95), before passing into Azerbaidjan and capturing Hamadan[635].  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan's son Dudush came against Bakarux but the latter routed him, attacked his troops and killed Dudush"[636]Kirakos Ganjaketsis's History of Armenia records that Malik Shah's "brother Dtush and his son Bekiaruk" succeeded on the death of their brother and father, but "tore the land apart" during "four years of unnarratable disturbances", ending when "Bakiarukh…murdered Tutush"[637].  Ruler in Syria and Palestine in 1079.  Vardan's History records that Tutush received a "message…from Berk-Yaruq's wife telling him to come to Persia, be her man and take all her land", following which Tutush went "to the plain of Ispahan" where he was killed[638].  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "l'oncle paternal de Barkiaroc, Toutouch" fought his nephew "dans la plaine de Belenkoui near Rei" in A.H. 488 (1095) and was killed[639].  Abul-Feda records that "Tutuch" was killed after travelling to Isfahan to challenge Barkivarok in A.H. 488 (1095)[640]

m (a) as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly ([1095/96]) Djenah ed-Daula.  Abul-Feda records that "seigneur d'Emesse…Djenah ed-Daula" married "la mère de Rodouan"[641]

m (b) as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly ([1095/96]) Toghtikin.  Abul-Feda records that "Toghtikin…l'atabec" married the mother of "Dokak l'autre fils de Tutuch"[642]

Tutush & his wife (a) had one child: 

1.         FAKHR al-MULK RADWAN (-[1113/14]).  Abul-Feda records that "Roduan fils de Tutuch" returned to Aleppo after learning of the death of his father in A.H. 488 (1095) and was proclaimed sovereign[643].  Vardan's History records that "his son Eratuan" fled to Edessa after his father was killed "he too sat as sultan in Aleppo and its borders"[644].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Redhouan prince d'Alep" besieged "la ville de Nisibe…au mois de ramadan" in A.H. 499 (May 1106)[645].  Ruler at Aleppo.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 507 (1113/14) of "Rodouan seigneur d'Alep" and the succession of "son fils Alb-Arslan…El-Akhres (le muet)"[646]m (a) --- [of Antioch], daughter of YAGHI SIAN Lord of Antioch.  Abul-Feda records that "la fille de Yaghi Sian" was the mother of "Alb-Arslan…El-Akhres (le muet)"[647]m ---, daughter of --- Emir of Hama.  Radwan & his wife (a) had two children: 

a)         ALP ARSLAN ([1096/97]-murdered [1114/15]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 507 (1113/14) of "Rodouan seigneur d'Alep" and the succession of "son fils Alb-Arslan…El-Akhres (le muet)", specifying that he was aged 16 and suffered a speech impediment but was not dumb, but that he left all authority to "l'eunuque Loulou"[648].  Ruler at Aleppo.  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 508 (1114/15) "Tadj ed -Daula Alb Arslan el-Akhres prince d'Alep" was killed by his pages in the citadel of the town, and succeeded by "son frère Sultan-Chah", although Loulou maintained his authority[649]

b)         MALEK Shah (-murdered [1113/14]).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Alp-Arslan" killed his two brothers, of which one "Malek-Schah était son frère de père et de mère", after his accession in A.H. 507 (1113/14)[650]

c)         son (-murdered [1113/14]).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Alp-Arslan" killed his two brothers after his accession in A.H. 507 (1113/14)[651]

d)         SULTANSHAH (1108-after Jun 1123).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 508 (1114/15) "Tadj ed-Daula Alb Arslan el-Akhres prince d'Alep" was killed by his pages in the citadel of the town, and succeeded by "son frère Sultan-Chah", although Loulou maintained his authority[652].  Ruler at Aleppo.  Abul-Feda records that Aleppo was captured by the Ortoqid in A.H. 511 ([1117/18]).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Balak, fils de Bahram fils d'Ortok" captured Harran and Aleppo in A.H. 517 (May/Jun 1123)[653]

e)         IBRAHIM

f)          daughter .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the marriage "au commencement du mois de djoumada premier" in A.H. 517 (end-Jun 1123) of "Balak" and "la fille du prince Redhouan"[654]m (end Jun 1123) BALEK, son of BAHRAM [Ortokid] (-killed Manbedj [1124/25]). 

Tutush & his wife (b) had one child:

2.         DUQAQ (-Jun 1104).  Abul-Feda records that "Dokak l'autre fils de Tutuch" secretly left Aleppo for Damascus after his brother succeeded in A.H. 488 (1095) and was handed the city by "Saoutikin, commandant de la citadelle" and was joined by "Toghtikin mari de sa mère…[et] Yaghi-Sian seigneur d'Antioche"[655].  Ruler at Damascus.  Abul-Feda records that "les Francs" invaded Syria in A. H. 491 ([1097/98]) and captured Antioch from "Yaghi-Sian" after a nine month siege, commenting that he was "Turcoman d'origine et fils de Mohammed ibn Alb-Arslan", and that he was beheaded by an Armenian[656].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 497 (1103/04) of "Dokak fils de Tutuch" and the accession of "un fils de Dokak âgé seulement d'un an"[657].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death in Jun 1104 of "le prince Deccac fils to Toutousch fils d'Alp-Arslan, prince de Damas"[658].  Duqaq had three children: 

a)         BURI

b)         ILTASH (1092-). 

c)         TUTUSH (1103-).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 497 (1103/04) of "Dokak fils de Tutuch" and the accession of "un fils de Dokak âgé seulement d'un an…Tutush"[659].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son atabek Thogdekyn" arranged the succession of "un des fils de Deccac, à peine âgé d'un an" after the death in Jun 1104 of "le prince Deccac fils to Toutousch fils d'Alp-Arslan, prince de Damas", later proclaimed "Bektasch fils de Toutousch et oncle de l'enfant", but restored the son of Doqaq[660]

Tutush & his wife --- had four children: 

3.         ABU TALEB (-killed [1113/14]).  Abul-Feda records that "Rodouan seigneur d'Alep" killed "ses frères Abou Taleb et Behram" before he died[661]

4.         BEHRAM (-killed [1113/14]).  Abul-Feda records that "Rodouan seigneur d'Alep" killed "ses frères Abou Taleb et Behram" before he died[662]

5.         BEKTASH .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "atabek Thogdekyn" proclaimed "Bektasch fils de Toutousch et oncle de l'enfant", who was 12 years old, as ruler after deposing "un des fils de Deccac", but sent him to Rahaba and refused to allow his return to Damascus[663]

6.         daughter m SÜLEYMAN Seljuk Sultan of Rum, son of KUTLUMUŞ (-killed in battle 1086).  The Alexeiad names Tutush as father-in-law of Sultan Suleyman when recording that he planned to have the Sultan his brother murdered after the death of his son-in-law[664]

 

 

 

B.      RULERS of ALEPPO, MAREDIN and MEAFAREKIN (ORTOKIDS)

 

 

1.         ARSEB .  One child: 

a)         ORTOK .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah sent "Ortok" to Hisn-Keifa[665].  Abul-Feda names "Ortok ibn Arseb" when recording the exploits of his grandson[666].  Four children: 

i)          Il-GHAZI (-[1122/23]).  Abul-Feda records that the Egyptian caliph's troops captured Jerusalem from "Ilghazi et Sokman, tous les deux fils d'Ortok" in "le mois de cha'ban" in A.H. 489 (Jul/Aug 1096), adding that Sokman went to Edessa and Ilghazi to Iraq[667].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Ylgazy, fils d'Ortok, commissaire du sultan auprès du khalife de Bagdad" was among those who joined "Redhouan prince d'Alep" in the siege of "la ville de Nisibe…au mois de ramadan" in A.H. 499 (May 1106)[668].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 511 (1117/18) the inhabitants of Aleppo offered their city to Il-Ghazi[669].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 516 (1122/23) of Il-Ghazi and the succession of "son fils Timurtach" at Maredin[670].  Three children: 

(a)       AIAZ .  Abul-Feda names "l'émir Aiaz, fils d'Ilghazi" in A.H. 506 (1112/13)[671]

(b)       HOSSAM ed-Din TIMURTASH (-[1152/53]).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 511 (1117/18) the inhabitants of Aleppo offered their city to Il-Ghazi who appointed "son fils Hossam ed-Din Timurtach" as governor[672].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 516 (1122/23) of Il-Ghazi and the succession of "son fils Timurtach" at Maredin[673]Prince of Aleppo

-         see below

(c)       SULEIMAN .  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 516 (1122/23) of Il-Ghazi and the succession of "Soleiman un autre de ses fils" at Meisfarikin[674]

ii)         SOKMAN (-Damascus [1103/04]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son fils Socman" succeeded as "roi d'Hisn-Keifa et de Meiafarekin" after the death of Ortok[675]

-         see below

iii)        BAHRAM .  Abul-Feda names "Bahram ibn Ortok ibn Arseb" when recording the exploits of his son[676].  One child: 

(a)       BALEK (-killed Manbedj [1124/25]).  Abul-Feda records that "Balec, fils de Bahram ibn Ortok ibn Arseb, et neveu des frères Sokman et Ilghazi" captured the towns of Ana and El-Haditha from the family of "Ya'ich Ibn Eïça" in A.H. 497 (1103/04)[677].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 515 (1121/22) "Balec fils de Behram et petit-fils d'Ortok" captured "Josselin et Keliam, fils de la tante maternelle de Josselin", refused to accept payment of a ransom, and imprisoned them "dans le château de Khartbert", although the same source records in a later passage that "les Francs" captured Khartpert and released them[678]Prince of Aleppo.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Balak, fils de Bahram fils d'Ortok" captured Harran and Aleppo in A.H. 517 (May/Jun 1123)[679].  Abul-Feda records that "Balec fils de Behram et seigneur d'Alep" was killed during the siege of Manbedj in A.H. 518 (1124/25) and that "Tinturtach fils d'Ilghazi et cousin de Balec" transported his body to Aleppo and took the city[680]m (end Jun 1123) ---, daughter of FAKHR al-MULK RADWAN Ruler of Aleppo.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the marriage "au commencement du mois de djoumada premier" in A.H. 517 (end-Jun 1123) of "Balak" and "la fille du prince Redhouan"[681]

iv)       ABD el-JEBHAR .  Abul-Feda names "Abd el-Djebhar ibn Ortok" when recording that his son was installed at Aleppo[682].  One child: 

(a)       SULEIMAN .  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 515 (1121/22) Il-Ghazi installed "[son] neveu…Soleiman…fils d'Abd el-Djebhar ibn Ortok" as governor at Aleppo and left for Maredin[683].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 516 (1122/23) of Il-Ghazi and records that "Soleiman neveu d'Ilghazi" remained as governor of Aleppo[684]

 

 

HOSSAM ed-Din TIMURTASH, son of Il-GHAZI (-[1152/53]).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 511 (1117/18) the inhabitants of Aleppo offered their city to Il-Ghazi who appointed "son fils Hossam ed-Din Timurtach" as governor[685].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 516 (1122/23) of Il-Ghazi and the succession of "son fils Timurtach" at Maredin[686]Prince of Aleppo.  Abul-Feda records that "Balec fils de Behram et seigneur d'Alep" was killed during the siege of Manbedj in A.H. 518 (1124/25) and that "Tinturtach fils d'Ilghazi et cousin de Balec" transported his body to Aleppo and took the city[687].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 547 (1152/53) of "Hossam ed-Din Timurtach fils d'Ilghazi et souverain de Maredin et de Meinfarekin"[688]

Five children: 

1.         NEJM ed-Din ALBA .  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 547 (1152/53) "son fils Nedjm ed-Din Alba" succeeded "Hossam ed-Din Timurtach fils d'Ilghazi et souverain de Maredin et de Meinfarekin"[689].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Damradach [Timourtach] l´Ortokide seigneur de Mardin" divided his lands between his three sons on his deathbed, granting "Miaférékin et Mardin" to "Nadjmadin"[690].  One child: 

a)         KOTB ed-Din Il-GHAZI (-[1184/85]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 580 (1184/85) of "Kotb ed-Din Ilghazi souverain de Maredin, fils de Nedjm ed-Din Alba, fils de Timurtech, fils d'Ilghazi, fils d'Ortok"[691].  Two children: 

i)          HOSSAM ed-Din YULUK ARSLAN (-[1185]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Hossam ed-Din Youlouk-Arslan…encore en bas âge" succeeded on the death of "Kotb ed-Din Ilghazi souverain de Maredin, fils de Nedjm ed-Din Alba, fils de Timurtech, fils d'Ilghazi, fils d'Ortok" in A.H. 580 (1184/85), but that Yuluk Arslan died and was replaced by "son frère Ortok Arslan"[692]

ii)         ORTOK ARSLAN (-[1237/39]).  Abul-Feda records that Yuluk Arslan died and was replaced by "son frère Ortok Arslan"[693].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 636 or the year before ([1237/39]) of "El-Malec el-Mansour Nacer ed-Din Ortok Arslan prince de Maredin, fils d'Ilghazi, fils d'Alba, fils de Timurtach, fils d'Ilghazi, fils d'Ortok"[694].  One child: 

(a)       El-Malek es-SAID NEJM ed-Din GHAZI .  Abul-Feda records that "son fils…El-Malec es-Said Nejm ed-Din Ghazi" succeeded in A.H. 636 or the year before ([1237/39]) on the death of "El-Malec el-Mansour Nacer ed-Din Ortok Arslan prince de Maredin, fils d'Ilghazi, fils d'Alba, fils de Timurtach, fils d'Ilghazi, fils d'Ortok"[695]

2.         JEMAL ed-Din .  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Damradach [Timourtach] l´Ortokide seigneur de Mardin" divided his lands between his three sons on his deathbed, granting "Khani [Kharran]" to "Djelamadin"[696]

3.         SHAMS ed-Din .  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Damradach [Timourtach] l´Ortokide seigneur de Mardin" divided his lands between his three sons on his deathbed, granting "Dara" to "Schems-Eddin"[697]

4.         [son .  It is assumed that Shehab was the son of either Jemal or Shams but it is not known which.]  One child: 

a)         SHEHAB ed-Din (-before [1181/82]).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le château fort d'Albirah, qui dominait l'Euphrate et faisait partie du Djezireh" belonged to "Schehab-eddin Al-ortoky, cousin germain de Kothb-eddin Ilghazy, fils d'Alby, fils de Temourtach, fils d'Ilghazy, fils d'Ortok, prince de Mardin"[698].  One child: 

i)          son .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "le château fort d'Albirah, qui dominait l'Euphrate et faisait partie du Djezireh" was inherited by the son of "Schehab-eddin Al-ortoky, cousin germain de Kothb-eddin Ilghazy" after the death of his father, but that in A.H. 577 (1181/82) it was unsuccessfully besieged by troops of "Kothb-eddin Ilghazy…prince de Mardin"[699]

5.         daughter .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "la…fille d'Hossam-eddin Timourtach, fils d'Ilghazi", mother of "Seif ed-Din", conspired to have authority transferred from her husband's oldest son to her own son[700]m KOTB ed-Din MAUDUD, son of EIMAD ed-Din ZENGI (-Mosul [Aug/Sep] 1170). 

