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GASCONY

introduction

 

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

The dukes and nobility in Gascony are grouped geographically in the following five documents. 

 

GASCONY DUKES:  Dukes of GASCONY [760]-1039. 

ATLANTIC COAST: Seigneurs d'ALBRET.  Vicomtes de DAX, Seigneurs de MIXE et d’OSTABARET.  Vicomtes de LABOURD, Vicomtes de BAYONNE.  Vicomtes de MAREMNE.  Vicomtes de MARSAN.  Vicomtes d'ORTHE.  Vicomtes de TARTAS.  Vicomtes de TURSAN (MIRAMONT). 

BEARN, BIGORRE: Vicomtes de BEARN.  Comtes de BIGORRE, Vicomtes de la BARTHE, Vicomtes de LAVEDAN, Vicomtes de MONTANER.  Vicomtes d’OLORON.  Vicomtes de SOULE et de LOUVIGNY.

BORDEAUX, NORTH-EASTERN GASCONY: Vicomtes de BEZAUME, Seigneurs de CAUMONT, Seigneurs de DURAS (DURFORT).  BORDEAUX: Comtes de BORDEAUX, BORDEAUX family, Seigneurs de BLANQUEFORT, Vicomtes de FRONSAC, Seigneurs de LESPARRE.  Vicomtes de GABARRET.  Vicomtes de LOMAGNE, Vicomtes de LOMAGNE (GOTH). 

CENTRAL GASCONY: Comtes d'ARMAGNAC, Vicomtes de CORNEILLAN, Vicomtes de FEZENZAGUET, Seigneurs de l´ISLE-JOURDAIN, Vicomtes de MAUVEZIN.  Comtes d'ASTARAC.  Comtes et Vicomtes d’AURE.  Comtes de FEZENSAC.  Comtes de PARDIAC, Seigneurs de MONTLEZUN. 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The early history of Gascony is unclear.  In the 5th and early 6th centuries, the area presumably formed part of the Visigothic kingdom based around Toulouse and Narbonne, the Romans having recalled the Goths from Spain in summer 418 and settled them in the valley of the river Garonne[1].  Following the expulsion of the Visigoths from France after Childebert I King of the Franks defeated his brother-in-law the Visigothic king Amalric at Narbonne in 531, the area around Bordeaux formed part of the territories allocated to King Childebert under the division agreed with his brother King Clotaire I, although the allocation of the other parts of Gascony (or indeed whether they fell under Frankish control at all) is unknown[2].  Some Merovingian influence over the whole area is indicated by Kings Childebert and Clotaire crossing the Pyrenees in 541, capturing Pamplona and besieging Zaragoza[3].  Gascony clearly continued to cause problems for the Merovingian kings, as nearly a century later Fredegar records that King Charibert II, installed at Toulouse by his brother King Dagobert I in 629 to control the land between the Loire and the Spanish border, expanded his territory by subjugating Gascony in [632/33][4]

 

There is little information in primary sources about the development of Gascony during the later 7th and early 8th centuries but the territory presumably maintained some form of local autonomy.  It is first referred to in the Royal Frankish Annals in 748, which record that "from Neustria Grifo [half-brother of Pepin King of the Franks] fled again into Gascony and went to Waifar duke of the Aquitanians"[5].  The Aquitanian reference raises doubts about the autonomy of the area, although it is unclear how much the compiler of the Annals would have known of the administration of areas remote from central Frankish authority.  The impression of Aquitanian influence over Gascony is reinforced by the 769 reference in the Annals to Hunald [Duke of Aquitaine] wishing "to make the whole of Gascony and Aquitaine renew the war [with the Franks]"[6], although the political separation between the two entities is emphasised by the reference to "Lupus duke of the Gascons" with whom Hunald had taken refuge.  Pressure from the Franks finally resulted in Lupus handing over Hunald to Charles I King of the Franks (later Emperor Charlemagne) in 769, when the Gascons presumably accepted Frankish suzerainty although this is not clearly stated in the Annals[7].  Nevertheless, Gascony continued to assert its autonomy as the Annals record that in 819 Pepin I King of Aquitaine (son of Emperor Louis I) "entered Gascony with an army, carried away the agitators, and so pacified the whole province"[8]

 

The first duke of Gascony from whom an unbroken descent can be traced is Garcia [I] Sanchez, first recorded in the late 9th century.  His name, as well as those of his predecessors, indicates a strong Spanish connection, presumably with the neighbouring kingdom of Pamplona to the south (later Navarre) although this has not been established definitively.  This connection with Spain appears confirmed by the undated charter, under which "dominus Willelmus Sancii comes Gasconiorum" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq, which records that "avus domni Willelmi" returned from Spain where his father had taken refuge during the reign of Emperor Louis I[9].  The "avus domni Willelmi" was Count Garcia [I] Sanchez, although the chronology is stretched if it is correct that Count Garcia's father was active during the reign of Emperor Louis I (who died in 843), assuming that his son died after 920. 

