ARMENIA

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KINGS of ARMENIA (CAUCASIAN ARMENIA) 5

A.         KINGS of ARMENIA (BAGRATID) 5

B.         KINGS of VASPURAKAN (ARCRUNI) 19

C.        KINGS of KARS and VANAND.. 26

D.        PRINCES of TARON.. 27

E.         KINGS of LORHI and AGHBANIA.. 32

F.         PRINCES of GABAN or DERBEND.. 37

G.        LORDS of MANZIKERT. 38

H.        PRINCES in EASTERN ARMENIA.. 39

Chapter 2.                LORDS of the MOUNTAINS, KINGS of (CILICIAN) ARMENIA (FAMILY of RUPEN) 44

A.         ORIGINS, LORDS of the MOUNTAINS, until 1199. 44

B.         KINGS of ARMENIA 1199-1252. 61

Chapter 3.                KINGS of ARMENIA (CILICIAN ARMENIA) (FAMILY of HETHUM) 66

A.         KINGS of ARMENIA 1226-1341. 66

B.         KINGS of ARMENIA 1344-1373. 84

Chapter 4.                    KINGS of ARMENIA (CILICIAN ARMENIA) (LUSIGNAN) 1342-1375. 88

Chapter 5.                OTHER LORDS in ARMENIA (CILICIAN ARMENIA) 98

A.         LORDS of BARBARON.. 99

B.         LORDS of BERDUS.. 108

C.        LORDS of BIREJK.. 108

D.        LORDS of HAMUS.. 109

E.         LORDS of KORIKOS.. 110

F.         LORDS of LAMPRON.. 115

G.        LORDS of MELITENE.. 124

H.        PAHLAVOUNI 126

I.      LORDS of RABAN and KAISUN.. 134

J.         LORDS of SARAVANTIKAR.. 135

K.         LORDS of SASSOUN.. 137

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The early history of Armenia in the Caucasus was dominated by outside pressures from Arab, Byzantine and Turkmen forces which threatened its independent existence.  After more than a century of Arab domination, Armenia regained its autonomy in 884 when Ashot Bagratuni, from the family which also ruled neighbouring Georgia, was crowned king of Armenia (Chapter 1.A).  Although the king's primacy among Armenian princes was rarely disputed, his power was weakened by the continued existence of other Armenian principalities.  The kingdom of Vaspurakan was ruled by the Arcruni family.  It enjoyed an autonomous separate existence from the early 10th century until the early 11th century, when the last king surrendered territory to the Byzantine empire in return for the lordship of Cæsarea, and the remaining part of his kingdom for the city of Sebastia (Chapter 1.B).  The kingdom of Kars and Vanand was ruled by a junior branch of the Bagratid dynasty from the late 10th century until 1064, when the last king ceded his lands to Byzantium and retired to Tsamantia in Cappadocia (Chapter 1.C).  The principality of Taron, in south-west Caucasian Armenia west of Lake Van, was also ruled by the Bagratuni, and was autonomous from the early 9th century until the late 960s when it was annexed by the Byzantine empire (Chapter 1.D).  The Bagratuni kingdom of Lorhi and Aghbania survived from the late 10th century until the late 11th century, when it was annexed by the Seljuks (Chapter 1.E).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records princes of Gaban or Derbend during the 10th century (Chapter 1.F).  Armenian lordships also existed during the 10th and 11th centuries at Manzikert (Chapter 1.G) and in eastern Armenia until the mid-13th century (Chapter 1.H). 

 

The mid-10th century De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos names the main towns in "magna Armenia" as "Cars" (where the "principum princeps" lived) "Percri Chaliat Arzes, et Tibe et Chert et Salamas"[1]

 

During the early 11th century, Emperor Basileios I annexed the provinces of Armenia which lay nearest to imperial territory.  Turkmen raids also pressured the prince of Vaspurakan to exchange his principality with the Byzantine emperor for land further west in Cappadocia.  Eventually, the Armenian kingdom itself, with its capital at Ani, was absorbed into the Byzantine empire in 1045.  The prince of Kars, the last surviving independent Armenian state, transferred his territory to Byzantium in return for estates in the Taurus mountains, taking with him large numbers of Armenians.  Assumption of control of Caucasian Armenia by Byzantium did not alleviate the pressure from the Turkmen.  Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan intensified raids on the newly-acquired Byzantine territory and in 1064 he destroyed Ani.  By 1066, the Turkmen were in full control of Caucasian Armenia, and raided Neocæsaria and Amorium in 1068, Iconium in 1069 and Chonæ in 1070[2]

 

By the mid-11th century, large parts of the Armenian population had followed their rulers westwards and settled in the new lands in Cappadocia and Cilicia.  The Armenians in Cilicia, the south-eastern part of Asia Minor, set up a new Armenian principality in an area which had recently been lost by the Byzantines.  Various leaders emerged in different parts of the territory, notably Philaretus who controlled the area between Antioch and Melitene, and the local lords in Edessa and Melitene itself.  Two families came to dominate Cilician Armenia, the Rupenids and Hethumids.  The Armenian primary sources include references to an imprecise family relationship between the Rupenids and the Bagratid dynasty of Armenian kings.  It is likely that the intention was to provide greater legitimacy for the new rulers.  It is assumed that, if there had been a real family connection, the sources would have specified the details. 

 

The early leaders of Cilician Armenia were known in western sources as "Lords of the Mountains", after its mountainous terrain (Chapter 2.A).  The territory became of strategic importance to the crusaders en route to Palestine.  In 1199, Lewon II Lord of the Mountains was crowned as king of Armenia, after receiving royal crowns from the Pope, as a reward for helping the German crusading army earlier in the decade, and from the Byzantine emperor (Chapter 2.B).  The Rupinid dynasty was replaced by the Hethumid kings of Cilician Armenia in 1226 (Chapter 3).  In the 13th century, Cilician Armenia was raided by the Egyptian Mameluks, the Turkmen and the Kurds.  At that time, the kingdom's continued survival was assured only by its alliance with the Mongols.  However, the country was seriously weakened by internal feuds within the royal family.  No less than six kings ruled during the twenty years which followed the death of King Lewon II in 1289, nearly all of them meeting violent deaths.  With the extinction in the male line of the senior branch of the Hethumid family in 1341, the Armenian crown passed to a branch of the Lusignan rulers of Cyprus (Chapter 4).  The new Lusignan king faced great difficulty in imposing himself in Cilician Armenia in the face of strong anti-Catholic and anti-western feeling.  Within a few years, he was murdered and a younger branch of the Hethumids came to power.  Mameluk attacks intensified and, after a brief revival of the Lusignan line, the kingdom of Cilician Armenia was finally extinguished in 1375.  After the death in exile in 1393 of Lewon V, last king of Armenia, Jacques King of Cyprus was crowned as titular king of Armenia by hereditary right.  By that time, the territory controlled by the Armenians in Cilicia was limited to the fortress of Korikos, which was finally captured by the Turks in 1448.  The title "King of Armenia" continued to be used by the kings of Cyprus, who were also titular kings of Jerusalem.  The right to the title eventually passed to the dukes of Savoy, descendants of Charlotte of Cyprus who married Louis Duke of Savoy in 1434. 

 

In addition to the families of the kings of Armenia, several prominent Armenian noble families are dealt with in Chapter 5 of this document. 

 

Many primary sources, mainly written between the 10th and late 13th centuries, deal with Armenian history after the 7th century A.D.  From a chronological point of view, the earliest work is the History written by Johannes Catholicos, a native of Dashonakert or of Garney or Duin, which covers the period approximately to the year 920.  Avdall, in the preface to his translation of Michael Chamich's 18th century History of Armenia, comments that the work had not been published at the time of writing (1827) and that "a copy is preserved in the library of the Venetian Conventuals"[3].  A French translation was published in 1841[4].  The History of Stephen of Taron, known as "Asolik" or "Asolnik" extends coverage up to the reign of King Gagik I until 1000[5].  Aristakes Lastivertci lived in the 11th century and his History starts with the reign of King Gagik I and extends to the year 1071[6].  The 12th century Matthew Urhahensis the Abbot (also known as Matthew of Edessa) wrote a History of Armenia from the reign of King Ashot III until 1128, which was continued until 1161 by Gregory the Priest[7].  The work of the 12th century priest Samuel of Ani also extends to 1164[8].  His Tables chronologiques are available in French translation edited by Brosset[9].  The 13th century History of Kirakos Ganjaketsi includes an account of the Mongol invasion and brings Armenian history up to 1260[10].  Vardan Areweltsi was a fellow scholar of Kirakos and his History extends to the year 1272[11].  The Chronicle of Smbat[12] (attributed to Smbat, brother of King Hethum I and commander-in-chief of the army of the kingdom of Armenia), written in the late 13th century, summarises the previous work of Matthew of Edessa and provides a new commentary on Cilician Armenia from 1163 to 1172.  The versions of these works which have been consulted in the preparation of the present document are primarily the English translations made by Robert Bedrosian which are freely available on the web[13].  In addition, extracts from other primary sources, translated into French and included in the Recueil des historiens des croisades ("RHC") series[14], have also been included in this document.  The version of the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II translated by Robert Bedrosian[15] is much more complete than the French translation published in RHC (under the title Table Chronologique de Héthoum Comte de Gorigos)[16], the latter omitting many of the genealogical details concerning the king's family.  References from other contemporary primary sources which report events in the crusader states in the Levant, available in the RHC series, also deal with Cilician Armenia and have been incorporated into this document. 

 

The genealogy of the Cilician kings of Armenia has been studied in detail by Rüdt-Collenberg[17].  Although his research is thorough, the author's rather eccentric method of citation of source material makes it a difficult work to appreciate fully.  In addition, in the course of compiling this document, some inconsistencies with primary source documentation were observed and corrected.  Some further sources to consult, which were available to Rüdt-Collenberg, include the Codex Borgia[18] and a work by Alishan which includes extracts from monumental inscriptions[19].   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of ARMENIA (CAUCASIAN ARMENIA)

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of ARMENIA (BAGRATID)

 

 

SMBAT, son of ASHOT "the Blind" [Bagratid-Georgia] & his wife --- ([735]-killed in battle Bagrevand 15 Apr 775).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Smbat" succeeded as marzpan of Armenia after the death of "Ashot Bagratuni" and ruled for 22 years, but does not mention any family relationship between them[20].  According to Garsoïan, Smbat was the son of Ashot "the Blind" but it is unclear from her text on which primary source this is based[21].  He was appointed sparapet in Armenia in 753.  He joined the Armenian rebellion of 774 against Arab domination, but was defeated and killed in battle by Arab forces on the banks of the Euphrates river. 

m --- of Mamikonian, daughter of SAMUEL [II] Prince of Mamikonian & his wife --- ([740]-).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Ghevond Vardapeti who names "Samuel seigneur du domaine de la famillle de Mamikonian…beau-père du commandant" among those killed in the battle of Bagrevand[22]

Smbat & his wife had two children: 

1.         ASHOT Bagratuni "Msaker/the meat- or man-eater" ([765]-826).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Ashot Msaker" succeeded as marzpan of Armenia after "Smbat" and ruled for 20 years, but does not mention any family relationship between them[23].  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record "Achot-Msaker, fils de Sembat, [et] père de Sembat le Confesseur" between 780 and 820, adding that he was "du village de Cacaz, canton de Mazaz"[24].  After his father's defeat, Ashot took refuge in his mountain domain in north-western Sper from where he carried out guerrilla activity against the Arabs[25].  He was appointed išxan of Armenia by the Caliph in 804[26].  On his death, the Caliphate divided his territories between his two sons.  m ---.  The name of Ashot's wife is not known.  Ashot & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         BAGRAT Bagratuni (-Baghdad after 851).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 826 as išxanac išxan [Prince of Princes] in the southern Armenian territories of Taron and Sasun[27]

-        PRINCES of TARON

b)         SMBAT Bagratuni “Khostovanogh/the Confessor” ([795]-Samarra after 862, bur Chapel of St Daniel).  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record "Achot-Msaker, fils de Sembat, [et] père de Sembat le Confesseur" between 780 and 820[28].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Ashot's son Smbat…called Ablabas" succeeded his father as marzpan of Armenia and ruled for 35 years, recording that he built the chapel (kawaran) at "Erazgawors which is presently called Shirakawan"[29].  Having been a hostage at the court of the Abbasid Caliph, he was appointed sparapet in Armenia on the death of his father, ruling in the northern domains of Sper and Tayk27.  After quarrelling with his brother, Smbat refused to join the 851 rebellion against the Caliphate which enabled the latter to increase its control over southern Armenia.  In 853, northern Armenia was also overrun.  Smbat was captured, taken to Samarra, where he refused apostasy and later died[30].  The Georgian Chronicle records that "world-ruler Smbat, king of Armenia" was captured "in the city of Duin" and killed after being tortured for one year by "Bugha"[31].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Bugha…ravaged Armenia through treachery and led away many people to Samara in captivity" and took "Smbat asparapet of Armenia to Jafar" who put him in jail where he refused to apostasize, thereby inheriting his name "the Confessor"[32].  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the burial of "Sembat le Confesseur…dans la chapelle du martyr S. Daniel"[33]m HRIPSIME, daughter of --- ([800]-).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Smbat & his wife had three children: 

i)          ASHOT Bagratuni (820-890, bur Bagran).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Ashot ruled the kingdom" after the death of "Smbat…the Confessor"[34].  He was recognised as ASHOT I “the Great” King of Armenia in 885. 

-         see below

ii)         ABAS .  His brother appointed him sparapet in Armenia[35].  He rebelled against his nephew Smbat after the death of his brother King Ashot I from his fortress at Kars[36].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le sbarabied Apas frère du roi Aschod" rebelled against "Sempad", son of the latter, but that peace was restored after King Smbat sent as hostages "son fils qui portait son nom et Aschod fils de son frère Schahpour" to Abas[37]

iii)        daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m BAGRAT [I] Prince of Kartli [Georgia], son of ASHOT [I] “the Great” Prince of Kartli & his wife --- (822-876). 

c)         [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the king of Armenia was the brother of the wife of "Gouaram, fils d'Achot et frère de Bagrat couropalates"[38]m GUARAM of Iberia, son of ASHOT Prince of Iberia & his wife --- (-882). 

d)         [son .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          [GABLUTZ .  His parentage is confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "Gabloutz" made war against "Achot son cousin germain paternal, fils de Soumbat roi d'Arménie et frère de Gouaram"[39].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gouaram, fils d'Achot et frère de Bagrat couropalates" captured "Gabloutz…parent de Sahac"[40]

2.         SAPUH .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was appointed sparapet in Armenia by the Caliph in 804[41]

 

 

ASHOT Bagratuni, son of SMBAT Bagratuni “Khostovanogh/the Confessor” & his wife Hripsime --- (820-890, bur Bagran).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Ashot ruled the kingdom" after the death of "Smbat…the Confessor", recording that held "the sparapetutiwn", then was installed as "prince of princes" and given a crown by "Mahmet", and also received a royal crown from Emperor Basileios I[42].  After his father's capture in 853, Ashot took refuge in Tayk, assuming his father's title and leadership of Armenian resistance in the north.  He reconquered Širak and Aršarunik[43].  He was appointed išxanac išxan [Prince of Princes] in Armenia in 862 by the ostikan, representative of the Caliph in Armenia[44].  Ashot further strengthened his position by dynastic marriages with other Armenian princes, and eventually was able to take advantage of the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate's power to re-establish Armenia's political autonomy from the Arabs.  His position was confirmed when he was crowned ASHOT I “the Great” King of Armenia at Bagaran by the Caliph's representative 26 Aug 884 with a crown sent by the Caliph.  He continued to be referred to, however, as "Prince of Princes" in Arab and Greek sources and appears to have remained tributary to the Caliphate[45].  He was recognised as such by Emperor Leon VI in 887[46].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records the death "par une chute qu´il fit dans une route sur un rocher appelé Tsieg abarhaji" of "Aschod roi d´Arménie" and his burial "dans le bourg royal de Pagran"[47].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that Ashot ruled for 32 years as Prince of Princes and five years as king of Armenia[48]

m KOTRAMIDE, daughter of --- ([825]-).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

King Ashot I & his wife had six children:

1.         SMBAT Bagratuni ([850]-murdered Erndjak 912).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that Ashot was succeeded by "his son Smbat" who ruled for 24 years but "underwent martyrdom in Christ at Dwin, hanged from a tree by Yusup, Apuset's son"[49].  He succeeded his father in 890 as SMBAT I "the Martyr" King of Armenia.  The succession was disputed by his uncle Abas, but Smbat was crowned in 892 at Širakawan [Erazgavork] by the Caliph's representative, the ostikan of Azerbaijan.  He also confirmed the treaty of friendship with Emperor Leon VI[50].  King Smbat's policy of independence provoked the ostikan Afshin to declare war on Armenia from neighbouring Azerbaijan, during which the Armenian katolikos was captured, although the latter was ransomed when King Smbat's military victory forced the Azeris to sue for peace[51].  The war was temporarily halted in 902 when the Caliph agreed Armenia's separation from Azerbaijan, the Armenian tribute being paid direct to Baghdad, although the latter decision was disputed by Azerbaijan[52].  Yusuf ostikan of Azerbaijan organised a general rebellion against King Smbat, who sought refuge in the fortress of Kapoyt Berd "Blue Fortress" in Aršarunik but later surrendered and was tortured to death, his headless corpse being exposed on a cross in Duin[53].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records in some detail the torture inflicted on King Smbat and his death, noting that he had reigned for 22 years[54].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Symbatii…principum principis" was beheaded "ab Aposata Persidis"[55].  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record that "Sembat-Tiézéracal" was killed by "Iousouf fils d´Abousidj, ostican" and that, after his death, "notre pays resta 7 ans sans maître"[56]m ---, daughter of --- King of Abkhazia [Colchis/Kolkhis] & his wife --- (-after [895]).  The name of Smbat's wife is not known.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos refers to "la reine des arméniens, femme de Sempad et fille du roi de Colchide" when recording that she took refuge in "la forteresse de Kars" during an attack by the Arabs but that she was captured and taken "à Tovin"[57].  The same source records her subsequent release[58].  It is not possible to identify her father from this passage.  See the document GEORGIA for the various possible candidates.  Garsoïan dates these events to [895][59].  King Smbat I & his wife had five children: 

a)         SMBAT .  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le sbarabied Apas frère du roi Aschod" rebelled against "Sempad", son of the latter, but that peace was restored after King Smbat sent as hostages "son fils qui portait son nom et Aschod fils de son frère Schahpour" to Abas[60]

b)         ASHOT Bagratuni (-[928]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Asotium…et Apasacium" as the two sons of "Symbatii…principum principis"[61].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le chef des eunuques…[de] Afschin" took "Aschod le fils du roi" and "la femme de Mouschegh, frère d´Aschod", who had been captured "dans la forteresse de Kars", and returned them to King Smbat[62].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Ashot" succeeded after the death of "Smbat Bagratuni" and ruled "at the order of Emperor Romanus for eight years"[63].  Defeated by Yusuf ostikan of Azerbaijan, he was crowned in 914 as ASHOT II King of Armenia by Adarnase II King of Iberia.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "Aschod fils de Sempad" was made king "par le roi des Ibériens"[64].  After visiting Constantinople, he returned to Armenia with Byzantine forces to fight ostikan Yusuf and his cousin Ashot, whom Yusuf had installed as anti-king of Armenia[65].  After Yusuf's fall and recall to Baghdad in 919, King Ashot was granted the title Shahanshah [King of Kings].  m ([917]) MARIE of Kachen, daughter of SAHAK Sevata & his wife ---.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le roi Aschod, fils de roi" married "la fille du grand ischkhan Isaac [Sahak] surnommé Sévata", dated to [917] from the context[66]

c)         MUSEL (-murdered 910, bur Bagran).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le chef des eunuques…[de] Afschin" took "Aschod le fils du roi" and "la femme de Mouschegh, frère d´Aschod", who had been captured "dans la forteresse de Kars", and returned them to King Smbat[67].  One of the leaders of the resistance against Yusuf ostikan of Azerbaijan, he was captured and poisoned.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "Mouschegh fils du roi Sempad" was captured "par la trahison des habitants de la province d´Oudie" and was poisoned and buried "à Pagaran", dated to [910] from the context[68]m ---.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le chef des eunuques…[de] Afschin" took "Aschod le fils du roi" and "la femme de Mouschegh, frère d´Aschod", who had been captured "dans la forteresse de Kars", and returned them to King Smbat[69]

d)         ABAS (-951).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Abas son of Smbat" as ruler of Armenia[70].  He succeeded his brother in [928] as ABAS King of Armenia

-        see below

e)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos which records that "Constantin roi de Colchide" invaded "la province de Gougarg" [in Armenia] but that Smbat King of Armenia captured and imprisoned him in "le fort d´Ani", adding that Konstantini was "son gendre"[71]m KONSTANTINI King of Abkhazia, son of BAGRAT [I] King of Abkhazia & his wife --- of Iberia (-[916/17]). 

2.         SAHAKm ---.  The name of Sahak´s wife is not known.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "la grande princesse femme d´Isaac frère du roi" met "Afschin" with sumptuous presents "dans la plaine de Scharour" and successfully requested the release of "son fils Sempad"[72].  Sahak & his wife had two children: 

a)         SMBAT (-murdered [910]).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "l´osdigan Afschin" demanded "sa fille aînée et la fille de son frère Isaac [Sahak]" as hostages from King Smbat and the hand in marriage of "la fille de Schapour le plus jeune des frères du roi", but that the king sent as hostages "son fils Aschod et Sempad fils de son frère" while agreeing to the marriage[73].  The passage does not name the father of King Smbat´s nephew Smbat.  However, the later passage which records his mother´s request for his release clarifies that he was the son of Sahak.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "Sempad, fils du frère du roi Sempad" was killed when visiting Yusuf ostikan of Azerbaidjan and buried "dans le pays de Daron avec ses pères", dated to [910] from the context[74]

b)         daughter .  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "l´osdigan Afschin" demanded "sa fille aînée et la fille de son frère Isaac [Sahak]" as hostages from King Smbat and the hand in marriage of "la fille de Schapour le plus jeune des frères du roi"[75]

3.         DAVIT (-[903/05]).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records the death of "un autre frère du roi…David [Tavith]" some time after the death of "le grand sbarabied des Arméniens, Schahpour frère du roi Sempad"[76]

4.         SAPUH (-[903]).  His parentage is confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le sbarabied Apas frère du roi Aschod" rebelled against "Sempad", son of the latter, but that peace was restored after King Smbat sent as hostages "son fils qui portait son nom et Aschod fils de son frère Schahpour" to Abas[77].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records the death of "le grand sbarabied des Arméniens, Schahpour frère du roi Sempad…avant le terme", dated to [903] from the context[78]m --- (-after [915/17]).  The name of Sapuh's wife is not known.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "la grande et pieuse princesse, mère du sbarabied, et ses deux sœurs, qui étaient du côté de Nakhidchévan" were sent to Azerbaidjan as hostages, dated to [915/17] from the context[79].  Sapuh & his wife had four children:

a)         ASHOT (-936).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le sbarabied Apas frère du roi Aschod" rebelled against "Sempad", son of the latter, but that peace was restored after King Smbat sent as hostages "son fils qui portait son nom et Aschod fils de son frère Schahpour" to Abas[80].  He was appointed sparapet in Armenia by his uncle King Smbat I: he Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that King Smbat appointed "Aschod fils de Schapur" as "sbarabied des Arméniens" after the death of his father[81].  He supported Yusuf ostikan of Azerbaijan, rebelling against his uncle and in 914 was installed by Yusuf at Duin in opposition to his cousin King Ashot II.  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record that, after "Sembat-Tiézéracal" was killed by "Iousouf fils d´Abousidj, ostican", the latter imposed "Achot neveu du roi Achot" as king in Armenia[82].  It is assumed that "neveu" in this text is the translation of a word similar to "nepos" which can be interpreted either as nephew or grandson.  He surrendered to his cousin in 920, left Duin and retired to his own domain at Bagaran in Širak[83]

b)         daughter .  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "l´osdigan Afschin" demanded "sa fille aînée et la fille de son frère Isaac [Sahak]" as hostages from King Smbat and the hand in marriage of "la fille de Schapour le plus jeune des frères du roi"[84]m AFSHIN ostikan of Azerbaidjan, son of --- (-[900]). 

c)         daughter .  Adontz states that "Gagik dit Abumrvan", appointed as guardian of the sons of Gurgen-Derenik of Vaspurakan during their minority, married the daughter of "Šapuh…frère de Smbat", but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[85]m GAGIK "Abumrvan", son of --- (-killed 898).  Thomas Arcruni records that "Gagik dit Abumrvan" was appointed as regent, refused to relinquish power after Derenik´s sons had attained their majority, but was killed, dated to 898[86]

d)         daughter .  Adontz states that "prince Ašot…[de] Taron" married "une autre fille de Šapouh", but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[87].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le fils du grand ischkan David" made a marriage alliance with "Schahpour, frère du roi"[88]m ASHOT of Taron, son of DAVID "Arkaik" Prince of Taron & his wife --- (-after 899). 

5.         MARIAM .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m VASAK Gabur Prince of Gelarkunik. 

6.         SOPI [Sophia] (-[884/89]).  Adontz states that Derenik married "Sophie, la sœur de Smbat", but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[89].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos which records that "son fils Aschod, petit-fils du roi Aschod" succeeded on the death of "le grand ischkan de la famille des Ardzrouniens…Grégoire Térénig"[90].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m GRIGOR-DERENIK Arcruni of Vaspurakan, son of --- (-[887]). 

 

 

ABAS, son of SMBAT I King of Armenia & his wife --- (-951).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Abas son of Smbat" as ruler of Armenia[91].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Asotium…et Apasacium" as the two sons of "Symbatii…principum principis", stating that "Apasacium" was later invested as magister[92].  He succeeded his brother in [928] as ABAS King of Armenia.  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the succession in 930 of "Abas fils de Sembat et frère d´Achot", adding that he built "à Cars une cathédrale d´admirable architecture"[93].  He remained as sole king of Armenia after the death of his cousin Ashot in 936.  He installed his capital at Kars, where he erected a new cathedral which he was forced to defend against Prince Ber of Abkhazia who sought to force its consecration according to the Greek Orthodox rather than Armenian rite[94]

m ---.  The name of Abas's wife is not known. 

King Abas & his wife had five children: 

1.         ASHOT (-977).  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the succession in 954 of "Achot fils d´Abas"[95].  He succeeded his father in 951 as ASHOT III "Voghormadz/the Merciful" King of Armenia.  He moved his capital from Kars to Ani where he was crowned in 961.  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that many bishops "gathered in the fortress of Ani in the kingdom of Ashot, son of Abas" to discuss unity with the Georgian church[96].  He resisted the advance of the Byzantine army of Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces, who recognised King Ashot's authority in 974 faced with Armenia's combined military forces[97]m ---.  The name of Ashot's wife is not known.  Ashot & his wife had three children:

a)         SMBAT (-[989/90]).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Smbat (called Shahnshah)" succeeded Ashot and ruled for thirteen years, starting the construction of the cathedral at Ani[98].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[99].  He succeeded his father in 977 as SMBAT II "Tiezerakal/Master of the Universe" King of Armenia.  His  succession was challenged by his uncle Mushel, although they were reconciled in [982][100]

b)         GAGIK (-[1017/20]).  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[101].  He succeeded his brother in [989/90] as GAGIK I "the Great" King of Armenia

-        see below

c)         GURGEN [Kiwrike] (-989).  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[102].  His father granted him the northern district of Tashir in [972], where he adopted the title King of Albania[103]

-        see Part E

2.         MUSHEL (-984).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His brother King Ashot III installed him at Kars in 961, where he adopted the royal title in 963[104]m ---.  The name of Mushel's wife is not known. 

-        KINGS of KARS and VANAND

 

 

GAGIK of Armenia, son of ASHOT III "Voghormadz/the Merciful" King of Armenia & his wife --- (-[1017/20]).  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[105].  He succeeded his brother in [989/90] as GAGIK I "the Great" King of Armenia.  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the succession in 994 of "Gagic fils d´Achot et frère de Sembat-Chahinchah", adding that he started the construction of "[le] temple de S. Grégoire" at Ani "du côté de Dzaghcotsa-Tzor"[106].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his brother Gagik" succeeded Smbat and ruled for 29 years, building the "church of St Gregory above Tsaghkatsor"[107].  He refused to submit to Emperor Basileios II in 1001[108].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the death “vers le commencement de l´année 420 [29 Mar 971/27 Mar 972]” of “le roi d´Arménie Kakig[109], although is impossible chronologically.  On his death, his territories were divided between his two sons. 

m KATRAMIDE, daughter of --- [a Georgian].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his [Gagik's] wife Queen Katramite" completed the construction of the cathedral started by Smbat[110].  The sources are contradictory regarding the parentage of Katramide.  According to Vardan, she was the daughter of Vasak [VI] prince of Siunik[111].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the mother of Yovhanes was “la reine Gadramidtkh…fille du roi de Géorgie, Kourke[112].  It is assumed that this is intended to mean that she was Katramide, daughter of Gurgen [I] Prince of Kartli & his wife --- of Abkhazia.   The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Yovhanes received support from “le chef Géorgien” in his dispute with his brother over their father´s succession, dated to after [1017/20].  It is unclear from the context of the passage whether “le chef Géorgien” in question refers to Yovhanes´s maternal grandfather, although the reference by Matthew to this “chef Géorgien” being “Aph´khaz de naissance [113] suggests that this might be the case.  If the passage indicates the same person, this alleged parentage is cast in doubt, as the death of Prince Gurgen is dated to 1008 in the Georgian Chronicle (18th Century).  Alternatively, “le chef Géorgien” may refer to Katramide´s supposed nephew King Giorgi [I], who is recorded as ruling Abkhazia at the time of the death of Yovhanes´s father.  This explanation has the advantage of elucidating why the passage in Matthew´s Chronicle avoids referring to “le chef” explicitly as Yovhanes´s grandfather.  The contradictions in the early passages of the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, combined with the extreme unreliability of the various editions of the Georgian Chronicle as discussed in detail in the document GEORGIA, suggest that it is unwise to conclude anything more precise about the parentage of Katramide other than the likelihood of her father being of Georgian origin. 

King Gagik I & his wife had three children: 

1.         YOVHANES-SMBAT (-1041)The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Smbat who was called Yohannes and his brother Ashot" as the sons of "Gagik son of Ashot", recording that Giorgi King of Abkhazia arbitrated their dispute over their inheritance and awarded "the stronghold of Ani and the districts surrounding it" to Yohannes-Smbat and "the lower part of the land facing Persia and Georgia" to Ashot[114]He succeeded his father in [1017/20] as SMBAT III King of Armenia, ruling jointly with his brother, based at Ani.  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "his son Yohannes" succeeded "Gagik Shahnshah" and ruled for 20 years[115]He was embroiled in territorial quarrels with his brother and with the King of Kars, and proposed in 1022 to bequeath his kingdom to Emperor Basileios II.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that disputes between Yovhanes and his brother, commenting that the former was “un homme savant et ingénieux, mais d´une grande obésité[116].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records that King Smbat proposed to bequeath his kingdom to Emperor Basileios II as his son had predeceased him[117]He was granted the imperial title archon.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death “en l´année 490 [11 Mar 1041/10 Mar 1042]” of “le roi d´Arménie Jean, frère d´Aschod et fils de Kakig, de la famille des Bagratides” and his burial at Ani[118].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the death in the same year of "the two brothers Asot and Yovhannes"[119]On his death in 1041, Byzantium claimed the Armenian kingdom of Ani[120]The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that, after the death of “le roi d´Arménie Jean…”, “un des satrapes d´Arménie, homme perfide…Azad Sarkis, descendant de Haig” offered the kingdom to the Byzantines and took the national treasure “chez les Aph´khaz[121]m firstly ---.  The name of Smbat's first wife is not known.  However, the fact of this first marriage is proved by the reference to Smbat's deceased son in the History of Aristakes Lastivertci when it records that the king proposed to bequeath his kingdom to Emperor Basileios II (who died in 1025)[122]m secondly ([1032]) --- [Argyre], niece of Emperor ROMANOS III Argyros, daughter of ---.  Skylitzes states that the wife of Smbat King of Armenia was ανεψιάν of Emperor Romanos III[123].  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the "Romain donne en marriage sa fille à notre roi Iohannès" in 1032[124]King Smbat & his first wife had one child: 

a)         ERKAT (-before [1022]).  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records that "his son Erkat" predeceased his father Yovhannes[125]

2.         ASHOT (-1041, bur Ani).  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Smbat who was called Yohannes and his brother Ashot" as the sons of "Gagik son of Ashot", recording that Giorgi King of Abkhazia arbitrated their dispute over their inheritance and awarded "the stronghold of Ani and the districts surrounding it" to Yohannes-Smbat and "the lower part of the land facing Persia and Georgia" to Ashot[126].  He succeeded his father in [1017/20] as ASHOT IV "Kaj/the Brave" King of Armenia, ruling jointly with his brother, nominally based at Duin although the city had been captured by the Kurdish Shaddadid Emirs from Ganja.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that disputes between Yovhanes and his brother, commenting that the latter had “l´esprit militaire et un courage invincible”, adding in a later passage that “Aschod…ne parvint jamais de sa vie à entrer dans la ville d´Ani[127].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death “en l´année 489 [11 Mar 1040/10 Mar 1041]” of “le roi d´Arménie Aschod, le Bagratide…fils de Kakig et frère de Jean” and his burial at Ani[128].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the death in the same year of "the two brothers Asot and Yovhannes"[129]m ---.  The name of Ashot's wife is not known.  Ashot & his wife had two children:

a)         GAGIK ([1025/26]-murdered Kendrosko [2 Mar 1076/29 Feb 1080], bur Pizu Monastery).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “le roi d´Arménie Aschod, le Bagratide…fils de Kakig et frère de Jean” left “un fils…Kakag…âgé de quinze ans[130].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the accession of "Gagik son of Ashot" after the death of his father and paternal uncle[131].  He succeeded his father in 1041 as GAGIK II King of Armenia.  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Gagik son of Ashot…[his] brother's son" succeeded after the death of "Yovhannes…also called Smbat" and ruled for two years, but that he "had no interest in military affairs…but…was trained from childhood in literature" and that "the Byzantines…called him to them" and "put the journeyer into exile on an island and appointed overseers to occupy his place for one year"[132].  He was brought to Ani to be crowned but was unable to evict the Byzantine forces of the regent Sargis Haykazn.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa paints a slightly different picture when it records that “un jeune homme de dix-neuf ans…Kakig…fils du roi Aschod…” (implying a delay of four years after the death of his father) was crowned king of Armenia by “Grégoire”, and that King Gagik captured “Sarkis[133].  In 1043, Gagik was invited to Constantinople where he was kept in honourable confinement and eventually forced to cede the kingdom of Ani to Byzantium in 1045[134].  According to the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, the Byzantines started their conquest of Armenia during the reign of Emperor Mikhael IV (who died in 1041), while Emperor Konstantinos IX (succeeded in 1042) invited King Gagik to Constantinople, supported by the advice of Sarkis, where he was granted “Galonbegh´ad et Bizou[135].  He was awarded the title magistros, given a palace in the capital and the lordship of Kalon peghat and Pizou in Cesarea as compensation[136].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the Byzantines gave land and cities in the areas of Caesarea and Sebastia, which was given to the two kings Gagik"[137], referring to this Gagik and "Gagik king of Vanand and Kars who went to the Byzantines", the death of "Gagik Shahnshah king of Vanand" being recorded in "the first year of Diogenes's reign" [1068/69] later in the same source[138].  The territory of the kingdom of Ani was combined with the Iberian theme, known thereafter as the theme of Iberia and Armenia[139].  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Gagik king of Kars" murdered the archbishop of Cæsarea, by being mauled by his dog with which he placed in a large sack, for which he was killed by the Byzantines "hurled…from the wall of the fortress"[140].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kakig Schahenschah, fils d´Aschod, fils de Kakig, fils de Sempad, fils d´Ergath, de la race des Bagratides” was killed in “l´année 528 [2 Mar 1079/29 Feb 1080]” at “une forteresse…Guizisdara” by “des chefs romains, fils de Mandalê (Pantaléon)[141].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Gagik king of the Armenians" was killed in [2 Mar 1076/1 Mar 1077] by "the sons of Mandele in the fortress of Kendrosko"[142].  The editor of the Recueil des historiens des croisades places this fortress in the Byzantine theme of Lycandus formed by Emperor Leon VI (ruled 886-912) in the south-east of Cappadocia, north of Germanicia or Marash[143]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that King Gagik was buried "in his monastery of Pizu"[144]m --- of Vaspurakan, daughter of DAVIT of Vaspurakan Lord of Siwas & his wife ---.  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the marriage of "Gagik son of Ashot" and "the daughter of Dawit, son of Senekerim" on the orders of the emperor[145].  King Gagik II & his wife had three children: 

i)          YOVHANES .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “son fils aîné…Jean” survived his father[146]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that King Gagik "left a son Yovhannes"[147]m ---, daughter of ABIRAD of Ani.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Yovhanes & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ASHOT (-1080).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         DAVIT .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Betrothed to ---, daughter of ABULGHARIB of Tarsus & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

iii)        daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         daughter .  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci name "Apusuar, who held Duin and Ganjak and was the son-in-law of Ashot king of Armenia"[148]m APUSUAR Lord of Duin and Ganjak

3.         KOUSCHKOUSCH of Armenia .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m SENEKERIM-YOVHANES Prince of Vaspurakan, son of ABOUSAHL-HAMAZASP Prince of Vaspurakan (-[1025/27], bur Varag Monastery). 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of VASPURAKAN (ARCRUNI)

 

 

 

Three siblings: 

1.         GRIGOR-DERENIK Arcruni of Vaspurakan (-[883/87]).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le grand ischkan de la famille des Ardzrouniens…Grégoire Térénig" captured the land and towns around "Her et…Zaravant" where the Arab population submitted to him, but that he was later murdered[149].  Thomas Arcruni records that Derenik of Vaspurakan deposed Ashot Prince of Taron in [878] and replaced him by his brother David[150]m SOPI [Sophia], daughter of ASHOT I King of Armenia & his wife Kotramide --- (-[884/89]).  Adontz states that Derenik married "Sophie, la sœur de Smbat", but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[151].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos which records that "son fils Aschod, petit-fils du roi Aschod" succeeded on the death of "le grand ischkan de la famille des Ardzrouniens…Grégoire Térénig"[152].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   Grigor-Derenik & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         [daughter .  The History of the Pseudo-Sapuh records that "Derenik Arcrouni avait marié sa fille au Patrice Grégoire"[153].  If this is correct, Derenik´s daughter must have been one of his older children.  m (before [883/87]) GRIGOR of Taron, son of --- & his wife --- (-[923]).  He succeeded his cousin as Prince of Taron.] 

b)         SARGIS-ASHOT Arcruni ([874/77]-Nakhčavan 14 Nov 903).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "son fils Aschod, petit-fils du roi Aschod" succeeded on the death of "le grand ischkan de la famille des Ardzrouniens…Grégoire Térénig"[154].  Thomas Arcruni names "Sargis-Ašot…Khačk-Gagik…Gourgen" as the three sons of Grigor-Derenik, recording that they were 9, 7 and 3 years old, respectively, when their father died[155].  He succeeded his father as Prince of Vaspurakan.  Thomas Arcruni records that "Gagik dit Abumrvan" was appointed as regent, refused to relinquish power after Derenik´s sons had attained their majority, but was killed, dated to 898[156].  Thomas Arcruni records the death "à 29 ans le 4 du mois Areg, un lundi" of "Sargis-Ašot", although in an earlier passage the same sorce records that he died "dans la ville de Nakhčavan" 40 days after leaving Van to help Smbat King of Armenia on a campaign which is dated to 903 (Adontz adding that "le 4 du mois Areg", equivalent to 14 Nov, was a Monday in that year)[157]m ---, daughter of GAGIK Arcruni & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos which records that "Gagig Ardzrouni…beau-père du grand ischkan Aschod" was arrested and imprisoned "par les trois frères, Aschod son gendre, Gagig et Gourgen"[158]

c)         GAGIK Arcruni ([879/80]-[943]).  Thomas Arcruni names "Sargis-Ašot…Khačk-Gagik…Gourgen" as the three sons of Grigor-Derenik, recording that they were 9, 7 and 3 years old, respectively, when their father died[159].  He succeeded his brother in 905 as Prince of Vaspurakan.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "son frère Gagig" succeeded after the death of "Aschod"[160].  He was crowned as GAGIK I King of Vaspurakan by Yusuf ostikan of Azerbaijan in 908.  He defected from the ostikan after the murder of Smbat I King of Armenia[161]m ---.  The name of Gagik's wife is not known.  King Gagik I & his wife had one child:

i)          ABOUSAHL-HAMAZASP (-972).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Senekerim roi du Vasbouragan, fils d´Abou-çahl, fils d´Aschod, fils de Terenig, fils de Kakig, qui étaient de la race Ardzrouni et tiraient leur origine d´Adramelek roi d´Assyrie[162].  He succeeded his father in Vaspurakan, but the Bagratuni retook their earlier precedence over Vaspurakan during his reign[163]

-         see below

d)         GURGEN Arcruni ([883/84]-after 903).  Thomas Arcruni names "Sargis-Ašot…Khačk-Gagik…Gourgen" as the three sons of Grigor-Derenik, recording that they were 9, 7 and 3 years old, respectively, when their father died[164].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "son frère Gagig" succeeded after the death of "Aschod" and that King Smbat "créa son jeune frère Gourgen marzban des Arméniens"[165]

2.         MARIA .  Adontz states that "Derenik…avait fiancé sa sœur Marie à David-Arkaik", suggesting that this would explain why he installed David as prince of Taron, but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[166].  It is not known whether Maria became David´s wife.  Betrothed ([before 878]) to DAVID "Arkaik" of Taron, son of BAGRAT Bagratuni Prince of Taron & his wife --- (-[895]). 