 

 

SOKMAN, son of Il-GHAZI (-Damascus [1103/04]).  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that "son fils Socman" succeeded as "roi d'Hisn-Keifa et de Meiafarekin" after the death of Ortok[701].  Abul-Feda records that the Egyptian caliph's troops captured Jerusalem from "Ilghazi et Sokman, tous les deux fils d'Ortok" in "le mois de cha'ban" in A.H. 489 (Jul/Aug 1096), adding that Sokman went to Edessa and Ilghazi to Iraq[702].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 497 (1103/04) of "Sokman ibn Ortok…souverain de Hisn-Keifa et de Maredin" at Damascus, adding that Maredin passed to his brother Il-Ghazi[703]

One child: 

1.         DAUD .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle names "Daoud, fils de Sokman" when recording the death of his son[704].  One child: 

a)         FAKHR ed-Din KARA ARSLAN .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death in A.H. 562 (1166/67) of "Fakhr-eddin Cara-Arslan, fils de Daoud, fils de Sokman, prince de Hisn-Keïfa et la plupart des villes du Diarbecr"[705].  One child: 

i)          NUR ed-Din MOHAMMED (-[1185/86]).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son fils Nour-eddin Mohammed" on the death in A.H. 562 (1166/67) of "Fakhr-eddin Cara-Arslan, fils de Daoud, fils de Sokman, prince de Hisn-Keïfa et la plupart des villes du Diarbecr"[706].  Abul-Feda records that "Mohammed" was "fils de Kara Arslan…[et] (arrière petit) fils de Sokman Ibn Ortok" and received the principality of Amed from "Salah-ed-Din"[707].  Abul-Feda that "Saleh-ed-Din" captured Amed in "le premier dizaine du mois de moharrem" in A.H. 579 ([26 Apr/6 May] 1183) and granted it to "Nour ed-Din Mohammed l'Ortokide, fils de Kara Arslan et souverain de Hisn-Keifa"[708].  Abul-Feda records the death in 581 (1185/86) of "Nour-ed-Din Mohammed fils de Kara-Arslan Ibn Dawoud souverain d'El-Hisu [et] d'Amed"[709]m (a) ---, daughter of KILIJ ARSLAN II Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Nour-eddin Mohammed, fils de Kara-Arslan, fils de Daoud, prince d'Hisn-Keifa" married "une fille de…Kilidj-Arslan, fils de Massoud" but later fell in love with "une chanteuse" and married her, neglecting his first wife[710]m (b) ---.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Nour-eddin Mohammed, fils de Kara-Arslan, fils de Daoud, prince d'Hisn-Keifa" fell in love with "une chanteuse" whom he married and who became "tout-puissante dans l'administration de ses Etats et l'emploi de ses trésors" but who was eventually expelled and left for Baghdad where she remained until she died[711]m (c) --- de Toulouse, illegitimate daughter of ALPHONSE JOURDAIN Comte de Toulouse Duc de Narbonne & his mistress ---.  Robert of Torigny records the death of "Loradin, rex Alapriæ", dated to [1173/74] from the context, and the succession of "filius eius, natus ex sorore comitis Sancti Ægidii"[712], which from the chronology and context is presumed to refer to the sister (presumably born illegitimate) of Raymond V Comte de Toulouse.  She accompanied her brother Bertrand when he seized the castle of Araima and was captured with him by Nur-ed-Din[713].  Two children: 

(a)       SOKMAN Ibn-Mohammed (-[1201/02]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils…Kotb ed-Din Sokman encore en bas âge" succeeded after the death in 581 (1185/86) of "Nour-ed-Din Mohammed fils de Kara-Arslan Ibn Dawoud souverain d'El-Hisu [et] d'Amed"[714].  Robert of Torigny records the death of "Loradin, rex Alapriæ", dated to [1173/74] from the context, and the succession of "filius eius, natus ex sorore comitis Sancti Ægidii"[715].  It is not known to which son this refers.   Abul-Feda records the death in 598 (1201/02) of "Sokman Ibn Mohammed l'Ortokide seigneur d'Amed et de Hisn-Keifa"[716]

(b)       El-Malek es-SALEH NASER ed-Din MAHMUD (-[1221/22]).  Abul-Feda records that "un frère Mahmoud" came to take contol of his brother's lands after the death in 598 (1201/02) of "Sokman Ibn Mohammed l'Ortokide seigneur d'Amed et de Hisn-Keifa"[717].  Abul-Feda records the death in 618 (1221/22) of "El-Malec es-Saleh Nacer ed-Din Mahmoud l'Ortokide, fils de Mohammed Ibn Kara Arslan et souverain d'Amed et de Hisn-Caifa"[718].  One child: 

(1)       El-Malek el-MESOUD .  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec el-Mesoud" succeeded on the death in 618 (1221/22) of "El-Malec es-Saleh Nacer ed-Din Mahmoud l'Ortokide, fils de Mohammed Ibn Kara Arslan et souverain d'Amed et de Hisn-Caifa"[719].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Camel" captured Amed from "El-Malec el-Mesoud, fils d'El-Malec es-Saleh Mahmoud et petit fils de Mohammed fils de Kara Arslan" in A.H. 629 (1231/32), replacing him by "son fils El-Malec es-Saleh Ayoub"[720]

 

 

 

C.      ATABEGS of DAMASCUS (DESCENDANTS of TOGHTIKIN)

 

 

1.         TOGHTIKIN SEIF el-ISLAM Daher ed-Din (-13 Feb 1128).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son atabek Thogdekyn" arranged the succession of "un des fils de Deccac, à peine âgé d'un an" after the death in Jun 1104 of "le prince Deccac fils to Toutousch fils d'Alp-Arslan, prince de Damas", later proclaimed "Bektasch fils de Toutousch et oncle de l'enfant", but restored the son of Doqaq[721].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "le 8 de safar" in A.H. 523 (13 Feb 1128) of "l'atabek Thogdekyn prince de Damas", specifying that he had first been "un des mamlouks du prince Toutousch fils d'Alp Arslan"[722].  One child: 

a)         BURI TAJ el-MOLUK (-10 Jun 1132).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "le 21 de redjeb" in A.H. 527 (10 Jun 1132) of "le prince de Damas Tadj-almolouk Boury"[723]m (a) as her first husband, ZAMARUD Khatun, daughter of JAWELI.  She married secondly ([1137/38]) Eimad ed-Din Zengi.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the marriage of "Zengui" and "Zamarroud-Khatoun…fille de Djavaly" in "le mois de ramadan" in A.H. 532 (1137/38), receiving Homs as dowry[724].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 532 (1137/38) Zengi married "la mère de Chihab ed-Din Mahmoud, prince de Damas…Merd-Khatoun…fille de Djaoueli" after capturing the town of Homs (Emesa), commenting that she killed "son propre fils Chems el-Molouc Ismail"[725].  Mahmud & wife (a) had two children: 

i)          SHEMS el-Moluk ISMAIL (-murdered 2 Feb 1135).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son fils Ismael surnommé Schems-almolouk" succeeded on the death in A.H. 527 (10 Jun 1132) of "le prince de Damas Tadj-almolouk Boury"[726].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 532 (1137/38) Zengi married "la mère de Chihab ed-Din Mahmoud, prince de Damas…Merd-Khatoun…fille de Djaoueli" after capturing the town of Homs (Emesa), commenting that she killed "son proper fils Chems el-Molouc Ismail"[727].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Schems-almolouk Ismael prince de Damas" was murdered "le 14 de rebi second" in A.H. 529 (2 Feb 1135)[728]

ii)         SHIHAB ed-Din MAHMUD (-Jun 1139).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "son frère Schehab-eddin Mahmoud" succeeded on the death of "Schems-almolouk Ismael prince de Damas" in A.H. 529 (2 Feb 1135)[729].  Abul-Feda records that "au mois de chouwal" in A.H. 533 (Jun 1139) "Chehab ed-Din Mahmoud, fils de Bouri et prince de Damas" was killed in his bed by his three favourite pages[730]

iii)        JEMAL ed-Din MOHAMMED (-[1139/40]).  Abul-Feda records that "Djemal ed-Din Mohammed frère de Mahmoud" succeeded "Chehab ed-Din Mahmoud, fils de Bouri et prince de Damas" in A.H. 533 (Jun 1139), appointed by "Moin ed-Din Anar" who brought him from Balbek[731].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 534 (1139/40) Zengi besieged Damascus and requested "Djemal ed-Din" to accept Balbek and Homs in exchange for Damascus, was rejected, that Jemal died, but that Zengi was still unable to capture the city[732].  One child: 

(a)       MOJIR ed-Din ABAK (-after 1154).  Abul-Feda records that "Moin ed-Din Anar" placed "Modjir ed-Din Abak fils du prince décédé" after the death of Jemal ed-Din in A.H. 534 (1139/40)[733].  Abul-Feda records that "le seigneur de Damas Modjir ed-Din Abak" besieged Balbek after the death of Zengi in A. H. 540 (14 Sep 1146)[734].  He was deposed by Nu red-Din in 1154. 

 

 

 

D.      ATABEGS of DAMASCUS, ALEPPO, MOSUL and SINJAR (DESCENDANTS of ZENGI)

 

 

1.         Ak-SONKOR KASIM ed-Daula .  Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah granted "le gouvernement d'Alep" on "Cacim-Eddaulah-Acsoncor, duquel descendirent les atabegs du Fars, du Dairbecr et de la Syrie"[735].  Abul-Feda records that "Tutuch" defeated and killed "Ak-Sonkor", governor of Aleppo, and captured Aleppo, Harran and Edessa "et soumit les provinces de la Mésopotamie septentrionale et se rendit maître du Diar-Bekr et de Khelat" in A.H. 487 (1094/95), before passing into Azerbaidjan and capturing Hamadan[736].  Three children: 

a)         EIMAD ed-Din ZENGI ([before [1086]-murdered Kalat Jaber 14 Sep 1146, bur Racca).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 521 (1127) "Eimad ed-Din Zengui, fils d'Ak-Sonkor" was appointed governor of Iraq by Sultan Mahmud and authorised to keep "le gouvernement de Ouscet"[737]

-        see below

b)         MESUD (-1127).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 521 (1127) "Mesoud, fils d'Ak-Sonkor et seigneur de Mosul" died from illness during the siege of "Er-Raheba"[738]

c)         son .  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 521 (1127) "Djaoueli ancien mamlouc de son père" proclaimed "un frère de Mesoud…encore un bas âge" as sovereign of Mosul after the death of "Mesoud, fils d'Ak-Sonkor et seigneur de Mosul", but that the sultan refused him and conferred Mosul on "Eimad ed-Din Zengui, fils d'Ak-Sonkor"[739]

 

 

EIMAD ed-Din ZENGUI, son of Ak-SONKOR ([before [1086]-murdered Kalat Jaber 14 Sep 1146, bur Racca).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 521 (1127) "Eimad ed-Din Zengui, fils d'Ak-Sonkor" was appointed governor of Iraq by Sultan Mahmud and authorised to keep "le gouvernement de Ouscet"[740].  Abul-Feda records that the sultan conferred Mosul on "Eimad ed-Din Zengui, fils d'Ak-Sonkor" in A.H. 521 (1127)[741].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 522 (1128) Sultan Mahmud conferred "le gouvernement de la Syrie" on "Zengui", whereupon he left for Aleppo and captured "Manbedj et Bizaa"[742].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 539 (1144/55) Zengi captured Edessa, after a 28 day siege, and "Seroudj"[743].  Abul-Feda records that Zengi was murdered "par quelques-uns de ses mamloucs…le 5 de rebia" in A. H. 540 (14 Sep 1146) during the siege of Kalat Jaber, aged over 60 years, and buried at "Er-Rakka"[744]

m (Jun 1138) as her second husband, ZAMARUD Khatun, wife of BURI Taj el-MOLUK, daughter of JAWELI.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the marriage of "Zengui" and "Zamarroud-Khatoun…fille de Djavaly" in "le mois de ramadan" in A.H. 532 (1137/38), receiving Homs as dowry[745].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 532 (Jun 1138) Zengi married "la mère de Chihab ed-Din Mahmoud, prince de Damas…Merd-Khatoun…fille de Djaoueli" after capturing the town of Homs (Emesa), commenting that she killed "son propre fils Chems el-Molouc Ismail"[746]

Four children: 

1.         NUR ed-Din MAHMUD ([1117/18]-Damascus 15 May 1174, bur Damascus).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Nour ed-Din Mahmoud" succeeded Zengi at Aleppo[747].  Abul-Feda records that "Nour ed-Din" captured "le second prince, mari de la mère de Boémond" in A.H. 544 (1149/50)[748], which misdates his capture.  Abul-Feda records the death "le 11 de chouwal" in A.H. 569 (1173/74) of "Nour-ed-Din Mahmoud, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui et petit-fils Ak-Soncor" in the citadel of Damascus "Abd-en-Nebi", recording that he was born in A.H. 511 (1117/18)[749].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle adds that he was buried in Damascus[750].  Three children: 

a)         El-Malek es-SALEH ISMAIL ([1161/62]-[Nov/Dec] 1181).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec es-Saleh Ismail âgé alors de 11 ans" succeeded in A.H. 569 (1173/74) after the death of "Nour-ed-Din Mahmoud, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui et petit-fils Ak-Soncor"[751].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de redjab" in A.H. 576 (Nov/Dec 1181) of "El Malec es-Salah Ismail, fils de Nour-ed-Din et prince d'Alep" aged 19[752]

b)         daughter .  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Imad-eddin" married the sister of "Almalec Alsaleh Ismael, fils de Nour-eddin Mahmoud, prince d'Alep"[753]m her first cousin, EIMAD ed-Din ZENGI, (-[Nov/Dec] 1197). 

c)         daughter .  Abul-Feda records that Salah ed-Din besieged Aleppo again in A.H. 571 (1175/76) and that the inhabitants sent "une enfant en bas âge…fille de Nour-ed-Din" to negotiate and that he granted her the fortress of Azaz as part of the peace treaty agreed 29 Oct 1176[754]

2.         SEIF ed-Din GHAZI (-[1149/50]).  Abul-Feda records that "un autre fils de ce prince…Seif ed-Din Ghazi" was at Sheherzur when his father died and went to Mosul where he was recognised as his successor[755].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 544 (1149/50) of "Seif ed-Din Ghazi prince de Mosul"[756]

