EDESSA

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                GOVERNORS of EDESSA. 2

Chapter 2.                COUNTS of EDESSA. 4

A.         COUNT of EDESSA 1098-1100 (FAMILY of COMTES de BOULOGNE) 4

B.         COUNT of EDESSA 1100-1118 (FAMILY of COMTES de RETHEL) 5

C.        COUNTS of EDESSA 1118-1144 (FAMILY of SEIGNEURS de COURTENAY) 7

Chapter 3.                VASSALS of the COUNTY of EDESSA. 14

A.         CONSTABLES of EDESSA.. 14

B.         LORDS of CORIS (KHOROS) 14

C.        LORDS of HATAB and TULUPE.. 15

D.        LORDS of MARASH and KAISUN.. 15

E.         LORDS of TARSUS and MAMISTRA.. 18

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The territory of Edessa, to the east of Cilician Armenia, was under Turkish control at the time of the First Crusade.  The Armenian governor of Edessa allied himself with Baudouin de Boulogne to throw off Turkish rule and adopted Baudouin as his son and heir.  The late 11th century governors of Edessa are shown in Chapter 1 of the present document.  Baudouin was installed as count of Edessa in 1098, and consolidated his position by marrying the daughter of another local Armenian lord.  He extended the county's territories considerably by purchasing the neighbouring emirate of Samosata.  Baudouin was chosen as king of Jerusalem in 1100 in succession to his brother, and installed his "nepos" (although the precise relationship is not known) Baudouin du Bourg as his successor in Edessa.  Count Baudouin II extended the county further by acquiring Rabun, Kaisun and Gargar from their Armenian lords.  When Count Baudouin II was in his turn chosen to succeed to the throne of Jerusalem in 1119, he appointed Joscelin de Courtenay as his successor in Edessa.  The families of the Latin counts of Edessa are set out in Chapter 2 of this document.  The Muslim rulers of Aleppo conquered Edessa in 1144.  Count Joscelin II unsuccessfully attempted to rebuild his county further east with Turbessel as his capital. 

 

The officers and vassals of the counts of Edessa are shown in Chapter 3 of this document.   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    GOVERNORS of EDESSA

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         LEON (-murdered Edessa Church of St Mary [2 Mar 1077/1 Mar 1078]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the inhabitants of Edessa rebelled against “leur commandant…Léon, frère de Tavadanos” after the town was attacked by “Vasil fils d´Aboukab” and murdered him “dans l´église de la Sainte Mère de Dieu”, in “l´année 526 [2 Mar 1077/1 Mar 1078]”[1]

2.         TAVADANOS .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Léon, frère de Tavadanos” when recording the former´s murder in Edessa”[2]

 

 

1.         ABUKAB .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Aboukab” had previously resided at Edessa which he had restored “après avoir trouvé la province dans un état de ruine[3]m ---.  The name of Abukab´s wife is not known.  Abukab & his wife had one child: 

a)         VASIL (-[1 Mar 1083/29 Feb 1084], bur Edessa St George).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vasil fils d´Aboukab” attacked Edessa and was granted the town, in “l´année 526 [2 Mar 1077/1 Mar 1078]”[4].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death “en l´année 532 [1 Mar 1083/29 Feb 1084]” of “Vasil, fils d´Aboukab, seigneur d´Edesse” and his burial “dans l´église de Saint-Georges-au-Ceinturon[5]

 

 

1.         SEMPAD (-after [1 Mar 1083/29 Feb 1084]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the inhabitants of Edessa appointed “Sempad” but that six months later “Ischkhan…[de] la famille des Arschektan” rebelled against him with the help of Philaretos, who blinded Sempad, “en l´année 532 [1 Mar 1083/29 Feb 1084]”[6]

 

 

2.         BARSUMA (-[28 Feb 1086/27 Feb 1087]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “émir…Bouzan” besieged Edessa, on behalf of Sultan Malik Shah, and that the inhabitants rebelled against “le duc Barsouma” who hurled himself from the ramparts and died a few days later, “en l´année 535 [28 Feb 1086/27 Feb 1087]”[7]

 

 

3.         KHSULUKH .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “émir…Bouzan” appointed “un salar…Khsouloukh” as “gouverneur et préfet” in Edessa after he captured the town, “en l´année 535 [28 Feb 1086/27 Feb 1087]”[8]

 

 

4.         THOROS, son of HETHUM [II] & his wife --- (-murdered Edessa 8 Mar 1098).  He was probably lieutenant of Philaretos [Vahram], governor of Germanicia [Marash].  He was awarded the title kuropalates (κουροπαλατης).  Military commander in the service of Tutush, brother of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thoros fils de Héthoum” was installed as governor of Edessa by “Tetousch” who had defeated and killed “emir Bouzan”, in “l´année 543 [26 Feb 1094/25 Feb 1095]”[9]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that Tutush "came to Edessa" in [1094] and "designated as mayor the Byzantine prince Toros, son of Hethum"[10]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Kostadin, Ruben's son, and the prince of Edessa Toros" invited the crusading army to expel the invaders from Cilicia in [1097][11].  He allied himself with Baudouin de Boulogne after the arrival of the crusaders to throw off Turkish rule, adopting Baudouin as his son and heir.  Matthew of Edessa names "Thoros, gouverneur romain d'Edesse" when recording that he requested assistance from "le comte Baudouin", and that "Thoros, curopalate" made an alliance with him when he entered the town, but that in the fifth week of Lent the population rebelled against Thoros who was thrown from the ramparts "le jour de la fête des Saints Quarante"[12].  He was overthrown by a revolt in Edessa while Baudouin was away campaigning[13]m --- of Melitene, daughter of GABRIEL Lord of Melitene & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “le commandant de Mélitène…Khouril, beau-père de Thoros Curopalate d´Edesse[14].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Vardan's History which names "Ghavril, father-in-law of the curopalate of Edessa" as "prince of the city [of Melitene]" when recording that he defeated the armies of Sultan Kilij Arslan in 1098[15]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the prince of [Melitene] Ghavril…was the father-in-law of curopalate Toros"[16]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    COUNTS of EDESSA

