MONGOLS

 v2.0 Updated 05 December 2010

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            ORIGINS, JENGHIZ KHAN. 3

Chapter 2.            DESCENDANTS of JOCHI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 8

A.       KHANS of the GOLDEN HORDE.. 8

BARKA 1258-1266. 8

BATU 1227-1255, SARTAQ 1255-1256, ULAQCHI 1256-1257, TODA MONGKA 1282-1287, TOLA BUQA 1287-1291. 11

MONGKA TIMUR 1266-1281, TOQTAI 1291-1312. 13

UZBEK 1313-1341, TINI BEG 1341-1342, JANI BEG 1342-1357, BERDI BEG 1357-1359, QULPA 1359-1360, NAWROZ 1360. 15

ORDU MALIK 1361-1362, BOLOD TIMUR [1362/65], TOGAY [1365], MAMAI, AZIZ 1364-[1366/67] 16

ABDULLAH 1364-[1366/67], JANI BEG II [1366/67], MUHAMMAD BULAQ [1370], AIBEK [1371], QARIN [1371/75] 17

TOQTA 1376, TIMUR MALIK [1376/77], TIMUR QUTLUGH 1395-1401, SHADI BEG 1401-1408, PULAD 1408-1410, TIMUR 1410-1412. 17

TOQTAMISH 1378-1395, JALA-ud-DIN 1412, KARIMBERDI 1412-[1414], KABAK [1414]-1417, JABBARBERDI 1417- 18

B.       KHANS of the KHAZAKS, ASTRAKHAN and BUKHARA.. 19

Chapter 3.            DESCENDANTS of CHAGATAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 21

Chapter 4.            DESCENDANTS of OGODAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 22

Chapter 5.            DESCENDANTS of TOLUI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN. 24

A.       SONS of TOLUI 24

B.       IL-KHAN DYNASTY of PERSIA.. 29

HULAGU [1260]-1265, TEGUDAR AHMAD 1282-1284, BAIDU 1295, MUHAMMAD MUZAFFAR-ed-DIN 1336-1337, NASIR-ed-DIN 1336-1337, SULAYMAN 1339-[1343] 29

ABAQA 1265-1282, ARGHUN 1284-1291, GHAIKKATKU 1291-1295, GHAZAN 1295-1305, OLJAITU 1295-1316, ABU SAID 1316-1335, SATI BEG 1338-1339, JAHAN TIMUR 1339-1340. 36

ARPA KAUN 1335-1336. 42

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Mongols were one of the many nomadic tribes which inhabited the steppes of central Asia.  In the 10th century, Mongol and Turkic tribes organised the state of Khitan or Khitai which extended over Mongolia, parts of Manchuria and northern China.  In the 11th century, Kabul Khan raided the lands of the Tatars and attacked the Chinese.  However, until the time of Jenghiz Khan, who was acclaimed as Great Khan in 1207, the various political formations and confederations put together by the Mongol tribes were ephemeral, quickly organised and quickly dissolved[1].  Towards the end of his life, Jenghiz Khan started to extend his empire westwards.  He won an overwhelming victory against the Rus principalities at the battle of Kalka river in 1223, but returned eastwards without pressing his advantage. 

 

On his death in 1227, Jenghiz Khan's empire was divided between three of his sons and the heirs of his deceased oldest son.  The position of Great Khan was inherited by Ogodai, Jenghiz Khan's third son (see Chapter 4).  Central Asia was inherited by his second son Chagatai (Chapter 3), while the Mongol heartland was bequeathed to Tolui, his fourth son, from whom the Yan dynasty of China (Chapter 5A) and the Il-Khan dynasty of Persia (Chapter 5B) descended.  From the point of view of western Europe, the most significant bequest was the right to conquer the western lands, known collectively as the "White Horde", which was granted to the sons of his deceased oldest son Jochi (Chapter 2).  The right to the eastern part of these territories, covering western Siberia and Kazakhstan, was left to the older grandson Orda.  From these lands, the khanates of Turan, Khorezme, Samarkand, Siberia and Bukhara eventually evolved.  The right to the western portion of the new territories was left to the younger grandson Batu, who began his campaign of conquest immediately. 

 

Within ten years, Batu had established himself as ruler of the western lands as Khan of the "Golden Horde".  Between 1235 and 1241, he captured and subjugated all the Rurikid principalities before crossing the Carpathian mountains into Hungary.  Fortunately for western Europe, at that moment the Great Khan Ogodai died, and the Horde returned to Mongolia to attend the quriltai (assembly of Mongol military and princely dignitaries) to choose his successor.  Thereafter, Batu Khan established his new capital at Sarai on the lower Volga river, and consolidated his western Asian khanate but did not press further west.  The khanate of the Golden Horde disintegrated in the early 15th century, fragmenting into the khanates of Kazan, Astrakhan and Sibir.  During the 12th and 13th centuries, the khans arranged a significant number of dynastic marriages with the ruling families of Armenia, Bulgaria, Byzantium, Georgia, Lithuania and Russia, providing some interesting Mongol descents for later generations of western European rulers.  Mongol influence in the Rus principalities persisted until well into the 15th century: Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow was the first Russian ruler not to seek formal approval from the Mongols for his accession in 1462[2]

 

I am grateful to Morris Bierbrier for providing additional information relating to the descendants of Jenghiz Khan which has been incorporated into this document.  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of members of the Mongol families have not yet been consulted, except where otherwise stated in this document.  Descendants of younger sons have been omitted where nothing is known about the individuals apart from their names. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ORIGINS, JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

 

1.         QABUL Khan, son of TUMBINAI SECHEN Mongol Chieftain .  He led raids on the lands of the Tatars and attacked the Chinese, raising the political profile of the Mongols during the 11th century[3].  He put together a confederacy of Mongol tribes which fell apart after his death[4].  Seven children: 

a)         OKIN-BARQAQ .  He was executed by the Chinese.  One child: 

i)          SORQATU-JURKEI

b)         BARTAN BAATUR .  Mongol chieftain.  m AICIGEL UJIN, daughter of ---.  Four children: 

i)          MONGGETU .  He left descendants. 

ii)         NEKUN TAISHI .  He left descendants. 

iii)        YESUGAI [Esugay-Bagatur] ([1140]-[1177][5]).  Grandson of Kabul Khan[6].  He conquered some of his neighbouring Tatar tribes.  He helped Toghrul Khan of the Keraits secure his inheritance against his brothers.  He was poisoned by Tatar nomads[7]m (a) as her second husband, HÖELÜN, former wife of CHILEIDU a Mertkit, daughter of ---.  At the quriltai (assembly of Mongol military and princely dignitaries) of 1206, her son Jenghiz Khan gave her 10,000 families as chattels[8]m (b) SUCIGEL EKE [Menggelun/Dagasi Khatun], daughter of ---.  Yesugai & his wife (a) had five children:

(a)       TEMUJIN [Temudzhin] (River Onon, Mongolia [1167]-Liupan mountains, Kansu 25 Aug 1227).  He was elected Khan of all the Mongols in [1194] and adopted the name JENGHIZ Khan

-         see below

(b)       JOCHI-QAISAR .  He left descendants. 

(c)       QACIUN .  He left descendants. 

(d)       TEMUGE Otichin .  At the quriltai of 1206, his brother Jenghiz Khan gave him 10,000 families as chattels[9].  He left descendants. 

(e)       TEMULUNm BUTU of the Ikeres . 

Yesugai & his wife (b) had two children:

(f)        BEGTER .  He was killed by Temujin. 

(g)       BELGUTEI .  He left descendants. 

iv)       DARITAI OTCHIGIN .  He left descendants. 

c)         QUTUQU-MONGGUR .  One child: 

i)          BURI

d)         QUTULA KHAN .  He was killed in battle when the khanate was dissolved.  Three children: 

i)          JOCHI

ii)         GIRMAU

iii)        ALTAN OTCHIGIN

e)         QULAN .  He left descendants. 

f)          QADAAN

g)         TODOEN OTCHIGIN

 

 

TEMUCHIN, son of YESUGAI (River Onon, Mongolia [1167]-Liupan mountains, Kansu 25 Aug 1227).  He fought against the Merkit Turks of Lake Baikal, with the help of Toghrul Khan of the Keraits.  He was elected Khan of all the Mongols in [1194] and adopted the title JENGHIZ Khan.  He made an alliance with the Chin emperor against the Tatars and subjected the latter to Mongol rule.  He restored Toghrul Khan to his throne in 1197, and together they defeated the Naiman Turks in 1199.  He quarrelled with Toghrul Khan in 1203, exterminated the latter's army at Jejer Undur, along with Toghrul himself.  He subdued the Naiman at Chakirmaut in 1204[10].  He was acclaimed as their Great Khan by a quriltai in 1206[11].  He promulgated the Yasa, a code of laws which was issued in instalments and superseded the customary laws of the Steppes[12].  He launched the invasion of northern China in 1211, and by 1221 had annexed Manchuria.  The other Chin provinces were incorporated into his empire on the death in 1223 of the last Chin emperor[13].  He extended his empire westwards, incorporating the Uighurs and in 1219 moved into the domain of the Khwarem-shah [Khwarismians] in Central Asia.  Bar Hebræus records that "Djenguiz-Khan" captured Bokhara "le 4 de dou'l hiddja" in A.H. 616 (10 Feb 1220)[14].  He captured Samarkand, Otrur and Urgenj, capital of Mohammed Shah of the Khwarismians[15].  Units of his armies explored the steppe north of the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains.  His armies defeated the combined armies of Kiev, Chernigov, Galich and the Kumans at the battle of Kalka river 31 May 1223, but returned eastwards after this victory without pressing their advantage[16].  Shortly before his death he divided his empire between his four sons and established the position of senior "Great Khan" to hold the empire together[17]

m (a) ([1184]) BÖRKE Fujin, daughter of DAI NOYAN of the Qunqirat tribe.  She was held prisoner for some months by Markit Turks[18]

m (b) QULAN Khatun, daughter of DAYIR USUN of the Markit. 

m (c) YESUGAN, daughter of YEKE CHEREN of the Tatar. 

m (d) (1214) CHI-KUO, daughter of WEI-SHAO WANG.  She was known as GUNJU Khatun.    

m (e) YESULUN, daughter of YEKE CHEREN of the Tatar. 

m (f) (divorced) as her first husband, ABIKA [Ibaga] Khatun, daughter of JAGAMBO of the Kerait.  She married secondly Kahatai Noyan of the Uruut. 

m (g) as her second husband, GURBASU Khatun, widow of TAYANG Khan of the Naiman, daughter of ---. 

m (h) CHAGA Khatun, daughter of the ruler of the Tangqut. 

m (i) as her first husband, MOGE Khatun, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson, Ogodai Khan

m (j) ---, a Naiman concubine. 

m (k) ---, a Tatar concubine. 

Jenghiz Khan & his wife (a) had nine children:

1.         JOCHI ([1184]-1227).  He was destined to succeed his father in the western lands, collectively designated as the White Horde, which were divided between his sons on their grandfather's death in 1227.   

-        see below, Chapter 2

2.         CHAGATAI ([1185]-1242).  He inherited the former Uighur and Kara Khitai territories in central Asia after the death of his father in 1227. 

-        see below, Chapter 3

3.         OGODAI ([1186]-Karakoram 11 Dec 1241).  His father named him as his successor and he was confirmed at the quriltai 13 Sep 1229 as Great Khan.  His personal patrimony was the former Kerait and Naiman territories. 

-        see below, Chapter 4

4.         TOLUI ([1190]-[Sep/Oct] 1232).  He captured Merv and Nishapur, with his brother-in-law Toghutshar, during the campaign in the Hindu Kush.  His personal patrimony after the death of his father in 1227 was the Mongol heartland around the Onon river.     

