MONGOLS

  v3.0 Updated 24 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                ORIGINS, JENGHIZ KHAN. 3

Chapter 2.                DESCENDANTS of JOCHI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 10

A.         KHANS of the GOLDEN HORDE.. 10

B.         KHANS of the KHAZAKS, ASTRAKHAN and BUKHARA.. 27

Chapter 3.                DESCENDANTS of CHAGATAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 29

Chapter 4.                DESCENDANTS of OGODAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 35

Chapter 5.                DESCENDANTS of TOLUI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 38

A.         SONS of TOLUI 38

B.         IL-KHAN DYNASTY of PERSIA.. 44

Chapter 6.                FAMILY of TIMUR. 57

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Mongols were one of the many nomadic tribes which inhabited the steppes of central Asia.  In the 10th century, Mongol and Turkic tribes organised the state of Khitan or Khitai which extended over Mongolia, parts of Manchuria and northern China.  In the 11th century, Kabul Khan raided the lands of the Tatars and attacked the Chinese.  However, until the time of Jenghiz Khan, who was acclaimed as Great Khan in 1207, the various political formations and confederations put together by the Mongol tribes were ephemeral, quickly organised and quickly dissolved[1].  Towards the end of his life, Jenghiz Khan started to extend his empire westwards.  He won an overwhelming victory against the Rus principalities at the battle of Kalka river in 1223, but returned eastwards without pressing his advantage. 

 

On his death in 1227, Jenghiz Khan's empire was divided between three of his sons and the heirs of his deceased oldest son.  The position of Great Khan was inherited by Ogodai, Jenghiz Khan's third son (see Chapter 4).  Central Asia was inherited by his second son Chagatai (Chapter 3), while the Mongol heartland was bequeathed to Tolui, his fourth son, from whom the Yan dynasty of China (Chapter 5A) and the Il-Khan dynasty of Persia (Chapter 5B) descended.  From the point of view of western Europe, the most significant bequest was the right to conquer the western lands, known collectively as the "White Horde", which was granted to the sons of his deceased oldest son Jochi (Chapter 2).  The right to the eastern part of these territories, covering western Siberia and Kazakhstan, was left to the older grandson Orda.  From these lands, the khanates of Turan, Khorezme, Samarkand, Siberia and Bukhara eventually evolved.  The right to the western portion of the new territories was left to the younger grandson Batu, who began his campaign of conquest immediately. 

 

Within ten years, Batu had established himself as ruler of the western lands as Khan of the "Golden Horde".  Between 1235 and 1241, he captured and subjugated all the Rurikid principalities before crossing the Carpathian mountains into Hungary.  Fortunately for western Europe, at that moment the Great Khan Ogodai died, and the Horde returned to Mongolia to attend the quriltai (assembly of Mongol military and princely dignitaries) to choose his successor.  Thereafter, Batu Khan established his new capital at Sarai on the lower Volga river, and consolidated his western Asian khanate but did not press further west.  The khanate of the Golden Horde disintegrated in the early 15th century, fragmenting into the khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan and Sibir.  During the 12th and 13th centuries, the khans arranged a significant number of dynastic marriages with the ruling families of Armenia, Bulgaria, Byzantium, Georgia, Lithuania and Russia, providing some interesting Mongol descents for later generations of western European rulers.  Mongol influence in the Rus principalities persisted until well into the 15th century: Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow was the first Russian ruler not to seek formal approval from the Mongols for his accession in 1462[2]

 

The sources consulted in the preparation of this document include a manuscript written by Khondemir (dated to 1523)[3], the translation by Desmaisons of the Histoire des Mogols et des Tatares by Abul-Ghazi Bahadur (dated to 1663)[4].  Although these sources are late, and should more strictly be categorised as secondary sources, earlier sources were used in their compilation.  One difficulty with reconstructing Mongol genealogy from primary sources is the unavailability of accessible translations.  For example a suitable translation of the Jami al-Tawarikh, written in the early 14th century by Rashid al-Din Hamadani, has not been identified except for the edition by Berezine which is in Russian.  Some 19th century scholarly secondary sources, based on careful study of sources in original languages, contribute usefully to reconstructing Mongol genealogy, for example Ohsson’s 1824 and 1852 two volume Histoire des Mongols[5], Hammer-Purgstall’s 1840 Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak[6], and Howorth’s 1880 History of the Mongols[7], the last of whom specifies when he has corrected errors made by the first two. 

 

Descendants of younger sons have been omitted where nothing is known about the individuals apart from their names.  Clearly much work remains to clarify the Mongol genealogy further, and what is shown in the present document should not be viewed as definitive.  I am grateful to Morris Bierbrier for providing additional information relating to the descendants of Jenghiz Khan which has been incorporated into this document. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ORIGINS, JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

 

1.         QABUL Khan, son of TUMBINAI SECHEN Mongol Chieftain .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Qaboul Khan” as the sixth son of “Toumènè Khan...[qui] regna plusieurs années sur toutes les tribus des Niroun[8].  He led raids on the lands of the Tatars and attacked the Chinese, raising the political profile of the Mongols during the 11th century[9].  He put together a confederacy of Mongol tribes which fell apart after his death[10].  Seven children: 

a)         OKIN-BARQAQ .  He was executed by the Chinese.  One child: 

i)          SORQATU-JURKEI

b)         BARTAN BAATUR .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Bartan Khan” as the oldest son of “Qaboul Khan”, adding in a later passage that he was proclaimed Khan when his father died[11]m AICIGEL UJIN, daughter of ---.  Four children: 

i)          MONGGETU .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné Moungdai, le second Boukane Taischi, le troisième Yessoukèi Bèhadour et le quatrième Daritai” as the sons of “Bertan[12].  He left descendants. 

ii)         NEKUN TAISHI .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné Moungdai, le second Boukane Taischi, le troisième Yessoukèi Bèhadour et le quatrième Daritai” as the sons of “Bertan[13].  He left descendants. 

iii)        YESUGAI [Esugay-Bagatur] ([1140]-[1177][14]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné Moungdai, le second Boukane Taischi, le troisième Yessoukèi Bèhadour et le quatrième Daritai” as the sons of “Bertan”, adding that Yesugai was proclaimed Khan on the death of his father[15].  He conquered some of his neighbouring Tatar tribes.  He helped Toghrul Khan of the Keraits secure his inheritance against his brothers.  He was poisoned by Tatar nomads[16]m (a) as her second husband, HÖELÜN, former wife of CHILEIDU a Mertkit, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “la mère de Tchinguiz Khan, Oloun...était de l’orouq des Olqnout[17].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of the father of “Tchinguiz Khan”, his mother “passa dans la couche de Minglik Itchiguè[18].  At the quriltai (assembly of Mongol military and princely dignitaries) of 1206, her son Jenghiz Khan gave her 10,000 families as chattels[19]m (b) SUCIGEL EKE [Menggelun/Dagasi Khatun], daughter of ---.  Yesugai & his wife (a) had five children:

(a)       TEMUJIN [Temudzhin] (River Onon, Mongolia [1167]-Liupan mountains, Kansu 25 Aug 1227).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné...Tchinguiz Khan...Tèmoutchine...le second...Djoudji Qassar...le troisième...Qatchoun, le quatrième Timoukè et le cinquième Bilgoutai Outdjiguine” as the sons of “Yessoukèi-Bèhadour[20].  He was elected Khan of all the Mongols in [1194] and adopted the name JENGHIZ Khan

-         see below

(b)       JOCHI-QAISAR .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné...Tchinguiz Khan...Tèmoutchine...le second...Djoudji Qassar...le troisième...Qatchoun, le quatrième Timoukè et le cinquième Bilgoutai Outdjiguine” as the sons of “Yessoukèi-Bèhadour[21].  He left descendants. 

(c)       QACIUN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné...Tchinguiz Khan...Tèmoutchine...le second...Djoudji Qassar...le troisième...Qatchoun, le quatrième Timoukè et le cinquième Bilgoutai Outdjiguine” as the sons of “Yessoukèi-Bèhadour[22].  He left descendants. 

(d)       TEMUGE Otichin (-after 1241).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné...Tchinguiz Khan...Tèmoutchine...le second...Djoudji Qassar...le troisième...Qatchoun, le quatrième Timoukè et le cinquième Bilgoutai Outdjiguine” as the sons of “Yessoukèi-Bèhadour[23].  At the quriltai of 1206, his brother Jenghiz Khan gave him 10,000 families as chattels[24].  Howorth says that, on the death of Ogodai in 1241, “Temugu Utsuken the youngest brother of Jingis, as the last survivor of his generation, had some claims to the throne...[and] seems to have made a feeble effort to obtain it[25].  He left descendants. 

(e)       TEMULUNm BUTU of the Ikeres . 

Yesugai & his wife (b) had two children:

(f)        BEGTER .  He was killed by Temujin. 

(g)       BELGUTEI .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné...Tchinguiz Khan...Tèmoutchine...le second...Djoudji Qassar...le troisième...Qatchoun, le quatrième Timoukè et le cinquième Bilgoutai Outdjiguine” as the sons of “Yessoukèi-Bèhadour[26].  He left descendants. 

iv)       DARITAI OTCHIGIN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné Moungdai, le second Boukane Taischi, le troisième Yessoukèi Bèhadour et le quatrième Daritai” as the sons of “Bertan[27].  He left descendants. 

c)         QUTUQU-MONGGUR .  One child: 

i)          BURI

d)         QUTULA KHAN .  He was killed in battle when the khanate was dissolved.  Three children: 

i)          JOCHI

ii)         GIRMAU

iii)        ALTAN OTCHIGIN

e)         QULAN .  He left descendants. 

f)          QADAAN

g)         TODOEN OTCHIGIN

 

 

TEMUCHIN, son of YESUGAI (River Onon, Mongolia [1167]-Liupan mountains, Kansu 25 Aug 1227).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “l’aîné...Tchinguiz Khan...Tèmoutchine...le second...Djoudji Qassar...le troisième...Qatchoun, le quatrième Timoukè et le cinquième Bilgoutai Outdjiguine” as the sons of “Yessoukèi-Bèhadour[28].  He fought against the Merkit Turks of Lake Baikal, with the help of Toghrul Khan of the Keraits.  He was elected Khan of all the Mongols in [1194] and adopted the title JENGHIZ Khan.  He made an alliance with the Chin emperor against the Tatars and subjected the latter to Mongol rule.  He restored Toghrul Khan to his throne in 1197, and together they defeated the Naiman Turks in 1199.  He quarrelled with Toghrul Khan in 1203, exterminated the latter's army at Jejer Undur, along with Toghrul himself.  He subdued the Naiman at Chakirmaut in 1204[29].  He was acclaimed as their Great Khan by a quriltai in 1206[30].  He promulgated the Yasa, a code of laws which was issued in instalments and superseded the customary laws of the Steppes[31].  He launched the invasion of northern China in 1211, and by 1221 had annexed Manchuria.  The other Chin provinces were incorporated into his empire on the death in 1223 of the last Chin emperor[32].  He extended his empire westwards, incorporating the Uighurs and in 1219 moved into the domain of the Khwarem-shah [Khwarismians] in Central Asia.  Bar Hebræus records that "Djenguiz-Khan" captured Bokhara "le 4 de dou'l hiddja" in A.H. 616 (10 Feb 1220)[33].  He captured Samarkand, Otrur and Urgenj, capital of Mohammed Shah of the Khwarismians[34].  Units of his armies explored the steppe north of the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains.  His armies defeated the combined armies of Kiev, Chernigov, Galich and the Kumans at the battle of Kalka river 31 May 1223, but returned eastwards after this victory without pressing their advantage[35].  Shortly before his death he divided his empire between his four sons and established the position of senior "Great Khan" to hold the empire together[36]

m (a) ([1184]) BÖRKE Fujin, daughter of DAI NOYAN of the Qunqirat tribe.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Bourtè-Foudjine, mère de ses fils” as the first of the highest rank wives of “Tchinguiz Khan[37].  Howorth names “Burta, who bore the Chinese title of Judjin...daughter of Dai Noyan chief of the tribe Kunkurat...the mother of Juji, Jagatai, Ogotai, Tului and five daughters” as the first of the wives of Jenghiz Khan who “held superior rank[38].  She was held prisoner for some months by Markit Turks[39]

m (b) KUNJU, daughter of ALTAN Khan.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Koundjou fille de l’Altan Khan” as the second of the highest rank wives of “Tchinguiz Khan[40]

m (c) QULAN Khatun, daughter of DAYIR USUN of the Markit.  Howorth names “Chulan Khatun” as the second of the wives of Jenghiz Khan who “held superior rank[41]

m (d) YESUGAN, daughter of YEKE CHEREN of the Tatar. 

m (e) (1214) CHI-KUO, daughter of WEI-SHAO WANG.  She was known as GUNJU Khatun.   

m (f) YESULUN, daughter of YEKE CHEREN of the Tatar.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Missoulun et...Yssoukane, toutes les deux filles d’un homme de la tribu des Tatars” as the fourth and fifth of the highest rank wives of “Tchinguiz Khan[42]

m (g) ISUKHAN, daughter of YEKE CHEREN of the Tatar.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Missoulun et...Yssoukane, toutes les deux filles d’un homme de la tribu des Tatars” as the fourth and fifth of the highest rank wives of “Tchinguiz Khan[43]

m (h) (divorced) as her first husband, ABIKA [Ibaga] Khatun, daughter of JAGAMBO of the Kerait.  The senior wife of Jochi was “Bekutemish the daughter of Yakembo, brother of the Wang Khan of the Keraits...one of three...sisters, the other two being Siurkukteni the wife of Tului, and Abika the wife of Jingis whom he afterwards married...to a Urut prince who was acting as his bodyguard[44].  She married secondly Kahatai Noyan of the Uruut. 

m (i) as her second husband, GURBASU Khatun, widow of TAYANG Khan of the Naiman, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Koui-sou veuve de Tayang Khan” as the third of the highest rank wives of “Tchinguiz Khan[45]

m (j) CHAGA Khatun, daughter of the ruler of the Tangqut. 

m (k) as her first husband, MOGE Khatun, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson, Ogodai Khan

m (l) ---, a Naiman concubine. 

m (m) ---, a Tatar concubine. 

Jenghiz Khan & his wife (a) had nine children:

1.         JOCHI ([1184]-[Jan/Feb] 1227).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Djoudji Khan” as the oldest son of “Tchinguiz Khan[46].  He was destined to succeed his father in the western lands, collectively designated as the White Horde, which were divided between his sons on their grandfather's death in 1227.   

-        see below, Chapter 2

2.         CHAGATAI ([1185]-[1240/41]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Djaghatai Khan” as the second son of “Tchinguiz Khan[47].  He inherited the former Uighur and Kara Khitai territories in central Asia after the death of his father in 1227. 

-        see below, Chapter 3

3.         OGODAI ([1186]-Karakoram 11 Dec 1241).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Okèdai” as the third son of “Tchinguiz Khan[48].  His father named him as his successor and he was confirmed at the quriltai 13 Sep 1229 as Great Khan.  His personal patrimony was the former Kerait and Naiman territories. 

-        see below, Chapter 4

4.         TOLUI ([1190]-[Sep/Oct] 1232).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Touli” as the fourth son of “Tchinguiz Khan[49].  He captured Merv and Nishapur, with his brother-in-law Toghutshar, during the campaign in the Hindu Kush.  His personal patrimony after the death of his father in 1227 was the Mongol heartland around the Onon river.     

-        see below, Chapter 5

5.         FUJIN BEKI .  Howorth names “Kudshin Bigi...betrothed to Sengun son of Wang Khan and afterwards married Huladei Gurgan, son of Butu Gurgan of the Kurulats” as the oldest daughter of Jenghiz Khan by his wife “Burta[50]m BUTU GURAGAN, son of NAKUN of the Ikiras. 

6.         CHACHAYIGAN .  Howorth names “Jidjegan...married Turaldshi Gurgan of the Urauts” as the second daughter of Jenghiz Khan by his wife “Burta[51].  Howorth says that “the mother of Mangu Timur was sister to one of the wives of Khulagu...both daughters of Buka Timur, whose mother Chichegen was the fourth daughter of Jingis Khan[52]m as his --- wife, TORALCHI GURAGAN, son of QUTUQA BEKI of the Oyirat.  Six children: 

a)         BUQA TIMUR .  Four children: 

i)          CHUPAN m NOMOGHAN, daughter of ARIQ BOKA. 

ii)         JAQIR .  He left descendants.  m MANGGUGAN, daughter of HULAGU. 

iii)        TOLUN Khatun m firstly JUMGHUR, son of HULUGU & his wife Guyuk Khatun of the Oyirat tribe.  m secondly TAKSHIN, son of HULUGU & his wife Qutui Khatun (-11 Sep 1271). 

iv)       KOCHU Khatun .  Howorth says that “the mother of Mangu Timur was sister to one of the wives of Khulagu...both daughters of Buka Timur, whose mother Chichegen was the fourth daughter of Jingis Khan[53]m TOQOQAN, son of BATU. 

b)         BOROTOAm ---, a Chinggisid.  Two children: 

i)          ULUQ

ii)         RACHIN

c)         BARS BUQA m his first cousin, EL TIMUR, daughter of TOLUI & his wife Saruq Khatun.  Three children: 

i)          SHIRAB

ii)         BEGLAMISH

iii)        AMAGAN Khatun m her cousin, MALIK TIMUR, son of ARIQ BUQA & his wife Qutiqta Khatun of the Naiman (-executed 1302). 

d)         GUYUK Khatun m her first cousin, HULAGU Il-Khan, son of TOLUI Khan & his wife Sorghaqtani ([1217]-Jaghatu 19 Feb 1265). 

e)         ELCHIQMISH Khatun m firstly her first cousin, ARIQ BOQA, son of TOLUI Khan & his wife Sorghaqtani.  m secondly her stepson, NAIRAQU BUQA, son of ARIQ BOKA. 

f)          ORGHINA Khatun m her first cousin, ---, son of CHAGATAI. 

7.         ALAQAI BEKI .  Howorth names “Alakai Bigi married Jingui of the Onguts” as the third daughter of Jenghiz Khan by his wife “Burta[54]m firstly PUYENHSIPAN, son of ALAQUS of the Ongut.  m secondly the nephew of her first husband, CHIGUIm thirdly PUYAOHO, son of ALAQUS of the Ongut. 

8.         TUMULAN .  Howorth names “Tumalun [married] Shengu Gurgan of the Kunkurats” as the fourth daughter of Jenghiz Khan by his wife “Burta[55]m SHINGGU GURAGAN of the Qunqirat, son of DARGA GURAGAN.  One child: 

a)         TAGHAI TIMUR [Musa Guragan] m his cousin, TARAQAI, daughter of HULAGU Il-Khan & his concubine Irqan Egachi.  One child: 

i)          TODAGU Khatun m her cousin, AHMAD TEGUDAR Il-Khan, son of HULAGU Il-Khan & his wife Qutui Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe ([1247]-murdered Abshor 10 Aug 1284). 

9.         ALTALUN .  Howorth names “Atalukan [married] Jawer Sadshan of the Olkonods” as the fifth daughter of Jenghiz Khan by his wife “Burta[56]m her father's uncle, TAICHU GURAGAN of the Olqunuut. 

Jenghiz Khan & his wife (c) had one child:

10.      KOLGAN .  Howorth names “Gulgan” as the son of Jenghiz Khan by his wife “Chulan Khatun[57].  He left descendants. 

Jenghiz Khan & his wife (d) had one child:

11.      CHAUR (-young). 

Jenghiz Khan & his concubine (l) had one child: 

12.      JURCHETAI (-young). 

Jenghiz Khan & his concubine (m) had one child: 

13.      ORCHAQAN (-young). 

Jenghiz Khan & his concubine --- had one child: 

14.      EL AGATAI [Alajai] .  m KISHMAYIN, the Idiqut, ruler of the Uighur. 

15.      ---.  One child: 

a)         MUTUGEN .  Grandson of Jenghiz Khan, he was killed at the siege of Bamian in the Hindu Kush[58]

16.      daughter .  m TOGHUTSHAR .  He captured Merv, with his brother-in-law Tolui, during the campaign in the Hindu Kush, but was killed during the capture of Nishapur[59]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DESCENDANTS of JOCHI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

 

A.      KHANS of the GOLDEN HORDE

 

 

JOCHI, son of JENGHIZ Khan ([1184]-[Jan/Feb] 1227).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Djoudji Khan” as the oldest son of “Tchinguiz Khan[60].  Khondemir records the abduction of Jenghiz’s wife who gave birth to “un fils...Djoudji” a few days after she was returned to her husband, adding his father later granted him the government of “Kharezm du Dechti-Kiptchak, des pays des Alains, des As, des Russes, des Bulgares[61].  He predeceased his father, whom he was destined to succeed in the western lands, collectively designated as the White Horde, which were divided between his sons on their grandfather's death in 1227.  Khondemir records that Jochi died six months before his father[62]

m (a) SORQAN of the Qunquirat, daughter of ---.  Khondemir names “Ourdah, dont la mère était Sarkan de la tribu Kongorat” first among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[63]

m (b) BEKTUTMISH FUJIN, daughter of JAGAMBO.  The senior wife of Jochi was “Bekutemish the daughter of Yakembo, brother of the Wang Khan of the Keraits...one of three...sisters, the other two being Siurkukteni the wife of Tului, and Abika the wife of Jingis whom he afterwards married...to a Urut prince who was acting as his bodyguard[64]

m (c) OKI FUJIN Khatun, daughter of ELCHI NOYAN of the Qunquirat.  The second wife of Jochi was “Oki or Ukin Kuchin, the daughter of Ilji Noyan of the Kunkurats[65].  Khondemir names “Batou [...que l’on appelait Sain-khan], qui avait pour mère Ouki-Koutchin fille d’Itchi-Noian Kongorat” second among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[66]

m (d) SULTAN Khatun of Imen, daughter of ---.  “Sulthan khatoun de la tribu d’Imen” was the mother of Jochi’s sons “Berkeh Khan...Barakdjar...Bourah[67]

Jochi & his wife (a) had one child: 

1.         ORDA .  Khondemir names “Ourdah, dont la mère était Sarkan” first among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[68].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the eastern part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, comprising western Siberia, Kazakhstan and the land around the lower Syr Darya river. 