 

 

A.      COUNT of EDESSA 1098-1100 (FAMILY of COMTES de BOULOGNE)

 

 

BAUDOUIN de Boulogne, son of EUSTACHE II Comte de Boulogne & his second wife Ida of Lower Lotharingia ([1063/68]-Al-Arish 2 Apr 1118, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  "Godefridi et Balduini" are named as sons of "Ida comitisse Boloniensis" in the latter's charter for the soul of her husband[17].  William of Tyre records Baudouin as brother of Godefroi and Eustache[18].  It is probable that Baudouin was the youngest of the brothers: he is always referred to after his brother Godefroi, and it is unlikely that Eustache would have succeeded to the paternal inheritance if he had been younger than Baudouin.  Canon at Cambrai, Reims and Liège, he left the church to become a knight probably before 1086 when, together with his brother Eustache, he organised military support for their brother Godefroi who was besieged at Stenay.  Baudouin was granted the county of Verdun in 1095 by Richer Bishop of Verdun, to whom Godefroi had surrendered the county while raising funds for his crusade.  It is likely that he was recognised, although not formally, as his brother Godefroi's heir to the duchy of Lower Lotharingia[19].  While marching across Cilicia, he took control of Tarsus, recently captured from the Turks by Tancred, nephew of Bohémond of Apulia[20].  He later relieved the Armenian population of Edessa, and established control over the town in Feb 1098, which provided the Lotharingian crusading contingent with a vital fresh source of resources and income.  He was adopted in Mar 1098 as son and heir by Thoros Lord of Melitene and Edessa (see Chapter 1), who was immediately overthrown and murdered.  Baudouin was installed in Edessa 10 Mar 1098 and assumed the title BAUDOUIN I Count of Edessa.  With the treasure found in Edessa, he was able to extend his territories considerably by the purchase of the neighbouring emirate of Samosata from the Turkish Emir Balduk[21].  Receiving news of his brother's death, he left Edessa for Jerusalem, arrived [9] Nov 1100, and was crowned as BAUDOUIN I King of Jerusalem

 

 

 

B.      COUNT of EDESSA 1100-1118 (FAMILY of COMTES de RETHEL)

 

 

BAUDOUIN de Rethel, son of HUGUES de Rethel & his wife Mélisende de Montlhéry ([1075/80]-Jerusalem 21 Aug 1131, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  The Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium names "Balduinus de Retexto castro, nepos Manassem comitis supra memorati" as one of the companions of "duo fratres, dux Godefridus et comes Balduinus" when leaving on crusade[22].  William of Tyre records him as "Balduinus cognominatus de Burgo, domini Hugonis comitis de Retest filius" and "consanguineus" of Godefroi IV Duke of Lower Lotharingia and his brothers Baudouin and Eustache [de Boulogne][23].  In a later passage, he names Baudouin´s mother and records that he was "primogenitus"[24], although the inheritance by his brothers of the paternal county seems to indicate that this is not correct, unless he was passed over by family agreement either because of his absence in Palestine or his superior position as Count of Edessa.  His birth date range is estimated assuming that he was an adolescent or young adult when he joined the First Crusade.  He was known as BAUDOUIN du Bourg.   He joined the crusading contingent of Godefroi IV Duke of Lower Lotharingia in Cilicia.  After completing his pilgrimage, he returned to Edessa to rejoin Baudouin I Count of Edessa [Boulogne].  When the latter succeeded his brother in 1100 as Baudouin I King of Jerusalem, he invested Baudouin du Bourg as BAUDOUIN II Count of Edessa under the suzerainty of the kingdom of Jerusalem[25].  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinus dux civitatis Rohas" installed "Baldewino de Burg…sui generis, filio comitis Hugonis de Rortest" at Edessa on succeeding to the kingdom of Jerusalem, dated to 1100 from the context[26].  Count Baudouin II married the daughter of Gabriel, Armenian Lord of Melitene, to consolidate his position in Edessa.  He was captured with Joscelin de Courtenay by Soqman, Ortokid Prince of Mardin, after the battle of Harran in 1104, but was released in 1107 in exchange for Joscelin who had allowed himself to be recaptured to ensure Baudouin's release[27].  During Baudouin´s imprisonment, Tancred was appointed regent of Edessa, to be replaced by Richard of the Principate [Apulia-Sicily] after Tancred assumed the role of regent of Antioch[28].  Baudouin II was obliged to evict Richard forcibly to regain Edessa in 1108 following his release[29].  He captured more territory in Cilician Armenia by expelling the Armenian lords Vasil Dgha from Rabun and Kaisun in 1116 and Constantine from Gargar in 1117[30].  Albert of Aix records that Baudouin appointed "fratri Eustachio" as his successor on his deathbed if he would come to Jerusalem, or if he failed to come "Baldewinus de Burg"[31].  Despite being the fallback choice of Baudouin I King of Jerusalem, he was unanimously elected by the council to succeed and was crowned 14 Apr 1118 as BAUDOUIN II King of Jerusalem by Arnoul Patriarch of Jerusalem.  Baudouin appointed Joscelin de Courtenay as his successor in Edessa. 