-        see below, Chapter 5

5.         FUJIN BEKIm BUTU GURAGAN, son of NAKUN of the Ikiras. 

6.         CHACHAYIGANm as his --- wife, TORALCHI GURAGAN, son of QUTUQA BEKI of the Oyirat.  Six children: 

a)         BUQA TIMUR .  Four children: 

i)          CHUPAN m NOMOGHAN, daughter of ARIQ BOKA. 

ii)         JAQIR .  He left descendants.  m MANGGUGAN, daughter of HULAGU. 

iii)        TOLUN Khatun m firstly JUMGHUR, son of HULUGU & his wife Guyuk Khatun of the Oyirat tribe.  m secondly TAKSHIN, son of HULUGU & his wife Qutui Khatun (-11 Sep 1271). 

iv)       KUCHU Khatunm TOQOQAN, a Jochid. 

b)         BOROTOAm ---, a Chinggisid.  Two children: 

i)          ULUQ

ii)         RACHIN

c)         BARS BUQA m his first cousin, EL TIMUR, daughter of TOLUI & his wife Saruq Khatun.  Three children: 

i)          SHIRAB

ii)         BEGLAMISH

iii)        AMAGAN Khatun m her cousin, MALIK TIMUR, son of ARIQ BUQA & his wife Qutiqta Khatun of the Naiman (-executed 1302). 

d)         GUYUK Khatun m her first cousin, HULAGU Il-Khan, son of TOLUI Khan & his wife Sorghaqtani ([1217]-Jaghatu 19 Feb 1265). 

e)         ELCHIQMISH Khatun m firstly her first cousin, ARIQ BOQA, son of TOLUI Khan & his wife Sorghaqtani.  m secondly her stepson, NAIRAQU BUQA, son of ARIQ BOKA. 

f)          ORGHINA Khatun m her first cousin, ---, son of CHAGATAI. 

7.         ALAQAI BEKI m firstly PUYENHSIPAN, son of ALAQUS of the Ongut.  m secondly the nephew of her first husband, CHIGUIm thirdly PUYAOHO, son of ALAQUS of the Ongut. 

8.         TUMULAN m SHINGGU GURAGAN of the Qunqirat, son of DARGA GURAGAN.  One child: 

a)         TAGHAI TIMUR [Musa Guragan] m his cousin, TARAQAI, daughter of HULAGU Il-Khan & his concubine Irqan Egachi.  One child: 

i)          TODAGU Khatun m her cousin, AHMAD TEGUDAR Il-Khan, son of HULAGU Il-Khan & his wife Qutui Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe ([1247]-murdered Abshor 10 Aug 1284). 

9.         ALTALUN m her father's uncle, TAICHU GURAGAN of the Olqunuut. 

Jenghiz Khan & his wife (b) had one child:

10.      KOLGAN .  He left descendants. 

Jenghiz Khan & his wife (c) had one child:

11.      CHAUR (-young). 

Jenghiz Khan & his concubine (j) had one child: 

12.      JURCHETAI (-young). 

Jenghiz Khan & his concubine (k) had one child: 

13.      ORCHAQAN (-young). 

Jenghiz Khan & his concubine --- had one child: 

14.      EL AGATAI [Alajai] .  m KISHMAYIN, the Idiqut, ruler of the Uighur. 

15.      ---.  One child: 

a)         MUTUGEN .  Grandson of Jenghiz Khan, he was killed at the siege of Bamian in the Hindu Kush[19]

16.      daughter .  m TOGHUTSHAR .  He captured Merv, with his brother-in-law Tolui, during the campaign in the Hindu Kush, but was killed during the capture of Nishapur[20]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DESCENDANTS of JOCHI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

 

A.      KHANS of the GOLDEN HORDE

 

 

BARKA 1258-1266

 

JOCHI, son of JENGHIZ Khan ([1184]-1227).  He predeceased his father, whom he was destined to succeed in the western lands, collectively designated as the White Horde, which were divided between his sons on their grandfather's death in 1227. 

m (a) BEKTUTMISH FUJIN, daughter of JAGAMBO. 

m (b) SORQAN of the Qunquirat, daughter of ---. 

m (c) OKI FUJIN Khatun, daughter of ELCHI NOYAN of the Qunquirat. 

Jochi & his wife (b) had children: 

1.         ORDA .  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the eastern part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, comprising western Siberia, Kazakhstan and the land around the lower Syr Darya river. 

-        see below, Chapter 2.B.  KHANS of the KHAZAKS, ASTRAKHAN and BUKHARA

2.         BATU (-Sarai 1255).  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the right to the western part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, but which was at that time still unconquered and referred to as Desht-i-Kipchak, the Kipchak Khanate, or "Golden Horde".  Batu led the conquest of these western lands, launched in 1236 by his uncle Khan Ogodai, and established himself as BATU Khan of the Golden Horde

-        see below

3.         BARKA [Berke] (-Tbilisi 1266).  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237[21].  He converted to Islam.  He succeeded his nephew in 1258 as BARKA Khan of the Golden Horde, but paid less attention to Russia than the Near East[22].  Rivalry with the Golden Horde developed after the establishment of the Il-khan empire in modern Iraq and Persia, with open war breaking out by 1262.  As a response, Barka and his successor entered into close relations with the Mameluks of Egypt.  After a period of hostility with Emperor Mikhail VIII, who initially favoured the Il-khan dynasty, more cordial relations between the Golden Horde and Byzantium were cemented by marriage ties[23].  Khan Barka also supported Konstantin Tih, one of the rival claimants for the Bulgarian throne after Tsar Koloman II was deposed in 1258[24].  Khan Barka consolidated the Golden Horde's ties with the Russian Orthodox Church and established a bishopric at Sarai, although he personally converted to Islam[25].  He invaded the territory of the Il-Khans in Persia in 1266[26]m (a) TUQTOGHAI, daughter of ---.  m (b) TCHITCHEK, daughter of ---.  m (c) KEGUER, daughter of ---.  One child: 

a)         daughter m (1263) IZZ-ud-din Kay KHUSRAW III Seljuk Sultan of Rum, son of Kilic ARSLAN IV Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-1282). 

4.         BARKACHAR .  He left descendants. 

5.         SHAIBAN .  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237[27]

-        KHANS of TURAN, KHOREZME, SAMARKAND and SIBERIA

6.         TANGQUT .  He left descendants. 

7.         BOQAL .  Two children: 

a)         TATAR .  One child: 

i)          NOGAI Khan (-killed in battle on the Bug 1299).  He allied himself with Emperor Michael VIII, whose illegitimate daughter he married.  He severely plundered Bulgaria in 1271, in response to a request from the emperor who was seeking to exact revenge on Konstantin Tih Tsar of Bulgaria who had raided Thrace[28].  After the death of Mengu-Timur Khan in 1281, Nogai became more powerful in the Golden Horde than the official khans, with whom his relations were inevitably strained[29].  He was killed in battle by Tokhta Khan[30]m (a) CHUBAI, daughter of ---.  m (b) YATLAQ, daughter of ---.  She was killed by her stepson.  m (c) (1266) EUPHROSYNE [Eirene] Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his mistress ---.  Pachymeres records that "imperator aliam suam filiam…ex pellicle genitam…Euphrosynam" married "principi Noga", in [1266] from the context[31].  Pachymeres refers to the marriage between "Michaele Auguste…filiæ Euphrosynes" and "Nogas"[32].  Nogai Khan & his wife (a) had two children: 

(a)       CHAKA [Joga] (-murdered 1300).  Pachymeres names "Nogæ…filio…ex muliere Alacca…Tzacæ" when recording that he conquered Bulgaria[33].  After his father's defeat and death, he fled to Bulgaria.  With the help of his brother-in-law Todor Svetoslav, he installed himself as ČAKA Tsar of the Bulgarians in 1299, after expelling the widow of Tsar Smilec[34].  He was deposed in 1300 by his brother-in-law, strangled and his decapitated head sent to Tokhta Khan in Crimea.  m (1285) --- of Bulgaria, daughter of GEORGI TERTER Tsar of Bulgaria & his first wife Maria ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Nogæ…filio…ex muliere Alacca…Tzacæ" and "Terteris filiam"[35].  Her marriage was arranged when her father agreed to Tatar suzerainty in 1285[36].  One child: 

(1)       QARA KIJAK

(b)       TUGA .  One child: 

(1)       AQTAJI

Nogai Khan & his wife (b) had two children:

(c)       BURI (-killed [1298]).  He was killed by his brother. 

(d)       QIYAN m YAYLAQ, son of SALJIUDAI GURAGAN & his wife Qalmish Aqa. 

(e)       TOGULTA m TAZ, son of MUNJAK. 

b)         MINGQADUR .  He left descendants. 

8.         CHILAUQUN

9.         SHINGQOR .  He left descendants. 

10.      CHIMTAI .  He left descendants. 

11.      MUHAMMAD BURA

12.      UDUR .  He left descendants. 

13.      TOQA-TIMUR

-        KHANS of GREATER BULGARIA and CRIMEA

14.      SHINGQUM

15.      HOLUIQANm INALCHI, son of QUTUQU BEKI of the Oyirat. 

16.      [37][BKHATAKHAVORm ([1247/48]) as his second wife, SEMPAD Lord of Barba'ron, son of CONSTANTINE Lord of Barba'ron and Partzerpert [Armenia-Hethum] & his [---] wife --- ([1206/08]-6 Mar 1275, bur Melidje).]   

 

 

BATU 1227-1255, SARTAQ 1255-1256, ULAQCHI 1256-1257, TODA MONGKA 1282-1287, TOLA BUQA 1287-1291

 

BATU, son of JOCHI & his --- wife (-Sarai 1255).  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the right to the western part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, but which was at that time still unconquered and referred to as Desht-i-Kipchak, the Kipchak Khanate, or "Golden Horde".  Batu led the conquest of these western lands, launched in 1236 by his uncle Khan Ogodai, and established himself as BATU Khan of the Golden Horde.  The campaign started with the destruction of the main cities of the Volga Bulgars, bringing their state into the domain of the Mongols.  The conquerors then turned their attention to the Rus lands, the capture of Riazan in Dec 1237 being commemorated in several successive versions of the Tale of the Destruction of Riazan by Batu.  The Mongols destroyed Moscow in Jan 1238, moving on to capture Suzdal and Vladimir, defeating the forces of Iurii at the battle of Sit river 4 Mar 1238.  During the campaign season of 1238/39, they subdued the Polovtsy of the Steppes, the Circassians and Ossetians of the north Caucasus, and captured Pereiaslavl in Mar 1239 and Chernigov 18 Oct 1239.  Kiev surrendered to their siege 6 Dec 1240.  Batu Khan's forces forced the submission of Galich and Volynia, before they crossed the Carpathian mountains into Hungary in Feb 1241 and defeated Béla IV King of Hungary at Mohi on the river Sajó 11 Apr 1241.  The Mongols withdrew from Hungary in 1242 after learning of the death of Great Khan Ogodai 11 Dec 1241 at Karakoram, in order to attend the quriltai to select his successor.  Further conquest of Europe ceased, and Batu built his capital city Sarai on the lower Volga after establishing his Khanate of Kipchak (or Khanate of the Golden Horde) in the steppe north of the Black and Caspian Seas[38].  After Mongka succeeded as Great Khan in 1251, he delegated full authority in Europe to Batu[39].  Vardan's History records that "Batu the great governor of the North" died in [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257][40]

Five children: 

1.         SARTAQ (-1256).  Following a report, reaching Acre in 1253, that he had converted to Christianity, Louis IX King of France sent to him to help in the fight against the Muslims in Syria[41].  He succeeded his father in 1255 as SARTAQ Khan of the Golden Horde.  Vardan's History records that "Batu the great governor of the North" died in [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257] and "in that same year his son Sartakh was poisoned by his envious brothers"[42].  Two children: 

a)         ULAQCHI (-1257).  He succeeded in 1256 as ULAQCHI Khan of the Golden Horde.  After his accession, he summoned all the Russian princes to Sarai to renew their oaths of allegiance[43]m [QUTLAQ], daughter of ---. 

b)         daughter (-20 Dec 1273).  She was baptised into the Orthodox church as FEDORA[44]m (1257) GLEB Vasilkovich Prince of Beloozero, son of VASILKO Konstantinovich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Mikhailovna of Chernigov (1237-13 Dec 1278). 

