spain: VANDALS, SUEVI & VISIGOTHS

  v3.0 Updated 18 June 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                KINGS of the VANDALS, in SPAIN [409]-429 and AFRICA 429-533. 2

Chapter 2.                KINGS of the SUEVI in SPAIN 411-585. 8

Chapter 3.                VISIGOTHS in SPAIN 531-711. 14

A.         KINGS of the VISIGOTHS in SPAIN 531-711. 14

B.         VISIGOTH DUCES.. 43

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Vandals, Suevi and Visigoths were three of the so-called barbarian tribes which originated in eastern Europe and migrated westwards, eventually settling in the Iberian peninsular where they established the first Hispanic monarchies.  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Alani et Wandali et Suevi” entered Spain in 409, adding in a later passage that the Vandals occupied Galicia, the Suevi “sitam in extremitate Oceani maris occidua”, and the Alans “Lusitaniam et Carthaginensem provincias”, in 411[1].  At the same time, the Visigoths settled in southern France around Toulouse, but extended their area of jurisdiction into north-eastern Spain.  The Visigoths were expelled from France in 531 and migrated southwards into the Iberian peninsula, where they established a monarchy which lasted until the Muslim invasion in 711.  An introduction to each group is set out in the three chapters of this document. 

 

No information has so far been found about the family relationships of the leaders of the Alan people, who are not therefore treated in this document.  In any case, it does not appear that the Alans established a long-term presence in Spain, as the Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that they were defeated by the Goths in 418 when their leader “Atace Rege” was killed[2]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of the VANDALS, in SPAIN [409]-429 and AFRICA 429-533

 

 

The Vandals, then living around the river Vistula in Silesia, migrated towards the banks of the river Rhine in the 3rd century[3].  In conjunction with the Suevi and the Alans, the Vandals crossed the Rhine in 406, taking advantage of Rome's decision to divert troops from the area to fight the Visigoths in Italy.  The Vandals, Alans and Suevi proceeded to sack southern France, and threatened the Iberian peninsula.  Dissatisfied with the inability of Emperor Honorius to contain the threat, the army elected Emperor Constantine III who established his base at Arles in Summer 408.  Emperor Constantine sent his son Constantius into Spain, together with General Maximus who declared himself emperor[4].  With the Roman authorities distracted by the struggle between the rival emperors, the barbarian forces entered Spain in 411 and started to settle in small numbers.  The Vandals settled in the interior of Galicia, the Alans in Lusitania[5].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Alani et Wandali et Suevi” entered Spain in 409, adding in a later passage that the Vandals occupied Galicia, the Suevi “sitam in extremitate Oceani maris occidua”, and the Alans “Lusitaniam et Carthaginensem provincias”, in 411[6].  The Vandals' need for territory increased as they absorbed local populations.  They first attacked the neighbouring areas around Orense held by the Suevi, but eventually directed their attention to the south of Spain[7].  Their control over the southern coastline enabled the Vandals to migrate en masse into North Africa in 429, although what triggered this migration is not known with certainty.  The Byzantines conquered the land of the Vandals in Africa during the reign of Emperor Justinian I (527-565), consolidating their power in coastal strongholds such as Tripoli and Carthage.  They neglected their landward defences which, from the mid-7th century, facilitated the conquest of these Byzantine lands by the Muslims. 

 

 

RADAGAISUS the Vandal . 

m CELLA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   

Radagaisus & his wife had one child: 

1.         GODEGISL (-406).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  King of the Vandals.  m FLORA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Concubine: ---.  The name of Godegisl's concubine is not known.  Godegisl and his wife had one child:

a)         GUNDERIC (-427).  Procopius records that “eius filii Gontharis, ex iusta ipsi uxore natus” succeeded after “Godigisclo” died[8].  He succeeded his father in 406 as GUNDERIC King of the Vandals.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Gundericus" as first Vandal king in Spain[9].  Gregory of Tours names Gunderic as king of the Vandals who left their homeland and invaded Gaul before attacking Spain[10].  General Maximus, who led the army of anti-Emperor Constantine III in Spain, invited the Vandals, along with other barbarian peoples, across the Pyrenees in 409 in a personal bid for power but soon found himself overrun[11].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Alani et Wandali et Suevi” entered Spain in 409[12].  Gunderic and his people settled in Galicia.  They expanded into land held by the Suevi, continuing to support Maximus as anti-Emperor, although the latter was defeated by combined Roman and Visigothic forces in 422.  The Vandals turned their attention to southern Spain where they imposed their control from Cadiz to Alicante.  Gunderic died after conquering Seville[13]m ELISA, daughter of ---, from Granada.  The Victoris Vitensis Historia records that Gaiseric killed his brother's wife by weighing her down with a stone and throwing her into the river Cirtensis at Amsaga, before killing her sons, although neither the brother nor the brother's wife are named[14].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   Gunderic & his wife had one child: 

i)          GELIMER ([425]-).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m EURICA, daughter of [ADULPHUS King of the Goths in Spain].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

Godegisl had one illegitimate son by his concubine: 

b)         GENSERIC [Gaiseric] ([400]-477)Procopius names “Gizerichus notus” as son of “Godigisclo[15].  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Gesericus frater Gunderici" when recording that he succeeded the latter as Vandal king in Spain[16].  He succeeded his half-brother in 427 as GENSERIC King of the Vandals

-        see below

 

 

GENSERIC [Gaiseric], illegitimate son of GODEGISL King of the Vandals & his concubine --- ([400]-477).  Procopius names “Gizerichus notus” as son of “Godigisclo[17].  He succeeded his half-brother in 427 as GENSERIC King of the Vandals.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Gesericus frater Gunderici" when recording that he succeeded the latter as Vandal king in Spain[18].  The Vandals crossed into North Africa en masse in May 429, although what prompted this move is unclear[19].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Gaisericus Rex…cum Wandalis omnibus” left “Bæticæ Provinciæ litore” and went “ad Mauritaniam et Africam” in May 429[20].  According to Iordanes, the Romans lost the province of Africa to the Vandals "per Bonifatium"[21], although this does not explain why they arrived there in the first place.  The exploits in Africa of "Geiserici ducis" are described in detail in the Victoris Vitensis Historia[22].  Genseric conquered Hipona in 429, and Carthage in 439, where they established their capital.  The Vandal nobles rebelled against their leader in 442[23].  Genseric sacked Rome in 455.  The Eastern Roman Empire's first expedition against the Vandals in Africa in 468, led by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Emperor Leo I, failed despite numerical superiority[24].  The Vandal kingdom dominated the western Mediterranean, with Corsica and Sardinia.  King Genseric made an agreement with Odoacar King of Italy about Sicily, the latter retaining control over the island in return for yearly tribute[25].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records the death in 464 of "Gensericum Wandalorum rex" after reigning for 40 years[26]

m ---.  The names of Genseric's wife or concubines are not known. 

Genseric had three children: 

1.         HUNERIC (-484).  The Victoris Vitensis Historia names "Huniricus maior filius [Geiserici]" when recording that he succeeded on the death of his father[27].  He lived as a hostage at Ravenna in 442[28].  He succeeded his father in 477 as HUNERIC King of the Vandals in Africa.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Hugnericus filius eius" succeeded his father in 464 and reigned for 7 years and 5 months[29].  The Victoris Vitensis Historia names him "rex Hunirix Wandalorum et Alanorum" when recording his exploits in Africa[30]m firstly ([429] or after[31], repudiated 442) --- the Visigoth, daughter of THEODERIC I King of the Visigoths & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was sent back to her father at the time of the 442 revolt with her nose and ears mutilated[32]m secondly ([455]) as her second husband, EUDOXIA, widow of PALADIUS, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, Emperor in the West & his wife Eudoxia.  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus arranged the marriage of “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” and “Valentiniani filiam” in 455[33].  After the death of her father, his successor forced Eudoxia to marry his son, but she was captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister[34].  Procopius names "Eudocia and Placidia" as children of "Eudoxia…and Valentinian", recording that Eudoxia was married to Huneric, the older son of Gaiseric, while the other daughter was the wife of Olybrius, a Roman senator[35].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that one daughter of Valentinian married “Gentoni Gaiserici filio” and the other “Olybrio Senatori Urbis Romæ[36].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Hugnericus" married "Valentiniani filiam" who had been abducted from Rome in captivity[37].  Huneric & his second wife had one child: 

a)         HILDERIC ([480]-murdered 534).  Iordanes names "Ilderich" as fifth Vandal king in Africa but does not specify his relationship to Thrasamund, his predecessor[38].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records the succession in 523 of "Hilderix, qui ex Valentiniani imperatoris filia…et Ugnerico iuncta natus est" and that he reigned for 7 years and 3 months[39].  He succeeded [his presumed cousin] in 523 as HILDERIC King of the Vandals in Africa 523.  He broke the Vandal alliance with Theodoric King of Italy, supporting the emperor at Constantinople instead[40].  He was deposed by his cousin Gailamir in 530.  Iordanes records that Hilderic was deposed by "Gelimer" but does not specify the relationship between the two[41].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that Hilderic was deposed by "Gerlimer" in 531, imprisoned with his sons, and killed in 534 "cum quibusdam generis eius affinibus"[42]m ---.  The name of Hilderic's wife is not known.  Hilderic & his wife had --- children: 

i)          sons (-murdered 534).  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that Hilderic was deposed by "Gerlimer" in 531, imprisoned with his sons, and killed in 534 "cum quibusdam generis eius affinibus"[43].  The number of sons is not known. 

2.         THEODERIC .  The Victoris Vitensis Historia records that Huneric exiled "Theodericum fratrem filiosque eius" in order to ensure the succession of his sons[44]m ---.  The Victoris Vitensis Historia records the exile of Theoderic after his wife and sons were killed, although neither his wife nor his sons are named[45].  Theoderic & his wife had --- children: 

a)         sons .  The Victoris Vitensis Historia records that Huneric exiled "Theodericum fratrem filiosque eius" in order to ensure the succession of his sons, although he does not name the sons of Theoderic, in a later passage recording that they were killed[46].  The number of sons is not known. 

3.         GENTO [Geiso] (after 420-before 484).  The Victoris Vitensis Historia names "Gentunis" as brother of Huneric[47]m ---.  The name of Gento's wife is not known.  Gento & his wife had four children: 

a)         GODAGIS .  The Victoris Vitensis Historia names "Gentunis maiorem filium nomine Godagis" when recording that he was cruelly exiled by his paternal uncle Huneric "cum uxore absque solacio servuli aut ancillæ"[48]

b)         GUNDAMUND (before 460-496).  Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum names "Guntamundus Gentunis eiusdem Huneric regis fratris filius" when recording his accession and reign of 11 years[49].  He succeeded his uncle in 484 as GUNDAMUND King of the Vandals in Africa.  Iordanes names "Gunthamundus" as third Vandal king in Africa but does not specify his relationship to Huneric, his predecessor[50].  After Theodoric the Ostrogoth forced Odovacar King of Italy to flee in 490, the Vandals considered themselves free from the treaty obligation relating to Sicily and attempted to conquer the island.  Theodoric defeated the Vandals in Sicily in 491[51].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records the death in 497 of "Gunthamundo Wandalorum rege Carthagine"[52]

c)         THRASAMUND (before 460-523)Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum names "Trasamundus Gentunis filius" and "Trasamundus frater Guntamundi regis" when recording his accession and reign of 26 years[53].  Iordanes names "Thrasamundus" as fourth Vandal king in Africa but does not specify his relationship to Gundamund, his predecessor[54].  He succeeded [his presumed brother] in 496 as THRASAMUND King of the Vandals in Africa.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Trasamundus" succeeded "Gunthamundo Wandalorum rege Carthagine" in 497 and reigned 27 years and 4 months[55].  He agreed an alliance with Theodoric King of Italy, confirmed by his marriage to the latter's sister, but failed to provide effective aid to the Ostrogoth king when he was attacked by the imperial navy in 507.  He also supported Gesalic, pretender to the Visigothic throne, against King Amalric the grandson of King Theodoric.  Gregory of Tours records the persecution of Christians by Thrasamund King of the Vandals and his imposition of Arianism on Spain[56], but his account is anachronistic as he places Thrasamund before Huneric and assumes that the former reigned before the Vandals emigrated from Spain to Africa.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records the death in 523 of "Trasamundus Wandalorum rex Carthagine"[57]m ([500]) as her second husband, AMALAFRIDA, widow of ---, daughter of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia (-murdered [523/25]).  Iordanes names "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" as the mother of "Theodehadi" and wife of "Africa regi Vandalorum…Thrasamundo"[58].  This marriage was arranged by her half-brother, Theodoric King of Italy, as part of his efforts to foster the support of the Vandals.  Amalafrida's dowry was Lilybæum in western Sicily[59].  After the death of her husband, she unsuccessfully protested his successor's withdrawal of support from her brother, but she was outmanœuvred and killed[60].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "uxor Amalfrida" fled after the death of her husband but was captured at Capsa and killed[61]

d)         GAILAR [Gelaris] (before 460-before 523).  Procopius names “Gelimer, Gelaridis filius, Genzonis nepos, pronepos Gizerici[62]m ---.  The name of Gailar's wife is not known.  Gailar & his wife had four children:

i)          GAILAMIR [Gelimar] (-533).  Procopius names “Gelimer, Gelaridis filius, Genzonis nepos, pronepos Gizerici[63]He succeeded in 530 as GAILAMIR King of the Vandals in Africa, after deposing his cousin Hilderic.  A Byzantine army, led by Belisarius, conquered the Vandal Kingdom of Africa in 533, vanquishing Gailimar at Decimum and Tricamarum[64].  Gregory of Tours records that Gailamir "was broken in battle by the forces of the Roman Empire and ended his life and his reign at the same moment"[65]

ii)         TZAZO .  Procopius names “Tzazo…Gelimeris frater” when recording that he landed in Sardinia[66]

iii)        [son .]  m ---.  One child: 

(a)       GIBAMUND .  Procopius names “Gibamundum…ex fratre nepotem” of “Gelimer[67]

iv)       daughter .  m ---.  One child: 

(a)       son .  Procopius names “Gelimeris…ex sorore nepos[68]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of the SUEVI in SPAIN 411-585

 

 

In conjunction with the Vandals and the Alans, the Suevi crossed the Rhine in 406, taking advantage of the Roman decision to divert troops from the area to fight the Visigoths in Italy.  They proceeded to sack southern France.  Dissatisfied with the inability of Emperor Honorius to contain the threat, the army elected Emperor Constantine III who established his base at Arles in Summer 408.  Emperor Constantine sent his son Constantius into Spain, together with General Maximus who declared himself emperor[69].  With the Romans distracted by the struggle between the rival emperors, the barbarian forces started to settle in small numbers in Spain in 411, the Suevi establishing themselves along the coast of Galicia, while the Vandals settled in the interior of Galicia[70].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Alani et Wandali et Suevi” entered Spain in 409, adding in a later passage that the Vandals occupied Galicia, the Suevi “sitam in extremitate Oceani maris occidua”, and the Alans “Lusitaniam et Carthaginensem provincias”, in 411[71].  Gregory of Tours refers to "the Suebi, also called the Alamanni" when recording their capture of Galicia[72], suggesting a connection with the territory later known as Swabia but it is not known whether this is correct.  After ruling the north-west corner of Spain for nearly two centuries, the Suevi territory was annexed by the Visigoths in 585. 

