ASTURIAS & LEON, KINGS

  v3.0 Updated 16 June 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                KINGS of ASTURIAS 718-914. 5

Chapter 2.                KINGS of LEON 914-1037. 34

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The precise family origin of the first kings of Asturias is open to debate.  The Chronicon Albeldense states that Pelayo, recorded as first king of Asturias, was “nepos Ruderici regis Toletani[1].  The Chronicon Sebastiani is less specific, stating that Pelayo was “ex semine regio” and "filium quondam Fafilani ducis"[2].  According to the Chronicle of Alfonso III, probably compiled soon after the accession of King Alfonso III in 866 which is the last event recorded, Pelayo was sword-bearer for Kings Witiza and Rodrigo[3].  Turning to the ancestry of King Alfonso I, who married Pelayo´s daughter, the Historia Silense names his father "Petrus ex Recaredi…Gotorum principis progenie"[4], although Pedro's descent from King Recaredo I cannot be established.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III describes King Alfonso I as "of the royal line" without giving specifics[5].  An alternative perspective is provided by the Muslim historian Ibn-Khaldun who states that "Ibn Haiyan prétend…qu´ils déscendent des Goths" but adds that in his opinion this is an error as "cette nation avait déjà perdu le pouvoir, et il arrive rarement qu´une nation qui l´a perdu parvienne à le ressaisir", concluding that "c´était une nouvelle dynastie, qui régnait sur un peuple nouveau"[6].  It should be noted that the Asturias region had never submitted to the Visigoth regime in Iberia for any length of time, its remote mountainous terrain making attacks from outside difficult, but had maintained a considerable degree of autonomy.  The etymology of the names typical of the early Asturian royal family provides little help.  The only names which appear to have been of Visigothic origin are Alfonso (Hildefonsus, Ildefonsus), Fruela (Froila) and Ramiro (Ranimirus), all listed by García Moreno in his Prosopografía del reino visigodo de Toledo[7].  Pelayo (Pelagius) suggests Roman origin, while García and Sancho suggest a connection with the Basque/Navarrese region. 

 

It is possible that the same chieftains who ruled in Asturias before 711 continued to exercise control there after the Muslim invasion, possibly with their numbers augmented by a limited number of Visigoth refugees who fled the invaders.  Considering that most of the inhabitants of the peninsula appear to have adapted quickly to the change of administration following the Muslims invasion, it is possible that the number of arrivals in Asturias was small.  That possibility appears to be corroborated by the Muslim sources, for example the Akhbar al-Majmua or "Collection of Anecdotes", translated into Spanish in the mid-19th century by Lafuente as "Ajbar Machmua", and dated to [940] by Chalmeta[8] although Lafuente dates it to the 11th century.  This source records that "Okba ben Al-Hachaeh" [Uqba bin al-Hajaj al-Saluli, governor of Muslim Spain from [728]], conquered territory as far as Narbonne and subjugated Galicia, Álava and Pamplona, with the exception of "la sierra, en la cual se había refugiado con 300 hombres un rey llamado Belay" whom the Muslims continually harried until their number was reduced to "30 hombres, que no tenían 10 mujeres"[9].  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records that “Okba ben el-Haddjadj-Selouli” conquered “Narbonne aussi bien que la Galice et Pampelune, où il installa une population musulmane”, adding that his conquests extended “à toute la Galice, moins la portion montagneuse où le roi de ce pays se refugia avec trois cents fantassins” whose number was reduced after Muslim attacks to thirty until “les nôtres, fatigués de poursuites, finirent par y renoncer[10]

 

The Chronicon Albeldense records that “primus in Asturias Pelagius” was expelled from the kingdom by "Vitizane Rege de Toleto", arrived in Asturias after "a Sarracenis Spania occupata est", and adds that he was the first to organise a rebellion against the Muslims in Asturias while "Juzeph" reigned in Córdoba[11].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III contains a lengthy romanticised account of Pelayo's life in Asturias and his conflict with the Moorish army including his supposed major victory against the Muslims which took place at Covadonga in 722[12].  The victory at Covadonga has acquired symbolic importance in Spain over the centuries, but it is not mentioned at all in the Muslim sources and there is little evidence about the nature of the conflict which actually took place.  If the Akhbar al-Majmua correctly records the numbers of the Asturian resistance (see above), it is possible that it was little more than a minor skirmish. 

 

The Asturians appear to have rapidly expanded their area of control to the south and west of Asturias, although given their small numbers the factors which contributed to such quick success against the Muslim occupiers are difficult to assess.  It is unclear how this process could have involved extensive military campaigns, given that Muslim forces would potentially have seriously outnumbered the Asturians.  One possibility is that, after the initial Muslim expansion northwards after the invasion in 711, permanent Muslim implantation in the northern part of the Iberian peninsula was limited and the main Muslim armies withdrew southwards, leaving an administrative vacuum into which the Asturians stepped with comparative ease.  The surviving chronicles, Christian and Muslim, contain insufficient information to corroborate this hypothesis.  Another factor may have been the number of monasteries and new bishoprics which were established in the areas conquered, especially from the 9th century, which provided a solid framework around which the Christian religion could re-assert itself.  A further possible explanation for a vacuum of power into which the Christians stepped is suggested by Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib which records 748-753 as years of drought and famine and that, as a result, “la majeure partie de la population [musulmane] émigra à Tanger, à Zawila et sur le littoral africain” departing from “la rivière de Sidona, connu sous le nom de Barbat[13]

 

The various chronicles provide an idea of the timetable of the Asturian territorial expansion process.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that King Alfonso I invaded “urbes…Legionem atque Asturicam” and expelled the Muslims, dated to the mid-8th century[14].  King Alfonso I also expanded the area of Christian settlements southwards as far as the northern bank of the Duero river, the Chronicle of Alfonso III listing 32 towns, including Coimbra, Coria, Talavera, Madrid, Guadalajara and Medinaceli, where he established fortifications[15].  On the other hand, King Alfonso was less successful along his eastern frontier, where the Muslims established settlements as far as the Pyrenees, including at Pamplona, Tudela, Huesca, Girona and even Narbonne until the town was captured by Pépin King of the Franks in [759][16].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that Alfonso´s successor, King Fruela I, "won many victories", including against the Cordobans at Pontubio in Galicia, that he conquered the Basque country, and "overcame the peoples of Galicia who were rebelling against him and violently laid waste the entire province"[17].  The process of expansion accelerated with the move of the Asturian capital from Oviedo, established in [791] as his main centre by King Alfonso II, to León during the reign of King Alfonso III (866-910), after which the kingdom is usually referred to as "Asturias and León".  The influence of the area to the east which was later known as Castile started to be felt as early as the reign of King Alfonso II (791-842), who initiated the construction of the series of fortified castles from which the area later derived its name[18].  The discovery between 818 and 842 of a tomb attributed to St James the Apostle, at the place later known as Santiago de Compostela, created a focus for the new nation.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that King Ordoño I fortified the towns of León, Astorga, Tuy and Amaya, dated to the mid-9th century[19].  King Alfonso III occupied northern Portugal in 868, and resettled the land between the Miño and Duero rivers.  By 880, all of Galicia and the northern third of Portugal were under his control. 

 

The information, set out below, relating to the early kings of Asturias should be treated with some caution.  The only primary sources for the period are chronicles the earliest of which dates from the mid-9th century, their narratives no doubt representing a somewhat romanticised version of events.   In addition, the versions provided in the Christian and Muslim sources are in many cases contradictory.  Barrau-Dihigo provides a useful review of the sources, those produced in the 9th to 11th centuries as well as the 12th and 13th century works, and including some of the Arab documentation[20].  Particular reference should be made to the late 10th century Chronicle of Sampiro, extracts from two versions of which have been incorporated in the present document.  The apparently older version, incorporated in the late 10th/early 11th century Historia Silense[21], does not include the dubious interpolations (in the most part probably the word of the early 12th century Pelayo Bishop of Oviedo) which are highlighted in the España Sagrada edition[22].  Barrau-Dihigo also published and analysed the surviving charters for the period 718-910, concluding that only 19 out of the 78 documents are undisputedly genuine[23].  One unresolved issue is the complete absence of the names of the earliest supposed ancestors, Fáfila, Pelayo and Pedro, in succeeding generations of the family.  If it were not for the various chronicle reports, this absence would suggest that the later kings were not in fact descended from these early representatives. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of ASTURIAS 718-914

 

 

FÁFILA, son of [THEODEFREDO of the Visigoths & his wife Ricilo] (-[murdered before 702]).  Fáfila is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[24] as the possible son of Theodefredo, but the primary source on which this information is based has not been identified.  According to Barrau-Dihigo, Fáfila's alleged possible family relationship with the Visigothic kings was an invention of the 18th century[25].  However, the Chronicon Albeldense states that his son Pelayo was “nepos Ruderici regis Toletani”, although according to the same source Pelayo´s father was named “Veremundi[26].  [Duque de Cantabria]: De Rebus Hispaniæ names "Pelagium filium Fafilæ ducis Cantabriæ"[27], which according to Barrau-Dihigo is the only reference to Fáfila bearing this title[28].  The historical basis for supposing that there was a "Dukedom of Cantabria" under the Visigoths is unclear (see the document SPAIN, VANDALS, SUEVI & VISIGOTHS, Chapter 3.B, Visigoth Duces, for a discussion of territorial jurisdiction of duces in the Visigothic kingdom). 

m ---.  The name of Fáfila's wife is not known. 

Fáfila & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         PELAYO ([685/90]-Cangas de Onís 737[29], bur Santa Eulalia)"Pelagium, filium quondam Fafilani ducis ex semine regio" according to the Chronicle of Alfonso III[30].  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Pelagius filius Veremundi, nepos Ruderici regis Toletani”, adding that he was the first to enter “in Asturibus montibus sub rupe in antrum de Auseba[31].  Barrau-Dihigo comments that this passage forms part of a list of genealogical information which appears to be of dubious value[32].  According to the Chronicle of Alfonso III, Pelayo was sword-bearer for Kings Witiza and Rodrigo[33], when presumably he must at least have been an adolescent or young adult.  According to the Chronicon Albeldense, Pelayo was expelled from Toledo “a Vitizane rege”, adding that he entered Asturias after the Moorish invasion, started the rebellion “regnante Juzeph in Cordoba”, and captured “Monuza” in León and “Oppa episcopus[34].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that he fled to Asturias after the Moorish invasion "oppressed by the dominion of the Ishmaelites", although on arrival he made contact with the Muslim prefect of Gijón who sent Pelayo as his envoy to Córdoba[35].  He was elected in [718] as PELAYO King of Asturias, based in the Picos de Europa district of eastern Asturias.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that his supporters' first clear victory against the Muslims took place at Covadonga in 722[36], although as discussed further in the Introduction the historical importance of the battle on the ground is unclear.  The kingdom's first capital was at Cangas de Onís, later moved to Oviedo.  The Akhbar al-Majmua records that "Okba ben Al-Hachaeh" [Uqba bin al-Hajaj al-Saluli, governor of Muslim Spain from [728]], conquered territory as far as Narbonne and subjugated Galicia, Álava and Pamplona, with the exception of "la sierra, en la cual se había refugiado con 300 hombres un rey llamado Belay" whom the Muslims continually harried until their number was reduced to "30 hombres, que no tenían 10 mujeres"[37].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that Pelayo died “in locum Canicas æra 775[38].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Pelagius…cum uxore sua Gaudiosa regina" was buried "territorio Cangas in ecclesia Sanctæ Eulaliæ de Velapnio"[39].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Pelagius” reigned five years in Asturias[40]m ([after 713]) GAUDIOSA, daughter of --- (-bur Santa Eulalia).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Pelagius…cum uxore sua Gaudiosa regina" was buried "territorio Cangas in ecclesia Sanctæ Eulaliæ de Velapnio"[41].  Her origin is unknown but her name suggests a Roman family background.  It is assumed that King Pelayo married after arriving in Asturias, judging by the likely birth dates of his children as shown below.  Pelayo & his wife had two children: 

a)         FÁFILA ([715/20]-mid-Jun 739, bur Santa Cruz).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Favila, Pelayo's son" when recording that he succeeded his father, commenting that he "constructed…a basilica in honour of the Holy Cross" and lived only a short time[42].  His birth date range is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adult when elected to succeed his father as king.  He succeeded his father in 737 as FÁFILA King of Asturias.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that "he is reported to have been killed by a bear during a moment of levity"[43].  The Chronicon Albeldense states that “Fasila filius eius [Pelayo]” reigned for two years and was killed by a bear[44].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Fafila” reigned two years and six months[45].  Ibn-Khaldun records that, after the death of "roi Pélage, fils de Fafila", "son fils Fafila" succeeded and reigned two years[46].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Fafila…cum uxore sua Regina Froleba" was buried "territorio Cangas in ecclesia Sanctæ Crucis"[47]m FROILIUBA, daughter of --- (-bur Santa Cruz).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Fafila…cum uxore sua Regina Froleba" was buried "territorio Cangas in ecclesia Sanctæ Crucis"[48].  Her name suggests Visigothic origin, recalling the Visigoth names Fruela and Liuba.  King Fáfila's wife is named in the commemorative inscription of the foundation of the church of Santa Cruz[49].   

b)         ERMESENDA ([720/25]-, bur Santa María)The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Bermisindam, Pelagii filiam” married “Adefonsus…Petri, Cantabriæ ducis filius” who succeeded King Fáfila[50].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "the daughter of Pelayo Ermesinda" when recording her marriage to "Alfonso the son of Peter"[51].  Her birth date range is estimated from the birth of her first known child in [740].  Her marriage date is deduced from the Chronicle of Alfonso III recording that Alfonso "enjoyed many victories alongside his father-in-law"[52].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Adefonsus…cum uxore sua Regina Ermesinda" was buried "in territorio Cangas in Monasterio S. Mariæ"[53]m (before 737) ALFONSO [Duque de Cantabria], son of PEDRO [Duque de Cantabria] & his wife --- (-757, bur Santa María).  He was elected in 739 to succeed his brother-in-law as ALFONSO I “el Católico” King of Asturias

2.         daughter.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the marriage of "Munnuza, a companion of Tariq" in the city of Gijón and the sister of King Pelayo, stating that she came to Asturias with her brother[54].  According to the Chronicle of Alfonso III, the marriage took place during Pelayo's absence in Córdoba as envoy of Munnuza.  From the narrative, this appears to have been before Pelayo's election as king in Asturias[55]m (before 718) MUNNUZA, son of --- (-killed Olalies 722).  He was a companion of Tariq, who had invaded Spain.  He was appointed prefect at Gijón.  According to the Chronicle of Alfonso III, he married Pelayo's sister after sending Pelayo to Córdoba as his envoy[56].  The same source records that he was killed after escaping following the battle of Covadonga[57]

 

 

PEDRO, son of [ERVIGIO King of the Visigoths & his wife Liubigotona].  Salazar y Castro, in his genealogical table of the Visigothic kings, shows "Veremundo Duque de Cantabria" and "Pedro Duque de Cantabria" as the sons of King Ervigio[58].  The primary sources on which these statements are based are not specified.  The table includes numerous errors and the information should therefore be viewed with caution.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III describes Pedro´s son, Alfonso I King of Asturias, as "of the royal line" without specifying his ancestry[59].  The Historia Silense names "Petrus ex Recaredi…Gotorum principis progenie"[60], although Pedro's descent from King Recaredo I cannot be established.  When recording the succession of "roi Alphonse, fils de Pedro", Ibn-Khaldun states that, according to Ibn-Haiyan, he descended "des Goths" but that "à mon avis cette opinion est erronée"[61].  It is possible that this alleged family relationship with the Visigoths was an invention by later genealogists wishing to fill information gaps left by the primary sources.  His name suggests Greek, and by extension Roman, origin.  [Duque de Cantabria]: the Chronica Albeldense records him as “Petri Cantabriæ ducis[62].  The historical basis for supposing that there was a "Dukedom of Cantabria" under the Visigoths is unclear (see the document SPAIN, VANDALS, SUEVI & VISIGOTHS, Chapter 3.B, Visigoth Duces, for a discussion of territorial jurisdiction of duces in the Visigothic kingdom). 

m ---.  The name of Pedro's wife is not known.  An indication of her family is provided by the charter dated 11 Nov 741 under which [her son] “Aldefonsus rex et uxor mea Hermesendis regina” donated various churches to “Adulfo abbati...domino meo et avunculo meo...qui in monasterio Beatæ Mariæ de Covadonga[63], although this charter is classified as “faux” by Barrau-Dihigo[64].  The family origin of Abbot Adaulf has not otherwise been traced. 

[Duque] Pedro & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         ALFONSO ([705/10]-[757], bur Santa María).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Alfonso the son of Peter, who was the leader of the Cantabrians and was of the royal line" when recording his arrival in Asturias[65].  The Historia Silense records that "Petrus ex Recaredi…Gotorum principis progenie" had "duos filios…Adefonsum…et Froylam"[66].  His birth date range is estimated based on his having fought alongside his father-in-law, therefore before 737, according to the Chronicle of Alfonso III[67].  [Duque de Cantabria.]  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that, after the death of Fáfila (his brother-in-law, in 739), he was elected to succeed as ALFONSO I "el Católico" King of Asturias[68].  He took advantage of instability in the Muslim Government of al-Andalus following the Berber rebellion of 741, and of a severe famine in 750, to expand the area of Christian settlements to the north of the Duero river, a list of the towns he conquered being set out in the Chronicle of Alfonso III[69].  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records 748-753 as years of drought and famine, that in 750 “les habitants de la Galice se soulevèrent” and that many campaigns were directed against them, and that as a result of the famine “la majeure partie de la population [musulmane] émigra à Tanger, à Zawila et sur le littoral africain” departing from “la rivière de Sidona, connu sous le nom de Barbat[70].  King Alfonso established fortifications along the central Cordillera at Coimbra, Coria, Talavera, Madrid, Guadalajara and Medinaceli, fixing the northern frontier of the Muslim occupation for the next three centuries.  On the other hand, King Alfonso was less successful along his eastern frontier, where the Muslims established settlements as far as the Pyrenees, including Pamplona, Tudela, Huesca, Girona and even Narbonne until it was captured by Pépin King of the Franks in [759][71].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that King Alfonso "lived as king for eighteen years and died a natural death"[72].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Alfonsus” reigned 19 years, one month and one day[73].  Ibn-Khaldun states that "Alphonse fils de Pedro" died "en 142" ([4 May 759/22 Apr 760]) after reigning 18 years[74].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Adefonsus…cum uxore sua Regina Ermesinda" was buried "in territorio Cangas in Monasterio S. Mariæ"[75]m (before 737) ERMESINDA de Asturias, daughter of PELAYO King of Asturias & his wife Gaudiosa ---.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Bermisindam, Pelagii filiam” married “Adefonsus…Petri, Cantabriæ ducis filius” who succeeded King Fáfila[76].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "the daughter of Pelayo Ermesinda" when recording her marriage to "Alfonso the son of Peter"[77].  Her birth date range is estimated from the birth of her first known child in [740].  Her marriage date is deduced from the Chronicle of Alfonso III recording that Alfonso "enjoyed many victories alongside his father-in-law"[78].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Adefonsus…cum uxore sua Regina Ermesinda" was buried "in territorio Cangas in Monasterio S. Mariæ"[79]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of King Alfonso's mistress is unknown.  She is named Sisalda by Fernández de Béthencourt[80].  The primary source on which this is based has not been identified: according to Barrau-Dihigo, she is not named in any near contemporary source[81].  King Alfonso I & his wife had three children: 

a)         FRUELA ([740]-murdered Cangas de Onís 768)The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "his son Fruela" succeeded his father as king "in the era 795 (757)"[82].  He succeeded his father in 757 as FRUELA I King of Asturias.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that he "won many victories", including against the Cordobans at Pontubio in Galicia, that he conquered the Basque country, and "overcame the peoples of Galicia who were rebelling against him and violently laid waste the entire province"[83].  He imposed the celibacy of priests in Galicia.  Ibn al-Athir records that Fruela I King of Asturias took control of “Lugo, Portucale, Salamanca, Zamora, Ávila, Segovia y Castilla[84].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that King Fruela was killed by his own men after ruling "eleven years, three months, era 806 (768)"[85].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Froila filius eius [Adefonsi]” was killed “in Canicas…æra 806[86].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Froila” reigned 11 years, five months and 20 days[87].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Froila…cum uxore sua Munia Oveti" was buried in 768[88]m MUNIA Ovéquiz, daughter of OVECO --- & his wife --- [de Asturias] ([745/50]-[768]).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that Fruela "overcame the rebellious Basques and took for himself a wife from their territory named Munia"[89].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Froila…cum uxore sua Munia Oveti" were buried in 768[90].  Her geographical origin is confirmed more precisely by the Chronicle of Alfonso III which records that [her son] Alfonso, after he was displaced by Maugerato, fled to Álava where he was received by his mother's relatives[91].  King Fruela I & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          ALFONSO ([765]-Oviedo 20 Mar 842, bur Oviedo)The Historia Silense records that "Froyla…[et] uxorem…Monniam" had "filium…Adefonsum"[92].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Alfonso the son of Fruela and grandson of the older Alfonso governed the palace" during the reign of Silo[93].  The same source states that his aunt Adosinda engineered his election to succeed on the death of her husband King Silo, but that Alfonso was displaced by Maugerato and fled to Álava where he was received by his mother's relatives[94].  He finally succeeded in 791, on the abdication of King Vermudo I[95], as ALFONSO II "el Casto" King of Asturias, anointed 14 Sep 791.  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "subrinum suum Adefonsum", who had been exiled by Maugerato, succeeded when King Vermudo I was deposed[96].  King Alfonso II transferred the royal residence to Oviedo, maybe as early as 791[97].  Intense attacks by the Muslims continued, the region of Álava was sacked in 791 and Oviedo threatened, although King Alfonso's forces succeeding in routing the attackers at Llamas de Mouro[98].  The Annales Laurissenses Continuatio records that "Hadefonsi regis Gallæciæ et Asturiæ" sent "Frola" [not yet traced, maybe a relative] as legate to Charles I King of the Franks in 798[99].  King Alfonso was deposed in Sep 801 and placed in the monastery of Ablaña, but restored as king in Sep 802[100].  King Alfonso II defeated the Muslims in the valley of Pisuerga in 805 and at Lodos, near Oviedo in 816, reinforcing the impenetrability felt by the new nation.  A truce was negotiated with the Muslims in 823, which lasted 15 years[101].  King Alfonso started constructing a series of fortified villages and castles in the mountains above the upper Ebro to guard against Muslim attacks, which ultimately gave the name to the area of Castile[102].  The discovery between 818 and 842 of a tomb attributed to St James the Apostle, at the place later known as Santiago de Compostela, created a focus for the new nation.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that King Alfonso died "after ruling for fifty-two years" and was buried at Oviedo[103].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Adefonsum" was buried in "ecclesia S. Mariæ" which he had founded[104].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Adefonsus” reigned 52 years, five months and 13 days[105]

ii)         [daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified, although the Chronicon Albeldense names “Nepotianus cognatus regis Adefonsi” as successor of King Alfonso[106].  Her existence is therefore presumably speculative, on the assumption that “cognatus” in that source indicates brother-in-law (certainly one of the possible translations, although this meaning appears only to have become generally established in Latin language sources in later centuries).  m NEPOCIANO, son of ---.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Nepotianus, count of the palace, rebelled and seized power" after the death of King Alfonso I, but was defeated at the River Narcea by King Ramiro I who had been elected to succeed.  The same source records that he fled the battlefield, was captured in the province of Primorias "by the two counts Scipio and Sonna", blinded, and confined to a monastery for the rest of his life[107].] 

iii)        [ROMÁN .  Barrau-Dihigo asserts that Román, alleged son of King Fruela and supposed ancestor of the Traba family, was an entirely fictitious invention[108].  He is, for example, named in the Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos "Conde D. Roman hermano del Rey D. Alonso el Casto" as father of "D. Iuana Romanes" who married "Conde D. Mendo"[109].] 

b)         VIMERANO (-murdered [767]).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that King Fruela "killed his brother…Vimerano with his own hands", the event being dated from the passage stating that the king was killed "not long after"[110]

c)         ADOSINDA (-bur Pravia San Juan).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records the marriage of "Adosinda, daughter of Alfonso" and Silo "after Aurelio's death", commenting that they "had no son"[111].  After her husband died, Adosinda engineered the election of her nephew Alfonso as king, but he was deposed by her half-brother Maugerato who forced Adosinda to become a nun at San Juan Bautista de Pravia[112].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Silo…cum uxore sua Regina Adosinda" was buried "in ecclesia S. Joannis Apostoli et Evang. in Pravia"[113]m (773) SILO, son of --- (-783, bur Pravia San Juan).  He succeeded on his marriage in 773 as SILO King of Asturias.  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Silo” maintained peace “cum Spania ob causam matris[114], which suggests that his mother may have been Muslim.  Domnus Silo” donated “locum...Lucis” to found a monastery by charter dated 23 Aug 775, confirmed by “Ranimirus, Adefonsus, Hordoneus”, witnessed by “Nepotianus[115]He transferred the royal residence from Cangas de Onís to Pravia, on the Nalón mountain[116].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that he suppressed a rebellion in Galicia[117].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that Silo died "after the ninth year of his rule…as a result of a natural death, in the era 821 (783)"[118].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Silo” reigned 9 years, one month and one day[119].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Silo…cum uxore sua Regina Adosinda" was buried "in ecclesia S. Joannis Apostoli et Evang. in Pravia"[120].  Silo & his wife had one child: 

i)          ADELGASTER (-after 17 Jan 780).  “Addelgaster filius Silonis Regis…cum coniuge mea Brunildi” founded the monastery of Santa María de Obona by charter dated 17 Jan 780, the dating clause stating “regnante principe nostro Silone cum uxore sua Odisinda[121].  If the dating relating to Adosinda´s family is accurate as shown above, Adelgaster must have been a young adult at the date of this charter, unless he was born from an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage of his father.  m BRUNILDE, daughter of --- (-after 17 Jan 780).  “Addelgaster filius Silonis Regis…cum coniuge mea Brunildi” founded the monastery of Santa María de Obona by charter dated 17 Jan 780[122]

King Alfonso I had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

d)         MAUGERATO (-788, bur Pravia San Juan).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Maurecati, tii sui, filii Adefonsi majoris, de serva tamen nati" seized the throne after the death of King Silo, adding that he had been expelled from the kingdom and found refuge "apud propinquos matris suæ in Alava"[123].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "his uncle Maugerato, son of the older prince Alfonso, though born of a slave" deposed King Alfonso II and ruled for six years, dying "a natural death in the era 826 (788)"[124].  He usurped the throne in 783 as MAUGERATO I King of AsturiasThe Chronicon Compostellani records that “Mauregatus” reigned five years and six months[125].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Maurecatus" was buried "in ecclesia S. Joannis Apostoli et Evang. in Pravia"[126]m [CREUSA, daughter of --- (bur San Pedro).  Flórez quotes a donation by Bishop Gladila to the church of Santa Maria, S. Pedro y S. Pablo de Trubia, dated 30 Oct 863, which refers to property donated by "Domnus Hermegildus filius domni Mauregati" to "ecclesia Sancti Petri" where "mater sua Domna Creusa" was buried[127]Barrau-Dihigo acknowledges that this document survives in part (only in a 12th century copy) but adds “lo que sabemos de él incita a la prudencia[128].  On the basis of this charter only, the existence of Creusa should be treated with caution.] 

i)          [HERMENEGILDO .  Flórez quotes a donation by Bishop Gladila to the church of Santa Maria, S. Pedro y S. Pablo de Trubia, dated 30 Oct 863, which refers to property donated by "Domnus Hermegildus filius domni Mauregati" to "ecclesia Sancti Petri" where "mater sua Domna Creusa" was buried[129]Barrau-Dihigo acknowledges that this document survives in part (only in a 12th century copy) but adds “lo que sabemos de él incita a la prudencia[130].  On the basis of this charter only, the existence of Hermenegildo (a Visigoth name atypical of the family of the kings of Asturias) should be treated with caution.