2.         OQOQAN m KOCHU Khatun, daughter of BUQA TIMUR of the Oyirat.  Three children: 

a)         TARTU .  Two children: 

i)          TOLA BUQA [Telebuga] (-murdered 1291).  He succeeded in 1287 as TOLA BUQA Khan of the Golden Horde, after the abdication of Tuda-Mengu Khan.  He was the associate of Nogai Khan in the Hungarian campaign but relations between the two deteriorated after his accession.  He was eventually arrested by Nogai and handed to Tokhta who ordered his execution[45].  

ii)         KONCHAK .  He was killed by Toqta. 

b)         MONGKA TIMUR [Mengu Timur] (-1281).  He succeeded his uncle in [1266/67] as MONGKA TIMUR Khan of the Golden Horde.  -       see below

c)         TODA-MONGKA [Toda Mengku] (-1287).  He succeeded his brother in 1282/83 as TODA-MONGKA Khan of the Golden Horde.  He converted to Islam 1283.  He abdicated in favour of Telebuga 1287.  m (a) ARIQACH of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (b) TORA QUTLUG of the Alchi Tatar, daughter of ---.  Toda Mongka & his wife (a) had one child: 

i)          OR MONGKA

Toda Mongka & his wife (b) had one child: 

ii)         CHECHAKTU

Toda Mongka & his wife/concubine --- had one child: 

iii)        TOBATAI

3.         TOQIQONGA

4.         ABUGAN .  He left descendants. 

5.         SINGGUM

 

 

MONGKA TIMUR 1266-1281, TOQTAI 1291-1312

 

MONGKA TIMUR [Mengu Timur], son of OQOQAN (-1281).  He succeeded his uncle in [1266/67] as MONGKA TIMUR Khan of the Golden Horde.  He extended special trading rights within the territory of the Golden Horde to the Genoese, who developed commercial colonies at Sudak and Caffa (on the northern shores of the Black Sea)[46].  He was unable to maintain central authority over all the tribes which made up the Khanate, which enabled his cousin Nogai to assert increasing independence in the western lands bordering Bulgaria[47]

m (a) OLJAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (b) SULTAN Khatun of the Ushin, daughter of ---. 

m (c) QUTUQUI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (d) OLJAITU Khatun, daughter of SALJIUDAL Guragan of the Qunqirat & his wife Kalmish Aqa. 

m (e) CICEK Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (f) TOTLIN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (g) TATAYUN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (h) HOTLU Khatun, daughter of ---. 

Mongka Timur & his wife (a) had two children: 

1.         ALGHUI .  He was killed by Toqtai. 

2.         ABACHI

Mongka Timur & his wife (b) had one child: 

3.         TODAGAN

Mongka Timur & his wife (c) had one child: 

4.         BURLUK

Mongka Timur & his wife (d) had one child: 

5.         TOQTAI [Tokhta] (-near Saray 9 Aug 1312).  He challenged the succession of Telebuga, but was obliged to seek refuge with Nogai (also descended from Juchi) who had become a powerful military commander in his own right.  Together they orchestrated the murder of Telebuga, and Toqtai succeeded in 1291 as TOQTAI Khan of the Golden Horde.  Tokhta launched an unsuccessful campaign against Nogai in [1293/94], but defeated and killed him in 1299, thereby reuniting the Golden Horde[48]m (a) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, BULAGHAN, widow of TOGHRILCHA, daughter of ---.  She married thirdly Uzbek Khanm (b) TUKUNCHA of the Qunqirat, daughter of SALJIDAY GURGAN.  m (c) ([1299]) MARIA Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his mistress ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "imperator…notha ei filia Maria" and "Tuctain"[49].  Toqtai & his wives/concubines --- had [four] children: 

a)         TUKEL BUQA

b)         IL-BASAR (-executed 1312). 

c)         BIRUS

d)         [MARIJA (-1332)m NARIMANTAS [Narimont] of Lithuania, son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & [his first wife Wida ---] (-killed in battle Strèva 2 Feb 1348).] 

Mongka Timur & his wives/concubines --- had six children: 

6.         SARAI BUQA .  He was executed by his brother. 

7.         MULAQI

8.         QADAAN

9.         QUDUQAI

10.      TOGHRILCHA [Tughrilja] m as her first husband, BULUGHAN, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her brother-in-law Toqtai Khan, and thirdly her stepson Uzbek Khan.  She was killed by Toqtai.  Toghrilcha & his concubines --- had three children: 

a)         UZBEK (-1341).  He succeeded in 1313 as UZBEK Khan of the Golden Horde

-        see below

b)         son .  One child: 

i)          TULUNBAY (-Cairo 8 Sep 1360)m firstly (Cairo May 1320, divorced 1328) AN-NASIR MUHAMMAD Sultan of Egypt, son of QAWALUN Sultan of Egypt (-1341).  m secondly (Cairo 6 Sep 1328) MANKALIBUGA as-Silahdar (-13 Nov 1330).  m thirdly AMIR SUSAN (-20 Feb 1334).  m fourthly (19 Sep 1334) UMAR, son of ARGHUN an-Nasiri. 

c)         KONCHAKA (-1318).  She adopted the name AGAFIA on her marriage.  She was captured by the forces of Mikhail Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir during her husband's rebellion against his authority and died during her captivity[50]m (1317) as his second wife, IURII Daniilovich Prince of Moscow, son of DANIIL Aleksandrovich Prince of Moscow & his wife [Maria] ([1281]-murdered Sarai 21 Sep 1325).  He succeeded in 1318 as Grand Prince of Vladimir. 

11.      daughter .  She adopted the name ANNA on her marriage.  m as his second wife, FEDOR Rostislavich "Cherniy/the Black" Grand Prince of Smolensk, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- (-19/20 Sep 1299).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1279/80-1287.  He was appointed Prince of Iaroslavl in 1281, by right of his wife.  (1240-19/20 Sep 1299). 

 
 

UZBEK 1313-1341, TINI BEG 1341-1342, JANI BEG 1342-1357, BERDI BEG 1357-1359, QULPA 1359-1360, NAWROZ 1360

 

UZBEK, son of TOGHRILCHA (-1341).  He succeeded in 1313 as UZBEK Khan of the Golden Horde.  By the time of his reign, the Golden Horde had become a strong, wealthy state.  It adopted Islam under Uzbek's guidance.  He was an aggressive ruler who tried to keep tight control over Russia by prohibiting coalitions between the Russian princes which opposed the suzerainty of the Khan.  In this respect, he undertook severe punitive expeditions against Tver[51]

m (a) (after Aug 1312) as her third husband, his stepmother, BULUGHAN, widow firstly of TOGHRILCHA and secondly of TOKHTAI Khan, daughter of ---. 

m (b) KABAK Khatun, daughter of NAGHATAI. 

m (d) as her first husband, TAITUGHALI [Taidula], daughter of --- (-killed 1361).  She married secondly Khizir Khan, and thirdly Bazarji

m (e) URDUJA, daughter of ISA Beg. 

m (f) (1330) --- Palaiologina, [illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his mistress ---].  She was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III according to Sturdza[52], but not shown as such in Europäische Stammtafeln[53].  She converted to Islam and adopted the name BAYALUN

Uzbek & his wife [(a)] had one child: 

1.         IT KUJUJUK m as his --- wife, ISA BEG

Uzbek & his --- wife/concubine had one child: 

2.         TIMUR

Uzbek & his wife (d) had two children: 

3.         TINI BEG (-killed 1342).  He succeeded his father in 1341 as TINI BEG Khan of the Golden Horde

4.         daughter m ---, son of QUTLUGH TIMUR. 

Uzbek & his wife [(c) or (d)] had one child: 

5.         JANI BEG (-murdered 1357).  He seized control from his brother and succeeded in 1342 as JANI BEG Khan of the Golden Horde.  He was murdered by his son Berdibek[54].  Six children: 

a)         BERDI BEG (-murdered 1359).  He murdered his father and succeeded in 1357 as BERDI BEG Khan of the Golden Horde

b)         QULPA (-murdered 1360).  He deposed his brother and succeeded in 1359 as QULPA Khan of the Golden Horde.  The central authority of Sarai started to decline, with numerous changes of khan over the following 20 years and the rise to power of many leaders with local authority[55].  Two children: 

i)          IVAN (-killed 1360). 

ii)         MIKHAEL (-killed 1360). 

c)         NAWROZ (-killed 1360).  He murdered his brother and succeeded in 1360 as NAWROZ Khan of the Golden Horde

d)         twelve sons (-killed 1357).  One child: 

i)          TIMUR (-killed 1360). 

e)         [KELDI BEG .  He succeeded in [1362/63].] 

f)          SHAKAR BEGm AQ SUFI HUSAYN Qunqirat.  One child: 

i)          SEVIN BEG [Khanzade] m firstly JAHANGIR, son of TIMUR-i-Lenk (-1376).  m secondly ([1376]) MIRANSHAH, son of TIMUR-i-Lenk (-1408). 

Uzbek & his --- wife/concubine had one child: 

6.         KHIDR BEG .  

 

 

ORDU MALIK 1361-1362, BOLOD TIMUR [1362/65], TOGAY [1365], MAMAI, AZIZ 1364-[1366/67]

 

ORDU MALIK (-1362).  He succeeded in 1361. 

 

BOLOD TIMUR .  He succeeded in [1362/65]. 

 

TOGAY .  He succeeded in [1365]. 

 

MAMAI (-after 1380).  He was an autonomous warlord who established his own horde in the steppe to the west of the Volga.  Not of the royal blood of Jenghiz Khan, he could not rule in his own name but exercised power through a series of puppets Khans[56].  Dmitry Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow took advantage of the confusion which accompanied the succession disputes in the Khanate by refusing to pay tribute.  He defeated the forces of Mamai at Vozha river in 1378, at the battle of Kulikov near the upper Don river in 1380[57]

 

AZIZ .  He succeeded [1364] to [1366/67]. 

 

 

ABDULLAH 1364-[1366/67], JANI BEG II [1366/67], MUHAMMAD BULAQ [1370], AIBEK [1371], QARIN [1371/75]

 

ABDULLAH .  He was installed as rival Khan by Mamai in 1364 to [1366/67]. 

 

JANI BEG II .  He succeeded in [1366/67]. 

 

MUHAMMAD BULAQ .  He succeeded in [1370]. 

 

AIBEK .  He succeeded in [1371]. 

 

QARIN .  He succeeded in [1371/75], when the remnants of the Khanate were reunited by the White Horde. 

 

 

TOQTA 1376, TIMUR MALIK [1376/77], TIMUR QUTLUGH 1395-1401, SHADI BEG 1401-1408, PULAD 1408-1410, TIMUR 1410-1412

 

CHIMTAI, son or brother of MUBARAK KHWAJA Ruler of the Ulus Orda (-[1361]).  Ruler of the White Horde. 

Two children: 

1.         URUS (-1376).  Ruler of the White Horde.  Four children: 

a)         TOQTA (-[1376]).  He succeeded in 1376, but was deposed or died in the same year. 

b)         TIMUR MALIK .  He succeeded in [1376/77].  Two children: 

i)          TIMUR QUTLUGH (-1401).  One child: 

(a)       TIMUR (-1412).  He succeeded [his cousin] in 1410.  m ---, daughter of IDIGE Manghit.  One child: 

(1)       KUCHUK MUHAMMAD (-1465).  He succeeded [1435]-1465. 

-         KHANS of ASTRAKHAN, KHANS of KAZIMOV

ii)         SHADI BEG (-1408).  He succeeded his brother in 1401.  [Two] children: 

(a)       GHIYAS-UD-DIN

(b)       [PULAD (-1410).  He succeeded [his father] in 1408.] 

c)         QUTLUGH BUGA (-killed 1376). 

d)         KOIRIJAQ .  One child: 

i)          BARAQ .  He was founder of the Qazaq line, and ancestor of the Khans of Kazan and Khans of Kazimov. 

2.         TULI KHWAJA of the White Horde.  One child: 

a)         TOQTAMISH (-after 1399).  He started his career in the service of Timur Khan, but soon built up his own forces and moved into the territory of the Golden Horde.  He captured Sarai in 1378, reunited the Horde and succeeded as TOQTAMISH Khan of the Golden Horde[58]

-        see below

 

 

TOQTAMISH 1378-1395, JALA-ud-DIN 1412, KARIMBERDI 1412-[1414], KABAK [1414]-1417, JABBARBERDI 1417-

TOQTAMISH, son of TULI KHWAJA of the White Horde (-after 1399).  He started his career in the service of Timur Khan, but soon built up his own forces and moved into the territory of the Golden Horde.  He captured Sarai in 1378, reunited the Horde and succeeded as TOQTAMISH Khan of the Golden Horde[59].  He defeated Mamai at the battle of Kalka river in 1381, becoming unchallenged ruler of all parts of the Golden Horde.  Khan Toqtamish besieged Moscow in 1382, forced Dmitry "Donskoi" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow to flee, and eventually obliged him to agree to resume payment of tribute in return for confirmation of his title of Grand Prince[60].  He recognised the overlordship of Timur, but the latter defeated him in 1391 after which Toqtamish's jurisdiction was restricted to the western half of the territories.  Timur defeated him again at the battle on the Terek river in 1395, and Toqtamish fled to Lithuania[61].  Allied with Vitovt Grand Duke of Lithuania, he returned but was again defeated in 1399, and fled to western Siberia where he died a few years later. 