-        see below, Chapter 2.B.  KHANS of the KHAZAKS, ASTRAKHAN and BUKHARA

Jochi & his wife (c) had one child: 

2.         BATU ([1200/05]-Sarai [late 1255/early 1256]).  Khondemir names “Batou [...que l’on appelait Sain-khan], qui avait pour mère Ouki-Koutchin fille d’Itchi-Noian Kongorat” second among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[69].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of “Kouyouk Khan” (son of Ogodai, see Chapter 4), all the descendants of Jinghiz Khan agreed that the successor should be chosen from among “les fils de Touli Khan, dont la veuve Sourqouqti-Bigui était aimée du peuple”, which was agreed by “Batou fils de Djoudji Khan[70].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the right to the western part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, but which was at that time still unconquered and referred to as Desht-i-Kipchak, the Kipchak Khanate, or "Golden Horde".  Batu led the conquest of these western lands, launched in 1236 by his uncle Khan Ogodai, and established himself as BATU Khan of the Golden Horde

-        see below

Jochi & his wife (d) had three children: 

3.         BARKA [Berke] (-Tbilisi 1266).  Khondemir names “Bérékeh-khan” third among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[71].  “Sulthan khatoun de la tribu d’Imen” was the mother of Jochi’s sons “Berkeh Khan...Barakdjar...Bourah[72].  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237[73].  He succeeded his nephew in 1258 as BARKA Khan of the Golden Horde, but paid less attention to Russia than the Near East[74].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Berkè Khan fils de Djoudji Khan” was nominated to succeed by “Mangou-Qaan” after the death of “Olaqitch frère cadet de Sartaq”, adding that he converted to Islam[75].  Rivalry with the Golden Horde developed after the establishment of the Il-khan empire in modern Iraq and Persia, with open war breaking out by 1262.  As a response, Barka and his successor entered into close relations with the Mameluks of Egypt.  After a period of hostility with Emperor Mikhail VIII, who initially favoured the Il-khan dynasty, more cordial relations between the Golden Horde and Byzantium were cemented by marriage ties[76].  Khan Barka also supported Konstantin Tih, one of the rival claimants for the Bulgarian throne after Tsar Koloman II was deposed in 1258[77].  Khan Barka consolidated the Golden Horde's ties with the Russian Orthodox Church and established a bishopric at Sarai, although he personally converted to Islam[78].  He invaded the territory of the Il-Khans in Persia in 1266[79].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Berkè Khan fils de Djoudji Khan” died “en 664[80]m (a) TUQTOGHAI, daughter of ---.  Howorth names “Tagtagai Khatun” as chief wife of Barka, and “Jijek Hatun and Kehar Khatun” as hs two other wives, but adds that “none of them had given him any children[81]m (b) JIJEK, daughter of ---.  Howorth names “Tagtagai Khatun” as chief wife of Barka, and “Jijek Hatun and Kehar Khatun” as hs two other wives, but adds that “none of them had given him any children[82]m (c) KEGUER, daughter of ---.  Howorth names “Tagtagai Khatun” as chief wife of Barka, and “Jijek Hatun and Kehar Khatun” as hs two other wives, but adds that “none of them had given him any children[83].  children: 

a)         HOSAM ud-Din (-Egypt 1262).  Howorth says that “Hosameddin”, one of Barka’s sons, “is mentioned as dying in Egypt in 1262[84]

b)         SALAH ud-Din .  Howorth says that “Salah ud Din”, one of Barka’s sons, was “among the leaders of the Mamluks” in Egypt[85]

c)         daughter .  The source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not been identified.  m (1263) IZZ-ud-din Kay KHUSRAW III Seljuk Sultan of Rum, son of Kilic ARSLAN IV Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-1282). 

4.         BERKAJAR .  Khondemir names “Bergatchar” fourth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[86].  “Sulthan khatoun de la tribu d’Imen” was the mother of Jochi’s sons “Berkeh Khan...Barakdjar...Bourah[87].  He left descendants. 

5.         BURAH .  “Sulthan khatoun de la tribu d’Imen” was the mother of Jochi’s sons “Berkeh Khan...Barakdjar...Bourah[88].  Howorth calls him “Bure also called Muhammad[89], which suggests that he was the same person as Jochi’s eleventh son Mohammed who is named by Khondemir (see below). 

Jochi had children by unidentified wives or concubines: 

6.         SHAIBAN .  Khondemir names “Cheiban” fifth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[90].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Schéiban Khan fils de Djoudi Khan” and records many generations of his descendants[91].  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237[92]

-        KHANS of TURAN, KHOREZME, SAMARKAND and SIBERIA

7.         TANGQUT .  Khondemir names “Tangkout” sixth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[93].  He left descendants. 

8.         BOQAL .  Khondemir names “Boual” seventh among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[94].  Two children: 

a)         TATAR .  One child: 

i)          NOGAI Khan (-killed in battle on the Bug 1299).  He allied himself with Emperor Michael VIII, whose illegitimate daughter he married.  He severely plundered Bulgaria in 1271, in response to a request from the emperor who was seeking to exact revenge on Konstantin Tih Tsar of Bulgaria who had raided Thrace[95].  After the death of Mengu-Timur Khan in 1281, Nogai became more powerful in the Golden Horde than the official khans, with whom his relations were inevitably strained[96].  He was killed in battle by Tokhta Khan[97].  m (a) CHUBAI, daughter of ---.  m (b) YATLAQ, daughter of ---.  She was killed by her stepson.  m (c) (1266) EUPHROSYNE [Eirene] Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his mistress ---.  Pachymeres records that "imperator aliam suam filiam…ex pellicle genitam…Euphrosynam" married "principi Noga", in [1266] from the context[98].  Pachymeres refers to the marriage between "Michaele Auguste…filiæ Euphrosynes" and "Nogas"[99].  Nogai Khan & his wife (a) had two children: 

(a)       CHAKA [Joga] (-murdered 1300).  Pachymeres names "Nogæ…filio…ex muliere Alacca…Tzacæ" when recording that he conquered Bulgaria[100].  After his father's defeat and death, he fled to Bulgaria.  With the help of his brother-in-law Todor Svetoslav, he installed himself as ČAKA Tsar of the Bulgarians in 1299, after expelling the widow of Tsar Smilec[101].  He was deposed in 1300 by his brother-in-law, strangled and his decapitated head sent to Tokhta Khan in Crimea.  m (1285) --- of Bulgaria, daughter of GEORGI TERTER Tsar of Bulgaria & his first wife Maria ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Nogæ…filio…ex muliere Alacca…Tzacæ" and "Terteris filiam"[102].  Her marriage was arranged when her father agreed to Tatar suzerainty in 1285[103].  One child: 

(1)       QARA KIJAK

(b)       TUGA .  One child: 

(1)       AQTAJI

Nogai Khan & his wife (b) had two children:

(c)       BURI (-killed [1298]).  He was killed by his brother. 

(d)       QIYAN m YAYLAQ, son of SALJIUDAI GURAGAN & his wife Qalmish Aqa. 

(e)       TOGULTA m TAZ, son of MUNJAK. 

b)         MINGQADUR .  He left descendants. 

9.         CHILAUQUN .  Khondemir names “Djilaoucoun” eighth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[104]

10.      SHINGQOR .  Khondemir names “Chingkour” ninth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[105].  He left descendants. 

11.      CHIMTAI .  Khondemir names “Tchempai” tenth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[106].  He left descendants. 

12.      [MUHAMMAD .  Khondemir names “Mohammed” eleventh among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[107].] 

13.      UDUR .  Khondemir names “Oudouz” twelfth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[108].  He left descendants. 

14.      TOQA-TIMUR .  Khondemir names “Boucatimour” thirteenth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[109].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Berkè Khan fils de Djoudji Khan” convinced “Toqai-Timur le cadet de ses frères” to convert to Islam[110].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records several generations of his descendants[111]

-        KHANS of GREATER BULGARIA and CRIMEA

15.      SHINGQUM .  Khondemir names “Singogm” fourteenth among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[112]

16.      daughter .  Hammer-Purgstall states that two of Jochi’s daughters married “mit dem Herren Choten’s und dessen Sohne Ssighnak Teklu[113].  Howorth, citing only Hammer-Purgstall, interprets the names of the husbands as “the Khan of the Karluks and...Sighnak Tikin chief of Almaligh[114]m --- Khan of the Karluks, son of ---. 

17.      daughter .  Hammer-Purgstall states that two of Jochi’s daughters married “mit dem Herren Choten’s und dessen Sohne Ssighnak Teklu[115].  Howorth, citing only Hammer-Purgstall, interprets the names of the husbands as “the Khan of the Karluks and...Sighnak Tikin chief of Almaligh[116]m SIGHNAK TIKIN, son of [--- Khan of the Karluks]. 

18.      HOLUIQANm INALCHI, son of QUTUQU BEKI of the Oyirat. 

19.      [117][BKHATAKHAVORm ([1247/48]) as his second wife, SEMPAD Lord of Barba'ron, son of CONSTANTINE Lord of Barba'ron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethum] & his [---] wife --- ([1206/08]-6 Mar 1275, bur Melidje).]   

 

 

BATU, son of JOCHI & his --- wife ([1200/05]-Sarai [late 1255/early 1256]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of “Kouyouk Khan” (son of Ogodai, see Chapter 4), all the descendants of Jinghiz Khan agreed that the successor should be chosen from among “les fils de Touli Khan, dont la veuve Sourqouqti-Bigui était aimée du peuple”, which was agreed by “Batou fils de Djoudji Khan[118].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the right to the western part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, but which was at that time still unconquered and referred to as Desht-i-Kipchak, the Kipchak Khanate, or "Golden Horde".  Batu led the conquest of these western lands, launched in 1236 by his uncle Khan Ogodai, and established himself as BATU Khan of the Golden Horde.  The campaign started with the destruction of the main cities of the Volga Bulgars, bringing their state into the domain of the Mongols.  The conquerors then turned their attention to the Rus lands, the capture of Riazan in Dec 1237 being commemorated in several successive versions of the Tale of the Destruction of Riazan by Batu.  The Mongols destroyed Moscow in Jan 1238, moving on to capture Suzdal and Vladimir, defeating the forces of Iurii at the battle of Sit river 4 Mar 1238.  During the campaign season of 1238/39, they subdued the Polovtsy of the Steppes, the Circassians and Ossetians of the north Caucasus, and captured Pereiaslavl in Mar 1239 and Chernigov 18 Oct 1239.  Kiev surrendered to their siege 6 Dec 1240.  Batu Khan's forces forced the submission of Galich and Volynia, before they crossed the Carpathian mountains into Hungary in Feb 1241 and defeated Béla IV King of Hungary at Mohi on the river Sajó 11 Apr 1241.  The Mongols withdrew from Hungary in 1242 after learning of the death of Great Khan Ogodai 11 Dec 1241 at Karakoram, in order to attend the quriltai to select his successor.  Further conquest of Europe ceased, and Batu built his capital city Sarai on the lower Volga after establishing his Khanate of Kipchak (or Khanate of the Golden Horde) in the steppe north of the Black and Caspian Seas[119].  After Mongka succeeded as Great Khan in 1251, he delegated full authority in Europe to Batu[120].  Vardan's History records that "Batu the great governor of the North" died in [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257][121]

m BORAKCHIN, daughter of ---.  Ohsson names “Boractchin” as “la première en rang des épouses de Batou[122]

Six children: 

1.         SARTAQ (-1256).  Howorth says that Batu was survived by “four sons Sertak, Tutukan or Toghan, Andewan, and Ulaghji or Ghulasji[123].  Following a report, reaching Acre in 1253, that he had converted to Christianity, Louis IX King of France sent to him to help in the fight against the Muslims in Syria[124].  He succeeded his father as SARTAQ Khan of the Golden Horde.  Vardan's History records that "Batu the great governor of the North" died in [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257] and "in that same year his son Sartakh was poisoned by his envious brothers"[125].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Mangou-Qaan” named “Sartaq-Oghlan fils de Batou Khan” to succeed on the death of the latter but that he died before he could ascend the throne[126].  children: 

a)         [KANJU .  Howorth says that Sartaq “is given a son named Kanju in Rashid’s lists, but as he does not occur in history he was doubtless now dead” (i.e. at the death of Batu)[127].] 

b)         daughter (-20 Dec 1273).  She was baptised into the Orthodox church as FEDORA[128]m (1257) GLEB Vasilkovich Prince of Beloozero, son of VASILKO Konstantinovich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Mikhailovna of Chernigov (1237-13 Dec 1278). 

2.         ULAQCHI (-[1257]).  Howorth says that Batu was survived by “four sons Sertak, Tutukan or Toghan, Andewan, and Ulaghji or Ghulasji[129].  He succeeded in 1256 as ULAQCHI Khan of the Golden Horde.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Olaqitch frère cadet de Sartaq” was nominated to succeed by “Mangou-Qaan” after the death of ”Sartaq-Oghlan” but died soon after[130].  After his accession, he summoned all the Russian princes to Sarai to renew their oaths of allegiance[131]

3.         TOQOQAN .  Howorth says that Batu was survived by “four sons Sertak, Tutukan or Toghan, Andewan, and Ulaghji or Ghulasji[132]m KOCHU Khatun, daughter of BUQA TIMUR of the Oyirat.  Howorth says that “the mother of Mangu Timur was sister to one of the wives of Khulagu...both daughters of Buka Timur, whose mother Chichegen was the fourth daughter of Jingis Khan[133].  children: 

a)         BARTU .  Howorth says that “Tutukan or Toghan i.e. the falcon” had five sons “Bartu, Mangu Timur, Burasinku, Tuda Mangu and Udaji”, adding “of whom Bartu was probably at this time dead[134].  Two children: 

i)          TOLA BUQA [Telebuga] (-murdered 1291).  He succeeded in 1287 as TOLA BUQA Khan of the Golden Horde, after the abdication of Toda-Mongka Khan.  He was the associate of Nogai Khan in the Hungarian campaign but relations between the two deteriorated after his accession.  He was eventually arrested by Nogai and handed to Tokhta who ordered his execution[135].  

ii)         KONCHAK .  He was killed by Toqta. 

b)         MONGKA TIMUR [Mengu Timur] (-1281).  Howorth says that “Tutukan or Toghan i.e. the falcon” had five sons “Bartu, Mangu Timur, Burasinku, Tuda Mangu and Udaji[136].  He succeeded his uncle in [1266/67] as MONGKA TIMUR Khan of the Golden Horde

-        see below

c)         BURASINKU .  Howorth says that “Tutukan or Toghan i.e. the falcon” had five sons “Bartu, Mangu Timur, Burasinku, Tuda Mangu and Udaji[137]

d)         TODA-MONGKA [Toda Mengku] (-1287).  Howorth says that “Tutukan or Toghan i.e. the falcon” had five sons “Bartu, Mangu Timur, Burasinku, Tuda Mangu and Udaji[138].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touda Mangou Khan fils de Toqan fils de Batou Khan” succeeded “Mangou-Timour-Khan[139].  He succeeded his brother in 1282/83 as TODA-MONGKA Khan of the Golden Horde.  He converted to Islam 1283.  He abdicated in favour of Telebuga 1287.  m (a) ARIQACH of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (b) TORA QUTLUG of the Alchi Tatar, daughter of ---.  Toda Mongka & his wife (a) had one child: 

i)          OR MONGKA

Toda Mongka & his wife (b) had one child: 

ii)         CHECHAKTU

Toda Mongka & his wife/concubine --- had one child: 

iii)        TOBATAI

e)         UDAJU .  Howorth says that “Tutukan or Toghan i.e. the falcon” had five sons “Bartu, Mangu Timur, Burasinku, Tuda Mangu and Udaji[140]

4.         ANDEWAN .  Howorth says that Batu was survived by “four sons Sertak, Tutukan or Toghan, Andewan, and Ulaghji or Ghulasji[141]

5.         TOQIQONGA

6.         ABUGAN .  He left descendants. 

7.         SINGGUM

 

 

MONGKA TIMUR [Mengu Timur], son of OQOQAN (-1281).  Howorth says that “Tutukan or Toghan i.e. the falcon” had five sons “Bartu, Mangu Timur, Burasinku, Tuda Mangu and Udaji[142].  He succeeded his uncle in [1266/67] as MONGKA TIMUR Khan of the Golden Horde.  He extended special trading rights within the territory of the Golden Horde to the Genoese, who developed commercial colonies at Sudak and Caffa (on the northern shores of the Black Sea)[143].  He was unable to maintain central authority over all the tribes which made up the Khanate, which enabled his cousin Nogai to assert increasing independence in the western lands bordering Bulgaria[144]

m (a) OLJAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (b) SULTAN Khatun of the Ushin, daughter of ---. 

m (c) QUTUQUI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (d) OLJAITU Khatun, daughter of SALJIUDAL Guragan of the Qunqirat & his wife Kalmish Aqa. 

m (e) CICEK Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (f) TOTLIN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (g) TATAYUN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (h) HOTLU Khatun, daughter of ---. 

Mongka Timur & his wife (a) had two children: 

1.         ALGHUI .  He was killed by Toqtai. 

2.         ABACHI

Mongka Timur & his wife (b) had one child: 

3.         TODAGAN

Mongka Timur & his wife (c) had one child: 

4.         BURLUK

Mongka Timur & his wife (d) had one child: 

5.         TOQTAI [Tokhta] (-near Saray 9 Aug 1312, bur Seray).  He challenged the succession of Telebuga, but was obliged to seek refuge with Nogai (also descended from Juchi) who had become a powerful military commander in his own right.  Together they orchestrated the murder of Telebuga, and Toqtai succeeded in 1291 as TOQTAI Khan of the Golden Horde.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touqtaghou Khan fils de Mangou Timour Khan” deposed and killed “Touda Mangour Khan” and succeeded as Khan[145].  Tokhta launched an unsuccessful campaign against Nogai in [1293/94], but defeated and killed him in 1299, thereby reuniting the Golden Horde[146].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touqtaghou Khan fils de Mangou Timour Khan” died after reigning six years and was buried “dans la ville de Sèraitchiq[147]m (a) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, BULAGHAN, widow of TOGHRILCHA, daughter of ---.  She married thirdly Uzbek Khanm (b) TUKUNCHA of the Qunqirat, daughter of SALJIDAY GURGAN.  m (c) ([1299]) MARIA Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his mistress ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "imperator…notha ei filia Maria" and "Tuctain"[148].  Toqtai & his wives/concubines --- had [four] children: 

a)         TUKEL BUQA .  Howorth says that “according to Binaketi [original work not yet traced], Toktu left three sons behind him, Tukel aka, Ilkasar and Pirus[149]

b)         IL-KASAR (-executed 1312).  Howorth says that “according to Binaketi [original work not yet traced], Toktu left three sons behind him, Tukel aka, Ilkasar and Pirus[150]

c)         BIRUS .  Howorth says that “according to Binaketi [original work not yet traced], Toktu left three sons behind him, Tukel aka, Ilkasar and Pirus[151]

d)         [MARIJA (-1332)m NARIMANTAS [Narimont] of Lithuania, son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & [his first wife Wida ---] (-killed in battle Strèva 2 Feb 1348).] 

Mongka Timur & his wives/concubines --- had six children: 

6.         SARAI BUQA .  He was executed by his brother. 

7.         MULAQI

8.         QADAAN

9.         QUDUQAI

10.      TOGHRILCHA [Tughrilja] m as her first husband, BULUGHAN, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her brother-in-law Toqtai Khan, and thirdly her stepson Uzbek Khan.  She was killed by Toqtai.  Toghrilcha & his concubines --- had three children: 

a)         UZBEK ([1299/1300]-1341).  He succeeded in 1313 as UZBEK Khan of the Golden Horde

-        see below

b)         son .  One child: 

i)          TULUNBAY (-Cairo 8 Sep 1360)m firstly (Cairo May 1320, divorced 1328) AN-NASIR MUHAMMAD Sultan of Egypt, son of QAWALUN Sultan of Egypt (-1341).  m secondly (Cairo 6 Sep 1328) MANKALIBUGA as-Silahdar (-13 Nov 1330).  m thirdly AMIR SUSAN (-20 Feb 1334).  m fourthly (19 Sep 1334) UMAR, son of ARGHUN an-Nasiri. 

c)         KONCHAKA (-1318).  She adopted the name AGAFIA on her marriage.  She was captured by the forces of Mikhail Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir during her husband's rebellion against his authority and died during her captivity[152]m (1317) as his second wife, IURII Daniilovich Prince of Moscow, son of DANIIL Aleksandrovich Prince of Moscow & his wife [Maria] ([1281]-murdered Sarai 21 Sep 1325).  He succeeded in 1318 as Grand Prince of Vladimir. 

11.      daughter .  She adopted the name ANNA on her marriage.  m as his second wife, FEDOR Rostislavich "Cherniy/the Black" Grand Prince of Smolensk, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- (-19/20 Sep 1299).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1279/80-1287.  He was appointed Prince of Iaroslavl in 1281, by right of his wife.  (1240-19/20 Sep 1299). 

 
 

UZBEK, son of TOGHRILCHA ([1299/1313]-1341).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Uzbèk Khan” was proclaimed Khan after the death of “Touqtaghou Khan fils de Mangou Timour Khan” although only thirteen years old[153].  He succeeded in 1313 as UZBEK Khan of the Golden Horde.  By the time of his reign, the Golden Horde had become a strong, wealthy state.  It adopted Islam under Uzbek's guidance.  He was an aggressive ruler who tried to keep tight control over Russia by prohibiting coalitions between the Russian princes which opposed the suzerainty of the Khan.  In this respect, he undertook severe punitive expeditions against Tver[154]

m (a) (after Aug 1312) as her third husband, his stepmother, BULUGHAN, widow firstly of TOGHRILCHA and secondly of TOKHTAI Khan, daughter of ---. 

m (b) KABAK Khatun, daughter of NAGHATAI. 

m (c) SHERITUMGHA, daughter of ---.  Howorth names “Sheritumgha, the mother of Janibeg, and probably also of his other sons Timur, Tinibeg and Khidrbeg” as one of the wives of Uzbek[155]

m (d) as her first husband, TAITUGHALI [Taidula], daughter of --- (-[killed 1360/61]).  Howorth names “Taidula, a Christian, who gave her name, according to the tradition reported by Karamzin, to the famous iron capital of Russia, Tula” as one of the wives of Uzbek[156].  She married secondly Khizir Khan, and thirdly Bazarji.  Howorth says that “the reign of Nurus was but a short one. We are told that Khidr...killed Nurus, his son Timur, and the old Khatun Taidula[157]

m (e) URDUJA, daughter of ISA Beg. 

m (f) (1330) --- Palaiologina, [illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his mistress ---].  She was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III according to Sturdza[158], but not shown as such in Europäische Stammtafeln[159].  She converted to Islam and adopted the name BAYALUN.  Howorth says that “Uzbeg had married a daughter of the Greek Emperor. Ibn Batuta calls her the Khatun or Lady Beilun. This seems a generic name for princess, one so named, a wife of Uzbeg’s, died in 1324. She was doubtless a daughter of Andronicus II[160].  From a chronological point of view, it is more likely that she was the daughter of Emperor Andronikos III.  Howorth records that her husband permitted her to travel back to Constantinople with Ibn Batuta to visit her father and for the birth of her child[161].  Assuming that this journey formed part of Ibn Batuta’s second itinerary, it would be dated to the early 1330s which would also indicate that Andronikos III was the father of Uzbek’s wife. 

Uzbek & his wife (c) had [five] children: 

1.         TIMUR (-killed [1230]).  Howorth names “Sheritumgha, the mother of Janibeg, and probably also of his other sons Timur, Tinibeg and Khidrbeg” as one of the wives of Uzbek[162].  Howorth says that “Timur the son of Uzbeg who had killed ‘the Khan beyond the mountains’ (? of Circassia)” was killed about 1230[163]

2.         TINI BEG (-killed 1342).  Howorth names “Sheritumgha, the mother of Janibeg, and probably also of his other sons Timur, Tinibeg and Khidrbeg” as one of the wives of Uzbek[164].  He succeeded his father in 1341 as TINI BEG Khan of the Golden Horde.  Howorth records that “Tinibeg only occupied the throne a few months, when he was murdered by his younger brother Khidr Beg[165]

3.         daughter m ---, son of QUTLUGH TIMUR. 