3.         KOTB ed-Din MAUDUD ([1129/30]-Mosul [Aug/Sep] 1170).  Abul-Feda records that "son frère Kotb ed-Din Maudoud" succeeded after the death of "Seif ed-Din Ghazi prince de Mosul" in A.H. 544 (1149/50)[757]Prince of Mosul.  Abul-Feda records the death "dans le mois de dou'l-hiddja" in A.H. 565 (Aug/Sep 1170) of "Kotb-ed-Din Maudoud fils de Zengi et souverain de Mosul"[758].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle adds that he died at Mosul and was about 40 years old when he died[759]m (b) ---, daughter of HOSSAM ed-Din TIMURTASH.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "la…fille d'Hossam-eddin Timourtach, fils d'Ilghazi", mother of "Seif ed-Din", conspired to have authority transferred from her husband's oldest son to her own son[760].  Maudud had one child by an unknown mother: 

a)         EIMAD ed-Din ZENGI (-[Nov/Dec] 1197).  Abul-Feda records that "Eimad ed-Din Zengui…le fils ainé" was passed over when "Seif ed-Din Ghazi second fils" was placed on the throne after the death of "Kotb-ed-Din Maudoud fils de Zengi et souverain de Mosul" in A.H. 565 (Aug/Sep 1170), but that he sought support from his uncle Nur-ed-Din[761].  Abul-Feda records that "son frère ainé Eimad ed-Din seigneur de Sindjar" refused to help "Seif-ed-Din Ghazi" in taking Mesopotamia in A.H. 570 (1174/75) in order to gain the favour of Salah ed-Din[762].  Abul-Feda records that "Eizz ed-Din Mesoud Ibn Maudoud" agreed with his brother "Eimad ed-Din Zengui" to exchange Aleppo for Sindjar in A.H. 576 (Nov/Dec 1181)[763].  Abul-Feda records that "Eimad ed Din Zengui fils de Maudoud" exchanged Aleppo for the towns of Sindjar, Nisibe, El-Khabur, Er-Rakka and Seruj "dans le mois de safer" in A.H. 579 (May/Jun 1183)[764].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de moharrem" in A.H. 594 (Nov/Dec 1197) of "Eimad ed-Din Zengui, fils de Maudoud et souverain de Sindjar, d'El Khabour et d'Er-Rakka" and the succession of "son fils…Kotb ed-Din Mohammed"[765]m his first cousin, ---, daughter of NUR ed-Din MAHMUD.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Imad-eddin, prince de Sindjar" married the sister of "Almalec Alsaleh Ismael, fils de Nour-eddin Mahmoud, prince d'Alep"[766].  One child: 

i)          KOTB ed-Din MOHAMMED (-1219).  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de moharrem" in A.H. 594 (Nov/Dec 1197) of "Eimad ed-Din Zengui, fils de Maudoud et souverain de Sindjar, d'El Khabour et d'Er-Rakka" and the succession of "son fils…Kotb ed-Din Mohammed"[767].  Abul-Feda records that "Nour ed-Din Arslan Chah, fils de Mesoud ibn Maudoud prince de Mosul" captured Nisibe from "son cousin Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Zengui"[768].  Abul-Feda records that "Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui Ibn Maudoud et seigneur de Sindjar" recognised the sovereignty of "El-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 600 (1203/04)[769].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 616 (1219/20) of "Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui Ibn Maudoud et prince de Sindjar" and the succession of "son fils Eimad ed-Din Chahanchah"[770].  Two children: 

(a)       EIMAD ed-Din SHAHANSHAH (-murdered [1220/21]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Eimad ed-Din Chahanchah" succeeded in A.H. 616 (1219/20) on the death of "Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui Ibn Maudoud et prince de Sindjar" but that he was assassinated "au bout de quelques mois…par son frère Mahmoud"[771]

(b)       MAHMUD (-after 1220).  Abul-Feda records that "son frère Mahmoud" assassinated "Eimad ed-Din Chahanchah…au bout de quelques mois" after his accession in A.H. 616 (1219/20) and that he was the last Atabekid prince of Sindjar[772].  Abul-Feda records that "Mahmud, fils de Kotb ed-Din et prince de Sindjar" exchanged Sindjar for Er-Rakka with "El-Malec el-Achref" in A.H. 616 (1219/20)[773]

Maudud & his wife (b) had one child: 

b)         SEIF ed-Din GHAZI ([1149/50]-29 Jun 1180).  Abul-Feda records that "Seif ed-Din Ghazi second fils" was placed on the throne after the death of "Kotb-ed-Din Maudoud fils de Zengi et souverain de Mosul" in A.H. 565 (Aug/Sep 1170), but that his uncle Nur-ed-Din deposed him in the following year[774]Prince of Mosul.  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "la…fille d'Hossam-eddin Timourtach, fils d'Ilghazi", mother of "Seif ed-Din", conspired to have authority transferred from her husband's oldest son to her own son[775].  Abul-Feda records that "son neveu…Seif-ed-Din Ghazi" left Mosul and took all of Mesopotamia in A.H. 570 (1174/75) after the death of "Nour-ed-Din Mahmoud, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui et petit-fils Ak-Soncor" but was defeated near "Koroun-Hamah" by Salah-ed-Din[776].  Abul-Feda records the death "le 3 du mois de safer" in A.H. 576 (29 Jun 1180) "Seif ed-Din Ghazi souverain de Mosul et de la Mésopotamie" aged "30 ans environ"[777].  One child: 

i)          SINJAR SHAH ([1167/68]-murdered 1208).  Abul-Feda records that "Seif ed-Din Ghazi souverain de Mosul et de la Mésopotamie" bequeathed "la ville de Djezirat Ibn Omar et les châteaux des environs" to "son fils Sindjar-Chah" in A.H. 576 (29 Jun 1180)[778].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle adds that "son fils Moezz-eddin Sindjar-chah" was 12 years old when his father died[779].  Two children: 

(a)       GHAZI . 

(b)       MAHMUD MOEZZ ed-Din . 

c)         EIZZ ed-Din MESOUD (-1193).  Abul-Feda records that "son cousin Eizz ed-Din Mesoud Ibn Maudoud" succeeded on the death of "El Malec es-Salah Ismail, fils de Nour-ed-Din et prince d'Alep" in A.H. 576 (Nov/Dec 1181), but agreed with his brother "Eimad ed-Din Zengui" to exchange Aleppo for Sindjar[780]Prince of Aleppo.  Abul-Feda records that "son frère Eizz ed-Din" succeeded on the death of "Seif ed-Din Ghazi souverain de Mosul et de la Mésopotamie" in A.H. 576 (29 Jun 1180)[781]Prince of SinjarPrince of Mosul.  Abul-Feda records the death "le 27 chaban" in A.H. 589 (28 Aug 1193) of "Eizz ed-Din Mesoud, fils de Maudoud prince de Mosul" at Mosul and the succession of "son fils Arslan Chah"[782].  One child: 

i)          NUR ed-Din ARSLAN SHAH (-[1210/11]).  Abul-Feda records the death "le 27 chaban" in A.H. 589 (28 Aug 1193) of "Eizz ed-Din Mesoud, fils de Maudoud prince de Mosul" at Mosul and the succession of "son fils Arslan Chah"[783].  Abul-Feda records that "Nour ed-Din Arslan Chah, fils de Mesoud ibn Maudoud prince de Mosul" captured Nisibe from "son cousin Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Zengui"[784].  Abul-Feda records that "son cousin Nour ed-Din Arslan-Chah, fils de Mesoud Ibn Maudoud et prince de Mosul" captured Nisibe in protest at the recognition by "Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui Ibn Maudoud et seigneur de Sindjar" of the sovereignty of "El-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 600 (1203/04)[785].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 607 (1210/11), of "Nour ed-Din Arslan-Chah prince de Mosul" and the succession of "son fils El-Malec el-Kaber Eizz ed-Din Mesoud" who was only 10 years old[786].  Two children: 

(a)       El-Malik el-KABER EIZZ ed-Din MESUD ([1200/01]-[1218/19]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 607 (1210/11), of "Nour ed-Din Arslan-Chah prince de Mosul" and the succession of "son fils El-Malec el-Kaber Eizz ed-Din Mesoud" who was only 10 years old and who governed under "Bedr-ed-Din Loulou, ancien mamlouc d'Arslan Chah"[787].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 615 (1218/19) of "le prince de Mosul El-Malec el-Kaber Eizz ed-Din Mesoud, fils d'Arslan-Chah et petit-fils de Mesoud Ibn Maudoud", his death leading to the fall of the Atabeg dynasty[788].  Two children: 

(1)       NUR ed-Din ARSLAN SHAH ([1215/16]-[1219/20]).  Abul-Feda records that "le prince de Mosul El-Malec el-Kaber Eizz ed-Din Mesoud…" named his older son "Arslan-Chah" aged 10 years (although this age must be exaggerated assuming that the birth date of his father is correctly stated as above) as his successor in A.H. 615 (1218/19), that "Cai-Caous souverain du pays de Roum" and "El-Malec el-Afdal souverain de Someisat" attacked Aleppo, but were defeated by "El-Malec el-Achref fils d'El-Malec el-Adel"[789].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 616 (1219/20) of "Nour-ed-Din Arslan-Chah, fils d'El-Malec el-Kaber Mesoud" and the succession of "Nacer ed-Din Mahmoud, frère du prince décédé" who was only 3 years old[790]

(2)       NASER ed-Din MAHMUD ([1216/17]-[1222/23]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 616 (1219/20) of "Nour-ed-Din Arslan-Chah, fils d'El-Malec el-Kaber Mesoud" and the succession of "Nacer ed-Din Mahmoud, frère du prince décédé" who was only 3 years old, but that the latter died "quelque temps après", after which "Bedr-ed-Din Loulou s'attribua l'autorité souveraine…et mourut à Mosul postérieurement à la prise de Bagdad par les Tartares"[791].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 619 (1222/23) of "Nacer ed-Din Mahmoud…fils d'El-Malec el-Kaher Mesoud, et petit-fils de Nour ed-Din Arslan-Chah" after which "Bed red-Din Loulou" became sovereign of Mosul, reigning for more than 40 years[792]

(b)       EIMAD ed-Din ZENGI (after 1201-).  Abul-Feda records that El-Kaber had "un frère plus jeune…Eimad ed-Din Zengi" who received "El-Akr et Chouch châteaux situés dans le voisinage de Mosul" from his father in A.H. 607 (1210/11)[793].  Abul-Feda records that, after the death of "El-Kaber", his brother "Eimad ed-Din Zengui" seized "la forteresse d'El-Amadiya, des châteaux des Curdes heccariens et de la province d'Es-Zouzan"[794]m ---, daughter of MODAFFER ed-Din KUKBURI Prince of Arbelles & his wife Siti Khatun.  Abul-Feda records that "Eimad ed-Din Zengui" married "la fille de Modaffer ed-Din Coucbouri prince d'Arbelles [et de la] sœur d'El-Malec el-Adel et fille d'Ayoub"[795]

4.         AMIR MIRAN .  Abul-Feda records that "son frère Amir-Miran" gathered troops during the illness of Nur-ed-Din at Aleppo in A.H. 554 (1159)[796]

 

 

1.         LOULOU BEDR ed-Din el-Malek er-RAHIM (-1259).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 619 (1222/23) of "Nacer ed-Din Mahmoud…fils d'El-Malec el-Kaher Mesoud, et petit-fils de Nour ed-Din Arslan-Chah" after which "Bed red-Din Loulou" became sovereign of Mosul, reigning for more than 40 years[797].  One child: 

a)         ISMAIL el-Malek es-SALEH ROKN ed-Din (-murdered 1262). 

 

 

 

E.      RULERS of ALEPPO, DAMASCUS, HAMAH, HOMS, KHELAT (AYUBIDS)

 

 

1.         SHADI .  Two children: 

a)         NEJM ed-Din AYUB (-9 Aug 1173).  Abul-Feda records that "Chircouh et Ayoub" were "fils de Chadi et originaires du territoire de Dovin" and that, according to Ibn-el-Athir, they were "de la race curde de la tribu de Baouadiya", and that they entered the service of "Behrouz, commissaire entretenu à Baghdad par le gouvernement seldjoukide", adding that Ayub was the older brother, was appointed commander of "la forteresse de Tecrit", and after the death of Zengi established himself at Damascus[798]

-        see below.    

b)         ASED ed-Din SHIRKUH (-23 Mar 1169).  Abul-Feda records that "Chircouh et Ayoub" were "fils de Chadi et originaires du territoire de Dovin" and that, according to Ibn-el-Athir, they were "de la race curde de la tribu de Baouadiya", and that they entered the service of "Behrouz, commissaire entretenu à Baghdad par le gouvernement seldjoukide", adding that Shirkuh was a follower of Nur-ed-Din after the death of Zengi and was given the towns of Homs and Raheba as fiefs[799].  Abul-Feda records that "Chircouh un des principaux emirs de Nour ed-Din" left Homs aiming to capture Damascus, where he met "son frère Nedjm ed-Din Ayoub", during the illness of Nur-ed-Din at Aleppo in A.H. 554 (1159)[800].  Abul-Feda records that Nur-ed-Din appointed "Aced ed-Din Chircouh" to lead his troops to attack Egypt in A.H. 559 (1163/64)[801].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that Shirkuh was invested as vizir in Egypt after the conquest of the country in 1169 with the title "Almelic Almansour emir-aldoyouch", but that he died "le 22 djomada second" in A.H. 564 (23 Mar 1169) of "Schirkouh", after governing for two months and five days[802].  One child: 

i)          NASER ed-Din MOHAMMED (-5 Mar 1186).  Abul-Feda records that Salah ed-Din sent "son cousin Mohammed fils de Chircouh" to Homs in A.H. 575 (1179/80)[803].  Abul-Feda records the death "au jour de la fête des Sacrifices" in A.H. 581 (5 Mar 1186) of "Nacer ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Chircouh"[804].  One child: 

(a)       El-Malik el-MOJAHED SHIRKUH ([1173/74]-[1239/40]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Chircouh âgé de 12 ans" succeeded "Nacer ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Chircouh" at Homs in A.H. 581 (5 Mar 1186)[805].  Abul-Feda records that the peace agreement with the Franks in Sep 1192 was sworn by "…El-Malec el-Modjahed Chircouh, fils de Mohammed Ibn Chircouh et prince d'Emesse…"[806].  Abul-Feda records that "Emesse, Er-Raheba et Tadmor" passed to "Chircouh, fils de Mohammed et petit-fils de Chircouh" after the death of Salah ad-Din in 1193[807].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 637 (1239/40) of "El-Malec el-Modjahed Chircouh prince d'Emesse, fils de Nacer ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Chircouh, fils de Chadi"[808].  One child: 

(1)       El-Malek el-MANSUR IBRAHIM (-[1246/47).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils Ibrahim surnommé El-Malec el-Mansour" succeeded in Homs in A.H. 637 (1239/40) after the death of "El-Malec el-Modjahed Chircouh prince d'Emesse, fils de Nacer ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Chircouh, fils de Chadi"[809].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 644 (1246/47) of "el-Malec el-Mansour Ibrahim prince d'Emesse" at Damascus[810].  One child: 

a.         El-Malek el-ASHREF MODAFFER ed-Din MUSA (-[1262/63]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec el-Achref Modaffer ed-din Moussa" succeeded on the death in A.H. 644 (1246/47) of "el-Malec el-Mansour Ibrahim prince d'Emesse" at Damascus[811].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 661 (1262/63) of "El-Malec el-Achref Moussa prince d'Emesse, fils d'El-Malec el-Mansom Ibrahim, fils d'El-Malec el-Modjahed Chircouh, fils de Nacer ed-Din Mohammed, fils de Chircouh, fils de Chadi"[812].  Two children: 

(i)         El-Malek ed-DAHER (-murdered Homs [1259/60]).  Abul-Feda records that the Tartars beheaded "El-Malec ed-Daher, El-Malec es-Saleh, fils du prince d'Emesse" at the siege of Homs in A.H. 659 (1260/61)[813]