Seven children: 

1.         JALA-UD-DIN (-[1412]).  He succeeded his cousin in 1412 as JALA-UD-DIN Khan of the Golden Horde

2.         KARIMBERDI (-[1414]).  He succeeded his brother in 1412 as KARIMBERDI Khan of the Golden Horde

3.         KABAK (-1417).  He succeeded his brother [1414/15] as KABAK Khan of the Golden Horde

4.         JABBARBERDI .  He succeeded his brother in 1417 as JABBARBERDI Khan of the Golden Horde

5.         QADIRBARDI

6.         SAIYID AHMAD

7.         EDIGEI (-1419).  He invaded Muscovy in surprise attacks in 1400 and 1408, but did not succeed in breaking the grower power of Moscow[62].  He seized Khwarezm in 1406.  He was deposed in 1411 by his son-in-law.  He retreated to the steppe where he exercised local influence until he was killed[63].  One child: 

a)         daughter m TIMUR, son of ---.  He deposed his father-in-law in 1411. 

 

 

After this, the Golden Horde once more fragmented.  It was replaced by the Khanate of Crimea, the Khanate of Kazan (formed around 1445 under Ulu-Muhammed) which absorbed the state of Bulgar, and ultimately the Khanates of Astrakhan and Sibir. 

 

 

 

B.      KHANS of the KHAZAKS, ASTRAKHAN and BUKHARA

 

 

ORDA, son of JOCHI .  He succeeded his grandfather in 1227 in the eastern part of the western lands which had been intended for his father, comprising western Siberia, Kazakhstan and the land around the lower Syr Darya river. 

m (a) JUKA Khatun of the Quinqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (b) TOBAQANA of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (c) ---, daughter of OGA Khan of the Qunqirat. 

m (d) MOG EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

Orda & his wife (a) had one child: 

1.         SARTAQTAI m HUJAN, sister of QUTUI Khatun (wife of Hulagu), daughter of ---.  One child: 

a)         QONCHI (-[1300]).  He succeeded his uncle as ruler of the Ulus Orda as TURUQ Khanm (a) TOQOLUQAN of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (b) [as her first husband,] BUQULUN of the Markit, daughter of ---.  She may have married secondly her stepson Bayanm (c) as her first husband, CHINGTUM of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Bayanm (d) BAQUJIN of the Jajirat, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Bayan.  Qonchi & his [wife (a)] had one child: 

i)          BAYAN m (a) as her second husband, his stepmother, CHINGTUM of the Qunqirat, widow of QONCHI, daughter of ---.  m (b) as her second husband, his stepmother, BAQUJIN of the Jajirat, widow of QONCHI, daughter of ---.  [m (c) as her second husband, his stepmother, BUQULUN of the Markit, widow of QONCHI, daughter of ---.]  m (d) ELGAN, daughter of TEMUGE of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (e) QUTULUN Khatun, daughter of BUQAYAN Bugubai of the Oghuz.  m (f) ALTACHU, daughter of TORAI Bahadur of the Qunqirat.  Bayan & his wife (d) had one child: 

(a)       SHADI

Bayan & his wife (e) had one child:  

(b)       SASI [Sati] Buqa .  Ruler of the Ulus Orda.  One child: 

(1)       ILBASAN [Irzan] (-[1320]).  Ruler of the Ulus Orda.  One child: 

a.         MUBARAK KHWAJA (-1344).  Ruler of the Ulus Orda.  One child: 

(i)         CHIMTAI (-1361).  He was either the son or brother of Mubarak Khwaja. 

-         KHANS of the GOLDEN HORDE

Bayan & his wife (f) had one child: 

(c)       TAGANA

Bayan & his wife/concubine --- had one child: 

(d)       SALJIUTAI

Qonchi & his [wife (b)] had one child:

ii)         BACHQIRTAIm KOKALUN of the Markit, daughter of ---.  One child: 

(a)       YAKA

Qonchi & his [wife (c)] had one child:

iii)        CHAGHAN BUQA m SARTISH, daughter of QOSH TIMUR of the Kerait.  One child: 

(a)       CHIRATAI

Qonchi & his [wife (d)] had one child:

iv)       MAQUDAI

Orda & his wife --- had one child: 

2.         QULIm (a) NANDIKAN of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (b) QADAGAN, daughter of ---.  m (c) KOKTANI, daughter of ---.  Quli left descendants.   

3.         QURUMSHI

4.         QONQIRAN .  He succeeded his father as ruler of the Ulus Orda.  He died without issue. 

5.         CHORMAQAI

6.         QUTUQUIm (a) SOLUQU Khatun, daughter of ---.  m (b) QOYARCHIN of the Qipchaq, daughter of ---.  Qutuqui left descendants. 

Orda & his wife (d) had one child: 

7.         HULAGU .  He died without issue. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DESCENDANTS of CHAGATAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

CHAGATAI, son of JENGHIZ Khan ([1185]-1242).  He inherited the former Uighur and Kara Khitai territories in central Asia after the death of his father in 1227[64].  He was murdered by the Assassins[65]

m (a) YESULUN Khatun, daughter of QATA NOYAN of the Qunqirat. 

m (b) TOGAN Khatun, daughter of QATA NOYAN of the Qunqirat. 

m (c) SEVINCH Khatun, daughter of BARAQ HAJIB Qutluq Sultan Khan of Kirman. 

m (d) ---, daughter of MUHAMMAD Khwarazmshah. 

Chagatai & his concubine --- had one child: 

1.         MOCHI YABA .  He left descendants. 

Chagatai & his wife (a) had one child: 

2.         MOATUKAN (-killed Bamian ----).  He left descendants. 

Chagatai & his concubines --- had children: 

3.         BALGASH

4.         SARBAN .  He left descendants. 

5.         YESU MOKA .  He succeeded his nephew. 

6.         BAIDAR .  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237.  After the fall of Kiev in Dec 1240, he commanded the troops which moved into Poland, sacked Sandomir and Krakow, routed the Polish army at Wahlstadt near Liegnitz 9 Apr 1241, then turned south to Hungary[66].  He left descendants. 

Chagatai & his wife (b) had one child: 

7.         QADAQAI

Chagatai & his concubines --- had two children: 

8.         MOCHI

9.         SALGHAN .  After Hulagu Khan's conquest of the Assassins in Persia, a number of the relatives of Grand Master Rukn ad-Din Khurshah were sent to her to exact vengeance for the murder of her father[67]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DESCENDANTS of OGODAI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

OGODAI, son of JENGHIZ Khan & his wife ([1186]-Karakoram 11 Dec 1241).  His father named him as his successor and he was confirmed at the quriltai 13 Sep 1229 as Great Khan.  His personal patrimony was the former Kerait and Naiman territories[68].  In 1234, he completed the conquest of China launched by his father.  He turned his attention in 1235 to the conquest of the western lands assigned to his nephew Batu.  After he died, Mongol forces withdrew from Europe so that the different competitors for the succession could be present to safeguard their own positions.  Ultimately, the rivalry which following triggered dynastic strife which eventually led to the downfall of the Mongol empire[69]

m (a) BORAQCHIN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (b) TORGANE Khatun of the Markit, wife of DAYIR USAN, daughter of ---.  She assumed the regency on the death of her husband, and plotted for her son Guyuk to inherit the throne[70]

m (c) his stepmother, MOGE Khatun, widow of JENGHIZ Khan, daughter of ---. 

m (d) ALQUI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (e) KIRGISTANI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (f) KUCULDER Khatun, daughter of TIMUR BUQA Tegin of the Naiman. 

[m (g) CHUCAI [Jujai] Khatun, daughter of ---.  She may have been the same person as Ogodai's wife (d).] 

[m (h) JACHIN Khatun, daughter of ---.  She may have been the same person as Ogodai's wife (e).] 

Concubine (i) ARGANA, daughter of ---. 

Ogodai & his wife (b) had five children: 

1.         GUYUK (1206-Khum Sengir Apr 1248).  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237, but was sent into exile by his father who had supported Batu[71].  He succeeded his father 24 Aug 1246 as Great Khan, although his succession was challenged by his first cousin Batu Khan of the Golden Horde.  Hethum the Historian's History records that "his son Guyuk who was short-lived" succeeded Ogodai[72].  He was poisoned apparently either by agents of Batu Khan or of the widow of Tolui Khan[73]m OGHUL QAIMISH Khatun, daughter of --- (-executed [May/Jul] 1252).  She acted as regent after the death of her husband[74].  Four children: 

a)         KHWAJA OGHUL [Qucha] .  He and his brothers were sent into exile after unsuccessfully challenging the election of Mongka as Great Khan in 1251[75].  He left descendants. 

b)         NAGHU .  One child: 

i)          CHABAT

c)         HOQU [Qughu] .  He left descendants. 

d)         daughter m as his first wife, TANGGIZ GURAGAN .  He married secondly Todogach, daughter of Hulagu.  One child: 

i)          QUTLUGH Khatun m ARGHUN Il-Khan, son of ABAQA Il-Khan & his concubine Qaitmish Egachi of the Onguut tribe (Baylaqan 1261-Baghcha 3 Mar 1291). 

2.         KOTAN (-1251).  Ruler of Kansu.  He left descendants. 

3.         KOCHU (-killed in battle 1236).  He was intended by his father as his heir.  He was killed fighting the Chinese[76]m QATAQASH of the QUNQIRAT tribe, daughter of --- (-executed 1252).  Kochu & his wife had one child: 

a)         SHIREMUN (-executed 1252).  His grandfather Ogedei Khan named him as his successor, but he was passed over in favour of Guyuk.  He was executed by Mongka Khan.  He left descendants. 

Kochu & [his concubines ---] had three children: 

b)         BULAUCHI .  He left descendants. 

c)         SOSE

d)         AM-TOU m SARTAQ, son of BATU. 

4.         QARACHAR .  One child: 

a)         TOQTO [Totaq] .  Two children: 

i)          UZBEK

ii)         SARAM-DORJI

5.         QASHI (-[1235/36]).  m SANGA Khatun, daughter of ---.  He left descendants. 

Ogodai & his wife (i) had one child: 

6.         QADAAN .  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237[77].  He left descendants. 

Ogodai & his --- wife/concubine had one child: 

7.         MALIK .  He left descendants, Princes of Yang-chai. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DESCENDANTS of TOLUI, son of JENGHIZ KHAN

 

 

 

A.      SONS of TOLUI

 

 

TOLUI, son of JENGHIZ Khan & his first wife Börke Fujin ([1190]-[Sep/Oct] 1232).  He captured Merv and Nishapur, with his brother-in-law Toghutshar, during the campaign in the Hindu Kush[78].  His personal patrimony after the death of his father in 1227 was the Mongol heartland around the Onon river[79]

m (a) SORGHAQTANI Beki, daughter of JAGAMBU of Kerait (-Feb 1252).  She was a Nestorian Christian.  She refused the offer of Ogedei to marry his son Guyuk after the death of her husband[80]

m (b) SARUQ Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (c) as her first husband, LINGKUN Khatun, daughter of GUSHLAG Khan.  She married secondly Malik Timur

m (d) NAYAN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (e) as her first husband, DOQUZ Khatun, daughter of ABAQU (son of Ong Khan) (-27 Jun 1265).  She married secondly her stepson Hulagu Ilkhan of Persia

Tolui & his wife (a) had four children: 

1.         MONGKA (10 Jan 1209-Hu-chou 11 Aug 1259).  He fought with Batu Khan in Russia in 1237, leading the troops which conquered the Alans and the north Caucasian tribes[81].  After the confusion which followed the death of Guyuk Khan in 1248, Mongka was elected Great Khan at a quriltai at Ala Qanaq in 1250, confirmed at Kodee Abali 1 Jul 1251, with the support especially of Batu Khan.  His succession was challenged by his cousins, the three sons of Guyuk, but he prevailed over them and was installed as Great Khan in 1252 at Karakoram[82].  During his reign the conquest of Persia was completed and the Caliphate of Baghdad captured.  He died while campaigning with his brother Kubilai in China[83]m (a) QUTUQTAI Khatun, daughter of ULUDAI (son of BUTU GURAGAN of the Ikiras].  She was a Nestorian Christian.  m (b) OGHUL QOYMISH of the Oyirat, daughter of ---.  Concubine (c) BAYAUJIN of the Bayaut, daughter of ---.  Concubine (d) KUI YABA of the Eljigin, daughter of ---.  Khan Mongka & his wife (a) had two children: 

a)         BALTU

b)         BAYALUN m MARIK, son of CHAUQURCHIN [son of Butu Guragan]. 