4.         JANI BEG (-murdered 1357).  Howorth names “Sheritumgha, the mother of Janibeg, and probably also of his other sons Timur, Tinibeg and Khidrbeg” as one of the wives of Uzbek[166].  He seized control from his brother and succeeded in 1342 as JANI BEG Khan of the Golden Horde.  He was murdered by his son Berdibek[167].  Howorth records that Jani Beg returned to Kipchak and, falling ill, summoned his son Berdi Beg to install him as his successor but that “fearing that his father might recover, Berdibeg murdered him[168].  Six children: 

a)         BERDI BEG (-murdered [1359/60]).  He murdered his father and succeeded in 1357 as BERDI BEG Khan of the Golden Horde.  Howorth records that Jani Beg returned to Kipchak and, falling ill, summoned his son Berdi Beg to install him as his successor but that “fearing that his father might recover, Berdibeg murdered him”, adding that “according to Russian authors, he proceeded to put to death twelve of his brothers” on his accession[169].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Birdi Bèk Khan” was proclaimed Khan after the death of his father, but died “en 762” after reigning for less than two years[170]

b)         twelve sons (-killed 1357).  Howorth records that Jani Beg returned to Kipchak and, falling ill, summoned his son Berdi Beg to install him as his successor but that “fearing that his father might recover, Berdibeg murdered him”, adding that “according to Russian authors, he proceeded to put to death twelve of his brothers” on his accession[171].  One child: 

c)         SHAKAR BEGm AQ SUFI HUSAYN Qunqirat.  One child: 

i)          SEVIN BEG [Khan Zadé] (-after 1403).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of “Sevin Bei, mais on l’appelloit ordinairement Canzadé, c’est-à-dire fille de Souverain”, daughter of “Ysouph Sofi...son frere Ac Sofi, fils d’Yenghadai” and “Chukur Bei...fille d’un Can Uzbek”, and “Gehanghir” son of Timur in 1373[172].  The Memoirs of Timur record the betrothal of “Yusuf Sufy...his niece Khan Zade” to “my son Jehangir” in 1372[173].  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur who names “Conzada [qui] fu femme de son frere ainsné, lequel est mort” as the favourite wife of Miran Shah[174].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “la princesse Canzadeh épouse de Mirza Miran Chah”, in 1384 from the context[175].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records how news of the death of Mohammed Sultan (“son...fils”) was brought to “la princesse Canzadé” in 1403[176]m firstly MOHAMMED JEHANGIR, son of TIMUR ([1354/59]-Samarkand 1375, bur Kesh).  m secondly ([1376]) MIRAN SHAH, son of TIMUR ([1365/67]-killed in battle Tabriz 1408). 

5.         KHIDR BEG .   Howorth names “Sheritumgha, the mother of Janibeg, and probably also of his other sons Timur, Tinibeg and Khidrbeg” as one of the wives of Uzbek, adding that “according to the chronicle of Troitzki, Janibeg also killed his brother Khidr Beg[177]

 

 

1.         QULNA (-[murdered 1360]).  He succeeded in 1359 as QULNA Khan of the Golden Horde.  Howorth records that, after the death of Berdi Beg, “we now enter a period of great confusion in the history of the Golden Horde”, adding that “Khuandimir, who gives the fullest list of the Khans of Kipchak, makes Berdibeg be succeeded by Kildibeg. The Russian authors call Berdibeg’s successor Kulpa”.  He indicates discussion whether the two were variants of the same name, but that coins bear the name “Kulna or Kulnah[178].  Howorth does not indicate that Qulpa/Kildi Beg was the brother of Berdi Beg.  The central authority of Sarai started to decline, with numerous changes of khan over the following 20 years and the rise to power of many leaders with local authority[179].  Howorth says that “according to the authority followed by Von Hammer, Kulpa only occupied the throne for six months and five days when, with his sons Ivan and Michael, he was killed by Nurusbeg[180].  ]  Two children:  IVAN (-[murdered 1360]).  Howorth says that “according to the authority followed by Von Hammer, Kulpa only occupied the throne for six months and five days when, with his sons Ivan and Michael, he was killed by Nurusbeg[181]MIKHAEL (-[murdered 1360]).  Howorth says that “according to the authority followed by Von Hammer, Kulpa only occupied the throne for six months and five days when, with his sons Ivan and Michael, he was killed by Nurusbeg[182].  

 

2.         NAWROZ (-[killed 1360/61]).  Howorth says that “Khuandemir tells us Nurus falsely pretended to be a son of Janibeg’s, that is therefore a brother of Berdibeg’s. Karamzin merely says that he was a descendant of Juchi Khan[183].  He murdered his brother and succeeded in 1360 as NAWROZ Khan of the Golden Horde.  Howorth records that “the general view is that Kulna was killed and succeeded by Nurus Khan, yet it is curious that coins both of Kulna and Nurus occur both in the years 760 and 761, struck too apparently in all parts of the Khanate, so that it would appear that their reigns were in fact concurrent and contemporary, and not actually successive[184].  Howorth says that “the reign of Nurus was but a short one. We are told that Khidr...killed Nurus, his son Timur, and the old Khatun Taidula[185].  One child:  TIMUR (-[killed 1360/61]).  Howorth says that “the reign of Nurus was but a short one. We are told that Khidr...killed Nurus, his son Timur, and the old Khatun Taidula[186]

 

3.         KELDI BEG .  Howorth says that “Khuandemir, in his list of the Khans of Kipchak, makes Nurus Khan be succeeded by Cherkes Khan, who he says the emirs, for some diplomatic reasons, made out to be a son of Janibeg Khan. His name does not occur elsewhere as succeeding at this period and it is not until...[1374/75] when we find Cherkesbeg Khan coining money at Astrakhan[187].  He succeeded in [1362/63]. 

 

 

1.         ORDU MALIK (-1362).  He succeeded in 1361. 

 

2.         BOLOD TIMUR .  He succeeded in [1362/65]. 

 

3.         TOGAY .  He succeeded in [1365]. 

 

4.         MAMAI (-after 1380).  He was an autonomous warlord who established his own horde in the steppe to the west of the Volga.  Not of the royal blood of Jenghiz Khan, he could not rule in his own name but exercised power through a series of puppets Khans[188].  Dmitry Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow took advantage of the confusion which accompanied the succession disputes in the Khanate by refusing to pay tribute.  He defeated the forces of Mamai at Vozha river in 1378, at the battle of Kulikov near the upper Don river in 1380[189]

 

5.         AZIZ .  He succeeded [1364] to [1366/67]. 

 

6.         ABDULLAH .  He was installed as rival Khan by Mamai in 1364 to [1366/67]. 

 

7.         JANI BEG II .  He succeeded in [1366/67]. 

 

8.         MUHAMMAD BULAQ .  He succeeded in [1370]. 

 

9.         AIBEK .  He succeeded in [1371]. 

 

10.      QARIN .  He succeeded in [1371/75], when the remnants of the Khanate were reunited by the White Horde. 

 

 

CHIMTAI, son or brother of MUBARAK KHWAJA Ruler of the Ulus Orda (-[1361]).  Ruler of the White Horde. 

Two children: 

1.         URUS (-1376).  Ruler of the White Horde.  Four children: 

a)         TOQTA (-[1376]).  He succeeded in 1376, but was deposed or died in the same year. 

b)         TIMUR MALIK .  He succeeded in [1376/77].  Two children: 

i)          TIMUR QUTLUGH (-1401).  One child: 

(a)       TIMUR (-1412).  He succeeded [his cousin] in 1410.  m ---, daughter of IDIGE Manghit.  One child: 

(1)       KUCHUK MUHAMMAD (-1465).  He succeeded [1435]-1465. 

-         KHANS of ASTRAKHAN, KHANS of KAZIMOV

ii)         SHADI BEG (-1408).  He succeeded his brother in 1401.  [Two] children: 

(a)       GHIYAS-UD-DIN

(b)       [PULAD (-1410).  He succeeded [his father] in 1408.] 

c)         QUTLUGH BUGA (-killed 1376). 

d)         KOIRIJAQ .  One child: 

i)          BARAQ .  He was founder of the Qazaq line, and ancestor of the Khans of Kazan and Khans of Kazimov. 

2.         TULI KHWAJA of the White Horde.  One child: 

a)         TOQTAMISH (-after 1399).  He started his career in the service of Timur Khan, but soon built up his own forces and moved into the territory of the Golden Horde.  He captured Sarai in 1378, reunited the Horde and succeeded as TOQTAMISH Khan of the Golden Horde[190]

-        see below

 

 

TOQTAMISH, son of TULI KHWAJA of the White Horde (-after 1399).  He started his career in the service of Timur Khan, but soon built up his own forces and moved into the territory of the Golden Horde.  He captured Sarai in 1378, reunited the Horde and succeeded as TOQTAMISH Khan of the Golden Horde[191].  He defeated Mamai at the battle of Kalka river in 1381, becoming unchallenged ruler of all parts of the Golden Horde.  Khan Toqtamish besieged Moscow in 1382, forced Dmitry "Donskoi" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow to flee, and eventually obliged him to agree to resume payment of tribute in return for confirmation of his title of Grand Prince[192].  He recognised the overlordship of Timur, but the latter defeated him in 1391 after which Toqtamish's jurisdiction was restricted to the western half of the territories.  Timur defeated him again at the battle on the Terek river in 1395, and Toqtamish fled to Lithuania[193].  Allied with Vitovt Grand Duke of Lithuania, he returned but was again defeated in 1399, and fled to western Siberia where he died a few years later. 

Seven children: 

1.         JALA-UD-DIN (-[1412]).  He succeeded his cousin in 1412 as JALA-UD-DIN Khan of the Golden Horde

2.         KARIMBERDI (-[1414]).  He succeeded his brother in 1412 as KARIMBERDI Khan of the Golden Horde

3.         KABAK (-1417).  He succeeded his brother [1414/15] as KABAK Khan of the Golden Horde

4.         JABBARBERDI .  He succeeded his brother in 1417 as JABBARBERDI Khan of the Golden Horde

5.         QADIRBARDI

6.         SAIYID AHMAD

7.         EDIGEI (-1419).  He invaded Muscovy in surprise attacks in 1400 and 1408, but did not succeed in breaking the grower power of Moscow[194].  He seized Khwarezm in 1406.  He was deposed in 1411 by his son-in-law.  He retreated to the steppe where he exercised local influence until he was killed[195].  One child: 

a)         daughter m TIMUR, son of ---.  He deposed his father-in-law in 1411. 

 

 

After this, the Golden Horde once more fragmented.  It was replaced by the Khanate of Crimea, the Khanate of Kazan (formed around 1445 under Ulu-Muhammed) which absorbed the state of Bulgar, and ultimately the Khanates of Astrakhan and Sibir. 

 

 

 

B.      KHANS of the KHAZAKS, ASTRAKHAN and BUKHARA

 

 

ORDA, son of JOCHI .  Khondemir names “Ourdah, dont la mère était Sarkan” first among the 14 sons of “Djoudji[196].  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the eastern part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, comprising western Siberia, Kazakhstan and the land around the lower Syr Darya river. 

m (a) JUKA Khatun of the Quinqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (b) TOBAQANA of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (c) ---, daughter of OGA Khan of the Qunqirat. 

m (d) MOG EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

Orda & his wife (a) had one child: 

1.         SARTAQTAI m HUJAN, sister of QUTUI Khatun (wife of Hulagu), daughter of ---.  One child: 

a)         QONCHI (-[1300]).  He succeeded his uncle as ruler of the Ulus Orda as TURUQ Khanm (a) TOQOLUQAN of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (b) [as her first husband,] BUQULUN of the Markit, daughter of ---.  She may have married secondly her stepson Bayanm (c) as her first husband, CHINGTUM of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Bayanm (d) BAQUJIN of the Jajirat, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Bayan.  Qonchi & his [wife (a)] had one child: 

i)          BAYAN m (a) as her second husband, his stepmother, CHINGTUM of the Qunqirat, widow of QONCHI, daughter of ---.  m (b) as her second husband, his stepmother, BAQUJIN of the Jajirat, widow of QONCHI, daughter of ---.  [m (c) as her second husband, his stepmother, BUQULUN of the Markit, widow of QONCHI, daughter of ---.]  m (d) ELGAN, daughter of TEMUGE of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (e) QUTULUN Khatun, daughter of BUQAYAN Bugubai of the Oghuz.  m (f) ALTACHU, daughter of TORAI Bahadur of the Qunqirat.  Bayan & his wife (d) had one child: 

(a)       SHADI

Bayan & his wife (e) had one child: 

(b)       SASI [Sati] Buqa .  Ruler of the Ulus Orda.  One child: 

(1)       ILBASAN [Irzan] (-[1320]).  Ruler of the Ulus Orda.  One child: 

a.         MUBARAK KHWAJA (-1344).  Ruler of the Ulus Orda.  One child: 

(i)         CHIMTAI (-1361).  He was either the son or brother of Mubarak Khwaja. 

-         KHANS of the GOLDEN HORDE

Bayan & his wife (f) had one child: 

(c)       TAGANA

Bayan & his wife/concubine --- had one child: 

(d)       SALJIUTAI

Qonchi & his [wife (b)] had one child:

ii)         BACHQIRTAIm KOKALUN of the Markit, daughter of ---.  One child: 

(a)       YAKA

Qonchi & his [wife (c)] had one child:

iii)        CHAGHAN BUQA m SARTISH, daughter of QOSH TIMUR of the Kerait.  One child: 

(a)       CHIRATAI

Qonchi & his [wife (d)] had one child:

iv)       MAQUDAI

Orda & his wife --- had one child: 

2.         QULIm (a) NANDIKAN of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (b) QADAGAN, daughter of ---.  m (c) KOKTANI, daughter of ---.  Quli left descendants.   

3.         QURUMSHI

4.         QONQIRAN .  He succeeded his father as ruler of the Ulus Orda.  He died without issue. 

5.         CHORMAQAI

6.         QUTUQUIm (a) SOLUQU Khatun, daughter of ---.  m (b) QOYARCHIN of the Qipchaq, daughter of ---.  Qutuqui left descendants. 

Orda & his wife (d) had one child: 

7.         HULAGU .  He died without issue. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DESCENDANTS of CHAGATAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

CHAGATAI, son of JENGHIZ Khan ([1185]-[1240/41]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Djaghatai Khan” as the second son of “Tchinguiz Khan[197].  He inherited the former Uighur and Kara Khitai territories in central Asia after the death of his father in 1227[198].  He was murdered by the Assassins[199]

m (a) YESULUN Khatun, daughter of QATA NOYAN of the Qunqirat.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Yssouloun fille de Qaba Noyan roi des Qounqrats et mère de ses principaux fils” as the first of the highest rank wives of “Djaghatai Khan[200]

m (b) TOGAN Khatun, daughter of QATA NOYAN of the Qunqirat.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Tourkan Khatoun sœur cadette d’Yssouloun...qu’il épousa après la mort de cette dernière” as the second of the highest rank wives of “Djaghatai Khan[201]

m (c) SEVINCH Khatun, daughter of BARAQ HAJIB Qutluq Sultan Khan of Kirman. 

m (d) ---, daughter of MUHAMMAD Khwarazmshah. 

Chagatai & his concubine --- had one child: 

1.         MOCHI YABA .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Moudji fils d’une esclave de Missouloun, première en rang des femmes” as the oldest son of Chagatai[202].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Moudji” as the second son of “Djaghatai Khan[203].  He left descendants. 

Chagatai & his wife (a) had one child: 

2.         MOATUKAN (-killed Bamian ----).  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Mitoukan fils de Missouloun, tué sous les murs de Talegan” as the second son of Chagatai[204].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Moutoukan...fils d’Yssouloun Khatoun” as the oldest son of “Djaghatai Khan[205].  children: 

a)         QARA ULAGU .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of Chagatai, “la couronne passa à Qara-Holagou, fils de Moutoukan, fils de Djaghatai[206]m ARGHUNA Khatun, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “sa mère Arghouna-Khatoun” was appointed regent on the succession of “Moubarek-Chah, fils de Qara-Houlagou...encore en bas âge[207].  children: 

i)          MUBARAK SHAH .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of “Qara-Holagou, fils de Moutoukan, fils de Djaghatai”, “Moubarek-Chah, fils de Qara-Houlagou...encore en bas âge” was proclaimed Khan[208]

b)         YSSUNTU .  children: 

i)          BARAK KHAN [Ghiyas ud-Din] .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Baraq-Khan fils d’Yssountou fils de Moutoukan fils de Djaghatai-Khan” succeeded “Alghou fils de Baidar fils de Djaghatai-Khan” succeeded “Moubarek-Chah, fils de Qara-Houlagou”, adding that he converted to Islam two years after his accession and was named “Ghiyas-oud-dine[209].  children: 

(a)       DUI CHECHEN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Doui-Tchètchène fils de Baraq-Khan fils d’Yssountou...” succeeded “Bougha-Timour-Khan fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan fils de Djaghatai-Khan[210]

-         see below.    

c)         BUZAI .  children: 

i)          QUDAGHAI .  children: 

(a)       BUGHA TIMUR KHAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Bougha-Timour-Khan fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan fils de Djaghatai-Khan” succeeded “Bigui fils de Sarman fils de Djaghatai-Khan[211].  child: 

(1)       ORUK TIMUR .  child: 

a.         YASSUR .  child: 

(i)         KAZAN SULTAN KHAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Qazan-Sultan-Khan fils de Yassour fls d’Orouk-Timour fils de Bogha Timour, fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan” succeeded “Mohammed fils de Poulad fils de Koundjèk fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, adding in a later passage that he was defeated by “l’émir Qazghan” who placed “Danischmendjè-Khan fils de Qaidan-Khan fils de Qaschine fils d’Okedai-Qaan” on the throne[212]

(b)       TALIGHA .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Taligha fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan” succeeded “Koundjè-Khan fils de Doui-Tchètchène fils de Baraq-Khan[213]

Chagatai & his concubines --- had children: 

3.         BALGASH .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Bilkèschi mort à l’âge de treize ans du vivant de son père” as the third son of Chagatai[214].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Bildeschi” as the third son of “Djaghatai Khan[215]

4.         SAIN BELEKI .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Sain-Beleki” as the fourth son of “Djaghatai Khan[216]

5.         SARBAN .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Sarban” as the fourth son of Chagatai[217].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Sarman” as the fifth son of “Djaghatai Khan[218].  children: 

a)         BIGUI .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Bigui fils de Sarman fils de Djaghatai-Khan” succeeded “Baraq-Khan fils d’Yssountou fils de Moutoukan fils de Djaghatai-Khan[219]

6.         YESU MOKA .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Yssoutmekè” as the fifth son of Chagatai[220].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Yssoun-Mounga” as the sixth son of “Djaghatai Khan[221].  He succeeded his nephew. 

7.         BAIDAR .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Baidur” as the sixth son of Chagatai[222].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Baidur” as the seventh son of “Djaghatai Khan[223].  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237.  After the fall of Kiev in Dec 1240, he commanded the troops which moved into Poland, sacked Sandomir and Krakow, routed the Polish army at Wahlstadt near Liegnitz 9 Apr 1241, then turned south to Hungary[224].  children: 

a)         ALGHU .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Alghou fils de Baidar fils de Djaghatai-Khan” succeeded “Moubarek-Chah, fils de Qara-Houlagou[225].   

8.         [daughter .  The Memoirs of Timur record “the genealogy of our family, extending to Tumuneh Khan, whose genealogy is carried back in history to Japhet, the son of Noah” and name “Kerachar Nuyan...son-in-law of Jagtay Khan” as the first of the family who was converted to Islam[226].  The accuracy of the statement is unknown.  m TUMUNEH Khan, son of ---.] 

Chagatai & his wife (b) had one child: 

9.         QADAQAI .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Qadaqai” as the seventh son of Chagatai[227]

Chagatai & his concubines --- had children: 

10.      MOCHI

11.      TABHU [Tasju] .  The Jami al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Hamadani names “Tabhou (ou Tasdjou)” as the eighth son of Chagatai[228]

12.      SALGHAN .  After Hulagu Khan's conquest of the Assassins in Persia, a number of the relatives of Grand Master Rukn ad-Din Khurshah were sent to her to exact vengeance for the murder of her father[229]

 

 

DUI CHECHEN, son of BARAK KHAN [Ghiyas ud-Din] .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Doui-Tchètchène fils de Baraq-Khan fils d’Yssountou...” succeeded “Bougha-Timour-Khan fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan fils de Djaghatai-Khan[230]

children:

1.         KUNJEK KHAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Koundjè-Khan fils de Doui-Tchètchène fils de Baraq-Khan” succeeded “Doui-Tchètchène fils de Baraq-Khan fils d’Yssountou...[231]

2.         ISEN BUGHA .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Issèn-Bougha fils de Doui-Tchètchène” succeeded “Taligha fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan”, adding in a later passage that he was later proclaimed “khan de Kaschgar, de Yarkend, d’Ala-Tagh et du Mogolistan[232]m SATILMICH Khatun, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Satilmitch Khatoun” as the wife of “Issèn-Bogha”, adding that she was childless[233]concubine: MINGLI, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mingli” as the concubine of “Issèn-Bogha”, adding that she was exiled by Isen Bugha’s wife “dans la Mogolie” where she gave birth to “un fils...Touqlouq-Timour” and later to a second son “Timour-Melik” by “Schirè-Oghoul[234].  child:

a)         TUKLUK TIMUR ([1329]-[1364]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mingli” as the concubine of “Issèn-Bogha”, adding that she was exiled by Isen Bugha’s wife “dans la Mogolie” where she gave birth to “un fils...Touqlouq-Timour” (in “730” in a later passage), who was later proclaimed Khan by “Emir Pouladtchi”, converted to Islam, conquered “Kaschgar, Yarkend, Ala-Tagh et Ouighouristan”, and “Maveran-Nahr” where he placed “son fils Ilias-Khodja” at Samarkand[235].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touqlouq-Timour” died aged 34[236]m EMIR AGA Katun, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touqlouq-Timour” left a young son “Khizir-Khodja [encore à la mamelle]” when he died, born to “Emir-Agha-Khatoun” who was protected with her child from “Qamaroud-dine” by “Khoudai-Dad[237].  children: 

i)          ILIAS KHOJA (-[1364/65]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touqlouq-Timour” conquered “Maveran-Nahr” and placed “son fils Ilias-Khodja” at Samarkand, adding in a later passage that he was killed after his father died on the orders of “Qamar-oud-Dine[238]

ii)         KHIZIR KHOJA ([1363/65]-).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Touqlouq-Timour” left a young son “Khizir-Khodja [encore à la mamelle]” when he died, born to “Emir-Agha-Khatoun” who was protected with her child from “Qamaroud-dine” by “Khoudai-Dad”, later proclaimed Khan, and was ancestor of all later rulers of Kashgar and Yarkend[239]

3.         KEUBEK .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Keubèk fils de Doui-Tchètchène” succeeded “Issèn-Bougha fils de Doui-Tchètchène[240]

4.         DUI TIMUR .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Doui-Timur fils de Doui Tchètchène” succeeded “Keubèk fils de Doui-Tchètchène[241]

5.         TARMASHIR .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Tarmaschir fils de Doui-Tchètchène” succeeded “Doui-Timur fils de Doui Tchètchène”, adding that he converted to Islam and was killed by “Bouran fils de Doui-Tchètchène” who succeeded him[242]

6.         BURAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Bouran fils de Doui-Tchètchène” succeeded after killing “Tarmaschir fils de Doui-Tchètchène[243]

7.         ABU KHAN .  children: 

a)         JENKSHI .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Djenkschi fils d’Aboukan fils de Doui-Tchètchène” succeeded “Bouran fils de Doui-Tchètchène[244]

b)         ISSUN TIMUR .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Yssoun-Timour...[son] frère germain” succeeded after defeating and killing “Djenkschi fils d’Aboukan fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, after which he cut their mother’s breasts in revenge for having betrayed him to his brother[245].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of “Yssoun-Timour”, “Aly-Sultan descendant d’Okedai-Qaan” usurped the throne and forced the recognition of his authority “dans tout le Mavèran-nahr[246].  child: 

i)          TIMUR SHAH .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Timour-Chah fils de Yssoun-Yimour fils d’Aboukan fils de Doui-Tchètchène” was placed on the throne by “l’émir Qazghan, son fils Abdullah” to succeed “Bayan-Qouli-Khan fils de Sourghou fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, whom he murdered after falling in love with his wife[247]

8.         KUNJEK .  child: 

a)         PULAD .  child: 

i)          MOHAMMED .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Mohammed fils de Poulad fils de Koundjèk fils de Doui-Tchètchène” succeeded the usurper “Aly-Sultan descendant d’Okedai-Qaan[248].  child: 

(a)       ADIL SULTAN (-[1365]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “l’Emir Houssein fils de Baslai fils d’Emir-Qazghan” placed “Adil-Sultan fils de Mohammed fils de Poulad fils de Koundjek fils de Doui-Tchètchène” on the throne to succeed “Timour-Chah fils de Yssoun-Yimour fils d’Aboukan fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, but that Timur, after defeating Emir Husain, threw Adil Sultan into water with his feet and wrists tied[249]

9.         SURGHU .  child: 

a)         BAYAN KULI KHAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Bayan-Qouli-Khan fils de Sourghou fils de Doui-Tchètchène” was placed on the throne by “l’émir Qazghan” to succeed “Danischmendjè-Khan fils de Qaidan-Khan fils de Qaschine fils d’Okedai-Qaan[250]

10.      ILCHIKDAI .  child: 

a)         JURJI .  child: 

i)          QABUL SULTAN (-[1366]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that Timur proclaimed “Qaboul-Sultan fils de Dourdji fils d’Iltchikdai fils de Doui-Tchètchène” as Khan after killing “Adil-Sultan fils de Mohammed fils de Poulad fils de Koundjek fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, adding that, after defeating Emir Husain at Balkh, Timur killed Qabul Sultan[251]

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DESCENDANTS of OGODAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

OGODAI, son of JENGHIZ Khan & his wife ([1186]-Karakoram 11 Dec 1241).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Okèdai” as the third son of “Tchinguiz Khan[252].  His father named him as his successor and he was confirmed at the quriltai 13 Sep 1229 as Great Khan.  His personal patrimony was the former Kerait and Naiman territories[253].  In 1234, he completed the conquest of China launched by his father.  He turned his attention in 1235 to the conquest of the western lands assigned to his nephew Batu.  After he died, Mongol forces withdrew from Europe so that the different competitors for the succession could be present to safeguard their own positions.  Ultimately, the rivalry which following triggered dynastic strife which eventually led to the downfall of the Mongol empire[254]

m (a) BORAQCHIN Khatun, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Bouraqtchine” as the first of the highest rank wives of “Okèdai Qaan[255]

m (b) TORGANE Khatun of the Markit, wife of DAYIR USAN, daughter of --- (-[Oct] 1246).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Tourakinè de la tribu des Merkites” as the second of the highest rank wives of “Okèdai Qaan”, adding that “selon quelques auteurs [elle] avait été la femme de Tair-Soun chef des Ouirates” and “passa dans la couche d’Okedai-Qaan” when the former was killed[256].  Howorth names “Turakina by whom he had five sons Kuyuk, Kutan, Kutchu, Karadjar and Kashi” as the “chief wife of Ogotai[257].  She assumed the regency on the death of her husband, and plotted for her son Guyuk to inherit the throne[258].  Howorth says that she died two months after the election of her son Guyuk[259]

m (c) his stepmother, MOGE Khatun, widow of JENGHIZ Khan, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Moungha” as the third of the highest rank wives of “Okèdai Qaan[260]

m (d) ALQUI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (e) KIRGISTANI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (f) KUCULDER Khatun, daughter of TIMUR BUQA Tegin of the Naiman. 