(ii)        El-Malek es-SALEH (-murdered Homs [1259/60]).  Abul-Feda records that the Tartars beheaded "El-Malec ed-Daher, El-Malec es-Saleh, fils du prince d'Emesse" at the siege of Homs in A.H. 659 (1260/61)[814]

 

 

NEJM ed-Din AYUB, son of SHADI (-9 Aug 1173).  Abul-Feda records that "Chircouh et Ayoub" were "fils de Chadi et originaires du territoire de Dovin" and that, according to Ibn-el-Athir, they were "de la race curde de la tribu de Baouadiya", and that they entered the service of "Behrouz, commissaire entretenu à Baghdad par le gouvernement seldjoukide", adding that Ayub was the older brother, was appointed commander of "la forteresse de Tecrit", and after the death of Zengi established himself at Damascus[815].  Abul-Feda records that "Nedjm ed-Din Ayoub, le gouverneur de Tecrit" helped Zengui cross the River Tigris to enter Baghdad in A.H. 526 (1131/32), commenting that this act provided the basis for the future good relations between their two families[816].  Abul-Feda records that "Nedjm ed-Din Aiyoub Ibn Chadi" was governor of Balbek when it was besieged by "le seigneur de Damas Modjir ed-Din Abak" after the death of Zengi in A. H. 540 (14 Sep 1146), and surrendered the town and retired to Damascus[817].  Abul-Feda records the death "le 27 de dou'l-hiddja" in A.H. 568 (9 Aug 1173) of "le père de Salah ed-Din" after being thrown from his horse[818]

m (a) ---, sister of SHEBAB ed-Din MAHMUD el-Haremi, daughter of ---.  Abul-Feda names "Chebab ed-Din Mahmoud el-Haremi" as maternal uncle of "Salah ed-Din"[819]

Ayub & wife (a) had two children: 

1.         NUR ed-Daula SHAHANSHAH (-killed in battle [Jul/Aug] 1148).  Abul-Feda records the death "dans le mois de rebia premier" in A.H. 543 (Jul/Aug 1148) of "Nour ed-Daula Chahanchah, fils d'Ayoub, tué par les Francs" while he was besieging Damascus[820].  Two children: 

a)         EIZZ ed-Din FERUK SHAH (-Sep 1182).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records the death "au mois de djomada premier" in A.H. 578 (Sep 1182) of "Izz-eddin Ferroukh-chah, neveu de Salah-eddin…lieutenant de ce prince à Damas"[821].  One child: 

i)          BEHRAM SHAH .  Abul-Feda records that "Behram-Chah fils de Ferroukh Chah" succeeded his father in Balbek in A.H. 578 (1182/83)[822]

b)         TAKI ed-Din OMAR (-Melazguirel 10 Oct 1191, bur Hamah).  Abul-Feda records that Salah ed-Din sent "son neveu Taki ed-Din Omar" to Hamah in A.H. 575 (1179/80)[823].  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din appointed "son neveu Taki ed-Din Omar surnommé El-Malec el-Modaffer" as his lieutenant in Egypt in A.H. 579 (1183/84)[824].  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din granted Laodicea to "son neveu el-Malec el-Modaffer Taki ed-Din Omar, fils de Chahanchah" in A.H. 584 (1188/89)[825].  Abul-Feda records the death "le 19 de Ramadan" in A.H. 587 (10 Oct 1191) of "el-Malek el-Modaffer Taki ed-Din Omar, fils de Chahinchah et petit-fils d'Ayoub" at the siege of Melazguirel[826].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek el-MANSUR MOHAMMED (-Hamah Dec 1222).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils el-Malec el-Mansour Mohammed" kept his father's death secret in A.H. 587 (10 Oct 1191) and went to Hamah with the body, burying it outside the city[827].  Abul-Feda records that the peace agreement with the Franks in Sep 1192 was sworn by "…El-Malec el-Mansour Mohammed fils de Taki ed-Din Omar et prince de Hamah…"[828].  Abul-Feda records that "Hameh, Selemiya, El-Ma'arra, Manbedj et Kalat Nedjm" remained with "El-Malec el-Mansour Nacer ed-Din Mohammed, fils d'El-Malec el Modaffer Taki ed-Din Omar" after the death of Salah ad-Din in 1193[829].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de dou'l kada" in A.H. 619 (Dec 1222) of "El-Malec el-Mansour Mohammed, fils de El-Malec el-Modaffer Ibn Chahanchah et prince de Hamah" in the citadel of Hamah, commenting that he had written several works including "El-Midmar (l'hippodrome)…sujet historique…et des notices sur les poètes des diverses classes"[830]m (a) MALEKA Khatun, daughter of (-[1220]).  Abul-Feda records the death of "Maleca-Khatoun…fille d'El-Malec el-Adel", mother of "El-Malec el-Modaffer Mahmoud", soon after her son left for Egypt in A.H. 616 (1219/20)[831].  El-Mansur & his wife (a) had two children: 

(a)       El-Malek el-MODAFFER TAKI ed-DIN MAHMUD ([1201/02-[1244/45])Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Mansour prince de Hamah" chose "son fils El-Malec el-Modaffer Mahmoud" as his successor in A.H. 616 (1219/20) and sent him to Egypt, but that when his father died he was still absent and was replaced by his younger brother[832].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 642 (1244/45) of "mon grand-père El-Malec el-Modaffer Taki ed-Din Mahmoud (prince de Hamah)" aged 43 after reigning for 15 years, 7 months and 10 days[833]m (1229, consummated [1231/32]) GHAZIA Khatun, daughter of El-Malek El-KAMEL Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records the marriage in A.H. 626 (1229) of "El-Malec el-Camel…sa fille Ghazia Khatoun" and "El-Modaffer" Prince of Hamah, adding in a later passage that she was taken to her husband in A.H. 629 (1231/32)[834].  Abul-Feda records that she was regent on the accession of her son in A.H. 642 (1244/45)[835].  el-Modaffer Mahmud & his wife had one child: 

(1)       El-Malec el-MANSUR MOHAMMED ([1233/34]-).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec el-Mansour Mohammed", aged 10 years and one month, on the death in A.H. 642 (1244/45) of "mon grand-père El-Malec el-Modaffer Taki ed-Din Mahmoud (prince de Hamah)", under the regency of his mother[836]

(2)       ALI .  One child: 

a.         ISMAIL (Damascus [Nov/Dec] 672-).  Abul-Feda records the birth "au mois de djomada premier" in A.H. 672 (Nov/Dec 1273) of "auteur de cet abrégé…Ismail fils d'Ali fils de Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed fils d'Omar, fils de Chahanchah, fils d'Ayoub" at Damascus[837]

(b)       El-Malek en-NASER SALAH ed-Din KILIJ ARSLAN ([1204/05]-).  Abul-Feda records that "un autre fils…El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Kilidj-Arslan", aged 17 years old, was with "son oncle maternel El-Malec el-Moaddem souverain de Damas" when his father died in A.H. 619 (Dec 1222), but was recalled and installed as his father's successor[838]

(c)       daughter .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Modaffer Mahmoud prince de Hamah" married his sister to "Seif ed-Din Toghril, [son] ancient mamlouc", when recording the latter's death in A.H. 654 (1256/57)[839]m SEIF ed-Din TOGHRIL, son of --- (-[1256/57]). 

2.         son .  One child: 

a)         El-Malek el-MODAFFER TAKR ed-Din OMARAbul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Modaffer Takr-ed-Din Omar, petit fils d'Ayoub et neveu de Salah ed-Din" had "un fils Said ed-Din Chahanchah" who also had "un fils…Soleiman"[840].  One child: 

i)          SAID ed-Din SHAHANSHAH .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Modaffer Takr-ed-Din Omar, petit fils d'Ayoub et neveu de Salah ed-Din" had "un fils Said ed-Din Chahanchah" who also had "un fils…Soleiman"[841].  One child: 

(a)       SULEIMAN (-killed in battle Mansurah, Egypt 9 Feb 1250).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Modaffer Takr-ed-Din Omar, petit fils d'Ayoub et neveu de Salah ed-Din" had "un fils Said ed-Din Chahanchah" who also had "un fils…Soleiman", who was installed as ruler in Yemen by "la mère d'En-Nacer"[842].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 612 (1215/16) "El-Malec el-Mesoud Iouçef, surnommé Aksis" captured "Soleiman fils de Sa'd ed-Din Chahanchah" in Yemen and sent him in chains to Egypt, adding that "El-Malec el-Camel" gave him a pension and that he remained in Cairo until A.H. 647 when he left for "El-Mansoura" where he "trouva le martyre en combattant les infidèles"[843]m as her third husband, ---, widow firstly of SEIF el-ISHIM TOGHTIBIN, and secondly of GHAZI ibn JEBAIL, daughter of ---.  Abul-Feda records that "Soleiman" was installed as ruler in Yemen by "la mère d'En-Nacer" but that he left his wife[844]

3.         YUSUF ibn Ayub SALAH ed-Din (Tikrit [1137/38]-[14] Dec 1193).  Abul-Feda records that Nour ed-Daula Chahanchah, fils d'Ayoub" was "le frère ainé, ainsi que le frère germain, de Salah ed-Din"[845].  Abul-Feda records that "Aced ed-Din Chircouh" left "son neveu Youçof Ibn Ayoub…Salah ed-Din" as governor in Giza and Alexandria after capturing these cities in A.H. 559 (1163/64)[846].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that Salah ed-Din was invested as vizir in Egypt after the death of his paternal uncle in 1169 with the title "Almalec Alnasser"[847].  Abul-Feda records that Salah ed-Din adopted the title and privileges of Sultan in A.H. 570 (1174/75)[848].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 589 (1193) of Salah ed-Din and his burial "le 10 du mois moharren" (15 Dec), adding that he was born at Tikrit in A.H. 532 (1137/38) and left 17 sons and one daughter[849]m (a) ---.  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Afdal" sent his mother to Hamah in A.H. 599 (1202/03) to help El-Malec el-Mansur in negotiations with El-Malec el-Adel concerning the latter's capture of the towns of Ras-Ain, Serouj and Kalat-Nedjm, but the negotiations failed[850].  Salah ed-Din & his wife (a) had one child: 

a)         ALI El-Malek el-AFDAL NUR (in Egypt [1169/70]-1225).  Abul-Feda records that the oldest of Salah ed-Din's children was "Ali surnommé El-Malec el-Afdal Nour" who was born in A.H. 565 (1169/70) in Egypt[851].  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din granted Damascus to "son fils el-Malec el-Afdal" whom he recalled from Egypt in A.H. 582 (1186/87)[852].  Abul-Feda records that "el-Malec el-Afdal fils du sultan" invaded Acre in A.H. 583 (1187/88)[853].  Abul-Feda records that the peace agreement with the Franks in Sep 1192 was sworn by "…les fils du sultan El Malec el Afdal et El-Malec ed-Daher…"[854].  Abul-Feda records that "son fils ainé El-Malec el-Afdal Nour ed-Din Ali" succeeded in Damascus after his father's death in 1193[855].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 622 (1225) of "El-Malec el-Afdal Nour ed-Din Ali, fils du sultan Salah ed-Din", aged 57, commenting that only "la ville de Someisat" remained of all his lands[856].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek es-SALEH (-killed in battle [1240/41]).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec es-Saleh fils d'El-Malec el-Afdal et petit-fils du sultan Salah ed-Din" was killed in battle in A.H. 638 (1240/41)[857]

b)         El-Malek el-AZIZ OTHMAN ([1171/72]-29 Nov 1198).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Aziz Othman" was younger than his brother by two years[858].  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din appointed "son frère el-Malek el-Adel" as governor of Egypt in A.H. 582 (1186/87) jointly with "el-Aziz Othman un autre de ses fils"[859].  Abul-Feda records that "son fils…El-Malec el-Aziz Eimad ed-Din Othman" succeeded in Egypt after his father's death in 1193[860].  Abul-Feda records the death "la veille du 27 moharrem" in A.H. 595 (29 Nov 1198) of "El-Malec el-Aziz Eimad ed-Din Othman, fils du sultan El-Melec en Nacer Saleh ed-Din Youssof, fils d'Ayoub" aged 27 years and some months[861].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek el-MANSUR MOHAMMED ([1188]-).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Mansour Mohammed fils du prince décédé", aged 9 years and some months, succeeded "El-Malec el-Aziz Eimad ed-Din Othman, fils du sultan El-Melec en Nacer Saleh ed-Din Youssof, fils d'Ayoub" in 1198[862].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 599 (1202/03) "El-Malec el-Mansur Mohammed, fils d'El Aziz" was deported from Egypt back to Syria on the orders of Sultan El-Adel, with his mother and brothers, and that he went to "son oncle El-Malec ed-Daher" in Aleppo[863].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec ed-Daher Ghazi" appointed "un cousin de ces deux princes…El-Malec el-Mansour Mohammed, fils d'El-Aziz Othman, et petit-fils su sultan Salah ed-Din" as his residuary heir in Aleppo in A.H. 613 (1215/16) if both his sons died[864]

c)         El-Malek ed-DAHER GHAZI ([1171/72]-8 Oct 1216).  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din appointed "son fils El-Malec ed-Daher Ghazi" as governor of Aleppo in A.H. 579 (1183/84)[865].  Abul-Feda records that the peace agreement with the Franks in Sep 1192 was sworn by "…les fils du sultan El Malec el Afdal et El-Malec ed-Daher…"[866].  Abul-Feda records that "son fils…El-Malec ed-Daher Ghiath ed-Din Ghazi" succeeded as prince of Aleppo after his father's death in 1193[867].  Abul-Feda records the death "le mois de djomada second…la veille du 24" in A.H. 613 (8 Oct 1216) of "El-Malec ed-Daher Ghazi", aged 44 years and a few months[868].  Two children: 

i)          El-Malek es-SALEH SALAH ed-Din AHMED Ibn GHAZI ([1203/04]-).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec ed-Daher Ghazi" appointed "son fils ainé El-Malec es-Saleh Salah ed-Din Ahmed Ibn Ghazi" as his residuary heir in Aleppo if "son fils cadet El-Aziz" died, stating that he was about 12 years old[869].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 619 (1222/23) "Toghril l'eunuque, atabec et regent de la principauté d'Alep" appointed "El-Malec es-Saleh Ahmed, fils d'El-Malec ed-Daher" to rule "Es-Choghr et Becas"[870]

ii)         El-Malek el-AZIZ MOHAMMED ([1213]-Aleppo Nov 1236)Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec ed-Daher Ghazi" appointed "son fils cadet…El-Malec el-Aziz", aged two years and some months, as his heir in Aleppo before he died 8 Oct 1216[871].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 632 (1234/35) of "El-Malec es-Zaher Dawoud, fils du sultan Salah ed-Din et seigneur d'El-Bira", adding that "son neveu El-Malec el-Aziz Mohammed prince d'Alep" took control of El-Bira[872].  Abul-Feda records the death "le mois de rebia premier" in A.H. 634 (Nov 1236) of "El-Malec el-Aziz Mohammed, fils d'El-Malec ed-Daher-Ghazi" at Aleppo aged 23 and a few months[873]m (a) as her second husband, DAIFA Khatun, widow of El-Malek ed-DAFER KHIDER, daughter of Sultan ABU BEKR el-Malek el-ADEL.  Abul-Feda records that "Daifa Khatoun mère du jeune prince et fille d'El-Malec el-Adel" took control of affaires on the succession of "son fils El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof" in A.H. 634 (Nov 1236)[874].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Hafed Arslan-Chah, fils d'El-Malec el'Adel Abou-Becr" ceded "le château de Djaber et la ville de Balis" to "sa sœur Daifa Khatun princesse d'Alep" in return for "la forteresse d'Azaz" in A.H. 638 (1240/41)[875].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 640 (1242/43) of "la princesse Daifa Khatoun fille d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr Ibn Ayoub", adding that she was 59 years old, having been born in the citadel of Aleppo in A.H. 581 or 582 ([1185/87])[876]m (b) (Betrothed Apr 1229, married [1231/32]) FATIMA Khatun, daughter of El-Malek el-KAMEL Sultan of Egypt.  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Camel" betrothed "sa fille Fatema Khatoun" to "El-Malec el-Aziz prince d'Alep" in "le mois de djomada premier" in A.H. 626 (Apr 1229), adding in a later passage that she was taken to her husband in A.H. 629 (1231/32)[877].  el-Aziz & his wife (a) had one child: 

