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normandy

introduction

 

v4.1 Updated 06 August 2017

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

The dukes of Normandy and the nobility in the duchy of Normandy are grouped geographically in the following 4 documents. 

 

NORMANDY DUKES.  Comtes, later Dukes, of NORMANDY. 

ALENÇON, EVREUX, MEULAN, PERCHE: Seigneurs et Comtes d'ALENÇON, Family of BALDRIC, GIROIE, GRANTMESNIL, LA FERTE-MACE.  Seigneurs de MONTGOMMERY.  Seigneurs d'AUFFAY.  Seigneurs de MONTPINÇON.  Seigneurs de MOULINS-la-MARCHE.  Seigneurs de PONT-ECHANFREY.  Comtes d'EVREUX, Seigneurs et Comtes d’HARCOURT, Seigneurs de BEAUMESNIL (HARCOURT), Seigneurs de LAIGLE, Seigneurs de TOSNY, Seigneurs de VERNON (REVIERS).  Comtes de MEULAN, Seigneurs de BEAUMONT-le-ROGER, Vicomtes de MEULAN.  Comtes du PERCHE, Comtes de MORTAGNE. 

ARQUES, AUMÂLE, CAUX, EU, ROUEN: Comte de TALOU, Comte d’ARQUES, Vicomtes d’ARQUES, Seigneurs de LONGUEVILLE (GIFFARD), FLAITEL.  Seigneurs et Comtes d'AUMÂLE, Vicomtes d’AUMÂLE.  Caux: Seigneurs d’AUFFAY, Seigneurs d’ESTOUTEVILLE, Family of GUNNORA, Seigneurs de GOURNAY, Seigneurs de MARIGNY, Seigneurs de SAINT-SAËNS, Seigneurs de SAINT-VALERY, Seigneurs de TANCARVILLE, WARENNE.  Comtes d'EU, Vicomtes d’EU.  Rouen: Vicomtes de ROUEN, Seigneurs de BEC-CRESPIN, Seigneurs de GUITRY, Seigneurs de MONTFORT-sur-RISLE (BASTEMBOURG, GAND), Seigneurs de NEUFMARCHE, Seigneurs de PONT-AUDEMER, Seigneurs de TOURVILLE, Seigneurs de VIEILLES. 

AVRANCHES, BAYEUX, COTENTIN: Avranches, Mortain: Comtes de MORTAIN, Vicomtes de CONTEVILLE, Vicomtes d’AVRANCHES, Seigneurs de GRANVILLE, Seigneurs d’ORVAL, Seigneurs de SAINT-JEAN.  Comtes de BAYEUX, Vicomtes de BAYEUX (du BESSIN), Seigneurs d’AUNAY-sur-ODON (SAY), Seigneurs de CREULLY, Seigneurs de CREVECŒUR, Seigneurs du HOMMET, Seigneurs d'IVRY (GOËL).  Vicomtes de COTENTIN, Seigneurs de SAINT-SAUVEUR (TAISSON), Seigneurs de BARNEVILLE.  Seigneurs de BRICQUEBEC, Family of THURSTAN Haldup, Seigneurs de LA HAYE, Seigneurs de PREAUX. 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Charles III King of the West Franks granted land around Rouen to Viking raiders in [911], the territory evolving over the following century into the duchy of Normandy and the Viking leader Rolf/Rollo accepted baptism with the name Robert.  His alleged Norwegian ancestry is recorded only in the early 13th century Norse sagas, whose factual accuracy, at least so far as the early generations of are concerned, is dubious as it is impossible to distinguish the precise point where folk-legend gives way to historical fact.  The emphasis on social continuity in the narratives of the Sagas also suggests that relationships between historical figures could have been simplified, or even fabricated, to claim that succession remained within the same family.  For example, Orkneyinga Saga names “Hrolf who conquered Normandy” as son of “Earl Rognwald” and his wife “Ragnhild the daughter of Hrolf Nose[1].  Snorre´s Harald Harfager's Saga repeats the same statement[2].  However, the Historia Norwegie records that, after Orkney was conquered by "principi Rogwaldi" and his followers, "de quorum collegio…Rodulfus" captured Rouen in Normandy[3], making no reference to any blood relationship between Rolf/Rollo and "principi Rogwaldi".  The question of the reliability of the Sagas is discussed more fully in the Introduction to NORWAY KINGS.  Guillaume de Jumièges refers to an unnamed Danish [not Norwegian] warrior “dux” who left two sons “maior natu Rollo, alter...iunior Gurim[4].  "Gurim" is not referred to in the Sagas.  The alleged Scandinavian ancestry of Rolf/Rollo is shown in square brackets in this document to emphasise this doubt.

 

The Viking rulers of the future duchy of Normandy used the title count at least until the early 11th century.  The title "Duke of Normandy" is first recorded in [1015], although its adoption in place of count must have been a gradual process as Duke Richard II is called "comes" in later necrology entries which record his death in 1026.  His sons and successors, Dukes Richard III and Robert II, are consistently recorded with the ducal title in primary sources. 