2.         FRUELA (-[765]).  The Historia Silense records that "Petrus ex Recaredi…Gotorum principis progenie" had "duos filios…Adefonsum…et Froylam"[131].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III names "Fruela" as brother of Alfonso, when recording that they "took many cities in battle"[132]m ---.  The name of Fruela's wife is not known.  Fruela & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [daughter ([730/35]-).  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by Ibn Hayyan who records a campaign in 816 led by “[el] hayib Abd al-Karim ibn Abd al-Wahid ibn Mugit” against “Balask al-Yalasqi señor de Pamplona”, during the course of which [her son by her second marriage] “Garsiya ibn Lubb, hijo de la hermana de Barmud, el tío materno de Idfuns...” was killed[133].  This assumes that the phrase “el tío materno de Idfuns” applies to “Garsiya ibn Lubb” not to “Barmud”.  Martínez Díez assumes that “Barmud” was Vermudo I King of Asturias[134].  Her first marriage is confirmed by reading the same text of Ibn Hayyan together with the Sebastiani Chronicon which records the burial of [her daughter by her first marriage and her son-in-law] "Froila…cum uxore sua Munia Oveti" [therefore recording Munia´s patronymic)][135].  This assumes that “Idfuns” in Ibn Hayyan refers to Alfonso II King of Asturias.  It does not necessarily follow from this logic that this person was the daughter of Fruela, father of King Vermudo I: she could alternatively have been the daughter of Fruela´s wife by an earlier marriage.  If she was the daughter of Fruela, she must have been one of his older children, considerably older than King Vermudo I.  The dates associated with her two children strongly suggest that Overo was her first husband and Lope her second.  m firstly OVECO ---, son of ---.  m secondly LOPE ---, son of ---.]   

b)         AURELIO (-773, bur San Martín).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that King Fruela was succeeded by "his cousin Aurelio", without giving details of Aurelio's parentage[136].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Aurelius filius Froilani fratris Adefonsi" succeeded King Fruela[137].  According to Ibn-Khaldun, "son fils Aurelio" succeeded King Fruela in [15 Jan 769/4 Jan 770]), reigned six years and died in [11 Nov 774/31 Oct 775][138], but this passage appears to confuse King Fruela with his paternal uncle Fruela.  He succeeded his first cousin in 768 as AURELIO King of Asturias.  In contrast to his predecessor, he maintained peaceful relations with Abd al-Rahman I Emir of Córdoba.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that he suppressed a rebellion of slaves, "remained at peace with the Chaldeans", ruled for six years and "in the seventh year" died "of a natural illness, in the era 811 (773)"[139].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Aurelius” reigned six years and six months[140].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Aurelius" was buried "in ecclesia sancti Martini episcopi"[141]

c)         VERMUDO ([750]-797).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Vermudo the son of Fruela" was elected king after the death of Mauregato, and ruled for three years when "he voluntarily gave up his rule because he was a deacon" and installed "his nephew Alfonso as his successor and lived with him most lovingly for many years" before dying "a natural death…in the era 829 (791)"[142], although this date appears to refer to Vermudo's abdication not his death.  He was elected in 788 to succeed King Maugerato as VERMUDO I “el Diácono” King of Asturias

-        see below

 

 

VERMUDO, son of FRUELA & his wife --- ([750]-797, bur Oviedo[143]).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Veremundus, subrinus Adefonsi majoris, filius…Froilani fratris sui" succeeded as king on the death of "Maurecato"[144].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Vermudo the son of Fruela" was elected king after the death of Mauregato, and ruled for three years when "he voluntarily gave up his rule because he was a deacon" and installed "his nephew Alfonso as his successor and lived with him most lovingly for many years" before dying "a natural death…in the era 829 (791)"[145], although this date appears to refer to Vermudo's abdication not his death.  He was elected in 788 to succeed King Maugerato as VERMUDO I “el Diácono” King of Asturias.  With the accession in 788 of Hisham I Emir of Córdoba, who according to Arab sources was "passionate about the holy war", Muslim attacks on the Christians intensified.  The Emir sent two armies into battle in 791[146].  King Vermudo was defeated by the Muslims on the banks of the River Burbia[147] and abdicated in 791 in favour of Alfonso II, becoming a deacon.  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Veremundus" was deposed and became a deacon, and that "filiis parvulis Ranimiro et Garcia" were also expelled[148]

m [OZENDA [Adosinda/Imilo], daughter of --- (-[bur Oviedo]).  Confusion exists about King Vermudo´s wife, who is named only in later sources.  Flórez cites the epitaph of the monastery of San Juan de Corias which records the transfer of the remains of "Ozenda" with her husband Vermudo from Ciella to Corias, suggesting that "Ozenda" was an abbreviated form of "Adosinda"[149].  Barrau-Dihigo points out that the inscription is from a later date, if not falsified[150].  Lucas de Tuy names "Nunilo Regina Oueti" as wife of King Vermudo I and mother of his two sons "Ramiro et Garsia", when recording that she was buried with her husband[151].  The name “Nunilo...Oueti” suggests confusion with the wife of King Fruela I, who is named in the Sebastiani Chronicon "Munia Oveti" (see above)[152].  The 13th century work by Rodrigo de Toledo names the wife of King Vermudo as "Imilo" when referring to her burial with her husband at Oviedo[153].] 

King Vermudo I & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         RAMIRO ([790]-1 Feb 850, bur Oviedo).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Veremundus" was deposed and became a deacon, and that "filiis parvulis Ranimiro et Garcia" were also expelled[154].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "Ramiro son of the prince Vermudo" was elected king after the death of King Alfonso II, although his succession was challenged by Nepociano whom he defeated[155].  He was elected to succeed King Alfonso I in 842 as RAMIRO I King of Asturias.  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Ranimirus, filius Veremundi principis" was elected as king on the death of "Adefonsi"[156].  “Ranemirus Rex et…coniuncta Urraca Regina et filio nostro Rege Ordonio et fratre meo Rege Garsia” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Jun” dated to 844[157].  The Vikings invaded Galicia in 844 but were expelled by King Ramiro from "Farum Brecantium" (probably La Coruña), from where they went south and attacked Seville[158].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Lordomani” (=the Norsemen) first came to Asturias during Ramiro´s reign[159].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that King Ramiro died "after the seventh year of his reign…as a result of natural illness" and was buried at Oviedo[160].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ranemirus” was buried at Oviedo “Kal Feb 850” after reigning for seven years[161].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Ranemirus” reigned five years and eight months[162].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Ranimirus…cum uxore sua Domna Paterna" was buried "Oveto"[163]m firstly ([before 830]) URRACA, daughter of --- (-[842/44]).  “Ranemirus Rex et…coniuncta Urraca Regina et filio nostro Rege Ordonio et fratre meo Rege Garsia” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Jun” dated to 844[164].  This first marriage is confirmed from the likely birth date of Ramiro's son Ordoño in [830] and the reference in the Chronicle of Alfonso III to the king's marriage around the time of his accession (842).  m secondly ([842/44]) PATERNA, daughter of --- (-bur Oviedo).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Ranimirus…cum uxore sua Domna Paterna" were buried "Oveto"[165].  She is named as wife of King Ramiro in the inscription commemorating the foundation of the church of Santa María del Narranco dated 848[166].  Barrau-Dihigo refers to an epitaph naming "Urraca" as wife of "King Ramiro" (without specifying which King Ramiro)[167].  It appears that Salazar y Castro[168] deduced from this information that Paterna was King Ramiro's first wife and that his second wife was Urraca, daughter of Diego Rodríguez Conde de Castilla, but this is clearly impossible chronologically given the likely birth date range of Conde Diego.  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that, when elected as king, Ramiro was away having "travelled to the province of Vardulias to take a wife"[169], presumably dating this marriage to 842.  Pérez de Urbel states that, for the early Christian chroniclers, "Vardulias" covered what was later Castile[170].  This must have been King Ramiro's second marriage considering the likely birth date of his eldest son.  King Ramiro I & his first wife had [two] children:

a)         ORDOÑO ([830]-Oviedo 27 May 866, bur Oviedo Santa María)Ranemirus Rex et…coniuncta Urraca Regina et filio nostro Rege Ordonio et fratre meo Rege Garsia” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Jun” dated to 844[171].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "his son Ordoño" succeeded King Ramiro "in the era 888 (850)"[172].  He succeeded his father in 850 as ORDOÑO I King of Asturias

-        see below

b)         [GATÓN (-after 6 Jun 878).  Ibn Idhari´s Al-Bayan Al-Moghrib records that in Jun 854 “Ordoño fils d´Alphonse et roi de Galice” sent “son frère Gaton” at the head of troops to relieve Toledo which had been attacked by “l´émir Mohammed[173].  The source is dated to after [1306], so is late to be reliable for 9th century events although it is known that the work incorporates earlier sources which have since disappeared.  No other source has been found which identifies Gatón as the brother of King Ordoño I.  Conde.  Señor en Astorga y en el Bierzo.  A charter dated 6 Jun 878 records judgment in the court of “domini...Adephonsi principis...vel judicum Gatoni et Hermigildi” confirmed the possession of “villa Vimineta”, populated by “comite Gaton” during the reign of “domni Ordonii[174].]  m EGILONA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Gatón & his wife had four children: 

i)          VERMUDO Gatónez .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conde. 

ii)         SAVARICO (-922).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 25 Jun 927 under which “Patruina” donated “villas...in territorio Asturiense...Parias...Edia...quinta racione qui fuit de iermano nostro dive memorie domno Sauarigo episcopo” to [his sister´s son] “nepto meo domno Rudesindo episcopo[175].  Bishop of Mondoñedo [906]. 

iii)        ERMESINDA Gatónez.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  A charter dated 23 Dec 927 records donations by “Gutier Menendiz comes…cum coniuge sua domna Ylduara” to the monastery of Santa María de Loyo and specifies that he was son of “domne Ermesende comitisse[176]m ([865]) conde HERMENEGILDO Gutiérrez, son of GUTIERRE --- & his wife Elvira --- (-after 912).  A charter dated 6 Jun 878 records judgment in the court of “domini...Adephonsi principis...vel judicum Gatoni et Hermigildi” confirmed the possession of “villa Vimineta”, populated by “comite Gaton” during the reign of “domni Ordonii[177]

iv)       PATRUINA Gatónez (-after 25 Jun 927).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 25 Jun 927 under which “Patruina” donated “villas...in territorio Asturiense...Parias...Edia...quinta racione qui fuit de iermano nostro dive memorie domno Sauarigo episcopo” to [his sister´s grandson] “nepto meo domno Rudesindo episcopo[178].    

King Ramiro I & his second wife had [two children]:

c)         [ALDONZA .  García Álvarez cites an undated spurious charter in the Tumbo de Samos, which records that “la vila de Sáa en la valle de Armea, cerca de Sarria” had belonged to “doña Ildoncia, hija del rey Ramiro”, after whose death it passed “a su nepto Vermudo” who granted it to “su mujer Guntroda”, from whom it passed to “su sobrino Fruela, hijo del rey Alfonso” who gave it “al rey Ramiro”, who gave it to “su hermana Auria y al conde Nepociano Díaz[179].  According to Salazar, she was born blind but Barrau-Dihigo highlights that he cites no source on which he bases the information[180].] 

d)         [RODRIGO (-4 Oct 873).  Conde de Castilla.  Fernández de Béthencourt states that Rodrigo first Conde de Castilla was the son of King Ramiro I by his second wife[181], presumably premised on Ramiro's second wife being Urraca de Castilla (which is clearly impossible chronologically as discussed above).  In addition, Rodrigo appears for the first time in 852 as conde, only ten years after the date of the king's second marriage.  Pérez de Urbel says that Rodrigo´s appointment as conde in Castilla does suggest some relationship with the royal family, which he speculates may have been through Paterna second wife of King Ramiro I[182].]

[-       CONDES de CASTILLA.]   

2.         [CRISTINA .  She is named in the inscription of San Juan de Corias which names her supposed parents, although as noted above Barrau-Dihigo points out that this is from a later date, if not falsified[183].] 

3.         GARCÍA (-after [842/44]).  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Veremundus" was deposed and became a deacon, and that "filiis parvulis Ranimiro et Garcia" were also expelled[184].  “Ranemirus Rex et…coniuncta Urraca Regina et filio nostro Rege Ordonio et fratre meo Rege Garsia” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Jun” dated to 844[185].  Barrau-Dihigo dismisses as fictive this alleged son García[186], presumably because he considers that this charter is spurious.    

 

 

ORDOÑO de Asturias, son of RAMIRO I King of Asturias & his first wife Urraca --- ([830]-Oviedo 27 May 866, bur Oviedo Santa María).  “Ranemirus Rex et…coniuncta Urraca Regina et filio nostro Rege Ordonio et fratre meo Rege Garsia” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Jun” dated to 844[187].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that "his son Ordoño" succeeded King Ramiro "in the era 888 (850)"[188].  He succeeded his father in 850 as ORDOÑO I King of Asturias.  "Ordonius rex" donated property to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 854[189].  King Ordoño I confirmed "in ripas Istola…Orete" to "Purello" by charter dated 6 May 854, in the presence of "comites sancio, Domno Nuno, Kartia, Almonde…"[190].  Barrau-Dihigo cites a charter dated May 857 (summary only, in French) under which “Ordoño I roi...d´Espagne fils de Ramire I...et la reine Nuña” confirmed privileges to the church of Oviedo[191].  In 859, he defeated Musa ibn Musa ibn Fortun, head of the Banu Qasi family, who had rebelled against Muhammad Emir of Córdoba and taken control of Zaragoza, Tudela, Huesca and Toledo[192].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that King Ordoño I fortified the towns of León, Astorga, Tuy and Amaya[193].  The Chronicon Burgense records that “Ordonius Rex” populated the town of León in 855[194].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ordonius” captured “Talamancam civitatem” and “regem eius Mozeror” in battle (although Ordoño allowed him to leave “cum sua uxore Balkaiz, in Petra sacra”), and also captured Albelda and killed its ruler “Muz in monte Laturcio[195].  He suppressed a Basque rebellion.  His forces were defeated by Abd al-Rahman, son of Emir Muhammad, in 863 when "nineteen counts were killed in the battle"[196].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Lordomani” [Norsemen] invaded “Gallæciæ maritimis” and were killed “a Petro comite[197].  The Chronicle of Alfonso III records that King Ordoño died "after completing the sixteenth year of his reign…afflicted by gout…in Oviedo" and buried "in the church of St Mary alongside the previous kings"[198].  The Chronicon Albeldense records that “Ordonius” died peacefully at Oviedo “VI Kal Jun 866[199].  The Sebastiani Chronicon records that "Ordonius…Rex" died "Oveto" and was buried "in Basilica S. Mariæ"[200]

m MUNIA, daughter of ---.  Flórez names "llamada en los antiguos Munia dona" as the wife of King Ordoño I but does not cite the corresponding primary source[201].  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records that "Ordonius" married "Mumadonam" who was the mother of his five sons named below[202].  Barrau-Dihigo cites a charter dated May 857 (summary only, in French) under which “Ordoño I roi...d´Espagne fils de Ramire I...et la reine Nuña” confirmed privileges to the church of Oviedo[203]

King Ordoño I & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         ALFONSO ([848/49]-20 Dec 910, bur Oviedo Santa María)The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that "his son Alfonso" succeeded King Ordoño "in the era 904 (866)"[204].  He succeeded his father in 866 as ALFONSO III "el Magno" King of Asturias

-        see below

2.         FRUELA (-after [870]).  The Crónica de Sampiro , as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "frater regis...Froylanus" rebelled and fled “ad Castellam” but was captured by King Alfonso III[205]

3.         NUÑO Ordóñez (-after 870).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) names “Froilanum, Nunnum...et Veremundum et Odarium” as the brothers of King Alfonso III[206].  Nuño is not named as one of the king´s brothers in the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense[207].  "Garsea princeps et Mumma domna regina" donated certain churches, including the church obtained by “tius noster domnus Nunnus de dato patris nostri”, to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 30 Aug 912, confirmed by “Ranimirus...[208]m [ASURA de Castilla, daughter of DIEGO Rodríguez Conde de Castilla].  According to many scholars[209], Nuño Ordóñez & his wife were the parents of Vermudo Núñez Conde de Cea and his six brothers and sisters.  Salazar Acha, in his article on the Vela family, rejects this hypothesis[210] and suggests a possible origin from the Jiménez family of Navarre.  In the absence of documentary proof one way or the other, it appears impossible to judge which theory may be correct. 

[-        ASTURIAS, LEÓN NOBILITY. VELA family.] 

4.         VERMUDO (-[after 25 Jul 893]).  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, names "Froylanum etiam Veremudum et Odoarium" as the brothers of King Alfonso III, adding that Vermudo fled “ex Oueto” for “Astoricam” and allied himself with “arabes” for seven years[211].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[212].  The position of Vermudo´s name in the list of subscribers in this document, immediately after the queen, suggests a degree of seniority.  Earlier charters of King Alfonso III are subscribed, in order, by "Exemena regina, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila" which suggests that they were the king´s children.  It is therefore unlikely that Vermudo was King Alfonso´s oldest son.  It is possible that he was the king´s brother, presumably before his rebellion.  [m GONTRADA, daughter of ---.  García Álvarez cites an undated spurious charter in the Tumbo de Samos, which records that “la vila de Sáa en la valle de Armea, cerca de Sarria” had belonged to “doña Ildoncia, hija del rey Ramiro”, after whose death it passed “a su nepto Vermudo” who granted it to “su mujer Guntroda”, from whom it passed to “su sobrino Fruela, hijo del rey Alfonso” who gave it “al rey Ramiro” who granted it to “su hermana Auria y al conde Nepociano Díaz[213].]     

5.         ODOARIO (-after 870).  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, names "Froylanum etiam Veremudum et Odoarium" as the brothers of King Alfonso III[214]

6.         [LEODEGUNDIS.  The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Versi domna Leodegundia regina" names "Leodegundiam Ordonii filiam" and indicates her position as Queen of Pamplona after her marriage[215].  She has been identified as a possible second wife of García I Íñiguez King of Pamplona but, as there is no indication of dates in the "Versi", this is mere speculation.  Barrau-Dihigo casts doubt on this identification[216].  It is of course possible that she was not a historical figure at all.  It may have been convenient for chroniclers of the rulers of Pamplona to invent a dynastic connection with the kings of Asturias in order to boost local credibility.  m  --- King of Pamplona, son of ---.] 

 

 

ALFONSO de Asturias, son of ORDOÑO I King of Asturias & his wife Munia --- ([848/49]-20 Dec 910, bur Oviedo Santa María).  The Chronicle of Alfonso III states that "his son Alfonso" succeeded King Ordoño "in the era 904 (866)"[217].  His birth date is estimated from the Chronicon Albeldense which records that he was 17 years old in the first year of his reign[218].  "Adefonsus rex" confirmed the donation to Santiago de Compostela made by "domini Ordoniii…principis" by charter dated 862[219].  He succeeded his father in 866 as ALFONSO III "el Magno" King of Asturias.  His succession was challenged by Fruela Vermúdez, conde in Galicia: the Crónica de Sampiro , as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the succession of "Adefonsus filius Ordonii" aged 14, the challenge by “filius...Froyla Lemundi ex partibus Gallecie”, King Alfonso´s exile “in partibus Alauensium”, and the death of “ipse...Froyla” killed “a senatu Outensi[220].  King Alfonso was obliged to seek refuge in Castile with conde Rodrigo until the rebel was killed by the king's supporters: the Chronicon Albeldense records the rebellion of “Froilane, Galliciæ comite” in the first year of Alfonso´s reign, the king´s exile in Castile, and his return after Fruela was killed[221].  He was also faced with a Basque rebellion in 867[222].  Having pacified internal opposition, he was able to turn his attention to territorial expansion and reconquest from the Moors.  He occupied northern Portugal in 868, and resettled the land between the Miño and Duero rivers.  “Adefonsus rex” donated “ecclesiam...Sanctæ Mariæ...in villa...Tenciana” to “Sisnando presbytero” by charter dated 15 Apr 869, confirmed by “...Hermegildus, Sigericus[223].  A charter dated 6 Jun 878 records judgment in the court of “domini...Adephonsi principis...vel judicum Gatoni et Hermigildi” confirmed the possession of “villa Vimineta”, populated by “comite Gaton” during the reign of “domni Ordonii[224].  By 880, all of Galicia and the northern third of Portugal were under his control.  Despite slower progress in Castile and León, King Alfonso was able to force territorial concessions under the peace of 884[225].  Taking advantage of internal conflicts among the Muslims, he was able to strike deep into the heart of al-Andalus during the expedition of 881.  He negotiated an alliance with Pamplona and together the two kingdoms fought for control over Rioja.  King Alfonso moved his capital from Oviedo to León, after which the kingdom was usually known as "Asturias and León".  He may have been the first king of the new dynasty to use the title “Emperor”, although Payne points out that the sources are not unequivocal on this point[226].  "Adefonsus rex" confirmed donations to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 17 Aug 883, subscribed by "Exemena regina…"[227].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated property near Lanzada which had belonged to "Hermegildus filius Petri et uxor sua Yberia", who has rebelled against the king, to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 24 Jun 886, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Garsea, Hordonius, Froila"[228].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[229].  Conde Witiza rebelled against him but the rebellion was crushed in 895 with the help of conde Hermenegildo Gutiérrez[230].  "Adefonsus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 28 Apr 909, subscribed by "Vimara Froilani, Garsea, Ordonius, Gundisalvus, Froila, Ranimirus, Dunninus"[231].  He revived Visigothic court forms, such as the traditional right of royal consecration[232].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the death of King Alfonso at Zamora, and his burial "Oeto...sub aula sancte Marie Dey genetricis" after reigning for 44 years, the following passage recording the succession of his son “Era DCCCCXLVIII[233].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “uxore sua Xemena regina” was buried with her husband “Astoricæ” but that their bodies were transferred to “Oueto...sub aula sancte Marie Dey genitricis[234].  On his death, his territories were divided between his three sons. 