Khan Mongka & his wife (b) had three children: 

c)         URUNGTASH .  Three children: 

i)          SARBAN .  He died without issue. 

ii)         KONCHAK .  He died without issue. 

iii)        MONGKA TIMUR

d)         SHIRIN m as his [first] wife, CHOCHIMTAI, son of TAICHU GURAGAN of the Olqunuut. 

e)         BICHQA m as his [second] wife, CHOCHIMTAI, son of TAICHU GURAGAN of the Olqunuut. 

Khan Mongka & his concubine (c) had one child: 

f)          SHIRAGI .  Prince of Ho-Ping 1265.  He left descendants, Princes of Ping and Princes of Ki-yang. 

Khan Mongka & his concubine (d) had one child: 

g)         ASUTAIm TAIKI, daughter of ---.  He left descendants, Princes of Wei-an. 

2.         QUBILAI [Kubilai] (23 Sep 1215-Tatu 18 Feb 1294).  After his brother's election as Great Khan in 1251, Kubilai set about the conquest of China and converted to Buddhism[84].  After the death of his brother Mongka, he called a quriltai which elected him as Great Khan, supported by his generals in China[85].  He struggled for power with Arik-Buka on the death of Mongke, the dispute lasting five years.  He founded the Yan dynasty in China.  m (a) TEGULUN Khatun, daughter of --- (-before 1260).  m (b) QORUQCHIN Khatun of the Markit, daughter of QUTUQU.  m (c) CHABUI Khatun (chief wife), daughter of ALCHI Noyan of the Qunqirat (-[Mar/Apr] 1277).  m (d) DORBAJIN Khatun of the Dorban tribe, daughter of ---.  m (e) HUSHIJIN, daughter of BOROQUL NOYAN of the Hushin.  m (f) BAYUJIN Khatun, daughter of BORAQCHIN Khatun of the Bayaut tribe.  m (g) NAMBUI Khatun, niece of CHABUI Khatun, daughter of NACHIN GURAGAN.  Qubilai & his wife (b) had one child: 

a)         QORIDAI .  He died without issue. 

Qubilai & his wife (c) had four children: 

b)         DORJI ([1234]-).  He died without issue. 

c)         JINGIM [Chin-chin] (1243-1285).  Prince of Yen.  He was appointed heir apparent in Apr 1273.  m KOKACHIN Khatun, daughter of BAIRAM Egechi (-1300).  He left descendants, Chinese Emperors of the Yan dynasty, Princes of Chin, Princes of Liang, Princes of Siang-ning. 

d)         MANGQALA (-Dec 1278).  Prince of An-hsi Nov 1272.  Prince of Chin 1273.  m PUTRI, granddaughter of ELCHI NOYAN, daughter of ---.  He left descendants, Princes of Chin, Princes of An-hsi. 

e)         NOMOGHAN (-[1292/1301]).  Prince of Pei-ping.  Two children: 

i)          daughter . 

ii)         daughter . 

Qubilai & his wife (d) had two children: 

f)          HUGACHI .  Prince of Yun-an.  He left descendants, Princes of Yun-an. 

g)         OQRUQCHI .  Prince of Hsi-ping 1269.  Ruler of Tibet.  He left descendants. 

Qubilai & his wife (e) had three children: 

h)         AYACHI .  He left descendants. 

i)          KOKOCHU .  Prince of Ning.  He left descendants. 

j)          QUTKUQ TIMUR .  He left descendants. 

Qubilai & his wife (f) had three children: 

k)         TOGHAN .  Prince of Chen-nan.  He left descendants. 

l)          TAMACHI

m)       BEKCHIN Khatun

Qubilai & his --- wives/concubines had --- children: 

n)         QUDULUQ KALMISH [Cheguk] (-1297).  m SIM Prince of Korea, son of WONJONG King of Korea (-30 Jul 1308).  He succeeded in 1274 as CHUNGYOL King of Korea, deposed 1298, restored 1298. 

o)         OLJEI m as his [first] wife, OLOCHIN of the Onggirat, son of NACHIN Prince of Lu (-1277). 

p)         UNEGEJIN [Nanggijan] . m firstly as his [second] wife, OLOCHIN of the Onggirat, son of NACHIN Prince of Lu (-1277).  m secondly her first husband's brother, as his first wife, TIMUR of the Onggirat Prince of Chi-ning, son of NACHIN Prince of Lu (-1295).  He married secondly his first wife's niece Nanko Bura. 

q)         MIAO-YEN .  A nun. 

r)          daughter .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          TIMUR (Kesh, near Samarkand, Turkestan 1336-Samarkand 1405).  He became TIMUR "the Lame" Khan of the Tartars.  He built an Empire stretching from the borders of China to the Bay of Bengal and to the Mediterranean.  He conquered the lands of Ilkhanate in Persia between 1381 and 1386.  He captured Baghdad in 1392, and in 1395 Erzinjan and Sivas in eastern Anatolia.  In 1398, he conquered northern India, and in 1400 Aleppo and Damascus[86].  He defeated and captured Sultan Bayezit I at the battle of Ankara 25 Jul 1402.  He left Anatolia late 1403, returning to Samarkand his chief capital where he died while planning the conquest of China.  His empire began to disintegrate rapidly after his death. 

3.         HULAGU ([1217]-Jaghatu 19 Feb 1265).  He supervised the extension of the Mongol Empire into the Near East the campaign into Persia starting in 1253.  His forces annihilated the Assassins in Persia in 1257, captured Baghdad in 1258 and entered Syria in 1259[87].  His brother Kubilai gave him the hereditary government of the Mongol possessions in south-western Asia and the title HULAGU Il-Khan[88].   

-        see below, Chapter 5.B.  ILKHANS of PERSIA

4.         ARIQ-BUQA .  He remained in Mongolia after the election of his brother as Great Khan in 1251[89].  After the death of his brother Mongka, he called a quriltai which elected him as Great Khan, supported by many of his imperial relatives in Mongolia.  He was finally vanquished by his brother Kubilai end 1261[90]m (a) his first cousin, ELCHIQMASH Khatun of the Oyirat, daughter of TORALCHI Guragan & Chahchayigan.  She married secondly her stepson, Nairaqu Buqam (b) QUTIQTA Khatun of the Naiman, daughter of ---.  m (c) QUTLU Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  concubine (d) IRAGHUI of the Barlas, daughter of ---.  concubine (e) ESHITAI of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  Ariq Boka & wife (b) had five children: 

a)         YOBUQUR .  Prince of Ting.  m (a) YESUDAR, daughter of ---.  m (b) CHALUN Khatun of the Qaranut, daughter of ---.  m (c) IRINJIMMA Khatun of the Ushin, daughter of ---.  m (d) OGHUL Tegin, daughter of GUCHULUK Khan of the Naiman.  He left descendants. 

b)         MALIK TIMUR (-executed 1302)m (a) his cousin, AMAGAN Khatun, daughter of BARS BUQA of the Oyirat.  m (b) his niece, NEGUDAR, daughter of NAYANQA GURAGAN & his wife Chaluqan Aqa.  m (c) GILTA Khatun, daughter of ---.  m (d) TORA, daughter of the Shiragi of the Dorban tribe.  m (e) as her second husband, LINGQUN Khatun, widow of TOLUI, daughter of GUSHLAG Khan.  concubine (f) TUQLAQ Oljai, daughter of BAIGHARA of Almalyk.  Malik Timur & his wife (a) had one child: 

i)          MINGQAN .  One child: 

(a)       SOSE .  One child: 

(1)       ARPA KAUN (-executed Ujan 15 May 1336).  He succeeded in 1335 as ARPA KAUN Il-Khan

ii)         AJIQI

iii)        YESUN TOA

iv)       BARITAI

Malik Timur & his wife (d) had four children: 

v)        OYIRATAI

vi)       MAHMUD

vii)      AMAGAN m TUQ TIMUR, grandson of BARS BUQA, son of ---. 

viii)     EL QUTLUQ m ---, son of KOBAK of the Suldus. 

Malik Timur & his wife (e) had one child: 

ix)       EL-TIMURm BARS BUQA Guragan . 

Malik Timur & his wife --- had one child: 

x)        daughter .  m QADAAN, son of JAUTU of the Suldus. 

c)         NAIRAQU BUQA m (a) his stepmother, ELCHIQMISH Khatun of the Oyirat, widow of ARIQ BUQA, daughter of TORALCHI Guragan & his wife Chahchayigan.  m (b) ASHIGHTAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  m (c) OCHIN EGACHI of the Olqunuut tribe, daughter of ---.  Nairaqu Buqa & wife (a) had one child: 

i)          ASHIQTAI

Nairaqu Buqa & his wife (b) had [six] children: 

ii)         QURBAQA

iii)        BACHIN

iv)       SAMSKAR

(a)       [NOQAI .  Prince of Chen-ning.] 

v)        [BAYAN ABUGANsame person as…?  BAYAN TIMUR (see below).] 

vi)       BAYAN TIMUR

vii)      [ARA TIMURsame person as…? OLJAI TIMUR (see below).  

Nairaqu Buqa & his wife (c) had one child: 

viii)     OLJAI TIMUR

Nairaqu Buqa & his wife --- had one child: 

ix)       BOLOD (-after 1329).  Prince of Chi.  One child: 

(a)       TAMUR TOQTA

d)         CHALUQAN AQA m NAYANQA GURAGAN of the Bayaut .  Two children: 

i)          NEGUDAR m her uncle, MALIK TIMUR, son of ARIQ BUQA & his wife Qutiqta Khatun of the Naiman (-executed 1302). 

ii)         QAMTAI

e)         NOMOGHAN m CHUPAN GURAGAN of the Oyirat, daughter of ---. 

Ariq Boka & his concubine (e) had one child:

f)          TAMMACHI .  He left descendants.  m ER TEGIN, daughter of SORQADU Baurchi. 

Tolui & his wife (b) had two children: 

5.         JORIKA m BULAGHI .  They died without issue. 

6.         EL TIMUR m her first cousin, BARS BUQA GURAGAN of the Oyirat, son of TORALCHI Guragan & his wife Chahchayigan. 

Tolui & his wife (c) had one child: 

7.         QUTUQTU m (a) BUTA Egachi, daughter of ---.  m (b) QUNDUZ Egachi [Qulun Khatun] of the Bayaut.  Qutuqtu & wife (a) had two children: 

a)         TUKAL BUQA .  He died without issue. 

b)         KALMISH AQA m SALJIUDAL Guragan of the Qunqirat, son of BULAGHAN Noyan.  Two children: 

i)          YAYLAQ m his cousin, QIYAN, daughter of NOGAI Khan & his wife Yatlaq. 

ii)         OLJAITU Khatun m MONGKA TIMUR Khan, son of OQOQAN. 

Qutuqtu & his wife (b) had one child: 

c)         SHIRIN Agha m TUQCHI GURAGAN of the Ushin. 