 

The early Norman rulers consolidated their position by marriages into the first level of French noble families.  Count Guillaume I married the daughter of the powerful Comte de Vermandois in [940], and Guillaume arranged his sister's marriage to Guillaume I Comte de Poitou, who was later installed as Duke of Aquitaine.  Guillaume's son Count Richard I married the daughter of Hugues "le Grand", ancestor of the Capetian French kings, in 960.  Over the same period, the early Norman rulers clung to the Scandinavian tradition of concubinage: the mothers of Counts Richard I and Richard II were probably both of relatively obscure Viking descent and were recorded by the chronicler Guillaume of Jumièges as having been married "more Danico/à la Danoise".  This appears to have presented no obstacle to their subsequent accession as dukes.  The concept of "Danish marriages" is discussed by Freeman[5].  The dukes of Normandy sprang on to the European political scene with the 1066 invasion of England by Duke Guillaume II, his descendants in the male line continuing to rule as English kings and Norman dukes until 1135.  Normandy was ruled by the English Angevin kings until 1204, when it was conquered by Philippe II "Auguste" King of France.   

 

The earliest counties in Normandy were granted by the dukes as appanages to junior members of their family: Robert Bishop of Evreux, younger son of Richard I Duke of Normandy, was invested with the county of Evreux in the late 10th century by his father; the counties of Eu and Hiémois were granted to Robert’s illegitimate half-brothers Geoffroy and Guillaume by their other half-brother Duke Richard II; and the county of Talou was granted in the mid-11th century by Duke Guillaume II to his uncle Guillaume who transformed the territory into the county of Arques after constructing the castle of that name on his land. 

 

The Norman counties were not co-extensive with the earlier pagi into which the territory of the future Norman duchy had previously been divided.  It is assumed that this was due to the strong central authority of the early Norman dukes who granted small landholdings to their followers, rather than creating counties, thereby establishing a network of direct vassals which was a precursor to the fully fledged feudal system which Duke Guillaume II applied in England after the conquest.  Many of these minor Norman fief-holders found fortune in England after King William I rewarded them for participating in the conquest with land grants.  These included the vicomtes d'Avranches, who received the earldom of Chester; the head of the Giffard family who was created earl in Buckinghamshire, Guillaume FitzOsbern who became earl of Hereford, Roger de Montgommery who was created earl of Shrewsbury in 1074, and William de Warenne who became earl of Surrey in 1088.  This process was pursued during the first half of the 12th century, with William d'Aubigny being created earl of Arundel in [1138/39] and Robert de Ferrières earl of Derby in 1138.  The descendants of these families established themselves principally in England (they are hyperlinked from this document to the corresponding ENGLISH NOBILITY documents) and finally cut all ties with their Norman properties when the duchy of Normandy was acquired by the Capetian kings in the early 13th century. 

 

Other Norman counties developed close to the borders of, or even outside the territory of, the duchy of Normandy.  The county of Alençon, located in the south of the duchy close to the border with Maine, evolved into a county in the second half of the 12th century.  The county of Aumâle, in the north-eastern corner of the duchy south of the county of Eu, developed after Adelais (half-sister of Duke Guillaume II) retained applied her first husband’s comital title to Aumâle which she brought to her third husband Eudes Comte de Troyes.  The county of Bayeux was an anomalous case: Raoul d’Ivry, uterine half-brother of Richard I Duke of Normandy, seems to have been recognised as count by his half-brother and to have applied it to the castle of Ba yeux which he constructed.  The counts of Meulan, outside Norman territory in the Vexin near Paris, were vassals of the Norman dukes by the end-11th century, presumably in respect of territories granted to them in Normandy itself.  The county of Mortain, located in the south-west corner of the duchy close to the border with Brittany and granted to the son of Mauger (younger son of Richard I Duke of Normandy), was closely associated with the county of Corbeil (south of Paris and well outside Norman territory) which was also held by Mauger through his marriage.   The counties of Mortagne and Perche were located in the south of Norman territory close to the border with Maine and first developed as such in the mid-11th century. 

 

By the time these counties had evolved within the duchy of Normandy, Norman central administration was so firmly established in the heart of the duchy that the original pagi had, in most cases, become something of an irrelevance in the establishment of county boundaries.  The following information relating to the pagi in Normandy has been extracted from Auguste Le Prévost’s study written in the mid-19th century[6]

·      The diocese of Rouen, in the north-eastern part of the duchy, included four pagi

(1) the pagus Tellau (Talou), located to the north-east of Rouen, bordered by the pagus Vimnau (Vimeu) to the north-east, the sea to the north-west, the pagus Caletensis (Caux) to the west, and the pagus Rotomagensis to the south-east; 

(2) the pagus Caletensis (pays de Caux), west of the pagus Tellau which later included the territory of the Warenne family; 

(3) the pagus Rotomagensis (Roumois), centred on the city of Rouen and located south of the pagi Tellau and Caletensis, north of the diocese of Evreux extending to the west as far as the river Risle; and

(4) the western part of the pagus Vilcassinus (le Vexin), west of the river Epte. 

·      The diocese of Evreux, south of Rouen, included: 

(1) the pagus Ebroicinus which extended to the south as far as the river Avre and the pagi Durcassinus and Carnotinus, and was bound on the west by the river Charentonne and the pagus Lexoviensis, and

(2) the western extension of the pagus Madriacensis (le pays de Madrie), the river Eure forming the boundary between the two. 