m ([869/70]) JIMENA, daughter of --- (-after Jun 912, bur [Astorga, transferred to Oviedo Santa María]).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Queen Jimena" as the wife of "King Alfonso", when reporting their reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur[235].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the alliance between King Alfonso and "Galiam simul cum Pampiloniam, causa cognacionis", adding that he had married “uxorem ex illorum prosapia...Xemenam consubrinam Caroli regis[236].  Any relationship with the family of the Carolingian Frankish kings/emperors has not been traced.  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[237].  Sánchez-Albórnoz suggests that she was Jimena de Pamplona, daughter of García I Íñiguez King of Pamplona[238].  This is not a new theory: Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, assumes that Jimena was King García´s daughter[239].  However, Jimena is not listed among the children of King García in the Codex de Roda.  Settipani, while agreeing that Jimena must belong to the royal family of Navarre, highlights difficulties with her being the daughter of King García while recognising that none of the other possible origins appears viable[240].  The most obvious difficulty is chronological, as Jimena´s marriage date suggests that, if she was related to the early kings of Navarre, she probably belonged to the subsequent generation.  The reference in the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, to the alliance between King Alfonso and "Galiam simul cum Pampiloniam, causa cognacionis"[241] suggests an alternative possibility that Jimena may have been related to the dukes of Gascony, who maintained close relations with the kings of Pamplona as indicated by charter evidence.  "Adefonsus rex" confirmed donations to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 17 Aug 883, subscribed by "Exemena regina…"[242].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated property near Lanzada which had belonged to "Hermegildus filius Petri et uxor sua Yberia", who has rebelled against the king, to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 24 Jun 886, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Garsea, Hordonius, Froila"[243].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[244].  “Adefonsus Rex et Exemena Regina” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “II Non Mai” dated to 899[245].  King Alfonso III and his wife "Ximena regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 30 Nov 904, subscribed by "Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Ranimirus, Gundisalvus", presumably their sons although this is not stated in the document[246].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “uxore sua Xemena regina” was buried with her husband “Astoricæ” but that their bodies were transferred to “Oueto...sub aula sancte Marie Dey genitricis[247]

King Alfonso III & his wife had [nine] children: 

1.         GARCÍA ([871]-Zamora 19 Jan 914, bur [Oviedo]).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[248]The Historia Silense records that "filius eius Garsias" succeeded "rex Adefonsus" but died after three years[249].  The Chronicon Compostellani incorrectly names “Garsea” as son of King Ramiro I, adding that he reigned three years and one month[250].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated property near Lanzada which had belonged to "Hermegildus filius Petri et uxor sua Yberia", who has rebelled against the king, to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 24 Jun 886, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Garsea, Hordonius, Froila"[251].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[252].  King Alfonso III and his wife "Ximena regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 30 Nov 904, subscribed by "Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Ranimirus, Gundisalvus", presumably their sons although this is not stated in the document[253].  "Adefonsus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 28 Apr 909, subscribed by "Vimara Froilani, Garsea, Ordonius, Gundisalvus, Froila, Ranimirus, Dunninus"[254].  He was imprisoned by his father at Gozón, suspected of plotting a rebellion with his father-in-law[255].  He succeeded his father in 910 as GARCÍA I King of Asturias and León, based at León.  He led a successful expedition towards Toledo and Talavera in 911[256].  "Garsea princeps et Mumma domna regina" donated certain churches, including the church obtained by “tius noster domnus Nunnus de dato patris nostri”, to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 30 Aug 912, confirmed by “Ranimirus...[257].  "Garseas Rex…cum uxore mea Munia domina" donated certain towns to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 13 Oct 913[258].  "Garseani…rex…cum congugie mea Muma doma regina" donated certain the town of Mutarraf to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 13 May 923 (presumably misdated), confirmed by "Ranimirus, Urraca regina…Gutierre Memendiz, Sesebutus Petri…"[259].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "Garcias" died “morbo proprio Cemore” after reigning for three years and one month[260].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that he was buried “Oveti cum aliis regibus[261]m (before 910) [as her first husband,] MUNIADOMNA, daughter of [MUNIO Núñez "el de Castrogeriz" Conde en Castilla] & his wife [--- Rodríguez de Castilla] (-after 13 Oct 913, maybe after 4 Mar 921).  "Garsea princeps et Mumma domna regina" donated certain churches to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 30 Aug 912[262].  Her parentage is indicated by the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, which names "socer…eius [=Garsea] Nunio" when recording his rebellion, implying from the context of the passage that the marriage took place before her husband's accession[263].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) names García´s father-in-law “Munio Fredinandi[264].  From a chonological point of view, no suitable Munio Fernández has been identified among the condes en Castilla and it appears more likely that Muniadomna´s father was Nuño Muñoz.  "Garseas Rex…cum uxore mea Munia domina" donated certain towns to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 13 Oct 913[265].  "Garseani…rex…cum congugie mea Muma doma regina" donated certain the town of Mutarraf to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 13 May 923 (presumably misdated), confirmed by "Ranimirus, Urraca regina…Gutierre Memendiz, Sesebutus Petri…"[266].  Muniadomna may have married secondly Fernando Ansúrez Conde en Castilla.  Pérez de Urbel says that this second marriage is not certain but "suspected"[267]Fredinando Assuriz et uxor mea Momadonna et filio nostro Assur Fernandiz” donated “serna in locum...Riuo de Uena iusta ecclesie Sancte Eolalie” to San Pedro de Cardeña by charter dated 4 Mar 921, witnessed by “Assur, Obeco Nuniz, Tello...[268]

2.         ORDOÑO ([873]-Jan 924, bur Léon Santa María).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[269].  The Historia Silense records that "Ordonius frater regni" succeeded "Garsias"[270].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "King Ordoño" as the son of "King Alfonso and Jimena", when reporting his reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur[271].  He succeeded his father in Galicia in 910, and his brother in 914 as ORDOÑO II King of Asturias and León, at León. 

-        see below

3.         FRUELA ([875]-Jul 925).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[272].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated property near Lanzada which had belonged to "Hermegildus filius Petri et uxor sua Yberia", who has rebelled against the king, to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 24 Jun 886, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Garsea, Hordonius, Froila"[273].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[274].  King Alfonso III and his wife "Ximena regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 30 Nov 904, subscribed by "Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Ranimirus, Gundisalvus", presumably their sons although this is not stated in the document[275].  "Adefonsus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 28 Apr 909, subscribed by "Vimara Froilani, Garsea, Ordonius, Gundisalvus, Froila, Ranimirus, Dunninus"[276].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "King Fruela" as the son of "Alfonso and Jimena", when reporting his reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur, incorrectly naming his wife "Queen Mummadonna"[277].  He succeeded his father in Oviedo in 910, and his brother in 924 as FRUELA II "el Leproso" King of Asturias and León, at León.  "Froila" confirmed donations to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 17 Sep 924, subscribed by "Urraca regina"[278].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Fruela II died "morbo proprio" after reigning one year and two months[279].  His death from leprosy triggered a succession crisis[280].  García Álvarez cites an undated spurious charter in the Tumbo de Samos, which records that “la vila de Sáa en la valle de Armea, cerca de Sarria” had belonged to “doña Ildoncia, hija del rey Ramiro”, after whose death it passed “a su nepto Vermudo” who granted it to “su mujer Guntroda”, from whom it passed to “su sobrino Fruela, hijo del rey Alfonso” who gave it “al rey Ramiro” who granted it to “su hermana Auria y al conde Nepociano Díaz[281].  m firstly (before 911) NUÑILO Jimenez, [daughter of JIMENO Garces de Pamplona & his wife Sancha Aznárez de Larraún] (-after 25 Nov 913).  Risco records that her name is engraved on the agate ark, filled with precious relics, offered by her and her husband to the church of San Salvador de Oviedo in 911 (but he does not quote the inscription)[282].  Flórez quotes the inscription "Froyla et Nunilo cognomento Scemena"[283].  “Froyla Rex filius Adephonsi Regis et Xemenæ Reginæ” confirmed his father´s donations to Oviedo Cathedral by charter dated 25 Nov 913, confirmed by “Nunilo Regina, Gundisalvus archidiaconus Ovetensis sedis filius Adephonsi Regis et Xemene Reginæ, Ramirus frater Froilani Regis[284].  Risco states that she was born “en la reyno de Navarra”, but cites no primary source on which he bases the statement[285].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that Fruela II married “Muniam Domnam” by whom he had “filios...Adefonsum, Ordonium sive et Ranimirum[286]m secondly ([913]) --- binti Abdullah, daughter of ABDULLAH ibn Muhammad, Wali of Toledo, Head of the Banu Qasi family.  She was baptised URRACA on her marriage.  Ibn Hazm names "Muhammad…Musa…Fortun…Abd Allah…Urraka" as the children of "Abd Allah", adding that Urraca married "el rey Furuwila ibn Idfuns" by whom she was the mother of "Rudmir y Urdunni"[287].  Her origin is discussed by Salazar y Acha[288].  Her parentage is confirmed by Ibn Khaldun[289].  "Froila" confirmed donations to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 17 Sep 924, subscribed by "Urraca regina"[290].  “Urraca regina...Hordonius regis prolis...Fortis filius domni Froilanis...” confirmed the charter dated 15 Jul 925 under which King Fruela II donated the site of their monastery to "abbati Attanarico" and the monastery of San Andres de Pardomino[291].  A charter dated 976 records an inventory of transactions involving "Uilla Naptaulio" which was made by "Fredenandus Uermudizi et Giluyra", among which a charter of "domna Urraca regina et filios suos Ordonio et Ranimiro"[292].  King Fruela II & his [first/second] wife had [one] child: 

a)         ALFONSO (-932 or after).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that Fruela II married “Muniam Domnam” by whom he had “filios...Adefonsum, Ordonium sive et Ranimirum[293].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ramiro II invaded Asturias and captured “omnes filios Froylani: Adefonsum...Ordonium et Ramirum”, commenting that Alfonso had succeeded his father and reigned for seven years and seven months[294].  King of Asturias 925-932. 

King Fruela II & his second wife had [four] children: 

b)         ORDOÑO (-932).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that Fruela II married “Muniam Domnam” by whom he had “filios...Adefonsum, Ordonium sive et Ranimirum[295].  His parentage is corrected by the charter dated 976 which records an inventory of transactions involving "Uilla Naptaulio" which was made by "Fredenandus Uermudizi et Giluyra", among which a charter of "domna Urraca regina et filios suos Ordonio et Ranimiro"[296].  “Urraca regina...Hordonius regis prolis...Fortis filius domni Froilanis...” confirmed the charter dated 15 Jul 925 under which King Fruela II donated the site of their monastery to "abbati Attanarico" and the monastery of San Andres de Pardomino[297].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ramiro II invaded Asturias and captured “omnes filios Froylani: Adefonsum...Ordonium et Ramirum[298]

c)         RAMIRO (-932).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that Fruela II married “Muniam Domnam” by whom he had “filios...Adefonsum, Ordonium sive et Ranimirum[299].  His parentage is corrected by the charter dated 976 which records an inventory of transactions involving "Uilla Naptaulio" which was made by "Fredenandus Uermudizi et Giluyra", among which a charter of "domna Urraca regina et filios suos Ordonio et Ranimiro"[300].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ramiro II invaded Asturias and captured “omnes filios Froylani: Adefonsum...Ordonium et Ramirum[301]

d)         [EUDON (-after 924).  Risco records that “Doña Urraca Regina, Eudon, llamándose hijo del Rey D. Fruela, y Fortis con el mismo título” subscribed the charter dated 924 under which King Fruela donated “el lago...Katicas” to the monastery of San Andrés, but does not provide a citation for the document[302].  The name Eudon is atypical of the Asturian royal family, which suggests some doubt about the authenticity of the charter.  It is possible that Risco is referring to the same charter which follows: “Urraca regina...Hordonius regis prolis...Fortis filius domni Froilanis...” confirmed the charter dated 15 Jul 925 under which King Fruela II donated the site of their monastery to "abbati Attanarico" and the monastery of San Andres de Pardomino[303].  If that is correct, “Eudon” did not exist, as the document names the king´s son Ordoño (see above).  If Fortis and Eudon were really children of King Fruela II, as younger children they would presumably have been born from his second marriage, unless they were illegitimate.] 

e)         [FORTIS (-after 924).  “...Garsea Furtuniz, Flainus Didaci, Gisiuado maiordomus, Braulio, Lup iben Alcutia...Fortis prolis regis” confirmed the charter dated 8 Jan 917 under which King Ordoño II donated "locum...Perameno" to “confessoribus...Transmundo et Recesuindo[304].  Risco records that “Doña Urraca Regina, Eudon, llamándose hijo del Rey D. Fruela, y Fortis con el mismo título” subscribed the charter dated 924 under which King Fruela donated “el lago...Katicas” to the monastery of San Andrés, but does not provide a citation for the document[305].  It is possible that it refers to the same charter which follows: “Urraca regina...Hordonius regis prolis...Fortis filius domni Froilanis...” confirmed the charter dated 15 Jul 925 under which King Fruela II donated the site of their monastery to "abbati Attanarico" and the monastery of San Andres de Pardomino[306].  The name Fortis is atypical of the Asturian royal family, although reference has been found to Fortis Bishop of Astorga in a charter dated 925[307].  If Fortis and Eudon were really legitimate children of King Fruela II, as younger children they would presumably have been born from his second marriage.  This would mean that Fortis was a young child when he confirmed the charter dated 8 Jan 917.  One possibility is that his confirmation was added because he was destined for an ecclesiastical career at the monastery which was founded on the land donated in that charter (the position of his name at the end of the confirmation list indicating his junior position relative to the other confirmants), although confirmation of a charter at such a young age would still be unusual.  Another possibility is that, if Fortis was the son of King Fruela, he was illegitimate.]   

King Fruela II had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]: 

f)          [AZNARThe Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that Fruela II had “Azenarem, sed non ex legitimo conjugio[308]It is not known how accurate this information may be].    

4.         RAMIRO (-31 March 929, bur Oviedo Cathedral).  King Alfonso III and his wife "Ximena regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 30 Nov 904, subscribed by "Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Ranimirus, Gundisalvus", presumably their sons although this is not stated in the document[309].  "Adefonsus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 28 Apr 909, subscribed by "Vimara Froilani, Garsea, Ordonius, Gundisalvus, Froila, Ranimirus, Dunninus"[310].  "Garsea princeps et Mumma domna regina" donated certain churches, including the church obtained by “tius noster domnus Nunnus de dato patris nostri”, to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 30 Aug 912, confirmed by “Ranimirus...[311].  Titular King of León.  "Garseani…rex…cum congugie mea Muma doma regina" donated certain the town of Mutarraf to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 13 May 923 (presumably misdated), confirmed by "Ranimirus, Urraca regina…Gutierre Memendiz, Sesebutus Petri…"[312].  His death is commemorated in an inscription in the Cathedral of Oviedo, which names his father[313].  "Ranemirus rex et Uraca regina" donated "lacum…in berno Bustum…Uitalicum" to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 26 Jun 938 (presumably misdated)[314]m (before 23 Sep 926) URRACA, daughter of --- (-after 927).  "Garseani…rex…cum congugie mea Muma doma regina" donated certain the town of Mutarraf to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 13 May 923 (presumably misdated), confirmed by "Ranimirus, Urraca regina…Gutierre Memendiz, Sesebutus Petri…"[315].  She is named with her husband in his donation to the Cathedral of Oviedo dated 23 Sep 926.  She was present in the castle of Lara signing two charters as "Urraca regina" in 927, suggesting the affiliation of her daughter Muniadomna[316].  Salazar y Acha suggests that she was the same person as the second wife of Ramiro´s older brother King Fruela II, although he admits there is no proof that this is correct[317].  "Ranemirus rex et Uraca regina" donated "lacum…in berno Bustum…Uitalicum" to Eslonza monastery by charter dated 26 Jun 938 (presumably misdated)[318].  Ramiro & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [MUNIADOMNA (-after 5 Aug 935, bur Santa María de Lara)Pérez de Urbel suggests that Muniadomna, wife of Gonzalo Fernández, was the daughter of Ramiro de Asturias titular King of León, based on her supposed mother being present in the castle of Lara, which belonged to Muniadomna, when she witnessed two charters in 927.  He also points out the apparent corroboration from the naming of her second son after his supposed maternal grandfather.  Muniadomna is referred to as "comitissima", and her descendants referred to in Arab sources as the "Banu Muma" as a tribute to her exceptional character, which may also suggest an illustrious ancestry[319].  "Momadonna cometessa" donated property to the monastery of Santa María de Lara, confirmed by her sons "Fredinando Gundisalviz, Ramiro Gundisalviz", by charter dated 28 Jan 929[320].  "Momadonna cometessa" donated property in Valzalamio to the monastery of Cardeñas with her son "Fredinando Gundisalviz", her son's wife "Sancia" and their sons "Gundesalvuz Fernandez, Sanzio Fernandez" by charter dated 5 Aug [935/38][321]m GONZALO Fernández de Lara, son of FERNANDO Muñoz de Castilla "Niger/él de Castrosiero" & his wife Gutina Díaz (-after 916, bur Cereso de Río Tirón).] 

5.         GONZALO (-[920]).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[322].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[323].  King Alfonso III and his wife "Ximena regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 30 Nov 904, subscribed by "Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Ranimirus, Gundisalvus", presumably their sons although this is not stated in the document[324].  "Adefonsus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 28 Apr 909, subscribed by "Vimara Froilani, Garsea, Ordonius, Gundisalvus, Froila, Ranimirus, Dunninus"[325].  "Hordonius rex" exchanged "Ocia…et…Cella" with Santiago de Compostela for "Lancara…in territorio Lucense secus flumen Neira", previously donated by "germanus noster Gundisaluus", by charter dated 17 Jan 916[326].  Abbot at Oviedo.  King Ordoño II exchanged property “quod germanus noster Gundisalvuus ad obitum suum” with Sobrado by charter dated 27 Feb 922[327]

6.         [three daughters .  The Historia Silense records that "rex Adefonsus" married "uxorem ex regali Gotice gentis natione nomine Xemenam" when he was 21 years old and had six sons and three daughters[328].  Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, states that Lucas de Tuy records these three daughters but adds that he found no trace of them in the monastery´s archives[329].] 

 

 

The precise relationship between the following person and the family of the kings of Asturias has not yet been ascertained: 

1.         URRACA (-after 19 Feb 969).  “Geloira” [identified as Elvira daughter of King Ramiro II] granted “villas...Kampos circa Kastro Ardon” to “tio nostro Azenari Purizelliz et uxori uestre Urraka” by charter dated 19 Feb 969[330].  It is more probable that Urraca, rather than her husband, was related to the kings of Asturias, her name suggesting descent from the second wife of King Fruela II.  m ([before 969]) AZNAR Purcélliz, son of PURCELLO & his wife --- (-after 18 Jan 977). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of LEON 914-1037

 

 

ORDOÑO de Asturias, son of ALFONSO III "el Magno" King of Asturias, Galicia and León & his wife Jimena García de Pamplona ([873]-Jan 924, bur Léon Santa María).  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Pampilona…uxorem ex illorum prosapia generis…Xemena” by whom he had “filios...Garseanum, Ordonium, Froilanum et Gundisalvum qui archidiaconus ecclesie Ovetensis fuit[331]"Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated property near Lanzada which had belonged to "Hermegildus filius Petri et uxor sua Yberia", who has rebelled against the king, to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 24 Jun 886, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Garsea, Hordonius, Froila"[332].  "Adefonsus rex et Exemena regina" donated "ecclesiam sce. Marie…in villa…Arenosium" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Jul 893, subscribed by "Exemena regina, Veremudus, Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Gundisaluus"[333].  The Historia Silense records that "Ordonius frater regni" succeeded "Garsias"[334].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "King Ordoño" as the son of "King Alfonso and Jimena", when reporting his reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur, but mistakenly names his wives "Mummadonna and Sancha"[335].  He was brought up by Muhammad ibn Lubb, of the Banu Qasi family, with whom his father maintained close relations[336].  King Alfonso III and his wife "Ximena regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 30 Nov 904, subscribed by "Garsia, Ordonius, Froila, Ranimirus, Gundisalvus", presumably their sons although this is not stated in the document[337].  "Adefonsus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 28 Apr 909, subscribed by "Vimara Froilani, Garsea, Ordonius, Gundisalvus, Froila, Ranimirus, Dunninus"[338].  He succeeded his brother in 914 as ORDOÑO II King of León, at León.  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that Ordoño came "ex partibus Gallecie" on his accession, implying that he had been ruler in Galicia, presumably from the death of his father[339].  He consolidated the establishment of León as the new capital of his realm with many new constructions.  He captured Evora in 913, massacring the Muslim population including the Muslim Governor in the mosque[340].  He defeated Abd al-Rahman III Emir of Córdoba at San Esteban de Gormaz 4 Sep 917, and together with Sancho García King of Pamplona he reconquered Rioja in 918, taking Nájera, Tudela, Calahorra and Arnedo.  "Ordonius rex et Giloria regina" donated el Coto de Valdueza to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes by charter dated 24 Apr [918][341].  He suffered reverses with the Muslim counter-offensive in 920, defeated by Emir Abd al-Rahman at Valdejunquera[342].  King Ordoño II exchanged property “quod germanus noster Gundisalvuus ad obitum suum” with Sobrado by charter dated 27 Feb 922[343].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ordoño II died "progediens de Çemora morbo proprio" after reigning “in pace” for nine years and six months and was buried “in aula sancte Marie virginis sedis Legionensis[344].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Ordonius frater eius [Garsea]” reigned nine years and six months[345]

[m firstly ---.  This possible, otherwise unrecorded, first marriage is suggested by a charter dated 21 Feb 897 which records that "Gondesindus prolis Erus et Adosinda" accepted as his wife "Enderquina conmento Pala filia dux Menemdus Gutierizi et Ermesinda iermana de domna Geluira regina que fuit mulier de Ordonius rex mater Ranemirus principe"[346].  If King Ordoño II´s recorded wife Elvira Ménendez had been the mother of his children Sancho and Alfonso, his first and second sons according to the order of their names in other sources which are quoted below, it is unlikely that the king´s third son Ramiro would have been singled out for mention as the son of Elvira in this charter.  Another possibility is that the document was created later, after the succession of Ramiro as king in 931, and that the author considered that he was the only son of Elvira who was worth mentioning.]  

m [firstly/secondly] ([890/900]) ELVIRA Menéndez, daughter of conde HERMENEGILDO Gutiérrez & his wife Ermesinda Gatóniz (-[8 Sep/Oct] 921).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 21 Feb 897 which records that "Gondesindus prolis Erus et Adosinda" accepted as his wife Elvira´s sister "Enderquina conmento Pala filia dux Menemdus Gutierizi et Ermesinda iermana de domna Geluira regina que fuit mulier de Ordonius rex mater Ranemirus principe"[347].  This document, if correctly dated, also provides an indication of the approximate date of her marriage.  “Hordonius Rex ac Gelvira Regina” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “IV Kal Feb” dated to 915[348].  Elvira´s parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 16 Aug 929 under which “Adefonsus rex” granted the government of various commisas to “tio nostro domno Gutierre”, who was her son[349].  "Ordonius rex et Giloria regina" donated el Coto de Valdueza to the monastery of San Pedro de Montes by charter dated 24 Apr [918][350].  "Ordonius princeps et uxor Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 25 May 920, subscribed by their children "Sanzo, Adefonso principi, Ranemiro, Xemena"[351].  "Hordonis rex et Gilvira regina" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Eugenia de Calaberas by charter dated 20 Feb 921, subscribed by "Sanzo prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Scemena, Garsea"[352].  "Ordonius rex et Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 1 Mar 921, subscribed by "Sanzio prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Froila"[353].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the death of "reginam dominam Geluiram" after "rex…Ordonius" enjoyed a series of victories against the Muslims, capturing the castles of "Sarmalon, Eliph, Palmacio, et Castellon, et Magnanza"[354]

m [secondly/thirdly] (Feb 922, divorced 922) ARAGONTA González, daughter of conde GONZALO Betótiz & his wife Teresa Ériz (-956).  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the second marriage of "rex…Ordonius" and "uxorem ex partibus Gallicie nomine Agaruntum" who was repudiated by the king[355].  “Aragonti” donated property to the monastery of Carboeiro, for the soul of “domini et viri mei Hordonii principis”, by charter dated 20 Nov 929, affirmed after her death by “Arianem episcopo” who calls the donor “tie nostre…domne Aragonti regine[356].  Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated to [956] which records the settlement of property disputes relating to “el territorio de Salnés” and names “domno Gundisalbus dux comite et…comitesa domna Tarasia…comite domno Pelagio prolis Gundisalbizi et illa regina domna Aragonta sororem suam…comitessa domna Elduara[357]

m [thirdly/fourthly] (Mar 923) as her first husband, SANCHA Sánchez de Navarra, daughter of SANCHO I Garces King of Navarre & his second wife Toda Aznárez de Larraún (after 900-[9 Jun 952/26 Dec 955]).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Sancha married "Ordonii imperatoris, postea…Albaro Harramelliz de Alaba, demumque…Fredenando comitis"[358].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the marriage of "regis Garsiani [error for Sanchi]…filiam suam…Sanciam" and King Ordoño II, dateable to 923 from the context of the passage[359]She married secondly ([924]) Álvaro Herraméliz Conde en Álava, and thirdly ([932]) Fernán González Conde de Castilla (-Jun 970). 