Tolui & his [wives] --- had one child: 

8.         BOCHOK .  He left descendants. 

9.         MOGA .  He left descendants. 

10.      SOGATAI .  He left descendants. 

11.      SUBUGATAI .  He left descendants. 

12.      YESU BUQA m OJIN of the Onggirat, son of ALJIN (-[1257]). 

 

 

 

B.      IL-KHAN DYNASTY of PERSIA

 

 

HULAGU [1260]-1265, TEGUDAR AHMAD 1282-1284, BAIDU 1295, MUHAMMAD MUZAFFAR-ed-DIN 1336-1337, NASIR-ed-DIN 1336-1337, SULAYMAN 1339-[1343]

 

HULAGU, son of TOLUI Khan & his wife Sorghaqtani ([1217]-Jaghatu 19 Feb 1265).  He supervised the extension of the Mongol Empire into the Near East, the campaign into Persia starting in 1253.  His forces annihilated the Assassins in Persia in 1257, captured Baghdad 10 Feb 1258 and entered Syria in 1259[91].  His brother Kubilai gave him the hereditary government of the Mongol possessions in south-western Asia and the title HULAGU Il-Khan[92].  Vardan's History records that "Hulgegu the brave took Baghdad" in [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259] and "killed the caliph Mustasr with his own hand"[93].  Vardan's History records that "at the beginning of the year…the great [Hulegu]" died in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266][94]

m (a) his cousin, GUYUK Khatun of the Oyirat tribe, daughter of TORALCHI GURAGAN & his wife Chachayigan. 

m (b) QUTUI Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---. 

m (c) YESUNJIN Khatun of the Suldus tribe, daughter of --- (-Jan 1272). 

m (d) his stepmother, DOQUZ, widow of TOLUI Khan, daughter of ABAQU (son of Ong Khan) (-27 Jun 1265).  Vardan's History names "Hulegu's senior wife, Toghuz xatun…a Christian of the Syrian persuasion who are the Nestorians"[95].  Vardan's History records that "at the beginning of the year…the great [Hulegu]" died in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266] and "only three months later…queen Doquz khatun" died[96]

m (e) as her first husband, TUQTANI Khatun, granddaughter of ABAQU, daughter of --- (-21 Feb 1292).  She married secondly her stepson, Abaqa, and thirdly (12 Jul 1282) her stepson, Qonturkai

m (f) as her first husband, OLJAI Khatun, daughter of TORALCHI GURAGAN & his wife ---.  She married secondly her stepson, Abaqa Il-Khan

concubine (g) NOGACHIN EGACHI of Cathay, daughter of ---. 

concubine (h) BORAQCHIN, daughter of ---. 

concubine (i) ARIGHAN EGACHI, daughter of TANGGIZ GURAGAN (-8 Feb 1265). 

concubine (j) AJUJA EGACHI of Cathay, daughter of ---. 

concubine (k) YESHICHIN of the Kurluut, daughter of ---. 

concubine (l) EL EGACHI of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---. 

concubine (m) IRQAN EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (n) MANGLIGACH EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

Hulagu & his wife (a) had two children: 

1.         JUMGHUR (1234-[1264/65]).  He supported Ariq Boka in the civil war.  m (a) as her first husband, TOLUN Khatun, daughter of BUQA TIMUR.  She married secondly her brother-in-law, Takshinm (b) as her first husband, CHAURCHI Khatun, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Jushkab.  Jumghur & his concubines --- had children: 

a)         JUSHKAB (-executed 10 Jun 1289)m as her second husband, his stepmother, CHAURCHI Khatun, widow of JUMGHUR, daughter of ---. 

b)         KINGSHU m as her first husband, EL-QUTLUGH, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Ahmad Tegudar Il-Khan.  Two children: 

i)          SHIRAMUN

ii)         TOGHACHAQ (-executed 19 Jan 1291).  He was executed for sorcery under Abaqa Il-Khan. 

Jumghur & his wife (a) had one child: 

c)         ORGHUTAQ m SHADAI GURAGAN, son of SUUNCHAQ.  Two children: 

i)          HABASH

ii)         GUNJISHKAB m her cousin, GHAZAN Il-Khan, son of ARGHUN Il-Khan & his concubine Qutluq Egachi ([1272]-Pushkil Darrall 11 May 1305). 

Jumghur & his wife/wives --- had two children: 

d)         MUKERMISH .  One child: 

i)          MINGAN

e)         INJITAI m firstly her uncle, MANGGU TIMUR, son of HULAGU Il-Khan & his wife Oljai Khatun (23 Oct 1256-Jazirat ibn Umar, near Mosul 26 Apr 1282).  m secondly her stepson and first cousin, ANBARCHI, son of MANGGU TIMUR. 

2.         BULUQAN AGHA m JOMA GURAGAN, son of JOCHI, a Tatar & his wife Chechagan [daughter of Otchi Noyan]. 

Hulagu & his wife (c) had one child: 

3.         ABAQA (Mongolia 1234-Hamadan 1 Apr 1282).  Governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran.  He succeeded his father in 1265 as ABAQA Il-Khan, through the influence of his mother[97], and was enthroned at Tuzlu Gol 19 Jun 1265 and again at Jaghatu 18 Nov 1270 on receipt of confirmation from the Great Khan. 

-        see below

Hulagu & his concubine (g) had two children: 

4.         YOSHMUT (-18 Jul 1271).  Governor of Arran and Azerbaijan.  Three children: 

a)         SOGAI (-executed Markoy 1296).  One child: 

i)          YUSUF Shah .  One child: 

(a)       ILYAS (-killed [1343]).  He was proclaimed as SULAYMAN Il-Khan in Jul 1339.  m as her third husband, his cousin, SATI BEG, widow firstly of CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe and secondly of ARPA KAUN Il-Khan, daughter of OLJAITU Il-Khan. 

b)         QARA NOGAI (-executed near Damghan 7 Oct 1289). 

c)         ZAMBU (-Jaghatu 31 Dec 1291). 

5.         TUBSHIN .  Governor of Khorasan.  m ASHLUN, daughter of KIHTAR BITIGCHI of the Dorban tribe.  Tubshin & his wife had one child: 

a)         SATI

Hulagu & his wife (b) had two children: 

6.         TAKSHIN (-11 Sep 1271)m as her second husband, his sister-in-law, TOLUN Khatun, widow of JUMGHUR, daughter of BUQA TEMUR.  Takshin & his wife had two children: 

a)         SAQI

b)         ESAN BUR m firstly as his second wife, SHADI GURAGAN, son of SUUNCHAQ.  widower of her cousin Orghtaq.  m secondly ARAB, son of SHADAI GURAGAN. 

7.         TEGUDAR ([1247]-murdered Abshor 10 Aug 1284)Hethum the Historian's History records that "Abagha's brother Teguder [was] in his youth…baptised Nicholaus but [converted]…and wanted to be styled Muhammad-Khan"[98].  As a child he was baptised into the Nestorian faith with the name NICHOLAS.  He was elected to succeed his brother as TEGUDAR Il-Khan 6 May 1282, announced his conversion to Islam, adopted the name AHMAD and the title Sultan[99], and was enthroned at Ala Tag 21 Jun 1282.  He was deposed and murdered in a palace conspiracy[100]m (a) TOKUZ Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---.  m (b) ARMINI Khatun of the Qunqirat tribe, daughter of ---.  m (c) BAYTEGIN, daughter of HUSAYN AGHA.  m (d) TODAGU Khatun, daughter of MUSA GURAGAN.  m (e) as her second husband, EL-QUTLUQ, widow of KINGSHU, daughter of ---.  m (f) (6 Apr 1284) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, TODAI Khatun, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  She married thirdly thirdly her stepson, Arghun Il-Khanconcubine (g) QURQUCHIN, daughter of ---.  concubine (h) QONQURCHIN, daughter of ---.  Tegudar & his wife (a) had one child: 

a)         KUCHUK m ALINAQ, son of --- (-killed Qichan 4 Jul 1284). 

Tegudar & his wife (b) had five children: 

b)         QAPLANCHI

c)         ARSLANCHI

d)         KONCHAK (-executed 1319)m IRINJIN, son of SARUCHA Agha (-killed in battle 1319). 

e)         CHECHAK m BORACHU, son of DURABAI. 

f)          MAINU m JANDAN, son of GARAI BAURCHI. 

Tegudar & his wife (d) had one child: 

g)         SAILUN m QARACHA

Tegudar & his concubine (h) had two children: 

h)         NOQACHI

i)          KALTURMISH m firstly as his [---] wife, SHADAI, son of BUGHU.  m secondly her stepson, TOGHAN, son of SHADAI. 

Hulagu & his concubine (h) had one child: 

8.         TARAGAI m QARAQCHIN, daughter of ---.  Taragai & his wife had one child: 

a)         BAIDU ([1256]-executed Tabriz 4 Oct 1295).  He succeeded his cousin in 1295 as BAIDU Il-Khan, enthroned Hamadan/Ujan in Apr 1295.  He was overthrown by Ghazan.  m (a) ORDU QUTLUGH, daughter of QUTB-al-din MUHAMMAD of Kirman.  m (b) the niece of his wife (a), SHAH-i-ALAM, daughter of SOYURGHATMISH.  m (c) ---, daughter of DOLADAI IDACHI.  Baidu Il-Khan & his wife (b) had one child: 

i)          QIPCHAQ (-executed near Maragha 26 Sep 1295). 

Baidu Il-Khan & his concubines --- had two children: 

ii)         MUHAMMAD

iii)        ALI .  Two children: 

(a)       MUSA (-executed 10 Jul 1337).  He succeeded in opposition to Arpa Kaun, was proclaimed NASIR-ed-DIN Il-Khan [Apr/May] 1336, enthroned at Tabriz 6 May 1336.  He was deposed and executed. 

(b)       HAJJI KAUN

Taragai & his concubine(s) --- had two children: 

b)         MUHAMMAD

c)         ESHIL m firstly TUQ TIMUR, son of ABD al-lah Aqa.  m secondly ---, son of ABD al-lah Aqa. 

Hulagu & his concubine (i) had one child: 

9.         AJAI (-1265).  One child: 

a)         ILDAR (-executed 1295).   

Hulagu & his concubine (j) had one child: 

10.      QONQURTAI (-executed Qarabagh 18 Jan 1284).  Governor of Rum.  m (12 Jul 1282) as her third husband, TUQTANI Khatun, widow firstly of HULAGU Il-Khan and secondly of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  Qonqurtai & his wife had children: 

a)         ESAN TIMUR KHARBANDA (-executed 1296).  One child: 

i)          PULAD

b)         ILDEI [Ildar] (-executed 1296).  One child: 

i)          AQ TIMUR

c)         CHARIG TIMUR (-young). 

d)         GARAI (-young). 

e)         TASH TIMUR (-young). 

f)          ASIGH TIMUR (-young). 

Hulagu & his concubine (k) had one child: 

11.      YESUDAR .  Governor of Khorasan.  Two children: 

a)         HADASH

b)         daughter m ESAN BUQA GURAGAN, son of NOGAI YARGHUCHI. 

Hulagu & his wife (f) had four children: 

12.      MANGGU TIMUR (23 Oct 1256-Jazirat ibn Umar, near Mosul 26 Apr 1282).  He led one of the Ilkhan armies which advanced into Syria in Sep 1281[101]m (a) his cousin, OLJAI Khatun, daughter of BUQA TIMUR.  m (b) ([1272]) ABISH TARKHAN, daughter of SAD Atabeg of Fars ([1260]-[1286/87]).  m (c) NOJIN Khatun, daughter of DORBAI NOYAN.  m (d) as her first husband, his niece, INJITAI, daughter of JUMGHUR & his wife Tolun Khatun.  She married secondly her stepson, Anbarchim (e) ALINAQ EGACHI, daughter of ---.  m (f) BIBI SHAH AKAJI, daughtger of RUKN-al-din Khwaja Juq of Kirman.  Manggu Timur & his wife (e) had three children: 

a)         ANBARCHI m as her second husband, his stepmother and cousin, INJITAI, widow of MANGGU TIMUR, daughter of JUMGHUR & his wife Tolun Khatun.  Anbarchi & his concubines --- had two children: 

i)          ESAN TIMUR .  One child: 

(a)       YUL QUTLUGH .  One child: 

(1)       PIR HUSAYN ([1326]-executed Shahr-Naw, Alataq [16 Jul] 1338).  He succeeded as MUHAMMAD Il-Khan, in opposition to Musa Il-Khan, proclaimed Il-Khan with the title MUZAFFAR-ed-DIN 20 Jul 1336, enthroned at Qaradarrah 25 Jul 1336.  He was deposed and executed. 

ii)         QONCHI (-executed ----).  Two children: 

(a)       TALAGSTU-MANGGU .  One child: 

(1)       MUHAMMAD

(b)       TASIMODI .  One child: 

(1)       SAGA .  One child: 

a.         TAS-FUSAIQA .  Two children: 

(i)         SULAYMAN

(ii)        YAANSHA

Anbarchi & his wife had one child: 

iii)        QUTUQTAI m ARAB, son of SAMAGHAR. 

b)         TAICHU (-executed Hashtrod/Dalan Naur 15 Apr 1298).  One child: 

i)          PULAD

c)         GARAI .  One child: 

i)          son (-young). 

Manggu Timur & his wife (b) had one child: 

d)         KURDUCHIN m firstly JALAL-al-din SUYURGHATMISH Sultan of Kirman (-executed Kirman 21 Aug 1294).  m secondly SATALMISH, son of Amir BURALGHI.  [m thirdly TOGHAI .] 

Manggu Timur & his concubine(s) --- had three children: 

e)         QASHAN

f)          ARGHUN BEKI .  He left descendants. 

g)         BUYAN AGHA m SUTAI AKHTACHI (-1332).  Two children: 

i)          HAJJI TAGHAI (-1343). 

ii)         BARANBAI .  One child: 

(a)       IBRAHIM SHAH m ---, daughter of ALI PADSHAH Governor of Diyarbekir. 

Manggu Timur & his wife (d) had one child: 

h)         ARA QUTLUGH m firstly TARAQAI GURAGAN, son of JAQIR GURAGAN [son of Buqa Timur].  m secondly DOLADAI IDECHI

13.      JAMAI m JOMA GURAGAN, son of JOCHI a Tatar & his wife Chechagan (daughter of Otchi Noyan). 

14.      MANGGUGAN m firstly her cousin, JAQIR GURAGAN, son of BUQA TIMUR.  m secondly her stepson, as his first wife, TARAQAI, son of JAQIR GURAGAN.  He married secondly his first wife's cousin, Ara Qutluq, daughter of Manggu Timur. 