 

 

HERMANRICH [Hermerico] (-441).  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that "Suevi principe Hermerico" entered Spain with the Alans and Vandals[73].  He established himself as HERMERICO King of the Suevi in Spain after 411.  He associated his son on the throne in 438 because of his serious illness[74].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Hermericus Rex” resigned the throne due to serious illness in favour of “Rechilam filium suum” in 438, adding in a later passage that he died in 441 after seven years of illness[75]

m ---.  The name of Hermerico's wife or concubine is not known. 

King Hermerico & his [wife] had one child: 

1.         RECHILA (-Aug 448).  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Riccila filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father as Suevi king in Spain and reigned for 8 years[76].  He defeated Andevoto, a Vandal chief who had remained in Spain after the Vandals' mass exodus to Africa, at Genil in 437.  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Hermericus Rex” resigned the throne due to serious illness in favour of “Rechilam filium suum” in 438, although it is not certain whether he replaced his father entirely as a later passage records that he obtained “Bæticam et Carthaginensem Provincias” on his father´s death in 441[77].  He conquered Mérida in 439.  He succeeded his father in 441 as RECHILA King of the Suevi in Spain.  He conquered Seville in 441.  Although he was defeated by Roman forces led by Vito in 446, the Romans were unable to prevent the Suevi from continuing to consolidate their position in Spain during the reign of King Rechila[78].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in Aug 448 of “Rechila Rex Suevorum[79]m ---.  The name of Rechila's wife or concubine is not known.  King Rechila & his [wife] had one child: 

a)         RICHGAR [Requiario] (-killed in battle Portugal Dec 456).  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Recciarius Reccilani filius" when recording that he succeeded the latter as Vandal king in Spain[80].  He succeeded his father in 448 as REQUIARIO King of the Suevi in Spain.  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in Aug 448 of “Rechila Rex Suevorum” and the succession of “filius suus Catholicus Rechiarius[81].  He converted to Catholicism.  He allied himself with the Visigoths of Toulouse in 449, confirmed by his marriage to the daughter of the Visigoth King.  On his return from the wedding, King Requiario ravaged the area around Zaragoza and captured Ilerda[82].  Faced with continuing Suevi incursions into areas claimed by the Visigoths, the latter defeated the Suevi by the River Órbigo in Oct 456[83].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Rechiario” was killed in Dec 456 and that “Rex Theudoricus” succeeded “de Gallæcia ad Lusitaniam[84].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Teudericus” entered Spain, defeated “Ricciarium Suevorum regem” in battle “Asturica apud Urbicum fluvium”, and pursued him into “Portucale” where he killed Requiario and captured “Bracarum[85]m (Toulouse 449[86]) --- of the Visigoths, daughter of THEODERIC I King of the Visigoths.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that "Recciarius Reccilani filius" married "Theuderedi regis Gothorum filia"[87].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Rechiarius” married “Theodoris Regis filia” in 449[88]

 

 

1.         MASSILAm ---.  The name of Massila's wife or concubine is not known.  Massila & his [wife] had two children:

a)         MALDRA (-killed Feb 460).  He succeeded in 456 as MALDRA King of the Suevi in Spain.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that "Maldram Massilæ filium" succeeded as King of the Suevi in Spain after the death of Requiario but that he was soon killed[89].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Rechiario” was killed in Dec 456 and that “Rex Theudoricus” succeeded “de Gallæcia ad Lusitaniam” but that the Suevi “in extrema parte Gallæciæ” installed “Massiliæ filium…Maldram” as their king[90].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Maldras” was murdered in Feb 460[91]

b)         son (-killed 459).  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Maldras” killed “germanium suum fratrem” in 459 and invaded “Portucale castrum[92]

 

 

1.         MASDRAm ---.  The name of Masdra's wife or concubine is not known.  Masdra & his [wife] had two children:

a)         REQUIMUNDO (-465).  After the death of King Requiario, Suevi power in Spain disintegrated.  Requimundo emerged as REQUIMUNDO King of the Suevi in Spain.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that, after Maldra was killed, "Frumarium et Reccimundum Masdræ filium" disputed the leadership of the Suevi in Spain[93]

b)         FRUMARIO (-465).  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that, after Maldra was killed, "Frumarium et Reccimundum Masdræ filium" disputed the leadership of the Suevi in Spain[94].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Frumarius” captured “Idatio Episcopo VII Kal Aug in Aquæflaviensi ecclesia” in 460[95].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Remismundus” united the Suevi in 465 after the death of “Frumario[96]

 

 

REMISMUNDO (-469).  He enjoyed closed relations with the Visigoths after his marriage and was recognised as REMISMUNDO King of the Suevi in Spain in 465 by Theoderic II King of the Visigoths.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that, after the death of Frumario, "Remismundus" succeeded as king of the Suevi in Spain[97].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Remismundus” united the Suevi in 465 after the death of “Frumario[98].  He rejected the Visigoth alliance in order to expand Suevi territories and captured Lisbon in 468[99].  After the death of King Remismundo, there are no contemporary sources which chronicle the succeeding kings of the Suevi until 561, which may indicate that their territory enjoyed a period of peaceful isolation from the rest of the Iberian peninsula[100][101]m ([465]) ---, a Visigoth.  The primary source which confirms her origin and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

ARIAMIRIO  (-561).  He succeeded in [558/59] as ARIAMIRO King of the Suevi at Braga.  He facilitated the first Council of Braga in 561, reorganising the Suevi church following the monarch's conversion[102]

 

 

TEODEMIRO  (-570).  He succeeded in 561 as TEODEMIRO King of the Suevi at Lugo.  He divided his territories into two ecclesiastical provinces at the assembly at Lugo, Braga and Lugo, in 569[103]

m ---.  The name of Teodemiro's wife or concubine is not known. 

King Teodemiro & his [wife] had one child: 

1.         MIRÓN (-583).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 570 as MIRÓN King of the Suevi at Lugo.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Miro Suevorum rex" made war against "Runcones" in 572[104].  He made an alliance with Leovigildo King of the Visigoths in 579, but helped the latter's son Hermenegildo after he had rebelled and been captured in Seville.  Gregory of Tours records that "Mir King of Galicia" supported Hermenegildo, son of Leovigildo King of the Visigoths, against his father but died immediately after returning to his own country[105].  King Mirón was himself captured and obliged to swear loyalty to the Visigothic king[106].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the death in 583 of "Miro Suevorum rex"[107]m as her first husband, SISEGUTIA, daughter of ---.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Audeca" succeeded in 584 "in Gallaccia Suevorum regnum" and married "Sisegutiam relictam Mironis regis"[108].  She married secondly (584) as his [second] wife, Audica, who had deposed King Eborico.  King Mirón & his wife had two children: 

a)         EBORICO (-after 585).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "Eboricus filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father in 583 "in provincia Gallacciæ"[109].  Gregory of Tours names "Euric" as son of "Mir King of Galicia" when recording that he succeeded his father and sought to renew a pact with King Leovigildo[110].  He succeeded his father in 583 as EBORICO King of the Suevi at Lugo.  He was deposed in 584 by Audica[111].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that he became a monk after he was deposed[112]

b)         daughter .  Gregory of Tours records that Audica, a relation of Euric, married the sister of the latter[113]m as his [first] wife, AUDICA, son of ---. 

 

 

AUDICA  (-585).  Gregory of Tours records that Audica, a relation of Euric, married the sister of the latter and deposed his brother-in-law, before marrying the widow of his father-in-law[114].  He deposed King Eborico in 584, succeeded as AUDICA King of the Suevi.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Audeca" succeeded in 584 "in Gallaccia Suevorum regnum" and married "Sisegutiam relictam Mironis regis"[115].  The Visigoths intervened in support of ex-King Eborico, defeated and deposed King Audica in 585, annexing the Suevi kingdom for themselves[116]

m [firstly] --- of the Suevi, daughter of MIRON King of the Suevi.  Gregory of Tours records that Audica, a relation of Euric, married the sister of the latter[117]

m [secondly] (584) as her second husband, SISEGUTIA, widow of MIRÓN King of the Suevi, daughter of ---.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Audeca" succeeded in 584 "in Gallaccia Suevorum regnum" and married "Sisegutiam relictam Mironis regis"[118]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    VISIGOTHS in SPAIN 531-711

 

 

A.      KINGS of the VISIGOTHS in SPAIN 531-711

 

 

The Goths originally lived north of the Danube.  According to their legend, as recorded by Iordanes, they had migrated to the Black Sea area from the island of Scandza in the Baltic Sea[119].  They separated into two tribal groups, the Visigoths to the west and the Ostrogoths to the east.  Under pressure from the Huns, they sought permission from the Roman Emperor Valens to move into the Roman empire to the south of the river Danube in 376.  The inevitable conflicts culminated in 378, when the Goths defeated the Romans at Adrianople and killed the emperor.  Following this, the Visigoths drifted westwards through the Balkans and Italy, finally settling in south-west France around Toulouse[120].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that the Goths entered Narbonne in 413[121].  The Visigothic kings in Toulouse are set out in the document TOULOUSE, KINGS, DUKES & COUNTS.  Visigothic expansion into Spain was slow, starting with a small army led by Ataulf in 415.  The main body of Visigoths arrived in Spain during the reign of King Alaric II in the late fifth century, possibly encouraged by increased attacks by the Franks on Visigothic lands in France.  However, at that time it is unclear whether they controlled much Spanish territory beyond the area which later evolved as the March of Spain, south of the Pyrenees.  The Visigoths were expelled from France in 531, and established their new capital at Barcelona.  Amalric King of the Visigoths led the move to Barcelona, but he was murdered soon after by Teudis who succeeded as king of the Visigoths in Spain. 

 

The Visigoth kings ruled in Spain for more than 175 years.  However, the primary sources for this period of Spanish history are sparse and short.  The main surviving narrative sources are Isidor of Seville's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, written in [619/24], together with his later continuators dating from the mid-8th century[122], and the Chronicle of Iohannes Abbas Biclarensis which was written around the same time[123].  This information is supplemented, in the case of the Visigoths, by sources such as the Historia of King Wamba written by Julián Bishop of Toledo[124], as well as records of various ecclesiastical councils and legal codes, together with numismatic and archaeological evidence.  The Chronica Cæsaraugustana, or Crónica de Zaragoza, written by Maximus Bishop of Zaragoza in the early 7th century has not survived.  The version published in Migne´s Patrologia Latina[125] is a 16th century forgery[126].  The insufficiency of surviving contemporary chronicles has not, however, prevented the accumulation of a large body of secondary material, especially over the last fifty years.  The suspicion is that many of the conclusions drawn in these works, particularly relating to the Visigothic monarchy and the extent to which it was in control of the whole Iberian peninsular, must be highly speculative.  The only towns which are named by Isidore of Seville in his Historia are: Barcelona, Tarragona, Córdoba, Toledo, Sagunto, Valencia, Lérida, Cartagena, and Coimbra, to which must be added Seville itself.  This suggests a small network of control based in these principle towns, presumably with vast areas of the country which were sparsely settled and probably uncontrolled by the central government.  In addition, it appears that the northern areas around Asturias and the Basque country were never controlled by the Visigoths.  The popularity of studying the Visigoths may be the legacy of the so-called "Visigoth myth", which developed from the 14th century, manifested itself in romances and poetry, and represented the Visigothic kings as national heroes, the ancestors of all later Hispanic monarchs, and as having provided the foundation from which the different Spanish kingdoms later evolved.  More recently, Franco favoured the Visigoths because of their alleged centralisation of the Spanish state: the decree dated 24 April 1969, which established the Museo de los Concilios y de la Cultura Visigótica in Toledo, praised them for giving the Spanish their "national love of law and order"[127]

 

When the Visigoths settled permanently in Spain in 531, they brought with them from southern France more than a century of experience in government and administration.  However, estimating the number of Visigothic settlers in the Iberian peninsula is impossible on the basis of available contemporary data.  It is unlikely that they arrived in vast numbers.  One comparative data point is provided by the mass migration of Lombards into Italy, invited to settle there by Narses in [568/69][128].  The description of the Lombard arrival in contemporary sources suggests that their migration was on a much greater scale than that of the immigrants into Spain and has been estimated to have involved around 150,000 persons[129].  The total population of Spain has been "plausibly" estimated at four million in the later Visigothic period[130].  If these estimates are reasonably accurate, it is likely that the Visigoths (and presumably the other settlers) were vastly outnumbered by the native population, which was presumably composed mainly of Ibers and the descendants of Roman settlers.  García Moreno, in his Prosopografía del reino visigodo de Toledo, lists a total of 664 persons who are named in contemporary literary, numismatic, and epigraphic sources, 487 of whom are bishops, and many of their names suggest that they were not of Visigothic origin[131].  It appears likely that the Visigothic immigrants consisted of the king and his court, the nobility, and the required number of supporters and administrators who ensured the proper functioning of the state.  If that is correct, the Visigoths would have been obliged to cooperate closely with the native inhabitants in Spain. 