3.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos which names "Hasan Ardzrounien, fils de Vasag, qui avait renié Jésus-Christ et qui était fils de la sœur du père de l´ischkan Aschod" when recording that he was based at "un fort…Sévan"[167]m VASAK, son of ---. 

 

 

ABOUSAHL-HAMAZASP, son of GAGIK Arcruni King of Vaspurakan & his wife --- (-972).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Senekerim roi du Vasbouragan, fils d´Abou-çahl, fils d´Aschod, fils de Terenig, fils de Kakig, qui étaient de la race Ardzrouni et tiraient leur origine d´Adramelek roi d´Assyrie[168].  He succeeded his father in Vaspurakan, but the Bagratuni retook their earlier precedence over Vaspurakan during his reign[169].  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record the death of "Abousahl Ardzrouni roi du Vaspouracan" in 972[170]

m ---.  The name of Abousahl-Hamazasp's wife is not known. 

Prince Abousahl-Hamazasp & his wife had three children:

1.         ASHOT-SAHAK (-before 1003).  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record that "ses fils Achot, Gourgen et Sénékérim" succeeded in 972 on the death of "Abousahl Ardzrouni roi du Vaspouracan"[171].  He succeeded his father as senior prince of Vaspurakan, sharing power with his brothers[172].  He was defeated by the Emir of Goltn in [989][173]

2.         GURGEN-GAGIK (-before 1003).  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record that "ses fils Achot, Gourgen et Sénékérim" succeeded in 972 on the death of "Abousahl Ardzrouni roi du Vaspouracan"[174].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Philibbê roi de Gaban, le roi des Agh´ouans Kourkên, Apas seigneur de Gars, Sénékérim seigneur du Vasbouragan, Kourkên seigneur d´Antzévatsik” among those who defended Armenia against Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces in 974[175].  Lord of Anjewacik.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

3.         SENEKERIM-YOVHANES (-[1025/27], bur Varag Monastery).  The Tables chronologiques of Samuel of Ani record that "ses fils Achot, Gourgen et Sénékérim" succeeded in 972 on the death of "Abousahl Ardzrouni roi du Vaspouracan"[176].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Senekerim roi du Vasbouragan, fils d´Abou-çahl, fils d´Aschod, fils de Terenig, fils de Kakig, qui étaient de la race Ardzrouni et tiraient leur origine d´Adramelek roi d´Assyrie[177].  Lord of Rštunik.  His forces took part in the show of Armenian military strength which deflected the attack of Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces in 974.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that an alliance was agreed “en l´année 449 [21 Mar 1000/20 Mar 1001]” between Emperor Basileios II and “Sénékérim roi arménien[178].  He drove out his nephews, heirs of his older brothers, in 1003 and reunited the kingdom of Vaspurakan[179].  Following Turkmen raids on Vaspurakan, Prince Senekerim offered his territory to Emperor Basileios II in [1016] in exchange for land to the west centred on Sebasteia [Siwas] in Cappadocia, where he settled in [1021].  Cedrenus records that "Senacherimus, superioris Mediæ princeps, quam hodie Aspracaniam nominant" submitted to Emperor Basileios II "cum universa sua familia", was installed as "patricius et Cappadociæ dux" and was granted "Sebasteam, Larissam, Maram urbes"[180].  Vaspurakan was transformed into the theme of Vaspurakan, with Van as the administrative centre[181].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “en l´année 467 [17 Mar 1018/16 Mar 1019]” the “Turks” invaded “Vasbouragan[182].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “Sénékérim roi d´Arménie”, in the same year as Emperor Basileios II, and his burial “à Varak, dans le couvent de la Sainte-Croix[183]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records the death of "King Senekerim" in [1027] and his burial "at the monastery of Varag"[184]m KOUSCHKOUSCH of Armenia, daughter of GAGIK I King of Armenia.  Senekerim-Yovhanes & his wife had five children:

a)         DAWIT (-[1034/37]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “les fils de Sénékérim, David, Adom, Abouçahl et Constantin”, adding that Emperor Basileios II remembered them on his deathbed[185].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Dawit, son of Senekerim"[186].  He received the lordship of Cæsarea in 1021 from the Byzantines.  He succeeded his father in [1025] at Siwas.  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records that "Dawit…Senekerim, being harassed by the Persians, gave his patrimonial inheritance, the House of Vaspurakan, to the Emperor Basil" and received in exchange the city of Sebastia[187].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “David roi d´Arménie, fils de Sénékérim”, around the same time as Emperor Romanos III (in 1034), and the succession of “son frère Adom[188]m ---.  The name of Dawit's wife is not known.  Dawit & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          daughter .  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci records the marriage of "Gagik son of Ashot" and "the daughter of Dawit, son of Senekerim" on the orders of the emperor[189]m GAGIK II King of Armenia, son of ASHOT IV "Kaj/the Brave" King of Armenia & his wife --- ([1025/26]-murdered Kendrosko [2 Mar 1076/29 Feb 1080], bur Pizu Monastery). 

ii)         [daughter (-after [1067]).  The Georgian Chronicle records that "Arpaslan" captured "all of Kartli…[and] Ani capital of Armenia" and demanded as a wife from Bagrat IV King of Georgia "his uncle's daughter who was daughter of Kiwrike the Armenian king" whom he abducted (although she was recovered)[190].] 

b)         ADOM (-1080).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “les fils de Sénékérim, David, Adom, Abouçahl et Constantin”, adding that Emperor Basileios II remembered them on his deathbed[191].  He succeeded his brother in [1034/37].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “David roi d´Arménie, fils de Sénékérim”, around the same time as Emperor Romanos III (in 1034), and the succession of “son frère Adom[192].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Senekerim's son Atom" when recording that he brought the Patriarch Petros to the city of Sebastopolis[193]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Atom and Abusahl, the sons of Senakerim" fled to "Xawatanek" before the invasion of the Persians in [1059][194].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “les emirs Samoukhd, Amer-Kaph´er et Kidjajidji” marched “contre Sébaste” in “l´année 508 [6 Mar 1059/4 Mar 1060]” aiming to capture “des fils de Sénékérim, Adom et Abouçahl” who fled to “Kavadanek[195].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “en l´année 520 [4 Mar 1071/2 Mar 1072]” Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes reached “Sébaste” where “les princes de la famille royale d´Arménie, Adom et Abouçahl” greeted him but were expelled from the city which was sacked by the Byzantine troops[196].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kakig fils d´Apas de Gars, ainsi que les fils de Sénékérim, Adom et Abouçahl” attacked the “forteresse…Guizisdara” after King Gagik II was killed in “l´année 528 [2 Mar 1079/29 Feb 1080]”[197]

c)         ABOUSAHL (-after 1079).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “les fils de Sénékérim, David, Adom, Abouçahl et Constantin”, adding that Emperor Basileios II remembered them on his deathbed[198]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Atom and Abusahl, the sons of Senakerim" fled to "Xawatanek" before the invasion of the Persians in [1059][199].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “les emirs Samoukhd, Amer-Kaph´er et Kidjajidji” marched “contre Sébaste” in “l´année 508 [6 Mar 1059/4 Mar 1060]” aiming to capture “des fils de Sénékérim, Adom et Abouçahl” who fled to “Kavadanek[200].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “en l´année 520 [4 Mar 1071/2 Mar 1072]” Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes reached “Sébaste” where “les princes de la famille royale d´Arménie, Adom et Abouçahl” greeted him but were expelled from the city which was sacked by the Byzantine troops[201].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kakig fils d´Apas de Gars, ainsi que les fils de Sénékérim, Adom et Abouçahl” attacked the “forteresse…Guizisdara” after King Gagik II was killed in “l´année 528 [2 Mar 1079/29 Feb 1080]”[202]

d)         KOSTANDIN (-after 1025).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “les fils de Sénékérim, David, Adom, Abouçahl et Constantin”, adding that Emperor Basileios II remembered them on his deathbed[203]

e)         MARIAM (-after [1031/32]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Mariam" as the mother of Bagrat, stating in a later passage that she was "the daughter of Senekerim the Armenian king", when recording that she went to Constantinople "and returned with a treaty of peace and the dignity of curopalate for her son"[204].  Zonaras records that "viduam eius" renewed the treaty with Byzantium after the death of "Georgio Albasgiæ principe"[205].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Bagrat's mother Mariam was present when her son died in Nov 1072[206]m GIORGI I King of Georgia, son of BAGRAT III King of Abkhazi, of Kartveli and Kartli & his wife --- ([995/96]-[Mqinwarni or Itaroni 16 Aug] 1027, bur Kothathis). 

 

 

The relationship between the following family sub-group and the main family of the kings of Vaspurakan has not yet been established. 

1.         GAGIK (-[1042]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “le grand prince arménien Khatchig, avec un de ses fils encore tout jeune…Ischkan” in “la province de Vasbouragan”, killed in battle by the inhabitants of “Her et de Salamasd” who had invaded “le district de Thor´évan”, dated from the context to [1042][207]m ---.  The name of Gagik´s wife is not known.  Gagik & his wife had three children: 

a)         HASAN (-after [1042]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “son fils ainé…Haçan” when recording the death of “le grand prince arménien Khatchig” in “la province de Vasbouragan”, dated from the context to [1042], adding that he and his brother Djendjeghoug had joined the troops of Emperor Mikhael IV but returned to avenge the death of their father and youngest brother[208]m ---.  The name of Hasan´s wife is not known.  Hasan & his wife had one child: 

i)          ABUL GHARIB (-after 1080).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Abelgharib, prince arménien, fils de Haçan, fils de Khatchig…originaire de la province de Vasbouragan” quarrelled with “Kakig Schahenschah, fils d´Aschod” in “l´année 528 [2 Mar 1079/29 Feb 1080]” at Tarsus[209]m ---.  The name of Abul Gharib´s wife is not known.  Abul Gharib & his wife had one child: 

(a)       daughter Betrothed to DAVIT, son of GAGIK II King of Armenia & his wife --- of Vaspurakan. 

b)         DJENDJEGHOUG (-after [1042]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “son autre fils Djendjegh´oug” when recording the death of “le grand prince arménien Khatchig” in “la province de Vasbouragan”, dated from the context to [1042], adding that he and his brother Hasan had joined the troops of Emperor Mikhael IV but returned to avenge the death of their father and youngest brother[210].   

c)         ISHKAN (-[1042]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “le grand prince arménien Khatchig, avec un de ses fils encore tout jeune…Ischkan” in “la province de Vasbouragan”, killed in battle by the inhabitants of “Her et de Salamasd” who had invaded “le district de Thor´évan”, dated from the context to [1042][211]

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of KARS and VANAND

 

 

MUSHEL, son of ABAS King of Armenia & his wife --- (-984).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His brother King Ashot III installed him at Kars in 961, where he adopted the royal title in 963[212]King of Kars

m ---.  The name of Mushel's wife is not known. 

Mushel & his wife had one child:

1.         ABAS (-1024).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 984 as King of Kars.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Apas…prince du sang royal…de la maison de Schirag” was invested with sovereignty “à Gars” by “le chef de sa famille Kakig roi d´Arménie[213].  It is assumed that this passage refers to Abas, son of Mushel, whose reign at Kars appears to have been contemporary with that of Gagik as king of Armenia.  m ---.  The name of Abas's wife is not known.  Abas & his wife had one child:

a)         GAGIK (-Cappadocia 1069).  He succeeded in 1029 as King of Kars and VanandSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "Gagik, son of Abas of Kars"[214].  He was obliged to cede his kingdom to Byzantium in 1064 after the Seljuks captured Ani, and retired to Tsamantia in Cappadocia[215].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kakig fils d´Apas Schahenschah qui régnait à Gars” made an alliance with Sultan Alp Arslan, thereby avoiding an invasion of his territories, adding that some time later “il quitta Gars et le royaume de ses pères, et passa chez les Romains[216]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the Byzantines gave land and cities in the areas of Caesarea and Sebastia, which was given to the two kings Gagik"[217], referring to Gagik King of Armenia (see above) and "Gagik king of Vanand and Kars who went to the Byzantines".  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records the death of "Gagik Shahnshah king of Vanand" in "the first year of Diogenes's reign" [1068/69][218].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kakig fils d´Apas de Gars, ainsi que les fils de Sénékérim, Adom et Abouçahl” attacked the “forteresse…Guizisdara” after King Gagik II was killed in “l´année 528 [2 Mar 1079/29 Feb 1080]”[219], although this appears to be an inaccurate report assuming that Gagik´s death is correctly reported in 1069.  m ---.  The name of Gagik's wife is not known.  Gagik & his wife had one child:

i)          MARIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

D.      PRINCES of TARON

 

 

Taron was the old name of the plain of Mouš[220].  It was elevated to a principality in 826 when Bagrat Bagratuni, son of Ashot Bagratuni "Msaker", succeeded his father as išxanac išxan [Prince of Princes] in the southern Armenian territories of Taron and Sasun[221].  The principality was conquered and annexed by Byzantium in [967/68]. 

 

 

BAGRAT Bagratuni, son of ASHOT Bagratuni "Msaker" & his wife --- (-Baghdad after 851).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Prince of Taron.  He succeeded his father in 826 as išxanac išxan [Prince of Princes] in the southern Armenian territories of Taron and Sasun[222].  Armenia was weakened by his quarrels with his younger brother Smbat, and his rebellion against the Caliphate in 851 was thwarted and Bagrat was sent in captivity to the Abbasid capital Samarra[223]

m ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known. 

Bagrat & his wife had three children: 

1.         ASHOT (-[878]).  The History of Jean Catholicos records that Ashot and David, sons of Bagrat, were captured and taken to Baghdad with their father in 851[224].  He succeeded his father as Prince of TaronCuropalates.  He was deposed by Derenik of Vaspurakan who replaced him by his brother David[225]m ---.  The name of Ashot´s wife is not known.  Ashot & his wife had one child: 

a)         GURGEN (-897).  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "David Pagratide grand ischkan de Daron" appointed "le fils de son frère Gourgen" to succeed "Abelmakra" who had ruled "le pays d´Aghdsnik´h"[226].  Adontz names "Gourgen…son neveu, fils du curopalate Ašot" as successor to David Arkaik as prince of Taron, but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[227].  He succeeded his uncle in 895 as Prince of Taron

2.         DAVID "Arkaik/Young King" (-895).  The History of Jean Catholicos records that Ashot and David, sons of Bagrat, were captured and taken to Baghdad with their father in 851[228].  He was installed as Prince of Taron in [878] by Derenik of Vaspurakan who deposed his brother Ashot.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "David Pagratide grand ischkan de Daron" was killed in battle against "le grand ischkan arabe Ahmed, qui gouvernait la Mésopotamie de Syrie jusqu´à la Palestine"[229]Betrothed ([before 878]) to MARIA Arcruni, daughter of ---.  Adontz states that "Derenik…avait fiancé sa sœur Marie à David-Arkaik", suggesting that this would explain why he installed David as prince of Taron, but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[230].  It is not known whether Maria became David´s wife.  m ---.  The name of David´s wife is not known, but as noted above she may have been Maria sister of Grigur-Derenik Prince of Vaspurakan, to whom David had been betrothed.  David Arkaik & his wife had [two or more] children: 

a)         ASHOT (-after 899).  He was imprisoned in 899 by his cousin Gregorios and later emigrated to Byzantium.  The De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogennetos records that "Gregorius patricius" captured "filios Arcaicæ, Cricoricii patricii protospatharii Asotii patris patrueles"[231]m --- of Armenia, daughter of SAPUH Prince of Armenia & his wife ---.  Adontz states that "prince Ašot…[de] Taron" married "une autre fille de Šapouh", but does not cite the primary source on which this is based[232].  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "le fils du grand ischkan David" made a marriage alliance with "Schahpour, frère du roi"[233]

b)         son(s) .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Gregorius patricius" captured "filios Arcaicæ, Cricoricii patricii protospatharii Asotii patris patrueles"[234]

3.         son .  His parentage is confirmed by the De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos which names "filios Arcaicæ" as "patrueles" of "Gregorius patricius"[235]m ---.  Two children: 

a)         GRIGOR [Krikorik/Gregorius] (-[923]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Gregorius patricius" as "propinquus" of "Symbatii principum principis" and Prince of Taron when recording that he captured "filios Arcaicæ, Cricoricii patricii protospatharii Asotii patris patrueles"[236].  Taron was seized by the Shaybani Emir of Aljnik in 895, but recaptured in 898 after the death of the Emir[237].  The De Ceremoniis of Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos records the participation of "magistrum et præfectum Taronis" in a ceremony at Constantinople celebrating the feast of St Basil of Cesarea, dated to 1 Jan 900[238].  m (before 887) --- [of Vaspurakan, daughter of GRGUR-DERENIK Prince of Vaspurakan & his wife Sopi of Armenia].  The History of the Pseudo-Sapuh records that "Derenik Arcrouni avait marié sa fille au Patrice Grégoire"[239].  If this is correct, Derenik´s daughter must have been one of his older children.]  Gregorios & his wife had one child: 

i)          BAGRAT (-[940]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pancratius maximus filiorum magistri…Cricoricii Taronitæ" when recording that granted the title patrikios and installed as "prætor Taronis"[240]m ([after 919]) ---, sister of THEOPHYLAKTOS magistros, daughter of ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Pancratius maximus filiorum magistri…Cricoricii Taronitæ" married "soror…Theophylacti magistri", probably after the accession of Emperor Romanos Lekapenos[241].  Bagrat & his wife had [one possible child]:

(a)       [ROMANOS Taronites Patrikios.  Zonaras records that "Romanum Taronitum patricium" and "Michaelem Burzem magistrum" were sent with an army by "Skleros" to defeat "Leo protovestiarius", at the beginning of the reign of Emperor Ioannes ([969/70])[242].  Adontz suggests that Romanos was the son of Bagrat and his wife, basing his hypothesis on the favourable onomastics[243].]  m EIRENE Taronitissa, daughter of GREGORIOS Taronites & his wife ---.  A 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, names Eirene as daughter of Gregorios and wife of Romanos Taronites patrikios, adding that they were parents of Theophylaktos[244].  Romanos & his wife had one child: 

(1)       THEOPHYLAKTOS Taronites .  A 14th century manuscript, preserved at the convent of St Stefanos in Thessaly, names Eirene as daughter of Gregorios and wife of Romanos Taronites patrikios, adding that they were parents of Theophylaktos[245]

Gregorios had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

ii)         ASHOT Bagratuni (-[967/68]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asotium nothum Taronitæ filium" was taken to Constantinople and granted the title protospatharios[246].  He succeeded in [940] as Prince of Taron.  On his death, his sons were unable to withstand Byzantine pressure, the principality of Taron was annexed by Byzantium, and Ashot´s family settled in Constantinople[247]

-         BYZANTINE NOBILITY - TARONITES

b)         APOGANEM (-[900]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Apoganem Cricoricii Taronis principis fratrem" was taken to Constantinople "cum duobus Arcaicæ filiis" and granted the title protospatharios, later promoted to patrikios[248].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Apoganem Cricoricii Taronis principis fratrem" died a few days after his marriage[249]m firstly ---.  This first marriage is suggested because Apoganem is recorded as having died a few days after his marriage, but leaving a son.  m secondly ([900]) ---, daughter of KONSTANTINOS protospatharios & his wife ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Apoganem Cricoricii Taronis principis fratrem" married "protospatharius Constantinus, Libis filius, nunc proconsul, patricius et magnus hetæriarcha…filiam", his father-in-law having been appointed governor of Taron[250].  Apoganem & his first wife had [two or more] children: 

i)          TORNIK [Tornikios] (-before 950).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Tornices Taronitæ nepos ex fratre, Apoganem…filius"[251]Patrikios: the De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Tornicio patricio" bequeathed his lands to the emperor and left "uxoremque et filium" under his protection after his death[252]m --- (-after 950).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos (dated to after 950) records that "Tornicio patricio" bequeathed his lands to the emperor and left "uxoremque et filium" under his protection after his death[253].  The name of Tornik´s wife is not known.  Tornik & his wife had [two] children: 

(a)       son .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Tornicio patricio" bequeathed his lands to the emperor and left "uxoremque et filium" under his protection after his death[254]same person as…?  NIKOLAOS Tornikios (-after 963)Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Konstantinos VII used "Torniciis" to arrest the sons of Emperor Romanos Lekapenos after inviting them for dinner, dated to 27 Jan 945[255].  Cedrenus names "Nicolao et Leone Torniciis" when recording the same incident[256].  The De Ceremoniis of Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos records that "Nicolaus Tornicius" was charged with expelling Bardas Phokas from the church of St Sophia in 963[257].  

-         BYZANTINE NOBILITY-TORNIKES

(b)       [LEON Tornikios (-after 945).  Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Konstantinos VII used "Torniciis" to arrest the sons of Emperor Romanos Lekapenos after inviting them for dinner, dated to 27 Jan 945[258].  Cedrenus names "Nicolao et Leone Torniciis" when recording the same incident[259].  Neither source specifies that Nikolaos and Leon were brothers but this is implied from the text.] 

ii)         son(s) .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that Taron was divided between "Cricorii magistri filii" and "filii Apoganem patricii, horum patrueles"[260].  The number of sons of Apoganem is not known. 

 

 

 

E.      KINGS of LORHI and AGHBANIA

 

 

GURGEN [Kiwrike], son of ASHOT III "Voghormadz/the Merciful" King of Armenia & his wife --- (-989).  The History of Aristakes Lastivertci names "Gagik son of Ashot, brother of Smbat and Gurgen from the Bagratid clan" as king of Armenia[261].  His father granted him the northern district of Tashir in [972], where he adopted the title King of Aghbania[262].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Kourken…prince du sang royal…de la maison de Schirag” was invested with sovereignty “chez les Agh´ouans” by “le chef de sa famille Kakig roi d´Arménie[263].  It is assumed that this passage refers to Gurgen, son of King Ashot III, whose reign in Aghbania appears to have been contemporary with that of Gagik as king of Armenia.  His forces took part in the show of Armenian military strength which deflected the attack of Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces in 974[264].  Vardan's History records that "Kiwrike was the son of Dawit son of Gurgen son of Ashot the Merciful"[265]

m ---.  The name of Gurgen's wife is not known. 

Gurgen & his wife had one child: 

1.         DAWIT (-[1046/48], bur Sanahin).  Vardan's History records that "Kiwrike was the son of Dawit son of Gurgen son of Ashot the Merciful", recording that Dawit built "Lore and twelve other fortresses" and was "buried at Sanahin"[266]King of Lorhim ZORACERTEL, daughter of --- King of Khakhetia.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "le roi actuel de Cakheth était…Gagic fils de Dawith, roi arménien de Samchwildé et neveu de Cwiricé par sa mère Zoracertel, sœur de ce prince"[267].  Dawit & his wife had four children: 

a)         KIWRIKE (-[1081/89]).  Vardan's History records that "Kiwrike was the son of Dawit son of Gurgen son of Ashot the Merciful", recording that "the king of Georgia Bagarat…followed Kiwrike to Malik Shah in Khurasan and returned in honour"[268]King of LorhiKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Kiwrike Bagratuni…in the city of Lorhe spent his entire life fighting against the Georgians to preserve the stability of his patrimony"[269].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Basile archevêque de Schirag” requested “le roi Goriguê, fils de David Anhoghin, fils de Kakig” to consecrate him as katoghikos in “l´année 530 [1 Mar 1081/28 Feb 1082]”in the town of Lorhi[270].  Lorhi was annexed by the Seljuks.  m ---.  The name of Kiwrike's wife is not known.  Kiwrike & his wife had two children: 

i)          DAWIT .  Vardan's History records that "Kiwrike was the son of Dawit son of Gurgen son of Ashot the Merciful", recording that Dawit built "Lore and twelve other fortresses" and "his grandsons Abas and Dawit, harassed by the Georgians, went to the lord of Aran and each received a fortress where he dwelled in tribulation"[271].  It is not clear from this passage whether Abas and Dawit were the grandsons of Kiwrike or of Dawit.  However, this is clarified by Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia which records that "his sons Dawit and Abas, deceived by the Georgians, left the home of their ancestors and went over to the Iranians" after their father died, and received "from the Iranians as hereditary property Tawush, Matsnaberd and other places"[272]m ---.  The name of Dawit's wife is not known.  Dawit & his wife had one child: 

-         see below

ii)         ABAS .  Vardan's History records that "Kiwrike was the son of Dawit son of Gurgen son of Ashot the Merciful", recording that Dawit built "Lore and twelve other fortresses" and "his grandsons Abas and Dawit, harassed by the Georgians, went to the lord of Aran and each received a fortress where he dwelled in tribulation"[273].  It is not clear from this passage whether Abas and Dawit were the grandsons of Kiwrike or of Dawit.  However, this is clarified by Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia which records that "his sons Dawit and Abas, deceived by the Georgians, left the home of their ancestors and went over to the Iranians" after their father died, and received "from the Iranians as hereditary property Tawush, Matsnaberd and other places"[274]

b)         GAGIK (-1058).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi actuel de Cakheth était…Gagic fils de Dawith, roi arménien de Samchwildé et neveu de Cwiricé par sa mère Zoracertel, sœur de ce prince"[275].  He succeeded his maternal uncle as King of Kakhetia

-        KINGS of KAKHETIA

c)         [SMBAT .  His parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "la niece de Bagrat, recherchée par le sultan, était fille du frère de Cwiricé", naming him "Sembat" in a later passage[276].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, however, records that “le sulthan…Alp Arslan” married “Goriguê, fils de David Anbogh´in…sa fille[277], substituting Smbat´s supposed brother Kiwrike as father of the sultan´s wife.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) is an unreliable source in many of its details, as discussed more fully in the Introduction to the document GEORGIA.  If no other source emerges which corroborates the separate existence of Smbat, the possibility must be considered that he was in fact the same person as Kiwrike, who would then have been the father of the daughter shown below.  m [KATA] of Georgia, daughter of GIORGI I King of Georgia & [his wife Mariam of Vaspurakan].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[278].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Gourandoukht et Cata" as the two surviving daughters of King Giorgi[279].  The sources contain no indication of the name of the mother of the two daughters.  The marriage in Armenia of one of these daughters is suggested by Vardan's History which records that "Alp Arslan…came to Armenia" and took "the daughter of the Georgian king Bagarat's sister"[280].  It is likely that this daughter was not Goranduxt, whose fate appears to have been linked to Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos (see above).  Kata is the only other known sister of King Bagrat.  The identity of her husband is confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "la niece de Bagrat, recherchée par le sultan, était fille du frère de Cwiricé", naming him "Sembat" in a later passage[281].  However, the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, records that “le sulthan…Alp Arslan” married “Goriguê, fils de David Anbogh´in…sa fille[282].  Although this provides indirect corroboration of the marriage to the Lorhi king, it substitutes Smbat´s supposed brother Kiwrike as father of the sultan´s wife.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) is an unreliable source in many of its details, as discussed more fully in the Introduction to the document GEORGIA.  If no other source emerges which corroborates the separate existence of Smbat, the possibility must be considered that he was in fact the same person as Kiwrike, who would then have been the husband of Kata and the father of the daughter who married the sultan.  [Smbat] & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [daughter .  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…came to Armenia" took "the daughter of the Georgian king Bagarat's sister", the text implying that the invasion of Armenia took place before Alp Arslan succeeded as Seljuk sultan in 1063[283].  The identity of Alp Arslan's wife is not completely certain.  However, it appears likely that she was the daughter of King Bagrat's sister who married the Armenian lord of Lorhi as his other known surviving sister is associated with Emperor Konstantinos X Monomachos (see GEORGIA).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “le sulthan…Alp Arslan” married “Goriguê, fils de David Anbogh´in…sa fille[284], which confirms that the princess was a member of the family of the princes of Lorhi but substitutes Kiwrike King of Lorhi for his supposed brother Smbat as her father.  However, as noted above, the identity of Smbat as a separate person depends only on the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which, as discussed more fully in the document GEORGIA, cannot be considered an entirely reliable source.  It is therefore possible that Kiwrike and Smbat refer to the same person, who was the father of Alp Arslan´s wife.  The Tarikhi guzideh records that Alp Arslan conquered Armenia and marred "the king's daughter", without being more specific about her identity, but states that he repudiated her "après un certain temps" and ordered "Nizam el-mulc" to marry her, adding that they had "plusieurs enfants…entre autres, Khodjah-Ahmed"[285]m firstly ([before 1063], repudiated) ALP ARSLAN, son of [DAUD/JEGHIR Beg] (10 Jan 1030-murdered Nezrem [Nov/Dec] 1072, bur Marand).  He succeeded his uncle in 1063 as second Seljuk Sultanm secondly NIZAM el-Mulk ABU ALI HASSAN vizir, son of ISHAK --- (-murdered 16 Oct 1092).  The Tarikhi guzideh records that Alp Arslan appointed "Nizam-el-Mulc-Abou-Ali-Haçan, fils d'Ishac" as his vizir[286].  The Tarikhi guzideh records that Turkan Khatun conspired for the dismissal of her husband Sultan Malik Shah's vizir Nizam-el-Mulc and his replacement by "Tadj-eddin Abou'l Ghanaim, naib de Turcan-Khatoun", as well as his murder "le 12 de ramadan" in A.H. 485 (16 Oct 1092) by "les Fédais hérétiques" (the Assassins)[287]

d)         ADARNASE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Adarnase" as brother of "le roi Cwiricé…[et] son frère Sembat", recording that he held "Samchwildé"[288]

 

 

DAWIT, son of KIWRIKE King of Lorhi & his wife --- .  Vardan's History records that "Kiwrike was the son of Dawit son of Gurgen son of Ashot the Merciful", recording that Dawit built "Lore and twelve other fortresses" and "his grandsons Abas and Dawit, harassed by the Georgians, went to the lord of Aran and each received a fortress where he dwelled in tribulation"[289].  It is not clear from this passage whether Abas and Dawit were the grandsons of Kiwrike or of Dawit.  However, this is clarified by Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia which records that "his sons Dawit and Abas, deceived by the Georgians, left the home of their ancestors and went over to the Iranians" after their father died, and received "from the Iranians as hereditary property Tawush, Matsnaberd and other places"[290]

m ---.  The name of Dawit's wife is not known. 

Dawit & his wife had one child: 

1.         KIWRIKEKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Kiwrike succeeded his father Dawit"[291]m ---.  The name of Kiwrike's wife is not known.  Kiwrike & his wife had two children: 

a)         ABAS Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Kiwrike…left as his heir his small son Abas…twelve years old", recording that Abas died aged nineteen two years after his marriage without leaving any sons[292]m NANA, daughter of SARGIS & his wife ---.  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records the marriage of Abas, son of Kiwrike, and "Nana, the daughter of…prince Sargis son of Zakaria, son of Vahram, sister of the great princes Zakare and Iwane", recording that her husband died two years after they married[293].  Abas had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

i)          AGHSARTAN Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "a suckling baby from [Abas]…Aghsartan", recording that he was found by his paternal aunt after his father died and became "heir of Matsnaberd"[294]

-         see below

b)         BALRINAKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Balrina" as sister of Abas, son of Kiwrike, recording that she found Abas's infant son[295]

 

 

AGHSARTAN, illegitimate son of ABAS & his mistress --- Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "a suckling baby from [Abas]…Aghsartan", recording that he was found by his paternal aunt after his father died and became "heir of Matsnaberd"[296]

m --- of Norberd, daughter of DAWIT Prince of Norberd & his wife ---.  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Dawit prince of Norberd…of the Bagratid family, father of prince Vasak…married his daughter to" Aghsartan and ruled Matsnaberd himself by deceit, before Aghsartan recovered his property after Dawit and his family were expelled[297]

Aghsartan & his wife had one child: 

1.         KIWRIKEKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "toward the end of his life [Aghsartan] gave authority to his son Kiwrike and became a cleric in the monastery of Getakitsk"[298]m ---.  The name of Kiwrike's wife is not known.  Kiwrike & his wife had three children:

a)         PAHLAWANKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Pahlawan, the second Taghiadin, and the third Aghsartan" as the sons of Kiwrike[299]

b)         TAGHIADINKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Pahlawan, the second Taghiadin, and the third Aghsartan" as the sons of Kiwrike[300]

c)         AGHSARTANKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Pahlawan, the second Taghiadin, and the third Aghsartan" as the sons of Kiwrike[301]

 

 

 

F.      PRINCES of GABAN or DERBEND

 

 

1.         VACHAKAN .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Vatchakan, Kouschag son fils…” as “rois arméniens…établis dans la contrée de Derbend ou Gaban, sur les limites des Ouzes…souverains des Agh´ouans[302]m ---.  The name of Vachakan´s wife is not known.  Vachakan & his wife had one child: 

a)         KUSHAG .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Vatchakan, Kouschag son fils…” as “rois arméniens…établis dans la contrée de Derbend ou Gaban, sur les limites des Ouzes…souverains des Agh´ouans[303]m ---.  The name of Kushag´s wife is not known.  Kushag & his wife had one child:

i)          PHILIBBE (-after 974).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “…Philibbê, fils de Kouschag…” as “rois arméniens…établis dans la contrée de Derbend ou Gaban, sur les limites des Ouzes…souverains des Agh´ouans[304].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Philibbê roi de Gaban, le roi des Agh´ouans Kourkên, Apas seigneur de Gars, Sénékérim seigneur du Vasbouragan, Kourkên seigneur d´Antzévatsik” among those who defended Armenia against Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces in 974[305]m ---.  The name of Philibbe´s wife is not known.  Philibbe & his wife had one child:

(a)       TAGUIN SEVATA .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “…Taguïn-Sévata, fils de Philibbê…” as “rois arméniens…établis dans la contrée de Derbend ou Gaban, sur les limites des Ouzes…souverains des Agh´ouans[306]m ---.  The name of Taguin Sevata´s wife is not known.  Taguin Sevata & his wife had one child:

(1)       SINAKEREM .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “…Sinakérim fils de Sévata…” as “rois arméniens…établis dans la contrée de Derbend ou Gaban, sur les limites des Ouzes…souverains des Agh´ouans[307]m ---.  The name of Sinakerim´s wife is not known.  Sinakerim & his wife had one child:

a.         GRIGOR .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “…Grégoire fils de Sinakérem…” as “rois arméniens…établis dans la contrée de Derbend ou Gaban, sur les limites des Ouzes…souverains des Agh´ouans”, adding that Grigor ruled while the Chronicle was written[308]

 

 

 

G.      LORDS of MANZIKERT

 

 

1.         ABELBART [I] .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Apelcart" held "Mantziciert" under the suzerainty of "principum principi Symbatii patri" and was later given "urbes Chliat Arzes et Percri" by "Ashotius principum princeps"[309].  "Principum principi Symbatii" appears to indicate Smbat I King of Armenia.  However, the other passages in this chapter of the De Administrando do not name Abelbart as his third son.  In addition, if Abelbart [I]'s grandson ruled Manzikert at the time the De Administrando was written (see below), probably in the late 940s, the chronology would be tight for the family to have been descended from King Smbat I.  It is possible that "patri", in the phrase quoted above, indicates "fatherhood" in a broader sense of suzerainty.  No other primary sources have so far been found which corroborate the relationships of the family group of the Lords of Manzikert.  m ---.  The name of Abelbart's wife is not known.  Abelbart & his wife had one child:

a)         ABELHAMIT .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Abelchamit filius" succeeded "Apelbart"[310]m ---.  The name of Abelhamit's wife is not known.  Abelhamit & his wife had three children: 

i)          APOSEBATAS .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "eius filius primogenitus Aposebatas" succeeded "Abelchamit"[311]

(a)       ABDERACHIM .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Abderachim et Apelmuze" as the two sons of "Aposebatas", recording that Abderachim succeeded his father but that his uncle Apolesphuet succeeded after he died[312]

(b)       APELMUZE .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Abderachim et Apelmuze" as the two sons of "Aposebatas", recording that he was "puer" when his father died and was expelled by his uncles[313]

ii)         APOLESPHUET .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "secundus Aposebatæ frater Apolesphuet" recording that with "eiusque patruelis et privignus Achmet" he held "Chliat, Arzes et Altzice" and succeeded in Manzikert after the death of his nephew Abderachim[314]

iii)        APOSELME .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "tertius Aposebatæ et Apolesphuet frater Aposelmes" recording that he held "urbem Tzermatzu", as the subject of the Byzantines, and that he succeeded in Manzikert after the death of his brother Apolesphuet[315]m ---.  The name of Abelhamit's wife is not known.  Abelhamit & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ABELBART [II] (-after [950]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Apelbart" as the son of "Aposelmes", recording that "nunc temporis Mantziciert possidet"[316]

 

 

 

H.      PRINCES in EASTERN ARMENIA

 

 

SARGIS

1.         ZAKARIAKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Vahram, son of Zakaria who had separated from the Kurds of the Babirakan xel"[317].  Vardan's History names "Vahram, son of Zakare, son of Sargis of Kurdish nationality who had emigrated to the kings of Dzoroget, who are of the Bagratid line"[318]m ---.  The name of Zakaria's wife is not known.  Zakaria & his wife had one child:

a)         VAHRAMKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Vahram, son of Zakaria who had separated from the Kurds of the Babirakan xel"[319].  Vardan's History names "Vahram, son of Zakare, son of Sargis of Kurdish nationality who had emigrated to the kings of Dzoroget, who are of the Bagratid line"[320]m ---.  The name of Vahram's wife is not known.  Vahram & his wife had one child: 

i)          SARGISKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "the pious prince Sargis, son of Vahram, son of Zakaria who had separated from the Kurds of the Babirakan xel"[321]m ---.  The name of Sargis's wife is not known.  Sargis & his wife had four children: 

(a)       ZAKARE (-[28 Jan 1212/26 Jan 1213], bur Sanahin).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Zakare and the second…Iwane" as the sons of "the pious prince Sargis", recording that Zakare was "general of the Georgian and Armenian forces that were under the Georgian king" and that they were honoured by Thamar Queen of Georgia[322].  Vardan's History records that Queen Thamar gave "Lore" to the brothers Zakare and Iwane[323]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that the brothers Zakare and Iwane "took for themselves from the Iranians and Tachiks much of Armenia which they had held…the districts around the sea of Gegharkunik, Tashir, Ayrarat, the city of Bjni, and Dwin, Anberd, the city of Ani, Kars, Vayots Dzor, the land of Siwnik"[324].  Vardan's History records that "the great Zakare destroyed the land of Persia as far as the city of Ardabil" in [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211][325]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that Zahare was buried "at Sanahin"[326].  Vardan's History records that "the great Zakare" died in [28 Jan 1212/26 Jan 1213] and was buried in the "monastery of Sanahin"[327]m ---.  The name of Zakare's wife is not known.  Zakare & his wife had one child: 

(1)       SHAHANSHAH ([1206/07]-[15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that Zahare "left a young son…Shahnshah, whom Iwane raised along with his own son Sargis (called Awag) until he reached maturity and ruled his patrimonial principality"[328].  Vardan's History records that "the great Zakare" left "a five year old son…Shahnshah"[329].  Lord of Ani.  Vardan's History records that "his father Shahnshah…lord of the city of Ani…died of a broken heart in these same days" after his son was killed in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][330]m ---.  The name of Shahanshah's wife is not known.  Shahanshah & his wife had one child: 

a.         ZAHARE (-killed [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]).  Vardan's History records that "they killed the sparapet of Georgia, Zakare son of Shahnshah, at the court of the Il-Khan Hulegu…falsely accused of withholding the stipulated tax at the time he went to court" in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][331]

(b)       IWANE (-bur Pghndzahank).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Zakare and the second…Iwane" as the sons of "the pious prince Sargis", recording that they were honoured by Thamar Queen of Georgia and that Iwane "held the atabekutiwn"[332]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that Iwane was captured at the siege of "the city of Bznunik, Xlat"[333]m XOSHAK, daughter of ---.  Vardan's History records that "Iwane's wife Xoshak" turned Shahanshah, son of Zahare, "toward the false doctrine of Chalcedon"[334].  Iwane & his wife had two children: 

(1)       SARGIS Awag (-[19 Jan 1250/17 Jan 1251], bur Pghndzahank).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that Zahare "left a young son…Shahnshah, whom Iwane raised along with his own son Sargis (called Awag) until he reached maturity and ruled his patrimonial principality"[335].  Vardan's History records the death of "Awag Iwane's son" in [19 Jan 1250/17 Jan 1251] and his burial "in Pghndzahank with his father"[336]

(2)       TAMTAKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that the residents of Xlat "requested the daughter of Iwane…Tamta…in marriage…[and] she became the wife of Kuz and after him of Ashrap" in return for her father's release[337].  Vardan's History records that Iwane "gave his daughter in marriage to Melik Ashraf the lord of Xlat"[338]m firstly KUZm secondly MELIK ASHRAF

(3)       XORISHAH .  Vardan's History names "Xorishah" as mother of Sakreants's two sons "Hasan…Jalaldola and Zakare…Nasrdola", stating that she later went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem where she practised great acetism until she died[339]m SAKREANTS, son of --- (-[27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215]).  Vardan's History records that "Sakreants, the son-in-law of Iwane and lord of Inner Xachen" died in [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215] leaving two sons "Hasan…Jalaldola and Zakare…Nasrdola"[340]

(c)       NANA Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records the marriage of Abas, son of Kiwrike, and "Nana, the daughter of…prince Sargis son of Zakaria, son of Vahram, sister of the great princes Zakare and Iwane", recording that her husband died two years after they married[341]m ABAS, son of KIWRIKE & his wife ---. 