[m (g) CHUCAI [Jujai] Khatun, daughter of ---.  She may have been the same person as Ogodai's wife (d).] 

[m (h) JACHIN Khatun, daughter of ---.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Hatchine” as the fourth of the highest rank wives of “Okèdai Qaan[261].  She may have been the same person as Ogodai's wife (e).] 

Concubine (i) ARGANA, daughter of ---. 

Ogodai & his wife (b) had five children: 

1.         GUYUK (1206-Khum Sengir Apr 1248).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Kouyouk...quoique paralytique” as the oldest son of “Okèdai Qaan” by his wife “Tourakinè”, adding that he was elevated as khan by his brothers after the death of their father, despite the latter having nominated “Schiramoun son petit fils” as his successor[262].  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237, but was sent into exile by his father who had supported Batu[263].  He succeeded his father 24 Aug 1246 as Great Khan, although his succession was challenged by his first cousin Batu Khan of the Golden Horde.  Hethum the Historian's History records that "his son Guyuk who was short-lived" succeeded Ogodai[264].  He was poisoned apparently either by agents of Batu Khan or of the widow of Tolui Khan[265]m OGHUL QAIMISH Khatun, daughter of --- (-executed [May/Jul] 1252).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “le premier Khodja-Oghoul dont la mère se nommait Qamisch, le second Baghou, également fils de Qamisch...” as two of the three sons of “Kouyouk Khan[266].  She acted as regent after the death of her husband[267].  Four children: 

a)         KHWAJA OGHUL [Qucha] .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “le premier Khodja-Oghoul dont la mère se nommait Qamisch, le second Baghou, également fils de Qamisch...et le troisième Oqou” as the three sons of “Kouyouk Khan[268].  He and his brothers were sent into exile after unsuccessfully challenging the election of Mongka as Great Khan in 1251[269].  He left descendants. 

b)         NAGHU .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “le premier Khodja-Oghoul dont la mère se nommait Qamisch, le second Baghou, également fils de Qamisch...et le troisième Oqou” as the three sons of “Kouyouk Khan[270].  One child: 

i)          CHABAT .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “le second Baghou, également fils de Qamisch” as the second son of “Kouyouk Khan”, adding that he had “un fils nommé Habat[271]

c)         HOQU [Qughu] .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “le premier Khodja-Oghoul dont la mère se nommait Qamisch, le second Baghou, également fils de Qamisch...et le troisième Oqou qui eut deux fils” as the three sons of “Kouyouk Khan[272].  He left descendants. 

d)         daughter m as his first wife, TANGGIZ GURAGAN .  He married secondly Todogach, daughter of Hulagu.  One child: 

i)          QUTLUGH Khatun m ARGHUN Il-Khan, son of ABAQA Il-Khan & his concubine Qaitmish Egachi of the Onguut tribe (Baylaqan 1261-Baghcha 3 Mar 1291). 

2.         KOTAN (-1251).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Koutan [qui] avait pour yourt le Tanghoute” as the second son of “Okèdai Qaan[273].  Ruler of Kansu.  He left descendants. 

3.         KOCHU (-killed in battle 1236).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Koudjou...[qui] mourut avant son père” as the third son of “Okèdai Qaan[274].  He was intended by his father as his heir.  He was killed fighting the Chinese[275]m QATAQASH of the QUNQIRAT tribe, daughter of --- (-executed 1252).  Kochu & his wife had one child: 

a)         SHIREMUN (-executed 1252).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Kouyouk” as the oldest son of “Okèdai Qaan” by his wife “Tourakinè”, adding that he was elevated as khan by his brothers after the death of their father, despite the latter having nominated “Schiramoun son petit fils” as his successor[276].  His grandfather Ogedei Khan named him as his successor, but he was passed over in favour of Guyuk.  He was executed by Mongka Khan.  He left descendants. 

Kochu & [his concubines ---] had three children: 

b)         BULAUCHI .  He left descendants. 

c)         SOSE

d)         AM-TOU m SARTAQ, son of BATU. 

4.         QARACHAR .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Qaratchar” as the fourth son of “Okèdai Qaan[277].  One child: 

a)         TOQTO [Totaq] .  Two children: 

i)          UZBEK

ii)         SARAM-DORJI

5.         QASHIN (-[1235/36]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Qaschine...[qui] mourut jeune par la débauche et l’usage immodéré des liqueurs fortes” as the fifth son of “Okèdai Qaan[278]m SANGA Khatun, daughter of ---.  child: 

a)         KAIDAN KHAN (-[1301]).  Howorth records that “Kaidu the son of Kashi the fifth son” of Ogodai claimed to succeed as Great Khan and that his claim was settled in 1265 with grants of land in Transoxiana[279].  child: 

i)          DANISHMENJE KHAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Qazan-Sultan-Khan fils de Yassour fls d’Orouk-Timour fils de Bogha Timour, fils de Qoudaghai fils de Bouzai fils de Moutoukan” succeeded “Mohammed fils de Poulad fils de Koundjèk fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, adding in a later passage that he was defeated by “l’émir Qazghan” who placed “Danischmendjè-Khan fils de Qaidan-Khan fils de Qaschine fils d’Okedai-Qaan” on the throne of the descendants of Chagatai, who died two years later[280].  child: 

(a)       SUYUR GATMISH KHAN (-[1388]).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that Timur placed “Souyour-gatmisch-Khan fils de Danischmendjè-Khan...” on the throne of Chagatai after killing “Qaboul-Sultan fils de Dourdji fils d’Iltchikdai fils de Doui-Tchètchène”, dated to [1366], adding in a later passage that he reigned for 22 years under Timur[281].  child: 

(1)       MAHMUD SULTAN .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “son fils Mahmoud-Sultan” was proclaimed Khan of the throne of Chagatai after the death of “Souyour-gatmisch-Khan[282]

Ogodai & his wife (i) had one child: 

6.         QADAAN .  Howorth names “Kadan Ogul and Melik” as two sons of Ogodai “by concubines[283].  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237[284].  He left descendants. 

Ogodai & his --- wife/concubine had one child: 

7.         MALIK .  Howorth names “Kadan Ogul and Melik” as two sons of Ogodai “by concubines[285].  He left descendants, Princes of Yang-chai. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DESCENDANTS of TOLUI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

 

A.      SONS of TOLUI

 

 

TOLUI, son of JENGHIZ Khan & his first wife Börke Fujin ([1190]-[Sep/Oct] 1232).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Touli” as the fourth son of “Tchinguiz Khan[286].  He captured Merv and Nishapur, with his brother-in-law Toghutshar, during the campaign in the Hindu Kush[287].  His personal patrimony after the death of his father in 1227 was the Mongol heartland around the Onon river[288]

m (a) SORGHAQTANI Beki, daughter of JAGAMBU of Kerait (-Feb 1252).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that, after the death of “Kouyouk Khan” (son of Ogodai, see Chapter 4), all the descendants of Jinghiz Khan agreed that the successor should be chosen from among “les fils de Touli Khan, dont la veuve Sourqouqti-Bigui était aimée du peuple[289].  The senior wife of Jochi was “Bekutemish the daughter of Yakembo, brother of the Wang Khan of the Keraits...one of three...sisters, the other two being Siurkukteni the wife of Tului, and Abika the wife of Jingis whom he afterwards married...to a Urut prince who was acting as his bodyguard[290].  She was a Nestorian Christian.  She refused the offer of Ogedei to marry his son Guyuk after the death of her husband[291]

m (b) SARUQ Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (c) as her first husband, LINGKUN Khatun, daughter of GUSHLAG Khan.  She married secondly Malik Timur

m (d) NAYAN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (e) as her first husband, DOQUZ Khatun, daughter of ABAQU (son of Ong Khan) (-27 Jun 1265).  She married secondly her stepson Hulagu Ilkhan of Persia

Tolui & his wife (a) had four children: 

1.         MONGKA (10 Jan 1209-Hu-chou 11 Aug 1259).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mangou-Qaan, Holagou-Khan, Qoubilai-Qaan et Mouga-Oghoul” as the sons of “Touli Khan” by “Sourqouqti-Bigui[292].  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237, leading the troops which conquered the Alans and the north Caucasian tribes[293].  After the confusion which followed the death of Guyuk Khan in 1248, Mongka was elected Great Khan at a quriltai at Ala Qanaq in 1250, confirmed at Kodee Abali 1 Jul 1251, with the support especially of Batu Khan.  His succession was challenged by his cousins, the three sons of Guyuk, but he prevailed over them and was installed as Great Khan in 1252 at Karakoram[294].  During his reign the conquest of Persia was completed and the Caliphate of Baghdad captured.  He died while campaigning with his brother Kubilai in China[295]m (a) QUTUQTAI Khatun, daughter of ULUDAI (son of BUTU GURAGAN of the Ikiras].  She was a Nestorian Christian.  m (b) OGHUL QOYMISH of the Oyirat, daughter of ---.  Concubine (c) BAYAUJIN of the Bayaut, daughter of ---.  Concubine (d) KUI YABA of the Eljigin, daughter of ---.  Khan Mongka & his wife (a) had two children: 

a)         BALTU

b)         BAYALUN m MARIK, son of CHAUQURCHIN [son of Butu Guragan]. 

Khan Mongka & his wife (b) had three children: 

c)         URUNGTASH .  Three children: 

i)          SARBAN .  He died without issue. 

ii)         KONCHAK .  He died without issue. 

iii)        MONGKA TIMUR

d)         SHIRIN m as his [first] wife, CHOCHIMTAI, son of TAICHU GURAGAN of the Olqunuut. 

e)         BICHQA m as his [second] wife, CHOCHIMTAI, son of TAICHU GURAGAN of the Olqunuut. 

Khan Mongka & his concubine (c) had one child: 

f)          SHIRAGI .  Prince of Ho-Ping 1265.  He left descendants, Princes of Ping and Princes of Ki-yang. 

Khan Mongka & his concubine (d) had one child: 

g)         ASUTAIm TAIKI, daughter of ---.  He left descendants, Princes of Wei-an. 

2.         QUBILAI [Kubilai] (23 Sep 1215-Tatu 18 Feb 1294).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mangou-Qaan, Holagou-Khan, Qoubilai-Qaan et Mouga-Oghoul” as the sons of “Touli Khan” by “Sourqouqti-Bigui”, in a later passage stating that Qubilai was his father’s second son[296].  After his brother's election as Great Khan in 1251, Kubilai set about the conquest of China and converted to Buddhism[297].  After the death of his brother Mongka, he called a quriltai which elected him as Great Khan, supported by his generals in China[298].  He struggled for power with Arik-Buka on the death of Mongke, the dispute lasting five years.  He founded the Yan dynasty in China.  m (a) TEGULUN Khatun, daughter of --- (-before 1260).  m (b) QORUQCHIN Khatun of the Markit, daughter of QUTUQU.  m (c) CHABUI Khatun (chief wife), daughter of ALCHI Noyan of the Qunqirat (-[Mar/Apr] 1277).  m (d) DORBAJIN Khatun of the Dorban tribe, daughter of ---.  m (e) HUSHIJIN, daughter of BOROQUL NOYAN of the Hushin.  m (f) BAYUJIN Khatun, daughter of BORAQCHIN Khatun of the Bayaut tribe.  m (g) NAMBUI Khatun, niece of CHABUI Khatun, daughter of NACHIN GURAGAN.  Qubilai & his wife (b) had one child: 

a)         QORIDAI .  He died without issue. 

Qubilai & his wife (c) had four children: 

b)         DORJI ([1234]-).  Howorth names “Dordji, Chingkin, Manghala and Numukan” as the sons of Qubilai by “his chief wife”, adding that Dorji “seems to have died young, for we find Chingkin from an early part of Khubilai’s reign treated as the heir apparent[299].  He died without issue. 

c)         JINGIM [Chin-chin] (1243-1285).  Howorth names “Dordji, Chingkin, Manghala and Numukan” as the sons of Qubilai by “his chief wife[300].  Prince of Yen.  He was appointed heir apparent in Apr 1273.  m KOKACHIN Khatun, daughter of BAIRAM Egechi (-1300).  Howorth names “a princess of the Kunkurat tribe...Kokochin” as the wife of “Chingkin” and mother of “three sons...Kamala, Dharmabala and Uldsheitu...the eldest squinted, and the second was of a ricketty constitution” and that the third was chosen as his father’s successor[301].  He left descendants, Chinese Emperors of the Yan dynasty, Princes of Chin, Princes of Liang, Princes of Siang-ning. 

d)         MANGQALA (-Dec 1278).  Howorth names “Dordji, Chingkin, Manghala and Numukan” as the sons of Qubilai by “his chief wife[302].  Prince of An-hsi Nov 1272.  Prince of Chin 1273.  m PUTRI, granddaughter of ELCHI NOYAN, daughter of ---.  He left descendants, Princes of Chin, Princes of An-hsi. 

e)         NOMOGHAN (-[1292/1301]).  Howorth names “Dordji, Chingkin, Manghala and Numukan” as the sons of Qubilai by “his chief wife[303].  Prince of Pei-ping.  Two children: 

i)          daughter . 

ii)         daughter . 

Qubilai & his wife (d) had two children: 

f)          HUGACHI .  Prince of Yun-an.  He left descendants, Princes of Yun-an. 

g)         OQRUQCHI .  Prince of Hsi-ping 1269.  Ruler of Tibet.  He left descendants. 

Qubilai & his wife (e) had three children: 

h)         AYACHI .  He left descendants. 

i)          KOKOCHU .  Prince of Ning.  He left descendants. 

j)          QUTKUQ TIMUR .  He left descendants. 

Qubilai & his wife (f) had three children: 

k)         TOGHAN .  Prince of Chen-nan.  He left descendants. 

l)          TAMACHI

m)       BEKCHIN Khatun

Qubilai & his --- wives/concubines had --- children: 

n)         QUDULUQ KALMISH [Cheguk] (-1297).  m SIM Prince of Korea, son of WONJONG King of Korea (-30 Jul 1308).  He succeeded in 1274 as CHUNGYOL King of Korea, deposed 1298, restored 1298. 

o)         OLJEI m as his [first] wife, OLOCHIN of the Onggirat, son of NACHIN Prince of Lu (-1277). 

p)         UNEGEJIN [Nanggijan] . m firstly as his [second] wife, OLOCHIN of the Onggirat, son of NACHIN Prince of Lu (-1277).  m secondly her first husband's brother, as his first wife, TIMUR of the Onggirat Prince of Chi-ning, son of NACHIN Prince of Lu (-1295).  He married secondly his first wife's niece Nanko Bura. 

q)         MIAO-YEN .  A nun.  

3.         HULAGU ([1217]-Jaghatu 19 Feb 1265).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mangou-Qaan, Holagou-Khan, Qoubilai-Qaan et Mouga-Oghoul” as the sons of “Touli Khan” by “Sourqouqti-Bigui[304].  He supervised the extension of the Mongol Empire into the Near East the campaign into Persia starting in 1253.  His forces annihilated the Assassins in Persia in 1257, captured Baghdad in 1258 and entered Syria in 1259[305].  His brother Kubilai gave him the hereditary government of the Mongol possessions in south-western Asia and the title HULAGU Il-Khan[306].  

-        see below, Chapter 5.B.  ILKHANS of PERSIA

4.         ARIQ-BUQA .  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mangou-Qaan, Holagou-Khan, Qoubilai-Qaan et Mouga-Oghoul” as the sons of “Touli Khan” by “Sourqouqti-Bigui”, in a later passage calling the fourth son “Ariq-Bogha[307].  He remained in Mongolia after the election of his brother as Great Khan in 1251[308].  After the death of his brother Mongka, he called a quriltai which elected him as Great Khan, supported by many of his imperial relatives in Mongolia.  He was finally vanquished by his brother Kubilai end 1261[309]m (a) his first cousin, ELCHIQMASH Khatun of the Oyirat, daughter of TORALCHI Guragan & Chahchayigan.  She married secondly her stepson, Nairaqu Buqam (b) QUTIQTA Khatun of the Naiman, daughter of ---.  m (c) QUTLU Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  concubine (d) IRAGHUI of the Barlas, daughter of ---.  concubine (e) ESHITAI of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  Ariq Boka & wife (b) had five children: 

a)         YOBUQUR .  Prince of Ting.  m (a) YESUDAR, daughter of ---.  m (b) CHALUN Khatun of the Qaranut, daughter of ---.  m (c) IRINJIMMA Khatun of the Ushin, daughter of ---.  m (d) OGHUL Tegin, daughter of GUCHULUK Khan of the Naiman.  He left descendants. 

b)         MALIK TIMUR (-executed 1302)m (a) his cousin, AMAGAN Khatun, daughter of BARS BUQA of the Oyirat.  m (b) his niece, NEGUDAR, daughter of NAYANQA GURAGAN & his wife Chaluqan Aqa.  m (c) GILTA Khatun, daughter of ---.  m (d) TORA, daughter of the Shiragi of the Dorban tribe.  m (e) as her second husband, LINGQUN Khatun, widow of TOLUI, daughter of GUSHLAG Khan.  concubine (f) TUQLAQ Oljai, daughter of BAIGHARA of Almalyk.  Malik Timur & his wife (a) had one child: 

i)          MINGQAN .  One child: 

(a)       SOSE .  One child: 

(1)       ARPA KAUN (-executed Ujan 15 May 1336).  He succeeded in 1335 as ARPA KAUN Il-Khan

ii)         AJIQI

iii)        YESUN TOA

iv)       BARITAI

Malik Timur & his wife (d) had four children: 

v)        OYIRATAI

vi)       MAHMUD

vii)      AMAGAN m TUQ TIMUR, grandson of BARS BUQA, son of ---. 

viii)     EL QUTLUQ m ---, son of KOBAK of the Suldus. 

Malik Timur & his wife (e) had one child: 

ix)       EL-TIMURm BARS BUQA Guragan . 

Malik Timur & his wife --- had one child: 

x)        daughter m QADAAN, son of JAUTU of the Suldus. 

c)         NAIRAQU BUQA m (a) his stepmother, ELCHIQMISH Khatun of the Oyirat, widow of ARIQ BUQA, daughter of TORALCHI Guragan & his wife Chahchayigan.  m (b) ASHIGHTAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (c) OCHIN EGACHI of the Olqunuut tribe, daughter of ---.  Nairaqu Buqa & wife (a) had one child: 

i)          ASHIQTAI

Nairaqu Buqa & his wife (b) had [six] children: 

ii)         QURBAQA

iii)        BACHIN

iv)       SAMSKAR

(a)       [NOQAI .  Prince of Chen-ning.] 

v)        [BAYAN ABUGANsame person as…?  BAYAN TIMUR (see below).] 

vi)       BAYAN TIMUR

vii)      [ARA TIMURsame person as…? OLJAI TIMUR (see below).  

Nairaqu Buqa & his wife (c) had one child: 

viii)     OLJAI TIMUR

Nairaqu Buqa & his wife --- had one child: 

ix)       BOLOD (-after 1329).  Prince of Chi.  One child: 

(a)       TAMUR TOQTA

d)         CHALUQAN AQA m NAYANQA GURAGAN of the Bayaut .  Two children: 

i)          NEGUDAR m her uncle, MALIK TIMUR, son of ARIQ BUQA & his wife Qutiqta Khatun of the Naiman (-executed 1302). 

ii)         QAMTAI

e)         NOMOGHAN m CHUPAN GURAGAN of the Oyirat, daughter of ---. 

Ariq Boka & his concubine (e) had one child:

f)          TAMMACHI .  He left descendants.  m ER TEGIN, daughter of SORQADU Baurchi. 

Tolui & his wife (b) had two children: 

5.         JORIKA m BULAGHI .  They died without issue. 

6.         EL TIMUR m her first cousin, BARS BUQA GURAGAN of the Oyirat, son of TORALCHI Guragan & his wife Chahchayigan. 

Tolui & his wife (c) had one child: 

7.         QUTUQTU m (a) BUTA Egachi, daughter of ---.  m (b) QUNDUZ Egachi [Qulun Khatun] of the Bayaut.  Qutuqtu & wife (a) had two children: 

a)         TUKAL BUQA .  He died without issue. 

b)         KALMISH AQA m SALJIUDAL Guragan of the Qunqirat, son of BULAGHAN Noyan.  Two children: 

i)          YAYLAQ m his cousin, QIYAN, daughter of NOGAI Khan & his wife Yatlaq. 

ii)         OLJAITU Khatun m MONGKA TIMUR Khan, son of OQOQAN. 

Qutuqtu & his wife (b) had one child: 

c)         SHIRIN Agha m TUQCHI GURAGAN of the Ushin. 