(a)       El-Malek en-NASER SALAH ed-Din YUSUF ([1228/29]-)Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof" aged "environ 7 ans" succeeded on the death in A.H. 634 (Nov 1236) of "El-Malec el-Aziz Mohammed, fils d'El-Malec ed-Daher-Ghazi", adding that "Daifa Khatoun mère du jeune prince et fille d'El-Malec el-Adel" took control of affaires[878].  Abul-Feda records that "son petit-fils El-Malec en Nacer Youssof, fils d'El-Aziz" was declared of age in A.H. 640 (1242/43) on the death of "la princesse Daifa Khatoun fille d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr Ibn Ayoub", whom he succeeded[879].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof souverain de la Syrie" made peace with "les Bahrites de l'Egypte" in A.H. 651 ([1253/54]), under which the river Jordan was agreed as the boundary between the two states[880]m ([1254/55]) MALEKA Khatun, daughter of KAY QUBADH I Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  Abul-Feda records that "la princesse Maleca Khatoun, fille de Cai-Kobad roi du pays d'Er-Roum" was brought to her "fiancé El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof souverain de Damas" in A.H. 652 ([1254/55])[881].  One child: 

(1)       El-AZIZ .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof souverain de Damas" sent "son fils Aziz" with rich presents to "Houlagou" in A.H. 656 (1258)[882]

d)         El-Malek ed-DAFER KHIDER .  Abul-Feda records that "Mosul" was ruled by "El-Malec ed-Dafer Khider fils de Salah ed-Din" after the death of Salah ad-Din in 1193, specifying that he governed under the orders of "son frère El-Malec el-Afdal"[883].  Abul-Feda records that Basra was captured from "El-Malec ed-Dafer Khider, fils du sultan Salah ed-Din" in A.H. 592 (1195/96), who retired to his brother at Aleppo[884]m as her first husband, DAIFA Khatun, daughter of Sultan ABU BEKR el-Malek el-ADEL.  Abul-Feda records the marriage agreed in A.H. 608 (1211/12) between "El-Malec ed-Daher prince d'Alep" and "Daifa-Khatoun, fille d'El-Adel", specifying that the contract was signed "au mois de moharrem" in A.H. 609 (Jun 1212)[885].  She married secondly El-Malik el-Aziz Prince of Aleppo.  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 640 (1242/43) of "la princesse Daifa Khatoun fille d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr Ibn Ayoub", adding that she was 59 years old, having been born in the citadel of Aleppo in A.H. 581 or 582 ([1185/87])[886].  ed-Dafer & his wife had one child: 

i)          El-Malek el-AZIZ GHIATH ed-Din MOHAMMED ([1213/14]-).  Abul-Feda records the birth in A.H. 610 (1213/14) of "El-Malec el-Aziz Ghiath ed-Din Mohammed" son of "El-Malec ed-Daher et de Daifa-Khatoun"[887]

e)         El-Malek es-ZAHIR DAUD (-[1234/35]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 632 (1234/35) of "El-Malec es-Zaher Dawoud, fils du sultan Salah ed-Din et seigneur d'El-Bira", adding that "son neveu El-Malec el-Aziz Mohammed prince d'Alep" took control of El-Bira[888]

f)          El-MOADDEM TURAN SHAH (-after [1250/51]).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Moaddem Touran-Chah, fils du sultan Salah ed-Din, Nosrat ed-Din frère du précédent" accompanied "El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Youssof" to Damascus in A.H. 648 (1250/51)[889]

g)         NOSRAT ed-Din (-after [1250/51]).  Abul-Feda records that "El-Moaddem Touran-Chah, fils du sultan Salah ed-Din, Nosrat ed-Din frère du précédent" accompanied "El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Youssof" to Damascus in A.H. 648 (1250/51)[890]

h)         ten other sons.  Abul-Feda records Salah ed-Din left 17 sons and one daughter when he died[891]

i)          daughter .  Abul-Feda records that the daughter of Salah ed-Din later married "son cousin El-Malec el-Camel souverain d'Egypte"[892]m her cousin, El-Malik el-KAMEL, son of Sultan ABU BEKR el-Malek el-ADEL. 

4.         SHEMS ed-Daula TURAN SHAH (-Alexandria [1180/81]).  Abul-Feda records that "Chems ed Daula Touran Chah, frère ainé de Salah ed-Din" led an expedition to Nubia in A.H. 568 (1172/73)[893].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 569 (1173/74) Salah-ed-Din sent "son frère Touran-Chah" to Yemen where he deposed and captured "Abd-en-Nebi" and took the towns of Zebid and Aden[894].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 576 (1180/81) of "Chems-ed-Daula Touran-Chah frère ainé de Salah-ad-Din" at Alexandria[895]

5.         El-Malek el-MODAFER OMARAbul-Feda names "El-Malec el-Modaffer Omar, seigneur de Hamah" as brother of "Nour ed-Daula Chahanchah, fils d'Ayoub", when recording the latter's death[896]

6.         FERUKSHAH .  Abul-Feda names "Ferroukhchah seigneur de Baalbec" as brother of "Nour ed-Daula Chahanchah, fils d'Ayoub", when recording the latter's death[897].  One child: 

a)         El-AMDJED BAHRAM SHAH (-murdered [1229/30]).  Abul-Feda records that the peace agreement with the Franks in Sep 1192 was sworn by "…El-Amdjed Bahram-Chah fils de Ferroukh-Chah prince de Ba'albec…"[898].  Abul-Feda records that "Ba'albec" remained with "El-Malec el-Amdjed Medjd-ed-Din Behram Chah, fils de Ferroukh Chah et arrière petit-fils d'Ayoub" after the death of Salah ad-Din in 1193[899].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Amdjed Bahram Chah" was killed in Damascus "par un de ses mamlucs" in A.H. 627 (1229/30), adding that he was "le meilleur poète de la famille ayoubite" and had occupied the principality of Baalbek for 49 years[900]

7.         ABU BEKR el-Malek el-ADEL ([1142/43]-Alekin 31 Aug 1218, bur Damascus).  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din granted Aleppo to "son frère Abou Becr el-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 579 (1183/84)[901].  Abul-Feda records that Salah-ed-Din appointed "son frère el-Malek el-Adel" as governor of Egypt in A.H. 582 (1186/87) jointly with "el-Aziz Othman un autre de ses fils"[902].  Abul-Feda records that the peace negotiations with the Franks in A.H. 587 (Oct 1191) included a proposal for "son frère el-Malec el-Adel" (referring to Salah-ad-Din) to marry "la sœur du roi d'Angleterre" but that the proposal was rejected because the priests imposed the requirement of his conversion to Christianity[903].  Abul-Feda records that the peace agreement with the Franks in Sep 1192 was sworn by "El-Malec el-Adel frère du sultan…"[904].  Abul-Feda records that "Carac, Chaubec et les contrées à l'Orient" remained with "El-Malec el-Adel Seif ed-Din Abou Bacr Ibn Ayoub" after the death of his brother Salah ad-Din in 1193[905].  Abul-Feda records that "le depute du khalife" granted the titles "Chahanchah…Malec el-Moloac et ami du Commandeur des croyants" to El-Adel in A.H. 604 (1207/08) at Damascus[906].  Abul-Feda records the death "au 7 de djomada second" in A.H. 615 (31 Aug 1218) of "El-Malec el-Adel" at "Alekin" aged 75 years, leaving 16 sons and several daughters, and his burial in Damascus[907].  Fourteen children: 

a)         El-Malek el-ASHREF MODAFFER ed-Din MUSA ([1176/77]-Damascus [Aug/Sep] 1237).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 598 (1201/02) "El-Malec el-Adel" granted Harran to "son fils El-Malec el-Achref Modaffer ed-Din"[908].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Achref, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel" defeated "Nour ed-Din Arslan-Chah, fils de Mesoud Ibn Maudoud et prince de Mosul" after he captured Nisibe in protest at the recognition by "Kotb ed-Din Mohammed, fils d'Eimad ed-Din Zengui Ibn Maudoud et seigneur de Sindjar" of the sovereignty of "El-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 600 (1203/04)[909].  Abul-Feda records that "le depute du khalife" gave "El-Malec el-Achref et El-Malec el-Moaddem, fils tous deux d'El-Malec el-Adel" a black turban and wide-sleeved black dress in A.H. 604 (1207/08)[910].  Abul-Feda records that "Mahmud, fils de Kotb ed-Din et prince de Sindjar" exchanged Sindjar for Er-Rakka with "El-Malec el-Achref" in A.H. 616 (1219/20)[911].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Achref" had no sons and appointed (his brother) "El-Malec el-Modaffer…possesseur d'Edesse et de Seroudj" as his successor in A.H. 619 (Dec 1222)[912].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de moharrem" in A.H. 635 (Aug/Sep 1237) of "le prince El-Achraf fils d'El-Malec el-Adel…Mouça…son titre honorifique Modaffer ed-Din" at Damascus aged "environ 60 ans", and the succession of "son frère El-Malec es-Saleh Ismail"[913].  One child: 

i)          daughter .  Abul-Feda records that "le prince El-Achraf fils d'El-Malec el-Adel…Mouça…son titre honorifique Modaffer ed-Din" had married his only child to "El-Malec el-Djaouad Younos fils de Maudoud et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel"[914]m El-Malek el-JAUD YUNUS, son of MAUDOUD. 

b)         El-Malek el-KAMEL MOHAMMED ([1177/78]-8 Mar 1238).  "El-Malec el-Camel, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel (et son lieutenant en Egypte)" sent "son fils El-Malec el-Mesoud Iouçef, surnommé Aksis" to Yemen as governor[915]Sultan of Egypt

-        SULTANS of EGYPT

c)         El-Malek el-MOADDEM ISA ([1175/76]-Damascus [1226/27]).  Abul-Feda records that "le depute du khalife" gave "El-Malec el-Achref et El-Malec el-Moaddem, fils tous deux d'El-Malec el-Adel)" a black turban and wide-sleeved black dress in A.H. 604 (1207/08)[916].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Moaddem Eissa (resté à Damas comme lieutenant de son père El-Malec el-Adel" arrested "l'émir Eizz ed-Din Osama seigneur de la forteresse de Caoucab et d'Adjloun" in A.H. 608 (1211/12) and captured his fortresses[917].  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec el-Moaddem Eissa" took his father's body for burial to Damascus after he died 31 Aug 1218[918].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 624 (1226/27) of "El-Malec ed-Moaddem Eissa, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr et petit fils d'Ayoub" aged 49 at Damascus after reigning there for nine years and some months[919].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek en-NASER SALAH ed-Din DAUD ([1204/05]-[May/Jun] 1258).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Dawoud" succeeded "El-Malec ed-Moaddem Eissa, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr et petit fils d'Ayoub"[920].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof souverain de la Syrie" freed "El-Malec en-Nacer Dawoud ancient prince de Carac", whom he had imprisoned in the citadel of Homs, in A.H. 651 ([1253/54])[921].  Abul-Feda records the death "au mois de djomada premier" in A.H. 656 (May/Jun 1258) of "El-Malec en-Nacer Dawoud, fils d'El-Moaddem Eissa et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr Ibn Ayoub", aged "environ 53"[922].  Three children: 

(a)       El-AMJED HASAN .  Abul-Feda records that "les deux ainés El-Amdjed Hacen et Ed-Daher Chadi" imprisoned "El-Malec el-Moaddem Eissa le troisième de ses fils" after their father "El Malec en-Nacer Dawoud prince de Carac" had appointed him as his lieutenant when he left Krak[923].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Amdjed Hacem et Ed-Daher Chadi, tous deux fils d'En-Nacer Dawoud" accompanied "El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Youssof" to Damascus in A.H. 648 (1250/51)[924]

(b)       Ed-DAHER SHADI .  Abul-Feda records that "les deux ainés El-Amdjed Hacen et Ed-Daher Chadi" imprisoned "El-Malec el-Moaddem Eissa le troisième de ses fils" after their father "El Malec en-Nacer Dawoud prince de Carac" had appointed him as his lieutenant when he left Krak[925].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Amdjed Hacem et Ed-Daher Chadi, tous deux fils d'En-Nacer Dawoud" accompanied "El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Youssof" to Damascus in A.H. 648 (1250/51)[926]

(c)       El-Malek el-MOADDEM ISAAbul-Feda records that "El Malec en-Nacer Dawoud prince de Carac" appointed "El-Malec el-Moaddem Eissa le troisième de ses fils" as his lieutenant when he left Krak but that he was imprisoned by his older brothers[927]

d)         El-Malek el-HAFED NUR ed-Dul ARSLAN SHAH (-[1241/42]).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 598 (1201/02) "un troisième fils [d'El-Malec el-Adel] El-Malec el-Hafed Nur-ed-Dul Arslan Chah" held "Kalat Djaher"[928].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Hafed Arslan-Chah, fils d'El-Malec el'Adel Abou-Becr" ceded "le château de Djaber et la ville de Balis" to "sa sœur Daifa Khatun princesse d'Alep" in return for "la forteresse d'Azaz" in A.H. 638 (1240/41)[929].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 639 (1241/42) of "El-Malec el-Hafed Nour ed-Din Arslan Chah, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel"[930]

e)         El-Malek el-AZIZ EIMAD ed-Din OTHMAN .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Moaddem Eissa" granted "des domaines de Djeharkes, à savoir Panéas et ses dépendances" to "son frère germain El-Malec el-Aziz Eimad ed-Din Othman, fils d'El-Malec ed-Adel" in A.H. 608 (1211/12)[931].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek es-SAID .  Abul-Feda records that the Tartars captured Es-Sobeiba from "El-Malec es-Said…fils d'El-Malec el Aziz et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 658 (1259/60)[932]

f)          El-Malek es-SALEH EIMAD ed-Din ISMAIL ([1199/1200]-[1250/51]).  Abul-Feda records that "son frère El-Malec es-Saleh Ismail" succeeded in Damascus on the death in A.H. 635 (Aug/Sep 1237) of "le prince El-Achraf fils d'El-Malec el-Adel" and that he formed a league of princes against El-Kamel sultan of Egypt who seized Damascus "le 18 du mois djomada premier" (6 Jan 1238) and granted es-Saleh Baalbek and Bekaa in compensation[933].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec es-Saleh Eimad ed-Din Ismail, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Ibn Ayoub" was killed in A.H. 648 (1250/51) aged 50[934]

g)         El-Malek el-WAHAD AYUB (-[1210/11])Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Aouhad Ayoub, fils d'El-Adel" captured Khelat in A.H. 604 (1207/08) after defeating "Belban souverain de Khelat", but that he was then defeated by "Toghril-Chah prince d'Erzeroum" who assassinated Belban and briefly captured Khelat until el-Wahad resumed control[935].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 607 (1210/11) of "El-Malec el-Aouhad, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel"[936]Betrothed [1210/11] to ---, daughter of --- King of Georgia.  Abul-Feda records that, in A.H. 607 (1210/11), the Georgian king signed a thirty year peace with the Muslims, after obtaining his release from captivity, the arrangements for which included the betrothal of his daughter to El-Wahad[937].  Neither the name of the king nor that of his daughter are specified.  However, if this refers to King Davit Soslan, it is likely that she was Rusudan of Georgia, daughter of Davit Soslan of Ossetia & his wife Thamar I Queen of Georgia [(1195-Tbilisi [1244/47], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral), whose first husband is recorded elsewhere as having died just before this date. 