 

Collins has stated, of the Visigoths, that "there is a lot of evidence for what secular and ecclesiastical rulers in Toledo were thinking…but exceedingly little to show what was happening on the ground…archaeology can compensate, but the lack of literary texts makes it very difficult to put any flesh on very bare bones"[132].  The limited amount of factual data extends even to the Visigothic kings and other members of the ruling families.  The monarchy was elective, not hereditary, with rival factions engineering the succession of different monarchs (many of whom met violent deaths at the hands of their successors).  The kings shown below belonged to 12 different families, with no apparent pattern of succession, although a new king often married a relative of his predecessor presumably to reinforce the legitimacy of his own accession. 

 

The Visigoths left little trace after the Muslim invasion in 711.  The alleged precise descent of the early kings of Asturias from the Visigothic kings (see the document ASTURIAS, LEON, KINGS), only hinted at in early primary sources, probably owes more to the imagination of later writers, keen to emphasise monarchical continuity, than historical accuracy.  Descendants of the penultimate Visigoth king, Witiza, converted to Islam and founded important Muslim dynasties.  There are also indications that other prominent Muslim families, notably the Banu Qasi in the Ebro valley, descended from Visigoth nobles who converted after the conquest (see MOORISH SPAIN). 

 

 

Two siblings, parents not known: 

1.         TEUDIS (-murdered [Toledo] 548).  Iordanes names "Thiudem" as "armigerum" [armour-bearer] of Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths in Italy when recording that he was appointed tutor of the Visigothic King Amalric II[133].  Procopius records that “Theudis, natione Gotthus” was commander of King Theodoric´s armies in Spain[134].  Isidore of Seville records that Teudis was installed as king in Spain after Amalric, who had fled to Barcelona after he was defeated by Childebert King of the Franks[135].  He was elected in 531 to succeed as TEUDIS King of the Visigoths in Spain.  Abandoning Narbonne completely, Teudis established his court at Barcelona, Seville and Toledo[136].  The Franks captured Pamplona in 533, and in 541 besieged Zaragoza, where the Visigoths eventually inflicted a crushing defeat on them[137].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Tudis” maintained peaceful relations with the church “quamvis hæreticus” [presumably indicating that he followed Arianism] and established the bishopric in Toledo[138].  King Teudis adopted the title "Flavius Teudis", although this quasi-Roman pretension antagonised the nobility[139].  Isidore of Seville records that Teudis was murdered soon after the Visigoths attacked Ceuta[140].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Tudis” was killed in his palace during the reign of Emperor Justinian, after reigning for 17 years[141].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Theudis” reigned for 16 years and six months, or 17 years and five months[142]m ([after 531]) ---.  The name of Teudis´s wife is not known.  Procopius records that “Theudis, natione Gotthus” married "ex Hispania uxorem, non Visigottham genere, sed a sanguine indigenæ divitis" who was extremely rich[143].  If this report is correct, the marriage presumably took place after 531.  Her origin is not specified, but it is likely that she belonged to the Roman aristocracy who had settled in Spain.  Wolfram suggests that her dowry enabled Teudis to keep a private domestic force of 2,000 soldiers[144]

2.         ---.  It is not known whether Hildebad´s family relationship with King Teudis was through the latter´s brother or sister, although, if the word "avunculum" can be interpreted in its strict sense in the passage from Procopius which is quoted below, Hildebad´s mother would have been Teudis´s sister.  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         HILDEBAD [Ildibald/Theodbald] (-murdered [May] 541).  His family connection is confirmed by Procopius who records that “Gotthorum regem…Ildibadum” made war together with "Theudin avunculum Visogotthorum regem"[145].  After the fall of King Vitigis in Italy, Hildebad was in command of Verona.  He was installed as HILDEBAD King of Italy by the Gothic army in 540, although he only controlled a small strip of land between Pavia and Verona.  He was considered a usurper by the empire.  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Heldebadum" as king after the capture of Vitigis[146].  He conquered Treviso, installed his nephew Totila as commander of the army, and soon controlled Liguria and Venetia[147].  He moved his capital to Pavia in 540[148].  He was murdered by one of his personal retainers[149]

b)         son .  His parentage is confirmed by Procopius who records that “Totilas…Ildibadi ex fratre nepos” commanded the army at Treviso[150]m ---.  One child: 

i)          TOTILA [Baduila/Badua] (-killed in battle Busta Gallorum [Jun/Jul] 552).  Procopius records that “Totilas…Ildibadi ex fratre nepos” commanded the army at Treviso[151].  He was installed as TOTILA King of Italy in Oct 541 by the Goths of Pavia after the death of King Eraric[152].  Iordanes records that "Baduila iuvenis nepus…Heldebadi" succeeded after Eraric was killed[153].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Badullam qui et Totila dicebatur" as king[154].  King Totila routed a large Roman army at Faenza in 542, besieged Florence, moved into southern Italy and captured Naples in 543[155].  He began his first siege of Rome in Dec 545, tried again in 547, and finally captured the city in Jan 550.  He was killed at the battle of Busta Gallorum fighting the Romans[156].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Narses eunuchus" killed "Totilanem Gothorum regem" in battle in Italy in 554[157].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Baduila rex Gothorum" was killed in 553 "per Narsetem chartularium eunuchum"[158].

 

 

1.         TEUDISELO [Teudigisel/Thiudigisclus]  (-murdered Seville 549).  A Visigothic general, he defeated the Franks at Zaragoza in 541[159].  He was elected in 548 to succeed as TEUDISELO King of the Visigoths in Spain.  Isidore of Seville records that "Theudigisel was placed over the Goths" after King Teudis was killed and ruled for one year before being killed in Seville at a feast[160].  Iordanes names "Thiudigisglosa" as successor of "Thiudem" but records that he ruled only a short time before being killed[161].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Theudisclus” reigned for one year, six months and thirteen days[162]

 

 

1.         AGILA (-murdered Mérida Mar 555).  He was elected in 549 to succeed as AGILA King of the Visigoths.  Iordanes names "Agil" as successor to King Teudiselo[163].  Córdoba rebelled against his rule in 550, and King Agila lost the royal treasure, a large part of his army, and his son in attempting to suppress the rebellion.  He was obliged to retreat to Mérida[164].  King Agila was also faced with the rebellion by Atanagildo in Seville in 551, and was prevented from recapturing the city by Byzantine troops.  Isidore of Seville records that Agila ruled for five years and was killed at Mérida by the Goths[165].  He was deposed by Atanagildo in 554 following the arrival of Byzantine reinforcements[166].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Agila” reigned for five years, six months and thirteen days[167]m ---.  The name of Agila's wife or concubine is not known.  Agila & his [wife] had one child:

a)         son (-killed Córdoba 550).  Isidore of Seville records that the (unnamed) son of Agila was killed while attempting to suppress the rebellion in Córdoba[168].   

 

 

1.         ATANAGILDO ([520/25]-Toledo 568).  His birth date range is estimated from the birth date range of his second daughter Brunechildis, who gave birth to her first child shortly after her marriage in 566.  Iordanes records that "Atanagildus" rebelled against King Agila[169].  Isidore of Seville records that Atanagildo was at Seville when Agila was killed by the Goths and that they "handed themselves over to the rule of Athanagild…in the era 592 (554)"[170].  He sought Byzantine support and was ceded the coastal territories between Cádiz and Valencia in 552[171].  He strengthened his position with the arrival of Byzantine reinforcements and deposed King Agila in 554, succeeding as ATANAGILDO King of the Visigoths.  He moved his capital in Spain from Barcelona to Toledo in [554][172], symbolising a change in the political centre of the Visigothic kingdom away from the remnants of their kingdom around Toulouse.  Having helped King Atanagildo to power, the Byzantines remained and attempted to expand their control to the west in Spain, but the king was able to enforce a territorial agreement with them which limited their authority to south-east Spain.  Seville rebelled against central Visigothic authority in 555, followed by Córdoba[173].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the death of "Athanaildus rex Gothorum in Hispania" in 568[174].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Atanagildus” died naturally in Toledo during the reign of Emperor Justinian[175].  Isidore of Seville records that Atanagildo ruled for fourteen years[176].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Athanagildus” reigned for 15 years, six months, or 14 years[177]m as her first husband, GOSVINTA, daughter of --- (-589).  Her two marriages are confirmed by the Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica which records the marriage in 569 of "Leovegildus germanus Livvani regis" and "Gosuintham relictam Athanaildi"[178].  Nothing is known about her family origin, but her connection with Arianism, recorded in primary sources after her second marriage, suggests that she may have been of Visigothic origin.  She married secondly Leovigildo King of the Visigoths.  Gregory of Tours names "Goiswinth, mother of Brunhild", as wife of Leovegildo[179].  She contributed to the difficulties, which culminated in the rebellion of her stepson Hermenegildo, by trying to force the latter's wife to convert to Arianism[180].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Gosvinta was the focus of a plot to restore the Arian faith in 589[181].  King Atanagildo & his wife had two children: 

a)         GALSWINTHA (-murdered [567]).  Gregory of Tours records the marriage of King Chilperic and Galswintha, older daughter of King Atanagildo, after the marriage of King Sigebert to her younger sister, specifying that she converted from Arianism to Catholicism and came to France with a large dowry, but never stopped complaining about the insults she had to endure to the king who eventually had her garrotted by one of his servants[182]Herimannus names "Geisluindam, sororem Brunæ [filiam Athanagildi regis Gothorum]" as wife of "Hilpericus frater Sigibertus rex", recording that she was strangled by her husband's concubine "Fridegundis"[183]m (564) as his second wife, CHILPERIC I King of the Franks, son of CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar] King of the Franks & his fourth wife Arnegundis (before 535-murdered Chelles [27 Sep/9 Oct] 584, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).

b)         BRUNECHILDIS [Brunequilda/Brunehaut] ([545/50]-Renève-sur-Vingeanne Autumn 613, bur Autun, abbaye de Saint-Martin).  Gregory of Tours records the marriage of King Sigebert and Brunechildis, daughter of King Atanagildo, describing her as "elegant in all she did, lovely to look at, chaste and decorous in her behaviour, wise in her generation and of good address", specifying that she converted from Arianism to Catholicism and came to France with a large dowry[184].  After her husband's death, her brother-in-law King Chilperic seized her treasure in Paris and banished her to Rouen[185].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Brunihilde matre" became regent after the accession of her son "Childepertus…adhuc puerulus"[186]Herimannus records her second marriage to "Meroveus, Hilperici filius"[187].  Her power in Austrasia appears to have increased when her son King Childebert II assumed more direct control from [584], confirmed under the Treaty of Andelot in 587 which recognised her right to protection[188].  According to Fredegar, after her son's death in 596, she was regent for her grandson King Theodebert until 599 when she was "hunted out of Austrasia"[189].  Wood highlights that Pope Gregory I's correspondence with Queen Brunechildis concerning reform of the Frankish church appears to indicate that she still retained power in Austrasia as late as 602[190].  Fredegar reports that she was found "wandering alone near Arcis in Champagne" by a poor man (who was rewarded with the bishopric of Auxerre for his service)[191], and taken to the court of her grandson Theoderic II King of the Franks at Orléans, where she plotted against King Theodebert, culminating in the latter's overthrow and murder in 612 by King Theoderic.  Fredegar records that she was the "bedfellow" of Protadius, a Roman, whom she "loaded with honours" and appointed patrician over the territory east of the Jura in [603][192].  After King Clotaire II defeated and captured her great-grandsons in 613, Brunechildis was arrested at the villa of Orbe by the constable Herpo and taken to Clotaire.  According to Fredegar, she was tortured for three days, led through the ranks on a camel, and finally tied by her hair, one arm and a leg to the tail of an unbroken horse, being cut to shreds by its hoofs as it ran[193]m firstly (early 566) SIGEBERT I King of the Franks, son of CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar] King of the Franks & his third wife Ingundis [Ingonde] ([535]-murdered Vitry [Nov/Dec] 575, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard).  m secondly (576) MEROVECH of the Franks, son of CHILPERICH I King of the Franks & his first wife Audovera (-Thérouanne, Pas-de-Calais 577, bur Paris Abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  He was murdered on the orders of Frédégonde, the concubine of Merovech's father. 