 

By the late 10th/early 11th centuries, the dukes of Gascony ruled extensive territory in south-western France.  Although political boundaries were fuzzy, it is probable that the northern limit of ducal power was marked by the course of the river Dordogne.  The dukes’ expansion to the east was limited by the comtes de Toulouse and to the south by the Pyrenees, although contact with northern Spain was probably extensive, as explained further below.  The boundaries of ecclesiastical jurisdiction appear to have been somewhat clearer, Gascony falling within the archiepiscopal sees of Bordeaux and Auch.  While most of the territory controlled by the former fell within the duchy of Aquitaine, the area controlled by the archbishop of Bordeaux himself and by his bishop at Agen were in Gascony.  The archbishopric of Auch, then comprising the bishoprics of Aire, Bayonne (separated from Dax in 778), Bazas, Dax, Lectoure, Lescar, Oloron, St Bertrand, St Lizier and Tarbes, fell exclusively within the duchy of Gascony. 

 

After the death in 1032 of Duke Sancho Guillaume, control over Gascony passed briefly through the female line to his nephew Eudes Duke of Aquitaine, Comte de Poitou.  After the death in 1039 of Duke Eudes, Gascony was claimed by Bernard [II] "Tumpaler" Comte d’Armagnac, who was the senior representative among the collateral male lines of the original ducal family (see Chapter 3).  Bernard sold his rights to Gascony back to the dukes of Aquitaine, although he appears to have had second thoughts, rebelled, and was finally expelled by Guillaume VIII Duke of Aquitaine, probably dated to the early 1060s.  Gascony remained as a component of the duchy of Aquitaine and formed part of the extensive territories which eventually passed under English control as a result of the marriage in 1152 of the heiress of Aquitaine, Eléonore, to Henri Comte d'Anjou, Duke of Normandy who later succeeded as Henry II King of England. 

 

At some time during the later 12th or early 13th century, the territory from Bordeaux to the Pyrenees became known more generally as the "duchy of Guyenne" although the exact timing of, and precise reasons for, this change have not yet been determined. 

 

Numerous subsidiary counties and vicomtés evolved in Gascony from the mid-9th century.  The vicomté of Béarn and the county of Bigorre emerged in southern Gascony, as direct vassals of the Gascon dukes, probably in the late 860s/early 870s.  According to the spurious Alarcon documents, both families were descended from the earlier dukes of Gascony but, as will be demonstrated in this group of documents, this descent cannot be confirmed from other primary sources.  The county of Fezensac and the county of Astarac were created in [920] by Garcia Sancho Duke of Gascony: Fezensac in the northern inland area of Gascony, adjoining the county of Toulouse, for his younger son Guillaume, and Astarac south of the counties of Armagnac and Fezensac and east of Bigorre for his third son Arnaud.  The county of Armagnac was divided from Fezensac in the 960s as an appanage for the younger son of Guillaume Comte de Fezensac, and the county of Pardiac from Astarac around the same time for a younger son of Arnaud Comte d’Astarac.  The county of Aure was separated from the county of Astarac in the late 10th century but it was subsumed into the county of Bigorre in 1082. 