m (1101) MORFIA of Melitene, daughter of GABRIEL Lord of Melitene & his wife --- .  She is named by William of Tyre, who also names her father and specifies his Armenian origin but emphasises his Greek faith, when recording her marriage[32].  This marriage was arranged to consolidate her husband's position as newly installed Count of Edessa.  She was crowned as Queen of Jerusalem at Bethlehem at Christmas 1119[33]

-        KINGS of JERUSALEM

 

 

 

C.      COUNTS of EDESSA 1118-1144 (FAMILY of SEIGNEURS de COURTENAY)

 

 

JOSCELIN de Courtenay, son of JOSCELIN [I] Seigneur de Courtenay & his second wife Isabelle de Montlhéry (-[Aleppo] 1131, before Oct 1).  The Historia of Monk Aimon names "Milonem de Cortiniaco, Joscelinum Comitem Edesse, Gaufridum Chapalii" as the children of "Joscelinum de Cortiaco" and his wife "Elisabeth filiam Milonis de Monte-Letherico"[34].  William of Tyre refers to "Joscelinus de Cortenay vir nobilis de Francia de regione dicitur Gastineis" as "consobrinus" of Baudouin du Bourg Count of Edessa, later Baudouin II King of Jerusalem, when he records Joscelin´s arrival in Edessa in 1102 after being called from France by Baudouin[35].  In a later passage, he specifies that Joscelin´s mother was the sister of Baudouin de Bourg's mother, according to the testimony of her granddaughter concerning the consanguinity between Amaury I King of Jerusalem and his first wife which provided the basis for the annulment of their marriage in 1162[36].  William of Tyre refers to him as "consanguineus" of Count Baudouin when they were both captured the following year[37].  Joscelin arrived in Palestine, probably with the contingent led by Guillaume II Comte de Nevers.  On his arrival, Baudouin II Count of Edessa enfeoffed him with land west of the Euphrates, with his capital at Turbessel[38].  In Summer 1103, he took part in the raid against the emirate of Aleppo led by Bohémond I Prince of Antioch and captured Muslimiye.  In 1104, he captured Marash[39].  He was captured with Baudouin II Count of Edessa by Soqman, Ortokid Prince of Mardin, after the battle of Harran in 1104, and released in 1107, although he exchanged himself with Baudouin Count of Edessa to ensure the latter's release, but was released again within a few months[40].  Suspected by Count Baudouin of wishing to supplant him as Count of Edessa, he was imprisoned in 1112 and subsequently went southwards where he was enfeoffed as Prince of Galilee [Lord of Tiberias] by Baudouin I King of Jerusalem[41].  Albert of Aix records that Baudouin I King of Jerusalem granted "terram et reditus Tabariæ in beneficio" to "Gozelini de Curtenau…filius…amitæ Baldewini de Burg"[42].  He succeeded in 1118 as JOSCELIN I Count of Edessa, chosen by his predecessor Count Baudouin II shortly after becoming king of Jerusalem.  Bar Hebræus records that in A.H. 515 (1121/22) "Balec fils de Behram et petit-fils d'Ortok" captured "Josselin et Keliam, fils de la tante maternelle de Josselin", refused to accept payment of a ransom, and imprisoned them "dans le château de Khartbert", although the same source records in a later passage that "les Francs" captured Khartpert and released the captives[43].  "Gozellus comes Edessanus" confirmed a donation to the church of St. Marie, Josaphat, with the consent of "filii sui abbatis dicti monasterio Gilduino", of "terram Kyaria" by "dominus Galeran comitissæ de Corboil" by charter dated [Jan/Aug] 1126[44], although the garbled description of the donors makes their definite identification difficult.  In 1128, he raided villages in Antioch's territory in reprisal for Bohémond II Prince of Antioch's denunciation of the agreement concerning the dowry of Joscelin´s second wife[45].  He died from wounds received in an accident while besieging a small castle north-east of Aleppo[46].  On the other hand, the Histoire Universelle of Vartan le Grand records that "[Josselin le Jeune] seigneur de Hrom-Gla" was captured by Moslems while hunting and taken to Aleppo where he died[47]

m firstly ([1100/04] --- of Armenia, daughter of CONSTANTINE Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife --- (-before 1120).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by William of Tyre who names her son "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni"[48].  She was known as BEATRICE after her marriage, although the primary source which confirms this name has not yet been identified. 

m secondly (1121) MARIE of Antioch, daughter of RICHARD of the Principate Conte di Mottola, Castellaneta e Oria & his wife Altrude ---.  William of Tyre names her father but does not give her own name[49].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her brother Roger Prince of Antioch promised the town of Azaz as her dowry, but Bohémond II Prince of Antioch denounced the agreement[50]

Count Joscelin I & his first wife had one child: 