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         LIUVA (-573).  He was elected to succeed as LIUVA I King of the Visigoths, after a five months interregnum following the death of King Atanagildo[194].  Gregory of Tours records the succession of Liuva and Leovigildo his brother after the death of King Atanagildo[195].  Isidore of Seville records that Liuva was made king at Narbonne after the death of Atanagildo and ruled for three years[196].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Livva" succeeded "Athanaildus rex Gothorum in Hispania" in 568[197].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that he installed his brother Leovigildo "in regnum citerioris Hispaniæ" in 569[198], implying that Liuva remained king in Hispania ulterior (the western part of the Iberian peninsula) and in what remained of the Gallic territories of the Visigoths.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the death in 573 of "Livva rex"[199].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Liuva” reigned for one year[200]

2.         LEOVIGILDO (-Toledo [Apr/May] 586).  Gregory of Tours records the succession of Liuva and Leovigildo his brother after the death of King Atanagildo[201].  He succeeded his brother in 573 as LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths

-        see below

 

 

LEOVIGILDO, son of --- ([525/30]-Toledo [Apr/May] 586).  His birth date range is estimated from the birth of his first grandson in [580/85], and his sons being appointed associate kings in 573.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Leovegildus germanus Livvani regis" was installed "in regnum citerioris Hispaniæ" by his brother in 569[202].  Isidore of Seville records that Liuva established "his brother Leovigild not only as his successor but as his partner in the kingship, appointing him to rule Spain while he contented himself with rule of Gallia Narbonensis"[203].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that in 572 Leovigildo recaptured Córdoba[204], which had rebelled against Visigothic rule during the reign of King Agila.  He succeeded his brother in 573 as LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Leovigildo succeeded "Livva rex" in 573[205].  He extended Visigothic influence into Rioja in 574/75, and Oróspeda in 577.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Leovigildus rex" occupied "partem Vasconiæ" and founded “civitatem...Victoriacum” [Victoriaco], dated to [581][206].  The greatest among the Visigothic rulers in Spain, he reinforced the power of the monarch by introducing court ceremonial based on Byzantine practices[207].  He introduced a new legal code Codex revisus (which has not survived)[208] and also rescinded a longstanding Roman ban on inter-marriage with native inhabitants of Spain, thus hastening Visigothic integration in the country[209].  His son Hermenegildo rebelled against him in Seville in 581.  Leovigildo conquered the Suevi in the north-western part of the peninsula, deposing King Audica in 585, and suppressed the revolt of Malaricus who attempted to assume control of Galicia[210].  His reign was marked by persecution of the Catholic church in Spain.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the death in 586 of "Leovegildus rex"[211].  Isidore of Seville records that he ruled for eighteen years and died a natural death in Toledo "in the era 624 (586)"[212].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Liuvigildus” reigned for 18 years[213]

m firstly ([550/55]) ---.  The name of King Leovigildo´s first wife is not known.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "duosque filios suos [Leovigildi]…Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" were born "ex amissa coniuge" but does not name their mother[214].  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Teodosia, hija de Seberiano Duque de Cartagena y de Teodora" as the wife of King Leovigildo and mother of his two sons[215].  The primary source on which this statement is based is not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  It is not known whether this first wife died or was repudiated before King Leovigildo´s second marriage. 

m secondly (569) as her second husband, GOSVINTA, widow of ATANAGILDO King of the Visigoths, daughter of --- (-589).  Her two marriages are confirmed by the Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica which records the marriage in 569 of "Leovegildus germanus Livvani regis" and "Gosuintham relictam Athanaildi"[216].  Nothing is known about her family origin, but her connection with Arianism, recorded in primary sources after her second marriage, suggests that she may have been of Visigothic origin.  Gregory of Tours names "Goiswinth, mother of Brunhild", as wife of Leovegildo[217].  She contributed to the difficulties, which culminated in the rebellion of her stepson Hermenegildo, by trying to force the latter's wife to convert to Arianism[218].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Gosvinta was the focus of a plot to restore the Arian faith in 589[219]

King Leovigildo & his first wife had two children:

1.         HERMENEGILDO “the Holy” ([550/55]-murdered Tarragona 13 Apr 586).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "duosque filios suos ex amissa coniuge Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" when recording that their father associated them in his rule in 573[220].  In 579, his father appointed Hermenegildo as Governor of Betica, based in Seville.  Gregory of Tours records his conversion to Catholicism and baptism as "JOHN"[221].  He converted to Catholicism in Seville in 580 under the influence of Leandro, Archbishop of Seville[222].  He revolted against his father's Arian rule in 581, retired to Córdoba in 584, but was captured and exiled to Valencia.  Isidore of Seville records that "his son Hermenegild" rebelled against his father who defeated him[223].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that Hermenegildo was sent into exile in 584 and in 585 was killed "in urbe Tarraconensi" by "Sisberto"[224].  He was canonised in 1586.  m (579) INGUNDIS [Ingonde] of the Franks, daughter of SIGEBERT I King of the Franks & his wife Brunechildis of the Visigoths ([567/68]-in Africa Autumn 586).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the marriage in 579 of "Leovegildus rex Hermenegildo filio" and "filiam Sisberti regis Francorum"[225].  Gregory of Tours records that one of the sons of Leovigildo by his first wife married the daughter of Sigebert King of the Franks, in a later passage naming her "Ingund", specifying that she married Hermenegildo, older son of Leovigildo, and that she was mistreated by her husband's stepmother[226].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Childebertus rex Ingundem sororem suam" married "Herminigildo, Levigildi Hispanorum regis filio", and that she fled Spain for France after the death of her husband but was captured and taken to Sicily where she died[227].  Gregory of Tours records that her father-in-law left her "to the good graces of the Greeks" after imprisoning her husband and was unable to "force the Greeks to hand" her over[228].  She fled to Africa with her son after her husband was killed, seeking refuge with the Eastern Emperor[229].  Hermenegildo and his wife had one child:

a)         son .  Paulus Diaconus records that, after Ingundis was captured following her husband's death, "filius eius" was handed over to Emperor Mauricius and taken to Constantinople[230]same person as…?  ATANAGILDO.  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Atanagildo" as the son of Hermenegildo, as well as his marriage to "Flavia Juliana hija de Pedro Augusto, hermano del Emperador Mauricio", and their sons "Paulo" and "Ardavasto", as well as the latter´s marriage to "prima, hija o hermana del Rey Cindasuindo"[231] (see below).  The primary sources on which these statements are based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution. 

2.         RECAREDO (-Toledo mid-Jun or Dec 601).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "duosque filios suos ex amissa coniuge Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" when recording that their father associated them in his rule in 573[232].  He was elected to succeed his father in 586 as RECAREDO King of the Visigoths.   

-        see below

 

 

RECAREDO, son of LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths & his first wife --- (-Toledo mid-Jun or Dec 601).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica names "duosque filios suos ex amissa coniuge Hermenegildem et Reccaredum" when recording that their father associated them in his rule in 573[233]Herimannus records "Richaredus filius eius [=Levigildus rex Gothorum]" succeeding his father[234].  He expelled a Frankish invasion from Narbonne in 585.  He was elected to succeed his father in 586 as RECAREDO I King of the Visigoths.  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "filius eius Reccaredus" succeeded his father in 586[235].  Isidore of Seville records that "his son Recared" was crowned king after Leovigildo died "in the era 624 (586)"[236].  He converted to Catholicism in [Feb/Mar] 587, his example being followed by many Arian bishops and members of the Visigothic nobility[237].  He consecrated Toledo Cathedral, and summoned the third council of Toledo which adopted Catholicism as the official faith of the kingdom in 589.  He brought bishops into his consultative royal council[238].  He ordered the burning of all Arian books written in the Visigothic script[239].  Isidore of Seville records that he ruled for fifteen years and died "peacefully" in Toledo "in the era 639 (601)"[240].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Reccardus” reigned for 15 years, six months, ten days[241]

Betrothed (584) to RIGUNDIS of the Franks, daughter of CHILPERIC I King of the Franks & his third wife Frédégonde ([569]-).  Gregory of Tours names "Princess Rigunth" when recounting that she sympathised when Gregory was accused of treachery by her mother[242].  Gregory names Rigunth as daughter of King Chilperic when recording her betrothal to Recared, son of King Leuvigild and her voyage to Spain with a large retinue[243].  Gregory records that, on learning of the death of her father, she was abandoned before returning to her mother's palace where she led a life of debauchery[244]

m [firstly] (586) BADDO, daughter of --- (-[8 May 589/594]).  "Reccaredus rex…Baddo…regina" professed their faith by charter dated 8 May 589[245].  This is the only source which names Recaredo´s first wife.  There is no indication of her family origin. 

Betrothed (594) to CHLODESINDIS [Clodesinde] of the Franks[246], daughter of SIGEBERT I King of the Franks & his wife Brunechildis of the Visigoths ([575/76]-after 594).  Chlodosind is named as daughter of Queen Brunhilde, and sister of King Childebert, in the Treaty of Andelot dated 28 Nov 587[247].  Paulus Diaconus records the betrothal of "Flavius rex Authari" and "Childebertus…suam germanam", but states that Childebert accepted an offer of another betrothal for her from "Gothorum de Hispania"[248].  No proof has been found that the daughter referred to by Paulus was Chlodesindis but this is assumed to be the case.  

[m secondly (after 594) ---.  The name of Recaredo´s second wife is not known.  No direct proof has been found of this supposed second marriage.  However, the chronology suggests that King Recaredo´s son Suíntila was several years younger than his brother Liuva, which suggests that he was probably born from a later marriage.  It is certainly likely that King Recaredo married again after his betrothal in 594, before his death in 601.] 

King Recaredo and his [first] wife had one child:

1.         LIUVA ([587]-murdered 603).  He succeeded his father in 601 as LIUVA II King of the Visigoths.  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Liwa filius eius…ignobili matre progenitus" when recording that he succeeded his father as king of the Visigoths in Spain[249].  As there is no indication that Liuva ruled through a regent, it is assumed that he had reached the age of majority when he succeeded, and must therefore have been from his father´s first marriage.  Isidore of Seville records that Liuva ruled for two years, but "Witteric seized power illegitimately…cutting off Liuva's right hand…[and] killed him in his twentieth yearin the era 641 (603)"[250].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “item Liuva” reigned for one year, otherwise two years and six months[251]

King Recaredo and his [second] wife had one child:

2.         SUÍNTILA ([after 594]-633).  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records the succession "Era DCLXI imperii Heraclii octavo" of "Suintila filius Reccaredi Regis"[252].  He succeeded in 621 as SUÍNTILA King of the Visigoths.   

-        see below.   

 

 

1.         WITERICO (-murdered 610).  As leader of the Arian opposition, he succeeded in 603 as WITERICO King of the Visigoths, after deposing and murdering King Liuva II.  Isidore of Seville records that "Witteric seized power illegitimately…cutting off Liuva's right handin the era 641 (603)"[253].  Fredegar states that, after the repudiation of his daughter, King Witerico planned to attack Theoderic II King of the Franks in alliance with Agilolf King of the Lombards, Clotaire II King of Neustria and Theodebert King of Austrasia but that "the design of these kings [came] to nothing"[254].  Isidore of Seville records that Witerico ruled for seven years, but "was killed in the midst of a meal as a result of a conspiracyin the era 648 (610)"[255].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Wittericus” reigned for six years, ten months[256]m ---.  The name of Witerico´s wife is not known.  King Witerico & his wife had one child:

a)         ERMENBERGA.  Fredegar records that, in the twelfth year of his reign, King Theoderic sent "Aridium episcopum Lugdunensem, Rocconem et Æborinum comestaboli" to "Bettericum regem Spaniæ" for the hand of "Ermenberta filia eius", but that the marriage was not consummated, apparently because Queen Brunechildis turned her husband against her, and that after a year she was deprived of her dowry and sent back to Spain[257]m ([607/08], repudiated [608/09]) THEODERIC II King of the Franks in Burgundy, son of CHILDEBERT II King of the Franks in Austrasia & his wife Faileuba (-Metz 613). 

 

 

1.         GUNDEMARO (-Toledo 612).  He led the Catholic opposition to the Arian rule of King Witerico, whom he murdered and succeeded in 610 as GUNDEMARO King of the Visigoths.  Isidore of Seville records that Gundemaro ruled for two years, "devastated the Basques during one expedition and besieged the army of the Romans on another" and "died a natural death in Toledoin the era 650 (612)"[258].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Gundemarus” reigned for one year, ten months and 14 days[259]m HILDOARA, daughter of --- (-[610/12]).  A letter addressed to King Gundemaro names "gloriose memorie domne mee quondam Hildoare regine"[260].  Nothing is known about the family origin of King Gundemaro´s wife. 

 

 

1.         SISEBUTO (-620).  Fredegar records that, before his accession, he "had won Cantabria, previously held by the Franks, for the Gothic kingdom"[261].  He succeeded in 612 as SISEBUTO King of the Visigoths.  Isidore of Seville records that Sisebuto ruled after Gundamaro for eight years and six months, "forced the Jews into the Christian faith" and "brought the rebellious Asturians under his dominion…overcame the Ruccones", adding that "some claim that he died a natural death, others that he died as a result of some medication"[262].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Sisebutus” reigned for eight years, eleven months and 16 days, otherwise six months[263]m ---.  The name of Sisebuto's wife is not known.  King Sisebuto & his wife had [two] children:

a)         RECAREDO (-621).  Isidore of Seville records that Sisebuto left a small son Recaredo who "was recognised as king for a few days after the death of his father until his own death intervened"[264].  He succeeded his father in 620 as RECAREDO II King of the Visigoths.  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “item Reccaredus” reigned for three years and a few days[265]

b)         [THEODORA.  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Teodora hija del Rey Sisebuto" as the wife of King Suíntila (and as mother of "Suintila II Rey de España", who never existed)[266].  The primary sources on which these statements is based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  m (before 621) SUÍNTILA, son of RECAREDO I King of the Visigoths & his second wife --- (after 594-633).  He succeeded in 621 as SUÍNTILA King of the Visigoths.  Fredegar records that "Sintela" succeeded on the death of "Sisebodo regis"[267].] 

 

 

SUÍNTILA, son of RECAREDO I King of the Visigoths & his [second] wife --- (after 594-633).  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records the succession "Era DCLXI imperii Heraclii octavo" of "Suintila filius Reccaredi Regis"[268].  Isidore of Seville records that Suíntila succeeded "in the era 659 (621)" after "having risen to the position of general under king Sisebut [and] captured Roman fortresses and overcame the Ruccones"[269].  He succeeded in 621 as SUÍNTILA King of the Visigoths.  Isidore of Seville states that Suíntila "obtained all the remaining cities which the Roman army held in Spain…[and] was the first to obtain the monarchy of the entire kingdom of Spain north of the straits"[270].  Fredegar records that "Sintela" succeeded on the death of "Sisebodo regis", commenting that he was "very harsh to his followers and hated by all the magnates of his kingdom"[271].  He also defeated Basque rebels in 625, constructing the garrison of Olite which was permanently manned to maintain Visigoth authority in the area.  King Suíntila was deposed in 631 by Sisenando, a noble from Septimania who was acclaimed king by the whole army[272].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Suinthila” reigned for ten years[273]

m (before 621) ---.  The name of Suíntila´s wife is not known.  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Teodora hija del Rey Sisebuto" as the wife of King Suíntila (and as mother of "Suintila II Rey de España", who never existed)[274], which if correct would mean that she was Theodora of the Visigoths, daughter of Sisebuto King of the Visigoths & his wife ---.  The primary source on which this statement is based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.   