·      The diocese of Lisieux contained only the pagus Lexoviensis (le Lieuvin), bound on the north by the river Charentonne and the sea, on the east by the river Risle, and on the west by the river Dive.  It included lands later granted to Giroie and his family, and the doyennés of Gacé and Montreuil. 

·      The diocese of Bayeux comprised only the pagus Bajocassinus (le Bessin). 

·      The diocese of Coutances occupied the Cherbourg peninsula and comprised the pagus Constantinus (Cotentin), bound on the north and west by the sea and on the east by the river Vire, and the pagus Coriovallensis which existed briefly in the north around the town of Cherbourg. 

·      South of the Cotentin, the diocese of Avranches included the pagus Abricantinus (Avranchin) adjacent to the duchy of Brittany. 

·      The diocese of Séez, the south of Bayeux and Lisieux, included, approximately from west to east, the pagus Oximensis (Hiémois), the pagus Sagiensis (Séez) where the county of Alençon later evolved, the pagus Epicensis, and the pagus Corbonensis (Corbonnais) which developed into the county of Perche. 

 

In addition to the prominent noble families in Normandy shown in this document, descendants of a multititude of lower nobles and even non-nobles emerged as powerful forces in the overseas territories which the Normans later conquered, in particular England and southern Italy.  In most cases, surviving records are insufficient to trace their ancestry back in Normandy for more than a single generation.  It is therefore difficult to generalise about the precise status of these families in the duchy before they emigrated.  Examples of such families who settled in England are Briouse, Lacy, Malet, Peveril, Say and Taillebois (see the UNTITLED ENGLISH NOBILITY documents), about whom next to nothing is known in Normandy.  In southern Italy, the prominent Hauteville family (see SICILY/NAPLES, COUNTS & KINGS) left no trace in Normandy.  Considering the impact of the Normans on the development of southern Italy and Sicily in the 11th and 12th centuries, it is surprising that so few of the emigrating noble families can be traced to the Norman nobility set out in this document.  The only examples are Armand de Mortain, of the family of the Comtes d'Eu, who was ancestor of the Conti di Montescaglioso (see SICILY/NAPLES NOBILITY) and the various members of the Grantmesnil family who left no traceable male descents in southern Italy after the first generation.  An obvious conclusion is that the armies who accompanied the Norman leaders to southern Italy were, like their leaders the Hauteville family, composed almost exclusively of lower nobility or non-nobles.  A parallel can be drawn with the western European settlers who were rewarded with lordships in the kingdom of Jerusalem and other crusader principalities after the First Crusade, few of whose families were prominent in their counties of origin. 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

Full citation references to the sources cited in the Normandy set of documents, in which only abbreviated references are given. 

 

 

A.      CARTULARIES

 

Abbayette Saint-Michel: Broussillon, B. de (ed.) (1894) Cartulaire de Saint-Michel de l'Abbayette, prieuré de l'abbaye de Mont-Saint-Michel (Paris). 

Albon, Marquis d’ (1913) Cartulaire général de l’ordre du Temple 1119?-1150 (Paris). 

Amiens: Cartulaire du chapitre de la cathédrale d’Amiens, Tome I, Mémoires de la société des antiquaires de la Picardie, Tome XIV (Amiens, 1905). 

Andecy (Marne): Abbé Lalore (ed.) (1878) Chartes d'Andecy (Marne), Collection des principaux cartulaires du diocèse de Troyes Tome IV (Paris, Troyes). 

Andecy (2): Barthélémy, E. de (ed.) (1883) ‘Cartulaire de l'abbaye d'Andecy’, Mémoires de la société d'agriculture, commerce, sciences et arts du département de la Marne (Chalons-sur-Marne), I, Abbaye de Notre-Dame d’Andecy. 

Angers Cathedral: Urseau, C. (ed.) (1908) Cartulaire noir de la cathédrale d'Angers (Paris, Angers). 

Angers Saint-Aubin: Broussillon, B. de (ed.) (1903) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Aubin d'Angers (Paris). 

Assé-le-Riboul: Broussillon, B. de (1903) Cartulaire d’Assé-le-Riboul, Archives Historiques du Maine III (Le Mans). 

Autun Saint-Martin: Bulliot, J.-G. (1849) Essai historique sur l’abbaye de Saint-Martin d’Autun, Tome II, Chartes et pièces justificatives (Autun). 

Basset Charters: Reedy, W. T. (ed.) (1995) Basset Charters c 1120 to 1250, Pipe Roll Society NS Vol. L (London)

Bath St Peter: Hunt, W. (ed.) (1893) Two Chartularies of the Priory of St Peter at Bath (London). 

Bayeux (Livre noir): Bourrienne, V. (ed.) (1902) Antiquus cartularios ecclesiæ Baiocensis (Livre noir) (Rouen, Paris) ("Bayeux (Livre noir)", Tome I. 

Beaumont-le-Roger Sainte-Trinité: Deville, E. (ed.) (1912) Cartulaire de l’église de la Sainte-Trinité de Beaumont-le-Roger (Paris). 

Bécheron: Clouzot, E. (ed.) (1903) Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de la Merci-Dieu autrement dite de Bécheron, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome XXXIV (Poitiers). 

Bricquebec: Bréard, C. (ed.) (1908) Cartulaires de Saint-Ymer-en-Auge et de Bricquebec (Rouen). 