1.         JOSCELIN de Courtenay (-Aleppo [1159]).  William of Tyre names him and specifies his parentage[51].  He succeeded his father in 1131 as JOSCELIN II Count of Edessa.  "Gozelillus magni Gozelini filius comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated May 1134[52].  "Goscelinus comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Beatricis et filii Goscelini", by charter dated 1141, subscribed by "Rogerius constabularius…"[53].  "…Ioscelinus de Cortenai…" subscribed the charter dated 1144 under which "Balduinus…sancte Ierusalem rex Latinorum quartus" granted privileges to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, signing third among the subscribers[54].  Zengi atabeg of Aleppo captured Edessa in Dec 1144 and installed Kutchuk Ali of Arbil as Governor[55].  Count Joscelin attempted to rebuild his principality in his lands west of the Euphrates, with Turbessel as his capital, and rejected the suzerainty of Raymond Prince of Antioch who had failed to help relieve the besieged Edessa.  He attempted to recapture Edessa in Oct/Nov 1146 after the murder of Zengi 14 Sep 1146, but was forced to flee to Samosata[56].  He was captured by Turks in Apr 1150, handed to Nur-ed-Din, blinded and imprisoned at Aleppo[57].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Djoslin" was captured while out hunting by Turks who took him to Aleppo where he was imprisoned and blinded by "Nour-Eddin" and later died, adding that his territories which were captured were "Azaz, Thelbascher, Bir, Raban, Marach, Béhesni, Hassan-Messour, Samosate, Kharkhar et Koghtha", while his wife and two daughters retained possession of "Roum-Kalah"[58].  William of Tyre records the pleasure shown at the death of Raymond de Poitiers Prince of Antioch in 1149 by Joscelin, whom he describes as "vir supinus, a patria degener honestate, sordibus effluens, libidine dissolutus" when recounting his capture by Turks in Antioch and being taken to Aleppo where he died in prison the night of his arrival[59].  The primary source which confirms the date of death of Joscelin II has not yet been identified.  m  (1132 or after) BEATRICE, widow of GUILLAUME de Zerdana Lord of Sahyun, daughter of ---.  William of Tyre records that "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni" married "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem", but does not record her parentage[60].  The same chronicler describes her as "mulier pudica, sobria et timens Deum", and specifies that she was left with one son "impubere" and two daughters after her husband´s capture[61].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Biatris qui avoit esté feme dou seignor de Saone" as the wife of "Joscelin…conte de Rohais"[62].  "Goscelinus comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Beatricis et filii Goscelini", by charter dated 1141, subscribed by "Rogerius constabularius…"[63].  After her husband's capture, she successfully defended Turbessel against Nur-ed-Din, but was obliged to sell her territories to Emperor Manuel I (although they fell to Nur-ed-Din within a year) and retired to Jerusalem with her young children[64].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "la femme de Djoslin et ses deux filles" retained "Roum-Kalah" after the capture and death of her husband, but sent to Dzowk for "Krikor catholicos des Arméniens" to come and occupy the fortress as she "voulait traverser la mer et revenir chez ses parents où se trouvait son fils" on condition that, if her son was still alive and wished to return, the katholikos would surrender the castle to him[65].  The same source adds that Joscelin [III] sold the fortress "pour une somme d´argent" as he was convinced it was impossible to retain it against the Turks.  Count Joscelin II & his wife had three children: 

a)         AGNES de Courtenay (1133-[Sep 1184/1 Feb 1185]).  William of Tyre records that "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni" and his wife "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem" had "filiam" who firstly married "Rainaldi de Mares" and secondly "domini Almarici comitis Joppensis, qui postea fuit Hierosolymatorum rex"[66].  The Patriarch of Jerusalem refused to confirm her second marriage after the accession of her husband as king of Jerusalem as the parties were third cousins, so within the prohibited degrees, and insisted on annulment as a condition of Amaury's accession as king.  The king agreed, but insisted that the legitimacy and rights of inheritance of his two children by Agnes be recognised[67].  Agnes returned to the court at Jerusalem when her brother was appointed Seneschal in [1176/77], and became a domineering influence over her two children by her second husband[68].  William of Tyre recounts the background to the annulment of her second marriage and records her third marriage, after her second husband's remarriage, as well as her fourth marriage[69].  The Lignages records that "Hue de Ybelin" was "baron de Agnes qui avoit esté feme dou rei Amauri", stating that he died without heirs[70].  Another manuscript of the Lignages expands by naming her "Agnes, la fille au conte Jocelin de Rohais"[71].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Agnes, qui avoit esté feme dou rei Amauri et Hue de Ybelin…" as wife of "Renaut de Garnier"[72]m firstly RENAUD of Marash, son of --- (-killed in battle Inab 28 Jun 1149).  His death in battle with Raymond de Poitiers Prince of Antioch is recorded by William of Tyre, who at the same time specifies that he was the son-in-law of Joscelin Prince of Edessa[73]m secondly ([1158], annulled 1162) as his first wife, AMAURY of Jerusalem, son of FOULQUES King of Jerusalem Comte d'Anjou & his second wife Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem (1136-Jerusalem 11 Jul 1174).  He succeeded his brother in 1162 as AMAURY I King of Jerusalem, his succession being confirmed by election only after the annulment of his marriage[74]m thirdly (after 1162) HUGUES of Ibelin Lord of Rama, son of BALIAN of Ibelin Lord of Rama & his wife Helvis (1133 or before-1169/71).  William of Tyre names him and his father when he records this marriage[75]m fourthly (1174) as his first wife, RENAUD Lord of Sidon, son of GERARD Garnier Lord of Sidon & his wife Agnes of Bures-Tiberias (-[Nov 1200/1204]).  William of Tyre names him and his father when he records this marriage and the couple's divorce on the grounds of consanguinity (although he does not provide the factual basis for this claim)[76].   