King Suíntila and his wife had [two] children: 

1.         RECIMIR (-631).  Isidore of Seville records that Suíntila installed "his son Riccimir [as] a partner in his rule"[275]

2.         [LIUBIGOTONA (before 633-).  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated to [680/86] which records that "socer noster Ervigius princeps…domina mea Leuvitona regina" granted "filiam suam" as wife of "Egicæ regis"[276].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[277] she  was the daughter of Suíntila King of the Visigoths, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  If this parentage is correct, she would have been considerably older than her husband, given the death of her supposed father in 633.  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Liubigtobona nieta de Recaredo" as the wife of King Ervigio and mother of his children[278].  The primary source on which this statement is based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  Her husband's successor forced his predecessor's widow to retire to a nunnery[279]m ERVIGIO the Visigoth, son of ARDABASTO the Visigoth & his wife --- ([643/50]-15 Nov 687).  He succeeded in 680 as ERVIGIO King of the Visigoths.] 

 

 

1.         SISENANDO  (-Mar 636).  He was elected to succeed in 633 as SISENANDO King of the Visigoths after he deposed King Suíntila.  On his accession the practice of anointing the monarch was adopted, inspired by San Isidoro de Sevilla[280].  After the fourth council of Toledo of 633, approval of the councils was required to legalise succession of the monarch, and bishops were associated with the nobles in future elections to the crown[281].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Sisenandus” reigned for four years, eleven months and 16 days[282]

 

 

1.         CHINTILA  (-20 Dec 639).  He was elected to succeed in 636 as CHINTILA King of the Visigoths.  He convened the fifth and sixth councils of Toledo, the latter establishing Catholicism as the exclusive religion in Spain and expelling the Jews.  Laterculus regum Visigothorum names "Chintila" when recording that he reigned 3 years and 7 months[283].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Chintila” reigned for three years, nine months and eleven days[284]m ---.  The name of Chintila's wife is not known.  Chintila & his wife had one child:

a)         TULGA (-642).  Laterculus regum Visigothorum names "Chintila…filius eius Tulga" when recording that he succeeded his father and reigned 2 years and four months[285].  His father appointed him associate king.  He was elected to succeed his father in 640 as TULGA King of the Visigoths.  Fredegar records that "Sintela rex Espaniæ…filius…Tulga" succeeded on the death of his father, while still a minor, but was deposed by Chindasvinto and tonsured[286].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Tulga” was “blandus in omnia[287].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Tulga” reigned for two years, four months[288]

 

 

Two possible siblings, parents not known: 

1.         CHINDASVINTO (-Toledo 1 Oct 653).  He was elected to succeed in 642 as CHINDASVINTO King of the Visigoths after deposing King Tulga, an act which was condoned by the seventh council of Toledo convened by the new king specially for the purpose.  Fredegar records that "Chyntasindus" deposed King Tulga and succeeded in his place, ordering the killing of 200 magnates and 500 free men, who were likely to dispute his succession, and the distribution of their assets among his supporters[289].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the accession of "Chindasuintus"[290].  "Chindasvintux rex et Reciverga regina" donated property to "monasterium…iuxta rivulum…Molina sub monte Irago" by charter dated 18 Oct 646, confirmed by "Odoarius comes cubiculariorum, Paulus comes notariorum, Evantus comes scanciarum, Richila comes patrimoniorum, Eumensfredus comes sparthariorum…"[291].  He abdicated in favour of his son in 649.  Laterculus regum Visigothorum records the death "Kal Oct aera 691" of "Chindasuindus"[292].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Chindasvinctus” died in Toledo[293].  According to Fredegar, Chindasvinto was "a great age, ninety they say, when he died"[294], but this would seem greatly exaggerated in light of the estimated birth date of his son Theodefredo (see below).  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Chindusvinthus” reigned alone for six years, eight months and eleven days, and with “filio suo Reccesvintho” four years, eight months and eleven days, and died “pridie Kal Oct 691[295]m REKIBERGA, daughter of --- (-after 18 Oct 646).  "Chindasvintux rex et Reciverga regina" donated property to "monasterium…iuxta rivulum…Molina sub monte Irago" by charter dated 18 Oct 646[296].  Nothing is known about the family origin of King Chindasvinto´s wife, or whether this named wife was the mother of both his children who are named below.  The estimated birth date of the king´s son Theodefredo suggests that he may have been the son of Rekiberga.  King Chindasvinto and [his wife] had two children:

a)         RECESVINTO (-Villa of Gérticos [Wamba, Valladolid][297] 1 Sep 672, bur [Gérticos], transferred 13th century to Toledo[298]).  Fredegar names "Chyntasindus…filium suum Richysindum"[299].  His father associated him as joint king, and abdicated in his favour in 649 whereupon he was elected to succeed as RECESVINTO King of the Visigoths.  The Chronicle of 754 records that "in the era 685 (647)" Chindasvinto "established his loose-living but generous son Reccesuinth as king of the Goths" and that he ruled for 24 years[300].  He suppressed the rebellion of Froja who, with his Basque allies invaded Tarraconense and held Zaragoza for several months in [653], but was killed by King Recesvinto[301].  Previous legal codes were consolidated and published in [654] as the Liber iudiciorum or Fuero Juzgo[302]Laterculus regum Visigothorum records the death "Kal Sep 672" of "Reccesuindus"[303].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that Recesvinto died a natural death at "his own villa…Gerticos…now called Bamba…near Mt Caure"[304].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Chindusvinthus” reigned with “filio suo Reccesvintho” four years, eight months and eleven days, and that Recesvinto ruled alone 23 years, seven months and eleven days, and died “Kal Sep A.D. 672[305]

b)         THEODOFREDO ([645/53]-after 702).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Theodefred…the son of King Chindasuinth, his father abandoning him at a young age", adding that King Egica ordered him to be blinded when he reached maturity[306], presumably aiming to exclude him from the succession in line with the practice in the Eastern Empire, where blindness was considered an impediment to ruling and therefore constituted an effective way of disempowering an opponent short of killing him (although many did succumb as a result of the treatment).  It is not recorded whether the punishment was carried out.  The same source records that Theodofredo settled in Córdoba.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that he was murdered by Witiza King of the Visigoths[307]m (after 687) RICILO, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that Theodefredo "chose a wife…Ricilo, from a noble family" during his exile[308].  Theodofredo & his wife had [four] children: 

i)          RODRIGO (Córdoba [688/90]-killed in battle Guadalete [20] Jul 711).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Roderic…the son of Theodefred…the son of King Chindasuinth" when recording his accession[309].  His birth date is estimated from his father's marriage having taken place after his exile to Córdoba, following the succession of King Egica in 687.  He was elected to succeed in 710 as RODRIGO King of the Visigoths in Spain.  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the accession of "Rudericus"[310].  The Ajbar Machmua records the succession of "Rodrigo…que no era de estirpe real" [specifying his non-royal ancestry presumably in an attempt to denigrate him] after the death of "el rey de España Gaitixa", adding that he raped "la hija de Julian" [Governor of Ceuta] who had been sent to his court, her father suggesting the conquest of Spain to Musa bin Nusayr [Governor of Ifrikiyah] in revenge[311].  Ibn-el Kouthya states that, after the death of his wife, "un négociant étranger…Julien" confided his daughter to Rodrigo who "devint épris de ses charmes et satisfit sa passion", after which Julián suggested the idea of conquering Andalucía to "Tharik fils de Ziad"[312].  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that "a foreigner…Ilyan Lord of Septa…[and] governor of…Alchadra…had sent one of his daughters to Roderic the Lord of Andalus for her improvement and education, but she became pregnant by him", after which he encouraged "Tarik Ibn Zeiyad" governor of Tanger to invade Andalucía[313].  The Ajbar Machmua records a preliminary Muslim expedition of 400 men crossing into Spain, followed in 711 by an army of 7,000 "muslimes, en su mayor parte berberiscos y libertos, pues había poquisimos árabes", with a supplementary contingent of 5,000 men sent later by Musa bin Naser, who together defeated King Rodrigo and his army of 100,000 combatants "en un lugar llamado el Lago"[314].  The account is evidently romanticised, with detailed descriptions of Rodrigo´s horse, his bejewelled gold saddle, and the king´s disappearance without trace after being unseated from his mount.  Ibn-el Kouthya states that "Tharik fils de Ziad" defeated Rodrigo "sur les bords du Guadalété, dans la province de Sidonia"[315]Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that the battle was fought at "Shedunia, in…the valley of Umm-Hakim", where Rodrigo was killed[316].  The Muslims pushed northwards to take Córdoba and were invited into Toledo by the supporters of Akila[317].  Ibn-el Kouthya states that Rodrigo asked for assistance from "les fils de Witiza, qui avaient déjà attaint l'âge de puberté et pouvaient monter à cheval", but that "Almounz…avec ses deux frères" betrayed Rodrigo and informed "Tharik fils de Ziad"[318]m as her first husband, EGILONA [Eilo], daughter of ---.  She married secondly Abd al-Aziz, Governor of Seville.  The Ajbar Machmua records that "Abdo-l-Aziz" married "la mujer de Rodrigo…Umm-Asim", who persuaded her second husband to wear a crown which was seen as unislamic[319].  Her two marriages are confirmed by Ibn Abd-el-Hakem who records that "Abd-Elaziz Ibn Musa, after the departure of his father, had married a Christian lady, a daughter of a king of Andalus…Roderic whom Tarik killed" (after Oct 713)[320]Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records that “Abd el-Aziz” married “Aylo veuve de Loderik, laquelle fut la mère d´Açim (Oumm-Açim) et avec qui il habita à Seville[321].  From a chronological point of view, it appears impossible that she was “la mère d´Açim (Oumm-Açim)”: it is suggested that this text refers to her own change of name after marriage, which appears corroborated by the next source.  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Abd el-Aziz married "une femme de la nation des Goths…Oumm-Aasim", which was deeply unpopular[322].  According to Arab sources, she persuaded her second husband to wear a crown, seen as un-Islamic by his colleagues, who assassinated him in 715[323]

ii)         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

(a)       [son .  Ibn Abd-el-Hakem records that the governor of "a citadel called Faras two days' journey from Toledo" was "a nephew of Roderic", and that he yielded "the table" to Tarik ibn Zaid after his arrival in the city[324].  If Rodrigo's birth date is correctly estimated above, it is more likely that this "nephew" was a more remote relation than the son of one of his siblings, assuming that the report in this source is correct.] 

iii)        [daughter .  m ---.]  One child: 

(a)       BENGO (-killed in battle 711).  Ibn Idhari records that "Ruderiq" sent his armies, under the command of "un hijo de una hermana…Bengo", to meet "Tariq y los suyos" after the latter invaded the Iberian peninsula adding that "Bengo" was killed in battle[325].  If Rodrigo's birth date is correctly estimated above, it is more likely that "Bengo" was a more remote relation than the son of one of his sisters, assuming that the report in this source is correct. 

iv)       [FÁFILA (-[murdered before 702]).  Fáfila is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[326] as the possible son of Theodefredo, but the primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.  According to Barrau-Dihigo, Fáfila's alleged possible family relationship with the Visigothic kings was an invention of the 18th century [327].  [Duque de Cantabria]: De Rebus Hispaniæ names "Pelagium filium Fafilæ ducis Cantabriæ"[328], which according to Barrau-Dihigo is the only reference to Fáfila bearing this title[329].  The historical basis for supposing that there was a "Dukedom of Cantabria" under the Visigoths is unclear (see the discussion below in the introduction to Chapter 3.B, Visigoth Duces, concerning territorial jurisdiction of duces in the Visigothic kingdom).  Assuming the manner of Fáfila's death is as described, he must have been killed before Witiza's accession as king in 702.] 

-         [KINGS of ASTURIAS.] 

2.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         daughter .  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the marriage of "Ardabastus…from Greece" and the niece of King Chindasvinto[330].  The marriage must have taken place very early in the reign of King Chindasvinto given the tight possible birth date range of the couple´s granddaughter Cixilo.  m ([642]) ARDABASTO, son of ---.  