 

The development of the vicomtés in Gascony is more difficult to trace precisely.  Around ten of these vicomtés were, in addition to the vicomté de Béarn, direct vassals of the Dukes/Counts of Gascony.  The vicomté at Bezaume is first recorded in the late 10th century.  Its precise territory has not yet been identified but it is probable that it lay in north-east Gascony adjacent to the county of Agen.  It is possible that the Seigneurs d’Albret, who became a powerful influence in south-west France and Navarre in the 15th and early 16th centuries, descended from the first dynasty of vicomtes de Bezaume.  The vicomté at Dax, north of Bayonne, is recorded from the early 11th century.  The vicomté of Gabarret in north-central Gascony is first recorded in the early 11th century and briefly inherited the vicomté of Béarn in the mid-12th century.  The vicomté of Labourd was created in [1023] in the south-west of Gascony, close to the border with Navarre, by Sancho III King of Navarre, but reverted to the duke of Gascony in [1034] and from the mid-12th century was more commonly referred to as the vicomté of Bayonne.  The vicomté of Lomagne was created in north-east Gascony to the north-west of Toulouse, between the towns of Lectoure and Montauban.  The vicomté of Maremne was located on the Atlantic coast north of Bayonne and is first mentioned in primary sources in the early 11th century.  It was acquired by the Albret family in the mid-13th century.  The vicomté of Marsan was located in the present-day French département of Landes around the town of Roquefort, with Mont-de-Marsan being established as its main town in 1133, and is first mentioned as a vicomté in [1009].  The county of Bigorre passed to the family of the vicomtes de Marsan by marriage in 1136.  The vicomté of Oloron, adjacent to Béarn in south-central Gascony, is first recorded in the late 10th century and was inherited by the vicomtes de Béarn in the mid-11th century.  The vicomtes d’Orthe descended from the vicomtes de Dax, the territory being separated from the latter vicomté in [1030].  The vicomté of Louvigny (Chapter 20) was created in the 10th century around the town of the same name in south-west Gascony.  It is noteworthy in particular for the remarkable fictional descent of the vicomtes de Soule et de Louvigny, created in the spurious Alarcon documents, which appears to bear little relationship with the information about the family which emerges from other primary sources.  The vicomté of Tartas was located north of Dax, around the town of the same name, and is mentioned from the late 10th century.  The vicomté of Tursan was located west of Béarn, centred around the château de Miramont which provided an alternative name for the vicomté from the late 11th century.  In addition to the vicomtés which were direct vassals of the dukes and counts of Gascony, the counts of Bigorre were suzerains of the vicomtés of la Barthe, Lavedan and Montaner.  The vicomtes de Corneillan appear to have been vassals of the comtes d’Armagnac.  Finally, the seigneurie de l’Isle-Jourdain, located due west of Toulouse in the part of Gascony which was under the suzerainty of the comtes de Toulouse, was elevated to county status in the 1340s by Philippe VI King of France. 

 

The question whether the viscomital families in Gascony were descended in the male line from the family of the early dukes of Gascony is controversial.  According to Jaurgain, the vicomtés of Bezaume, Marsan and Oloron descended from alleged younger sons of Sancho Garcia Duke of Gascony.  He also says that the vicomtes de Dax and vicomtes de Gabarret were junior branches of the family of the vicomtes d’Oloron, and that the vicomtes de Maremne were related to the vicomtes de Marsan.  However, as explained in the different documents in the present group, the reconstructions which he claims confirm these relationships are suspect and appear to be based mainly on patronymics (which are of course not unique and are potentially the source of much confusion as can be appreciated, for example, when studying the nobility in northern Spain - see in particular the document NAVARRE NOBILITY).  The problem appears to be the basic assumption from which Jaurgain proceeds: taking for granted that all the vicomtés were granted to junior members of the ducal family as appanages, and tailoring his reconstructions accordingly.  This involves him in a great deal of selectivity in choosing signatories from different charters with whom to make connections, and in some cases he ignores the importance which can be assigned to the order in which names appear in different documents.  On a more general level, if we can argue from the examples provided by other regions of France, Jaurgain’s assumption appears faulty.  In the neighbouring county of Toulouse, it is unlikely, for example, that the vicomtes de Béziers, vicomtes de Carcassonne, vicomtes de Couserans, vicomtes de Lautrec and vicomtes de Lodève all descended from any of the comital families in the area.  From further afield, in Burgundy it is unlikely that the vicomtes de Mâcon and the vicomtes de Tonnerre were related to the counts who ruled in these respective counties.  In Provence, there seems to be no idea prevalent that the vicomtes de Baux and the vicomtes de Marseille descended from the comtes de Provence.  Jaurgain also loses some credibility in his work when he argues for a family relationship between the dukes of Gascony on the one hand and the kings of Navarre, the lords in Vizcaya and even the counts of Castille, on the other.  The creation of vicomtés in France is of great interest and one which deserves further study.  However, based on a preliminary assessment after preparing the present series of documents, it appears more likely that the majority of Gascon vicomtés were awarded by the dukes/counts of Gascony to a lower tier of nobility as a reward for services and that relationships with the ducal family should not be assumed.  This does not exclude the possibility that some Gascon vicomtes descended from the early dukes of Gascony through the female line. 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

Full citation references to the sources cited in the Gascony set of documents, in which only abbreviated references are given. 