b)         JOSCELIN [III] de Courtenay (-before 1200).  William of Tyre names "tertium Joscelinum" as the son of "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni" and his wife "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem"[77]Lord of Harenc [1158-1164].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Hérim" was captured by "le roi de Jérusalem" who gave it "au fils de Djoslin qui portait le même nom que son père et qui était héritier de Romgla"[78].  He was taken prisoner in [1159/60] and sent to Aleppo[79].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that the "fils de Djoslin qui portait le même nom que son père et qui était héritier de Romgla" ravaged Aleppo in revenge for the death of his father, but after two years was captured and died in chains (although the sources quoted below indicate that Joscelin [III] did not die at the time)[80].  The capture of Joscelin [III] is dated to 1164 by the History of Kamel-Altevarykh which records that "au mois de ramadhan Nour-eddin Mahmoud" conquered "le château de Harem" from the Franks and that "le prince Boémond souverain d´Antioche, le comte, maître de Tripoli…le fils de Josselin…et le duc" were captured[81].  "Rogerius dominus Seonæ" confirmed the donation of property "casale Tricheria" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Aviciæ et fratrum Garentonis et Joscelini", by charter dated Jul 1170[82].  "Joscelini" in this document is presumably identified as Joscelin [III], who was the uterine brother of the donor, although he was still in prison in Aleppo at that date.  Raymond Count of Tripoli attacked Homs 1 Feb 1175, distracting Saladin from his siege of Aleppo in return for which the ruler of Aleppo released his remaining Christian prisoners, including Renaud de Châtillon ex-Prince of Antioch and Joscelin de Courtenay[83].  After their release, he and Renaud de Châtillon became leaders of the more progressive elements in Palestine, centred around recent arrivals and the Knights Templar[84].  Baudouin IV King of Jerusalem appointed him as Seneschal of Jerusalem in [1176/77][85].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted property to "Joscelino, filio Joscelini, Edessani comitis, homino suo ligio" by charter dated 5 Feb 1178, subscribed by "Rainaldus de Margat, Bartholomæus, filius comitis, Guillelmus, marescalcus Antiochiæ…"[86].  The primary source which confirms his date of death has not yet been identified.  m ([1170/75]) AGNES de Milly, daughter of HENRI "Bubalus" de Milly & his wife Agnes Garnier of Sidon.  The Lignages d'Outremer record that the third daughter of "Henri le Bufle" & his wife was wife "dou conte Jocelin", and in a later passage that she inherited "Montfort et le Chastiau dou roy et la terre que les Alemans tienent" on the death of her father[87].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names her Agnes, stating that her dowry was "le Chastiau dou Roy et Monfort"[88].  Joscelin [III] & his wife had two children: 

i)          BEATRIX de Courtenay ([1176]-after 1245, bur Kloster Frauenrod).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Biatris et Annés" as the two daughters of "dou conte Jocelin" & his wife, specifying that Beatrix married "un conte aleman maugré le rei Heymeri" and died without heirs[89].  Lady of Toron (part), Castro Novo and Cabor: Guy King of Jerusalem confirmed the marriage agreement between "comitem Joscelinum senescalcum primogenitam filiam suam" and "Guillelmo de Valence, frater regis", by charter dated 21 Oct 1186, which specifies that her dowry was "Torono, Castro novo…Cabor"[90].  "Otto comes (de Henneberg)" donated property to the Teutonic Knights at Acre, with the consent of "uxoris Beatricis, filiæ quondam comitis Joscelini", by charter dated Sep 1208[91].  "Otto comes de Hennemberc" donated property, owed to "Guillelmo de Mandelia" (his brother-in-law), to the Teutonic Knights, with the consent of "Beatricis uxoris et filii", by charter dated 30 May 1220 at Acre[92].  Emperor Friedrich II confirmed rights of the Teutonic Knights in property donated by "Ottone comite de Ennenberch, Beatrice uxore et Ottone filio" by charter dated Jul 1226[93]m firstly (after 21 Oct 1186) GUILLAUME de Lusignan Seigneur de Valence, son of HUGUES [VIII] "le Brun" Sire de Lusignan & his wife Bourgogne de Rancon (-before Sep 1208).  m secondly (before Sep 1208) OTTO Graf von Henneberg und Rotenlauben, son of POPPO [VI] Graf von Henneberg & his wife Sophia von Andechs-Merano (-[1244], bur Kloster Frauenrod). 

ii)         AGNES de Courtenay ([1175/80]-after Sep 1200).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Biatris et Annés" as the two daughters of "dou conte Jocelin" & his wife, specifying that Agnes was mother of "Jaques de la Mandelee", although another manuscript states that she was wife of "Jaque de la Mandelee" and died without heirs[94].  In another passage, the Lignages record that "Jaque de la Mandelee" was son of "Guillaume le seignor de la Mandlee et d'Agnes qui estoit fille dou conte Jocelin de Rohais et de la petite fille de Henri le Bufle"[95].  "Willelmo de Amigdaleo eiusque uxore Agnete, filia comitis Joscelini…" reached agreement with the Patriarch of Jerusalem by charter dated Aug 1200[96].  "Guillelmus Amendelier" donated property "casalis Blanci", with the consent of "Agnetis uxoris filiæ comitis Joscellini", by charter dated Sep 1200[97].   m GUILLAUME de Mandelée, son of --- (-after 30 May 1220).  "Otto comes de Hennemberc" donated property, owed to "Guillelmo de Mandelia" (his brother-in-law), to the Teutonic Knights, with the consent of "Beatricis uxoris et filii", by charter dated 30 May 1220 at Acre[98]

c)         ISABELLE de Courtenay (after 1133-[1150/59]).  William of Tyre names her as daughter of Joscelin sent by his father as a hostage to the emperor in 1142[99].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1149) as his first wife, THOROS II Lord of the Mountains, son of LEO I Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife Béatrice de Rethel ([1120]-6 Feb 1169, bur Trazarg). 