 

 

Two siblings, parents not known: 

1.         WAMBA (-after 687[331], bur [Villa Gérticos], transferred 13th century to Toledo[332]).  On the death of King Recesvinto in 672, he was acclaimed as WAMBA King of the Visigoths at Gérticos, where his predecessor had died, without waiting to be elected in Toledo in line with previous practice although he was anointed as king at Toledo 19 Sep 672[333].  The History of King Wamba was written by Julian Bishop of Toledo in [675][334], reviewed in detail by Teillet[335].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the accession of "Wamba" and his reign of 8 years[336].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that Wamba was elected king "in the era 710 (672)" but "at first declined, not wanting to assume power, but he finally accepted against his will what the army requested…was taken to Toledo and anointed king in the church of St Mary"[337].  In Summer 673, King Wamba suppressed the revolt of Paulus, whom the king had sent to Septimania to suppress another rebellion, punishing the culprits severely[338].  He introduced compulsory military service, with property confiscation and loss of civil rights for non-attendance.  King Wamba was deposed by Ervigio in 680 and retired to the monastery of Pampliega near Burgos.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that Ervigio gave Wamba "a herb called spartus to drink and immediately Wamba's memory was taken away", recording that after he recovered Wamba retired to a monastery where he lived for seven years and three months and "died a natural death in the era 719 (681)"[339]Laterculus regum Visigothorum records the death "Id Oct aera 718" of "Wamba"[340].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Wamba Rex” reigned for eight years, one month, and 14 days, and died “pridie Id Oct 719[341]

2.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         EGICA (-Toledo end 702).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "the nobleman Egica, nephew of Wamba" when recording his marriage[342].  [same person as...?  EGICA (-after Nov 683)Dux...Egica comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[343].  García Moreno, in his Prosopografía del reino visigodo de Toledo, suggest that dux Egica was the same person as King Egica[344].]  Egica was one of the chief opponents of King Ervigio, whose daughter he married, and who nominated him as his successor as a means of maintaining power.  He was elected to succeed his father-in-law in 687 as EGICA King of the Visigoths.  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Egica” was anointed king “in ecclesia sanctorum Petri et Pauli Prætoriensis…VIII Kal Dec…era 725[345].  After his accession, he forced his predecessor's queen to retire to a nunnery.  He was faced with numerous rebellions from among the nobility, which he punished severely[346].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that Egica ruled for "ten years before the accession of his son and five more years with his son as co-ruler [and]…died a natural death in Toledo"[347]m ([681/86], repudiated [687]) CIXILO the Visigoth, daughter of ERVIGIO King of the Visigoths & his wife Liubigotona ([663/65]-).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the marriage of "the nobleman Egica, nephew of Wamba" and "Ervig…his daughter Cixilo"[348].  Her birth date range is estimated from (1) the estimated birth and marriage dates of her father, based on the arrival of her grandfather in Spain during the reign of King Chindasvinto, and (2) the birth of her son Witiza before her repudiation.  Given this tight birth date range, it is likely that Cixilo was her father's eldest child.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated to [680/86] which records that "socer noster Ervigius princeps…domina mea Leuvitona regina" granted "filiam suam" as wife of "Egicæ regis"[349].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records her repudiation "when [King Ervigio] ascended the throne"[350].  King Egica and [his wife] had  two children:

i)          WITIZA ([681/86]-Toledo early 710).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Witiza" as the son of Egica and his wife, born before her repudiation[351].  He was elected to succeed his father in 702 as WITIZA King of the Visigoths

-         see below

ii)         OPPA (-after 722).  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Oppam filium Egiche regis"[352].  In the Chronicle of Alfonso III, he is described as Bishop of Toledo and son of King Witiza[353], but this is chronologically impossible considering the likely birth date ranges of Witiza's sons.  Bishop of Seville.  The Chronicle of 754 records that "in the era 749 (711)…Oppa, King Egica's son" helped Musa "arresting [the noble lords] in their flight from Toledo"[354].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that he was captured by Pelayo King of Asturias in [722] after the battle of Covadonga, following an attempt to negotiate on behalf of the Muslims[355]

 

 

ARDABASTO, son of --- .  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Ardabastus came from Greece after being expelled from his country by the emperor…arrived in Spain" and was "received…magnificently" by King Chindasvinto who gave him his niece in marriage[356].  His parentage is unknown, although this passage suggests that he must have been a person of importance in Byzantium.  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Atanagildo" as the son of Hermenegildo, as well as his marriage to "Flavia Juliana hija de Pedro Augusto, hermano del Emperador Mauricio", and their sons "Paulo" and "Ardavasto", as well as the latter´s marriage to "prima, hija o hermana del Rey Cindasuindo"[357] (see above).  The primary sources on which these statements are based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  The name "Ardabasto" suggests a connection with Armenia, "Artavazd" being one of the names used frequently in the Mamikonian family of Armenia, holders of the hereditary position "sparapet" [supreme general] between the 5th and 8th centuries[358].  There could also be a connection with Artabasdos (-before 772), strategos of the theme of Armenia, who in 717 married Anna, daughter of Emperor Leon III "the Isaurian". 

m ([642]) --- of the Visigoths, niece of CHINDASVINTO King of the Visigoths, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the marriage of "Ardabastus…from Greece" and the niece of King Chindasvinto[359].  The marriage must have taken place very early in the reign of King Chindasvinto given the tight possible birth date range of the couple´s granddaughter Cixilo. 

Ardabasto and his wife had [two] children: 

1.         ERVIGIO ([643]-Toledo 15 Nov 687).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Ervig" as the son of "Ardabastus…from Greece" & his wife[360].  His birth date is estimated from his parents´ assumed marriage date range, working back from the tight birth date range assigned to his daughter Cixilo.  He was brought up at the court of King Recesvinto, where he used the title "comes"[361].  After deposing King Wamba in 680, he was elected to succeed as ERVIGIO King of the Visigoths.  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Ervigius” succeeded “Id Oct 719” and was anointed “XII Kal Nov[362].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the accession of "Ervigius" and his reign of 7 years[363].  In light of the dubious circumstances of his accession, he married his daughter to his most powerful opponent whom he nominated as his successor, by-passing his own sons[364].  The sons of King Ervigio must have been minors at the time if the chronology of events shown above is correct.  In 681, he revised and enlarged the Liber iudiciorum compiled by his predecessor King Recesvinto[365].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that Ervigio "died a natural death in Toledo" having ruled six years and four months[366].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Ervigius” reigned for seven years and 25 days, and died “XVII Kal Dec[367]m ([662]) LIUBIGOTONA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated to [680/86] which records that "socer noster Ervigius princeps…domina mea Leuvitona regina" granted "filiam suam" as wife of "Egicæ regis"[368].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[369] she was Liubigotona the Visigoth, daughter of Suíntila King of the Visigoths, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  If this parentage is correct, she would have been considerably older than her husband, given the death of her supposed father in 633.  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Liubigtobona nieta de Recaredo" as the wife of King Ervigio and mother of his children[370].  The primary source on which this statement is based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  Her husband's successor forced his predecessor's widow to retire to a nunnery[371].  Ervigio & his wife had [three or more] children: 

a)         CIXILO ([663/65]-).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the marriage of "the nobleman Egica, nephew of Wamba" and "Ervig…his daughter Cixilo"[372].  Her birth date range is estimated from (1) the estimated birth and marriage dates of her father, based on the arrival of her grandfather in Spain during the reign of King Chindasvinto, and (2) the birth of her son Witiza before her repudiation.  Given this tight birth date range, it is likely that Cixilo was her father's eldest child.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated to [680/86] which records that "socer noster Ervigius princeps…domina mea Leuvitona regina" granted "filiam suam" as wife of "Egicæ regis"[373].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records her repudiation "when [King Ervigio] ascended the throne"[374]m ([681/86], repudiated [688]) EGICA, nephew of WAMBA ex-King of the Visigoths, son of --- (-[701/02]).  He was elected to succeed his father-in-law in 687 as EGICA King of the Visigoths.  

b)         sons.  The primary source which confirms their parentage has not yet been identified, although Falcón records that King Ervigio by-passed his own sons when nominating his son-in-law Egica as his successor[375]

c)         [VERMUDO .  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Veremundo Duque de Cantabria" and "Pedro Duque de Cantabria" as the sons of King Ervigio[376].  The primary sources on which these statements are based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution. 

d)         [PEDRO .  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Veremundo Duque de Cantabria" and "Pedro Duque de Cantabria" as the sons of King Ervigio[377].  The primary sources on which these statements are based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III describes his son, Alfonso I King of Asturias, as "of the royal line" without specifying his ancestry[378].  The Historia Silense names "Petrus ex Recaredi…Gotorum principis progenie"[379], although Pedro's descent from King Recaredo I cannot be established.  It is assumed that this alleged family relationship with the Visigoths is another example of an invention by later genealogists wishing to fill the information gaps left by the primary sources.  Duque de Cantabria[380].] 

-        [KINGS of ASTURIAS.] 

 

 

WITIZA, son of EGICA King of the Visigoths & [his wife Cixilo ---] ([681/86]-Toledo early 710).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Witiza" as the son of Egica and his wife, born before her repudiation[381].  The Continuator of Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that Egica associated "Wittizanem filium" on the throne[382].  The Chronica Regum Visigotthorum records that “Witiza” was anointed king “XVII Kal Dec era 738” [Nov 700][383].  According to the Chronicle of Alfonso III, his father ordered Witiza to live "in the city of Tuy so that, while the father held the kingship of the Goths, the son would rule the Suevi"[384].  He was elected to succeed his father in 702 as WITIZA King of the Visigoths.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the succession of Witiza "in the era 739 (701)", commenting that "he was a reprobate and was disgraceful in his habits…took many wives and concubines"[385].  Falcón comments that he was a conciliatory monarch, pardoning many of the conspirators punished by his father[386].  He murdered Theodofredo, father of the future King Rodrigo.  The Chronicle of King Alfonso III, written in [754], blamed the success of the Muslim invasion on King Witiza's immorality, and records his "natural death in Toledo in the era 749 (711)"[387]The Ajbar Machmua records the death of "el rey de España Gaitixa" leaving "algunos hijos, entre ellos Obba y Sisberto", undated[388]

m ---.  The name of Witiza's wife or wives is not known.  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Almounz, Roumlouh et Ardebast" as the three sons of "le dernier des rois Goths en Andalousie…Witiza…encore en bas âge", adding that their mother "prit la régence et gouverna en leur nom à Tolède" but that "Rodrigue…le caid des armées du monarque défunt…vint établir sa residence à Cordoue"[389]

King Witiza and [his wife] had three children:

1.         AKILA ([700/06]-).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Almounz, Roumlouh et Ardebast" as the three sons of "le dernier des rois Goths en Andalousie…Witiza…encore en bas âge", adding that their mother "prit la régence et gouverna en leur nom à Tolède" but that "Rodrigue…le caid des armées du monarque défunt…vint établir sa residence à Cordoue"[390].  He and his brothers must have been infants when their father died given the chronology of dates of birth and marriage of their parents, all based on the arrival of Ardabasto at the Visigothic court during the reign of King Chindasvinto as reported in the Chronicle of Alfonso III (see above).  Ibn-el Kouthya states that Rodrigo asked for assistance from "les fils de Witiza, qui avaient déjà attaint l'âge de puberté et pouvaient monter à cheval", but that "Almounz…avec ses deux frères" betrayed Rodrigo and informed "Tharik fils de Ziad"[391].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "the Saracens entered Spain on account of the treachery of the sons of Witiza"[392].  Given Akila´s estimated birth date, it is unlikely that any of these reports can be correct.  It appears that Akila and his brothers were allowed to retain their lands in Andalucía following the Muslim invasion[393]: Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Almounz" established a court in Seville and possessed "mille villages dans la partie occidentale de l'Espagne"[394]m ---.  The name of Akila's wife is not known.  Akila & his wife had three children: 

a)         SARA ([720/25]-).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "une fille…Sara la Gothe et deux fils en bas âge, Mathroubal et Oppas, l'un à Séville et l'autre en Galice" as the children of "Almounz" and that "leur oncle Ardebast" seized their domains, adding that "la princesse Sarah se créa une cour à Seville"[395].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "la princesse Sarah [et] ses jeunes frères" left for Syria and complained to "Hisham, fils d'Abd-el-Malek" about the conduct of her uncle, adding that there she first met "Abd-er-Rahman, fils de Moawia, qui était encore enfant" (his birth is dated to [729][396].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "la princesse Sarah" returned to Spain with "Aïça fils de Mozahim" who restored her possessions to her and became her husband, by whom she had "deux enfants, Ibrahim et Ishak" before he died "la meme année qu'Abd-errahman fils de Moawia" arrived in Spain (in 755)[397].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Hamouih fils de Molamis el-Mazadji et Omaïr, fils de Saïd el-Lakhmi" competed for her hand after her first husband died, and that she married Omar "grace à l'appui de Tsalaba, fils d'Obeïd el-Djozami", and that by him she had "Habib, fils d'Omaïr, qui fut la souche des Benou-Seïd, des Benou-Haddjadj, des Benou-Maslama et des Benou-Djourz…à Seville"[398].  Her descendants by her first marriage founded the dynasty to which Ibn el-Kouthya, the 9th century historian, belonged[399]m firstly ([735/50]) AISA, son of MOZAHIM (-755).  m secondly OMAR, son of SAID el-Lakhmi. 

b)         MADRUBAL .  Ibn-el Kouthya names "une fille…Sara la Gothe et deux fils en bas âge, Mathroubal et Oppas, l'un à Séville et l'autre en Galice" as the children of "Almounz" and that "leur oncle Ardebast" seized their domains[400]

c)         OPPA (-Galicia ----).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "une fille…Sara la Gothe et deux fils en bas âge, Mathroubal et Oppas, l'un à Séville et l'autre en Galice où il mourut" as the children of "Almounz" and that "leur oncle Ardebast" seized their domains[401]

2.         OLMUNDO ([701/08]-).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Almounz, Roumlouh et Ardebast" as the three sons of "le dernier des rois Goths en Andalousie…Witiza…encore en bas âge", adding that their mother "prit la régence et gouverna en leur nom à Tolède" but that "Rodrigue…le caid des armées du monarque défunt…vint établir sa residence à Cordoue"[402].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Roumlouh" possessed "mille villages situés dans la partie orientale de l'Andalousie", chose Toledo as his capital, and was ancestor of "Hafs, fils d'El-Borkadi l'Etranger"[403]

3.         ARDABASTO ([702/09]-after 756).  Ibn-el Kouthya names "Almounz, Roumlouh et Ardebast" as the three sons of "le dernier des rois Goths en Andalousie…Witiza…encore en bas âge", adding that their mother "prit la régence et gouverna en leur nom à Tolède" but that "Rodrigue…le caid des armées du monarque défunt…vint établir sa residence à Cordoue"[404].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "Ardebast" remained in Córdoba and possessed "mille villages…au centre du pays" and was ancestor "en ligne directe d'Abou Said le Comte"[405].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that "leur oncle Ardebast" seized the domains of the children of "Almounz" after he died "au commencement du règne du khalife Hicham, fils d'Abd-el-Malek" (who reigned from 724 to 741)[406].  Ibn-el Kouthya records that Abd er-Rahman ordered the confiscation of his lands from "Ardebast" but later appointed him "le premier comte de l'Espagne musulmane" and returned some of his lands[407]

 

 

 

B.      VISIGOTH DUCES

 

 

Twenty-six Visigothic nobles are recorded in contemporary documentation with the title dux, dated to between 578 and 693.  Three (maybe four) of the same persons are recorded in other primary source documents only with the title comes.  The information available is insufficient to reconstruct any noble families, let alone to decide whether the title was inherited within family groups.  Most of the references include no indication of the territorial jurisdiction of these duces, assuming that the Visigothic kingdom was in fact divided into administrative areas which were each governed by a duxThe only references which have been found to ducal areas of jurisdiction (all of which are recorded in more detail below) relate to "provinciæ dux...Argimundus" (no province specified, dated to [590]), “Claudium...ducem Emeretensis civitatis” (Mérida, undated, but the same person is also named in a source dated to 586), “Dogilano duce Lucense” (Lugo, dated to [650/52]), “Ranosindo Tarraconensis provinciæ ducis” (Tarragona, dated to [672/73]).  Some indication of Visigothic “dukedoms” is also provided by references in much later Christian sources to Fáfila, supposed father of Pelayo King of Asturias, and Pedro, supposed father of King Alfonso I, both as duces in Cantabria (see the document ASTURIAS, LEÓN KINGS).  No such references are found in the earlier Christian sources in the Iberian peninsula and it is possible that the Cantabrian title represents an invention on the part of the later chroniclers. 

