GEORGIA

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

RETURN TO CONTENTS

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                PRINCES of IBERIA, PRINCES of KARTLI, KINGS of ABKHAZIA. 5

A.         PRINCES of GEORGIA (IBERIA) 575-619 (BAGRATID DYNASTY) 6

B.         PRINCES of GEORGIA (IBERIA) [619]-787 (KHOSROID) 10

C.        PRINCES (KOUROPALATES) of GEORGIA (IBERIA) [787]-mid-9th CENTURY (BAGRATID) 15

D.        PRINCES of TAO and ARTANOUDJ, KINGS of KLARDIETH (BAGRATID) 23

E.         PRINCES (KOUROPALATES) of KARTLI (BAGRATID) 29

F.         KINGS of ABKHAZIA.. 37

G.        KINGS of KAKHETIA.. 41

H.        KINGS of OSSETIA (ALANIA) 43

Chapter 2.                KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1476. 46

A.         KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1213. 46

B.         KINGS of KAKHETI and KARTLI 1246-1313. 62

C.        KINGS of GEORGIA 1314-1476. 67

Chapter 3.                KINGS OF IMERATI 1258-1389. 72

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Bagratid dynasty ruled the kingdom of Georgia in the Caucasus from the early medieval period until the territory's annexation by Russia in 1801. 

 

An appreciation of Georgian history is complicated by the different names attributed to the whole or parts of the territory, by Georgian, Armenian and western European sources.  The name "Georgia" is rarely used in contemporary primary sources.  It appears to be derived from "Gourdji" and "Djourz", respectively the Persian and Arabic words for the Georgian people, and "Gourdjistan" and "Djorzan" the equivalent words denoting the country, both possibly linked to the name of the Kura river in the south of the country and which evolved into the Russian "Gruzi" and "Gruzia"[1].  "Iberia" is a name frequently applied to Georgia during the early medieval period, especially in Byzantine sources ("Ιβηρια").  Brosset suggests that this name evolved from "Vir" (plural "Virk"), the Armenian word for Georgia which indicates the "upper" or northern land (in other words, to the north relative to Armenia), and its derivatives "Verhin" and "Veriatsi"[2].  The name "Albania" is also applied in a general way in European sources to Georgia.  It apparently evolved from Aghovank or Aghbania, an Armenian-derived name for the territory to the east of Georgia in present-day Azerbaidjan which was originally settled by the descendants of an Armenian patriarch Sisacan[3].  Procopius refers to “Armeniam, Persarmeniam, Albaniam, Iberiam” in his account of the Persian wars of Emperor Anastasius in the early 6th century[4], but it is not clear precisely which territories he was referring to.  "Alania" is another name applied to Georgians, particularly in Byzantine sources, although this more strictly applies to the kingdom of the Alans, also known as Ossetia, to the north of Georgia and the east of Abkhazia. 

 

Several different autonomous Georgian principalities and kingdoms existed in the Caucasus from the 8th to 11th centuries.  The principality of Kartli was located in the southern central part of the modern state of Georgia, in the area of the Kura river around Tbilisi and Mtskheta.  The Georgian Chronicle names one of the legendary pre-Christian era kings "Karthlos", which may provide the derivation of the name "Kartli"[5].  Kakhetia was the autonomous kingdom in north-eastern Georgia to the north of the principality of Kartli, centred around the town of Telavi, the name supposedly deriving from "Kakhos" the name of one of the alleged eight sons of the legendary figure Karthlos[6].  Abkhazia is the area to the north-west of Georgia, its name being a local one in the Abkhaz language[7].  The name of the region of Mingrelia (also known as Samegrelo in Georgian) derives from the Georgian "Egrisi" ("Eger" in Armenian), and comes from the name "Egros", brother of Karthlos[8].  It is located on the Black Sea coast to the south of Abkhazia, its chief town being Zugdidi.  The kingdom of Imeretia was the last Georgian entity to evolve, first noted in 1259, located to the south of Abkhazia and north of Kartli, centred around the town of Kutaisi beyond mount Likh, its name deriving from "imier" the Georgian word for "beyond"[9].  Tao is the name given to an ill-defined area around the Chorokh mountains in central Georgia.  Samtzkhe is the area in the upper reaches of the Kura river, the origin of the name being uncertain[10]

 

The Bagratid dynasty which ruled the principality of Kartli gradually absorbed the other entities, and in 1014 the kingdoms of Kartli, Abkhazia and Kakhetia were united by King Giorgi I into the kingdom of Georgia. 

 

The considerable Byzantine influence over Georgia between the 9th and early 12th centuries is reflected in the honorary Byzantine titles accorded by the emperor to the Georgian rulers, as well as the number of marriages between the ruling families.  Davit IV King of Abkhazia and Kartli renounced his Byzantine allegiance and titles, and established himself in the old Georgian capital Tbilisi in the 1120s.  In the 13th century, the kingdoms of Georgia survived as vassals of the Mongols, but King Giorgi V stopped payment of tribute and reasserted Georgian independence after his accession in 1314.  The kingdom of Georgia was split once more in the late 15th century when King Konstantini II was obliged to recognise the independence of local rulers in Kakhetia and Imeretia, while he retained control only over Kartli. 

 

The reconstruction of the genealogy of the pre-14th century Georgian rulers is based largely on the so-called "Georgian Chronicle", the title of which in Georgian translates more precisely as "Life of Karthli/Vie du Karthli"[11].  The surviving manuscripts of this chronicle (all of which are defective in some way) are based on a document written in Armenian, some time between 1279 and 1311, which is a compilation of different works originally written in Georgian by different authors between the 6th and 13th centuries, none of which has survived[12].  This version of the Chronicle, which ends abruptly around 1125, is referred to in this document as the "Georgian Chronicle (13th century)".  A version exists in Georgian which extends the narrative much further, but this is an early 18th century revision with expansions of some passages and rearrangement of others[13].  This later version is referred to in the present document as the "Georgian Chronicle (18th century)".  The later version (often referred to in secondary sources as the "Chronicle of Vakhtang") states in its first paragraph that it is a compilation ordered by King Vakhtang VI (who was killed at Kandahar in 1709) who "collected wise men who assembled from all places all copies they could find of the chronicles of Georgia, charters of Mtskheta, Gelath, and many churches and lords" and "rectified all which had been changed…and transcribed the whole"[14].  It is not now known precisely which earlier Georgian works (since disappeared) may have been available to the compilers, although Brosset highlights a late 10th century document attributed to King Bagrat III and an ancient "Livre de Karthli et un Livre des rois" as possible earlier sources[15].  However, the references to "rectification" and "change" in the opening words of the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) do not inspire confidence that the result accurately reflects historical reality.  There is some suspicion that the document was doctored to boost national identity during a period of crisis in Georgian history, possibly even filling in "gaps" in knowledge to produce a coherent and continuous narrative. 

 

This emphasis on historical continuity is underlined in particular by the reference in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) to successive Georgian kings being an exact number of generations of descent from the prophet David in the Old Testament (for example, King Giorgi IV, son of Queen Thamar is described as "le 81e descendant couronné du prophète David"[16]).  Such details are absent from the earlier Georgian Chronicle (13th century).  The early years of the narrative (pre-10th century) in the later Chronicle are especially suspect as similar details do not feature in the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) or in early Armenian chronicles.  However, despite these reservations, some corroboration is found in the mid-10th century De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos of information concerning the Princes of Artanoudj, kings of Klardieth (a junior branch of the Bagratid dynasty, see Chapter 1.D) which is included in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century).  This suggests that the document should not be dismissed entirely.  From the reign of Bagrat IV King of Georgia (who succeeded in 1027) the narrative in the 18th century version is more detailed and appears convincing, although the parcity of corroboration from other primary sources still makes judging its historical accuracy extremely difficult.  The narrative reverts to brevity in its treatment of events in the later 14th and 15th centuries.  A further complication is added by the "expanded and abridged"[17] version of the Chronicle which was produced in the late 18th century by the Georgian historian Vakhucht, son of King Vakhtang VI[18].  As is demonstrated below, for example relating to the ancestry of David Soslan (second husband of Queen Thamar I) and the early 15th century kings, Vakhucht's work adds details which are absent from the original Georgian Chronicle (18th century).  The historical basis for this further information is unknown, but it should probably be viewed with extreme caution.  Dating of events also presents a problem.  Most dates which appear in secondary works appear to be traceable to assessments made by Vakhucht, who produced a series of dates which purport to reflect approximately 900 events between 1201 and 1755[19].  Where no corroboration for dates has been found in other sources, it has been assumed that they are approximations and, in the present document, have therefore been broadened into date ranges within square brackets where this appears appropriate. 

 

In addition, to these chronicles, Brosset cites other Georgian works as primary sources for Georgian history: the chronicle of Pharsadan Giorgidjanidze, from Gori, from the introduction of Christianity into Georgia until about 1703, the chronicle of Sekhnia Tchkheidze from 1659 to 1737 and its continuation by Papuna Orbelian until 1758, the sixteen speeches on the history of Georgia by the katholikos Antoni I, the anonymous Georgian chronicle published in 1831 by the Société asiatique de Paris, as well as various lives of Georgian saints, travel books and other 18th and 19th century histories, coins, charters and monumental inscriptions[20]

 

In compiling the present document, the two versions of the Georgian Chronicle have been compared and the differences highlighted.  Where the two versions coincide, only the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) has been quoted.  Where it can be seen from the text of the present document that the only authority for a particular family relationship is the Georgian Chronicle (18th century), such relationships should be treated with caution.  One difficulty is that the later Chronicle is the only source available for many events after the early 12th century when the earlier Chronicle ends, which leaves something of a cloud over the accuracy of subsequent relationships in the Georgian royal family.  This is especially true relating to the post-mid-14th century narrative, which is brief.  The edition of the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) which has been used is the English translation from the Armenian recently made by Robert Bedrosian[21].  The edition of the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) is the French translation from the Georgian made by Marie-Félicité Brosset in the mid-19th century[22].  Her work is based on three different manuscripts of the Chronicle to which she had access[23], and includes copious scholarly notes and extracts from the works of Vakhucht. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    PRINCES of IBERIA, PRINCES of KARTLI, KINGS of ABKHAZIA

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of GEORGIA (IBERIA) 575-619 (BAGRATID DYNASTY)

 

 

The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) traces the descent of the Armenians, Georgians and other neighbouring peoples from Noah, and includes in its first three chapters other clearly legendary tales concerning the founding of the first principalities in the Caucasus[24].  The tracing of the history and descent of the Armenian and Georgian kings is more specific from the fourth and fifth chapters which, by working backwards chronologically from events recorded in subsequent passages, would be dated approximately to the two centuries spanning the birth of Christ[25].  Dating of the composition of individual parts of the whole document is impossible.  However, even if we assume that these passages were written during the early part of the suggested date range referred to above, the events in question must have taken place up to six centuries before the details were first committed to writing.  The historical accuracy of the narrative is therefore dubious.  Nevertheless, the point at which fact, even if exaggerated and imprecise, takes over from legend is impossible to assess as it has not been possible to corroborate any of the information from other primary sources which have so far been consulted.  No attempt has been made to reconstruct the ruling families in Georgia before the early 8th century in the present document. 

 

The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Bagratid dynasty first ruled Georgia between 575 and 619[26].  Given the name of the dynasty, it is curious that no individual named Bagrat has been identified in the family before the 9th century.  The descent of the Bagratid dynasty from kouropalates Guaram [I] (who allegedly died in 600) to Ashot, son of Adarnase, (whose death is dated to 826) is recorded in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century), apparently in an unbroken line.  However, the information is largely uncorroborated by the Georgian Chronicle (13th century), and is completely uncorroborated in any other primary sources (Byzantine or Armenian) which have so far been consulted.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Stepanos curopalatos", who can presumably be identified with Stepanos [I] named below, and also "the couropalate Gorom" as the father of the wife of Prince Archil (from the princes of the Khosroid dynasty, see Part B. below).  This suggests that these two may have been historical figures.  However, considerable doubt remains about the existence of the other individuals or, assuming that some or all of them did exist, that they were members of a single family.  This Chapter 1.A is therefore divided into two sections:  Version 1 shows the full alleged descent of the Bagratid dynasty as set out in the narrative in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) (all the individuals shown in square brackets), whereas Version 2 shows only those individuals about whom there is some confidence in their historical existence.  If further reliable information comes to light from other primary sources, more individuals will be added to version 2 as appropriate. 

 

 

VERSION 1: descent of the Bagratid dynasty according to the Georgian Chronicle (18th century)

 

Four brothers: 

1.         [GUARAM [I] (-[600]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gouaram couropalate, Bagratide par son père, mais Khosroïde par sa mère", of the Bagratid dynasty, ruled Georgia from 575 to 600 replacing the Khosroid dynasty, commenting that "les Bagratides sont fils et descendants de ce Gouaram" then proceeding to trace his legendary descent from Adam[27]King of Iberia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les Géorgiens demandèrent à l'empereur Grec un roi pour leur pays, et celui-ci leur accorda Gouaram couropalate, car l'empereur lui conféra ce titre, et l'envoya à Mtzkhétha"[28].  Precise identification of the Byzantine emperor who granted Gouaram the title kouropalates is not possible as it is not certain that the chronology of the source is reliable.  However, on the assumption that 575 is the correct date, this was during the reign of Emperor Iustinus II.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that both the Persian king and the Byzantine emperor recognised the independence of Georgia under Gouaram[29]m ---.  The name of Guaram's wife is not known.  Guaram [I] & his wife had two children:] 

a)         [STEPANOS [I] (-killed in battle Tbilisi [619]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Stéphanos…Démétré" as the two sons of Guaram [I], and states that Stepanos succeeded on the death of his father and reigned for 19 years until 619[30].  The same source records that Stepanos did not take the title king "craignant également les Perses et les Grecs" but was called "mthawar [chief] des éristhaws"[31]Prince of Iberia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Stepane prince of Iberia" submitted to "Kasre king of Iran…[and] the Iranians out of fear of them, and resided at Tiflis", adding that, after the accession of Emperor Heraclius, he "did not forsake allegiance to the Iranians [but]…warred with the emperor" and was killed, after which Tbilisi surrendered to the emperor[32].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Emperor Heraclius installed "Adarnase of Dachis line, who was in Kuxet" at Tbilisi after the death of Stepanos[33]m ---.  The name of Stepanos's wife is not known.  Stepanos & his wife had --- children:] 

i)          [sons .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les fils de Stepanos restèrent dans les rochers du Clardjeth" while the rest of Georgia was occupied by "le mthawar Adarnase, fils de Bacour"[34].] 

ii)         [GUARAM [II] .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Nerse was "fils de Waraz-Bacour l'antipatrice" whose father was "Gouaram couropalate, fils du premier Stéphanos et frère de Démétré"[35]m ---.  The name of Guaram's wife is not known.  Guaram & his wife had two children:] 

(a)       [WARAZ-BAKUR .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Nerse was "fils de Waraz-Bacour l'antipatrice" whose father was "Gouaram couropalate, fils du premier Stéphanos et frère de Démétré"[36].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) gives no information on the acts of Waraz-Bakur beyond his name, which suggests that the descent from him may have been compiled later to provide the appearance of genealogical continuity with the previous ruling Bagratid dynasty.   

-         see Chapter 1.C PRINCES (KOUROPALATES) of IBERIA (BAGRATID)

(b)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Archil's wife was "the daughter of the curopalate Gorom, from the clan of king Vaxtang"[37].  A particular difficulty relates to the chronology of the ancestry of the wife of Prince Archil.  Her father is probably identified with Guaram [II], but it appears extremely doubtful from a chronological point of view that her father could have been the son of Stepanos [I] as claimed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century), assuming that Stepanos's date of death is correctly recorded in 619.  m ARCHIL Prince of Iberia, son of STEPANOS Prince of Iberia & his wife --- ([640/50] or [670/80]-[20 Mar] [719] or [730/40], bur [Notcora]).] 

b)         [DEMETRE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Stéphanos…Démétré" as the two sons of Gouaram[38].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Démétré, frère de Stéphanos" built "l'église de la Croix-Adorable" but struck down by illness was unable to leave the building[39].] 

2.         [SAHAC .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les trois frères [de Gouaram]…Sahac…Adam et Warzaward" went "dans le Cakheth"[40]m ---, daughter of BAKUR King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Sahac" married "la fille de Bacour, fils de Nerseh", from the previous dynasty of Georgian kings[41].] 

3.         [ADAM .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les trois frères [de Gouaram]…Sahac…Adam et Warzaward" went "dans le Cakheth", stating that the last two named passed "dans le canton de Cambetchoan" where they killed the Persian governor and established themselved "à Khornaboudj, où leurs descendants ont encore à present le titre de mthawars"[42].] 

4.         [VAZAVARD .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les trois frères [de Gouaram]…Sahac…Adam et Warzaward" went "dans le Cakheth", stating that the last two named passed "dans le canton de Cambetchoan" where they killed the Persian governor and established themselved "à Khornaboudj, où leurs descendants ont encore à present le titre de mthawars"[43].] 

 

 

 

VERSION 2: members of the Bagratid dynasty whose historical existence appears to be corroborated

 

 

1.         STEPANOS [I] (-killed in battle Tbilisi [615/25]).  [The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Stéphanos…Démétré" as the two sons of Gouaram, and that Stepanos succeeded on the death of his father and reigned for 19 years until 619[44].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Stéphanos" did not take the title king "craignant également les Perses et les Grecs" but was called "mthawar [chief] des éristhaws"[45].]  Prince of Iberia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Stepane prince of Iberia" submitted to "Kasre king of Iran…[and] the Iranians out of fear of them, and resided at Tiflis", adding that, after the accession of Emperor Heraclius, he "did not forsake allegiance to the Iranians [but]…warred with the emperor" but was killed, Tbilisi surrendering to the emperor[46].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Emperor Heraclius installed "Adarnase of Dachis line, who was in Kuxet" at Tbilisi after the death of Stepanos[47].   

 

2.         GUARAM [II] .  Kouropalates.  [The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Nerse was "fils de Waraz-Bacour l'antipatrice" whose father was "Gouaram couropalate, fils du premier Stéphanos et frère de Démétré"[48].]  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Juansher married "the daughter of Atrnerseh [Adarnase] Bagratuni…Latori [Latavr]" after being held captive for seven years by the Khazar khan[49]m ---.  The name of Guaram's wife is not known.  Guaram & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Archil's wife was "the daughter of the curopalate Gorom, from the clan of king Vaxtang"[50]m ARCHIL Prince of Iberia, son of STEPANOS Prince of Iberia & his wife --- ([640/50] or [670/80]-[20 Mar] [719] or [730/40], bur [Notcora]).]

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of GEORGIA (IBERIA) [619]-787 (KHOSROID)

 

 

The descent of the Khosroid dynasty from Adarnase (who allegedly died in 639) to Juansher, son of Archil, (whose death is dated to 787) is recorded in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century), apparently in an unbroken line.  However, much of this information is uncorroborated by the Georgian Chronicle (13th century), and is completely uncorroborated in any other primary sources (Byzantine or Armenian) which have so far been consulted.  In addition, there are major chronological inconsistencies in the narrative as presented in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century).  For example, Archil is recorded in the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) and the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) as the son of Stepanos [II] and father of Juansher and Ivane.  However, if Archil's paternal grandfather died in [639] as reported below, it is extremely unlikely that Archil's son Juansher could have died in [787].  Possible solutions to this problem are:

(1)       that the sources have omitted one generation somewhere in the line of descent, although it is not possible to speculate sensibly where this might be. 

(2)       that the sources are completely unreliable in asserting any family relationship at all between the named individuals. 

(3)       that some of the named individuals did not exist historically, and that the narrative has been padded in order to give the appearance of continuity to Georgian history in the 6th to 8th centuries. 

This part B of Chapter 1 is divided into two sections, in the same way as part A:  Version 1 shows the full alleged descent of the Bagratid dynasty as set out in the narrative in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) (most of the individuals shown in square brackets), whereas Version 2 is restricted to those individuals about whom there is some confidence in their historical existence.  If further reliable information comes to light from other primary sources, more individuals will be added to Version 2 as appropriate. 

 

 

 

VERSION 1: descent of the Khosroid dynasty according to the Georgian Chronicle (18th century)

 

 

1.         ADARNASE [I] (-[639]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, after Stepanos [I] was killed, Emperor Heraclius installed "Adarnase of Dachis line, who was in Kuxet" at Tbilisi[51].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) expands the narrative by recording that "Adarnase…éristhaw dans le Cakheth" was "fils de Bacour, roi de Géorgie, descendant de Datchi, fils de Wakhthang" (of the Khosroid dynasty) and that he was installed by the emperor as "mthawar de Géorgie", ruling from 619 until 639[52]Prince of Iberiam ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known.  Adarnase & his wife had one child: 

a)         STEPANOS [II] (-[663]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, after the death of Adarnase, "his son Stepanos" succeeded[53]Prince of Iberia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Stéphanos, fils d'Adarnasé" reigned from 639 to 663, recording in a later passage that he lived at Tbilisi[54].  As noted above, there are serious chronological difficulties associated with Stepanos [II] being the son of Adarnase and the father of Archil, assuming that the dates of death of Adarnase and Stepanos [II] are correctly recorded here.  m ---.  The name of Stepanos's wife is not known.  Stepanos [II] & his wife had two children: 

i)          ARCHIL ([640/50] or [670/80]-[20 Mar] [719] or [730/40], bur [Notcora]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Archil and Mihr" as the two sons of "the prince of Iberia, Stepanos", recording that they fled "to Egris and thence to Abkhazia" after the invasion of "Mahumad's son Mruan" before defeating the invaders[55]Prince of Iberia.] 