Calvados (Anisy): Léchaudé d’Anisy, A. L. (ed.) (1834-5) Extrait des chartes et autres actes Normands ou Anglo-Normands qui se trouvent dans les archives du Calvedos (Caen), Vols. I, II. 

Caux Saint-Victor: Robillard de Beaurepaire, C. de (ed.) ‘Recueil de chartes concernant l’abbaye de Saint-Victor-en-Caux’, Mélanges, documents publiés et annotés par MM Ch. de Beaurepaire, Paul le Cacheux, A. Héron et Hipplyte Sauvage, 5ème série (Rouen, 1898). 

Charroux: Monsabert, D. P. de (ed.) ‘Chartes et documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Charroux’, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome XXXIX (Poitiers, 1910). 

Chartes Vendômoises: Métais, C. (ed.) (1910) Chartes Vendômoises (Vendôme). 

Chartres Notre-Dame: Lépinois, E. de & Merlet, L. (eds.) (1865) Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Chartres (Chartres). 

Chartres Saint-Jean-en-Vallée: Merlet, R. (ed.) (1906) Cartulaire de Saint-Jean-en-Vallée, Collection de cartulaires chartrains, Tome I (Chartres). 

Chartres Saint-Père: Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Père de Chartres (Paris). 

Château-du-Loir: Société des Archives Historiques du Maine (1905) Cartulaire de Château-du-Loir, Archives historiques du Maine Tome VI (Le Mans). 

Cluny: Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny (Paris), Tomes I-VI. 

Epernon Saint-Thomas: Moutié, A. & Dion, A. de (eds.) (1878) Cartulaires de Saint-Thomas d’Epernon et de Notre-Dame de Maintenon, prieurés dépendant de l’abbaye de Marmoutier (Rambouillet). 

Esserent Saint-Leu: Müller, E.  (ed.) (1900) Le prieuré de Saint-Leu d’Esserent, Cartulaire première partie 1080-1150 (Pontoise). 

Eye (1994): Brown, V. (1994) Eye Priory Cartulary and Charters (Boydell), Part 2. 

Eynsham: Salter, H. E. (1907) Eynsham Cartulary (Oxford Historical Society). 

Flavigny: Bouchard, C. B. (ed.) (1991) The Cartulary of Flavigny 717-1113 (Cambridge, Mass.).  ç

Flaxley (Dene): Crawley-Boevey, A. W. (ed.) (1887) The Cartulary and Historical Notes of the Cistercian Abbey of Flaxley otherwise called Dene Abbey in the county of Gloucester (Exeter). 

Fontenay le Marmion: Saige, G. (ed.) (1895) Cartulaire de la seigneurie de Fontenay le Marmion (Monaco). 

Josaphat Notre-Dame: Métais, C. (ed.) (1911) Cartulaire de Notre-Dame de Josaphat (Chartres). 

Jumièges: Vernier, J. J. (1916) Chartes de l’abbaye de Jumièges (Rouen, Paris), Tomes I, II. 

La Chatille: Cartulaire de la Chatille, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome VII (Poitou, 1878). 

Lannoy: Deladreue, L. E. ‘Histoire de l’abbaye de Lannoy’, Mémoires de la Société Académique d’ Archéologie, Sciences et Arts du département de l’ Oise, Tome X (Beauvais, 1877). 

Le Mans Saint-Victeur: Broussillon, B. de (ed.) (1895) (Paris) Cartulaire de Saint-Victeur au Mans 994-1400

Le Mans Saint-Vincent: Charles, R. & Menjot d´Elbenne (eds.) (1886) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Saint-Vincent du Mans (Mamer, Le Mans). 

Louviers: Bonnin, T. (ed.) (1870) Cartulaire de Louviers (Evreux). 

Marmoutier-Blésois: Métais, C. (ed.) (1889/91) Marmoutier Cartulaire Blésois (Blois)

Marmoutier-Dunois: Lecesne, H. (ed.) (1874) Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour le Dunois

Marmoutier-Perche: Barret (ed.) (1894) Cartulaire de Marmoutier pour la Perche (Mortagne). 

Monks Horton: Scott, J. R. ‘Charters of Monks Horton Priory’, Archaeologia Cantiana 10 (1876). 

Namur (Borgnet & Bormans):  Borgnet, J. & Bormans, S. (eds.) (1878) Cartulaire de la commune de Namur (Namur), Tome II. 

Nevers Saint-Cyr: Lespinasse, R. de (ed.) (1916) Cartulaire de Saint-Cyr de Nevers (Nevers, Paris). 

Nogent-le-Rotrou: Souancé, Vicomte de & Métais, C. (eds.) (1899) Saint-Denis de Nogent-le-Rotrou 1031-1079 Histoire et Cartulaire (Vanne). 

Notre-Dame des Clairets: Souancé, V. de Abbaye royale de Notre-Dame des Clairets, Histoire et Cartulaire

Notre-Dame de la Roche: Moutié, A. (ed.) (1862) Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Notre-Dame de la Roche au diocèse de Paris (Paris). 

Notre-Dame de la Trappe: Société Historique et Archéologique de l'Orne (1889) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Notre-Dame de la Trappe (Alençon). 