Count Joscelin I & his second wife had one child: 

2.         --- de Courtenay (-after 1162).  William of Tyre records her parentage (but not her name), specifying that she was abbess at the convent of Maria Majoris near the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem and "iam natu grandævam" when she testified about the consanguinity between Amaury I King of Jerusalem and his first wife (her niece) when their marriage was annulled in 1162[100]

Count Joscelin I had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

3.          GELDUIN (-after [Jan/Aug] 1126).  Baudouin II King of Jerusalem confirmed the privileges of the church of St Marie, Josaphat, through the hands of "consanguinei sui Gelduini abbatis electi", by charter dated 31 Jan 1120[101].  "Gozellus comes Edessanus" confirmed a donation to the church of St. Marie, Josaphat, with the consent of "filii sui abbatis dicti monasterio Gilduino", of "terram Kyaria" by "dominus Galeran comitissæ de Corboil" by charter dated [Jan/Aug] 1126[102]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    VASSALS of the COUNTY of EDESSA

 

 

 

 

A.      CONSTABLES of EDESSA

 

 

1.         HERVE (-after May 1134).  Constable of Edessa.  "Matthæus Tuluppensis, Herveus constabularius, Constantinus Bastardus, Barrigan, Corizii dominus, Benzo, Robertus de Ravandella, Martinus castellanus Turbascelli…" subscribed the charter dated May 1134 under which "Gozelillus magni Gozelini filius comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[103]

 

2.         ROGER (-after 1141).  Constable of Edessa.  "Goscelinus comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Beatricis et filii Goscelini", by charter dated 1141, subscribed by "Rogerius constabularius…"[104]

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of CORIS (KHOROS)

 

 

1.         BARRIGAN (-after May 1134).  Lord of Coris.  "Matthæus Tuluppensis, Herveus constabularius, Constantinus Bastardus, Barrigan, Corizii dominus, Benzo, Robertus de Ravandella, Martinus castellanus Turbascelli…" subscribed the charter dated May 1134 under which "Gozelillus magni Gozelini filius comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[105]m ---.  The name of Barrigan´s wife is not known.  Barrigan & his wife had one child: 

a)         THIBAUT (-after 1150).  "Théobald fils de [Barrigan]" subscribed a charter of "Gauthier de Sourdval connétable d´Antioch" dated 1150[106]

 

 

 

C.      LORDS of HATAB and TULUPE

 

 

1.         MAHUIS (-after May 1134).  Lord of Hatab, Lord of Tulupe.  "Matthæus Tuluppensis, Herveus constabularius, Constantinus Bastardus, Barrigan, Corizii dominus, Benzo, Robertus de Ravandella, Martinus castellanus Turbascelli…" subscribed the charter dated May 1134 under which "Gozelillus magni Gozelini filius comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[107]

 

 

 

D.      LORDS of MARASH and KAISUN

 

 

The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Stéphané frère du baron Thoros" invaded "le territoire de Marach" in 584 (Armenian calendar)[108]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         TAPHNUZ [Tafroc[109]] (-Samosata 1117).  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinum frater ducis Godefridi" married "de genere Armenico…filiam…principis et fratris Constentini…Taphnuz" who appointed Baudouin as his heir, dated to late 1098[110].  Albert of Aix records that "socer…Baldewini Taphnuz" was the focus of an Armenian plot in Edessa against his son-in-law, dated to late 1098 from the context, and fled to the mountains after Baudouin dealt severely with the conspirators, refusing to leave fearing that Baudouin would kill him "for the money which he still owed him" (presumably the unpaid dowry of his daughter)[111].  He was captured by Baudouin II du Bourcq Count of Edessa [Rethel][112], imprisoned at Samosata where he died in an earthquake.  [[113]same person as …?  THATOUL.  Rüdt-Collenberg suggests this co-identity[114].  An Orthodox Christian.  He was recognised as Governor of Marash by Emperor Alexios I who awarded him the titles πρωτονωβελισσιμος and αρχων των αρχοντων.  Marash was captured in 1104 by Joscelin de Courtenay[115], and according to Matthew of Edessa Thatoul retired to live in Constantinople[116].]  m ---.  The name of Taphnuz's wife is not known.  Taphnuz & his wife had one child: 

a)         [ARDA] (-Constantinople after 1117).  William of Tyre records Count Baudouin's second marriage with the daughter of Tafroc, although he does not name her[117].  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinum frater ducis Godefridi" married "de genere Armenico…filiam…principis et fratris Constentini…Taphnuz" who appointed Baudouin as his heir, dated to late 1098[118].  According to Murray, her name is not given in any medieval sources but has been applied to her in "modern scholarship"[119].  According to Rüdt-Collenberg[120], Arda was the daughter of Thoros, brother of Constantine Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The marriage was arranged as part of her future husband's policy of integration with the Armenian population after his installation as count of Edessa[121].  Her father promised a dowry of 60,000 bezants on her marriage, of which only 7,000 bezants was paid.  She joined her husband in Jerusalem after his accession as king, but was repudiated on the grounds of alleged adultery, and obliged to become a nun at the convent of St Anne at Jerusalem.  She was subsequently allowed to join her father in Constantinople where, according to William of Tyre, "she took to evil ways"[122].  Her date of death is not known, but she presumably died after 1117 as, according to Albert of Aix, her existence at that date provided her husband with the grounds for repudiating his third wife Adelaida del Vasto[123]m (1098, repudiated [1104]) as his second wife, BAUDOUIN de Boulogne Count of Edessa, son of EUSTACHE II Comte de Boulogne & his second wife Ida of Lower Lotharingia (-Al-Arish 2 Apr 1118, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  He was chosen in 1100 to succeeded as BAUDOUIN I King of Jerusalem