-         see below

ii)         MIHR (-[668], bur Mtsxeta).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Archil and Mihr" as the two sons of "the prince of Iberia, Stepanos", recording that they fled "to Egris and thence to Abkhazia" after the invasion of "Mahumad's son Mruan" before defeating the invaders, but that Mihr died from his wounds and was buried "at Mtsxeta"[56].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "l'aîné…Mir et le cadet Artchil" as the two sons of Stepanos, recording that their father installed Mihr with half his treasure "au pays d'Egris" and Archil with the other half "dans la vallée de Cakheth"[57].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr was mortally wounded in battle against the Muslims in 668 and was buried "à Mtzkhétha…dans l'église Supérieure"[58]m ---.  The name of Mihr's wife is not known.  Mihr & his wife had [seven children], reported only in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) as shown below, no corroboration has been found in any other primary source for the existence or marriages of these alleged daughters: 

(a)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "la première, au fils du fils de l'oncle paternal de Gouaram couropalate, maître du Clardjeth et du Djawakheth"[59].] 

(b)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "la seconde, à un pétéakhch descendant de Phéroz…mthawar du Thrialeth, du Tachir et de l'Abotz"[60].] 

(c)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "la troisième, à Nersé Nersian, l'un des grands du roi Wakhtang"[61]

(d)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "la quatrième, à Adarnase Adarnasian…maître du Pays-d'en-Haut ou du Karthli"[62].] 

(e)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "la cinquième, à Warazman, à qui il donna le pays depuis Cotman jusqu'à Kourdis-Khew, et qui descendait de l'éristhaw persan de Barda, père de la mère du roi Wakhtang"[63].] 

(f)        [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "la sixième, à Djouancher Djouancherian, descendant du roi Mirian par la lignée de Rew" to whom he gave "Djouar, Kherc, tout le Mthiouleth et la vallée de Manglis, jusqu'à Tiflis"[64].] 

(g)       [GORANDUXT .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "à Léon [l'éristhaw imperial] sa niece Gourandoukht" and "la couronne don’t l'empereur grec avait fait présent au roi Mirian"[65]m LEON, son of ---.] 

 

 

 

VERSION 2: members of the Khosroid dynasty whose historical existence appears to be corroborated

 

 

1.         ADARNASE [I] (-[640/60).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, after Stepanos [I] was killed, Emperor Heraclius installed "Adarnase of Dachis line, who was in Kuxet" at Tbilisi[66].  [The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) expands the narrative by recording that "Adarnase…éristhaw dans le Cakheth" was "fils de Bacour, roi de Géorgie, descendant de Datchi, fils de Wakhthang" (of the Khosroid dynasty) and that he was installed by the emperor as "mthawar de Géorgie", ruling from 619 until 639[67].]  Prince of Iberiam ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known.  Adarnase & his wife had one child: 

a)         STEPANOS [II] (-[670/90]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, after the death of Adarnase, "his son Stepanos" succeeded[68]Prince of Iberia.  [The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Stéphanos, fils d'Adarnasé" reigned from 639 to 663, recording in a later passage that he lived at Tbilisi[69].]  m ---.  The name of Stepanos's wife is not known.  Stepanos & his wife had two children: 

i)          ARCHIL (-[730/40], bur [Notcora]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Archil and Mihr" as the two sons of "the prince of Iberia, Stepanos", recording that they fled "to Egris and thence to Abkhazia" after the invasion of "Mahumad's son Mruan" before defeating the invaders[70]Prince of Iberia

-         see below

ii)         MIHR (- ----, bur Mtsxeta).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Archil and Mihr" as the two sons of "the prince of Iberia, Stepanos", recording that they fled "to Egris and thence to Abkhazia" after the invasion of "Mahumad's son Mruan" before defeating the invaders, but that Mihr died from his wounds and was buried "at Mtsxeta"[71].  [The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "l'aîné…Mir et le cadet Artchil" as the two sons of Stepanos, recording that their father installed Mihr with half his treasure "au pays d'Egris" and Archil with the other half "dans la vallée de Cakheth"[72].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr was mortally wounded in battle against the Muslims in 668 and was buried "à Mtzkhétha…dans l'église Supérieure"[73].  Brosset highlights the major chronological difficulties associated with the narrative of the reigns of Mihr and Archil, and suggests that the end of Mihr's reign could be dated to at least 715 for better consistency with reports of Persian invasions in Persian sources[74].   

 

 

ARCHIL, son of STEPANOS [II] & his wife --- ([640/50] or [670/80]-[20 Mar] [719] or [730/40], bur [Notcora]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Archil and Mihr" as the two sons of "the prince of Iberia, Stepanos", recording that they fled "to Egris and thence to Abkhazia" after the invasion of "Mahumad's son Mruan" before defeating the invaders[75]Prince of Iberia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "l'aîné…Mir et le cadet Artchil" as the two sons of Stepanos, recording that their father installed Mihr with half his treasure "au pays d'Egris" and Archil with the other half "dans la vallée de Cakheth"[76].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Dchidchoum, descendant de Mahomet" ravaged "Karthli…Cakheth" and 20 Mar 718 murdered King Archil who was buried "à Notcora"[77], although the date appears extremely improbable. 

m --- [of Georgia], daughter of GUARAM [II] curopalates & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Archil's wife was "the daughter of the curopalate Gorom, from the clan of king Vaxtang"[78]

Archil & his wife had six children: 

1.         JUANSHER ([710/20]-[787]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "two sons Juansher and Iwane and four daughters…Goranduxt, Mariam, Mihranduxt and Shushan" as the children of King Archil[79].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the death of Archil, "Ioané…s'en alla dans l'Egris, accompagné de sa mère et de ses deux sœurs; [Juansher], avec les deux derniers sœurs, resta dans les pays de Karthli et de Cakheth"[80]Prince of Iberia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un emir agarien, qui gouverna le Karthli, l'Arménie et le Héreth…Khosro" came and repaired Tbilisi which the Khazars had destroyed[81].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Juansher was held captive for seven years by the Khazar khan, after the latter failed in his attempt to marry Juansher's sister[82].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, after the death of "Archil's sons Iwane and Juansher", their place "was taken by the curopalate Ashot"[83]m LATORI [Latavr], daughter of ADARNASE [III] & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Juansher married "the daughter of Atrnerseh Bagratuni…Latori" after being held captive for seven years by the Khazar khan[84].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Juansher's mother opposed the marriage not knowing that "les Bagratides fussent descendants du prophète David, le père de Dieu, selon la chair" but relented when she met the bride[85].

2.         IVANE (-[786]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "two sons Juansher and Iwane and four daughters…Goranduxt, Mariam, Mihranduxt and Shushan" as the children of King Archil[86].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the death of Archil, "Ioané…s'en alla dans l'Egris, accompagné de sa mère et de ses deux sœurs; [Juansher], avec les deux derniers sœurs, resta dans les pays de Karthli et de Cakheth"[87]

3.         GORANDUXT .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "two sons Juansher and Iwane and four daughters…Goranduxt, Mariam, Mihranduxt and Shushan" as the children of King Archil[88]

4.         MARIAM .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "two sons Juansher and Iwane and four daughters…Goranduxt, Mariam, Mihranduxt and Shushan" as the children of King Archil[89]

5.         MIHRANDUXT .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "two sons Juansher and Iwane and four daughters…Goranduxt, Mariam, Mihranduxt and Shushan" as the children of King Archil[90]

6.         SHUSHAN .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "two sons Juansher and Iwane and four daughters…Goranduxt, Mariam, Mihranduxt and Shushan" as the children of King Archil, recording that Shushan poisoned herself to avoid marrying "the Khazar king"[91]

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES (KOUROPALATES) of GEORGIA (IBERIA) [787]-mid-9th CENTURY (BAGRATID)

 

 

It has not been possible to reconstruct with accuracy one single representation of the ancestry of Adarnase [III], the father of Ashot who succeeded as prince of Iberia in [787], as the different primary sources are not reconcilable.  Two alternative versions are therefore shown in this Chapter 1.C.  Version 1 is reconstructed from Armenian sources.  Version 2 is based on the Georgian Chronicle (13th century), although there are some family links which are not explicit in that document and can only be confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century).  Neither version is completely satisfactory from a historical point of view.  The Armenian sources give no information on the events in the lives of two of the links in the chain of descent in Version 1 beyond their names.  The same can be said of several of the individuals in the descent recorded in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century).  In both cases, therefore, one is left with the impression that the compilers of the sources were concerned mainly with the appearance of genealogical continuity, in the case of Version 1 the Armenians presumably wishing to emphasise the subservience of the Georgians, and in the case of Version 2 the Georgians wanting to underline the link with the previous ruling Bagratid dynasty to increase the credibility of the new dynasty.  The significance of the award of the title kouropalates, of all possible Byzantine titles, to the Georgian prince is unclear.  The title, the third highest honour in the Byzantine empire at that time after cæsar and nobilissimos, was usually reserved for members of the imperial family, but the primary sources contain no hint of a marriage alliance between the Bagratids and any of the Byzantine imperial families in the 8th or 9th centuries. 

 

 

 

VERSION 1: ancestry of Adarnase according to Armenian sources

 

According to Armenian sources, the Bagratid family descends from Ambat I, Prince of the Bagratids in 314, who was the ancestor of Varaz-Tirots, viceroy of Armenia between 616 and 645, who was in turn great-grandfather of Ashot "the Blind", who is shown below as ancestor of the later rulers of Georgia and of the kings of Caucasian Armenia. 

 

1.         ASHOT "the Blind" .  Vardan names "Achot, fils d'Atrnerseh, fils de Vasac, fils d'Achot prince d'Arménie" when recording the establishment of the Bagratid dynasty in Georgia[92].  Kirakos Ganjaketsis's History of Armenia records that "fifty-four years after the immolation of the Armenian princes in Naxchawan Ashot Bagratuni became marzpan of Armenia" and ruled for 17 years[93].  726/761.  He was blinded on the orders of Grigor Mamikonean, although he continued to rule the country nominally despite his handicap[94]m ---.  The name of Ashot's wife is not known.  Ashot & his wife had two children: 

a)         [VASAK .  Vardan names "Achot, fils d'Atrnerseh, fils de Vasac, fils d'Achot prince d'Arménie" when recording the establishement of the Bagratid dynasty in Georgia[95].  Garsoïan recounts that "Vasak the uncle of Ashot Msaker" established himself in 780s to the north of Armenia, marking the start of the future royal house of the Bagratuni in Iberia, presumably based only on Vardan but she does not specify this[96].  No information has been found in the Armenian sources so far consulted which gives any information about Vasak apart from his name.  m ---.  The name of Vasak's wife is not known.  Vasak & his wife had one child:] 

i)          [ADARNASE [III] .  Vardan names "Achot, fils d'Atrnerseh, fils de Vasac, fils d'Achot prince d'Arménie" when recording the establishement of the Bagratid dynasty in Georgia[97].] 

-         see below

b)         SMBAT ([735]-killed in battle Bagrewand 15 Apr 775)Kirakos Ganjaketsis's History of Armenia records that "Smbat" succeeded as marzpan of Armenia after the death of "Ashot Bagratuni" and ruled for 22 years, but does not mention any family relationship between them[98].  According to Garsoïan, Smbat was the son of Ashot "the Blind" but it is unclear from her text on which primary source this is based[99].  Ancestor of the branch of the Princes of Taraun and of the kings of Armenia.  He was appointed sparapet in Armenia in 753. 

-        KINGS of ARMENIA

 

 

 

VERSION 2: ancestry of Adarnase according to the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) and (18th century)

 

 

[WARAZ-BAKUR], son of [GUARAM & his wife ---] .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Nerse was "fils de Waraz-Bacour l'antipatrice" whose father was "Gouaram couropalate, fils du premier Stéphanos et frère de Démétré"[100].  As noted in the introduction to this part of Chapter 1, the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) gives no information on the acts of the alleged ancestors of Adarnase beyond their names, which suggests that the descent may have been compiled to provide the appearance of genealogical continuity with the previous ruling Bagratid dynasty.  These individuals are all shown in square brackets to indicate their dubious historical existence.] 

[m ---.  The name of Waraz-Bakur's wife is not known.] 

[Waraz-Bakur & his wife had one child:] 

1.         [NERSE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names Nerse was "fils de Waraz-Bacour l'antipatrice" whose father was "Gouaram couropalate, fils du premier Stéphanos et frère de Démétré"[101].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the father of Adarnase had received "des Grecs un éristhawat dans les contrées du Somkheth [Armenia]"[102]m ---.  The name of Nerse's wife is not known.  Nerse & his wife had one child:] 

a)         ADARNASE [III] .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Nersé" as father of "Adarnasé Bagratide " who installed himself "dans le Clardjeth, où il mourut"[103].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un mthawar, descendant du prophète David…Adarnasé, fils d'un frère d'Adarnasé l'Aveugle" came to "le roi Artchil" who granted him "Cholawer et Artan"[104].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "a certain prince, from the house of the prophet David…Adrnas came to Archil", having been in Armenia and having "been captured by the foreigners together with his sons", and that Archil granted him "Rhisha, Shghuer and Atone"[105].  As can be seen, this earlier source provides no information on the parentage of Adarnase [III]. 

-        see below

b)         [PHILIPE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Philipé et Stephanos, frères d'Adarnase" died before their brother[106].] 

c)         [STEPANOS .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Philipé et Stephanos, frères d'Adarnase" died before their brother[107].] 

 

 

The following family group has not yet been linked with the main Bagratid family.  It looks unlikely that Adarnase [V] was the same person as Adarnase [III], as there is no reference to the latter having an uncle who was blinded. 

 

1.         [ADARNASE [IV] "the Blind" .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les fils du frère d'Adarnasé l'Aveugle…trois frères" blinded their paternal uncle[108].] 

2.         [--- .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the father of Adarnase had received "des Grecs un éristhawat dans les contrées du Somkheth [Armenia]"[109]m ---.  Three children:] 

a)         ADARNASE [V] .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un mthawar, descendant du prophète David…Adarnasé, fils d'un frère d'Adarnasé l'Aveugle" came to "le roi Artchil" who granted him "Cholawer et Artan"[110].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "three brothers came from Taron and at Archil's command they settled as far as Gaghgagh"[111]m [as her second husband, ---, widow of ABU-KHUSHRAW, daughter of ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Archil married one of the three brothers to "une descendante d'Abou-Khosre, qui était devenue et restée veuve", and gave "Tsouketh" to this brother as his residence[112].]   

b)         --- .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les fils du frère d'Adarnasé l'Aveugle…trois frères", who had blinded their paternal uncle, came "de Taron au pays de Chacikh" where they established themselves with the permission of King Archil[113]

c)         --- .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "les fils du frère d'Adarnasé l'Aveugle…trois frères", who had blinded their paternal uncle, came "de Taron au pays de Chacikh" where they established themselves with the permission of King Archil[114]

 

 

 

PRINCES (KOUROPALATES) of IBERIA [787]-mid-9th CENTURY (BAGRATID)

 

 

ADARNASE [III] .  As noted above, he was either ADARNASE, son of NERSES & his wife --- , or ADARNASE, son of VASAK & his wife --- , depending on the source consulted.  Vardan names "Achot, fils d'Atrnerseh, fils de Vasac, fils d'Achot prince d'Arménie" when recording the establishment of the Bagratid dynasty in Georgia[115].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Nersé" as father of "Adarnasé Bagratide" who installed himself "dans le Clardjeth, où il mourut"[116].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "a certain prince, from the house of the prophet David…Adrnas came to Archil", having been in Armenia and having "been captured by the foreigners together with his sons", and that Archil granted him "Rhisha, Shghuer and Atone"[117]

m ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known. 

Adarnase [III] & his wife had three children: 

1.         ASHOT (-826).  Vardan names "Achot, fils d'Atrnerseh, fils de Vasac, fils d'Achot prince d'Arménie" when recording the establishment of the Bagratid dynasty in Georgia[118].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot couropalate, fils de ce prince [Adarnase] et frère de l'éristhaw Gourgen" succeeded to the throne after the death of Juansher (in 787)[119]Kouropalates of Iberia

-        see below

2.         GURGEN .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot couropalate, fils de ce prince et frère de l'éristhaw Gourgen" succeeded after the death of Adarnase[120]

3.         LATORI [Latavr] .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Juansher married "the daughter of Atrnerseh Bagratuni…Latori" after being held captive for seven years by the Khazar khan[121].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Juansher's mother opposed the marriage not knowing that "les Bagratides fussent descendants du prophète David, le père de Dieu, selon la chair" but relented when she met the bride[122]m JUANSHER, son of ARCHIL King of Georgia & his wife --- (-[787]). 

 

 

ASHOT, son of ADARNASE [III] & his wife --- (-killed in battle 29 Jan 826).  Vardan names "Achot, fils d'Atrnerseh, fils de Vasac, fils d'Achot prince d'Arménie" when recording the establishment of the Bagratid dynasty in Georgia[123].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot couropalate, fils de ce prince [Adarnase] et frère de l'éristhaw Gourgen" succeeded to the throne after the death of Juansher (in 787)[124]Kouropalates of Iberia.  It is unclear which Byzantine emperor awarded the title kouropalates to Ashot.  No record has so far been identified in Byzantine sources of a campaign in Georgia during the reigns of Empress Eirene and her son Konstantinos VI (combined reigns from 780 to 802), which suggests that Ashot's reported succession to Juansher, dated to 787, may not be historically accurate.  It is more likely that a campaign in Georgia would have been directed by Emperor Leon V (ruled 813-820), as his Armenian origin may have accounted for rivalry with the Georgians, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed by any primary source so far consulted and remains a speculation.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Curopalate Ashot" replaced "Arch'il's sons Iwane and Juansher", adding that "the emperor elevated him so that the Hagarites' be weakened" but that he was killed by "amir Xalil"[125].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the emperor installed Ashot as kouropalates at the same time that "Maslama" was defeated in Greece[126], which appears to refer to the unsuccessful siege of Constantinople by the Muslims which is dated to 718[127] and is therefore completely anachronistic with the other reported events of Ashot's life.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Ashot defeated Grigor of Kakhetia but was expelled by "Khalil fils d'Izid" and fled to Greece with his mother, his wife and "ses deux fils en bas âge", and was defeated by "Achot" who captured all he owned in Kartli[128].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Ashot was killed 29 Jan 826 "par les Mingréliens", after which "les Sarrasins" dominated Georgia[129]

m ---.  The name of Ashot's wife is not known. 

Ashot & his wife had two children: 

1.         ADARNASE [VI] .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Adarnasé et Bagrat" as the two sons of "Achot couropalate"[130]m ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known.  Adarnase & his wife had four children: 

-        see below

2.         BAGRAT [I] ([822]-876).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Adarnasé et Bagrat" as the two sons of "Achot couropalate"[131].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat fils d'Achot couropalate" was given Kartli by Mohammed bin Khalil[132]Prince of Kartli

-        PRINCES of KARTLI

3.         daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Thewdos, roi des Aphkhaz" as son-in-law of "Achot" and son "du second Léon"[133]m TEODOS King of Abkhazia, son of LEON King of Abkhazia & his wife --- (-[837/38]). 

4.         GUARAM Mamphal (-882).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Gouram le plus jeune, né après sa venue à Artanoudj" as son of Ashot[134].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gouaram, fils d'Achot et frère de Bagrat couropalates" captured "Gabloutz…parent de Sahac"[135].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gouaram mamphal, père de Nasr" died in 882[136]m --- of Armenia, daughter of ASHOT King of Armenia & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the king of Armenia was the brother of the wife of "Gouaram, fils d'Achot et frère de Bagrat couropalates"[137].  Guaram & his wife had three children: 

a)         NASRA (-killed in battle Aspindza 888).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Nasra fils de Gouaram mamphal, frère du père de ce Dawith couropalate" rebelled against "roi-couropalate Dawith I, fils de Bagrat I", adding that "Nasra cousin germain paternal de ce Dawith, et Gourgen, étaient pour les Apkkhaz"[138], although the identity of "Gourgen" is not specified, not is it not clear whether the second Nasra mentioned was the same person as the first.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Nasr fils de Gouaram mamphal" killed "le couropalate Dawith, fils de Bagrat et son oncle paternel" in 881[139].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the death of Davit in 881, "les Arméniens, Liparit et les Géorgiens, ainsi qu'Achot frère de Dawith, et les Sarrasins" united against "Nasr", who fled to Greece[140].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat, fils de Démétré roi des Aphkhaz" brought "Nasr, frère de sa femme" back from Greece after seizing power in Abkhazia in [887/88], and that Nasra invaded "Samtzkhe", captured "des trois citadelles d'Odzrkhé, de Djouaris-Tzikhé et de Lomsiantha" which has been built by his father, and marched against "Adarnasé roi de Karthli, fils de Dawith couropalate" but was defeated "sur les bords du Mtcouar", captured and killed "dans la vallée de Samtzkhe, au village d'Aspindza" in 888[141]

b)         ASHOT (-869).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot, fils de Gouaram mamphal et frère de Nasr" died in 869[142]

c)         daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Ioané" arranged the marriage of "son fils Adarnasé" and "la fille de Gouaram, fils d'Achot"[143].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat, fils de Démétré roi des Aphkhaz" married "la femme d'Adarnasé, fille de Gouram mamphal" after killing her first husband[144]m firstly ADARNASE of Abkhazia, son of [IOANE King of Abkhazia & his wife --- (-killed [887/88]).  m secondly ([888]) BAGRAT King of Abkhazia, son of DEMETRE [I] King of Abkhazia & his wife --- (-[898/99]). 