Tolui & his [wives] --- had one child: 

8.         BOCHOK .  He left descendants. 

9.         MOGA .  He left descendants. 

10.      SOGATAI .  He left descendants. 

11.      SUBUGATAI .  He left descendants. 

12.      YESU BUQA m OJIN of the Onggirat, son of ALJIN (-[1257]). 

 

 

 

B.      IL-KHAN DYNASTY of PERSIA

 

 

HULAGU, son of TOLUI Khan & his wife Sorghaqtani ([1217]-Jaghatu 19 Feb 1265).  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur names “Mangou-Qaan, Holagou-Khan, Qoubilai-Qaan et Mouga-Oghoul” as the sons of “Touli Khan” by “Sourqouqti-Bigui[310].  He supervised the extension of the Mongol Empire into the Near East, the campaign into Persia starting in 1253.  His forces annihilated the Assassins in Persia in 1257, captured Baghdad 10 Feb 1258 and entered Syria in 1259[311].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Mangou-Qaan” appointed “son propre frère cadet Holagou-Khan” as governor of Iran after the death of “Arghoun-Agha[312].  His brother Kubilai gave him the hereditary government of the Mongol possessions in south-western Asia and the title HULAGU Il-Khan[313].  Vardan's History records that "Hulgegu the brave took Baghdad" in [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259] and "killed the caliph Mustasr with his own hand"[314].  Vardan's History records that "at the beginning of the year…the great [Hulegu]" died in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266][315]

m (a) his cousin, GUYUK Khatun of the Oyirat tribe, daughter of TORALCHI GURAGAN & his wife Chachayigan. 

m (b) QUTUI Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---. 

m (c) YESUNJIN Khatun of the Suldus tribe, daughter of --- (-Jan 1272). 

m (d) his stepmother, DOQUZ, widow of TOLUI Khan, daughter of ABAQU (son of Ong Khan) (-27 Jun 1265).  Vardan's History names "Hulegu's senior wife, Toghuz xatun…a Christian of the Syrian persuasion who are the Nestorians"[316].  Vardan's History records that "at the beginning of the year…the great [Hulegu]" died in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266] and "only three months later…queen Doquz khatun" died[317]

m (e) as her first husband, TUQTANI Khatun, granddaughter of ABAQU, daughter of --- (-21 Feb 1292).  She married secondly her stepson, Abaqa, and thirdly (12 Jul 1282) her stepson, Qonturkai

m (f) as her first husband, OLJAI Khatun, daughter of TORALCHI GURAGAN & his wife ---.  She married secondly her stepson, Abaqa Il-Khan

concubine (g) NOGACHIN EGACHI of Cathay, daughter of ---. 

concubine (h) BORAQCHIN, daughter of ---. 

concubine (i) ARIGHAN EGACHI, daughter of TANGGIZ GURAGAN (-8 Feb 1265). 

concubine (j) AJUJA EGACHI of Cathay, daughter of ---. 

concubine (k) YESHICHIN of the Kurluut, daughter of ---. 

concubine (l) EL EGACHI of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---. 

concubine (m) IRQAN EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (n) MANGLIGACH EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

Hulagu & his wife (a) had two children: 

1.         JUMGHUR (1234-[1264/65]).  He supported Ariq Boka in the civil war.  m (a) as her first husband, TOLUN Khatun, daughter of BUQA TIMUR.  She married secondly her brother-in-law, Takshinm (b) as her first husband, CHAURCHI Khatun, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Jushkab.  Jumghur & his concubines --- had children: 

a)         JUSHKAB (-executed 10 Jun 1289)m as her second husband, his stepmother, CHAURCHI Khatun, widow of JUMGHUR, daughter of ---. 

b)         KINGSHU m as her first husband, EL-QUTLUGH, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Ahmad Tegudar Il-Khan.  Two children: 

i)          SHIRAMUN

ii)         TOGHACHAQ (-executed 19 Jan 1291).  He was executed for sorcery under Abaqa Il-Khan. 

Jumghur & his wife (a) had one child: 

c)         ORGHUTAQ m SHADAI GURAGAN, son of SUUNCHAQ.  Two children: 

i)          HABASH

ii)         GUNJISHKAB m her cousin, GHAZAN Il-Khan, son of ARGHUN Il-Khan & his concubine Qutluq Egachi ([1272]-Pushkil Darrall 11 May 1305). 

Jumghur & his wife/wives --- had two children: 

d)         MUKERMISH .  One child: 

i)          MINGAN

e)         INJITAI m firstly her uncle, MANGGU TIMUR, son of HULAGU Il-Khan & his wife Oljai Khatun (23 Oct 1256-Jazirat ibn Umar, near Mosul 26 Apr 1282).  m secondly her stepson and first cousin, ANBARCHI, son of MANGGU TIMUR. 

2.         BULUQAN AGHA m JOMA GURAGAN, son of JOCHI, a Tatar & his wife Chechagan [daughter of Otchi Noyan].  

Hulagu & his wife (c) had one child: 

3.         ABAQA (Mongolia 1234-Hamadan 1 Apr 1282).  Governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran.  He succeeded his father in 1265 as ABAQA Il-Khan, through the influence of his mother[318], and was enthroned at Tuzlu Gol 19 Jun 1265 and again at Jaghatu 18 Nov 1270 on receipt of confirmation from the Great Khan. 

-        see below

Hulagu & his concubine (g) had two children: 

4.         YOSHMUT (-18 Jul 1271).  Governor of Arran and Azerbaijan.  Three children: 

a)         SOGAI (-executed Markoy 1296).  One child: 

i)          YUSUF Shah .  One child: 

(a)       ILYAS (-killed [1343]).  He was proclaimed as SULAYMAN Il-Khan in Jul 1339.  m as her third husband, his cousin, SATI BEG, widow firstly of CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe and secondly of ARPA KAUN Il-Khan, daughter of OLJAITU Il-Khan. 

b)         QARA NOGAI (-executed near Damghan 7 Oct 1289). 

c)         ZAMBU (-Jaghatu 31 Dec 1291). 

5.         TUBSHIN .  Governor of Khorasan.  m ASHLUN, daughter of KIHTAR BITIGCHI of the Dorban tribe.  Tubshin & his wife had one child: 

a)         SATI

Hulagu & his wife (b) had two children: 

6.         TAKSHIN (-11 Sep 1271)m as her second husband, his sister-in-law, TOLUN Khatun, widow of JUMGHUR, daughter of BUQA TEMUR.  Takshin & his wife had two children: 

a)         SAQI

b)         ESAN BUR m firstly as his second wife, SHADI GURAGAN, son of SUUNCHAQ.  widower of her cousin Orghtaq.  m secondly ARAB, son of SHADAI GURAGAN. 

7.         TEGUDAR ([1247]-murdered Abshor 10 Aug 1284)Hethum the Historian's History records that "Abagha's brother Teguder [was] in his youth…baptised Nicholaus but [converted]…and wanted to be styled Muhammad-Khan"[319].  As a child he was baptised into the Nestorian faith with the name NICHOLAS.  He was elected to succeed his brother as TEGUDAR Il-Khan 6 May 1282, announced his conversion to Islam, adopted the name AHMAD and the title Sultan[320], and was enthroned at Ala Tag 21 Jun 1282.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Ahmed Khan fils de Holagou Khan” succeeded on the death of “Abaqa Khan” but after reigning two years was killed by “Arghoun fils d’Abaqa Khan[321].  He was deposed and murdered in a palace conspiracy[322]m (a) TOKUZ Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---.  m (b) ARMINI Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---.  m (c) BAYTEGIN, daughter of HUSAYN AGHA.  m (d) TODAGU Khatun, daughter of MUSA GURAGAN.  m (e) as her second husband, EL-QUTLUQ, widow of KINGSHU, daughter of ---.  m (f) (6 Apr 1284) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, TODAI Khatun, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  She married thirdly thirdly her stepson, Arghun Il-Khanconcubine (g) QURQUCHIN, daughter of ---.  concubine (h) QONQURCHIN, daughter of ---.  Tegudar & his wife (a) had one child: 

a)         KUCHUK m ALINAQ, son of --- (-killed Qichan 4 Jul 1284). 

Tegudar & his wife (b) had five children: 

b)         QAPLANCHI

c)         ARSLANCHI

d)         KONCHAK (-executed 1319)m IRINJIN, son of SARUCHA Agha (-killed in battle 1319). 

e)         CHECHAK m BORACHU, son of DURABAI. 

f)          MAINU m JANDAN, son of GARAI BAURCHI. 

Tegudar & his wife (d) had one child: 

g)         SAILUN m QARACHA

Tegudar & his concubine (h) had two children: 

h)         NOQACHI

i)          KALTURMISH m firstly as his [---] wife, SHADAI, son of BUGHU.  m secondly her stepson, TOGHAN, son of SHADAI. 

Hulagu & his concubine (h) had one child: 

8.         TARAGAI m QARAQCHIN, daughter of ---.  Taragai & his wife had one child: 

a)         BAIDU ([1256]-executed Tabriz 4 Oct 1295).  He succeeded his cousin in 1295 as BAIDU Il-Khan, enthroned Hamadan/Ujan in Apr 1295.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Baidou fils de Taraghai fils de Holagou Khan” succeeded after killing “Guikhatou fils d’Abaqa Khan” but was killed eight months later by “Ghazan Khan fils d’Arghoun Khan fils d’Abaqa Khan[323].  He was overthrown by Ghazan.  m (a) ORDU QUTLUGH, daughter of QUTB-al-din MUHAMMAD of Kirman.  m (b) the niece of his wife (a), SHAH-i-ALAM, daughter of SOYURGHATMISH.  m (c) ---, daughter of DOLADAI IDACHI.  Baidu Il-Khan & his wife (b) had one child: 

i)          QIPCHAQ (-executed near Maragha 26 Sep 1295). 

Baidu Il-Khan & his concubines --- had two children: 

ii)         MUHAMMAD

iii)        ALI .  Two children: 

(a)       MUSA (-executed 10 Jul 1337).  He succeeded in opposition to Arpa Kaun, was proclaimed NASIR-ed-DIN Il-Khan [Apr/May] 1336, enthroned at Tabriz 6 May 1336.  He was deposed and executed. 

(b)       HAJJI KAUN

Taragai & his concubine(s) --- had two children: 

b)         MUHAMMAD

c)         ESHIL m firstly TUQ TIMUR, son of ABD al-lah Aqa.  m secondly ---, son of ABD al-lah Aqa. 

Hulagu & his concubine (i) had one child: 

9.         AJAI (-1265).  One child: 

a)         ILDAR (-executed 1295).   

Hulagu & his concubine (j) had one child: 

10.      QONQURTAI (-executed Qarabagh 18 Jan 1284).  Governor of Rum.  m (12 Jul 1282) as her third husband, TUQTANI Khatun, widow firstly of HULAGU Il-Khan and secondly of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  Qonqurtai & his wife had children: 

a)         ESAN TIMUR KHARBANDA (-executed 1296).  One child: 

i)          PULAD

b)         ILDEI [Ildar] (-executed 1296).  One child: 

i)          AQ TIMUR

c)         CHARIG TIMUR (-young). 

d)         GARAI (-young). 

e)         TASH TIMUR (-young). 

f)          ASIGH TIMUR (-young). 

Hulagu & his concubine (k) had one child: 

11.      YESUDAR .  Governor of Khorasan.  Two children: 

a)         HADASH

b)         daughter m ESAN BUQA GURAGAN, son of NOGAI YARGHUCHI. 

Hulagu & his wife (f) had four children: 

12.      MANGGU TIMUR (23 Oct 1256-Jazirat ibn Umar, near Mosul 26 Apr 1282).  He led one of the Ilkhan armies which advanced into Syria in Sep 1281[324]m (a) his cousin, OLJAI Khatun, daughter of BUQA TIMUR.  m (b) ([1272]) ABISH TARKHAN, daughter of SAD Atabeg of Fars ([1260]-[1286/87]).  m (c) NOJIN Khatun, daughter of DORBAI NOYAN.  m (d) as her first husband, his niece, INJITAI, daughter of JUMGHUR & his wife Tolun Khatun.  She married secondly her stepson, Anbarchim (e) ALINAQ EGACHI, daughter of ---.  m (f) BIBI SHAH AKAJI, daughtger of RUKN-al-din Khwaja Juq of Kirman.  Manggu Timur & his wife (e) had three children: 

a)         ANBARCHI m as her second husband, his stepmother and cousin, INJITAI, widow of MANGGU TIMUR, daughter of JUMGHUR & his wife Tolun Khatun.  Anbarchi & his concubines --- had two children: 

i)          ESAN TIMUR .  One child: 

(a)       YUL QUTLUGH .  One child: 

(1)       PIR HUSAYN ([1326]-executed Shahr-Naw, Alataq [16 Jul] 1338).  He succeeded as MUHAMMAD Il-Khan, in opposition to Musa Il-Khan, proclaimed Il-Khan with the title MUZAFFAR-ed-DIN 20 Jul 1336, enthroned at Qaradarrah 25 Jul 1336.  He was deposed and executed. 

ii)         QONCHI (-executed ----).  Two children: 

(a)       TALAGSTU-MANGGU .  One child: 

(1)       MUHAMMAD

(b)       TASIMODI .  One child: 

(1)       SAGA .  One child: 

a.         TAS-FUSAIQA .  Two children: 

(i)         SULAYMAN

(ii)        YAANSHA

Anbarchi & his wife had one child: 

iii)        QUTUQTAI m ARAB, son of SAMAGHAR. 

b)         TAICHU (-executed Hashtrod/Dalan Naur 15 Apr 1298).  One child: 

i)          PULAD

c)         GARAI .  One child: 

i)          son (-young). 

Manggu Timur & his wife (b) had one child: 

d)         KURDUCHIN m firstly JALAL-al-din SUYURGHATMISH Sultan of Kirman (-executed Kirman 21 Aug 1294).  m secondly SATALMISH, son of Amir BURALGHI.  [m thirdly TOGHAI .] 

Manggu Timur & his concubine(s) --- had three children: 

e)         QASHAN

f)          ARGHUN BEKI .  He left descendants. 

g)         BUYAN AGHA m SUTAI AKHTACHI (-1332).  Two children: 

i)          HAJJI TAGHAI (-1343). 

ii)         BARANBAI .  One child: 

(a)       IBRAHIM SHAH m ---, daughter of ALI PADSHAH Governor of Diyarbekir. 

Manggu Timur & his wife (d) had one child: 

h)         ARA QUTLUGH m firstly TARAQAI GURAGAN, son of JAQIR GURAGAN [son of Buqa Timur].  m secondly DOLADAI IDECHI

13.      JAMAI m JOMA GURAGAN, son of JOCHI a Tatar & his wife Chechagan (daughter of Otchi Noyan). 

14.      MANGGUGAN m firstly her cousin, JAQIR GURAGAN, son of BUQA TIMUR.  m secondly her stepson, as his first wife, TARAQAI, son of JAQIR GURAGAN.  He married secondly his first wife's cousin, Ara Qutluq, daughter of Manggu Timur. 

15.      BABA m LAGZI GURAGAN, son of ARGHUN AQA of the Oyirat tribe. 

Hulagu & his concubine (l) had two children: 

16.      HULACHU (-executed Damghan 7 Oct 1289).  Joint-governor of Rum 1285.  Four children: 

a)         SULAYMAN (-executed 1289). 

b)         KOCHIK

c)         KHWAJA

d)         QUTLUGH BUGA

17.      SHIBAUCHI (-1281). 

Hulagu & his concubines --- had two children: 

18.      TAGHAI TIMUR .  Two children: 

a)         QURUMSHI

b)         HAJJI

19.      TODOGACH m firstly TANGGIZ GURAGANm secondly her stepson, SULAMISH Governor of Rum, son of TANGIZ GURAGAN.  m thirdly her stepson, CHICHAK, son of TANGIZ GURAGAN.  Todogach & her second husband had two children: 

a)         OLJATAI Khatun m firstly (1288) ARGHUN Il-Khan, son of ABAQA Il-Khan & his concubine Qaitmish Egachi of the Onguut tribe (Baylaqan 1261-Baghcha 3 Mar 1291).  m secondly her stepson, OLJAITU Il-Khan, son of ARGHUN Il-Khan & his wife Uruk Khatun (24 Mar 1282-Sultaniya 17 Dec 1316). 

b)         HAJJI Khatun m OLJAITU Il-Khan, son of ARGHUN Il-Khan & his wife Uruk Khatun (24 Mar 1282-Sultaniya 17 Dec 1316). 

Todogach & her third husband had two children: 

c)         ALI PADSHAH (-killed in battle Qara Darra 24 Jul 1336).  Governor of Diyarbekir.  One child: 

i)          daughter m her cousin, IBRAHIM Shah, son of BARANBAI. 

d)         MUHAMMAD (-executed Jul 1337)m as her second husband, QUTLUGH MALIK, widow of QURUMSHI, daughter of GAIKHATU Il-Khan.  Three children: 

i)          ISA

ii)         YADGAR

iii)        daughter m her cousin, HASAN JALAYIR .  He founded a new dynasty. 

Hulagu & his concubine (m) had one child: 

20.      TARAQAI m her cousin, TAGHAI TIMUR [Musa Guragan], son of SHINGGU GURAGAN & his wife Tumulan [daughter of Jenghis Khan].  

Hulagu & his concubine (n) had one child: 

21.      QUTLUQQAN m firstly YESU BUQA GURAGAN, son of URUGHTU NOYAN of the Dorban tribe.  m secondly her stepson, TUKEL, son of YESU BUQA Guragan. 

 

 

ABAQA, son of HULAGU Il-Khan & his wife Yesunjin Khatun (Mongolia 1234-Hamadan 1 Apr 1282).  Governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran.  He succeeded his father in 1265 as ABAQA Il-Khan, and was enthroned at Tuzlu Gol 19 Jun 1265 and again at Jaghatu 18 Nov 1270 on receipt of confirmation from the Great Khan.  Vardan's History records that "Abaqa, Hulegu's senior son" was enthroned as Il-Khan after the death of his father by "their relation Teguder, also called Il-Khan" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266][325].  Baptised 1265.  Khan Berke of the Golden Horde invaded Persia in 1266[326].  He defeated the invading forces of the descendants of his great-uncle Chagatai in 1270 at the battle of Herat[327].  He and his brother led two Ilkhan armies into Syria in Sep 1281 but were defeated by the Mameluks at Homs 30 Oct 1281, after which the Euphrates river was established as the frontier between the two Empires[328]

m (a) DORJI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (b) NUQDAN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (c) as her first husband, ELTUZMISH Khatun, daughter of QUTLUGH TIMUR GURAGAN.  She married secondly her stepson, Ghaikkatku Il-Khan

m (d) (1265) as her second husband, his stepmother, OLJAI Khatun, widow of HULAGU Il-Khan, daughter of TORALCHI GURAGAN. 

m (e) as her second husband, TUQTANI Khatun, widow of HULAGU Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  She married thirdly (12 Jul 1282) Qonturkai

m (f) (1265) as her first husband, MARIA Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his mistress --- Diplobatatzaina (-after 1307).  Pachymeres records that "filiam…notham…Mariam…ex Diplobatatzina" was sent to marry "principem…Tocharorum Chalau", after whose death before her arrival she married "filio et successori Chalau in principatu…Apaga"[329].  Pachymeres records that "imperator Palaeologus Michael" sent "filiam suam notham Mariam" to marry "principi Tocharorum Chalau", and that after his death she married "frater [error for filius] ipsius idemque in principatu successor Apagas"[330].  Her father arranged her marriage to Hulagu Il-Khan, but by the time she arrived at his court he had died and she was married to his son instead.  Vardan's History records that "Abaqa was brought a wife from the Byzantines named Despina, daughter of the king called Vatatzes" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266] and that he was baptised at her request[331].  She was known as Despina Khatun at the Il-Khan court[332].  She founded the convent of Mugulion after 1281.  She [married secondly ([1307/08]) Charbanden, Turkish prince].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II negotiated an alliance with "Charmpantane" and proposed his marriage to "sororem propriam Mariam…dominæ Mugullorum", granting her "comitatu deduci Nicæam" which had been invaded by the Persians, dated to [1307/08] from the context[333].  It is not clear from the text whether this marriage ever took place, especially as it is unclear why Charbanden would have considered Maria a good marriage prospect as she must have been in her 50s or early 60s at the time, assuming that the date of her first marriage is correct. 

m (g) MARTAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (h) as her first husband, BULUGHAN Khatun, daughter of --- (-20 Apr 1286).  She married secondly her stepson, Arghun Il-Khan

m (i) ([1271/72]) as her first husband, PADISHAH Khatun, daughter of Sultan QUTB-al-din MUHAMMAD Khan of Kirman (-executed Yaylak [Jun/Jul] 1295).  She married secondly her stepson, Ghaikkatku Il-Khan

m (j) as her first husband, TODAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Ahmad Tegudar Il-Khan, and thirdly her stepson, Arghun Il-Khan

concubine (k) QAITMISH EGACHI of the Onguut tribe, daughter of ---. 

concubine (l) KAWKABI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (m) BULUGHANCHIN EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (n) BULUJIN EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (o) [as her first husband,] SHIRIN EGACHI, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Amir Pulad

concubine (p) ALTAI EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

Abaqa & his concubine (k) had one child: 

1.         ARGHUN (Baylaqan 1261-Baghcha 3 Mar 1291).  Governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran.  He rebelled at Khorassan against his uncle Tekuder [Ahmed], who was murdered in a palace conspiracy, and succeeded his uncle in 1284 as ARGHUN Il-Khan[334], enthroned 11 Aug 1284 and again 17 Apr 1286 on receipt of confirmation from the Great Khan.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Ahmed Khan fils de Holagou Khan” succeeded on the death of “Abaqa Khan” but after reigning two years was killed by “Arghoun fils d’Abaqa Khan[335].  His ambassadors visited Constantinople, Rome and Paris in 1287, and between then and his death attempted several times to make an alliance with the western powers to make a joint attack on the Mameluks[336].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Arghoun fils d’Abaqa Khan” died after reigning seven years[337]m (a) his cousin, QUTLUGH Khatun, daughter of TANGGIZ GURAGAN & his wife --- [daughter of Guyuk Great Khan].  m (b) URUK Khatun, daughter of SARUCHA.  m (c) SALJUQ Khatun, daughter of RUK ed-Din Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  m (d) as her second husband, his stepmother, BULUGHAN Khatun, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of --- (-20 Apr 1286).  m (e) (7 Jan 1287) as her third husband, his stepmother, TODAI Khatun, widow firstly of ABAQA Il-Khan and secondly of AHMAD TEGUDAR Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  m (f) (1288) as her first husband, his cousin, OLJATAI Khatun, daughter of SULAMISH & his wife Todogach.  She married secondly Oljaitu Il-Khanm (g) (22 Mar 1290) as her first husband, BULUGHAN Khatun, daughter of OTMAN [son of Abatai Noyan] (-5 Jan 1310).  She married secondly her husband's brother Ghaikkaktu Il-Khan, and thirdly her stepson Ghazan Il-Khanconcubine (h) QUTLUQ EGACHI, daughter of KIHTAR BITIGCHI of the Dorban tribe.  concubine (i) QUTAI, daughter of QUTLUQ BUQA.  concubine (j) [as her second husband,] ARGANA EGACHI, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  Arghun Il-Khan & his concubine (h) had one child: 

a)         GHAZAN ([1272]-Pushkil Darrall 11 May 1305).  Governor of Khurasan and Mazandaran 1285.  He succeeded his uncle in 1295 as GHAZAN Il-Khan, enthroned 9 Nov 1295.  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “Ghazan Khan fils d’Arghoun Khan fils d’Abaqa Khan” killed “Baidou fils de Taraghai fils de Holagou Khan” and succeeded as Khan[338].  He converted to Islam 19 Jun 1295 and adopted the name MAHMUD.  He adopted Islam as the state religion of the Ilkhanate in 1295[339].  In 1303, Emperor Andronikos II requested his help to fight the Turks and arranged his marriage with his own reputed illegitimate daughter[340]m (a) as her first husband, his cousin, GUNJISHKAB Khatun, daughter of SHADAI & his wife Orqudaq.  She married secondly her brother-in-law Oljaitu Il-Khanm (b) his cousin, YEDI QURTQA, daughter of MANGGU TIMUR GURAGAN & his wife Tughlughshah [descendant of Chaghatai].  m (c) BULUGHAN Khatun, daughter of TASU & his wife Mangli Tegin [daughter of Arghun Aqa].  m (d) (2 Jul 1296) ESHIL Khatun, daughter of TUGH Timur.  m (e) KOKACHIN Khatun, daughter of --- (-Jun 1296).  m (f) (Oct 1295) BULUGHAN Khatun, widow firstly of ARGHUN Il-Khan and secondly of GHAIKKAKTU Il-Khan, daughter of OTMAN [son of Abatai Noyan] (-5 Jan 1310).  m (g) as her second husband, his uncle's widow, DONDI Khatun, widow of GHAIKKAKTU Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  m (h) (17 Jul 1289) KARAMU Khatun, daughter of QUTLUGH Timur (-21 Jan 1304).  Ghazan Il-Khan & his wife (c) had one child: 

i)          child (b and d 1291). 