h)         El-Malek el-ASHREF MUSAAbul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Achref Mouça, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel" left Damascus in A.H. 604 (1207/08) and returned to his lands in Mesopotamia[938].  Abul-Feda records that "son frère El-Malec el-Achref" seized Khelat in A.H. 607 (1210/11) after the death of "El-Malec el-Aouhad, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel", adding that he received the title "Chah-Armen" (king of the Armenians)[939]

i)          El-Malek el-MODAFFER SHEHAB ed-Din GHAZI .  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Adel" granted "les villes d'Edesse et de Meisfarikin" to "son fils El-Malec el-Modaffer Ghazi" in A.H. 608 (1211/12)[940].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Achref" had no sons and appointed (his brother) "El-Malec el-Modaffer…possesseur d'Edesse et de Seroudj" as his successor in A.H. 619 (Dec 1222), giving him "Meiafarekin, Khelat et les contrées qui en dependent…une étendue de pays aussi grand que l'Egypte" in exchange for Edessa and Seruj[941].  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 621 (1224/25) "El-Malec el-Achref" granted "le royaume de Khelat, vaste pays de l'Arménie" to "son frère El-Modaffer Ghazi"[942].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 642 (1244/45) of "El-Malec el-Modaffer Chehab ed-Din Ghazi, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Abu-Becr et prince de Meiafarekin"[943].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek el-KAMEL NASER ed-Din MOHAMMED (-killed in battle Meiafarekin [1259/60]).  Abul-Feda records that "son fils El-Malec el-Camel Nacer ed-Din Mohammed" after the death in A.H. 642 (1244/45) of "El-Malec el-Modaffer Chehab ed-Din Ghazi, fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Abu-Becr et prince de Meiafarekin"[944].  Abul-Feda records that the Tartars besieged Meiafarekin where the prince was "El-Malec el-Camel Mohammed" in A.H. 656 (May/Jun 1258)[945].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Camel Mohammed, fils d'El-Modaffer Ghazi et prince de Meiafarekin" was killed when the Tartars captured Meiafarekin in A.H. 658 (1259/60)[946].  One child: 

j)          MAUDOUD .  Abul-Feda names "El-Malec el-Djaouad Younos fils de Maudoud et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel" when recording his marriage[947].  One child: 

i)          El-Malek JAUD YUNUS (-[1240/41]).  Abul-Feda records that "le prince El-Achraf fils d'El-Malec el-Adel…Mouça…son titre honorifique Modaffer ed-Din" had married his only child to "El-Malec el-Djaouad Younos fils de Maudoud et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel"[948].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr fils d'El-Camel" appointed "le prince El-Malec el-Djaouad Younous, fils de Maudoud et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel Ibn Ayoub" as his lieutenant in Damascus after he succeeded his father in Egypt in A.H. 636[949].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 638 (1240/41) of "El-Malec el-Djaouad Younous, fils de Maudoud et petit-fils d'El-Malec el-Adel", who had lost Sinjar and Ana and fled to Acre, but was strangled when he was returned by the Franks[950]m ---, daughter of El-Malek el-ASHREF MODAFFER ed-Din MUSA. 

k)         TAKI ed-Din ABBAS (-after [1250/51]).  Abul-Feda records that "Taki ed-Din Abbas fils d'El-Malec el-Adel et petit-fils d'Ayoub" accompanied "El-Malec en-Nacer Salah ed-Din Youssof" to Damascus in A.H. 648 (1250/51)[951]

l)          daughter .  Abul-Feda records that "Moizz ed-Din Kaisar-Chah, fils de Kilidj Arslan souverain du pays des Roum" married "sa niece [of Sultan Salah ed-Din], la fille d'El-Malec el-Adel" in A.H. 588 (1192/93)[952]m ([1192/93]) MU'IZZ al-DIN QAYSAR-SHAH, son of KILIC ARSLAN II Seljuk Sultan of Rum. 

m)       DAIFA Khatun (Aleppo [1185/87]-[1242/43]).  Abul-Feda records the marriage agreed in A.H. 608 (1211/12) between "El-Malec ed-Daher prince d'Alep" and "Daifa-Khatoun, fille d'El-Adel", specifying that the contract was signed "au mois de moharrem" in A.H. 609 (Jun 1212)[953].  Her second marriage is confirmed by Abul-Feda recording that "Daifa Khatoun mère du jeune prince et fille d'El-Malec el-Adel" took control of affaires on the succession of "son fils El-Malec en-Nacer Youssof" in A.H. 634 (Nov 1236)[954].  Abul-Feda records that "El-Malec el-Hafed Arslan-Chah, fils d'El-Malec el'Adel Abou-Becr" ceded "le château de Djaber et la ville de Balis" to "sa sœur Daifa Khatun princesse d'Alep" in return for "la forteresse d'Azaz" in A.H. 638 (1240/41)[955].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 640 (1242/43) of "la princesse Daifa Khatoun fille d'El-Malec el-Adel Abou Becr Ibn Ayoub", adding that she was 59 years old, having been born in the citadel of Aleppo in A.H. 581 or 582 ([1185/87])[956]m firstly (Jun 1212) El-Malek ed-DAFER KHIDER, son of Sultan YUSUF ibn Ayub SALAH ed-Din.  m secondly El-Malik el-AZIZ Prince of Aleppo, son of El-Malek ed-DAHER GHAZI ([1213]-Aleppo Nov 1236). 

n)         MALEKA Khatun (-[1220]).  Abul-Feda records the death of "Maleca-Khatoun…fille d'El-Malec el-Adel", mother of "El-Malec el-Modaffer Mahmoud", soon after he left for Egypt in A.H. 616 (1219/20)[957]m El-Malik el-MANSUR MOHAMMED, son of TAKI ed-Din OMAR. 

8.         TAJ el-Molouc BOURI (-Aleppo [1183/84]).  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 579 (1183/84) at the siege of Aleppo of "Tadj el-Molouc Bouri fils d'Ayoub…plus jeune des frères de Saleh ed Din"[958]

9.         SEIF el-ISHIM TOGHTIBIN .  Abul-Feda names "Seif el-Ishim Toghtibin [fils] d'Ayoub" when recording that his son was made sovereign of Yemen[959]m (a) as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly Ghazi ibn Jebail, and thirdly Suleiman.  Abul-Feda records that the mother of "En-Nacer" married "un emir…Ghazi Ibn Djebail" who poisoned her son, seized the government, but was killed[960].  Abul-Feda records that "Soleiman" was installed as ruler in Yemen by "la mère d'En-Nacer" but that he left his wife[961].  Two children: 

a)         El-Malek el-MOEZZ ISMAIL (-killed [1202/03]).  Abul-Feda records that in A.H. 599 (1202/03) "El-Malec el-Moezz Ismail, fils de Seif el-Ishim Toghtibin et petit-fils d'Ayoub" was made sovereign of Yemen, where he adopted the title caliph, claiming that he was from "le tribu des Koreich et à la famille des Omeaides" but was killed in a revolt[962]

b)         En-NASER (-[1202/03]).  Abul-Feda records that, in A.H. 599 (1202/03) after "El-Malec el-Moezz Ismail, fils de Seif el-Ishim Toghtibin et petit-fils d'Ayoub" was killed in Yemen, the rebels placed on the throne "son frère encore en bas âge" to whom they gave the title "En-Nacer", who was poisoned by "un emir…Ghazi Ibn Djebail" who had married his mother and seized the government[963]

10.      REBIA Khatun SITT es-SHAM (-Damascus [1245/46]).  Abul-Feda names "Sitt es-Cham (la dame de la Syrie)" as sister of Salah ed-Din, when recording her brother's death in 1193[964].  Abul-Feda records that "Eimad ed-Din Zengui" married "la fille de Modaffer ed-Din Coucbouri prince d'Arbelles [et de la] sœur d'El-Malec el-Adel et fille d'Ayoub"[965].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 643 (1245/46) of "Rebia Khatoun fille d'Ayoub et sœur de Salah ed-Din" at Damascus[966]m MODAFFER ed-Din KUKBURI Prince of Arbelles, son of ZEIN ed-Din ALI KUJEK (-[1232/33]).  Abul-Feda records the death "8 de chouwal" in A.H. 586 (8 Nov 1190) of "Zein ed-Din Youssof, fils de Zein ed-Din Ali Cudjec et prince d'Arbelles" and the succession of "son frère Modaffer ed-Din Coucbouri"[967].  Abul-Feda records the death in A.H. 630 (1232/33) of "Modaffer ed-Din Coucbouri, fils de Zein ed-Din Ali Cudjec et prince d'Arbelles", adding that he had no sons and left the town of Arbelles to "le khalife El-Mostancer"[968].  One child: 

a)         daughter .  Abul-Feda records that "Eimad ed-Din Zengui" married "la fille de Modaffer ed-Din Coucbouri prince d'Arbelles [et de la] sœur d'El-Malec el-Adel et fille d'Ayoub"[969]m EIMAD ed-Din ZENGI, son of NUR ed-Din ARSLAN SHAH Prince of Mosul ([after 1201]-). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    OTHER CENTRAL ASIAN STATES

 

 

 

A.      WHITE SHEEP

 

 

1.         TUR ALI .  One child: 

a)         FAHREDDIN Kutlug [Qutlu] beg (-1389).  He succeeded in 1360 as Khan of Aqqoyunlu/Turkmen horde of the White Sheep.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that on 14 Jul 1363 "the emperor´s son-in-law [error for brother-in-law] came down with his wife the Lady Maria the Grand Komnene, the despoinachat, to…Trebizond and was met by the emperor and entered the palace…camped near the church of John the Purifier for around eight days and then departed in peace honoured greatly"[970]m (1352) MARIA Megala Komnene, daughter of BASILEIOS Emperor at Trebizond & his second wife Eirene --- ([1328]-[1408]).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor´s sister, the lady Maria the Grand Komnene left" in Aug (dated to 1352 from the context) and married "Kutlu beg, Turali´s son, the emir of Amitiotai"[971].  Despoina khatun.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the despoinachat Lady Maria, the sister of the emperor…married to the Amitiote Kutlu Beg" came to Trebizond 22 Aug 1358[972].  Fahreddin had one child: 

i)          --- .  m SARA Khatun, daughter of ---.  A Christian lady from northern Syria.  One child:  

(a)       UZUN HASAN Aqqeyunlu "of the White Sheep" (1426-Tabris 5 Jan 1478).  Conquered Armenia.  King of Persia at Tabris 1472.  m firstly ---.  Zakaria´s Mémoires historiques sur les Sofis names "Iaqoub" as grandson of "Djihan Shah" and his sister who married "Cheïkh-Haïdar, fils de Cheïkh-Sofi, d´Ardébil"[973].  This reference appears to refer to children of Uzun Hasan of the White Sheep.  If this is correct, the mother of these two children would have been the daughter of "Djihan Shah", through whom the right to the throne of Persia was transmitted to the Sophy dynasty.  This information requires confirmation by other sources.  m [second] (Autumn 1458) [974]THEODORA Megala Komnene, daughter of IOANNES IV Emperor at Trebizond & his first wife --- of Georgia (-after 1478, bur Diyarbekir St George).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Ioannes Komnenos Emperor of Trebizond had one daughter who married Uzun Hasan[975].  An alternative parentage is provided by the Ecthesis Chronicon which records that "lord David…Comnene" had a daughter "the despoina Hatun" who married "Uzun Hasan in Tabriz and had three sons by him", adding in a later passage that "Rustam bey…the ruler in Persia" was one of these sons and that "Sheikh Khaytar had a son by the daughter of Uzun Hasan, the sheikh Ishmael"[976].  Uzun Hasan & his [first] wife had [two] children: 

(1)       YAKUB .  Zakaria´s Mémoires historiques sur les Sofis names "Iaqoub" as grandson of "Djihan Shah" and his sister who married "Cheïkh-Haïdar, fils de Cheïkh-Sofi, d´Ardébil", adding that Yakub reigned "en paix sur toute la Perse" until he was poisoned by his sister and her husband[977].  This reference appears to refer to children of Uzun Hasan of the White Sheep, the right to the Persian throne being transmitted through their mother. 

(2)       [HALIMA Begi Aqa .  The sources are contradictory regarding the identity of the mother of this daughter.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that the daughter of Uzun Hasan & his wife was the mother of Sophy[978].  The Ecthesis Chronicon also records that "lord David…Comnene" had a daughter "the despoina Hatun" who married "Uzun Hasan in Tabriz and had three sons by him", adding in a later passage that "Rustam bey…the ruler in Persia" was one of these sons and that "Sheikh Khaytar had a son by the daughter of Uzun Hasan, the sheikh Ishmael"[979].  However, Zakaria´s Mémoires historiques sur les Sofis names "Iaqoub" as grandson of "Djihan Shah" and his sister who married "Cheïkh-Haïdar, fils de Cheïkh-Sofi, d´Ardébil", adding that the latter couple poisoned Yakub but were also killed by the same poison[980].  If Zakaria is correct, the mother of these two children would have been the daughter of "Djihan Shah", through whom the right to the throne of Persia was transmitted to the Sophy dynasty.  This information requires confirmation by other sources.  m HADIAR of Ardabil (-killed in battle 1488).  He died in battle against Sunni Muslims.  Their descendants were Shahs of Persia.  However, Zakaria´s Mémoires historiques sur les Sofis names "Ismaïl" as son of "Cheïkh-Haïdar, fils de Cheïkh-Sofi, d´Ardébil" and his wife who, after his parents were killed, was taken to "l´île d´Aghthamar" and eventually recovered the Persian throne from a usurper in 1500[981].  The same source sets out the history of the later descendants of Ismail.] 