King Ordoño II & his [first] wife had two children:

1.         SANCHO Ordóñez ([890/93] or later-after 10 Jun 929).  As discussed above, a charter dated 21 Feb 897 suggests that King Ordoño II´s sons Sancho and Alfonso may not have been born from the king´s known wife Elvira Menéndez.  Sancho´s birth date range is estimated on the basis of this charter, which names his younger brother Ramiro, although as noted above there is a possibility that the document was a later creation and that the date should not be considered significant in assessing the dates of birth of King Ordoño´s children.  "Ordonius princeps et uxor Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 25 May 920, subscribed by their children "Sanzo, Adefonso principi, Ranemiro, Xemena"[360].  "Hordonis rex et Gilvira regina" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Eugenia de Calaberas by charter dated 20 Feb 921, subscribed by "Sanzo prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Scemena, Garsea"[361].  "Ordonius rex et Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 1 Mar 921, subscribed by "Sanzio prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Froila"[362].  "Taion" donated property given "Ordonio rege et Gelvira regina" to Sahagún by charter dated 10 Mar 921, subscribed by the king's children "Sancius, Adefonsus, Ranemirus, Garsia, Xemena"[363].  King [of Galicia].  "Sancius...rex" donated “Bustum...latere montis Luanie...Varganum” to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 25 Aug 927, subscribed by “Gundisaluus Betoniz, Gundesindus Eroni, Gundulfus Odori, Spasandus, Froila Menendiz, Guther Osoriz, Ordonius, Nunius Osorici, Arias Alvitiz, Cresconius[364].  A charter dated 23 Dec 927 records that “principum domni Santii et domni Adefonsi, domni Ordonii principis proles” presided over the restoration of the monastery of Santa María de Loyo[365].  “Santius rex et Goto regina” granted property to Odoario by charter dated 20 Feb 928[366].  “Santius rex et Goto regina” granted property to Odoario by charter dated 20 Feb 928[367].  “Ansuario” donated property to “domino nostro et…rex domno Santius…Gallecie princeps…et domina nostra…Goto regina” by charter dated 10 Jun 929[368]m (before 927) GOTO Muñoz, daughter of conde MUNIO Gutiérrez & his wife Elvira Arias (-after 1 Mar 963).  “Sancius...Domini Ordonii genitus” granted property to the church of Santiago by charter “XI Kal Dec” dated to 927, confirmed by “Goto Regina[369].  “Santius rex et Goto regina” granted property to Odoario by charter dated 20 Feb 928[370].  “Ansuario” donated property to “domino nostro et…rex domno Santius…Gallecie princeps…et domina nostra…Goto regina” by charter dated 10 Jun 929[371].  "Ranimirus rex" donated "la villa de Pinies en tierra de Salnés", which "genitore nostro dive memorie domino Ordonio principi" had granted to "congermano nostro Munius Gutierri", to "cognate nostre domine Gotho regina et Deo vota…in cenobio Castrello" by charter dated 947[372]La reina y confesa Goto, hija de Munio” donated property “situado bajo la ´Penna Polumbaria´, en el puerto de Pombeiro” to the monastery of San Vicente de Pombeiro (Lemos) by charter dated 1 Mar 963[373]

2.         ALFONSO ([891/94] or later-[Aug 933]).  As discussed above, a charter dated 21 Feb 897 suggests that King Ordoño II´s sons Sancho and Alfonso may not have been born from the king´s known wife Elvira Menéndez.  Alfonso´s birth date range is estimated on the basis of this charter, which names his younger brother Ramiro, although as noted above there is a possibility that the document was a later creation and that the date should not be considered significant in assessing the dates of birth of King Ordoño´s children.  "Ordonius princeps et uxor Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 25 May 920, subscribed by their children "Sanzo, Adefonso principi, Ranemiro, Xemena"[374].  "Hordonis rex et Gilvira regina" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Eugenia de Calaberas by charter dated 20 Feb 921, subscribed by "Sanzo prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Scemena, Garsea"[375].  "Ordonius rex et Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 1 Mar 921, subscribed by "Sanzio prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Froila"[376].  "Taion" donated property given "Ordonio rege et Gelvira regina" to Sahagún by charter dated 10 Mar 921, subscribed by the king's children "Sancius, Adefonsus, Ranemirus, Garsia, Xemena"[377].  Following a period of internal conflict after the death of King Fruela II[378], he succeeded in 925 as ALFONSO IV “el Monje” King of León.  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that, after the death of King Fruela II, "Adefonsus filius domni Ordonii" succeeded as king[379].  A charter dated 23 Dec 927 records that “principum domni Santii et domni Adefonsi, domni Ordonii principis proles” presided over the restoration of the monastery of Santa María de Loyo[380].  King Alfonso IV donated “villam...in ualle de Couellas loco...ad Fonte Incalata” to "domno Cixilano episcopo" and the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 9 Oct 928, confirmed by “Onneca regina...[381].  King Alfonso IV donated “senra...in ueica de Stola” to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 15 Mar 930, confirmed by “Honneca regina, Ranemirus, Titon Lucidi, Guttiher Menendiz, Pelagio Tetoni, Sarracenus Nunnizzi, Didaco Romanizzi...Guttiher Osoriz[382].  King Alfonso IV donated “aquam...propriam de flumine Porma in loco...ad illum Rotarium” to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 11 Apr 931, confirmed by “Honnega regina, Ranimirus frater regis[383]Internal disorders continued[384], until finally he abdicated in [Jul/Aug] 931, and became a monk at the monastery of Sahagún[385].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that “fratre suo Ramiro” captured the kingdom from King Alfonso IV who was sent "ad monasterium in locum...Domnis Sanctis super crepidinem aluey Ceie" but briefly reclaimed the kingdom after leaving the monastery[386]m (923) ONECA Sánchez de Navarra, daughter of SANCHO I García King of Navarre & his first wife Toda Aznárez de Larraún (-[Jun] 931).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Oneca married "Adefonsi regis Legionensis"[387].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Xemena” by whom he had “Ordonium malum[388].  "Sancius rex…cum coniux mea Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 5 Jan 925, confirmed by "…Garsea eiusdem principis filius, Enneca eiusdem principis filia, Belaschita eiusdem principis filia…"[389].  King Alfonso IV donated “villam...in ualle de Couellas loco...ad Fonte Incalata” to "domno Cixilano episcopo" and the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 9 Oct 928, confirmed by “Onneca regina...[390].  King Alfonso IV donated “senra...in ueica de Stola” to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 15 Mar 930, confirmed by “Honneca regina...[391].  King Alfonso IV donated “aquam...propriam de flumine Porma in loco...ad illum Rotarium” to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 11 Apr 931, confirmed by “Honnega regina, Ranimirus frater regis[392]King Alfonso IV & his wife had two children: 

a)         ORDOÑO ([926]-962, bur Córdoba).  The Codex de Roda names "Ordonii" as the child of "Adefonsi regis Legionensis" and his wife Oneca, stating that he died "in Cortoba"[393].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Adefonsus filius Domini Ordonii” married “Xemena” by whom he had “Ordonium malum[394].  “Hordonius prolis regis, Sancius prolis regis, Rudericus Uelasquiz, Hordonius prolis domni Adefonsi regis” confirmed the charter dated 13 Jun 950 under which Bishop Rosendo agreed territorial boundaries with the inhabitants of Villaza[395].  He was installed as ORDOÑO IV "el Jorobado/el Malo" King of León in 958 after his cousin King Sancho I was deposed.  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "Ordonium…Adefonsy regis filium" succeeded to the throne after King Sancho I was expelled by "omnes…magnates regni…cum Ferdinando Burgensium comitte"[396].  “Hordonius...cum coniuge mea Urracha” donated “comissum de Presares” to Sobrado by charter dated 13 Nov 958[397].  He was expelled by ex-King Sancho, allied with García III Sánchez King of Navarre and Caliph Abd al-Rahman III, fleeing to Asturias in 960[398].  He was expelled from Burgos by Fernán González Conde de Castilla, recently liberated from captivity in Navarre.  He sought refuge with Ghalib bin Abd al-Rahman at Medinaceli, and later in Córdoba where he convinced Caliph Al-Hakam II to provide military support for his restoration in León.  The caliph withdrew his support after King Sancho I sent ambassadors to Córdoba, and King Ordoño died soon after[399]m (before 13 Nov 958) as her second husband, URRACA Fernández de Castilla, widow of ORDOÑO III King of León, daughter of FERNANDO González Conde de Castilla & his first wife Sancha Sánchez de Navarra (-after 1007).  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the marriage of "Ordonius filius regis" and "filiam Fredenandi…Urracam", from the context dated to the reconciliation of King Ramiro II and Conde Fernando after the latter's rebellion[400], which is dated to [943/44] by Torres[401].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, which records that "Ordonium…Adefonsy regis filium" married "Ferdinando Burgensium comitte…filiam suam…relictam ab Ordonio Ramiri filio"[402].  “Hordonius...cum coniuge mea Urracha” donated “comissum de Presares” to Sobrado by charter dated 13 Nov 958[403].  She married thirdly ([962]) Sancho II García Abarca King of Navarre (after 935-Dec 994).  "Urraca regina", signing directly after "Sancio rex", witnessed the 24 Nov 978 document recording the consecration of her supposed niece Urraca at the monastery of Covarrubias[404]. She became a nun after the death of her third husband. 

b)         FRUELA (-after 29 Aug 975).  “...Froila confessor et filius domni Adefonsi regis...” subscribed the charter dated 13 Nov 958 under which “Hordonius...cum coniuge mea Urracha” donated “comissum de Presares” to Sobrado[405].  “Froylanem” donated “villa...Sancto Tyrso territorio Ceruanie” to Celanova by charter dated 973, subscribed by “...Froylani prolis Adefonsi regis, Hermegildus Pelaiz frater eius, Arias prolis Pelagi et diaconum eiusque frater, Gunterodis Deo uota eiusque soror, Velascus Ostofrediz, Aragonti Deo uota eiusdem, Tarasia Deo uota sororis eius...[406].  A charter dated 29 Aug 975 records a dispute between “infantem domini Froylani prolix Adefonsi principis dive memorie” and the monastery of Samos concerning “ecclesia Sancta Maria et Sanctum Felicem...ad Laurario territorio Lausata” and the donation in settlement[407]

King Ordoño II & his [first/second] wife had [four] children:

3.         RAMIRO ([before 21 Feb 897]-1 Jan 951, bur San Salvador de León)His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 21 Feb 897 which records that "Gondesindus prolis Erus et Adosinda" accepted as his wife Elvira´s sister "Enderquina conmento Pala filia dux Menemdus Gutierizi et Ermesinda iermana de domna Geluira regina que fuit mulier de Ordonius rex mater Ranemirus principe"[408].  This document, if correctly dated, also provides an indication of Ramiro´s date of birth, although, as noted above, it is possible that the charter was a later production, in which case his name may have been added only to provide another reference point.  "Ordonius princeps et uxor Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 25 May 920, subscribed by their children "Sanzo, Adefonso principi, Ranemiro, Xemena"[409].  He succeeded his brother in 931 as RAMIRO II King of León.   

-        see below

4.         JIMENA (-[935]).  "Ordonius princeps et uxor Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 25 May 920, subscribed by their children "Sanzo, Adefonso principi, Ranemiro, Xemena"[410].  "Hordonis rex et Gilvira regina" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Eugenia de Calaberas by charter dated 20 Feb 921, subscribed by "Sanzo prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Scemena, Garsea"[411].  "Taion" donated property given "Ordonio rege et Gelvira regina" to Sahagún by charter dated 10 Mar 921, subscribed by the king's children "Sancius, Adefonsus, Ranemirus, Garsia, Xemena"[412].  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 6 Jan 935 under which “Scemena” named “genitores mei…domni Hordoni principis et domne Geloire” and confirmed a grant to “coniermanus meus Froilanem filius Guttier et Ilduare[413]

5.         GARCÍA (-after 21 Feb 934).  "Hordonis rex et Gilvira regina" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Eugenia de Calaberas by charter dated 20 Feb 921, subscribed by "Sanzo prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Scemena, Garsea"[414].  "Ordonius rex et Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 1 Mar 921, subscribed by "Sanzio prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Froila"[415].  The name "Fruela" could have been a mistake for "Garcia" or could refer to the king's brother Fruela, although it appears that the other names refer to the sons of King Ordoño.  "Taion" donated property given "Ordonio rege et Gelvira regina" to Sahagún by charter dated 10 Mar 921, subscribed by the king's children "Sancius, Adefonsus, Ranemirus, Garsia, Xemena"[416].  "Ranimirus rex Hordonii quondam…principis proles…cum…domino Urraca regina" confirmed the privileges of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 21 Feb 934, subscribed by "Ordonius filius regis, Garsea frater regis…"[417]

6.         [AURIA ).  García Álvarez cites an undated spurious charter in the Tumbo de Samos, which records that “la vila de Sáa en la valle de Armea, cerca de Sarria” had belonged to “doña Ildoncia, hija del rey Ramiro”, after whose death it passed “a su nepto Vermudo” who granted it to “su mujer Guntroda”, from whom it passed to “su sobrino Fruela, hijo del rey Alfonso” who gave it “al rey Ramiro” who granted it to “su hermana Auria y al conde Nepociano Díaz[418].  The marriage is possibly corroborated by the following charter: King Ramiro II granted “hereditatem de homicidanes de uilla Matella qui occiderunt suprino nostro Odoario Didazi” to "Hermegildus" by charter dated 19 Dec 937[419].  The precise relationship between King Ramiro and Odoario Díaz has not been ascertained.  If the king´s sister married Nepociano Díaz, Odoario may have been the grandson of the couple, son of a possible son Diego who would have been named after his paternal grandfather.  It is emphasised that this is speculative.  m conde NEPOCIANO Díaz, son of [DIEGO Gómez & his wife ---] (-[after 28 Jan [929]]).] 

 

 

RAMIRO de León, son of ORDOÑO II King of León & his [first/second wife ---/Elvira Menéndez] ([before 21 Feb 897]-1 Jan 951, bur San Salvador de León)His parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 21 Feb 897 which records that "Gondesindus prolis Erus et Adosinda" accepted as his wife Elvira´s sister "Enderquina conmento Pala filia dux Menemdus Gutierizi et Ermesinda iermana de domna Geluira regina que fuit mulier de Ordonius rex mater Ranemirus principe"[420]This document, if correctly dated, also provides an indication of Ramiro´s date of birth, although, as noted above, it is possible that the charter was a later production, in which case his name may have been added only to provide another reference point.  "Ordonius princeps et uxor Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 25 May 920, subscribed by their children "Sanzo, Adefonso principi, Ranemiro, Xemena"[421].  "Hordonis rex et Gilvira regina" confirmed the possessions of the monastery of Santa Eugenia de Calaberas by charter dated 20 Feb 921, subscribed by "Sanzo prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Scemena, Garsea"[422].  "Ordonius rex et Gelvira regina" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 1 Mar 921, subscribed by "Sanzio prolis regis, Adefonsus, Ranimirus, Froila"[423].  "Taion" donated property given "Ordonio rege et Gelvira regina" to Sahagún by charter dated 10 Mar 921, subscribed by the king's children "Sancius, Adefonsus, Ranemirus, Garsia, Xemena"[424].  King Alfonso IV donated “senra...in ueica de Stola” to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 15 Mar 930, confirmed by “Honneca regina, Ranemirus...[425].  King Alfonso IV donated “aquam...propriam de flumine Porma in loco...ad illum Rotarium” to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián by charter dated 11 Apr 931, confirmed by “Honnega regina, Ranimirus frater regis[426]He succeeded his brother in 931 as RAMIRO II King of León.  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that “fratre suo Ramiro” captured the kingdom from King Alfonso IV who was sent "ad monasterium in locum...Domnis Sanctis super crepidinem aluey Ceie" but briefly reclaimed the kingdom after leaving the monastery[427].  King Ramiro II donated "vilarem…Simplici iusta flumen Uernisicam" to "Seuerus abba et Paterna" by charter dated 18 Jul 932[428].  "Ranimirus…princeps" confirmed the possessions of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Nov 932, subscribed by "Veremudus regis filius, Hordonius regis filius…"[429].  He defeated the troops of Abd al-Rahman III Caliph of Córdoba at Osma in 933[430].  However, the Caliph counter-attacked and, following the humiliating peace imposed on the kingdom of Navarre in 934, and the sack of Burgos in Castile, defeated King Ramiro and forced him to agree a position of neutrality while the Muslims besieged Zaragoza in 935[431].  "Ranimirus rex Hordonii quondam…principis proles…cum…domino Urraca regina" confirmed the privileges of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 21 Feb 934, subscribed by "Ordonius filius regis, Garsea frater regis…"[432].  King Ramiro succeeded in defeating the caliph's troops at Alhandega/al-Khandaq, near Simancas in 939, allied with Fernán González Conde de Castilla and Queen Toda regent of Navarre[433].  The victory increased the prestige of King Ramiro who was able to increase the territory of León into the valley of Tormes, repopulating Salamanca and Ledesma with Christian settlers, and agree a peace treaty with the caliph[434].  “Ranimirus…rex” donated property to Celanova by charter dated 11 Aug 941, confirmed by “Hurraca regina, Hordonius prolis regis, Santius prolis regis[435].  "Ranimirus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 29 Mar 945, subscribed by "Veremudus rex proles Adefonsi principis, Ordonius proles regis, Sancius frater Ordonius proles regis, Osorio Munniz, Assur Fernandiz, Aurelius Baroncelli"[436].  "Ranimiro rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 3 Apr 945, subscribed by "Hordonius prolis regis, Sanczius frater Hordonius prolis regis, Veremudus rex prolis Adefonsi principis"[437].  “Ranimirus rex et Urracha regina et prolis eius Ordonius regis” donated "villa...Perales et Volpiare et Villa Rezmiro secundum obtinuit illas Gundisalbo Moniz" to Vega by charter dated 24 Sep 946, confirmed by “...Sanzius filius regis, Gelvira prolis regis et Deo vota...[438].  "Veremudus rex prolis Adefonsi principis" has not been identified from these two charters.  Although Muslim forces made considerable advances in Galicia from 947, King Ramiro was again victorious at Talavera in 950[439].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ramiro II died after reigning 19 years and two months, and was buried "iuxta ecclesiam sancti Salvatoris, ad cimiterium"[440].  According to Ibn-Khaldun, Ramiro died in [20 Jun 950/8 Jun 951][441].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium reports the reburial of "King Ramiro", son of "Ordoño and Mummadonna" (this name of his mother being shown to be incorrect by the other sources quoted above), in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur, incorrectly naming his wife "Teresa"[442]. 

m firstly ([925], divorced 930) his first cousin[443], ADOSINDA Gutiérrez, daughter of conde GUTIERRE Osórez & his wife Aldonza Menéndez (-after 941).  The Codex de Roda records that "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila" had "alia uxore Galliciensis" but omits her name[444].  “Solarius Guttiheriz, Roderico Guttiherriz, Hosorius Guttiheriz, Froyla Guttiherriz, Gunterodes abbatissa, Adosinda olim regina, Giluira confessa…” confirmed the charter dated 9 Jan 941 under which “Guttierr et Yldonzia…cum filiis filiabusque nostris” donated property to Celanova[445]

m secondly ([932/34]) URRACA Sánchez de Navarra, daughter of SANCHO I García King of Navarre & his second wife Toda Aznárez de Larraún (-23 Jun 956, bur Oviedo Cathedral).  The Codex de Roda names "Garsea rex et domna Onneca et domna Sanzia et domna Urraca…domna Belasquita, necnon et domna Orbita" as the children of "Sanzio Garseanis" and his wife "Tota Asnari", stating that Urraca married "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila"[446].  Her marriage is indicated by the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, which records that Sancho, son of King Ramiro II, challenged the succession of King Ordoño III together with "avunculo suo…Garsiano rege Pampilonensium", on the assumption (as explained below) that the passage indicates that the second wife of King Ramiro was Sancho's mother[447].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Ranimirus…Rex” and “Tarasia Regina cognomento Florentina” had “Ordonium, Sanctium et Geloiram[448].  "Ranimirus rex Hordonii quondam…principis proles…cum…domino Urraca regina" confirmed the privileges of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 21 Feb 934, subscribed by "Ordonius filius regis, Garsea frater regis…"[449].  “Vrrache regina, Veremudus prolis regis, Ordonius prolis regis...” confirmed the charter dated 25 Jun 934 under which King Ramiro II donated "locum...Apeliare super ripam...Torio" to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián[450].  “Ranimirus…rex” donated property to Celanova by charter dated 11 Aug 941, confirmed by “Hurraca regina, Hordonius prolis regis, Santius prolis regis[451].  “Ranimirus rex et Urracha regina et prolis eius Ordonius regis” donated "villa...Perales et Volpiare et Villa Rezmiro secundum obtinuit illas Gundisalbo Moniz" to Vega by charter dated 24 Sep 946, confirmed by “...Sanzius filius regis, Gelvira prolis regis et Deo vota...[452].  Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, records that a memorial in Oviedo Cathedral records the death of Queen Urraca 23 Jun 956[453]

King Ramiro II & his first wife had two children:

1.         VERMUDO (-after 18 Nov 937).  [Gundesindus Froiani et comyti...Ranimirus...princeps, Frunymius, Hordonius prolis regis, Uirmundus Nunniz, Froyla Uigilaniz” confirmed the charter dated 22 Apr 932 under which “Benedicti presbiter cognomento Pascale et mater mea Coreiscia” donated “villa...Matella et alius terras in Morella suburbio territorio Legionense...[454].  “Frunymius” in the subscription list of this document has not been identified.  His name follows King Ramiro II and before Ordoño, presumed to be the son of King Ramiro.  This position in the list suggests that he held a prominent position in the royal family.  It is possible that “Frunymius” represents a mistranscription of some sort and that he was an older child of King Ramiro, the phrase “prolis regis” (although it is in the singular) applying both to him and Ordoño.  If that is correct, he may have been the same person as Vermudo.]  "Ranimirus…princeps" confirmed the possessions of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Nov 932, subscribed by "Veremudus regis filius, Hordonius regis filius…"[455].  “Vrrache regina, Veremudus prolis regis, Ordonius prolis regis...” confirmed the charter dated 25 Jun 934 under which King Ramiro II donated "locum...Apeliare super ripam...Torio" to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián[456].  "Veremudus prolis regis, Froila Gotierriz" subscribed the charter dated 18 Nov 937 under which "Elduara" donated property to Lorvão[457]

2.         ORDOÑO ([926]-Zamora [30 Aug/13 Nov] 956, bur San Salvador de León)The Codex de Roda names "Ordonii regis" as the son of "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila" and "alia uxore Galliciensis"[458].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Ranimirus…Rex” and “Tarasia Regina cognomento Florentina” had “Ordonium, Sanctium et Geloiram[459].  The date of King Ordoño´s marriage suggests that he was born from his father´s first marriage and provides the basis for estimating his birth to [926].  He succeeded his father in 951 as ORDOÑO III King of León

-        see below

King Ramiro II & his second wife had two children:

