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Although earlier volumes of Foundations followed a different convention, we currently use a derivative of the Chicago Humanities Footnote Style. In this, footnotes are added to the text (using superscript arabic numerals) to provide specific citations for sources that support the statements or arguments presented. Then at the end of the article, a bibliographic listing is provided, alphabetical by surname of first author/editor, showing all the published works cited. Citations of manuscripts and archives are given in footnotes only, not the bibliography.

Updated April 2016

Footnote citation styles

Abbreviations used

ed./eds. for editor(s), trans. for translator, comp. for compiler, etc.
For Book editions use the abbreviation "Edn."
Standard abbreviations may be used for certain sources commonly used in Foundations, click for list.
For multiple citations of the same work, citations after the first may use the form "Author, op.cit. (yyyy) pp." Care must be taken that there is no confusion between different works by the same author.
The abbreviation Ibid, should be used with care as it is potentially confusing.
Publisher details for books can be omitted from footnotes provided they are included in the Bibliography.

Examples

Book: one author
1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (1999), 65.
Book: two authors
6. Guy Cowlishaw & Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (2000), 104–7.
Book: more than 3 authors
13. Edward O Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (1994), 262.
Book: editor etc instead of author
Format as above but use abbreviations after the name: ed./eds. for editor(s), trans. for translator, comp. for compiler, etc.
[For Book editions use the abbreviation "Edn."]
Book: editor in addition to author
16. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton & Anthony Rudolf (1995), 22.
Book chapter or section
5. Andrew Wiese, "'The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States," in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M Kruse & Thomas J Sugrue (2006), 101–2.
Conference Proceedings
Conference proceedings or similar publications should be treated as above for books, and individual papers within them as for book chapters, citing the name and date of the conference as part of the title.
Academic dissertation
3. Peter Crooks, “Factionalism and Noble Power in English Ireland, c.1361-1423”, PhD thesis, University of Dublin (2007), p.162.
Journal/periodical article
8. John Maynard Smith, "The Origin of Altruism," Nature 393 (1998), 639.
Online sources
Cite bibliographic detail as far as possible, give the URL and date accessed. For examples see the Chicago guide.
Archive materials (unpublished)
Give the name of the repository and the cataloguing reference. These are cited in footnotes only, not the bibliography.

Bibliography

The bibliography at the end of the article should list all the published sources cited in the footnotes, in alphabetical order of first author's surname, with full bibliographic information to help readers locate the sources. Sources on the FMG list of standard abbreviations (such as published calendars of medieval rolls) can be omitted here. Unpublished archive materials are also omitted from the bibliography. Listing of websites is a matter of judgement whether they are considered formal publications or more transitory items. Some examples of bibliographic entries corresponding the above footnote examples are given below. Please conform to the use of punctuation and italic font as shown.
Personal identifiers such as "Sr." or "III" should not be added after the author's name unless it is essential to differentiate individuals. Degrees and professional qualifications should not be listed.
Reprints of older works by new publishers should give the details of the original publisher as normal, with the new publishers and the reprint date in square brackets after the original publication date

Examples

Book: one author
Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Book: two authors
Cowlishaw, Guy & Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Book: more than 3 authors
Laumann, Edward O, John H Gagnon, Robert T Michael & Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Book: editor etc instead of author
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
Book: editor in addition to author
Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Eds. John Naughton & Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Book chapter or section
Wiese, Andrew. "'The House I Live In': Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States." In The New Suburban History, eds. Kevin M Kruse & Thomas J Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Conference Proceedings
Doyle, Brian. "Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59." In Proceedings of the Annual International Meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002.
Academic dissertation
Crooks, Peter. “Factionalism and Noble Power in English Ireland, c.1361-1423.” PhD thesis, University of Dublin, 2007.
Journal article

Smith, John Maynard. "The Origin of Altruism." Nature 393: 639–40, 1998.

 

Instructions for Contributors to FMG Publications

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Citations in text

Use superscript arabic numerals to refer to footnotes, see examples of footnote styles below.

Footnote citation styles

Abbreviations used

ed./eds. for editor(s), trans. for translator, comp. for compiler, etc.
For Book editions use the abbreviation "Edn."
Standard abbreviations may be used for certain sources commonly used in Foundations, click for list.

For multiple citations of the same work, citations after the first may use the form "Author, op.cit.(yyyy) pp." Care must be taken that there is no confusion between different works by the same author.

The abbreviation Ibid, should not be used as it is potentially confusing.

Publisher details can be omitted from footnotes provided they are included in the Bibliography.

Book: one author

1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (1999), 65.

Book: two authors

6. Guy Cowlishaw & Robin Dunbar, Primate Conservation Biology (2000), 104–7.

Book: more than 3 authors

13. Edward O Laumann et al., The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States (1994), 262.

Book: editor etc instead of author

Format as above but use abbreviations after the name: ed./eds. for editor(s), trans. for translator, comp. for compiler, etc.
[For Book editions use the abbreviation "Edn."]

Book: editor in addition to author

16. Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton & Anthony Rudolf (1995), 22.

Book chapter or section

5. Andrew Wiese, “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States,” in The New Suburban History, ed. Kevin M Kruse & Thomas J Sugrue (2006), 101–2.

Conference Proceedings

Conference proceedings or similar publications should be treated as above for books, and individual papers within them as for book chapters, citing the name and date of the conference as part of the title.

Journal article

8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.

Online sources

Cite bibliographic detail as far as possible, give the URL and date accessed. For examples see the Chicago guide.

Archive materials (unpublished)

Give the name of the repository and the cataloguing reference. These are cited in footnotes only, not the bibliography.


Bibliography

The bibliography at the end of the article should list all the published sources cited in the footnotes, in alphabetical order of first author, with full bibliographic information to help readers locate the sources. Sources on the FMG list of standard abbreviations (such as published calendars of medieval rolls) can be omitted here. Unpublished archive materials are also omitted from the bibliography. Listing of websites is a matter of judgement whether they are considered formal publications or more transitory items. Some examples of bibliographic entries corresponding the above footnote examples are given below. Please conform to the use of punctuation and italic font as shown.

Personal identifiers such as "Sr." or "III" should not be added after the author's name unless it is essential to differentiate individuals. Degrees and professional qualifications should not be listed.

Reprints of older works by new publishers should give the details of the original publisher as normal, with the new publishers and the reprint date in square brackets after the original publication date

Book: one author

Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Book: two authors

Cowlishaw, Guy & Robin Dunbar. Primate Conservation Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Book: more than 3 authors

Laumann, Edward O, John H Gagnon, Robert T Michael & Stuart Michaels. The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Book: editor etc instead of author

Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.

Book: editor in addition to author

Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Eds. John Naughton & Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Book chapter or section

Wiese, Andrew. “‘The House I Live In’: Race, Class, and African American Suburban Dreams in the Postwar United States.” In The New Suburban History, eds. Kevin M Kruse & Thomas J Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

Conference Proceedings

Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” In Proceedings of the Annual International Meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19–22, 2002.

Journal article

Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393: 639–40, 1998.

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