Notre-Dame du Bon-Port: Andrieux, J. (ed.) (1862) Cartulaire de l’abbaye royale Notre-Dame de Bon-Port au diocèse d’Evreux (Evreux). 

Notre-Dame des Châtelliers: Duval, L. (ed.) (1872) Cartulaire de l’abbaye royale de Notre-Dame des Châtelliers (Niort). 

Notre-Dame des Vaux de Cernay: Merlet, L. & Moutié, A. (eds.) (1858) Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Notre-Dame des Vaux de Cernay (Paris). 

Ourscamp Notre-Dame: Peigné-Delacourt, M. (ed.) (1865) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Notre-Dame d'Ourscamp (Amiens). 

Pamplona: Gaztambide, J. G. (ed.) (1997) Colección diplomatica de la catedral de Pamplona, Tome I 829-1243 (Gobierno de Navarra). 

Paris Hôtel-Dieu: Brièle, L. (ed.) (1894) Archives de l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris (Paris). 

Paris Notre-Dame: Guérard, M. (ed.) (1850) Cartulaire de l'église Notre-Dame de Paris (Paris). 

Paris Saint-Germain-des-Prés: Poupardin, R. (1909) Recueil des chartes de l’abbaye de Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris). 

Paris Saint-Martin-des-Champs: Depoin, J. (ed.) (1917) Recueil de chartes et documents de Saint-Martin-des-Champs, monastère parisien, Archives de la France monastique Tome XVIII (Paris). 

Perseigne: Fleury, G. (ed.) (1880) Cartulaire de l’abbaye cistercienne de Perseigne (Mamers). 

Ponthieu: Prarond, E. (ed.) (1897) Le cartulaire du comté de Ponthieu, Mémoires de la société d'émulation d'Abbeville, Tome II (Abbeville). 

Pontoise Saint-Martin: Depoin, J. (1895) Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Martin de Pontoise (Pontoise). 

Rennes Saint-Georges: La Bigne Villeneuve, P. de (ed.) `Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Georges de Rennes`, Bulletin et mémoires de la société archéologique de département d’Ille-et-Vilaine, Tome IX (Rennes, 1870). 

Rievaulx: Surtees Society (1889) Cartularium Abbathiæ de Rievaulxe (Durham). 

Robertsbridge: Calendar of Charters and Documents relating to the Abbey of Robertsbridge, Sussex (London, 1873). 

Rouen Sainte-Trinité: Deville, A. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité du Mont de Rouen, Collection des cartularies de France Tome III (same volume as Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin) (Paris). 

Saint-Amand-de-Boixe: Debord, A. (ed.) (1982) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Amand-de-Boixe (Poitiers). 

Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire: Prou, M. & Vidier, A. (eds.) (1907) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire

Saint-Bertin (Grand Cartulaire): Haigneré, D. (ed.) (1886) Les chartes de Saint-Bertin d’après le grand cartulaire de Dom Charles-Joseph Dewitte (Saint-Omer), Tome I. 

Saint-Just-en-Chaussée: Pihan, Abbé ‘Saint-Just-en-Chaussée, Etude historique et archéologique’, Mémoires de la Société Académique d’Archéologie, Sciences et Arts du département de l’Oise, Tome XII (Beauvais, 1883). 

Saint-Maixent, Vol. II: Richard, A. (ed.) (1887) Chartes et documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'abbaye de Saint-Maixent, Archives historiques du Poitou Tome XVIII (Poitiers). 

Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem: Rozière, E. de (ed.) (1849) Cartulaire de l'église de Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem (Paris). 

Saint-Wandrille: Lot. F. (1913) Etudes critiques sur l’abbaye de Saint-Wandrille, Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Hautes Etudes, 204e fascicule (Paris), Appendice. 

Saintes Notre-Dame: Grasilier, T. (ed.) (1871) Cartulaire de l’abbaye royale de Notre-Dame de Saintes, Cartulaire inédits de la Saintonge II (Niort). 

Saint-Florent Saumur (Chartes normandes): Marchegay, M. P. (ed.) ‘Chartes normandes de l’abbaye de Saint-Florent près Saumur’, Mémoires de la Société des Antiquaires de la Normandie, Tome XXX (1880). 

Saint-Ymer-en-Auge: Bréard, C. (ed.) (1908) Cartulaires de Saint-Ymer-en-Auge et de Bricquebec (Rouen). 

Savigny: Bernard, A. (ed.) (1853) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Savigny (Paris). 

Southwick Priory: Hanna, K. A. The Cartularies of Southwick Priory, Hampshire Record Series 9-10 (Winchester, 1988-89). 

St Bees: Wilson, J. (ed.) (1915) The Register of the Priory of St Bees (Durham). 

Tiron Sainte-Trinité: Merlet, L. (ed.) (1883) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de la Sainte-Trinité de Tiron, Tome I (Chartres). 

Tours Saint-Julien (1912): Denis, L. J. (ed.) ‘Chartes de Saint-Julien de Tours (1002-1227)’, Archives Historiques du Maine, Tome XII (Le Mans, 1912). 

Tréport Saint-Michel: Laffleur de Kermaingant, P. (ed.) (1880) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Michel de Tréport (Paris). 

Wetherhal: Prescott, J. E. (ed.) (1897) The Register of the Priory of Wetherhal (London). 