 

 

 

D.      PRINCES of TAO and ARTANOUDJ, KINGS of KLARDIETH (BAGRATID)

 

 

The reconstruction of this family is based largely on the Georgian Chronicle (18th century).  This source includes little background information on the historical context in which members of the family operated or details of their lives apart from their names and family relationships.  However, as can be seen below, many of the details are corroborated by the mid-10th century De Adminstrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos.  The reconstruction shown below reconciles all the apparent differences between these two sources. 

 

 

ADARNASE [VI], son of ASHOT Prince of Iberia & his wife --- .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Adarnasé et Bagrat" as the two sons of "Achot couropalate"[145]

m ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known. 

Adarnase [VI] & his wife had three children: 

1.         ASHOT Cecela (-867).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot Cécéla, fils d'Adarnasé, fils d'Achot le Grand" died in 867[146]

2.         SUMBAT (-889).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Seumbat mamphal, d'Artanoudj, frère d'Achot Cécéla…" died in 889[147].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Soumbat d'Artanoudj" was created "anthipatos-patrice"[148]m ---.  The name of Sumbat's wife is not known.  Sumbat & his wife had two children: 

-        see below

3.         GURGEN (-killed in battle 891).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gourgen couropalate, fils d'Adarnasé, fils d'Achot le Grand" left "Calmakh" and settled "dans le Chawcheth et à Artan"[149].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gourgen couropalate, frère de Soumbat mamphal, d'Artanoudj, et fils d'Adarnasé, fils d'Achot le Grand" died in 891, stating in a later passage that he died from wounds received in battle[150]m ---.  The name of Gurgen's wife is not known.  Gurgen & his wife had two children: 

a)         ASHOT Kukh (-918).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot-Coukh qui érigea Tbeth en évêché, fils de Gourgen couropalate" died in 918[151]

b)         ADARNASE [VII] (-896).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Adarnasé éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de Gourgen couropalate et frère d'Achot-Coukh" died in 896[152]m ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known.  Adarnase [VII] & his wife had three children: 

i)          DAVIT .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Adarnase éristhaw des éristhaws…" had two sons "Dawith éristhaw des éristhaws et Gourgen portent le même titre"[153]

ii)         GURGEN (-941).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Adarnase éristhaw des éristhaws…" had two sons "Dawith éristhaw des éristhaws et Gourgen portent le même titre"[154]

(a)       daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat, son of "Costantiné roi des Aphkhaz", was son-in-law of "Gourgen Bagratide , éristhaw des éristhaws, fils d'Adarnasé ayant le meme titre"[155]m BAGRAT of Abkhazia, son of KONSTANTINI King of Abkhazia & his wife ---. 

iii)        DINAR .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Dinar", mother of "Ichkhanie", was "la sœur de Gourgen, éristhaw des éristhaws" and that she converted the inhabitants of "Héreth" to orthodoxy[156]m ADARNASE patrikios, son of ---.  Adarnase & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ISHKHAN .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Dinar", mother of "Ichkhanie", was "la sœur de Gourgen, éristhaw des éristhaws"[157].  King of Heret. 

 

 

SUMBAT, son of ADARNASE [VI] & his wife --- (-889).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Seumbat mamphal, d'Artanoudj, frère d'Achot Cécéla…" died in 889[158].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Soumbat d'Artanoudj" was created "anthipatos-patrice"[159]

m ---.  The name of Sumbat's wife is not known. 

Sumbat & his wife had two children: 

1.         DAVIT (-943).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pancratium Davidem et Mampalim" as the sons of "magni Symbatii Iberis"[160].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Dawith mamphal, fils de ce Soumbat, et qui s'était fait moine" died in 943[161]

-        see below

2.         BAGRAT (-909).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pancratium Davidem et Mampalim" as the sons of "magni Symbatii Iberis"[162].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat mamphal, d'Artanoudj, fils de Soumbat mamphal, anthypate, d'Artanoudj, fils d'Adarnase et frère de Dawith mamphal qui fut moine" died in 909[163]m ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had four children: 

a)         ADARNASE [VIII] (-945).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Adranaser Curcenium et Asotium patricium" as the three sons of "Pancratius" who divided their father's territories between them, recording that Adarnase succeeded his brother Gurgen[164].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le fils de Bagrat mamphal, d'Artanoudj, nommé d'abord Adarnase, et Wasili quand il fut moine" died in 945[165]m his first cousin, ---, daughter of DAVIT & his wife ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "mater Davidi et Adranase curopalatæ, patris Asotii quidem curopalatæ" were the daughters of two brothers, adding that "Symbatius autem Davidis filius" married "filiam Bagratii magistri, qui pater Adarnase pridem magistri", and when that woman died "Adranase" married "sororem…Symbatii Davidis filii"[166].  This paragraph in the De Administrando is extremely confusing, but could in fact make sense if the second half (reporting the two specific marriages) is not in fact a further explanation of the first half (the mothers of the two named individuals being cousins).  If this is correct "Adranase curopalatæ, patris Asotii quidem curopalatæ" was not the same person as "Adarnase pridem magistri", the former being Adarnase [X], see below in Chapter 1.E.  This also seems correct, as it avoids an otherwise inexplicable contradiction in the De Administrando Imperio which in an earlier section names "Adranase" as son of "Asotius", stating that Emperor Leo VI invested him with "curopalatæ dignitate" (which must refer to Adarnase [X])[167].   

b)         ASHOT (-939).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Adranaser Curcenium et Asotium patricium, qui etiam Ciscases nuncupatur" as the three sons of "Pancratius" who divided their father's territories between them, recording that Ashot succeeded after his two brothers died childless[168].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot frère d'Adarnasé le moine, et fils de Bagrat mamphal, d'Artanoudj" died in 939[169]m --- of Abkhazia, daughter of CONSTANTIN Prince of Abkhazia & his wife ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asocio…patricio sive Ciscase" married "soror…Georgii magistri et Abasgiæ principis"[170].  Ashot & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asotius patricius, qui et Ciscases" accepted "generum…Curcenium magistrum", stating that his father-in-law confiscated his principality and gave him "Tyrocastrum, terramque quam Atzara flumen alluit, confinem Romaniæ ad Colorin" as compensation[171].  The same source records that "Curcenio magistro" died, and that his widow "Asocii patricii sive Ciscase filia" married "Adranutzium"[172]m her uncle, GURGEN magister, son of BAGRAT & his wife ---. 

c)         DAVIT (-908).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Dawith éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de Bagrat mamphal, d'Artanoudj, et frère d'Adarnasé nommé plus tard Basili" died in 908, adding in a later passage that he died childless[173].  On the hand, the same source records that "David, fils de Bagrat d'Artanoudj" died in 922, "laissant sa femme enceinte d'un fils…Bagrat"[174]

d)         GURGEN (-923).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Adranaser Curcenium et Asotium patricium" as the three sons of "Pancratius" who divided their father's territories between them, recording that Curcen died childless and was succeeded by his brother Adarnase[175].  A later passage in the same source records that "Asotius curopalates, Georgius magister Abasgiæ princeps, et Pancratius magister, iam diciti curopalatæ frater" divided the territories of "Curcenii" between them[176].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gourgen éristhaw, frère de ce Dawith éristhaw des éristhaws" died in 923[177]m his niece, ---, daughter of ASHOT & his wife ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asotius patricius, qui et Ciscases" accepted "generum…Curcenium magistrum", stating that his father-in-law confiscated his principality and gave him "Tyrocastrum, terramque quam Atzara flumen alluit, confinem Romaniæ ad Colorin" as compensation[178].  The same source records that "Curcenio magistro" died, and that his widow "Asocii patricii sive Ciscase filia" married "Adranutzium"[179].  The name of Gurgen's wife is not known.  Gurgen & his wife had one child: 

i)          GURGEN (-968).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gourgen, fils de ce Gourgen éristhaw, fils de Bagrat mamphal d'Artanoudj" died in 968[180]

e)         daughter .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Symbatius autem Davidis filius" married "filiam Bagratii magistri, qui pater Adarnase pridem magistri", and when that woman died "Adranase" married "sororem…Symbatii Davidis filii"[181]m her first cousin, SMBAT, son of DAVIT & his wife ---. 

3.         [--- [Mampalin] .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pancratium Davidem et Mampalim" as the sons of "magni Symbatii Iberis"[182].  It is assumed that "Mampalin" refers to a title rather than a name.  It is not known whether the person bearing this title was the same person as "Davidem" or a separate person.] 

 

 

DAVIT, son of SUMBAT Prince of Artanoudj & his wife --- (-943).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pancratium Davidem et Mampalim" as the sons of "magni Symbatii Iberis"[183].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Dawith mamphal, fils de ce Soumbat, et qui s'était fait moine" died in 943[184]

m ---.  The name of Davit's wife is not known. 

Davit & his wife had two children: 

1.         SUMBAT (-988).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Symbatius…Davidis filius" when recording his marriage[185].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…" died in 988[186]m his first cousin, ---, daughter of BAGRAT & his wife ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "mater Davidi et mater Adranase curopalatæ, patris Asotii quidem curopalatæ" were the daughters of two brothers, further explaining that "Symbatius autem Davidis filius" married "filiam Bagratii magistri, qui pater Adarnase pridem magistri", and when that woman died "Adranase" married "sororem…Symbatii Davidis filii"[187].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "filiam Pancratii magistri, qui pater Adranase pridem magistri" married "Symbatius…Davidis filius"[188].  Sumbat & his wife had two children: 

a)         DAVIT .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…" had two sons "Dawith et Bagrat"[189]

b)         BAGRAT (-988).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…" had two sons "Dawith et Bagrat", stating that Bagrat died in 988[190]m ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had two children: 

i)          GURGEN (-1012).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat, son of "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…", had two sons "Gourgen et Soumbat"[191].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "fils de Bagrat d'Artanoudj…Soumbat" died in 1011 and "Gourgen son frère" in 1012, both called "rois des Clardjeth", while imprisoned by King Bagrat[192]m ---.  The name of Gurgen's wife is not known.  Gurgen & his wife had one child: 

(a)       DEMETRE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Gurgen, son of Bagrat son of "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…", had one son "Démétré"[193].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "leurs enfants, Démétré fils de Gourgen, Bagrat fils de Soumbat" fled to Constantinople after their fathers were killed and that "leurs fils, descendants des rois de Clardjeth, périrent tous dans leur captivité"[194]

ii)         SUMBAT (-1011).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat, son of "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…", had two sons "Gourgen et Soumbat"[195].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "fils de Bagrat d'Artanoudj…Soumbat" died in 1011 and "Gourgen son frère" in 1012, both called "rois des Clardjeth", while imprisoned by King Bagrat[196]m ---.  The name of Sumbat's wife is not known.  Sumbat & his wife had one child: 

(a)       BAGRAT .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Sumbat, son of Bagrat son of "Soumbat éristhaw des éristhaws, fils de ce Dawith mamphal…", had one son "Bagrat"[197].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "leurs enfants, Démétré fils de Gourgen, Bagrat fils de Soumbat" fled to Constantinople after their fathers were killed and that "leurs fils, descendants des rois de Clardjeth, périrent tous dans leur captivité"[198]

2.         daughter .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Symbatius autem Davidis filius" married "filiam Bagratii magistri, qui pater Adarnase pridem magistri", and when that woman died "Adranase" married "sororem…Symbatii Davidis filii"[199]m her first cousin, ADARNASE [VIII], son of BAGRAT magister & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

E.      PRINCES (KOUROPALATES) of KARTLI (BAGRATID)

 

 

It has not been possible to reconstruct with accuracy one single representation of the early generations of the princes of Kartli until kouropalates Adarnase (who died in 923), as the different primary sources are not reconcilable.  Two alternative versions are therefore shown here.  Version 1 is based on data extracted from the Georgian Chronicle (13th century), although there are some family links which are not explicit in that document and can only been confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century), the historical accuracy of which is dubious in relation to pre-10th century events, as discussed in the Introduction to the present document.  Version 2 is reconstructed from the De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos.  Until the accession of Bagrat III in the late 10th century, the sources reveal little information about the activities of these princes beyond their names and family relationships. 

 

 

 

VERSION 1: descent of the 9th century Princes of Kartli according to the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) and (18th century)

 

 

BAGRAT [I], son of ASHOT Prince of Iberia & his wife --- ([822]-876).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Adarnasé et Bagrat" as the two sons of "Achot couropalate"[200].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat fils d'Achot couropalate" was given Kartli by Mohammed bin Khalil[201]Prince of Kartli.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Dawith Achot et Adarnasé" as the sons of Bagrat, recording that Adarnase died in 876[202]

m --- of Armenia, daughter of SMBAT VII Bagratuni “the Confessor” King of Armenia & his wife Hripseme ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

Bagrat & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         DAVIT [I] (-killed [881]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Dawith Achot et Adarnasé" as the sons of Bagrat[203].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Bagrat's son Dawitin the time of world-ruler Smbat, king of Armenia", recording that he "battled with the Abkhaz king Constantine and took Kartli and Uplistsxe" but made peace and "they became in-laws"[204]Prince of Kartli, kouropalates.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "roi-couropalate Dawith I, fils de Bagrat I" reigned five years from 876 to 881, adding that "Dawith et Liparit assistaient les Arméniens, or les Arméniens et les Aphkhaz se disputaient le Karthli"[205].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Nasr fils de Gouaram mamphal" killed "le couropalate Dawith, fils de Bagrat et son oncle paternel" in 881[206]m [--- of Abkhazia, daughter of KONSTANTINI King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Bagrat's son Dawit…" and "the Abkhaz king Constantine…became in-laws"[207], although a marriage between Davit and Konstantini's daughter is only one of the possible interpretations of this passage.]  m ---.  An alternative marriage for the father of "Adarnase curopalates" is suggested by the De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos which records that "mater Davidi et Adranase curopalatæ, patris Asotii quidem curopalatæ" were the daughters of two brothers, adding that "Symbatius autem Davidis filius" married "filiam Bagratii magistri, qui pater Adarnase pridem magistri", and when that woman died "Adranase" married "sororem…Symbatii Davidis filii"[208].  This paragraph in the De Administrando is extremely confusing, but could in fact make sense if the second half (reporting the two specific marriages) is not in fact a further explanation of the first half (the mothers of the two named individuals being cousins).  If this is correct "Adranase curopalatæ, patris Asotii quidem curopalatæ" was not the same person as "Adarnase pridem magistri" (the latter being Adarnase [VIII], see above in Chapter 1.D).  This also seems correct, as it avoids an otherwise inexplicable contradiction in the De Administrando Imperio which in an earlier section names "Adranase" as son of "Asotius", stating that Emperor Leo VI invested him with "curopalatæ dignitate"[209].  Davit [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         ADARNASE [X] (-923).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un fils Adarnasé" succeeded after his father Davit was killed in 881[210]Prince of Kartli, kouropalates

-        see below

2.         ASHOT .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Dawith Achot et Adarnasé" as the sons of Bagrat, recording that Ashot died in 885[211].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the death of Davit in 881, "les Arméniens, Liparit et les Géorgiens, ainsi qu'Achot frère de Dawith, et les Sarrasins" united against "Nasr", who fled to Greece[212]

3.         ADARNASE [IX] (-874).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Dawith Achot et Adarnasé" as the sons of Bagrat, recording that Adarnase died in 874[213]

 

 

 

VERSION 2: descent of the 9th century Princes of Kartli according to Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos. 

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         SPANDIATES .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "David…et frater ipsius Spandiates", recording that the latter had all his limbs cut off in battle, and later died childless[214]

2.         DAVIT .  It is assumed that he was the same person as Davit [I] kouropalates, son of Bagrat [I] Prince of Kartli, in Version 1 above.  m ---.  The name of Davit's wife is not known.  Davit & his wife had one child:

a)         BAGRAT .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pancratium" as son of "David…Spandiatæ frater"[215].  It is probable that he was the same person as Bagrat [I] Prince of Kartli, in Version 1 above, one or other of the sources switching the parentage of Bagrat [I] and Davit [I].  m ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had three children:

i)          ASHOT .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Asotius" as son of "Pancratium"[216]Kouropalates.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asotius curopalates, Georgius magister Abasgiæ princeps, et Pancratius magister, iam diciti curopalatæ frater" divided the territories of "Curcenii" between them[217]m ---.  The possible identity of the mother of Adarnase is discussed above in Version 1.  Ashot & his wife had one child:

(a)       ADARNASE [X] (-923).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Adranase" as son of "Asotius", stating that Emperor Leo VI invested him with "curopalatæ dignitate"[218]Kouropalates

-         see below

ii)         DAVIT .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "David, Asotii pridem curopalatæ frater"[219]

 

 

 

COMBINED DESCENT

 

 

ADARNASE [X], son of DAVIT [I] Prince of Kartli & his wife --- (-923).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un fils Adarnasé" succeeded after his father Davit was killed in 881[220]Prince of Kartli, kouropalates.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Adranase" as son of "Asotius", who was son of "Pancratium" (Bagrat) son of "David…Spandiatæ frater", stating that Emperor Leo VI invested him with "curopalatæ dignitate"[221].  This descent contradicts that parentage attributed to Davit [I] in the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) (see above).  Supported by his relative Ashot I King of Armenia, he was confirmed as kouropalates of Iberia after the death of his father[222].  He was crowned by Smbat I King of Armenia as King of Iberia in 899[223].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Adarnasé roi de Karthli, fils de Dawith couropalate" but was defeated "Nasrsur les bords du Mtcouar", where he was captured and killed in 888[224].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Adarnasé" reigned for 42 years until 923[225]

m ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known. 

Adarnase [X] & his wife had three children:

1.         DAVIT [I] (897-937).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "David, Asotii pridem curopalatæ frater" when recording that he arrested "Constans patricius" when crossing Chaldea[226].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Dawith, frère de cet Achot" died in 937[227]

2.         ASHOT [II] (-954).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Adranase curopalatæ, patris Asotii quidem curopalatæ" when recording the parentage of Ashot's paternal grandmother[228].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Achot couropalate, fils d'Adarnasé" died in 954[229]Kouropalates

3.         [BAGRAT (-945).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat magistros-couropalate, leur frère et fils du roi Adarnasé" died in 945[230].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.  Magistrosm ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had one child:] 

a)         [ADARNASE [XI] (-961).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Adarnasé couropalate, fils de ce Bagrat" died in 961[231].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.  Kouropalatesm ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known.  Adarnase & his wife had two children:] 

i)          [BAGRAT (-969).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat fils de cet Adarnasé couropalate" died in 969[232].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.] 

ii)         [DAVIT (-966).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Dawith magister, éristhaw des éristhaws, frère de ce Bagrat" died in 966[233].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.] 

4.         [SUMBAT [I] (-958).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Soumbat couropalate, fils du roi Adarnasé et frère du roi Dawith" died in 958[234].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.  Kouropalatesm ---.  The name of Sumbath's wife is not known.  Sumbath & his wife had two children:

a)         [BAGRAT [II] “the Simple” (-994).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Bagrat Regwen ou Dawith, qui fut roi après son père et Adarnasé couropalate" as the two sons of "le roi Soumbat couropalate, fils du roi Adarnasé et frère du roi Dawith"[235].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.  Prince of Kartlim ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had two children: 

i)          [GURGEN [I] (-1008 or after).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "son fils aîné Gourgen" as successor of "Bagrat Régouen roi des Karthles", adding he was "titré rois des rois"[236].  His parentage is uncorroborated by other sources.] 