3.         SANCHO (-murdered Dec 966).  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio rex et domna Gilbira Deuo vota" as the children of "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila" and his wife Urraca[460].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Ranimirus…Rex” and “Tarasia Regina cognomento Florentina” had “Ordonium, Sanctium et Geloiram[461].  “Ranimirus…rex” donated property to Celanova by charter dated 11 Aug 941, confirmed by “Hurraca regina, Hordonius prolis regis, Santius prolis regis[462].  "Ranimirus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 29 Mar 945, subscribed by "Veremudus rex proles Adefonsi principis, Ordonius proles regis, Sancius frater Ordonius proles regis, Osorio Munniz, Assur Fernandiz, Aurelius Baroncelli"[463].  “Ranimirus rex et Urracha regina et prolis eius Ordonius regis” donated "villa...Perales et Volpiare et Villa Rezmiro secundum obtinuit illas Gundisalbo Moniz" to Vega by charter dated 24 Sep 946, confirmed by “...Sanzius filius regis, Gelvira prolis regis et Deo vota...[464].  "Garsea rex…cum genitrice Tuta regina" donated property to the monastery of San Martín de Albelda by charter dated 22 Nov 947, witnessed by "Santius Ranimiri regis filius…"[465].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "frater…eius…Sancius" challenged the succession of King Ordoño III with "avunculo suo…Garsiano rege Pampilonensium, necnon Fredenandus Gundissalui Burgensium comes" and succeeded in expelling his brother from León[466].  Sancho is generally shown in secondary sources as the son of his father's first wife.  However, this passage in the Crónica de Sampiro indicates that Sancho was the son of his father's second marriage, as García III King of Navarre would then have been Sancho's maternal uncle.  This relationship would also explain the alliance with Fernando González Conde de Castilla, who was married to the sister of King García III, and also why Sancho later sought refuge in Navarre following his expulsion from León.  This speculation is assumed to be correct until a further source is identified which names his father's first wife as Sancho's mother.  “Hordonius prolis regis, Sancius prolis regis, Rudericus Uelasquiz, Hordonius prolis domni Adefonsi regis” confirmed the charter dated 13 Jun 950 under which Bishop Rosendo agreed territorial boundaries with the inhabitants of Villaza[467].  He succeeded his brother in 956 as SANCHO I “el Craso” King of León.  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "frater eius Santius, Ramiri filius" peacefully succeeded to the throne on the death of King Ordoño III in "era DCCCCXCIII"[468].  Faced with King Sancho's unwillingness to renew his predecessor's peace agreement with the caliph, the latter launched another campaign against León in 957.  In 958 Galician nobles dissatisfied with his rule deposed King Sancho in favour of his cousin King Ordoño IV.  He sought refuge in Navarre, where he was cured of his obesity by the Jewish doctor Yusuf Hasday ben Sahprut.  Allied with García III Sánchez King of Navarre and Caliph Abd al-Rahman III, he took Zamora in 959, forced King Ordoño IV to flee to Asturias and retook the throne in 960[469].  "Sanctius rex" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 26 Apr 960, confirmed by "Tarasia, Gilvira Ranimiri prolis"[470].  After his rival ex-King Ordoño IV convinced Caliph Al-Hakam II to provide military support for his restoration in León, King Sancho sent ambassadors to the caliph and persuaded him to withdraw his support in return for accepting the caliph's suzerainty.  After ex-King Ordoño died later in 962, King Sancho reneged on his pact with the caliph and made an alliance with the conde de Castilla, the king of Navarre and the conde de Barcelona[471].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "Gundissalvus…dux…ultra flumen Dorii" poisoned Sancho I King of León who was trying to exact tribute[472].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "King Ordoño…and King Sancho" as the sons of "King Ramiro", when reporting their reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur[473].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Sancius” reigned 12 years[474]m (before 26 Apr 960) TERESA Ansúrez, daughter of conde ANSUR Fernández & his wife Gontroda [Núñez] (-after 997).  One manuscript of the Crónica de Sampiro records that “Rex Sancius” married “Tarasiam” by whom he had “filium…Ranimirum[475].  The Historia Silense names "Teresa regina" as mother of King Ramiro III[476].  “Assur Fredinandiz comes et uxor mea Guntroda cum filiis nostris” donated “fontem...Aderata in termino de Sacramenia” to San Pedro de Cardeñas by charter dated 26 Dec 943, witnessed by “Fredinando Assuriz, Obeco Assuriz, Munio Assuriz, Osorio Munnioz...Guttier Assuriz, Gundisalbo Assuriz...[477].  The version of this charter reproduced by Berganza includes a different subscription list: "Ramirus Rex, Domna Toda, Fernandus Assuriz filius comitis, Oveco Assuriz, Munio Assuriz, Nuno Assuriz, Guter Assuriz, Gonzalo Assuriz, Domna Taresa filia comitis…"[478].  "Alfonsus…Hispaniæ Rex…cum conjuge mea regina Domina Berengaria", by undated charter, confirmed the different territories contributed by "Anrricus et Nunio Ansurez…suo germano Ferdinando Ansurez qui erat comite in Monteson…Gundisalus Ansurez…sua germana Domina Tarasia Regina et Rex Ramiro qui erat in Legione…" towards the foundation of the monastery of Santa María de Husillos dated 17 Sep 950[479].  "Sanctius rex" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 26 Apr 960, confirmed by "Tarasia, Gilvira Ranimiri prolis"[480].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Teresa" as the wife of "King Sancho", when reporting their reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur[481].  Ranemirus...rex...cum amita et nutrice mea Geloira deodicata...et genitrice Tarasia deouota” donated “de comitatu de Mera III, de Nallare IV...et Parriga media et IV de comitato Nemitos” to Sobrado by charter dated 17 Sep 968[482].  “Ranemirus rex...cum genitrice mea Tarasia regina et Christi ancilla” confirmed the donation of “Parriga media...Mera media, quarta in Nallare, quarta in Nemitos, media Marzola, Vendurio medio” to Sobrado by charter dated 18 Jul 978[483]After her son's defeat, she took refuge in Oviedo where she arranged her grandson's marriage with the son of Queen Velasquita, also exiled in Oviedo[484].  King Sancho I & his wife had one child: 

a)         RAMIRO de León ([961]-León 984).  One manuscript of the Crónica de Sampiro records that “Rex Sancius” married “Tarasiam” by whom he had “filium…Ranimirum[485].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "filius eius Ramirus…annos quinque" succeeded on the death of King Sancho I in "era MV", under the regency of "amite sue domne Geluire"[486].  He succeeded his father in 966 as RAMIRO III King of León, under the regency of his aunt Elvira Ramírez[487].  “Giluira…prolis…regis…cum suprino meo…principe domno Ranemiro, soboli…Sanctionis” donated property to Celanova by charter dated 1 Jan 968, confirmed by “…Veremudus…princeps, prolis Ordonii regis…[488]Ranemirus...rex...cum amita et nutrice mea Geloira deodicata...et genitrice Tarasia deouota” donated “de comitatu de Mera III, de Nallare IV...et Parriga media et IV de comitato Nemitos” to Sobrado by charter dated 17 Sep 968[489]"Ranimiro rex et Gelbira reina domna" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 11 May 971"[490].  The kingdom of León was further weakened during his reign, with a drastic contraction of its frontiers as a result of Muslim advances.  His rule was challenged by his cousin Vermudo, later King Vermudo II, which resulted in a bitter civil war in León lasting from 982 to 985[491].  He is referred to as "Ranimirus flavius princeps magnus basileus" in a donation to the monastery of Sahagún dated 1 May 974[492], although it is doubtful whether King Ramiro used such pretentious titles indicating that the document is probably spurious[493].  “Ranemirus rex...cum genitrice mea Tarasia regina et Christi ancilla” confirmed the donation of “Parriga media...Mera media, quarta in Nallare, quarta in Nemitos, media Marzola, Vendurio medio” to Sobrado by charter dated 18 Jul 978[494].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ramiro died at León after reigning for sixteen years[495].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Ranemirus filius eius [Sancii]” reigned 15 years[496]m (before Jan 979) SANCHA [Urraca] ---, daughter of --- (-after 983, bur [Oviedo]) Pérez´s history of Sahagún monastery, published in 1782, quotes a document dated 980 in the monastery´s archives which names "Ranimirus Rex sedis Legionensem cum uxore sua Sanctia Regina"[497].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Ranimirus Rex” married “Urraca” who was buried “Oveti[498].  According to secondary sources, she was Sancha Gómez, daughter of Gómez Díaz Conde de Saldaña & his wife Muña Fernández.  The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.   King Ramiro III & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [ORDOÑO Ramírez ([980/84]-[1017/24]).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that "Infanta Cristina" married "the son of the Infante Ramiro, the Infante Ordoño, who was blind"[499].  It is uncertain how accurate this report can be.  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis names "Adefonsum…Ordonium, Pelagiam comitissam et Eldonciam" as the children of "Christina…ex infante Ordonio cœco filio Ramiri regis"[500].] 

-         CASTILE NOBILITY, AZA

4.         ELVIRA Ramírez (-[986]).  The Codex de Roda names "Sanzio rex et domna Gilbira Deuo vota" as the children of "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila" and his wife Urraca[501].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Ranimirus…Rex” and “Tarasia Regina cognomento Florentina” had “Ordonium, Sanctium et Geloiram[502].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Ramiro II dedicated "monasterium intra urbem Legionensem…in honore sancti Salvatoris, iuxta palacium regis" to "filiam suam Geluiram"[503].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "filius eius Ramirus" succeeded on the death of King Sancho I in "era MV", under the regency of "amite sue domne Geluire"[504].  If it is correct, as shown above, that King Sancho was the son of King Ramiro II's second marriage, the appointment of Elvira as regent for Sancho's infant son suggests that she was Sancho's full sister.  Nun at the monastery of San Salvador de León.  “Ranimirus rex et Urracha regina et prolis eius Ordonius regis” donated "villa...Perales et Volpiare et Villa Rezmiro secundum obtinuit illas Gundisalbo Moniz" to Vega by charter dated 24 Sep 946, confirmed by “...Sanzius filius regis, Gelvira prolis regis et Deo vota...[505].  "Sanctius rex" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 26 Apr 960, confirmed by "Tarasia, Gilvira Ranimiri prolis"[506].  She was regent of León for her nephew King Ramiro III from 966-975[507].  “Giluira…prolis…regis…cum suprino meo…principe domno Ranemiro, soboli…Sanctionis” donated property to Celanova by charter dated 1 Jan 968, confirmed by “…Veremudus…princeps, prolis Ordonii regis…[508]Ranemirus...rex...cum amita et nutrice mea Geloira deodicata...et genitrice Tarasia deouota” donated “de comitatu de Mera III, de Nallare IV...et Parriga media et IV de comitato Nemitos” to Sobrado by charter dated 17 Sep 968[509]"Giloira Ranimiri principis filia" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 4 Apr 970[510].  She adopted the title "Queen Elvira" as shown by the joint donations with King Ramiro III to the monastery of Sahagún.  "Ranimiro rex et Gelbira reina domna" donated property to the monastery of Sahagún by charter dated 11 May 971[511].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Queen Elvira…the Chaste" as the daughter of "Ramiro and Teresa", when reporting her reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur[512]. 

 

 

ORDOÑO de León, son of RAMIRO II King of León & his first wife Adosinda Gutiérrez ([926]-Zamora [30 Aug/13 Nov] 956, bur San Salvador de León).  The Codex de Roda names "Ordonii regis" as the son of "domni Ranimiri regis, frater Adefonsi regis et Froila" and "alia uxore Galliciensis"[513].  The Crónica de Sampiro (interpolated, España Sagrada edition) records that “Ranimirus…Rex” and “Tarasia Regina cognomento Florentina” had “Ordonium, Sanctium et Geloiram[514].  The date of King Ordoño´s marriage suggests that he was born from his father´s first marriage and provides the basis for estimating his birth to [926].  "Ranimirus…princeps" confirmed the possessions of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Nov 932, subscribed by "Veremudus regis filius, Hordonius regis filius…"[515].  "Ranimirus rex Hordonii quondam…principis proles…cum…domino Urraca regina" confirmed the privileges of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 21 Feb 934, subscribed by "Ordonius filius regis, Garsea frater regis…"[516].  “Vrrache regina, Veremudus prolis regis, Ordonius prolis regis...” confirmed the charter dated 25 Jun 934 under which King Ramiro II donated "locum...Apeliare super ripam...Torio" to the monastery of San Cosme and San Damián[517].  “Ranimirus…rex” donated property to Celanova by charter dated 11 Aug 941, confirmed by “Hurraca regina, Hordonius prolis regis, Santius prolis regis[518].  "Ranimirus rex" donated property to Sahagún by charter dated 29 Mar 945, subscribed by "Veremudus rex proles Adefonsi principis, Ordonius proles regis, Sancius frater Ordonius proles regis, Osorio Munniz, Assur Fernandiz, Aurelius Baroncelli"[519].  “Ranimirus rex et Urracha regina et prolis eius Ordonius regis” donated "villa...Perales et Volpiare et Villa Rezmiro secundum obtinuit illas Gundisalbo Moniz" to Vega by charter dated 24 Sep 946, confirmed by “...Sanzius filius regis, Gelvira prolis regis et Deo vota...[520].  “Hordonius prolis regis, Sancius prolis regis, Rudericus Uelasquiz, Hordonius prolis domni Adefonsi regis” confirmed the charter dated 13 Jun 950 under which Bishop Rosendo agreed territorial boundaries with the inhabitants of Villaza[521].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "filius eius Ordonius" succeeded King Ramiro II in "era DCCCCLXXXVIII"[522].  He succeeded his father in 951 as ORDOÑO III King of León.  His succession was challenged by his brother Sancho.  Caliph Abd al-Rahman's troops launched further raids against Galicia and Castile between 953 and 955, but were defeated by Fernán González Conde de Castilla near San Esteban de Gormaz in 955.  In 955, King Ordoño sacked Lisbon and was able to impose an advantageous peace on the caliph[523].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the death of King Ordoño in "urbe Zamora" and his burial "iuxta aulam sancti Salvatoris iuxta sarchofagum patris sui Ramiri regis"[524].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "King Ordoño…and King Sancho" as the sons of "King Ramiro", when reporting their reburial in light of the threatened invasion of the kingdom of León and Asturias by Al-Mansur, incorrectly naming his wife "Elvira"[525].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Ordonius” reigned five years and seven months[526]

m ([944 or after], [repudiated [952/53], reconciled before 8 Jun 954]) as her first husband, URRACA Fernández de Castilla, daughter of FERNANDO González Conde de Castilla & his first wife Sancha Sánchez de Navarra (-after 1007).  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records the marriage of "Ordonius filius regis" and "filiam Fredenandi…Urracam", from the context dated to the reconciliation of King Ramiro II and Conde Fernando after the latter's rebellion[527], which is dated to [943/44] by Torres[528].  “Ordonius…in Regno…cum conjuge Urraca Regina” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “XV Kal Iun” dated to 952[529]Pérez de Urbel records that Urraca was not named with her husband in charters dated 5 Dec 952 and 11 Jul 953, but is named with him in charters dated 8 Jun 954, 15 Jun 954, 12 Oct 954, 10 Mar 955, 15 Apr 955, 11 May 956, 13 May 956 and 30 Aug 956[530]She married secondly (before 13 Nov 958) her first husband's first cousin, Ordoño IV "el Malo" King of León.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, which records that "Ordonium…Adefonsy regis filium" married "Ferdinando Burgensium comitte…filiam suam…relictam ab Ordonio Ramiri filio"[531].  "Hordonius…cum coniuge mea Urracha" donated property to Santiago by charter dated 18 Nov 958, subscribed by "Froila confesor et filius Adephonsi regis…"[532].  She married thirdly ([962]) Sancho II García Abarca King of Navarre.  "Urraca regina", signing directly after "Sancio rex", witnessed the 24 Nov 978 document recording the consecration of her supposed niece Urraca at the monastery of Covarrubias[533]. She became a nun after the death of her third husband. 

[Mistress (1) ([952/54]) [---] [Peláez, daughter of PELAYO González & his wife Ermesinda Gutiérrez].  There are indications that Urraca Fernández was not the mother of Vermudo, son of King Ordoño III.  However, the matter is not without doubt and, if correct, the identity of his mother is open to debate.  An interpolation in the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the España Sagrada edition of the Chronicon, records that “Rex Ordonius” left (“reliquit”) his wife “Urracam filiam...comitis Fredinandi” and married “aliam…uxorem…Geloiram” by whom he had “Veremundum Regem, qui podagricus [“with gout”] fuit[534].  This passage is not found in the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, which as noted in the Introduction to the present document probably represents the most authentic surviving version of that source[535].  The editor of the España Sagrada does not identify the origin of this particular interpolation, although he highlights generally the later influence of Pelayo Bishop of Oviedo in adding text to the original manuscript of the Crónica de Sampiro.  King Ordoño´s known wife Urraca Fernández is named with the king in charters until 952 and also between 8 Jun 954 and 30 Aug 956 (see above), which shows that their marriage was never terminated and that this reported second union with “Geloiram”, if it did take place, must have been an informal arrangement amounting to no more than concubinage.  The difficulty with this interpolated passage is that some commentators have focused on the validity of the “marriage”, at the expense of the main issue which is the identity of Vermudo´s mother.  Martínez Díez assumes that the second marriage did not occur, but comments that “a pesar de la poca credibilidad que ha merecido el falsario Pelayo” the “invención” has been accepted by many Spanish historians since Flórez[536]He notes that Emilio Sáez considered that King Vermudo III was the legitimate son of Ordoño III by his wife Urraca Fernández, and so rejected the possibility of this supposed second union[537]More recently, Justiniano Rodríguez Fernández has also accepted that Vermudo was King Ordoño´s legitimate son, suggesting that “la invención” of this second “marriage” arose from the “interpretación viciosa del término ‘relicta’ que el Silense aplicó a la reina [Urraca Fernández] en la acepción de ‘viuda’”[538]He is referring to the Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, which records the second marriage of Urraca Fernández: "Ordonium…Adefonsy regis filium" and "Ferdinando Burgensium comitte…filiam suam…relictam ab Ordonio Ramiri filio"[539].  Numerous examples have been identified during the preparation of Medieval Lands in which “relictam” indicates widowhood without any hint of previous marital separation.  However, the difficulty with Rodríguez Fernández´s interpretation is that the passage in the Crónica de Sampiro reads “relictam ab Ordonio Ramiri filio” rather than “relictam Ordonio [more strictly, Ordonionis] Ramiri filii”: the “ab” suggests that King Ordoño III was more actively involved in “leaving” his wife than simply by dying.  The passage in question, therefore, is not inconsistent with King Ordoño having left his wife for a period of temporary separation, during which he formed a second union to which his son was born.  This appears to be the line taken by Sánchez-Albornoz, who rejected the possibility of the king´s second marriage to Elvira but admitted that King Vermudo II “pudiera ser ilegitimo de madre desconocida[540]

Justo Pérez de Urbel took the question one step further by highlighting plausible charter evidence which indicates a possible alternative ancestry of King Vermudo mother[541].  He refers to three documents.  Firstly, the charter dated 5 Jan 999 under which King Vermudo donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo de Carboeiro, for the souls of “abii mei divæ memoriæ comes dominus Gundisalbus...et...uxori...coniuncta comitissa domina Tarasia[542].  The couple “comes dominus Gundisalbus...et...uxori...coniuncta comitissa domina Tarasia” are identified as Conde Gonzalo Betótiz and his wife Teresa Eriz, who lived in the late 9th/early 10th century and the birth of whose children is estimated to the early part of the 10th century (see the document GALICIA NOBILITY).  Yepes noted the couple as founders of San Lorenzo de Carboeiro by charter dated 936, although he does not cite the primary source[543].  This couple do not feature in the ancestry of Urraca Fernández and so it appears impossible for them to have been King Vermudo´s “abii” if she was Vermudo´s mother.  The chronology of Conde Gonzalo´s life indicates that “abii” could not in this document be interpreted in its strict sense of grandparents.  However, if the word indicates more remote ancestry, it would be chronologically possible for King Vermudo´s mother to have been the granddaughter of Conde Gonzalo.  Secondly, Pérez de Urbel cites the charter dated 29 Jun 997 under which King Vermudo II donated property “ad Septentrione plaga, per latus, montis Villara...” to the monastery of San Vicente de Pombeiro, and confirmed donations made by “...amica [amita?] nostra domina Teresia...”, the document being subscribed by “...Teresia Deo dicata...[544].  No aunt or great-aunt of King Vermudo named Teresa has been identified in the paternal side of his family.  However, thirdly, Pérez de Urbel cites a charter dated 973 under which Froylanem” donated “villa...Sancto Tyrso territorio Ceruanie” to Celanova, subscribed by “...Hermegildus Pelaiz frater eius, Arias prolis Pelagi et diaconum eiusque frater, Gunterodis Deo uota eiusque soror...Aragonti Deo uota eiusdem, Tarasia Deo uota sororis eius...[545].  He identifies the donor and the five subscribers as six children of Pelayo González, who was the son of Conde Gonzalo Betótiz.  In particular, he suggests that “Tarasia Deo uota” in the 973 charter was the same person as “[amita] nostra...Teresa...Teresia Deo dicata” in the 29 Jun 997 charter.  In light of these three documents, Pérez de Urbel suggests that King Vermudo´s mother was a daughter of Pelayo González and his wife Ermesinda Gutiérrez.  He suggests that King Ordoño´s rupture with Urraca Fernández may have coincided with a breakdown in relations between the kingdom of León and the county of Castile, during which time the king sought new alliances in Galicia and may even have formed a personal relationship with a Galician noblewoman[546]

One remaining issue is the question of the name of King Ordoño´s supposed mistress.  If there is some grain of truth in the interpolated Crónica de Sampiro, she may have been called ELVIRA, although this is not a name which features in the known family of Conde Gonzalo Betótiz until later generations.  It is also possible that King Vermudo´s mother was one of Pelayo´s daughters who are named in the 973 charter quoted above, GONTRODA or ARAGONTA, either of whom may have become a nun after the birth of an illegitimate son (the daughter named Teresa is of course excluded as, consistent with Pérez de Urbel´s hypothesis, she would have been Vermudo´s maternal aunt).  A last possibility is that Vermudo´s mother was a different, otherwise unrecorded, daughter who may have died soon after Vermudo´s birth and left no trace in the surviving documentation.]   

King Ordoño III had one child, either by his wife, or born illegitimate to Mistress (1): 

1.         VERMUDO de León ([953]-Sep 999).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that "Vermudo the son of Ordoño" succeeded as king after the death of King Ramiro III[547].  He succeeded in 985 as VERMUDO II "el Gotoso" King of León

-        see below

 

 

VERMUDO de León, [illegitimate] son of ORDOÑO III King of León & [his wife Urraca Fernández de Castilla] or [his mistress --- Peláez] ([953]-El Bierzo Sep 999, bur Villabuena, later transferred to León[548]).  An interpolation in the Crónica de Sampiro records that “Rex Ordonius” abandoned (“reliquit”) his wife “Urracam filiam...comitis Fredinandi” and married “aliam…uxorem…Geloiram” by whom he had “Veremundum Regem, qui podagricus [“with gout”] fuit[549].  His paternal ancestry is confirmed by the charter dated 26 Nov 990 under which King Vermudo confirmed donations to the monastery of Carracedo, including the donations made “villam Sellina...patris mei domini Ordoni” and by “avus nostri donus Ranemirus...ad monasterium sanctæ Mariæ de Taulo[550].  The question of  his mother´s identity is discussed above under the possible mistress of his father King Ordoño.  “…Veremudus…princeps, prolis Ordonii regis…” confirmed the charter dated 1 Jan 968 under which “Giluira…prolis…regis…cum suprino meo…principe domno Ranemiro, soboli…Sanctionis” donated property to Celanova[551].  This charter indicates that, at that date, Vermudo was a fully integrated member of the royal family despite his possible illegitimacy, and may have been considered as next in line to the throne.  He succeeded in 985 as VERMUDO II "el Gotoso" King of León.  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that "Vermudo the son of Ordoño" succeeded as king after the death of King Ramiro III[552].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "Veremudus Ordinii filius" returned to León after the death of King Ramiro III and succeeded "pacifice", adding that he was “vir satis prudens” and introduced laws “a Vambano principe[553].  King Vermudo is described as "foolish and a tyrant in everything he did" in the Chronicon Regum Legionensium[554], which contrasts with the more sympathetic picture of the king in the Historia Silense[555].  He allied himself with García Fernández Conde de Castilla, whose daughter he married, but Muslim advances under al-Mansur continued.  García Gómez Conde de Saldaña rebelled against him in 988.  Gonzalo Vermúdez rebelled in 989 and in 993 succeeded in temporarily expelling King Vermudo from León.  In 995, al-Mansur attacked León and destroyed Santa María de Carrión.  King Vermudo sought refuge in Astorga, from where he was obliged to offer annual tribute[556].  In 997, King Vermudo took advantage of al-Mansur's absence campaigning in North Africa to suspend payment of the tribute, but León was subjected to devastating campaigns of revenge by Muslim forces which established a garrison at Zamora[557].  King Vermudo II donated property “ad Septentrione plaga, per latus, montis Villara...”, defined in relation to “termino de Papelli...Bacarii, quam inter uxor meus Froylani Regis filius...ad fratrem Recaredus anacoreta...testauit amica nostra domina Teresia...quod fuit de amica nostra regina domina Geluira a diue memorie”, to the monastery of San Vicente de Pombeiro by charter dated 29 Jun 997, confirmed by “Ordonius filius Regis, Adefonsus Parbulus filius Regis...Geluira Regina...Froyla Gumsalbiz, Bestario Bimarace, Teresia Deo dicata, Froyla Menendici, Arias Fernandici...[558].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that King Vermudo died "secundo anno post azeifam terra Bericensi proprio morbo" after reigning for seventeen years[559].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that King Vermudo was struck down with gout and "was carried from place to place on the shoulders of humble men", and died "in the Bierzo and was buried in Villabuena, and after several years he was translated to León", after reigning for seventeen years, a later passage recording that he died "in the era 1037 (999)"[560].  The Chronicon del Salterio, dated to 1055, records the death "V f[eri]a M stbr era TXXXVII" of "dmi Veremudi regis"[561].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Veremudi, Ordonii filius” reigned 17 years[562]

m firstly (before 11 Oct 981, repudiated after 24 Dec 988) VELASQUITA ---, daughter of --- (-after 15 Aug 1028).  "Veremudus prolix Ord. Rex, Velasquita uxor ipsius" are named in a charter of Samos dated 11 Oct 981[563].  Velasquida regina” confirmed a charter dated 29 Sep 985 under which King Vermudo II donated property to Celanova[564].  “Velasquita regina” confirmed a charter dated 24 Dec 988 under which King Vermudo II donated property to Celanova[565].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Velasquita" as the first legitimate wife of King Vermudo, specifying that he "divorced while she was living"[566].  Her parentage is not known, nor has any source been identified which specifies her patronymic.  The problem has been discussed in detail by García Álvarez[567].  Various hypotheses have been proposed:

According to Sandoval, Velasquita was the daughter of Ordoño IV “el Malo” King of León by his wife Urraca Fernández de Castilla, but he cites no primary source on which he bases this statement[568].  The hypothesis is repeated by Salazar y Castro, also without citing any primary source[569].  If it is correct, King Vermudo must have been born illegitimate as his father would have been the first husband of the same Urraca Fernández. 