 

 

A.      CARTULARIES

 

Ager Sant Pere: Chesé Lapeña, R. (ed.) (2011) Collecció diplomàtica de Sant Pere d’Àger fins 1198 (Barcelona). 

Autun Saint-Symphorien: Deleage, A. (1936) Recueil des actes du prieuré de Saint-Symphorien Autun de 696 à 1300 (Autun). 

Berdoues: Cazauran, Abbé (ed.) (1905) Cartulaire de Berdoues (Paris). 

Bordeaux Sainte-Croix: Cartulaire de l'abbaye Sainte-Croix de Bordeaux, Archives historiques du département de la Gironde Tome XXVII (Bordeaux, 1892). 

Bordeaux Saint-Seurin: Brutails, J. A. (ed.) (1897) Cartulaire de l’église collégiale Saint-Seurin de Bordeaux (Bordeaux). 

Cluny:  Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris). 

Dax: Pon, G. and Cabanot, J. (eds.) (2004) Cartulaire de la cathédrale de Dax, Liber Rubeus, XI-XII siècles (Dax). 

Gimont: Clergeac, Abbé (ed.) (1905) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Gimont, Archives Historiques de la Gascogne, 2e série, fascicule IX (Paris, Auch). 

Jumièges: Vernier, J. J. (ed.) (1916) Chartes de l'abbaye de Jumièges (Rouen, Paris), Tome I.  

Lavedan Saint-Savin: Durier, C. (ed.) (1880) Cartulaire de Saint-Savin en Lavedan (Paris). 

Marseille Saint-Victor: Guérard, M. (1857) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Victor de Marseille (Paris) Tomes I, II. 

Pamplona Cathedral: Gaztambide, J. G. (ed.) (1997) Colección diplomatica de la catedral de Pamplona, Tome I 829-1243 (Gobierno de Navarra). 

Paray-le-Moniale: Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1891) Cartulaire du Prieuré de Paray-le-Monial et visites de l'ordre de Cluny (Paris, Montbéliard). 

Poitiers Saint-Cyprien: Société des Archives Historiques du Poitou (1874) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Cyprien de Poitiers, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome III (Poitou). 

Réole Saint-Pierre: Archives Historiques du département de la Gironde, Tome V (Paris, 1863) Cartulaire du prieuré de La Réole Réole Saint-Pierre

Saint-Amand-de-Boixe: Debord, A. (ed.) (1982) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Amand-de-Boixe (Paris). 

Saint-Benoît-du-Loire: Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire

Saint-Maixent: Richard, A. (ed.) (1886) Chartes et documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Saint-Maixent, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome XVI (Poitiers), Vol. I. 

Saint-Mont: Maumus, J. (ed.) (1904) Cartulaire du prieuré de Saint-Mont (Paris, Auch). 

Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq: Barrau-Dirigo, I. & Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1905) Cartulaire de Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq (Paris). 

Sainte-Foi de Morlaás: Cadier, L. (ed.) ‘Cartulaire de Sainte-Foi de Morlaás’, Bulletin de la Société des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Pau, II Série, Tome 13 (Pau, 1883-84). 

San Juan de la Peña: Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1962-1963) Cartulario de San Juan de la Peña (Valencia), Vol. I

San Millán de la Cogolla: Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1976) Cartulario de San Millán de la Cogolla (Valencia), Tome I. 

Sorde Saint-Jean: Raymond, P. (ed.) (1873) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint Jean de Sorde (Paris, Pau). 

Tulle Saint-Martin: Champeval, J.-B. (ed.) (1903) Cartulaire des abbayes de Tulle et de Roc-Amadour (Brives). 

Uzerche: Champeval, J. B. (ed.) (1901) Cartulaire de l’abbaye d’Uzerche (Corrèze) (Tulle). 

 

 

B.      OTHER PRIMARY SOURCE COLLECTIONS

 

Adémar de Chabannes: Chavanon, J. (ed.) (1897) Adémar de Chabannes, Chronique (Paris). 