-         see below

ii)         [SUMBAT (-992).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Soumbat fils de ce roi Bagrat-Régwen" died in 992 without children[237].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.] 

b)         [ADARNASE [XII] (-983).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Bagrat Regwen ou Dawith, qui fut roi après son père et Adarnasé couropalate" as the two sons of "le roi Soumbat couropalate, fils du roi Adarnasé et frère du roi Dawith", adding that Adarnase died in 983[238].  This source records no details of his life beyond his name.  His existence and family relationships are uncorroborated by earlier sources.  m ---.  The name of Adarnase's wife is not known.  Adarnase & his wife had one child:] 

i)          DAVIT (-[murdered] 1001).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "David Curopalate king of Tayk raised Gurgen's son the lad Bagrat" and that they "sought him as king of Abkhazia"[239]Kouropalates.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “le…tyran des Perses, Mamlan” invaded “le district d´Abahounik, au pays de Tavith le curopalate, prince des Géorgiens…pieux et saint homme” who defeated the invaders, in a passage which follows one which describes events in “l´année 432 [26 Mar 983/24 Mar 984]”[240].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Dawith le Grand couropalate, fils de cet Adarnasé" died in 1001 adding that "le Tao fut livré par-là à la désolation: Basile empereur de Grèce, étant donc venu, les aznaours de Dawith lui livrèrene leurs forteresses"[241].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “David, ce prince vénérable” was murdered by “l´archevêque géorgien Hilarion”, his death being avenged later by Emperor Basileios II[242]

 

 

GURGEN [I], son of [BAGRAT [II] "the Simple" King of Kartli & his wife ---] (-1008 or after).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "son fils aîné Gourgen" as successor of "Bagrat Régouen roi des Karthles", adding he was "titré rois des rois"[243].  His parentage is uncorroborated by earlier sources.  Zonaras records that "Georgium Davidis fratrem interioris Iberiæ principem" was defeated by Byzantine forces after the death of "Davide curopalata"[244], providing another perspective on Gurgen´s possible parentage.  Zonaras records that "Nicephorus Bardæ Phoca filius" won a military victory "in Abasgiam" and that "Abasgorumque princeps Georgius" fled "in Iberiæ interiora"[245].  The History of Aristakes Lastivertc'l records that "the king of Abkhazia Bagarat and his father Gurgen" met Emperor Basileios I who awarded "the honour of Curopalate" to Bagrat and "that of Magister" to his father[246].  The accession of his son Bagrat as king of Abkhazia, during his father's lifetime, would be better explained if Gurgen was not directly related to the previous princes of Kartli other than by marriage.  In addition, the adoption of his son Bagrat by Davit kouropalates (who died in 1001, see above) would be more easily understandable if Gurgen had married Davit's sister.  Prince of Kartli.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Gourgen roi des rois, père de…Bagrat" died in 1008[247]

m [--- of Abkhazia, daughter of LEON King of Abkhazia & his wife ---].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the mother of "Bagrat" was "une sœur de Démétré et de Thewdos [rois des Apkhaz]"[248].  This origin is not confirmed in other earlier sources, and the question remains whether this parentage of Gurgen's wife was a later invention to explain her son's elevation as king of Abkhazia. 

Gurgen & his wife had [two] children: 

1.         BAGRAT [III] (-[Phanascert 7 May] 1014, bur [Bedia]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "David Curopalate king of Tayk raised Gurgen's son the lad Bagrat" and that they "sought him as king of Abkhazia"[249].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Bagrat" as son of "Gourgen"[250].  He succeeded as King of Abkhazia.  The History of Aristakes Lastivertc'l records that "the king of Abkhazia Bagarat and his father Gurgen" met Emperor Basileios I who awarded "the honour of Curopalate" to Bagrat and "that of Magister" to his father[251].  He expelled the Turks from the eastern provinces, renounced his allegiance to the Byzantine emperor, and established his rule over Abkhazia, Kartli, Rania, Kakhetia and Armenia.  He assumed the title "King of Kings [Mepe-Mepeta] and Master of all the East and West".  King of Kartli 1008-1014.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Bagrat king of Abkhazia" built monasteries and churches for 36 years and died in 1014[252].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Bagrat" died "dans la citadelle de Phanascert" 7 May 1014 and was buried at Bedia[253]m ---.  The name of Bagrat's wife is not known.  Bagrat & his wife had one child:

a)         GIORGI [I] ([995/96]-[Mqinwarni or Itaroni 16 Aug] [1025/27], bur Kothathis).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "his son Georgi" succeeded "Bagrat king of Abkhazia" and ruled for 16 years[254].  He succeeded his father in 1014 as King of Abkhazia

-        see below, Chapter 2.A KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1213

2.         [KATRAMIDE .  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that the mother of Yovhanes was “la reine Gadramidtkh…fille du roi de Géorgie, Kourke[255].  It is assumed that this is intended to mean that she was the daughter of Gurgen [I] Prince of Kartli.   The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that Yovhanes received support from “le chef Géorgien” in his dispute with his brother over their father´s succession, dated to after [1017/20].  It is unclear from the context of the passage whether “le chef Géorgien” in question refers to Yovhanes´s maternal grandfather, although the reference by Matthew to this “chef Géorgien” being “Aph´khaz de naissance [256] suggests that this might be the case.  If the passage indicates the same person, this alleged parentage is cast in doubt, as the death of Prince Gurgen is dated to 1008 in the Georgian Chronicle (18th Century) (see above).  Alternatively, “le chef Géorgien” may refer to Katramide´s supposed nephew King Giorgi [I], who is recorded as ruling Abkhazia at the time of the death of Yovhanes´s father.  This explanation has the advantage of elucidating why the passage in Matthew´s Chronicle avoids referring to “le chef” explicitly as Yovhanes´s grandfather.  The contradictions in the early passages of the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, combined with the extreme unreliability of the various editions of the Georgian Chronicle as discussed in detail in the Introduction to this document, suggest that it is unwise to conclude anything more precise about the parentage of Katramide other than the likelihood of her father being of Georgian origin.  It should be noted that this is not the only parentage proposed for Katramide as, according to Vardan, she was the daughter of Vasak [VI] prince of Siunik[257]m GAGIK I "the Great" King of Armenia, son of ASHOT III "Voghormadz/the Merciful" King of Armenia & his wife --- (-[1017/20]).]

 

 

 

F.      KINGS of ABKHAZIA

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         LEON .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Archil gave "à Léon [l'éristhaw imperial]…la couronne don’t l'empereur grec avait fait present au roi Mirian"[258]m [GORANDUXT, daughter of MIHR King of Georgia & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Mihr left seven daughters but no sons when he died, recording in a later passage that their paternal uncle gave them in marriage "à Léon [l'éristhaw imperial] sa niece Gourandoukht" and "la couronne don’t l'empereur grec avait fait present au roi Mirian"[259].] 

2.         son .  m ---, daughter of --- Khan of the Khazars.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "a certain Leon, son of the Khazar king's daughter took a crown and held Abkhazia and Egris as far as Lix mountain", dated from the context to the early 9th century[260].  One child: 

a)         LEON (-[811/12]).  King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "a certain Leon, son of the Khazar king's daughter took a crown and held Abkhazia and Egris as far as Lix mountain", dated from the context to the early 9th century[261].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Léon, éristhaw d'Aphkhazie, fils du frère de Léon á qui l'éristhawat héréditaire de cette contrée avait été conféré précédemment, se détacha d'eux", that his mother was "une fille du roi des Khazars", and that with Khazar support he captured "toute l'Aphkhazie et de l'Egris jusqu'au mont Likh" and took the title "roi des Aphkhaz", dating his elevation to after the death of Iwane and before the death of Juansher (two brothers, see Chapter 1.A above), which are dated to 786 and 787 respectively[262]m ---.  The name of Leon's wife is not known.  Leon & his wife had two children: 

i)          TEODOS (-[837/38]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "his son Teodos" succeeded after the death of Leon[263]King of Abkhaziam --- of Iberia, daughter of ASHOT Prince of Iberia & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Thewdos, roi des Aphkhaz" as son-in-law of "Achot" and son "du second Léon"[264]

ii)         DEMETRE (-[872/73]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Giorgi Aghtséphel, roi d'Apkhazie, frère de Thewdos et de Démétré et fils de Léon"[265]King of Abkhaziam ---.  The name of Demetre's wife is not known.  Demetre & his wife had two children: 

(a)       TININE (-killed [879]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi Aghtséphel, roi d'Apkhazie, frère de Thewdos et de Démétré et fils de Léon" captured Kartli and left as "éristhaw à Tchikha un fils de Démétré…Tininé" who was killed by "la femme du roi Giorgi" after the latter died[266]

(b)       BAGRAT [I] (-[898/99]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un jeune fils de Dimitri…Bagrat" was thrown into the sea after the death of Giorgi [I] but arrived at Constantinople[267]King of Abkhazia

-         see below

iii)        GIORGI [I] "Aghtsepeli" (-[878/79]).  King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Giorgi" succeeded "Thewdos II", was called "Giorgi Aghtséphet" because he possessed Aghtseph, and reigned for 27 years[268].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "the Abkhaz king Giorgi and Lewon's son-in-law Demetre arose and captured Kartli", dated from the context to the mid-9th century[269].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi Aghtséphel, roi d'Apkhazie, frère de Thewdos et de Démétré et fils de Léon" captured Kartli[270]m ---.  The name of Giorgi's wife is not known.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la femme du roi Giorgi" killed her husband's nephew "éristhaw à Tchikha un fils de Démétré…Tininé" after her husband died[271].  Giorgi & his wife had one child: 

(a)       [IOANE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "le roi Ioané" after the death of King Giorgi [I], but does not specify the relationship between the two[272].  It is assumed that they were father and son but this is not without doubt.  King of Abkhaziam ---.  The name of Ioane's wife is not known.  Ioane & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ADARNASE Shavliani (-killed [887/88]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "son fils Adarnasé" succeeded after the death of "le roi Ioané"[273]King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat, fils de Démétré roi des Aphkhaz" returned to Abkhazia from Greece, killed "Adarnasé fils de Ioané" and seized the country[274]m as her first husband, --- of Iberia, daughter of GUARAM of Iberia & his wife [--- of Armenia].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Ioané" arranged the marriage of "son fils Adarnasé" and "la fille de Gouaram, fils d'Achot"[275].  She married secondly ([888]) Bagrat King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat, fils de Démétré roi des Aphkhaz" married "la femme d'Adarnasé, fille de Gouram mamphal" after killing her first husband[276]

iv)       daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) which records that "the Abkhaz king Giorgi and Lewon's son-in-law Demetre arose and captured Kartli", dated from the context to the mid 9th century[277]m DEMETRE, son of ---. 

 

 

BAGRAT [I] of Abkhazia, son of DEMETRE [I] King of Abkhazia & his wife --- (-[898/99]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "un jeune fils de Dimitri…Bagrat" was thrown into the sea after the death of Giorgi [I] but arrived at Constantinople[278]King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat, fils de Démétré roi des Aphkhaz" returned to Abkhazia from Greece, killed "Adarnasé fils de Ioané" and seized the country[279].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat fils de Démétré" reigned 12 years[280]

m as her second husband, --- of Iberia, widow of ADARNASE King of Abkhazia, daughter of GUARAM of Iberia & his wife [--- of Armenia].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Ioané" arranged the marriage of "son fils Adarnasé" and "la fille de Gouaram, fils d'Achot"[281].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat, fils de Démétré roi des Aphkhaz" married "la femme d'Adarnasé, fille de Gouram mamphal" after killing her first husband[282]

Bagrat [I] & his wife had one child: 

1.         KONSTANTINI (-[916/17])King of Abkhazia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Costantiné roi des Aphkhaz" subjugated Kartli, captured "Ouphlis-Tzikhé", but "s'allia par un marriage avec Sembat" and returned "Ouphlis-Tzikhé avec tout le Karthli"[283], although the precise identity of "Sembat" is unclear.  The Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos records that "Constantin roi de Colchide" invaded "la province de Gougarg" [in Armenia] but that Smbat King of Armenia captured and imprisoned him in "le fort d´Ani", adding that Konstantini was "son gendre"[284]m --- of Armenia, daughter of SMBAT I King of Armenia & his wife ---.  The name of Konstantini's wife is not known.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Histoire of Jean VI Catholicos which records that "Constantin roi de Colchide" invaded "la province de Gougarg" [in Armenia] but that Smbat King of Armenia captured and imprisoned him in "le fort d´Ani", adding that Konstantini was "son gendre"[285].  Konstantini & his wife had three children: 

a)         GIORGI (-[960]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Gorgi and Bagarat" as the two sons of "the Abkhaz king Constantine", recording that they fought over their father's succession "until Bagarat died"[286]King of AbkhaziaMagisterm ---.  The name of Giorgi's wife is not known.  Gorgi & his wife had two children: 

i)          KONSTANTINI (-killed in battle ----).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Gorgi…the Abkhaz king" gave Kartli "to his son Constantine", stating that the latter rebelled after three years, entered "Uplistsixe", but that he was "treacherously lured out and slain", implying from the context that this took place before his father died[287]

ii)         LEON (-[969]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Lewon son of king Gorgi" succeeded his father, in a passage after the one recording the death of his brother Konstantini[288]King of Abkhaziam ---.  The name of Lewon's wife is not known.  Lewon & his wife had [three] children: 

(a)       DEMETRE (-[976]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "after Lewon, his son Demetre reigned"[289]King of Abkhazia

(b)       TEODOS (-[978]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "his brother Teodos arrived from Rome" to challenge the succession of his brother, who blinded Teodos although the latter succeeded as king after the death of Demetre[290]King of Abkhazia

(c)       [daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the mother of "Bagrat" was "une sœur de Démétré et de Thewdos [rois des Apkhaz]"[291].  This origin is not confirmed in other earlier sources, and the question remains whether this was a later invention to explain her son's elevation as king of Abkhazia.  m GURGEN [I] King of Kartli, son of BAGRAT King of Kartli & his wife --- (-1008 or after).] 

b)         BAGRAT .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Gorgi and Bagarat" as the two sons of "the Abkhaz king Constantine", recording that they fought over their father's succession "until Bagarat died"[292].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat was supported by his father-in-law[293]m --- [of Iberia], daughter of GURGEN & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat, son of "Costantiné roi des Aphkhaz", was son-in-law of "Gourgen Bagratide, éristhaw des éristhaws, fils d'Adarnasé ayant le meme titre"[294]

c)         daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Bagrat's son Dawit…" and "the Abkhaz king Constantine…became in-laws"[295], although a marriage between Davit and Konstantini's daughter is only one of the possible interpretations of this passage.  m DAVIT Prince of Kartli, son of BAGRAT Prince of Kartli & his wife --- (-881).  

d)         daughter .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Asocio…patricio sive Ciscase" married "soror…Georgii magistri et Abasgiæ principis"[296]m ASHOT, son of BAGRAT & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

G.      KINGS of KAKHETIA

 

 

1.             GRIGOR .  Brosset dates the revolt of "Grigol, éristhaw de Cakheth" to about the same time as "Léon, éristhaw d'Aphkhazie" took the title "roi des Aphkhaz", therefore to 787[297]

 

2.             GRIGOR .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Grigor était mathawar dans le Cakheth", in the same paragraph which records Adarnase and Bagrat as the two sons of "Achot couropalate"[298].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Grigol sortit du Cakheth" supported by "les Mthiouls, les Tsanars et l'émir de Tiflis" and was defeated by "Achot" who captured all he owned in Kartli[299]

 

3.         KIWRIKE [III] "the Great" (-1029).  King of Kakhetiam ---.  The name of Kiwrike's wife is not known.  Kiwrike had two children: 

a)         daughter .  Vardan's History records that "Alp Arslan…came to Armenia" took "the daughter of King Kiwrike", the text implying that the invasion of Armenia took place before Alp Arslan succeeded as Seljuk sultan in 1063[300]

b)         daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Achot mthawar de Marilel, gendre du roi Cwiricé" among those who supported King Bagrat during the siege of Tbilisi[301]m ASHOT mthawar of Marilel, son of ---. 

4.         ZORACERTEL .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "le roi actuel de Cakheth était…Gagic fils de Dawith, roi arménien de Samchwildé et neveu de Cwiricé par sa mère Zoracertel, sœur de ce prince"[302]m DAWIT "Anhogin", son of GURGEN King of Aghbania & his wife --- (-[1046/48], bur Sanahin).  Dawit & his wife had four children: 

a)         other children: see ARMENIA

b)         GAGIK (-1058).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi actuel de Cakheth était…Gagic fils de Dawith, roi arménien de Samchwildé et neveu de Cwiricé par sa mère Zoracertel, sœur de ce prince"[303]King of Kakhetiam ---.  The name of Gagik's wife is not known.  Gagik had one child: 

i)          ASXARTAN [I] (-1084).  King of Kakhetia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Asxartan son of Gagik king of Kaxet circulated around with the Sultan [Alp Arslan]" after the latter captured Tbilisi[304].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Aghsarthan roi de Cakheth" converted to Islam and was regranted Kakhetia by Sultan Malik Shah[305]m ---.  The name of Asxartan's wife is not known.  Asxartan & his wife had two children:

(a)       KIWRIKE [IV] (-1102).  King of Kakhetia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records the death of "King Kiwrike of Kaxet" and the succession of "Asxartan his brother's son", dated to [1092] from the context[306]

(b)       son .  m ---.  One child: 

(1)       ASXARTAN [II] (-1105).  King of Kakhetia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records the death of "King Kiwrike of Kaxet" and the succession of "Asxartan his brother's son", dated to [1092] from the context[307]

 

 

 

H.      KINGS of OSSETIA (ALANIA)

 

 

1.         --- .  King of Ossetiam ---.  [Three] children: 

a)         DURGHULEL .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat" married "la reine Boréna, fille du roi des Osses et sœur de Dourghoulel"[308]

b)         [ALDA] .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", a later passage stating that Demetre was born "not of the same mother" as Bagrat[309].  As no record has been found to indicate that King Giorgi repudiated his wife named Mariam, it is assumed that the mother of Demetre was therefore the king's concubine.  The question of her identity is less certain.  Her possible name and origin are indicated by Cedrenus who records that "Alda, Georgii Abasgorum regali quondam uxor, gente Alana" submitted to Emperor Romanos Argyros and brought "Anacuphen", dated to [1033][310].  However, this must have been at the same time as the alleged visit to Constantinople of Mariam, mother of King Bagrat IV and the other reported wife of King Giorgi, from which she returned with a wife for her son.  As noted in the Introduction to this document, references in Byzantine sources to the "Alans" often refer to Georgians (see, for example, the references to the alleged "Alan" origin of Maria, wife of Emperor Mikhael VII, who is assumed to have been the daughter of King Bagrat IV, see below).  It seems likely that there was only one visit to Constantinople around this time by one widow of King Giorgi and that the reference in Skylitzes is to Mariam's visit.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "un autre fils du roi Giorgi, né d'une seconde femme, fille du roi des Osses…encore très jeune…Démétré"[311].  It is assumed that this reference can be traced to the indirect allusion to King Giorgi's concubine which can be deduced from the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) quoted above, supplemented by the additional information provided by Skylitzes, so it is doubtful whether this source has any additional historical value on this point.  [Mistress of: GIORGI I King of Georgia, son of BAGRAT III King of Abkhazi, of Kartveli and Kartli & his wife --- ([995/96]-[Mqinwarni or Itaroni 16 Aug] 1027, bur Kothathis).] 

c)         BORENA .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records the marriage of Bagrat and "Borena, daughter of the Ossetian king" after the death of his first wife[312].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat" married "la reine Boréna, fille du roi des Osses et sœur de Dourghoulel"[313]m ([1033/40]) as his first wife, BAGRAT IV King of Abkhazia and Kartvelia, son of GIORGI I King of Georgia & his first wife Alda of Ossetia ([1017/18]-24 Nov 1072). 

 

 

The following family group cannot be linked with certainty either to the main Bagratid line or to the family of the kings of Ossetia.  As shown below, Irena is described as the cousin of Empress Maria, who was the daughter of Bagrat IV King of Georgia (see below).  "Cousin" could indicate a more remote relationship than first cousin, and in any case the connection could either be through the empress's maternal or paternal families.  The question is further complicated by the second wife of Theodoros Gabras and Irena, wife of Isaakios Komnenos, being described as daughters of two brothers.  As shown above, the primary sources so far consulted only name one brother of King Bagrat, Demetre.  It is therefore more probable that the relationship between Irena and Empress Maria was through the family of the latter's mother, who is described in the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) as the daughter of the Ossetian king.  As shown above, the Empress Maria's mother had only one known brother, Durghulel, but this does not exclude there having been other brothers who are unrecorded.  Until further information emerges from other primary sources, it is felt that further speculation on the precise parentage of this group would not be helpful. 

1.         son .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         [IRENA] (-5 May [1103/05]).  Nikeforos Bryennios records that, soon after Emperor Mikhael VII married "Iberorum principis filiam Mariam", “huius patruelem Alaniæ rectoris filiam Irenen” married “curopalatissæ filio maiori[314].  It is assumed that her marriage took place soon after her husband was recalled from exile: Nikeforos Bryennios records that, after the death of "Diogenis", Emperor Mikhael VII recalled "curopalatissam Annam...Comnenorum matrem...cum filiis" from exile, dated to late 1072[315].  The Alexeiad records that Isaakios married the cousin of Empress Maria but does not name her[316].  She is named Eirene in Byzantine sources, but it is not known whether this was her original Georgian name.  A seal dated to [1074/78] names "Eirene protoproedrissa daughter of the ruler of Alania"[317].  The primary source which confirms her precise parentage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as XENE.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 5 May of "Eirenes tis sebastokratoresas kai syzygos tou autadelfou tou basileos"[318].  There appears to be no other candidate to whom this entry could apply, although it is surprising that Eirene was not recorded with her monastic name Xene.  m ([1072/73]) ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of IOANNES Komnenos, domestikos & his wife Anna Dalassena ([1047]-[1102/Nov 1104]). 

2.         son .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         daughter .  The Alexeiad records the second marriage of Theodoros Gabras to "an Alan of noble blood", commenting that "she and the sebastocrator's wife were daughters of two brothers", which resulted in the termination of the betrothal of Theodoros's son Gregorios as his projected marriage was thereby prohibited under ecclesiastical law[319]m as his second wife, THEODOROS Gabras, son of --- (-after 2 Oct 1098).   