 

The Lex Visigothorum (Liber Iudiciorum, completed in 654) includes reference to the responsibility of judges “ad provincie ducem” and “provincie sue duce vel comite[408].  Brief references to provinces are also found in other sections of the document, but the 654 Lex includes no book or title which establishes the structure of civil territorial administration.  Insufficient information has been found in the primary source documentation consulted during the preparation of the present document to indicate that the Visigothic kingdom was formally divided into administrative provinces and that the duces were appointed to fulfil a role of local civil jurisdiction, directly responsible to the king.  It appears more likely that “ducal” appointees fulfilled primarily a military role, in line with the Roman practice, probably carried out in specifies cities or provinces depending on the military requirements of the time.  If that is correct, the situation in Visigothic Spain would resemble the probable situation relating to “ducal” appointments in the Merovingian Frankish kingdom, as discussed in more detail in the Introduction to the document MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY. 

 

In the present section, the Latin title dux is used instead of “duke” in relation to these Visigothic noblemen, to avoid the inference that in the Iberian Visigothic kingdom the title-holders exercised territorial control in the same way as dukes in later medieval times, notably in France and Germany. 

 

 

1.         ADULFO (-after Dec 653).  “...Adulfus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Dec 653 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo VIII[409].  

 

2.         ARGEMIRO (-after Nov 683).  “...Argemirus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[410].  

 

3.         ARGIMUNDO (-after [590]).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the rebellion of "provinciæ dux...Argimundus" against "Reccardeum regem", dated to [590], and that he was sentenced to have his head shaved and his right hand amputated[411]

 

4.         CIXILA (-after May 688).  “...Cixila comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[412].  “...Cixilla comes...” subscribed the document dated May 688 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XV[413].  

 

5.         CLAUDIO (-after 586).  Claudium...ducem Emeretensis civitatis...nobili genere ortus Romanis fuit parentibus progenitus” is recorded[414].  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records the victories of "Claudio duce" in “Gallias” in 586[415]

 

6.         DOGILANO (-after [650/52]).  St Fructuosus was prevented from sailing to the east “a Dogilano duce Lucense”, dated to [650/52][416]

 

7.         EGICA (-after Nov 683).  “...Egica comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[417].  same person as...?  EGICA, son of --- (-Toledo end 702).  He was elected to succeed his father-in-law in 687 as EGICA King of the Visigoths.  García Moreno, in his Prosopografía del reino visigodo de Toledo, suggest that dux Egica was the same person as King Egica[418]

 

8.         ELLA (-after Nov 655).  “...Ella comes et dux...” subscribed the document dated Dec 653 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo VIII[419].  “...Ella comes et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 655 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo IX[420].  

 

9.         FANDILA (-after Dec 653).  “...Fandila comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Dec 653 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo VIII[421].  

 

10.      ISIDOR (-after Nov 683).  “...Isidorus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[422].  

 

11.      ODOAGRO (-after Dec 653).  “Hodoagrus comes cubiculariorum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Dec 653 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo VIII[423].  

 

12.      OFILO (-after Dec 653).  “...Offilo comes cubiculariorum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Dec 653 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo VIII[424].  

 

13.      PAULO (-after Nov 683).  The History of King Wamba, written by Julian Bishop of Toledo in [675], records that King Wamba sent “Pauli Ducis in Gallias” to suppress a rebellion, that Paulo rebelled together with “Ranosindo Tarraconensis provinciæ ducis” who proclaimed Paulo as king, dated to [672/73][425].  He was pardoned at the Council of Toledo XIII in Nov 683[426].  

 

14.      RANOSINDO (-after [672/73]).  The History of King Wamba, written by Julian Bishop of Toledo in [675], records that King Wamba sent “Pauli Ducis in Gallias” to suppress a rebellion, that Paulo rebelled together with “Ranosindo Tarraconensis provinciæ ducis” who proclaimed Paulo as king, dated to [672/73][427]

 

15.      RECCAREDO (-after Nov 683).  “...Recaredus...” subscribed the document dated Jan 681 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XII[428].  “...Reccaredus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[429].  

 

16.      RICHILA (-614.  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum records that King Sisebuto´s army under "ducem suum Richilanem" defeated “Astures” in 614[430]

 

17.      SERESINDO (-30 Jul 578).  An inscription, maybe at Villamartín, records that “Zerezindo dux” lived “annos plus minus XLIV” and died 30 Jul 578[431]

 

18.      SISEBUTO (-after Nov 683).  “...Sisebutus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[432].  

 

19.      SISIMIRO (-after Nov 683).  “...Sisimirus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[433].  

 

20.      SUNIFREDO (-after Nov 683).  “...Sunifredus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[434].  

 

21.      VALDERICO (-after May 688).  “...Valdericus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[435].  “...Valdericus comes...” subscribed the document dated May 688 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[436].  

 

22.      VITULO (-after May 693).  “...Vitulus...” subscribed the document dated Jan 681 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XII[437].  “...Vitulus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[438].  “...Vitulus comes...” subscribed the document dated May 688 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[439].  “Vitulus comes patrimonii et dux...” subscribed the document dated Apr/May 693 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XVI[440].  

 

23.      WADAMIR (-after Nov 683).  “...Wadamirus comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Nov 683 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo XIII[441].  

 

24.      WANDAMARO (-after [672/73]).  The History of King Wamba, written by Julian Bishop of Toledo in [675], records that “Uvandemarum ducem” was sent as head of reinforcements to help to defeat the rebellion of Paulo, dated to [672/73][442]

 

25.      WENEDARIO (-after Dec 653).  “...Wenedarius comes scanciarum et dux...” subscribed the document dated Dec 653 which records the acts of the concilium of Toledo VIII[443].  

 

26.      WITIMIRO (-after [672/73]).  The History of King Wamba, written by Julian Bishop of Toledo in [675], records that “Uvitimiro duci” supported the rebellion of Paulo, dated to [672/73][444]

 



[1] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, pp. 351 and 352. 

[2] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 355. 

[3] García-Guijarro Ramos, L. 'Las invasions bárbaras en Hispania y la creación del Reino Visigodo', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona), p. 6. 

[4] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 8. 

[5] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 9. 

[6] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, pp. 351 and 352. 

[7] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 12. 

[8] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. 1, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Vandalico I.3, p. 323. 

[9] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 296. 

[10] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin), II.2, p. 106. 

[11] Atkinson, W. C. (1960) A History of Spain and Portugal (Penguin 1973), p. 35. 

[12] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 351. 

[13] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 12. 

[14] Victoris Vitensis Historia, Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 16. 

[15] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.3, p. 323. 

[16] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 467, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 296. 

[17] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.3, p. 323. 

[18] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum 467, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 296. 

[19] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 13. 

[20] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 358. 

[21] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[22] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber I, I-XVII, MGH Auct. ant., pp. 2-12. 

[23] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), pp. 176-7. 

[24] Ostrogorsky, G. (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (traduction Française Payot, Paris), p. 91. 

[25] Wolfram (1998), p. 307. 

[26] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187. 

[27] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber II, I, MGH Auct. ant., p. 13. 

[28] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[29] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187. 

[30] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber III, II, MGH Auct. ant., p. 40. 

[31] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[32] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[33] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369. 

[34] Zosso, F. and Zingg, C. (1995) Les Empereurs Romains (Editions Errance, Paris), p. 192. 

[35] Procopius, History of the Wars, Book III, c. 7, available at <http://Procopius.net/contents.html> (23 Sep 2006). 

[36] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 379. 

[37] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187. 

[38] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 102. 

[39] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 197. 

[40] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[41] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 102. 

[42] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 531 and 534, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 198. 

[43] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 531 and 534, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 198. 

[44] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 15. 

[45] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 16. 

[46] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., pp. 15 and 16. 

[47] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 15. 

[48] Victoris Vitensis Historia , Liber II, V, MGH Auct. ant., p. 16. 

[49] Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 458. 

[50] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 102. 

[51] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[52] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 497, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 193. 

[53] Laterculus regum Vandalorum et Alanorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 459. 

[54] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 102. 

[55] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 497, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 193. 

[56] Gregory of Tours II.2, p. 107. 

[57] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, pp. 196-7. 

[58] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[59] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[60] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[61] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 523, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 196. 

[62] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.9, p. 350. 

[63] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.9, p. 350. 

[64] Ostrogorsky (1977), p. 100. 

[65] Gregory of Tours II.3, p. 113. 

[66] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.24, p. 403. 

[67] Procopius De Bello Vandalico I.18, p. 384. 

[68] Procopius De Bello Vandalico II.7, p. 438. 

[69] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 8. 

[70] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 9. 

[71] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, pp. 351 and 352. 

[72] Gregory of Tours II.2, p. 106. 

[73] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 446, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 300. 

[74] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 14. 

[75] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, pp. 361 and 362. 

[76] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum 478, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 296. 

[77] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, pp. 361 and 362. 

[78] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 14. 

[79] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 365. 

[80] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 486, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 301. 

[81] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 365. 

[82] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[83] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 14. 

[84] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 373. 

[85] Chronicon Albeldense 21, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134A. 

[86] Wolfram (1998), p. 177. 

[87] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 486, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 301. 

[88] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 365. 

[89] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 495 and 498, MGH Auct. ant. XI, pp. 301 and 302. 

[90] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 373. 

[91] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 376. 

[92] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 376. 

[93] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 498, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 302. 

[94] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 498, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 302. 

[95] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 377. 

[96] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 380. 

[97] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum 502, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 302. 

[98] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 380. 

[99] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 17. 

[100] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 24. 

[101] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 16. 

[102] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 24. 

[103] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 24. 

[104] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [572], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[105] Gregory of Tours VI 43, pp. 375-6. 

[106] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 24. 

[107] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [583], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[108] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [584], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[109] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [583], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[110] Gregory of Tours VI 43, pp. 375-6. 

[111] Gregory of Tours VI 43, p. 376. 

[112] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [584], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[113] Gregory of Tours VI 43, p. 376. 

[114] Gregory of Tours VI 43, p. 376. 

[115] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [584], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[116] García-Guijarro (2002), pp. 24-5. 

[117] Gregory of Tours VI 43, p. 376. 

[118] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [584], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[119] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, in particular p. 77. 

[120] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 6. 

[121] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 353. 

[122] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 241, España Sagrada, VI, p. 469, English translation Wolf, K. B. (1999) Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain 2nd Edn (Liverpool University Press), Isidore of Seville. 

[123] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [568], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 207. 

[124] Historia Wambæ Regis, España Sagrada, VI, p. 534. 

[125] Patrologia Latina, Tome LXXX, Chronicon Maximi Cæsaraugustani episcopi, cols. 619-32. 

[126] Cardelle de Hartmann, C. & Collins, R. (eds.) (2001) Victoris Tunnunensis chronicon cum reliquiis ex consularibus Cæsaraugustanis et Iohannis Biclarensis Chronicon, Corpus Christianorum series latina CLXXIII A (Turnhout), p. 118, footnote 233, cited in Wikipedia, Máximo de Zaragoza <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Máximo_de_Zaragoza> (8 Apr 2011). 

[127] Decreto 848/1969, Boletin oficiel del Estado, no. 108, 6 May 1969. 

[128] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 74. 

[129] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 64. 

[130] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 2, citing Reilly, B. (1993) The Medieval Spains (Cambridge), p. 7. 

[131] García Moreno, L. A. (1974) Prosopografía del reino visigodo de Toledo (Salamanca). 

[132] Collins, R. (2004) Visigothic Spain 409-711 (Blackwell), p. 3 [available in Google Book, Limited Preview]. 

[133] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[134] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 68. 

[135] Isidore of Seville, 40 and 41, p. 97. 

[136] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 22. 

[137] Isidore of Seville, p. 98. 

[138] Chronicon Albeldense 27, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134B. 

[139] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 22. 

[140] Isidore of Seville, 43, p. 99. 

[141] Chronicon Albeldense 27, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134B. 

[142] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[143] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 68. 

[144] Wolfram (1998), p. 310. 

[145] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico II.30, p. 274. 

[146] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XVI, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 224. 

[147] Wolfram (1998), pp. 351-2. 

[148] Wolfram (1998), p. 289. 

[149] Wolfram (1998), p. 352. 

[150] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.2, p. 289. 

[151] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.2, p. 289. 

[152] Wolfram (1998), p. 353. 

[153] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 50. 

[154] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XVI, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 224. 

[155] Wolfram (1998), pp. 354-5. 

[156] Wolfram (1998), pp. 357-60. 

[157] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 554, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 203. 

[158] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 553, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[159] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 22. 

[160] Isidore of Seville, 44, p. 99. 

[161] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[162] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[163] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 136. 

[164] García-Guijarro (2002), pp. 22-3. 

[165] Isidore of Seville, 45 and 46, pp. 99 and 100. 

[166] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 23. 

[167] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[168] Isidore of Seville, 45, p. 99. 

[169] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 136. 

[170] Isidore of Seville, 46 and 47, p. 100. 

[171] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 23. 

[172] Atkinson (1973), p. 37. 

[173] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 23. 

[174] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [568], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212. 