Yonne (suite): Quantin, M. (1873) Recueil de pièces pour faire suite au Cartulaire Général de l’Yonne, XIII siècle (Auxerre, Paris). 

 

 

B.      OTHER PRIMARY SOURCE COLLECTIONS

 

Abingdon Chronicle: Stevenson, J. (ed.) (1858) Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon (London). 

Acta Archiepiscoporum Rothomagensium: Veterum Analectorum, Tome II. 

Acta Sanctorum: Bollandus, J. (1643 onwards) Acta Sanctorum (Antwerp), various volumes. 

Actes Henri II: Berger, E. (ed.) (1916) Recueil des actes de Henri II roi d’Angleterre et duc de Normandie (Paris). 

Actes royaux du Poitou, Tome 3, available at <http://corpus.enc.sorbonne.fr/actesroyauxdupoitou/tome3/0358> (11 May 2016). 

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Annales Sancti Petri Catalaunensis, MGH SS XVI. 

Annales Sancti Victoris Massilienses, MGH SS XXIII. 

Annales de Theokesberia: Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1864) Annales Monastici Vol. I, Annales de Margan, Annales de Theokesberia, Annales de Burton (London). 

Annales de Waverleia: Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1865) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia (London). 

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Clarii, Chronico Sancti Petri Vivi Senonensi, MGH SS XXVI. 

Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series, [eerste deel], Part 1. 

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Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. IV (1837). 

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Delisle, L. ‘Notice sur le cartulaire du comté de Rethel’, Annuaire-Bulletin de la société de l’histoire de France, Année 1867, 2ème partie. 

De nobili genere Crispinorum, RHGF XIV. 

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Domesday Translation: Williams, A. & Martin, G. H. (eds.) (2003) Domesday Book, a complete translation (Penguin Classics). 

Duchesne, Historia Francorum Scriptores, Tome IV. 

Dudo of Saint-Quentin: Felice Lifshitz (ed.) Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, The Online Reference Book for Medieval Sources, <http://orb.rhodes.edu/ORB_done/Dudo/dudindex.html> (6 Jan 2003). 

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Durham Liber Vitæ: Liber Vitæ ecclesiæ Dunelmensis (London, Surtees Society, 1841). 

Early Yorkshire Charters: Farrer, W. (ed.) (1914-1916) Early Yorkshire Charters (Edinburgh), Vol. III. 

Extrait de la Chronique de Normandie, RHGF XIII. 

Favier, J. (1965) Cartulaire et actes d’Enguerran de Marigny (Paris). 

Florence of Worcester: Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London). 

Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon: Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon (London). 

Gallia Christiana, Tomes I-XVI (Paris, 1715-65). 

Genealogiæ Scriptoris Fusniacensis, MGH SS XIII. 

Géraud, H. (1843) Chronique latine de Guillaume de Nangis, Tome I (Paris). 

Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1917) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. I, Chronicon Roskildense. 

Gesta a Guillelmo Pictavensi (Du Chesne, 1619): Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris), Gesta Guillelmi Ducis Normannorum et Regis Anglorum a Guillelmo Pictavensi

Gesta Stephani Regis: Sewell, R. C. (ed.) (1846) Gesta Stephani, Regis Anglorum et Ducis Normannorum (London).  

Gesta Willelmi ducis Normannorum et regis Anglorum a Willelmo Pictaviensi…archidiacono: Giles, I. A. (ed.) (1845) Scriptores rerum gestarum Willelmi Conquestoris (London). 

Guadet, J. (ed.) (1845) Richeri Historiarum (Paris). 

Gwentian Chronicle: Archaeologia Cambrensis, The Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, Vol. X, Third Series (London, 1864), Supplement Brut y Tywysogion

Harald Harfager's Saga: Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), Harald Harfager's Saga, available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, <http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/OMACL/Heimskringla/> (24 Jan 2003). 

Henry of Huntingdon: Greenway, D. (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford University Press). 

Hexham Priory (1864): Surtees Society (1864) The Priory of Hexham, Vol. I (Durham). 

Historia Norwegie: Ekrem, I. and Mortensen, L. B. (eds.) Fisher, P. (trans.) (2003) Historia Norwegie (Copenhagen). 

Historia Pontificum et Comitum Engolismensis: Castaigne, J. F. E. (ed.) (1853) Rerum Engolismensium Scriptores (Angoulême). 

Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press). 

Hugo Falcandus: Loud, G. A. and Wiedmann, T. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The History of the Tyrants of Sicily by Hugo Falcandus (Manchester UP). 

Hugonis Floriacensis, Liber qui Modernorum Regum Francorum continet Actus, MGH SS IX. 

Huillard-Bréholles, J. L. A. (1867, 1874) Titres de la Maison ducale de Bourbon (Paris), Tomes I, II. 

Ingulf’s Chronicle: Riley, H. (ed.) (1854) Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland (London). 

Inquisitions Post Mortem: Maxwell Lyte, H. C. (ed.) (1904) Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Vol. I, Henry III (London), Vols. II, III Edward I. 

Kronijk van Arent toe Bocop, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1860), vijfde deel. 

La Borderie, A. de (ed.) (1888) Recueil d´actes inédites des ducs et princes de Bretagne (XI, XII, XIII siècles) (Rennes). 