 

 

According to Vakhucht (Georgian historian, son of King Vakhtang VI, writing in the late 18th century, see Introduction), Davit Soslan, second husband of Queen Thamar I, was descended from Demetre, younger son of Giorgi I King of Georgia.  Vakhucht refers to a small church in the Casara valley where the portraits of "Dimitri et de son fils David" can be found, with inscriptions from which can be deduced that "David fut père d'Athon, Athon de Djadaron, Djadaron de David-Soslan mari de Thamar"[320].  This is quoted by Brosset without saying whether the church or the inscriptions still existed when she was writing.  It is assumed that they did not, otherwise she would presumably have corroborated this reported ancestry.  Apart from this, Brosset quotes Vakhucht in his work stating that Davit Soslan was "issu d'Ephrem roi d'Oseth" and descended from "Dimitri fils de Giorgi [roi de Géorgie]", adding that "étant à Anacophia, en Aphkhazeth, Dimitri avait laissé un fils, qui s'enfuit en Oseth avec sa grand'mère; adopté là, il avait épousé une princesse du sang royal, et son fils, qui demeura dans l'Oseth, y fut traité de roi", that "l'arrière-petit-fils de Dimitri, le père de notre David, fut marié à Rousoudan qui conserva sa virginité pendant une vie de 80 ans", that "les deux Rousoudan étaient sœurs, celle qui éleva Thamar avait été marié à un sultan de Khorasan, et l'autre…à un fils du roi des Osses", and that "il avait eu David d'une autre épouse…par sa mère, David était parent de Thamar, puisque celle-ci était née n'une princesse du sang royal d'Oseth"[321].  This narrative seems far-fetched, especially the reference to the two sisters named Rusudan.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) makes no mention of any such ancestry, apart from the incomplete reconstruction shown below, and it has been decided not to present Vakhucht´s here, even in square brackets, until other more reliable corroboration emerges. 

 

1.         --- .  [King] of Ossetia.  m --- of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT IV “Agmashenebeli/the Constructor” King of Abkhazia and Kartveli & his [first/second] wife --- ([1105/15-).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "une des tantes paternelles de [la reine Rousoudan], fille de David" was "mariée en Oseth"[322].  [One] child: 

a)         --- ([1125/40]-).  King of Ossetiam ---.  [One] child: 

i)          DAVIT Soslan (-[1207/10]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the second marriage of Queen Thamar and "le fils du roi des Osses…David", commenting that he was brought up by "la reine Rousoudan" who had no sons[323].  Vardan's History records that "Soslan, son of the Russian king" was brought as husband for Queen Thamar[324], conflating the identities of her two known husbands.  A later passage in Vardan's History clarifies the position somewhat, stating that Queen Thamar "broke with her Russian husband and married the Ossete Soslan"[325]m (1189) as her second husband, THAMAR I Queen of Georgia, daughter of GIORGI III King of Georgia & his wife Burdukhan of Alania (-18 Jan 1213, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral). 

 

2.         KHUDDANKing of Ossetiam ---.  Khuddan & his wife had one child: 

a)         BURDUKHAN ([1130/45]-before 1184).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Giorgi married "Bourdoukhan, fille de Khouddan, roi d'Oseth" before the death of his father[326].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that she predeceased her husband[327]m (before 1155) GIORGI of Georgia, son of DEMETRE I King of Georgia & his wife --- (-6 Apr 1184, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  He succeeded as GIORGI III King of Georgia in 1157. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1476

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of GEORGIA 1014-1213

 

 

GIORGI, son of BAGRAT [III] King of Abkhazia & his wife --- ([995/96]-[Mqinwarni or Itaroni 16 Aug] [1025/27], bur Kothathis).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "his son Georgi" succeeded "Bagrat king of Abkhazia" and ruled for 16 years[328].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi I, fils de Bagrat III" was 18 years old when he succeeded his father[329].  He succeeded his father in 1014 as GIORGI I King of Abkhazia.  He united Abkhazia and Iberia in 1014, from which time he can be considered as King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that, in the fifth year of his reign, "Georgi" fought "the emperor Basil…in the Basen district…[but] turned back" after fighting at "Shirimk"[330].  Cedrenus records that "Nicephoro patricio, filio Bardæ Phocæ" commanded the army sent by Emperor Basileios II against "Georgius Abasgiæ dux" but was killed, and that the emperor appointed as his successor "Theophylactum Damiani Dalasseni filium" who defeated Giorgi, who sent "filium…suum Pancratium" as hostage to Byzantium[331].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died two years after the return of his son Bagrat, leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[332].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le roi Giorgi" died "dans un lieu du Thrialeth…Mqinwarni ou Itaroni" 16 Aug 1027 and was buried "dans l'église de Kouthathis"[333].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “Kourki roi de Géorgie”, in the same year as Emperor Basileios II, and the succession of “son fils Pakrad[334]

m MARIAM, daughter of SENEKERIM-YOVHANNES Arcruni King of Vaspurakan & his wife Kouschkousch of Armenia (-[after Nov 1072]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Mariam" as the mother of Bagrat, stating in a later passage that she was "the daughter of Senekerim the Armenian king", when recording that she went to Constantinople "and returned with a treaty of peace and the dignity of curopalate for her son"[335].  Zonaras records that "viduam eius" renewed the treaty with Byzantium after the death of "Georgio Albasgiæ principe"[336].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Bagrat's mother Mariam was present when her son died in Nov 1072[337]

Mistress (1): [ALDA] [of Ossetia], [daughter of --- King of Ossetia].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", a later passage stating that Demetre was born "not of the same mother" as Bagrat[338].  As no record has been found to indicate that King Giorgi repudiated his wife named Mariam, it is assumed that the mother of Demetre was therefore the king's concubine.  The question of her identity is less certain.  Her possible name and origin are indicated by Cedrenus who records that "Alda, Georgii Abasgorum regali quondam uxor, gente Alana" submitted to Emperor Romanos Argyros and brought "Anacuphen", dated to [1033][339].  However, this must have been at the same time as the alleged visit to Constantinople of Mariam, mother of King Bagrat IV and the other reported wife of King Giorgi, from which she returned with a wife for her son.  As noted in the Introduction to this document, references in Byzantine sources to the "Alans" often refer to Georgians (see, for example, the references to the alleged "Alan" origin of Maria, wife of Emperor Mikhael VII, who is assumed to have been the daughter of King Bagrat IV, see below).  It seems likely that there was only one visit to Constantinople around this time by one widow of King Giorgi and that the reference in Skylitzes is to Mariam's visit.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "un autre fils du roi Giorgi, né d'une seconde femme, fille du roi des Osses…encore très jeune…Démétré"[340].  It is assumed that this reference can be traced to the indirect allusion to King Giorgi's concubine which can be deduced from the Georgian Chronicle (13th century) quoted above, supplemented by the additional information provided by Skylitzes, so it is doubtful whether this source has any additional historical value on this point. 

Giorgi I & his wife had one child:

1.         BAGRAT ([1017/18]-24 Nov 1072).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi…gave his son Bagarat as a hostage for three years" to "the emperor Basil"[341].  Cedrenus records that Giorgi, who sent "filium…suum Pancratium" as a hostage to Byzantium after he was defeated by "Theophylactum Damiani Dalasseni filium" and that the emperor created him "magistrum"[342].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", recording that Bagrat succeeded his father, and naming "his mother Mariam" when recording that she went to Constantinople "and returned with a treaty of peace and the dignity of curopalate for her son"[343].  He succeeded his father in [1025/27] as BAGRAT IV King of Georgia.  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records the death of “Kourki roi de Géorgie”, in the same year as Emperor Basileios II, and the succession of “son fils Pakrad[344].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Bagrat succeeded his father at the age of nine[345].  Zonaras records that "Pancratius…Abasgie princeps" terminated the treaty with Byzantium, probably dated to early in the reign of Emperor Mikhael IV[346].  Cedrenus records that "Abasgiæ princeps Georgius…filio suo Pancratio" was invested with "curopalatæ honore" on his [first] marriage, dated to [1032][347].  Cedrenus records that "Pancratius…Iberiæ regulus, homo impudicus" raped "uxorem Liparitæ" clarifying that this was "Liparites Horatii Liparitæ filius" who had been killed in battle fighting "Georgium Abasgorum duce" under Emperor Basileios II, that Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos sent troops to Georgia to exact revenge, and that Bagrat submitted to the emperor and ceded "omnem Iberiam atque Abasgiam" as well as "parti Meschiæ" to "Liparita" for life under the peace treaty which followed, dated to [1047] from the context[348].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that he was absent for three years in Constantinople with Emperor Konstantinos IX[349].  He defeated the Byzantines who had invaded Georgia, but was unable to recapture Tbilisi due to the invasion of the Seljuk Turks in 1064.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Arpaslan" captured "all of Kartli…[and] Ani capital of Armenia" and demanded as a wife from Bagrat IV King of Georgia "his uncle's daughter who was daughter of Kiwrike the Armenian king" whom he abducted (although she was recovered)[350].  The same source records that "after three years [Arpaslan] turned upon Iberia" and captured "Tiflis [and] gave it to the amir of Gandzak, Patlun" which King Bagrat recaptured[351].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death 24 Nov 1072 of King Bagrat[352]m firstly ([1032]) HELENA Argyre, daughter of BASILEIOS Argyros & his wife --- (-Kouthathis [1033]).  Cedrenus records that "Abasgiæ princeps Georgius…filio suo Pancratio" married "imperator…Helenamque sui fratris filiam", dated to [1029/32][353].  Zonaras records that, after the death of "Georgio Albasgiæ principe", his widow renewed the treaty with Byzantium and that "Helena ex fratre Basilio nepte" was sent "in Abasgiam" and that "Pancratium curopalatem" was chosen as her husband, clarifying in a later passage that she was "Romanus imperator…neptem"[354].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Heghine from the line of the Greek kings" was sent to marry Bagrat, presumably at the same time as his mother negotiated the peace treaty in Constantinople[355].  If the latter negotiation is correctly dated to [1031/32], this was during the reign of Emperor Romanos III, which suggests that the first wife of Bagrat must have belonged to the Argyros family.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Eléné" died "à Kouthathis"[356]m secondly ([1033/40]) BORENA, daughter of --- King of Ossetia & his wife ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records the marriage of Bagrat and "Borena, daughter of the Ossetian king" after the death of his first wife[357].  Bagrat IV & his second wife had three children: 

a)         GIORGI (-1112).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that King Bagrat "gave the rule of his monarchy to his son Giorgi" during his three year absence in Constantinople with Emperor Konstantinos IX[358].  Kouropalates.  He succeeded his father in 1072 as GIORGI II "Sevatosi" King of Georgia.   

-        see below

b)         MARTHA (-after 1090).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Empress Theodora requested King Bagrat to send "sa fille Martha" to be brought up as her daughter, but that she returned home because by the time she arrived in Constantinople the empress had died (in 1056), and also records her subsequent marriage to "l'empereur de Grèce"[359].  She was known as MARIA in Byzantium.  Nikephoros Bryennios records that Emperor Mikhael married Maria, daughter of Bagrat King of Georgia.  Zonaras names "Maria Alana" as the wife of Emperor Mikhael[360].  She was repudiated by her first husband when he became a monk.  The Alexeiad records that "Botaneiates had established himself on the throne immediately after the deposition of Mikhael Dukas, and…won the hand of the Empress Maria"[361].  She became a nun as MARTHAm firstly (after 1071, repudiated) Emperor MIKHAEL VII, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa (-[1090]).  m secondly (bigamously, 1 Apr 1078) as his third wife, Emperor NIKEPHOROS III, son of --- Botaneiates & his wife --- ([1020]-after 1081). 

c)         MARIAM (-after Nov 1072).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Bagrat's daughter Mariam was present when her father died in Nov 1072[362]

Giorgi I & his [wife] had two children:

2.         GORANDUXT .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[363].  The source contains no indication of the name of the mother of the two daughters.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Emperor Konstantinos IX requested "of Bagrat his sister Goranduxt"[364].  Psellus records that the emperor "fell in love with…one of our hostages from Alania…the daughter of the king there"[365].  Zonaras records that, after the death of Empress Zoe, Emperor Konstantinos fell in love with "adulescentulam quondam Alani principis filiam, obsidem Romanis datam" and installed her as "Augustam"[366].  She became the emperor's mistress and was granted the title Augusta[367]Mistress: (after 1044) of Emperor KONSTANTINOS IX, son of THEODOSIOS Monomachos & his wife --- (-11 Jan 1055, bur Monastery of Mangana). 

3.         KATA .  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters"[368].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Gourandoukht et Cata" as the two surviving daughters of King Giorgi[369].  The sources contain no indication of the name of the mother of the two daughters.  The marriage in Armenia of one of these daughters is suggested by Vardan's History which records that "Alp Arslan…came to Armenia" and took "the daughter of the Georgian king Bagarat's sister"[370].  It is likely that this daughter was not Goranduxt, whose fate appears to have been linked to Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos (see above).  Kata is the only other known sister of King Bagrat.  The identity of her husband is confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that "la niece de Bagrat, recherchée par le sultan, était fille du frère de Cwiricé", naming him "Sembat" in a later passage[371].  However, the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, records that “le sulthan…Alp Arslan” married “Goriguê, fils de David Anbogh´in…sa fille[372].  Although this provides indirect corroboration of the marriage to the Lorhi king, it substitutes Smbat´s supposed brother Kiwrike as father of the sultan´s wife.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) is an unreliable source in many of its details, as discussed more fully in the Introduction to this document.  If no other source emerges which corroborates the separate existence of Smbat, the possibility must be considered that he was in fact the same person as Kiwrike, who would then have been the husband of Kata and the father of the daughter who married the sultan.  [m SMBAT of Lorhi, son of DAWIT King of Lorhi & his wife Zoracertel of Kakhetia.] 

4.         MARTHA (-before 1027).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Martha" as the fifth child of King Giorgi who predeceased her father[373]

Giorgi I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

5.          DEMETRE (-[1052]).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Georgi" died leaving "two sons Bagrat and Demetre and two daughters", a later passage stating that Demetre was born "not of the same mother" as Bagrat[374].  The order of the names in this passage suggests that Demetre was the younger son.  As another passage names Bagrat's mother, the conclusion is that Demetre must have been an illegitimate younger brother.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "un autre fils du roi Giorgi, né d'une seconde femme, fille du roi des Osses…encore très jeune…Démétré", recording that he remained at "Anacophia" after the death of his father[375].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that Demetre unsuccessfully rebelled against his half-brother, but left for Constantinople "taking with him the Anakopos country which has remained theirs until the present"[376].  Cedrenus records that "Alda, Georgii Abasgorum regali quondam uxor, gente Alana" submitted to Emperor Romanos Argyros and brought "Anacuphen" and that her son "Demetrium" was granted "magistri dignitate" by the emperor, dated to [1033][377].  According to Vakhucht (Georgian historian, son of King Vakhtang VI, writing in the late 18th century, see Introduction), Davit Soslan, second husband of Queen Thamar I, was descended from Demetre, younger son of Giorgi I King of Georgia.  Vakhucht refers to a small church in the Casara valley where the portraits of "Dimitri et de son fils David" can be found, with inscriptions from which can be deduced that "David fut père d'Athon, Athon de Djadaron, Djadaron de David-Soslan mari de Thamar"[378].  This is quoted by Brosset without saying whether the church or the inscriptions still existed when she was writing.  It is assumed that they did not, otherwise she would presumably have corroborated this reported ancestry.  Apart from this, Brosset quotes Vakhucht in his work stating that Davit Soslan was "issu d'Ephrem roi d'Oseth" and descended from "Dimitri fils de Giorgi [roi de Géorgie]", adding that "étant à Anacophia, en Aphkhazeth, Dimitri avait laissé un fils, qui s'enfuit en Oseth avec sa grand'mère; adopté là, il avait épousé une princesse du sang royal, et son fils, qui demeura dans l'Oseth, y fut traité de roi", that "l'arrière-petit-fils de Dimitri, le père de notre David, fut marié à Rousoudan qui conserva sa virginité pendant une vie de 80 ans", that "les deux Rousoudan étaient sœurs, celle qui éleva Thamar avait été marié à un sultan de Khorasan, et l'autre…à un fils du roi des Osses", and that "il avait eu David d'une autre épouse…par sa mère, David était parent de Thamar, puisque celle-ci était née n'une princesse du sang royal d'Oseth"[379].  This narrative seems far-fetched, especially the reference to the two sisters named Rusudan.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) makes no mention of any such ancestry, apart from the incomplete reconstruction set out in Chapter 1.H of this document, and it has been decided not to present it here, even in square brackets, until other more reliable corroboration emerges. 

 

 

GIORGI, son of BAGRAT IV King of Georgia & his second wife Borena of Ossetia (-1112).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records King Bagrat "gave the rule of his monarchy to his son Giorgi" during his three year absence in Constantinople with Emperor Konstantinos IX[380].  Kouropalates.  He succeeded his father in 1072 as GIORGI II "Sevatosi" King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Sultan Melik Shah" captured "captured Shamshoyte, looted Kartli and turned to Gandzak" but that Giorgi King of Georgia agreed a peace treaty, leaving his son as hostage[381]

m ---.  The name of Giorgi's wife is not known. 

King Giorgi II & his wife had one child: 

1.         DAVIT ([1071/72]-Tbilisi 24 Jan 1125, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that "Giorgi" crowned "his only son David" during his lifetime, when aged sixteen[382].  He succeeded in 1089 as DAVIT IV “Aghmashenebeli/the Constructor” King of Georgia, ruling jointly with his father.  He refused to pay tribute to the Seljuk Turks in 1097 and defeated the Seljuk armies several times.  He renounced allegiance to Trebizond and abandoned Byzantine titles.  Matthew of Edessa names "le roi de Géorgie, David, fils de Pakarad, fils de Korki" when recording that he defeated the Turks 15 Aug 1121[383].  He extended his rule into the Araxes valley, and defeated Toghrul Seljuk Governor of Arran, and Il-Ghazi in Aug 1121.  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that the Georgians had recaptured Tbilisi from "sultan…Mahmoud, fils de Mahmoud" in AH 515 (1121)[384].  Vardan's History records that "Dawit the king of Georgia…took Tiflis from the Persians and struck Melik the sultan of Gandzak with severe blows…and captured Ani" from the Muslims[385].  His reign witnessed an expansion of construction of cities, roads and bridges, as well as the foundation of two academies at Gelati Cloister and Ikalto in eastern Georgia.  Matthew of Edessa records the death of "le roi de Géorgie, David" in 1125 and the succession of "Dimitri son fils"[386].  Vardan's History records that "Dawit the king of Georgia…died in Tiflis and was buried at Gelati in the mausoleum of his fathers"[387].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records the death of King Davit aged 53 on 25 Jan[388].  [m firstly ---.  According to Matthew of Edessa, the mother of King Davit's son Demetre was an Armenian[389].]  m [secondly] [GORANDUXT], daughter of ATRAKA [Atarak] Prince of the Qipchaqs.  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) names "Goranduxt…daughter of the Qipchaq chief, that is Atrak of the Huns" as the wife of King Davit[390].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records more specifically that King Davit married "la fille d'Atraka, fils de Charaghan…prince quiphtchaq…la reine Gourandoukht"[391].  King Davit & his [first] wife had [one child]:

a)         DEMETRE (-Bebris Tsikhe, Mtskheta [1155], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  Matthew of Edessa records the death of "le roi de Géorgie, David" in 1125 and the succession of "Dimitri son fils"[392].  He succeeded his father in 1125 as DEMETRE I Joint King of Georgia

-        see below

King Davit & his [first/second] wife had four children:

b)         GIORGI (-after [17 Feb 1130/16 Feb 1131]).  Vardan's History records that "Iwane, Apulet's son, wanted to kill Demetre and his brother Gorgi" in [17 Feb 1130/16 Feb 1131][393]

c)         THAMAR (-[after 1161]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Davit sent "sa fille aînée Thamar pour être reine de Chirwan"[394].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that King Davit "made marriage alliances with the kings of Greece and Shuan giving his daughters to them"[395].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre's sister "Thamar…fondatrice du monastère de Thighwa" died as a nun, in a passage which follows the record of the death of her brother[396]m ([1112/15]) --- King of Shirvan .  One child: 

i)          AGHSARTHAN .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Aghsarthan, roi de Mowacan et de Chirwan" was "fils de Thamar, sa tante paternelle" (referring to King Giorgi III)[397]

d)         KATA of Georgia .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Davit sent "sa fille Cata en Grèce pour épouser le fils de l'empereur" in 1116[398].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that King Davit "made marriage alliances with the kings of Greece and Shuan giving his daughters to them"[399].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[400], Alexios Komnenos, son of co-Emperor Ioannes II, married Kata as his second wife, adding that she was also called Eirene, presumably her Orthodox baptismal names.  Sturdza agrees[401].  If Kata's marriage is correctly dated to 1116, "the emperor" then reigning was Alexios I (although his son Ioannes had already been crowned as co-emperor) and so presumably one of Alexios's sons would have been the bridegroom (the wife of Emperor Alexios's son Isaakios is not identified in primary sources).  There is nothing in the text of either versions of the Georgian Chronicle which suggests that Kata married Alexios.  Until more precise information emerges from other primary sources, it is considered more prudent to leave the identity of Kata's husband as uncertain.  m ([1116]) [co-Emperor ALEXIOS, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife [Piroska] [Eirene] of Hungary (Balabista in Macedonia Feb 1106-Attalia late summer 1142, bur Constantinople)]. 

e)         --- of Georgia .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "une des tantes paternelles de [la reine Rousoudan], fille de David" was "mariée en Oseth"[402]m --- of Ossetia, son of ---. 