Uzun Hasan & his [second] wife had three children: 

(3)       RUSTAM Beg .  The Ecthesis Chronicon records that "lord David…Comnene" had a daughter "the despoina Hatun" who married "Uzun Hasan in Tabriz and had three sons by him", adding in a later passage that "Rustam bey…the ruler in Persia" was one of these sons and that "Sheikh Khaytar had a son by the daughter of Uzun Hasan, the sheikh Ishmael"[982]

(4)       two sons .  The Ecthesis Chronicon records that "lord David…Comnene" had a daughter "the despoina Hatun" who married "Uzun Hasan in Tabriz and had three sons by him", adding in a later passage that "Rustam bey…the ruler in Persia" was one of these sons and that "Sheikh Khaytar had a son by the daughter of Uzun Hasan, the sheikh Ishmael"[983]

 

 

1.         [984]OSMAN beg Kara Ilük Khan of the Aqqoyunlu/Turkmen horde of the White Sheep (-1435)m ([1422]) [THEODORA] Kantakuzene Megala Komnene, [illegitimate daughter of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his mistress ---] (before 1404-). 

 

 

 



[1] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 1-165. 

[2] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 189-744. 

[3] Classen, J. (ed.) (1839-41) Theophanes Chronographia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn)Vol. I, 6224/724, p. 632. 

[4] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 185. 

[5] Reiske, J. J. (ed.) (1829) Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("De Ceremoniis") Book II, ch. 42, p. 645. 

[6] Horváth, András Pálóczi (1989) Pechenegs, Cumans, Iasians: Steppe peoples in medieval Hungary (Corvina), p. 8. 

[7] Horváth (1989), p. 11. 

[8] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("De Administrando Imperio"), cited in Horváth (1989), p. 7. 

[9] Horváth (1989), p. 15-16. 

[10] Horváth (1989), pp. 31 and 44. 

[11] Horváth (1989), p. 7, quoting the Gesta Hungarorum, last chapter, the author saying that the statement was "based on family tradition". 

[12] Horváth (1989), p. 38. 

[13] Horváth (1989), p. 42. 

[14] Horváth (1989), p. 43. 

[15] Horváth (1989), pp. 31, and 43-44. 

[16] Horváth (1989), pp. 44-5. 

[17] Horváth (1989), p. 48. 

[18] Horváth (1989), p. 46. 

[19] Horváth (1989), p. 46-7. 

[20] Macartney, C. A. (1962) Hungary: A Short History (Edinburgh University Press), Chapter 2, Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003)and Horváth (1989), p. 51. 

[21] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2.

[22] Horváth (1989), p. 78. 

[23] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[24] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 204, and Macartney (1962), Chapter 2.   

[25] Cahen, C. (Holt, P. M. trans.) (2001) The Formation of Turkey.  The Seljukid Sultanate of Rum: 11th to 14th century (Pearson), p. 11. 

[26] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 5. 

[27] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey) ("Vardan"), 65, consulted at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[28] Vardan 65. 

[29] Vardan 65. 

[30] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 5. 

[31] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) XIII.XXVI, pp. 598-601, and Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 2, p. 183. 

[32] Cahen (2001), p. 19. 

[33] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 26. 

[34] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 544. 

[35] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 35. 

[36] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 544. 

[37] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 322. 

[38] Cahen (2001), p. 27. 

[39] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 42. 

[40] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 544. 

[41] Cahen (2001), p. 21. 

[42] Cahen (2001), p. 21. 

[43] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 322. 

[44] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 544. 

[45] Cahen (2001), p. 20. 

[46] Cahen (2001), p. 21. 

[47] Cahen (2001), p. 23. 

[48] Cahen (2001), p. 27. 

[49] Vardan 65. 

[50] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[51] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, pp. 66-7. 

[52] Defrémery,  M. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite du Tarikhi guzideh ou Histoire choisie d'Hamd Allah Mustaufi', Journal Asiatique, 4.XI (Paris 1848) ("Tarikhi guzideh (1848)"), Chapter 4.6, p. 446. 

[53] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris) ("Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier)"), II, CXXIII, p. 187. 

[54] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 76-7. 

[55] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books), Book 6, p. 208. 

[56] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[57] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 210. 

[58] Vardan 63. 

[59] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. V, Book IX, pp. 37-9. 

[60] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber I, Cap. XVI, p. 284.  

[61] Orderic Vitalis V, Book IX, p. 61-5. 

[62] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 9. 

[63] Cahen (2001), p. 13. 

[64] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 299. 

[65] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 9. 

[66] Cahen (2001), p. 13. 

[67] Cahen (2001), p. 13. 

[68] Cahen (2001), p. 17. 

[69] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 299. 

[70] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[71] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 299. 

[72] Cahen (2001), p. 18. 

[73] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 299. 

[74] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 299. 

[75] Cahen (2001), p. 15. 

[76] Cahen (2001), p. 17. 

[77] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 210. 

[78] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 299. 

[79] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[80] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 210. 

[81] Cahen (2001), p. 18. 

[82] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 212. 

[83] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[84] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle (Venice Manuscript) (New Jersey), 78, 604 A.E [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156], consulted at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[85] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219. 

[86] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[87] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 78, 604 A.E [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156]. 

[88] Cahen (2001), p. 24. 

[89] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 78, 604 A.E [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156]. 

[90] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 35. 

[91] Cahen (2001), p. 27. 

[92] Cahen (2001), p. 29. 

[93] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 313. 

[94] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[95] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[96] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[97] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 78, 604 A.E [11 Feb 1155/10 Feb 1156]. 

[98] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 153. 

[99] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VIII, Cap. XXXIX, p. 581. 

[100] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 13, MGH SS XXI, p. 462. 

[101] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[102] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 67-8. 

[103] Cahen (2001), p. 124. 

[104] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 544. 

[105] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[106] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[107] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[108] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 68. 

[109] Cahen (2001), p. 124. 

[110] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[111] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[112] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 68. 

[113] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[114] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[115] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[116] Cahen (2001), p. 44. 

[117] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 83. 

[118] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II (New Jersey), 657 A.E. [29 Jan 1208/27 Jan 1209], consulted at at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[119] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 61. 

[120] Cahen (2001), p. 49. 

[121] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 84. 

[122] Hethum II's Chronicle 658 A.E. [28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210]. 

[123] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[124] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Niketas Choniates"), Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842. 

[125] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[126] Cahen (2001), p. 49. 

[127] Hethum II's Chronicle 658 A.E. [28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210]. 

[128] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[129] Hethum II's Chronicle 665 and 667 A.E. [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217] and [26 Jan 1218/25 Jan 1219]. 

[130] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 93. 

[131] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[132] Cahen (2001), p. 49. 

[133] Cahen (2001), p. 49. 

[134] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[135] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[136] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 68. 

[137] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 79. 

[138] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[139] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[140] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 83. 

[141] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[142] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[143] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[144] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[145] Abou'I-Feda 620 (1223), Journal Asiatique 1849 Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 475-6. 

[146] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 478. 

[147] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[148] Abou'I-Feda 620 (1223), Journal Asiatique 1849 Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 475-6. 

[149] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Khaldoun, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 508. 

[150] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 475-6. 

[151] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 478. 

[152] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 475-6. 

[153] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 501. 

[154] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[155] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[156] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[157] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 65. 

[158] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[159] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 65. 

[160] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[161] Cahen (2001), p. 39. 

[162] Cahen (2001), p. 42. 

[163] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[164] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 641. 

[165] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[166] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 93. 

[167] Cahen (2001), pp. 53-6. 

[168] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[169] Cahen (2001), pp. 124 and 129. 

[170] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[171] Cahen (2001), p. 124. 

[172] Hethum the Historian Book III, 18. 

[173] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[174] Hethum II's Chronicle 694 A.E. [20 Jan 1245/19 Jan 1246].  

[175] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 134. 

[176] Cahen (2001), p. 175. 

[177] Cahen (2001), pp. 176-7. 

[178] Cahen (2001), p. 175. 

[179] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 134. 

[180] Cahen (2001), p. 179. 

[181] Cahen (2001), p. 177. 

[182] Cahen (2001), p. 186. 

[183] Cahen (2001), p. 189. 

[184] Cahen (2001), p. 191. 

[185] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 153. 

[186] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 157. 

[187] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 153. 

[188] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 157. 

[189] Cahen (2001), p. 212. 

[190] Cahen (2001), p. 225. 

[191] Cahen (2001), p. 225. 

[192] Cahen (2001), p. 212. 

[193] Cahen (2001), p. 225. 

[194] Cahen (2001), p. 225. 

[195] Cahen (2001), p. 212. 

[196] Cahen (2001), p. 225. 

[197] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 134. 

[198] Cahen (2001), p. 179. 

[199] Cahen (2001), p. 186. 

[200] Cahen (2001), p. 189. 

[201] Cahen (2001), p. 191. 

[202] Cahen (2001), p. 195. 

[203] Cahen (2001), p. 195. 

[204] Cahen (2001), p. 213. 

[205] Cahen (2001), pp. 213-4. 

[206] Cahen (2001), pp. 213-4. 

[207] Cahen (2001), p. 176. 

[208] Cahen (2001), p. 179. 

[209] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 587 footnote 1, citing d'Ohsson, C Histoire des Mongoles t. IV, p. 486. 

[210] Cahen (2001), p. 138. 

[211] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 133. 

[212] Cahen (2001), p. 227. 

[213] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), pp. 150-1. 

[214] Cahen (2001), p. 228. 

[215] Cahen (2001), p. 228. 

[216] Cahen (2001), p. 229. 

[217] Cahen (2001), p. 229. 

[218] Cahen (2001), p. 229. 

[219] Cahen (2001), p. 229. 

[220] Nicol (1972), p. 151. 

[221] Cahen (2001), p. 231. 

[222] Nicol (1972), p. 151. 

[223] Nicol (1972), p. 151. 

[224] Nicol (1972), p. 152. 

[225] Nicol (1972), p. 177. 

[226] Nicol (1972), p. 152. 

[227] Nicol (1972), p. 178. 

[228] Nicol (1972), pp. 179-80. 

[229] Nicol (1972), pp. 203-4. 

[230] Nicol (1972), p. 208. 

[231] Nicol (1972), p. 152. 

[232] Nicol (1972), p. 152. 

[233] Nicol (1972), p. 177. 

[234] Nicol (1972), p. 152

[235] Nicol (1972), p. 178. 

[236] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), p. 72, 162. 

[237] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 162, citing Abul-Feda (527). 

[238] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, 67, available at <http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael-panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008). 

[239] Michael Panaretos 59. 

[240] Michael Panaretos 92. 

[241] Michael Panaretos 92. 

[242] Michael Panaretos, 88. 

[243] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Liber III, 1, p. 215. 

[244] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), pp. 29-30. 

[245] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber I, pp. 11-12. 

[246] Runciman (2000), p. 29. 

[247] Nicol (1972), p. 153. 

[248] Nicol (1972), p. 154. 

[249] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 14. 

[250] Imber, C. (2002) The Ottoman Empire 1300-1650, The Structure of Power (Palgrave Macmillan), p. 8. 

[251] Runciman (2000), p. 31. 

[252] Nicol (1972), p. 153. 

[253] The Short Chronicle of 1352, cited in Nicol (1972), p. 154. 

[254] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 20. 

[255] Runciman (2000), p. 33. 

[256] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 20. 

[257] Imber (2002), p. 9. 

[258] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 24. 

[259] Georgius Phrantzes Liber I, 11, p.429. 

[260] Runciman (2000), p. 34. 

[261] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 25. 

[262] Imber (2002), p. 9. 

[263] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 25. 

[264] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Michælis Ducæ Nepotis, Historia Byzantina, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), 11, p. 43. 

[265] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 25. 

[266] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 11, p. 43. 

[267] Fine (1994), pp. 406-7. 

[268] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 284. 

[269] Fine (1994), p. 410. 

[270] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 37. 

[271] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[272] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[273] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, pp. 43-4. 

[274] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[275] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 53. 

[276] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 53. 

[277] Runciman (2000), p. 39. 

[278] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[279] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 53. 

[280] Fine (1994), p. 410. 

[281] Fine (1994), pp. 422-3. 

[282] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 4, p. 17. 

[283] Fine (1994), p. 412. 

[284] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 16, p. 70. 

[285] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 16, p. 70. 

[286] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 16, p. 70. 

[287] Du Fresne du Cange, C. (1680) Historia Byzantina, Familias ac Stemmata Imperatorum, Vol. I (Paris), p. 245, citing "Hist. Polit. p. 2, Itinerar. Regina Polonia, p. 337". 

[288] Fine (1994), p. 505. 

[289] Georgius Phrantzes Liber I, 28, p. 87. 

[290] Runciman (2000), p. 43. 

[291] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 16, p. 70. 

[292] Fine (1994), p. 508. 

[293] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 16, p. 70. 

[294] Runciman (2000), pp. 84 and 150. 

[295] Fine (1994), p. 507. 

[296] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 16, p. 70. 

[297] Fine (1994), p. 499. 

[298] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 210. 

[299] Freely, J. (2000) Inside the Seraglio (Penguin Books), p. 6. 

[300] Nicol (1994), pp. 118-19. 

[301] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 33, p. 231. 

[302] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), p. 152. 

[303] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 213. 

[304] Nicol (1994), p. 111. 

[305] Fine (1994), p. 530. 

[306] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[307] Nicol (1994), p. 115. 

[308] Nicol (1994), p. 116. 

[309] Freely (2000), p. 10. 

[310] Freely (2000), p. 5. 

[311] Freely (2000), p. 5. 

[312] Freely (2000), p. 5. 

[313] Freely (2000), p. 9. 

[314] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 16, p. 388. 

[315] Runciman (2000), pp. 181-2. 

[316] Freely (2000), p. 32. 

[317] Freely (2000), p. 12. 

[318] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 5. 

[319] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 11. 

[320] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 17. 

[321] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 17. 

[322] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 17. 

[323] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 17. 

[324] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[325] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 492. 

[326] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 42. 

[327] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 589. 

[328] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 369. 

[329] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[330] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 369.  

[331] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 42. 

[332] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 492. 

[333] Defrémery, M. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite du Tarikhi guzideh', Journal Asiatique, 4.XIII (Paris 1849) ("Tarikhi guzideh (1849"), Chapter 4.6, p. 16. 

[334] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 19. 

[335] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[336] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 368. 

[337] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 19. 

[338] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 21. 

[339] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 16. 

[340] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 16. 

[341] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 368. 

[342] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 19. 

[343] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 21. 

[344] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 20-1. 

[345] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[346] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 21. 

[347] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 25. 

[348] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIII, p. 514. 

[349] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 83. 

[350] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 71. 

[351] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 448-50. 

[352] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 25. 

[353] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 100. 

[354] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 100. 

[355] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 25. 

[356] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[357] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 16. 

[358] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 19. 

[359] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 20. 

[360] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 65. 

[361] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 19. 

[362] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 41. 

[363] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[364] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 114. 

[365] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[366] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 127. 

[367] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[368] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 105. 

[369] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 105. 

[370] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 105. 

[371] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 128. 

[372] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 133. 

[373] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 133. 