Lacarra, J. M. 'Documentos para la reconquista del valle del Ebro', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. V (Zaragoza, 1952). 

Layettes du Trésor des Chartes: Teulet, M. A. (ed.) (1863-66) Layettes du Trésor des Chartes (Paris), Tomes I, II, III, V. 

Letters Henry III: Shirley, W. W. (ed.) (1862) Royal and other historical letters illustrative of the reign of Henry III (London), Vol. I. 

Mabille ‘Collection Dom Housseau’ (1864), Tome XIV: Mabille, E. ‘Catalogue analytique des diplômes, chartes et actes relatifs à l’histoire de Touraine contenus dans la collection de Dom Housseau’, Mémoires de la Société archéologique de Touraine, Tome XIV (Tours, 1864). 

Malaterra: Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna). 

Matthew Paris: Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London), Vols. I-VI. 

MGH: Monumenta Germaniæ Historica

MGH SS: Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Scriptores

Michel, F. (ed.) (1836) Chroniques Anglo-Normandes (Rouen), Tome II. 

Michel, F. (1840) Histoire des ducs de Normandie et des rois d’Angleterre (Paris). 

Natalis de Wailly (ed.) (1868) Histoire de Saint-Louis par Jean Sire de Joinville (Paris).  

Obituaire de la Cathédrale d'Angers: Urseau, C. (ed.) Obituaire de la cathédrale d'Angers, Documents historiques sur l'Anjou Tome VII (Angers). 

Neustria Pia: Monstier, A. de (1663) Neustria Pia, seu de omnibus et singulis abbatiis et prioratibus totius Normanniæ (Rouen). 

Niederrheins Urkundenbuch: Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1853) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins (Düsseldorf), Band III. 

Obituaires de Sens: Molinier, A. (ed.) (Tomes I, II), Vidie, A. & Mirot, L. (eds.) (Tome III), & Boutiller du Retail & Piétresson de Saint-Aubin (eds.) (Tome IV) (1902, 1906, 1909, 1933) Obituaires de la Province de Sens, Tome I première et deuxième parties, Tome II Diocèse de Chartres, Tome III Diocèses d´Orléans, d´Auxerre et de Nevers, Tome IV Diocèses de Meaux et de Troyes. 

Nécrologe du Mans: Busson, G. & Ledru, A. (eds.) (1906) Nécrologe-obituaire de la Cathédrale du Mans, Archives historiques du Maine Tome VII (Le Mans). 

Olim: Beugnot, Comte (1839) Les Olim ou Registres des Arrêts rendus par la cour du roi (Paris) (“Olim”), Tomes I, II. 

Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall): Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) (1969) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Clarendon Press)

Orderic Vitalis (Prévost): Le Prévost, A. (1838-55) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris). 

Orkneyinga Saga: Pálsson, H. and Edwards, P. (trans.) (1978) Orkneyinga Saga, The History of the Earls of Orkney (Penguin Books). 

Pedro Barcelos: Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid). 

Petri Monachi Cœnobii Vallium Cernaii Historia Albigensium, LXII, Patrologia Latina, Vol. 213, col. 0631C. 

Pipe Roll 31 Hen I (1129/30): Hunter, J. (ed.) (1833) Magnum rotulum scaccarii vel magnum rotulum pipæ de anno 31 regni Henrici primi (London). 

Pipe Roll 23 Hen II (1176/77): Pipe Roll Society, Vol. XXVI (1905) The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 23rd year of King Henry II (London). 

Pipe Roll 6 Rich I (1194/95): Stenton, D. M. (ed.) (1928) The Great Roll of the Pipe for the 6th year of King Richard I, Pipe Roll Society, Vol. XLIII (New Series, Vol. V) (London). 

Radulphus de Diceto: Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, and RHGF XIII. 

Ralph of Coggeshall: Stevenson, J. (ed.) (1875) Radulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum (London). 

Red Book Exchequer: Hall, H. (ed.) (1896) The Red Book of the Exchequer (Liber rubeus de Scaccario) (London). 

Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (1913, 1956, 1968), Vols. I, III: Davis, H. W. C. (ed.) (1913) Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. I, Johnson, C. & Cronne, H. A. (ed.) (1956) Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. II, Johnson, C. & Cronne, H. A. (ed.) (1968) Regesta Regem Anglo-Normannorum (Oxford), Vol. III. 

Registrum Roffense: Thorpe, J. (1769) Registrum Roffense (London). 

RHC: Recueil des Historiens des Croisades

RHGF: Recueil des Historiens des Gaules et de la France, Tomes I-XXIV. 

Robert de Torigny: Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Tomes I, II. 

Robillard de Beaurepaire, C. de (1870) Chronique normande de Pierre Cochon (Rouen). 

Rodulfus Glaber: France, J., Bulst, N. & Reynolds, P. (eds. & trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford). 

Roger of Hoveden: Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (London). 

Roger of Wendover: Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London). 

Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1893, 1904) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti). 

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Rotuli Chartarum, 1 John: Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1837) Rotuli Chartarum in Turri Londinensi, Vol. I, Part I 1199-1216 (London). 

Rotuli de Liberate: Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1844) Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et Præstitis, regnante Johanne (London). 

Rotuli de Oblatis et Finibus: Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1835) Rotuli de Oblatis et Finibus in Turri Londinensi asservati tempore Regis Johannis (London). 