 

 

DEMETRE, son of DAVIT IV “Agmashenebeli/the Constructor” King of Georgia & his first wife Rusudan Pss of Armenia (-Bebris Tsikhe, Mtskheta [1155], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  Matthew of Edessa records the death of "le roi de Géorgie, David" in 1125 and the succession of "Dimitri son fils"[403].  The Georgian Chronicle (13th century) records that King Davit sent "his son Demetre to the Shruan area"[404].  He succeeded his father in 1125 as DEMETRE I King of Georgia.  Vardan's History records that "his son Demetre" succeeded on the death of King Davit and "added Dmanis and Xunan city taken from the Persians"[405].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records the death in [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157] of "Dimitri roi de Géorgie"[406].  Vardan's History records that "Demetre king of Georgia" died in [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157] after reigning for 32 years[407]

m ---.  The name of Demetre's wife is not known. 

Demetre & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         DAVIT (-[11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre had two sons "David et Giorgi" and one daughter "Rousoudan", recording that Davit reigned six months after his father died[408].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son fils David" succeeded "Dimitri roi de Géorgie", but that he died after two years[409].  He succeeded on the death of his father as DAVIT V King of Georgia.  Vardan's History records that "his son Dawit" succeeded after the death of King Demetre but died in [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157][410]m ---.  The name of Davit's wife is not known.  Davit & his wife had one children:

a)         DEMNE [Demetre] ([1155/57]-after 1181).  He appears to have been passed over on the death of his father, presumably because of he was still a child, and replaced as king by his uncle Giorgi.  On coming of age in 1177, he was prevented from taking control, blinded and castrated.  Vardan's History records a failed plot involving "the nephew of their king Demne" in [5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178], in a later passage stating that "Demna son of Dawit had been mutilated in eye and torso"[411]

2.         GIORGI (-6 Apr 1184, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre had two sons "David et Giorgi" and one daughter "Rousoudan"[412].  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "son fils David" succeeded "Dimitri roi de Géorgie", but that he died after two years and was succeeded by "son frère Giorgi"[413].  Vardan's History records that "Dawit's brother Georgi…took the crown" in [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157][414].  He succeeded as GIORGI III King of Georgia in 1157, displacing his infant nephew.  The Chronographie of Samuel d'Ani records that "le roi de Géorgie Giorgi" captured Ani 13 Jun 1161, and Tevin 21 Aug 1162[415].  The Chronicle of Grégoire le Prêtre records that "le roi de Géorgie, Giorgi, fils de Simitri, fils de David" besieged Ani in [9 Feb 1161/8 Feb 1162][416].  Bar Hebræus records that "Gurdj" (the Georgians) captured "Dovin, ville de l'Azerbeidjan" in A.H. 557 (1162) but were defeated by "Ildeguiz seigneur de ce pays"[417].  The Chronicle of Patriarch Michel le Grand records that "Kiorki roi des Géorgiens" captured "la ville de Tovin et massacra tous les Perses qui s´y trouvaient"[418].  Vardan's History records that "Georgi took Ani a second time" in [6 Feb 1174/5 Feb 1175][419].  Vardan's History records that "Georgi king of Georgia died leaving no son" in [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185][420]m (before 1155) BURDUKHAN, daughter of KHUDDAN King of Ossetia & his wife --- (-before 1184).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Giorgi married "Bourdoukhan, fille de Khouddan, roi d'Oseth" before the death of his father[421].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that she predeceased her husband[422].  Giorgi & his wife had two children: 

a)         THAMAR (-Agarani 18 Jan [1207/13], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  Vardan's History records that "Georgi king of Georgia died leaving no son" in [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185] and states that "his daughter Tamar wore the crown"[423].  She was crowned Queen of Georgia in 1178 during the lifetime of her father.  She succeeded her father in 1184 as THAMAR I Queen of Georgia

-        see below.   

b)         daughter .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) refers to "la sœur de Thamar" after the birth of the queen's son[424].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

c)         [daughter .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[425] and Sturdza[426], the wife of Manuel Komnenos was the daughter of Davit IV King of Georgia.  The primary source on which this speculation is based has not yet been identified, but the hypothesis is chronologically impossible in view of King Davit´s death which is recorded in 1125.  An alternative indication of her parentage is provided by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that her son "Lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos…marching out from Iberia due to the zeal and labour of his paternal aunt Thamar…took control of Trebizond in Apr 1204 aged 22"[427].  It is impossible that "Thamar", presumably indicating Queen Thamar of Georgia (see below), was Alexios´s paternal aunt.  However, if the passage (the original Greek has not been seen) could correctly be translated as "maternal aunt", it is possible that Manuel´s wife was the queen´s younger sister, maybe the same person as the unnamed younger sister who is referred to in the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) and about whose fate nothing further is revealed in the primary sources which have been consulted (see above).  m MANUEL Komnenos, sébastokrator, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS I & his first wife --- [sister of Georgios Palaiologos] (before 1152-[after 1185]).] 

3.         RUSUDAN (-after 1157).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre had two sons "David et Giorgi" and one daughter "Rousoudan"[428].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Rousoudan, sœur du roi" was previously "l'épouse d'un sultan"[429].  Baumgarten records her first marriage and refers to his sources[430].  The primary source which confirms her two marriages has not yet been identified.  She had no issue by either marriage.  m firstly ([1151/54]) as his second wife, IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev, Prince of Polotsk & Minsk, son of MSTISLAV I Harald Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christina of Sweden (-13 Nov 1154).  m secondly SANJAR Shah, youngest son of Seljuk Sultan MALIK Shah bin Alp Arslan (1086-1157). 

4.         [HELENA.  According to Sturdza, the first wife of Andronikos Komnenos was Helena daughter of Demetre I King of Georgia[431].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[432], the first wife of Andronikos Komnenos was --- Palaiologina, sister of Georgios Palaiologos.  The primary sources, if any, on which these hypotheses are based have not yet been identified.  m ([1144]) ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene --- ([1123/24]-murdered Constantinople 12 Sep 1185).  He succeeded in 1183 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS I.] 

 

 

THAMAR, daughter of GIORGI III King of Georgia & his wife Burdukhan of Ossetia (-Agarani 18 Jan [1207/13], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  Vardan's History records that "Georgi king of Georgia died leaving no son" in [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185] and states that "his daughter Tamar wore the crown"[433].  She was crowned Queen of Georgia in 1178 during the lifetime of her father.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexis, un de ses proches parents, un neveu paternal de l'empereur de Grèce, qui se trouvait pour lors dans notre pays" as an unsuccessful candidate for Queen Thamar's hand in marriage (in the late 1170s)[434].  She was proclaimed King of Kings[435] and crowned in 1184 as THAMAR I [Queen] of Georgia.  Under her rule, Georgia became the most powerful state in the region, reconquering numerous cities and fortresses to the south and west, defeating Rukn al-Din Seljuk Sultan of Rum, in 1204, and eventually large parts of Muslim dominated Azerbaijan to the east[436].  Bar Hebræus records that the Georgians captured "Dovin, dans l'Azerbeidjan" in A.H. 599 (1202/03) from "l'émir Abou Becr Ibn el-Pehlevan'"[437].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that the Georgians captured "la forteresse de Cars, une des dépendances de Khelath" in AH 603 (1206/07) after a long siege and that "en consequence Dieu a fait mourir la reine des Géorgiens", although it is not clear from the text whether she died immediately after the capture[438].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death 18 Jan "dans la citadelle d'Agarani" of Queen Thamar and her burial "à Gélath"[439]

m firstly ([1184 or after], repudiated) IURII Andreievich Prince of Novgorod, son of ANDREI Iurievich "Bogoliubskii" Prince of Rostov and Suzdal, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his second wife --- Princess of Ossetia (-after 1191).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the first marriage of Queen Thamar and "le fils du souverain des russes, du grand monarque André", commenting that he had lost his father at a young age and had been exiled by "son oncle Sawalth" and was "dans la ville de Swindj, du roi des Qiphtchaqs"[440].  Vardan's History records that "Soslan, son of the Russian king" was brought as husband for Queen Thamar[441], conflating the identities of her two known husbands.  A later passage in Vardan's History clarifies the position somewhat, stating that Queen Thamar "broke with her Russian husband and married the Ossete Soslan"[442]

m secondly (1189) DAVIT Soslan of Ossetia, son of --- King of Ossetia & his wife --- (-[1207/10]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the second marriage of Queen Thamar and "le fils du roi des Osses…David", commenting that he was brought up by "la reine Rousoudan" who had no sons[443].  Vardan's History records that "Soslan, son of the Russian king" was brought as husband for Queen Thamar[444], conflating the identities of her two known husbands.  A later passage in Vardan's History clarifies the position somewhat, stating that Queen Thamar "broke with her Russian husband and married the Ossete Soslan"[445].  Bar Hebræus records that the Georgians besieged El-Malik at-Wahad in Khelat in A.H. 607 (1210/11) but that "leur roi, s'étant enivré" approached the town with an escort of only 20 horsemen and was captured, but released after agreeing to grant several castles, release Muslims prisoners, and pay "cent mille dinars", and agreeing a thirty year peace the arrangements for which included the betrothal of his daughter to El-Wahad[446].  If the Georgian king in question was Davit Soslan (and there appears to be no other possible Georgian king at the time), he must have died some years later than 1207 which is the date included in secondary sources. 

Thamar & her second husband had two children:

1.         GIORGI (Tabakhmela 1194-Bagawan 18 Jan [1222/23], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth "à Tabakhméla" of "un fils premier-né…Giorgi"[447].  Vardan's History names "Lasha" as the "single son" of Queen Thamar and her second husband "the Ossete Soslan", recording that he was enthroned in [29 Jan 1208/27 Jan 1209][448].  He was crowned as joint King of Georgia in 1207 after the death of his father, and succeeded his mother in 1213 as GIORGI IV “Lashi/the Magnificent” King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Lacha-Giorgi" was crowned by his mother when aged 13 and succeeded Queen Thamar when aged 18[449].  His army was routed by Genghis Khan in Feb 1221 at Khunani, south of Tbilisi[450].  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "les Tatars" routed the Georgians in AH 618 (1221/22)[451].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death 18 Jan "à Bagawan" of King Giorgi and his burial "à Gélath"[452]Mistress (1): ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Giorgi had a love-affair with a woman "dans une localité du Cakheth…Wélis-Tzikhé" who gave birth to a son Davit, stating that the king later returned her to her husband but still refused to take a lawful wife[453].  King Giorgi IV had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):    

a)         DAVIT Giorgishvili (before 1212-Tbilisi spring 1269)The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Giorgi had a love-affair with a woman "dans une localité du Cakheth…Wélis-Tzikhé" who gave birth to a son Davit[454].  Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers names "Dawit" as the son of "the king of Georgia Lasha", recording that he "had fallen into the hands of the Sultan of Rum and was a prisoner" at the time his father died[455]He was chosen king by Georgian nobles who thought that King Davit VI "Narin" was dead, crowned 1245 at the Cathedral of the Living Pillar, Mtskheta as DAVIT VII “Ulu/the Big” King of Georgia. 

-        see below, Part B

2.         RUSUDAN (1195-Tbilisi [1244/47], bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth "un an après" (of the birth of her son Giorgi) of "une fille…Rousoudan"[456]Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers names "Rusudan" as the daughter of "the king of Georgi Lasha", recording that she "had the throne under the supervision of Iwane who was named Atabak"[457], although it is not possible from a chronological point of view for Rusudan to have been the daughter of King Giorgi IV.  The History of Ibn-Alathir records that "Abou-Becr, fils d'Al-Behlévan, prince de l'Azerbeïdjan et de l'Arran" married "la fille du roi des Géorgiens" in AH 602 (1205) to prevent further Georgian incursions into his territory[458].  Bar Hebræus records that "Abou Becr Ibn el-Pehlevan" married "la fille du roi des Géorgiens" in A.H. 602 (1205/06), commenting that he neglected the administration of his lands "ne songeant qu'à boire" and that the marriage put an end to hostilities with the Georgians[459].  The date indicates that the "roi des Géorgiens" in question must have been Davit Soslan, although it is not known whether the bride was Rusudan or another daughter.  Bar Hebræus records another possible betrothal of Rusudan in A.H. 607 (1210/11) when he states that the Georgian king signed a thirty year peace with the Muslims, after obtaining his release from captivity, the arrangements for which included the betrothal of his daughter to El-Wahad[460].  Neither the name of the king nor that of his daughter is specified.  However, if this refers to King Davit Soslan, it is likely that Rusudan was the daughter because her first husband is recorded elsewhere as having died just before this date.  She succeeded her brother in [1222/23] as RUSUDAN I Queen of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of Queen Rusudan and "le fils d'Orthoul" by whom she had "une fille…Thamar…[et] un fils…David"[461].  The precise identity of her husband is confirmed by the History of Ibn-Alathir which records that "le prince d'Arzen Erroum…Mogits-eddin Thoghril-chah, fils de Kilidj-Arslan…des rois seldjoukides" sent ambassadors to Georgia to request the marriage of "son fils" and "leur reine", which was accepted after he agreed that his son would convert to Christianity[462].  The same source continues with a fanciful account recording that "la reine géorgienne aimait un de ses esclaves", with whom her husband found her asleep "sur le meme tapis", that she sent her husband to another town under guard, and brought "deux hommes qu'on lui avait vantés à cause de leur belle figure" from "le pays des Alains", one of whom she married but deserted for "un homme de Guendjeh…musulman" who refused to convert to Christianity[463].  The date of the marriage is pinpointed by the History of Ibn-Alathir which in a later passage records the death in AH 622 (1225) of "le prince dArzen-Erroum Moghits-eddin Thogril, fils de Kilidj-Arslan", who had sent "son fils aux Géorgiens" to marry their queen[464].  Her army was defeated at Garnhi by Jelal ad-Din, leader of the Khwarismians in exile in India, who had conquered Persia, and invaded Georgia in 1225.  She fled to Kutais [Kutaisi], while Sultan Jelal ed-Din occupied Tbilisi.  The History of Ibn-Khaldoun records that the Sultan released "un fils du prince d'Arzen-Erroum", who had married "Roussoudan", after he conquered Georgia, that he returned to Georgia but found "Roussoudan remariée"[465].  She unsuccessfully attempted to recover the lost territory in 1228, but reoccupied Tbilisi after the Mongols defeated Jelal ad-Din in 1231.  However, she was obliged to return to Kutais after the Mongol invasion of Georgia in 1236.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Queen Rusudan sent "son neveu David", whom his father had entrusted to her, to her daughter and her husband "afin de le faire périr" so that her son's succession would not be challenged, but that he was welcomed hospitably[466].  The same source records that the queen's reminders to mistreat her nephew were ignored by her daughter and son-in-law until she wrote secretly to her son-in-law accusing Davit of having an affair with his wife.  There follows a lengthy account in the Chronicle recounting that Davit was thrown overboard at sea, rescued, but afterwards thrown in a pit without water, where he was secretly fed by a servant for five years[467].  Queen Rusudan became a vassal of the Mongols in 1243[468].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death of Queen Rusudan at Tbilisi and her burial "au couvent de Gélath"[469].  [m firstly ([1205]) as his --- wife, NOSRET ed-DIN ABU BAKR Ruler of Azerbaijan, son of MOHAMMED (al-Behlevan) [Seljuk] (-1210).]  [Betrothed [1210/11] to El-Malek el-WAHAD AYUB, son of Sultan ABU BEKR el-Malek el-ADEL (-[1210/11]).]  m [secondly] (before 1225) ---, son of MUHAMMAD MUGITH ud-DIN TOGHRIL SHAH Prince of Elbistan [Seljuk].  m [thirdly] ---.  The identity of the queen´s third husband is not known.  Rusudan & her [second] husband had two children: 

a)         THAMAR (after 1228-).  The History of Ibn-Khaldoun records that "Djelaleddin Sultan-chah, fils du Chirvan-chah" was a prisoner of the Georgians to whom his father had sent him to marry "la fille de la reine Roussoudan, fille de Tamar", but that he was released when the Sultan conquered Georgia and granted "le pays de Guchtasti"[470].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of Queen Rusudan and "le fils d'Orthoul" by whom she had "une fille…Thamar…[et] un fils…David", adding that the queen arranged the marriage of Thamar to "Gaïath-ed-Din, fils de Rokn-ed-Din sultan de Grèce" with "Atsqour" as her dowry[471]m (1237) as his third wife, KAY KHUSRAW II Seljuk Sultan of Rum, son of KAY QUBADH I Seljuk Sultan of Rum (-1246). 

b)         DAVIT (-1292).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of Queen Rusudan and "le fils d'Orthoul" by whom she had "une fille…Thamar…[et] un fils…David"[472].  He was sent to the Great Khan in 1243.  Believed by Georgian nobles to have disappeared two years later, they proclaimed his first cousin Davit, son of King Giorgi IV, as King of Georgia.  However, Davit emerged again and was recognised by the Great Khan as junior ruler of Georgia in 1249.  He established himself at Kutais in 1258 as DAVIT VI "Narin/the Clever" King of Imerati

-        see Chapter 3. KINGS of IMERATI

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of KAKHETI and KARTLI 1246-1313

 

 

DAVIT, illegitimate son of GIORGI IV "Lashi/the Magnificent" King of Georgia & his mistress --- (before 1212-Tbilisi spring 1269, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Giorgi had a love-affair with a woman "dans une localité du Cakheth…Wélis-Tzikhé" who gave birth to a son Davit[473].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Queen Rusudan sent "son neveu David", whom his father had entrusted to her, to her daughter and her husband "afin de le faire périr" so that her son's succession would not be challenged, but that he was welcomed hospitably[474].  The same source records that the queen's reminders to mistreat her nephew were ignored by her daughter and son-in-law until she wrote secretly to her son-in-law accusing Davit of having an affair with his wife.  There follows a lengthy account in the Chronicle recounting that Davit was thrown overboard at sea, rescued, but afterwards thrown in a pit without water, where he was secretly fed by a servant for five years[475]Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers names "Dawit" as the son of "the king of Georgia Lasha", recording that he "had fallen into the hands of the Sultan of Rum and was a prisoner" at the time his father died[476]Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers records that "their king's son Dawit" was sprung from prison in Cæsarea and enthroned after the death of Queen Rusudan[477].  He was chosen king by Georgian nobles who thought that King Davit VI "Narin" was dead, crowned [1245] at the Cathedral of the Living Pillar, Mtskheta as DAVIT VII “Ulu/the Big” King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the death of Queen Rusudan, the "fils de notre roi Lacha…David" was located, rescued "à moitié mort, paraissant privé de sentiment, glacé et roide comme un cadaver…" and brought back to Georgia, and sent to the Great Khan where his first cousin Davit, son of Queen Rusudan, was also found and both were recognised as king[478].  He was sent to Great Khan Kuyuk in 1246 and held at Karakoram for five years.  He was recognised as senior ruler in Mtskheta, in Kartli, by the Great Khan, ruling jointly with his cousin King Davit VI "Narin".  He rebelled against the Mongols in 1259.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death of King Davit and his burial "à Mtzkhétha", adding that "on dit encore qu'il fut empoisonné par son épouse Esoukan"[479]

m firstly JIGDA Khanun, daughter of --- (-[1252], bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Djigda-Khatoun" as the wife of King Davit, and records her death soon after her husband's second wife gave birth to their second child, and her burial "dans la sépulture royale de Mtzkhétha"[480]

[m] secondly ([1249/50], repudiated [1252]) bigamously, ALTHUN, daughter of ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Davit married "Althoun" as second wife because he had no children by his first wife, whom he agreed to dismiss after the birth of an heir, and her repudiation of her after the birth of their second child[481]

m thirdly as her second husband, GONTZA, widow of AVAG SERGE [III] Mkhargdzeli Atabegi Lord High Constable, daughter of KAKHABER [IV] Kakhaberidze eristhaw of Radsha and Takveri (-murdered [1263]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death of "l'atabek Awag, fils de l'atabek Iwané" and that King Davit married his widow "Gontza…de la famille de Cakhaber, éristhaw de Radcha"[482].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "la reine Gouantza, veuve d'Awag" was killed "chez les Thathars"[483]

m fourthly ISUKHAN, daughter of TEHORMAGHAN Noyan, Mongol prince (bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Davit married "Esoukan, fille du grand Dcharmaghan-Noïn et sœur du grand Sirmon-Noïn" after his third wife was murdered[484]

Davit VII & his second [wife] had two children: 

1.         GIORGI ([1250/51]-[1268/69], bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth a son "Giorgi" to "Althoun", second wife of King Davit, while his first wife was still alive, and that he was adopted by the queen[485].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death of King Davit's son Giorgi "un adolescent de 18 ans" and his burial "à Mtzkhétha"[486]

2.         THAMAR ([1251/52]-).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth a daughter "Thamar" to "Althoun", second wife of King Davit, while his first wife was still alive[487].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of "sa sœur unique Thamar" (referring to King Demetre) and the son of "Arghoun-Ardi", in a passage just before the record of the birth of her brother's second child (dated to 1276), and in a later passage her divorce and remarriage to "Sadoun…qui eut ainsi trois épouses"[488].  However, as Arghun Khan succeeded only in 1284, it is assumed that this passage is not historically accurate.  m firstly ([1276], divorced) [---, son of ARGHUN Khan].  m secondly as his second wife, SADUN [III] Mankaberdeli Atabegi, Prince of Kars, Telavi, Belakani and Dmanisi, son of SHERBARUQ Mankaberdeli (-1283).  Regent of Georgia 1269-1278. 