Ghazan Il-Khan & his wife (f) had two children: 

ii)         OLJAI QUTLUGH (14 Mar 1297-)m her cousin, BISTAM, son of OLJAITU Il-Khan. 

iii)        ALCHU (Dalan Naur 22 Feb 1298-Ujan 20 Aug 1300). 

Arghun Il-Khan & his wife (a) had one child: 

b)         KHITAI (-24 Jan 1298). 

Arghun Il-Khan & his wife (b) had five children: 

c)         YESU TIMUR (-1290). 

d)         OLJAITU (24 Mar 1282-Sultaniya 17 Dec 1316).  He succeeded his brother as OLJAITU Il-Khan in 1295, enthroned at Aljan 19 Jul 1295 with the title Ghiyas-al-din MUHAMMAD Khudabanda Oljaitu.  m (a) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, his cousin, KUNJUSHKAB Khatun, widow of GHAZAN Il-Khan, daughter of SHADAI & his wife Orqudaq.  m (b) (20 Jun 1305) his cousin, QUTLUGHSHAH, daughter of IRINJIN.  m (c) (23 Jun 1305) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, BULUGHAN Khatun, widow of GHAZAN Il-Khan, daughter of TASU & his wife Mangli Tegin [daughter of Arghun Aqa].  m (d) TERJUGHAN, daughter of LAGZI GURAGAN.  m (e) as her third husband, ELTUZMISH, widow firstly of ABAQA Il-Khan and secondly of GAIKKATKU Il-Khan, daughter of QUTLUGH TIMUR GURAGAN.  m (f) his cousin, HAJJI Khatun, daughter of SULAMISH & his wife Todogach.  m (g) as her second husband, his cousin, OLJATAI Khatun, widow of ARGHUN Il-Khan, daughter of SULAMISH & his wife Todogach.  m (h) SIYURGATMISH, daughter of AMIR HUSAYN.  m (i) TUGHA Khatun, daughter of ---.  m (j) DUNYA Khatun, daughter of Al-MANSUR Najm-al-din Ghazi of Mardin.  concubine (k) QONGTAI, daughter of TIMUR.  Nine children: 

i)          BISTAM (-Tchamkhal ----).  He died aged 12.  m OLJAI QUTLUGH, daughter of GHAZAN Il-Khan & his wife Bulughan Khatun. 

ii)         BAYAZID .  He died aged 8. 

iii)        TAIFUR (-[young]). 

iv)       ABU SAID (Nurquy 2 Jun 1305-Qarabagh 30 Nov 1335).  Governor of Khurasan.  He succeeded his father as ABU SAID Il-Khan in Dec 1316, enthroned [5 Jul/16 Aug] 1317 with the title ALA-AL-DINm (a) ([1327]) as her second husband, BAGHDAD Khatun, former wife of HASAN JALAYIR, daughter of CHUPAN (-executed 16 Dec 1335).  m (b) ADILSHAH, daughter of TUKAL (-7 May 1332).  m (c) (1333) as her first husband, his cousin, DILSHAD Khatun, daughter of DIMISHQ KHWAJA & his wife Turshin.  She married secondly Hasan Jalayir.  Sultan Abu Said & his wife (c) had one child: 

(a)       daughter (18 May 1336-).   

v)        SULAYMANSHAH (-[young]). 

vi)       ADILSHAH (-[young]). 

vii)      ABUL-KHAYR (-[young]). 

viii)     DULANDI (-1314)m (30 Sep 1305) as his [first] wife, CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe (-executed Herat Nov 1327).  Regent for Sultan Abu Said.  One child: 

(a)       JALAU (-executed Herat Nov 1327). 

ix)       SATI BEG (-after 1345).  She succeeded her brother, proclaimed ruler as SATI BEG in [Jul/Aug] 1338.  She was deposed in favour of Sulayman.  m firstly (6 Sep 1319) as his [second] wife, CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe (-executed Herat Nov 1327).  m secondly (Tabriz [Feb/Mar] 1336) ARPA KAUN Il-Khan, son of SOSA.  m thirdly (1339) SULAYMAN Il-Khan, .  Sati-Beg & her first husband had one child: 

(a)       SURGAN (-executed Diyarbekir 1345).  Governor of Qarabagh 1336.  Governor of Iraq 1340. 

e)         OLJATAI m firstly QUNCHUQBALm secondly as his [---] wife, AQ BUQAm thirdly her stepson, AMIR HUSAYN JALAYIR, son of AQ BUQA. 

f)          OLJAI TIMUR m firstly TUKALm secondly (30 May 1296) QUTLUGHSHAH NOYAN (-1307). 

g)         QUTLUGH TIMUR (-Baghdad ----).  She died unmarried. 

Arghun Il-Khan & his wife (g) had one child: 

h)         DOLANJI (-young). 

Abaqa & his wife (b) had one child:

2.         GHAIKKATKU ([1271]-executed Pil-suvar, Tabriz 24 Mar 1295).  Joint-governor of Rum.  He succeeded his brother in 1291 as GHAIKKATKU Il-Khan, proclaimed at Akhlat 23 Jul 1291.  Hethum the Historian's History records that "Arghun…was succeeded by his brother…Rheghayid"[341].  Abul-Ghazi Bahadur records that “son frère cadet Guikhatou fils d’Abaqa Khan” was proclaimed Khan on the death of “Arghoun Khan” and reigned four years before he was killed by “Baidou fils de Taraghai fils de Holagou Khan[342]m (a) AYISHA Khatun, daughter of TOGHU.  m (b) as her first husband, DONDI Khatun, daughter of AQ BUQA.  She married secondly Ghazan Il-Khanm (c) as her second husband, his stepmother, ELTUZMISH Khatun, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of QUTLUGH TIMUR GURAGAN.  She married thirdly Oljaitu Il-Khanm (d) PADISHAH Khatun, daughter of QUTB-al-Din [later ruler of Kirman as SAFWAT-al-din] (-executed Yaylak [Jun/Jul] 1295).  m (e) URUK Khatun, daughter of SARICHA of the Kerait.  m (f) ([Jul/Aug] 1292) his sister-in-law, BULUGHAN Khatun, widow of ARGHUN Il-Khan, daughter of OTMAN [son of Abatai Noyan] (-5 Jan 1310).  concubine (g) [as her first husband,] NANI, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Alafrangconcubine (h) ESAN, daughter of BEGLAMISH.  Ghaikkatku Il-Khan & his wife (a) had three children: 

a)         ULA QUTLUGH m GHURBATAI

b)         EL QUTLUGH m (7 Aug 1301) QUTLUGHSHAH (-1307). 

c)         ARA QUTLUGH

Ghaikkatku Il-Khan & his wife (b) had three children:

d)         ALAFRANG (-executed 30 May 1304)m as her second husband, his stepmother, NANI, widow of GHAIKKATKU Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  Two children: 

i)          JAHAN TIMUR (-1340 or after).  He was proclaimed JAHAN TIMUR Il-Khan in opposition to Sati Beg in 1339.  He was deposed in 1340. 

ii)         daughter m as his --- wife, ELJIDAI QUSCHICHI (-executed 1295). 

e)         IRANSHAH

f)          QUTLUGH MALIK m firstly QURUMSHI, son of ALINAQ.  m secondly her cousin, MUHAMMAD, son of CHICHAK & his wife Todukach (-executed Jul 1337). 

Ghaikkatku Il-Khan & his concubine (g) had one child:

g)         CHING PULAD

Abaqa & his wife (j) had two children:

3.         YUL QUTLUGH m firstly as his --- wife, ELJITAI QUSHCHI (-executed 1295).  m secondly ELBASMISH

4.         TAGHAI m firstly AHMAD, brother of QUNCHUQBAL, son of ---.  m secondly DOLADI IDACHI

Abaqa & his wife (h) had one child:

5.         MALIKA m TOGHAN BUQA, son of NOGAI YARGHUCHI. 

Abaqa & his concubine (m) had one child:

6.         TOGHANCHUQ (-1291)m NAWROZ, son of ARGHUN AQA (-executed 13 Aug 1297). 

Abaqa & his concubine (n) had two children:

7.         EL QUTLUGH m GHURBATAI GURAGAN of the Hushin tribe. 

8.         OLJATAI (-before 1302).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Vakhtang married "sa sœur Oldjath" (referring to Khan Arghun) after being installed as king[343].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Khan married "sa sœur Oldjath, veuve du roi Wakhtang" to King Davit[344]m firstly (1289) VAKHTANG II King of Kaketi and Kartli, son of DAVIT VI "Narin/the Clever" King of Imerati & his second wife --- (-1292, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  m secondly (1292) as his first wife, DAVIT VIII King  of Kakheti and Kartli, son of DEMETRE II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli & his first wife --- Komnene of Trebizond (1278-1310, bur Mtzkheta). 

Abaqa & his wife (g) had one child:

9.         NUJIN

 

 

The precise relationship between the following two individuals and the Il-Khan family is not known: 

1.         --- Mongol princess, relative of GHAZAN Ilkhanm (1297) as his second wife, THOROS King of Armenia, son of LEO II King of Armenia & his wife Kyr Anna [Theophano] of Lampron (1271-murdered Partzerpert 23 Jul 1298, bur Trazerg). 

2.         --- Mongol princess, relative of GHAZAN Ilkhan.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Sempad" had visited the Mongols, in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] or before, and that the Khan had given him "une épouse de la famille de ce dernier"[345]m (1297) SEMPAD King of Armenia, son of LEO II King of Armenia & his wife Kyr Anna [Theophano] of Lampron (1277-[1310/11]). 

 

 

ARPA KAUN, son of SOSA (-executed Ujan 15 May 1336).  He succeeded his distant cousin and brother-in-law as Sultan 30 Nov 1335.  He was defeated in battle.  m (Tabriz [Feb/Mar] 1336) as her second husband, SATI BEG, widow of CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe, daughter of OLJAITU Il-Khan.  She married thirdly Sulayman Il-Khan

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    FAMILY of TIMUR

 

 

The earliest verified contemporary source which records details of the life of Timur is the account written by Ruy González de Clavijo, who visited Timur’s court as ambassador from the king of Castile in 1404 and met Timur and members of his family.  More details are provided by the History of the life of Timur, written by Ali of Yezd, which can probably be dated to the fourth decade of the 15th century.  The dating of the supposedly autobiographical Memoirs of Timur (whose narrative ends in the 1380s) is more problematic.  Some of its wording is similar to Ali of Yezd.  Presumably one document was based on the other, although it is impossible to assess which was the earlier as in some cases one book expands information concerning specific incidents, in other cases the other.  Other passages of the Memoirs differ widely from Ali of Yezd, in particular those which recount Timur’s supposed ancestry which is not mentioned by Ali.  Most of these details are undoubtedly legendary, but it is difficult to assess the point at which legend gives way to fact. 

 

The Memoirs of Timur record “the genealogy of our family, extending to Tumuneh Khan, whose genealogy is carried back in history to Japhet, the son of Noah” and name “Kerachar Nuyan...son-in-law of Jagtay Khan [Chagatai, son of Jenghiz Khan, see above Chapter 3]” as the first of the family who was converted to Islam[346].  A later passage in the Memoirs gives more details of the descent which are clearly legendary, and adds that “Tumenah Khan...seated on the throne of dominion in the region of Turkestan...had two sons by one birth one...Kajuly, the other Kubel Khan” and that “the dignity Khan should for ever remain in the descendants of Kubel Khan and that of (Sepah Salar) Commander in Chief and prime minister in the family of Kajuly[347].  The Memoirs stretch credibility by naming Jenghiz Khan as the grandson of “Kubel Khan”, but also state that Jenghiz’s son Chagatai appointed “Kerachar Nuyan, son of Ayzdumjyn Berlas, son of Kajuly Behadur...to be generalissimo and prime minister” and name his son “Anchel Nuyan[348].  The Memoirs record the conversion of “Kerachar Nuyan” to Islam, his succession by “his eldest son Amyr Ayltekuz as generalissimo”, and the subsequent succession of Timur’s “grandfather Amyr Burkil...as Sepah Salar” who “finding that there were dissentions among the tribes and clans...retired from his office, contented himself with the government of his own clan of Berlas” and was succeeded by Timur’s father[349].  Another source, written by a Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur, states that Timur was “au commencement de petite condicion et de petite renommée[350].  The various sources which record the ancestry of Timur are reviewed by John E. Woods[351].  Because of these various contradictions and uncertainties, the narrative concerning Timur’s family starts with his father.  Unless otherwise stated below, information on Timur’s descendants has been included up to 1405 as specified in the History of Ali of Yezd, which lists Timur’s progeny alive when Timur died. 

 

One of the most interesting aspects of this family is the descent of the later Mogul emperors in India from Sultan Mohammed, youngest son of Timur’s son Miran Shah.  The details of this descent fall outside the chronological scope of Medieval Lands

 

 

1.         TERAGAI (-[1360], bur Kesh).  Ahmed ibn Arabshah’s life of Timur (finished in 1435) names “Targai fil Abgai” as the father of Timur[352].  Chief of the tribe of Berlas round the town of Kesh, near Samarkand.  Hereditary Sepah Salar [general], resigned his office and retired to Kesh[353].  The Memoirs of Timur record that “my father Teragay” bore “the dignity of (Sepah Salar) Commander in Chief” but when his son was sixteen years old resigned the position[354].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “l’Emir Tragai” as the father of Timur[355].  The Memoirs of Timur record the death of “my father Teragay”, dated to 1360 from the context[356].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "the father" of Timur was buried at Kesh, adding that he “was of a lineage called Zagatay, which came from the land of Tartary when this country was conquered[357].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “l’Emir Tragai pere de Timur” had been buried at Kesh[358]m [TEKINA Khatun, daughter of ---] (-[1357]).  No primary source has yet been identified which names Timur’s mother.  Petis de la Croix, in the Preface to his translation of the History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd, names “Tekine Catun femme legitime de l’Emir Tragai” as the mother of Timur[359].  The name does not appear in his translation of the History.  The Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur states that Timur was “filz d’une mere de ville condicion[360].  The Memoirs of Timur record that his mother died “when I had attained my twenty-first year[361]m KUDAK Khatun, daughter of --- (-[1389/90], bur Kesh).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the death of “l’illustre Dame Coudac Catoun femme du pere de Timur” and her burial at Kesh, dated to [1389/90] from the context[362].  Children: 

a)         TIMUR (Kesh, near Samarkand, Turkestan [9 Apr] 1336-Otrar 17 Feb 1405, bur Samarkand).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth of Timur “l’an 736 de l’Hegyre” (Aug 1335/Aug 1336)[363].  He became TIMUR "the Lame" [Ruler] of the Tartars (‘Sultan Kamran Amir Kuth-ud-Din Timur Kurkhan Sahib Keraun’[364]), based at Samarkand.  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Timour Beg is the proper name of that lord, and not Tamerlane as we call him...he became lame on the left side"[365].  He built an Empire stretching from the borders of China to the Bay of Bengal and to the Mediterranean.  He conquered the lands of Ilkhanate in Persia between 1381 and 1386.  He captured Baghdad in 1392, and in 1395 Erzinjan and Sivas in eastern Anatolia.  In 1398, he conquered northern India, and in 1400 Aleppo and Damascus[366].  He defeated and captured Sultan Bayezit I at the battle of Ankara 25 Jul 1402.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur left Samarkand to invade China “le 23 de Jumazyuvel 807”, died at Otrar “17 de Schaban 807”, and was buried at Samarkand[367].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Timour Beg...expired in the city of Samarcand"[368]m ([1357]) ---, daughter of Amir JAKU Berlas.  The Memoirs of Timur record that, after the period of mourning for his mother, “my father betrothed me to the daughter of Amyr Jaku Berlas[369]m ([1357/58]) ALJAZ TURKHAN Aga, daughter of Amir MASHLAH (-1366).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “la princesse Turcan Aga...sœur de Hussein” as the wife of Timur[370].  The Memoirs of Timur record that, after the period of mourning for his mother, “my father deputed me to Amyr Kurgen...[who] adopted me as his son and gave me one of his grand-daughters in marriage[371].  A later passage in the Memoirs clarifies that “Amyr Hussyn, the grandson of Amyr Kurgen...his sister was one of my wives[372].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the death of “la princesse Olajai Turcan Aga” wife of Timur[373].  The Memoirs of Timur record the death in 1366 of “Aljay Turkan Agha[374]m ([1367]) as her second husband, MULK Khanun, widow of Emir HUSAIN Khan, daughter of KHAZAN Khan.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that, after the death of Emir Husain, “Timur s’appropria les princesses Serai Mulc Canum, fille de Cazan Sultan Can...”, dated to [1367] from the context[375].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth “14 du mois de Rabilaker 779” of “le prince Charok” to “la Princesse Mehrebane[376].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that after Timur killed "the emperor of Samarcand" he married “the wife of the late emperor named Caño which means great empress and she is still his chief wife”, adding in a later passage that her first husband was “named Ahincan, who also reigned over Persia and Damascus[377]m ([1374]) DILSHAD Aga, daughter of SHAMS ed-Din & his wife Bujan Aga (-1383).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of “l’épouse du Prince Chamseddin nommée Bouian Aga...sa fille Dilchadaga” and Timur, in 1374 from the context[378].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the death of “la...princesse Dilchadaga épouse de Timur” in 1383[379]m ([1377]) TUMAN Aga, daughter of Emir MUSA & his wife Arzu Mulk Aga ([1366]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth of “Touman Aga” to “Arzou Mulc Aga sœur de Bayazid Gelair et femme de l’Emir Moussa”, dated to [1366] from the context, adding that she later married Timur[380].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of Timur and “la princesse Touman Aga fille de l’Emir Moussa”, dated to 1377 from the context[381].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “l’imperatrice Touman Aga...ses enfans les Mirzas Ibrahim Sultan et Sad Vaccas...sa fille la princesse Beghisi Sultane...sa cousine Sadekin Aga” at “Oudgian”, dated to [1401] from the context[382]m CHULPAN MULC Aga, daughter of HAJIBEY of Geté.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Tchulpan Mulc Aga fille de Hadgibei de Geté” as favourite wife of Timur, dated to 1390 from the context[383]m ([1395]) ---, daughter of KEZER KOJA Aglen.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of Timur and “Prince Chamagehan fils de Kezer Coja Aglen...sa sœur”, dated to [1395] from the context[384]m seven other wives/concubines.  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "Quinchicano, which means little lady...a daughter of Tumanga, the king of a land called Andricoja" as the second wife of Timur[385].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "Dileoltagna, Cholpamalaga, Mundagasa, Vengarage, Ropa-arbaraga, and Yaugurage which means queen of the heart, and Timour Beg gave her that name last August" as the other wives of Timur[386].  Children: 

i)          MOHAMMED [JEHANGIR] ([1354/59]-Samarkand 1375, bur Kesh).  The Memoirs of Timur record that “in 760 [1359] a son was born to me...my first...Mohammed...I...added Jehangyre (Conqueror of the World)[387].  The date is inconsistent with the age of this son recorded in the Memoirs when he died.  It is not known which information is correct.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the death of “Gehanghir” at Samarkand in 1375, and his burial at Kesh[388].  The Memoirs of Timur record the death in 1374 of “my eldest son the Prince Muhammed Jehangyr...a young man of only twenty years” at Samarkand[389].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "the firstborn son of Timour Beg...Jehangir" was buried at Kesh[390]m ([1367]) RAKIE Khan, daughter of Emir KEI COFRU & his wife ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of “Timur...son fils le Mirza Gehanghir” and “Rakie Can”, daughter of “l’Emir Kei Cofru” and “le Prince Touman Cotluc...la fille de son cousin Bisun Timur Can”, dated to [1367] from the context[391]m (1373) as her first husband, SEVIN Beg [Khan Zadé], daughter of AQ SUFI HUSAYN Qunqirat & his wife Shakar Beg (-after 1403).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of “Sevin Bei, mais on l’appelloit ordinairement Canzadé, c’est-à-dire fille de Souverain”, daughter of “Ysouph Sofi...son frere Ac Sofi, fils d’Yenghadai” and “Chukur Bei...fille d’un Can Uzbek”, and “Gehanghir” son of Timur in 1373[392].  The Memoirs of Timur record the betrothal of “Yusuf Sufy...his niece Khan Zade” to “my son Jehangir” in 1372[393].  She married secondly (after 1375) her brother-in-law, Miran Shah.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur who names “Conzada [qui] fu femme de son frere ainsné, lequel est mort” as the favourite wife of Miran Shah[394].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “la princesse Canzadeh épouse de Mirza Miran Chah”, in 1384 from the context[395].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records how news of the death of Mohammed Sultan (“son...fils”) was brought to “la princesse Canzadé” in 1403[396]m BAKTI MULKI Aga, daughter of ELIAS YESURI.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Mirza Pir Mehemmed” as the son of Jehangir and “la princesse Bactimulki Aga fille d’Elias Yesouri”, born 40 days after his father’s death[397].  Children: 

(a)       MOHAMMED Sultan (1374-Karahisar 12 Mar 1403).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Mirza Mehemmed Sultan” as the son of Jehangir and “la princesse Canzadé[398].  The Memoirs of Timur name “the first the Prince Peer Muhammed to whom I gave the title of his father Jehangyr, the other Muhammed Sultan” at the two sons of Jehangir[399].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the death “proche de Carahissar...18 de Schaban 805” of “Mirza Mehemmed Sultan...âgé que de 19 ans” (age incorrect)[400].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "one of his grandsons named Mohammed Sultan Meerza...was killed in Turkey, when Timour Beg conquered the Turk; and this grandson had himself taken the Turk prisoner, but had died of his wounds" and was buried in Samarkand[401]m (Betrothed 1379, 1387) to ---, daughter of ALI Bey.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the betrothal of “Ali Bei fils d’Argoun Chah Jouin Garbani...[sa] fille” and “Mirza Mehemmed Sultan”, dated to 1379 from the context, and in a later passage the marriage of “le Mirza Mehemet Sultan” in 1387 (when the bride is not named)[402].  Children: 

(1)       MOHAMMED Jehangir ([1397]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth of “un fils au Mirza Mehemet Sultan...Mehemet Gehangir”, dated to [1397] from the context[403].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Calil Sultan”, after being crowned at Samarkand, gave the title “Can au Mirza Mehemmed Gehanghir fils du Mirza Mehemmed Sultan et neveu du Mirza Pir Mehemmed...[qui] n’eût alors que neuf ans[404].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Mehemmed Gehanghir...neuf ans, Saduaccas âgé de six ans, et Yahya de cinq” as the three sons of “Mehemmed Sultan”, at the death of Timur in 1405[405]

(2)       SADH VAKAS ([1399]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur sent “la seconde imperatrice Touman Aga avec le Mirza Sadvaccas fils du Mirza Mehemed Sultan” back to Sultania, dated to 1402 from the context[406].  He is also named in an earlier passage in the History, which names “l’imperatrice Touman Aga...ses enfans les Mirzas Ibrahim Sultan et Sad Vaccas...sa fille la princesse Beghisi Sultane...sa cousine Sadekin Aga” at “Oudgian”, dated to [1401] from the context[407].  It looks probable that “enfans” in this passage should be interpreted in a broad sense.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Mehemmed Gehanghir...neuf ans, Saduaccas âgé de six ans, et Yahya de cinq” as the three sons of “Mehemmed Sultan”, at the death of Timur in 1405[408]

(3)       YAHYA ([1400]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Mehemmed Gehanghir...neuf ans, Saduaccas âgé de six ans, et Yahya de cinq” as the three sons of “Mehemmed Sultan”, at the death of Timur in 1405[409]

(4)       three daughters .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Mehemmed Sultan” had three daughters at the death of Timur in 1405[410]

(b)       PIR MOHAMMED Jehangir (1375-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Mirza Pir Mehemmed” as the son of Jehangir and “la princesse Bactimulki Aga fille d’Elias Yesouri”, born 40 days after his father’s death[411].  The Memoirs of Timur name “the first the Prince Peer Muhammed to whom I gave the title of his father Jehangyr, the other Muhammed Sultan” at the two sons of Jehangir[412].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records "the son of Timour’s first born son who was dead...Jehanghir...Peer Mohammed...about twenty-two years of age...dark and beardless" whom “they call...lord of India; but in this they do not speak the truth, for the present rightful lord of India is a Christian, named N., as the ambassadors were informed[413].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “les provinces de Condoz, Bacalan, Cabul, Gaznin et Candahar” to “son petit fils le Prince Pir Mehemmed fils de Gehangir”, dated to [1398] from the context[414].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur appointed “mon fils Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir...mon heritier universel et mon successeur legitime à l’empire” on his deathbed[415]m (Betrothed 1382, 1387) ---, daughter of JELAL ed-Din Shah Prince of Fars.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the betrothal of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed fils de Gehanghir” and “la fille du Prince de Fars Gelaleddin Chah” in 1382, and in a later passage the marriage of “le Mirza Pir Mehemet” in 1387 (when the bride is not named)[416].  Children: 

(1)       KAIDUI ([1396]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Caidoui fils du Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir” paid his respects to Timur, dated to [1404] from the context[417].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[418]

(2)       KHALID ([1398]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[419]

(3)       BUZENJER .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[420]

(4)       SADH VAKAS .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[421]

(5)       TENJER .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[422]

(6)       KAIFER .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[423]

(7)       JEHANGIR .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Caidou âgé de neuf ans, Caled de sept, Buzendger, Saduaccas, Tendger, Caifer et Dgehanghir” as the seven sons of “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir”, at the death of Timur in 1405[424]

(8)       three daughters .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Pir Mehemmed Gehanghir” had three daughters at the death of Timur in 1405[425]

ii)         OMAR Shaikh ([1354]-Cormatou Feb 1394, bur Kesh).  The Memoirs of Timur record that Timur “sent my son Omer Shaikh (then only sixteen years of age)” to attack the city of Balkh in 1367[426].  Given the dating of the birth of Omar’s older brother Jehangir, either the age of Omar of the date of the event reported must be incorrect.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Omar-cheik...n’étant âgé que de 40 ans” was killed at “Cormatou...au mois de Rabyulevel 796” while returning to Samarkand from the siege of Seirjan, and was buried at Kesh[427]m ([1389/90]) SEVINJE KOTLUK Aga, daughter of SHIRIN Bey Aga.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur married “la princesse Sevindge Cotluc Aga fille de Chirin Bei Aga” to “Mirza Omarcheik son petit fils”, dated to [1389/90] from the context[428].  The term “petit fils” is a mistake for “fils”, as shown by the following extract.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “les Princesses Sevindje Corluc Aga, Bei Mulc Aga et Melket Aga, les épouses avec son fils le Mirza Eskender encore petit enfant” brought Omar Shaikh’s body to Kesh for burial[429]m BEY MULK Aga, daughter of ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “les Princesses Sevindje Corluc Aga, Bei Mulc Aga et Melket Aga, les épouses avec son fils le Mirza Eskender encore petit enfant” brought Omar Shaikh’s body to Kesh for burial[430]m MELKET Aga, daughter of ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “les Princesses Sevindje Corluc Aga, Bei Mulc Aga et Melket Aga, les épouses avec son fils le Mirza Eskender encore petit enfant” brought Omar Shaikh’s body to Kesh for burial[431].  m as her first husband, ---, daughter of ---.  She married secondly ([1403]) [her stepson] Pir Mohammed.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Sidi Ahmed fils d’Omar Cheik” accompanied “Mirza Pir Mehemmed” back to Kabul, dated to [1404] from the context, adding that his mother was “enceinte du fait de Pir Mehemmed qui l’avoit épousée dans cette derniere fête[432].  Children: 

(a)       PIR MOHAMMED ([1379]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “le royaume de Fars” to “Mirza Pir Mehemet fils du défunt” after the death of his father in 1394[433].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed...se mit en tête des extravagances”, corrupted by Tajiks, and was imprisoned by “l’Emir Said Berlas gouverneur de Chiraz”, after which Timur granted “le thrône de Perse [au] Mirza Roustem en la place de son frere aîné”, dated to [1400] from the context[434].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “le Gouvernement de la Ville Royale de Chiraz, capitale de Perse” to “Mirza Pir Mehemmed fils d’Omar Cheik”, dated to [1403] from the context[435].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Pir Mehemmed” was 27 years old at the death of Timur in 1405[436]m ([1391]) ---, daughter of KAYAS ed-Din Tercan.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “le Mirza Pir Mehemet fils d’Omarcheik et son frere le Mirza Rostem” to “les deux filles de Cayaseddin Tercan”, dated to [1391] from the context[437]m ([1403]) as her second husband, his stepmother, ---, widow of OMAR Shaikh, daughter of ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Sidi Ahmed fils d’Omar Cheik” accompanied “Mirza Pir Mehemmed” back to Kabul, dated to [1404] from the context, adding that his mother was “enceinte du fait de Pir Mehemmed qui l’avoit épousée dans cette derniere fête[438].  Child: 

(1)       OMAR Sheikh ([1398]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “un fils âgé de sept ans nommé Omar Cheik” as the son of “Pir Mehemmed”, at the death of Timur in 1405[439].  

(b)       RUSTAM ([1381]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Pir Mehemmed...se mit en tête des extravagances”, corrupted by Tajiks, and was imprisoned by “l’Emir Said Berlas gouverneur de Chiraz”, after which Timur granted “le thrône de Perse [au] Mirza Roustem en la place de son frere aîné”, dated to [1400] from the context[440].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Roustem” joined forces with “le Mirza Aboubecre” on campaign in Iraq, but was given precedence as the older of the two, dated to [1403] from the context[441].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Roustem” was 24 years old at the death of Timur in 1405[442]m ([1391]) ---, daughter of KAYAS ed-Din Tercan.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “le Mirza Pir Mehemet fils d’Omarcheik et son frere le Mirza Rostem” to “les deux filles de Cayaseddin Tercan”, dated to [1391] from the context[443].  Children: 

(1)       OSMAN ([1399]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Osman âgé de six ans et Sultan Ali àgé d’un an” as the two sons of “Roustem”, at the death of Timur in 1405[444]

(2)       SULTAN ALI ([1404]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Osman âgé de six ans et Sultan Ali àgé d’un an” as the three sons of “Roustem”, at the death of Timur in 1405[445]

(c)       ISKANDER ([1384]-after 1413).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “les Princesses Sevindje Corluc Aga, Bei Mulc Aga et Melket Aga, les épouses avec son fils le Mirza Eskender encore petit enfant” brought Omar Shaikh’s body to Kesh for burial in 1394[446].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Eskander âgé de vingt-un ans, Ahmed àgé de dix-huit ans, Sidi Ahmed âgé de quinze ans, Bayera Hasan de douze ans” as the four younger sons of “feu Mirza Omar Cheik”, at the death of Timur in 1405[447]m ([1397]) BEGHISI Sultana, daughter of MIRAN Mirza.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of “la Princesse Beghisi Sultan” and “Mirza Eskender”, dated to [1397] from the context[448]

(d)       AHMED ([1387]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “Mirzas...Ahmed Seidi Ahmed et Bicra tous trois fils du Mirza Omar Cheik...”, dated to [1404] from the context[449].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records "a grandson of Timour Beg...Sultan Ahmed Meerza, who was sick" with Solyman Mirza who gave him a falcon[450].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Eskander âgé de vingt-un ans, Ahmed àgé de dix-huit ans, Sidi Ahmed âgé de quinze ans, Bayera Hasan de douze ans” as the four younger sons of “feu Mirza Omar Cheik”, at the death of Timur in 1405[451]

(e)       SIDI AHMED ([1390]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Sidi Ahmed fils d’Omar Cheik” accompanied “Mirza Pir Mehemmed” back to Kabul, dated to [1404] from the context, adding that his mother was “enceinte du fait de Pir Mehemmed qui l’avoit épousée dans cette derniere fête[452].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Eskander âgé de vingt-un ans, Ahmed àgé de dix-huit ans, Sidi Ahmed âgé de quinze ans, Bayera Hasan de douze ans” as the four younger sons of “feu Mirza Omar Cheik”, at the death of Timur in 1405[453]m ([1404]) ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “Mirzas...Ahmed Seidi Ahmed et Bicra tous trois fils du Mirza Omar Cheik...”, dated to [1404] from the context[454]

(f)        BAYERA HASAN ([1393]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Eskander âgé de vingt-un ans, Ahmed àgé de dix-huit ans, Sidi Ahmed âgé de quinze ans, Bayera Hasan de douze ans” as the four younger sons of “feu Mirza Omar Cheik”, at the death of Timur in 1405[455]m ([1404]) ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “Mirzas...Ahmed Seidi Ahmed et Bicra tous trois fils du Mirza Omar Cheik...”, dated to [1404] from the context[456]

(g)       three daughters .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Omar Cheik” had three daughters at the death of Timur in 1405[457]

iii)        MIRAN SHAH ([1365/67]-killed in battle Tabriz 1408).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur appointed “son...fils le Mirza Miran Chah, quoiqu’il n’eût encore que 14 ans” as “Gouverneur de Corassane” in 1380[458].  The Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur names “Miranza...en l’aage de XL ans et plus...Sonharii...en l’aage de XXII ans ou environ” as the only two surviving sons of Timur[459].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "Miran Meerza eldest son of Timour Beg" as ruler of Tabriz and Sultanieh, adding that he was deprived of his governorship after distributing his father’s treasures in the towns and destroying edifices and commenting in a later passage that he was “forty years of age, a large, corpulent, and gouty man[460].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after executing Janza Mirza, "Omar Meerza ordered the head of Janza to be taken to his father Miran Meerza and to his brother Abubeker Meerz, who were in Baldat"[461].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Omar Meerza...marched against his father...[who] fled to the land of Rei where Culemaz Meerza his brother-in-law and other Zagatay knights were assembled"[462].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Miran Chah” was 38 years old at the death of Timur in 1405[463]m (after 1375) as her second husband, SEVIN Beg [Khan Zadé], widow of MOHAMMED JEHANGIR, daughter of AQ SUFI HUSAYN Qunqirat & his wife Shakar Beg (-after 1403).  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur who names “Conzada [qui] fu femme de son frere ainsné, lequel est mort” as the favourite wife of Miran Shah[464].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “la princesse Canzadeh épouse de Mirza Miran Chah”, in 1384 from the context[465].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Hausada the wife of Miran Meerza, the eldest son of the lord gave a great feast...about forty years of age, fair and fat...of the lineage of the old emperors" after he arrived in Samarkand[466].  Children: 

(a)       ABU BAKR Mirza ([1382]-killed in battle Dec 1408).  The Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur names “Abaciemeza...Omarisa” as two of the four sons of Miran Shah, adding that one of them had “II filz petis” (it is not clear from the text to which son this refers)[467].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “le Gouvernement des provinces d’Irac-Arabi jusqu’à Vaete, Basra, Curdistan, Merdin, Diarbekir, Oirat” to “Mirza Aboubecre”, based at Baghdad, dated to [1403] from the context[468].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Roustem” joined forces with “le Mirza Aboubecre” on campaign in Iraq, but was given precedence as the older of the two, dated to [1403] from the context[469].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after his father was dispossessed, Timur appointed "one of his grandsons, a son of this Miran Meerza...Abubeker Meerza" to succeed, but he refused to accept the appointment, after which Timur “took the cities of Babylon, Aleppo and Baldac from the sultan of Babylon, and gave them to his grandson who refused to take the government of his father[470].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after executing Janza Mirza, "Omar Meerza ordered the head of Janza to be taken to his father Miran Meerza and to his brother Abubeker Meerz, who were in Baldat"[471].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Omar Meerza...sent his brother [Abubeker Meerza] in chains to the castle of Sultanieh and then marched against his father"[472].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Aboubecre” was 23 years old at the death of Timur in 1405[473]m ([1391]) to ---, daughter of Emir Haji SEIF ed-din.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le petit Mirza Aboubecre fils du Mirza Mirancha” was betrothed to “la fille de l’Emir Hadji Seifeddin”, dated to [1389/90] from the context, and their marriage in a later passage dated to [1391] from the context[474]Betrothed ([1403]) to ---, daughter of SHAH ROK.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the betrothal of “Mirza Charoc...sa fille” and “Mirza Aboubacre”, dated to [1403] from the context[475]Betrothed ([1404]) to ---, daughter of MALIK ISA Prince of Merdin.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the betrothal of “Malek Issa Prince de Merdin...la princesse sa fille” to “Mirza Aboubecre”, dated to [1404] from the context[476].  Children: 

(1)       ALENGHER ([1396]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Alengher de neuf ans et Osman Chelebi de quatre ans” as the two sons of “Aboubecre” at the death of Timur in 1405[477]

(2)       OSMAN SHELEBI ([1401]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Alengher de neuf ans et Osman Chelebi de quatre ans” as the two sons of “Aboubecre” at the death of Timur in 1405[478]

(3)       daughter .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Aboubecre” had one daughter at the death of Timur in 1405[479]

(b)       OMAR Mirza ([1383]-after 1405).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur left “le Mirza Omar fils de Miran Chah” at “Dourbildgin” during his expedition to India in 1399[480].  The Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur names “Abaciemeza...Omarisa” as two of the four sons of Miran Shah, adding that one of them had “II filz petis” (it is not clear from the text to which son this refers)[481].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “le Gouvernement d’Azerbijan” to “Mirza Omar fils de Mirza Miran Chah”, dated to [1403] from the context[482].  [Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after his brother refused the appointment, Timur appointed "another son of Miran Meerza, who took the government from his father"[483].  This presumably refers to the next oldest brother.]  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "Timour...his grandson Omar Meerza…governor of Persia" and records in a later passage that he visited him “in the plain which they call Karabagh” on his return journey from the court of Timur[484].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after executing Janza Mirza, "Omar Meerza ordered the head of Janza to be taken to his father Miran Meerza and to his brother Abubeker Meerz, who were in Baldat"[485].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Omar Meerza...sent his brother [Abubeker Meerza] in chains to the castle of Sultanieh and then marched against his father"[486].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Omar âgé de vingt-deux ans, Calil Sultan âgé de vingt-un ans, Aydgel de dix ans et Syorgatmich âgé de six ans” as the four younger sons of “Mirza Miran Chah” at the death of Timur in 1405[487]

(c)       KHALIL Sultan ([1384]-1409).  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "one Khulleel Sultan" as the son of Miran Mirza by “Gansada[488].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records in a later passage that "Hausada the wife of Miran Meerza...has borne one son to Miran Meerza, named Khuleel Sultan, now about twenty years of age"[489].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Omar âgé de vingt-deux ans, Calil Sultan âgé de vingt-un ans, Aydgel de dix ans et Syorgatmich âgé de six ans” as the four younger sons of “Mirza Miran Chah” at the death of Timur in 1405[490].  He succeeded his grandfather at Samarkand.  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after the death of Timur, "there was present in the city of Samarcand...one of his grandsons, a son of Miran Meerza...Khaleel Sultan who...got possession of the city"[491].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Calil Sultan” was crowned at Samarkand “16 de ramadan 807” [18 Mar 1405], despite the terms of Timur’s testament[492].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that he neglected his duties for his wife Shadi Mulk[493]m ---.  m JEHAN Sultana, daughter of Mirza ALI.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Calil Sultan” married “la princesse Dgehan Sultan fille du Mirza Ali fils de la sœur de Timur”, dated to late [1404] from the context[494]m ([1404]) SHADI MULK, daughter of ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Calil Sultan” secretly married “une des concubines de l’Emir Hadgi Seifeddin nommée Chadi Mulc” against the wishes of Timur, dated to late [1404] from the context, and lived openly with her after his coronation[495].  Children: 

(1)       BERKUL ([1399]-before 1405).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth of “un fils au Mirza Calil Sultan...Berkul”, dated to [1399] from the context[496]

(2)       daughter .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Calil Sultan” had one daughter at the death of Timur in 1405[497]

(d)       BEGHISI Sultana .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “la Princesse Beghisi Sultan fille du Mirza Miramcha”, dated to [1392] from the context[498].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriage of “la Princesse Beghisi Sultan” and “Mirza Eskender”, dated to [1397] from the context[499].  [The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “l’imperatrice Touman Aga...ses enfans les Mirzas Ibrahim Sultan et Sad Vaccas...sa fille la princesse Beghisi Sultane...sa cousine Sadekin Aga” at “Oudgian”, dated to [1401] from the context[500].  As noted above, the correct interpretation of this text is uncertain.  It is possible that “fille” should be interpreted in a broad sense and that Beghisi Sultana was the same person as the daughter of Miran Mirza.]  m ([1397]) ISKANDER, son of OMAR Sheikh. 

(e)       three daughters .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Miran Chah” had four daughters at the death of Timur in 1405[501]

(f)        AIDGEL ([1395]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Omar âgé de vingt-deux ans, Calil Sultan âgé de vingt-un ans, Aydgel de dix ans et Syorgatmich âgé de six ans” as the four younger sons of “Mirza Miran Chah” at the death of Timur in 1405[502]m ([1404]) ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “Mirzas...Aidegel fils de Miran Chah...”, dated to [1404] from the context[503]

(g)       SIORGATMISH ([1399]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Omar âgé de vingt-deux ans, Calil Sultan âgé de vingt-un ans, Aydgel de dix ans et Syorgatmich âgé de six ans” as the four younger sons of “Mirza Miran Chah” at the death of Timur in 1405[504]

(h)       SULTAN MOHAMMED ([1405/1406]-before [1452]).  Price’s Mahommedan History names “Sultan Mahommed Mirza” as “sixth in order of birth” of the sons of Miran Shah, but does not cite the primary source on which this information is based[505].  Sultan Mohammed is not named by Ali of Yezd among the descendants of Timur who were alive when he died, so he was presumably born shortly before or soon after that date.  A manuscript short history of Timur and the Timurids prepared in 1413 for Iskander son of Omar Shaikh (see above), probably by Mu’in al-Din Natanzi (author of the chronicle Muntakhab al-Tavarikh-i-Mu’ini), records Sultan Mohammed as an 8 year old boy[506].  The Nasab-nama, an illustrated Timurid genealogy by Husayn in ‘Ali-Shah the original of which is dated to [1405/09], names Sultan Mohammed but as the document was later extended until the reign of Sultan Husayn Bayqare (died 1506) it is impossible to say exactly when he was added to the genealogy[507].  According to the Mu’izz al-Ansab, Sultan Mohammed was in the service of Ulugh Beg (son of Shah Rokh, see below)[508].  Price’s Mohammedan History states that Sultan Mohammed was father of “two sons Abu Saeid Mirza...and Menutcheher Mirza”, and traces the descent of Baber, first Mogul emperor from 1526, from the older son[509].  The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammed Haidar, dated to 1541/46, sets out the same descent[510], as do the early 16th century Memoirs of Baber[511]

-         MOGUL EMPERORS

iv)       AKYA BEGHI (-before 1405).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “la reine Serai Mulc Canum étoit sœur de l’Emir Moussa et...la Princesse Akké Beghi etoit promise à un des fils de ce prince”, dated to after 1367 from the context[512]m (Betrothed after 1367, before [1380]) MOHAMMED Bey, son of Emir MUSA.  Child: 

(a)       SULTAN HUSSEIN ([1380]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Sultan Hussein âgé de vingt-cinq ans” at the death of Timur in 1405 was the son of “la fille de Timur nommé Akya Beghi ou Tagi Can, et son pere étoit Mehemmed Bei fils de l’Emir Moussa[513].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the revolt of “le Mirza Sultan Hussein après avoir fait la débauche...inspiré par quelques séditieux Persans” against Timur “l’Empereur son ayeul”, his defection to Damascus at the service of the Syrians, his capture but subsequent release on the intercession of “Mirza Charoc”, and later pardon by Timur, dated to late [1400] from the context[514].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the rebellion of “le Mirza Sultan Hussein” after the death of Timur in 1405[515]

v)        SHAH ROKH (19 Aug 1377-[1446/48]).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth “14 du mois de Rabilaker 779” of “le prince Charok” to “la Princesse Mehrebane[516].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur proclaimed “le Mirza Charoc” as “Behader souverain et roi absolu des royaumes de Corassane, Sistan et Mazandran, jusques à Firouzcouh et à la ville de Rei”, dated to [1397] from the context[517].  The Dominican sent to the French court in 1403 on an embassy from Timur names “Miranza...en l’aage de XL ans et plus...Sonharii...en l’aage de XXII ans ou environ” as the only two surviving sons of Timur[518].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Shah Rokh Meerza, a son of Timour Beg...lord and emperor of this land of Khorassan" invited the ambassadors to visit him at Herat[519].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “Mirza Charoc” was 28 years old at the death of Timur in 1405[520]m ---.  Children: 

(a)       ULUGH Beg (Sultanieh 4 Mar 1394-[1450]).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth “le premier de Jumaziulevel de 796...dans le château de Sultania” to “Mirza Charoc” of “un prince [Mirza Oluc Bey][521].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “le Gouvernement des villes de Tachkunt, de Seiram, d’Yenghi, d’Achira et de tout le royaume de Geté jusqu’à la Chine” to “Mirza Olucbée”, dated to late [1404] from the context[522].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[523]m ([1404]) ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “Mirzas Oluc-Bec et Ibrahim Sultan fils de Charoc...”, dated to [1404] from the context[524]

(b)       IBRAHIM Sultan (24 Aug 1394-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth “le 26 de Schawal 796” of “un fils au Mirza Charok...Ibrahim Sultan[525].  [The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “l’imperatrice Touman Aga...ses enfans les Mirzas Ibrahim Sultan et Sad Vaccas...sa fille la princesse Beghisi Sultane...sa cousine Sadekin Aga” at “Oudgian”, dated to [1401] from the context[526].  The correct interpretation of this text is uncertain.  A later passage in the History suggests that “Sad Vaccas” was the son of Mohammed Sultan (see above).  If that is correct, “enfans” should probably interpreted in a broad sense which, if correct, indicates that Ibrahim may not have been the son of Timur and Tuman Aga despite what the text at first sight suggests.  He could therefore have been the son of Sha Rokh.]  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur granted “le Gouvernement des villes...d’Andecan, d’Acfiket, de Taraz et de Cachgar, jusqus à Cotan” to “Mirza Ibrahim Sultan”, dated to late [1404] from the context[527].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[528]m ([1404]) ---.  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the marriages of “Mirzas Oluc-Bec et Ibrahim Sultan fils de Charoc...”, dated to [1404] from the context[529]

(c)       BAISANKAR (7 Sep 1395-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur records the birth “21 de Zilahgé 799” of “un fils...Baisancar[530].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[531]

(d)       SIORGATMISH ([1399]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[532]

(e)       MOHAMMED JUKI (1402-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the birth “au 18 d’Ourdibehicht 804” of “un fils au Mirza Charoc...[le] Prince Mehemed Dgiouki[533].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[534]

(f)        daughter .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the betrothal of “Mirza Charoc...sa fille” and “Mirza Aboubacre”, dated to [1403] from the context[535]Betrothed ([1403]) to ABU BAKR Mirza, son of MIRAN Mirza (-killed in battle 1408). 

(g)       JANAGLEN ([1403]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[536]

(h)       YARUI ([1404]-).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Ouloucbec et Ibrahim Sultan tous deux âgés d’onze ans, Baisancar de huit ans, Syorgatmich de six ans, Mehemmed Jouks de trois ans, Janaglen de deux ans, et Yarouy d’un an” as the seven sons of “Mirza Charoc” at the death of Timur in 1405[537]

vi)       KHALIL Sultan ([1377/81]-before 1405).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “les petits princes le Mirza Charoc et le Mirza Calil” as children of “Serai Mulc Canum”, in [1381/82] from the context[538]

vii)      daughter (-before 1405).  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "Solyman Meerza…a favourite of the lord...married to a daughter of Timour Beg" as lord of “Rei”, which included the city of Tehran[539]m SOLYMAN Mirza, son of ---. 

viii)     daughter (-before 1405).  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records arriving on his return journey at "a great city called Vatami...[in] the land of Rei" where “there was a great Meerza who was son-in-law to Timour beg, having married his daughter...the son-in-law...was named Cumalexa Meerza[540]m CUMALEZA Mirza, son of ---.  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Omar Meerza...marched against his father...[who] fled to the land of Rei where Culemaz Meerza his brother-in-law and other Zagatay knights were assembled"[541]

ix)       Sultana BAKT Begum (-after 1405).  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur married “la Princesse Sultan Bact Begum sa fille” to “Mehemet Mireké[542].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur married “la...Princesse Sultan Bact Begum” to “Soliman-cha”, dated to [1389/90] from the context[543].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “Sultan Bact Begum” as the daughter of Timur when he died in 1405[544]m firstly MOHAMMED Mireke, son of ---.  m secondly ([1389/90]) SOLIMAN Shah, son of ---. 

b)         TURKAN AGA (-1383).  The Memoirs of Timur record that, after the death of his mother in [1357], “my sister Turkan Aka took charge of my household[545].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that Timur entered Samarkand and stayed with “la princesse Cotluc Turcan sa sœur aînée[546].  The Memoirs of Timur record that Timur entered Samarkand in 1363 and “took up my abode at the house of my eldest sister Kutlugh Turkan Agha[547].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “le prince Daoud chef de la horde de Dougat et mari de Cotluc Turcan Aga sœur aînée de Timur” as one of Timur’s allies[548].  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records the death of “Cotluc Turcan Aga sœur aînée de Timur” in 1383 and her burial “auprès du Prince Cotsam fils d’Elabbas[549]m DAUD, son of ---. 

c)         daughter .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd names “l’Emir Muaid Erlat qui avoit épousé l’autre sœur de Timur” as one of Timur’s allies[550].  The Memoirs of Timur name “Amyr Muvyd Arlat who was married to one of my sisters”, when recording his alliance during Timur’s attack on Samarkand in 1366[551]m Amir MUVYD Arlat, son of ---. 

d)         daughter .  The Memoirs of Timur name “Dilavur Behader, who was married to another of my sisters” , when recording his alliance during Timur’s attack on Samarkand in 1366[552]m DILAVUR BAHADUR, son of ---. 

e)         daughter .  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "a companion of Timour Beg...a Zagatay of his own lineage" married one of Timur’s sisters and was father of “Janza Meerza, who is now the most confidential friend of the lord and is captain and constable of the army[553]m ---.  Child: 

i)          JANZA Mirza (-beheaded Karabagh 25 Mar 1405).  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo names "Janza Meerza the nephew and favourite of Timour Beg", adding in a later passage that he was “now the most confidential friend of the lord and is captain and constable of the army[554].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, on his return journey from the court of Timur, on 25 Mar 1405 at Karabagh "there was a great tumult in the camp...Janza Meerza wished to kill Omar Meerza, but...the attendants...had seized him and that the lord had ordered his head to be cut off"[555]m ---.  Child: 

(a)       BOTUDO Mirza (-killed Samarkand 1405).  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, after the death of Timur, "Khaleel Sultan...killed...Botudo Meerza, a son of that Janza who had been beheaded by Omar Meerza"[556]

f)          daughter .  m ---.  Child: 

i)          MIRZA ALIm ---.  Child: 

(a)       JEHAN Sultana .  The History of Timur written by Ali of Yezd records that “le Mirza Calil Sultan” married “la princesse Dgehan Sultan fille du Mirza Ali fils de la sœur de Timur”, dated to late [1404] from the context[557]m KHALIL Sultan, son of MIRAN SHAH ([1384]-1409). 

 

 



[1] Chirovsky, N. L. Fr., (1973) A History of the Russian Empire, Vol. 1 Grand-Ducal Vladimir and Moscow (Peter Owen, London), pp. 154-5. 

[2] Chirovsky (1973), p. 251. 

[3] Defrémery, M. ‘Fragments de Géographes et d’Historiens arabes et persans inédits’, Journal Asiatique, Tome XVII (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 107. 

[4] Desmaisons, P. I. (1874) Histoire des Mogols et des Tatares (St. Petersburg), Vol. II. 

[5] Ohsson, C. d’ (1824, 1852) Histoire des Mongols depuis Tchinguiz-Khan jusqu’à Timour-Lanc (Paris, Amsterdam), Tomes I, II. 

[6] Hammer-Purgstall, J. Frh von (1840) Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak (Pest), p. 93. 

[7] Howorth, H. H. (1876, 1880) History of the Mongols (London), Part I, Part II, Division 1. 

[8] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 69. 

[9] Chirovsky (1973), pp. 154-5. 

[10] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, p. 237. 

[11] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 52, 71. 

[12] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 71. 

[13] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 71. 

[14] Grousset, R. (1941) L'Empire Mongol, 1ère phase, pp. 48-54. 

[15] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 71-2. 

[16] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 238. 

[17] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 53-4, 77. 

[18] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 55, 77. 

[19] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241. 

[20] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 72. 

[21] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 72. 

[22] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 72. 

[23] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 72. 

[24] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241. 

[25] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 160. 

[26] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 72. 

[27] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 71. 

[28] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 72. 

[29] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 240. 

[30] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241, and Martin, J. (1999) Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge University Press), p. 134. 

[31] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241. 

[32] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 243. 

[33] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[34] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 244. 

[35] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 247. 

[36] Chirovsky (1973), p. 157. 

[37] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 100. 

[38] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[39] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 240. 

[40] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 100. 

[41] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[42] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 100. 

[43] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 100. 

[44] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 35, citing Klaproth, J. H. ‘Des entreprises des Mongols en Géorgie et en Arménie dans le XIII siècle’, Nouveau Journal Asiatique, Tome XII (Paris, 1833), p. 274 footnote 1, which provides the same information with Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[45] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 100. 

[46] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[47] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[48] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[49] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[50] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[51] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[52] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[53] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[54] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[55] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[56] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[57] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 107. 

[58] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 245. 

[59] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 245. 

[60] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[61] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 107. 

[62] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[63] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[64] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 35, citing Klaproth ‘Mongols en Géorgie’ (1833), p. 274 footnote 1, which provides the same information with Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[65] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 35. 

[66] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[67] Klaproth ‘Mongols en Géorgie’ (1833), p. 290 footnote 1, which quotes Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[68] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[69] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[70] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 153. 

[71] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[72] Klaproth ‘Mongols en Géorgie’ (1833), p. 290 footnote 1, which quotes Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[73] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[74] Chirovsky (1973), p. 168. 

[75] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 181. 

[76] Martin (1999), p. 144. 

[77] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 179. 

[78] Martin (1999), p. 155. 

[79] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 320. 

[80] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 181. 

[81] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 117, no source citation. 

[82] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 117, no source citation. 

[83] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 117, no source citation. 

[84] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 125, citing “Ilkhans, 218”. 

[85] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 125, citing “Makrizi, II, 218”. 

[86] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[87] Klaproth ‘Mongols en Géorgie’ (1833), p. 290 footnote 1, which quotes Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[88] Klaproth ‘Mongols en Géorgie’ (1833), p. 290 footnote 1, which quotes Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[89] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 103. 

[90] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[91] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 186, 189-358. 

[92] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[93] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[94] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[95] Fine (1994), p. 180. 

[96] Chirovsky (1973), p. 169. 

[97] Martin (1999), p. 171. 

[98] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 5, p. 180. 

[99] Pachymeres, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 263. 

[100] Pachymeres, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 264. 

[101] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[102] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 264. 

[103] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[104] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[105] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[106] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[107] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[108] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[109] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[110] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 181. 

[111] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 187-9. 

[112] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 109. 

[113] Hammer-Purgstall, J. Frh von (1840) Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak (Pest), p. 93. 

[114] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 36. 

[115] Hammer-Purgstall (1840), p. 93. 

[116] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 36. 

[117] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), Tables XIV and III, in the latter described as "relative of Batu Khan".  . 

[118] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 153. 

[119] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 251-2, and Martin (1999), pp. 138-140. 

[120] Chirovsky (1973), p. 166. 

[121] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey), 90, 705 A.E. [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257], consulted at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[122] Ohsson (1852), Tome II, p. 337. 

[123] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[124] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 280. 

[125] Vardan 90, 705 A.E. [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257]. 

[126] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 180. 

[127] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[128] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes XIII au XVI siècles´, Orientalia Christiana XXXV - 1, No 94, Jun 1934 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1934)”), Table XI, p. 60. 

[129] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[130] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 180. 

[131] Chirovsky (1973), p. 167. 

[132] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126.  

[133] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[134] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[135] Chirovsky (1973), p. 169. 

[136] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[137] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[138] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[139] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 183. 

[140] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[141] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[142] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 126. 

[143] Martin (1999), p. 143. 

[144] Fine (1994), p. 179. 

[145] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 183. 

[146] Martin (1999), p. 171. 

[147] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 183. 

[148] Pachymeres, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 27, p. 268. 

[149] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 148, no citation reference. 

[150] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 148, no citation reference. 

[151] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 148, no citation reference. 

[152] Martin (1999), p. 175. 

[153] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 183. 

[154] Chirovsky (1973), p. 170. 

[155] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 172. 

[156] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 172. 

[157] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 182. 

[158] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 372. 

[159] ES II 183. 

[160] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 165. 

[161] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 166. 

[162] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 172. 

[163] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 163. 

[164] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 172. 

[165] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 173. 

[166] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 172. 

[167] Chirovsky (1973), p. 171. 

[168] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 179. 

[169] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 179. 

[170] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 185. 

[171] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 179. 

[172] Petis de la Croix, F. (1722) Histoire de Timur-Bec écrite par Ali natif d’Yezd (Paris), Tome I, pp. 239-40, 249-51. 

[173] Stewart, C. (ed. & trans.) (1830) The Mulfuzat Timury (London), p. 148. 

[174] Moranvillé, H. ‘Mémoire sur Tamerlan et sa cour, par un dominicain, en 1403’, Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Chartes, Tome LV (Paris, 1894), p. 446. 

[175] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 370. 

[176] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 82. 

[177] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, pp. 172-3. 

[178] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 181. 

[179] Martin (1999), p. 202. 

[180] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 181. 

[181] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 181. 

[182] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 181. 

[183] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 182. 

[184] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 181. 

[185] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 182. 

[186] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 182. 

[187] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 182. 

[188] Crummey, R. O. (1987) The Formation of Muscovy 1304-1613 (Longman), p. 44. 

[189] Chirovsky (1973), p. 214. 

[190] Crummey (1987), p. 51. 

[191] Crummey (1987), p. 51. 

[192] Martin (1999), p. 214. 

[193] Martin (1999), p. 203. 

[194] Chirovsky (1973), pp. 222-3. 

[195] Martin (1999), p. 204. 

[196] Defrémery (1851), V, Extraits de Khondémir (et de Mirkhond), p. 108. 

[197] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[198] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 249. 

[199] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 299. 

[200] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 157. 

[201] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 157-8. 

[202] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[203] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[204] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[205] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[206] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[207] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[208] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[209] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[210] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[211] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[212] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 160, 162. 

[213] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[214] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[215] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[216] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[217] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[218] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[219] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[220] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[221] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[222] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[223] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158. 

[224] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[225] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 158-9. 

[226] Stewart (1830), p. 21. 

[227] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[228] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 158, footnote 2 quoting “le Djuni de Réchid”. 

[229] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 300. 

[230] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[231] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[232] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 159, 165. 

[233] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 165. 

[234] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 165-6. 

[235] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 165-6, 169. 

[236] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 169. 

[237] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 169-70. 

[238] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 166, 169. 

[239] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 169-70. 

[240] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[241] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[242] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[243] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[244] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 159. 

[245] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 159-60. 

[246] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 160. 

[247] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 162. 

[248] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 160. 

[249] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 162. 

[250] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 162. 

[251] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 162. 

[252] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[253] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 249. 

[254] Chirovsky (1973), p. 158. 

[255] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 151. 

[256] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 151-2. 

[257] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 160. 

[258] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 252. 

[259] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 165. 

[260] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[261] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[262] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[263] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 251-2. 

[264] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II (New Jersey), Book III, 19. 

[265] Chirovsky (1973), p. 158. 

[266] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[267] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 260. 

[268] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[269] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 294. 

[270] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[271] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[272] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[273] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[274] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[275] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 252. 

[276] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[277] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 152. 

[278] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 174. 

[279] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 174. 

[280] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 160, 162. 

[281] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 162-3. 

[282] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 162. 

[283] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 160. 

[284] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[285] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 160. 

[286] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 101. 

[287] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 245. 

[288] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 249. 

[289] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 153. 

[290] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 35, citing Klaproth ‘Mongols en Géorgie’ (1833), p. 274 footnote 1, which provides the same information with Persian text but does not cite the primary source from which it is quoted. 

[291] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 293. 

[292] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 153. 

[293] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[294] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 293-4. 

[295] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 309.  

[296] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 153, 155. 

[297] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 294. 

[298] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 309. 

[299] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 284. 

[300] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 284. 

[301] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 284. 

[302] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 284. 

[303] Howorth (1876), Part I, p. 284. 

[304] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 153. 

[305] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 301-03, and 305. 

[306] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 319. 

[307] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 153, 155. 

[308] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 294. 

[309] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 309. 

[310] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 153. 

[311] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 301-03, and 305. 

[312] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 173. 

[313] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 319. 

[314] Vardan 91, 707 A.E. [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259]. 

[315] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[316] Vardan 90. 

[317] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[318] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 320. 

[319] Hethum the Historian Book III, 37. 

[320] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 397. 

[321] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 173. 

[322] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 397. 

[323] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 173. 

[324] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 391. 

[325] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[326] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 320. 

[327] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 332. 

[328] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 391-2. 

[329] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 3, p. 174. 

[330] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 22, p. 611. 

[331] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[332] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 331-2. 

[333] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 25, p. 620. 

[334] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 397. 

[335] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 173. 

[336] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 398-402. 

[337] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 173. 

[338] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, pp. 173-4. 

[339] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 429. 

[340] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 147. 

[341] Hethum the Historian Book III, 38. 

[342] Desmaisons (1874), Vol. II, p. 173. 

[343] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 607. 

[344] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 612. 

[345] Brosset, M. (1876) Collection d´historiens arméniens, Tome II (St Petersburg), Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 464. 

[346] Stewart, C. (ed. & trans.) (1830) The Mulfuzat Timury (London), p. 21. 

[347] Stewart (1830), pp. 27-8. 

[348] Stewart (1830), p. 28. 

[349] Stewart (1830), p. 29. 

[350] Moranvillé, H. ‘Mémoire sur Tamerlan et sa cour, par un dominicain, en 1403’, Bibliothèque de l’Ecole des Chartes, Tome LV (Paris, 1894), p. 441. 

[351] Woods, J. E. ‘Timur’s Genealogy’, Mazzaoui, M. M. & Moreen, V. B. (eds.) (1990) Intellectual Studies on Islam. Essays Written in Honor of Martin B. Dickson, Professor of Persian Studies, Princeton University (Salt Lake City), pp. 95-7, 119-20 (notes 47, 53-55, 57-58), information provided by Alberto Busata in a private email to the author dated 2 May 2014. 

[352] Manger, S. H. (trans) (1767) Ahmedis Arabsiadæ Vitæ et Rerum Gestarum Timuri (Leeuwarden), Tome I, Caput I, p. 15. 

[353] Markham, C. R. (1859) Narrative of the embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the court of Timour at Samarcand 1403-1406 (London), p. xiii. 

[354] Stewart (1830), p. 21. 

[355] Petis de la Croix, F. (1722) Histoire de Timur-Bec écrite par Ali natif d’Yezd (Paris), Tome I, p. 204. 

[356] Stewart (1830), p. 47. 

[357] Markham (1859), p. 125. 

[358] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 272. 

[359] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, Preface, p. ciii. 

[360] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 447. 

[361] Stewart (1830), p. 32. 

[362] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 61. 

[363] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 203. 

[364] Markham (1859), p. xiv. 

[365] Markham (1859), p. 77. 

[366] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 463. 

[367] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, pp. 207, 221, 228, 286. 

[368] Markham (1859), p. 187. 

[369] Stewart (1830), p. 32. 

[370] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 48. 

[371] Stewart (1830), p. 32. 

[372] Stewart (1830), p. 45. 

[373] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 104. 

[374] Stewart (1830), p. 94. 

[375] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 195. 

[376] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 290. 

[377] Markham (1859), pp. 128, 155. 

[378] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, pp. 254, 256. 

[379] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 361. 

[380] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, pp. 124-5. 

[381] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 298. 

[382] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 379. 

[383] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 74. 

[384] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 422. 

[385] Markham (1859), pp. 155-6. 

[386] Markham (1859), p. 156.  

[387] Stewart (1830), p. 45. 

[388] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, pp. 269, 271. 

[389] Stewart (1830), p. 152. 

[390] Markham (1859), p. 123. 

[391] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 150. 

[392] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, pp. 239-40, 249-51. 

[393] Stewart (1830), p. 148. 

[394] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 446. 

[395] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 370. 

[396] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 82. 

[397] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 271. 

[398] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 271. 

[399] Stewart (1830), p. 152. 

[400] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 68. 

[401] Markham (1859), p. 164. 

[402] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 298, Tome II, p. 21. 

[403] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 408. 

[404] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 284. 

[405] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[406] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 411. 

[407] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 379. 

[408] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[409] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[410] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[411] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 271. 

[412] Stewart (1830), p. 152. 

[413] Markham (1859), pp. 152-3. 

[414] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 6. 

[415] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 224. 

[416] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 369, Tome II, p. 21. 

[417] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 173. 

[418] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[419] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[420] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[421] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[422] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[423] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[424] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[425] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[426] Stewart (1830), p. 128. 

[427] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, pp. 269, 272. 

[428] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 65. 

[429] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 272. 

[430] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 272. 

[431] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 272. 

[432] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 201. 

[433] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 271. 

[434] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, pp. 231-2. 

[435] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 90. 

[436] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[437] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 135. 

[438] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 201. 

[439] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[440] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, pp. 231-2. 

[441] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 127. 

[442] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[443] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 135. 

[444] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[445] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[446] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 272. 

[447] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 301. 

[448] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 423. 

[449] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 189. 

[450] Markham (1859), p. 100. 

[451] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, pp. 301-2. 

[452] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 201. 

[453] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, pp. 301-2. 

[454] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 189. 

[455] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, pp. 301-2. 

[456] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 189. 

[457] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[458] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 312. 

[459] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 445. 

[460] Markham (1859), pp. 92, 95-6. 

[461] Markham (1859), p. 187. 

[462] Markham (1859), p. 189. 

[463] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[464] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 446. 

[465] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 370. 

[466] Markham (1859), pp. 147-8. 

[467] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 446. 

[468] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 93. 

[469] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 127. 

[470] Markham (1859), pp. 96-7. 

[471] Markham (1859), p. 187. 

[472] Markham (1859), p. 189. 

[473] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[474] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, pp. 61, 135. 

[475] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 89. 

[476] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 142. 

[477] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[478] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[479] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[480] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 173. 

[481] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 446. 

[482] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 130. 

[483] Markham (1859), p. 96. 

[484] Markham (1859), pp. 84, 184. 

[485] Markham (1859), p. 187. 

[486] Markham (1859), p. 189. 

[487] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[488] Markham (1859), p. 97. 

[489] Markham (1859), p. 148. 

[490] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[491] Markham (1859), pp. 187-8. 

[492] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 284. 

[493] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, pp. 292-5. 

[494] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 209. 

[495] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, pp. 209, 291-2. 

[496] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 226. 

[497] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[498] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 154. 

[499] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 423. 

[500] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 379. 

[501] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[502] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[503] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 189. 

[504] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[505] Price, D. (1821) Mahommedan History (London), Vol. III, Part 2, p. 658. 

[506] Topkapi Saray Museum Library, Istanbul, Manuscript Bagdat 411, Timurid calligraphy album, fol. 159a (closely written single page Persian text of seventy-nine lines bound among the leaves of a Timurid calligraphy album), line 67, information provided by Professor John E. Woods, as transmitted to the author by Alberto Busata in a private email dated 12 May 2014. 

[507] Topkapi Saray Museum Library, Istanbul, Manuscript Hazine 2152, fol. 33a (among fols. 32 ab, 33ab, 36ab, 37ab, 38ab, 39b, 42a, 43ab), information provided by Professor John E. Woods, as transmitted to the author by Alberto Busata in a private email dated 12 May 2014. 

[508] Mu’izz al-Ansab, Paris MS ad Aligarh MS 42, information provided by Professor John E. Woods, as transmitted to the author by Alberto Busata in a private email dated 12 May 2014. 

[509] Price (1821), Vol. III, Part 2, pp. 658-62. 

[510] Elias, N. (ed.) Denison Ross, E. (trans.) (1895) The Tarikh-i-Rashidi (London), Part II, Chap. VII, p. 173. 

[511] Leyden, J. & Erskine, W. (trans.) (1826) Memoirs of Zehir-ed-Din Muhammed Baber (London), p. 7. 

[512] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 225. 

[513] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 303. 

[514] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, pp. 316-26, 352. 

[515] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 246. 

[516] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 290. 

[517] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 412. 

[518] Moranvillé ‘Tamerlan’ (1894), p. 445. 

[519] Markham (1859), p. 109. 

[520] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[521] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 284. 

[522] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 203. 

[523] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[524] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 189.  

[525] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, pp. 320, 322. 

[526] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 379. 

[527] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 203. 

[528] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[529] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 189. 

[530] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 415. 

[531] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[532] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[533] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome III, p. 407. 

[534] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[535] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 89. 

[536] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[537] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[538] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 409. 

[539] Markham (1859), pp. 99-100. 

[540] Markham (1859), pp. 182-3. 

[541] Markham (1859), p. 189. 

[542] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 7. 

[543] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome II, p. 60. 

[544] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 302. 

[545] Stewart (1830), p. 32. 

[546] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 53. 

[547] Stewart (1830), p. 65. 

[548] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 114. 

[549] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 361. 

[550] Petis de la Croix (1722), Tome I, p. 114. 

[551] Stewart (1830), p. 99. 

[552] Stewart (1830), p. 99. 

[553] Markham (1859), p. 128. 

[554] Markham (1859), pp. 84, 128. 

[555] Markham (1859), p. 186. 

[556] Markham (1859), pp. 187-8. 

[557] Petis de la Croix (1723), Tome IV, p. 209.