Flórez suggests that Velasquita was the daughter of García Fernández Conde de Castilla: he quotes a charter dated 1006 in which Velasquita donated property to Oviedo Cathedral, naming "suprino et privigno meo Regi Adefonso" [Alfonso V King of León, son of King Vermudo´s second marriage], and suggests that the only way of explaining “suprino” is if Velasquita was the sister of Vermudo´s second wife[570].  However, it is uncertain that “suprino” can be interpreted in all cases in the strict sense of nephew.  An example of a wider interpretation of the words which normally indicate specific family relationships is provided by the charter dated 6 Aug 1031 under which King Vermudo III names "tia mea Urraca regina Garseani regis filia"[571], which clearly refers to his stepmother.  In addition, the charter dated 4 Oct 1032, under which King Vermudo III exchanged “villa Lapeto qui fuit de abia mea regina domna Velasquita” with “comes Pelagio Froilaz et uxor vestra comitissa Ildontia Ordoniz[572], indicates, if read literally, that Velasquita was the mother of King Alfonso V, which the unfavorable chronology suggests is incorrect and is also contradicted by the Chronicon Regum Legionensium which names "Alfonso and Teresa" as the children of King Vermudo and his wife Elvira.  García Álvarez also suggests that “suprino” in the 1006 charter could indicate a relationship in the second or third degree[573]

According to Risco, Velasquita was the daughter of Ramiro II King of León: he quotes an epitaph in León Cathedral which records “Velasquita regina prolis Ranimiri”.  He assumes that “Ranimiri” indicates one of the kings of León, concludes that King Ramiro II is the only possibility (bearing in mind the chronological impossibility of the text referring to Ramiro III), and assumes that King Vermudo must therefore have been separated from his first wife for reasons of consanguinity[574].  García Álvarez considers that the total absence of references in the sources to this suggested parentage would be inexplicable if the hypothesis was correct, and also points out the chronological difficulty because King Ramiro II died in 951[575] (and in addition married secondly in [932/34]).  The hypothesis also appears unlikely as it would mean that King Vermudo married his own great-aunt. 

The editor of the Libro Registro de Corias proposed that Velasquita was the daughter of King Ramiro III[576].  García Álvarez quotes an undated charter of Corias under which “Dompna Cara” donated “uillam de Azeliana” to “Ordonio Radimiriz, fratri regine domne Velasquide, et filio regis Radimiriz[577].  He notes that Sánchez Candeira demonstrated convincingly the impossibility that Velasquita was the sister of Ordoño Ramírez, and in addition cites another charter of Corias dated 1084, under which the same donor donated other property, which throws extreme doubt on the authenticity of the earlier charter[578].  Whatever the other merits of the argument, it is chronologically impossible considering that the birth of King Ramiro III is dated to [961]. 

García Álvarez, on the basis that Velasquita´s father was named Ramiro as indicated by the León Cathedral epitaph quoted above, suggests that she was the daughter of Ramiro Menéndez[579].  If that hypothesis is correct, she was Velasquita Ramírez, daughter of conde Ramiro Menéndez & his wife Adosinda Gutiérrez.  This parentage is also suggested because she is cited with her supposed mother in [981/88][580].  However, the indications adduced by García Álvarez appear circumstancial.  The other difficulty is why Vermudo would have married the daughter of a relatively obscure Galician nobleman, who was the third son of his parents. 

Torres records that, after her repudiation, Velasquita took refuge in Oviedo where she arranged her daughter's marriage with the son of Queen Sancha Gómez, who was also exiled in Oviedo[581].  Queen Velasquita granted “la villa de Eiras” to “Félix Agelaz” by charter dated 15 Aug 1028[582]

m secondly (991) ELVIRA García de Castilla, daughter of GARCÍA Fernández Conde de Castilla & his wife Ava de Ribagorza (-Dec 1017).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Elvira" as the second legitimate wife of King Vermudo[583].  Her parentage is confirmed by Ibn-Khaldun who records King Alfonso V as "petit-fils par sa mère du seigneur d´Alava Garcia Fernandez"[584].  Regent of León 999-1007 during the minority of her son Alfonso V.  "Geluira Regina…cum filio meo Adefonso Rex" donated property "ad villam de Paramo" to the church of León by charter dated 12 Nov 1000 which she signed "Gelvira Regina prolis Garseani et Avæ"[585].  "Giloira regina" confirmed the donation of serfs "in valle Castelle" made by "vir meus domnus Veremudus rex", for the soul of "filii mei regis dni Adefonsi", by charter dated 8 Jul 1001[586].  She became a nun in 1007.  "Geloira regina" donated property to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Aug 1017, subscribed by "Adefonsus princeps, Sancia proles Ueremudi, Tarasia proles Ueremudi, Geloira proles Ueremudi…"[587].  The Chronicon del Salterio, dated to 1055, records the death "V f[eri]a M stbr era TXXXVII" of "dmi Veremudi regis" and "uxor eius Gelbire era TLV"[588]

Mistress (1): [VELASQUITA, daughter of MANTELLO & his wife Bellala ---.  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "a country girl named Velasquita, who was the daughter of Mantello and Bellalla from Miero near Monte Copián [filia Mantelli et Vellalæ de Meres iuxta montem Coptianem]" as the mother of King Vermudo's daughter Cristina[589].  As noted below, there is confusion in this source between Queen Velasquita, King Vermudo´s first wife and mother of his daughter Cristina, and this possible mistress.  It is possible that this “country girl...Velasquita” never existed and that she was invented in order to blacken the name of the repudiated queen.  If this is correct, the origin of the name “Mantello” is not known.] 

King Vermudo II & his first wife had one child:  

1.         CRISTINA de Léon (-before 1051).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Infanta Cristina" as the daughter of King Vermudo II by "a country girl named Velasquita, who was the daughter of Mantello and Bellalla from Miero near Monte Copián", stating that she married "the son of the Infante Ramiro, the Infante Ordoño, who was blind"[590].  Other sources indicate that this report must be incorrect.  Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada names “Velasquitam” as first wife of King Vermudo II and their daughter “Christinam Infantem”, adding that she married “Ordonio Cæco filio Ranimiri Regis[591].  The charter dated 31 May “era quinquagesima decima secunda super milessimam” [1062?=1024], under which “Christina” donated property to the monastery of San Salvador de Corneliana founded by her and “viro et Dno nostro dive memoriæ Dno Ordonio”, is confirmed (signing first among the subscribers) by “Velasquita regina...[592].  It is unclear why the queen, ex-wife of King Vermudo II, would have subscribed the document unless she had been the donor´s mother.  If that is correct, the Chronicon may reflect an attempt to blacken Queen Velasquita’s name, first launched after her divorce and later repeated in this source.  Cristina is recorded as dead in a document of Oviedo cathedral dated 1051[593]m ORDOÑO Ramírez de León, son of RAMIRO III "Flavio" King of León & his wife Sancha Gómez ([980/84]-[1017/24]). 

King Vermudo II & his second wife had [four] children:

2.         SANCHA de León (-after 27 Jan 1030).  "Geloira regina" donated property to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Aug 1017, subscribed by "Adefonsus princeps, Sancia proles Ueremudi, Tarasia proles Ueremudi, Geloira proles Ueremudi…"[594].  "…Giloira deouota, Sancia, Tarasia deouota…" subscribed the charter dated 15 Nov 1028 under which "Ueremudus proles Adefonsi principis et Geluire regine" donated "villam meam…Cordario que fuit avorum et parentum meorum Menendi et dne Tote" to Santiago de Compostela[595].  "Sancia et Tarasia filie Ueremudi principis et Geloire, xristi ancille" donated "villam nostram…in territorio Carnote in littore maris ubi fluvius Tamaris se infudit in mare" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 27 Jan 1030[596].  A nun at San Pelayo de Oviedo. 

3.         TERESA de León ([992]-25 Apr 1039, bur San Pelayo de Oviedo)The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Alfonso and Teresa" as the children of King Vermudo and his wife Elvira, stating that Teresa was married, by her brother after their father died, to "a certain pagan king of Toledo for the sake of peace, although she was herself unwilling"[597].  According to the same source, her husband died immediately after consummating the marriage, as his wife had predicted, having ordered her to be returned to León with sumptuous gifts.  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that, after her return, she became a nun at San Pelayo de Oviedo where she was buried[598].  The sources are contradictory regarding the identity of Teresa´s husband.  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records that King Alfonso “inito consilio nobiles regni” (which suggests that the marriage took place during the king´s minority) married "Tharasiam sororem Regis Adefonsi" to "Abdella Rex Toletanus"[599].  According to the 14th century Ibn-Khaldun, in 993 King Vermudo sent "sa fille à Almanzor" who enslaved her but later freed and married her[600].  Cotarelo, analysing the chronology of the interactions between the kings of León and Al-Mansur in the late 10th/early 11th centuries, concludes that “no hay...posibilidad de que el rey Don Bermudo entregase su hija a [Almanzor][601].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium refers to Al-Mansur and his son in a passage which immediately follows the text which recounts Teresa's marriage, without making the link between the two[602].  "Geloira regina" donated property to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Aug 1017, subscribed by "Adefonsus princeps, Sancia proles Ueremudi, Tarasia proles Ueremudi, Geloira proles Ueremudi…"[603].  "Tarasia proles Ueremudi principis et xristi ancilla" donated property in León to Santiago de Compostela, for the soul of "genitricis mee dive memorie dne. Giloire regine", by charter dated 1 Mar 1028[604].  "…Giloira deouota, Sancia, Tarasia deouota…" subscribed the charter dated 15 Nov 1028 under which "Ueremudus proles Adefonsi principis et Geluire regine" donated "villam meam…Cordario que fuit avorum et parentum meorum Menendi et dne Tote" to Santiago de Compostela[605].  "Sancia et Tarasia filie Ueremudi principis et Geloire, xristi ancille" donated "villam nostram…in territorio Carnote in littore maris ubi fluvius Tamaris se infudit in mare" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 27 Jan 1030[606].  Her epitaph records the death at the convent of Oviedo 25 Apr 1039 of "Tarasia Christo dicata, proles Beremundi regis et Geloiræ reginæ"[607].  [m ([999/Aug 1002]) ABDULLAH King of Toledo, son of ---, or m ([999/Aug 1002]) polygamously, MUHAMMAD bin Abi Amir "al-Mansur/the Victorious" Regent of Córdoba, son of --- (-10 Aug 1002).] 

4.         ALFONSO de León (996-killed in battle Viseu 4 Jul or 7 Aug 1028, bur San Juan de León).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Alfonso and Teresa" as the children of King Vermudo and his wife Elvira[608].  He succeeded his father in 999 as ALFONSO V King of León.   

-        see below

5.         [ELVIRA (-[after 15 Nov 1028]).  "Geloira regina" donated property to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Aug 1017, subscribed by "Adefonsus princeps, Sancia proles Ueremudi, Tarasia proles Ueremudi, Geloira proles Ueremudi…"[609].  It is likely that all four subscribers were the children of the donor, although no corroboration has been found that, in the case of Elvira, this is correct.  "…Giloira deouota, Sancia, Tarasia deouota…" subscribed the charter dated 15 Nov 1028 under which "Ueremudus proles Adefonsi principis et Geluire regine" donated "villam meam…Cordario que fuit avorum et parentum meorum Menendi et dne Tote" to Santiago de Compostela[610].] 

King Vermudo II had six illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

6.          PELAYO Vermúdez ([970/80]-7 Aug, after 1006).  "Pelagius prolix regis Beremuti…" subscribed a charter dated 998 under which "Beremutus…Princeps…cum coniuge mea Geloira regina" donated the monastery of St Cosmas and St Damian at Nestoso to the bishop of Asturias[611].  The dating of this charter suggests that Pelayo cannot have been from his father´s second marriage.  It is unlikely that he was born from his father´s first marriage as there is no record of his having claimed the throne after his father died.  Pelayo must therefore have been illegitimate, presumably born in [970/80].  Ibn-Khaldun records that King Vermudo sent "son fils Pélage" to "Man ibn Abdalaziz le gouverneur de la Galice" and that together they went to Córdoba where they agreed peace before Pelayo returned to his father (the event therefore being dated to before 999)[612].  “...Pelagius proles Beremundi regis...” subscribed the charter dated 5 Jan 999 under which King Vermudo II donated property to the monastery of San Lorenzo de Carbonario, for the souls of “abii mei divæ memoriæ comes dominus Gundisalbus...et...uxori...coniuncta comitissa domina Tarasia[613].  The necrology of León Cathedral records the death “VII Id Aug” of “Pelagius filius Ueremudi principis[614]. 

7.          ORDOÑO Vermúdez (-16 Oct, after 18 Sep 1042).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "infante Ordoño" as the son of King Vermudo II by one of "two nobles sisters"[615]"…Hordonius proles Ueremudi…" (signing second among the lay subscribers) subscribed the charter dated 15 Nov 1028 under which "Ueremudus proles Adefonsi principis et Geluire regine" donated "villam meam…Cordario que fuit avorum et parentum meorum Menendi et dne Tote" to Santiago de Compostela[616]. 

-        GALICIA NOBILITY

8.          VERMUDO VermúdezGeluira prolix Ueremudo rex” recognised the rights of Sarracina over a certain property “pro fratribus meis Ordonius, Ueremudo, Piniolus et Fronilde Pelagiz” in a document dated 1058[617].     

9.          PIÑOLO Vermúdez .  “Geluira prolix Ueremudo rex” recognised the rights of Sarracina over a certain property “pro fratribus meis Ordonius, Ueremudo, Piniolus et Fronilde Pelagiz” in a document dated 1058[618]

10.       ELVIRA Vermúdez (-after 1058).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "infanta Elvira" as the daughter of King Vermudo II by one of "two nobles sisters", and half-sister of "Infante Ordoño"[619]Elvira “Ueremudo regis filia” donated “villa...Pozolo...in territorio Uitriales, discurrente riuulo Almuzara subtus monte Matamediana...fuit...de meo patre rex domino Ueremudo” to Santa María de Tera by charter dated 1033[620]"Geloira et Christi ancilla et prolis Bermudo…princeps" donated property to San Martín de Torres by charter dated 4 Oct 1057, witnessed by "…dona Fronilda Pelaiz comitissa, Dona Urraca, Dona Mayori filia Monioni comitis"[621].  Geluira prolix Ueremudo rex” recognised the rights of Sarracina over a certain property “pro fratribus meis Ordonius, Ueremudo, Piniolus et Fronilde Pelagiz” in a document dated 1058[622]

11.       SANCHA Vermúdez (-after 1038).  A charter dated 1038 records a lawsuit brought by “la condesa Sancha Vermudez” against the cathedral of Lugo, confirmed by “...Oueco Ueremudi comite...[623].  “Obeco dux Ueremudi pignus” donated “Cauleo”, which had previously belonged to King Vermudo II and “postea venit in divisione ad filia sua domna Sancia inter suos germanos et illo concessit mihi”, to Lugo by charter dated 1042[624].  It is unclear from this extract whether Sancha was alive at the date of the document.  As Sancha is referred to as “condesa” in the 1038 document, she was presumably the wife of a “conde” who has not been identified.  m ---.  Conde. 

 

 

ALFONSO de León, son of VERMUDO II "el Gotoso" King of León & his second wife Elvira García de Castilla (996-killed in battle Viseu 4 Jul or 7 Aug 1028, bur San Juan de León).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Alfonso and Teresa" as the children of King Vermudo and his wife Elvira[625].  The charter dated 4 Oct 1032, under which [his son] King Vermudo III exchanged “villa Lapeto qui fuit de abia mea regina domna Velasquita” with “comes Pelagio Froilaz et uxor vestra comitissa Ildontia Ordoniz” for “villa...Framilani que fuit de Monnio Didaz...in territorio Asma prope domo Sancto Iuliano[626], indicates that Velasquita was the mother of King Alfonso V but this is contradicted by the Chronicon Regum Legionensium quoted above.  The chronology appears unfavorable for King Alfonso to have been born from King Vermudo´s marriage to Velasquita.  Presumably “abia” is used loosely in the charter dated 4 Oct 1032 which is quoted above.  He was "three years of age" when his father died, according to the Historia Silense[627], five years old according to the Chronicon Regum Legionensium[628].  The Crónica de Sampiro, as reproduced in the Historia Silense, records that "Adefonsus filius eius…annos tres" succeeded on the death of King Vermudo II[629].  He succeeded his father in 999 as ALFONSO V King of León.  Ibn-Khaldun states that Alfonso V King of León succeeded under the regency of "le comte de Galice Menendo Gonzalez" but that this was disputed by "Sancho fils de Garcia, l´oncle maternel d´Alphonse", the dispute being arbitrated by "Abdalmelic fils d´Almanzor" who ordered "au juge des chrétiens [de Cordoue] Açbagh ibn --- de décider…[et il] prononça en faveur de Menendo Gonzalez"[630].  After the death of al-Mansur, the kingdom of León signed a peace treaty with his son al-Muzzaffar, subsequently providing help to the Muslim troops which sacked Catalonia in 1003[631].  A charter dated 22 Aug 1007 records the judgment given by "Adefonsus rex" in a dispute "in comitatu Cornati et Auiancos", and recounts the history which started "tempore…principis dni Ranemiri prolis Hordonii" between "comites Scemenus Didaci et Arias Aloitici", continued between "dns. Sisnandus eps. proles Hermegildi loco apostolico et domnus Gundisaluus comes proles Menendi" and "post obitum dni. Sisnandi eps…domnus Rudesindus eps. cum nepto suo domno Munino proles Gundisalui", "in diebus dni Veremudi principis prolis Hodonii" between "Didacus et Arias Aloiti…et Adefonsus Eroni…Didaco Gundisaluici et Renamior Gundisaluici comitibus et dns Petrus eps.", and "dux domnus Menendus proles Gundisalui"[632].  "Geloira regina" donated property to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 18 Aug 1017, subscribed by "Adefonsus princeps, Sancia proles Ueremudi, Tarasia proles Ueremudi, Geloira proles Ueremudi…"[633].  King Alfonso V confirmed the possessions of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 30 Mar 1019, subscribed by "Adefonsus rex, Geluira regina, Veremudus princeps…"[634].  Sancho III King of Navarre captured large parts of the kingdom of León.  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that King Alfonso reigned for 26 years and was killed "by an arrow at the town of Viseu in Portugal", and buried in León "with his wife Elvira"[635].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Adefonsus filius eius [Veremudi, Ordonii filius]” reigned 29 years[636].  The Chronicon del Salterio, dated to 1055, records the death "IV f[eri]a M i[u]l[i]o era TLXVI" of "Adefonsus rex"[637].  An epitaph in the church of San Juan de León [later the convent of San Isidro] records the burial there of “Rex Adefonsus...interfectus est sagitta apud Viseum, fuit filius Veremundi Ordonii, obiit Era MLXV III Non Mai[638]

m firstly (1015) ELVIRA Menéndez, daughter of conde MENENDO González & his wife Toda --- (-2 Dec 1022, bur León).  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Elvira" daughter of "count Menendo González and his wife countess Mayor" as the wife of King Alfonso[639].  King Alfonso V confirmed the possessions of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 30 Mar 1019, subscribed by "Adefonsus rex, Geluira regina, Veremudus princeps…"[640].  The Chronicon del Salterio, dated to 1055, records the death "IV f[eri]a M i[u]l[i]o era TLXVI" of "Adefonsus rex" and "uxor eius Gelbire IV N[ona]s Dec era TLX"[641].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that King Alfonso was buried in León "with his wife Elvira"[642]. 

m secondly (1023) URRACA García de Navarra, daughter of GARCÍA IV “el Tremulo” King of Navarre & his wife Jimena Fernández de Cea (-after 6 Aug 1031).  “Rex Adefonsi proles Veremudi cum coniuge mea Regina Urraca” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “IV Kal Nov” dated to 1024[643].  Her parentage is suggested by the document of her stepson King Vermudo III dated 6 Aug 1031 in which he names her "tia mea Urraca regina Garseani regis filia"[644]"Scemena regina…et filia mea Urraca regina et xristi ancillas" donated property "in territorio Coza super castrum de Muza inter duos rivulos Karrione et Aratoi" to Santiago de Compostela, naming "genitores nostri Fredenandus Ueremudiz et dna. Geluira", by charter dated 26 Sep 1028, subscribed by "Scemena Regina, Urraca regina, Veremudus rex, Scemena regina…"[645]

King Alfonso V & his first wife had two children:

1.         SANCHA de León (1013-7 Nov 1067).  The Historia Silense records the marriage of "Fernandus" to "Sanciam filiam Adefonsi Galiciensis regis"[646].  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Vermudo and Sancha" as the children of King Alfonso and his wife Elvira, specifying that Sancha married "King Fernando, the son of King Sancho the Fat"[647].  "Fredernandus…Legionensis rex…cum coniuge mea regina dna Sancia et filiis meis" confirmed the privileges of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 10 Mar 1065, subscribed by "Sancius filius regis, Adefonsus filius regis, Garsea filius regis, Urraca filia regis, Geloira filia regis…"[648].  The Annales Complutense record the death in 1067 of “Regina Sancia[649]Betrothed ([Jan/May] 1029) to GARCÍA II Sánchez Conde de Castilla, son of SANCHO García Conde de Castilla & his wife Urraca Salvadórez ([Nov] 1009-murdered León 13 May 1029, bur San Salvador de Oña).  m ([Nov/Dec] 1032) FERNANDO de Navarra Conde de Castilla, son of SANCHO III King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón, Conde de Castilla & his wife Munia Mayor Ctss de Castilla  ([1016/18]-27 Dec 1065, bur León).  Under the division of territories organised by his father, he received Castile, succeeding in 1035 as FERNANDO I "el Magno" King of Castile.  He proclaimed himself FERNANDO I King of León after defeating his brother-in-law Vermudo III King of León at Tamarón 4 Sep 1037. 