Davit VII & his third wife had one child:

3.         DEMETRE (-beheaded Mughan 12 Mar 1289, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth of "un fils…Dimitri" to King Davit and his third wife[489].  He succeeded his father in 1269 as DEMETRE II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli, under the Regency of his half-sister's husband. 

-        see below

 

 

DEMETRE, son of DAVIT Giorgishvili VII “Ulu/the Big” King of Georgia in Kartli & his third wife Isukhan [Mongol] (-murdered Mughan 12 Mar 1289, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth of "un fils…Dimitri" to King Davit and his third wife[490].  He succeeded his father in 1269 as DEMETRE II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli, under the Regency of his half-sister's husband.  He was crowned in 1271 at the Cathedral of the Living Pillar, Mtskheta.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the king of Iberia, David…blockaded Trebizond" in Apr 1282 but "turned away empty-handed"[491].  Assuming that this event is correctly dated, the king of Georgia in question must have been King Demetre not King Davit.  He was taken to Mughan by Khan Arghun in 1289.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre was beheaded by the Mongol "Giorgi", and that eventually his body was recovered and buried "à Mtzkhétha", the county remaining without a king after his death[492]

m firstly (1277) --- Komnene, daughter of MANUEL I Megas Comnenos Emperor in Trebizond & [his --- wife ---] (-after 1289]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of King Demetre and "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde"[493].  Assuming that this marriage is correctly dated as shown below, the reigning emperor at Trebizond was Georgios who would have been too young to have had children who were old enough to marry.  It is therefore more likely that the wife of King Demetre was the emperor´s sister.  There appears to be no evidence about the identity of her mother.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the murder of King Demetre, "la reine et les autres épouses du roi s'étaient cachées"[494].  This text clarifies that the marriages of King Demetre were polygamous. 

m secondly polygamously, SORGALA, a Mongol (-after 1289).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the murder of King Demetre, "la reine et les autres épouses du roi s'étaient cachées", specifying that "Sorghala alla en Thatharie, dans la maison de son père"[495].  This text clarifies that the marriages of King Demetre were polygamous as all three of his wives survived him. 

m thirdly polygamously, NATALIA, daughter of BEKA [I] Jageli, atabegi of Samtzhké, Lord High Steward of Georgia & his wife --- (-after 1289).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Nathéla, la fille de Béka" as the third wife of King Demetre[496].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the murder of King Demetre, "la reine et les autres épouses du roi s'étaient cachées", specifying that "la fille de Béka, chez son père…dans le Samtzkhé"[497].  This text clarifies that the marriages of King Demetre were polygamous as all three of his wives survived him. 

Demetre II & his first wife had four children:

1.         DAVIT (-1310, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth of "un fils…David" to King Demetre and his wife "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde"[498].  He succeeded in 1291 as DAVIT VIII King of Kakheti and Kartli, crowned by Keikhatu Khan in 1293.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Khan installed Davit as king over all his father's territories except for "Samtzkhé, possédé par Béka"[499].  He rebelled against the Mongols and took refuge in the Mtiuleti Mountains.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death of King Davit "travaillé d'une affreuse maladie", two years after his son was crowned as king, and his burial "dans la sépulture royale de Mtzkhétha"[500]m firstly ([1291]) as her second husband, OLJATH Khanun, widow of VAKHTANG II King of Kakheti and Kartli, daughter of ABAGA Ilkhan of Persia & his concubine Bulujin Egachi.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Vakhtang married "sa sœur Oldjath" (referring to Khan Arghun) after being installed as king[501].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Khan married "sa sœur Oldjath, veuve du roi Wakhtang" to King Davit[502].  She adopted the name OLGA in Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the supporters of his brother Vakhtang took "la reine Oldjath" to "Qazan"[503]m secondly (1302) ---, daughter of AHMED Beg Orbeliani, eristhaw of Kartli, Lord High Steward of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that Davit married "la fille d'Ahmada éristhaw de Karthli" after being told that his former wife would not be returned to him[504].  Davit VIII & his second wife had one child:

a)         GIORGI ([1307/08]-[1313/18]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Khan asked King Davit for "son fils…Giorgi…encore jeune" to put him on the throne, dated to [1308] from the context, and in a later passage his accession after the death of his father when he was two years old[505].  He succeeded his father in 1310 as GIORGI IV "Mtsiré/the Minor" King of Kakheti and Kartli

2.         VAKHTANG (-Nakhitchevang [1304/08], bur Dmanis).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the birth of a second son "Wakhtang" to King Demetre and "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde"[506].  He succeeded as VAKHTANG III King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Wakhtang, frère du roi" was installed as king at Tbilisi by "Qazan" [in 1301][507].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Vakhtang died "à Nakhtchévan…attaint d'un mal de ventre" and was buried at "Dmanis"[508]m ---, niece of CHABOUR, daughter of ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Wakhtang, frère du roi" married "la fille du frère de Chabour"[509].  Vakhtang III & his wife had two children: 

a)         DEMETRE .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Dimitri et Giorgi" as the two sons of King Vakhtang, stating "le premier possédant Dmanis, et l'autre Samchwildé"[510]

b)         GIORGI .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Dimitri et Giorgi" as the two sons of King Vakhtang, stating "le premier possédant Dmanis, et l'autre Samchwildé"[511]

3.         [GIORGI] Lasha .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "David, l'aîné, Wakhtang, Lacha, Manuel et une fille…Rousoudan" as the children of King Demetre and his wife "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde", specifying in a later passage that "ses fils…Manoul et Lacha" were "en bas âge" when their father was murdered[512].  It is assumed that the third son was named Giorgi, the name of King Demetre's paternal grandfather who was surnamed Lasha. 

4.         MANUEL (-[1314]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "David, l'aîné, Wakhtang, Lacha, Manuel et une fille…Rousoudan" as the children of King Demetre and his wife "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde", specifying in a later passage that "ses fils…Manoul et Lacha" were "en bas âge" when their father was murdered[513]

5.         RUSUDAN .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "David, l'aîné, Wakhtang, Lacha, Manuel et une fille…Rousoudan" as the children of King Demetre and his wife "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde"[514]

Demetre II & his second wife had [two] children:

6.         BADUR .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Badour et Iadgar et une fille Djigda-Khathoun" as the children of King Demetre and his wife "la fille d'un Thathar", specifying in a later passage that "Badour et Iedgar suivirent leur mère, dans sa patrie" after the murder of their father[515]

7.         IADGAR .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Badour et Iadgar et une fille Djigda-Khathoun" as the children of King Demetre and his wife "la fille d'un Thathar", specifying in a later passage that "Badour et Iedgar suivirent leur mère, dans sa patrie" after the murder of their father[516]

8.         JIDGA Khanun [Jiajak].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Badour et Iadgar et une fille Djigda-Khathoun" as the children of King Demetre and his wife "la fille d'un Thathar"[517].  Sturdza[518] shows a supposed second marriage of Emperor Alexios II to Jidga, daughter of King Demetre II & his second wife.  This supposed second marriage is not shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[519].  The basis for this supposed second marriage is not known.]  [m as his second wife, ALEXIOS II Emperor in Trebizond, son of IOANNES II "Kaloioannes" Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Evdokia Palaiologina (1283-3 May 1330).] 

Demetre II & his third wife had one child:

9.         GIORGI (-1346).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Giorgi" as the son of King Demetre and his third wife[520].  Joint King of Georgia 1299, under the Regency of Grand Vizier Choban until 1314.  He succeeded in 1314 as GIORGI V “Birtsqinvali/the Illustrious” King of Georgia.   

-        see below, Part C. KINGS of GEORGIA 1314-1476

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of GEORGIA 1314-1476

 

 

GIORGI, son of DEMETRE II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli & his third wife Natalia of Samtzhké (-1346).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Giorgi" as the son of King Demetre and his third wife[521].  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "le jeune Giorgi" replaced his half-brother Davit as king of Kartli at Tbilisi from [1299][522].  He succeeded in [1313/18] as GIORGI V “Birtsqinvali/the Illustrious” King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the accession of "Giorgi le Brillant", adding that he possessed "la Géorgie entière, le Somkheth, le Héreth et le Cakheth, le Kathli, la Meskhie, le Tao, le Chawcheth, le Clardjeth, le pays jusqu'à Sper et à la mer"[523].  He stopped payment of tribute to the Mongols, united Georgia and centralised royal power.  He established commercial ties with Byzantium, Venice and Genoa.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Giorgi died at Tbilisi in 1346 after reigning for 28 years[524]

m ---.  The name of Giorgi's wife is not known.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi le jeune frère du roi, né de la fille de Beka et élevé par son aïeul, fils unique de sa mère" married the daughter of "l'empereur grec Kir Mikhail Comnène" with "tout le Debaneth" as her dowry[525].  This is not corroborated in other sources.  There was no emperor at Trebizond at the time and there is no record in Byzantine sources of co-emperor Mikhael IX (whose children would have been contemporaries of Giorgi) having a daughter who married King Giorgi. 

Giorgi V & his wife had one child: 

1.         DAVIT (-1360, bur Gelati).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "son fils David" succeeded after the death of King Giorgi in 1346[526].  He succeeded his father in 1346 as DAVIT IX King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death in 1360 of King Davit and his burial "à Gelath"[527]m SINDUKHTAR, daughter of ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Davit married "la reine Sindoukhtar"[528].  Her family origin is indicated by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that "the son of the emperor, the despot Lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" had been betrothed to [her daughter] "the king of Tbilisi´s daughter, the niece on the sister´s side of Achpougas"[529].  “Achpougas” has not been identified.  Davit IX & his wife had two children: 

a)         BAGRAT (-1395).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names Bagrat as the son of King Davit and his wife[530].  He was appointed Joint King of Georgia by his father 1355.  He succeeded his father in 1360 as BAGRAT V King of Georgia.  . 

-        see below

b)         GULKHAN (-5 May 1395).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of the emperor, the despot Lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" had been betrothed to "the king of Tbilisi´s daughter, the niece on the sister´s side of Achpougas", that she was then betrothed to "the younger and legitimate and lawful son of the emperor, the younger emperor Lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos", arrived in Trebizond "around…Sep 5" in 1377, was "crowned in the imperial [chapel] and named Eudokia, as she was previously called Koulkanchat" and married 6 Sep by the "metropolitan of Trebizond Theodosios"[531].  She adopted the name EVDOKIA in Byzantium.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 5 May 1395 of "the empress Lady Eudokia from Iberia, mother of the emperor Lord Alexios"[532]Betrothed to ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, illegitimate son of ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his mistress --- (Nov 1355-[murdered] [14] Mar 1376, bur Theoskepastos).  m (Trebizond 6 Sep 1377) as his first wife, MANUEL III Emperor in Trebizond, son of ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (16 Dec 1363-5 Mar 1412, bur Theoskepastos). 

 

 

BAGRAT, son of DAVIT IX King of Georgia & his wife Sindukhtar of Samtzkhe (-1395).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names Bagrat as the son of King Davit and his wife[533].  He was appointed Joint King of Georgia by his father 1355.  He succeeded his father in 1360 as BAGRAT V King of Georgia.  He was defeated and captured by Tamerlane 1 Nov 1386, and converted to Islam in 1387 as a condition for his release.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "a Tartar emir…Tamourlanges Tartar" [Tamerlane] destroyed Tbilisi 21 Nov 1386, captured "its king Bagrat…and his wife our emperor´s daughter…Lady Anna…[and] her son David"[534].  He conquered the kingdom of Imeritia in 1392. 

m firstly ELENE, daughter of --- (-1366).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "l'épouse du roi Bagrat, la reine Eléné" died in 1366, leaving two sons "Giorgi et David"[535].  She died of plague. 

m secondly (Jun 1366) ANNA Komnene, daughter of ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (6 Apr 1357-after 21 Nov 1386).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor´s daughter, the Lady Anna the Grand Komnene" was married "to the king of Abazgians and Iberians, Lord Bagratid Bagratian in the country of Long Beaches" in Jun 1366[536].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "a Tartar emir…Tamourlanges Tartar" [Tamerlane] destroyed Tbilisi 21 Nov 1386, captured "its king Bagrat…and his wife our emperor´s daughter…Lady Anna…[and] her son David"[537]

Bagrat V & his first wife had two children:

1.         GIORGI (-killed in battle Nakhiduri 1405, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat fils de David" succeeded his father[538].  Appointed joint ruler by his father in 1369.  He succeeded his father in 1395 as GIORGI VII King of Georgia

-        see below

2.         DAVIT (-after 1365).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "l'épouse du roi Bagrat, la reine Eléné" died in 1366, leaving two sons "Giorgi et David"[539]

Bagrat V & his second wife had two children:

3.         DAVIT (-after 21 Nov 1386).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "a Tartar emir…Tamourlanges Tartar" [Tamerlane] destroyed Tbilisi 21 Nov 1386, captured "its king Bagrat…and his wife our emperor´s daughter…Lady Anna…[and] her son David"[540]

4.         KONSTANTINI .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Giorgi sent "son frère Costantiné" to "l'atabek Iwané, fils d'Aghbougha" with gifts[541]

 

 

GIORGI, son of BAGRAT V King of Georgia & his first wife Eleni --- (-killed in battle Nakhiduri 1405, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat fils de David" succeeded his father[542].  Appointed joint ruler by his father in 1369.  He succeeded his father in 1395 as GIORGI VII King of Georgia.  He was obliged to accept the suzerainty of Tamurlane in 1403.  He was killed fighting the Tatar nomads of Somkheti. 

m NATELA [Nadia], younger daughter of Prince KUTZNA II Khurtsidze Lord Great Chamberlain & his wife Rusa (-1412).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi", son of "le roi David", married "Nathia, fille de Koutzna, chef des chambellans"[543].  Her mother's name is confirmed by the Georgian Chronicle (18th century) which records that King Aleksandri was brought up "par sa grand-mère…Rousa, épouse du premier chambellan Koutzna"[544]

Konstantini I & his wife had three children: 

1.         ALEKSANDRI (1389-before 7 Mar 1446, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexandré, Bagrat et Giorgi" as the three sons of "Giorgi", son of "le roi David", and his wife "Nathia, fille de Koutzna, chef des chambellans"[545].  He succeeded his father in [1412] as ALEKSANDRI I "the Great" King of Georgia

-        see below

2.         BAGRAT .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexandré, Bagrat et Giorgi" as the three sons of "Giorgi", son of "le roi David", and his wife "Nathia, fille de Koutzna, chef des chambellans"[546].    

3.         GIORGI (1390-1446).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexandré, Bagrat et Giorgi" as the three sons of "Giorgi", son of "le roi David", and his wife "Nathia, fille de Koutzna, chef des chambellans"[547]

-                 KINGS of IMERATI

 

 

ALEKSANDRI, son of KONSTANTINI I King of Georgia & his wife Natela [Nadia] Khurtsidze (1389-before 7 Mar 1446, bur Mtskheta).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Alexandré, Bagrat et Giorgi" as the three sons of "Giorgi", son of "le roi David", and his wife "Nathia, fille de Koutzna, chef des chambellans"[548].  He succeeded his father [1412] as ALEKSANDRI I "the Great" King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Aleksandri captured Lorhi in 1431[549].  He abdicated in 1442 in favour of his sons Vakhtang and Giorgi.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Aleksandri became a monk as "Athanasé"[550]

m ---.  The name of Aleksandri's wife is not known. 

Aleksandri I & his wife had three children:

1.         daughter ([1411/12]-[before 1429]).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "Ioannes" married "in Iberiam…regis Alexandri filiam"[551]m ([1426]) as his first wife, IOANNES Komnenos, son of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (before 1403-[1460]).  He succeeded his father in 1429 as IOANNES IV Emperor in Trebizond

2.         VAKHTANG (before 1413-[Dec 1446/1447], bur Bana).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Aleksandri installed "son fils aîné Wakhtang" as king of Kartli and Imerati[552].  He succeeded his father in 1442 as VAKHTANG IV "Gorgasali" joint King of Georgia at Kartli.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Vakhtang died in 1447[553]m (1442) SITI KHANUM, daughter of ZAZA Panaskerteli Lord of Khvedureti and Kareli (-1444, bur Bana).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the marriage of "son fils aîné Wakhtang" and "la reine Sidi-Khathoun, fille du Phanascertel et sœur de Thaqa-Phanascertel"[554]

3.         DEMETRE (before 1413-1452).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Aleksandri installed "Dimitri son second fils" as king of Imerati[555].  He was crowned DEMETRE III King of Imerati in 1445.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that he succeeded his brother Vakhtang in 1447[556].  He was killed by a horse while hunting.  m (after 1446) GULKHAN, daughter of ---.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre married "la reine Goulanchar"[557].  Demetre & his wife had one child: 

a)         KONSTANTINI (after 1447-27 Apr 1505).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Demetre died in 1453 leaving a son "Costantiné"[558].  He was appointed joint ruler by his half-brother King Bagrat VI in 1475.  He expelled his nephew and established himself in 1478 as KONSTANTINI II King of Georgia.  He recognised the independence of Kakheti in 1490 and Imerati in 1493, being left only with Kartli. 

-        KINGS of KARTLI

4.         GIORGI (1417-1476).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Aleksandri installed "Dimitri son second fils" as king of Imerati and in 1445 "Giorgi frère cadet de ce dernier, dans le Cakheth"[559].  He succeeded his father in 1442 as GIORGI VIII joint King of GEORGIA at Kakheti.  He succeeded his older brother in [1446/47] as King of Kartli.  He was defeated and captured by Ovarqvare II Jageli Atabeg of Samtzkhé in 1465 at the battle of Panavari.  During his captivity, Bagrat VI established the separate kingdom of Kartli.  Giorgi VIII was left only with Kakheti.  m (1445) NESTAN-DAREJAN, daughter of --- King of Imeretia & his wife --- (-[1510]).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Giorgi frère cadet de ce dernier [Dimitri]" married "Nestan-Daredjan, fille du roi d'Iméreth"[560].  Giorgi VIII & his wife had four children: 

a)         ALEKSANDRI ([1445/47]-killed 27 Apr 1511).  King of Kakheti 1476-1490.  King of Kakheti 1490-1511.  m ANNA Tinatin Pss of Irubakidze-Tcholaqashvili

-        KINGS of KAKHETI

b)         [daughter .  Georgius Phrantzes records a marriage proposal in 1451 between "in Iberia…regis filiam…Georgi" (who may be identified as a daughter of Giorgi VIII King of Kakheti and Kartli, although this is not certain) and Emperor Konstantinos XI which failed to proceed because of the large payment insisted upon by the bride's father[561].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS OF IMERATI 1258-1389

 

 

DAVIT, son of MUHAMMAD Mughis ud-Din Turkan Shah of Erzerum & his wife Rusudan I Queen of Georgia (-1292).  He was sent to the Great Khan in 1243.  Believed by Georgian nobles to have disappeared two years later, they proclaimed Davit, son of King Giorgi IV, as King of Georgia.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the death of Queen Rusudan, the "fils de notre roi Lacha…David" was located, brought back to Georgia, and sent to the Great Khan where his first cousin Davit, son of Queen Rusudan, was also found and both were recognised as king[562].  However, Davit emerged again and was recognised by the Great Khan as junior ruler of Georgia in 1249.  He established himself at Kutais in 1258 as DAVIT VI "Narin/the Clever" King of Imerati.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the death of Davit after the death of his son Vakhtang)[563]

m firstly --- [Tornikaina], illegitimate daughter of [--- & his mistress --- Tornikaina] (-before 1268).  Pachymeres refers to "imperator…fratris…propriam coniugem" who had "filiam ex alio…naturalem sed illegitimam prolem" who married "Mepe Iberiæ Davidi"[564].  It is not clear from the passage which of Emperor Mikhael VIII's brothers is indicated.  If it refers to Ioannes, she was the daughter of his wife --- Tornikaine, assuming that the text is accurate.  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[565] as the daughter of Ioannes by his second marriage.  If the latter is correct, she must have been a child bride.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the wife of King Davit was "la reine, fille du grand Paléologue, souverain de Constantinople et de la Grèce"[566]

m secondly (1268) ---.  The name of Davit's second wife is not known. 

Davit VI & his second wife had four children:

1.         KONSTANTINI (-1327).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Costantiné le premier, Mikael le second, et le cadet…Alexandré" as the three surviving sons of King Davit and his wife "la reine, fille du grand Paléologue, souverain de Constantinople et de la Grèce", stating that Konstantini succeeded but was opposed by Mikeli who installed himself at "Radcha et…l'Argoueth"[567].  He succeeded his father in 1292 as KONSTANTINI I King of Imerati.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "en Iméreth…le roi Costantiné", died childless and was succeeded by "son frère Mikael"[568]

2.         MIKELI (-1329).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Costantiné le premier, Mikael le second, et le cadet…Alexandré" as the three surviving sons of King Davit and his wife "la reine, fille du grand Paléologue, souverain de Constantinople et de la Grèce", stating that Konstantini succeeded but was opposed by Mikeli who installed himself at "Radcha et…l'Argoueth"[569].  He succeeded his brother in 1327 as MIKELI II King of Imerati.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "en Iméreth…le roi Costantiné", died childless and was succeeded by "son frère Mikael"[570]m ---.  The name of Mikeli II's wife is not known.  Mikeli II & his wife had one child: 

a)         BAGRAT (-1372).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "[son] jeune fils…Bagrat" succeeded in Imeratia after the death of King Mikeli but that he did not dare take the title king because the "éristhaws ne s'étaient pas unis à lui"[571].  He succeeded his father in 1329 as BAGRAT I “Mtziré/the Short” King of Imerati, as a minor.  He was deposed by King Giorgi V when he conquered Imerati in 1330, and appointed Duke of Choropan.  m (1358) --- daughter of Ovarqvare II Jageli atabeg of Samtzkhé. 