(d)       daughter .  m ---.  One child: 

(1)       KURD .  Vardan's History records that "Iwane's nephew (sister's son) the great prince Kurd" ordered the construction of "Getik"[342]

 

 

1.         ZAKAREKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the other prince named Zakare…took from the Iranians many districts and secure fortresses: Gardman, Karherdz, Ergevank, Tawush, Katsaret, Terunakan and Gag" together with "his brother Sargis and the other Sargis father of Shalue and Iwane, relatives of the great princes"[343]m ---.  The name of Zakare's wife is not known.  Zakare & his wife had one child: 

a)         VAHRAMKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Vahram" son of Zakare later took "the city of Shamkor"[344].  Vardan's History records that "the great Iwane…aided his relation Vahram son of Zakare in the capture of Shamkor", dated to [1218/19] from the context[345]m ---.  The name of Vahram's wife is not known.  Vahram & his wife had one child: 

i)          AGHBUGHAKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Vahram father of Aghbugha, grandfather of Vahram, Zakare and Iwane"[346]m ---.  The name of Aghbugha's wife is not known.  Aghbugha & his wife had three children:

(a)       VAHRAMKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Vahram father of Aghbugha, grandfather of Vahram, Zakare and Iwane"[347]

(b)       ZAKAREKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Vahram father of Aghbugha, grandfather of Vahram, Zakare and Iwane"[348]

(c)       IWANEKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Vahram father of Aghbugha, grandfather of Vahram, Zakare and Iwane"[349]

2.         SARGISKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the other prince named Zakare…took from the Iranians many districts and secure fortresses: Gardman, Karherdz, Ergevank, Tawush, Katsaret, Terunakan and Gag" together with "his brother Sargis and the other Sargis father of Shalue and Iwane, relatives of the great princes"[350]

 

 

1.         SARGISKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the other prince named Zakare…took from the Iranians many districts and secure fortresses: Gardman, Karherdz, Ergevank, Tawush, Katsaret, Terunakan and Gag" together with "his brother Sargis and the other Sargis father of Shalue and Iwane, relatives of the great princes"[351]m ---.  The name of Sargis's wife is not known.  Sargis & his wife had two children:

a)         SHALUEKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "the other Sargis father of Shalue and Iwane, relatives of the great princes"[352]

b)         IWANEKirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "the other Sargis father of Shalue and Iwane, relatives of the great princes"[353]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    LORDS of the MOUNTAINS, KINGS of (CILICIAN) ARMENIA (FAMILY of RUPEN)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS, LORDS of the MOUNTAINS, until 1199

 

 

RUPEN ([1025/35]-Kormogolo [1095][354], bur Castalon).  Rupen was among the Armenian emigrants who left their Caucasian homeland, following the Seljuk conquest, and settled in Cilicia.  He likely served the Byzantine emperor in the eastern themes in a military or administrative capacity[355].  Rupen's parentage is unknown, although Matthew of Edessa states that he was descended from Prince Kakhig[356].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that, after the death of Gagik king of the Armenians, in the year [2 Mar 1081/1 Mar 1082] "Ruben his relative" migrated to "the confines of Kositar, thence reaching the village of Kormogolo where he died"[357].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Rupin le Grand…un des parents et princes d'Armenie Kakig" arrived "au pays Kawsitar" after the death of Kakig and settled "au village de Gürümze" where he died[358], presumably based on the same original source.  The claims in these primary sources of a family relationship with the kings of the Bagratid dynasty are implausible.  It is felt that, if such a connection had existed, the sources would have given specific details, given the otherwise reasonably complete genealogies which can be reconstructed from the information which they contain.  The editor of the Recueil des historiens des croisades places "Kormogolo" (Gorozomol) in the plateau of the Cilician Taurus mountains in the part "appelée aujourd'hui Zeïtoun"[359]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia recounts a presumably legendary story how the "forbear of King Lewon", who had been with "his relative King Gagik" as a young boy when the king was murdered, captured "a fortress…Bardzrberd" by surprise, in vengeance for the death of the king[360]

m ---.  The name of Rupen's wife is not known. 

Rupen & his wife had [two] children:

1.         KOSTANDIN ([1050/55][361]-[24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103], bur Castalon).  Matthew of Edessa names "le grand chef arménien Constantin, fils de Roupen" who occupied "le mont Taurus dans la contrée de Gobidar, qui dépend du district de Maraba", commenting that Constantin "était sorti des rangs de l'armée de Kakig"[362].  The same source confirms that he served in the army of Prince Gaghik, son of Ashot[363], although this may have been to emphasise the regime's continuity with the old Armenian dynasty rather than on the basis of historical fact.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that, after the death of Rupen, "his son Kostandin took Vahka" in the year [Feb 1090/Feb 1091] and "was the first to rule over the Armenian people in Cilicia"[364].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Kostandin son of "Rupin le Grand" captured "Vahka" and the surrounding mountainous area[365].  Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert[366].  The fortress of Vaghka is located on the Göksü River[367]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Kostadin, Ruben's son, and the prince of Edessa Toros" invited the crusading army to expel the invaders from Cilicia in [1097][368].  Matthew of Edessa records that Kostandin and his fellow Armenian princes, Pazuni and Oshin, sent provisions to the Frankish crusading armies in 1097/98[369].  The Armenians took advantage of the collapse of Turkish power in Cilicia to expand their sphere of influence, after the capture of Tarsus, Adana, and Mamistra in Sep 1097 by Tancred (nephew of Bohémond Duke of Apulia)[370].  Kostandin established his capital at Sis.  Matthew of Edessa records the death of "le grand prince arménien Constantin, fils de Roupen" in the year [25 Feb 1099/24 Feb 1100], stating that he had been one of the army chiefs of "Kakig, le Bagratide, fils d'Aschod" and was buried "dans le couvent de Gasdaghon"[371].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Constantin fils de Roupen" died soon after a lightning bolt struck his table in the fortress of Vaghka, dated from the context to [1100/1104][372].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Kostandin paron of the Armenians" died in [24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103] and was succeeded by "his senior son Toros"[373].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Kostandin was buried at "Kastaravn"[374]m --- [Phokas], daughter of ---.  The wife of Kostandin was "descended from Bardas Phokas", according to the Chronicle of Aleppo[375], although the precise relationship is unknown.  From a chronological point of view, it is more likely that she was the great-granddaughter of Bardas Phokas, assuming that the relationship with him is factually correct.  Kostandin & his wife had three children:

a)         THOROS (-[17 Feb 1129/16 Feb 1130], bur Trazarg).  Matthew of Edessa names "Thoros et Léon" as the two sons of "le grand prince arménien Constantin, fils de Roupen"[376].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Thoros et Leon" as the two sons of Kostand[377].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son fils ainé Thoros" succeeded "Constantin fils de Roupen" and ruled for 29 years[378].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Kostandin paron of the Armenians" died in [24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103] and was succeeded by "his senior son Toros"[379].  He is referred to as THOROS I Lord of the Mountains ("princeps de montibus"), the title reflecting the mountainous terrain of his lands.  He was awarded the title curopalates by Emperor Alexios I[380].  After Baudouin II Count of Edessa expelled the Armenian lords Vasil Dgha from Rabun and Kaisun in 1116 and Kostandin from Gargar in 1117, Thoros was the only remaining independent Armenian prince[381].  Among his important conquests was the fortress of Anazarba which became a centre for the Rupenid dynasty[382].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Thoros captured "la forteresse…Kendrawskaw" from "les fils de Mantale" to avenge the death of "Kakig", later took "Anazarba" where he placed "l'image de la Sainte Mère de Dieu qu'il avait apportée de Kendrawskaw", and built the convents of "Trois Arcs et de Maskewor", being buried at "Trois Arcs"[383].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the death in [17 Feb 1129/16 Feb 1130] of "Toros paron of the Armenians" and the succession of "his brother Lewon"[384].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in [17 Feb 1129/16 Feb 1130] of "le baron Thoros" and his burial at "Trazarg"[385]m ---.  The name of Thoros's wife is not known.  Thoros I & his wife had [two] children:

i)          KOSTANDIN (-murdered 1129 after 17 Feb, bur Trazarg).  The Chronique Rimée de la Petite Arménie of Vahram of Edessa records that Thoros "laissa en mourant un fils…Constantin" who was put in irons and poisoned[386].  The Lignages d'Outremer name Kostandin as son of Thoros, stating he was captured and poisoned by "certains personnages méchants"[387].  He succeeded his father in 1129 as KOSTANDIN Lord of the Mountains.  He was poisoned according to Samuel d'Ani, who calls him the son of Thoros but does not name him[388]

ii)         [OSHIN .  Inscriptions (in Armenian) on the walls of the chapel in the castle of Anazarba record “Theodore, son of Constantin, son of Rupen” and “Oshin, son of Theodore, son of Constantin”[389].  The former undoubtedly relates to Rupen, his son Kostandin, and the latter´s son Thoros I Lord of the Mountains.  Concerning the latter, no other reference has been found to a son of Thoros I Lord of the Mountains who is named Oshin but, assuming that the two inscriptions can be linked, his parentage appears to be confirmed.  If this is correct, it is assumed that he predeceased his father, which would explain his omission from all contemporary chronicles.]

b)         --- (-before 1118).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by William of Tyre who names her son "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni"[390].  If this is correct, it is surprising that the marriage is not mentioned by Matthew of Edessa who records the activities of Joscelin and Baudouin Count of Edessa in Armenia in the early 12th century.  The marriage is apparently confirmed by the Lignages d'Outremer which record that "Stephane et Mleh" fled "pour Edesse chez leur oncle" after their father and two brothers were captured by imperial forces and taken to Constantinople[391].  She was known as BEATRICE after her marriage, but her Armenian name is not known.  m ([1100/04]) as his first wife, JOSCELIN de Courtenay Lord of Turbessel, son of JOSCELIN Seigneur de Courtenay & [his second wife Elisabeth de Montlhéry] (-[Aleppo] 1131, before Oct 1).  Prince of Galilee 1112-1118.  He succeeded in 1118 as Count of Edessa.

c)         LEWON (-Constantinople 14 Feb 1140).  Matthew of Edessa names "Thoros et Léon" as the two sons of "le grand prince arménien Constantin, fils de Roupen"[392].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Thoros et Leon" as the two sons of Kostand[393].  He succeeded his nephew in 1129 as LEWON I Lord of the Mountains

-        see below

2.         [THOROS (-after 1104).  According to Rüdt-Collenberg[394], Thoros was the brother of Kostandin Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert, and also father of Arda who married Baudouin de Boulogne Count of Edessa (later Baudouin I King of Jerusalem).  It is not known what evidence this claim is based on but it should be treated with caution.  There appears to be confusion between three individuals: (1) Thoros Governor of Edessa, who adopted Baudouin de Boulogne (see below, Chapter 5.B.); (2) Thatoul Governor of Marash; and (3) Taphnuz or Tafroc, who was the father of Arda, although (2) and (3) may have been the same person, see below, Chapter 5.C.  None of the primary sources so far consulted mention that Kostandin had a brother named Thoros.] 

 

 

LEWON, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert & his wife --- (-Constantinople 14 Feb 1140).  Matthew of Edessa names "Thoros et Léon" as the two sons of "le grand prince arménien Constantin, fils de Roupen"[395].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Thoros et Leon" as the two sons of Kostand[396].  According to Iskenderian, Lewon ruled in the eastern part of "the Mountains" during the lifetime of his brother Thoros I[397].  The original of this source has not been consulted, so the basis for the proposition is not known.  However, it may be based on the primary sources quoted below which supposedly justify the identity of Lewon's wife.  If that is correct, the argument is circular as there is considerable doubt whether these sources have been interpreted correctly.  No information about Lewon's pre-accession career has been identified, although Boase suggests that "in 1118 Thoros sent a contingent of troops under his brother Leon to aid Roger of Antioch in the capture of Azaz"[398].  He succeeded his nephew in 1129 as LEWON I Lord of the Mountains.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the death in [17 Feb 1129/16 Feb 1130] of "Toros paron of the Armenians" and the succession of "his brother Lewon"[399].  Bohémond II Prince of Antioch invaded Lewon's territories in Feb 1130, but his forces were massacred by the Danishmend Emir Ghazi with whom Lewon had entered an alliance[400].  Lewon captured Mamistra, Tarsus and Adana from Antioch in 1131, and Sarventikar from Baudouin Lord of Marash in 1135[401].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Lewon captured "des capitales de la Cilicie, Mamistra et Tarse"[402].  Raymond Prince of Antioch invaded Armenian territory in 1136, with Baudouin Lord of Marash, but they were driven back by Lewon I who was, however, taken prisoner by Baudouin of Marash and sent in captivity to Antioch, although he brought his freedom in 1137[403].  Emperor Ioannes II invaded Cilicia, captured Tarsus, Adana and Mamistra, deposed Lewon I and took him as a prisoner to Constantinople in 1139 with his wife and family.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "the Byzantine emperor Porphyrogenitus took Cilicia from paron Lewon" in [13 Feb 1137/14 Feb 1138] and that the Byzantines "bound Lewon and his sons and sent them to Constantinople"[404].  The Chronicle of Grégoire dates the capture to [Aug] 1137 and specifies that "le prince arménien Léon, ses fils et sa femme" were captured and taken to Constantinople where Lewon died[405].  The Lignages d'Outremer is more specific, recording that Lewon and his two sons "Thoros et Rupin" were captured by Emperor Ioannes and taken in chains to Constantinople, were released "plusieurs années plus tard" although they remained in the royal palace, but that Lewon and his son Thoros were imprisoned again after Rupen was blinded, and that Lewon died in prison[406].  Lewon's date of death is calculated from the Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani which records that he lived twelve years after succeeding his brother[407]

m [firstly] ([1100/03]) ---.  The name and origin of the wife of Lewon I are not known with certainty.  Two sources hint at her possible identity.  Firstly, Orderic Vitalis refers to Lewon as "fils de Turold des Montagnes [incorrect] et oncle de la femme de Boémond" (referring to Bohémond II Prince of Antioch)[408].  Secondly, "Cæcilia dominia Tarsi et soror regis Balduini II" donated property to the church of St Marie, Josaphat by charter dated 1126, with the agreement of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch[409].  Orderic Vitalis relied on contemporary crusader chroniclers for his narrative of events in the Levant.  However, the origin of this specific passage concerning Lewon's family has not been traced to the most likely sources, William of Tyre, Fulcher of Chartres or Baudri of Bourgeuil.  The wife of Prince Bohémond II was Alix, daughter of Baudouin II King of Jerusalem, who had previously been count of Edessa and was the younger son of the Comte de Rethel.  No relationship between Lewon and King Baudouin has been identified in Lewon's paternal ancestry, although the known details of Lewon's paternal family are so sparse that it is not impossible that such a relationship existed (maybe more remote than a strict interpretation of the word "oncle" would imply).  Rüdt-Collenberg suggests that the relationship was through Lewon's wife's family[410], and that Lewon's wife was therefore --- de Rethel, daughter of Hugues [I] Comte de Rethel & his wife Mélisende de Montlhéry.  He also refers to her possible name as "Béatrice", but the source on which this is based is unclear from his notes[411].  Turning to the 1126 charter, Rüdt-Collenberg suggests that "Cæcilia dominia Tarsi et soror regis Balduini II" also refers to the wife of Lewon[412], although he does not explain the difference of name.  "Dominia Tarsi" certainly suggests a reference to the ruler of Cilician Armenia.  Armenian sources record that Lewon's brother Thoros was still "Lord of the Mountains" in 1126 (see above).  No direct evidence has been found that Thoros shared power with his younger brother Lewon (apart from the reference to Iskenderian's suggestion to this effect as noted above).  The marriage of Thoros/Lewon with the sister of Baudouin II King of Jerusalem would have taken place in the early 1100s, assuming that it was a first marriage, when Baudouin was still count of Edessa.  It would probably have taken place before Baudouin's period of imprisonment from 1104 to 1107 which followed the battle of Harran.  It is clear from his own marriage that Baudouin followed a policy of rapprochement with his Armenian neighbours.  However, it is more likely that he would have contracted a marriage alliance with the older son of the ruler in Cilicia, Thoros, rather than his younger brother Lewon whose prospects must not have been good at the time.  So what of the known sisters of Baudouin II King of Jerusalem?  William of Tyre names only two, "Mahaldam" (called Mathilde in another source) and "Hodierna"[413], although it is possible that there were more who were otherwise unrecorded.  Mathilde was still married to Eudes de Vitry in 1126 so can be excluded.  The younger sister Hodierna had lost her second husband Roger Prince of Antioch in 1118.  It is not impossible that she married again, either Lewon or his older brother Thoros, although the name change from Hodierna is difficult to explain.  If this is correct she must have been a later wife who, the chronology suggests, was unlikely to have been the mother of the known children of whichever brother she married.  This hypothesis could explain the consent given by Bohémond II Prince of Antioch to the 1126 donation as he would have been her previous husband's successor.  In conclusion, the evidence for the precise identification of Lewon's wife is uncertain and confused, although many secondary sources, such as Europäische Stammtafeln[414], show the Rethel marriage as definite without any sign of doubt.  There remains a completely different possibility.  It is possible that the two sources should not be read together and that they refer to two different people.  If we consider Orderic Vitalis in isolation, it is possible that Lewon's wife was [--- of Melitene, daughter of Gabriel Lord of Melitene], who would have been the sister of Morfia of Melitene, who was the wife of Baudouin II.  This is just as consistent with the passage in Orderic Vitalis as the proposed Rethel origin, although it should be emphasised that this is completely speculative. 

[m secondly ---. Lewon’s second marriage is speculative, proposed by Rüdt-Collenberg[415] firstly because “a lady of such quality" as Lewon's (presumed) [first] wife would not have been taken as a prisoner to Constantinople in 1139, and secondly because the Chronicle of Vahran Rabuni of Edessa states that Lewon's sons Mleh, Stephané (and Kostand) "went to their maternal uncle [Joscelin II de Courtenay] in Edessa" when Lewon himself and his younger sons were taken in captivity to Constantinople.  Although this statement could imply that Lewon's other sons did not share the same "maternal uncle", it could also mean simply that the older sons were able to escape while their father and brothers were captured.  It should also be noted that the younger son Thoros sought refuge with Joscelin as well after he escaped from Constantinople.  One difficulty with using this statement to corroborate the fact of Lewon's supposed second marriage is that Joscelin de Courtenay was the first cousin of the brothers, not their maternal uncle, assuming that it is correct that he was the son of their father's sister Beatrice.  Lewon I's supposed second marriage should be viewed with caution.  Assuming this second marriage is correct, nothing is known about this wife except that she must have died after 1139 assuming that she was the wife who was taken with Lewon to Constantinople in captivity.] 

Lewon & his [first] wife had [seven] children:

1.         [daughter .  The existence of this daughter is uncertain, depending only on William of Tyre who records her son Thomas (appointed by Thoros II Lord of the Mountains as regent for his infant son Lewon) as "ex sorore [Melieris] nepos"[416].  However, the Lignages d'Outremer record that Thoros II handed his son for safekeeping to "son beau-père Thomas, qui était à Antioche" and whom he also appointed "la bailie du pays"[417].  If the latter is correct, and Thomas was Thoros's father-in-law (see below), it is unlikely that he was also Thoros's nephew, a great-uncle/great-niece marriage being improbable.  If Thomas's mother was Thoros's sister, the chronology dictates that she must have been one of her parents' oldest children, and married in [1120/25] for her great-grandson to have been born in [1165].  m ([1120/25]) --- "a Frankish knight from Antioch"[418].] 

a)         [THOMAS (-murdered 1169).  William of Tyre records Thomas as "ex sorore [Melieris] nepos"[419].  As noted above, it is unlikely that this is correct assuming that his daughter married Thoros II (see below), a great-uncle/great-niece marriage being improbable.  Thomas was regent for Rupen II Lord of the Mountains in 1168.  The Chronicle of Sempad records that "the bailly Thomas" fled to Antioch after the murder of Stepane[420].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "le baile Thomas" fled to Antioch when Mleh invaded Cilicia[421].]  m ---.  The name of Thomas's wife is not known.  Thomas & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter ([before 1150]-).  This marriage is suggested by the Lignages d'Outremer which name "Leon" as the son of Thoros, stating that he had handed him for safekeeping to "son beau-père Thomas, qui était à Antioche" and whom he also appointed "la bailie du pays"[422].  If this is correct, it is likely that she was born before 1150 at the latest, in light of the birth of her son in [1165].  m (1164) as his second wife, THOROS II Lord of the Mountains, son of LEWON I Lord of the Mountains & his wife --- (-6 Feb 1169).] 

2.         daughter.  Matthew of Edessa records the marriage of "Vasil-Dgha" and the daughter of Lewon in [21 Feb 1115/20 Feb 1116][423].  If this is correct, she was presumably on of her parents' oldest children, even though she must have been an infant at the time of the marriage.  m ([21 Feb 1115/20 Feb 1116]) VASIL DGHA Lord of Raban and Kaisun, adopted son of KOGH "Vasil/the Robber" Lord of Raban and Kaisun (-after 1116).  He was captured by Thoros Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] in 1116 and sold to Baudouin II Count of Edessa, who annexed Raban and Kaisun but allowed Vasil to retire to Constantinople[424].  In view of the known chronology of Vasil Dgha's life, it appears that his marriage must have taken place in 1116. 

3.         [KOSTANDIN (-Edessa [1138/44][425]).  Rüdt-Collenberg names Constantine as his father's oldest son, stating that "Iskenderian says that he was blinded while his father was prisoner at Antioch; he died before 1144 in Edessa" but this source has not yet been located[426].  According to Runciman, during their father's imprisonment in Antioch in 1136, "his three sons quarrelled, the eldest Constantine was eventually captured and blinded by his brothers"[427], but he cites no specific source on which this is based.  If it is correct, he was one of the brothers who escaped and took refuge with Joscelin II Count of Edessa after the invasion of Emperor Ioannes II.] 

4.         THOROS (-6 Feb 1169, bur Trazarg).  The Chronique Rimée de la Petite Arménie of Vahram of Edessa names (in order) "Thoros…le Grand…Sdephanê…ensuite Mleh, qui précédait Roupen, le dernier de tous" as the four sons of Lewon[428].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Thoros, Stephane, Mleh et Rupin" as the four sons of Lewon[429].  Grégoire names him as son of Lewon[430].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Lewon and his two sons "Thoros et Rupin" were captured by Emperor Ioannes and taken in chains to Constantinople, were released "plusieurs années plus tard" although they remained in the royal palace, but that Lewon and his son Thoros were imprisoned again after Rupen was blinded, and that Thoros was released after his father died in prison[431].  The Chronicle of Grégoire le Prêtre names "Thoros…fils de Léon sébaste…fils de Constantin, fils de Roupen", stating that he had been sent by Emperor Manuel as Governor of "la grande ville de Tarse et de Mecis" when recording his rebellion against the Greeks in [12 Feb 1152/10 Feb 1153][432].  Thoros escaped in 1143 and returned to Cilicia, taking refuge at the court of Joscelin II de Courtenay Count of Edessa.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon's son Toros came from Constantinople, took Vahka and restored the authority of the Armenians" in [14 Feb 1144/13 Feb 1145][433].  He established himself as THOROS II Lord of the Mountains.  In 1151, he attacked Mamistra, killed the Byzantine Governor Thomas, and routed the army of Andronikos Komnenos which was sent to expel him[434].  In 1153, he lost Alexandretta to Renaud Prince of Antioch[435].  William of Tyre records that "quidam nobilis et potentissimus Armenus, Toros" was "domini Imperatoris gratiam" (presumably referring to his subsequent acceptance of Byzantine suzerainty) in "partibus Ciliciæ, circa Tarsum" and that he allied himself with Renaud Prince of Antioch to invade Cyprus (dated to 1156), recording in a later passage that he invaded Antioch (dated to [1157])[436].  Emperor Manuel I invaded Cilicia in 1158.  Thoros fled to the mountains, taking refuge at Dadjig, and was obliged to accept Byzantine suzerainty[437].  Thoros attacked the Byzantine garrisons at Mamistra, Anazarba and Vahka after accusing the Governor of Cilicia, Andronikos Komnenos, of complicity in the murder of his half-brother Stephané.  His revolt was suppressed by Konstantinos Dukas Kalamános whom Emperor Manuel appointed as Governor of Cilicia in 1160[438].  Thoros died after becoming a monk[439].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in [8 Feb 1166/7 Feb 1167] of "le grand prince des Arméniens, Thoros"[440].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Toros paron of the Armenians" died in [10 Feb 1157/9 Feb 1158] "after having become a cleric" and was succeeded by "his brother Mleh"[441].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Thoros was buried "à Trois Arcs"[442].  [Unlikely first marriage: Europäische Stammtafeln[443] suggests that Thoros II married firstly ([1140/42], divorced 1149) Evdokia Komnene, daughter of Andronikos Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aideiadissa], who was later the mistress of the future Emperor Andronikos I and who later married Mikhael Gabras.  There seems to be no basis for this assertion.  Rüdt-Collenberg says that "a first marriage with a Byzantine princess, mentioned by Tchamitch for the years 1140-1142, is more than doubtful"[444].  If it did take place, the Armenian royal family's capture and imprisonment in Constantinople must have been less arduous than is implied by most of the primary sources quoted above.  In any case, the source which is the basis for Europäische Stammtafeln identifying the bride has not yet been identified.  It may be no more than a guess.]  m [firstly] (1149) ISABELLE de Courtenay, daughter of JOSCELIN [II] de Courtenay Count of Edessa & his wife Béatrice (after 1133-[1150/59]).  William of Tyre names her as daughter of Joscelin sent by his father as a hostage to the emperor in 1142[445].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  [m [secondly] (1164) [his great niece,] --- [of Armenia], daughter of THOMAS the Regent.  This marriage is suggested by the Lignages d'Outremer which name "Leon" (mistake for Rupen) as the son of Thoros, stating that he had handed him for safekeeping to "son beau-père Thomas, qui était à Antioche" and whom he also appointed "la bailie du pays"[446].]  Thoros II & his [first] wife had [two] children:

a)         RITA ([1150]-after [1168/69]).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Thoros married his (unnamed) daughter to Hethum, son of "Oschin seigneur de Lampron", dated from the context to [11 Feb 1152/10 Feb 1153][447].  The Lignages d'Outremer record the marriage of "Rita", daughter of Thoros, and "Ochine le Seigneur de Lampron…son fils Hethoum"[448].  The primary source which confirms her divorce has not yet been identified.  m (1153, divorced [1168/69]) as his first wife, HETHUM [III] of Lampron, son of OSHIN [II] Lord of Lampron [Armenia-Hethum] & his wife Shahantukhd Saven Pahlavouni (1151-1218).  He succeeded in 1170 as Lord of Lampron

b)         [daughter (-before 1182).  The Continuator of Guillaume de Tyre records that Isaakios married "Toros de la Montaigne…sa fille"[449].  Rüdt-Collenberg suggests that the same daughter of Thoros II married Hethum of Lampron and Isaakios Dukas, highlighting that Armenian sources only mention one daughter[450] (the Chronicle of Sempad, which records the marriage of the unnamed daughter of Thoros with Hethum son of Oshin[451]).  This would not be impossible from a chronological point of view.  Rüdt-Collenberg dates the marriage to the start of the governorship of Isaakios in Cilicia and before the battle of Myriokephalon in Sep 1176, which marked the end of the brief alliance between Armenia and Byzantium[452].  According to Rüdt-Collenberg, she is not mentioned by the sources which describe the transfer of her husband and children to Antioch in 1182[453], suggesting that she had died by that date.  Benedict of Peterborough records that "Ysaac vero imperator de Cipre" killed his first wife[454] but corroboration for this has not yet been found in any other source.  m ([1175/76]) as his first wife, ISAAKIOS Dukas Governor of Cilicia, son of --- & his wife --- Komnene ([1155/60]-poisoned [1195/96]).   He proclaimed himself Emperor in Cyprus in 1185.] 

Thoros II & his [second] wife had one child:

c)         RUPEN ([1165]-murdered Hromgla 1170[455]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Leon" (mistake for Rupen) as the son of Thoros, who had handed him for safekeeping to "son beau-père Thomas, qui était à Antioche" and whom he also appointed "la bailie du pays"[456].  If Thomas was the father of Thoros II's second wife, his appointment as guardian for Rupen suggests that he was also the young boy's grandfather.  He succeeded his father in 1168 as RUPEN II Lord of the Mountains, under the regency of Thomas.  His succession was disputed by his uncle Mleh who deposed and murdered Rupen II in 1170 with the help of troops from Nur ed-Din[457].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "le fils de Thoros" was killed by "certains méchants" after Mleh invaded Cilicia[458]

5.         STEPANE (before 1110-murdered 7 Feb 1165, bur Arkagaghine).  The Chronique Rimée de la Petite Arménie of Vahram of Edessa names (in order) "Thoros…le Grand…Sdephanê…ensuite Mleh, qui précédait Roupen, le dernier de tous" as the four sons of Lewon[459].  Named as brother of Thoros by Grégoire[460].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Thoros, Stephane, Mleh et Rupin" as the four sons of Lewon[461]

-        see below

6.         MLEH (before 1120-murdered Sis 15 May 1175, bur Medzkar).  The Chronique Rimée de la Petite Arménie of Vahram of Edessa names (in order) "Thoros…le Grand…Sdephanê…ensuite Mleh, qui précédait Roupen, le dernier de tous" as the four sons of Lewon[462].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Thoros, Stephane, Mleh et Rupin" as the four sons of Lewon[463].  Named as brother of Stepane by Grégoire[464].  William of Tyre names him as brother of Thoros, when recording his attack on Etienne de Champagne Comte de Sancerre as he passed through Cilicia in 1171[465].  He took vows as a Knight Templar before 1138[466].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Stephane et Mleh" fled "pour Edesse chez leur oncle" after their father and two brothers were captured by imperial forces and taken to Constantinople[467].  Mleh joined his half-brother Thoros after the latter's escape from Constantinople in 1143[468].  He attempted to murder his half-brother Thoros, but fled to join Nur-ed-Din and converted to Islam.  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "l'autre frère de Thoros, Mleh" had fled "auprès du sultan d'Alep" but, on learning of the death of his brothers, returned "au pays cilicien", attempted to seize power with the help of the sultan but failed and returned to Aleppo, before returning with a larger army[469].  He disputed the succession of his nephew Rupen II in 1168 and, with the help of Nur ed-Din's troops, deposed him in 1170 and succeeded as MLEH Lord of the Mountains.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Toros paron of the Armenians" died in [10 Feb 1157/9 Feb 1158] "after having become a cleric" and was succeeded by "his brother Mleh"[470], which ignores the short reign of Rupen II.  Mleh proceeded to the Cilician plain, capturing Mamistra, Adana and Tarsus from their Byzantine garrisons and then attacked the Templars at Baghras[471].  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle records that "Melih, fils de Lyoun l'Arménien, prince du pays d'Aldoroub, qui avoisine Alep…[et] serviteur assidu de Nour-eddin" defeated the Byzantines "au mois de djomada premier" in A.H. 568 (19 Dec 1172/17 Jan 1173), adding that he conquered "les villes d'Adanah, Massissah et Tharsous" from the Greeks[472].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Mleh, Toros's brother was killed in Sis" in [9 Feb 1164/9 Feb 1165][473].  Sempad dates the death of Mleh to [6 Feb 1175/5 Feb 1176][474].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Mleh "était un homme très dur de cœur" and was killed by his troops "dans la ville de Sis"[475]m --- of Gargar, daughter of VASIL "the Old" Saven-Pahlavouné Lord of Gargar & his wife Maremik [Maria] of Lampron.  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Bar Hebræus, which states that Mleh was "brother-in-law of Gregorios [IV] [catholicos]"[476]Mistress (1): ---.  The names of Mleh's mistress is not known.  Mleh had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

a)         GRIGOR (-[28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210] or after).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon…seized prince Gorg, Mleh's illegitimate son and had him blinded" in [28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210] fearing that he might plot to succeed to the throne[477]. 

7.         RUPEN (after 1120-murdered Constantinople 1141, bur Hrom'gla).  The Chronique Rimée de la Petite Arménie of Vahram of Edessa names (in order) "Thoros…le Grand…Sdephanê…ensuite Mleh, qui précédait Roupen, le dernier de tous" as the four sons of Lewon[478].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Thoros, Stephane, Mleh et Rupin" as the four sons of Lewon[479].  He was captured with his father and older brother by the army of Emperor Ioannes II, taken to Constantinople in 1139, and put to death by immolation[480].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Lewon and his two sons "Thoros et Rupin" were captured by Emperor Ioannes and taken in chains to Constantinople, but were released "plusieurs années plus tard" although they remained in the royal palace, but that "on calomnia Rupin auprès de l'empereur et on le força à l'aveugler, après quoi il mourut"[481]

 

 

STEPANE, son of LEWON I Lord of the Mountains & his wife Béatrice de Rethel (before 1110-murdered 7 Feb 1165, bur Arkagaghine).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Thoros, Stephane, Mleh et Rupin" as the four sons of Lewon[482].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Stephane et Mleh" fled "pour Edesse chez leur oncle" after their father and two brothers were captured by imperial forces and taken to Constantinople[483].  He joined forces with his half-brother Thoros after the latter's escape from Constantinople in 1143[484].  The Chronicle of Grégoire le Prêtre records that "Sdéphanê, frère du general des arméniens" and the Templars defeated the Turks "la grande ville de Tarse et de Mecis" in [1155][485].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Stéphané frère du baron Thoros" invaded "le territoire de Marach" in 584 (Armenian calendar)[486].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Stephane" was captured after the death of his brother Thoros "sur la frontière de Hamus", was cooked in a boiling cauldron, and buried at "Ark'akarin"[487].  Stepane was murdered, possibly with the complicity of Andronikos Komnenos, Governor of Cilicia, which triggered his half-brother Thoros to attack the Byzantine garrisons at Mamistra, Anazarbus and Vahka[488].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "le prince Andronic…dans la Cilicie" invited "le baron Stéphané à un festin" where he was murdered[489]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "Andronikos treacherously seized Stepane and had him killed"[490].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Sdephanê" was killed after being thrown into a boiling cauldron by the Greeks[491].  The Chronicle of Grégoire le Prêtre records the death of "Sdéphanê, frère di grand Thoros, sébaste, et fils de Léon" after the betrayal "d'un duc scélerat" in 1165[492]

m ([1143/44]) RITA, daughter of SMBAT Lord of Barbaron [Armenia-Hethum] & his wife --- (-[1210]).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that names "fille de Sempad, seigneur de Babaron et sœur de Pagouran…Ritha" as wife of "Sdephanê"[493].  She succeeded in 1205 as Lady of Lampron

Stepane & his wife had [three] children:

1.         RUPEN (1145-6 May 1187, bur Trazarg).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rupin et Leon" as the two sons of "Stephane", stating that they had been brought up by "leur oncle Paguran seigneur de Baberon"[494].  He is named as son of Stepane, brother of Lewon, by Vartan[495].  The Lignages d'Outremer names "Rupen et Livon" as the two sons of "Melih"[496].  After the murder of his uncle Mleh in 1175, he was called from Barbaron where he lived with his maternal uncle Paguran, and succeeded as RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains[497].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that, after the death of Mleh, "his princes made Stefanne's son, Ruben, the paron of the Armenians", dating the event to [9 Feb 1164/9 Feb 1165][498].  After the Byzantine defeat at Myriokephalon in Sep 1176, Rupen III allied himself with the victorious Seljuk Sultan[499].  He assisted Bohémond III Prince of Antioch at the siege of Harenc in 1177[500].  He went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in early 1181, arranging his marriage there to strengthen his alliance with the Franks[501].  He annexed the Hethumid principality.  In 1182, after an invitation to Antioch by Prince Bohémond III, he was arrested.  Rüdt-Collenberg, Vartan and Runciman all give 1185 as the date of Rupen III's capture in Antioch[502], but this is inconsistent with the transfer of Isaakios Dukas (later Emperor in Cyprus) to Prince Bohémond as part of the terms negotiated for Rupen III's release assuming that Isaakios arrived in Cyprus in [1183/84], after being released by Prince Bohémond against the promise of payment of a substantial ransom.  Rupen's brother Lewon attacked Antioch, and Rupen was released in return for ceding Mamistra and Adana to Antioch.  On his return to Cilicia, Rupen soon recaptured the two towns.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Ruben paron of the Armenians" died in [3 Feb 1186/2 Feb 1187] and was succeeded by "his brother Lewon"[503].  He died as a monk[504].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Rupen was buried "à Trois Arcs"[505]m (Jerusalem [4 Feb 1181/3 Feb 1182]) ISABELLE of Toron, daughter of ONFROI [III] Lord of Toron & his wife Etiennette de Milly.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Ysabiau" as the daughter of "Hamfrei le seignor dou Thoron…fiz… Hamfrei…conestable" & his wife, specifying that she was wife of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie"[506].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage at Jerusalem of "la baron Roupen" and "la fille du seigneur de Karak" in [4 Feb 1181/3 Feb 1182][507].  She succeeded her brother as Lady of Toron.  Her marriage in Jerusalem is recorded by Sempad, who says that she was the daughter of the "Lord of Karak" but does not name her[508].  Rupen III & his wife had two children:

a)         ALIX (1182-after 1234).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon arranged the marriage of "Héthoum [le fils ainé de Tchordouanel]" and "la fille de son frère Roupen…Alice" and awarded him "la ville de Mecis" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][509].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis et Phelippe" as the two daughters of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that Alix was wife of "prince Buemont…frere dou prince Borgne et filluell dou conte de Triple"[510].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her "Ysabel", naming her father and specifying that she was his only daughter when recording her (second) marriage[511].  Her second marriage was agreed when Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem negotiated the release of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch from custody with her uncle Lewon II[512].  According to Sempad, it was agreed that any son born of the marriage would succeed her uncle Lewon II[513].  She succeeded her mother as heiress of Toron.  Alix was sent back to Armenia from Antioch by her father-in-law after the death of her second husband[514].  She claimed the throne of Armenia in 1219, on the death of her uncle Lewon I, on behalf of her son.  The Lignages d'Outremer record that, after the appointment of "Constantin le Connétable" as "baile", "le prince Rupin quitta Antioche et partit pour Korykos" with his mother whom he married to "Vahram le maréchal" (who repudiated his legitimate wife) and sent her "chez son frère Léon, seigneur de Berdak et de Mawxrot"[515].  She was exiled, her son put in prison, and her third husband murdered on the orders of the regent Kostandin Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid][516]m firstly ([early Feb] 1189, not consummated) as his second wife, HETHUM [Vasil] of Sassoun Lord of Missis, son of TSCHORTOUAN'L Lord of Sassoun & his wife Vaniné Saven-Pahlavouni (before 1165[517]-1193).  Sempad names him as the older son of Tchordouanel and the sister of Gregoire [Dgha] katoghikos of Armenia, when specifying that his bride's uncle gave him the town of Mecis on his marriage[518].  His wife's uncle, Lewon II, sent Hethum to Antioch in 1193, after Bohémond III Prince of Antioch had been obliged by Lewon to accept Armenian suzerainty, but Hethum was obliged to withdraw from the city faced with a riot of the population[519].  This is contradicted by Sempad, according to whom Hethum died in the same month as his maternal uncle, Gregoire Dgha katoghikos, in May 1189[520].  Hethum was murdered, apparently to enable his wife's second marriage to proceed[521]m secondly ([1194/95]) RAYMOND of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND III "le Bègue" Prince of Antioch & his first wife Orgueilleuse d'Harenc (-[May/Jun] 1198).  m thirdly (1220) as his second wife, VAHRAM Lord of Korikos Marshal of Armenia, son of GAUFFRIDUS Lord of Korikos & his wife --- (-murdered 1222). 

b)         PHILIPPA (1183-before 1219).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon arranged the marriage of "Schahenscah [l'autre fils de Tchordouanel]" and "la fille cadette de Roupen, Philippa qui vivait auprès de [Ritha] mère de Léon" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][522].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis et Phelippe" as the two daughters of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that Philippa was wife of "Lascre" and had a son "Costans qui fu mort"[523].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the betrothal of "Philippa fille de mon frère" and Oshin, oldest son of "Héthoum, fils d'Oschin", at the end of the section dealing with the year [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][524]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon…previously had…made marriage relations with Emperor Lascari and gave to him as a wife Philippa, the daughter of his brother Ruben" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][525].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem" married "ex Armeniis uxorem" after his first wife died, but sent her back "in Ciliciam illius patriam"[526].  Her second marriage was arranged by her future husband with her uncle, Lewon I King of Armenia, presumably to obtain Armenian support for the newly emerged empire at Nikaia.  Gardner refers to the theory that Philippa was repudiated by her second husband because he had expected to marry King Lewon's daughter (who was married to Jean de Brienne King of Jerusalem about the same time) and that he sent Philippa home after discovering that he had been duped into marrying Lewon's niece instead[527]m firstly ([early Feb] 1189, not consummated) SHAHANSHAH [Sergios] of Sassoun Lord of Selefke, son of TSCHORTOUAN'L Lord of Sassoun & his wife Vaniné Saven-Pahlavouni (before 1165-murdered 1193).  Betrothed ([31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199]) to OSHIN of Lampron, son of HETHUM [III] Lord of Lampron [Armenia-Hethum] & his second wife --- (-[1216/18]).  m secondly (24 Nov 1214, repudiated 1216) as his second wife, THEODOROS I Emperor in Nikaia, son of --- Laskaris & his wife --- ([1175]-Nov 1221, bur monastery of Hyakinthos). 

2.         LEWON (1150-2 May 1219, bur Agner and Sis).  Named as son of Stepane, brother of Rupen, by Vartan[528].  The Lignages d'Outremer names "Rupen et Livon" as the two sons of "Melih"[529].  He succeeded his brother in 1187 as LEWON II Lord of the Mountains.   

-        see below, Part B

3.         [daughter .  m ---.]  [One possible child]: 

a)         [DOLETA.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Dolet…niesse dou roy Livon d'Ermenie" as the wife of "Bertram, l'autre fis Hue l'Embriac qui fu seignor de Giblet"[530].  From a chronological point of view, it is not possible for Doleta to have been the daughter of Rupen III Lord of the Mountains, King Lewon's only known brother, assuming that the date of his marriage is correctly stated above.  Assuming that the relationship between King Lewon and Doleta is correctly stated in the Lignages, she must therefore have been the daughter of an otherwise unknown sister.  It is unlikely that Doleta was the sister of King Lewon as she would presumably have been in her thirties at the time of her marriage if this was correct, which seems improbable.  m (1186) BERTRAND Embriaco Lord of Jebail, son of GUILLAUME Embriaco Lord of Jebail & his wife Sancha --- (-after 1217).] 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of ARMENIA 1199-1252

 

 

LEWON of Armenia, son of STEPANE of Armenia [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife Rita of Barbaron [Armenia-Hethum] (1150-May 1219, bur (entrails) Agner and (body) Sis[531]).  He is named as son of Stepane, brother of Rupen, by Vartan[532].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rupin et Leon" as the two sons of "Stephane", stating that they had been brought up by "leur oncle Paguran seigneur de Baberon"[533].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him, specifying that he was brother of Rupen[534].  The Lignages d'Outremer names "Rupen et Livon" as the two sons of "Melih"[535].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Livon" as brother of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie"[536].  He fled to Tarsus, then Constantinople, fearing for his life during his brother's reign but returned in 1183 and was rewarded with Gaban[537].  He attacked Antioch after his brother was arrested there in 1185 by Prince Bohémond III[538].  He succeeded his brother in 1187 as LEWON II Lord of the Mountains.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Ruben paron of the Armenians" died in [3 Feb 1186/2 Feb 1187] and was succeeded by "his brother Lewon"[539].  After his accession, he negotiated an alliance with Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, accepted Antioch's suzerainty and married the niece of the prince's wife.  The alliance broke down after Prince Bohémond failed to repay a large loan which Lewon had paid him.  Lewon II recaptured the fortress of Baghras from Saladin in 1191[540].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon paron of the Armenians seized Bohemond prince of Antioch" in [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] and imprisoned him "in the citadel of Sis", and that in [1 Feb 1195/31 Jan 1196] the prince was freed from prison "through the intercession of Count Heri" (Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem) and that "marriage relations were established between Lewon and the prince" (the betrothal of Bohémond's eldest son to Lewon II's niece)[541].  In return for having helped the German troops of Emperor Friedrich "Barbarossa" through Cilicia on the Third Crusade, Emperor Heinrich VI promised Lewon a royal crown, provided he accept imperial suzerainty over Armenia.  This alliance also resulted in the Teutonic Knights being given land near Tarsus in Armenia[542].  He was also awarded an even more precious crown, and a royal standard decorated with a lion which was to become the heraldic symbol of the kings of Armenia, by Emperor Alexios III, and was crowned with it before 14 Jul 1198[543].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Lewon received coronation with a crown and became first king of Cilicia" in [31 Jan 1197/30 Jan 1198][544], although this date appears to be incorrect.  He was crowned LEWON I King of Armenia at Sis 6 Jan 1199 by the Armenian katoghikos, Grigor Abirad, in the presence of Konrad von Querfurt Bishop of Hildesheim and imperial chancellor (representing the German emperor) and Konrad von Wittelsbach Archbishop of Mainz (representing the Pope)[545].  Rüdt-Collenberg emphasises that the coronation took place in Jan 1199 rather than in 1198, the latter being specified by Runciman. This appears corroborated by Sempad, who records the event under 1198/99, as the first report of the events of the year, presumably reflecting its importance rather than chronological accuracy.  The known parts of the itinerary of Konrad von Wittelsbach Archbishop of Mainz appear to have been as follows: (1) in Cyprus until Sep 1197, (2) arrived at Acre 20 Sep 1197, remaining in the kingdom of Jerusalem until Jan 1198 when he crowned Amaury I King of Cyprus as king of Jerusalem, and (3) in Armenia in Jan 1199.  King Lewon established his capital at Sis and adopted a feudal constitution similar to that of the neighbouring crusading states in Palestine.  "Leo…rex Armeniorum filius Stephani et de potenti genere Rupinorum" granted privileges to the Genoese by charter dated Mar 1201 and to the Venetians by charter dated Dec 1201[546].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians took Antioch" in [30 Jan 1203/29 Jan 1204][547].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians seized the sebastos Henri, who was a duke, Kostants Kamartias, Joscelin and Baudouin" in [29 Jan 1207/28 Jan 1208][548].  He supported the Knights Hospitaller against the Knights Templar in the war of succession in Antioch, for which he was excommunicated in 1214.  "Leo…rex Armenie" granted property to the Knights Hospitaller with the consent of "domini Rupini principis Antiochie…nepotis et heredis mei" by charter dated 23 Apr 1214, and declared having received a loan from the Knights Hospitaller by charter dated the same date, both documents specifying that these financial transactions formed part of the arrangements for the marriage of "mee filie" and "regi Iherosolimitano"[549].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians took Antioch at night through treachery and installed there as prince Ruben, his brother's grandson" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][550].  King Lewon had promised the succession to his nephew Raymond Rupen of Antioch, but on his deathbed he named his younger daughter as his successor[551].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon" died in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][552].  The Lignages d'Outremer records that Lewon was buried "dans la ville de Sis, et une de ses reliques fut enterrée au couvent d'Akner qu'il avait fondé"[553].  The History of Armenia of Guiragos of Kantzag records the death of King Lewon in the year [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220], stating that his body was buried at Sis but his heart and entrails were buried at the convent of Agner[554]

m firstly ([3 Feb 1188/4 Feb 1189], divorced 1206) ISABELLE, niece of SIBYLLE (third wife of BOHEMOND III Prince of Antioch), daughter of --- (-murdered 1207, bur Vaghka).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon married "la niece (fille du frère) de la femme du prince d'Antioche" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][555].  Sempad records that katoghikos Jean reported "injurious information" about the queen to her husband, who had numerous members of her suite put to death and attacked her personally before imprisoning her in the fortress of Vahga in [27 Jan 1205/28 Jan 1206][556].  She was poisoned. 

m secondly (Cyprus [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]) SIBYLLE of Cyprus, daughter of AMAURY King of Cyprus and Jerusalem & his second wife Isabelle Queen of Jerusalem ([1199/1200]-after 1225).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that King Lewon married "la sœur du souverain de [Chypre] Sibylle" in Cyprus in [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211][557].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians went to Cyprus and married the king's sister Sybil, who is Elisabeth" in [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211][558].  The Chronicle of Amadi names "uno filiolo…Almerico et due figlie…Sybilla…et…Melisena" as the children of "il re Almerico" and his queen, specifying that "Sybilla" married "Livon re de Armenia"[559].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Sebille, la fille dou rei Heymeri et de la reyne Ysabiau" as wife of "Livon" brother of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie"[560].  She claimed the throne of Armenia for herself after the death of her husband, but was exiled by the regent Kostandin Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Hethumid]. 

King Lewon I & his first wife had one child:

1.         RITA [Stephanie] of Armenia (after 1195-[Acre] [Jun] 1220).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and her father when recording her marriage, specifying that she was the daughter of his first marriage[561].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "une fille encore en bas âge…Ritha" as Lewon's daughter by his first marriage, stating that she was brought up by her paternal grandmother[562]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon gave his daughter Rita to the king of Jerusalem" in [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215][563].  "Leo…rex Armenie" granted property to the Knights Hospitaller with the consent of "domini Rupini principis Antiochie…nepotis et heredis mei" by charter dated 23 Apr 1214, and declared having received a loan from the Knights Hospitaller by charter dated the same date, both documents specifying that these financial transactions formed part of the arrangements for the marriage of "mee filie" and "regi Iherosolimitano"[564].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that "li rois Johans", on hearing news of the death of “Livon le roi d’Ermenie, pere de sa feme”, left for Acre from where he intended to go to Armenia to claim the throne, but that he abandoned the journey because his wife died, and after 15 days later also “un fil que il en avoit de age de IV ans[565]m ([23/30] Apr 1214) as his second wife, JEAN de Brienne King of Jerusalem, son of ERARD [II] de Brienne & his wife Agnès de Montfaucon (-27 Mar 1237). 

King Lewon I & his second wife had one child:

2.         ZABEL of Armenia ([27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and her father when recording her two marriages[566].  Her origin and second marriage, are confirmed by the charter dated 22 Jan 1236 under which "Eython…rex Armenie filius Constantini stirpis regie et Ehelisabeth regina…filia…Leonis regis" granted properties to the Teutonic Knights[567].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "a daughter Zapel was born to King Lewon" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][568]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king of Hungary Andre…gave his son as a son-in-law to King Lewon and [this son] would inherit Lewon's throne", during a visit to Tarsus in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][569].  The same source records that "the son of the Hungarian king was in the vicinity and came to become [Lewon's] son-in-law" while the king was dying, and that King Lewon "ordered his princes to implement the oaths they had sworn to him", in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][570], but the proposed marriage must have been abandoned when the king died as there no further mention of it in the Chronicle.  She succeeded her father in 1219 as ZABEL Queen of Armenia, under the regency of Adam de Baghras and, following his murder by the Assassins in [1220], that of Kostandin Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's daughter Zapel" was married to "Philip son of the blind prince of Antioch" in [25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222][571].  Raymond Rupen of Antioch invaded Cilicia with his mother to press his claim to the succession and installed himself at Tarsus, where he was captured in early 1221 by Regent Kostandin[572].  Queen Zabel's first marriage was arranged by Regent Kostandin because of Armenia's need to restore good relations with Antioch in the face of the Seljuk threat[573].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Livon…rei" left his daughter under the guardianship of "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre", recording that the latter killed "le conte Rupin" and married "Ysabiau" to "Phelippe…fiz dou prince Borgne et de Plaissence la fille dou seignor de Gibelet"[574]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "great prince Kostadin convinced the grandees…to enthrone his own son Hetum…but the queen did not consent to being the wife of a child" so left for Selefke, although the city unwillingly surrendered her and the marriage took place[575].  She was crowned with her second husband in 1226[576].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre" killed Zabel's first husband and married her to "son fiz Haiton"[577].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the death of "Queen Zapel" in [18 Jan 1251/17 Jan 1252][578]Betrothed ([27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217], contract broken 1219) to [ANDRÁS] of Hungary, son of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano ([1210/12]-1234]).  It is not certain that András was the son of the Hungarian king who was betrothed to Zabel.  However, the king is unlikely to have betrothed his oldest son to this rather remote princess, especially with the prospect of his inheriting both the Hungarian and Armenian thrones, while King András's second son Kálmán was already married at that date (assuming his marriage date is correctly recorded in 1214).  m firstly ([25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222]) PHILIPPE of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch & his first wife Plaisance of Jebail (-murdered Sis [1225/26]).  He was crowned king of Armenia in Jun 1222 with his wife, by right of his wife[579].  He tried to impose the Catholic faith on the Armenians, refused to follow Armenian customs including that of growing a beard[580], and spent most of his time at Antioch.  Vardan's History records that "Pilip son of the lord of Antioch…loathed the Armenian people…and he sent to his father's house the honoured crown and the royal treasures", stating that "the princes were unable to tolerate this and put [him] into confinement until he died"[581].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Philip king of the Armenians was seized by his own troops" in [24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226][582].  At the end of 1224, he was imprisoned at Sis where he later died[583]m secondly (14 May 1226, legalised Rome 1237) HETHUM, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid] & his second wife Alix of Lampron [Armenia-Hethumid] (1215-28 Oct 1270, bur Trazarg).  William of Tyre (Continuator) and Samuel d'Ani both name him and his father when recording his marriage[584].  He was crowned in 1226 as HETHUM I King of Armenia with his wife after their marriage. 

-        KINGS of ARMENIA 1226-1341

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of ARMENIA (CILICIAN ARMENIA) (FAMILY of HETHUM)

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of ARMENIA 1226-1341

 

 

HETHUM, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid] & his second wife Alix of Lampron [Armenia-Hethumid] (1215-28 Oct 1270, bur Trazarg[585]).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum…son of Kostandin senior paron of the Armenians" succeeded to the Armenian throne in [24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226][586].  He was crowned in 1226 as HETHUM I King of Armenia with his wife after their marriage.  "Eython…rex Armenie filius Constantini stirpis regie et Ehelisabeth regina…filia…Leonis regis" granted properties to the Teutonic Knights by charter dated 22 Jan 1236[587].  He was obliged to recognise Mongol suzerainty over the kingdom of Armenia after the Mongol victory over the Seljuks at Sadagh, near Erzinjan, 26 Jun 1243[588].  "Hetom…rex Armenie filius Constantini nobilis viri et…Helysabeth filia Leonis quondam regis Armenie de potenti genere Rupinorum et regina uxor predicti regis Hetonis" granted privileges to the Venetians by charter dated Mar 1245[589].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians took Prakana and Karamut from the sultan of Rum" in [20 Jan 1245/19 Jan 1246][590].  In 1247, he sent his brother Smbat on an embassy to the court of the Great Khan Guyuk, who promised to send help to the Armenians to recover land lost to the Seljuks in return for their allegiance as vassal of the Mongols.  As Khan Guyuk's death in 1249 put a hold on the issue, Hethum set out for Karakoram after learning of the election of Khan Mongka and was received by the Great Khan 13 Sep 1254, returning to Armenia in Jul 1255[591].  Together with Bohémond VI Prince of Antioch, he paid homage to Hulagu Khan after the fall of Baghdad, and accompanied Kitbouqa the Mongol when he conquered Aleppo and Damascus[592].  The reversal came in 1260 when the Mameluks of Egypt reconquered Syria, after Hulagu Khan withdrew many of his troops to preserve his position during the succession dispute which followed the death of Great Khan Mongka in 1259, and the Mongol Khan of the Golden Horde converted to Islam.  While Sultan Rukn ad-Din Baibars Bundukdari moved north after conquering Galilee, King Hethum visited the Ilkhan court at Tabriz to ask for Mongol help, but during his absence the Armenian army under his two sons Lewon and Thoros was routed 24 Aug 1266 by the Mameluks who proceeded to invade Armenia and sack the capital Sis, before retiring to Aleppo.  The Egyptians captured Hethum's son Lewon, who was ransomed for the fortress of Derbessak[593].  Hethum abdicated in Feb 1269, and retired to a monastery as the monk MAKARIOS[594].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that King Hethum became a monk as "Macaire" before he died, and was buried "à Trois Arcs"[595].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death of "le roi Héthoum" in [13 Jan 1270/12 Jan 1271][596].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians" died in [13 Jan 1270/12 Jan 1271][597]

m (14 May 1226, legalised Rome 1237) as her second husband, ZABEL Queen of Armenia, widow of PHILIPPE of Antioch, daughter of LEWON I King of Armenia & his second wife Sibylle of Cyprus ([1216]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and her father when recording her two marriages[598].  Her origin and second marriage, are confirmed by the charter dated 22 Jan 1236 under which "Eython…rex Armenie filius Constantini stirpis regie et Ehelisabeth regina…filia…Leonis regis" granted properties to the Teutonic Knights[599].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "a daughter Zapel was born to King Lewon" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][600].  She succeeded her father in 1219 as ZABEL Queen of Armenia, under the regency of Adam de Baghras and, following his murder by the Assassins in [1220], that of Kostandin Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's daughter Zapel" was married to "Philip son of the blind prince of Antioch" in [25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222][601].  Raymond Rupen of Antioch invaded Cilicia with his mother to press his claim to the succession and installed himself at Tarsus, where he was captured in early 1221 by Regent Kostand[602].  Queen Zabel's first marriage was arranged by Regent Kostandin because of Armenia's need to restore good relations with Antioch in the face of the Seljuk threat[603].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Livon…rei" left his daughter under the guardianship of "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre", recording that the latter killed "le conte Rupin" and married "Ysabiau" to "Phelippe…fiz dou prince Borgne et de Plaissence la fille dou seignor de Gibelet"[604]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "great prince Kostadin convinced the grandees…to enthrone his own son Hetum…but the queen did not consent to being the wife of a child" so left for Selefke, although the city unwillingly surrendered her and the marriage took place[605].  She was crowned with her second husband in 1226[606].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre" killed Zabel's first husband and married her to "son fiz Haiton"[607].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the death of "Queen Zapel" in [18 Jan 1251/17 Jan 1252][608]

Mistress (1): MARIA, daughter of --- (-after 1272).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Maria, one of King Hetum's concubines, a Muslim, attracted others to the same faith and planned among them to kill King Lewon with a fatal poison" in [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273] but "the woman's evil work was revealed by an eleven year old boy and the king survived"[609]

King Hethum I & his wife had eight children: 

1.         FIMI [Euphemia] of Armenia (-1309, bur [Trazarg]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that "Femie" married "Julien le sire de Saiete"[610].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records the marriage of "Julian sire de Saiete" with "la fille de Heton roi d'Ermenie" in 1252[611].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the marriage of "Fimi daughter of the Armenian king Hetum" and "Julian king of France"[612].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage of "messer Juliano signor di Saeto" and "la figlia del re Haetonte de Armenia", in 1252 from the context[613].  The contract between "Haitum…rois d'Ermenie é la gentile dame de Sayete, dame Margarite" relating to the marriage between "le gentil seignor de Sayete sire Yulian" and "notre filie demoiselle Fémie" is dated 1252[614].  She became abbess of Notre Dame de Tyr at Nicosia in 1308[615]The Chronicle of Amadi names "madama Sur Fimia, sua ameda…monacha de la Nostra Donna mazore de Hierusalem, che si dice in Cypro Nostra Dame de Sur…signora de Saeto" and "suo nepote messer Alinac, che ottenne dal suo fratello messer Choyssin re de Armenia", specifying that she was "sorella del re Livon et ava della moglie del…messer Philippo de Iblim el sinescalco, la qual era figlia de la sua figlia"[616]m (1252, divorced 1263[617]) JULIEN Lord of Sidon and Beaufort, son of BALIAN [Garnier] Lord of Sidon and Beaufort & his wife Marguerite de Raynel (-1275). 

2.         MARIE of Armenia (-Nicosia, convent of Notre-Dame of Tyre after 1310).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Marie married "Gui de Ybelin"[618].  Another passage in the Lignages clarifies that her husband was "Gui, le fis Bauduin de Ybelin, seneschal de Chipre"[619].  The dispensation issued by Pope Clement IV for the marriage of "N. filius Balduini Ibelin" and "Marie puella filia regis Armeniæ" is dated 17 Mar 1266[620].  She succeeded her sister as abbess of Notre Dame de Tyr at Nicosia in 1308[621]m (Papal dispensation 17 Mar 1266) as his second wife, GUY Ibelin, son of PHILIPPE Ibelin, Constable of Cyprus & his wife Simonette de Montbéliard ([1235/40]-after 1270). 

3.         SIBYLLE of Armenia (-in Armenia 1290).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Sibylle married "le prince Beymont d'Antioche"[622].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the marriage of "King Hetum…his daughter Zapel" and "Bohemond prince of Antioch and count of Tripoli" in [17 Jan 1253/16 Jan 1254][623].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage in 1254 between [Jun/Oct] from the context, of "Beimonte principe de Antiochia" and "Sibilla figliola de Haetonte re de Armenia"[624].  On the death of her husband, Sibylle assumed the regency in Tripoli for her son, in opposition to Hugues III King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, but sent her son to her brother's court leaving Tripoli to be administered in her name by Bartholomew Bishop of Tortosa.  Together they persecuted the Romans installed in the city by her mother-in-law, killing some and exiling others[625].  The nobles of Tripoli offered her the crown in 1287 on the death of her son, but she would only accept on condition that Bartholomew Bishop of Tortosa was appointed her bailli, which was unacceptable[626]m ([Jun/Oct] 1254) BOHEMOND VI Prince of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND V Prince of Antioch & his second wife Lucia di Caccamo-Segni ([1237]-[11 May/Jul] 1275).  He was deposed as Prince of Antioch after the capture of Antioch 18 May 1268, but continued to rule as Count of Tripoli. 

4.         RITA of Armenia .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Rita married "le sire de la Roche"[627].  Another manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer names "Constantin le seigneur de Servantikar" as the husband of Rita[628].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Hetum became the father-in-law of Kostandin, son of the lord of Sarvandikar, by marrying him to his daughter Rita" in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][629]m (1261) KOSTANDIN Lord of Saravantikar [Armenia-Hethum], son of DJOFFREY Lord of Saravantikar & his [first/second] wife [Alixe/Kyr Anna of Lampron] (-after Feb 1274). 

5.         LEWON of Armenia ([24 Jan 1236/23 Jan 1237]-6 Feb 1289, bur Trazarg).  His birth date is estimated from the Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani which records that "Léon, fils de Héthoum" was 35 years old when he was crowned in [13 Jan 1271/12 Jan 1272], and reigned for 19 years[630].  This date appears corroborated by the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II which records that "King Hetum…seated his senior son Lewon on a horse" in [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257], presumably referring to a ceremony similar to knighthood[631].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Livon, Thoros" as the two sons of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife[632].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him and his father[633].  He succeeded his father in 1269 as LEWON II King of Armenia

-        see below

6.         VACAHK of Armenia (-young).  He is named by Rüdt-Collenberg as a younger brother of Leo I and son of Hethum I[634]

7.         THOROS of Armenia (1244-killed in battle near Sarventikar 24 Aug 1266).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Livon, Thoros" as the two sons of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Thoros was killed "de Sarrasins"[635].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "king Hetum…enthroned his son paron Toros" in [16 Jan 1259/15 Jan 1260][636].  It is assumed this refers to a ceremony of knighthood, similar to that recorded in the same source for Thoros's brother Lewon three years previously.  No indication has been found in any other primary source that King Hethum installed either of his sons as joint king (before his son Lewon was installed as such in 1262), although if this were the case the reference to Thoros in the Chronicle would have been a mistake for Lewon.  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him and his father, when recording his death fighting the Mameluks who had invaded Armenia[637].  Samuel d'Ani specifies that he was his father's "other" son when recording the same event[638].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "Semelmot" invaded Armenia 22 Aug, in 1266 from the context, and killed "Thoros, figliolo del re de Armenia"[639].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Smelnlmot with troops of the infidels destroyed the Armenian forces in Mari and captured paron Lewon the Armenian king's son and killed Toros the other son" in [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267][640].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Thoros", son of King Hethum, was killed "par les troupes de l'Egypte dans le défilé de Mari"[641]

8.         ISABELLE of Armenia (-[Jul 1268/1269]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Isabelle died young[642].  She was alive when her brother Lewon returned from captivity in Jul 1268[643].  The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified.  [644]Betrothed (1267) to MOUID ad-Din Suleiman "Pervaneh" (-murdered 2 Aug 1276). 

 

 

LEWON, son of HETHUM I King of Armenia & his wife Zabel Queen of Armenia ([24 Jan 1236/23 Jan 1227]-Sis 6 Feb 1289, bur Trazarg).  His birth date is estimated from the Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani which records that "Léon, fils de Héthoum" was 35 years old when he was crowned in [13 Jan 1271/12 Jan 1272], and reigned for 19 years[645].  This date appears corroborated by the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II which records that "King Hetum…seated his senior son Lewon on a horse" in [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257], presumably referring to a ceremony similar to knighthood[646].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "Isabelle" gave birth to "son fils ainé Léon" in [24 Jan 1226/23 Jan 1227][647].  This is very early considering the estimated birth date of both his parents.  The likely explanation is that the passage was misplaced by ten years in the text.  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Livon, Thoros" as the two sons of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife[648].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "the king's son Lewon was made king of the Armenians" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263][649].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him and his father, when recording his capture by the Mameluks[650] at the battle of Sarventikar 24 Aug 1266.  Samuel d'Ani specifies that he was his father's oldest son when recording the same event[651].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "Semelmot" invaded Armenia 22 Aug, in 1266 from the context, and killed "Thoros, figliolo del re de Armenia" and captured "Livon l'atro suo figluolo"[652].  Hethum the Historian records that "Léon fils du roi tomba entre les mains des infidèles, et son frère Thoros fut tué" in [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267][653].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Smelnlmot with troops of the infidels destroyed the Armenian forces in Mari and captured paron Lewon the Armenian king's son and killed Toros the other son" in [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267], and that Lewon was freed from Egypt in [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269][654].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Leon", son of King Hethum, was captured, the same day his brother Thoros was killed, and taken to Egypt, but was released two years later after his father paid a ransom to the sultan "la forteresse de Darpsak"[655].  He was released under the terms of a treaty signed in Aug 1268 under which the fortresses of Amanus, Darbsaq, Behesni and Raban were ceded to the Mameluks[656].  After his return to Armenia, following a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, his father abdicated in early 1269 and he succeeded as LEWON II King of Armenia, crowned 6 Jan 1271 at St Sophia, Tarsus[657].  The Lignages d'Outremer record his coronation in "la ville de Tars, le jour de l'apparition du Seigneur"[658].  He immediately visited the court of Abaga Il-khan to pay homage and his title of king was confirmed[659]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Maria, one of King Hetum's concubines, a Muslim, attracted others to the same faith and planned among them to kill King Lewon with a fatal poison" in [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273] but "the woman's evil work was revealed by an eleven year old boy and the king survived"[660].  The same source records another assassination attempt later in the same year by "one of the servants of Edouard, who had come over the sea and was in Acre" (which presumably refers to the future Edward I King of England)[661].  The Egyptians captured Tarsus in 1275.  The Mongol/Armenian alliance recaptured Aleppo in 1280, but was defeated at Homs in 1281.  A truce with Egypt was negotiated by the Grand Master of the Knights Templar, the king of Armenia being obliged to pay tribute to Egypt for 10 years, 10 months and 10 days from 7 Jun 1285.  The peace treaty dated 7 May 1285 is between "Lifon fils de Haithom fils de Constantin" and the Mameluk Sultan of Egypt[662].  "Léon…roi de tous les Arméniens" granted privileges to the Genoese by contract dated 23 Dec 1288[663].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that King Lewon died "dans la ville de Sis" and was buried "à Trois Arcs"[664].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in [8 Jan 1289/7 Jan 1290] of "le roi Léon"[665].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death of "le roi Léon" in [8 Jan 1289/7 Jan 1290][666].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon" died 6 Feb in [9 Jan 1288/8 Jan 1289][667]

m (early [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]) KERAN [Kyr-Anna] of Lampron, daughter of HETHUM [IV] Lord of Lampron & his wife --- (-29 Aug 1285, bur Trazarg).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Quiram la fille au seignor dou Lambron" as the wife of King Lewon II[668].  Another manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer names "Guérane, la fille d'Héthoum, le seigneur de Lampron" as the wife of King Lewon[669].  She is named in the Tetraevangelium of her paternal uncle Oshin, dated to 1274[670].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lanbron intermarried with the king of Armenia" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263], the marriage presumably taking place in the early part of the year as the same source records the birth of the couple's first child later in the same year[671].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "my mother the Armenian queen Keran" died 29 Aug in [9 Jan 1285/8 Jan 1286][672]

King Lewon II & his wife had sixteen children:

1.         son (late [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]-).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Zapel bore King Lewon his first son" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263], presumably in the last part of the year as the same source records his parents' marriage in the same year[673].  "Zapel" was presumably an error for Kyranna. 

2.         KOSTANDIN of Armenia (Mamistra Jan [1265]-young).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "a son had been born to Lewon paron of the Armenians in the city of Mamistra…in the month of January" in [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264] and that he was baptised "in the capital of Sis in the great church of St Sophia…Kostandin"[674].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "a son was born to King Hetum" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266], "Hetum" being an error for "Lewon"[675].  There may in fact not be a contradiction between the dating of this birth in the two sources: Smbat's Chronicle does not include a paragraph for the year 714 A.E., whose events seem to have been conflated with those of the previous year.  It is probable that Kostandin was born in Jan 1265, considering the birth of his brother and sister soon after. 

3.         FIMI [Euphemia] (early [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267]-).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "a daughter Fimi was born to the Armenian king" in [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267][676].  She was presumably born during early 1266 considering the birth of her younger brother Hethum in the same year. 

4.         HETHUM of Armenia (late [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267]-murdered Anazarba 7 Nov 1307).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife, stating that Hethum succeeded his father but "vesti abit de menours" and gave "la seignorie a Thoros son frere"[677].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the birth of "Héthoum, grand baron" in [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267][678].  He was presumably born during late 1266 or early 1267 considering the birth of his older sister Fimi in the same year.  The Chronicle of Florio Bustron names (in order) "Chioysin, Chaetonte, Alinach, Thoris et Sembat" as the sons of "el re Livon"[679].  He succeeded his father in 1289 as HETHUM II King of Armenia.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians gave the kingdom to his brother Toros and…became a cleric in Christ" in [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294], that later in the same year Hethum resumed the crown, and that in [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297] he gave the kingdom to "his brother paron Toros"[680].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians and his brother paron Toros gave the paronate to paron Smpat and…went off to Constantinople" in [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297][681].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Héthoum" transferred the government to "son frère Sempad" in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] and left for Constantinople with his brother Thoros, returning a year later in an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, afterwards visiting "Gazan-Khan dans l'Orient" to obtain support[682].  The same source records that Hethum was blinded by his brother Smbat[683], and deposed his brother Kostandin I in 1299[684].  Hethum became a Franciscan monk as JEAN 3 Apr 1299[685].  He abdicated in 1301 in favour of his nephew Lewon III, becoming regent of Armenia with the title "Grand Baron of Armenia"[686].  King Hethum's Catholicism, and his close relations with the Catholic Lusignan rulers of Cyprus, produced considerable resentment in Armenia and was a major factor in the internal political instability of the time.  In 1307, he held a council which agreed the reunion of the Armenian church with the church of Rome[687].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Héthoum" lived as a monk for 18 years and was killed by "le scélérat Poularghou-nouin" by the walls of the fortress of Anazarba, with "son frère le jeune roi Léon, le connétable [Oschin]"[688].  An undated contemporary list of lords in Armenia during the reigns of Henri II and Hugues IV Kings of Cyprus names "frater Johannes, ordinis fratrum Minorum, primogenitus quondam…regis Hermenie. Mortuus"[689]

5.         ZABEL of Armenia ([13 Jan 1269/12 Jan 1270]-before 1273).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon of the Armenians had a daughter Spil" in [13 Jan 1269/12 Jan 1270][690]

6.         THOROS of Armenia (Mamistra Oct 1270-murdered Partzerpert 23 Jul 1298, bur Trazerg)Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon became father to a male child in the city of Mamistra" in October in [13 Jan 1271/12 Jan 1272][691].  Although the child is not named, he is assumed to have been Thoros by process of elimination of the king's other children.  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife[692].  The Chronicle of Florio Bustron names (in order) "Chioysin, Chaetonte, Alinach, Thoris et Sembat" as the sons of "el re Livon"[693].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's son Toros was born" in [13 Jan 1270/12 Jan 1271][694].  He succeeded in 1293 after the deposal of his brother as THOROS King of Armenia, but was deposed in his turn in 1294 by barons who were dissatisfied with his rule.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians gave the kingdom to his brother Toros and…became a cleric in Christ" in [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294], that later in the same year Hethum resumed the crown, and that in [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297] he gave the kingdom to "his brother paron Toros"[695].  According to Rüdt-Collenberg, Thoros does not seem to have been crowned king nor to have struck coins, but is styled "Baron" by his brother Hethum II despite exercising all the royal rights[696].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians and his brother paron Toros gave the paronate to paron Smpat and…went off to Constantinople" in [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297][697].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Héthoum" transferred the government to "son frère Sempad" in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] and left for Constantinople with his brother Thoros, returning a year later in an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne[698].  The same source records that Thoros was killed by his brother Smbat[699].  He was murdered on the orders of his brother Smbat by his cousin Oshin Lord of Gobidar and Gantschi[700].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "Sempad fit étrangler Thoros, dans la forteresse de Partzerpert" in [6 Jan 1299/5 Jan 1300][701]m firstly (general Papal dispensation 23 May 1286, 9 Jan 1288) MARGUERITE of Cyprus, daughter of HUGUES III King of Cyprus & his wife Isabelle Ibelin (-1296).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Marie, Marguerite, Aalis et Helvis" as the four daughters of Hugues III King of Cyprus & his wife, stating that Marguerite married "Thouros le fis au roy Livon de Ermenie"[702].  Pope Honorius IV wrote to the bishop of Antarados requesting him to grant a dispensation for the marriage of "uno filio et una filia Hugonis regis Cypri…et…uno filio et una filia regis Armeniæ" dated 23 May 1286[703].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the marriage of "paron Toros" and the sister of the king of Cyprus in [9 Jan 1287/8 Jan 1288][704]m secondly (1297) --- Mongol princess, relative of GHAZAN Ilkhan.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  King Thoros & his first wife had two children: 

a)         BOHEMOND of Armenia .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beimundo e Lionetto che fu re d'Armenia e morite senza heredi" as the two sons of King Thoros & his wife[705]

b)         LEWON of Armenia ([8 Jan 1289/7 Jan 1290]-murdered Anazarba 7 Nov 1307).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Toros's son Lewon was born" in [8 Jan 1289/7 Jan 1290][706].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Livon" as the son of King Thoros & his wife, stating that he succeeded his uncle Kostand[707].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names "Beimundo e Lionetto che fu re d'Armenia e morite senza heredi" as the two sons of King Thoros & his wife[708].  Samuel d'Ani names him as son of Thoros when recording his succession in 1301 as LEWON III King of Armenia, under the regency of his uncle ex-King Hethum II[709].  He was crowned 30 Jul 1306[710].   "Lyon…roy de tote Ermenie fis dou…seignor d'Ermenie Thoros" granted privileges to the Venetians by charter dated 20 May 1307[711].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Héthoum" lived as a monk for 18 years and was killed by "le scélérat Poularghou-nouin" by the walls of the fortress of Anazarba, with "son frère le jeune roi Léon, le connétable [Oschin]", a later passage clarifying that Lewon was the son of his brother Thoros[712]m ([1305/06], not consummated[713]) his first cousin, AGNES [Amiota/Marie] de Lusignan, daughter of AMAURY de Lusignan Prince of Tyre & his wife Isabelle of Armenia (-after 10 Oct 1309).  The sources are contradictory regarding the name of Amaury's daughter.  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugue, Henri, Gui et Jehan, et Marie" as the five children of Amaury, son of Hugues III King of Cyprus, & his wife[714].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife, stating that Agnes had neither husband nor children[715].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She was crowned as Queen of Armenia 30 Jul 1306.  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children "Hugo, Beimonte et Lerion et una sua figliola…Annota" 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[716], indicating that Agnes must have returned to Cyprus after her husband was killed. 

7.         RUPEN ([13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273]-).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's son Ruben was born" in [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273][717]

8.         ZABEL ([12 Jan 1273/11 Jan 1274]-before 1276).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's daughter Zapel was born" in [12 Jan 1273/11 Jan 1274][718]

9.         SMBAT of Armenia ([12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277]-[1310/11]).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's…twins Smbat and Spil were born" in [12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277][719].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife[720].  Named by Samuel d'Ani as the brother of Hethum[721].  The Chronicle of Florio Bustron names (in order) "Chioysin, Chaetonte, Alinach, Thoris et Sembat" as the sons of "el re Livon"[722].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum king of the Armenians and his brother paron Toros gave the paronate to paron Smpat and…went off to Constantinople" in [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297][723].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Héthoum" transferred the government to "son frère Sempad" in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] and left for Constantinople with his brother Thoros, returning a year later in an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne[724].  On the advice of the patriarch and the nobles, Smbat was crowned as SMBAT King of Armenia at Sis.  When his brother returned after a year, he refused to allow him to retake possession of the kingdom.  Samuel of Ani records that Smbat captured his brothers Hethum and Thoros in Caesarea and imprisoned them in the fortress of Partzerpert[725].  The Egyptians invaded Cilicia during his reign, setting fire to all towns and villages, and killing or capturing numerous inhabitants[726].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son autre frère Constantin, seigneur de la forteressse de Gaban" attacked Smbat in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298], and that Smbat fled "chez les Romains", was captured and imprisoned by Kostand, but later exiled to Constantinople by his brother Hethum[727].  He may have died on board a Venetian ship between Armenia and Cyprus after an unsuccessful attempt to regain the crown in 1308[728].  According to Samuel of Ani, he was a prisoner in Armenia and was killed in 1308.  m (1297) --- Mongol princess, relative of GHAZAN Ilkhan.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Sempad" had visited the Mongols, in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] or before, and that the Khan had given him "une épouse de la famille de ce dernier"[729]

10.      ZABEL of Armenia ([12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277]-murdered Sis May 1323).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's…twins Smbat and Spil were born" in [12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277][730].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau, Ritta et Thefanon" as the three daughters of King Lewon II & his wife, stating that Isabelle married "Amauri le fis le roi Huge de Chipre"[731].  The Chronicle of Amadi names "sorella de Haeton re de Armenia…Isabella" as the wife of "Almerico…contestabile del reame de Hierusalem"[732].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Yzabeau la fille au roy Livon d'Ermenie" as the wife of "Amauri" son of Hugues III King of Cyprus[733].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II record "King Hetum's sister was married to the brother of the king of Cyprus, Sir Amari" in [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294][734].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[735].  Zabel took refuge in Armenia after the assassination of her husband.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" ordered the murder of "dame Ysabel, suer du…roy Ossin" and the imprisonment of her children[736]m ([7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294], Papal Dispensation 1293) AMAURY of Cyprus Lord of Tyre, son of HUGUES III King of Cyprus & his wife Isabelle d'Ibelin (-murdered Nicosia 5 Jun 1310).  Prince of Tyre 1291.  Constable of Jerusalem 1291.  He rebelled against his brother Henri II in 1306 helped by the Knights Templar.  Regent of Cyprus 1306-1310. 

-        see Chapter 4.  KINGS of ARMENIA (LUSIGNAN)

11.      KOSTANDIN of Armenia ([11 Jan 1277/10 Jan 1278]-after 1308).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife[737].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "the Armenian king Lewon's [son] Kostand was born" in [11 Jan 1277/10 Jan 1278][738].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son autre frère Constantin, seigneur de la forteressse de Gaban" attacked Smbat in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] and ruled for one year[739].  He succeeded as KOSTANDIN I King of Armenia.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that Hethum exiled "Constantine et Sempad" to Constantinople[740].  He was restored in 1307, but deposed in the same year. 

12.      RITA of Armenia ([11 Jan 1278/10 Jan 1279]-Jul 1333, bur Constantinople, Convent of St Martha).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's twins, Rita and Utifano were born" in [11 Jan 1278/10 Jan 1279][741].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau, Ritta et Thefanon" as the three daughters of King Lewon II & his wife, stating that Rita married "le fis de l'empereur de Costantinople"[742].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II sent to Armenia for a bride for his son and that eventually it was agreed he should marry "maiorem natu duarum virginem…Mariæ", their marriage taking place on 16 Jan[743].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "his sister Rita became empress of all Constantinople" in [7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295][744].  She was known as MARIA in Byzantium.  She became a nun as XENEm (16 Jan 1294) co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his first wife Anna of Hungary (1277-12 Oct 1320). 

13.      THEOPHANU of Armenia ([11 Jan 1278/10 Jan 1279]-[1296], bur Thessaloniki).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's twins, Rita and Utifano were born" in [11 Jan 1278/10 Jan 1279][745].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau, Ritta et Thefanon" as the three daughters of King Lewon II & his wife, stating that "Thefanon" died young[746].  Pachymeres names "minorem…novæ Augustæ sororem…Theophanu" when recording that she was renamed THEODORA in honour of "matris Augusti senioris" and later betrothed to "in partibus Occiduis Ioannis sebastocratoris filio…Ioannis", but that Theodora died on the journey to Constantinople and was buried at Thessaloniki[747]Betrothed ([1295/96]) to THEODOROS [Ioannes] Komnenodukas Angelos, son of IOANNES Dukas Komnenos [Angelos] of Epirus Lord of Thessaly (-after [1299]). 

14.      NERSES of Armenia ([11 Jan 1279/10 Jan 1280]-26 May 1301, bur Trazarg).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's [son] Nerses was born" in [11 Jan 1279/10 Jan 1280][748].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife[749].  Priest. 

15.      OSHIN of Armenia ([10 Jan 1283/9 Jan 1284]-murdered 20 Jul 1320, bur Trazarg[750]).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's…twins Oshin and Alinax were born" in [10 Jan 1283/9 Jan 1284][751].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife[752].  The Chronicle of Florio Bustron names (in order) "Chioysin, Chaetonte, Alinach, Thoris et Sembat" as the sons of "el re Livon"[753].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son frère Oschin" escaped when Hethum was killed by "le scélérat Poularghou-nouin" in 1307 and took refuge at Sis[754].  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Mar 1321 under which his grandson "Lion…roy de tous les Armens, fis dou…roy Ossim fils de bone memorie roy Lion" renewed the privileges of the Venetians[755].  He succeeded in expelling the Mongol Poularghou from the country and succeeded as OSHIN King of Armenia[756], crowned at Tarsus St Sophia in 4 Sep 1309[757].  An undated contemporary list of lords in Armenia during the reigns of Henri II and Hugues IV Kings of Cyprus names "Hoissinus de Alticovanti, genere Ruppinorum, Armenie rex"[758].  In 1309, he imprisoned religious dissidents at Sis where many were killed before the remainder were exiled to Cyprus[759].  Negotiations for his second marriage with the daughter of Jaime II King of Aragon, who wanted religious relics of St Thecla for the cathedral of Tarragona, broke down in the face of Armenian opposition to closer ties with the Catholic western powers.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in 1320 of "le roi Oschin" and his burial at Trazarg[760].  King Oshin was poisoned[761]m firstly ZABEL of Korikos, daughter of HETHUM "the Historian" Lord of Korikos & his wife Isabelle Ibelin (-3 Apr 1310).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [3 Jan 1310/1 Jan 1311] of "la reine Isabelle…en donnant au roi Oschin un fils…Léon"[762].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  [763]Betrothed ([1312/13]) to Infanta doña ISABEL de Aragón, daughter of don JAIME II King of Aragon & his second wife Blanche of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] (Barcelona 1300-12 Jul 1330, bur Vienna Minoritenkirche, St Ludwigskapelle).  She later married Friedrich II Duke of Austria.  m secondly (Feb 1316) as her first husband, JEANNE di Tarento, daughter of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Thamar Angelina Komnene Dukaina of Epirus (-Mar 1323).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage in [2 Jan 1316/31 Dec 1316] of King Oshin and "la fille de [Philippe de Tarente], frère de Robert roi de Sicile"[764].  She adopted the name EIRENE.  She was forced to marry secondly as his second wife, Oshin Lord of Korikos, regent of her son King Lewon IV.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" married "Jehanne de Naples" after the death of her first husband[765].  King Oshin & his first wife had [two] children:

a)         [LEWON of Armenia (before 4 Sep 1309-before [Mar/3 Apr] 1310).  According to Rüdt-Collenberg (citing an indecipherable reference), Lewon son of Oshin is named as being present at the coronation of his father 4 Sep 1309[766].  Confusion is possible with his supposed younger brother, also named Lewon, whose birth is recorded after this date (see below), although Rüdt-Collenberg also cites a source (reference also indecipherable) which confirms that Zabel, wife of Oshin, had two children[767].]    

b)         LEWON of Armenia ([Mar/3 Apr] 1310-28 Aug 1341).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [3 Jan 1310/1 Jan 1311] of "la reine Isabelle…en donnant au roi Oschin un fils…Léon"[768].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son fils Léon…n'étant encore âgé que de dix ans" succeeded his father "le roi Oschin"[769].  He succeeded his father in 1320 as LEWON IV King of Armenia, under the regency of Oshin Lord of Korikos  "Lion…roy de tous les Armens, fis dou…roy Ossim fils de bone memorie roy Lion" renewed the privileges of the Venetians by charter dated 1 Mar 1321[770].  The Mameluk Egyptians invaded Cilician Armenia in 1322[771], sacking the port of Ayas.  King Lewon assumed personal control in 1329 after assassinating the regent, as well as his own wife who was the regent's daughter.  The Egyptians invaded Armenia again in 1337.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the death of King Lewon after appointing as his successor "[le] premier enfant malle de dame Isabel, seur du roy Ossin, son pere"[772]m firstly (Papal Dispensation 10 Aug 1321) his first cousin, ALIX of Korikos, daughter of OSHIN Lord of Korikos & his first wife --- (-murdered 1329).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage in [31 Dec 1320/30 Dec 1321] of "le jeune fils d'Oschin, Léon" and "la fille d'Oschin comte de Gorigos, baile d'Arménie"[773].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the marriage of "le…baron Ossin…sa fille…Aalips" and "[le] roy Lyon le quart"[774].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon killed "sa femme, dame Aaleps" when he reached the age of majority "pour la deshonneste vie qu'elle menoit"[775]m secondly (Papal Dispensation 29 Dec 1331) as her second husband, CONSTANZA of Sicily, widow of HENRI II King of Cyprus, daughter of FEDERIGO II King of Sicily [Aragón] & his wife Eléonore of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] ([1307]-after 19 Jun 1344).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage of "le roi d'Arménie Léon" and "[la] fille du roi de Sicile Frédéric II" in [29 Dec 1330/28 Dec 1331][776].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon married "dame Constance, vefve de feu Henry, roy de Cyppre" stating that she was daughter of "Fredric, roy de Sezille"[777].  This marriage was accompanied by a grant of commercial privileges by her husband to his father-in-law[778].  The dispensation issued by Pope Clement VI for the marriage of "Jean de Lusignan filius Hugonis regis" and "Constance d´Aragon filia quondam Frederici vidua Leonis regis Armeniæ et Henrici regis Cypri" is dated 16 Apr 1343[779].  King Lewon IV & his first wife had one child:

i)          HETHUM of Armenia (-young).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a source (reference indecipherable) naming Hethum "morto bambino" as son of Lewon, commenting that he was "certainly of first marriage"[780]

King Oshin & his second wife had one child:

c)         child ([1316/17]-young).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that Oshin and his wife "Jehanne, fille [du]…prince de Tarente" had one (unnamed) child who did not live long[781]

16.      ALINAX of Armenia ([10 Jan 1283/9 Jan 1284]-28 Aug 1310, bur Trazarg).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's…twins Oshin and Alinax were born" in [10 Jan 1283/9 Jan 1284][782].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Heiton, Thoros, Semblat, Constans, Norses, Rupin, que il nomerent Alinah, Oissim" as the seven sons of King Lewon II & his wife[783].  The Chronicle of Florio Bustron names (in order) "Chioysin, Chaetonte, Alinach, Thoris et Sembat" as the sons of "el re Livon"[784].  Lord of Lampiron and Tarsus.  Samuel d'Ani names him brother of Oshin when recording his return from visiting the Khan when his brother Oshin expelled the Mongols from Cilician Armenia[785].  An undated contemporary list of lords in Armenia during the reigns of Henri II and Hugues IV Kings of Cyprus names "Alienat filius quondam regis Armenie dominus Lambri, Montis Livonis, Cogelaqui et Roisso" followed by "Alinoch regis frater et quondam…regis filius"[786].  He died after drinking a bowl of cold milk[787].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "le baron Alinakh, frère de Héthoum et du roi Oschin" died in [31 Dec 1321/30 Dec 1322] after being kicked in the head by his horse while bathing in the river Tarsus[788].  Sempad records his death in 1309, but does not state how he died[789].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [3 Jan 1309/2 Jan 1310] of "le baron Alinakh"[790]

King Lewon II had two illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

17.       daughterRüdt-Collenberg cites the Chronicle of Bar Hebræus which records this marriage, dates its consummation to [1271/72], and her return to Armenia in 1278[791].  m ([1268/69], consummated [1271/72]) MASUD MUAD ad-Din Suleiman, son of the Pervaneh Emir of Sinope (-after 1296).

18.       daughterRüdt-Collenberg cites sources (indecipherable) which record this marriage[792].  m (1295) KUTLUG Shah, son of ---. 

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of ARMENIA 1344-1373

 

 

KOSTANDIN, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert & his [third/fourth] wife [Beatrice ---/---] (-1308).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a Colophon of his son dated 1319 "Baudouinus filius Constantini principis Negrini et nepos Constantini magnis baronis, ex regali familia proximus principis nostri Ausini"[793].  Lord of Neghir and Partzerpert. 

m ([1285/90]) ---, [relative of Hugues III King of Cyprus] (-1319 or before).  The name and precise origin of Kostandin's wife are not known.  Edward II King of England named "dominus Baudouinus, filius domini di Negrini, consobrinus vester" in a letter dated 1307 addressed to Lewon III King of Armenia[794].  As King Lewon III was the son of Marguerite, daughter of Hugues III King of Cyprus, this suggests that the wife of Kostandin of Negjir Lord of Partzerpert was another daughter of King Hugues, assuming that "consobrinus" is interpreted correctly in its strict sense.  If this is correct, Kostand's wife was --- of Cyprus, daughter of Hugues III King of Cyprus & his wife Isabelle Ibelin.  Rüdt-Collenberg concludes that she was the same person as Isabelle (whose existence is dubious, see CYPRUS), unless she was another daughter otherwise unrecorded[795].  One potential difficulty with this hypothesis is the unlikelihood that the English court would have had detailed knowledge of the relationships in the Armenian royal family.  If this is correct, it would not be surprising if the letter contained inaccuracies.  Until further information comes to light, it is preferable to show the wife of Kostandin as unknown, but referring to her possible relationship to King Hugues.  Rüdt-Collenberg records that the wife of Kostandin was "defuncta" in 1319[796]

Lord Kostandin & his wife had three children:

1.         BAUDOUIN (-murdered Aleppo 12 Dec 1336, bur Tarsus, Church of Holy Apostles[797]).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a Colophon dated 1319 "Baudouinus filius Constantini principis Negrini et nepos Constantini magnis baronis, ex regali familia proximus principis nostri Ausini"[798].  Lord of Neghir and Pertzerpert.  m MARIE [Maroun] of Barbaron, daughter of LEWON Lord of Barbaron (-27 Aug 1352, bur Anazarbe, St Mary[799]).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms her parentage and marriage[800].  Lord Baudouin & his wife had four children: 

a)         ALIX (7 Feb 1312-).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a Colophon dated 1319, which also names her father (see above), which confirms her existence[801].  

b)         KOSTANDIN (17 Apr 1313-21 Dec 1362).  Son of Baudouin according to Tchamitch, who records his accession in 1344[802].  The editor of Recueil also cites a contemporary manuscript dated 795 (24 Dec 1345/23 Dec 1346), conserved in the library of Sis convent, which is in Kostandin's hand and records a donation to the convent in memory of his father Baudouin and his sons Oshin and Lewon[803].  Lord of Neghir.  He succeeded in 1344 as KOSTANDIN III King of Armenia.  The Liste Rimée des Souverains de la Petite Arménie records that "un certain Constantin de la famille de Léon" succeeded "le baron Jean, fils d'Isabelle sœur d'Oschin père de Léon, et [Guy] frère de Jean" in Armenia[804].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that the Armenians killed "le roy Guy…et messire Bemon de Lisignan son frere" and installed "ung roy…Constant, qui estoit tirant", a later passage stating that he was "le filz baron Baudin, grant mareschal d'Armenye" and that he reigned 19 years[805].  Faced with mounting pressure from the attacking Egyptians, he feigned agreement to the union of the Armenian with the Roman church at the Council of Sis in 1345 in order to attract help from the Pope, but this was not forthcoming.  The Egyptians annexed Ayas in 1347.  Adana and Tarsus fell to Egypt in 1359.  Kostandin's death was followed by a three year interregnum before the choice of Leon de Lusignan as king[806]m ([1340]) MARIE of Korikos, daughter of OSHIN Lord of Korikos & his third wife Jeanne di Tarento [Sicily-Anjou-Capet] (1321-[1377/1405]).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "Marie" as the daughter of "le…baron Ossin" and his wife "Jehanne de Naples", stating that she married "[le] premier roy tyrant…Constant, filz de baron Baudin, le grant mareschal du royaume, et ung des quatre gouverneurs"[807].  King Kostandin III & his wife had two children:

i)          OSHIN (before 1345-[1356/57]).  He is named by his father in a contemporary manuscript which records a donation to the convent of Sis in memory of his sons Oshin and Lewon[808]

ii)         LEWON ([15 Aug 1338][809]-before 1357).  He is named by his father in a contemporary manuscript which records a donation to the convent of Sis in memory of his sons Oshin and Lewon[810]

c)         SMBAT (-1325).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a Colophon dated 1319, which also names her father (see above), which confirms her existence[811].  

d)         EUPHEME (7 May 1325-Jerusalem after 1381).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a Colophon dated 1319, which also names her father (see above), which confirms her existence[812].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arranged the marriage of "messire Bemon de Lisignan" and "la fille baron Baudoin, grant mareschal du royaume"[813].  The dispensation issued by Pope Benedict XII for the marriage of "Bohemond comes Curquensis" and "Euphemia filia quondam Balduini maresc. Armeniæ" is dated 8 Oct 1340[814].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "la vielle royne d'Armenye, la contesse, femme de nostre oncle le conte de Courch, messire Barthelemy, la bastart du dit conte, et baron du dit Vassil" as co-regents of Armenia in 1373[815].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly (Papal dispensation 8 Oct 1340) BOHEMOND de Lusignan Lord of Korikos, son of AMAURY of Cyprus & his wife Zabel of Armenia (-murdered 17 Apr 1344).  m secondly ([2/14] Sep 1374) SOHERIUS of Sarto Count of Korikos (-after 1385). 

2.         VACAHK (-28 Oct 1328).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a Colophon dated 1319, which also names his brother (see above), which confirms his existence and the date of his death[816].  Lord of Gantschi [Djandji?][817]

3.         HETHUM (-1356).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a Colophon which confirms his existence and the date of his death[818].  Lord of Neghir.  m ---, from Cyprus.  Lord Hethum & his wife had two children:

a)         GEOFFROY (1323-1357 shortly before 21 May).  Rüdt-Collenberg records that his death is commemorated in a poem written by his brother Kostandin 21 May 1357[819]

b)         KOSTANDIN (1324-assassinated Apr 1373).  Lord of Neghir.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the accession of "filz de baron Heyton, et fu nommé roy Constant" after the death of King Kostandin III[820].  He succeeded in 1365 as KOSTANDIN IV King of Armenia.  He was accused of planning to deliver the country to the Egyptians and was assassinated.  By the end of his reign, the territorial extent of the kingdom of Armenia was reduced to the two towns of Sis and Anazerbe, completely encircled by the Mameluks.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Kostandin was murdered by the Armenians in Apr 1373[821]m (1369) as her first husband, MARIE of Oghruy, daughter of --- (-after 1377).  The primary source which confirms her name and suggested parentage has not yet been identified.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Kostandin's wife was granted the government of Armenia after the murder of her husband[822].  A later passage in the same source states that she was "cousine" of "la…royne Jehanne de Naples et le…prince de Tarente"[823].  She was instrumental in calling Léon de Lusignan to succeed as Lewon V King of Armenia in 1374, in the hope that a Catholic monarch would be more successful in attracting western support to fight the Egyptians.  She married secondly (1374) Matthieu Chappes.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arranged the marriage of "la femme du secont roy tyrant…Constant" and "Mathieu Cappe, chevalier"[824]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of ARMENIA (CILICIAN ARMENIA) (LUSIGNAN) 1342-1375

 

 

AMAURY of Cyprus, son of HUGUES III King of Cyprus [Lusignan-Poitiers] & Isabelle d'Ibelin (-murdered Nicosia 5 Jun 1310).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Johan, Beymont, Henri, Amauri, Gui et Heimeri" as the six sons of Hugues III King of Cyprus & his wife[825].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "el re Henrico" returned to Cyprus 26 Sep, in 1288 from the context, and left "suo fratello messer Almerico signor de Sur et contestabile del reame" as baily at Acre[826].  Amaury's brother King Henri II sent him to help defend Tripoli from the attack by Sultan Qalawun in Feb 1289.  He escaped back to Cyprus after the city fell 26 Apr 1289[827].  Pope Honorius IV wrote to the bishop of Antarados requesting him to grant a dispensation for the marriage of "uno filio et una filia Hugonis regis Cypri…et…uno filio et una filia regis Armeniæ" dated 23 May 1286[828].  It is assumed that this dispensation refers to Amaury: if it had been his older brother Henri, it is felt that he would have been referred to as king of Cyprus.  If this is correct, the proposed marriage did not go ahead at that date.  His brother appointed him Constable of the kingdom of Jerusalem in 1289[829].  He was installed as ruler of Tyre by his aunt Marguerite de Montfort in early 1291, but the city was abandoned to the Mameluks without a struggle in May 1291[830].  He declared his brother King Henri II too ill to rule 26 Apr 1306 and adopted the title "gubernator et rector" of the kingdom of Cyprus[831].  He was murdered by Simon of Montolif, a member of his household.  The Chronicle of Amadi records his murder by Simon de Montolif and his burial "a Santa Sophia"[832].  The Chronicle of Florio Bustron names his murderer "Symon de Montolipho, figliulo de Tomaso"[833]

m ([7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294], Papal dispensation 1293) ZABEL of Armenia, daughter of LEWON II King of Armenia & his wife Kerin [Kyr Anna] of Lampron ([12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277]-murdered Sis May 1323).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau, Ritta et Thefanon" as the three daughters of King Lewon II & his wife, stating that Isabelle married "Amauri le fis le roi Huge de Chipre"[834].  The Chronicle of Amadi names "sorella de Haeton re de Armenia…Isabella" as the wife of "Almerico…contestabile del reame de Hierusalem"[835].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Yzabeau la fille au roy Livon d'Ermenie" as the wife of "Amauri" son of Hugues III King of Cyprus[836].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II record "King Hetum's sister was married to the brother of the king of Cyprus, Sir Amari" in [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294][837].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[838].  She took refuge in Armenia after the assassination of her husband.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" ordered the murder of "dame Ysabel, suer du…roy Ossin" and the imprisonment of her children[839]

Lord Amaury & his wife had [seven] children.  The order of birth of these children is uncertain, although the following appears to be a reasonable reconstruction, as explained below. 

1.         AGNES [Annota/Marie] de Lusignan (-after 10 Oct 1309).  The sources are contradictory regarding the name of Amaury's daughter.  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugue, Henri, Gui et Jehan, et Marie" as the five children of Amaury, son of Hugues III King of Cyprus, & his wife[840].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife, stating that Agnes had neither husband nor children[841].  It is assumed that she was one of the older children, even though she was probably still a child at the time of her marriage.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She was crowned as Queen of Armenia 30 Jul 1306.  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children "Hugo, Beimonte et Lerion et una sua figliola…Annota" 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[842], indicating that Agnes must have returned to Cyprus after her husband was killed.  m ([1305/06] not consummated[843]) her first cousin, LEWON III King of Armenia, son of THOROS King of Armenia & his first wife Marguerite of Cyprus (-murdered 7 Nov 1307). 

2.         HUGUES de Lusignan (-in Armenia [1318/23]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugue, Henri, Gui et Jehan, et Marie" as the five children of Amaury, son of Hugues III King of Cyprus, & his wife[844].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife, stating that Agnes had neither husband nor children[845].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names (in order) "le premier…Hugues, le second Heinry, le tiers Guy qui puis fu roy d'Armenye, le quart Jehan qui fu prince et connestable du dit royaume et pere du roy Lyon le quint…et le quint filz Bemon"[846].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children "Hugo, Beimonte et Lerion et una sua figliola…Annota" 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[847].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "la dama de Sur con soi figlioli Huget il primogenito et doi altri" returned to Famagusta from Armenia to return hostages in 1310, leaving "li altri tre et la sua figlia" in Armenia[848].  There appears to be little doubt that Hugues was the oldest of his parents' sons.  Lord of Crusoche.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" ordered the murder of "dame Ysabel, suer du…roy Ossin" and the imprisonment of her children, of whom "messier Hugues" died in prison[849]m (1310 or before) as her second husband, ESCHIVA Ibelin Dame de Saint-Nicolas, widow of GAUTHIER de Dampierre-sur-Salon, daughter of PHILIPPE Ibelin, Constable of Cyprus & his wife Simonette de Montbéliard ([1270/75]-after 1324).  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "la contessa del Zapho et de Ascalona et dama de Rames, madama Maria de Iblim" and "le sue doe sorelle…madama Alisa moglie di messer Galtier de Bessan, dama de Colletta, et madama Eschiva, dama di S. Nicolò, moglie de messer Galtier Dampiere" were "retained at the royal court…and imprisoned in the house of the Lord of Tyre"[850].  Lady of Saint-Nicolas.  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "la dama de San Nicola, sorella del principe" (referring presumably to Balian Ibelin who had adopted the title Prince of Galilee) was the wife of "Hughet, figliuolo del signor de Sur", in 1310 from the context[851].  This marriage seems surprising, if it is correct, considering that Eschiva must have been about twenty years older than Hugues. 

3.         HENRI de Lusignan (-murdered in Armenia [1322/9 Apr 1323]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugue, Henri, Gui et Jehan, et Marie" as the five children of Amaury, son of Hugues III King of Cyprus, & his wife[852].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife[853].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names (in order) "le premier…Hugues, le second Heinry, le tiers Guy qui puis fu roy d'Armenye, le quart Jehan qui fu prince et connestable du dit royaume et pere du roy Lyon le quint…et le quint filz Bemon"[854].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" ordered the murder of "dame Ysabel, suer du…roy Ossin" and the imprisonment of her children, of whom "messier Henry" was poisoned in prison[855][856]Betrothed (1310) to ALIX Ibelin, daughter of GUY Ibelin & his wife Isabelle Ibelin ([1304/06]-after 6 Aug 1386), who later married Hugues of Cyprus, who succeeded in 1324 as Hugues IV King of Cyprus.  The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified.  After the family of Amaury was exiled to Armenia, this betrothal was terminated. 

4.         GUY de Lusignan (-murdered 17 Apr 1344, bur Adana, transferred to Tarsus[857]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugue, Henri, Gui et Jehan, et Marie" as the five children of Amaury, son of Hugues III King of Cyprus, & his wife[858].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife[859].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names (in order) "le premier…Hugues, le second Heinry, le tiers Guy qui puis fu roy d'Armenye, le quart Jehan qui fu prince et connestable du dit royaume et pere du roy Lyon le quint…et le quint filz Bemon"[860].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left two of her children "doi figlioli Janni et Jotin" in Cyprus when she left for Armenia in 1309 to consult her relations[861].  His accession in 1342 indicates that he must then have been his parents' oldest surviving son.  He was in Constantinople from 1317 until 1342[862].  The editor of Recueil des Historiens des Croisades identifies him with "Guy de Lenouzia" mentioned by Ioannes Kantakuzenos as Governor of Serrhes in Macedonia[863].  Strategos 1328-1329.  Titular Lord of Tyre 1336.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the death of King Lewon after appointing as his successor "[le] premier enfant malle de dame Isabel, seur du roy Ossin, son pere", clarifying in the next chapter that this was "messire Guy de Lissegnan, en Constantinoble"[864].  Having opposed the succession of Ioannes Kantakuzenos as Byzantine emperor, he returned to Cilician Armenia[865].  The Liste Rimée des Souverains de la Petite Arménie records that "et [Guy] frère de Jean" succeeded "le baron Jean, fils d'Isabelle sœur d'Oschin père de Léon" in Armenia, stating that "tous deux eurent un règne éphémère, car les troupes, se soulevant, les égorgèrent"[866].  He succeeded in 1342 and was crowned as KOSTANDIN II King of Armenia.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the coronation at Sis in Oct 1342 of "messire Guy de Lisegnan"[867].  He refused to pay the annual tribute to Egypt, which attacked Armenia in revenge[868].  Pope Clement VI promised his support, subject to the union of the Armenian with the Roman church to which the Armenian people were violently opposed.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that the Armenians killed "le roy Guy…et messire Bemon de Lisignan son frere" along with "tous les François qu'il avoit amenez avecques lui en Armenye"[869]m firstly ([1318]) --- Kantakuzene, daughter of --- (-[1330]).  Nicephoras Gregoras records the marriage of "defuncti imperatoris consobrinus Guido Armenius" and "Cantacuzeni consobrinam"[870]m secondly ([1330/32], Papal dispensation 12 Apr 1344) THEODORA Syrgiannaina, daughter of --- Syrgiannes Palaiologos Philanthropenos & his wife --- Palaiologina (-[30 Jun 1347/1349]).  Nicephoras Gregoras records the second marriage of "defuncti imperatoris consobrinus Guido Armenius" and "Syrgiannis filiam", after the death of his first wife, and states that the couple had children[871].  She was adopted by Empress Maria [Rita][872].  The retrospective dispensation issued by Pope Clement VI for the marriage of "Guy de Lusignan rex Armeniæ" and "Theodora Syrgianes" is dated 12 Apr 1344[873].  King Kostandin II & his second wife had [two or more] children:

a)         ZAMPEA [Isabelle] de Lusignan (1333-[1382/87], bur Mistra)Kantakuzenus records the betrothal of "imperatore, Manueli filio" and "Syrgem Ntelensuziam, imperatoris Andronici consobrinum, Cypriorum regis filium…filiam", in a passage dated to [1341], the same source recording in a later passage that "Syrgen" terminated the betrothal after learning of Manuel's betrothal in 1342 to "Liberi filiam"[874].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "madame Ysabel de Lisegnan, fille du…roy Guy d'Armenye", when recording that Pierre I King of Cyprus met her at "Moudon"[875].  She was known as MARIA or MARGARETA in Greece.  Referred to as "sole heir of the late Prince of Tyre" by her grandfather in the letter of Pope Clement VI dated 30 Jun 1347 addressed to the king of Cyprus which requested him to give her back her estates in Cyprus, which Rüdt-Collenberg highlights as proof of the illegitimacy of all other descendants of Amaury de Lusignan then living, including that of the future Lewon V King of Armenia[876]The Chronicle of Amadi records that "madama Margarita de Lusignan, nezza del signor de Sur et sorella del re Livon de Armenia, relitta del quondam Manoel Catacusino despotto della Morea" came to Cyprus in 1372[877]m (betrothed [1341], after 26 Feb 1349) MANUEL Palaiologos Kantakuzenos, son of Emperor IOANNES VI & his wife Eirene Asanina (-1380).  Governor of the Peloponese. 

b)         --- (-young before 1347).  The existence of one or more other children is confirmed by Nicephoras Gregoras who records the second marriage of "defuncti imperatoris consobrinus Guido Armenius" and "Syrgiannis filiam", after the death of his first wife, and states that the couple had children[878]

5.          JEAN de Lusignan (-Sis 7 Aug 1343, bur Sis).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugue, Henri, Gui et Jehan, et Marie" as the five children of Amaury, son of Hugues III King of Cyprus, & his wife[879].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife[880].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names (in order) "le premier…Hugues, le second Heinry, le tiers Guy qui puis fu roy d'Armenye, le quart Jehan qui fu prince et connestable du dit royaume et pere du roy Lyon le quint…et le quint filz Bemon"[881].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left two of her children "doi figlioli Janni et Jotin" in Cyprus when she left for Armenia in 1309 to consult her relations[882].  He went to Armenia in 1311.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" ordered the murder of "dame Ysabel, suer du…roy Ossin" and the imprisonment of her children, of whom "messier Jehan et messier Bemon" were expelled from Armenia and went to Rhodos where they stayed three years[883].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon recalled "ses cousins germains…messire Jehan de Lisignan…et messire Bemon son frere", after ordering the death of "le [baron] Ossin et son frere, baron Constant", stating that he installed Jean as constable of Armenia[884].  Constable of Armenia 1336.  Pope Benedict XII names "Johannis constabuli regni Armenie ac Bemundi de Lusignano comitis Curchensis fratrum devotio" in a letter dated 16 Apr 1336 addressed to Hugues IV King of Cyprus[885].  He was Regent of Armenia 1341-1342, adopting the name KOSTANDIN.  The Liste Rimée des Souverains de la Petite Arménie records that "le baron Jean, fils d'Isabelle sœur d'Oschin père de Léon" succeeded "Léon fils d'Oschin" in Armenia, stating that "tous deux eurent un règne éphémère, car les troupes, se soulevant, les égorgèrent"[886].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel clarifies his position, stating that after the death of King Lewon IV "messire Jehan de Lisignan, prince et connestable du royaume d'Armenye et pere du roy Lyon quint" was appointed to govern the kingdom, pending the return of "messire Guy de Lissegnan, en Constantinoble"[887].  He is referred to as Kostandin III King of Armenia[888], but it is possible that there is confusion with his brother Guy, who succeeded as Kostandin II King of Armenia (see above), the author attributing to Jean-Constantine the wives and daughter attributed above to Kostandin II.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the death "en la ville d'Oussis" 17 Aug 1344 of "le…baron messire Jehan de Lisegnan, prince et connestable d'Armenye"[889].  [m SOLDANA, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arranged the marriage of "messire Jehan de Lisignan" and "ma dame Soldanne, fille du roy de Georgenie"[890].  Rüdt-Collenberg  says that this is "a poor, pure and snobbish invention"[891].  A later passage in the same source states that she and her sons were imprisoned in poverty for eleven months "en l'isle de Coure" after the death of her husband, before escaping to Cyprus[892].]  Mistress (1): --- (-[1374/75]).  She was Armenian[893].  It is uncertain whether she was in fact that the same person as Soldana, Jean's alleged wife.  Jean de Lusignan had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1).  Their illegitimacy appears confirmed by the letter, dated 30 Jun 1347, from Pope Clement VI to the king of Cyprus requesting the king to return estates in Cyprus to their first cousin Zabel, daughter of Guy de Lusignan (Kostandin III King of Armenia), who the Pope describes as "sole heir of the late Prince of Tyre"[894].  

a)         BOHEMOND de Lusignan ([1338/39]-Venice 1363, bur Venice).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "messire Bemon, qui trepassa à Venise" as son of "le…baron messire Jehan de Lisegnan, prince et connestable d'Armenye" (naming him before his brother Leon, implying that he was the older son), recording that he died in 1363 while travelling to the Pope to request his coronation as king of Armenia and was buried there[895].  A later passage in the same source states that he and his brother were the sons of Jean and his wife "madame Soldane, la princesse" and that Bohémond was five years old and Leon two years old when their father died[896].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that Pierre I King of Cyprus sent "suo fratello, messer Zaco de Lusignan, et Beimonte de Lusignan" to represent him to request help for a crusade against the infidels, in 1363 from the context[897], which may refer to Bohémond son of Jean. 

b)         LEON de Lusignan ([1341/42]-Paris, palais des Tournelles, rue Saint-Antoine [23/29] Nov 1393, bur Paris, église des Célestins, monument in l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis[898])The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "messire Lyon de Lisegnan, à present roy d'Armenye…roy Lyon le quint" as son of "le…baron messire Jehan de Lisegnan, prince et connestable d'Armenye" (naming him after his brother Bohémond, implying that he was the younger son)[899].  A later passage in the same source states that he and his brother were the sons of Jean and his wife "madame Soldane, la princesse" and that Bohémond was five years old and Leon two years old when their father died[900]He succeeded as LEWON V King of Armenia from 1364 to 1365, and again from 1374 to 1375. 

-        see below

c)          --- .  Jacobite Patriarch at Cairo in 1396.  He is referred to as the "brother of Leo, the last king of Armenia", in the Voyage du Seigneur d'Anglure au Caire[901].  

6.         BOHEMOND de Lusignan (-murdered 17 Apr 1344)The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Hugo, Henrico, Beimundo, Joanne, Guido e Agnes" as the six children of "Almerico figliolo de re Hugo e de la regina Isabella" & his wife[902].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names (in order) "le premier…Hugues, le second Heinry, le tiers Guy qui puis fu roy d'Armenye, le quart Jehan qui fu prince et connestable du dit royaume et pere du roy Lyon le quint…et le quint filz Bemon"[903].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children "Hugo, Beimonte et Lerion et una sua figliola…Annota" 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[904].  He went to Armenia in 1311.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" ordered the murder of "dame Ysabel, suer du…roy Ossin" and the imprisonment of her children, of whom "messier Jehan et messier Bemon" were expelled from Armenia and went to Rhodos where they stayed three years[905].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon recalled "ses cousins germains…messire Jehan de Lisignan…et messire Bemon son frere", after ordering the death of "le [baron] Ossin et son frere, baron Constant", stating that he installed Bohémond as "conte de Coure"[906].  Lord of Korikos 1336.  Pope Benedict XII names "Johannis constabuli regni Armenie ac Bemundi de Lusignano comitis Curchensis fratrum devotio" in a letter dated 16 Apr 1336 addressed to Hugues IV King of Cyprus[907].  The order in which the brothers are named, and the office and title granted to them by King Lewon IV, suggest that Bohémond was younger than his brother Jean.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that the Armenians killed "le roy Guy…et messire Bemon de Lisignan son frere" along with "tous les François qu'il avoit amenez avecques lui en Armenye"[908]m (Papal dispensation 8 Oct 1340) as her first husband, EUPHEME of Neghir, daughter of BAUDOUIN Lord of Neghir Marshall of Armenia [Armenia-Hethumid] & Maroun of Barbaron (7 May 1325-Jerusalem after 1381).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arranged the marriage of "messire Bemon de Lisignan" and "la fille baron Baudoin, grant mareschal du royaume"[909].  The dispensation issued by Pope Benedict XII for the marriage of "Bohemond comes Curquensis" and "Euphemia filia quondam Balduini maresc. Armeniæ" is dated 8 Oct 1340[910].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "la vielle royne d'Armenye, la contesse, femme de nostre oncle le conte de Courch, messire Barthelemy, la bastart du dit conte, et baron du dit Vassil" as co-regents of Armenia in 1373[911].  She married secondly ([2/14] Sep 1374) Soherius of Sarto Count of Korikos (-after 1385).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the marriage of "madame Remye…qui femme avoit esté de messire Bemon conte de Courch" and "Sohier Doulcart, escuier" whom King Lewon V installed as marshal of the kingdom of Armenia[912]Mistress (1): ---, a cousin of his wife Eupheme of Neghir.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Bohémond de Lusignan had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

a)         BARTHELEMY de LusignanThe Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "la vielle royne d'Armenye, la contesse, femme de nostre oncle le conte de Courch, messire Barthelemy, la bastart du dit conte, et baron du dit Vassil" as co-regents of Armenia in 1373[913]

7.         [LEON .  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "dama Isabella dama de Sur, sorella del re de Armenia" left for Armenia with four of her children "Hugo, Beimonte et Lerion et una sua figliola…Annota" 10 Oct, in 1309 from the context, to consult her relations[914].  As Henri is not named in this passage, either as one of Isabelle's sons whom she took with her or left in Cyprus, it is probable that "Lerion" in the passage is an error for Henri.] 

 

 

LEON de Lusignan, illegitimate son of JEAN de Lusignan, regent of Armenia & his mistress --- ([1341/42]-Paris, palais des Tournelles, rue Saint-Antoine [23/29] Nov 1393, bur Paris, église des Célestins, monument in l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis[915]).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "messire Lyon de Lisegnan, à present roy d'Armenye…roy Lyon le quint" as son of "le…baron messire Jehan de Lisegnan, prince et connestable d'Armenye" (naming him after his brother Bohémond, implying that he was the younger son)[916].  A later passage in the same source states that he and his brother were the sons of Jean and his wife "madame Soldane, la princesse" and that Bohémond was five years old and Leon two years old when their father died[917].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "madame Ysabel de Lisegnan, fille du…roy Guy d'Armenye" wished to arrange the marriage of "Quirmauro, seigneur de l'Acadye…sa fille…Katherine" and "messire Lyon, qui estoit en Cyppre" (the future Lewon V King of Armenia)[918].  After a three year interregnum following the death of King Kostandin III in 1362, Leon de Lusignan imposed himself as LEWON V King of Armenia in 1364 with support from Pope Urban V[919], but was expelled in 1365[920].  The Liste Rimée des Souverains de la Petite Arménie records that "en dernier lieu Léon ce roi infortuné qui, au bout de onze mois, perdit la couronne et le trône" succeeded "un certain Constantin de la famille de Léon" in Armenia[921].  Seneschal of Jerusalem 1372.  Queen Marie of Armenia, regent of Armenia after the death of her husband Kostandin IV, was instrumental in calling for Leon de Lusignan to the throne in the hope that a Catholic monarch would be more successful in attracting western support to fight the Egyptians.  He was chosen in 1374 as LEWON V King of Armenia.  When news of this choice reached Cyprus, both Queen Eléonore and the Genoans did all in their power to prevent his embarking for Armenia, even forbidding him from landing at Korikos (which was owned by Cyprus).  After eventually reaching Sis, he was crowned by a Catholic monk claiming to be Bishop of Hebron.  Quickly antagonising the Armenian population by his preference for Latins, he surrendered to the Egyptians after 8 months of siege, was effectively deposed 15 Apr 1375, and was taken in captivity to Cairo where he and his family were well treated.  He was eventually freed in Oct 1382 on payment of a ransom by Juan I King of Castile.  Ayala´s Crónica de Juan I records that in 1380 King Juan received letters “del Rey de Armenia...captivo é preso en poder del Soldan de Babilonia” and sent presents to the sultan to obtain his release[922]Refused entry to Cyprus, he landed at Rhodos, from where he made his way in turn to Venice, the Pope at Avignon, the court of Pedro IV King of Aragon, and finally to the court of Juan I King of Castile who created him Señor de Madrid, Villareal y Andujar.  According to the chronicle of Jean Dardel, ex-King Lewon attended the 1383 wedding of King Juan I with Infanta dona Brites de Portugal, and afterwards made the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela[923]Ayala´s Crónica de Juan I records that “el Rey de Armenia...Leon V” visited King Juan I at Badajoz in 1383 and was granted “en toda su vida la villa de Madrid, é la de Villareal, é la de Andujar[924]"Leon…rey de Armenia e señor de Madrid, de Villareal e Andujar" granted privileges to the inhabitants of Madrid by charter dated 19 Oct 1389[925].  He finally settled in Paris where Charles VI King of France granted him the château de Saint-Ouen.  He commissioned the Franciscan canon Jean Dardel to compose a detailed chronicle of his misfortunes[926].  The testament of "prince Léon…roy d'Arménie" dated 20 Jul 1392 requests his burial "en l'eglise des religieux des Celestins de Paris" and makes a bequest to "Guyot son fils bastard et non légitime" specifying that he was under 20 years old at the time[927]

m (May 1369) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Soissons, widow of HONFROY de Scandelion, daughter of JEAN de Soissons & his wife Marie de Milmars (-Cairo [1379/before 4 Jul 1381], bur Cairo, church of St Martin[928]).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the marriage in May 1369 of Lewon and "une dame de Cyppre vesve…dame Margueritte de Soissons, fille de monseigneur Jehan de Soissons, baron de Chipre"[929].  The Liste Rimée des Souverains de la Petite Arménie names "la reine Morou" as wife of "Léon ce roi infortuné…", stating that she left for Palestine where she died in Jerusalem[930]

King Lewon V & his wife had one child:

1.         MARIE de Lusignan (Aug 1374-Cairo [1379/4 Jul 1381]).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "Marie" as the daughter of King Lewon & his wife, recording that she and her mother were still alive in prison in Cairo when the chronicler left for Europe[931]

King Lewon V had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

2.          GUIDO de Armenia (after 1372-after 1405).  The testament of "prince Léon…roy d'Arménie" dated 20 Jul 1392 makes a bequest to "Guyot son fils bastard et non légitime" specifying that he was under 20 years old at the time[932]Canon in Paris 1396.  Canon at Autun 1398.  Canon at Bayeux 1404. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    OTHER LORDS in ARMENIA (CILICIAN ARMENIA)

 

 

 

A.      LORDS of BARBARON

 

 

SMBAT, son of HETHUM [II] Lord of Lampron & his wife --- (-killed in battle Mopsuestis [12 Feb 1151/11 Feb 1152], bur Melidje).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites Alishan, who states that Smbat was his father's second son, that he married before his father's death, was killed at Mopsuestis, and buried at Melidje, but he does not cite the primary source on which this is based[933]Lord of Barbaron.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "le baron Sempad, seigneur de Babaron, le baron Vasil, seigneur de Partzerpert, le baron Derin et le baron Tigrane" were killed at "Mecis" in [12 Feb 1151/11 Feb 1152][934].  The Chronicle of Sempad records his death "before the gate of Mecis"[935]

m (before 1147) ---.  The name of Smbat's wife is not known. 

Lord Smbat & his wife had four children:

1.         PAGURAN (-after 17 Dec 1201, bur Melidje).  He is named as brother of Rita in the Chronicle of Sempad[936].  The Chronique Rimée de la Petite Arménie of Vahram of Edessa records that "les fils de Sdephanê" were brought up by "Paguran"[937].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Barbaron.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rupin et Leon" as the two sons of "Stephane", stating that they had been brought up by "leur oncle Paguran seigneur de Baberon"[938]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Paperon, Bakuran, the prince of Askuras, Vasak…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][939]m TAKUHI Saven Pahlavouni, daughter of SHAHAN [Zoravark] & his wife --- (-after 1194).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

2.         VACAHK (-after 1198).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "Vaçag frère de Pagouran, et seigneur de la forteresse d'Asgouras et de Lamos"[940]Lord of Askuras.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Paperon, Bakuran, the prince of Askuras, Vasak…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][941]m ---.  The name of Vacaghk's wife is not known.  Vacaghk & his wife had four children: 

a)         KOSTANDIN ([1180]-[15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "Constantin, fils de Vaçag, oncle maternel du roi" rescued the king's first wife from his anger in [29 Jan 1205/28 Jan 1206][942].  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Constantin le Connétable…le fils de l'oncle de Leon et seigneur de Partzerpert et de Baberon" was appointed "baile" after the death of "Adam le seigneur de Menyan"[943].  He succeeded as Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert.   

-        see below

b)         SMBAT (-after 1199).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites sources which confirm Smbat's parentage[944]Lord of Saravantikar

-        LORDS of SARAVANTIKAR

3.         HALGAM.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon King of Armenia sent "l'archevêque de Tarse, Nersès de Lampron fis d'Oschin, Halgam frère de Pagouran et oncle maternel de Léon et…le baron Paul" as his ambassadors to Constantinople in [31 Jan 1197/30 Jan 1198][945].  Lord of Manioun.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Manion, Lamos, Zhermanik and Anamur, Halkam…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][946]

4.         RITA (-[1210]).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that names "fille de Sempad, seigneur de Babaron et sœur de Pagouran…Ritha" as wife of "Sdephanê"[947].  She succeeded in 1205 as Lady of Lampron.  m ([1143/44]) STEPANE, son of LEWON I Lord of the Mountains [Rupen] & his wife Béatrice de Rethel (before 1110-murdered 7 Feb 1165, bur Arkagaghine). 

 

 

1.         --- .  A relative of King Hethum married Robert Mansel, as his son Simon Mansel is described as "consanguineus" of Smbat, brother of King Hethum[948].  Rüdt-Collenberg suggests that she was the daughter of Vacahk (see above), whose son Kostandin Lord of Barbaron was the father of King Hethum and Smbat[949]m ROBERT Mansel, son of --- [Mansel] & his wife [Sibylle ---] (-after 1217).  Constable of Antioch.  He was in Armenia between 1201 and 1217[950]

 

 

KOSTANDIN, son of VACAGHK Lord of Barbaron & his wife --- ([1180]-[15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "Constantin, fils de Vaçag, oncle maternel du roi" rescued the king's first wife from his anger in [29 Jan 1205/28 Jan 1206][951].  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Constantin le Connétable…le fils de l'oncle de Leon et seigneur de Partzerpert et de Baberon" was appointed "baile" after the death of "Adam le seigneur de Menyan"[952].  He succeeded as Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert. Known as "The Grand Baron".  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Sultan Kakauz" besieged "Kapan fortress" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217] and captured "the prince of the Armenians, Kostandin the Constable…the senior paron and Kostandin, son of the lord of Lambron, and Kyr Sahak lord of Maghvay, and others", and that in [26 Jan 1218/25 Jan 1219] "king Lewon gave the sultan the fortresses of Loulon and Lauzada as the prince for freeing his imprisoned princes"[953].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Vahram, marshal of the Armenians and other princes wanted to enthrone the Armenian prince Ruben" in [26 Jan 1220/24 Jan 1221] but that "Kostandin bailli of the Armenians defeated them near Sis" and "seized prince Ruben and the other princes and took them to Tarsus"[954].  Regent of Armenia.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "the Armenian king's father, Kostandin the senior paron" died in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263][955]

m firstly ---.  Kostandin's first marriage, by which he was the father of his oldest daughter Stephanie, is confirmed by the source from which her parentage is deduced, combined with the inscription which names his children by his wife named Alix (see below).    

m secondly ([1205]) ALIX of Lampron, daughter of HETHUM [III] Lord of Lampron [Hethum] & his wife Rita of Armenia (-[1220]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Rüdt-Collenberg cites an inscription at Kilissi Kalaa which confirms that she was the mother of Oshin, Basil, Sempad, Leo, Emeline, Marguerite, Hethum and Maria[956].  

m thirdly ([1220]) BIATR, daughter of ---.  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of her son Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[957]

m fourthly ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

Lord Kostandin & his [first] wife had one child:

1.         STEPHANIE ([1200/05]-before 1274).  Her parentage and marriage are suggested by the Chronicle of Sempad which names "…Oshin son of the sister of King Hethum I…" among those sent to Egypt as hostages in 1268[958], although this provides no indication of the identify of Stephanie's mother.  She is named Stephanie (deceased) in the Tetraevangelium of her son Oshin, dated to 1274[959]m (1220) KOSTANDIN Lord of Lampron, son of HETHUM III Lord of Lampron & his second wife --- ([1180]-1250).

Lord Kostandin & his second wife had eight children:

2.         SMBAT (-1275, bur Melidje)Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "the great prince Kostadin…established his eldest son Smbat as general"[960].  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[961]Lord of Barbaron.  Constable.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Hetum sent his brother Smbat Constable to Guyuk-Khan" in [20 Jan 1245/19 Jan 1246][962]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the Armenian king held a general levee with his brothers Smbat…lord of Paperon, Smbataklay, Astaros, Farxni, Papatul, Sik and Murandin, and Oshin lord of…Kurikos, Mitizon, Manion, Kanch" in [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264] before travelling to "the Gate of Antioch…awaiting the infidels"[963].  He is thought to have been "Smbat Sparapet", author of the Chronicle which is usually referred to by his name, although references to him in the document are in the third not the first person.  m firstly THEOPHANO, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly ([1247/48]) BKHATAKHAVOR Kathun, relative of BATU Khan.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Lord Smbat & his [first] wife had [four] children:

a)         HETHUM (-15 Jul 1269, bur Melidje).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage, and his burial at Melidje[964].  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the two sons of Smbat sparapet of the Armenians, Hetum and Vasil who was nicknamed Tatar were seated on horses" (knighting ceremony) in [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264] at the baptism of Kostandin, son of Lewon Prince of Armenia[965].  It is assumed that the brothers were of similar age for this ceremony to have taken place at the same time for both of them and that therefore they were both born from the same mother.  It is chronologically more probable that they were their father's sons by his second marriage.  The nickname applied in this source to the second named son Vasil certainly implies that his mother may have been of Mongol origin.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Hetum the son of the sparapet of the Armenians" died 15 Jul in [13 Jan 1269/12 Jan 1270] and was buried in "Mlich"[966]

b)         KOSTANDIN (-1267, bur Melidje).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage and his burial at Melidje[967].  

c)         LEWON (-after 1296).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[968].  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "they sent the sparapet's son Lewon…to Abagha-Khan" in [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269] to negotiate the release of his brother Vasil from captivity[969]Lord of Barbaronm ---.  Lord Lewon & his wife had two children:

i)          SMBAT (-after 1320).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[970].  Lord of Barbaron and Sempad'gla. 

ii)         MARIE [Maroun] (-27 Aug 1352, bur Anazarbe, St Mary[971]).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms her parentage and marriage[972].  m BAUDOUIN Lord of Neghir and Partzerpert, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Neghir and Pertzerpert & his wife [Isabelle] of Cyprus (-murdered Aleppo 12 Dec 1336, bur Tarsus, Church of Holy Apostles). 

d)         OSHIN (-1307).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[973].  Seneschal.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Oshin the seneschal, son of paron Smbat Constable, and paron Oshin Bakureants who was the court aspasalar" were the leaders of a conspiracy in [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297][974].  Seneschal Oshin was killed at the fortress of Anazerbe with Hethum and King Lewon III by Poularghou-nouïn, visiting Mongol dignitary, who seized power in Armenian Cilicia[975]

Lord Smbat & his [second] wife had [two] children:

e)         VASIL ([before 1251]-Tarsus 29 Sep 1269, bur Melidje).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the two sons of Smbat sparapet of the Armenians, Hetum and Vasil who was nicknamed Tatar were seated on horses" (knighting ceremony) in [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264] at the baptism of Kostandin, son of Lewon Prince of Armenia[976].  It is assumed that the brothers were of similar age for this ceremony to have taken place at the same time for both of them and that therefore they were both born from the same mother.  It is chronologically more probable that they were their father's sons by his second marriage.  The nickname applied in this source to the second named son Vasil certainly implies that his mother may have been of Mongol origin.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the son of sparapet of the Armenians Smbat, Vasil nicknamed Tatar" was captured in battle with Lewon Prince of Armenia in [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267] and taken to Egypt[977].  The same source records that "they sent the sparapet's son Lewon…to Abagha-Khan" in [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269] to negotiate the release of his brother Vasil from captivity[978]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Vasil the other son of Smbat sparapet" died in Tarsus 29 Sep in [13 Jan 1269/12 Jan 1270] and was buried in "Mlich"[979]

f)          daughter (-after 1264).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes source which confirms her parentage and marriage[980].  m VAHRAN Lord of Harmonss and Thil

3.         HETHUM (1215-28 Oct 1270, bur Trazarg).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[981].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Hetum…son of Kostandin senior paron of the Armenians" succeeded to the Armenian throne in [24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226][982].  His origin, and his marriage, are confirmed by the charter dated 22 Jan 1236 under which "Eython…rex Armenie filius Constantini stirpis regie et Ehelisabeth regina…filia…Leonis regis" granted properties to the Teutonic Knights[983].  He succeeded in 1226 on his marriage as HETHUM I King of Armenia.  In 1236 he gave the Teutonic Knights the fief of Haronia, which remained the Order's main territorial grouping outside Palestine until well into the 14th century[984]m as her second husband, ZABEL Queen of Armenia, widow of PHILIPPE of Antioch, daughter of LEWON I King of Armenia & his second wife Sibylle de Lusignan ([1216]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg).  Her origin and second marriage, are confirmed by the charter dated 22 Jan 1236 under which "Eython…rex Armenie filius Constantini stirpis regie et Ehelisabeth regina…filia…Leonis regis" granted properties to the Teutonic Knights[985]

-        KINGS of ARMENIA.   

4.         OSHIN (-25 Dec 1265, bur Sis).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[986].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Oshin…brother of the Armenian king and the lord of Korikos" died "Friday 25 Dec" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266][987]Lord of Korikos

-        LORDS of KORIKOS

5.         BASIL [Barseghk] (-1275, bur Trazarg).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[988].  Archbishop of Sis. 

6.         LEWON (-Adana [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259], bur Melidje).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[989].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the death of "paron Lewon, the marshal and brother of the Armenian king" in [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259][990]

7.         KALAMARIA of Barbaron (-Lampron [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264], bur Sgebra).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[991].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre" and record that the daughters "dou baill" were married "…l'autre a Johan de Ybelin…conte de Japhe"[992].  Another manuscript of the Lignages clarifies that she was "Marie, la fille Constans, le baill de Ermenie et seur dou roy Heiton"[993]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the countess of Jaffa Keramar, sister of King Hetum, who had come out of sadness for her father Kostandin…died in the fortress of Lambron" and was buried in "Skewra" in [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264][994]m ([1237]) JEAN Ibelin, son of PHILIPPE Ibelin Regent of Cyprus & his second wife Alice de Montbéliard ([1210/15]-Nicosia Dec 1266, bur Nicosia, Dominican Church). 

8.         STEPHANIE [Emeline] (1217-[1 Apr/Sep 1249]).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[995].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that King Henri married "Estefenie la suer de Heyton le roi d'Ermenie et la fist coroner a reine"[996].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre" and record that the daughters "dou baill" were married "l'une au rei Henri de Chipre…"[997]m (before 17 Nov 1237) as his second wife, HENRI I King of Cyprus, son of HUGUES I King of Cyprus & his wife Alix of Jerusalem Ctss of Jaffa (3 Mar 1217-18 Jan 1253). 

9.         HRIPSIMEH [Marguerite] (-before 1241).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[998]

Lord Kostandin & his third wife had two children:

10.      YOVHANES (-1289).  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "king Hetum…his brother Lord Yovhannes the bishop" was ordained as katoghikos in [16 Jan 1259/15 Jan 1260][999].  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[1000].  Bishop of Mavleon.  Archbishop of Sis. 

11.      VACAHK [Basil] (-1285).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[1001]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king…sent as a hostage Oshin, his own sister's son, the son of his brother Hetum, Raymond, and the son of Kostandin the king's father, Vasak lord of Chancho" to secure the release of his son Lewon from captivity in Egypt in [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269][1002].  Lord of Gantschi.  m ---.  The name of Vacaghk's wife is not known.  Vacaghk & his wife had two children: 

a)         HETHUM ([1260]-).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[1003].  

b)         KOSTANDIN ([1260]-[1300]).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[1004].  

Lord Kostandin & his [third/fourth] wife had three children:

12.      LICOS (-killed in battle Mari 1266, bur Melidje).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites primary sources which confirm his parentage[1005].  Seneschal.  Rüdt-Collenberg cites the Chronicle of Bar Hebræus which records that one son of Kostandin was killed in battle at Mari and buried at Melidje, commenting that this must refer to Licos as the dates of death of all Kostandin's other known sons are known[1006]m ([1240/45] AGATHA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Licos & his wife had four children: 

a)         LEWON ([1245]-).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[1007].  

b)         3 daughters .  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms their parentage[1008].  

13.      daughter .  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a source which confirms that two daughters of Kostandin were staying with their father in 1256, commenting that two of his known daughters had died by that date and a third was married in Palestine, which leaves his oldest daughter Stephanie and a fifth daughter who is otherwise unrecorded[1009].  [Rüdt-Collenberg cites sources which state that Simon Mansel was uncle of King Leo II, suggesting that his wife was the unnamed fifth daughter of Kostandin[1010]m SIMON Mansel Constable of Antioch, son of ROBERT Mansel & his wife --- of Barbaron (-after 1268).  He attempted unsuccessfully to defend Antioch against the attack by the Mameluks in May 1268, was captured but was released and retired to Armenia[1011].] 

14.      KOSTANDIN (-1308).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a Colophon of his son dated 1319 "Baudouinus filius Constantini principis Negrini et nepos Constantini magnis baronis, ex regali familia proximus principis nostri Ausini"[1012].  Lord of Neghir and Pertzerpert.   

-        KINGS of ARMENIA 1344-1373

 

 

The following family sub-group must have been closely related to Kostandin Lord of Barbaron, father of Hethum I King of Armenia, but the precise relationship has not yet been established.  It is possible that they are the widow and children of Kostandin's son Lewon Marshal of Armenia, whose death is recorded in 1258 but no record of whose wife and children has yet been found. 

1.         --- .  m SHAHANTUKD, daughter of --- (-after 1262).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Kostandin the king's father…sent [him] home to his brothers and his mother lady Shahanduxt with generous awards and gifts" after her son Smbat fought bravely at "Selewkia" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263][1013].  Three children: 

a)         BAKURAN (-after 1262).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "Smbat, Bakuran's and Kostandin's brother" when recording Smbat's fighting at "Selewkia" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263][1014]

b)         KOSTANDIN (-after 1262).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "Smbat, Bakuran's and Kostandin's brother" when recording Smbat's fighting at "Selewkia" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263][1015]

c)         SMBAT ([1245/50]-after 1262).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Smbat, Bakuran's and Kostandin's brother, who was of Byzantine nationality and still a boy, and who was related to King Hetum on his father's side" fought bravely at "Selewkia" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263], stating the "Kostandin the king's father…sent [him] home to his brothers and his mother lady Shahanduxt with generous awards and gifts"[1016]

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of BERDUS

 

 

1.         LEWONLord of BerdusSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "the princes of Berdus, Lewon and Grigor" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1017]m ---.  The name of Lewon's wife is not known.  Lewon & his wife had one child: 

a)         GRIGOR (-[29 Jan 1208/27 Jan 1209] or after).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "the princes of Berdus, Lewon and Grigor" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1018]Lord of Berdus.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Xosrov-Shah the sultan of Iconium and son of Kilij Arslan took Berdous from the Armenians and seized its lord, Grigor, Lewon's son" in [29 Jan 1208/27 Jan 1209][1019]

 

 

 

C.      LORDS of BIREJK

 

 

1.         VASAHKm ---.  Vasahk & his wife had two children: 

a)         ABELGHARIB (-after [1117/18]).  Matthew of Edessa names "le chef arménien Abelgharib, frère de Ligos et fils de Vaçag" against whom Baudouin Count of Edessa marched in [20 Feb 1117/19 Feb 1118], commenting that the two brothers had conquered many places from the Persians, and that Abelgharib was forced to transfer "Bir et le territoire qui en depend à Waléran prince frank"[1020].  One child: 

i)          daughter .  Runciman states that Waleran married the daughter of Abu'lgharib after capturing Birejik in 1116[1021], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m ([1116]) GALERAN du Puiset, son of HUGUES [I] du Puiset “Blavons” & his wife Alix de Montlhéry (-in prison [1123/26]).  Baudouin II Count of Edessa gave him Birejik in 1116 after capturing it from Abelgharib[1022].  He was captured by Turks in 1122. 

b)         LIGOS .  Matthew of Edessa names "le chef arménien Abelgharib, frère de Ligos et fils de Vaçag" against whom Baudouin Count of Edessa marched in [20 Feb 1117/19 Feb 1118], commenting that the two brothers had conquered many places from the Persians, and that Abelgharib was forced to transfer "Bir et le territoire qui en depend à Waléran prince frank"[1023]

 

 

 

D.      LORDS of HAMUS

 

 

1.         VAHRAM (-killed Sis [1270/71])Lord of Hamusm as her first husband, MARIE Ibelin, daughter of JEAN Ibelin Count of Jaffa & his wife Maria of Barbaron [Armenia-Hethum] ([1250/55]-after 1298).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Marguerite, Ysabeau et Marie" as the three daughters of "Johan conte de Japhe & his wife", stating that Marie married "baron Vahram, le sire dou Hamous"[1024].  She married secondly (Papal dispensation 10 Oct 1298) Grigor Ladif, son of [Vahran Ladif & his wife ---] (-after 1298).  Vahram & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARIE of Hamus ([1269/70]-before 1295).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Marie, la fille baron Vaheram" as the first wife of "Phelippe, l'autre fis de Gui de Ybelin conestable de Chipre"[1025]m ([1280]) as his first wife, PHILIPPE Ibelin, son of GUY Ibelin, Constable of Cyprus & his wife Philippa Barlais ([1250/55]-25 Nov 1318, bur Nicosia, Franciscan Church).  He was appointed Seneschal of Cyprus in 1302. 

 

 

 

E.      LORDS of KORIKOS

 

 

1.         BARRIGAN (-after May 1134).  "…Barrigan Corizii dominus…" subscribed a charter dated May 1134 under which "Gozelillus magni Gozelini filius comes Edessanus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[1026].  It is possible that "Corizii" refers to Korikos. 

 

2.         THIBAUT (-after 2 Jan 1135).  "…Theobaldus de Corizo…" subscribed a charter dated 2 Jan 1135 under which "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" (in Antioch/Laodicea) donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[1027].  It is possible that "Corizo" was Korikos. 

 

3.         SIMON (-after [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199]).  Lord of KorikosSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Kurikos, Simon…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1028]

 

4.         GAUFFRIDUS (-before 1215).  Lord of Korikosm ---.  The name of Gauffredus's wife is not known.  Gauffridus & his wife had two children: 

a)         VAHRAM (-executed 1222).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Korikos.  Marshal ("marajaxan") of Armenia.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Vahram, marshal of the Armenians and other princes wanted to enthrone the Armenian prince Ruben" in [26 Jan 1220/24 Jan 1221] but that "Kostandin bailli of the Armenians defeated them near Sis" and "seized prince Ruben and the other princes and took them to Tarsus"[1029]m firstly EUPHEMIA, daughter of MIKHAEL Lord of Pertag & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly (1220) as his third wife, ALIX of Armenia, widow firstly of HETHUM [Vasil] of Sassoun Lord of Missis and secondly of RAYMOND of Antioch, daughter of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupenid] & his wife Isabelle of Toron (1182-after 1234).  The Lignages d'Outremer record that, after the appointment of "Constantin le Connétable" as "baile", "le prince Rupin quitta Antioche et partit pour Korykos" with his mother whom he married to "Vahram le maréchal" who repudiated his legitimate wife and sent her "chez son frère Léon, seigneur de Berdak et de Mawxrot"[1030].  She was exiled, her son put in prison, and her third husband murdered on the orders of the regent Kostandin Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid][1031].  Vahran & his first wife had one child: 

i)          MARIE (-before Feb 1207).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1195/1200]) as his first wife, PHILIPPE Ibelin Bailiff of Cyprus, son of BALIAN Ibelin & his wife Maria Komnene ([1180]-Cyprus end 1227). 

b)         JOSCELIN (-1219 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Chamberlain.  Armenian ambassador to Hungary 1217-1219. 

 

 

OSHIN, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid] & his second wife Alix of Lampron [Armenia-Hethumid] (-25 Dec 1265, bur Sis).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites a colophon of Yovhanes the bishop which names "Beatrice (mother), and Sempad, Hethum, Oshin, Basil, Leo, Vacaghk, Kalamarie, Stephanie and Hripsimeh, virgin (brothers and sisters), Philipp and Mariam Ibelin (children of Kalamarie)"[1032]Lord of KorikosSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the Armenian king held a general levee with his brothers Smbat…lord of Paperon, Smbataklay, Astaros, Farxni, Papatul, Sik and Murandin, and Oshin lord of…Kurikos, Mitizon, Manion, Kanch" in [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264] before travelling to "the Gate of Antioch…awaiting the infidels", but that "Oshin brother of King Hetum and lord of Kurikos" died 26 Dec and was buried at Sis "near the tomb of his father"[1033].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Oshin…brother of the Armenian king and the lord of Korikos" died "Friday 25 Dec" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266][1034]

m ALIX, daughter of [KOSTANDIN Lord of Lampron & his wife Stephanie of Barbaron].  Her parentage is indicated by the children of Oshin of Korikos being described as nephews of Oshin the Marshal[1035].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

Lord Oshin & his wife had three children:

1.         GRIGOR [Thoros] (-after 1280).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms that he was the son of Oshin and brother of Hethum[1036].  Lord of Korikos

2.         HETHUM (-[1294]).  He succeeded his brother as Lord of Korikos.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II record "Hetum lord of Kurikos and his brother Oshin lord of Kanch" were among the leaders of a conspiracy against King Hethum in [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294][1037].  The Chronicle attributed to Hethum II King of Armenia records the death in 1294 of "paron Hetum lord of Kurikos and his brother paron Oshin"[1038]m ([1285]) ISABELLE Ibelin, daughter of GUY Ibelin & his second wife Maria of Armenia ([1270]-before 1306).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Thoros et Ysabeau" as the two children of "Gui, le fis Bauduin de Ybelin, seneschal de Chipre" & his wife, stating that Isabelle married "Heiton le sire dou Coure"[1039].  Lord Hethum & his wife had six children:

a)         ZABEL (-3 Apr 1310).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [3 Jan 1310/1 Jan 1311] of "la reine Isabelle…en donnant au roi Oschin un fils…Léon"[1040]m as his first wife, OSHIN King of Armenia, son of LEWON II King of Armenia & his wife Kyr Anna [Theophano] of Lampron (1282-murdered 20 Jul 1320, bur Trazarg). 

b)         OSHIN of Korikos (-murdered 26 Feb 1329).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Oissim, Costans, Levon et Bauduin, et Rita" as the five children of "Heiton le sire dou Coure" & his wife[1041]Lord of Korikos

-        see below

c)         KOSTANDIN (-murdered 1329).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Oissim, Costans, Levon et Bauduin, et Rita" as the five children of "Heiton le sire dou Coure" & his wife[1042].  Lord of Lampron.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "le comte de Gorigos et le frère de ce dernier" were arrested and killed in [29 Dec 1328/28 Dec 1329][1043].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arrrested "Ossin et son frere, baron Constant" and had them killed[1044]

d)         LEWON (-after 1325).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Oissim, Costans, Levon et Bauduin, et Rita" as the five children of "Heiton le sire dou Coure" & his wife[1045]

e)         BAUDOUIN (-after 1330).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Oissim, Costans, Levon et Bauduin, et Rita" as the five children of "Heiton le sire dou Coure" & his wife[1046].  Lord of Simon'gla. 

f)          GUY (-1320).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Gantschi. 

g)         RITA .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Oissim, Costans, Levon et Bauduin, et Rita" as the five children of "Heiton le sire dou Coure" & his wife[1047]

3.         OSHIN (-[7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295]).  Lord of Gobidar and Gantschi.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II record "Hetum lord of Kurikos and his brother Oshin lord of Kanch" were among the leaders of a conspiracy against King Hethum in [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294][1048].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Hetum lord of Kurikos and his brother paron Oshin" died in [7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295][1049]

 

 

1.         HETHUM "the Historian" (-[before 1316] or 1320).  Rüdt-Collenberg identifies him with Hethum Lord of Korikos[1050], but as noted above the death of the latter is recorded in [1294].  He was expelled from Armenia by King Hethum II, and sought refuge in Cyprus where he became a supporter of Amaury Regent of Cyprus[1051].  He became a Praemonstratensian monk in the convent of the Epiphany on Cyprus in 1305.  He visited Pope Clement V at Avignon in 1306, and was commissioned to write his history of the oriental kingdoms.  He retired to a monastery of his order at Poitiers, presenting the Pope with his work in 1307[1052].  He published his Flos Historiarum Terre Orientis in 1307, written while he sent as ambassador to the Pope, expressing his ideas for a potential Christian revival in the Near East[1053].  He returned to Armenia and plotted the capture of Henri II King of Cyprus with Oshin King of Armenia[1054]

 

 

OSHIN of Korikos, son of HETHUM "the Historian" Lord of Korikos [Armenia-Hethum] & his wife Isabelle Ibelin (-murdered 26 Feb 1329).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Oissim, Costans, Levon et Bauduin, et Rita" as the five children of "Heiton le sire dou Coure" & his wife[1055]Lord of Korikos.  Regent of Lewon IV King of Armenia 1320.  He forced the new king's mother to marry him as his second wife.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "le comte de Gorigos et le frère de ce dernier" were arrested and killed in [29 Dec 1328/28 Dec 1329][1056].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arrrested "Ossin et son frere, baron Constant" and had them killed[1057]

m firstly ---.  This first marriage is confirmed because Oshin was described as "viduus" in the Papal dispensation for his second marriage to Marguerite Ibelin (see below). 

m secondly ([1308], Papal dispensation 22 Jun 1311) MARGUERITE Ibelin, daughter of BALIAN Ibelin, Seneschal of Cyprus & his wife Alice of Lampron [Armenia-Hethum] ([1290]-before 1320).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Gui, Marie, Ysabeau et Marguerite" as the four children of Balian son of "Gui l'autre fis Johan de Ybelin…conestable de Chipre" & his wife[1058].  The dispensation issued by Pope Clement V for the marriage of "Oshin de Korikos filius Hethonis, viduus" and "Marguerite Ibelin domicella de Cipro" is dated 22 Jun 1311[1059]

m thirdly (1320) as her second husband, JEANNE di Tarento, widow of OSHIN King of Armenia, daughter of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Thamar Angelina Komnene Dukaina of Epirus (-Mar 1323).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage in [2 Jan 1316/31 Dec 1316] of King Oshin and "la fille de [Philippe de Tarente], frère de Robert roi de Sicile"[1060].  She adopted the name EIRENE.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "le…baron Ossin" married "Jehanne de Naples" after the death of her first husband[1061]

Lord Oshin & his first wife had two children:

1.         ALIX (-murdered 1329).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the marriage in [31 Dec 1320/30 Dec 1321] of "le jeune fils d'Oschin, Léon" and "la fille d'Oschin comte de Gorigos, baile d'Arménie"[1062].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records the marriage of "le…baron Ossin…sa fille…Aalips" and "[le] roy Lyon le quart"[1063].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon killed "sa femme, dame Aaleps" when he reached the age of majority "pour la deshonneste vie qu'elle menoit"[1064]m (Papal Dispensation 10 Aug 1321) as his first wife, her first cousin, LEWON IV King of Armenia, son of OSHIN King of Armenia & his first wife Zabel of Korikos (before 4 Sep 1309-28 Aug 1341). 

2.         HETHUM (-1325).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [30 Dec 1324/28 Dec 1325] of "le jeune baron Héthoum [fils du] baron Oschin comte de Gorigos"[1065]

Lord Oshin & his second wife had two children:

3.         MARIE (1321-before 1405).  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "Marie" as the daughter of "le…baron Ossin" and his wife "Jehanne de Naples", stating that she married "[le] premier roy tyrant…Constant, filz de baron Baudin, le grant mareschal du royaume, et ung des quatre gouverneurs"[1066]m ([1340]) KOSTANDIN Lord of Neghir, son of BAUDOUIN Lord of Neghir and Pertzerpert & his wife Marie [Maroun] of Barbaron (17 Apr 1313-21 Dec 1362).  He succeeded in 1344 as KOSTANDIN III King of Armenia

4.         [--- .  m ---.]  Two children:    

a)         ASHOT [Oshin] (-after 1387).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pretender to the throne of Armenia 1375. 

b)         MARIE (-after 1377).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and first marriage has not yet been identified.  Regent of Armenia after the death of her first husband.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Kostand's wife was granted the government of Armenia after the murder of her husband[1067].  A later passage in the same source states that she was "cousine" of "la…royne Jehanne de Naples et le…prince de Tarente"[1068].  She was instrumental in calling Leon de Lusignan succeeding as Lewon V King of Armenia in 1374, in the hope that a Catholic monarch would be more successful in attracting western support to fight the Egyptians.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that King Lewon arranged the marriage of "la femme du secont roy tyrant…Constant" and "Mathieu Cappe, chevalier"[1069]m firstly (1369) KOSTANDIN IV King of Armenia, son of HETHUM Lord of Neghir & his wife --- (1324-assassinated Mar 1373).  m secondly (1374) MATTHIEU Chappes (-1375). 

 

 

 

F.      LORDS of LAMPRON

 

 

The outline of this genealogy is based on Rüdt-Collenberg's study of the Armenian dynasties[1070].  However, especially in the earlier generations, in the case of some individuals he cites only secondary sources in his Annotations[1071].  This suggests that his reconstruction may be based on a logical interpretation of primary sources which record names without precise family relationships.  Rüdt-Collenberg's rather eccentric citations also render more difficult the precise identification of the relevant primary sources. 

 

 

1.         HETHUM [I] (-before 1071).  According to Sturdza, Hethum [I] was descended from the Pahlavouni, an important family in Caucasian Armenia[1072].  He conquered land to the east of that conquered by his fellow Armenian Rupen (see Chapter 2).  m --- (-after 1071).  The name of Hethum's wife is not known. 

 

2.         HETHUM [II] .  No information is known about Hethum [II] apart from the fact that he was the father of Thoros, as reported in Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle (see below).  It is possible that he was the same person as Hethum [I].  No other contemporary references have been found in Armenian primary sources to individuals named Hethum.  m ---.  The name of Hethum's wife is not known.  Hethum & his wife had one child: 

a)         THOROS (-murdered Edessa 8 Mar 1098).  He was probably lieutenant of Philaretos [Vahram], governor of Germanicia [Marash].  He was awarded the title kuropalates (κουροπαλατης).  Military commander in the service of Tutush, brother of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah.  Governor of Edessa.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thoros fils de Héthoum” was installed as governor of Edessa by “Tetousch” who had defeated and killed “emir Bouzan”, in “l´année 543 [26 Feb 1094/25 Feb 1095]”[1073]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that Tutush "came to Edessa" in [1094] and "designated as mayor the Byzantine prince Toros, son of Hethum"[1074]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Kostadin, Ruben's son, and the prince of Edessa Toros" invited the crusading army to expel the invaders from Cilicia in [1097][1075].  He allied himself with Baudouin de Boulogne after the arrival of the crusaders to throw off Turkish rule, adopting Baudouin as his son and heir.  Matthew of Edessa names "Thoros, gouverneur romain d'Edesse" when recording that he requested assistance from "le comte Baudouin", and that "Thoros, curopalate" made an alliance with him when he entered the town, but that in the fifth week of Lent the population rebelled against Thoros who was thrown from the ramparts "le jour de la fête des Saints Quarante"[1076].  He was overthrown by a revolt in Edessa while Baudouin was away campaigning[1077]m --- of Melitene, daughter of GABRIEL Lord of Melitene & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “le commandant de Mélitène…Khouril, beau-père de Thoros Curopalate d´Edesse[1078].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Vardan's History which names "Ghavril, father-in-law of the curopalate of Edessa" as "prince of the city [of Melitene]" when recording that he defeated the armies of Sultan Kilij Arslan in 1098[1079]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the prince of [Melitene] Ghavril…was the father-in-law of curopalate Toros"[1080].

 

3.         OSHIN [I] (-[1110], bur Melidje).  The transmission of the names Oshin and Hethum through the family of the Lords of Lampron suggests that Oshin [I] was probably the son of either Hethum [I] or Hethum [II].  No primary source has yet been identified which confirms that this is correct, but there appears to be no chronological obstacle.  Oshin established his residence at the castle of Lambron [Lampron], which overlooked Tarsus and the Cilician plain, becoming Lord of Lampron.  Matthew of Edessa names "les chefs arméniens qui habitaient le Taurus, Constantin, fils de Roupen, Pazouni…et Oschin" when recording that they sent the crusading army the supplies they needed[1081].  He acknowledged Byzantine suzerainty over his domain.  He was awarded the title stratopedarchos by Emperor Alexios I.  In 1097, he captured the town of Adana[1082]m firstly ---.  m secondly (after 1070) --- Ardzouni, daughter of ABUL 'GHARID Governor of Taraus.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.]  Lord Oshin I & his second wife had [one child]:

a)         [HETHUM [II] (-[1143], bur Shgevra).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as Lord of Lampron.] 

-        see below

 

 

HETHUM, son of [OSHIN [I] Lord of Lampron & his second wife --- Ardzouni] (-[1143], bur Shgevra).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as Lord of LampronSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the noble sebastius paron Hetum lord of Lambron" died in [14 Feb 1143/13 Feb 1144] and that "his son Oshin ruled his principality"[1083]

m ---. 

Lord Hethum [II] & his wife had five children:

1.         [MARIE [Maremik].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m VASIL Saven Pahlavouni Lord of Gargar, son of ABIRAD Lord of Dzoek & his wife Vaniné --- (-[1149/50]).] 

2.         OSHIN [II] ([1125]-[1170])Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the noble sebastius paron Hetum lord of Lambron" died in [14 Feb 1143/13 Feb 1144] and that "his son Oshin ruled his principality"[1084].  He succeeded his father in 1143 as Lord of Lampron

-        see below

3.         SMBAT (-killed in battle Mopsuestis 1153, bur Melidje).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites Alishan, who states that Smbat was his father's second son, that he married before his father's death, was killed at Mopsuestis, and buried at Melidje, but he does not cite the primary source on which this is based[1085]Lord of Barbaron

-        LORDS of BARBARON

4.         KOSTANDIN .  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad which records the appointment in [30 Jan 1203/29 Jan 1204] of "le seigneur évêque de Sis" as katoghikos, stating in a later passage that he was "de la famille des Héthoumiens, fils de Constantin, fils d'Oschin"[1086].  Lord of Loulou [Loulva].  m ---.  The name of Kostand's wife is not known.  Kostandin & his wife had three children: 

a)         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle which records that "the sebastius Henri" was "son-in-law [=brother-in-law?] of Lord Yohanes katoghikos of the Armenians" when recording that he and his sons "Kostants, Kumartias, Joscelin and Baudoin" were imprisoned in chains by King Lewon in [29 Jan 1207/28 Jan 1208][1087]m HENRI sébastos Lord of Camardias and Norpert (-[1207/14]).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Norberd and Komartas, the sebastius Heri…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1088].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians seized the sebastos Henri, who was a duke, Kostants Kamartias, Joscelin and Baudouin" in [29 Jan 1207/28 Jan 1208][1089]

b)         YOVHANES (-[26 Jan 1220/24 Jan 1221]).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the appointment in [30 Jan 1203/29 Jan 1204] of "le seigneur évêque de Sis" as katoghikos, stating in a later passage that he was "de la famille des Héthoumiens, fils de Constantin, fils d'Oschin"[1090].  Bishop of Sis 1202.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "they removed the katoghikos Lord Yovhanes from the throne" in [29 Jan 1207/28 Jan 1208] and installed "Lord Dawit Arkakaghetsi", that "Lord Dawit" died in [28 Jan 1211/27 Jan 1212] and "lord Yovhanes" again became katogikos, but that "Lord Yovhannes katoghikos" died in [26 Jan 1220/24 Jan 1221][1091]

c)         son (-before 1225).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  One child: 

i)          SMBAT (-before 1221).  Rüdt-Collenberg quotes a source which confirms his parentage[1092].  

 

 

OSHIN [II], son of HETHUM [II] Lord of Lampron & his wife --- ([1125]-[1170])Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the noble sebastius paron Hetum lord of Lambron" died in [14 Feb 1143/13 Feb 1144] and that "his son Oshin ruled his principality"[1093].  He succeeded his father in 1143 as Lord of Lampron.  The Lignages d'Outremer record that Thoros captured "Ochine le Seigneur de Lampron", implying that the latter was cooperating with the Greeks[1094].  The Chronicle of Grégoire le Prêtre records that "Thoros…fils de Léon sébaste…fils de Constantin, fils de Roupen" and his Armenian troops captured "Oschin seigneur de Lampron, Vasil seigneur de Partzerpert, frère de Dikran" during their rebellion against the Greeks in [12 Feb 1152/10 Feb 1153][1095]

m SHAHANTUKD, daughter of SHAHAN [Zoravark] & his wife --- (-after 1190, bur Shgevra).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun in 1190. 

Lord Oshin [II] & his wife had two children:

1.         HETHUM [III] ([1145/50]-1218, bur Trazarg).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "Oschin seigneur de Lampron" paid his ransom after being captured at "Mecis" in [12 Feb 1151/11 Feb 1152] and left "son tout jeune fils Hethoum" as hostage with Thoros[1096].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "[Grégoire] Abirad" rescued "son neveu (fils de sa sœur) Héthoum" who had been put in irons by King Lewon at Sis[1097].  The Chronicle of Sempad names him as son of Oshin when recording his marriage and his hatred for his wife and repudiation of her after the death of his father-in-law[1098].  He succeeded his father in 1170 as Lord of LampronSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Lambron, Hetum…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1099].  Sempad records his arrest by King Lewon I in Tarsus, which he was visiting for the marriage of his son to the king's niece, after which he became a monk at Trazarg[1100]m firstly ([11 Feb 1152/10 Feb 1153], divorced 1168) RITA of Armenia, daughter of THOROS II Lord of the Mountains [Rupen] & his [first] wife Isabelle de Courtenay.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Thoros married his (unnamed) daughter to Hethum, son of "Oschin seigneur de Lampron", dated from the context to [11 Feb 1152/10 Feb 1153][1101].  The Lignages d'Outremer record the marriage of "Rita", daughter of Thoros, and "Ochine le Seigneur de Lampron…son fils Hethoum"[1102]m secondly ---.  The name of Hethum's second wife is not known.  Lord Hethum [III] & his second wife had nine children:

a)         OSHIN [III] (-[1216/18]).  Sempad names him as oldest son of Hethum, when recording his betrothal in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1103].  Ibn Bibi records that Oshin [III] and his brother Basil were prisoners at Konya in 1216[1104]Betrothed ([31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199]) to PHILIPPA of Armenia, widow of SHAHINSHAH [Sergios] of Sassoun Lord of Selefke, daughter of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife Isabelle of Toron (1183-before 1219).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the betrothal of "Philippa fille de mon frère" and Oshin, oldest son of "Héthoum, fils d'Oschin", at the end of the section dealing with the year [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1105]

b)         BASIL.  Ibn Bibi records that Oshin [III] and his brother Basil were prisoners at Konya in 1216[1106]

c)         KOSTANDIN ([1180]-executed 29 Jun 1250).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "Constantin, fils de Héthoum, seigneur de Lampron", when recording that he was captured by Sultan Kay Kawus I at the fortress of Gaban in [26 Jan 1216/24 Jan 1217][1107].  He succeeded as Lord of Lampron in 1220.   

-        see below

d)         ALIX (-before [1220/22]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Rüdt-Collenberg cites an inscription at Kilissi Kalaa which confirms that she was the mother of Oshin, Basil, Sempad, Leo, Emeline, Marguerite, Hethum and Maria[1108].  m ([1205]) as his second wife, KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron, son of VACAGHK Lord of Barbaron & his wife --- ([1180]-1263). 

e)         [daughter .  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "Constantin, fils de Héthoum, seigneur de Lampron et beau-père du baron Adam", when recording that he was captured by Sultan Kaykaous at the fortress of Gaban in [26 Jan 1216/24 Jan 1217][1109].  It is assumed that this indicates that Adan was married to Hethum's daughter, in view of the chronological impossibility of his wife being Kostand's daughter, assuming that the date of Kostand's marriage is correct as indicated below.  m ADAM Lord of Baghras (-1221).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "the prince of Baghras, Adam…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1110].] 