15.      BABA m LAGZI GURAGAN, son of ARGHUN AQA of the Oyirat tribe. 

Hulagu & his concubine (l) had two children: 

16.      HULACHU (-executed Damghan 7 Oct 1289).  Joint-governor of Rum 1285.  Four children: 

a)         SULAYMAN (-executed 1289). 

b)         KOCHIK

c)         KHWAJA

d)         QUTLUGH BUGA

17.      SHIBAUCHI (-1281). 

Hulagu & his concubines --- had two children: 

18.      TAGHAI TIMUR .  Two children: 

a)         QURUMSHI

b)         HAJJI

19.      TODOGACH m firstly TANGGIZ GURAGANm secondly her stepson, SULAMISH Governor of Rum, son of TANGIZ GURAGAN.  m thirdly her stepson, CHICHAK, son of TANGIZ GURAGAN.  Todogach & her second husband had two children: 

a)         OLJATAI Khatun m firstly (1288) ARGHUN Il-Khan, son of ABAQA Il-Khan & his concubine Qaitmish Egachi of the Onguut tribe (Baylaqan 1261-Baghcha 3 Mar 1291).  m secondly her stepson, OLJAITU Il-Khan, son of ARGHUN Il-Khan & his wife Uruk Khatun (24 Mar 1282-Sultaniya 17 Dec 1316). 

b)         HAJJI Khatun m OLJAITU Il-Khan, son of ARGHUN Il-Khan & his wife Uruk Khatun (24 Mar 1282-Sultaniya 17 Dec 1316). 

Todogach & her third husband had two children: 

c)         ALI PADSHAH (-killed in battle Qara Darra 24 Jul 1336).  Governor of Diyarbekir.  One child: 

i)          daughter m her cousin, IBRAHIM Shah, son of BARANBAI. 

d)         MUHAMMAD (-executed Jul 1337)m as her second husband, QUTLUGH MALIK, widow of QURUMSHI, daughter of GAIKHATU Il-Khan.  Three children: 

i)          ISA .  

ii)         YADGAR

iii)        daughter m her cousin, HASAN JALAYIR .  He founded a new dynasty. 

Hulagu & his concubine (m) had one child: 

20.      TARAQAI m her cousin, TAGHAI TIMUR [Musa Guragan], son of SHINGGU GURAGAN & his wife Tumulan [daughter of Jenghis Khan]. 

Hulagu & his concubine (n) had one child: 

21.      QUTLUQQAN m firstly YESU BUQA GURAGAN, son of URUGHTU NOYAN of the Dorban tribe.  m secondly her stepson, TUKEL, son of YESU BUQA Guragan. 

 

 

ABAQA 1265-1282, ARGHUN 1284-1291, GHAIKKATKU 1291-1295, GHAZAN 1295-1305, OLJAITU 1295-1316, ABU SAID 1316-1335, SATI BEG 1338-1339, JAHAN TIMUR 1339-1340

 

ABAQA, son of HULAGU Il-Khan & his wife Yesunjin Khatun (Mongolia 1234-Hamadan 1 Apr 1282).  Governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran.  He succeeded his father in 1265 as ABAQA Il-Khan, and was enthroned at Tuzlu Gol 19 Jun 1265 and again at Jaghatu 18 Nov 1270 on receipt of confirmation from the Great Khan.  Vardan's History records that "Abaqa, Hulegu's senior son" was enthroned as Il-Khan after the death of his father by "their relation Teguder, also called Il-Khan" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266][102].  Baptised 1265.  Khan Berke of the Golden Horde invaded Persia in 1266[103].  He defeated the invading forces of the descendants of his great-uncle Chagatai in 1270 at the battle of Herat[104].  He and his brother led two Ilkhan armies into Syria in Sep 1281 but were defeated by the Mameluks at Homs 30 Oct 1281, after which the Euphrates river was established as the frontier between the two Empires[105]

m (a) DORJI Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (b) NUQDAN Khatun, daughter of ---. 

m (c) as her first husband, ELTUZMISH Khatun, daughter of QUTLUGH TIMUR GURAGAN.  She married secondly her stepson, Ghaikkatku Il-Khan

m (d) (1265) as her second husband, his stepmother, OLJAI Khatun, widow of HULAGU Il-Khan, daughter of TORALCHI GURAGAN. 

m (e) as her second husband, TUQTANI Khatun, widow of HULAGU Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  She married thirdly (12 Jul 1282) Qonturkai

m (f) (1265) as her first husband, MARIA Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his mistress --- Diplobatatzaina (-after 1307).  Pachymeres records that "filiam…notham…Mariam…ex Diplobatatzina" was sent to marry "principem…Tocharorum Chalau", after whose death before her arrival she married "filio et successori Chalau in principatu…Apaga"[106].  Pachymeres records that "imperator Palaeologus Michael" sent "filiam suam notham Mariam" to marry "principi Tocharorum Chalau", and that after his death she married "frater [error for filius] ipsius idemque in principatu successor Apagas"[107].  Her father arranged her marriage to Hulagu Il-Khan, but by the time she arrived at his court he had died and she was married to his son instead.  Vardan's History records that "Abaqa was brought a wife from the Byzantines named Despina, daughter of the king called Vatatzes" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266] and that he was baptised at her request[108].  She was known as Despina Khatun at the Il-Khan court[109].  She founded the convent of Mugulion after 1281.  She [married secondly ([1307/08]) Charbanden, Turkish prince].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II negotiated an alliance with "Charmpantane" and proposed his marriage to "sororem propriam Mariam…dominæ Mugullorum", granting her "comitatu deduci Nicæam" which had been invaded by the Persians, dated to [1307/08] from the context[110].  It is not clear from the text whether this marriage ever took place, especially as it is unclear why Charbanden would have considered Maria a good marriage prospect as she must have been in her 50s or early 60s at the time, assuming that the date of her first marriage is correct. 

m (g) MARTAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---. 

m (h) as her first husband, BULUGHAN Khatun, daughter of --- (-20 Apr 1286).  She married secondly her stepson, Arghun Il-Khan

m (i) ([1271/72]) as her first husband, PADISHAH Khatun, daughter of Sultan QUTB-al-din MUHAMMAD Khan of Kirman (-executed Yaylak [Jun/Jul] 1295).  She married secondly her stepson, Ghaikkatku Il-Khan

m (j) as her first husband, TODAI Khatun of the Qunqirat, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Ahmad Tegudar Il-Khan, and thirdly her stepson, Arghun Il-Khan

concubine (k) QAITMISH EGACHI of the Onguut tribe, daughter of ---. 

concubine (l) KAWKABI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (m) BULUGHANCHIN EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (n) BULUJIN EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

concubine (o) [as her first husband,] SHIRIN EGACHI, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Amir Pulad

concubine (p) ALTAI EGACHI, daughter of ---. 

Abaqa & his concubine (k) had one child: 

1.         ARGHUN (Baylaqan 1261-Baghcha 3 Mar 1291).  Governor of Khorasan and Mazandaran.  He rebelled at Khorassan against his uncle Tekuder [Ahmed], who was murdered in a palace conspiracy, and succeeded his uncle in 1284 as ARGHUN Il-Khan[111], enthroned 11 Aug 1284 and again 17 Apr 1286 on receipt of confirmation from the Great Khan.  His ambassadors visited Constantinople, Rome and Paris in 1287, and between then and his death attempted several times to make an alliance with the western powers to make a joint attack on the Mameluks[112]m (a) his cousin, QUTLUGH Khatun, daughter of TANGGIZ GURAGAN & his wife --- [daughter of Guyuk Great Khan].  m (b) URUK Khatun, daughter of SARUCHA.  m (c) SALJUQ Khatun, daughter of RUK ed-Din Seljuk Sultan of Rum.  m (d) as her second husband, his stepmother, BULUGHAN Khatun, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of --- (-20 Apr 1286).  m (e) (7 Jan 1287) as her third husband, his stepmother, TODAI Khatun, widow firstly of ABAQA Il-Khan and secondly of AHMAD TEGUDAR Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  m (f) (1288) as her first husband, his cousin, OLJATAI Khatun, daughter of SULAMISH & his wife Todogach.  She married secondly Oljaitu Il-Khanm (g) (22 Mar 1290) as her first husband, BULUGHAN Khatun, daughter of OTMAN [son of Abatai Noyan] (-5 Jan 1310).  She married secondly her husband's brother Ghaikkaktu Il-Khan, and thirdly her stepson Ghazan Il-Khanconcubine (h) QUTLUQ EGACHI, daughter of KIHTAR BITIGCHI of the Dorban tribe.  concubine (i) QUTAI, daughter of QUTLUQ BUQA.  concubine (j) [as her second husband,] ARGANA EGACHI, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  Arghun Il-Khan & his concubine (h) had one child: 

a)         GHAZAN ([1272]-Pushkil Darrall 11 May 1305).  Governor of Khurasan and Mazandaran 1285.  He succeeded his uncle in 1295 as GHAZAN Il-Khan, enthroned 9 Nov 1295.  He converted to Islam 19 Jun 1295 and adopted the name MAHMUD.  He adopted Islam as the state religion of the Ilkhanate in 1295[113].  In 1303, Emperor Andronikos II requested his help to fight the Turks and arranged his marriage with his own reputed illegitimate daughter[114]m (a) as her first husband, his cousin, GUNJISHKAB Khatun, daughter of SHADAI & his wife Orqudaq.  She married secondly her brother-in-law Oljaitu Il-Khanm (b) his cousin, YEDI QURTQA, daughter of MANGGU TIMUR GURAGAN & his wife Tughlughshah [descendant of Chaghatai].  m (c) BULUGHAN Khatun, daughter of TASU & his wife Mangli Tegin [daughter of Arghun Aqa].  m (d) (2 Jul 1296) ESHIL Khatun, daughter of TUGH Timur.  m (e) KOKACHIN Khatun, daughter of --- (-Jun 1296).  m (f) (Oct 1295) BULUGHAN Khatun, widow firstly of ARGHUN Il-Khan and secondly of GHAIKKAKTU Il-Khan, daughter of OTMAN [son of Abatai Noyan] (-5 Jan 1310).  m (g) as her second husband, his uncle's widow, DONDI Khatun, widow of GHAIKKAKTU Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  m (h) (17 Jul 1289) KARAMU Khatun, daughter of QUTLUGH Timur (-21 Jan 1304).  Ghazan Il-Khan & his wife (c) had one child: 

i)          child (b and d 1291). 

Ghazan Il-Khan & his wife (f) had two children: 

ii)         OLJAI QUTLUGH (14 Mar 1297-)m her cousin, BISTAM, son of OLJAITU Il-Khan. 

iii)        ALCHU (Dalan Naur 22 Feb 1298-Ujan 20 Aug 1300). 

Arghun Il-Khan & his wife (a) had one child: 

b)         KHITAI (-24 Jan 1298). 

