Hamo[n] [peccatum] Pecche of Bourn, Pilgrim or Crusader?
by William Tracy Erbes
Foundations (2013) 5: 77-79 © Copyright FMG and the author
Records of European pilgrimage to the Holy Land begin in the early fourth century. Yet, our notions of crusade do not develop until some years following Saladin’s capture of Jerusalem. The Spanish term cruzada emerges in the thirteenth century, appears in English as croisade about 1575, but does not become the recognizable word crusade until the early eighteen century. To their contemporaries, all Englishmen travelling cruce signatus to the Holy Land during the years of the first three crusades were pilgrims. Only in recent centuries are these armed pilgrims rebranded as crusaders.