Rotuli Dominabus: Grimaldi, S. (ed.) (1830) Rotuli de Dominabus et Pueris et Puellis de Donatione Regis in XII Comitatibus, 1185 (London). 

Rotuli Litterarum Patentium: Duffus Hardy, T. (ed.) (1835) Rotuli Litterarum Patentium in Turri Londinensi asservati, Vol. I, Pars 1 (London). 

Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniæ: Stapleton, T. (1844) Magni Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniæ sub Regibus Angliæ (London), Vol. II. 

Round, J. H. (1899) Calendar of Documents preserved in France illustrative of the history of Great Britain and Ireland Vol I 918-1206 (London). 

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Saxon Grammaticus: Olrik, J. & Ræder, H. (eds.) Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, available at <http://www.kb.dk/elib/lit/dan/> (15 Aug 2003), Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84). 

Spicilegium: Achéry, L. d´, Baluze, S., Martene, E. (eds.) (1723) Spicilegium sive Collectio veterum aliquot scriptorium (new edition) (Paris). 

State Archives: The Inventory of the State Archives of Turin, consulted at <http://ww2.multix.it/asto/asp/inventari.asp> (2 Feb 2006), now <http://archiviodistatotorino.beniculturali.it/work/inv.php> (19 Mar 2017), which is challenging to search to locate the same documents. 

Stenton (Danelaw, 1920): Stenton, F. M. (ed.) (1920) Documents illustrative of the social and economic history of the Danelaw from various collections (London). 

Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1865) Epistolæ Cantuarienses (London).  

Suger: Lecoy de la Marche, A. (1867) Œuvres complètes de Suger (Paris). 

Symeonis Dunelmensis: Arnold, T. (ed.) (1885) Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia (London), Vol. II.   

Testa de Nevill: Public Record Office (1920) Liber Feodum, The Book of Fees commonly called Testa de Nevill (London). 

Thomas Archdeacon of Split: Karbić, D., Matijević Sokol, M. and Sweeney, J. R. (eds. trans.) (2006) Thomæ archidiaconi Spalatensis, Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (CEP). 

Vallet de Viriville, A. (1859) Chronique de la Pucelle ou Chronique de Cousinot (Paris). 

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Vigfusson, G. & York Powell, F. (eds. and trans.) (1905) Origines Islandicæ, Vol. I, Landnáma-Bóc or the Book of Settlements. 

Villehardouin (1963): Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin). 

Vita Beccensium abbatum Guillelmi et Bosonis, authore Milone Crispino cantore Becci (1648): Achéry, L. (1648) Beati Lanfranci Cantuarensis Archiepiscopus...Opera Omnia (Paris), Appendix, Vita Beccensium abbatum Guillelmi et Bosonis, authore Milone Crispino cantore Becci

Vita Dominæ Hildeburgis, Spicilegium, Tome II. 

Vita Gauzlini: Mémoires de la Société Archéologique de l’Orléanais, Tome II (Orléans, Paris, 1853). 

Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619): Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris)

Waters, R. E. C. (1882) A Roll of the Owners of Land in Parts of Lindsey in Lincolnshire in the reign of Henry I (reprinted from the Associated Architectural Societies’ Reports and Papers, 1882, Vol. XVI, Part ii). 

William of Malmesbury: Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989). 

Willelmi Malmesbiriensis: Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1889) Willelmi Malmesbiriensis monachi De Gestis Regum Anglorum, Vol. II (London). 

William of Poitiers: Davis, R. H. C. and Chibnall. M. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The Gesta Guillelmi of William of Poitiers (Oxford)

William of Tyre: RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Vol. I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"). 

William of Tyre Continuator: RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Vol. II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator. 

Zurita, J. (1668) Los anales de la corona de Aragón, Tome II (Zaragoza). 

 

 

C.      SECONDARY SOURCES (MANY INCLUDING PRIMARY SOURCE MATERIAL)

 

Barlow, F. (2002) The Godwins: the Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty (Longman). 

Broussillon, B. de (1893) La maison de Craon (Paris), Tome I. 

Broussillon, B. de (1895) La maison de Laval (Paris), Tome I. 

Carolus-Barré, L. ‘Les deux testaments de Renaut seigneur de Dargies, mort au camp devant Saint-Sever (1295)’, Bulletin Philologique et Historique, Vol. II (Paris, 1969). 

Chalandon, F. (1907) Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile (Paris), Tome I. 

Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, Vol. VI (London, 1840), XIX, Young, C. G. ‘Additions to Dugdale’s Baronage, from the MS collection of Francis Townsend, Esq. Windsor Herald’, pp. 261-2 and 264. 

CP: Cokayne, G. E. revised and edited White, G. H. (1959) The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct and dormant by G. E. C., revised edition 1910-59, Vols. I to XIII (microprint edition, Alan Sutton, 1982). 

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[1] Orkneyinga Saga, 4, p. 26. 

[2] Harald Harfager's Saga, 24.

[3] Historia Norwegie, VI, p. 66. 

[4] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber II, I, p. 221. 

[5] Freeman (1877), Vol. I, 3rd. Edn, Appendix, Note X, pp. 624-6. 

[6] Le Prévost ‘Anciennes divisions territoriales de la Normandie’ (1837-39), p. 1.