[374] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 114. 

[375] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 118. 

[376] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 125. 

[377] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 125. 

[378] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 98. 

[379] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 109. 

[380] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 118. 

[381] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 126. 

[382] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 127. 

[383] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 128. 

[384] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 134. 

[385] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 135. 

[386] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 135.  

[387] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 116. 

[388] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 123. 

[389] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 127. 

[390] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 128. 

[391] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 127. 

[392] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 128. 

[393] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 105 and 109. 

[394] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 106 and 109. 

[395] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 112. 

[396] Cahen (2001), p. 1. 

[397] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 421 and 423. 

[398] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 421. 

[399] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 421-2. 

[400] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 421. 

[401] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 421. 

[402] Vardan 53. 

[403] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[404] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 426-7. 

[405] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67. 

[406] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 431. 

[407] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 67.  

[408] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 446. 

[409] Cahen (2001), p. 9. 

[410] Cahen (2001), p. 8. 

[411] Cahen (2001), p. 8. 

[412] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 421. 

[413] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 421. 

[414] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 423. 

[415] Dumoret, J.  (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite de l'ouvrage intitulé Khelassat-oul-akhbar', Nouveau Journal Asiatique, XIII (Paris 1834) ("Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834)"), p. 242. 

[416] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 423 and 424. 

[417] Vardan 53. 

[418] Vardan 53. 

[419] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[420] Vardan 53. 

[421] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 423. 

[422] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 425-6. 

[423] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 431 footnote 1. 

[424] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), pp. 242-3. 

[425] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 431 footnote 1. 

[426] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 427. 

[427] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 438-9. 

[428] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 443. 

[429] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 450. 

[430] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 431. 

[431] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 431 footnote 1. 

[432] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[433] Vardan 53. 

[434] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 243. 

[435] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 430. 

[436] Vardan 53. 

[437] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 423 and 424. 

[438] Vardan 53. 

[439] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 425-7. 

[440] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 243. 

[441] Cahen (2001), p. 2. 

[442] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1991) Juansher's Concise History of the Georgians ("Georgian Chronicle (13th century)") (New York) 17, p. 104. 

[443] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 243. 

[444] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 244. 

[445] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 430. 

[446] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 244. 

[447] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 430. 

[448] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[449] Vardan 53. 

[450] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 243. 

[451] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 430. 

[452] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 432. 

[453] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 104. 

[454] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

[455] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 61.

[456] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), pp. 248-9. 

[457] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 442. 

[458] Vardan 56. 

[459] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXVIII, p. 121. 

[460] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 436-7. 

[461] Vardan 53. 

[462] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 444-5. 

[463] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 261.  

[464] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 264. 

[465] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 450. 

[466] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[467] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[468] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 452. 

[469] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[470] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IV, Caps. I and V, pp. 389 and 392. 

[471] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IV, Caps. I and V, pp. 389 and 392. 

[472] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber V, Cap. XXIV, p. 447. 

[473] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IV, Caps. I and V, pp. 389 and 392. 

[474] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[475] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 265. 

[476] Vardan 53. 

[477] P. N. Dunbar (trans.) G. A. Loud (rev.) (2004) Amatus of Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Boydell) ("Amatus") I.11, p. 48. 

[478] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 462. 

[479] Vardan 53. 

[480] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1986) History of the Armenians by Kirakos Ganjaketsi (New York), 1, p. 97, consulted at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[481] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 106. 

[482] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[483] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 461. 

[484] Vardan 62. 

[485] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXXIX, p. 203. 

[486] Khelassat-oul-akhbar (1834), p. 246. 

[487] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXXIX and CXLIV, pp. 203 and 207. 

[488] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 259. 

[489] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 447. 

[490] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 458. 

[491] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[492] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 262. 

[493] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXXIX, p. 203. 

[494] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 336. 

[495] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 456. 

[496] Vardan 62. 

[497] Kirakos Ganjaketsis 1, p. 97. 

[498] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Histoire des Seldjoukides extraite du Tarikhi-Guzideh, ou histoire choisie d'Hamd-Allah Mustaufi, Chapter 4, 9th section, 2, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIII, p. 32. 

[499] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 259. 

[500] Vardan 53. 

[501] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 264. 

[502] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 7-8. 

[503] Vardan 65. 

[504] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 268-9. 

[505] Vardan 62. 

[506] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 7-8. 

[507] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 272. 

[508] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 268-9. 

[509] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 447. 

[510] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 336. 

[511] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 456 and 462. 

[512] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 1-2. 

[513] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 447. 

[514] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 336. 

[515] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 334-5. 

[516] Vardan 66, 658 A. E. [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120]. 

[517] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 318. 

[518] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 336-7. 

[519] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 343. 

[520] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 337. 

[521] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 342. 

[522] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 318. 

[523] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 344. 

[524] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 344. 

[525] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 320. 

[526] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 343. 

[527] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 343-4. 

[528] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Histoire des Seldjoukides extraite du Tarikhi-Guzideh, ou histoire choisie d'Hamd-Allah Mustaufi, Chapter 4, 9th section, 2, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIII, p. 32. 

[529] Vardan 62. 

[530] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 268-9. 

[531] Vardan 65. 

[532] Vardan 53. 

[533] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[534] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 278. 

[535] Vardan 66, 658 A. E. [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120]. 

[536] Vardan 66, 658 A. E. [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120]. 

[537] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[538] Vardan 66, 658 A. E. [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120]. 

[539] Vardan 53. 

[540] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 334-5 and 344. 

[541] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 491. 

[542] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 19. 

[543] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 72, 588 A.E. 

[544] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 392. 

[545] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 345. 

[546] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 318. 

[547] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 344. 

[548] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 344. 

[549] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 392. 

[550] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 19. 

[551] Vardan 53. 

[552] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 345-6. 

[553] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 346. 

[554] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 347. 

[555] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 347. 

[556] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 355. 

[557] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 335 and 357. 

[558] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[559] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 358. 

[560] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 32. 

[561] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[562] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 335 and 358. 

[563] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[564] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 32. 

[565] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 363. 

[566] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 355. 

[567] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 363. 

[568] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 364. 

[569] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 32. 

[570] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 302. 

[571] Vardan 66, 658 A. E. [20 Feb 1119/19 Feb 1120]. 

[572] Vardan 68. 

[573] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 326-8. 

[574] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 344. 

[575] Vardan 53. 

[576] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 335 and 337. 

[577] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 347. 

[578] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 492. 

[579] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 349. 

[580] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 20. 

[581] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 29. 

[582] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 357. 

[583] Vardan 53. 

[584] Vardan 76, 626 A. E. [5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178]. 

[585] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 347. 

[586] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 355. 

[587] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 316. 

[588] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 20. 

[589] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 20. 

[590] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 350. 

[591] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 365. 

[592] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 359-62. 

[593] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[594] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 32-3. 

[595] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 364. 

[596] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 316. 

[597] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 20. 

[598] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 335 and 345. 

[599] Vardan 53. 

[600] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 21. 

[601] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 346. 

[602] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 33. 

[603] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 31. 

[604] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 32-3. 

[605] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 363 and 364. 

[606] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 370. 

[607] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 364. 

[608] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 369. 

[609] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 15. 

[610] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[611] Vardan 53. 

[612] Vardan 76, 626 A. E. [5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178]. 

[613] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 21. 

[614] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, pp. 21-2. 

[615] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, pp. 23-4. 

[616] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 71. 

[617] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 21. 

[618] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 20. 

[619] Tarikhi guzideh (1849), Chapter 4.6, p. 21. 

[620] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 100. 

[621] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 450. 

[622] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 336-7. 

[623] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 71. 

[624] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 77. 

[625] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 77. 

[626] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 88. 

[627] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 91 and 95. 

[628] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 96. 

[629] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 100. 

[630] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 100. 

[631] Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 31. 

[632] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 450. 

[633] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 1. 

[634] Vardan 62. 

[635] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[636] Vardan 53. 

[637] Kirakos Ganjaketsis 1, p. 97. 

[638] Vardan 62. 

[639] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 265. 

[640] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[641] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 4. 

[642] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[643] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[644] Vardan 62. 

[645] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 231. 

[646] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[647] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[648] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[649] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[650] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 291. 

[651] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 291. 

[652] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[653] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 350. 

[654] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 350. 

[655] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[656] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[657] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 7. 

[658] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 223. 

[659] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 7-8. 

[660] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 223.  

[661] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[662] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 12. 

[663] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 223. 

[664] Alexeiad, Book 6, p. 208. 

[665] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 453. 

[666] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 7. 

[667] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[668] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 231. 

[669] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[670] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[671] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 11. 

[672] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[673] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[674] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[675] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 453. 

[676] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 7. 

[677] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 7. 

[678] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 14. 

[679] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 350. 

[680] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[681] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 350. 

[682] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[683] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[684] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[685] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 13. 

[686] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[687] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 15. 

[688] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 30. 

[689] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 30. 

[690] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 312. 

[691] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 53. 

[692] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[693] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[694] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 119. 

[695] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 119. 

[696] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 312. 

[697] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 312. 

[698] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 650. 

[699] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 650. 

[700] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 573. 

[701] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 453. 

[702] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[703] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 8. 

[704] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 551. 

[705] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 551. 

[706] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 551. 

[707] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 109. 

[708] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 52. 

[709] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[710] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 641. 

[711] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 641-44. 

[712] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Tome II, p. 53. 

[713] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 287-8. 

[714] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[715] Chronique de Robert de Torigni, Tome II, p. 53. 

[716] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 79. 

[717] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 79. 

[718] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 98. 

[719] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 98. 

[720] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 109. 

[721] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 223. 

[722] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 382. 

[723] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 396. 

[724] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 425. 

[725] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 23. 

[726] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 397. 

[727] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 23. 

[728] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 403. 

[729] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 404. 

[730] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 25. 

[731] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 25. 

[732] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 25. 

[733] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 25. 

[734] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[735] Tarikhi guzideh (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 451. 

[736] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 2. 

[737] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 16. 

[738] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 16. 

[739] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 16. 

[740] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 16. 

[741] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 16. 

[742] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 17. 

[743] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 26. 

[744] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[745] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 425. 

[746] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 23. 

[747] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[748] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[749] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 44. 

[750] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 602. 

[751] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 44. 

[752] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 50. 

[753] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 648. 

[754] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 47. 

[755] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[756] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[757] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[758] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 40. 

[759] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 573. 

[760] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 573. 

[761] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 40. 

[762] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 46. 

[763] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 50. 

[764] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 52. 

[765] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 74. 

[766] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 648. 

[767] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 74. 

[768] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 74. 

[769] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[770] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[771] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[772] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[773] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 93. 

[774] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 40. 

[775] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 573. 

[776] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 46. 

[777] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 49. 

[778] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 49. 

[779] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 640. 

[780] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 50. 

[781] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 49. 

[782] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 71. 

[783] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 71. 

[784] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 74. 

[785] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[786] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[787] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[788] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 89. 

[789] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 89. 

[790] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[791] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[792] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 98. 

[793] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[794] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 90. 

[795] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[796] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 32. 

[797] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 98. 

[798] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 38. 

[799] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 38. 

[800] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 32. 

[801] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 35. 

[802] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 560-1. 

[803] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 47. 

[804] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[805] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[806] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 66. 

[807] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[808] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 118. 

[809] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 118. 

[810] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 124. 

[811] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 124. 

[812] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 150. 

[813] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 147. 

[814] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 147. 

[815] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 38. 

[816] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 20. 

[817] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[818] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 43. 

[819] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 39. 

[820] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[821] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 659. 

[822] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 52. 

[823] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 47. 

[824] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 53. 

[825] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 59. 

[826] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 64. 

[827] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 64. 

[828] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 66. 

[829] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[830] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 94. 

[831] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 93. 

[832] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 93-4. 

[833] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 122. 

[834] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 106 and 109. 

[835] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 123. 

[836] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 123. 

[837] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 154. 

[838] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 94. 

[839] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 135. 

[840] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[841] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[842] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[843] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[844] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[845] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[846] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 35. 

[847] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 564. 

[848] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 44. 

[849] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[850] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[851] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[852] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[853] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 56. 

[854] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 66. 

[855] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[856] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 100. 

[857] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 119. 

[858] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[859] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[860] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[861] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 75. 

[862] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 75. 

[863] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 81. 

[864] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[865] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 53. 

[866] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 66. 

[867] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[868] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 88. 

[869] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[870] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 98. 

[871] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[872] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[873] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[874] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[875] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 119. 

[876] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[877] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 105 and 109. 

[878] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[879] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[880] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 132. 

[881] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 133. 

[882] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 137. 

[883] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[884] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 73. 

[885] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[886] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[887] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[888] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[889] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 131. 

[890] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 131. 

[891] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[892] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[893] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 42. 

[894] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 43. 

[895] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 49. 

[896] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[897] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[898] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 66. 

[899] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[900] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 106. 

[901] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 53. 

[902] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 54. 

[903] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 64. 

[904] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 66. 

[905] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 70. 

[906] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 84. 

[907] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 89-90. 

[908] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[909] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[910] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 84. 

[911] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 93. 

[912] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 94. 

[913] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 113. 

[914] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 113. 

[915] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 87. 

[916] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 84. 

[917] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[918] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 89-90. 

[919] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 102. 

[920] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 103. 

[921] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 132. 

[922] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 137. 

[923] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 126. 

[924] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 131. 

[925] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 126. 

[926] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 131. 

[927] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 126. 

[928] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[929] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 119. 

[930] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[931] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[932] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 143. 

[933] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 113 and 114. 

[934] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 132. 

[935] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 84. 

[936] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[937] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 85-6. 

[938] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 84. 

[939] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[940] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[941] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 94. 

[942] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 99. 

[943] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 123. 

[944] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 123. 

[945] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 138. 

[946] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 142. 

[947] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 113. 

[948] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 113. 

[949] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 114. 

[950] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 120. 

[951] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 131. 

[952] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 65. 

[953] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 86. 

[954] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 111. 

[955] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 119. 

[956] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 121. 

[957] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 93. 

[958] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 52. 

[959] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[960] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[961] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[962] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[963] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 80. 

[964] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 69. 

[965] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[966] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 123. 

[967] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 63. 

[968] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 110. 

[969] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[970] Michael Panaretos 76. 

[971] Michael Panaretos 42. 

[972] Michael Panaretos 58. 

[973] Zakaria ´Mémoires historiques sur les Sofis´ ("Zakaria Mémoires"), I, Ch. V, Brosset, M. (ed.) (1876) Collection d´historiens arméniens, Tome II (St Petersburg), p. 5. 

[974] ES II 176.  She is named Catherine "Despina Khatun" in Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 281. 

[975] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[976] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, pp. 25 and 59-60, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronicon, available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/978233&authorid=15905> (25 Oct 2008). 

[977] Zakaria Mémoires, I, Ch. V, p. 5. 

[978] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[979] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, pp. 25 and 59-60, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronicon, available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/978233&authorid=15905> (25 Oct 2008). 

[980] Zakaria Mémoires, I, Ch. V, p. 5. 

[981] Zakaria Mémoires, I, Ch. VI, p. 6. 

[982] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, pp. 25 and 59-60, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronico