ANTIOCH

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                PRINCES of ANTIOCH 1100-1130 (HAUTEVILLE) 3

Chapter 2.                PRINCES of ANTIOCH 1136-1268 (POITIERS) 15

Chapter 3.                VASSALS of the PRINCES of ANTIOCH. 40

A.         LORDS of BOURZEJ [BERZIEH] 40

B.         LORDS of HARENC [HARIM] 40

C.        LORDS of HAZART. 47

D.        LORDS of MARGAT [MARQAB] 49

E.         LORDS of SAHYUN [SAONE] 56

F.         MANSEL. 57

G.        DES ROCHES.. 61

H.        SOURDEVAL. 62

I.      OTHER UNCONNECTED NOBILITY in ANTIOCH.. 64

Chapter 4.                OFFICERS of the PRINCIPALITY of ANTIOCH. 67

A.         CONSTABLES of ANTIOCH.. 68

B.         VICOMTES d´ANTIOCH.. 72

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The town of Antioch on the eastern Mediterranean coast was founded by Seleucus I, ruler of Syria, in 300 B.C.  Although it evolved into the chief city in western Asia, and later under the Roman Empire was known as the third city of the world, its splendour diminished after its sack by the Persians in the 6th century AD.  The town was captured from the Arabs by the forces of Nikephoros Phokas 29 Oct 969, restored to something of its former glory, and retained for just over a century.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Antioch was captured from the Christians by “l´émir Soliman, fils de Koutoulmisch” in “l´année 533 [29 Feb 1084/28 Feb 1085]”[1].  On the death of Suleiman ibn Kutulmish, the city passed to Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah who appointed his relative the Turkoman Yaghi-Siyan as governor: Hamd Allah Mustaufi records that Sultan Malik Shah sent "Baghi-Sian" to Antioch[2] (see the document WEST ASIA and NORTH AFRICA 2).  After the Sultan died, Emir Ridwan of Aleppo became the city´s nominal suzerain.  With the approach of the First Crusade in 1097, many leading Christians were ejected from the city[3].  Antioch was captured by the crusaders, led by Godefroi de Bouillon, Bohémond de Hauteville and Raymond "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse, in June 1098 after an eight month siege.  The Turks in the city, including the Governor, were massacred[4].  Abul-Feda records that "les Francs" invaded Syria in A. H. 491 (1097/98) and captured Antioch from "Yaghi-Sian…Turcoman d'origine et fils de Mohammed ibn Alb-Arslan" in "le mois de djomada premier" (Apr/May 1098) after a nine month siege, adding that he was beheaded by an Armenian[5].  After their successful conquest, the crusader leaders disagreed about who should take charge of Antioch, but eventually Bohémond of Apulia, son of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia, remained in possession and declared himself prince (see Chapter 1). 

 

Prince Bohémond enlarged the territory of his principality by acquiring Edessa and cities in the emirate of Aleppo.  However, his son died without male heirs, leaving the principality of Antioch to his infant daughter.  Her descendants by her first marriage to Raymond de Poitiers continued to rule as princes of Antioch (see Chapter 2).  However, when Prince Bohémond III was held captive by the Armenian ruler Lewon II in the late 1190s, rule over the city was assumed by a citizens' commune.  The Armenians captured Antioch again in 1216, but Prince Bohémond IV regained control three years later.  His successor Prince Bohémond V was obliged to reside at Tripoli from his accession in 1233, as the commune reasserted control over Antioch.  The city was captured by the Mameluks in 1268, although the princes of Antioch continued to rule in Tripoli until 1288. 

 

The male line of the princes of Antioch died out in 1287.  The titular right to the principality of Antioch was inherited by Henri III King of Cyprus, who was descended from the sister of Prince Bohémond VI and was the senior descendant of the family in the female line.  The title must have been considered of minor importance compared with the kingship of Jerusalem, as subsequent references to the Antiochian title are infrequent.  Charlotte Queen of Cyprus (who died in 1487) bequeathed her titular rights to Antioch, as well as those to the kingdoms of Cyprus and Jerusalem, to Charles I Duke of Savoy in her testament. 

 

The Christian principality of Antioch was suzerain over the following lordships within its territory: 

 

  • Harenc (Harim)
  • Margat (Marqab/Mazoer)
  • Sahyun (Saône)
  • Bourzej (Berzieh)
  • Soudin
  • Latakieh (Laodicea)

 

Of these, the lords of Bourzej, Harenc, Margat and Sahyun are shown in Chapter 3 of the present document, together with some other noble families in Antioch who intermarried with the noble families in the other crusader states. 

 

Officers of the principality of Antioch, the constables of Antioch and the vicomtes, are shown in Chapter 4. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    PRINCES of ANTIOCH 1100-1130 (HAUTEVILLE)

 

 

MARCO [Bohémond] of Apulia, son of ROBERT "Guiscard/the Weasel" Duke of Apulia & his first wife Alberada di Buonalberga (1052-Canosa di Puglia, Apulia 6/7 Mar 1111, bur Cathedral of Canosa di Puglia).  The Annals of Romoald name "Boamundum" as the son of Robert "Guiscard" and his first wife[6].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont" as son of "Robert Guichart qui conquest Puille", stating that he was "prince de Tarente" before he was granted Antioch[7].  William of Tyre records "Boamundus" as son of Robert Guiscard in 1097[8].  He inherited the large size and height of his father[9].  His father gave him command of the campaign against Byzantine Illyria in 1081.  He captured Valona, was defeated in a naval battle by the Venetians allied with Byzantium, but then laid siege to Durazzo.  During his father's temporary absence attacking Rome, Bohémond lost most of the conquered territory.  After his father died in 1085, Bohémond fought his half-brother Roger, whom his father had designated as sole heir in Apulia.  Moving southwards from his castle at Tarento, he captured Oria and Otranto, and was able to force peace in return for the grant, not only of Oria and Otranto, but also of Gallipoli, Tarento and Brindisi together with the region between Conversano and Brindisi, with the title Prince of Tarento.  In 1090, Bohémond annexed Bari, but was faced with rebellion by the Count of Conversano and the Lord of Montescaglioso.  As one of the leaders of the First Crusade, he acceptance to swear allegiance to Emperor Alexios I Komnenos in Apr 1097, agreeing that the emperor should become overlord of any new principalities founded by the crusaders and that any land captured which had previously belonged to the empire should be handed back to Byzantium[10].  Albert of Aix records that "Boemundus" swore allegiance to the emperor and agreed not to conquer any territory within the empire without the emperor´s consent[11].  Bohémond played a decisive role in the capture of Antioch 28 Jun 1098, after a siege lasting eight months[12].  Bar Hebræus records that "les Francs" invaded Syria in A. H. 491 (1097/98), captured Antioch from "Yaghi-Sian" in "le mois de djomada premier" (Apr/May 1098) after a nine month siege, and slaughtered the Muslims[13].  The leaders of the crusade disagreed about which of them should control Antioch.  After Raymond "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse finally marched south to continue the crusade in Jan 1099[14], Bohémond remained in possession of Antioch.  He declared himself BOHEMOND I Prince of Antioch in defiance of his oath of allegiance to the emperor.  He was confirmed as Prince of Antioch in Jerusalem at Christmas 1099 by Daibert, newly elected Patriarch of Jerusalem[15], although with doubtful authority as John of Oxeia had been appointed Patriarch of Antioch.  Bohémond enlarged his principality by taking Edessa, but he was captured by the Danishmend Emir Malik Ghazi in 1100 while defending his new acquisition against the Turks[16].  Albert of Aix records that "Gaveras Armenici ducis principis et domini…Malatinam" requested help against "Donimannus quidam princeps Turcorum" from Bohémond Prince of Antioch who was captured with "eiusque propinquo Richardo" and taken to Nixandria, dated to 1100 from the context[17].  Vardan's History records that "Danishman lord of Sebastia, whom they say was of Armenian nationality, came against Melitene" in 1100 and captured "Pemond and Rajard who were at Edessa [and] who came against him"[18].  During his captivity he is said to have had an affair with either the Emir's daughter or one of his wives: Orderic Vitalis recounts how "Melaz, daughter of the Danishmend" helped Prince Bohémond I during his captivity, returned with him to Antioch, was baptised and married his nephew Roger[19], but the story does not appear to be corroborated elsewhere.  He negotiated his release in 1103 for a payment of a ransom of 100, 000 besants, and returned to Antioch where he resumed his position in place of his nephew Tancred who had been installed as regent in his absence[20].  Together with Joscelin de Courtenay, he captured Muslimiye in Summer 1103 and Basarfut in Mar 1104, both in the territory of the emirate of Aleppo[21].  In Summer 1104, the Byzantines recaptured Tarsus, Adana and Mamistra[22].  Faced with these attacks from both the Turks and Byzantium, both of whose interests were threatened by the establishment of the new principality of Antioch on their borders, Bohémond appointed his nephew Tancred as regent in Antioch and returned to Europe for reinforcements in 1104, with a view particularly of attacking Emperor Alexios I[23].  Albert of Aix records the return of "Boemundo" to "Italiam sed et Galliam" to request reinforcements "adversus Alexium regem Græcorum", while Tancred returned to Antioch "vice avunculi sui", dated to 1105 from the context[24].  Albert of Aix records that "Boemundus" returned with reinforcements and arrived at "Valonam", dated to [1107] from the context, besieged Durazzo in the Spring and defeated the emperor [presumably referring to Emperor Alexios I] who marched there to relieve the city, a subsequent passage stating that the siege lasted one year and that "Wido filius sororis Boemundi, Willelmus Claret et ceteri" tried to persuade Bohémond to lift the siege before the latter left and returned to Apulia[25].  With English, French and Papal support, he marched on Byzantium but was defeated at Avlona near Durazzo in Oct 1107.  Emperor Alexios confirmed Bohémond as Prince of Antioch, but obliged him to accept Byzantine suzerainty under the Treaty of Devol in 1108[26].  Bohémond lived the remaining years of his life in Apulia.  Albert of Aix records that "Boemundus avunculus Tancredi" died at Bari and was buried "Beati Nicolai" at the time Emperor Heinrich V was attacking Rome[27]

m (Chartres [25 Mar/26 May] 1106) as her second husband, CONSTANCE de France, divorced wife of HUGUES I Comte de Troyes, daughter of PHILIPPE I King of France & his first wife Bertha of Holland ([1078]-14 Sep 1126[28]).  William of Tyre names her, and her father, when he records her marriage[29].  Orderic Vitalis records that King Philippe married “Constantiam...filiam suam” firstly to “Hugonis Trecassino comiti” and secondly to “duci Antiochiæ Buamundo apud Carnotum[30].  Suger's Vita Ludovici records the marriage of "Antiochenum principem Boamundum" and "domini Ludovici…sororem Constantiam" at Chartres, mentioning her previous marriage to "comitem Trecensem Hugonem"[31].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costance la fille le roy de Franche" as wife of "Beymont" son of "Robert Guichart qui conquest Puille"[32].  Constance's second marriage was arranged by Adela Ctss de Blois while Prince Bohémond was in France canvassing support against Byzantium.  After her marriage, she remained with her husband in Apulia and never visited Palestine[33].  She was regent for her son in Italy after the death of her husband[34].  She claimed the title "Queen" as daughter of the king of France.  The Romoaldi Annales record that "regina Constancia" was captured by "comite Alexandro et Grimoaldo Barense in Umenatia civitate" and taken to Bari in Aug, dated to 1119[35].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "reginam Boamundi" was freed from Bari in 1120, after the intercession of Pope Calixtus II[36]

Prince Bohémond & his wife had two sons:

1.         BOHEMOND ([1107/08]-killed in battle near Anazarbus, Cilicia Feb 1130).  His parentage is recorded by William of Tyre and Orderic Vitalis, the latter specifying that his mother brought him up at Tarento[37].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont" as the son of "Beymont" son of "Robert Guichart qui conquest Puille" & his wife[38].  He was invested as BOHEMOND II Prince of Antioch in Oct 1126 by Baudouin II King of Jerusalem. 

-        see below

2.         JEAN ([1108/11]-Apulia [1115/20]).  Fulcher of Chartres records that Prince Bohémond and Constance "duos filios habuit", specifying that Bohémond was the older son[39].  Suger's Vita Ludovici records that "Antiochenum principem Boamundum" & his wife had two sons (in order) "Johannem et Boamundum", and specifies that Jean died in Apulia "ante annos militiæ"[40]

 

 

ODO [Guglielmo] "le Bon", son of --- (-after 1085).  Marchese.  Orderic Vitalis records that Tancred was the son of "Odonis boni marchisi"[41].  William of Tyre, on the other hand, records Tancred as "Tancredus Willelmi marchionis filius"[42]"Tancrede figliolo di Vuillermo Marchion" is also recorded in Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese[43]He is simply called "Marchisum" in the Gesta Tancredi, which states that Tancred was "a patre quidem haud ignobilis filius"[44]Tudebodus Imitatus refers to the father of Tancred as "qui Marchusus dictus est"[45].  His sons are consistently referred to as "Marchisi filius" in contemporary chronicles concerning the First Crusade.  These references suggest that he was alive at the time and, because he is referred to without a name, that he was such a well-known figure as to be recognisable only by his title.  The illustrious marriage of Tancred son of "the Marquis" to the daughter of Philippe I King of France in 1106 is also best explained if the bridegroom had good family connections on his father's as well as his mother's side of the family.  The names "Guglielmo" and "Odo" suggest a family relationship with the northern Italian family of the Marchesi di Monferrato, although it is not known what connections they may have had with southern Italy.  Pushing this speculation further, the name of the first wife of Guglielmo [III] Marchese di Ravenna, the father of Ranieri Marchese di Monferrato, is unknown.  Assuming that his connection with southern Italy could be proved, it is not impossible that Guglielmo married firstly Emma daughter of Robert "Guiscard" and was father by her of Tancred.  The highly speculative nature of these conjectures must be emphasised.  However, no other contemporary marchese Guglielmo or Odo has so far been identified in records relating to either northern or southern Italy.  Orderic Vitalis records that Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia summoned "Odon the Marquis", among others, to his deathbed in 1085[46], which also gives some indication of the relative importance of Odo/Guglielmo in contemporary southern Italy. 

m EMMA of Apulia, daughter of ROBERT "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia & [his first wife Alberada di Buonalberga] ([1045/55]-).  She is named Emma in the Gesta Tancredi and by Tudebodus Imitatus, both of whom state that she was the sister of Robert "Guiscard"[47].  Orderic Vitalis also says that she was the sister of Robert "Guiscard" but does not name her[48].  Albert of Aix names her son "Tancredus filius sororis Boemundi"[49].  William of Tyre records "Tancredus" as "ex sorore nepos" of Robert Guiscard[50].  Guibert, on the other hand, refers to "Tancredum, Marchionis cujusdam ex Boemundi, nisi fallor, sorore filium, cujus frater cum Hugone Magno præcesserat cui Guillelmus erat vocabulum, et quemdam qui dicebatur de priima civitate Richardum nominatiores agnovimus, virum sane pulchra corporis habitudine spectandum: quem pro Constantia, Boemundi conjuge, ad Franciæ regem vidimus legatione perfunctum"[51]Tancred is described as Bohémond's nephew "so nevolo de una sorella" in Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese[52]Albert of Aix also states consistently that Tancred was the son of Bohémond's sister[53].  Chronologically it is more probable that Emma was the daughter, rather than sister, of Robert "Guiscard".  If she had been his sister, she could not have been born much later than 1030, which appears inconsistent with the likely birth dates of her two sons in the late 1060s/early 1070s.  If she was his daughter, it is unlikely that she could have been born from Robert's second marriage as she would have been too young to have given birth at that time.  It is also possible that Emma was Robert's illegitimate daughter, although this seems improbable if her husband was as illustrious as appears from his title, and also inconsistent with her son marrying the daughter of the king of France. 

Odo & his wife had [four] children:

1.         ALTRUDE (before [1065/70]-).  Albert of Aix records the mother of Roger Prince of Antioch as the sister of Tancred, but does not name her[54].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  If the estimated birth date of her son is correct, Altrude could not have been born later than [1065/70].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[55], Richard's wife was Altrude, daughter of Godofredo Conte di Conversano e Brindisi, but this is inconsistent with Tancred regent of Antioch having appointed his nephew, Richard's son Roger, as his heir.  m ([1080/85]) as his first wife, RICCARDO di Principato Conte di Mottola, Castellaneta e Oria, son of GUILLAUME de Hauteville "Sanicandro" Conte di Principato & his wife Maria di Conza-Salerno ([1053/60]-Spring 1112[56]).  William of Tyre records "Richardus de Principatu filius Guillelmi Ferrebrachia[57] fratris Roberti Guischart, Ranulfus frater eius" among those who accompanied Bohemond on the First Crusade in 1097[58], although the reference to "…Guillelmi Ferrebrachia…" must be incorrect resulting from confusion in the source between the two brothers of Robert "Guiscard" who were both called Guillaume.  "Ricardus de Principatu et Ranulfus frater eius" are also recorded by Orderic Vitalis on the same occasion[59]"Ricardo de Principatu filiolo di Roberto Ferra Brachiu fratel di Roberto Guiscardo" is recorded in Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese[60]According to Europäische Stammtafeln[61], Richard was the son of Drogo de Hauteville Count of Apulia.  His birth date is estimated from the likely marriage date of his parents.  Vardan's History records that "Danishman lord of Sebastia, whom they say was of Armenian nationality, came against Melitene" in 1100 and captured "Pemond and Rajard who were at Edessa [and] who came against him"[62]: it is suggested that "Rajard" was Richard of the Principate.  He was appointed regent in Edessa in 1104 during the captivity of Baudouin II Count of Edessa[63], but Baudouin had to evict him forcibly to regain Edessa in 1108 after his release in 1107[64].  Conte Riccardo & his wife had two children:

a)         ROGER ([before 1085]-killed in battle Tel-Aqibrin 27 Jun 1119).  Albert of Aix records that "Rotgerum…juvenum et militem, filium sororis Tancredi" obtained "principatum…Antiochiæ" after the death of Tancred[65].  Son of Richard of the Principate, according to Orderic Vitalis[66].  Matthew of Edessa specifies that his mother was the sister of Tancred, but does not name her[67].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Roger le fils de Richard qui était le parent de Tancrède" as Tancred's successor[68].  Although there is no indication of the date of his birth, it is likely that Roger was adult when he succeeded as Prince of Antioch in 1112, presumably after accompanying his father to Palestine as a young adolescent.  William of Tyre records that Roger was named by Tancred Prince of Antioch as his heir in 1112, although Tancred made him swear that he would hand Antioch to the infant son of Prince Bohémond I if he came to Palestine[69].  He assumed the title ROGER Prince of Antioch in 1112 on Tancred's death[70].  He was killed by the forces of Najm al-Din Ilghazi ibn Artuk, Turkish emir in north Syria, at the "Ager Sanguinis"[71].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that he was defeated by "les troupes d'Alep" and killed "près de Sermin"[72].  After his death, Baudouin II King of Jerusalem assumed the position of regent of Antioch for the rightful prince Bohémond II, who was still in Toulouse[73].  [m firstly (after [1103]) MELAZ, "daughter of the Danishmend".  Orderic Vitalis recounts how she helped Prince Bohémond I during his captivity, returned with him to Antioch, was baptised and married Roger[74], but the story does not appear to be corroborated elsewhere.]  m [secondly] (1114[75] or after) as her second husband, HODIERNE de Rethel, widow of HERIBRAND [III] de Hierges, daughter of HUGUES I Comte de Rethel & his wife Mélisende de Montlhéry.  William of Tyre records "Hodierna" as second sister of Baudouin II King of Jerusalem, and names her (first) husband and her son Manassès[76].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  According to Fulcher of Chartres, the wife of Prince Roger committed adultery shamelessly with many other men[77].  1126. 

b)         MARIE.  William of Tyre names her father but does not give her own name[78].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her brother Roger Prince of Antioch promised the town of Azaz as her dowry, but Bohémond II Prince of Antioch denounced the agreement[79]m (1121) as his second wife, JOSCELIN I Count of Edessa, son of JOSCELIN [I] Seigneur de Courtenay & his second wife Isabelle de Montlhéry (-[Aleppo] 1131, before Oct 1). 

2.         GUILLAUME ([1070/75]-killed in battle Dorylæum, Asia Minor 1 Jul 1097).  He is called "Guillelmus marchisi filius" by Orderic Vitalis, who states that he embarked at Bari in [1096/97] as part of the First Crusade with Hugues Comte de Vermandois and sailed to Durazzo where they were arrested by the city's governor and sent to the emperor at Constantinople[80].   His birth date range is estimated from the likely birth date range of his sister, the likely date of their parents' marriage, and Guillaume being described by Albert of Aix as "iuvenis…tiro" when he died.  Baudry calls him "Guillelmus Marchisus, Tancred frater" when recording his death[81], which suggests that he had inherited the title "Marquis" from his father and that he was therefore the older brother.  William of Tyre specifies that he was the brother of Tancred when he reports his death at the battle of Dorylaeum against the Turks[82].  Albert of Aix calls him "Willelmus iuvenis audacissimus, tiro pulcherrimus, frater Tancredi" when recording his death[83]

3.         TANCRED ([1070/75]-Antioch 5 Dec 1112, bur Antioch St Peter).  "Tancredus Odonis boni marchisi filius" is recorded by Orderic Vitalis as one of those who left with Bohemond of Apulia on the First Crusade in 1097[84].  William of Tyre names him "Tancredus Willelmi marchionis filius", when recording that he accompanied Bohemond on crusade, as "consanguineus" of Bohémond Prince of Antioch when the latter appointed him regent of Antioch in 1104, and as "nepos" of Bohémond when he discusses his marriage[85].  Albert of Aix records that "Tancredus filius sororis Boemundi" avoided passing through Constantinople after his uncle Bohémond had made peace with the emperor[86].  Albert of Aix provides an indication of his age by calling him "tiro illustris" when recording his departure for Palestine with his uncle[87].  Orderic Vitalis records that, while en route through Cilicia in Sep 1097, Tancred expelled the Turks from Tarsus (from where he was immediately expelled by Baudouin de Boulogne [later Baudouin I King of Jerusalem]), Adana, and Mamistra[88].  Tancred commanded the army of the Normans of Sicily at the siege of Jerusalem (7 Jun 1099 to 15 Jul 1099).  At one point, he broke away from the siege to capture Bethlehem, where he placed a banner on the church of the nativity.  He captured Tiberias in 1099, later conquering the whole of Galilee and the port of Haifa[89].  Tancred declared himself Lord of Tiberias.  In Mar 1101, he left Tiberias to become regent of Antioch during his uncle's absence in prison, on the understanding that if his uncle was released within three years Tancred would be restored in Tiberias by Baudouin I King of Jerusalem[90].  Albert of Aix records that "Tancredus" was made prince of Antioch after the captivity of "Boemundi", dated to 1101 from the context[91].  In order to strengthen the position of the principality of Antioch in case of an eventual attack by Emperor Alexios I, Tancred recaptured Mamistra, Adana and Tarsus in Summer 1101[92].  In early 1102, he incarcerated Raymond "de Saint-Gilles" Comte de Toulouse, who had been captured at Tarsus after his return in disgrace from Constantinople following the battle of Mersivan, and released him only after Raymond swore not to interfere further in affairs in Syria.  In compliance with this oath, Comte Raymond evacuated his garrison from Lattakieh, which Tancred besieged in early Spring 1102 although the siege lasted for nearly a year before the town capitulated[93].  Tancred relinquished authority in Antioch to his uncle after the latter's release from imprisonment in 1103, being rewarded with a small fief within the principality.  Tancred did not return to Tiberias[94].  Albert of Aix records the return of "Boemundo" to "Italiam sed et Galliam" to request reinforcements "adversus Alexium regem Græcorum", while Tancred returned to Antioch "vice avunculi sui", dated to 1105 from the context[95].  Tancred used the title "Dux et Princeps Antiochenus"[96].  He defeated the Turkish forces of Ridwan of Aleppo 20 Apr 1105 and was thereafter able to recapture all the territory lost the previous year[97].  In early 1109, Tancred captured Mamistra from Byzantium.  At the council of crusader rulers outside Tripoli in Jun 1109, Tancred was given back the title "Prince of Galilee", under the suzerainty of Baudouin I King of Jerusalem[98].  In 1110, he captured the castle of the Kurds, which later became Krak of the Knights.  He succeeded his uncle in 1111 as TANCRED Prince of Antioch.  While dying, Tancred made Pons de Toulouse promise to marry his wife, and named his nephew Roger as his heir[99].  Albert of Aix records the death of "Tancredus qui Antiochiæ præerat" and his burial "in basilica beati Petri Apostoli", dated to [1112] from the context[100].  Matthew of Edessa records the death 5 Dec 1112 at Antioch of "Tancrède comte d'Antioch", poisoned, and his burial "dans la principale église de cette ville, à Saint-Pierre"[101].  Bar Hebræus records the death in A.H. 506 (1112/13) of "Basile souverain du pays des Arméniens" and that "le Franc seigneur d'Antioche marcha contre ce pays" but died en route[102]m (late 1106) as her first husband, CECILE de France, daughter of PHILIPPE I King of France & his second wife Bertrade de Montfort ([1097]-after 1145).  The Historia Regum Francorum Monasterii Sancti Dionysii names "Philippum et Florum et filiam unam" as children of "Philippus rex [et] Fulconi Rechin Andagavorum comiti uxorem", specifying that the (unnamed) daughter married "Tanchredus Anthiochenus"[103].  Her parentage is recorded by William of Tyre, who also records her two marriages[104].  Her first marriage was arranged while Bohémond I Prince of Antioch was visiting the French court seeking support against Emperor Alexios I.  She sailed for Antioch at end-1106[105].  She married secondly (Tripoli 1112) Pons Count of Tripoli.  Albert of Aix records the marriage at Tripoli of "Punctus filius Bertrannus de Tripla" and "uxorem Tancredi, quæ filia erat regis Franciæ", dated to [1115] from the context[106].  She became Lady of Tarsus and Mamistra, in Cilician Armenia, in 1126[107]

4.         [GUY (-after 1107).  Albert of Aix records that "Boemundus" returned with reinforcements and arrived at "Valonam", dated to [1107] from the context, besieged Durazzo in the spring and defeated the emperor [presumably referring to Emperor Alexios I] who marched there to relieve the city, a subsequent passage stating that the siege lasted one year and that "Wido filius sororis Boemundi, Willelmus Claret et ceteri" tried to persuade Bohémond to lift the siege before the latter left and returned to Apulia[108].  No proof has been found that the sister of Bohémond to whom this refers was Emma.  However, no reference has been found to Guy being the son of any of his half-sisters (born from the second marriage of Bohémond's father), most of whom are in any case recorded as having married too late to have had an adult son in [1106/07].  It is not impossible that "Wido" in this passage is simply an error for "Tancredus", although no record has been found which suggests that the latter left Antioch during this period.  No other reference to Guy has yet been found.] 

 

 

BOHEMOND of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND I Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance de France ([1107/08]-killed in battle near Anazarbus, Cilicia Feb 1130).  His parentage is recorded by William of Tyre and Orderic Vitalis, the latter specifying that his mother brought him up at Tarento[109].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont" as the son of "Beymont" son of "Robert Guichart qui conquest Puille" & his wife[110].  He succeeded his father in 1111 in his Italian possessions, under the regency of his mother.  He appointed as administrator of his Italian lands either the Pope or Alessandro Conte di Conversano[111], and sailed from Otranto for Palestine in Sep 1126.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Boamundis juvenis" left for Antioch in Sep 1127 (error for 1126) and appointed "comiti domino Alexandro consanguineo suo" as "vice sua" in "omnes civitates suas Apuliæ"[112].  He was invested as BOHEMOND II Prince of Antioch in Oct 1126 by Baudouin II King of Jerusalem.  He captured Kafartab from the Emir of Homs end-1126[113].  William of Tyre records that Bohémond II invaded the territories of Lewon I Lord of the Mountains [Armenia - Rupen] in Feb 1130, but that he and his forces were massacred near Mamistra by the Danishmend Emir Ghazi (Gümüştekin) with whom Lewon had entered an alliance.  The Danishmend emir had Prince Bohémond's head embalmed and sent as a gift to the Caliph[114]

m (Betrothed 1119, Autumn 1126) ALIX of Jerusalem, daughter of BAUDOUIN II King of Jerusalem & his wife Morfia of Melitena [Armenia] ([1110]-after 1136).  She is named "Haalis" by William of Tyre who records her parentage and also her marriage in Autumn 1126[115].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis la fille au roy Bauduin de Jerusalem" as wife of "Beymont…prince"[116].  Her marriage was arranged when her father became regent of Antioch, on behalf of her future husband, in 1119.  The marriage took place when her father invested her husband as Prince of Antioch on his arrival at Antioch in Oct 1126[117].  Her husband settled Latakieh and Jabala on Alix as her dower[118].  She assumed the regency of Antioch in Feb 1130 for her infant daughter immediately on the death of her husband, without waiting for her father to appoint a regent.  To protect her position, she sent an envoy to Zengi atabeg of Aleppo requesting him to become her overlord provided he guaranteed her continued possession of Antioch, but the envoy was intercepted by King Baudouin.  When the king entered the city in May 1130, he removed his daughter from the regency and banished her to Latakieh and Jabala.  King Baudouin assumed the regency himself, leaving Joscelin de Courtenay Count of Edessa as guardian in Antioch when he returned to Jerusalem[119].  After her father's death in 1131, she reasserted her claim to the regency of Antioch, but her forces were defeated by Foulques d'Anjou King of Jerusalem[120].  She was allowed to return to Antioch in 1135, but forced into exile in May 1136. 

Prince Bohémond II & his wife had one child:

1.         CONSTANCE of Antioch ([1127]-[1163/67], bur St Mary, Josaphat).  Her name and parentage are recorded by William of Tyre[121].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costance" as wife of "Beymont…prince" & his wife[122].  She succeeded her father in 1130 as CONSTANCE Pss of Antioch

-        see below

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    PRINCES of ANTIOCH 1136-1268 (POITIERS)

 

 

 

CONSTANCE of Antioch, daughter of BOHEMOND II Prince of Antioch & his wife Alix of Jerusalem ([1127]-[1163/67], bur St Mary, Josaphat).  Her name and parentage are recorded by William of Tyre[123].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costance" as daughter of "Beymont…prince" and his wife, recording her marriage to "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers"[124].  She succeeded her father in 1130 as CONSTANCE Pss of Antioch, under the regency successively of her mother, her maternal grandfather and her mother´s brother-in-law Foulques d'Anjou King of Jerusalem.  Her succession was challenged by Roger II King of Sicily, as nearest male heir, but he was unable to press his claim due to more urgent business in southern Italy.  "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus rector ac bajulus principatus Antiocheni filiæque Boamundi II iunioris" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre by charter dated Sep 1134[125].  Her first marriage was arranged by Foulques d'Anjou King of Jerusalem, in secret from her mother who had offered her hand to Manuel Komnenos, son of Emperor Ioannes II[126].  She succeeded her mother [after 1136] as Lady of Latakieh and Jabala.  She rejected three potential candidates as her second husband proposed by Baudouin III King of Jerusalem: Yves de Nesle Comte de Soissons, Gauthier de Fauquemberghes Châtelain de Saint-Omer, and Raoul de Merle[127].  She also rejected Ioannes Dalassenos Rogerios [Jean Roger the Norman] who had been proposed by Emperor Manuel I[128].  "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ", by charter dated 19 Apr 1140[129].  William of Tyre records her second marriage[130].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rinaldo de Castellion" as second husband of "Costanza…la Nova Princessa[131].  When her second husband was taken prisoner in 1160, Constance claimed that power in Antioch had reverted to her.  However, Baudouin III King of Jerusalem declared her son Bohémond as the rightful prince under the regency of Patriarch Aimery.  Constance appealed to Emperor Manuel I, who sent ambassadors to Antioch to negotiate a marriage between her daughter and the emperor, their presence alone being sufficient to re-establish Constance's rule in Antioch[132].  Following riots in the city, Pss Constance was exiled in 1163 and her son installed in her place[133].  Runciman specifies that Constance appealed to Konstantinos Dukas Kalamános as Governor of Cilicia for help when she was exiled, but this appears incorrect as Kalamános was only appointed Governor in 1167[134].  Her date of death is not known, but in a charter dated 1167, her son called himself "Prince of Antioch, Lord of Latakieh and Jabala"[135] which was his mother's dower, implying that she had died by then.  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the church of St Mary, Josaphat, confirming that "mater sua Constantia, frater Raynaldus et soror Philippa" were buried there, by charter dated Sep 1181[136]

m firstly ([Apr/May] 1136) RAYMOND de Poitiers, [illegitimate] son of GUILLAUME IX Duke of Aquitaine [GUILLAUME VII Comte de Poitou] & [his mistress Amauberge [Dangerose] ---] (-killed in battle near Inab 28 Jun 1149).  William of Tyre names "domini Wilelmi Pictaviensium comitis filius" when recording his marriage, specifying that he was then living at the court of Henry I King of England[137].  The primary source which names his mother has not yet been identified.  However, he is not named in other sources as a legitimate son of Guillaume IX.  It is therefore reasonable to suppose that he was born from the duke's relationship with Amauberge "Dangerose".  This question is discussed in more detail in the document AQUITANINE DUKES.  Raymond arrived in Antioch in Apr 1136.  William of Tyre records that his future mother-in-law Alix was led to believe that he had arrived to propose marriage to her, but Constance was kidnapped and married to Raymond by Raoul Patriarch of Antioch[138].  He was immediately installed as RAYMOND Prince of Antioch, by right of his wife[139].  He invaded Armenian territory in 1136 with Baudouin Lord of Marash, but they were driven back by Lewon I Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen][140].  Emperor Ioannes II besieged Antioch in Aug 1137 and obliged Raymond to swear allegiance to him[141].  "Raimundus…princeps Antiochenus et domina Constantia mea uxor" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem by charter dated Apr 1140[142].  The emperor launched a new expedition destined for Antioch in 1142, but died en route in Cilicia[143].  After the new Emperor Manuel I refused Prince Raymond's demand for the return of Cilicia to Antioch, Raymond invaded the province[144].  After the arrival in Antioch in Mar 1148 of Louis VII King of France at the head of the French army of the Second Crusade, Prince Raymond was unable to persuade the king to attack the city of Aleppo which was the centre of Muslim power in the region[145].  The Annals of Abul-Feda record that "Nour-ed-Din entreprend le siège de Harem" and defeated and killed "le prince d´Antioch"[146].  William of Tyre records that "Noradinus" beseiged and captured "castrum Harenc" and killed "Antiochia…principem", dated to 1149 from the context[147].  His skull was set in a silver case and sent by Nur-ed-Din to the Caliph of Baghdad as a gift[148]

m secondly (before May 1153) as his first wife, RENAUD de Châtillon, son of --- (-beheaded Hattin [Jul/Aug] 1187).  The parentage of Renaud is uncertain.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Raynaldus de Castellione super Wainum fluviolum" when recording his arrival at Antioch and marriage to "uxor…relictam principis Raymundi"[149].  William of Tyre names him "Rainaldus de Castellione"[150].  Neither source specifies which Châtillon is referred to.  The Chronicle of Ernoul names him "un chevalier, frere au signeur dau Gien sour Loire…Rainaus"[151].  Schlumberger interprets this passage as meaning that Renaud was the brother of Geoffroy de Donzy, whose family is recorded in the mid-12th century as holding the castle of Gien[152].  He identifies "Castellione" as Châtillon-sur-Loing {Loiret}[153].  The Donzy/Gien origin appears unlikely as none of the sources dealing with the Donzy family mention Renaud (see the document BURGUNDY DUCHY NOBILITY).  However, as shown in the document CENTRAL FRANCE NOBILITY, "Renaud son of Robert de Châtillon" was recorded in 1086 as nepos of Geoffroy [II] de Donzy.  It is therefore likely that Renaud Prince of Antioch was related to this earlier Renaud.  Renaud came to Palestine with the army of Louis VII King of France in the Second Crusade, and stayed in Jerusalem in the service of King Baudouin III after the crusaders returned to France in 1149.  He accompanied the king to Antioch in 1151[154].  William of Tyre records "Rainaldus de Castellione" among the magnates in Palestine present at the siege of Ascalon in 1153[155].  He was installed as RENAUD Prince of Antioch on his marriage in 1153, by right of his wife.  "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians by charter dated May 1153[156].  He recaptured Alexandretta in 1153 from Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen], after Emperor Manuel promised to finance the operation.  The debt was never paid, and Renaud handed the district to the Knights Templars[157].  He made an alliance with Thoros and in 1156 they attacked Cyprus together, captured the island's governor Ioannes Komnenos, and laid waste to the island[158].  He captured Harenc in Feb 1158.  Emperor Manuel I invaded Cilicia in 1158, and Prince Renaud submitted to him rather than risk losing a battle.  The emperor made his formal entry into Antioch 12 Apr 1159[159].  Prince Renaud was taken prisoner by Majd ed-Din Governor of Aleppo in Nov 1160, and sent to Aleppo where he was kept in prison for 16 years[160].  Bar Hebræus records that "Nour ed-Din" captured "le second prince, mari de la mère de Boémond" in A.H. 544 (1149/50)[161], which misdates his capture.  Raymond Count of Tripoli attacked Homs 1 Feb 1175, distracting Saladin from his siege of Aleppo, in return for which the ruler of Aleppo released his remaining Christian prisoners, including Renaud de Châtillon and Joscelin de Courtenay[162].  After their release, Renaud and Joscelin became the focus of the more progressive elements in Palestine, centred around recent arrivals and the Knights Templars[163].  He was installed as Lord of Hebron and Montréal: "Rainaldus, quondam Antioochiæ princeps, nunc vero Hebronensis et Montis Regalis dominus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Stephaniæ uxoris eiusque filiorum", by charter dated Nov 1177[164].  A charter dated 1180 records the donation by "Reginaldus quondam princeps Anthiochensis…Montisregalis et Hebron dominus" of property to the abbey of Notre-Dame de Josaphat with the consent of "uxor mea Stephania…et Hanfredi prefate dominie Stephanie filii et uxoris eius Elisabeth filie regis Jerusalem"[165].  He attacked a Muslim caravan making its way from Cairo to Palestine at end 1186, which put an end to the four-year truce signed by Raymond Count of Tripoli the previous year[166].  He was personally beheaded by Saladin after being captured[167]

Pss Constance & her first husband had five children:

1.         BOHEMOND of Antioch ([1144]-[20 Mar/1 Oct] 1201).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont et Marguerite" as the two children of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers" & his wife[168].  He succeeded his mother in 1163 as BOHEMOND III "le Bègue" Prince of Antioch

-        see below

2.         MARIE of Antioch (1145-murdered 27 Aug 1182).  William of Tyre names her and records her parentage[169].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont et Marguerite" as the two children of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers" & his wife, stating that "Marguerite" married "l'empereour Manuel"[170].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the oldest of the three daughters of "relictam principis Raymundi" as wife of "imperator Constantinopolitanus Manuel"[171].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Basilium quondam, cognomento Camaterum" was sent to negotiate a marriage with "Raimundo Antiochiæ principi filiæ…Maria"[172].  After her mother Constance appealed to Emperor Manuel I, following Baudouin III King of Jerusalem's decision to set aside her rights to rule in Antioch in favour of her son Bohémond, the emperor sent ambassadors to Antioch to negotiate a marriage with her daughter Marie.  She set sail for Constantinople in Sep 1161, to be married the following December[173].  She became a nun as XENA in 1180, as a condition for becoming regent for her son.  She shared the regency with her lover Alexios Komnenos, becoming unpopular because of their reliance on Latin advisers.  Andronikos Komnenos accused her of soliciting help from Hungary, and ordered her imprisonment.  After Andronikos forced her son Alexios to order her death, she was strangled and her body thrown into the sea.  m (25 Dec 1161) as his second wife, Emperor MANUEL I, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary (Constantinople [15 Aug 1118]-24 Sep 1180, bur Monastery of Christ Pantocrator).  She became the mistress of ALEXIOS Komnenos, son of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa] ([1136]-murdered 1183). 

3.         PHILIPPA of Antioch ([1148]-1178, bur St Mary, Josaphat).  One manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer records that "la princesse Constance" had two (unnamed) sons and two (unnamed) daughters by her first husband[174].  Niketas Choniates records that Philippa, sister of Empress Maria, was mistress of Andronikos Komnenos[175].  She met, and became the mistress of, Andronikos Komnenos while he was visiting Antioch in his capacity of Governor of Cilicia.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the church of St Mary, Josaphat, confirming that "mater sua Constantia, frater Raynaldus et soror Philippa" were buried there, by charter dated Sep 1181[176]Mistress: (1166/67) of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene --- ([1123/24][177]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185).  He succeeded in 1183 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS Im (after 1166) as his second wife, HONFROY [II] Lord of Toron Constable of Jerusalem, son of HONFROY [I] Lord of Toron & his wife --- (-castle of Hunin 22 Apr 1179).   

4.         BAUDOUIN of Antioch (-killed in battle Myriokephalon 17 Sep 1176).  One manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer records that "la princesse Constance" had two (unnamed) sons and two (unnamed) daughters by her first husband[178].  Niketas Choniates names "uxoris suæ [referring to Emperor Manuel I] sororem…cum Balduino fratre" when recording that they left Antioch for Constantinople[179].  After his mother was sent into exile in 1163, Emperor Manuel I invited Baudouin to Constantinople where he joined the imperial army[180].  He was killed during Emperor Manuel's final push against the Turks in Asia Minor by Kilij Arslan Sultan of Ikonium/Konya[181].  Niketas Choniates records the participation of "Balduinus imperatoris sororius" in the battle and his being killed[182]

5.         RAYMOND of Antioch (-before Sep 1181, bur St Mary, Josaphat).  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the church of St Mary, Josaphat, confirming that "mater sua Constantia, frater Raynaldus et soror Philippa" were buried there, by charter dated Sep 1181[183]

Pss Constance & her second husband had [two] children:

6.         AGNÈS de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1154-1184, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agnetam" as second of the three daughters of "Raynaldus de Castellione uxor…relictam principis Raymundi" and her husband "rex Bela de Hungaria"[184].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Maria e Joanna" as the two daughters of "Rinaldo de Castellion" and his wife "Costanza…la Nova Princessa", "Maria" presumably being an error for "Agnes"[185].  She lived at the court of Emperor Manuel I[186].  She adopted the name ANNA in Hungary.  The Memoria Vivorum in the necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert names "Bela rex Ungarie et consors eiusdem regina Anna et liberi amborum Heimricus, Andreas, Margareta"[187]m (1172) as his first wife, BÉLA III King of Hungary, son of GÉZA III King of Hungary & Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest). 

7.         [JEANNE de Châtillon-sur-Loing (-before May 1204).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Maria e Joanna" as the two daughters of "Rinaldo de Castellion" and his wife "Costanza…la Nova Princessa", stating that Jeanne married "el re de Salonichio" and died without heirs[188].  This is the only reference so far found to this daughter but, if it is correct, "el re de Salonichio" can only refer to Bonifazio di Monferrato.  This marriage could be his otherwise unrecorded second marriage which is referred to in [late 1186/early 1187] by Niketas Choniates[189].  If this date is correct, Jeanne would presumably have been considerably younger than her sister Agnes.  Jeanne would have been the maternal aunt of Bonifazio's third wife.  m ([late 1186/early 1187]) as his second wife, BONIFAZIO I Marchese di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] (1150-killed in battle 4 Sep 1207).] 

 

 

The precise family connection between the following individual and the Princes of Antioch is not known: 

1.         SILVESTER (-after Mar 1175).  Bohemond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated Jan 1167, subscribed by "Silvester, consanguineus principis…"[190].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted commercial rights to the Venetians in Antioch by charter dated 1167, subscribed by "Silvester, consanguineus principis"[191].  Bohemond III Prince of Antioch confirmed the privileges granted to the Genoese "in Antiochiæ, Laodiceæ et Suidini civitatibus" by "Boamundo, Roberti Guiscardi filio" by charter dated 1169, subscribed by "Silvester, principis cognatus…"[192].  In each case, Silvester's name is listed first among the subscribers, indicating a privileged position at the prince's court.  It is unlikely that Silvester was related to Prince Bohémond on the mother's side of his family: if he had been, for example, an illegitimate son of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch, it is probable that he would have been named in other sources.  The most likely possibility is that he was related through the prince's father's family, possibly an illegitimate son of Raymond de Poitiers Prince of Antioch born in Antioch soon after the latter's marriage.  It should be remembered that the prince's wife, Princess Constance, was still a child at the time of this marriage.  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Orgellosæ", by charter dated Sep 1172, subscribed by "Guiscardus de Insula constabularius, Silvester cognatus principis…"[193].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" granted property to "Petro de Melfia, homini suo ligio ac vicecomiti", with the consent of "Orguilosæ uxoris", by charter dated 4 Jan 1174, subscribed by "…Silvester, consanguineus principis…"[194].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the donation by "Garentonus, dominus Saonensis" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Orgollosæ uxoris et filiorum", by charter dated Feb 1175, subscribed by "Silvester, cognatus principis…"[195]

 
 

BOHEMOND of Antioch, son of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch ([1144]-[20 Mar/1 Oct][196] 1201).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Beymont et Marguerite" as the two children of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers" & his wife[197].  When his father was taken prisoner in 1160, Baudouin III King of Jerusalem declared that Bohémond was the rightful prince and he succeeded as BOHEMOND III "le Bègue" Prince of Antioch, under the regency of Patriarch Aimery.  However, his mother appealed this decision to Emperor Manuel I, who sent ambassadors to Antioch to negotiate a marriage between her daughter and the emperor, their presence alone being sufficient to re-establish Constance's rule in Antioch[198].  Bohémond was restored as Prince of Antioch in 1163, after his mother was exiled[199].  William of Tyre records that he combined forces with Raymond III Count of Tripoli, Konstantinos Kalamános, and Hugues de Lusignan to repel the attack by Nur ed-Din on the castle of Krak in Sep 1163[200].  William of Tyre records that Prince Bohémond joined the same group in Aug 1164 to relieve another attack on Harenc, but that "Boamundus princeps Antiochenus, dominus…Raimundus comes Tripolitanus, Calamannus etiam Ciliciæ procurator, Hugo quoque de Liniziaco…Joscelinus…tertius, comitis Edessani secundi Joscelini filius" were captured in an ambush at Artah, together with the other leaders, and taken bound to Aleppo, although he was released on promise of payment of a large ransom[201].  The History of Kamel-Altevarykh records that "au mois de ramadhan Nour-eddin Mahmoud" conquered "le château de Harem" from the Franks and that "le prince Boémond souverain d´Antioche, le comte, maître de Tripoli…le fils de Josselin…et le duc" were captured, dated to 1164 from the context, adding in a later passage that "Boémond prince d´Antioche" was later released on payment of "une rançon considérable"[202].  He visited his sister in Constantinople to borrow the ransom money, but as a condition of the loan Emperor Manuel insisted on installing a Greek Patriarch in Antioch[203].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted commercial rights to the Venetians in Antioch by charter dated 1167, subscribed by "Silvester, consanguineus principis"[204].  Bohemond III Prince of Antioch confirmed the privileges granted to the Genoese "in Antiochiæ, Laodiceæ et Suidini civitatibus" by "Boamundo, Roberti Guiscardi filio" by charter dated 1169, subscribed by "Silvester, principis cognatus…"[205].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Orgellosæ", by charter dated Sep 1172, subscribed by "Guiscardus de Insula constabularius, Silvester cognatus principis…"[206].  Prince Bohémond unsuccessfully laid siege to Harenc in 1177[207].  He was excommunicated by the Patriarch of Antioch on his third marriage, which was bigamous in the eyes of the church[208].  He acted as ruler of Tripoli during the minority of his son, who was appointed heir to Tripoli by Raymond III Count of Tripoli.  Latakieh, Jabala and his castles in the Orontes valley were captured by the Muslims during Saladin's wars of conquest, but Bohémond agreed a truce with Saladin under which he kept control over Antioch itself and its port of St Symeon.  Prince Bohémond played no further active part in the Third Crusade[209].  In 1187, he negotiated an alliance with Lewon II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] who accepted the suzerainty of Antioch over Armenia and married his wife's niece.  The alliance broke down after Prince Bohémond failed to repay a large loan which Lewon had made to him[210].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon paron of the Armenians seized Bohemond prince of Antioch" in [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] and imprisoned him "in the citadel of Sis"[211].  Lewon II sent his nephew Hethum of Sassoun to Antioch, but Hethum was obliged to withdraw from the city when faced with a riot of the population.  The citizens of Antioch, headed by Raoul [II] Patriarch of Antioch, set up a commune to assume the administration of the city, and took an oath of allegiance to Bohémond's eldest son pending the prince's return from Armenia[212].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that Prince Bohémond was freed from prison in Armenia "through the intercession of Count Heri" (Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem) and that "marriage relations were established between Lewon and the prince" (the betrothal of Bohémond's eldest son to Lewon II's niece)[213]

m firstly (divorced after Mar 1175) ORGUEILLEUSE [of Harenc], daughter of [--- Lord of Harenc & his wife ---] (-after Mar 1175).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "une dame d'Antioche…Orgueillouse" as wife of "Beymont le grant prince", stating that he repudiated her[214], another manuscript of the Lignages stating that she was "une dame d´Antioche, fille au seignor de Harenc…Orguilouse", although this second manuscript also says that she was her husband's second wife after the Byzantine princess (which cannot be correct as shown by the other sources quoted in the present document)[215].  A third manuscript of the Lignages names her "Orgogliosa, figliola del signor Hurres"[216].  The question of the identity of Orgueilleuse´s father is discussed below in the section dealing with the lords of Harenc.  "Boamundus III Raimundi filius, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of Santa Maria and the archbishop of Pisa, with the consent of "uxoris Orgollosæ", by charter dated 1170[217].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Orgellosæ", by charter dated Sep 1172, subscribed by "Guiscardus de Insula constabularius, Silvester cognatus principis…"[218].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" granted property to "Petro de Melfia, homini suo ligio ac vicecomiti", with the consent of "Orguilosæ uxoris", by charter dated 4 Jan 1174, subscribed by "…Silvester, consanguineus principis…"[219].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the donation by "Garentonus, dominus Saonensis" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Orgollosæ uxoris et filiorum", by charter dated Feb 1175, subscribed by "Silvester, cognatus principis…"[220].  She is last named in a charter dated Mar 1175[221]

m secondly ([Mar 1175/77], divorced 1180) as her first husband, THEODORA Komnene, daughter of ---.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Erine, niesce de l'empereour Manuel" as wife of "Beymont" son of "Reimont le fill au comte de Poitiers", stating that her husband expelled her and her daughter "en Romanie" after the death of Emperor Manuel[222].  The parentage of Theodora is not known.  According to Sturdza[223], she was the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos, son of sébastocrator Andronikos Komnenos (older brother of Emperor Manuel I) but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  William of Tyre records that "dominus Boamundus Antiochiæ princeps" repudiated "domina Theodora uxore sua, domini imperatoris neptis" and married "quandam Sibyllam, maleficiis utentem, ecclesiastica severitate contempta"[224].  Runciman speculates that this occurred after Bohémond learnt of the death of Emperor Manuel I, which is recorded in the previous passage of William of Tyr who does not make the connection between the two events[225].  She married secondly Gauthier Lord of Bethsan.  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Gautier" son of "Gremont le seignor de Bessan" married secondly "Latomena"[226].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names the second wife of Gauthier de Bethsan as "une dame de Romanie, qui avoit nom Thodore Lathoumena"[227].  It is not clear from these sources that the second wife of Bohemond III Prince of Antioch was the same person as the second wife of Gauthier of Bethsan. 

m thirdly (1181, divorced [1194/95]) as her second husband, SIBYLLE, [widow] of --- [Mansel], daughter of --- (-1216).  She is named as third wife of Prince Bohémond by William of Tyre, who comments that the marriage caused general outrage[228].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Sebille" as wife of "Beymont le grant prince" after Orgueilleuse, stating that he repudiated her[229].  The indication of her first marriage is provided by another manuscript of the Lignages which names "Sibilla, madre del contestabile d'Antiochia" as the third wife of "Beimondo…le Begue"[230].  Another clue about her family origin is provided by the Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle which states that "la femme du seigneur de Burzaih était sœur de la femme de Boémond prince d'Antioche", when recording that they, their children and son-in-law were captured and taken to Antioch when Salah ed-Din [Saladin] seized Burzaih in A.H. 584 (1188/89)[231], but the Lord of Bourzeij [Berzieh] has not yet been identified.  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochiæ, cum uxore Sibilla" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated 1181[232].  "Raimundus de Biblio, filius Guillelmi Ebriaci, Biblii quondam domini" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Boamundi III principis Antiocheni, filii Raimundi…Sibillæ principissæ, eorumque filiorum Raimundi et Boamundi", by charter dated Feb 1186[233], although as shown below other sources indicate that Raymond and Bohémond were sons of Prince Bohémond III by his first marriage.  The Chronique du Royaume de la Petite Arménie of Constable Sempad records that Leo married "la niece (fille du frère) de la femme du prince d'Antioche" in [3 Feb 1189/4 Feb 1190][234].  She was reputed to be a spy of Saladin whom she supplied with information on Frankish troop movements[235].  The Continuator of William of Tyre records that "Sebille sa femme, qui estoit de mauvaise vie" betrayed "Buemont prince d´Antioche", who was visiting "le roi de France et le rei d´Engleterre…ses cosins au siege devant Acre", to "Livon de la Montagne, qui sires estoit d´Ermenie" because "le prince avoit autre feme espousée" (suggesting that the event must have occurred after Bohémond divorced Sibylle)[236].  The capture of Prince Bohémond is dated to [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] in the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II which records that "Lewon paron of the Armenians seized Bohemond prince of Antioch"[237]

m fourthly ([1194/95]) as her second husband, ISABELLE, separated wife of ---, niece of GAUTHIER Ledur maréchal of Jerusalem, daughter of --- (-after Dec 1216).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Ysabiau, et elle avoit baron, mais il estoit leproux…cosine germaine de Biatris de Diaspre" as wife of "Beymont le grant prince" after Sibylle[238].  Another manuscript of the Lignages names her "Isabella de Ferabel", which may be an indication of the name of her first husband[239].  "Isabella vidua Bohemundi III principis Antiochiæ" donated revenue from "casali Gedeide" to the Knights Hospitallers, confirmed by "Raymundo Rupini principe Antiochiæ", by charter dated Dec 1216[240]

Prince Bohémond III & his first wife had two children:

1.         RAYMOND of Antioch (-[May/Jun] 1198).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as son of Prince Bohémond[241].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rimondo e Beimondo" as the two children of "Beimondo…le Begue" and his wife "Orgogliosa, figliola del signor Hurres", stating (incorrectly) that Raymond died without heirs[242].  He is named "Raymundy primogeniti filii Boamundi principis Antiochie" in the charter of his son Raymond Rupen dated Sep 1210[243].  Raymond III Count of Tripoli appointed Raymond as his heir in Tripoli, while insisting that the county should be handed to any member of the family of the Counts of Toulouse who might in the future come to Palestine[244].  He was invested in 1187 as RAYMOND IV Count of Tripoli, with his father acting as ruler during his minority, but Prince Bohémond transferred Tripoli to his second son in 1189[245]m ([1194/95] as her second husband, ALIX of Armenia, widow of HETHUM [Vasil] of Sassoun Lord of Missis, daughter of RUPEN III Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupenid] & his wife Isabelle of Toron (1182-after 1234).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her "Ysabeau", and gives her father's name when recording her marriage to Raymond[246].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Aalis et Phelippe" as the two daughters of "Rupin de la Montaigne qui estoit seignor d'Ermenie" & his wife, specifying that Alix was wife of "prince Buemont…frere dou prince Borgne et filluell dou conte de Triple"[247].  Her second marriage was agreed when Henri de Champagne King of Jerusalem negotiated the release of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch from custody with her uncle Lewon II[248].  She succeeded her mother as heiress of Toron.  She was sent back to Armenia by her father-in-law after the death of her husband[249].  She claimed the throne of Armenia in 1219, on the death of her uncle King Lewon I, on behalf of her son.  She married thirdly (1220) as his second wife, Vahram Lord of Korikos Marshal of Armenia.  She was exiled, her son put in prison, and her third husband murdered on the orders of the regent Constantine Lord of Barba'ron and Partzerpert [Hethumid][250].  Count Raymond & his wife had one child: 

a)         RUPEN of Antioch (posthumously late 1198-in prison 1222).  Sempad names him and records his parentage, specifying that his mother was pregnant with him when his father died[251].  He is named "Rupin le fiz Reymont", nephew of Bohémond, by William of Tyre (Continuator)[252].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "le prince Rupen" as the son of "prince Buemont…frere dou prince Borgne et filluell dou conte de Triple" and his wife[253].  Konrad von Wittelsbach Archbishop of Mainz, anxious that the Armenian/Antiochan alliance should not fall apart after the death of Raymond Rupen's father, arrived in Antioch from Sis, where he had been present for the coronation of Lewon I King of Armenia, to oblige Prince Bohémond III to swear to uphold the succession of Raymond Rupen in Antioch[254].  By charter dated Sep 1210, "Raymundus Rupinus…princeps Antiochie filius Raymundy primogeniti filii Boamundi principis Antiochie" confirmed the privileges of the Knights Hospitaller with the consent of "uxoris mee domine Helwisie filie domini Hemerici regis Iherusalem"[255], although the title used for Raymond Rupen in the document reflects his claim to the principality of Antioch rather than political reality at the time.  Raymond Rupen was crowned 15 Aug 1211 as "Junior King" of Armenia, with a crown sent by Emperor Otto IV[256].  He was installed as RAYMOND RUPEN Prince of Antioch in 1216.  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians took Antioch at night through treachery and installed there as prince Ruben, his brother's grandson" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][257].  "Rupinus…princeps Antiochie Raimundi principis filius" confirmed the privileges granted to the Pisans with the consent of "Helvise uxoris mee principisse et domini Leonis…regis Armenie avunculi mei" and at the request of "domini Hugonis…regis Cypri mei sororii" by charter dated 7 Apr 1216[258].  The Continuator of William of Tyre records that Bohémond recaptured Antioch in 1219[259].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "prince Bohemond seized Antioch from Ruben" in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][260].  Raymond Rupen invaded Cilicia with his mother and installed himself at Tarsus, where he was captured in early 1221 by Constantine of Lampron [Armenia-Hethumid], regent of Armenia[261].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "paron Vahram, marshal of the Armenians and other princes wanted to enthrone the Armenian prince Ruben" in [26 Jan 1220/24 Jan 1221] but that "Kostandin bailli of the Armenians defeated them near Sis" and "seized prince Ruben and the other princes and took them to Tarsus"[262]m (before 1210) as her second husband, HELOISE of Cyprus, divorced wife of EUDES de Dampierre-sur-Salon Seigneur de Chargey-les-Gray, daughter of AMAURY I King of Cyprus and Jerusalem & his first wife Eschiva Ibelin (before [1185/93]-[7 Feb 1216/Mar 1219]).  Her first marriage is confirmed by a letter of Pope Innocent III which records her abduction by Rupin from her husband "milite Odone de Dampierre"[263].  It was probably arranged by her brother-in-law Gauthier de Montbéliard[264].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Rupini [filii Raimundi]" married "materteram…Henricus rex Cypri" but does not name her[265].  She is named by William of Tyre (Continuator) who also gives her parentage, listing her as third sister, and names her (second) husband[266].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Borgoigne, et le rei Hugue, et Heloys" as the children of "Eschive [et]…rei Heimeri", stating that she was the wife of "prince Rupin"[267].  Her name, origin and second marriage are confirmed by the charter dated Sep 1210 under which "uxoris mee domine Helwisie filie domini Hemerici regis Iherusalem et Cipri" consented to the confirmation by "Raymundus Rupinus…princeps Antiochie filius Raymundy primogeniti filii Boamundi principis Antiochie" of the privileges of the Knights Hospitaller[268].  After her husband's death, she returned to Cyprus with her daughters[269].  Prince Raymond Rupen & his wife had two children:

i)          ESCHIVA of Antioch .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Eschive et Marie" as the two daughters of "le prince Rupen" & his wife, specifying that Eschive died young[270]

ii)         MARIE of Antioch (1215-).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Marie" as the daughter of "prince Rupin" & his wife, stating that she was (second) wife of "mesire Phelippe de Monfort"[271].  She succeeded her paternal grandmother as heiress of Toron.  The Chronicle of Philippe de Novare refers to the wife of "messier Phelippe de Montfort" as "la dame dou Toron"[272].  The dispensation issued by Pope Gregory IX for the marriage of "Philippe de Montfort" and "Marie filia regis Armeniæ Rupini" is dated 6 Jul 1240[273]m (Papal dispensation 6 Jul 1240) as his second wife, PHILIPPE de Montfort, son of GUY de Montfort Seigneur de Ferté-Alais et de Castres & his first wife Helvis Ibelin of Nablus (-murdered Tyre 12 Aug 1270).  Lord of Tyre 1243.  He was pretender to the throne of Armenia in 1248, by right of his second wife[274]

2.         BOHEMOND of Antioch (-Mar 1233).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as son of Prince Bohémond, specifying that he was "le meins né fiz"[275].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rimondo e Beimondo" as the two children of "Beimondo…le Begue" and his wife "Orgogliosa, figliola del signor Hurres", stating that Bohémond was "il primogenito" and was prince during the lifetime of his father[276].  He was installed as BOHEMOND Count of Tripoli in 1189 by his father, in place of his older brother.  He succeeded his father in [Apr] 1201 as BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch

-        see below

Prince Bohémond III & his second wife had [three] children:

3.         CONSTANCE of Antioch (-young).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costance" as daughter of "Beymont" and his wife "Erine, niesce de l'empereour Manuel", stating that her father expelled her with her mother "en Romanie" after the death of Emperor Manuel[277]

4.         PHILIPPA of Antioch .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Costanza e Philippa" as the two daughters of "Beimondo…le Begue" and his wife "Erini nezza del imperator Manuel de Costantinopoli", stating that Philippa married "in un Baduin Patriarcha, d'Antiochia, e ando ad'allogiar con Balian in Acre"[278]m BAUDOUIN Patriarche, son of ---. 

5.         [MANUEL of Antioch (-27 Jun 1211).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

Prince Bohémond III and his third wife had one child:

6.         ALIX of Antioch.  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Alix" as daughter of "Beymont le grant prince" and his wife Sibylle, stating that she was wife "dou seignor de Gibelet"[279], another manuscript of the Lignages naming him "Gui le seignor de Giblet"[280].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "el signor de Giblet" was married to "la sorella del principe de Antiochia [Beimonte]"[281].  "Boamundus IV princeps Antiochenus et comes Tripolitanus, Boamundi III olim principis filius" granted property to "Guidoni domini de Biblio" on the occasion of his marriage to "sororis suæ Aalis", by charter dated Dec 1204, subscribed by "Raimundus, Bertrandus et Villelmus de Biblio, Raimundus de Scandalione, Guido de Ham comestabularius Tripolis, Pieban dominus de Botne"[282]m (Dec 1204) GUY Embriaco Lord of Jebail, son of HUGUES [III] "le Boiteux" Embriaco Lord of Jebail & his wife Stephanie de Milly (-1233). 

Prince Bohémond III & his fourth wife had three children: 

7.         GUILLAUME of Antioch .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Guillaume et Beymont" as the two sons of "Beymont" and his wife Isabelle, stating that Guillaume died without heirs[283].  Another manuscript of the Lignages d'Outremer names "Glimin, Beimondo e Chavia che morse senza heredi" as the three children of "Beimondo…le Begue" and his fourth wife "Isabella de Ferabel"[284]

8.         BOHEMOND of Antioch (-1244 after 18 Oct).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Guillaume" as the son of "Beymont le grant prince" and his wife Isabelle[285], although another manuscript of the Lignages names "Guillaume et Beymont" as the two sons of "Beymont" and his wife Isabelle, stating that "Beymont" married "la fille Plivan le sire de Boutron"[286].  Lord of Boutron.   

-        LORDS of BOUTRON

9.         ESCHIVA of Antioch (-young).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Glimin, Beimondo e Chavia che morse senza heredi" as the three children of "Beimondo…le Begue" and his fourth wife "Isabella de Ferabel"[287]

 

 

BOHEMOND of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND III Prince of Antioch & his first wife Orgueilleuse [of Harenc] (-Mar 1233).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as son of Prince Bohémond, specifying that he was "le meins né fiz"[288].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Rimondo e Beimondo" as the two children of "Beimondo…le Begue" and his wife "Orgogliosa, figliola del signor Hurres", stating that Bohémond was "il primogenito" and was prince during the lifetime of his father[289].  He was installed as BOHEMOND I Count of Tripoli in 1189 by his father, in place of his older brother.  Tripoli was saved from Saladin's conquest by a Sicilian fleet[290].  Bohémond refused to acknowledge the validity of the oath sworn by his father in early 1199, in support of his nephew Raymond Rupen, and ejected his father from Antioch before a reconciliation was effected between them[291].  He succeeded his father in [Apr] 1201 as BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch, without difficulty but in defiance of the rights of his nephew, although this triggered a lengthy civil war with the latter's supporters who at first fled to Lewon II King of Armenia[292].  In the complex series of quarrels which followed, Prince Bohémond was supported by the Knights Templars, the Seljuk Turks, both enemies of King Lewon, while the Armenian side gained the support of the Knights Hospitallers.  While Prince Bohémond was suppressing the revolt of Renoart Lord of Nephin in Tripoli in 1204 (during which campaign he lost an eye), King Lewon besieged Antioch and only withdrew when az-Zahir Emir of Aleppo sent troops to relieve the town[293].  Bohémond declared that the emperor at Constantinople had always been his overlord, emphasising his distance from the church at Rome whose support King Lewon sought, and in 1204 paid homage to Marie de Champagne, wife of Baudouin I Emperor of Constantinople, during her visit to Palestine en route to join her husband.  This in turn triggered King Lewon to seek an alliance with Theodoros Laskaris Emperor in Nikaia[294].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Lewon king of the Armenians took Antioch at night through treachery and installed there as prince Ruben, his brother's grandson" in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][295].  The Continuator of William of Tyre records that Bohémond recaptured Antioch in 1219[296].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "prince Bohemond seized Antioch from Ruben" in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][297].  Antioch and Tripoli were not included in the peace treaty signed by Emperor Friedrich II with al-Kamil in 1229.  Although Prince Bohémond kept the peace with his Muslim neighbours, the Knights Hospitallers and Knights Templars continued to raid Muslim territory[298].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "principis Antiochie…Boemundus"[299].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the death [in 1233] of "el principe Beimonte de Antiochia"[300]

m firstly (before 21 Aug 1198) PLAISANCE of Jebail, daughter of HUGUES [III] "le Boiteux" Embriaco Lord of Jebail & his wife Stephanie de Milly (-1217).  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "el principe de Antiochia Beimonte" was married to "la sorella del signor de Giblet"[301].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Plaissence…fille de Hue de Gibelet et de Estefenie segonde fille de Henri de Bufle" as the wife of "le prince Borgne"[302].  "Boemundus IV princeps Antiochenus, Bohemundi principis filius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Placent[iæ uxoris] comitissæ Tripolitanæ", by charter dated 15 Jun 1199[303]

m secondly ([1/10] Jan 1218) MELISENDE of Cyprus, daughter of AMAURY King of Cyprus and Jerusalem & his second wife Isabelle Queen of Jerusalem (after [1200/01]-after 24 Mar 1249).  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her as sister of Hugues King of Cyprus when recording that the latter arranged her marriage[304].  The Chronicle of Amadi names "uno filiolo…Almerico et due figlie…Sybilla…et…Melisena" as the children of "il re Almerico" and his queen, specifying that "Melisena" married "Beimonte principe de Antiochia et conte de Tripoli"[305].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Melicent la princesse…fille dou rei Heymeri et de la reyne Ysabiau" as the second wife of "le prince Borgne"[306].  She protested at the succession of her nephew Henri I King of Cyprus as regent of Jerusalem on the death of her sister Alix in 1246[307].  Pope Innocent IV acknowledged the consanguinity between “Mellisent relicta quondam B. priincipis Antiocheni, nata clara memoriæ A. regis et Y. reginæ Hierosolymitanorum” and “Conrado nato Frederici quondam Imperatoris regni Hierosolymitani hæredi”, relating to the inheritance by the latter of the government of the kingdom, dated 24 Mar 1249[308]

Prince Bohémond IV and his first wife had six children: 

1.         RAYMOND of Antioch (1195-murdered Tortosa end-1213).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Reimont, et Buemont et Phelippe et Henri" as the sons of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance, recording that Raymond was killed by "les Haississis au mostier de Tortouse"[309].  Bailly of Antioch.  He was murdered by a band of Assassins in the cathedral at Tortosa, apparently on the instigation of the Knights Hospitallers who were the enemies of his father[310]

2.         BOHEMOND of Antioch (-Jan 1252).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Reimont, et Buemont et Phelippe et Henri" as the sons of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance[311].  He succeeded his father in 1233 as BOHEMOND V titular Prince of Antioch.   

-        see below

3.         PHILIPPE of Antioch (-murdered Sis [1225/26]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Reimont, et Buemont et Phelippe et Henri" as the sons of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance, specifying that he was killed by the Armenians[312].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names him as second son of Prince Bohémond when recording his marriage[313].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage of "Filippo figliolo de Beimonte principe de Antiochia" and "la figliola de Livon re di Armenia"[314].  His marriage was negotiated with his father by Constantine Regent of Armenia because of the latter's need to restore good relations with Antioch in the face of the Seljuk threat, on condition that he joined the separated Armenian church[315].  He was crowned king of Armenia in Jun 1222, by right of his wife[316].  He tried to impose the Catholic faith on the Armenians, refused to follow Armenian customs including that of growing a beard[317], and spent most of his time at Antioch.  Vardan's History records that "Pilip son of the lord of Antioch…loathed the Armenian people…and he sent to his father's house the honoured crown and the royal treasures", stating that "the princes were unable to tolerate this and put [him] into confinement until he died"[318].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "Philip king of the Armenians was seized by his own troops" in [24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226][319].  At the end of 1224, he was imprisoned at Sis and poisoned some months later[320]m ([25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222]) as her first husband, ZABEL Queen of Armenia, daughter of LEWON I King of Armenia [Rupenid] & his second wife Sibylle of Cyprus ([1216]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg).  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Livon…rei" left his daughter under the guardianship of "Costans…connestable et…baill de la terre", recording that the latter killed "le conte Rupin" and married "Ysabiau" to "Phelippe…fiz dou prince Borgne et de Plaissence la fille dou seignor de Gibelet"[321].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "King Lewon's daughter Zapel" was married to "Philip son of the blind prince of Antioch" in [25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222][322].  William of Tyre (Continuator) names her and her father when recording her marriage[323]

4.         ORGUEILLEUSE (-young).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Orgueillouse et Marie" as the daughters of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance, specifying that Orgueilleuse died "dameisselle"[324]

5.         MARIE of Antioch .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Orgueillouse et Marie" as the daughters of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance, specifying that Marie married "Thoros" by whom she had one son "Buemont"[325].  Her husband has not been identified more precisely, but presumably he was closely connected with the Armenian royal family.  m THOROS, from Armenia.  Marie & her husband had one child: 

a)         BOHEMOND .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Buemont" as the son of "Thoros" & his wife[326]

6.         HENRI of Antioch (-drowned [18/27] Jun 1276, bur Nicosia Knights Hospitallers).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Reimont, et Buemont et Phelippe et Henri" as the sons of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance, specifying that Henri was father of Hugues King of Cyprus[327].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Boemundum principem Antiochie et Henricum" as the two surviving sons of "Boemundus Strabus comes Tripoli et princeps Antiochie"[328].  His wife appointed him bailli of Jerusalem after her appointment as regent in 1263[329].  He was drowned at sea.  The Chronicle of Amadi records the drowning 18 Jun, 1276 from the context, of "Henrico padre de Hugo re de Hierusalem et Cypro" while travelling to Tripoli "con una nave di Alemani"[330].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that he was buried in Nicosia "a l'Hospital", stating that his body was taken from Tyre back to Nicosia at the same time as his son's body in early 1284[331].  His descendants adopted the name Lusignan.  m (1233) ISABELLE of Cyprus, daughter of HUGUES I King of Cyprus & his wife Alix of Jerusalem Ctss of Jaffa ([before 1216]-1264 after Feb).  She was appointed de facto Regent of Jerusalem at Acre in 1263[332]

-        KINGS of CYPRUS

Prince Bohémond IV & his second wife had three children:

7.         ISABELLE (-young).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabiau et Marie et Helvys" as the three daughters of "le prince Borgne" and his wife "Melicent la princesse", specifying that Isabelle and Helvis died young[333]

8.         MARIE of Antioch (-after 10 Dec 1307).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabiau et Marie et Helvys" as the three daughters of "le prince Borgne" and his wife "Melicent la princesse", specifying that Marie is "ceste qui est en Acre"[334].  On the death of Konradin von Hohenstaufen, King of Jerusalem, 29 Oct 1268, Marie claimed to succeed to the throne of Jerusalem on the grounds that she belonged to an earlier generation of the family than her nephew Hugues III King of Cyprus, but the High Court of Jerusalem rejected her claim.  She refused to accept the verdict, issued a formal protest on the day of the coronation of King Hugues and left for Rome to appeal to the Papal Curia which allowed her to raise the issue at the Council of Lyon in 1274.  The outcome was unchanged, but Pope Gregory X arranged for her to sell her titular rights to the kingdom of Jerusalem to Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] in Mar 1277 for 1000 gold pounds and an annuity of 4000 pounds tournois[335].  The agreement between King Charles and "domicella Maria" is dated 20 Jun 1289[336]

9.         HELVIS (-young).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabiau et Marie et Helvys" as the three daughters of "le prince Borgne" and his wife "Melicent la princesse", specifying that Isabelle and Helvis died young[337]

 

 

BOHEMOND of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch & his first wife Plaisance Embriaco of Jebail (-Jan 1252).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Reimont, et Buemont et Phelippe et Henri" as the sons of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance[338].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Boemundum principem Antiochie et Henricum" as the two surviving sons of "Boemundus Strabus comes Tripoli et princeps Antiochie"[339].  He succeeded his father in 1233 as BOHEMOND V titular Prince of Antioch, BOHEMOND II Count of Tripoli.  Antioch continued to be ruled by the Commune, so Prince Bohémond resided at Tripoli[340].  Soon after his accession, he sent troops to help the Knights Hospitallers and Knights Templars in another attack on Barin, although a truce was agreed which lasted until 1237 when the Templars attacked Turkmen tribes settled east of the Lake of Antioch.  The Emir of Aleppo besieged Baghras in revenge, but the truce was renewed by Prince Bohémond[341].  He maintained good relations with the Papacy through the influence of his second wife[342].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the death [in 1251, from the context] of "Beimonte principe de Antiochia"[343]

m firstly (shortly before 5 Aug 1225, annulled on grounds of consanguinity after 5 Jul 1227) as her second husband, ALIX of Jerusalem, widow of HUGUES I King of Cyprus, daughter of HENRI de Champagne King of Jerusalem & his wife Isabelle Queen of Jerusalem ([1195/96]-1247).  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Buemont" son of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance married "la reyne Aalis" who left him[344].  She acted as co-regent for her infant son in Cyprus from 1218, jointly with her uncle Philippe of Ibelin, but after a dispute with the latter in 1223 she left Cyprus for Tripoli[345].  Pope Honorius III wrote to the archbishop of Nicosia about the marriage between "reginam Cypri" and "Boemundum filium comitis Tripolitani", dated 11 Aug 1225[346].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that Prince Bohémond "se estoit parties par l'Iglise de la reine Aeliz por ce que il fu trove que il estoient cosin en tiers et en quart dou roi Hugue de cui ele avoit esté feme"[347]

m secondly (1235) LUCIA di Caccamo-Segni, grand-niece of Pope INNOCENT III, daughter of PAOLO Conte di Segni & his wife ---.  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that Prince Bohémond "manda a Rome et li fu amenée Luciene, la fille do conte Pol, fiz do conte Richart qui avoit esté frere dou vaillant pape Innocent"[348].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Buemont" son of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance married "la princesse Lucie" as his second wife[349].  This marriage was arranged by Pope Gregory IX at Prince Bohémond's request[350].  She invited numerous relatives and friends to Antioch from Rome, which irritated the local barons[351].  Regent of Antioch and Tripoli Jan-Dec 1252.  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "Beimonte jovene principe de Antiochia…con Lucia sua matre" went to Jaffa [in 1252, from the context] where he was knighted by the French king[352]

Prince Bohémond V & his second wife had two children:

1.         PLAISANCE of Antioch ([1236]-[22/27] Sep 1261).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "la royne Plaissence et Buemont qui puis fu prince" as the children of "Buemont" and his wife "la princesse Lucie"[353].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records the marriage in Sep 1250 of King Henri with "Plesance fille le prince d'Antioche"[354].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage in Sep [in 1250, from the context] of "Henrico re de Cypro" and "Piasenza, figlia di Beimonte principe de Antiochia et conte de Tripoli"[355].  In view of the birth of her son in 1252, it is likely that Plaisance was born before her brother Bohémond.  She was accepted as regent of Cyprus for her infant son in 1253.  William of Tyre (Continuator) records her second marriage with "Balyan d'Ibelin filz du seignor" in 1254[356].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage, in 1254 from the context, of "Balian de Iblin figliolo del signor de Arsul" and "Piasenza regina de Cypro figliola del principe de Antiochia"[357].  The dispensation issued by Pope Innocent IV for the marriage of "Balian Ibelin n Johannis de Arsur" and "Plaisance regina Cipri relicta Henrici regis" is dated to before 7 Dec 1254[358].  She was recognised as regent of Jerusalem during her visit to Acre in 1258[359].  She became the mistress of Julien of Sidon, which provoked a Papal Bull urging her to remarry[360].  According to Runciman[361], the mistress of Julien of Sidon was the daughter-in-law of Plaisance, Isabelle Ibelin, but Rüdt-Collenberg attributes the Papal Bull to Pope Urban IV in 1261, well before the time when Isabelle Ibelin could have been involved.  William of Tyre (Continuator) records her death 22 Sep 1261[362].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the death 27 Sep, in 1261 from the context, of "la regina Piasentia, que fo relitta de Henrico re de Cypro et madre de Hugeth herede de Cypro"[363].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the death of "the queen of Cyprus, Blazhans" in [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262][364]m firstly (1250) as his third wife, HENRI I King of Cyprus, son of HUGUES I King of Cyprus & his wife Alix of Jerusalem Ctss of Jaffa (3 Mar 1217-18 Jan 1253).  m secondly ([Apr/May] 1254, Papal dispensation before 7 Dec 1254, separated 1255, separation confirmed 27 Mar 1258) as his first wife, BALIAN Ibelin Lord of Arsur, son of JEAN Ibelin Lord of Arsur & his wife Alix of Caiphas ([1239]-29 Sep 1277).  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that he left his wife in 1258 and returned to Tripoli[365]Mistress ([1256/61]) of JULIEN Lord of Sidon and Beaufort, son of BALIAN [Garnier] Lord of Sidon and Beaufort & his wife Marguerite de Raynel (-1275). 

2.         BOHEMOND of Antioch ([1237]-11 Mar or [11 May/Jul] 1275).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "la royne Plaissence et Buemont qui puis fu prince" as the children of "Buemont" and his wife "la princesse Lucie"[366].  He is named as son of Prince Bohémond by William of Tyre (Continuator), when recording his father's death[367].  He succeeded his father in 1252 as BOHEMOND VI titular Prince of Antioch, BOHEMOND III Count of Tripoli, under the regency of his mother until he was declared of age in Dec 1252[368].  William of Tyre (Continuator) records that he was knighted by Louis IX King of France at Jaffa in 1252[369].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "Beimonte jovene principe de Antiochia…con Lucia sua matre" went to Jaffa [in 1252, from the context] where he was knighted by the French king[370].  He restored good relations with Armenia, the alliance being sealed by his marriage to the Armenian king's daughter[371].  Bertrand Embriaco rebelled against Prince Bohémond in Tripoli, and besieged the city in 1258, during the course of which Bohémond was wounded[372].  Together with Hethum I King of Armenia, he paid homage to Hulagu Khan after the fall of Baghdad, and accompanied Kitbouqa the Mongol when he conquered Aleppo and Damascus[373].  After the capture of Galilee and invasion of Armenia by the Mameluks under Sultan Rukn ad-Din Baibars Bundukdari, the Mameluk army captured Antioch 18 May 1268[374].  Bohémond continued as Count of Tripoli from 1268.  Sultan Baibars offered him a ten year truce in May 1271 in return for recognition of all his recent conquests[375].  Count Bohémond joined Edward, son of Henry III King of England, who had taken the cross and landed at Acre 9 May 1271, but together they had insufficient resources to make much headway against the Mameluks[376].  William of Tyre (Continuation) records his death 11 Mar 1274[377].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the death 11 Mar, 1275 from the context, of "principe Beimonte"[378]m ([Jun/Oct] 1254) SIBYLLE of Armenia, daughter of HETHUM I King of Armenia & his wife Zabel Queen of Armenia (-in Armenia 1290).  William of Tyre (Continuator) records the marriage of "Sebille fille Othon roi d'Ermenie" to Prince Bohémond in 1254[379].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Sebile, Femie, Ritta, Ysabeau et Marie" as the five daughters of "Heiton le fis Constans qui estoit conestable et baill d'Ermenie" & his wife, stating that Sibylle married "le prince Beymont d'Antioche"[380].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records the marriage of "King Hetum…his daughter Zapel" and "Bohemond prince of Antioch and count of Tripoli" in [17 Jan 1253/16 Jan 1254][381].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the marriage in 1254 between [Jun/Oct] from the context, of "Beimonte principe de Antiochia" and "Sibilla figliola de Haetonte re de Armenia"[382].  On the death of her husband, she assumed the regency for her son, in opposition to Hugues III King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, but sent her son to her brother's court leaving Tripoli to be administered in her name by Bartholomew Bishop of Tortosa.  Together they persecuted the Romans installed in the city by her mother-in-law, killing some and exiling others[383].  The nobles of Tripoli offered her the crown in 1287 on the death of her son, but she required that Bartholomew Bishop of Tortosa was appointed her bailli, which was unacceptable[384].  Prince Bohémond VI & his wife had four children:

a)         ISABELLE .  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Beymont, Ysabeau, Marie et Lucie" as the four children of "Beymont" & his wife, stating that Isabelle died "demoiselle"[385]

b)         BOHEMOND of Antioch (1260-19 Oct 1287).  William of Tyre (Continuation) names him and gives his parentage, when recording his succession[386].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Beymont, Ysabeau, Marie et Lucie" as the four children of "Beymont" & his wife, stating that Isabelle died "demoiselle"[387].  He succeeded his father in 1275 as BOHEMOND IV Count of Tripoli and titular Prince of Antioch, but was sent to the court of Lewon III King of Armenia by his mother.  He returned to Tripoli to assume the administration in 1277[388].  After quarrelling with Guy [II] Embriaco Lord of Jebail, he was defeated in 1277 north of Botrun and again in 1278, but took his revenge in Jan 1282 when he captured Guy in Tripoli by burying him up to his neck in a ditch and leaving him to starve to death[389].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the death 28 Oct, in 1287 from the context, of "Beimonte principe de Antiochia et conte de Tripoli"[390]m (contract Naples 2 Jan 1278) MARGUERITE de Brienne, daughter of LOUIS de Brienne dit d'Acre Vicomte de Beaumont-au-Maine & his wife Agnès Vicomtesse de Beaumont (-9 Apr 1328, bur Abbaye de Maubuisson).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Marguerite la fille de Louis de Beaumont" as wife of Prince Bohémond[391].  The marriage contract between "Boemundi VII principis Antiocheni et comitis Tripolitani" and "domicella Margarita filia quondam Lodoyci vicecomitis Bellimontis, filii quondam regis Johannis Hierosolymitani" is recorded in the charter dated 20 Jan 1278 at "castro Ovi prope Neapolim"[392].  The necrology of Maubuisson records the death "V Id Apr" of "domina Margareta de Beaumont quondam Antiochie principissa"[393]

c)         LUCIE of Antioch (-before 29 Jun 1299).  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "principe Beimonte…haveva una sorella" who was married in Apulia to "messer Hugo de Theusi, amira de Puglia"[394].  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Beymont, Ysabeau, Marie et Lucie" as the four children of "Beymont" & his wife, stating that Lucie married "Nerjo de Toussi" and died without heirs[395].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "una sorella Luciana…moglie del signor Nargo…almiraglio del re Carlo in Puglia" was heiress of "Beimonte principe de Antiochia et conte de Tripoli"[396].  She succeeded her brother in 1287 as LUCIE Ctss of Tripoli, while living in Apulia.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Narzi di Torzi armiraglio del Rè Carlo" and "la principessa d´Antiochia sua moglie"[397]The nobles of Tripoli proclaimed the dethronement of the dynasty after offering the crown to Dowager Princess Sibylle, who refused it unless Bartholomew Bishop of Tortosa was accepted as her bailly[398].  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "la contessa Luciana" arrived in Tripoli 26 Apr, in 1288 from the context[399].  The commune finally recognised her as Ctss of Tripoli after suspecting that the Genoese, led by Bartolomeo Embriaco, wished to seize control of the town[400].  Sultan Qalawun, taking advantage of the general confusion over the succession, besieged Tripoli in Feb 1289 and captured the city 26 Apr 1289, whereupon Ctss Lucie escaped to Cyprus.  The Sultan ordered the city razed to the ground and founded a new city inland at the foot of Mount Pilgrim[401]m ([1275]) NARJOT [IV] de Toucy Signore di Terza, son of PHILIPPE de Toucy, Regent of Constantinople & his wife Portia de Roye (-[8 Aug/16 Sep] 1293).  Grand Admiral of Charles I King of Sicily 1277.  Captain-General of Morea 1282. 

d)         MARIE of Antioch (-before 1280).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Beymont, Ysabeau, Marie et Lucie" as the four children of "Beymont" & his wife, stating that Marie married "Nicole de Saint Omer" and died without heirs[402].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “la princesse d´Antioche” was the first wife of “le baron monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer le veillart, li sires de la moitié d´Estives[403]m ([Naples 24 Jan 1278]) as his first wife, NICOLAS de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes, son of BELA de Saint-Omer joint Lord of Thebes & his wife Bonne de la Roche-sur-Oignon co-heiress of Thebes (-1294).  Bailli of Moraia 1287/89. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    VASSALS of the PRINCES of ANTIOCH

 

 

 

A.      LORDS of BOURZEJ [BERZIEH]

 

 

1.         --- (-after 1189).  Lord of Bourzej [Berzieh].  m --- (-after 1189).  The Kamel-Altevarykh Chronicle states that "la femme du seigneur de Burzaih était sœur de la femme de Boémond prince d'Antioche", when recording that they, their children and son-in-law were captured and taken to Antioch when Salah ed-Din [Saladin] seized Burzaih in A.H. 584 (1188/89)[404]

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of HARENC [HARIM]

 

 

The castle and town of Harenc, known as Harim in Arabic, was built before the arrival in Palestine of the First Crusade, as it is mentioned in 1098 before the crusading armies conquered the area.  It lay half way between Aleppo and Antioch, in the principality of Antioch, in what is today north-western Syria.  William of Tyre records that reinforcements, requested by the Muslim defenders of Antioch during the 1098 siege, stopped at "castrum…Harenc" 14 miles from Antioch on their way to attempt to relieve the town[405].  It is assumed that the castle fell to the crusaders some time after the capture of Antioch, but the precise date is not known.  Thereafter control of the town oscillated regularly between the Turks and the crusaders, until its final recapture by the Muslims in 1164.  Albert of Aix records "…Gudo Fraxinus cognomine tenens civitatem Harich…" among those who campaigned against the Turks, dated to [1110/11] from the context[406].  It appears that the Christians did not hold the town for long, as Albert of Aix records that the Turks attacked "Gastum et Harich et Sinar, civitates Gallorum" and "terram invadentes" destroyed everything, dated to [1115] from the context[407].  The Christian armies must at some point have recaptured Harenc.  The date is unknown, but the History of Kamel-Altevarykh records that "Zenguy" besieged "la forteresse de Harem, située aux environs d´Antioche" but withdrew after the inhabitants offered him "la moitié de leurs revenus", dated to 1130 from the context[408].  William of Tyre refers to "castrum Harenc" in his account of the campaign of Foulques King of Jerusalem in the principality of Antioch in 1132, and records that Archbishop Serlo died at "castrum Harenc" after being expelled from Antioch in 1141[409].  Harenc fell to the Turks again in 1149: the Annals of Abul-Feda record that "Nour-ed-Din entreprend le siège de Harem" and defeated and killed "le prince d´Antioch" in 1149[410].  William of Tyre also records that "Noradinus" besieged and captured "castrum Harenc" and killed "Antiochia…principem", dated to 1149 from the context[411].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Hérim" was captured by "le roi de Jérusalem" who gave it "au fils de Djoslin qui portait le même nom que son père et qui était héritier de Romgla", dated to 1158 from the context[412].  The Histoire des Atabecs de Mosul records that "Nour ed-Din" besieged "Harem, forteresse occupée par les Francs et appartenant à Boémond seigneur d´Antioche…une des plus fortes et des plus difficiles à prendre", adding that it was ruled by "un de leurs démons dont [les Francs] connaissaient l´intelligence, homme de bon conseil, dont ils suivaient toujours l´avis", and that Nur ed-Din withdrew after payment of half the castle´s revenues, dated to [1156/57] from the context of the passage but presumably really dated to after 1158[413].  The Livre des Deux Jardins records that in May 1158 "Ased ed-Din" defeated "les Francs de Saïda" and captured "le fils du gouverneur de la citadelle de Harim"[414].  It was held by the Christians only until 1164, when William of Tyre records that "oppidum…Antiochenis, Harenc" was besieged[415].  The Annals of Abul-Feda record that "dans le mois de ramadan [Jul/Aug] Nour-ed-Din enleva Harem aux Francs" in 1164[416].  The Histoire des Atabecs de Mosul records that "Nour ed-Din" captured "Harem" in 1164[417].  The Annales de Terre Sainte record that Harenc was recaptured by the Muslims in 1165[418].  The History of Kamel-Altevarykh records that "au mois de ramadhan Nour-eddin Mahmoud" conquered "le château de Harem" from the Franks and that "le prince Boémond souverain d´Antioche, le comte, maître de Tripoli…le fils de Josselin…et le duc" were captured, dated to 1164 from the context, adding in a later passage that "Boémond prince d´Antioche" was later released on payment of "une rançon considérable"[419].  William of Tyre records that Bohémond III Prince of Antioch unsuccessfully laid siege to Harenc in 1177[420], and the Annals of Abul-Feda record that the Franks besieged "Harem…pendant quatre mois" but withdrew after being bribed by "El-Malec es-Salah", in 1178[421].  A last reference to Harenc in the Continuator of William of Tyre records its capture by the Tatars in 1260[422].  The history of the fortress of Harenc, especially in the light of the possible parentage of Orgueilleuse de Harenc (wife of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch), is explored in more detail in a separate article[423]

 

 

Fraisnel family: [1110/11].  As noted below, Albert of Aix records "Gudo Fraxinus" as holding "Harich" (assumed to be Harenc), dated to [1110/11] from the context[424].  The Fraisnel family were recorded in Normandy: Orderic Vitalis quotes a charter under which "Guillelmus de Bretolio, filius Guillelmi comitis" donated property to Evreux, signed by "homines mei Ricardus Fresnel…", dated 1099[425].  In another passage, Orderic Vitalis states that "Ricardus Fraxinellus…Emmæ uxoris suæ" had eight sons, dated to 1138 from the context[426], and records a rebellion in Normandy by "Guillelmus Fraxinellus et sex fratres eius…", also dated to 1138[427].  It is assumed that the Fraisnel individuals named below were related to this Fraisnel family in Normandy, but the precise connection has not been established.  It is possible that Guy Fraisnel was the brother who is unaccounted for in the second of Orderic´s passages dated to 1138.  No further primary source reference has been found to indicate that any member of the Fraisnel family was lord of Harenc after Guy. 

 

 

1.         GUY Fraisnel (-after 19 Jun 1119).  Albert of Aix records that "…Gudo Fraxinus cognomine tenens civitatem Harich…" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[428].  Du Cange assumed that "Harich" in Albert of Aix refers to the castle of Harenc, which seems a reasonable assumption, and that Guy Fraisnel was the first recorded Lord of Harenc[429].  "…Wido Fraisnel…" signed the charter dated 4 Jun 1118 under which Roger Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitallers[430].  William of Tyre records that "Gaufridus Monachus et Guido Fremellus" fought in campaigns, dated to 1119 from the context[431].  The Bella Antiochena records that "Guidonis Frenelli" commanded one of the divisions at the battle in which Roger Prince of Antioch was killed, dated to 19 Jun 1119[432]

 

2.         GUILLAUME Fraisnel (-after 19 Apr 1140).  "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…Willelmus Fraisnelli…" subscribed a charter dated 19 Apr 1140 under which "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ"[433].  No indication has been found in any primary source of the parentage of Guillaume Fraisnel, but presumably he was closely related to Guy Fraisnel.  Du Cange assumed that Guillaume Fraisnel probably ("comme je crois") succeeded Guy Fraisnel as lord of Harenc[434].  However, no indication has been found in any primary source that Guillaume Fraisnel ever became Lord of Harenc. 

 

3.         TANCRED Fraisnel (-after Mar 1160).  "…Tancredus Fraisnellus…" subscribed a charter dated Mar 1160 under which Renaud Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Templars[435].  No indication has been found in any primary source of the parentage of Tancred Fraisnel, but presumably he was closely related to Guy Fraisnel and Guillaume Fraisnel.  No indication has been found in any primary source that Tancred Fraisnel succeeded as Lord of Harenc. 

 

 

Unknown family 1158: 

 

 

1.         --- .  [Lord] of Harenc 1158.  The Histoire des Atabecs de Mosul records that "Nour ed-Din" besieged "Harem, forteresse occupée par les Francs et appartenant à Boémond seigneur d´Antioche…une des plus fortes et des plus difficiles à prendre", adding that it was ruled by "un de leurs démons dont [les Francs] connaissaient l´intelligence, homme de bon conseil, dont ils suivaient toujours l´avis", and the Nur ed-Din withdrew after payment of half the castle´s revenues[436].  It does not appear that this description could refer to Joscelin [III] de Courtenay, as the wording suggests an older and more experienced person.  No indication has been found of his identity.  It is possible that he was Joscelin´s deputy governing the castle, although no other evidence has been found that it was the practice in the crusading states to appoint such deputies (except for the vicomtes appointed by the rulers of Antioch, Jerusalem and Tripoli).  It is also possible that he was steward (dapifer) of the castle.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         --- (-after May 1158).  The Livre des Deux Jardins records that in May 1158 "Ased ed-Din" defeated "les Francs de Saïda" and captured "le fils du gouverneur de la citadelle de Harim"[437]

 

 

Courtenay family [1158-1164]: 

 

1.         JOSCELIN [III] de Courtenay, son of JOSCELIN [II] de Courtenay Count of Edessa & his wife Beatrice --- (-before 1200).  William of Tyre names "tertium Joscelinum" as the son of "Joscelinus junior, ex sorore Levonis Armeni" and his wife "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem"[438]Lord of Harenc [1158-1164].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Hérim" was captured by "le roi de Jérusalem" who gave it "au fils de Djoslin qui portait le même nom que son père et qui était héritier de Romgla"[439].  He was taken prisoner in [1159/60] and sent to Aleppo[440].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that the "fils de Djoslin qui portait le même nom que son père et qui était héritier de Romgla" ravaged Aleppo in revenge for the death of his father, but after two years was captured and died in chains (although the sources quoted in the document EDESSA indicate that Joscelin [III] did not die at the time)[441].  The capture of Joscelin [III] is dated to 1164 by the History of Kamel-Altevarykh which records that "au mois de ramadhan Nour-eddin Mahmoud" conquered "le château de Harem" from the Franks and that "le prince Boémond souverain d´Antioche, le comte, maître de Tripoli…le fils de Josselin…et le duc" were captured[442].  If this date is correct, Joscelin held Harenc until its capture by Nur ed-Din although no document has been found which expressly links Joscelin to the castle after 1158. 

 

 

[Saint-Valéry family 1158]: 

 

1.         [RENAUD [I] de Saint-Valéry (-5 Aug [after 1162]).  The cartulary of Cercamp includes a charter of Bernard de Saint-Valéry which recalls the pilgrimage of "pater meus" (Renaud [I] de Saint-Valéry) to Jerusalem"[443].  Renaud [I] de Saint-Valéry is recorded in one source as Lord of Harenc, but it is not at all clear that this can be correct.  The precise date of Renaud´s arrival in Palestine is not known.  "…Rainaudus de S. Valerio…" witnessed the charter dated 1159 under which Mélisende Queen of Jerusalem donated property to the leprosarium of St Lazarus[444].  "…Rainaldus de S. Gallerico…" witnessed the charter dated 1160 under which "Hugo de Ybelino dominus Ramathensis" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem[445].  Other sources name Renaud [I] de Saint-Valéry in England and France between [1160/61] and 1163, suggesting that he left Palestine soon after witnessing the charter dated 1160.  The Red Book of the Exchequer refers to "Reginaldus de Sancto Valerico c m - l milites" in Oxfordshire in [1160/61][446], and "Reginaldo de Sancto Valerico i m" in Berkshire in [1161/62][447] (although these entries do not prove that he was present in England at the time).  "…Raginaldo de Sancto Walerico…" witnessed a charter dated 1162 under which Henry II King of England donated the forest of Hogues to Fécamp abbey[448].  Robert de Torigny records that "Rotrocus episcopus Ebroicensis et Rainaldus de Sancto Walerio" recognised the rights of Henry II King of England in Normandy in 1163[449].  Henry II King of England addressed a writ to "R[otrou] bishop of Evreux and R[eginald] de Sancto Walerico" confirming the possession of the church of Lion by the canons of Briweton[450].  In contrast to all these sources, we have a single primary source which indicates that Renaud de Saint-Valéry was Lord of Harenc in 1158:  Robert de Torigny records that "Balduinus rex Jerosolimitanus" captured "Cæsaream magnam Palestinæ" near Antioch, and also "castrum Harenc", adding that he granted the latter to "Rainaldo de Sancto Valerico", dated to 1158 from the context[451].  This source contradicts the Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand which records that "Hérim" was captured by "le roi de Jérusalem" who gave it "au fils de Djoslin qui portait le même nom que son père et qui était héritier de Romgla" [referring to Joscelin [III] de Courtenay, son of Joscelin [II] Count of Edessa], adding that the latter ravaged Aleppo in revenge for the death of his father but after two years was captured and died in chains (although the sources quoted in the document EDESSA indicate that Joscelin [III] did not die at the time)[452].  William of Tyre does not help much in resolving the conflict between the two texts as he records that Baudouin King of Jerusalem besieged and recaptured "castrum urbi Antiochiæ vicinum" (which is not named in the text, but named "castrum Harenc" in the heading of the relevant chapter) and records that the king restored it to "domino principi, cuius jurisdictionis fuerat", the old French text specifying that "li rois bailla le chastel au conte Renaut, por ce qu´il devoit estre de sa princée" (presumably indicating Renaud de Châtillon Prince of Antioch, as the suzerain of the area), dated to 1157 from the context[453].  However, the History of Kamel-Altevarykh dates the capture of Joscelin [III] de Courtenay to 1164 when it records that "au mois de ramadhan Nour-eddin Mahmoud" conquered "le château de Harem" from the Franks and that "le prince Boémond souverain d´Antioche, le comte, maître de Tripoli…le fils de Josselin…et le duc" were captured[454].  If this date is correct, Joscelin probably held Harenc until its capture by Nur ed-Din, which leaves no room at all for Renaud de Saint-Valéry to have been lord of Harenc.  There appears no way of reconciling these texts other than by suggesting that Robert de Torigny was in error and that he had meant to indicate Renaud de Châtillon Prince of Antioch when he named Renaud de Saint-Valéry.  This would be surprising, as otherwise Robert de Torigny appears to be an accurate and reliable source, although it would provide the link to William of Tyre who, as noted above, indicates that the castle was returned to Renaud de Châtillon.] 

 

 

Unknown family, unknown date mid-12th century.  The only other reference so far found to an individual named “Orgueilleuse” is the wife of Berlay [III] de Montreuil (see the document ANJOU) who died after 1116.  The name is so unusual that some family connection cannot be dismissed as a possibility.  Little corroborated information has been found about the descendants of Berlay [III], but from a chronological point of view it would be possible for Orgueilleuse [of Harenc] to have been his granddaughter.    

 

1.         --- .  [Lord of Harenc].  It is not certain that the source quoted below is accurate in asserting that the father of Orgueilleuse was "Lord of Harenc".  On the other hand, no other place with a similar name which may have been distorted in the Lignages, has been identified.  As can be seen above, Harenc was in Christian hands for only six years from 1158 to 1164.  As noted above, Joscelin [III] de Courtenay is recorded as lord of Harenc in 1158 but no indication has been found that he was the father of Orgueilleuse.  The unreliability of the source which records Renaud de Saint-Valéry as lord of Harenc is discussed above.  No other primary source has been identified which names any other lord of Harenc during the relevant timeframe.  Rey suggests that the father of Orgueilleuse "devait être…Guillaume Fresnel"[455].  He presumably bases this on his supposition (unsupported by primary source evidence) that the Fraisnel family continued to hold the lordship of Harenc after Guy Fraisnel (see above).  The last possibility is that the father of Orgueilleuse was the unnamed [lord] of Harenc in [1158] who is shown above.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         ORGUEILLEUSE [of Harenc] (-after Mar 1175).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "une dame d'Antioche…Orgueillouse" as wife of "Beymont le grant prince", stating that he repudiated her[456], another manuscript of the Lignages stating that she was "une dame d´Antioche, fille au seignor de Harenc…Orguilouse", although this second manuscript says that she was her husband's second wife after the Byzantine princess (which cannot be correct as shown by the other sources quoted in the present document)[457].  A third manuscript of the Lignages names her "Orgogliosa, figliola del signor Hurres"[458].  "Boamundus III Raimundi filius, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of Santa Maria and the archbishop of Pisa, with the consent of "uxoris Orgollosæ", by charter dated 1170[459].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Orgellosæ", by charter dated Sep 1172, subscribed by "Guiscardus de Insula constabularius, Silvester cognatus principis…"[460].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" granted property to "Petro de Melfia, homini suo ligio ac vicecomiti", with the consent of "Orguilosæ uxoris", by charter dated 4 Jan 1174, subscribed by "…Silvester, consanguineus principis…"[461].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the donation by "Garentonus, dominus Saonensis" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Orgollosæ uxoris et filiorum", by charter dated Feb 1175, subscribed by "Silvester, cognatus principis…"[462].  She is last named in a charter dated Mar 1175[463]m ([1168/70], divorced after Mar 1175) as his first wife, BOHEMOND III Prince of Antioch, son of RAYMOND de Poitiers Prince of Antioch & his wife Constance Pss of Antioch ([1144]-[20 Mar/1 Oct][464] 1201). 

 

 

 

C.      LORDS of HAZART

 

 

Hazart (now Ezzaz) was originally within the county of Edessa and was united with the principality of Antioch after the fall of Edessa[465]

 

 

1.         TANCRED (-after Jul 1170).  [Lord] of Hazart.  "Joscelinus frater Rogerii, Willelmus Trigala, Rainaudus de Landauran, Tancredus Dasart" subscribed the charter dated Jul 1170 under which "Rogerius dominus Seonæ" confirmed the donation of property "casale Tricheria" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Aviciæ et fratrum Garentonis et Joscelini"[466]

 

2.         PIERRE [I] de Hazart (-after Sep 1195).  [Lord] of Hazart.  "…Eschivardus senescalcus, Petrus camerarius, Guillermus Tirelli marescalcus, Petrus de Hasar, Rotgreius de Surdavalle, Bonablus Baufredus, Petrus de Melfa vicecomes" subscribed the charter dated 1167 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted privileges at Antioch to Venice[467].  "…Petrus de Asart…" subscribed the charter dated 5 Feb 1178 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch enfeoffed Joscelin of Edessa with property[468].  "…Petrus de Hasart…" subscribed the charter dated [Feb] 1186 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation of the castle of Marquab to the Knights Hospitallers[469].  "…Petrus de Hasart…" subscribed the charter dated 7 Mar 1190 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[470].  "…Petrus de Hasardo…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 1193 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitallers[471].  "…Petrus de Hasart…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 1195 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitallers by "Godofridus miles et Albereda eius uxor filia quondam Adæ de Peviers"[472]

 

3.         GUILLAUME de Hazart (-after Mar 1219).  [Lord] of Hazart.  "…Guillelmus de Assardo…" subscribed the charter dated Mar 1219 under which Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch granted privileges to the Teutonic Knights[473].  Constable of Antioch.  m ---.  The name of Guillaume´s wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

a)         CLARENCE Hazart .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Clarence, la fille Guilliaume de Hasart, le conestable d'Antioche" as the wife of Jacques, son of "Beymont, le fis dou prince Baube d'Antioche, et frere dou prince Borgne", and his wife[474]m JACQUES de Boutron, son of BOHEMOND of Antioch Lord of Boutron & his wife --- de Boutron. 

 

4.         PIERRE [II] de Hazart (-after 1 May 1263).  [Lord] of Hazart.  Seneschal of Antioch.  "…Pierre de Azart senescalcus Antiochiæ…" subscribed the charter dated 1 May 1263 under which Bohémond VI Prince of Antioch agreed arbitration to settle a dispute with the Knights Hospitallers[475]

 

 

 

D.      LORDS of MARGAT [MARQAB]

 

 

The castle of Margat was built before the arrival in Palestine before the arrival of the First Crusade, as shown by William of Tyre who records that "urbem Valeniam" {Baniyas, 40 km south of Lattakia} lay "sub oppido Margat" along the coast, when recording a campaign in the area dated to 1199[476]

 

 

1.         RENAUDm ---.  The name of Renaud´s wife is not known.  Renaud & [his wife] had one child: 

a)         RENAUD [I] Mazoir [Mansuer] (-[before 19 Apr 1140])Constable of Antioch 1101-1134.  Caffaro names "quidam Francigena, Rainaldus Mansuer, alterius Raynaldi filius, constabularii Antioceni principis et dominus…Vananee et Marachie" among those present at the capture of "castrum…Margali" in 1101[477].  The name "Mansuer" is similar to "Mancer", a term often used to indicate illegitimacy.  It is also similar to "Mansel" the name applied to another noble family in Antioch, also constables of the city, who are shown in Part B. below.  It is not known whether the two families were related.  Lord of Vananee and Maraclea.  William of Tyre names "Rainardus autem Mansuerus" among those who were captured in 1119 at Tel-Aqibrin where Roger Prince of Antioch was killed and held "in turrim…oppidi…Sarmatan"[478].  After Foulques d'Anjou King of Jerusalem assumed the regency of Antioch in 1131, he entrusted its administration to Renaud Mazoir[479].  "…Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated dated Dec 1127 of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch[480].  "Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated Sep 1134 under which "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus rector ac bajulus principatus Antiocheni filiæque Boamundi II iunioris" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre[481].  "R Masuerius…" subscribed a charter dated 2 Aug 1135 under which "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus bajulus ac tutor principatus Antiocheni" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre[482].  [Lord of Marqab.  No primary source has yet been identified which confirms that Renaud [I] was lord of the castle of Marqab.]  Renaud presumably died before 19 Apr 1140, the date of a charter subscribed by "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…"[483]m ---.  The name of Renaud's wife is not known.  Renaud [I] & his wife had one child: 

i)          RENAUD [II] (-[30 Oct 1185/1 Feb 1186]).  "Raynaldus II de Margato filius Raynaldi Mansoerii eiusque uxor Agnes filia comitis Tripolitani" exchanged property with "Guillelmo de Redos" by charter dated Jul 1151[484].  His parentage is confused by the Lignages d'Outremer which name "Bertran et Amauri" as the children of "Guillaumin de Torhot" and his wife, specifying that she was the daughter of "le Mazoir…premier seignor dou Margat"[485].  This is inconsistent with the various charters quoted here, although the latter do confirm that Bertrand and Amaury were sons of Renaud [II].  Lord of Marqab

-         see below

 

 

RENAUD [II], son of RENAUD [I] Mazoir [Lord of Marqab] & his wife --- (-[30 Oct 1185/1 Feb 1186]).  "Raynaldus II de Margato filius Raynaldi Mansoerii eiusque uxor Agnes filia comitis Tripolitani" exchanged property with "Guillelmo de Redos" by charter dated Jul 1151[486].  His parentage is confused by the Lignages d'Outremer which name "Bertran et Amauri" as the children of "Guillaumin de Torhot" and his wife, specifying that she was the daughter of "le Mazoir…premier seignor dou Margat"[487].  This is inconsistent with the various charters quoted here, although the latter do confirm that Bertrand and Amaury were sons of Renaud [II].  Lord of Marqab.  "…Renaldus de Margat…" subscribed a charter dated May 1153 under which "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians[488].  Renaud Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation to the Knights Templars by "Rainaldus II, dominus Margati, Rainaldi Masuerii filius", with the consent of "uxoris Agnetis, Tripolitani comitis filiæ, ac filii Thomæ", by charter dated Mar 1160[489].  "Raynaldus II Masuerius dominus Margati" donated property "casale Toron" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agnetis uxoris, filiæ comitis Tripolitani, Amalrici et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated 1165[490].  "…Robertus Masoer…" confirmed a charter dated Jan 1167 under which Bohemond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[491].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted commercial rights to the Venetians in Antioch by charter dated 1167, subscribed by "…Reinaldus de Margato…"[492].  "Rainaldus Masueri, filius Rainaldi Masueri" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii", by charter dated 1174[493].  "Raynaldus dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Agneti uxoris adhuc vivæ, Amalrici, Manzoer et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated to [1175][494].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted property to "Joscelino, filio Joscelini, Edessani comitis, homino suo ligio" by charter dated 5 Feb 1178, subscribed by "Rainaldus de Margat…"[495].  "Rainaldus de Margat" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "filii sui Bertrandi et Boamundi III", by charter dated 31 Aug 1178[496].  "Renaudus III Mausoerius" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Boamundi III principis, Bertrandi filii et (Bermondæ) uxoris", by charter dated 1178[497].  "Reinaudus dominus de Margat" donated "casale Astalorin" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii sui", by charter dated 1 Dec 1181[498].  "Rainaldus Masoerius, dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "filii Bertrandi et Boamundi III principis Antiocheni", by charter dated 1 Jan 1182[499].  "Raynaldus dominus de Margato" confirmed a donation to the Knights Templars "dum Agnes uxor viverat…assensu Amalrici, Mansoeri et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated Mar 1183[500].  "Rainaldus dominus de Margato" donated property to the Knights Templars at Tortosa, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii et Bermundæ uxoris Alano", by charter dated Jun 1183[501].  "Reynaldus domino Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii et Bermundæ uxoris", by charter dated 30 Oct 1185[502].  Renaud [II] died before 1 Feb 1186 when a charter names his son "Bertrandus dominus Margati, Rainaldi eiusdem domini bonæ memoriæ filius"[503]

m AGNES of Tripoli, daughter of PONS Count of Tripoli & his wife Cécile de France ([1117/25]-[1175/78]).  "Raynaldus II de Margato filius Raynaldi Mansoerii eiusque uxor Agnes filia comitis Tripolitani" exchanged property with "Guillelmo de Redos" by charter dated Jul 1151[504].  Renaud Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation to the Knights Templars by "Rainaldus II, dominus Margati, Rainaldi Masuerii filius", with the consent of "uxoris Agnetis, Tripolitani comitis filiæ, ac filii Thomæ", by charter dated Mar 1160[505].  "Raynaldus II Masuerius dominus Margati" donated property "casale Toron" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agnetis uxoris, filiæ comitis Tripolitani, Amalrici et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated 1165[506].  "Raynaldus dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Agneti uxoris adhuc vivæ, Amalrici, Manzoer et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated to [1175][507], which suggests that Agnes was gravely ill at the time of the writing of the charter.  "Raynaldus dominus de Margato" confirmed a donation to the Knights Templars "dum Agnes uxor viverat…assensu Amalrici, Mansoeri et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated Mar 1183[508]

Renaud [II] & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         THOMAS (-[Mar 1160/1165]).  Renaud Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation to the Knights Templars by "Rainaldus II, dominus Margati, Rainaldi Masuerii filius", with the consent of "uxoris Agnetis, Tripolitani comitis filiæ, ac filii Thomæ", by charter dated Mar 1160[509].  His absence from his father´s charter dated 1165 suggests that Thomas had died before that date. 

2.         AMAURY (-[1175/78]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Bertran et Amauri" as the children of "Guillaumin de Torhot" and his wife, the daughter of "le Mazoir…premier seignor dou Margat"[510], although Amaury's parentage is corrected in the charters quoted below.  "Raynaldus II Masuerius dominus Margati" donated property "casale Toron" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agnetis uxoris, filiæ comitis Tripolitani, Amalrici et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated 1165[511].  "Raynaldus dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Agneti uxoris adhuc vivæ, Amalrici, Manzoer et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated to [1175][512].  "Raynaldus dominus de Margato" confirmed a donation to the Knights Templars "dum Agnes uxor viverat…assensu Amalrici, Mansoeri et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated Mar 1183[513].  These charters suggest that Amaury was the oldest child.  His absence from his father's charter dated 1178 suggests that he must have died before that date.  m ---.  The name of Amaury's wife is not known.  Amaury & his wife had four children: 

a)         MARIE .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Marie" as the oldest of the four daughters of "Amauri le fis de Guilliaume de Torhot, le seignor dou Margat", specifying that she married "Meillour, le seignor de Mareclee"[514]m MELLIOR Lord of Maraclea, son of GUILLAUME Lord of Maraclea & his wife --- ([1150/55]-killed in battle Hattin 1187). 

b)         daughter .  The Lignages d'Outremer record that the second of the four daughters of "Amauri le fis de Guilliaume de Torhot, le seignor dou Margat" was mother of "Acarie dou Margat, qui o tune fille qui fu feme de Renaut de Mimars"[515]m ---. 

c)         daughter .  The Lignages d'Outremer record that the third of the four daughters of "Amauri le fis de Guilliaume de Torhot, le seignor dou Margat" married "Guilliaume le Berner" and had two children "Amauri et Marie…Amauri espousa Estefenie la fille Guillaumin de Giblet…[et] Marie espousa Thomas de Flainecont", also naming their respective children[516]m GUILLAUME le Berner, son of ---. 

d)         daughter .  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Amauri le fis de Guilliaume de Torhot, le seignor dou Margat" married "Guilliaume le Berner" had four daughters but gives no details concerning the youngest daughter[517]

3.         [MANSUR (-[1175/78]).  "Raynaldus dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Agneti uxoris adhuc vivæ, Amalrici, Manzoer et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated to [1175][518].  "Raynaldus dominus de Margato" confirmed a donation to the Knights Templars "dum Agnes uxor viverat…assensu Amalrici, Mansoeri et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated Mar 1183[519].  It is not certain that "Manzoer" was a separate person, as the name could be a corruption of "Mazoir" (the second name of Renaud [I] Lord of Marqab) and could refer to a second name given to the son named Amaury.  No other source has been found which confirms his existence, and his absence from his father's charter dated 1165 (which names his two other sons) suggests that he may not have existed.  If he did exist, his absence from his father's charter dated 1178 suggests that he must have died before that date.] 

4.         BERTRAND (-after 23 Jul 1217).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Bertran et Amauri" as the children of "Guillaumin de Torhot" and his wife, the daughter of "le Mazoir…premier seignor dou Margat"[520], although Bertrand's parentage is corrected in the charters quoted below.  "Raynaldus II Masuerius dominus Margati" donated property "casale Toron" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agnetis uxoris, filiæ comitis Tripolitani, Amalrici et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated 1165[521].  "Rainaldus Masueri, filius Rainaldi Masueri" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii", by charter dated 1174[522].  "Raynaldus dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Agneti uxoris adhuc vivæ, Amalrici, Manzoer et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated to [1175][523].  "Rainaldus de Margat" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "filii sui Bertrandi et Boamundi III", by charter dated 31 Aug 1178[524].  "Reinaudus dominus de Margat" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii sui", by charter dated 1 Dec 1181[525].  "Rainaldus Masoerius, dominus Margati" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "filii Bertrandi et Boamundi III principis Antiocheni", by charter dated 1 Jan 1182[526].  "Raynaldus dominus de Margato" confirmed a donation to the Knights Templars "dum Agnes uxor viverat…assensu Amalrici, Mansoeri et Bertrandi filiorum", by charter dated Mar 1183[527].  "Rainaldus dominus de Margato" donated property to the Knights Templars at Tortosa, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii et Bermundæ uxoris Alano", by charter dated Jun 1183[528].  "Reynaldus domino Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii et Bermundæ uxoris", by charter dated 30 Oct 1185[529]Lord of Marqab.  "Bertrandus dominus Margati, Rainaldi eiusdem domini bonæ memoriæ filius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "…uxoris suæ Bermundæ…", by charter dated 1 Feb 1186, subscribed by "…Stephanus Raillant, Bertrandi de Margato consanguineus…"[530].  "Bertrandus de Margato…moribundus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agnetis filiæ Bertrandi, eiusque mariti Aymerici Berlai", by charter dated 23 Jul 1217 at Nicosia[531]m (before Jun 1183) BERMONDE, daughter of GAUTHIER [III] Brisebarre Lord of Beirut & his second wife Agnes --- ([after Nov 1168]-after 1 Feb 1186).  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Gautier…de Baruth" and his wife Agnes had four daughters, the eldest of whom "Reimonde" married "Bertran seignor dou Marguat" and had children "Renaut et Biatris et Agnes", of whom "Biatris morut sanz heir, et Agnes fu feme de Haymeri Barlais, et orent V fiz et une fille qui fu feme de Gui de Ybelin, conestable de Chypre, mere de ces enfanz"[532].  ["Renaudus III Mausoerius" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Boamundi III principis, Bertrandi filii et (Bermondæ) uxoris", by charter dated 1178[533].  The reference to "(Bermondæ) uxoris" in this document is puzzling.  The original of this charter has not been seen, and it is not known whether the name is found in that document (presumably in some shortened or otherwise scarcely illegible form to justify it being placed in brackets in the transcription).  Given the likely birth date of Bermonde, wife of Bertrand Lord of Marqab, it is unlikely that she would have been married in 1178.  This suggests that there may be some problem with this charter as reproduced in shortened form by Röhricht.]  "Rainaldus dominus de Margato" donated property to the Knights Templars at Tortosa, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii et Bermundæ uxoris Alano", by charter dated Jun 1183[534].  "Reynaldus domino Margati" donated property to the Knights Templars, with the consent of "Bertrandi filii et Bermundæ uxoris", by charter dated 30 Oct 1185[535].  "Bertrandus dominus Margati, Rainaldi eiusdem domini bonæ memoriæ filius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "…uxoris suæ Bermundæ…", by charter dated 1 Feb 1186[536].  Bertrand & his wife had three children: 

a)         RENAUD [III] (-before 23 Jul 1217).  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Bertran seignor dou Marguat" & his wife and had children "Renaut et Biatris et Agnes"[537].  Another manuscript of the Lignages states that Renaud "eschanga le Margat a l'Ospital pour IIII mille sarazinas chascun an" and died without heirs[538]

b)         BEATRIX .  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Bertran seignor dou Marguat" & his wife and had children "Renaut et Biatris et Agnes", of whom "Biatris morut sanz heir…"[539].  Another manuscript of the Lignages states that Beatrix "morut"[540]

c)         AGNES (-after 25 Mar 1239).  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Bertran seignor dou Marguat" & his wife and had children "Renaut et Biatris et Agnes", of whom "…Agnes fu feme de Haymeri Barlais, et orent V fiz et une fille qui fu feme de Gui de Ybelin, conestable de Chypre, mere de ces enfanz"[541].  "Bertrandus de Margato…moribundus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Agnetis filiæ Bertrandi, eiusque mariti Aymerici Berlai", by charter dated 23 Jul 1217 at Nicosia[542].  "Agnes vidua Aymerici Barlais" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Johannis et Raynaldi Barlais filiorum", by charter dated 25 Mar 1239[543].  "Agnes de Margato et Raynaldus Barlais filius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated 26 Mar 1240[544]m AIMERY Barlais, son of RENAUD Barlais & his wife Isabelle de Bethsan (-before 6 Jun 1253). 

 

 

The exact relationship between the following person and the family of the Lords of Marqab is not known. 

1.         ETIENNE Raillant (-after 1 Feb 1186).  "Bertrandus dominus Margati, Rainaldi eiusdem domini bonæ memoriæ filius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "…uxoris suæ Bermundæ…", by charter dated 1 Feb 1186, subscribed by "…Stephanus Raillant, Bertrandi de Margato consanguineus…"[545]

 

 

 

E.      LORDS of SAHYUN [SAONE]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         GUILLAUME de Zerdana (-1132)Lord of Sahyun.  William of Tyre records that Alix of Jerusalem, widow of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch seized the regency of Antioch after her husband died, helped by "Wilelmum…de Sehuina, Guarentonis fratrem, et Pontium comitem Tripolitanem necnon et Joscelinum juniorem Edessanum comitem"[546]m as her first husband, BEATRICE, daughter of ---.  William of Tyre records that "Joscelinus junior" married "Wilelmi de Saona viduam…Beatricem" but does not record her parentage[547].  The same chronicler describes her as "mulier pudica, sobria et timens Deum", specifies that she was left with one son "impubere" and two daughters after her husband's capture[548].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Biatris qui avoit esté feme dou seignor de Saone" as the wife of "Joscelin…conte de Rohais"[549].  After her husband's capture, she successfully defended Turbessel against Nur-ed-Din, but was obliged to sell her territories to Emperor Manuel I (although they fell to Nur-ed-Din within a year) and retired to Jerusalem with her two young children[550].  She married secondly Joscelin [II] de Courtenay Count of Edessa.  Guillaume & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROGER (-Sep 1195).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Jul 1170, see below, which names his uterine half-brother.  Lord of Sahyun.  "Rogerius dominus Seonæ" confirmed the donation of property "casale Tricheria" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Aviciæ et fratrum Garentonis et Joscelini", by charter dated Jul 1170[551].  "Joscelini" in this document is presumably identified as Joscelin [III], who was the uterine brother of the donor, although he was still in prison in Aleppo at that date.  "…Rogerius de Seona…" subscribed a charter of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch dated Sep 1195[552]m HAWISE, daughter of --- (-after Jul 1170).  "Rogerius dominus Seonæ" confirmed the donation of property "casale Tricheria" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Aviciæ et fratrum Garentonis et Joscelini", by charter dated Jul 1170[553]

b)         GARENTON [II] (-after Feb 1175).  ["…Garento de Saona…" subscribed a charter dated May 1153 under which "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians[554].  "Garento de Saona" subscribed a charter of Renaud Prince of Antioch dated 10 May 1154[555].  These two charters could either refer to Garenton [II] or to his paternal uncle Garenton [I].  It is assumed that the brothers Roger and Garenton [II] were infants when their father died, but they would have been old enough to have subscribed charters in 1153.]  "Rogerius dominus Seonæ" confirmed the donation of property "casale Tricheria" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Aviciæ et fratrum Garentonis et Joscelini", by charter dated Jul 1170[556]Lord of Sahyun.  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the donation by "Garentonus, dominus Saonensis" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Orgollosæ uxoris et filiorum", by charter dated Feb 1175, subscribed by "Silvester, cognatus principis…"[557]

2.         GARENTON [I] (-after 19 Apr 1140, or [after 10 May 1154]).  William of Tyre records that Alix of Jerusalem, widow of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch seized the regency of Antioch after her husband died, helped by "Wilelmum…de Sehuina, Guarentonis fratrem, et Pontium comitem Tripolitanem necnon et Joscelinum juniorem Edessanum comitem"[558].  "…Garento de Saone…" subscribed a charter dated 19 Apr 1140 under which "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ"[559].  ["…Garento de Saona…" subscribed a charter dated May 1153 under which "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians[560].  "Garento de Saona" subscribed a charter of Renaud Prince of Antioch dated 10 May 1154[561].  These two charters could either refer to Garenton [I] or to his nephew Garenton [II].  It is assumed that the brothers Roger and Garenton [II] were infants when their father died, but they would have been old enough to have subscribed charters in 1153.] 

 

 

 

F.      MANSEL

 

 

1.         --- Mansel (-after 2 Jan 1135).  "…Mansellus…" subscribed a charter of "Adelicia filia Balduini II regis vidua Bohemundi II" dated Jul 1134[562].  "…Mansellus, Willelmus filius Manselli…" witnessed a charter dated 2 Jan 1135 under which "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[563]m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  --- Mansel & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUILLAUME Mansel (-after 2 Jan 1135).  "…Mansellus, Willelmus filius Manselli…" witnessed a charter dated 2 Jan 1135 under which "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[564]

 

2.         ROBERT Mansel (-after Jan 1167).  "…Robertus Manselli Bethleem" subscribed a charter dated 1163 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[565].  "…Robertus Mansel" confirmed a charter dated Jan 1167 under which Bohemond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[566]m ---.  The name of Robert´s wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had one child: 

a)         THOMAS (-after Jan 1187).  "…Thomas filius Roberti Manselli…" subscribed a charter of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch dated Mar 1175[567].  "Thomas Robert filius Manceli" sold property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated 20 Aug 1178[568].  "Thomas de Gabel, filius Roberti Mansel" sold property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated Jan 1187[569]

 

3.         --- [Mansel] (-before 1181)m as her first husband, SIBYLLE, daughter of --- (-1216).  The Lignages d'Outremer names "Sibilla, madre del contestabile d'Antiochia" as the third wife of "Beimondo…le Begue"[570].  She married secondly (1181, divorced [1199]) as his third wife, Bohémond III Prince of Antioch.  She is named as third wife of Prince Bohémond by William of Tyre, who comments that the marriage caused general outrage[571].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Sebille" as wife of "Beymont le grant prince" after Orgueilleuse, stating that he repudiated her[572].  She was reputed to be a spy of Saladin whom she supplied with information on Frankish troop movements[573].  One child: 

a)         --- .  Constable of Antiochsame person as…?  ROBERT Mansel ([1170/80]-after Mar 1219).  The Lignages d'Outremer names "Sibilla, madre del contestabile d'Antiochia" as the third wife of "Beimondo…le Begue"[574].  No proof has yet been found that Robert Mansel was the constable of Antioch who was the son of Sibylle, third wife of Prince Bohémond III.  However, the chronology appears to be favourable and Robert was the constable for the longest time during the relevant period.  Constable of Antioch.  "…Robertus, Antiochiæ constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated 22 May 1207 under which Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation of the town of Jebel to the Knights Hospitallers[575].  "…Robertus Mansel, Antiochiæ comestabulis…" subscribed a charter dated Aug 1210 under which "Leo II filius domini Stephani…rex Armeniæ" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[576].  "…Robertus Mansel, Antiochiæ comestabulis…" subscribed a charter dated Sep 1210 under which "Raymundus Rupinus, princeps Antiochenus…" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[577].  He was in Armenia between 1201 and 1217[578].  "…Mansellus constabularius…" subscribed a charter of Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch dated 1 Sep 1216[579].  "…Mansellus constabularius et maior Antiochiæ…" subscribed a charter of Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch dated Mar 1219[580]m --- [of Barbaron], daughter of ---.  A relative of King Hethum married Robert Mansel, as his son Simon Mansel is described as "consanguineus" of Smbat, brother of King Hethum[581].  Robert & [his wife] had one child:  

i)          SIMON Mansel ([1205/20]-after 1268).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Constable of Antioch.  He attempted unsuccessfully to defend Antioch against the attack by the Mameluks in May 1268, was captured but was released and retired to Armenia[582]m [--- of Barbaron, daughter of KOSTANDIN Lord of Barbaron and Partzerpert & his [third/fourth] wife [Beatrice ---/---] ([after 1220]-).  Rüdt-Collenberg cites sources which state that Simon Mansel was uncle of King Leo II, suggesting that his wife was the unnamed fifth daughter of Kostandin[583].] 

 

4.         --- .  Chamberlain of Antioch.  m --- of Arsur, daughter of GUY of Arsur & his wife --- ([1170/90]-).  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "l'autre suer [de Johan…seignor d'Arsur] fu feme dou chamberlain d'Antioche…" their children being "[le] conestable d'Antioche et la dame dou Genido"[584].  Two children: 

a)         --- .  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "[le] conestable d'Antioche et la dame dou Genido" were the children of "l'autre suer [de Johan…seignor d'Arsur]" and "dou chamberlain d'Antioche…"[585]Constable of Antioch

b)         --- .  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "[le] conestable d'Antioche et la dame dou Genido" were the children of "l'autre suer [de Johan…seignor d'Arsur]" and "dou chamberlain d'Antioche…"[586].  Lady of Genido. 

 

 

The following family group is based only an a passage in the Lignages d'Outremer which is confused.  An overlap with the previous family is possible.  The reference to Simon's daughter being "dama de Vernido" is very similar to the reference in another passage in the Lignages to "la dame dou Genido", daughter of the unnamed Chamberlain of Antioch and his wife --- of Arsur (see above). 

 

1.         GUILLAUMEm firstly ---.  m secondly ---.  Guillaume & his second wife had two children: 

a)         [SIMON (-after 1 May 1263).  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Gilimin, l'altro figliolo di Estasio de Bolion…conte de Bollion" was father of "Simon contestabile d'Antiocha, e Fulco signor de Caban in Armenia" by his second wife[587].  As noted below, this section of the Lignages is confused and records that Simon descended from the Comtes de Boulogne.  It is impossible to assess even his approximate chronology.  Constable of Antioch 1263.  "…Symon constabularius Antiochiæ…" subscribed the charter dated 1 May 1263 under which Bohémond VI Prince of Antioch agreed arbitration to settle a dispute with the Knights Hospitallers[588]m [HELVIS de Montfort, daughter of PHILIPPE de Montfort Lord of Tyre & his second wife Maria of Antioch (after 1240-).]  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Johan et Anfroi, Aalis et Helvis" as the four children of "Phelippe de Monfort…sire de Sur" and his second wife[589].  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Symon, figliolo di Estasio de Bollion…contestabile d'Antiochia" married "Chielvis, figliola del signor dal Sur" by whom he had "li heredi del contestabile d'Antiochia e la dama de Vernido"[590].  However, this section of the Lignages is confused, stating that Simon Mansel was a descendant of the Comtes de Boulogne, and implying his birth in the 12th century.  This is inconsistent with Helvis's chronology, but how much truth there may be in this section is unknown.  [Simon & his wife had two children]: 

i)          [--- .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "li heredi del contestabile d'Antiochia e la dama de Vernido" as the children of "Symon, figliolo di Estasio de Bollion…contestabile d'Antiochia" and his wife "Chielvis, figliola del signor dal Sur"[591].] 

ii)         [--- .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "li heredi del contestabile d'Antiochia e la dama de Vernido" as the children of "Symon, figliolo di Estasio de Bollion…contestabile d'Antiochia" and his wife "Chielvis, figliola del signor dal Sur"[592].  Lady of Vernido.] 

b)         [FOULQUES .  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Gilimin, l'altro figliolo di Estasio de Bolion…conte de Bollion" was father of "Simon contestabile d'Antiocha, e Fulco signor de Caban in Armenia" by his second wife[593].] 

 

 

 

G.      DES ROCHES

 

 

1.         ROGER des Roches (after 1 Feb 1149)Constable of Antioch 1140-1149.  "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated 19 Apr 1140 under which "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ"[594].  "…Rogerius constabularius…Thomas vicecomite" subscribed the charter dated May 1140 under which Raymond Prince of Antioch granted privileges to the Venetians in Antioch and Sidon[595].  "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…" subscribed a charter of Raymond Prince of Antioch dated 1144[596].  "Rogerius constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated 1 Feb 1149 under which Raymond Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[597]

2.         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         PIERRE (-after 1143).  Raymond II Count of Tripoli confirmed the donation of property "in casali Ardin" to the Holy Sepulchre by "Petrus nepos Rogerii constabularii", by charter dated 1143[598]

 

 

3.         RAOUL des Roches (-after 1194)Constable of Antioch 1186-1190.  "…Radulfus de Montibus constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated [Feb] 1186 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation of the castle of Marquab to the Knights Hospitallers[599].  "…Radulfus constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 1190 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted concessions to the Genoese in Antioch, Laodicea and Gabuli[600].  The Continuator of William of Tyre records that "des barons d´Antioche, le Conestable Raoul des Mons, et Bertheleme Mareschal et Olivier le Chamberlain, Richier del Erminet" accompanied Bohémond III Prince of Antioch when they were captured by the Armenians[601].  The event is dated to the year [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] in the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II[602]

 

 

 

H.      SOURDEVAL

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Sourdeval (-after 1097).  William of Tyre names "Robertus de Surda Valle" among those who left on the First Crusade with Bohemond Count of Apulia, future Prince of Antioch[603].  This suggests that Robert was of Norman origin from southern Italy. 

 

2.         GAUTHIER de Sourdeval (-after 10 May 1154)Constable of Antioch 1134-1135.  "…Gualterius de Suradavalle constabularius, Robertus filius eius…" subscribed a charter of "Adelicia filia Balduini II regis vidua Bohemundi II" dated Jul 1134[604].  "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers for the salvation of "uxoris Sibyllæ", with the consent of "dominæ principissæ Adeliciæ", by charter dated 2 Jan 1135 at Laodicea, subscribed by "…Robertus de Surdavalle"[605].  "…Galterius de Surdavalle…" subscribed a charter dated 19 Apr 1140 under which "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ"[606].  "…Galterius de Surdavalle et Robertus filius eius…" subscribed a charter dated May 1153 under which "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians[607].  "…Galterus de Surdavalle…Robertus de Surdavalle" subscribed a charter of Renaud Prince of Antioch dated 10 May 1154[608]m SIBYLLE, daughter of --- (-after 2 Jan 1135).  "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers for the salvation of "uxoris Sibyllæ", with the consent of "dominæ principissæ Adeliciæ", by charter dated 2 Jan 1135 at Laodicea, subscribed by "…Robertus de Surdavalle"[609].  Gauthier & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERT de Sourdeval (-after 1163).  "…Gualterius de Suradavalle constabularius, Robertus filius eius…" subscribed a charter of "Adelicia filia Balduini II regis vidua Bohemundi II" dated Jul 1134[610].  "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers for the salvation of "uxoris Sibyllæ", with the consent of "dominæ principissæ Adeliciæ", by charter dated 2 Jan 1135 at Laodicea, subscribed by "…Robertus de Surdavalle"[611].  "…Galterius de Surdavalle et Robertus filius eius…" subscribed a charter dated May 1153 under which "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians[612].  "…Galterus de Surdavalle…Robertus de Surdavalle" subscribed a charter of Renaud Prince of Antioch dated 10 May 1154[613].  "…Robertus de Surdis vallibus…" subscribed a charter of Renaud Prince of Antioch dated 1155[614].  "…Robertus de Surdavalle…" subscribed a charter dated 1163 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[615]m ---.  The name of Robert's wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROGER de Sourdeval (-after May 1183).  "…Roggerius de Surdavalle" confirmed a charter dated Jan 1167 under which Bohemond III Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[616].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted commercial rights to the Venetians in Antioch by charter dated 1167, subscribed by "…Rotgerius de Surdavalle…"[617].  Bohemond III Prince of Antioch confirmed the privileges granted to the Genoese "in Antiochiæ, Laodiceæ et Suidini civitatibus" by "Boamundo, Roberti Guiscardi filio" by charter dated 1169, subscribed by "…Rogerius de Surdeval…"[618].  "…Rogerius de Surdavalle…" subscribed a charter of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch dated Mar 1175[619].  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted property "apud Gabulum", previously held by "Robertus de Surdis Vallibus pater eius et Gauterius pater Roberti", to "Gauterio de Lattor homini suo ligis" by charter dated 29 Aug 1179, subscribed by "…Rogerius de Surdis Vallibus"[620].  "…Rogerius de Surdevaus…" subscribed a charter of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch dated 1181[621].  "Rogerius de Surdevaus" subscribed a charter of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch dated May 1183[622]

ii)         GAUTHIER de Lattor (-after 29 Aug 1179).  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted property "apud Gabulum", previously held by "Robertus de Surdis Vallibus pater eius et Gauterius pater Roberti", to "Gauterio de Lattor homini suo ligis" by charter dated 29 Aug 1179, subscribed by "…Rogerius de Surdis Vallibus"[623]m ---.  The name of Gauthier's wife is not known.  Gauthier & his wife had one child: 

(a)       SIBYLLE (-after 1 May 1262).  "Adeymar de Layron miles eiusque uxor Sibylla filia Galterii de Leitor" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated Nov 1220[624].  "Sibylla de Surdeval vidua Aymari de Layron militis" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated Dec 1235[625].  Bohémond VI Prince of Antioch, Count of Tripoli confirmed the donation by "Sibylla filia Gauterii de Sourdavalle" to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated 1 May 1262[626]m as his second wife, AYMAR de Lairon, son of --- (-after Nov 1220). 

 

 

 

I.        OTHER UNCONNECTED NOBILITY in ANTIOCH

 

 

1.         PAYEN de Sororge (-after [1110/11]).  Albert of Aix records that "Paganus…de Sororgia… hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[627]

 

2.         HUGUES de Cantelou (-after [1110/11]).  Albert of Aix records that "…Hugo de Cantalou…de prædio Hunninæ…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[628]

 

3.         GUY de Bresault (-after [1110/11]).  Albert of Aix records that "…Wido de Bresalt…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[629]

 

4.         GUILLAUME d´Albin (-after [1110/11]).  Albert of Aix records that "…Willelmus de Albin… hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[630]

 

5.         ENGUERRAND (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Femia.  Albert of Aix records that "…Engelrandus præfectus civitatis Femiæ…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[631]

 

6.         BONABLE (-after 4 Jun 1118).  Lord of Sarmit.  Albert of Aix records that "…Bonaplius civitatis tenens Sarmit…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[632].  "Rogerius princeps Antiochenus" confirmed donations to the church of St Mary of Josaphat, including the donation made by "Bonabulus", by charter dated 1115[633].  "Rogerius princeps Antiochenus" confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitaller, including the donations of "casalia in terminio de Harenc, Kalpharta et Delthio sita" made by "Rogerius de Florentia, Bonable et Rotbertus", by charter dated 4 Jun 1118[634]

 

7.         ROBERT (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Sudon.  Albert of Aix records that "…Robertus [tenens civitatem] de Sudon…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[635]

 

8.         ROGER de Montmarin (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Hap.  Albert of Aix records that "…Rotgerus de Montmarin, tenens præsidium Hap…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[636]

 

9.         PONS (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Talamria.  Albert of Aix records that "…Punctus, Talamriam tenens…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[637]

 

10.      CORVASILIUS (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Crasson.  Albert of Aix records that "…Punctus, Talamriam tenens…et Pancras, et Corvasilius de civitate Crasson…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[638]

 

11.      URSINUS (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of "the mountains of Antioch" .  Albert of Aix records that "…Ursinus…de montanis Antiochiæ…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[639]

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         ATTENELLUS (-after [1110/11]).  Albert of Aix records that "…Attenellus etiam et Leo frater eius…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[640]

2.         LEO (-after [1110/11]).  Albert of Aix records that "…Attenellus etiam et Leo frater eius…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[641]

 

 

1.         MARTIN (-after [1110/11]).  Lord of Latakieh.  Albert of Aix records that "…Martinus comes Laodiciæ, quam Tancredus, ejectis et expugnatis militibus imperatoris Græcorum, suo juri mancipaverat…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[642]

 

2.         ROBERT de Vieux-Pont (-after 1115).  Albert of Aix records that "…Robertus de Veteri Ponte…hi omnes milites Tancredi, de regno Antiochiæ" joined the campaign against the Turks who marched against Antioch, dated to [1110/11] from the context[643].  "Rogerius princeps Antiochenus" confirmed donations to the church of St Mary of Josaphat, including the donation made by "Rotbertus de Vizpont casale Burio", by charter dated 1115[644]

 

 

1.         GISELBERT .  If the sources quoted below are accurate, Giselbert was titled count but his county has not been identified.  m ---.  The name of Giselbert's wife is not known.  Giselbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         BARTHELEMY (-after Feb 1186).  Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted property to "Joscelino, filio Joscelini, Edessani comitis, homino suo ligio" by charter dated 5 Feb 1178, subscribed by "Rainaldus de Margat, Bartholomæus, filius comitis, Guillelmus, marescalcus Antiochiæ…"[645].  His parentage is clarified by the charter of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, dated Feb 1179, relating to disputes between the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers, subscribed by "Rainaldus de…connestabulus Antiochiæ, Bartholomæus, filius comitis Gislaberti…"[646].  "…Bartolomæus filius comitis…" subscribed the charter dated Feb 1186 under which "Raimundus de Biblio, filius Guillelmi Ebriaci, Biblii quondam domini" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[647]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    OFFICERS of the PRINCIPALITY of ANTIOCH

 

 

 

A.      CONSTABLES of ANTIOCH

 

 

The primary sources reveal what appears to be a continuous succession of constables of Antioch between [1098] and 1219.  However, there are gaps in the record, and it is not therefore certain that during this time period there were no other holders of the office who were unrecorded in the primary sources which have been consulted.  The constable frequently signed first in the lists of subscribers of charters, indicating that he held the senior position among the court officials at Antioch. 

 

 

1.         GERARDm ---.  The name of Gérard´s wife is not known.  Gérard & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERT (-after [1098]).  Albert of Aix names "…Robertus filius Gerardi…" among those who took part in the siege of Nikaia, dated to mid-1097 from the context[648].  Albert of Aix records "…Robertus filius Gerardi…" as those who fought at Antioch, dated to mid-1098 from the context[649]Constable of Antioch [1098].  The Gesta Francorum names "Boamundus…suo conostabili…Rotberto filio Geraldi" fighting "ad Pontem Ferreum", dated to [1098] from the context[650]

 

2.         ADAM (-after 1101).  Constable of Antioch 1101.  "…Radulphus dux, Adam conestalle, Toroldus vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated 1101 under which "Tancredus princeps" granted property to "consulibus Januensium"[651]

 

3.         RENAUD [I] Mazoir [Mansuer] (-[before 19 Apr 1140])Constable of Antioch 1101-1134.  Caffaro names "quidam Francigena, Rainaldus Mansuer, alterius Raynaldi filius, constabularii Antioceni principis et dominus…Vananee et Marachie" among those present at the capture of "castrum…Margali" in 1101[652].  Lord of Vananee and Maraclea.  William of Tyre names "Rainardus autem Mansuerus" among those who were captured in 1119 at Tel-Aqibrin where Roger Prince of Antioch was killed and held "in turrim…oppidi…Sarmatan"[653].  After Foulques d'Anjou King of Jerusalem assumed the regency of Antioch in 1131, he entrusted its administration to Renaud Mazoir[654].  "…Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated Dec 1127 of Bohémond II Prince of Antioch[655].  "…Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…Guillielmus vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated Dec 1127 under which Bohémond II Prince of Antioch confirmed the privileges of the Genoans in Antioch and Laodicea[656].  "Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated Sep 1134 under which "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus rector ac bajulus principatus Antiocheni filiæque Boamundi II iunioris" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre[657].  "R Masuerius…" subscribed a charter dated 2 Aug 1135 under which "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus bajulus ac tutor principatus Antiocheni" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre[658]

 

4.         GAUTHIER de Sourdeval (-after 10 May 1154)Constable of Antioch 1134-1135.  "…Gualterius de Suradavalle constabularius, Robertus filius eius…" subscribed a charter of "Adelicia filia Balduini II regis vidua Bohemundi II" dated Jul 1134[659].  "Gualterius de Surdavalle constabularius" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers for the salvation of "uxoris Sibyllæ", with the consent of "dominæ principissæ Adeliciæ", by charter dated 2 Jan 1135 at Laodicea, subscribed by "…Robertus de Surdavalle"[660]

 

5.         ROGER des Roches (after 1 Feb 1149)Constable of Antioch 1140-1149.  "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated 19 Apr 1140 under which "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ"[661].  "…Rogerius constabularius…Thomas vicecomite" subscribed the charter dated May 1140 under which Raymond Prince of Antioch granted privileges to the Venetians in Antioch and Sidon[662].  "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…" subscribed a charter of Raymond Prince of Antioch dated 1144[663].  "Rogerius constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated 1 Feb 1149 under which Raymond Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[664]

 

6.         ARCHAMBAUD (-after May 1153).  Constable of Antioch 1153.  "…Archembaldinus constabularius…" subscribed a charter dated May 1153 under which "Rainaldus princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the privileges of the Venetians[665]

 

7.         JOURDAINm ---.  The name of Jourdain´s wife is not known.  Jourdain & his wife had one child: 

a)         GEOFFROY JOURDAIN (-after 1154).  Constable of Antioch 1154.  "Gaufridus Jordanis constabularius…Boneth, qui fuit vicecomes, Leo Majopuli dux…" subscribed a charter dated 1154 under which "Alexander filius Bernardi Scutiferi" donated a mill in Antioch to the Knights Hospitallers[666].  As his second name is in the genitive case in this document, it would appear to be a patronymic. 

 

8.         GUISCARD de l´Ile (-after 1181).  Constable of Antioch 1172.  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "uxoris Orgellosæ", by charter dated Sep 1172, subscribed by "Guiscardus de Insula constabularius, Silvester cognatus principis…"[667].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the donation by "Garentonus, dominus Saonensis" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Orgollosæ uxoris et filiorum", by charter dated Feb 1175, subscribed by "Silvester, cognatus principis, Guiscardus de Insula, Johannes de Salquino, Balduinus constabularius…"[668].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochiæ, cum uxore Sibilla" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers by charter dated 1181 witnessed by "Guischaldus de Insula…"[669].  William of Tyre records that Bohémond III Prince of Antioch expelled "constabularium suum, camerarium quoque, et Guiscardum de Insula, Bertrandum filium comitis Gisleberti, et Garinum Gainart" who went "ad dominum Rupinum Armenorum principem" to Jaffa, dated to 1081 from the context[670]

 

9.         BAUDOUIN (-after Feb 1175).  Constable of Antioch 1175.  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" confirmed the donation by "Garentonus, dominus Saonensis" to the Knights Hospitallers, with the consent of "Orgollosæ uxoris et filiorum", by charter dated Feb 1175, subscribed by "Silvester, cognatus principis, Guiscardus de Insula, Johannes de Salquino, Balduinus constabularius…"[671]

 

10.      RENAUD (-after [1181]).  Constable of Antioch 1179-[1181].  "Rainaldus de --- connestabulus Antiochiæ, Bartholomæus filius comitis Gislaberti, Willelmus, Caveæ marescalcus, Reg[erius] de Lerminato, Simon Buriavis, dux Antiochiæ" witnessed the charter dated Feb 1179 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed an agreement between the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers concerning "terra Marriciorum"[672].  William of Tyre records that Bohémond III Prince of Antioch expelled "constabularium suum, camerarium quoque, et Guiscardum de Insula, Bertrandum filium comitis Gisleberti, et Garinum Gainart" who went "ad dominum Rupinum Armenorum principem" to Jaffa, dated to 1081 from the context[673].  The "constabularium" is not named in this passage, but the wording suggests that he was a different person from "Guiscardum de Insula".  If this is correct, it is possible that he was Renaud who was recorded as Constable after Guiscard. 

 

11.      RAOUL des Roches (-after 1194)Constable of Antioch 1186-1194.  "…Radulfus de Montibus constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated [Feb] 1186 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation of the castle of Marquab to the Knights Hospitallers[674].  "…Radulfus constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 1190 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted concessions to the Genoese in Antioch, Laodicea and Jebel[675].  The Continuator of William of Tyre records that "des barons d´Antioche, le Conestable Raoul des Mons, et Bertheleme Mareschal et Olivier le Chamberlain, Richier del Erminet" accompanied Bohémond III Prince of Antioch when they were captured by the Armenians[676].  The event is dated to the year [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195] in the Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II[677]

 

12.      ROGER (-after 1195).  Constable of Antioch 1195.  "Rogerius constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated Sep 1195 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitallers by "Godofridus miles et Albereda eius uxor filia quondam Adæ de Peviers"[678]

 

13.      GERARD (-after 21 Aug 1198).  Constable of Antioch 1198.  "…Girardus constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated 21 Aug 1198 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitallers[679].  "…Girardus constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated 1198 under which Bohémond IV Prince of Antioch confirmed donations to the Knights Hospitallers[680]

 

14.      ROGER (-after 20 Mar [1201]).  Constable of Antioch 1200-1201.  "Rogerius constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated Jun 1200 under which Bohémond IV Prince of Antioch confirmed trading privileges to the Teutonic Knights[681].  "…Rogerius constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated 20 Mar [1201] under which Bohémond IV Prince of Antioch confirmed privileges to the Pisans[682].  It is not known whether Roger was the same person as the constable of the same name in 1198. 

 

15.      ROBERT Mansel ([1170/80]-after Mar 1219)Constable of Antioch 1207-1219.  "…Robertus, Antiochiæ constabularius…" subscribed the charter dated 22 May 1207 under which Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch confirmed the donation of the town of Jebel to the Knights Hospitallers[683].  "…Robertus Mansel, Antiochiæ comestabulis…" subscribed a charter dated Aug 1210 under which "Leo II filius domini Stephani…rex Armeniæ" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[684].  "…Robertus Mansel, Antiochiæ comestabulis…" subscribed a charter dated Sep 1210 under which "Raymundus Rupinus, princeps Antiochenus…" donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[685].  He was in Armenia between 1201 and 1217[686].  "…Mansellus constabularius…" subscribed a charter of Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch dated 1 Sep 1216[687].  "…Mansellus constabularius et maior Antiochiæ…" subscribed a charter of Raymond Rupen Prince of Antioch dated Mar 1219[688].  

 

16.      SIMON (-after 1 May 1263).  The Lignages d'Outremer records that "Gilimin, l'altro figliolo di Estasio de Bolion…conte de Bollion" was father of "Simon contestabile d'Antiocha, e Fulco signor de Caban in Armenia" by his second wife[689].  As noted below, this section of the Lignages is confused and records that Simon descended from the Comtes de Boulogne.  It is impossible to assess even his approximate chronology.  Constable of Antioch 1263.  "…Symon constabularius Antiochiæ…" subscribed the charter dated 1 May 1263 under which Bohémond VI Prince of Antioch agreed arbitration to settle a dispute with the Knights Hospitallers[690]

 

 

 

B.      VICOMTES d´ANTIOCH

 

 

A small number of individuals holding the position of viscount of Antioch have been identified in charters dated between 1134 and 1174.  As noted below, it is in fact possible that there were only two different persons who held the office, Thomas and Pierre de Melfa.  If this is correct, it would suggest that the the office may have been hereditary and that the Pierre de Melfa was the son of Thomas.  The viscount of Antioch mainly signed last among the subscribers of charters, indicating that his position at the Antioch court was junior relative to other nobles and officials who subscribed such documents. 

 

 

1.         THOROLD (-after 1112).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1101.  "…Radulphus dux, Adam conestalle, Toroldus vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated 1101 under which "Tancredus princeps" granted property to "consulibus Januensium"[691].  Rey cites a charter of Roger Prince of Antioch dated 1112 which is witnessed by Thorold[692]

 

2.         GUILLAUME (-after Dec 1127).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1127.  "…Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…Guillielmus vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated Dec 1127 under which Bohémond II Prince of Antioch confirmed the privileges of the Genoans in Antioch and Latakieh[693]

 

3.         THOMAS (-after 2 Aug 1135).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1134-1135.  "Rainaldus Masuerius constabularius…Thomas vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated Sep 1134 under which "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus rector ac bajulus principatus Antiocheni filiæque Boamundi II iunioris" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre[694].  "De baronibus: R. Masuerius…Thomas vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated 2 Aug 1135 under which "Fulco rex Hierosolymitanus bajulus ac tutor principatus Antiocheni" confirmed a donation to the church of the Holy Sepulchre[695]

 

4.         RAIMBAUDm ---.  The name of Raimbaud´s wife is not known.  Raimbaud & his wife had one child: 

a)         GODEFROI (-after 19 Apr 1140).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1140.  "…Godofridus, filius Raembaldi, vicecomes…" subscribed a charter dated 19 Apr 1140 under which "Raimundus I princeps Antiochenus" donated property to the church of the Holy Sepulchre, with the consent of "uxoris Constantiæ"[696]

 

5.         THOMAS (-after 1144).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1140-1144.  "…Rogerius constabularius…Thomas vicecomite" subscribed the charter dated May 1140 under which Raymond Prince of Antioch granted privileges to the Venetians in Antioch and Sidon[697].  "Rogerius de Montibus constabularius…Thomas vicecomes" subscribed a charter of Raymond Prince of Antioch dated 1144[698]

 

6.         PIERRE (-after 1 Feb 1149).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1149.  "Rogerius constabularius…Petrus vicecomes" subscribed a charter dated 1 Feb 1149 under which Raymond Prince of Antioch donated property to the Knights Hospitallers[699].  As noted below, it is possible that "Petrus vicecomes" was the same person as Pierre de Melfa who was recorded as Vicomte d´Antioch between 1167 and 1174 (see below). 

 

7.         BONET (-after 1154).  Vicomte d´Antioch before 1154.  "Gaufridus Jordanis constabularius…Boneth, qui fuit vicecomes, Leo Majopuli dux…" subscribed a charter dated 1154 under which "Alexander filius Bernardi Scutiferi" donated a mill in Antioch to the Knights Hospitallers[700]

 

8.         [VASSILIUS (-after 1166).  Vicomte d´Antioch 1166.  "…Vassilius vicecomes, Petrus de Melfa…" subscribed the charter dated 1166, after Sep, under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed a donation to the Knights Hospitallers[701].  This is the only document so far found which names "Vassilius vicecomes".  It is possible that there is a mistranscription and that the word "vicecomes" was meant to apply to "Petrus de Melfa" who, as can be seen below, was recorded as Vicomte d´Antioch between 1167 and 1174.] 

 

9.         PIERRE de Melfa (-after 4 Jan 1174).  "…Vassilius vicecomes, Petrus de Melfa…" subscribed the charter dated 1166, after Sep, under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch confirmed a donation to the Knights Hospitallers[702]Vicomte d´Antioch 1167-1174.  "…Eschivardus senescalcus, Petrus camerarius, Guillermus Tirelli marescalcus, Petrus de Hasar, Rotgreius de Surdavalle, Bonablus Baufredus, Petrus de Melfa vicecomes" subscribed the charter dated 1167 under which Bohémond III Prince of Antioch granted privileges at Antioch to Venice[703].  "Boamundus III, princeps Antiochenus" granted various properties to "Petro de Melfia, homini suo ligio ac vicecomiti", including property was held by "eiusdem Petri de Melfia" and given by him to "filiabus suis in contractu matrimonii", by charter dated 8 Jan 1174[704]m ---.  The name of Pierre´s wife is not known.  Pierre & his wife had children: 

a)         daughters .  The existence of Pierre´s married daughters is confirmed by the charter dated 8 Jan 1174 (see above) which refers to property held by "eiusdem Petri de Melfia" and given by him to "filiabus suis in contractu matrimonii"[705].  There is no indication of how many daughters Pierre may have had or if he also had sons. 

 

10.      GUILLAUME de Melfa (-before Aug 1264).  A charter dated 8 Aug 1264 refers to a dispute between the abbot of St Mary of Josaphat and the abbess of St Lazarus at Antioch relating to property "ab oriente terra Suffiæ…et terra Terrici de Moneta" near "antiquus fossatus vineæ, quæ fuit quondam Guillelmi de Melfia"[706]

 

 



[1] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris) ("Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier)"), II, CXXIII, p. 187. 

[2] Defrémery, M. (trans.) 'Histoire des Seldjoukides, extraite du Tarikhi guzideh', Journal Asiatique, 4.XI (Paris 1848), Chapter 4.6, p. 452. 

[3] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), pp. 213-4. 

[4] Runciman (1978), Vol. I, pp. 234-5. 

[5] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, p. 3. 

[6] Romoaldi Annales 1060, MGH SS XIX, p. 406. 

[7] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[8] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) II.XIII, p. 90. 

[9] Norwich, J. J. (1992) The Normans in the South 1016-1130 and The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194 (Penguin Books), p. 227. 

[10] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 149-52. 

[11] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber II, Cap. XVIII, p. 312. 

[12] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. V, Book IX, pp. 73-95. 

[13] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 3. 

[14] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 261. 

[15] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 305. 

[16] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 321. 

[17] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VII, Cap. XXVII, p. 524. 

[18] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey), 65. 

[19] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, pp. 359-79. 

[20] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 38-9. 

[21] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 40.   

[22] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 46.   

[23] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 47.   

[24] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IX, Cap. XLVII, p. 620. 

[25] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber X, Caps. XL and XLIV, pp. 650 and 651. 

[26] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 49-50. 

[27] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XLVIII, p. 686. 

[28] See Falkenhausen, Vera von 'Constantia oppure Constantinopolis? Sui presenti viaggi in Oriente della vedova di Boemondo I' in ΣΥΝΔΕΣΜΟΣ Studi … Anastasi, 153-67 (1994), cited in Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press), p. 39 footnote 16. 

[29] WT XI.I, p. 450. 

[30] Le Prévost, A. (1845) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XX, p. 390. 

[31] Lecoy de la Marche, A. (ed.) (1867) Œuvres complètes de Suger (Paris) ("Suger"), Vita Ludovici Grossi Regis IX, p. 30. 

[32] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[33] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 48-9.   

[34] Houben (2002), p. 31. 

[35] Romoaldi Annales, MGH SS XIX, p. 417. 

[36] Annales Ceccanenses 1120, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[37] WT XII.XXI, p. 589, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 133. 

[38] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[39] Fulcherio Carnotensi Historia Hierosolymitana, Gesta Francorum Iherusalem Peregrinantium, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, III (Paris, 1866) ("Fulcher") II.XXIX, p. 441. 

[40] Suger Vita Ludovici Grossi Regis IX, p. 31. 

[41] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[42] WT II.XIII, p. 90. 

[43] Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese II.XI, p. 682. 

[44] Gesta Tancredi I, p. 605. 

[45] Tudebodus imitatus et continuatus Historia peregrinorum eutnium Ierusolymam ad liberandum Sanctum Sepulcrum de potestate ethnicorum, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, III (Paris, 1866) ("Tudebodus Imitatus"), p. 171. 

[46] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 33. 

[47] Gesta Tancredi I, p. 605, and Tudebodus Imitatus, p. 171. 

[48] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 33. 

[49] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XVIII, p. 312. 

[50] WT I. XVII, p. 45. 

[51] Guibert III.II, p. 152. 

[52] Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese II.XI, p. 683. 

[53] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XVIII, p. 312. 

[54] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. IX, p. 694. 

[55] ES II 204. 

[56] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 124.   

[57] Although this nickname is clearly misapplied due to confusion between Robert Guiscard's two brothers named Guillaume. 

[58] WT II.XIII, p. 90. 

[59] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[60] Itinerario di la Gran Militia a la Pavese II.XI, p. 682. 

[61] ES II 204. 

[62] Vardan 65. 

[63] Matthew of Edessa, clxxxix, p. 260, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 47. 

[64] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 112-14. 

[65] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. IX, p. 694. 

[66] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, p. 379. 

[67] ME II.LXI, p. 104. 

[68] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 146. 

[69] WT XI.XVIII, p. 484. 

[70] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 125. 

[71] WT XII.X, p. 525, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 149-50. 

[72] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 146. 

[73] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 152. 

[74] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book X, pp. 359-79. 

[75] The date when her first husband died. 

[76] WT XII.I, p. 511. 

[77] Fulcher III.II, p. 442. 

[78] WT XIX.IV, p. 889. 

[79] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 181. 

[80] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[81] Baldrici Historia Ierosolymitana, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, IV (Paris, 1879) ("Baudry") II.III, p. 35. 

[82] WT III.XIV, p. 131.  See also Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 63.  

[83] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXXIX, p. 330. 

[84] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 37. 

[85] WT II.XIII, p. 90, and XI.I, p. 450. 

[86] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XVIII, p. 312. 

[87] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXII, p. 315. 

[88] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. V, Book IX, p. 67.

[89] Runciman (1978), Vol. 1, p. 304. 

[90] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 32. 

[91] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber VIII, Cap. XXXIII, p. 578. 

[92] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 33. 

[93] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 31-2. 

[94] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 39. 

[95] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IX, Cap. XLVII, p. 620. 

[96] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 47.   

[97] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 52.   

[98] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 115. 

[99] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 125. 

[100] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. VIII, p. 693. 

[101] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier) II.LXI, p. 103. 

[102] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 11. 

[103] Historia Regum Francorum Monasterii Sancti Dionysii 31, MGH SS IX, p. 405. 

[104] WT XI.I, p. 450, and XIV.I, p. 606. 

[105] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 52.   

[106] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XIX, p. 701. 

[107] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 631. 

[108] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber X, Caps. XL and XLIV, pp. 650 and 651. 

[109] WT XII.XXI, p. 589, and Orderic Vitalis, Vol. VI, Book XI, p. 133. 

[110] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[111] Houben (2002), p. 43, which cites the two contradictory sources concerning this appointment. 

[112] Cronica di Romualdo Guarna arcivescovo Salernitano (Chronicon Romualdi II archiepiscopi Salernitani) ("Romualdo Guarna"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), p. 7. 

[113] Runciman (1978), p. 176. 

[114] WT XIII.XXVI, pp. 598-601, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 183. 

[115] WT XII.IV, p. 517, and XIII.XXI, p. 588, respectively. 

[116] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[117] Runciman (1978), pp. 152 and 176. 

[118] Runciman (1978), p. 184. 

[119] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 183-4. 

[120] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 188-90. 

[121] WT XIII.XXVII, p. 601. 

[122] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[123] WT XIII.XXVII, p. 601. 

[124] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[125] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1893) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (Oeniponti) 149, p. 37. 

[126] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 199. 

[127] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 331. 

[128] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 332. 

[129] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[130] WT XVII.XXVI, p. 802. 

[131] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[132] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358. 

[133] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 365.    

[134] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1968) 'L'Empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe siècles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), I, p. 130. 

[135] Ughelli Italia Sacra, VII, p. 203, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 365 footnote 1. 

[136] Röhricht, R. (ed.) (1904) Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani, Supplement (Oeniponti) 605a, p. 38. 

[137] WT XIV.IX, p. 618. 

[138] WT XIV.XX, p. 655. 

[139] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 199. 

[140] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 201. 

[141] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 212-3. 

[142] Rozière, E. de (ed.) (1849) Cartulaire de l'église de Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem (Paris) ("Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem"), 88, p. 169. 

[143] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 223-4. 

[144] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 234.  

[145] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 278. 

[146] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, p. 28

[147] WT XVII.IX, pp. 774-5. 

[148] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 326. 

[149] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, p. 849. 

[150] WT XVII, XXII and XXVI, pp. 796 and 802.  

[151] Mas Latrie, M. L. (ed.) (1871) Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier (Paris), Ernoul, p. 22. 

[152] Schlumberger, G. (1898) Renaud de Châtillon Prince d´Antioche (reprint 2000, Elibron Classics), pp. 3-4 [available on Google Book, limited preview]. 

[153] Schlumberger (1898), pp. 3-4 [available on Google Book, limited preview]. 

[154] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 345. 

[155] WT XVII.XXI, p. 796. 

[156] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[157] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 346. 

[158] WT XVIII.X, p. 834, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 347-8. 

[159] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 351. 

[160] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 357. 

[161] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 27. 

[162] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 407-8. 

[163] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 405. 

[164] Röhricht (1893), 551, p. 146. 

[165] Delaborde, H. F. (ed.) (1880) Chartes de Terre Sainte provenant de l'abbaye de Notre-Dame de Josaphat (Paris) ("Josaphat") XLI, p. 88. 

[166] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 450. 

[167] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 459. 

[168] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[169] WT XVIII.XXXI, p. 876. 

[170] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[171] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[172] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ioannes Kinnamos") Liber V, 4, p. 209. 

[173] WT XVIII.XXXI, p. 876, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358. 

[174] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 147. 

[175] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Niketas Choniates"), Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, pp. 181-2. 

[176] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  605a, p. 38. 

[177] ES II 175. 

[178] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 147. 

[179] Niketas Choniates, Liber V Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 221. 

[180] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 365. 

[181] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 412-3. 

[182] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 2, pp. 233-4. 

[183] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  605a, p. 38. 

[184] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[185] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[186] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 365. 

[187] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, 'Memoria Vivorum', Salzburg Necrologies, p. 83. 

[188] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[189] Dieten, van (ed.) (1975) Niketas Choniates Historia (Berlin and New York), Vol. 1, p. 382, (English translation: Magoulias, H. (1984) O City of Byzantium (Detroit), p. 210), information provided by Dr Marianne Gilchrist in a private email to the author dated 10 Feb 2007. 

[190] Röhricht (1893), 428, p. 111. 

[191] Röhricht (1893), 434, p. 113. 

[192] Röhricht (1893), 471, p. 124. 

[193] Röhricht (1893), 493, p. 130. 

[194] Röhricht (1893), 511, p. 135. 

[195] Röhricht (1893), 523, p. 139. 

[196] According to Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 100, Prince Bohémond III died in April. 

[197] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[198] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358. 

[199] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 365. 

[200] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 367. 

[201] WT XIX.IX, p. 897. 

[202] Extrait du Kamel-Altevarykh, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, pp. 537-40

[203] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 369-70. 

[204] Röhricht (1893), 434, p. 113. 