2.         SMBAT [Nerses] (1153-14 Jul 1198).  Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names "Nerses bishop of Lambron, brother of Hetum", recording that he translated several major ecclesiastical works and built the "monastery…Skewrha close to the impregnable fortress of Lambron"[1111].  Archbishop of Tarsus 1176.  He was known as St Nerses.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon King of Armenia sent "l'archevêque de Tarse, Nersès de Lampron fis d'Oschin, Halgam frère de Pagouran et oncle maternel de Léon et…le baron Paul" as his ambassadors to Constantinople in [31 Jan 1197/30 Jan 1198][1112].  Samuel d'Ani records the death in 1198 of "Nerses de Lampron" at the age of 46[1113].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199] of "le seigneur Nersès de Lampron"[1114].  He was the author of the work translated into French as "Réflexions sur les Institutions de l'Eglise et explication du Mystère de la Messe"[1115]

 

 

KOSTANDIN, son of HETHUM [III] Lord of Lampron & his second wife --- ([1180]-executed 29 Jun 1250).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad names "Constantin, fils de Héthoum, seigneur de Lampron", when recording that he was captured by Sultan Kaykaous at the fortress of Gaban in [26 Jan 1216/24 Jan 1217][1116].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Sultan Kakauz" besieged "Kapan fortress" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217] and captured "the prince of the Armenians, Kostandin the Constable…the senior paron and Kostandin, son of the lord of Lambron, and Kyr Sahak lord of Maghvay, and others", and that in [26 Jan 1218/25 Jan 1219] "king Lewon gave the sultan the fortresses of Loulon and Lauzada as the prince for freeing his imprisoned princes"[1117].  He succeeded as Lord of Lampron 1220-1249.  He was regent of Armenia during the minority of Queen Zabel.  He was executed, with his son, for his rebellion against Hethum I King of Armenia and his collusion with the Seljuk Sultan of Rum[1118]

m (1220) STEPHANIE, daughter of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron [Hethum] ([1200/05]-before 1274).  She is named Stephanie (deceased) in the Tetraevangelium of her son Oshin, dated to 1274[1119].  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Sempad which names "…Oshin son of the sister of King Hethum I…" among those sent to Egypt as hostages in 1268[1120]

Lord Kostandin & his wife had five children:

1.         SHAHANTUKD (-after 1274).  She and her son Lewon are named in the Tetraevangelium of her brother Oshin, dated to 1274[1121]m ---.  The name of Shahantukd's husband is not known.  One child: 

a)         LEWON (-after 1274).  He and his mother are named in the Tetraevangelium of his maternal uncle Oshin, dated to 1274[1122]

2.         HETHUM [IV] (-executed 29 Jun 1250).  Hethum is named in the Tetraevangelium of his brother Oshin, dated to 1274[1123].  He succeeded his father in 1249 as Lord of Lampron.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "my grandfather…the lord of Lambron" died 29 Jun in [19 Jan 1250/17 Jan 1251][1124]m ---.  The name of Hethum's wife is not known.  Rüdt-Collenberg speculates that the names of her children indicate that she was of Frankish origin, and suggests that she may have been Marie of Antioch, daughter of Bohémond IV Prince of Antioch[1125], although according to the Lignages d'Outremer she married "Thoros" by whom she had one son "Buemont"[1126].  Lord Hethum [IV] & his wife had five children:

a)         KERAN [Kyr-Anna] (-1285, bur Trazarg).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Quiram la fille au seignor dou Lambron" as the wife of King Lewon II[1127].  Another manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer names "Guérane, la fille d'Héthoum, le seigneur de Lampron" as the wife of King Lewon[1128].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lanbron intermarried with the king of Armenia" in [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263], the marriage presumably taking place in the early part of the year as the same source records the birth of the couple's first child later in the same year[1129].  She is named in the Tetraevangelium of her paternal uncle Oshin, dated to 1274[1130].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "my mother the Armenian queen Keran" died 29 Aug in [9 Jan 1285/8 Jan 1286][1131]m (early [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]) LEWON II King of Armenia, son of HETHUM I King of Armenia & his wife Zabel Queen of Armenia (1236-6 Feb 1289, bur Trazarg). 

b)         MARIANNE (-[1285 or 1295], bur Trazarg).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         ALIX of Lampron (-after 1312).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis, la fille au seignour dou Lambron" as the wife of Balian son of "Gui l'autre fis Johan de Ybelin…conestable de Chipre"[1132]m ([1279]) BALIAN Ibelin, Seneschal of Cyprus, son of GUY Ibelin, Constable of Cyprus & his wife Philippa Barlais (-Feb 1302, bur Nicosia, Franciscan Church).

d)         RAYMOND (-after 1309).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king…sent as a hostage Oshin, his own sister's son, the son of his brother Hetum, Raymond, and the son of Kostandin the king's father, Vasak lord of Chancho" to secure the release of his son Lewon from captivity in Egypt in [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269][1133].  Lord of Michael'gla. 

3.         KYRANNA (-after 1274).  She and her husband are named in the Tetraevangelium of her brother Oshin, dated to 1274, with their children Kostand, Oshin and Smbat[1134]m (before 1245) as his second wife, DJOFFREY Lord of Saravantikar, son of SMBAT Lord of Saravantikar & his wife --- (-1261). 

4.         [ALIX .  Her parentage is indicated by the children of Oshin of Korikos being described as nephews of Oshin the Marshal[1135]m OSHIN Lord of Korikos, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert & his second wife Alix of Lampron([1210/13]-1264).] 

5.         OSHIN [IV] (-[7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295]).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king…sent as a hostage Oshin, his own sister's son, the son of his brother Hetum, Raymond, and the son of Kostandin the king's father, Vasak lord of Chancho" to secure the release of his son Lewon from captivity in Egypt in [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269][1136].  Lord of Asgouras and Marnick.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Oshin son of Kostandin lord of Lambron" died in [7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295][1137]m (before 1260) AGATHA, daughter of --- (-after 1274).  She is named in the Tetraevangelium of her husband Oshin, dated to 1274, with their children Kostand, Hethum and Theophano[1138]

Lord Oshin [IV] & his wife had three children:

a)         KOSTANDIN (before 1260-).  "Konstans", Hethum and "the modest damsel Thefanaw" are named in the Tetraevangelium of their father Oshin, dated to 1274[1139]m (before 1280) ---, sister of Bishop AGOP, daughter of ---.  She is named as wife of Kostandin in the later colophon of the Tetraevangelium of their father Oshin, dated to after 1300[1140].  Kostandin & his wife had one child: 

i)          GRIGOR.  Grigor "spiritual father in the House of the Princess" is named as son of Kostandin in the later colophon of the Tetraevangelium of their father Oshin, dated to after 1300[1141].  Priest 1307. 

b)         THEOPHANO (-before 1265-).  "Konstans", Hethum and "the modest damsel Thefanaw" are named in the Tetraevangelium of their father Oshin, dated to 1274[1142]

c)         HETHUM [V] ([1265]-1307).  "Konstans", Hethum and "the modest damsel Thefanaw" are named in the Tetraevangelium of their father Oshin, dated to 1274[1143].  Lord of Simangla.  m EUPHEME Garnier, daughter of BALIAN II Garnier titular Lord of Sidon & his wife Marie of Jebail.  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Femie et Ysabeau" as the children of "Balian", son of "Julien…sire de Saiete", & his wife, stating that Euphemie married "Heiton, le fis dou mareschal d'Ermenie et orent ii fis et une fille"[1144]

i)          HETHUM (-1322).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the deaths in [31 Dec 1321/30 Dec 1322] of "le baron Héthoum, seigneur de Dchelgnots, son frère le baron Constantin, le baron Valfram Lodig, le baron Oschin fils du maréchal" at Mecis[1145]

ii)         KOSTANDIN (-1322).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the deaths in [31 Dec 1321/30 Dec 1322] of "le baron Héthoum, seigneur de Dchelgnots, son frère le baron Constantin, le baron Valfram Lodig, le baron Oschin fils du maréchal" at Mecis[1146]

iii)        daughter .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Femie et Ysabeau" as the children of "Balian", son of "Julien…sire de Saiete", & his wife, stating that Euphemie married "Heiton, le fis dou mareschal d'Ermenie et orent ii fis et une fille"[1147]

 

 

 

G.      LORDS of MELITENE

 

 

1.         GHAVRIL [Gabriel] (-1103).  An Orthodox Christian.  Lord of Melitene, he is named by William of Tyre[1148].  Vardan's History records that "Ghilich Arslan sultan of the West, grandson of Ddlmush, came into Melitene" in 1098 but "the prince of the city Ghavril, father-in-law of the curopalate of Edessa turned them back in disgrace"[1149].  Albert of Aix records that "Gaveras Armenici ducis principis et domini…Malatinam" requested Bohémond Prince of Antioch to help against "Donimannus quidam princeps Turcorum", dated to 1100 from the context[1150].  He was executed by the Syrians after they captured Melitene[1151]m ---.  The name of Gabriel's wife is not known.  Ghavril & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         daughter .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “le commandant de Mélitène…Khouril, beau-père de Thoros Curopalate d´Edesse[1152].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Vardan's History which names "Ghavril, father-in-law of the curopalate of Edessa" as "prince of the city [of Melitene]" when recording that he defeated the armies of Sultan Kilij Arslan in 1098[1153]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the prince of [Melitene] Ghavril…was the father-in-law of curopalate Toros"[1154]m THOROS, son of HETHUM [II] & his wife --- (-murdered 9 Mar 1098).  He was installed as Governor of Edessa

b)         MORFIA of Melitene .  She is named by William of Tyre, who also names her father and specifies his Armenian origin but emphasises his Greek faith, when recording her marriage[1155].  This marriage was arranged to consolidate her husband's position as newly installed count of Edessa.  She was crowned as queen of Jerusalem at Bethlehem at Christmas 1119[1156]m (1101) BAUDOUIN II Count of Edessa, son of HUGUES de Rethel & his wife Mélisende de Montlhéry ([1075/80]-Jerusalem 21 Aug 1131, bur Jerusalem, Church of the Holy Sepulchre).  He succeeded in 1118 as BAUDOUIN II King of Jerusalem

c)         [--- of Melitene .  The name and origin of the wife of Lewon I are unknown.  Orderic Vitalis refers to Lewon as "fils de Turold des Montagnes et oncle de la femme de Boémond" (referring to Bohémond II Prince of Antioch)[1157].  This family relationship is not referred to in any of the crusader chronicles, which presumably provided the basis for Orderic Vitalis's reports of events in the crusader states of which he could not have had direct knowledge himself.  The wife of Prince Bohémond II was Alix, daughter of Baudouin II King of Jerusalem, previously Baudouin II Count of Edessa, son of the Comte de Rethel.  No relationship between Lewon and King Baudouin has been identified in Lewon's paternal ancestry, although the details of his paternal family are so sparse that it is not impossible that such a relationship existed (maybe more remote than the word "oncle" would imply).  Rüdt-Collenberg interprets the passage in Orderic Vitalis as suggesting that relationship was through Lewon's wife's family[1158], and suggests that she was the daughter of Hugues [I] Comte de Rethel and his wife Mélisende de Montlhéry.  He also refers to "the Lady Cecile Dame de Tarse" and suggests that she may have been the same person as Lewon's wife[1159], although the references he cites have not yet been checked.  He refers to her possible name as "Béatrice", but the source on which he relies is unclear from his notes[1160].  No reference to her name has been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted.  The evidence for this identification of the wife of Lewon I is remarkably slight, and yet it appears to have been relied on by secondary sources such as Europäische Stammtafeln[1161] who show it as definite without the least sign that there may be any doubt about it.  A completely different possibility is that the wife of Lewon was the daughter of Gabriel Lord of Melitene, and sister of Morfia of Melitene, wife of Baudouin II.  This is just as consistent with the passage in Orderic Vitalis as the proposed Rethel origin of Lewon's wife.  m ([1100/03]) LEWON, son of KOSTANDIN Lord of Vaghka and Partzerpert [Rupenid] & his wife --- (-Constantinople 14 Feb 1140).  He succeeded his nephew in 1129 as LEWON I Lord of the Mountains.] 

 

 

 

H.      PAHLAVOUNI

 

 

1.         VASAHK (-murdered Sergeveli ----).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “généralissime des Arméniens…Vaçag le Bahlavouni” was killed on “la montagne de Serguévéli” by a villager after fighting “le roi des Dilémites” who had invaded “le district arménien de Nik[1162]m ---.  The name of Vasahk´s wife is not known.  Vasahk & his wife had one child: 

a)         GRIGOR (-1059).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “généralissime des Arméniens…Vaçag le Bahlavouni” appointed “son fils Grégoire” to guard “sa famille et…la forteresse de Pedchni” while he left to fight “le roi des Dilémites” who had invaded “le district arménien de Nik[1163]Magistros.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa names “Grégoire Magistros, fils de Vaçag” in “l´année 485 [12 Mar 1036/11 Mar 1037]”[1164].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “[un] prince de la race de Haïg…par son père descendait de la famille des Bahlavounis…Grégoire…issu de notre saint illuminateur” arranged the coronation of “Kakig…fils du roi Aschod…”, dated to [1043][1165]m ---.  The name of Grigor´s wife is not known.  Grigor & his wife had ---children: 

i)          VASAHK (-killed Antioch [1076/1 Mar 1079]).  Vardan's History records that "the Latins" killed "prince Vasak brother of Katoghikos Vahram…[who] was duke of Antioch" in Antioch in 1076[1166].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vaçag duc d´Antioche, fils de Grégoire Magistros et frère su seigneur Grégoire” was killed “dans la rue du marché de cette ville, par les perfides Romains”, in a paragraph following one which records events in “l´année 527 [2 Mar 1078/1 Mar 1079]”, adding that after his death Antioch was offered to Philaretos[1167]m ---, daughter of VASAHK & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

ii)         VAHRAM [Grigor] (-[25 Feb 1105/22 Feb 1106], bur Hrom-gla).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death “en l´année 514 [5 Mar 1065/4 Mar 1066]” of katoghikos Khatchig and the succession of “Vahram fils de Grégoire Magistros[1168]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records "lord Vahram whom they called Grigoris on the patriarchal throne", adding that he "was from the city of Bjni, son of Grigor Magistros, grandson of Vasak the martyr"[1169].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “le saint catholicos Vahram, appelé aussi Grégoire, fils de Grégoire Magistros, fils de Vaçag, le Bahlavouni” resigned as katoghikos and was replaced by “le docteur Georges, chancelier de Grégoire”, recorded in a passage following the record of events in “l´année 518 [4 Mar 1069/3 Mar 1070]”[1170].  Matthew of Edessa records the death of "le saint patriarche Grégoire, nommé aussi Vahram, fils de Grégoire [Magistros], fils de Vaçag, et Bahlavouni d'origine" in the year [23 Feb 1105/22 Feb 1106][1171]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia names him "St Gregory the Illuminator" and records that the sultan of Egypt placed him "on the patriarchal throne of Markos in Alexandria" where he died[1172].  Vardan's History records that "Lord Grigoris Pahlaw also called Vahram Vkayaser [lover of martyrs]" died in "the monastery called Karmir [Red]"[1173].   m ---.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vahram fils de Grégoire Magistros” had married before being installed as katoghikos but “il vivait saintement en se conservant toujours chaste[1174].  Vahram & his wife had one child: 

(a)       daughter .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thornig seigneur de Saçoun” was “le catholicos Grégoire…[son] gendre[1175]m THORNIG Lord of Sassoun, son of --- (-murdered near Ashmushad [3 Mar 1072/2 Mar 1073]). 

iii)        daughter .  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha" built a church at Hrom-gla to which he transferred the mortal remains "du grand Grégoire, oncle maternel d'Abirad son aieul", confirming that Abirad's mother was the sister of Grigor[1176].  Her parentage is confirmed by Matthew of Edessa who records that "un jeune homme nommé Grégoire, petit-neveu (fils du fils de la sœur) du seigneur Vahram" was present "chez le grand prince arménien Kogh-Vasil" where "le saint patriarche Grégoire, nommé aussi Vahram" died in the year [23 Feb 1105/22 Feb 1106], whom his great-uncle had designated as his successor as "catholicos d'Arménie", naming him in a later passage "Grégoire fils d'Abirad"[1177]m ABUL DJAHAB, son of ABIRAD & his wife ---. 

iv)       daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa which records that “Grégoire” installed “Basile, fils de sa sœur et de Vaçag, fils d´Abirad, fils de Haçan” as bishop at Ani in “l´année 521 [3 Mar 1072/2 Mar 1073]”[1178]m VASAHK, son of ABIRAD & his wife --- (-1021). 

 

 

1.         HASANm ---.  The name of Hasan's wife is not known.  Hasan & his wife had one child: 

a)         ABIRAD (-murdered 1021).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Abirad fils de Haçcan…un des satrapes les plus considérables de l´Arménie” broke with the king (Yovhanes-Smbat III) because he had supported the king´s brother Ashot and established himself “dans la ville de Tevin auprès d´Abousevar général perse”, but that “l´émir” (presumably referring to the “général perse”) ordered him killed[1179].  Matthew of Edessa names "Vaçag, fils d'Abirad, fils de Haçan, de la race des héros, et descendait des Bahlavouni"[1180]m ---.  The name of Abirad's wife is not known.  She survived her husband, according to the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa which records that “Sari…général en chef d´Abirad” saved his wife and children after Abirad was killed[1181].  Abirad & his wife had two children: 

i)          ABUL DJAHAB .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Yovhanes-Smbat III King of Armenia awarded “la province et les dignités dont avait joui Abirad” to “ses fils Abeldchahab et Vaçcag” after their father was killed[1182]

-         see below

ii)         VASAHK (-after Feb 1082).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Yovhanes-Smbat III King of Armenia awarded “la province et les dignités dont avait joui Abirad” to “ses fils Abeldchahab et Vaçcag” after their father was killed[1183].  Matthew of Edessa names "Vaçag, fils d'Abirad, fils de Haçan, de la race des héros, et descendait des Bahlavouni"[1184].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vaçag son père et ses frères Haçan, Grégoire et Abeldchahab” welcomed “Basile archevêque de Schirag” at Ani after he was installed as katoghikos in “l´année 530 [1 Mar 1081/28 Feb 1082]”[1185]m ---, daughter of GRIGOR magistros & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa which records that “Grégoire” installed “Basile, fils de sa sœur et de Vaçag, fils d´Abirad, fils de Haçan” as bishop at Ani in “l´année 521 [3 Mar 1072/2 Mar 1073]”[1186].  Vasahk & his wife had five children: 

(a)       GRIGOR (-[25 Feb 1099/24 Feb 1100]).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vaçag son père et ses frères Haçan, Grégoire et Abeldchahab” welcomed “Basile archevêque de Schirag” at Ani after he was installed as katoghikos in “l´année 530 [1 Mar 1081/28 Feb 1082]”[1187].  Matthew of Edessa records the death of "Grégoire le curopalate…fils de Vaçag, fils d'Abirad, fils de Haçan, de la race des héros, et descendait des Bahlavouni" in the year [25 Feb 1099/24 Feb 1100][1188]

(b)       VASIL (-Vartaheri [22 or 29 May, or 5, 12 or 19 Jun] 1113, bur Schoughr).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Grégoire” installed “Basile, fils de sa sœur et de Vaçag, fils d´Abirad, fils de Haçan” as bishop at Ani in “l´année 521 [3 Mar 1072/2 Mar 1073]”, adding that he was later installed as katoghikos[1189].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Basile archevêque de Schirag” requested “le roi Goriguê, fils de David Anhoghin, fils de Kakig” to consecrate him as katoghikos in “l´année 530 [1 Mar 1081/28 Feb 1082]”in the town of Lorhi[1190].  Matthew of Edessa names "Grégoire le curopalate, frère du Seigneur Basile, catholicos d'Arménie"[1191].  Archbishop of Ani.  Katoghikos of Armenia.  Matthew of Edessa records the death "dans le mois de drê, un jeudi" in 1113 of "le seigneur Basile" three days after his house "dans le village de Vartaheri" collapsed on him, and his burial at "Schoughr…dans le tombeau des patriarches"[1192]

(c)       HASSAN (-after Feb 1082).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vaçag son père et ses frères Haçan, Grégoire et Abeldchahab” welcomed “Basile archevêque de Schirag” at Ani after he was installed as katoghikos in “l´année 530 [1 Mar 1081/28 Feb 1082]”[1193]

(d)       ABEL DJAHAB (-after Feb 1082).  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Vaçag son père et ses frères Haçan, Grégoire et Abeldchahab” welcomed “Basile archevêque de Schirag” at Ani after he was installed as katoghikos in “l´année 530 [1 Mar 1081/28 Feb 1082]”[1194]

(e)       daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m her maternal uncle, VASAHK dux of Antioch, son of GRIGOR magistros & his wife --- (-murdered 1076). 

 

 

ABUL DJAHAB, son of ABIRAD & his wife ---

m --- Pahlavouni, daughter of GRIGOR kuropalatos & his wife ---.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha" built a church at Hrom-gla to which he transferred the mortal remains "du grand Grégoire, oncle maternel d'Abirad son aieul", confirming that Abirad's mother was the sister of Grigor[1195].  Her parentage is confirmed by Matthew of Edessa who records that "un jeune homme nommé Grégoire, petit-neveu (fils du fils de la sœur) du seigneur Vahram" was present "chez le grand prince arménien Kogh-Vasil" where "le saint patriarche Grégoire, nommé aussi Vahram" died in the year [23 Feb 1105/22 Feb 1106], whom his great-uncle had designated as his successor as "catholicos d'Arménie", naming him in a later passage "Grégoire fils d'Abirad"[1196]

Abul Djahab & his wife had one child: 

1.         ABIRAD (-[1111/13]).  His name and parentage are confirmed by Vardan's History which records that "Lord Grigoris Pahlaw also called Vahram Vkayaser [lover of martyrs]" entrusted "his nephews (sister's sons) Grigoris…and…Nerses, the sons of Apirat" to "the patriarch Barsergh" when he died[1197].  Lord of Dzowk.  m VANINE, daughter of ---.  Abirad & his wife had five children: 

a)         VASIL (-[1149/50]).  Lord of Gargar.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the Armenian prince Vasil, brother of Lord Grigoris" was captured by "Kilij Arslan lord of Handzit" while attempting to relieve the siege of Gargar in [13 Feb 1149/12 Feb 1150][1198]m MARIE [Maremik] of Lampron, daughter of HETHUM [II] Lord of Lampron & his wife ---.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Vasil's wife and sons…gave up the fortress [of Gargar]" after Vasil was captured by "Kilij Arslan lord of Handzit" while attempting to relieve the siege in [13 Feb 1149/12 Feb 1150][1199].  Vasil &  his wife had three children: 

i)          GRIGOR [IV] TGHA (-16 May, 1189 or 1194, bur Trazarg).  Katoghikos of Armenia.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] of "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha" and his burial "dans le couvent de Trazarg"[1200].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death 16 May, in the paragraph dealing with the year [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190] although the context suggests that 1193 was the correct year, of "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha catholicos" and his burial at Traszarg[1201]

ii)         daughter .  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "les fils de Tchordouanel" came to Lewon in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190], stating that "leur mère était la sœur du seigneur Grégoire [Dgha] catholicos d'Arménie"[1202]m TCHORDOUANEL Lord of Sassoun, son of VIGEN Lord of Sassoun & his wife Meleksti Ardzrouni (-1165). 

iii)        daughter .  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Bar Hebraeus, which states that Mleh was "brother-in-law of Gregorios [IV] [catholicos]"[1203]m MLEH, son of LEWON I Lord of the Mountains & his wife Béatrice de Rethel (before 1120-murdered Sis[1204] 15 May 1175, bur Medzkar).  He succeeded in 1170 as MLEH Lord of the Mountains

b)         GRIGOR [III] (-[8 Feb 1168/6 Feb 1169], bur Hrom-gla).  Vardan's History records that "Lord Grigoris Pahlaw also called Vahram Vkayaser [lover of martyrs]" entrusted "his nephews (sister's sons) Grigoris…and…Nerses, the sons of Apirat" to "the patriarch Barsergh" when he died, commenting that Grigor became katoghikos[1205].  Matthew of Edessa records that "un jeune homme nommé Grégoire, petit-neveu (fils du fils de la sœur) du seigneur Vahram" was present "chez le grand prince arménien Kogh-Vasil" where "le saint patriarche Grégoire, nommé aussi Vahram" died in the year [23 Feb 1105/22 Feb 1106], whom his great-uncle had designated as his successor as "catholicos d'Arménie", naming him in a later passage "Grégoire fils d'Abirad"[1206].  Matthew of Edessa records the installation as patriarch of "le seigneur Grégoire, fils d'Abirad" in 1113[1207]Kirakos Ganjaketsi's History of Armenia records that "lord Grigoris brother of Nerses…of the family of St Gregory…the holy Illuminator" was installed as katoghikos, after the death of "lord Barsegh" who had ruled for 33 years, and that he moved the patriarchal throne "to the fortress called Hrhomklay"[1208].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha" built a church at Hrom-gla where he built a tomb "aux deux patriarches ses oncles (frères de son père) les seigneurs Grégoire et Nersès"[1209]

c)         NERSES (-16 Aug 1173, bur Hrom-gla).  Vardan's History records that "Lord Grigoris Pahlaw also called Vahram Vkayaser [lover of martyrs]" entrusted "his nephews (sister's sons) Grigoris…and…Nerses, the sons of Apirat" to "the patriarch Barsergh" when he died[1210].  The History of Armenia of Guiragos of Kantzag names "le seigneur Grégoire, frère de Nersès", when recording his succession as patriarch in [21 Feb 1113/20 Feb 1114][1211]Katoghikos of Armenia.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lord Nerses Shnorhali" died "on Thursday 13 Aug" in [6 Feb 1173/5 Feb 1174][1212].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha" built a church at Hrom-gla where he built a tomb "aux deux patriarches ses oncles (frères de son père) les seigneurs Grégoire et Nersès"[1213]

d)         son .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          GRIGOR [V] (-Gobidar [1 Feb 1196/31 Jan 1197], bur Trazarg).  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] of "le seigneur Grégoire Dgha" and the succession of "le seigneur Grégoire, autre neveu (fils de frère) du seigneur Nersès", stating that he died two years later when he threw himself from the fortress of Gobidar and was buried at Trazarg[1214]Katoghikos of Armenia.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad clarifies the circumstances of his death, stating that he had been imprisoned in the fortress of Gobidar by Lewon, and fell from the walls while trying to escape, recording that he died in [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195][1215]

e)         SHAHAN (-after 1173).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad which records the succession as catholicos of "seigneur Grégoire Abad, fils du general [Schahan], frère des catholicos Grégoire et Nersès"[1216]m ---.  The name of Shahan's wife is not known.  Shahan & his wife had three children: 

i)          GRIGOR [VI] ABIRAT (-[30 Jan 1203/29 Jan 1204], bur Arkagaghin).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the succession as katoghikos of "seigneur Grégoire Abad, fils du general [Schahan], frère des catholicos Grégoire et Nersès"[1217].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the succession in [1 Feb 1196/31 Jan 1197] of "[Grégoire] Abirad, autre neveu [fils de frère] des…seigneurs Grégoire et Nersès et cousin de Grégoire", stating that he was patriarch for eight years, died at Sis and was buried "dans le saint couvent d'Arkagaghin"[1218].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death in [30 Jan 1203/29 Jan 1204] of "le seigneur Grégoire catholicos" and his burial at "Arkagaghin"[1219]

ii)         SHAHANTUKD (-after 1190, bur Shgevra).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m OSHIN [II] Lord of Lampron, son of [HETHUM [II] Lord of Lampron & his wife ---] ([1125]-[1170]). 

iii)        MIKHAEL (-1200 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Pertag.  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Berdak, Mihayl…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1220]m ---.  The name of Mikhael's wife is not known.  Mikhael & his wife had one child: 

(a)       EUPHEMIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m as his first wife, VAHRAM Lord of Korikos Constable of Armenia, son of GAUFFRIDUS Lord of Korikos & his wife --- (-murdered 1222). 

 

 

1.         VAHRAM, son of --- (-1090).  He was called PHILARETUS by the Greeks.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Philardos” was “par son père et sa mère…Arménien” and that he was brought up “auprès de son oncle, dans le couvent de Zorvri-Gozern, dans le district de Hisn-Mansour[1221]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "Filartos…was of Armenian nationality…from the district of Hisn-Mansur where he grew up in a monastery"[1222].  Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes appointed him as governor of Germanicia [Marash].  On the accession of Emperor Mikhael VII Dukas, he declared himself independent and conquered Tarsus, Mamistra and Anazarbus in Cilicia, Edessa in 1077 and Antioch in 1078.  Vardan's History records that "[Vasak's] troops" gave the city of Antioch to "Pilartos" in 1076 after "the Latins" killed "prince Vasak brother of Katoghikos Vahram…[who] was duke of Antioch"[1223].  He announced himself the vassal of Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates in 1078[1224].  Vardan's History records that "Philaretus went to Malik Shah and weakened in the faith"[1225]

 

 

 

I.        LORDS of RABAN and KAISUN

 

 

1.         --- .  m ---, sister of PIERRE, daughter of ---.  Pierre is named as maternal uncle of Kogh-Vasil by Matthew of Edessa, which records his leading a contingent against the Persians in [22 Feb 1108/20 Feb 1109][1226].  Two children: 

a)         KOGH "Vasil/the Robber" (-12 Oct 1112, but Garmir-Vank).  Matthew of Edessa says he was "noble on the side of his mother"[1227].  Armenian Lord of Raban and Kaisun.  Matthew of Edessa records the death 12 Oct 1112 of "le grand prince Kogh-Vasil" and his burial at "Garmir-Vank"[1228].  Bar Hebræus records the death in A.H. 506 (1112/13) of "Basile souverain du pays des Arméniens"[1229].  Adopted son:

i)          VASIL DGHA (-after 1116).  Matthew of Edessa records that, after the death of Kogh Vasil, his principality was given to "Vasil-Dgha, comme à un fils dans le sein de son père"[1230]Lord of Raban and Kaisun.  He was captured by Thoros Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] after arriving for his marriage in [1116/17] and sold to Baudouin II Count of Edessa, who annexed Raban and Kaisun.  Vasil took refuge with his father-in-law and later went to Constantinople[1231]m ([21 Feb 1116/19 Feb 1117]) --- of Armenia, daughter of LEWON of Armenia [later LEWON I Lord of the Mountains] & his wife ---.  Matthew of Edessa records the marriage of "Vasil-Dgha" and the daughter of Lewon in [21 Feb 1115/20 Feb 1116][1232]

b)         BAGRAT.  He was in the service of Emperor Alexios I, but joined Baudouin de Boulogne [later King of Jerusalem] who installed him as Governor of Ravendel in the winter of 1097 after the town was captured from the Turks[1233].  Albert of Aix records that "Baldewinus…consilio…Armenici militis Pancracii" captured Turbessel and Ravendel, which Baudouin granted to Bagrat, dated to late 1097 from the context[1234].  He was accused of intriguing with the Turks, tortured but escaped to join his brother in the mountains[1235].  Lord of Khoros [west of the Euphrates].  Baudouin II Count of Edessa captured Khoros in 1117 and expelled Bagrat[1236]

 

 

 

J.      LORDS of SARAVANTIKAR

 

 

SMBAT, son of VACAGHK Lord of Barbaron & his wife --- (-after 1199).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites sources which confirm Smbat's parentage[1237]Lord of SaravantikarSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "…the prince of Sarvandikar, Smbat…" among those present at the coronation of King Leo in [31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199][1238]

m ---.  The name of Smbat's wife is not known. 

Lord Smbat & his wife had one child:

1.         DJOFFREY (-[15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Saravantikar.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Chawri the lord of Sarvandikar" died in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262], later in the year than the marriage of his son Kostandin which is recorded in the earlier part of the same passage[1239]m firstly ALIX, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly KYR ANNA of Lampron, daughter of KOSTANDIN Lord of Lampron & his wife Stephanie of Barbaron (-after 1274).  She and her husband are named in the Tetraevangelium of her brother Oshin, dated to 1274, with their children Kostand, Oshin and Smbat[1240].  Lord Djoffrey & his [first/second] wife had three children:

a)         KOSTANDIN (-after 1274)Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "Kostandin, Smbat and Oshin" as the three sons of "Sir Geoffrey lord of Sarvandikar" when recording the death of the latter in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][1241].  Kostand, Oshin and Smbat are named with their parents in the Tetraevangelium of her brother Oshin, dated to 1274[1242].  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II which records that "King Hetum became the father-in-law of Kostandin, son of the lord of Sarvandikar, by marrying him to his daughter Rita" in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][1243]Lord of Saravantikarm ([15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]) RITA of Armenia, daughter of HETHUM I King of Armenia & his wife Zabel Queen of Armenia.  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Rita married "le sire de la Roche"[1244].  Another manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer names "Constantin le seigneur de Servantikar" as the husband of Rita[1245].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Hetum became the father-in-law of Kostandin, son of the lord of Sarvandikar, by marrying him to his daughter Rita" in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][1246].  Kostandin & his wife had one child: 

i)          OSHIN.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Saravantikar

b)         SMBAT (-after 1298)Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "Kostandin, Smbat and Oshin" as the three sons of "Sir Geoffrey lord of Sarvandikar" when recording the death of the latter in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][1247].  Kostand, Oshin and Smbat are named with their parents in the Tetraevangelium of her brother Oshin, dated to 1274[1248]Lord of Saravantikar[1249]m ([1270], Papal dispensation 10 Oct 1298) ISABELLE Ibelin, daughter of JEAN Ibelin Count of Jaffa & his wife Maria of Barbaron [Armenia-Hethum] ([1250]-after 1298).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Marguerite, Ysabeau et Marie" as the three daughters of "Johan conte de Japhe & his wife", stating that Isabelle married "le sire de la Roche en Ermenie"[1250].  The dispensation issued by Pope Boniface VIII for the marriage of "Sempad de Botha Mamistranæ diocesis" and "Isabella Ibelin filia quondam G. comitis Joppensis" is dated 10 Oct 1298[1251].  Lord Smbat & his wife had [four] children:

i)          ISABELLE .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau et Marie" as the two daughters of "le sire de la Roche en Ermenie" and his wife Isabelle Ibelin, stating that Isabelle married "Livon de Mons"[1252]

ii)         MARIE .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau et Marie" as the two daughters of "le sire de la Roche en Ermenie" and his wife Isabelle Ibelin, stating that Marie married "Phelippe de Ybelin "[1253]

c)         OSHINSmbat Sparapet's Chronicle names "Kostandin, Smbat and Oshin" as the three sons of "Sir Geoffrey lord of Sarvandikar" when recording the death of the latter in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][1254].  Kostand, Oshin and Smbat are named with their parents in the Tetraevangelium of her brother Oshin, dated to 1274[1255]Lord of Saravantikarm ---.  The name of Oshin's wife is not known.  Oshin & his wife had one child: 

i)          ZABEL of Saravantikar.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Sebile, la fille Oissim de la Roche" as the wife of Thoros, son of "Gui, le fis Bauduin de Ybelin, seneschal de Chipre"[1256]m ([1290]) THOROS Ibelin, son of GUY Ibelin & his wife Maria of Armenia. 

 

 

 

K.      LORDS of SASSOUN

 

 

Adontz suggests that the reference to the monk "Tornik", in the second known generation of this family shown below, indicates a family connection through the female line with the princes of Taron (see Chapter 1.D above)[1257]

 

 

1.         TCHORDOUANEL (-after 949).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the Iberians disputed the possession of Derxene with Byzantium and sent "Zurbanelem protospatharium Azatum suum" to Constantinople in [949] to defend their cause[1258]m ---.  The name of Tchordouanel´s wife is not known.  Tchordouanel & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         [BAGRAT .  Adontz states that Tchordouanel, son of Bagrat, was the grandson of Tchordouanel referred to above[1259].  It is not clear from his text whether this is corroborated by primary source evidence, or whether this is his guess based on the similarity of the names.]  m ---.  The name of Bagrat´s wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had two children: 

i)          BAGRAT (-killed in battle [988/89]).  "Bagrateion…Tzourbalelin", sons of Bagrat, helped Bardas Phokas during his [987/89] rebellion[1260].  Yahya records that the older son was killed in battle by the forces of Emperor Basileios II[1261]

ii)         TCHORDOUANEL (-killed in battle plain of Bagarič, Derxène [11 Feb 990/11 Feb 991]).  "Bagrateion…Tzourbalelin", sons of Bagrat, helped Bardas Phokas during his [987/89] rebellion[1262].  Asolik records that "le magistre Cordvanel, fils du frère du moin Tornik" captured the regions of "Derxène et de Taron" but was killed by the forces of Emperor Basileios II "dans la plaine de Bagarič en Derxène en 439 EA"[1263]

b)         [TORNIK .  Monk.  His family connection is confirmed by Asolik who records that "le magistre Cordvanel, fils du frère du moin Tornik" captured the regions of "Derxène et de Taron"[1264]

 

 

1.         MUSEL .  Adontz suggests that the transmission of the names Tornik and Tchordouanel into the family of Musel indicates a relationship with the preceding family group[1265]m ---.  The name of Musel´s wife is not known.  Musel & his wife had [one] child: 

a)         TORNIK (-murdered near Ashmushad [3 Mar 1072/2 Mar 1073]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Lord of Sassoun.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thornig seigneur de Saçoun” refused to swear allegiance to Philaretos and was killed “près d´Aschmouschad” by the forces of “un emir…Amer-Kaph´er”, reported in the paragraph which follows the one dealing with events “en l´année 521 [3 Mar 1072/2 Mar 1073]”[1266]m ---, daughter of GRIGOR [Vahram] katoghikos & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thornig seigneur de Saçoun” was “le catholicos Grégoire…[son] gendre[1267].  Thornig & his wife had two children: 

i)          TCHORDOUANEL .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thornig seigneur de Saçoun” left “deux fils en bas âge, Tchordouanel et Vaçag[1268]Lord of Sassounm ---.  The name of Tchordouanel´s wife is not known.  Tchordouanel & his wife had one child: 

(a)       VIGEN .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Sassoun

-         see below

ii)         VACAGHK [Vasak] .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “Thornig seigneur de Saçoun” left “deux fils en bas âge, Tchordouanel et Vaçag[1269]

 

 

VIGEN, son of TCHORDOUANEL Lord of Sassoun & his wife --- .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Lord of Sassoun

m MELIKSTI Ardzrouni, daughter of HMAYAK of Moxena & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Vigen & his wife had four children: 

1.         GRIGOR .  Adontz names "Grégoire, Cordvanel (d. 1165), Kata (d. 1166), et Vasak" as the four children of Vigen & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their mother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1270]

2.         TCHORDOUANEL (-1165).  Adontz names "Grégoire, Cordvanel (d. 1165), Kata (d. 1166), et Vasak" as the four children of Vigen & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their mother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1271]Lord of Sassounm --- of Gargar, daughter of VASIL Lord of Gargar & his wife Marie of Lampron.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that "les fils de Tchordouanel" came to Lewon in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190], stating that "leur mère était la sœur du seigneur Grégoire [Dgha] catholicos d'Arménie"[1272].  Tchordouanel & his wife had two children: 

a)         HETHUM [Vasil] (before 1165[1273]-May 1193).  Adontz names "Vasil, Shahinshah et Tornik" as the three children of Tchordouanel & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their paternal grandmother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1274].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon arranged the marriage of "Héthoum [le fils ainé de Tchordouanel]" and "la fille de son frère Roupen…Alice" and awarded him "la ville de Mecis" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][1275].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death "tous les deux dans le meme mois que leur oncle" of "les grands princes, fils de la sr du catholicos, Hethoum et Shahenschah", stating that it was rumoured that Lewon was behind their deaths[1276]m firstly ---.  m secondly ([early Feb] 1189, not consummated) as her first husband, ALIX of Armenia, daughter of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupenid] & his wife Isabelle of Toron (1182-after 1234).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon arranged the marriage of "Héthoum [le fils ainé de Tchordouanel]" and "la fille de son frère Roupen…Alice" and awarded him "la ville de Mecis" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][1277].  She married secondly ([1194/95]) Raymond of Antioch.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis et Phelippe" as the two daughters of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that Alix was wife of "prince Buemont…frere dou prince Borgne et filluell dou conte de Triple"[1278].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her "Ysabel", naming her father and specifying that she was his only daughter when recording her (second) marriage[1279].  She married thirdly (1220) as his second wife, Vahram Lord of Korikos Marshal of Armenia.  The Lignages d'Outremer record that, after the appointment of "Constantin le Connétable" as "baile", "le prince Rupin quitta Antioche et partit pour Korykos" with his mother whom he married to "Vahram le maréchal" (who repudiated his legitimate wife) and sent her "chez son frère Léon, seigneur de Berdak et de Mawxrot"[1280].  She was exiled, her son put in prison, and her third husband murdered on the orders of the regent Kostandin Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethumid][1281]

b)         SHAHANSHAH (before 1165[1282]-murdered May 1193).  Adontz names "Vasil, Shahinshah et Tornik" as the three children of Tchordouanel & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their paternal grandmother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1283].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon arranged the marriage of "Schahenscah [l'autre fils de Tchordouanel]" and "la fille cadette de Roupen, Philippa qui vivait auprès de [Ritha] mère de Léon" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][1284].  Vardan's History records that "the grandson of Vigen, Shahnshah, the nephew (sister's son) of the katoghikos" captured "the fortress…Tardzean" in [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185] but that it was recaptured from him[1285].  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records the death "tous les deux dans le meme mois que leur oncle" of "les grands princes, fils de la sr du catholicos, Hethoum et Shahenschah", stating that it was rumoured that Lewon was behind their deaths[1286]m ([early Feb] 1189, not consummated) as her first husband, PHILIPPA of Armenia, daughter of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] & his wife Isabelle of Toron (1183-before 1219).  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Lewon arranged the marriage of "Schahenscah [l'autre fils de Tchordouanel]" and "la fille cadette de Roupen, Philippa qui vivait auprès de [Ritha] mère de Léon" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][1287].  She married secondly (24 Nov 1214, repudiated 1216) as his second wife, Theodoros I Emperor in Nikaia.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis et Phelippe" as the two daughters of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that Philippa was wife of "Lascre" and had a son "Costans qui fu mort"[1288]Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "King Lewon…previously had…made marriage relations with Emperor Lascari and gave to him as a wife Philippa, the daughter of his brother Ruben" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][1289]

c)         TORNIK .  Adontz names "Vasil, Shahinshah et Tornik" as the three children of Tchordouanel & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their paternal grandmother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1290]

3.         KATA (-1166).  Adontz names "Grégoire, Cordvanel (d. 1165), Kata (d. 1166), et Vasak" as the four children of Vigen & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their mother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1291]

4.         VASAK .  Adontz names "Grégoire, Cordvanel (d. 1165), Kata (d. 1166), et Vasak" as the four children of Vigen & his wife, stating that this information is taken from an evangile ordered by their mother Meliksti in 1169 in memory of her daughter Kata[1292]

 

 



[1] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) 44, p. 192. 