Albert of Aix (RHC): Recueil des Historiens des Croisades, Historiens occidentaux, Vol. IV, Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana. 

Alfonse de Poitou Correspondance: Molinier, A. (ed.) (1894) Correspondance administrative d'Alfonse de Poitiers (Paris), Tome I. 

Anales de la Corona de Aragon: Zurita, J. (1669) Anales de la Corona de Aragon (Zaragoza), Tome I. 

Annales Bertiniani, RHGF, Tome VI. 

Annales Londonienses: Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1882) Annales Londonienses and Annales Paulini (London). 

Annales Mediolanenses: Annales Mediolanenses, RIS, Tome XVI. 

Extracts from the Archives départementales des Pyrenées Atlantiques, compiled by Ferdinand Villepelet (19th century), E. 40, available at <http://www.guyenne.fr/ArchivesPerigord/Pau/Villepelet_Pau.htm>. 

Bayonne Livre d’Or: Bidache, J. (1906) Le livre d’or de Bayonne (Pau). 

Beati Servati Lupi Abbatis Ferrariensis Epistolæ, RHGF, Tome VII. 

Bémont, C. (ed.) (1914) Recueil d’actes relatifs à l’administration des rois d’Angleterre en Guyenne aux XIII siècle (Paris). 

Brutails, J. A. (ed.) (1890) Documents des Archives de la Chambre des Comtes de Navarre (1196-1384) (Paris). 

Buchon, J. A. (trans.) (1827) Chronique de Ramon Muntaner (Paris), Tome II.  

Cabié, E. & Mazens, L. (1882) Un cartulaire et divers actes des Alaman, des de Lautrec et des de Lévis (Toulouse). 

Chartrier de Pons (1892): ‘Le chartrier de Pons’, Archives Historiques de la Saintonge et de l’Aunis, Tome XXI (Paris, Saintes 1892). 

Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester U. P.), Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris

Chronicon Placentinum: Chronicon Placentinum, RIS, Tome XVI. 

Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis: Marchegay, P. & Mabille, E. (eds.) (1869) Chroniques des Eglises d'Anjou (Paris) Chronicon sancti Maxentii Pictavensis, and RHGF, Tome X. 

Chronique de Guillaume de Puylaurens:  Lagarde, C. (trans.) (1864) Chronique de Maître Guillaume de Puylaurens sur la guerre des Albigeois (1202-1272) (Béziers). 

Chronique de Guitres: Depoin, J. (1921) Etudes préparatoires à l’histoire des familles palatines (Paris), III, Chronique de Guitres, available at <http://www.guyenne.fr/Publications/Chronique_Guitres/etudes_familles_palatines_JDepoin.htm> (8 Aug 2011). 

Chronique scandaleuse (1611): Histoire de Louys unziesme Roy de France, autrement dicte la Chronique scandaleuse (1611). 

Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges, Anonymum S Martialis Chronicon: Duplès-Agier, H. (ed.) (1874) Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges (Paris) Anonymum S Martialis Chronicon

De Origine et Incremento villæ Montis-Marsani seu Marciani in capite Wasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII. 

Documenti Diplomatici Milanesi: Osio, L. (ed.) (1864) Documenti Diplomatici tratti dagli archivii Milanesi (Milan). 

Documents Carlat: Saige, G. & Dienne, Comte de (eds.) (1900) Documents historiques relatifs à la vicomté de Carlat (Monaco). 

Documents historiques Limousin bas-Latins (1883), Tome I. 

Dom Villevieille (Passier): Passier, H. & A. (1875) Trésor généalogique de Dom Villevieille (Paris). 

Dubois, J. (ed.) ‘Inventaire des titres de la maison d’Albret’, Recueil des travaux de la Société d’agriculture, sciences et arts d’Agen, 2e série, Tome XVI (Agen, 1913). 

Dugdale Monasticon: Dugdale, Sir W., Dodsworth, R., Stevens, J., Caley, J., Ellis, Sir H., Bandinel, B., and Taylor, R.C. (1817-1830) Monasticon Anglicanum: a History of the Abbies and other Monasteries…in England and Wales (London), 6 Vols. 

Einhardi Annales, MGH SS I. 