[205] Röhricht (1893), 471, p. 124. 

[206] Röhricht (1893), 493, p. 130. 

[207] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 419. 

[208] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 429. 

[209] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 86. 

[210] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 87. 

[211] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II (New Jersey) ("Hethum II's Chronicle") 643 A.E. [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195]. 

[212] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 87-8. 

[213] Hethum II's Chronicle 644 A.E. [1 Feb 1195/31 Jan 1196]. 

[214] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[215] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[216] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[217] Röhricht (1893), 478, p. 125. 

[218] Röhricht (1893), 493, p. 130. 

[219] Röhricht (1893), 511, p. 135. 

[220] Röhricht (1893), 523, p. 139. 

[221] Röhricht (1893), 524, p. 139. 

[222] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[223] Sturdza (1999), p 276. 

[224] WT XXII.V, p. 1069. 

[225] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 429. 

[226] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVII, p. 77. 

[227] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVI, p. 110. 

[228] WT XXII.V, p. 1069 and XXII.VI, p. 1070. 

[229] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[230] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[231] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 729-30. 

[232] Röhricht (1893), 610, p. 162. 

[233] Röhricht (1893), 648, p. 171. 

[234] Sempad, 638, p. 629. 

[235] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 429-30. 

[236] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator (“WTC”) XX, p. 207. 

[237] Hethum II's Chronicle 643 A.E. [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195]. 

[238] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[239] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[240] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  898a, p. 59. 

[241] WTC, XXIII.XLVII, p. 72. 

[242] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[243] Langlois, V. (ed.) (1863) Le Trésor des Chartes d'Arménie (Venice) ("Chartes d´Arménie"), XII, p. 131. 

[244] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 470. 

[245] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 470. 

[246] WTC XXIII.XLVII, p. 72. 

[247] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[248] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 89. 

[249] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 99. 

[250] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 171. 

[251] Sempad, 643 (1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195), p. 632. 

[252] WTC XXIV.XXV, p. 137. 

[253] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[254] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 99. 

[255] Chartes d'Arménie, XII, p. 131. 

[256] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck)p. 54, 29a. 

[257] Hethum II's Chronicle 665 A.E. [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[258] Chartes d'Arménie, XVI, p. 138. 

[259] WTC XXXII, XV, p. 347. 

[260] Hethum II's Chronicle 668 A.E. [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220]. 

[261] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 171. 

[262] Hethum II's Chronicle 669 A.E. [26 Jan 1220/24 Jan 1221]. 

[263] Baluze, Innocent III Epistolæ no. 105, Vol. I (tome II, according to Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre, Vol. I, p. 167 footnote 4), p. 555, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 31 Mar 2007. 

[264] Edbury (1994), p. 43. 

[265] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[266] WTC XXVI.XXI, p. 208. 

[267] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVI, p. 61, and see also CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[268] Chartes d'Arménie, XII, p. 131. 

[269] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 173. 

[270] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66. 

[271] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVI, p. 61, CC.LXXXXI, p. 66, and Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLIII, p. 107. 

[272] Kohler, C. (ed.) (1913) Philippe de Novare Mémoires 1218-1243 (Paris) ("Philippe de Novare"), p. 90. 

[273] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. ´Les dispenses matrimoniales accordées à l´Orient Latin selon les Registres du Vatican 1283-1385´, Mélanges de l´Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, Tome 89, no. 1, (1977), Tableau A, 4, p. 58. 

[274] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), Table I, after p. 48. 

[275] WTC XXIII.XLVII, p. 72. 

[276] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[277] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[278] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[279] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[280] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 94. 

[281] R. de Mas Latrie (ed.) (1891) Chroniques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi (Paris) (“Amadi”), p. 91. 

[282] Röhricht (1893), 799, p. 213. 

[283] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 94. 

[284] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[285] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[286] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 94. 

[287] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[288] WTC XXIII.XLVII, p. 72. 

[289] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[290] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 86. 

[291] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 100. 

[292] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 100. 

[293] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 136. 

[294] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 136-8. 

[295] Hethum II's Chronicle 665 A.E. [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[296] WTC XXXII, XV, p. 347. 

[297] Hethum II's Chronicle 668 A.E. [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220]. 

[298] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 207. 

[299] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[300] Amadi, p. 183. 

[301] Amadi, p. 91. 

[302] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[303] Röhricht (1893), 757, p. 201. 

[304] WTC XXXI.X, p. 322. 

[305] Amadi, p. 93. 

[306] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 68. 

[307] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 230. 

[308] Berger, E. (1897) Les registres d´Innocent IV (Paris), Tome II, 4427, p. 60. 

[309] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[310] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 138. 

[311] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[312] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, pp. 67-8. 

[313] WTC XXXII.XV, p. 348. 

[314] Amadi, p. 115. 

[315] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 172. 

[316] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 55, 32. 

[317] Bournoutian, Ani Atamian 'Cilician Armenia', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 285. 

[318] Vardan 84. 

[319] Hethum II's Chronicle 674 A.E. [24 Jan 1225/23 Jan 1226]. 

[320] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 172. 

[321] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXI, pp. 66-7. 

[322] Hethum II's Chronicle 670 A.E. [25 Jan 1221/24 Jan 1222]. 

[323] WTC XXXII.XV, p. 348. 

[324] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[325] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[326] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[327] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, pp. 67-8. 

[328] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[329] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 289. 

[330] Amadi, p. 213. 

[331] Amadi, p. 216. 

[332] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 289. 

[333] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 68. 

[334] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 68. 

[335] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 328-9. 

[336] Mas de Latrie, M. L. (1855) Histoire de l´Ile de Chypre (Paris) Vol. 2, p. 85. 

[337] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 68. 

[338] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[339] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[340] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 207. 

[341] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 208. 

[342] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 230. 

[343] Amadi, p. 202. 

[344] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[345] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 180. 

[346] Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 2, p. 47. 

[347] WTC XXXIII.XLI, p. 408. 

[348] WTC XXXIII.XLI, p. 408. 

[349] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[350] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 207. 

[351] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 230. 

[352] Amadi, p. 202. 

[353] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[354] WTC XXXIV.I, p. 439. 

[355] Amadi, p. 201. 

[356] WTC XXXIV.II, p. 441. 

[357] Amadi, p. 203. 

[358] Rüdt-Collenberg (1977), Tableau A, 7, p. 58. 

[359] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 285. 

[360] Rüdt-Collenberg (1979), p. 135, footnote 59.   

[361] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 342. 

[362] WTC XXXIV.IV, p. 446. 

[363] Amadi, p. 205. 

[364] Hethum II's Chronicle 710 A.E. [15 Jan 1261/14 Jan 1262]. 

[365] WTC XXXIV.III, p. 443. 

[366] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[367] WTC XXXIV.II, p. 440, although this records the death of the older Bohémond in 1251. 

[368] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 278. 

[369] WTC XXXIV.II, p. 440. 

[370] Amadi, p. 202. 

[371] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 278. 

[372] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 288. 

[373] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 306-07. 

[374] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 321-3. 

[375] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 334. 

[376] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 335. 

[377] WTC XXXIV.XIX, p. 466. 

[378] Amadi, p. 213. 

[379] WTC XXXIV.II, p. 442. 

[380] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[381] Hethum II's Chronicle 702 A.E. [17 Jan 1253/16 Jan 1254]. 

[382] Amadi, p. 203. 

[383] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 243. 

[384] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 404. 

[385] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 95. 

[386] WTC XXXIV.XIX, p. 466. 

[387] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 95. 

[388] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 243. 

[389] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 388-9. 

[390] Amadi, p. 217. 

[391] Lignages d'Outremer, Matenadaran Machtots, MS 1898, p. 145. 

[392] Röhricht (1893), 1422, p. 371. 

[393] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.2, Abbaye de Maubuisson, p. 655. 

[394] Amadi, p. 213. 

[395] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 95. 

[396] Amadi, p. 218. 

[397] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 113. 

[398] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 404. 

[399] Amadi, p. 218. 

[400] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 404-5. 

[401] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 405-7. 

[402] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, pp. 95-6. 

[403] Buchon (1845) Livre de la conqueste de la Morée, Tome I, p. 271. 

[404] Extrait de la Chronique intitulée Kamel-Altevarykh par Ibn-Alatyr, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 729-30. 

[405] WT V.I, p. 195. 

[406] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[407] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XII, Cap. XX, p. 701. 

[408] Extrait du Kamel-Altevarykh, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, p. 385. 

[409] WT XIV.VII, p. 616, and XV.XVI, p. 685. 

[410] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, p. 28. 

[411] WT XVII.IX, pp. 774-5. 

[412] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 316. 

[413] Histoire des Atabecs de Mosul, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome II, p. 194. 

[414] Livre des Deux Jardins, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome IV, pp. 97-8. 

[415] WT XIX.IX, pp. 896-7. 

[416] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, p. 35. 

[417] Histoire des Atabecs de Mosul, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome II, p. 220.  

[418] Edbury, P. W. ´A New Text of the Annales de Terre Sainte´, Shagrir, I., Ellenblum, R. & Riley-Smith, J. (eds.) (2007) In Laudem Hierosolymitani, p. 149 [available in Google Book, limited preview]. 

[419] Extrait du Kamel-Altevarykh, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, pp. 537-40. 

[420] WT XXI.XIX and XXI.XXV, pp. 1036 and 1047, and Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 419. 

[421] Abul-Feda, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, p. 48. 

[422] WTC XXXIV.III, p. 444. 

[423] Cawley, C. ´Who was Orgueilleuse of Harenc?´, Foundations, Vol. 3, number 4 (July 2010), pp. 293-302. 

[424] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[425] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V.XIII, pp. 405-6. 

[426] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. IV, Liber XII.XIII, p. 342. 

[427] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. V, Liber XIII, p. 106. 

[428] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[429] Rey (1869), p. 337. 

[430] Röhricht (1893), 86, p. 20. 

[431] WT XII.IX, p. 525. 

[432] Galterii Cancellarii Bella Antiochena, Art. V.I, RHC Historiens occidentaux, Tome V, p. 108. 

[433] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[434] Rey, E. G. (1869) Les familles d´Outremer de du Cange (Paris), p. 337. 

[435] Röhricht (1893), 347, p. 91. 

[436] Histoire des Atabecs de Mosul, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome II, p. 194. 

[437] Livre des Deux Jardins, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome IV, pp. 97-8. 

[438] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[439] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 316. 

[440] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 358. 

[441] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, p. 318. 

[442] Extrait du Kamel-Altevarykh, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, pp. 537-40. 

[443] Delisle, L. (ed.) (1872) Chronique de Robert de Torigni, abbé de Mont-Saint-Michel (Rouen), Tome I, p. 316, footnote 4, citing Cartulaire de Cercamp, p. 81 (no precise citation reference nor date given). 

[444] Röhricht (1893), 338, p. 88. 

[445] Röhricht (1893), 360, p. 94, and Saint-Sépulchre de Jerusalem, 65, p. 134. 

[446] Hall, H. (ed.) (1896) The Red Book of the Exchequer (Liber rubeus de Scaccario) (London) ("Red Book Exchequer"), Part I, Knights fees, p. 25. 

[447] Red Book Exchequer, Part I, Knights fees, p. 31. 

[448] Robert of Torigny, Tome I, p. 337, charter quoted in footnote 1. 

[449] Robert of Torigny, Tome I, p. 344. 

[450] Round, J. H. (ed.) (1899) Calendar of Documents preserved in France illustrative of the history of Great Britain and Ireland Vol I 918-1206 (London), 491, p. 175. 

[451] Robert of Torigny, Tome I, p. 316. 

[452] Chronicle of Michel le Grand, pp. 316 and 318. 

[453] WT XVIII.XIX, pp. 851-3. 

[454] Extrait du Kamel-Altevarykh, RHC Historiens orientaux, Tome I, pp. 537-40. 

[455] Rey, E. ´Résumé chronologique de l´histoire des princes d´Antioch´, Revue de l´Orient Latin, Tome IV (1896, Paris), p. 380. 

[456] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[457] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 93. 

[458] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[459] Röhricht (1893), 478, p. 125. 

[460] Röhricht (1893), 493, p. 130. 

[461] Röhricht (1893), 511, p. 135. 

[462] Röhricht (1893), 523, p. 139. 

[463] Röhricht (1893), 524, p. 139. 

[464] According to Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 100, Prince Bohémond III died in April. 

[465] Rey, E. G. (1881) Sommaire du supplément aux familles d´Outre-Mer (Chartres), p. 7. 

[466] Röhricht (1893), 473, p. 124. 

[467] Röhricht (1893), 434, p. 113. 

[468] Röhricht (1893), 555, p. 147. 

[469] Röhricht (1893), 649, p. 172. 

[470] Röhricht (1893), 689, p. 183. 

[471] Röhricht (1893), 714, p. 191. 

[472] Röhricht (1893), 719, p. 192. 

[473] Röhricht (1893), 921, p. 245. 

[474] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LIII, p. 120. 

[475] Röhricht (1893), 1317, p. 344. 

[476] WT XII.X, p. 526. 

[477] Belgrano, L. T. (ed.) (1891) Annali Genovesi di Caffaro e de´ suoi continuatori, Vol. 1, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Genoa), Cafari de Liberatione civitatem orientis liber, p. 115. 

[478] WT VII.XVII, p. 302. 

[479] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 188-90. 

[480] Röhricht (1893), 118, p. 29. 

[481] Röhricht (1893), 149, p. 37. 

[482] Röhricht (1893), 157, p. 39. 

[483] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[484] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  270a, p. 18. 

[485] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 118. 

[486] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  270a, p. 18. 

[487] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 118. 

[488] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[489] Röhricht (1893), 347, p. 91. 

[490] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  419a, p. 24. 

[491] Röhricht (1893), 428, p. 111. 

[492] Röhricht (1893), 434, p. 113. 

[493] Röhricht (1893), 521, p. 138. 

[494] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  535b, p. 32. 

[495] Röhricht (1893), 555, p. 147. 

[496] Röhricht (1893), 560, p. 148. 

[497] Röhricht (1893), 568, p. 151. 

[498] Röhricht (1893), 609, p. 161. 

[499] Röhricht (1893), 612, p. 162. 

[500] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  626a, p. 41. 

[501] Röhricht (1893), 630, p. 167. 

[502] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  644a, p. 42. 

[503] Röhricht (1893), 647, p. 171. 

[504] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  270a, p. 18. 

[505] Röhricht (1893), 347, p. 91. 

[506] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  419a, p. 24. 

[507] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  535b, p. 32. 

[508] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  626a, p. 41. 

[509] Röhricht (1893), 347, p. 91. 

[510] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 118. 

[511] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  419a, p. 24. 

[512] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  535b, p. 32. 

[513] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  626a, p. 41. 

[514] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 119. 

[515] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 119. 

[516] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 119. 

[517] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 119. 

[518] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  535b, p. 32. 

[519] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  626a, p. 41. 

[520] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 118. 

[521] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  419a, p. 24. 

[522] Röhricht (1893), 521, p. 138. 

[523] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  535b, p. 32. 

[524] Röhricht (1893), 560, p. 148. 

[525] Röhricht (1893), 609, p. 161. 

[526] Röhricht (1893), 612, p. 162. 

[527] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  626a, p. 41. 

[528] Röhricht (1893), 630, p. 167. 

[529] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  644a, p. 42. 

[530] Röhricht (1893), 647, p. 171. 

[531] Röhricht (1893), 896, p. 240. 

[532] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVI, p. 74.  . 

[533] Röhricht (1893), 568, p. 151. 

[534] Röhricht (1893), 630, p. 167. 

[535] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  644a, p. 42. 

[536] Röhricht (1893), 647, p. 171. 

[537] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVI, p. 74.  . 

[538] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 118. 

[539] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVI, p. 74.  . 

[540] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.LI, p. 119. 

[541] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXXVI, p. 74. 

[542] Röhricht (1893), 896, p. 240. 

[543] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  1088a, p. 67. 

[544] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  1093a, p. 68. 

[545] Röhricht (1893), 647, p. 171. 

[546] WT XIV.IV, p. 612. 

[547] WT XIV.III, p. 610. 

[548] WT XVII.XI, p. 776. 

[549] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLVII, p. 111. 

[550] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 328-30. 

[551] Röhricht (1893), 473, p. 124. 

[552] Röhricht (1893), 719, p. 192. 

[553] Röhricht (1893), 473, p. 124. 

[554] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[555] Röhricht (1893), 292, p. 74. 

[556] Röhricht (1893), 473, p. 124. 

[557] Röhricht (1893), 523, p. 139. 

[558] WT XIV.IV, p. 612. 

[559] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[560] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[561] Röhricht (1893), 292, p. 74. 

[562] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  151a, p. 12. 

[563] Röhricht (1893), 150, p. 37. 

[564] Röhricht (1893), 150, p. 37. 

[565] Röhricht (1893), 387, p. 101. 

[566] Röhricht (1893), 428, p. 111. 

[567] Röhricht (1893), 524, p. 139. 

[568] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  559b, p. 34. 

[569] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  657c, p. 44. 

[570] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[571] WT XXII.V, p. 1069 and XXII.VI, p. 1070. 

[572] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CCC.I, p. 83. 

[573] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 429-30. 

[574] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, Il parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 173. 

[575] Röhricht (1893), 820, p. 220. 

[576] Röhricht (1893), 843, p. 225. 

[577] Röhricht (1893), 845, p. 226. 

[578] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 65, 111.   

[579] Röhricht (1893), 888, p. 238. 

[580] Röhricht (1893), 920, p. 245. 

[581] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 65, 111, citing "Col. Sis 157".   

[582] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 325-6. 

[583] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 65, 112, citing "Cahen: Syrie (703); Rev. de l'Or. Latin 1896; Ibn Ferat".   

[584] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVIII, p. 63. 

[585] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVIII, p. 63. 

[586] Lignages d'Outremer, Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.LXXXVIII, p. 63. 

[587] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, La parentella de Bollione 3, p. 159. 

[588] Röhricht (1893), 1317, p. 344. 

[589] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XLIII, p. 107. 

[590] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, La parentella de Bollione 3, p. 159. 

[591] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, La parentella de Bollione 3, p. 159. 

[592] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, La parentella de Bollione 3, p. 159. 

[593] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, La parentella de Bollione 3, p. 159. 

[594] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[595] Röhricht (1893), 197, p. 49. 

[596] Röhricht (1893), 228, p. 57. 

[597] Röhricht (1893), 253, p. 63. 

[598] Röhricht (1893), 218, p. 56. 

[599] Röhricht (1893), 649, p. 172. 

[600] Röhricht (1893), 695, p. 185. 

[601] WTC, p. 207. 

[602] Hethum II's Chronicle 643 A.E. [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195]. 

[603] WT II.XIII, p. 90. 

[604] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  151a, p. 12. 

[605] Röhricht (1893), 150, p. 37. 

[606] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[607] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[608] Röhricht (1893), 292, p. 74. 

[609] Röhricht (1893), 150, p. 37. 

[610] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  151a, p. 12. 

[611] Röhricht (1893), 150, p. 37. 

[612] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[613] Röhricht (1893), 292, p. 74. 

[614] Röhricht (1893), 314, p. 81. 

[615] Röhricht (1893), 387, p. 101. 

[616] Röhricht (1893), 428, p. 111. 

[617] Röhricht (1893), 434, p. 113. 

[618] Röhricht (1893), 471, p. 124. 

[619] Röhricht (1893), 524, p. 139. 

[620] Röhricht (1893), 586, p. 156. 

[621] Röhricht (1893), 610, p. 162. 

[622] Röhricht (1893), 629, p. 166. 

[623] Röhricht (1893), 586, p. 156. 

[624] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  938a, p. 60. 

[625] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  1065a, p. 65. 

[626] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  1317a, p. 85. 

[627] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[628] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[629] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[630] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[631] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[632] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[633] Röhricht (1893), 76, p. 17. 

[634] Röhricht (1893), 86, p. 20. 

[635] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[636] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[637] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[638] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[639] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[640] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[641] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[642] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[643] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber XI, Cap. XL, p. 682. 

[644] Röhricht (1893), 76, p. 17. 

[645] Röhricht (1893), 555, p. 147. 

[646] Röhricht (1893), 574, p. 152. 

[647] Röhricht (1893), 648, p. 171. 

[648] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber II, Cap. XXIII, p. 316. 

[649] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber IV, Cap. XLVII, p. 422. 

[650] Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolymitanorum, seu Tudebodus abbreviatus, RHC, Historiens occidentaux, III (Paris, 1866) ("Gesta Francorum"), Liber IV, XVI, p. 136. 

[651] Röhricht (1893), 35, p. 5. 

[652] Annali Genovesi di Caffaro, Vol. 1, Cafari de Liberatione civitatem orientis liber, p. 115. 

[653] WT VII.XVII, p. 302. 

[654] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 188-90. 

[655] Röhricht (1893), 118, p. 29. 

[656] Röhricht (1893), 119, p. 30. 

[657] Röhricht (1893), 149, p. 37. 

[658] Röhricht (1893), 157, p. 39. 

[659] Röhricht (1904) (Supplement),  151a, p. 12. 

[660] Röhricht (1893), 150, p. 37. 

[661] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[662] Röhricht (1893), 197, p. 49. 

[663] Röhricht (1893), 228, p. 57. 

[664] Röhricht (1893), 253, p. 63. 

[665] Röhricht (1893), 282, p. 72. 

[666] Röhricht (1893), 298, p. 76. 

[667] Röhricht (1893), 493, p. 130. 

[668] Röhricht (1893), 523, p. 139. 

[669] Röhricht (1893), 610, p. 162. 

[670] WT XXII.VII, p. 1074. 

[671] Röhricht (1893), 523, p. 139. 

[672] Röhricht (1893), 574, p. 152. 

[673] WT XXII.VII, p. 1074. 

[674] Röhricht (1893), 649, p. 172. 

[675] Röhricht (1893), 695, p. 185. 

[676] WTC, p. 207. 

[677] Hethum II's Chronicle 643 A.E. [1 Feb 1194/31 Jan 1195]. 

[678] Röhricht (1893), 719, p. 192. 

[679] Röhricht (1893), 742, p. 197. 

[680] Röhricht (1893), 759, p. 202. 

[681] Röhricht (1893), 772, p. 206. 

[682] Röhricht (1893), 769, p. 205. 

[683] Röhricht (1893), 820, p. 220. 

[684] Röhricht (1893), 843, p. 225. 

[685] Röhricht (1893), 845, p. 226. 

[686] Rüdt-Collenberg (1963), p. 65, 111.   

[687] Röhricht (1893), 888, p. 238. 

[688] Röhricht (1893), 920, p. 245. 

[689] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, La parentella de Bollione 3, p. 159. 

[690] Röhricht (1893), 1317, p. 344. 

[691] Röhricht (1893), 35, p. 5. 

[692] Rey, E. ´Les dignataires de la principauté d´Antioche Grands-Officiers et Patriarches (XI-XII siècle)´, Revue de l´Orient Latin, Tome VIII (Paris, 1900-1901), p. 123, citing Ughelli Italia Sacra, Tome IV, p. 848. 

[693] Röhricht (1893), 119, p. 30. 

[694] Röhricht (1893), 149, p. 37. 

[695] Röhricht (1893), 157, p. 39. 

[696] Röhricht (1893), 195, p. 48. 

[697] Röhricht (1893), 197, p. 49. 

[698] Röhricht (1893), 228, p. 57. 

[699] Röhricht (1893), 253, p. 63. 

[700] Röhricht (1893), 298, p. 76. 

[701] Röhricht (1893), 424, p. 110. 

[702] Röhricht (1893), 424, p. 110. 

[703] Röhricht (1893), 434, p. 113. 

[704] Rey, E. G. (1877) Recherches géographiques et historiques sur la domination des Latins en Orient, p. 19, and Röhricht (1893), 511, p. 135. 

[705] Rey (1877), p. 19, and Röhricht (1893), 511, p. 135. 

[706] Röhricht (1893), 1333, p. 349.