[2] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), p. 61.

[3] Chamich, M. (1827), Avdall, J. (trans.) History of Armenia 2 Vols. (Calcutta), Vol. I, Preface, pp. xxix-xxx.  

[4] Saint-Martin, A. J. (trans.) (1841) Histoire d´Arménie par le patriarche Jean VI dit Jean Catholicos (Paris) ("Jean VI Catholicos"). 

[5] Chamich (1827), Vol. I, Preface, pp. xxx-xxxi. 

[6] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1985) The History of Vardapet Aristakes Lastivertci regarding the sufferings occasioned by foreign peoples living around us (New York). 

[7] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris). 

[8] Chamich (1827), Vol. I, Preface, pp. xxxi. 

[9] Brosset, M. (1876) Collection d´historiens arméniens, Tome II (St Petersburg), Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques

[10] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1986) History of the Armenians by Kirakos Ganjaketsi (New York). 

[11] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey). 

[12] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle (Venice Manuscript) (New Jersey). 

[13] Available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[14] Recueil des historiens des croisades. Documents Arméniens Vol. 1 and 2 (Paris, 1869 and 1906). 

[15] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II (New Jersey). 

[16] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) Recueil des historiens des croisades. Documents Arméniens Vol. 1 (Paris), pp. 471-90. 

[17] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck). 

[18] Tisserand, E. (ed.) (1927) Codices Armeni Bibliothecæ Vaticanæ (Borgiani, Barberiniani, Vaticani) (Rome). 

[19] Alishan, L. M. (1885-1899) Sissouan ou l'Arméno Cilicie (Venice). 

[20] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 69. 

[21] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Arab Invasions and the Rise of the Bagratuni (640-884)', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 130. 

[22] Chahnazarian, G. V. (trans.) (1856) Histoire des conquêtes des Arabes en Arménie par Ghevond Vardabed (Paris), p. 146.  (Information supplied by Jean-Claude Chuat in a private email to the author dated 31 Jul 2008).  

[23] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 69. 

[24] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 421. 

[25] Garsoïan 'The Arab Invasions…', Hovannisian (2004), pp. 133 and 136. 

[26] Samuel of Ani's Armenian Chronicle, cited in Garsoïan (2004), p. 136. 

[27] Garsoïan (2004), p. 137. 

[28] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 421.   

[29] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 69. 

[30] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 140-1. 

[31] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1991) Juansher's Concise History of the Georgians ("Georgian Chronicle (13th century)") (New York) 16, p. 99. 

[32] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 71. 

[33] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 427.   

[34] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 71. 

[35] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Independent Kingdoms of Medieval Armenia', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 146. 

[36] Garsoïan (2004), p. 150. 

[37] Jean VI Catholicos, XX, pp. 130 and 132. 

[38] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 269. 

[39] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[40] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 268. 

[41] Samuel of Ani's Armenian Chronicle, cited in Garsoïan (2004), p. 136. 

[42] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, pp. 71-2. 

[43] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 142 and 146. 

[44] Garsoïan (2004), p. 147. 

[45] Garsoïan (2004), p. 148. 

[46] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 265. 

[47] Jean VI Catholicos, XX, p. 129. 

[48] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, pp. 72-3. 

[49] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 73. 

[50] Garsoïan (2004), p. 151. 

[51] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 154-5. 

[52] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 155-6. 

[53] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 156-8. 

[54] Jean VI Catholicos, LXXIII and LXXIV, pp. 232-3. 

[55] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 192 and 193. 

[56] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 435.   

[57] Jean VI Catholicos, XXIX, pp. 166-7. 

[58] Jean VI Catholicos, XXX, p. 169. 

[59] Garsoïan (2004), p. 154. 

[60] Jean VI Catholicos, XX, pp. 130 and 132. 

[61] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 191. 

[62] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXIII, p. 176. 

[63] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 75. 

[64] Jean VI Catholicos, CV, p. 269. 

[65] Garsoïan (2004), p. 159. 

[66] Jean VI Catholicos, CXXX, p. 301. 

[67] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXIII, p. 176. 

[68] Jean VI Catholicos, LX, p. 217. 

[69] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXIII, p. 176. 

[70] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 75. 

[71] Jean VI Catholicos, XLI, p. 191. 

[72] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXIII, p. 174. 

[73] Jean VI Catholicos, XXIX, pp. 168-9. 

[74] Jean VI Catholicos, LX, p. 217. 

[75] Jean VI Catholicos, XXIX, p. 168. 

[76] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXVII, p. 183. 

[77] Jean VI Catholicos, XX, pp. 130 and 132. 

[78] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXV, p. 182. 

[79] Jean VI Catholicos, CXIII, p. 290. 

[80] Jean VI Catholicos, XX, pp. 130 and 132. 

[81] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXVI, p. 182. 

[82] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 435.   

[83] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 157 and 159-60. 

[84] Jean VI Catholicos, XXIX, p. 168. 

[85] Adontz, N. (1965) Etudes arméno-byzantines (Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 211 (first published in Byzantion 1934, 1935, 1936). 

[86] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 24, in Brosset, M. F. (ed.) (1876) Collection d´historiens arméniens: dix ouvrages sur l´histoire de l´Arménie (St Petersburg), p. 238, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, pp. 211-2. 

[87] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 212. 

[88] Jean VI Catholicos, XXVIII, p. 161. 

[89] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 214.  

[90] Jean VI Catholicos, XVIII, p. 127. 

[91] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 75. 

[92] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 191. 

[93] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 435.   

[94] Garsoïan (2004), p. 163. 

[95] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 435.   

[96] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 78. 

[97] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris) ("Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier)"), I, XV, p. 14, quoted in Garsoïan (2004), p. 165-6. 

[98] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 79. 

[99] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 7. 

[100] Garsoïan (2004), p. 167. 

[101] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 7. 

[102] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 7. 

[103] Garsoïan (2004), p. 166. 

[104] Garsoïan (2004), p. 166. 

[105] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 7. 

[106] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 441.   

[107] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 80. 

[108] Garsoïan (2004), p. 170. 

[109] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, VIII, p. 6. 

[110] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 80. 

[111] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), note 4, p. 376. 

[112] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, IX, p. 7. 

[113] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, IX, p. 7. 

[114] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, pp. 8-9. 

[115] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 80. 

[116] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, VIII, p. 6. 

[117] Aristakes Lastivert ci 2, p. 16. 

[118] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LVI, p. 68. 

[119] Aristakes Lastivertci 10, p. 50. 

[120] Garsoïan (2004), p. 191. 

[121] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LVI, p. 68. 

[122] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 16. 

[123] "Anonyma 110" in PBW (2006.2), citing Skylitzes 385.38. 

[124] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 445.   

[125] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 16. 

[126] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, pp. 8-9. 

[127] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, VIII and X, pp. 6 and 8. 

[128] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LIII, p. 64. 

[129] Aristakes Lastivertci 10, p. 50. 

[130] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LIII, p. 64. 

[131] Aristakes Lastivertci 10, p. 54. 

[132] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, pp. 82-3. 

[133] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LIX and LX, pp. 70-1. 

[134] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 191-2.  

[135] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LXII and LXV, pp. 72 and 76-7. 

[136] Binayan Carmona, N. 'Una princesa Armenia en Compostela en el siglo XI: su genealogía', Estudios Genealógicos, Heráldicos y Nobiliarios, en honor de Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (Hidalguía, Madrid, 1978), 2 vols, Vol. 1, pp. 131-153, 140. 

[137] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 84. 

[138] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 95. 

[139] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 73. 

[140] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, pp. 92-3. 

[141] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXIX, pp. 183-4. 

[142] Hethum II's Chronicle 525 A.E. [2 Mar 1076/1 Mar 1077]. 

[143] RHC Documents arméniens Vol. 1, p. 471 footnote 2. 

[144] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 41. 

[145] Aristakes Lastivertci 10, p. 61. 

[146] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXIX, p. 184. 

[147] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 41. 

[148] Aristakes Lastivertci 17, p. 109. 

[149] Jean VI Catholicos, XVIII, p. 126. 

[150] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 20, pp. 220-1, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 205. 

[151] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 214.  

[152] Jean VI Catholicos, XVIII, p. 127. 

[153] Pseudo-Šapouh, p. 49, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 215.  The edition of the work named in this citation has not been identified, but it is also reproduced in Thomson, R. W. (trans.) Revue des etudes arméniennes, Vol. XXI, 1988-89, pp. 171-232. 

[154] Jean VI Catholicos, XVIII, p. 127. 

[155] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 20, p. 228, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 207. 

[156] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 24, p. 238, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, pp. 211-2. 

[157] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 28, 29, pp. 245-8 and 249, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, pp. 207 and 208. 

[158] Jean VI Catholicos, XXVIII, p. 160. 

[159] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 20, p. 228, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 207. 

[160] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXV, p. 181. 

[161] Garsoïan (2004), p. 159. 

[162] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, VIII, p. 6. 

[163] Garsoïan (2004), p. 163. 

[164] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 20, p. 228, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 207. 

[165] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXV, p. 181. 

[166] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 205. 

[167] Jean VI Catholicos, XXXV, p. 178. 

[168] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, VIII, p. 6. 

[169] Garsoïan (2004), p. 163. 

[170] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 441.   

[171] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 441.   

[172] Garsoïan (2004), p. 166. 

[173] Garsoïan (2004), p. 167. 

[174] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 441.   

[175] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XIV, p. 14. 

[176] Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 441.   

[177] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, VIII, p. 6. 

[178] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXII, pp. 36-7. 

[179] Garsoïan (2004), p. 166. 

[180] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 198. 

[181] Garsoïan (2004), p. 190. 

[182] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXVII, p. 41. 

[183] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXIX, p. 44. 

[184] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 14. 

[185] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXVIII, p. 43. 

[186] Aristakes Lastivertci 10, p. 61. 

[187] Aristakes Lastivertci 3, p. 19. 

[188] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XLVI, p. 52. 

[189] Aristakes Lastivertci 10, p. 61. 

[190] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 104. 

[191] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXVIII, p. 43. 

[192] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XLVI, p. 52. 

[193] Aristakes Lastivertci 14, p. 89. 

[194] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 14, 508 A.E. [1059]. 

[195] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXIV, p. 111. 

[196] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CIII, p. 166. 

[197] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXIX, p. 184. 

[198] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXVIII, p. 43. 

[199] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 14, 508 A.E. [1059]. 

[200] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXIV, p. 111. 

[201] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CIII, p. 166. 

[202] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXIX, p. 184. 

[203] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXXVIII, p. 43. 

[204] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, pp. 101 and 103. 

[205] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXV (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), Liber XVII, XI, col. 172. 

[206] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 336. 

[207] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LXIII, pp. 73-4. 

[208] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LXIII, pp. 73-5. 

[209] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXIX, p. 183. 

[210] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LXIII, pp. 73-5. 

[211] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, LXIII, pp. 73-4. 

[212] Garsoïan (2004), p. 166. 

[213] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, X, p. 8. 

[214] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 33. 

[215] Garsoïan (2004), p. 192. 

[216] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXVIII, pp. 125-6. 

[217] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 84. 

[218] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 95. 

[219] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXIX, p. 184. 

[220] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 203. 

[221] Garsoïan (2004), p. 137. 

[222] Garsoïan (2004), p. 137. 

[223] Garsoïan (2004), p. 140. 

[224] Saint-Martin, A. J. (trans.) (1841) Histoire d´Arménie par le patriarche Jean VI dit Jean Catholicos (Paris), p. 67, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 204.  

[225] Thomas Arcrouni Histoire III, 20, in Brosset, M. F. (ed.) (1876) Collection d´historiens arméniens: dix ouvrages sur l´histoire de l´Arménie (St Petersburg), pp. 220-1, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 205. 

[226] Jean VI Catholicos, XXVIII, p. 161. 

[227] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 211. 

[228] Histoire de Jean Catholicos, p. 67, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 204.  

[229] Jean VI Catholicos, XXVIII, p. 161. 

[230] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 205.  

[231] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 183. 

[232] Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 212. 

[233] Jean VI Catholicos, XXVIII, p. 161. 

[234] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 183. 

[235] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 183. 

[236] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 183. 

[237] Garsoïan (2004), pp. 154-5. 

[238] Reiske, J. J. (ed.) (1829) Constantini Porphyrogeniti Imperatoris De Ceremoniis Aulæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), XXIV, p. 138. 

[239] Pseudo-Šapouh, p. 49, cited in Adontz (1965) ´Les Taronites en Arménie et à Byzance´, p. 215.  The edition of the work named in this citation has not been identified, but it is also reproduced in Thomson, R. W. (trans.) Revue des etudes arméniennes, Vol. XXI, 1988-89, pp. 171-232. 

[240] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 189. 

[241] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 189.  

[242] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, V, col. 150. 

[243] Adontz, N. (1965) Etudes arméno-byzantines (Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites: réponse au R. P. V. Laurent´, pp. 341-2 (first published in Byzantion 1939).  

[244] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites: réponse au R. P. V. Laurent´, p. 339. 

[245] Adontz (1965) ´Observations sur la généalogie des Taronites: réponse au R. P. V. Laurent´, p. 339. 

[246] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 184. 

[247] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Byzantine Annexation of the Armenian Kingdoms in the Eleventh Century', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 189. 

[248] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, pp. 184-5. 

[249] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 186. 

[250] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, pp. 184-5. 

[251] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 187. 

[252] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 190. 

[253] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 190. 

[254] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 190. 

[255] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Theophanes Continuatus De Constantino Porphyrogenito 2, p. 437. 

[256] Cedrenus II, col. 58. 

[257] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Ceremoniis Aulæ Byzantinæ, I, 96, p. 435. 

[258] Theophanes Continuatus De Constantino Porphyrogenito 2, p. 437. 

[259] Cedrenus II, col. 58. 

[260] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 43, p. 191. 

[261] Aristakes Lastivertci 2, p. 7. 

[262] Garsoïan (2004), p. 166. 

[263] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, X, p. 8. 

[264] Matthew of Edessa, I, XV, p. 14, quoted in Garsoïan (2004), p. 165-6. 

[265] Vardan 61. 

[266] Vardan 61. 

[267] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 317. 

[268] Vardan 61. 

[269] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[270] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXX, p. 185. 

[271] Vardan 61. 

[272] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[273] Vardan 61. 

[274] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[275] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 317. 

[276] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 328 and 329. 

[277] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXVIII, p. 121. 

[278] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[279] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 311. 

[280] Vardan 56. 

[281] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 328 and 329. 

[282] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXVIII, p. 121. 

[283] Vardan 56. 

[284] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXVIII, p. 121. 

[285] Defrémery, M. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite du Tarikhi guzideh', Journal Asiatique, 4.XI (Paris 1848), Chapter 4.6, pp. 436-7. 

[286] Defrémery 'Histoire des Seldjoukides…' (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 432. 

[287] Defrémery 'Histoire des Seldjoukides…' (1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 459. 

[288] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 329. 

[289] Vardan 61. 

[290] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[291] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[292] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[293] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[294] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[295] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[296] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[297] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[298] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[299] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[300] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[301] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[302] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXVI, p. 194. 

[303] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXVI, p. 194. 

[304] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXVI, p. 194. 

[305] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XIV, p. 14. 

[306] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXVI, p. 194. 

[307] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXVI, p. 194. 

[308] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, CXXVI, p. 194. 

[309] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 192. 

[310] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 192. 

[311] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 192. 

[312] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 194. 

[313] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, pp. 192 and 194. 

[314] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, pp. 193-4. 

[315] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 194. 

[316] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 44, p. 195. 

[317] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 125. 

[318] Vardan 82. 

[319] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 125. 

[320] Vardan 82. 

[321] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 125. 

[322] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[323] Vardan 82. 

[324] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[325] Vardan 83, 659 A.E. [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]. 

[326] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 8, p. 149. 

[327] Vardan 83, 659 A.E. [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]. 

[328] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 8, p. 149. 

[329] Vardan 83, 659 A.E. [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]. 

[330] Vardan 93, 700 A.E. (error for 710 A.E.) [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]. 

[331] Vardan 93, 700 A.E. (error for 710 A.E.) [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]. 

[332] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[333] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 127. 

[334] Vardan 83, 659 A.E. [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]. 

[335] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 8, p. 149. 

[336] Vardan 88, 699 A.E. [19 Jan 1250/17 Jan 1251]. 

[337] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 127. 

[338] Vardan 82. 

[339] Vardan 83, 663 A.E. [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215]. 

[340] Vardan 83, 663 A.E. [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215]. 

[341] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 2, p. 116. 

[342] Vardan 83, 659 A.E. [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]. 

[343] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[344] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[345] Vardan 83. 

[346] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[347] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[348] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[349] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[350] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[351] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[352] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[353] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 4, p. 126. 

[354] According to Samuel d'Ani, he died aged 70, according to Tchamitch aged 60, both cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49, 1. 

[355] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 47. 

[356] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) I.LVII, p. 100.  See also Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 73. 

[357] Hethum II's Chronicle 530 A.E. [2 Mar 1081/1 Mar 1082]. 

[358] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 131. 

[359] RHC Documents arméniens Vol. 1, p. 471 footnote 3. 

[360] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, pp. 94-5. 

[361] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), Table I, estimates Kostand's birth date range as [1040/45].  This appears early considering the reports of the age of his father Rupen when he died, see above. 

[362] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.II, p. 30. 

[363] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.XII, p. 47. 

[364] Hethum II's Chronicle 540 A.E. [Feb 1090/Feb 1091]. 

[365] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 131. 

[366] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), Table I. 

[367] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 197. 

[368] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 48, 546 A.E. 

[369] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.II, p. 33. 

[370] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, pp. 197-

[371] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.XII, pp. 47 and 48. 

[372] RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I, Extrait de la Chronographie de Samuel Ani ("Samuel d'Ani"), p. 448. 

[373] Hethum II's Chronicle 551 A.E. [24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103]. 

[374] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 131. 

[375] Kemal ed Din, Chronicle of Aleppo, RHC, Documents Orientaux III, 1205, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49. 

[376] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.XII, p. 47. 

[377] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 131. 

[378] Samuel d'Ani, p. 448. 

[379] Hethum II's Chronicle 551 A.E. [24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103]. 

[380] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 196. 

[381] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 130. 

[382] Bournoutian, Ani Atamian 'Cilician Armenia', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 278. 

[383] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[384] Hethum II's Chronicle 551 A.E. [24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103]. 

[385] Samuel d'Ani, p. 451. 

[386] Vahram of Edessa, p. 500. 

[387] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[388] Samuel d'Ani, 578 (17 Feb 1129/16 Feb 1130), p. 451. 

[389] Inscriptions Cilicie 34, p. 14. 

[390] WT XIV.III, p. 609. 

[391] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[392] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.XII, p. 47. 

[393] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 131. 

[394] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), Table I. 

[395] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.XII, p. 47. 

[396] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 131. 

[397] Iskenderian 'Die Kreuzfahrer und die armenischen Nachbarfürstentümer', Ter Gregorian I (Leipzig, 1915), cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49, 6. 

[398] Boase, T. S. R. (1978) The Cilician Kingdom of Armenia (Edinburgh & London), p. 10. 

[399] Hethum II's Chronicle 551 A.E. [24 Feb 1102/23 Feb 1103]. 

[400] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 183. 

[401] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 200-1. 

[402] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[403] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 201-2. 

[404] Hethum II's Chronicle 586 A.E. [13 Feb 1137/14 Feb 1138]. 

[405] Grégoire CIV, pp. 152-3. 

[406] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[407] Samuel d'Ani, p. 451. 

[408] Histoire de Normandie par Orderic Vital, Tome IV, Guizot, M. (1827) Collection des mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France (Paris), Book XI, p. 235. 

[409] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1904) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) (Supplement) 114b p. 8. 

[410] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49, 6 bis

[411] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49, 6 bis

[412] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49, 6 bis

[413] WT XII.I, pp. 511-2. 

[414] ES III 625. 

[415] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 49, 6 bis

[416] WT XX.XXVI, p. 990. 

[417] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[418] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, 11. 

[419] WT XX.XXVI, p. 990. 

[420] Sempad, 619 (7 Feb 1170/6 Feb 1171). p. 624. 

[421] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[422] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[423] Matthew of Edessa (RHC) II.LXXIII, p. 116. 

[424] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 129. 

[425] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, 15. 

[426] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, 15, citing "Iskenderian (81)", which has not been sufficient to identify where to find this source. 

[427] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 202.  The punishment of blinding, practised throughout the eastern Mediterranean area during the medieval period, was inflicted because blindness was considered an impediment to ruling and therefore constituted an effective way of disempowering an opponent short of killing him, although many did succumb as a result of the treatment. 

[428] Vahram of Edessa, p. 500. 

[429] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[430] Grégoire le Prêtre CXIII, p. 167. 

[431] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[432] Grégoire le Prêtre CXIII, p. 167. 

[433] Hethum II's Chronicle 593 A.E. [14 Feb 1144/13 Feb 1145]. 

[434] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332.  

[435] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 346. 

[436] WT XVIII.X, pp. 834, 848. 

[437] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351. 

[438] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5. 

[439] Hethum, 606 (10 Feb 1157/9 Feb 1158), p. 475. 

[440] Samuel d'Ani, p. 455. 

[441] Hethum II's Chronicle 606 A.E. [10 Feb 1157/9 Feb 1158]. 

[442] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[443] ES II 177. 

[444] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, citing presumably Tschamitchan, M. History of Armenia I/II (Calcutta, 1827). 

[445] WT XV.XIX, p. 689. 

[446] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[447] Sempad, 600, p. 620. 

[448] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[449] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WTC”) XXV, XIX. 

[450] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1968) 'L'Empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), p. 132. 

[451] Sempad, 619 (7 Feb 1170/6 Feb 1171). p. 624. 

[452] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 132. 

[453] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 135. 

[454] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1847) Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis, The Chronicle of the reigns of Henry II and Richard I 1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict of Peterborough (London) (“Benedict of Peterborough”) I 1183, p. 261.   

[455] Sempad, 619 (7 Feb 1170/6 Feb 1171). p. 624. 

[456] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[457] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 389. 

[458] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 136. 

[459] Vahram of Edessa, p. 500. 

[460] Grégoire le Prêtre CXVII, p. 178. 

[461] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[462] Vahram of Edessa, p. 500. 

[463] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[464] RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I, Extrait du Chronique de Grégoire le Prêtre ("Grégoire le Prêtre") CXXXIII, p. 200. 

[465] WT XX.XXV, p. 988, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 392-3. 

[466] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, 14. 

[467] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[468] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 331. 

[469] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[470] Hethum II's Chronicle 606 A.E. [10 Feb 1157/9 Feb 1158]. 

[471] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 389-90. 

[472] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 588. 

[473] Hethum II's Chronicle 613 A.E. [9 Feb 1164/8 Feb 1165]. 

[474] Sempad 624 (6 Feb 1175/5 Feb 1176), p. 625. 

[475] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 136. 

[476] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 50, 14, citing Bar Hebraeus and El Athair (307), Mleh was described as "brother-in-law of Gregorios IV" kathotigos, who was the son of this couple. 

[477] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 101, 658 A.E [28 Jan 1209/27 Jan 1210]. 

[478] Vahram of Edessa, p. 500. 

[479] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[480] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 214. 

[481] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[482] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[483] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 132. 

[484] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 331. 

[485] Grégoire le Prêtre CXV, p. 172. 

[486] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 315. 

[487] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 135. 

[488] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 364-5. 

[489] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 320. 

[490] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 1, p. 100. 

[491] Samuel d'Ani, p. 454. 

[492] Grégoire le Prêtre CXXXIII, p. 200. 

[493] Sempad, 615, p. 622. 

[494] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 136. 

[495] Vartan, p. 438. 

[496] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 91. 

[497] Sempad, 624 (6 Feb 1175/5 Feb 1176), p. 625, which specifies that he was his father's older son. 

[498] Hethum II's Chronicle 613 A.E. [9 Feb 1164/8 Feb 1165]. 

[499] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 133. 

[500] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 419. 

[501] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 422. 

[502] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 133, Vartan, p. 438, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 430. 

[503] Hethum II's Chronicle 635 A.E. [3 Feb 1186/2 Feb 1187]. 

[504] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 51, 25. 

[505] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 136. 

[506] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, pp. 65 and 66, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 91. 

[507] Sempad, 630, p. 627. 

[508] Sempad, 630 (4 Feb 1181/3 Feb 1182), p. 627. 

[509] Sempad, 638, p. 629. 

[510] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 91. 

[511] WTC XXVI.XXV, p. 213. 

[512] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 89. 

[513] Sempad, 643 (1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195), p. 632. 

[514] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 99.  

[515] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 137. 

[516] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 171. 

[517] The date when his father died. 

[518] Sempad, 638 (3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190), p. 629. 

[519] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 87-8. 

[520] Sempad, 638 (3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190), p. 630, which says it was suspected that Leo II caused his death. 

[521] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 90. 

[522] Sempad, 638, p. 629. 

[523] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[524] Sempad, 647, p. 640. 

[525] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 102, 665 A.E [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[526] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[527] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), pp. 87-8. 

[528] Vartan, p. 438. 

[529] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 91. 

[530] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.L, p. 115. 

[531] Samuel d'Ani, 668 (26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220), p. 459.  The chronicler does not give the precise date of the king's death. 

[532] Vartan, p. 438. 

[533] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 136. 

[534] WTC XXVI.XXV, p. 213. 

[535] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 91. 

[536] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[537] Sempad, 630 (4 Feb 1181/3 Feb 1182), and 631 (4 Feb 1182/3 Feb 1183), p. 627. 

[538] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 460. 

[539] Hethum II's Chronicle 635 A.E. [3 Feb 1186/2 Feb 1187]. 

[540] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 87. 

[541] Hethum II's Chronicle 643 and 644 A.E. [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195 and 1 Feb 1195/31 Jan 1196]. 

[542] Christiansen, E. (1997) The Northern Crusades, 2nd Ed. (Penguin), p. 79. 

[543] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 52, 27. 

[544] Hethum II's Chronicle 646 A.E. [31 Jan 1197/30 Jan 1198]. 

[545] Sempad, 647 (31 Jan 1198/30 Jan 1199), p. 634, Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), pp. 38 and 52, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 90-1.   

[546] Langlois, V. (ed.) (1863) Le Trésor des Chartes d'Arménie (Venice) ("Chartes d´Arménie"), I and II, pp. 105 and 109. 

[547] Hethum II's Chronicle 652 A.E. [30 Jan 1203/29 Jan 1204]. 

[548] Hethum II's Chronicle 656 A.E. [29 Jan 1207/28 Jan 1208]. 

[549] Chartes d'Arménie, VIII and IX, pp. 122 and 124. 

[550] Hethum II's Chronicle 665 A.E. [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[551] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 164. 

[552] Hethum II's Chronicle 668 A.E. [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220]. 

[553] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 137. 

[554] Kirakos Ganjaketsi, pp. 427-8. 

[555] Sempad, 638, p. 629. 

[556] Sempad, 654, p. 642. 

[557] Sempad, 659, p. 643. 

[558] Hethum II's Chronicle 659 A.E. [28 Jan 1210/27 Jan 1211]. 

[559] R. de Mas Latrie (ed.) (1891) Chroniques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi (Paris) (“Amadi”), p. 93. 

[560] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[561] WTC XXXI.VIII, p. 320. 

[562] Sempad, 654, p. 642. 

[563] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 102, 663 A.E [27 Jan 1214/26 Jan 1215]. 

[564] Chartes d'Arménie, VIII and IX, pp. 122 and 124. 

[565] WTC XXXII.XVI, p. 349. 

[566] WTC XXXII.XV, p. 348. 

[567] Chartes d'Arménie, XVIII, p. 141. 

[568] Hethum II's Chronicle 665 A.E. [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[569] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 102, 665 A.E [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[570] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 102, 668 A.E [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1217]. 

[571] Hethum II's Chronicle 670 A.E. [25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222]. 

[572] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 171. 

[573] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 172. 

[574] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, pp. 66-7. 

[575] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 9, p. 152. 

[576] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 173. 

[577] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 67. 

[578] Hethum II's Chronicle 700 A.E. [18 Jan 1251/17 Jan 1252]. 

[579] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 55, 32, and Samuel d'Ani, 671 (25 Jan 1222/24 Jan 1223), p. 461 (the latter not specifying the month). 

[580] Bournoutian, p. 285. 

[581] Vardan 84. 

[582] Hethum II's Chronicle 674 A.E. [24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226]. 

[583] Samuel d'Ani, 674 (24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226), p. 461.  Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 172, says that he was poisoned. 

[584] WTC XXXII.XV, p. 348, and Samuel d'Ani, 677 (24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226), p. 461. 

[585] Samuel d'Ani, 719 (13 Jan 1270/12 Jan 1271), p. 462.  The chronicler does not specify the exact date of the king's death. 

[586] Hethum II's Chronicle 675 A.E. [24 Jan 1226/23 Jan 1227]. 

[587] Chartes d'Arménie, XVIII, p. 141. 

[588] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 253. 

[589] Chartes d'Arménie, XIX, p. 143. 

[590] Hethum II's Chronicle 694 A.E. [20 Jan 1245/19 Jan 1246]. 

[591] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 295 and 297-8. 

[592] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 306-07. 

[593] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 321-3. 

[594] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 64, 107.   

[595] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 139. 

[596] Sempad, 719, p. 652. 

[597] Hethum II's Chronicle 719 A.E. [13 Jan 1270/12 Jan 1271]. 

[598] WTC XXXII.XV, p. 348. 

[599] Chartes d'Arménie, XVIII, p. 141. 

[600] Hethum II's Chronicle 665 A.E. [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[601] Hethum II's Chronicle 670 A.E. [25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222]. 

[602] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 171. 

[603] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 172. 

[604] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, pp. 66-7. 

[605] Kirakos Ganjaketsi 9, p. 152. 

[606] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 173. 

[607] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 67. 

[608] Hethum II's Chronicle 700 A.E. [18 Jan 1251/17 Jan 1252]. 

[609] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 121, 721 A.E [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273]. 

[610] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[611] WTC XXXIV.II, p. 440, although this records the death of the older Bohémond in 1251. 

[612] Hethum II's Chronicle 700 A.E. [18 Jan 1251/17 Jan 1252]. 

[613] Amadi, p. 202. 

[614] Chartes d'Arménie, XX, p. 146. 

[615] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 66, 124. 

[616] Amadi, pp. 276-7. 

[617] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. 'Les Ibelins aux XIIIe et XIVe siècles, Généalogie compilée principalement selon les registres du Vatican', Epeteris tou Kentrou Epistemonikon Ereunon IX, 1977-1979 (Nicosia), reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), p. 135, footnote 59, refers to a Papal solicitation of 26 Mar 1264 ordering him to take his wife back. 

[618] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[619] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXVII, p. 99. 

[620] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. ´Les dispenses matrimoniales accordées à l´Orient Latin selon les Registres du Vatican 1283-1385´, Mélanges de l´Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, Tome 89, no. 1, (1977), Tableau A, 10, p. 60. 

[621] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 67, 125. 

[622] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[623] Hethum II's Chronicle 702 A.E. [17 Jan 1253/16 Jan 1254]. 

[624] Amadi, p. 203. 

[625] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 243. 

[626] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 404. 

[627] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[628] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 139. 

[629] Hethum II's Chronicle 710 A.E. [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]. 

[630] Samuel d'Ani, p. 462. 

[631] Hethum II's Chronicle 705 A.E. [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257]. 

[632] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[633] WTC XXXIV.IX, p. 455. 

[634] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 67, citing Der Nersessian (1945) Armenia and the Byzantine Empire (Harvard), p. 121, and "Han. Ams. 1910 (Mscpt. Jerusalem 1258)". 

[635] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[636] Hethum II's Chronicle 708 A.E. [16 Jan 1259/15 Jan 1260]. 

[637] WTC XXXIV.IX, p. 455. 

[638] Samuel d'Ani, 715 (14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267), p. 461. 

[639] Amadi, p. 208. 

[640] Hethum II's Chronicle 715 A.E. [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267]. 

[641] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 139. 

[642] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[643] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 67, 131. 

[644] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), Table III. 

[645] Samuel d'Ani, p. 462. 

[646] Hethum II's Chronicle 705 A.E. [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257]. 

[647] Sempad, 675, p. 649. 

[648] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[649] Hethum II's Chronicle 711 A.E. [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]. 

[650] WTC XXXIV.IX, p. 455. 

[651] Samuel d'Ani, 715 (14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267), p. 461. 

[652] Amadi, p. 208. 

[653] Hethum, 715, p. 487. 

[654] Hethum II's Chronicle 715  and 717 A.E. [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267] and [14 Jan 1268/12 Jan 1269]. 

[655] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 139. 

[656] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 322 and 332. 

[657] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 67, 129. 

[658] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 139. 

[659] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 332. 

[660] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 121, 721 A.E [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273]. 

[661] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 121, 721 A.E [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273]. 

[662] Chartes d'Arménie, p. 217. 

[663] Chartes d'Arménie, XXVI, p. 154 (French translation of the document in Armenian). 

[664] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 140. 

[665] Samuel d'Ani, p. 463. 

[666] Sempad, 738, p. 653. 

[667] Hethum II's Chronicle 737 A.E. [9 Jan 1288/8 Jan 1289]. 

[668] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[669] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 140. 

[670] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 57. 

[671] Hethum II's Chronicle 711 A.E. [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]. 

[672] Hethum II's Chronicle 734 A.E. [9 Jan 1285/8 Jan 1286]. 

[673] Hethum II's Chronicle 711 A.E. [15 Jan 1262/14 Jan 1263]. 

[674] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 116, 713 A.E [15 Jan 1263/14 Jan 1264]. 

[675] Hethum II's Chronicle 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[676] Hethum II's Chronicle 715 A.E. [14 Jan 1266/13 Jan 1267]. 

[677] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[678] Sempad, 715, p. 652. 

[679] Mélanges Historiques (Paris, 1886), Tome V, Chronique de l'Ile de Chypre par Florio Bustron ("Florio Bustron"), p. 161. 

[680] Hethum II's Chronicle 742 and 745 A. E. [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294] and [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297]. 

[681] Hethum II's Chronicle 745 A.E. [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297]. 

[682] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[683] Samuel d'Ani, p. 465. 

[684] Samuel d'Ani, 746 (6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298), p. 465. 

[685] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 71, 153. 

[686] Samuel d'Ani, 746 (6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298), p. 465. 

[687] Samuel d'Ani, 756 (4 Jan 1307/3 Jan 1308), p. 465. 

[688] Samuel d'Ani, p. 463. 

[689] Mas de Latrie, M. L. (1855) Histoire de l´Ile de Chypre (Paris) Vol. 3, p. 693. 

[690] Hethum II's Chronicle 718 A.E. [13 Jan 1269/12 Jan 1270]. 

[691] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 120, 720 A.E [13 Jan 1271/12 Jan 1272]. 

[692] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[693] Florio Bustron, p. 161. 

[694] Hethum II's Chronicle 719 A.E. [13 Jan 1270/12 Jan 1271]. 

[695] Hethum II's Chronicle 742 and 745 A. E. [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294] and [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297]. 

[696] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 23. 

[697] Hethum II's Chronicle 745 A.E. [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297]. 

[698] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[699] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[700] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 71, 150. 

[701] Sempad, 748, p. 656. 

[702] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIII, pp. 90, 91 and 92. 

[703] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 2, p. 85. 

[704] Hethum II's Chronicle 736 A.E. [9 Jan 1287/8 Jan 1288]. 

[705] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Lusignan 8, p. 167. 

[706] Hethum II's Chronicle 738 A.E. [8 Jan 1289/7 Jan 1290]. 

[707] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, pp. 92 and 93. 

[708] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Lusignan 8, p. 167. 

[709] Samuel d'Ani, 746 (6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298), p. 465. 

[710] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 74, 177. 

[711] Chartes d'Arménie, XXXI, p. 166. 

[712] Samuel d'Ani, pp. 463 and 466. 

[713] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 74, 177. 

[714] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIII, p. 91. 

[715] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Lusignan 8, p. 169. 

[716] Amadi, p. 302. 

[717] Hethum II's Chronicle 721 A.E. [13 Jan 1272/12 Jan 1273]. 

[718] Hethum II's Chronicle 722 A.E. [12 Jan 1273/11 Jan 1274]. 

[719] Hethum II's Chronicle 725 A.E. [12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277]. 

[720] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[721] Samuel d'Ani, 746 (6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298), p. 464. 

[722] Florio Bustron, p. 161. 

[723] Hethum II's Chronicle 745 A.E. [7 Jan 1296/6 Jan 1297].  

[724] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[725] Samuel d'Ani, 746 (6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298), p. 464, which says that Hethum abdicated in his favour. 

[726] Samuel d'Ani, 747 (6 Jan 1298/6 Jan 1299), p. 463. 

[727] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[728] Chronicle of Francesco Amadi, and Chronicle of Diomedes Strambaldi, ed. Mas Latrie (Paris, 1891 and 1893 respectively), cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 71, 151.   

[729] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[730] Hethum II's Chronicle 725 A.E. [12 Jan 1276/11 Jan 1277]. 

[731] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[732] Amadi, p. 240. 

[733] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIII, p. 91. 

[734] Hethum II's Chronicle 742 A.E. [7 Jan 1293/6 Jan 1294]. 

[735] Amadi, p. 302. 

[736] RHC, Documents arméniens, II (1869) Chronique de Jean Dardel (Paris) XXIII, p. 19. 

[737] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[738] Hethum II's Chronicle 726 A.E. [11 Jan 1277/10 Jan 1278]. 

[739] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[740] Samuel d'Ani, p. 464. 

[741] Hethum II's Chronicle 727 A.E. [12 Jan 1278/11 Jan 1279]. 

[742] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[743] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 5, pp. 204 and 206. 

[744] Hethum II's Chronicle 743 A.E. [7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295]. 

[745] Hethum II's Chronicle 727 A.E. [12 Jan 1278/11 Jan 1279]. 

[746] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[747] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 6, p. 206. 

[748] Hethum II's Chronicle 728 A.E. [12 Jan 1279/11 Jan 1280]. 

[749] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[750] Samuel d'Ani, 769 (1 Jan 1320/30 Dec 1320), p. 467, which specifies his place of burial but not exact date of death. 

[751] Hethum II's Chronicle 732 A.E. [10 Jan 1283/9 Jan 1284]. 

[752] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[753] Florio Bustron, p. 161. 

[754] Samuel d'Ani, p. 466. 

[755] Chartes d'Arménie, XXXVI, p. 182. 

[756] Samuel d'Ani, 756 (4 Jan 1307/3 Jan 1308), p. 466. 

[757] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 160 and 160 bis

[758] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 692. 

[759] Samuel d'Ani 758 (3 Jan 1309/2 Jan 1310), pp. 466-7. 

[760] Samuel d'Ani, p. 467. 

[761] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 160. 

[762] Sempad, 759, p. 666. 

[763] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 160. 

[764] Sempad, 765, p. 666. 

[765] Chronique de Jean Dardel XXII, p. 19. 

[766] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 160 bis, citing "Syn. Patr. Or. ct.". 

[767] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 160 bis, citing "Et. Arm. VIII: Colophon written by Oshin".   

[768] Sempad, 759, p. 666. 

[769] Samuel d'Ani, p. 467. 

[770] Chartes d'Arménie, XXXVI, p. 182. 

[771] Samuel d'Ani, 774 (31 Dec 1321/30 Dec 1322), p. 467. 

[772] Chronique de Jean Dardel XXV, p. 21. 

[773] Sempad, 770, p. 667. 

[774] Chronique de Jean Dardel XXIII, p. 19. 

[775] Chronique de Jean Dardel XXIV, p. 20. 

[776] Sempad, 780, p. 671. 

[777] Chronique de Jean Dardel XXIV, p. 20. 

[778] The charter is reproduced, with French translation, at RHC, Documents Arméniens, Vol. I, pp. 759-62. 

[779] Rüdt-Collenberg (1977), Tableau A, 88, p. 74. 

[780] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 77, 200, citing "Alishan Armeno Veneto (60)".   

[781] Chronique de Jean Dardel XXI, p. 18. 

[782] Hethum II's Chronicle 732 A.E. [10 Jan 1283/9 Jan 1284]. 

[783] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[784] Florio Bustron, p. 161. 

[785] Samuel d'Ani, 756 (4 Jan 1307/3 Jan 1308), p. 466. 

[786] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 692. 

[787] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 161. 

[788] Samuel d'Ani, p. 467. 

[789] Sempad, 758 (3 Jan 1309/2 Jan 1310), p. 666. 

[790] Sempad, 758, p. 666. 

[791] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 162, citing Bar Hebræus (527). 

[792] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 72, 163, citing "Orpeliani: Chronicle; Chahnazarian (173); Guy Ibelin (108c) with Kouthlougschah in 1302". 

[793] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 65, 113, citing Codex Borgia 61, Tisserand (1927) Codices Armeni Bibliothecæ Vaticanæ (Borgiani, Barberiniani, Vaticani) (Rome). 

[794] Rymer, Fœdera I, IV, p. 110, quoted in Rüd