-        KINGS of CASTILE and LEÓN

2.         VERMUDO de León ([1017/18]-killed in battle Tamarón 4 Sep 1037, bur San Isidro de León[650])The Chronicon Regum Legionensium names "Vermudo and Sancha" as the children of King Alfonso and his wife Elvira[651].  King Vermudo declared himself 18 years old in a 20 Jan 1036 donation to the monastery of Sahagún[652].  King Alfonso V confirmed the possessions of Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 30 Mar 1019, subscribed by "Adefonsus rex, Geluira regina, Veremudus princeps…"[653].  He succeeded his father in 1028 as VERMUDO III King of León.  "Ueremudus proles Adefonsi principis et Geluire regine" donated "villam meam…Cordario que fuit avorum et parentum meorum Menendi et dne Tote" and "villam de Anna…in ripa Tamaris quam avus meus Ueremundus et uxor sua Geluira ganaverunt de Aria Adefonso filio" to Santiago de Compostela by charter dated 15 Nov 1028[654].  “Veremudus princeps, proles Adefonsi…cum coniuge mea Urraca Regina” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “III Kal Jan” dated to 1028, witnessed by “Veremudus Rex, Urraca Regina, Sancia proles Regis, Tarasia, Sancia…[655].  “Veremudus Rex proles Adefonsi Principis et Gelviræ reginæ” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Sep” dated to 1032, witnessed by “Urraca Regina, Gelvira, Sancia, Tarasia, Sancia, Hordonius, Veremudus, Froila Menendiz, Vermudus, Ovecus[656].  Sancho III "el Mayor" King of Navarre captured the land between the Cea and Pisuerga rivers, forced the marriage of Vermudo III's sister to his son Fernando, and captured the city of León in 1034.  King Vermudo retreated into Galicia where he styled himself "Emperor" on his coinage.  King Vermudo returned to León after the death of King Sancho III in Oct 1035, and campaigned to recover his lost territories[657].  The Annales Complutense record the death in 1037 of “Veremundus Rex filius Aldefonsi et germanus Sanciæ Reginæ[658], although many of the dates in this source are inaccurate.  He was killed in battle by his brother-in-law Fernando I King of Castile, who succeeded him as King of León.  The Chronicon Regum Legionensium records that King Vermudo was killed in battle by his brother-in-law King Fernando "in the Tamarón valley" and was buried in León "in the era 1060 (1022)" (incorrect date) after a reign of ten years[659].  The Chronicon del Salterio, dated to 1055, records that "Veremudi regis" was killed "in bello…die IV feria mensis str era TLXXV"[660].  The Chronicon Compostellani records that “Veremudus filius eius [Adefonsi]” reigned nine years[661].  [m firstly (before 30 Dec 1028) URRACA, daughter of ---.  “Veremudus princeps, proles Adefonsi…cum coniuge mea Urraca Regina” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “III Kal Jan” dated to 1028, witnessed by “Veremudus Rex, Urraca Regina, Sancia proles Regis, Tarasia, Sancia…[662].  This is the only evidence so far found of this possible first marriage.  It is possible that the charter should refer to Vermudo´s stepmother Urraca, not his supposed wife.]  [m secondly (before 25 Aug 1032) ELVIRA, daughter of ---.  “Veremudus Rex proles Adefonsi Principis et Gelviræ reginæ” donated property to the church of Santiago by charter “VIII Kal Sep” dated to 1032, witnessed by “Urraca Regina, Gelvira, Sancia, Tarasia, Sancia, Hordonius, Veremudus, Froila Menendiz, Vermudus, Ovecus[663].  This is the only evidence so far found of this possible second marriage.]  m [thirdly] ([23 Jan 1034/17 Feb 1035]) JIMENA Sánchez [de Navarra, daughter of SANCHO III King of Navarre, Conde de Aragón, Conde de Castilla & his wife Munia Mayor Ctss de Castilla]  (-after 23 Dec 1062, bur San Isidro de León).  "Scemena regina…et filia mea Urraca regina et xristi ancillas" donated property "in territorio Coza super castrum de Muza inter duos rivulos Karrione et Aratoi" to Santiago de Compostela, naming "genitores nostri Fredenandus Ueremudiz et dna. Geluira", by charter dated 26 Sep 1028, subscribed by "Scemena Regina, Urraca regina, Veremudus rex, Scemena regina…"[664].  The indications of the other sources quoted in this document suggest that this charter may be misdated.  Although she is described in the epitaph on her tomb as "domna Xemena uxor regis Veremundi iunioris … Sanctiique Kastellani comitis filia"[665], Salazar y Acha argues convincingly her Navarrese origin[666].  The other evidence includes her confirmation of a donation by Fernando I King of Castile dated 21 Dec 1062 in which she is named "Xemena devota regina soror illius", as well as a similar donation dated 23 Dec 1062[667].  In any case, by the time of her marriage in [1034/35], her presumed father King Sancho of Navarre was also Conde de Castilla (in the name of his wife) so could correctly have been described as "Sanctiique Kastellani comitis" depending on the point of view of the author of the inscription.  She is incorrectly named Teresa by 13th century chroniclers: the Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records that "Veremundus" married "uxorem filiam Sancii ducis Castellani…Tharasiam" by whom he was father of "filium Adefonsim, qui post paucos dies mortuus est"[668].  She presumably married after 23 Jan 1034, the last date when King Vermudo is named alone in charter documentation[669].  She made joint donations with her husband dated 17 Feb 1035, 20 Jan 1036 and 9 Jun 1037[670].  She became a nun at Vega after the death of her husband.  She is named 'Regina Xemena tenente del monasterio de Veiga' in a document dated (presumably wrongly) 1034[671].  King Vermudo III & his [first/second/third] wife had one child: 

a)         ALFONSO (-young).  The Chronicon Mundi of Lucas Tudensis records that "Veremundus" married "uxorem filiam Sancii ducis Castellani…Tharasiam" by whom he was father of "filium Adefonsim, qui post paucos dies mortuus est"[672]

King Alfonso V & [his first/second wife had one possible child]:

3.         [JIMENA de León ([1016/25]-).  Menéndez Pidal hypothesises that “Jimena, wife of Fernando Gundemáriz”, was the daughter of Alfonso V King of León (and grandmother of Jimena Díaz, who married Rodrigo Díaz "el Cid")[673].  His theory attempts to explain why [her supposed granddaughter] Jimena was described as "neptem suam" by Alfonso VI King of Castile[674].  There are several difficulties with Menéndez Pidal´s hypothesis.  Firstly, no source has been identified which names Fernando´s wife as Jimena.  Secondly, the wife of Fernando Gundemáriz is named Muniadomna Ordóñez in another source: "[Ermegildus cognomento] Menendus Folienz…cum uxore sua…Gunterode Ordoniz" donated "villa…Tauoadelo quos fuit de comes domno Gundisaluo Menendi" to Vimeiro, naming "Ordonio Ranemiriz et sua mulier domna Geluira…suo genro Fredenando Gundemariz et…sua mulier Mummadomna Ordoniz", by charter dated 31 Mar 1045[675].  Thirdly, Fernando´s known wife Muniadomna was the niece of Elvira Menéndez, wife of King Alfonso V, which represents a sufficiently close family relationship for King Alfonso VI to call her granddaughter “neptem suam” (assuming that the term was used in an extended sense, which is not at all uncommon).  Fourthly, the chronology appears tight for a daughter of King Alfonso V to have been the grandmother of Jimena (whose marriage is dated to 1074).  The evidence for the supposed marriage of this Jimena de León therefore appears slight.  m [as his --- wife,] FERNANDO Gundemariz, son of Conde GUNDEMARO Pinióliz & his wife Muniadomna --- (-after 1044).] 

King Alfonso V had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]:

4.          [NUÑO Alfonso de Amaya.  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos records "D. Nuño Alvarez de Maya" as illegitimate son of Alfonso V King of León[676]m GONTRODA Gutiérrez, daughter of GUTIERRE --- de Castro & his wife ---.  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos records that "D. Nuño Alvarez de Maya", illegitimate son of Alfonso V King of León, married "D. Gontrode Gutierrez"[677].  Nuño & his wife had [two] children:] 

a)         [JIMENA Núñez .  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Enxamea Nuñez, D. Teresa Nñez" as the children of "D. Nuño Alvarez de Maya", illegitimate son of Alfonso V King of León, and his wife, and in a later passage records that "D. Fernando Lainez" married "D. Ximena Nuñez"[678]m FERNANDO Laínez, son of LAÍN Núñez & his wife ---.]

b)         [TERESA Núñez .  The Nobiliario of Pedro Conde de Barcelos names "D. Enxamea Nuñez, D. Teresa Nñez" as the children of "D. Nuño Alvarez de Maya", illegitimate son of Alfonso V King of León, and his wife, and records that "Lain Calvo" married "D. Teresa Nuñez, hija de Nuño Rasura"[679].  There is confusion between these two parts of this source, which in any case is unreliable for the early generations.  From a chronological point of view, it is impossible that Laín Calvo (even if he did exist) married a granddaughter of Alfonso V King of León.  In any case, on the basis of the reconstruction of the later generations posited by Pedro de Barcelos, Teresa would have been the great, great grandmother of the husband of her supposed sister Jimena, which is simply absurd.  This Teresa Núñez can therefore be dismissed completelym LAÍN Calvo, son of ---.]

 

 



[1] Chronicon Albeldense 47, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1136A, and España Sagrada, Tome XIII, Chronicon Albeldense, p. 450. 

[2] España Sagrada, Tome XIII, Chronicon Sebastiani, p. 481. 

[3] Wolf, K. B. (trans) (1999) Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain (Liverpool University Press, 2nd ed.), Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 166. 

[4] Pérez de Urbel, J. and González Ruiz-Zorrilla, A. (eds.) (1959) Historia Silense (Madrid), (“Historia Silense (Pérez)”), 26, p. 136. 

[5] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 169. 

[6] Dozy, R. (1860) Recherches sur l´histoire et la littérature de l´Espagne pendant le moyen âge, 2nd edn. (Leyde), Tome I, Histoire des roi chrétiens de l´Espagne, par Ibn-Khaldoun, p. 100, extract from Ibn Khaldoun. 

[7] García Moreno, L. A. (1974) Prosopografía del reino visigodo de Toledo (Salamanca), Hildefonsus (249, p. 118), Froila (57, 313, pp. 64, 136), Ranimirus (560, p. 196). 

[8] Kennedy, H. (1996) Muslim Spain and Portugal (Longman), p. 7, citing Chalmeta, P. (1994) Invasión e Islamización: la sumisión de Hispania y la formación de al-Andalus (Madrid), p. 50 [not yet consulted]. 

[9] Lafuente, E. (ed. & trans.) (1867) Colección de obras arábicas de historia y geografía, Tome I (Madrid) ("Ajbar Machmua"), p. 38. 

[10] Fagnan, E. (trad.) (1904) Histoire de l´Afrique et de l´Espagne intitulée Al-Bayano’l-Mogrib (Alger) (“Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan”), Vol. II, p. 41. 

[11] España Sagrada, Tome XIII, Chronicon Albeldense, p. 451. 

[12] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 8-11, pp. 167-169. 

[13] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 56-7. 

[14] España Sagrada, Tome XIII, Chronicon Albeldense, p. 451. 

[15] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 13, p. 170. 

[16] Kennedy (1996), p. 29. 

[17] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 16, p. 171. 

[18] Payne, S. G. (1973) A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume 1 - Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century (University of Wisconsin Press), in the Library of Iberian Resources Online, consulted at http://libro.uca.edu/payne1/spainport1.htm (15 Dec 2002), Chapter 3, p. 39. 

[19] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25, p. 175. 

[20] Barrau-Dihigo, L. (1989) Historia política del reino asturiano (718-910) (Gijón) [Spanish translation of ‘Recherches sur l´histoire politique du royaume asturien (718-910)’, Revue Hispanique, 52 (1921)], pp. 24-78. 

[21] Historia Silense (Pérez), pp. 159-73. 

[22] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, pp. 452-72. 

[23] Barrau-Dihigo, L. (1919) Etude sur les actes des rois asturiens (718-910), Extrait de la Revue Hispanique (New York, Paris), 3, p. 111. 

[24] ES II 48. 

[25] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 106, citing some of the sources in question at p. 119 footnote 31. 

[26] Chronicon Albeldense 47, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1136A. 

[27] De Rebus Hispaniæ, III, 15. 

[28] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 119 footnote 26. 

[29] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[30] Chronicle of Alfonso III (original version), 8, quoted in Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 119 footnote 25.  This text is not in Wolf (1999), pp. 165-7, which appears to be a translation of the later version which probably dates from before the 11th century. 

[31] Chronicon Albeldense 47, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1136A. 

[32] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 119 footnote 25. 

[33] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 166. 

[34] Chronicon Albeldense 50, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1136C. 

[35] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 8, p. 166. 

[36] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 8-11, pp. 167-169 contains a lengthy romanticised account of Pelayo's life in Asturias and his conflict with the Moorish army. 

[37] Ajbar Machmua, p. 38. 

[38] Chronicon Albeldense 50, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1137A. 

[39] Sebastiani Chronicon, 11, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 483. 

[40] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[41] Sebastiani Chronicon, 11, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 483. 

[42] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 12, p. 169. 

[43] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 12, p. 169. 

[44] Chronicon Albeldense 51, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1137A. 

[45] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[46] Dozy, R. (1859) Recherches sur l´histoire et la literature de l´Espagne pendant le moyen-âge (Leiden), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 100. 

[47] Sebastiani Chronicon, 12, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 484. 

[48] Sebastiani Chronicon, 12, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 484. 

[49] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 247 footnote 1. 

[50] Chronicon Albeldense 52, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1137A. 

[51] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[52] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 169. 

[53] Sebastiani Chronicon, 14, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 485. 

[54] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 8, p. 166. 

[55] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 8, p. 166. 

[56] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 8, p. 166. 

[57] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[58] Salazar y Castro, L. de (1696) Historia genealogica de la Casa de Lara (Madrid), Vol 1, p. 45. 

[59] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[60] Pérez de Urbel, J. and González Ruiz-Zorrilla, A. (eds.) (1959) Historia Silense (Madrid), (“Historia Silense (Pérez)”), 26, p. 136. 

[61] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 100. 

[62] Chronica Albeldense, 52, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 452. 

[63] España Sagrada, Tome XXXVII, IV, p. 304. 

[64] Barrau-Dihigo (1919), 3, p. 111. 

[65] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[66] Historia Silense (Pérez), 26, p. 136. 

[67] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[68] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 13, p. 170. 

[69] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 13, p. 170. 

[70] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, pp. 56-7. 

[71] Kennedy (1996), p. 29. 

[72] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 14, p. 170. 

[73] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[74] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 101. 

[75] Sebastiani Chronicon, 14, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 485. 

[76] Chronicon Albeldense 52, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1137A. 

[77] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 11, p. 169. 

[78] Chronicle of Alfonso III, p. 169.  

[79] Sebastiani Chronicon, 14, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 485. 

[80] Fernández Béthencourt, F. (1897) Historia genealoógica y heráldica de la monarquía española (Madrid), Vol. I, p. 167. 

[81] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 244. 

[82] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 16, p. 171. 

[83] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 16, p. 171. 

[84] Martínez Díez, G. (2005) El Condado de Castilla (711-1038) (Junta de Castilla y León), p. 103, citing Fagnan, E. (1898) Annales du Maghreb et de l´Espagne (Alger), Ibn al-Atir, Kamil fi-l-Tarij, p. 104 (not yet consulted, "no preview" in Google Book). 

[85] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 16, p. 171. 

[86] Chronicon Albeldense 53, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1137A. 

[87] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[88] Sebastiani Chronicon, 16, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 486. 

[89] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 16, p. 171. 

[90] Sebastiani Chronicon, 16, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 486. 

[91] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 19, p. 172. 

[92] Historia Silense (Pérez), 27, p. 137. 

[93] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 18, p. 172. 

[94] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 19, p. 172. 

[95] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 20, p. 172. 

[96] Sebastiani Chronicon, 20, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[97] Aguadé Nieto, S. 'Consolidación de la Resistencia Cristiana', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, 2002), p. 101.

[98] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 135. 

[99] Annales Laurissenses Continuatio usque ad a. 829 Auctore Einhardo 798, MGH SS I, p. 184. 

[100] Aguadé Nieto, p. 100.

[101] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 138. 

[102] Payne (1973), Chapter 3, p. 39. 

[103] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 22, p. 174. 

[104] Sebastiani Chronicon, 22, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 489. 

[105] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[106] Chronicon Albeldense 47, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1136A. 

[107] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 23, p. 174. 

[108] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 246. 

[109] Faria i Sousa, F. & Alarcon, F. A. de (eds.) (1641) Nobiliario del Conde de Barcelos Don Pedro (Madrid) ("Pedro Barcelos"), Tit. VII, Reyes de Portugal, 1 p. 43. 

[110] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 16, p. 171. 

[111] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 18, pp. 171-2. 

[112] Aguadé Nieto, p. 97.

[113] Sebastiani Chronicon, 18, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[114] Chronicon Albeldense 55, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1137B. 

[115] España Sagrada, Tome XVIII, I, p. 306. 

[116] Aguadé Nieto, p. 101.

[117] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 18, p. 171. 

[118] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 18, p. 172. 

[119] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[120] Sebastiani Chronicon, 18, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[121] España Sagrada XXXVII, V, p. 306. 

[122] España Sagrada XXXVII, V, p. 306. 

[123] Sebastiani Chronicon, 19, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[124] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 19, p. 172. 

[125] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[126] Sebastiani Chronicon, 19, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[127] Flórez, H. (1770) Memorias de las reynas cathólicas (Madrid), Tomo I, p. 54. 

[128] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 244 and 275-6. 

[129] Flórez (1770), Tomo I, p. 54. 

[130] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 244 and 275-6. 

[131] Historia Silense (Pérez), 26, p. 136. 

[132] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 13, p. 170. 

[133] Levi-Provencal, E, and García Gómez, E. 'Textos inéditos del 'Muqtabis' de Ibn Hayyân sobre los origenes del Reino de Pamplona', Al Andalus 19 (1954), pp. 295-307, 297, reproduced in Textos históricos al-Ándalus. Conquista, Emiratos y Califato, consulted at <http://www.educa.madrid.org/web/ies.isidradeguzman.alcala/departamentos/geografia/historia_2bac/al_andalus.pdf> [3 Nov 2012]. 

[134] Martínez Díez, G. (2005) El Condado de Castilla (711-1038) (Junta de Castilla y León), p. 102. 

[135] Sebastiani Chronicon, 16, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 486. 

[136] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 17, p. 171.

[137] Sebastiani Chronicon, 17, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 486. 

[138] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 101. 

[139] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 17, p. 171.

[140] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 325. 

[141] Sebastiani Chronicon, 17, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 486. 

[142] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 20, p. 172. 

[143] Rodrigo de Toledo De Rebus Hispaniæ IV, 7, quoted in Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 248 footnote 19. 

[144] Sebastiani Chronicon, 20, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[145] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 20, p. 172. 

[146] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 134. 

[147] Aguadé Nieto, p. 100. 

[148] Sebastiani Chronicon, 20, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[149] Flórez (1770), Tomo I, pp. 59-60. 

[150] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 244. 

[151] Schottus, A. (ed.) (1608) Hispaniæ Illustratæ, Tomo IV (Frankfurt), Lucæ Tudensis Chronicon Mundi, ("Lucas Tudensis"), p. 74. 

[152] Sebastiani Chronicon, 16, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 486. 

[153] Rodrigo de Toledo De Rebus Hispaniæ IV, 7, quoted in Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 248 footnote 19. 

[154] Sebastiani Chronicon, 20, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[155] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 23, p. 174. 

[156] Sebastiani Chronicon, 23, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 489. 

[157] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 329. 

[158] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 23, pp. 174-5. 

[159] Chronicon Albeldense 59, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138A. 

[160] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 24, p. 175. 

[161] Chronicon Albeldense 59, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138A. 

[162] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[163] Sebastiani Chronicon, 24, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 490. 

[164] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 329. 

[165] Sebastiani Chronicon, 24, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 490. 

[166] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 248 footnote 4. 

[167] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 245. 

[168] Salazar y Castro (Lara), Vol. I, p. 41. 

[169] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 23, p. 174. 

[170] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Fray Justo (1969/70) El condado de Castilla 3 vols. (Madrid), Vol. I, p. 74. 

[171] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 329. 

[172] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25, p. 175. 

[173] Ibn Idhari, Al-Bayan, Vol. II, p. 154. 

[174] España Sagrada, Tome XVI, I, p. 424. 

[175] Sáez, E. and Sáez, C. (eds.) (1996) Colección diplomática del monasterio de Celanova (Alcalá de Henares) (“Celanova”), Tome I, 28, p. 92. 

[176] Celanova, Tome I, 29, p. 94. 

[177] España Sagrada, Tome XVI, I, p. 424. 

[178] Celanova, Tome I, 28, p. 92. 

[179] García Álvarez, M. R. ‘La Reina Velasquita, nieta de Munidomna Díaz?’, Revista de Guimarães, 70 (1960), consulted at <www.csarmento.uminho.pt/docs/ndat/rg/RG070_10.pdf> [15 Nov 2012], pp. 204-5, citing Biblioteca Nacional, Sección de Manuscritos, códice no. 18.387, fols. 275 v-276 r, copy of escritura 6 of the now lost Tumbo de Samos. 

[180] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 247. 

[181] Béthencourt, Vol. I, pp. 189-90, cited in Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 246. 

[182] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 167. 

[183] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 244. 

[184] Sebastiani Chronicon, 20, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 487. 

[185] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 329. 

[186] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 246. 

[187] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 329. 

[188] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25, p. 175. 

[189] López Ferreiro, A. (1899) Historia de la Santa Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela (Santiago), Tomo II, Apéndice, III, p. 9. 

[190] Fernández Flórez, J. A., Herrero de la Fuente, M. (eds.) (1999) Colección documental del monasterio de Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas (Madrid) ("Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas"), Vol. I, 1, p. 47. 

[191] Barrau-Dihigo (1919), 25, p. 130, citing Vigil (1887) Asturias monumental, I, p. 56, A. 6a [not yet consulted]. 

[192] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), pp. 153-4. 

[193] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 25, p. 175. 

[194] Chronicon Burgense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 307. 

[195] Chronicon Albeldense 60, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138A-B. 

[196] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 154, quoting an Arab source. 

[197] Chronicon Albeldense 60, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138B. 

[198] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 28, p. 177. 

[199] Chronicon Albeldense 60, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138B. 

[200] Sebastiani Chronicon, 26, España Sagrada, Tome XIII, p. 492. 

[201] Flórez (1770), Tomo I, p. 68. 

[202] Lucas Tudensis, Liber IV, p. 77. 

[203] Barrau-Dihigo (1919), 25, p. 130, citing Vigil (1887) Asturias monumental, I, p. 56, A. 6a [not yet consulted]. 

[204] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 29, p. 177. 

[205] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[206] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 3, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[207] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[208] Vignau Ballester. V. (ed.) (1885) Cartulario del monasterio de Eslonza (Madrid) ("Eslonza"), Part I, I, p. 1. 

[209] Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, M. (1999) Linajes nobiliarios de León y Castilla (siglos IX-XIII) (Consejería de Educación y Cultura de la Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid), pp. 44-5, citing Rodríguez Marquina, J. 'La familia de la madre de Sancho el Mayor de Navarra', Archivos Leoneses 49 (1971), pp. 143-50, 145, Cotarelo, A. (1981) Alfonso III el Magno (Madrid), p. 246, and García Pellegrín, J. (1991) Studien zum Hochadel der Königreiche León und Kastilien in Hochmittelalter (Münster), p. 17 among others. 

[210] Salazar Acha, J. de 'Una familia de la Alta Edad Media: Los Velas y su realidad historica', Estudios Genealógicos y Heráldicos (Asociación Española de Estudios Genealógicos y Heráldicos, Madrid, 1985), p. 34. 

[211] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[212] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[213] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), pp. 204-5, citing Biblioteca Nacional, Sección de Manuscritos, códice no. 18.387, fols. 275 v-276 r, copy of escritura 6 of the now lost Tumbo de Samos. 

[214] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[215] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) p. 272. 

[216] Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 251 footnote 60. 

[217] Chronicle of Alfonso III, 29, p. 177. 

[218] Chronicon Albeldense 61, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138C. 

[219] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, IV, p. 10. 

[220] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 159. 

[221] Chronicon Albeldense 61, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1138C. 

[222] Molina Molina, A. L. 'La Época de Alfonso III', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, 2002), p. 125.

[223] España Sagrada, Tome XIX, p. 337. 

[224] España Sagrada, Tome XVI, I, p. 424. 

[225] Molina Molina, pp. 127-9. 

[226] Payne Chapter 3, p. 38. 

[227] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XV, p. 29. 

[228] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XIX, p. 34. 

[229] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[230] Torres (1999), p. 304. 

[231] Mínguez Fernández, J. M. (ed.) (1976) Colección diplomatica del Monasterio de Sahagún, Tomo I (Siglos IX y X) (León), 9. 

[232] Payne Chapter 3, p. 38. 

[233] Crónica de Sampiro 15, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 162. 

[234] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 15, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 461. 

[235] Chronicon Regum Legionensium: Barton, S. and Fletcher, R. (trans. and eds.) The World of El Cid: Chronicles of the Spanish Reconquest (Manchester UP), p. 79. 

[236] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[237] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[238] Sánchez-Albórnoz, C. 'Problemas de la Historia Navarra', p. 52, cited in Settipani, C. (2004) La Noblesse du Midi Carolingien. Etudes sur quelques grandes familles d'Aquitaine et du Languedoc du IXe au XIe siècles (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Oxford), p. 117. 

[239] Pérez, J., Romualdo Escalona, F. (1782) Historia del real monasterio de Sahagun (Madrid) ("Sahagún (Pérez)"), Lib. I, cap. II.4, p. 12. 

[240] Settipani (2004), pp. 117-18. 

[241] Crónica de Sampiro, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 160. 

[242] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XV, p. 29. 

[243] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XIX, p. 34. 

[244] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[245] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 340. 

[246] Sahagún, Tomo I, 7. 

[247] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 15, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 461. 

[248] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[249] Historia Silense (Pérez), 42, p. 153. 

[250] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[251] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XIX, p. 34. 

[252] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[253] Sahagún, Tomo I, 7. 

[254] Sahagún, Tomo I, 9. 

[255] Ximénez de Rada, R. Historia de los Hechos, p. 186, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 209. 

[256] Molina Molina, p. 133. 

[257] Eslonza, Part I, I, p. 1. 

[258] Eslonza, Part I, II, p. 3. 

[259] Eslonza, Part I, III, p. 5. 

[260] Crónica de Sampiro, 16, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 163. 

[261] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 16, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 462. 

[262] Eslonza, Part I, I, p. 1. 

[263] Crónica de Sampiro 15, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 162. 

[264] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 15, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 461. 

[265] Eslonza, Part I, II, p. 3. 

[266] Eslonza, Part I, III, p. 5. 

[267] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. I, p. 262. 

[268] Martínez Díez, G. (1998) Colección documental del monasterio de San Pedro de Cardeña (Burgos) (“San Pedro de Cardeña”), 12, p. 37.  

[269] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[270] Historia Silense (Pérez), 42, p. 153. 

[271] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[272] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[273] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XIX, p. 34. 

[274] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[275] Sahagún, Tomo I, 7. 

[276] Sahagún, Tomo I, 9. 

[277] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[278] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XLVIII, p. 106. 

[279] Crónica de Sampiro, 20, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[280] Molina Molina, p. 134. 

[281] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), pp. 204-5, citing Biblioteca Nacional, Sección de Manuscritos, códice no. 18.387, fols. 275 v-276 r, copy of escritura 6 of the now lost Tumbo de Samos. 

[282] Risco, M. (1792) Historia de la ciudad y corte de León y de sus reyes (Madrid), p. 184. 

[283] Flórez (1770), Tomo I, p. 90

[284] España Sagrada, Tome XXXVII, Apendice, XIII, p. 343. 

[285] Risco (1792), p. 185. 

[286] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 19, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 464. 

[287] De la Granja, F. 'La Marca superior en la obra de al-Udri', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón VIII (1967), available as an extract at <http://www.unizar.es/cema/recursos/447_545.pdf> (8 Feb 2011), Apéndice, "Principales familias árabes mencionadas en la obra de al-Udri, según la "Yamharat ansab al-arab" de Ibn Hazm (ed. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo, 1948)", p. 88. 

[288] Salazar y Acha, J. de ´Urraca, Un nombre egregio en la onomástica altomedieval´, En la España medieval, Anejo I, 2006, p. 29, available at <http://www.ucm.es/BUCM/revistasBUC/portal/modulos.php?name=Revistas2_Historico&id=ELEM&num=ELEM060622> (10 Feb 2008). 