-        see below

3.         ALEKSANDRI .  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) names "Costantiné le premier, Mikael le second, et le cadet…Alexandré" as the three surviving sons of King Davit and his wife "la reine, fille du grand Paléologue, souverain de Constantinople et de la Grèce"[572]

4.         VAKHTANG (-1292, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  He succeeded in 1289 as VAKHTANG II King of Kakheti and Kartli, crowned by Arghun Khan.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the succession of Vakhtang (son of Davit) "dans le Karthli", specifying that he possessed "la Géorgie, de Nicophsia à Derbend à l'exception des domains de Béka Djaqel et Tzikhisdjouarel", but recording in a later passage that he died after reigning three years and was buried "à Gélath"[573]m (1289) as her first husband, OLJATH Khanun, younger daughter of ABAGHA Ilkhan of Persia & his concubine Bulujin Egachi (-before 1302).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Vakhtang married "sa sœur Oldjath" (referring to Khan Arghun) after being installed as king[574].  She married secondly (1292) as his first wife, Davit VIII King of Kakheti and Kartli.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that the Khan married "sa sœur Oldjath, veuve du roi Wakhtang" to King Davit[575]

 

 

BAGRAT, son of DAVIT VI "Narin/the Clever" King of Imerati & his second wife --- (-1372).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "[son] jeune fils…Bagrat" succeeded in Imeratia after the death of King Mikeli but that he did not dare take the title king because the "éristhaws ne s'étaient pas unis à lui"[576].  He succeeded his father in 1329 as BAGRAT I “Mtziré/the Short” King of Imerati, as a minor.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that King Giorgi V invaded Imeratia and deposed Bagrat in 1330, giving him "l'éristhawat de Chorapan"[577]

m ([1358]) --- of Smatzkhe, daughter of QVARQVARE [II] Jageli atabeg of Samtzkhe.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "l'éristhaw bagrat, fils du roi Mikel" married "la fille de l'atabek Qouarqouaré"[578]

Bagrat I & his wife had three children: 

1.         ALEKSANDRI (-1389).  He succeeded his father in 1372 as eristhwat of Choropan.  He proclaimed the independence of Imerati in 1387 and was crowned ALEKSANDRI I King of Imeratim ANA, daughter of PELGINI Prince Orbeliani.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Aleksandri I & his wife had two children: 

a)         DEMETRE (-before 1445).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was appointed Duke of Imerati by Aleksandri I King of Georgia in 1401.  m ---.  The name of Demetre's wife is not known. 

2.         GIORGI (-killed 1396).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his brother in 1389 as GIORGI I "the Sacred" King of Imerati

3.         KONSTANTINI (-killed in battle Chalagan 1401).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that "Bagrat le Grand roi d'Iméreth" was succeeded by "son fils Costantiné", but that he was killed "à Tchalagha" after reigning for seven years[579].  He succeeded his brother in 1396 as KONSTANTINI II King of Imerati

 

 



[1] Brosset, M. (1858) Histoire de la Géorgie - Introduction et table des matières (St Petersburg), Introduction, p. V. 

[2] Brosset (1858), Introduction, pp. IV-V. 

[3] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. VI. 

[4] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. 1, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Persico I.10, p. 47. 

[5] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 20, and Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. IV. 

[6] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. VII. 

[7] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. VII. 

[8] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. VII. 

[9] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. VII. 

[10] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. VIII-IX. 

[11] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), Introduction, p. 1, footnote 1. 

[12] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1991) Juansher's Concise History of the Georgians ("Georgian Chronicle (13th century)") (New York), Translator's Preface. 

[13] Georgian Chronicle (13th century), Translator's Preface. 

[14] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 15, text in French, translated into English by myself. 

[15] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. XV. 

[16] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 442. 

[17] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. I. 

[18] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. II. 

[19] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. II. 

[20] Brosset (1858), Introduction, pp. IX-X. 

[21] Available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[22] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), Introduction, p. 1, footnote 1. 

[23] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. II. 

[24] Georgian Chronicle (13th century), 1, 2 and 3, pp. 1-18. 

[25] Georgian Chronicle (13th century), 4 and 5, pp. 19-27. 

[26] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 216. 

[27] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 216-7. 

[28] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 220. 

[29] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 222. 

[30] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 222-3. 

[31] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 224. 

[32] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 88. 

[33] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 89. 

[34] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 229. 

[35] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[36] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[37] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 93. 

[38] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 222. 

[39] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 224. 

[40] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 216-7. 

[41] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 216-7. 

[42] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 216-7. 

[43] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 216-7. 

[44] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 222-3. 

[45] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 224. 

[46] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 88. 

[47] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 89. 

[48] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[49] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[50] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 93. 

[51] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 89. 

[52] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 226. 

[53] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 89. 

[54] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 232 and 233. 

[55] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 91. 

[56] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, pp. 91-3. 

[57] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 237. 

[58] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 244. 

[59] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[60] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[61] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[62] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[63] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[64] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[65] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[66] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 89. 

[67] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 226. 

[68] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 89. 

[69] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 232 and 233. 

[70] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 91. 

[71] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, pp. 91-3. 

[72] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 237. 

[73] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 244. 

[74] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. LI. 

[75] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 91. 

[76] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 237. 

[77] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 253. 

[78] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 93. 

[79] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[80] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 256. 

[81] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[82] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[83] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[84] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[85] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 258-9. 

[86] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[87] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 256. 

[88] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[89] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[90] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[91] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[92] Brosset, M. (1851) Additions et éclaircissements à l'histoire de la Géorgie (St Petersburg), p. 144 footnote 1, quoting Vardan, p. 66. 

[93] Kirakos Ganjaketsis 1, p. 69. 

[94] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Arab Invasions and the Rise of the Bagratuni (640-884)', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), pp. 129-30. 

[95] Brosset (1851), p. 144 footnote 1, quoting Vardan, p. 66. 

[96] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Arab Invasions and the Rise of the Bagratuni (640-884)', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 136. 

[97] Brosset (1851), p. 144 footnote 1, quoting Vardan, p. 66. 

[98] Kirakos Ganjaketsis 1, p. 69. 

[99] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Arab Invasions and the Rise of the Bagratuni (640-884)', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 130. 

[100] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[101] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[102] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 249. 

[103] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[104] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 249. 

[105] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 93. 

[106] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[107] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[108] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 250. 

[109] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 249. 

[110] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 249. 

[111] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 93. 

[112] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 251. 

[113] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 250. 

[114] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 250. 

[115] Brosset (1851), p. 144 footnote 1, quoting Vardan, p. 66. 

[116] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[117] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 15, p. 93. 

[118] Brosset (1851), p. 144 footnote 1, quoting Vardan, p. 66. 

[119] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[120] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[121] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 97. 

[122] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 258-9. 

[123] Brosset (1851), p. 144 footnote 1, quoting Vardan, p. 66. 

[124] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[125] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[126] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[127] Brosset (1858), Introduction, p. LVI. 

[128] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 261. 

[129] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 264. 

[130] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 260. 

[131] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 260. 

[132] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 265. 

[133] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 261. 

[134] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 264. 

[135] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 268. 

[136] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 274. 

[137] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[138] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[139] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[140] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[141] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 273-4. 

[142] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 274. 

[143] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[144] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[145] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 260. 

[146] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[147] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[148] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 282. 

[149] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 274. 

[150] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272 and 274. 

[151] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[152] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[153] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[154] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[155] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 278. 

[156] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 279. 

[157] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 279. 

[158] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[159] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 282. 

[160] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) 46, p. 206. 

[161] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[162] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[163] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[164] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[165] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[166] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[167] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, p. 199. 

[168] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[169] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[170] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[171] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[172] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[173] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 272 and 284. 

[174] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 284. 

[175] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[176] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[177] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[178] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[179] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[180] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[181] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[182] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[183] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[184] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[185] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[186] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[187] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[188] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[189] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 271. 

[190] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 271-2. 

[191] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[192] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 302. 

[193] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[194] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 302. 

[195] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[196] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 302. 

[197] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[198] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 302. 

[199] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[200] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 260. 

[201] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 265. 

[202] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[203] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[204] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 99. 

[205] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[206] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[207] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 99. 

[208] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[209] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, p. 199. 

[210] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[211] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[212] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 272. 

[213] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[214] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, pp. 198 and 199. 

[215] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, p. 199. 

[216] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, p. 199. 

[217] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[218] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, p. 199. 

[219] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 209. 

[220] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[221] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 45, p. 199. 

[222] Garsoïan, Nina 'The Independent Kingdoms of Medieval Armenia', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 149. 

[223] Garsoïan (2004), p. 155. 

[224] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[225] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[226] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 209. 

[227] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[228] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 207. 

[229] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[230] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[231] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[232] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[233] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[234] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[235] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[236] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 285. 

[237] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[238] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 280. 

[239] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[240] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris), I, XXII-XXIII, pp. 31-3. 

[241] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 280 and 297. 

[242] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XXIV, p. 33. 

[243] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 285. 

[244] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXV (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), Liber XVII, VII, col. 159. 

[245] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, IX, col. 167. 

[246] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1985) The History of Vardapet Aristakes Lastivertci regarding the sufferings occasioned by foreign peoples living around us (New York) 1, p. 4, available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[247] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 297. 

[248] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 285. 

[249] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[250] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 285. 

[251] Aristakes Lastivertci 1, p. 4. 

[252] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[253] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 302-3. 

[254] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[255] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, IX, p. 7. 

[256] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, IX, p. 7. 

[257] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), note 4, p. 376. 

[258] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[259] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 244 and 248. 

[260] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[261] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[262] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 259. 

[263] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[264] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 261. 

[265] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[266] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[267] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[268] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[269] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[270] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[271] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 269. 

[272] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[273] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[274] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[275] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[276] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[277] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 98. 

[278] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[279] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[280] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[281] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 270. 

[282] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 273. 

[283] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 274. 

[284] Saint-Martin, A. J. (trans.) (1841) Histoire d´Arménie par le patriarche Jean VI dit Jean Catholicos (Paris) ("Jean VI Catholicos"), XLI, pp. 189-91. 

[285] Jean VI Catholicos, XLI, p. 191. 

[286] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 99. 

[287] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[288] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[289] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[290] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 100. 

[291] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 285. 

[292] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 99. 

[293] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 278. 

[294] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 278. 

[295] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 16, p. 99. 

[296] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 46, p. 206. 

[297] Brosset (1849), p. 259 footnote 3. 

[298] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 259-60. 

[299] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 261. 

[300] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey) 56, available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[301] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 318. 

[302] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 317. 

[303] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 317. 

[304] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 105. 

[305] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 349. 

[306] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 108. 

[307] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 108. 

[308] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 315. 

[309] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[310] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus Tomus Prior, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 235. 

[311] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 315. 

[312] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[313] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 315. 

[314] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[315] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Nikephoros Bryennios Liber II, 1, p. 56. 

[316] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books), Book 2, p. 79. 

[317] "Eirene 65" in Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007), citing Seal 2932. 

[318] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes dans le typikon liturgique du monastère du Christ Philanthrope (ms. Panaghia Kamariotissa 29)', Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), pp. 45 and 61, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2005_num_63_1_2305> (21 Dec 2012). 

[319] Alexeiad, Book 8, p. 265. 

[320] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 421 footnote 1, quoting Wakhoucht, p. 59. 

[321] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 421 footnote 1, quoting Wakhoucht, p. 59. 

[322] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 420. 

[323] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 420-1. 

[324] Vardan 78, 633 A. E. [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[325] Vardan 82. 

[326] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 383. 

[327] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 401. 

[328] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[329] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 306. 

[330] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 102. 

[331] Cedrenus II, cols. 210-1. 

[332] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[333] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 311. 

[334] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XL, p. 44. 

[335] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, pp. 101 and 103. 

[336] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonaræ Annales, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXXIV (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), Liber XVII, XI, col. 172. 

[337] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 336. 

[338] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[339] Cedrenus II, col. 235. 

[340] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 315. 

[341] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[342] Cedrenus II, col. 211. 

[343] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[344] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), I, XL, p. 44. 

[345] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 311. 

[346] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XIV, col. 186. 

[347] Cedrenus II, col. 222. 

[348] Cedrenus II, col. 303 and 306. 

[349] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 103. 

[350] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 104. 

[351] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 105. 

[352] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 336. 

[353] Cedrenus II, col. 222. 

[354] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XI, col. 172, and XIV, col. 186. 

[355] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[356] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 315.  

[357] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[358] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 103. 

[359] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 329-30. 

[360] Zonaras XVIII, 17, p. 714. 

[361] Alexeiad, Book 1, p. 37. 

[362] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 336. 

[363] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[364] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 103. 

[365] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos (Penguin Books) ("Psellos"), p. 235. 

[366] Zonaras XVII, 28, p. 648. 

[367] Psellos, pp. 235-7. 

[368] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[369] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 311. 

[370] Vardan 56. 

[371] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 328 and 329. 

[372] Matthew of Edessa (Dulaurier), II, LXXXVIII, p. 121. 

[373] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 311. 

[374] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 101. 

[375] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 315. 

[376] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 103. 

[377] Cedrenus II, col. 235. 

[378] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 421 footnote 1, quoting Wakhoucht, p. 59. 

[379] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 421 footnote 1, quoting Wakhoucht, p. 59. 

[380] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 103. 

[381] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 17, p. 106. 

[382] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 107. 

[383] RHC, Documents arméniens Tome I, Matthew of Edessa, II.LXXXII, p. 129. 

[384] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 491. 

[385] Vardan 68. 

[386] RHC, Documents arméniens Tome I, Matthew of Edessa, II.XCIX, p. 146. 

[387] Vardan 68. 

[388] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 116. 

[389] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 362 footnote 3, citing Matthew of Edessa, p. 234, 241.  This detail is not included in the extract of the chronicle of Matthew of Edessa in RHC, Documents arméniens Tome I, II, XCIX, p. 146.   

[390] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 110. 

[391] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 362. 

[392] RHC, Documents arméniens Tome I, Matthew of Edessa, II.XCIX, p. 146. 

[393] Vardan 71, 579 A. E. [17 Feb 1130/16 Feb 1131]. 

[394] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 360. 

[395] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 110. 

[396] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 382. 

[397] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 397. 

[398] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 360. 

[399] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 110. 

[400] ES II 177. 

[401] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 276. 

[402] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 420. 

[403] RHC, Documents arméniens Tome I, Matthew of Edessa, II.XCIX, p. 146. 

[404] Georgian Chronicle (13th century) 18, p. 110. 

[405] Vardan 68. 

[406] RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I, Extrait de la Chronographie de Samuel Ani ("Samuel d'Ani"), p. 453. 

[407] Vardan 74, 605 A. E. [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157]. 

[408] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 381-2. 

[409] Samuel d'Ani, p. 453. 

[410] Vardan 74, 605 A. E. [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157]. 

[411] Vardan 76 and 78, 626 and 633 A. E. [5 Feb 1177/4 Feb 1178] and [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[412] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 381. 

[413] Samuel d'Ani, p. 453. 

[414] Vardan 74, 605 A. E. [11 Feb 1156/9 Feb 1157]. 

[415] Samuel d'Ani, p. 454. 

[416] RHC, Documents arméniens, Tome I, Extrait du Chronique de Grégoire le Prêtre ("Grégoire le Prêtre") CXXX, p. 196. 

[417] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 33-4. 

[418] Langlois, V. (trans.) (1868) Chronique de Michel le Grand patriarche des syriens jacobites (Venice) ("Chronicle of Michel le Grand"), p. 321. 

[419] Vardan 76, 623 A. E. [6 Feb 1174/5 Feb 1175]. 

[420] Vardan 78, 633 A. E. [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[421] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 383. 

[422] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 401. 

[423] Vardan 78, 633 A. E. [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[424] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 431. 

[425] ES II 176. 

[426] Sturdza (1999), p. 280. 

[427] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, 1, available at <http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael-panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008). 

[428] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 381. 

[429] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 395. 

[430] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII siècles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 25, quoting Chron. russes I 146, II 74, IX 198, and Brosset Bulletin Hist. de l´Acad. de St. Pétersbourg I, p. 220. 

[431] Sturdza (1999), p. 275. 

[432] ES II 175. 

[433] Vardan 78, 633 A. E. [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[434] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412. 

[435] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 503 footnote 1 explains that the word in Georgian for "reigning king" does not have a feminine equivalent. 

[436] Bedrosian, R. 'Armenia during the Seljuk and Mongol Periods', Hovannisian, R. G. (ed.) (2004) Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Vol I (St Martin's Press, New York), p. 252. 

[437] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 82. 

[438] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIII, p. 514. 

[439] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 476-7. 

[440] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 412. 

[441] Vardan 78, 633 A. E. [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[442] Vardan 82. 

[443] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 420-1. 

[444] Vardan 78, 633 A. E. [4 Feb 1184/2 Feb 1185]. 

[445] Vardan 82. 

[446] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 85-6. 

[447] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 431. 

[448] Vardan 82. 

[449] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 481. 

[450] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 3 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, pp. 163 and 247. 

[451] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 452. 

[452] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 495. 

[453] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 484. 

[454] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 484. 

[455] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (1985) Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers 3, p. 3, available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[456] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 431. 

[457] Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers 3, p. 3. 

[458] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIII, p. 514. 

[459] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, p. 83. 

[460] Bar Hebræus, RHC Historiens orientaux I, pp. 85-6. 

[461] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 501. 

[462] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 475-6. 

[463] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, pp. 475-6. 

[464] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Alathir, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 478. 

[465] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Khaldoun, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 508. 

[466] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 508. 

[467] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 524-7. 

[468] Georgian Chronicle (13th century), I, p. 343, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 250. 

[469] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 528-9. 

[470] Defrémery, M. (trans.) Extrait d'Ibn-Khaldoun, Journal Asiatique (1849) Série 4, tome XIV, p. 508. 

[471] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 501-2. 

[472] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 501. 

[473] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 484. 

[474] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 508. 

[475] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 524-7. 

[476] Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers 3, p. 3. 

[477] Grigor of Akner's History of the Nation of Archers 8, p. 8. 

[478] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 536-7 and 543. 

[479] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 584. 

[480] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 553 and 554. 

[481] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 553. 

[482] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 554. 

[483] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 568. 

[484] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 569. 

[485] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 553. 

[486] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 575. 

[487] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 553. 

[488] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 591 and 594. 

[489] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 555. 

[490] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 555. 

[491] Michael Panaretos 7. 

[492] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 606 and 607. 

[493] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 591. 

[494] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 603. 

[495] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 603. 

[496] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 602. 

[497] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 603. 

[498] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 591. 

[499] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 612. 

[500] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 640. 

[501] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 607. 

[502] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 612. 

[503] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 624. 

[504] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 624. 

[505] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 640 and 641. 

[506] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 591. 

[507] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 624. 

[508] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 639-40. 

[509] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 624. 

[510] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 640. 

[511] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 640. 

[512] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 602 and 607. 

[513] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 602 and 607. 

[514] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 602. 

[515] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 602 and 607. 

[516] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 602 and 607. 

[517] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 602. 

[518] Sturdza (1999), p. 280. 

[519] ES II 175. 

[520] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 602. 

[521] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 602. 

[522] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 622. 

[523] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 644-5. 

[524] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 649. 

[525] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 621. 

[526] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 649. 

[527] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 650. 

[528] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 650. 

[529] Michael Panaretos 87. 

[530] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 650. 

[531] Michael Panaretos 87. 

[532] Michael Panaretos 96. 

[533] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 650. 

[534] Michael Panaretos 93. 

[535] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 663. 

[536] Michael Panaretos 77. 

[537] Michael Panaretos 93. 

[538] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 662. 

[539] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 663. 

[540] Michael Panaretos 93. 

[541] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 672. 

[542] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 662. 

[543] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 678. 

[544] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 680. 

[545] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 678. 

[546] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 678. 

[547] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 678. 

[548] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 678. 

[549] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 680. 

[550] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 681. 

[551] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber IX, p. 462. 

[552] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 681. 

[553] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 684. 

[554] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 681. 

[555] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 682. 

[556] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 684. 

[557] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 684. 

[558] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 684. 

[559] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 682. 

[560] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 682. 

[561] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Liber III, 2, pp. 217-20. 

[562] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 536-7 and 543. 

[563] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 610. 

[564] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 21, p. 216. 

[565] ES III 198. 

[566] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 610. 

[567] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 610. 

[568] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 647. 

[569] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 610. 

[570] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 647. 

[571] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 647. 

[572] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 610. 

[573] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), pp. 608 and 610. 

[574] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 607. 

[575] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 612. 

[576] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 647. 

[577] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 647. 

[578] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 649. 

[579] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 663.