Esquerrier: Pasquier, F. & Courteault, H. (eds.) (1895) Chroniques romanes des comtes de Foix composées au XV siècle par Arnaud Esquerrier et Miégeville (Foix, Toulouse). 

Flodoardi Annales 932, MGH SS III. 

Fragmentum Chronici Fontanellensis, RHGF, Tome VII. 

Fragmentum historicum, Ex cartulario Alaonis, España Sagrada, Tome XLVI. 

Fredegar (Continuator), MGH SS rer Merov II. 

Fresne de Beaucourt, G. du (1863) Chronique de Mathieu d’Escouchy (Paris), Tome II. 

Furgeot, H. (1920) Actes (jugés) du Parlement de Paris (1328-1350) (Paris). 

Gallia Christiana, Tomes I-XVI (Paris, 1715-65). 

Genealogia Comitum Guasconiæ, RHGF, Tome XII. 

Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 819, MGH SS I. 

Historia Abbatiæ Condomensis, Spicilegium, Tome II. 

Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis: Castaigne, J. F. E. (ed.) (1853) Rerum Engolismensium Scriptores (Angoulême), Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis, and Ex Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis, RHGF, Tome XII. 

Ex Historia Translatione Reliquiarum S. Faustæ, RHGF, Tome VII. 

Huillard-Bréholles, J. L. A. (1867, 1874) Titres de la Maison ducale de Bourbon (Paris), Tomes I, II. 

Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945). 

Lacarra, J. M. 'Documentos para el estudio de la reconquista y repoblación del Valle del Ebro', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. II (Zaragoza, 1946), Vol. V (Zaragoza, 1952). 

Layettes du Trésor des Chartes: Teulet, M. A. (ed.) (1863-66) Layettes du Trésor des Chartes (Paris), Tomes I, II, III, V. 

Letters Henry III: Shirley, W. W. (ed.) (1862) Royal and other historical letters illustrative of the reign of Henry III (London), Vols. I, II. 

López de Ayala, P. (1779) Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla (Madrid), Tome I, Crónica del rey don Pedro. 

Loewenfeld, S. (1885) Epistolæ Pontificum Romanorum ineditæ (Leipzig). 

Marolles, Abbé de (1873) Inventaire des titres de Nevers (Nevers). 

Matthew Paris: Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London), Vols. V, VI. 

Patent Rolls Henry III: available at <http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/patentrolls/> (16 Feb 2016). 

Pedro Barcelos: Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid). 

Poème d’Ermold le Noir: Guizot, M. (1824) Collection des Mémoires relatifs à l’histoire de France (Paris), Poème d’Ermold le Noir

RFA: Scholz, B. W. & Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press). 

RHC: Recueil des Historiens des Croisades

RHGF: Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, Tomes I-XXIV. 

RIS: Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1726) Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (Milan) Tomes IX, XVI. 

Robillard de Beaurepaire, C. de (1870) Chronique normande de Pierre Cochon (Rouen). 

Roda (Abad): Iglesias Costa, M. (ed.) ‘El cartulario de Roda según Abad y Lasierra’, Revista de Ciencias Sociales del Instituo de Estudios Altoaragoneses, no. 105, 1993. 

Roger of Hoveden: Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (London). 

Rôles Gascons: Bémont, C. (ed.) (1900, 1906) Rôles Gascons (Paris), Tomes I, II, III. 

Rotuli Chartarum: Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1837) Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi, Vol. I, Part I 1199-1216 (London). 

Rotuli Litterarum Patentium: Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1835) Rotuli Litterarum Patentium in Turri Londinensi asservati, Vol. I, Pars 1 (London). 

Rymer, T. (1740) Fœdera, Conventiones, Literæ 3rd Edn (London), Tome II, Pars IV, Tome III, Pars I, and Clarke, A. & Holbrooke, F. (eds.) (1816) Fœdera, Conventiones, Litteræ...Thomæ Rymer (London), Vol. I, Part I. 

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[1] Wolfram (1998), p. 173, and García-Guijarro Ramos 'Las invasions bárbaras en Hispania' (2002), p. 11. 

[2] Sinclair (1985), p. 33. 

[3] Settipani (1993), p. 68. 

[4] Fredegar, IV, 57. 

[5] RFA, 748, p. 39. 

[6] RFA, 769, p. 47. 

[7] RFA, 769, p. 48. 

[8] RFA, 819, p. 106. 

[9] Saint-Vincent-de-Lucq, Appendice, p. 28.