Arghun Il-Khan & his wife (b) had five children: 

c)         YESU TIMUR (-1290). 

d)         OLJAITU (24 Mar 1282-Sultaniya 17 Dec 1316).  He succeeded his brother as OLJAITU Il-Khan in 1295, enthroned at Aljan 19 Jul 1295 with the title Ghiyas-al-din MUHAMMAD Khudabanda Oljaitu.  m (a) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, his cousin, KUNJUSHKAB Khatun, widow of GHAZAN Il-Khan, daughter of SHADAI & his wife Orqudaq.  m (b) (20 Jun 1305) his cousin, QUTLUGHSHAH, daughter of IRINJIN.  m (c) (23 Jun 1305) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, BULUGHAN Khatun, widow of GHAZAN Il-Khan, daughter of TASU & his wife Mangli Tegin [daughter of Arghun Aqa].  m (d) TERJUGHAN, daughter of LAGZI GURAGAN.  m (e) as her third husband, ELTUZMISH, widow firstly of ABAQA Il-Khan and secondly of GAIKKATKU Il-Khan, daughter of QUTLUGH TIMUR GURAGAN.  m (f) his cousin, HAJJI Khatun, daughter of SULAMISH & his wife Todogach.  m (g) as her second husband, his cousin, OLJATAI Khatun, widow of ARGHUN Il-Khan, daughter of SULAMISH & his wife Todogach.  m (h) SIYURGATMISH, daughter of AMIR HUSAYN.  m (i) TUGHA Khatun, daughter of ---.  m (j) DUNYA Khatun, daughter of Al-MANSUR Najm-al-din Ghazi of Mardin.  concubine (k) QONGTAI, daughter of TIMUR.  Nine children: 

i)          BISTAM (-Tchamkhal ----).  He died aged 12.  m OLJAI QUTLUGH, daughter of GHAZAN Il-Khan & his wife Bulughan Khatun. 

ii)         BAYAZID .  He died aged 8. 

iii)        TAIFUR (-[young]). 

iv)       ABU SAID (Nurquy 2 Jun 1305-Qarabagh 30 Nov 1335).  Governor of Khurasan.  He succeeded his father as ABU SAID Il-Khan in Dec 1316, enthroned [5 Jul/16 Aug] 1317 with the title ALA-AL-DINm (a) ([1327]) as her second husband, BAGHDAD Khatun, former wife of HASAN JALAYIR, daughter of CHUPAN (-executed 16 Dec 1335).  m (b) ADILSHAH, daughter of TUKAL (-7 May 1332).  m (c) (1333) as her first husband, his cousin, DILSHAD Khatun, daughter of DIMISHQ KHWAJA & his wife Turshin.  She married secondly Hasan Jalayir.  Sultan Abu Said & his wife (c) had one child: 

(a)       daughter (18 May 1336-).   

v)        SULAYMANSHAH (-[young]). 

vi)       ADILSHAH (-[young]). 

vii)      ABUL-KHAYR (-[young]). 

viii)     DULANDI (-1314)m (30 Sep 1305) as his [first] wife, CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe (-executed Herat Nov 1327).  Regent for Sultan Abu Said.  One child: 

(a)       JALAU (-executed Herat Nov 1327). 

ix)       SATI BEG (-after 1345).  She succeeded her brother, proclaimed ruler as SATI BEG in [Jul/Aug] 1338.  She was deposed in favour of Sulayman.  m firstly (6 Sep 1319) as his [second] wife, CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe (-executed Herat Nov 1327).  m secondly (Tabriz [Feb/Mar] 1336) ARPA KAUN Il-Khan, son of SOSA.  m thirdly (1339) SULAYMAN Il-Khan, .  Sati-Beg & her first husband had one child: 

(a)       SURGAN (-executed Diyarbekir 1345).  Governor of Qarabagh 1336.  Governor of Iraq 1340. 

e)         OLJATAI m firstly QUNCHUQBALm secondly as his [---] wife, AQ BUQAm thirdly her stepson, AMIR HUSAYN JALAYIR, son of AQ BUQA. 

f)          OLJAI TIMUR m firstly TUKALm secondly (30 May 1296) QUTLUGHSHAH NOYAN (-1307). 

g)         QUTLUGH TIMUR (-Baghdad ----).  She died unmarried. 

Arghun Il-Khan & his wife (g) had one child: 

h)         DOLANJI (-young). 

Abaqa & his wife (b) had one child:

2.         GHAIKKATKU ([1271]-executed Pil-suvar, Tabriz 24 Mar 1295).  Joint-governor of Rum.  He succeeded his brother in 1291 as GHAIKKATKU Il-Khan, proclaimed at Akhlat 23 Jul 1291.  Hethum the Historian's History records that "Arghun…was succeeded by his brother…Rheghayid"[115]m (a) AYISHA Khatun, daughter of TOGHU.  m (b) as her first husband, DONDI Khatun, daughter of AQ BUQA.  She married secondly Ghazan Il-Khanm (c) as her second husband, his stepmother, ELTUZMISH Khatun, widow of ABAQA Il-Khan, daughter of QUTLUGH TIMUR GURAGAN.  She married thirdly Oljaitu Il-Khanm (d) PADISHAH Khatun, daughter of QUTB-al-Din [later ruler of Kirman as SAFWAT-al-din] (-executed Yaylak [Jun/Jul] 1295).  m (e) URUK Khatun, daughter of SARICHA of the Kerait.  m (f) ([Jul/Aug] 1292) his sister-in-law, BULUGHAN Khatun, widow of ARGHUN Il-Khan, daughter of OTMAN [son of Abatai Noyan] (-5 Jan 1310).  concubine (g) [as her first husband,] NANI, daughter of ---.  She married secondly her stepson Alafrangconcubine (h) ESAN, daughter of BEGLAMISH.  Ghaikkatku Il-Khan & his wife (a) had three children: 

a)         ULA QUTLUGH m GHURBATAI

b)         EL QUTLUGH m (7 Aug 1301) QUTLUGHSHAH (-1307). 

c)         ARA QUTLUGH

Ghaikkatku Il-Khan & his wife (b) had three children:

d)         ALAFRANG (-executed 30 May 1304)m as her second husband, his stepmother, NANI, widow of GHAIKKATKU Il-Khan, daughter of ---.  Two children: 

i)          JAHAN TIMUR (-1340 or after).  He was proclaimed JAHAN TIMUR Il-Khan in opposition to Sati Beg in 1339.  He was deposed in 1340. 

ii)         daughter m as his --- wife, ELJIDAI QUSCHICHI (-executed 1295). 

e)         IRANSHAH

f)          QUTLUGH MALIK m firstly QURUMSHI, son of ALINAQ.  m secondly her cousin, MUHAMMAD, son of CHICHAK & his wife Todukach (-executed Jul 1337). 

Ghaikkatku Il-Khan & his concubine (g) had one child:

g)         CHING PULAD

Abaqa & his wife (j) had two children:

3.         YUL QUTLUGH m firstly as his --- wife, ELJITAI QUSHCHI (-executed 1295).  m secondly ELBASMISH

4.         TAGHAI m firstly AHMAD, brother of QUNCHUQBAL, son of ---.  m secondly DOLADI IDACHI

Abaqa & his wife (h) had one child:

5.         MALIKA m TOGHAN BUQA, son of NOGAI YARGHUCHI. 

Abaqa & his concubine (m) had one child:

6.         TOGHANCHUQ (-1291)m NAWROZ, son of ARGHUN AQA (-executed 13 Aug 1297). 

Abaqa & his concubine (n) had two children:

7.         EL QUTLUGH m GHURBATAI GURAGAN of the Hushin tribe. 

8.         OLJATAI (-before 1302).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Vakhtang married "sa sœur Oldjath" (referring to Khan Arghun) after being installed as king[116].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Khan married "sa sœur Oldjath, veuve du roi Wakhtang" to King Davit[117]m firstly (1289) VAKHTANG II King of Kaketi and Kartli, son of DAVIT VI "Narin/the Clever" King of Imerati & his second wife --- (-1292, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  m secondly (1292) as his first wife, DAVIT VIII King  of Kakheti and Kartli, son of DEMETRE II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli & his first wife --- Komnene of Trebizond (1278-1310, bur Mtzkheta). 

Abaqa & his wife (g) had one child:

9.         NUJIN

 

 

The precise relationship between the following two individuals and the Il-Khan family is not known: 

1.         --- Mongol princess, relative of GHAZAN Ilkhanm (1297) as his second wife, THOROS King of Armenia, son of LEO II King of Armenia & his wife Kyr Anna [Theophano] of Lampron (1271-murdered Partzerpert 23 Jul 1298, bur Trazerg). 

2.         --- Mongol princess, relative of GHAZAN Ilkhan.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "Sempad" had visited the Mongols, in [6 Jan 1297/5 Jan 1298] or before, and that the Khan had given him "une épouse de la famille de ce dernier"[118]m (1297) SEMPAD King of Armenia, son of LEO II King of Armenia & his wife Kyr Anna [Theophano] of Lampron (1277-[1310/11]). 

 

 

ARPA KAUN 1335-1336

 

ARPA KAUN, son of SOSA (-executed Ujan 15 May 1336).  He succeeded his distant cousin and brother-in-law as Sultan 30 Nov 1335.  He was defeated in battle.  m (Tabriz [Feb/Mar] 1336) as her second husband, SATI BEG, widow of CHUPAN of the Suldus tribe, daughter of OLJAITU Il-Khan.  She married thirdly Sulayman Il-Khan

 

 

 



[1] Chirovsky, N. L. Fr., (1973) A History of the Russian Empire, Vol. 1 Grand-Ducal Vladimir and Moscow (Peter Owen, London), pp. 154-5. 

[2] Chirovsky (1973), p. 251. 

[3] Chirovsky (1973), pp. 154-5. 

[4] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, p. 237. 

[5] Grousset, R. (1941) L'Empire Mongol, 1ère phase, pp. 48-54. 

[6] Chirovsky (1973), p. 155. 

[7] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 238. 

[8] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241. 

[9] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241. 

[10] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 240. 

[11] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241, and Martin, J. (1999) Medieval Russia 980-1584 ( Cambridge University Press), p. 134. 

[12] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 241. 

[13] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 243. 

[14] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 91. 

[15] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 244. 

[16] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 247. 

[17] Chirovsky (1973), p. 157. 

[18] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 240. 

[19] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 245. 

[20] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 245. 

[21] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[22] Chirovsky (1973), p. 168. 

[23] Martin (1999), p. 144. 

[24] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 179. 

[25] Martin (1999), p. 155. 

[26] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 320. 

[27] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[28] Fine (1994), p. 180. 

[29] Chirovsky (1973), p. 169. 

[30] Martin (1999), p. 171. 

[31] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 5, p. 180. 

[32] Pachymeres, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 263. 

[33] Pachymeres, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 264. 

[34] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[35] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 264. 

[36] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[37] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck)Tables XIV and III, in the latter described as "relative of Batu Khan".  . 

[38] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 251-2, and Martin (1999), pp. 138-140. 

[39] Chirovsky (1973), p. 166. 

[40] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey), 90, 705 A.E. [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257], consulted at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[41] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 280. 

[42] Vardan 90, 705 A.E. [17 Jan 1256/16 Jan 1257]. 

[43] Chirovsky (1973), p. 167. 

[44] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes XIII au XVI siècles´, Orientalia Christiana XXXV - 1, No 94, Jun 1934 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1934)”), Table XI, p. 60. 

[45] Chirovsky (1973), p. 169. 

[46] Martin (1999), p. 143. 

[47] Fine (1994), p. 179. 

[48] Martin (1999), p. 171. 

[49] Pachymeres, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 27, p. 268. 

[50] Martin (1999), p. 175. 

[51] Chirovsky (1973), p. 170. 

[52] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 372. 

[53] ES II 183. 

[54] Chirovsky (1973), p. 171. 

[55] Martin (1999), p. 202. 

[56] Crummey, R. O. (1987) The Formation of Muscovy 1304-1613 (Longman), p. 44. 

[57] Chirovsky (1973), p. 214. 

[58] Crummey (1987), p. 51. 

[59] Crummey (1987), p. 51. 

[60] Martin (1999), p. 214. 

[61] Martin (1999), p. 203. 

[62] Chirovsky (1973), pp. 222-3. 

[63] Martin (1999), p. 204. 

[64] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 249. 

[65] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 299. 

[66] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[67] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 300. 

[68] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 249. 

[69] Chirovsky (1973), p. 158. 

[70] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 252. 

[71] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 251-2. 

[72] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II (New Jersey), Book III, 19. 

[73] Chirovsky (1973), p. 158. 

[74] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 260. 

[75] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 294. 

[76] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 252. 

[77] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[78] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 245. 

[79] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 249. 

[80] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 293. 

[81] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 251. 

[82] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 293-4. 

[83] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 309. 

[84] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 294. 

[85] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 309. 

[86] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 463. 

[87] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 301-03, and 305. 

[88] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 319. 

[89] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 294. 

[90] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 309. 

[91] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 301-03, and 305. 

[92] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 319. 

[93] Vardan 91, 707 A.E. [16 Jan 1258/15 Jan 1259]. 

[94] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[95] Vardan 90. 

[96] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[97] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 320. 

[98] Hethum the Historian Book III, 37. 

[99] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 397. 

[100] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 397. 

[101] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 391. 

[102] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[103] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 320. 

[104] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 332. 

[105] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 391-2. 

[106] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 3, p. 174. 

[107] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 22, p. 611. 

[108] Vardan 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266]. 

[109] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 331-2. 

[110] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 25, p. 620. 

[111] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 397. 

[112] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 398-402. 

[113] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 429. 

[114] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 147. 

[115] Hethum the Historian Book III, 38. 

[116] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 607. 

[117] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 612. 

[118] Brosset, M. (1876) Collection d´historiens arméniens, Tome II (St Petersburg), Samuel of Ani, Tables chronologiques, p. 464.