2.         CONSTANTINE (-Samosate 1117 or soon after).  William of Tyre records Constantine as brother of Tafroc/Taphnuz[124].  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinum frater ducis Godefridi" married "de genere Armenico…filiam…principis et fratris Constentini…Taphnuz" who appointed Baudouin as his heir, dated to late 1098[125].  Lord of Gargar.  Baudouin II Count of Edessa captured Gargar in 1117, and imprisoned Constantine at Samosata where he died soon after in an earthquake[126].  Matthew of Edessa records that Baudouin Count of Edessa defeated "Constantin seigneur de Gargar" who died in [20 Feb 1117/19 Feb 1118] in chains "dans la forteresse de Samosate"[127]

 

 

1.         RICHARD (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Marash.  Albert of Aix records that "Paganus…de Sororgia…Hugo de Cantalou…de prædio Hunninæ…Richardus præfectus civitatis Maresch…Wido de Bresalt, Willelmus de Albin…Wido cognomine Capreolus, princeps civitatum Tharsis et Mamistræ…Willelmus…filius comitis Nortmannorum, dominium habens civitatis Tortosæ…Engelrandus præfectus civitatis Femiæ…Bonaplius civitatis tenens Sarmit…Gudo Fraxinus cognomine tenens civitatem Harich, Robertus simul de Sudon, Rotgerus de Montmarin, tenens præsidium Hap, Punctus, Talamriam tenens…et Pancras, et Corvasilius de civitate Crasson, Ursinus…de montanis Antiochiæ, Attenellus etiam et Leo frater eius…Martinus comes Laodiciæ, quam Tancredus, ejectis et expugnatis militibus imperatoris Græcorum, suo juri mancipaverat…Robertus de Veteri Ponte…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[128]

 

2.         GEOFFROY "the Monk" (-killed in battle 1124).  Lord of Marash.  William of Tyre names "Gaufridus cognomento Monachus" as one of the barons of Edessa, dated to 1131 from the context[129].  Governor of Edessa 1122.  He was killed by the Turks. 

 

3.         BAUDOUIN (-killed in battle Edessa Nov 1146).  Lord of Marash and Kaisun, as a vassal of the Count of Edessa.  After the invasion of Cilicia by Ioannes II Emperor of Byzantium in 1139, Baudouin was obliged to pay homage to the Emperor and ask for protection from the Turks[130].  He was killed during the unsuccessful attempt by Joscelin II de Courtenay to recapture Edessa[131].  The Chronicle of Grégoire le Prêtre names "le prince d'Antioche, frère délaissé de Baudouin [comte de Marash]" when recording the death of the former in 1149[132].  This is the only source which hints at a family relationship between Raymond de Poitie rs Prince of Antioch and Baudouin Lord of Marash. 

 

4.         RENAUD (-killed in battle Inab 28 Jun 1149)Lord of Marash.  He was killed fighting Nur-ed-Din in the plain between Inab and the marsh of Ghab[133].  His death in battle with Raymond de Poitiers Prince of Antioch is recorded by William of Tyre, who at the same time specifies that he was the son-in-law of Joscelin Prince of Edessa[134]m as her first husband, AGNES de Courtenay, daughter of JOSCELIN II de Courtenay Count of Edessa & his wife Béatrice --- (1133-1185).  William of Tyre records that "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni" and his wife "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem" had "filiam" who firstly married "Rainaldi de Mares" and secondly "domini Almarici comitis Joppensis, qui postea fuit Hierosolymatorum rex"[135].  She married secondly ([1158], annulled 1162) as his first wife, Amaury of Jerusalem, who succeeded his brother in 1162 as Amaury I King of Jerusalem, thirdly (after 1162) Hugues of Ibelin Lord of Rama, and fourthly (1174) as his first wife, Renaud Lord of Sidon.  William of Tyre recounts the background to the annulment of her second marriage and records her third marriage, after her second husband's remarriage, as well as her fourth marriage[136]

 

5.         BAUDOUIN (-after 1163).  "Balduinus dominus Marasii" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agathæ uxoris et Hugonis de Rupe necnon Joccæ domini Vanaverii", by charters dated 1163[137]m AGATHA, daughter of --- (-after 1163).  "Balduinus dominus Marasii" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agathæ uxoris et Hugonis de Rupe necnon Joccæ domini Vanaverii", by charters dated 1163[138]

 

 

 

E.      LORDS of TARSUS and MAMISTRA

 

 

1.         GUY "Capreolus/Chevreuil" (-after [1115]).  Lord of Tarsus and Mamistra.  Albert of Aix records that "…Wido cognomine Capreolus, princeps civitatum Tharsis et Mamistræ… hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[139].  "Rogerius princeps Antiochenus" confirmed donations to the church of St Mary of Josaphat, including the donation of fishing rights in "casale S. Pauli et in casali Oschi II aratra terræ" made by "W. [abbreviation for "Widus"?] Capreolus", by charter dated 1115[140]

 

 



[1] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris) II, CXVI, pp. 180-1. 

[2] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXVI, pp. 180-1. 

[3] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXVI, p. 181. 

[4] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXVI, p. 181. 

[5] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXII, p. 186. 

[6] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXII, p. 187. 

[7] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXX, p. 198. 

[8] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXX, p. 198. 

[9] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXLV, p. 208. 

[10] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle (Venice Manuscript) (New Jersey) 46, 543 A.E, available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[11] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 48, 546 A.E. 

[12] Extrait du Chronique de Matthieu d'Edesse, RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I (Paris, 1869) ("ME") II.V, pp. 35-6, and 37-8. 

[13] Murray, A. V. (2000) The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: a dynastic history 1099-1125 (Prosopographica & Genealogica), pp. 230-31. 

[14] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXLIX, p. 212. 

[15] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey) 63, available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[16] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 47. 