[289] Ajbar Maymua, (1867) Colección de obras arábigas de la Real Academia de la Historia I (Madrid), pp. 141-2, quoted in Salazar y Acha ´Urraca´, p. 31. 

[290] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XLVIII, p. 106. 

[291] Saez, E. (1987) Colección documental del archivo de la Catedral de Léon (León) (“León Cathedral”), Vol. I, 68, p. 115. 

[292] Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, Vol. I, 22, p. 73. 

[293] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 19, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 464. 

[294] Crónica de Sampiro, 21, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 166. 

[295] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 19, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 464. 

[296] Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, Vol. I, 22, p. 73. 

[297] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 68, p. 115. 

[298] Crónica de Sampiro, 21, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 166. 

[299] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 19, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 464. 

[300] Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, Vol. I, 22, p. 73. 

[301] Crónica de Sampiro, 21, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 166. 

[302] Risco (1792), p. 186. 

[303] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 68, p. 115. 

[304] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 41, p. 64. 

[305] Risco (1792), p. 186. 

[306] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 68, p. 115. 

[307] España Sagrada, Tome XVI, IV, p. 430. 

[308] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 19, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 464. 

[309] Sahagún, Tomo I, 7. 

[310] Sahagún, Tomo I, 9. 

[311] Eslonza, Part I, I, p. 1. 

[312] Eslonza, Part I, III, p. 5. 

[313] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 23. 

[314] Eslonza, Part I, IV, p. 7. 

[315] Eslonza, Part I, III, p. 5. 

[316] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 24. 

[317] Salazar y Acha ´Urraca´, p. 32. 

[318] Eslonza, Part I, IV, p. 7. 

[319] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 22. 

[320] Zabalza Duque, M. (1998) Colección diplomática de los Condes de Castilla (Junta de Castilla y León), pp. 130-1. 

[321] Zabalza Duque (1998), pp. 214-16. 

[322] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[323] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[324] Sahagún, Tomo I, 7. 

[325] Sahagún, Tomo I, 9. 

[326] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XL, p. 90. 

[327] Loscertales de García de Valdeavellano, P. (ed.) (1976) Tumbos del monasterio de Sobrado de los monjes (Madrid) (“Sobrado”), Vol. I, 120, p. 147. 

[328] Historia Silense (Pérez), 40, p. 151. 

[329] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. I, cap. II.4, p. 12. 

[330] Saez, E. & Saez, C. (1990) Colección documental del archivo de la Catedral de Léon (León) (“León Cathedral”), Vol. II, 411, p. 199. 

[331] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 1, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 453. 

[332] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XIX, p. 34. 

[333] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XXI, p. 38. 

[334] Historia Silense (Pérez), 42, p. 153. 

[335] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[336] Chronica Albeldense, 67, quoted in Barrau-Dihigo (1989), p. 177 footnote 100. 

[337] Sahagún, Tomo I, 7. 

[338] Sahagún, Tomo I, 9. 

[339] Crónica de Sampiro 17, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 163. 

[340] Del Pino, J. L. 'El Califato Omeya de Córdoba (Génesis y consolidación política)', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), p. 147. 

[341] Quintana Prieto, A. (ed.) (1971) Tumbo Viejo de San Pedro de Montes (León) ("San Pedro de Montes"), 6, p. 87 (classified as spurious by the editor).

[342] Molina Molina, p. 133, and Del Pino, p. 149. 

[343] Sobrado, Vol. I, 120, p. 147. 

[344] Crónica de Sampiro, 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[345] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[346] Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Diplomata et Chartæ, Vol. I (Lisbon, 1868), Fasc. I, Pars I, XII, p. 7. 

[347] Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Diplomata et Chartæ, Vol. I (Lisbon, 1868), Fasc. I, Pars I, XII, p. 7. 

[348] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 349. 

[349] Celanova, Tome I, 32, p. 99. 

[350] San Pedro de Montes, 6, p. 87 (classified as spurious by the editor).

[351] Sahagún, Tomo I, 19. 

[352] Sahagún, Tomo I, 22. 

[353] Sahagún, Tomo I, 23. 

[354] Crónica de Sampiro 18, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 164. 

[355] Crónica de Sampiro 18, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 164. 

[356] Sáez, C. and González de la Peña, M. (eds.) (2003) La Coruña. Fondo Antiguo Tome I (788-994) (Alcalá de Henares) (“La Coruña I”), 29, p. 103. 

[357] La Coruña I, 59, p. 137. 

[358] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 13 and 14, pp. 236 and 237. 

[359] Crónica de Sampiro 19, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[360] Sahagún, Tomo I, 19. 

[361] Sahagún, Tomo I, 22. 

[362] Sahagún, Tomo I, 23. 

[363] Sahagún, Tomo I, 24. 

[364] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, L, p. 111. 

[365] Celanova, Tome I, 29, p. 94. 

[366] Celanova, Tome I, 30, p. 97. 

[367] Celanova, Tome I, 31, p. 98. 

[368] Celanova, Tome I, 31, p. 98. 

[369] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 359. 

[370] Celanova, Tome I, 31, p. 98. 

[371] Celanova, Tome I, 31, p. 98. 

[372] López Ferreiro, A. (1901) Collección diplomática de la Galicia histórica (Santiago) CII, p. 451. 

[373] Lucas Álvarez, M. and Lucas Domínguez, P. (eds.) (1966) El monasterio de San Clodio do Ribeiro en la Edad Media: estudio y documentos (A Coruña), 2 (Regestalia). 

[374] Sahagún, Tomo I, 19. 

[375] Sahagún, Tomo I, 22. 

[376] Sahagún, Tomo I, 23. 

[377] Sahagún, Tomo I, 24. 

[378] Del Pino, p. 158. 

[379] Crónica de Sampiro, 20, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[380] Celanova, Tome I, 29, p. 94. 

[381] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 79, p. 133. 

[382] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 86, p. 143. 

[383] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 92, p. 150. 

[384] Del Pino, p. 158. 

[385] Pérez de Urbel (1969/70), Vol. II, p. 62. 

[386] Crónica de Sampiro, 21, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[387] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 13, p. 236. 

[388] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 21, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 465. 

[389] Ubieto Arteta, A. (ed.) (1981) Cartulario de Albelda (Zaragoza) (“Albelda”), 3, p. 13. 

[390] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 79, p. 133. 

[391] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 86, p. 143. 

[392] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 92, p. 150. 

[393] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 13, p. 236. 

[394] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 21, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 465. 

[395] Sáez, E. and Sáez, C. (eds.) (2000) Colección diplomática del monasterio de Celanova, Tome II (943-988) (Alcalá de Henares) (“Celanova, Tome II”), 86, p. 51. 

[396] Crónica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[397] Sobrado, Vol. I, 106, p. 125. 

[398] Del Pino, p. 161. 

[399] Del Pino, p. 162. 

[400] Crónica de Sampiro 23, in Historia Silense (Pérez), pp. 167-8. 

[401] Torres (1999), p. 211. 

[402] Crónica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[403] Sobrado, Vol. I, 106, p. 125. 

[404] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 396. 

[405] Sobrado, Vol. I, 106, p. 125. 

[406] Celanova, Tome II, 175, p. 158. 

[407] Barrau-Dihigo, L. (1903) Notes et documents sur l´histoire du royaume de León, Extrait de la Revue Hispanique, Tome X (Paris), XXIII, p. 406. 

[408] Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Diplomata et Chartæ, Vol. I (Lisbon, 1868), Fasc. I, Pars I, XII, p. 7. 

[409] Sahagún, Tomo I, 19. 

[410] Sahagún, Tomo I, 19. 

[411] Sahagún, Tomo I, 22. 

[412] Sahagún, Tomo I, 24. 

[413] Celanova, Tome I, 44, p. 112. 

[414] Sahagún, Tomo I, 22. 

[415] Sahagún, Tomo I, 23. 

[416] Sahagún, Tomo I, 24. 

[417] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LV, p. 119. 

[418] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), pp. 204-5, citing Biblioteca Nacional, Sección de Manuscritos, códice no. 18.387, fols. 275 v-276 r, copy of escritura 6 of the now lost Tumbo de Samos. 

[419] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 123, p. 192. 

[420] Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Diplomata et Chartæ, Vol. I (Lisbon, 1868), Fasc. I, Pars I, XII, p. 7. 

[421] Sahagún, Tomo I, 19. 

[422] Sahagún, Tomo I, 22. 

[423] Sahagún, Tomo I, 23. 

[424] Sahagún, Tomo I, 24. 

[425] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 86, p. 143. 

[426] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 92, p. 150. 

[427] Crónica de Sampiro, 21, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 165. 

[428] Santa María de Otero de las Dueñas, Vol. I, 2, p. 48. 

[429] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LIV, p. 117. 

[430] Del Pino, p. 158. 

[431] Del Pino, p. 159. 

[432] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LV, p. 119. 

[433] Del Pino, p. 160. 

[434] Del Pino, p. 160. 

[435] Celanova, Tome I, 69, p. 147. 

[436] Sahagún, Tomo I, 97. 

[437] Sahagún, Tomo I, 98. 

[438] Serrano, L. (ed.) (1927) Cartulario de Monasterio de Vega con documentos de San Pelayo de Oviedo (Madrid), Vega (“Vega”), 2, p. 3. 

[439] Del Pino, p. 161. 

[440] Crónica de Sampiro 24, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 168. 

[441] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 104. 

[442] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[443] Their mothers were sisters. 

[444] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 15, p. 238. 

[445] Celanova, Tome I, 65, p. 142. 

[446] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 13 and 17, pp. 236 and 238-9. 

[447] Crónica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[448] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 23, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 467. 

[449] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LV, p. 119. 

[450] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 101, p. 164. 

[451] Celanova, Tome I, 69, p. 147. 

[452] Vega, 2, p. 3. 

[453] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. I, cap. VI.3, p. 33. 

[454] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 93, p. 152. 

[455] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LIV, p. 117. 

[456] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 101, p. 164. 

[457] Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Diplomata et Chartæ, Vol. I (Lisbon, 1868), Fasc. I, Pars I, XLV, p. 27. 

[458] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 15, p. 238. 

[459] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 23, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 467. 

[460] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 15, p. 238. 

[461] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 23, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 467. 

[462] Celanova, Tome I, 69, p. 147. 

[463] Sahagún, Tomo I, 97. 

[464] Vega, 2, p. 3. 

[465] Albelda, 15, p. 24. 

[466] Crónica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[467] Celanova, Tome II, 86, p. 51. 

[468] Crónica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[469] Del Pino, p. 161. 

[470] Sahagún, Tomo I, 175. 

[471] Del Pino, p. 162. 

[472] Crónica de Sampiro 27, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 170. 

[473] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[474] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[475] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 26, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 470. 

[476] Historia Silense (Pérez), 71, p. 174. 

[477] San Pedro de Cardeña, 42, p. 71. 

[478] Berganza (1721) Secunda parte, Appendice XXVI, p. 381. 

[479] San Martín Payo, J. ´Las primeras donaciones de los condes de Monzon a Santa María de Husillos´, Publicaciones de la Institución Tello Téllez de Meneses no. 59 (1988) ("Husillos Santa Maria"), VI, p. 330. 

[480] Sahagún, Tomo I, 175. 

[481] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[482] Sobrado, Vol. I, 107, p. 127. 

[483] Sobrado, Vol. I, 108, p. 130. 

[484] Torres (1999), p. 95. 

[485] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 26, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 470. 

[486] Crónica de Sampiro 28, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 171. 

[487] Del Pino, p. 163. 

[488] Celanova, Tome II, 171, p. 152. 

[489] Sobrado, Vol. I, 107, p. 127. 

[490] Sahagún, Tomo I, 261. 

[491] Torres Sevilla-Quiñones de León, M. 'El Régimen de Almanzor', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. Á. (coord.) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, 2002), p. 178. 

[492] Sahagún, Tomo I, 276. 

[493] See for example Sahagún, Tomo I, 286 (18 Jan 977) and Sahagún, Tomo I, (12 Mar 977). 

[494] Sobrado, Vol. I, 108, p. 130. 

[495] Crónica de Sampiro 29, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 171. 

[496] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[497] Sahagún (Pérez), Lib. I, cap. VIII.3, p. 44, quoting "Cax.16.leg.8.n.28". 

[498] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 28, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 471. 

[499] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 76. 

[500] Lucas Tudensis, Liber IV, p. 89. 

[501] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 15, p. 238. 

[502] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 23, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 467. 

[503] Crónica de Sampiro 24, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 168. 

[504] Crónica de Sampiro 28, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 171. 

[505] Vega, 2, p. 3. 

[506] Sahagún, Tomo I, 175. 

[507] Del Pino, p. 163. 

[508] Celanova, Tome II, 171, p. 152. 

[509] Sobrado, Vol. I, 107, p. 127. 

[510] Sahagún, Tomo I, 255. 

[511] Sahagún, Tomo I, 261. 

[512] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79. 

[513] Lacarra, J. M. 'Textos navarros del Códice de Roda', Estudios de Edad Media de la Corona de Aragón Vol. I (Zaragoza, 1945) 15, p. 238. 

[514] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 23, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 467. 

[515] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LIV, p. 117. 

[516] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LV, p. 119. 

[517] León Cathedral, Vol. I, 101, p. 164. 

[518] Celanova, Tome I, 69, p. 147. 

[519] Sahagún, Tomo I, 97. 

[520] Vega, 2, p. 3. 

[521] Celanova, Tome II, 86, p. 51. 

[522] Crónica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 168. 

[523] Del Pino, p. 161. 

[524] Crónica de Sampiro 25, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[525] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 79.  

[526] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[527] Crónica de Sampiro 23, in Historia Silense (Pérez), pp. 167-8. 

[528] Torres (1999), p. 211. 

[529] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 364. 

[530] Pérez de Urbel, J. ‘Los Padres de Vermudo II el Gotoso’, Revista de Archivos, Biblioteca y Museos 55 (1949), p. 300, available at <http://hemerotecadigital.bne.es/issue.vm?id=0000115613&page=5&search=perez+urbel+padres+vermudo+gotoso&lang=es> (22 Nov 2012). 

[531] Crónica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 169. 

[532] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXII, p. 166. 

[533] Zabalza Duque (1998), p. 396. 

[534] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 25, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 469. 

[535] Crónica de Sampiro 16, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 162. 

[536] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 505, citing Flórez (1770), Tomo I, p. 111. 

[537] Sáez, E. ‘Notas al episcopologio Minduniense’, Hispania 6 (1946), pp. 58-68 [not yet consulted]. 

[538] Rodríguez Fernández, J. (and others) (1995) El Reino de León en la Alta Edad Media, Vol. III (León), II, p. 294, referring to his other work Rodríguez Fernández, J. (1982) Los Reyes de León: Ordoño III (Ediciones Leonesas), pp. 95-102, where he discusses the question in more detail [not yet consulted]. 

[539] Crónica de Sampiro 26, in Historia Silense (Pérez), pp. 169-70. 

[540] Martínez Díez (2005), p. 505, citing Sánchez-Albornoz, C. ‘Sobre la filiación de Bermudo II’, Estudios sobre las instituciones medievales españolas (Mexico, 1965), pp. 699-702 [not yet consulted]. 

[541] Pérez de Urbel ‘Los Padres de Vermudo II el Gotoso’ (1949), p. 297. 

[542] Yepes, A. de (1615) Coronica General de la Orden de San Benito, Tomo V, Apendix, VII, p. 433. 

[543] Yepes (1615), Tomo V, p. 36. 

[544] Yepes (1615), Tomo V, Apendix, XVII, p. 439. 

[545] Celanova, Tome II, 175, p. 158. 

[546] Pérez de Urbel ‘Los Padres de Vermudo II el Gotoso’ (1949), p. 294. 

[547] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 74. 

[548] Historia Silense, Chapter 30, p. 26, and Chronicon Regum Legoniensium, p. 79. 

[549] Chronicon Sampiri, Asturicensis Episcopi, 25, España Sagrada, Tomo XIV, p. 469. 

[550] Yepes (1615), Tomo V, Apendix, XXIX, p. 448. 

[551] Celanova, Tome II, 171, p. 152. 

[552] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 74. 

[553] Crónica de Sampiro 30, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 172. 

[554] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 74. 

[555] Historia Silense, Chapter 30, pp. 35-6. 

[556] Torres (1999), pp. 259-61. 

[557] Torre-Sevilla Quiñones de León, M. 'El Régimen de Almanzor', Álvarez Palenzuela, V. A. (coord.) (2002) Historia de España de la Edad Media (Barcelona, Ariel Historia), pp. 179-80. 

[558] Yepes (1615), Tomo V, Apendix, XVII, p. 439. 

[559] Crónica de Sampiro 30, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 172. 

[560] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, pp. 79 and 80. 

[561] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCII, p. 225. 

[562] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[563] Flórez (1770), Tomo I, p. 121, quoting Tumbo de Samos, 27, the full date provided by García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 201, citing Biblioteca Nacional, Sección de Manuscritos, códice no. 18.387, fol. 272 r, copy of escritura 27 of the now lost Tumbo de Samos. 

[564] Celanova, Tome II, 197, p. 209. 

[565] Celanova, Tome II, 204, p. 224. 

[566] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[567] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 198. 

[568] Sandoval, P. de (1633) Historias de Idacio Obispo (Pamplona), p. 329. 

[569] Salazar y Castro (Lara), Vol. I, p. 51. 

[570] Flórez (1770), Tomo I, p. 124, quoting Lib. Gothico, fol. 51. 

[571] Contreras, Luis Núñez 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III Rey de León' Historia, Instituciones y Documentos (1977) doc. 7, cited in Salazar y Acha, J. 'Una hija desconocida de Sancho el Mayor reina de León' Príncipe de Viana 49 (1988), pp. 183-92, 184. 

[572] Núñez Contreras, L. ‘Colección diplomática de Vermudo III Rey de León’, Historia, instituciones, documentos, no. 4 (1977), 13, p. 472, available at <dialnet.uniroja.es/descarga/articulo/670252.pdf> [6 Nov 2012]. 

[573] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 198. 

[574] Risco (1792), p. 232. 

[575] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), pp. 201-2. 

[576] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 202, citing Floriano, A. C. (1950) El Libro Registro de Corias (Oviedo) (“Libro Registro de Corias”), Tome I, pp. 24-7, 216, and 297-8.

[577] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 199, quoting Biblioteca del monasterio de Monserrat, Tumbo de Corias, fol. 67, v, 2a col, and cited in Libro Registro de Corias, Tome I, pp. 131-2. 

[578] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 199, citing Sánchez Candeira, A. ‘La reina Velasquita de León y su descendencia’, Hispania, X (Madrid, 1950), pp. 483-4, and note 88 [not yet consulted], and Libro Registro de Corias, pp. 30-1. 

[579] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 211. 

[580] Mattoso, J. (1994) A Nobreza Medieval Portuguesa, a família e o poder 4th ed. (Lisbon), p. 144. 

[581] Torres (1999), p. 95. 

[582] García Álvarez ‘La Reina Velasquita’ (1960), p. 202, citing Serrano, L. (1929) Cartulario de San Vicente de Oviedo (Madrid), 31, p. 32. 

[583] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[584] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 110. 

[585] España Sagrada XXXVI, V, Appendix V, p. ix. 

[586] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXII, p. 199. 

[587] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXV, p. 205. 

[588] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCII, p. 225. 

[589] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 76. 

[590] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 76. 

[591] Lorenzana, Cardinal de (ed.) (1793) Roderici Ximenii de Rada opera complectens, PP Toletanorum quotquot extant opera, Tome III (Madrid), Historia de rebus Hispaniæ, Lib. V, XIV, p. 107. 

[592] Yepes, A. de (1615) Coronica General de la Orden de San Benito, Tomo V, Apendix, LI, p. 471. 

[593] Colección documental de la Catedral de Oviedo, doc. 55, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 96. 

[594] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXV, p. 205. 

[595] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XC, p. 221. 

[596] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCI, p. 223. 

[597] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[598] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[599] Lucas Tudensis, Liber IV, p. 89. 

[600] Dozy (1859), Tome I, p. 203, quoting Yepes, t. III, fol. 338 v. 

[601] Cotarelo, E, (1903) El supuesto casamiento de Almanzor con una hija de Bermudo II (Madrid), pp. 9-10. 

[602] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[603] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXV, p. 205. 

[604] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXVIII, p. 217. 

[605] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XC, p. 221. 

[606] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCI, p. 223. 

[607] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 109. 

[608] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[609] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXV, p. 205. 

[610] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XC, p. 221. 

[611] España Sagrada XVI, XI, p. 447. 

[612] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 110. 

[613] Yepes (1615), Tomo V, Apendix, VII, p. 433. 

[614] Herrero Jiménez, M. (ed.) (1994) Colección documental del archivo de la catedral de León, Vol. X, Obituarios medievales (León) (“León Cathedral Necrology”)

[615] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 76. 

[616] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XC, p. 221. 

[617] Andrade, J. M. (ed.) (1995) El tumbo de San Julián de Samos (siglos VII-XII) (Santiago) (“Samos), doc. 13, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 114. 

[618] Samos, doc. 13, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 114. 

[619] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 76. 

[620] Quintana, A. (1991) Santa Marta de Tera (Zamora), apéndice documental, 1, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 114. 

[621] Cavero Domínguez, G. & Martín López, E. (eds.) (1999) Colección documental de la Catedral de Astorga (León) ("Astorga Cathedral"), Vol. I, 354, p. 289. 

[622] Samos, doc. 13, quoted in Torres (1999), p. 114. 

[623] Archivo Histórico Nacional, Clero, Tumbo Nuevo de la Catedral de Lugo, f. 123 r/v, cited in Torres (1999), p. 172. 

[624] Archivo Histórico Nacional, Clero, Tumbo Nuevo de la Catedral de Lugo, f. 57 v, cited in Torres (1999), p. 172. 

[625] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 77. 

[626] Núñez Contreras (1977), 13, p. 472. 

[627] Historia Silense, Chapter 30, p. 36. 

[628] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[629] Crónica de Sampiro 30, in Historia Silense (Pérez), p. 172. 

[630] Dozy (1859), Tome I, Ibn-Khaldoun Histoire des Beni-Alphonse de Galice (French trans.), p. 110. 

[631] Torres (1999), p. 266. 

[632] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXIII, p. 201. 

[633] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXV, p. 205. 

[634] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXVI, p. 209. 

[635] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[636] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[637] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCII, p. 225. 

[638] Risco (1792), p. 253. 

[639] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[640] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXVI, p. 209. 

[641] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCII, p. 225. 

[642] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[643] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 390. 

[644] Contreras, Luis Núñez 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III Rey de León' Historia, Instituciones y Documentos (1977) doc. 7, cited in Salazar y Acha, J. 'Una hija desconocida de Sancho el Mayor reina de León' Príncipe de Viana 49 (1988), pp. 183-92, 184. 

[645] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXIX, p. 219. 

[646] Historia Silense (Pérez), 75, p. 179. 

[647] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[648] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCVI, p. 242. 

[649] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 313. 

[650] Historia Silense, Chapter 79, p. 44. 

[651] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 80. 

[652] 'Colección diplomática de Vermudo III', doc. 4, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 183. 

[653] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXVI, p. 209. 

[654] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XC, p. 221. 

[655] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 393. 

[656] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 394. 

[657] Historia Silense, Chapter 77, p. 43. 

[658] Annales Complutense, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 313. 

[659] Chronicon Regum Legionensium, p. 81. 

[660] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, XCII, p. 225. 

[661] Chronicon Compostellani, España Sagrada XXIII, p. 326. 

[662] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 393. 

[663] España Sagrada, Tomo XIX, p. 394. 

[664] López Ferreiro (1899), Tomo II, Apéndice, LXXXIX, p. 219. 

[665] Ricardo del Arco (1954) Sepulcros de la Casa Real de Castilla (Madrid), p. 166, cited in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 185, the author emphasising in footnote 17 the unreliability of many of these inscriptions often added a posteriori

[666] Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', pp. 183-92. 

[667] España Sagrada tomo XXXVI (Madrid 1787), apéndice LXXIX, p. CLXXXVIII-CXCI, quoted in Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 189, the author emphasising that "illius" refers to King Fernando from the context. 

[668] Lucas Tudensis, Liber IV, p. 90. 

[669] Núñez Contreras (1977), 16, p. 480. 

[670] Núñez Contreras (1977), 18, 19, 20, pp. 484-90.

[671] Salazar y Acha 'Una hija desconocida', p. 184 footnote 13. 

[672] Lucas Tudensis, Liber IV, p. 90. 

[673] Menéndez-Pidal, La España del Cid, II, pp. 722-3, cited in Torres (1999), p. 199. 

[674] Menéndez-Pidal, p. 923. 

[675] Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica, Diplomata et Chartæ, Vol. I (Lisbon, 1868), Fasc. II, Pars I, CCCXL, p. 207. 

[676] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. III, Reyes de León, 23, p. 4. 

[677] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. III, Reyes de León, 23, p. 4, and 1, p. 86. 

[678] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. III, Reyes de León, 23, p. 4, and 8, p. 68. 

[679] Pedro Barcelos, Tit. III, Reyes de León, 23, p. 4, and 7, p. 66.