[175] Chronicon Albeldense 30, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1134C. 

[176] Isidore of Seville, 47, p. 100. 

[177] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[178] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212. 

[179] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233. 

[180] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 27. 

[181] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[182] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 222. 

[183] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 563, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[184] Gregory of Tours IV.27, p. 221.  It should be recalled that Brunhild was still alive when Gregory wrote his History

[185] Gregory of Tours V.1, p. 254. 

[186] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.10, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 97. 

[187] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 576, MHG SS V, p. 89. 

[188] Gregory of Tours, IX 11 and 20. 

[189] Fredegar, IV, 19, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[190] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 131. 

[191] Fredegar, IV, 19, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[192] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 130. 

[193] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[194] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 23. 

[195] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233. 

[196] Isidore of Seville, 48, p. 100. 

[197] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [568], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212. 

[198] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212. 

[199] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[200] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[201] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233. 

[202] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212. 

[203] Isidore of Seville, 48, p. 100. 

[204] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [572], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[205] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[206] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [581], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 216. 

[207] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 26. 

[208] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 26. 

[209] Atkinson (1973), p. 41. 

[210] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [585], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217. 

[211] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [586], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217. 

[212] Isidore of Seville, 51 and 52, p. 102. 

[213] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[214] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[215] Salazar y Castro, L. de (1696) Historia genealogica de la Casa de Lara (Madrid), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[216] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [569], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 212. 

[217] Gregory of Tours IV.38, p. 233. 

[218] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 27. 

[219] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[220] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[221] Gregory of Tours V.38, p. 302. 

[222] García-Guijarro (2002), p. 27. 

[223] Isidore of Seville, 49, p. 101. 

[224] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [584] and [585], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217. 

[225] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [579], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 215. 

[226] Gregory of Tours IV.39 and V.38, pp. 233 and 301-2. 

[227] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 103-4. 

[228] Gregory of Tours VI.40 and VI.43, pp. 371 and 376. 

[229] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 79. 

[230] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 103-4. 

[231] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[232] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[233] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[234] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 587, MHG SS V, p. 90. 

[235] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [586], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 217. 

[236] Isidore of Seville, 48, p. 100. 

[237] Falcón, I. 'La Monarquía Visigoda Católica', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, 2002), p. 31. 

[238] Atkinson (1973), pp. 40-41. 

[239] Atkinson (1973), p. 42. 

[240] Isidore of Seville, 56 and 57, p. 104. 

[241] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[242] Gregory of Tours V.49, p. 319. 

[243] Gregory of Tours VI.34 and VI.45, pp. 364 and 378-9. 

[244] Gregory of Tours VII.39 and IX.34, pp. 425 and 521-2. 

[245] Canellas López, A. (ed.) De Diplomática Hispano Visigoda: Colección Documental, Revista de Historia Jerónimo Zurita, No. 33-34 (1979) ("Diplómatica Visigoda") 35, p. 278

[246] She had been betrothed previously to Authari King of the Lombards. 

[247] Gregory of Tours IX.20, p. 505, the complete text of the treaty being set out in MGH LL 1, p. 5. 

[248] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 108. 

[249] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Byzantia Arabica 639, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 334. 

[250] Isidore of Seville, 57 and 58, p. 104. 

[251] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[252] Schottus, A. (ed.) (1608) Hispaniæ Illustratæ, Tomo IV (Frankfurt), Lucæ Tudensis Chronicon Mundi, ("Lucas Tudensis"), Liber II, p. 51. 

[253] Isidore of Seville, 57 and 58, p. 104. 

[254] Fredegar, IV, 31. 

[255] Isidore of Seville, 58 and 59, pp. 104-5. 

[256] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[257] Fredegar, IV, 30, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 132. 

[258] Isidore of Seville, 59 and 60, p. 105. 

[259] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[260] Valverde Castro, M. R. ´La monarquía visigoda y su política matrimonial: el reino visigodo de Toledo´, Studia histórica. Historia antigua, 18 (1983, Salamanca University), p. 347 [consulted at <http://dialnet.unirioja.es> (3 Apr 2011)], quoting Gil, I. (ed.) (1972) Miscellanea wisigothica (Sevilla), letter 16 "Bulgarani ad Guntemarum regem" [not yet consulted]. 

[261] Fredegar, IV, 33. 

[262] Isidore of Seville, 60, p. 105. 

[263] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[264] Isidore of Seville, 61, p. 106. 

[265] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[266] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[267] Fredegar, IV, 73, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 157. 

[268] Lucas Tudensis, Liber II, p. 51. 

[269] Isidore of Seville, 62, p. 106. 

[270] Isidore of Seville, 62, p. 106. 

[271] Fredegar, IV, 73, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 157. 

[272] Falcón (2002), p. 32. 

[273] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[274] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[275] Isidore of Seville, 65, p. 107. 

[276] Diplómatica Visigoda 175, p. 380

[277] ES II 48. 

[278] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[279] Falcón (2002), p. 39. 

[280] Falcón (2002), p. 33. 

[281] Payne, S. G. (1973) A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1 - Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century (University of Wisconsin Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm (15 Dec 2002), Chapter 1, p. 11, Atkinson (1973), p. 41. 

[282] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[283] Laterculus regum Visigothorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 467. 

[284] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[285] Laterculus regum Visigothorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 467. 

[286] Fredegar, IV, 82, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 162. 

[287] Chronicon Albeldense 41, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1135B. 

[288] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[289] Fredegar, IV, 82, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 162, and Falcón (2002), p. 34. 

[290] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Hispana 680, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 341. 

[291] Diplómatica Visigoda 115, p. 333

[292] Laterculus regum Visigothorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 467. 

[293] Chronicon Albeldense 42, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1135C. 

[294] Fredegar, IV, 82. MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 163. 

[295] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 173. 

[296] Diplómatica Visigoda 115, p. 333

[297] Collins, R. 'Julian of Toledo and the Royal Succession in Late Seventh-Century Spain', Sawyer, P. H. and Wood, I. N. (eds.) Early Medieval Kingship (Leeds, 1977), pp. 30-49, 30. 

[298] Collins 'Julian of Toledo', p. 44. 

[299] Fredegar, IV, 82, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 163. 

[300] Wolf, K. B. (1999) Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain 2nd Edn (Liverpool University Press),Chronicle of 754, 25, p. 121. 

[301] Tajón de Zaragoza 'Epistolæ', Migne, J. P. (ed.) Patrologia Latina, 80, col. 727, quoted in García Moreno, L. A. (1974) Prosopografía del reino Visigodo de Toledo (Universidad de Salamanca), p. 50.  

[302] Collins 'Julian of Toledo', p. 31. 

[303] Laterculus regum Visigothorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 467. 

[304] Wolf, K. B. (1999) Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain 2nd Edn (Liverpool University Press), Chronicle of Alfonso III, 1, p. 161. 

[305] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, pp. 173-4. 

[306] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 6, p. 164. 

[307] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 164. 

[308] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 6, p. 165. 

[309] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 6, p. 164. 

[310] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Hispana 749, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 352. 

[311] Lafuente, E. (ed. & trans.) (1867) Colección de obras arábicas de historia y geografía, Tome I (Madrid) ("Ajbar Machmua"), p. 19. 

[312] Cherbonneau, M. A. (trans.) 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', Journal Asiatique 5th series Tome VIII (Paris, 1856), p. 435. 

[313] Jones, J. H. (ed. and trans.) (1858) Ibn Abd-el-Hakem's History of the Conquest of Spain (Goettingen, London), p. 19. 

[314] Ajbar Machmua, pp. 21-2. 

[315] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 434. 

[316] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 20. 

[317] Payne, Chapter 2, p. 15. 

[318] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[319] Ajbar Machmua, p. 31. 

[320] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, pp. 26-7. 

[321] Fagnan, E. (trad.) (1904) Histoire de l´Afrique et de l´Espagne intitulée Al-Bayano’l-Mogrib (Alger) (“Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan”), Vol. II, p. 30. 

[322] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 439. 

[323] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 19. 

[324] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem, p. 21. 

[325] Fernández González, F. (trans) (1860) Historias de al-Andalus por Aben-Adhari de Marruecos, Tome I (Granada) ("Ibn Idhari"), p. 25. 

[326] ES II 48.  

[327] Barrau-Dihigo, L. (1989) Historia politica del reino Asturiano (718-910) (Gijón), p. 106, citing some of the sources in question at p. 119 footnote 31. 

[328] De Rebus Hispaniæ, III, 15. 

[329] Barrau-Dihigo, p. 119 footnote 26. 

[330] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 2, p. 162. 

[331] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 163, refers to ex-King Wamba having ordered King Egica to repudiate his wife after he succeeded to the throne. 

[332] Collins 'Julian of Toledo', p. 44. 

[333] Falcón (2002), pp. 36-7. 

[334] Historia Wambæ Regis, España Sagrada, VI, p. 534. 

[335] Teillet, S. ´L´Historia Wambæ est-elle une œuvre de circunstance?´, Los visigodos, Historia y civilización, Antigüedad y Cristianismo (Murcia) III, 1986, pp. 415-24, consulted at <http://dialnet.unirioja.es> (30 Mar 2011).  

[336] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Hispana 712, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 318. 

[337] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 1, p. 161. 

[338] García Moreno, L. A. (1974) Prosopografía del reino Visigodo de Toledo (Universidad de Salamanca), pp. 65-8. 

[339] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 2, pp. 162-3. 

[340] Laterculus regum Visigothorum, MGH Auct. ant. XIII, p. 467. 

[341] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 174. 

[342] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 3, p. 163. 

[343] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[344] García Moreno (1974), p. 45, 45 footnote 1. 

[345] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, pp. 175-6. 

[346] Falcón (2002), p. 39. 

[347] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 4, pp. 163-4. 

[348] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 3, p. 163. 

[349] Diplómatica Visigoda 175, p. 380

[350] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 4, p. 163. 

[351] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 4, p. 163. 

[352] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Hispana 749, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 353. 

[353] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 167. 

[354] Chronicle of 754, 54, p. 133. 

[355] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 168. 

[356] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 2, p. 162. 

[357] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[358] This family is studied in detail in Settipani, C. (1991) Nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité. Etudes des possibilités de liens généalogiques entre les familles de l'Antiquité et celles du haut Moyen-Age européen (Paris, editions Christian), pp. 35-53. 

[359] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 2, p. 162. 

[360] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 2, p. 162. 

[361] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 2, p. 162. 

[362] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 174. 

[363] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Hispana 718 MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 349. 

[364] Falcón (2002), pp. 38-9. 

[365] Collins 'Julian of Toledo', p. 31. 

[366] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 3, p. 163. 

[367] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 175. 

[368] Diplómatica Visigoda 175, p. 380

[369] ES II 48. 

[370] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[371] Falcón (2002), p. 39. 

[372] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 3, p. 163. 

[373] Diplómatica Visigoda 175, p. 380

[374] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 4, p. 163. 

[375] Falcón (2002), pp. 38-9. 

[376] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[377] Salazar y Castro (1696), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[378] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[379] Historia Silense (Pérez), 26, p. 136. 

[380] Chronica Albeldense, 52, quoted in Barrau-Dihigo, p. 127 footnote 89. 

[381] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 4, p. 163. 

[382] Isidori Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum, Continuatio Hispana 736, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 350. 

[383] Chronica Regum Visigotthorum, España Sagrada Tomo II, p. 176. 

[384] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 4, p. 163. 

[385] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 5, p. 164. 

[386] Falcón (2002), p. 40. 

[387] The Chronicle of Alfonso III, 5, p. 164. 

[388] Ajbar Machmua, p. 19. 

[389] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[390] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[391] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[392] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 7, p. 165. 

[393] Kennedy (1996), p. 15. 

[394] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 432. 

[395] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 432. 

[396] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 433. 

[397] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 433. 

[398] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 434. 

[399] Kennedy (1996), p. 17. 

[400] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 432. 

[401] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 432. 

[402] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[403] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', pp. 432-3. 

[404] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 430. 

[405] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 432. 

[406] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 432. 

[407] Cherbonneau 'Chronique d'Ibn-el Kouthya', p. 469. 

[408] MGH LL nat Germ I, Lex Visigothorum, II, 1, 18, XVI and XVI, pp. 64 and 66. 

[409] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 2, p. 485. 

[410] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[411] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [590], MGH Auct. ant. XI, 3, p. 219. 

[412] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[413] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 6, p. 486. 

[414] García Moreno (1974), p. 41, 35, quoting Garvin, J. N. (1946) The Vitas Sanctorum Patrum Emeritensium (Washington D.C.), Cap. XVII 39 [not yet consulted]. 

[415] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 289. 

[416] García Moreno (1974), p. 44, 42, quoting Fernández Pousu (1942) Vita Sancti Fructuosi (Madrid), c. 7, 2 [not yet consulted]. 

[417] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[418] García Moreno (1974), p. 45, 45 footnote 1. 

[419] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 2, p. 485. 

[420] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 3, p. 485. 

[421] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 2, p. 485. 

[422] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[423] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 2, p. 485. 

[424] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 2, p. 485. 

[425] Historia Wambæ Regis, España Sagrada, Tome VI, 7, 8, pp. 537-9. 

[426] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, Concilium Toletanum XIII, p. 478. 

[427] Historia Wambæ Regis, España Sagrada, Tome VI, 7, 8, pp. 537-9. 

[428] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 4, p. 486. 

[429] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[430] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 291. 

[431] García Moreno (1974), p. 87, 174, quoting Vives, J. (1969) Inscripciones cristianas de la España romana y visigoda (Barcelona), p. 153 [not yet consulted]. 

[432] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[433] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[434] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[435] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[436] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[437] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 4, p. 486. 

[438] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[439] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[440] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 7, p. 486. 

[441] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 5, p. 486. 

[442] Historia Wambæ Regis, España Sagrada, Tome VI, 15, p. 546. 

[443] MGH LL nat Germ I, Supplementa, 2, p. 485. 

[444] Historia Wambæ Regis, España Sagrada, Tome VI, 12, p. 543.