[17] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris) ("Saint-Bertin") II.16, p. 227. 

[18] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) I. XVII, p. 45. 

[19] Murray (2000), p. 34-5. 

[20] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 198-9. 

[21] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 203-8. 

[22] Laurentii Gesta Episcoporum Virdunensium 12, MGH SS X, p. 498. 

[23] WT I. XVII, p. 45. 

[24] WT XII.I, p. 511. 

[25] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 36. 

[26] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber VII, Cap. XXXI, p. 527. 

[27] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 43 and 111-12. 

[28] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 47.  

[29] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 112-14. 

[30] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 130. 

[31] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXVIII, p. 707. 

[32] WT X.XXIV, p. 437. 

[33] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 155. 

[34] Ex continuatione Historiæ Aimoni Monachi Floriacensis, RHGF XI, p. 275. 

[35] WT X.XXIV, p. 437. 

[36] WT XIX.IV, p. 889. 

[37] WT X.XXX, p. 446. 

[38] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 38. 

[39] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 39. 

[40] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 43 and 111-12. 

[41] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 124. 

[42] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXXI, p. 710. 

[43] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 14. 

[44] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1904) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) (Supplement) 113a, p. 8, quoting from Revue de l'Orient Latin VII, pp. 121-2 (not consulted). 

[45] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 181. 

[46] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 185. 

[47] Vartan le Grand, p. 434. 

[48] WT XIV.III, p. 609. 

[49] WT XIX.IV, p. 889. 

[50] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 181. 

[51] WT XIV.III, p. 609. 

[52] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1893) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) 151, p. 38. 

[53] Röhricht (1893), 206, p. 51. 

[54] Rozière, E. de (ed.) (1849) Cartulaire de l'église de Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem (Paris) ("Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem"), 34, p. 65. 

[55] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 235-7. 

[56] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 238-40. 

[57] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 327-8. 

[58] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 308. 

[59] WT XVII.XI, p. 776. 

[60] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[61] WT XVII.XI, p. 776. 

[62] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVII, p. 111. 

[63] Röhricht (1893), 206, p. 51. 

[64] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 328-30. 

[65] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 309. 

[66] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[67] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 362. 

[68] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 407. 

[69] WT XIX.IV, pp. 889-90. 

[70] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVI, p. 60. 

[71] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXVII, p. 97. 

[72] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXV, p. 70. 

[73] WT XVII.IX, p. 775. 

[74] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 362. 

[75] WT XIX.IV, p. 890. 

[76] WT XIX.IV, p. 890. 

[77] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[78] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 316. 

[79] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358. 

[80] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 318. 

[81] Extrait du Kamel-Altevarykh, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, pp. 537-40

[82] Röhricht (1893), 473, p. 124. 

[83] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 407-8. 

[84] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 405. 

[85] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 407. 

[86] Röhricht (1893), 555, p. 147. 

[87] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXIII, p. 69. 

[88] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVII, p. 111. 

[89] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXIII, p. 69. 

[90] Röhricht (1893), 655, p. 174. 

[91] Röhricht (1893), 828, p. 222. 

[92] Röhricht (1893), 933, p. 247. 

[93] Röhricht (1893), 978, p. 257. 

[94] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXIII, p. 69. 

[95] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXIX, p. 64. 

[96] Röhricht (1893), 773, p. 206. 

[97] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  774a, p. 50. 

[98] Röhricht (1893), 933, p. 247. 

[99] WT XV.XIX, p. 689. 

[100] WT XIX.IV, p. 889. 

[101] Röhricht (1893), 90, p. 21. 

[102] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  113a, p. 8, quoting from Revue de l'Orient Latin VII, pp. 121-2 (not yet consulted). 

[103] Röhricht (1893), 151, p. 38. 

[104] Röhricht (1893), 206, p. 51. 

[105] Röhricht (1893), 151, p. 38. 

[106] Rey, E. G. (1881) Sommaire du supplément aux familles d´Outre-Mer (Chartres), p. 7. 

[107] Röhricht (1893), 151, p. 38. 

[108] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 315. 

[109] WT, X, I, 1, p. 402, quoted in Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 209, footnote 1. 

[110] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber III, Cap. XXXI, p. 361. 

[111] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber V, Cap. XVIII, p. 443. 

[112] Who later succeeded as Baudouin II King of Jerusalem. 

[113] Honigmann, E. 'Marash' in Encyclopedia of Islam 4 vols (Leyden-London, 1908-34), quoted in Runciman (1978), Vol 1, p. 209, footnote 1. 

[114] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck)Table I. 

[115] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 40. 

[116] Matthew of Edessa, III, clxxxvi, p. 257, quoted in Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 209, footnote 1. 

[117] WT X.I, p. 402. 

[118] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber III, Cap. XXXI, p. 361. 

[119] Murray (2000), p. 182. 

[120] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck)Table I. 

[121] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 208. 

[122] WT XI.I, pp. 451-2. 

[123] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XXIV, p. 704. 

[124] WT X.I, p. 402. 

[125] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber III, Cap. XXXI, p. 361. 

[126] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 130. 

[127] ME II.LXXIV, p. 117. 

[128] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[129] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[130] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 214. 

[131] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 238-40. 

[132] Extrait du Chronique de Grégoire le Prêtre, RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I (Paris, 1869) XCIX, p. 161. 

[133] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 326. 

[134] WT XVII.IX, p. 775. 

[135] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[136] WT XIX.IV, pp. 889-90. 

[137] Röhricht (1893), 390, p. 103. 

[138] Röhricht (1893), 390, p. 103. 

[139] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[140] Röhricht (1893), 76, p. 17.