RUSSIA, RURIKID

v2.0 Updated 07 December 2010

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 4

Chapter 1.            ORIGINS, GRAND PRINCES of KIEV. 7

A.       ORIGINS.. 7

RURIK [862-879], OLEG [879-912], IGOR [912]-945. 8

SVIATOSLAV I 957-972, IAROPOLK I 972-980. 11

VLADIMIR I 980-1015, SVIATOPOLK I 1015-1019. 14

B.       GRAND PRINCES of KIEV 1019-1093. 21

IAROSLAV I 1019-1054. 21

C.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, descendants of IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev (third son of IAROSLAV I) 27

IZIASLAV I 1054-1078. 27

SVIATOPOLK II 1093-1113. 29

D.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, PRINCES of CHERNIGOV, descendants of SVIATOSLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev (fourth son of IAROSLAV I) 32

SVIATOSLAV II 1073-1076. 32

VSEVOLOD II 1139-1146, IGOR 1146-1147. 37

SVIATOSLAV III 1176-1194. 38

VSEVOLOD 1205/1214. 40

MIKHAIL 1237-1239. 41

E.       GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, PRINCES of PEREYASLAVL, descendants of VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev (fifth son of IAROSLAV I) 47

VSEVOLOD I 1076-1078. 47

VLADIMIR II 1113-1125, IAROPOLK II 1132-1139, VIACHESLAV 1139, GLEB 1169/1172. 50

MSTISLAV II 1125-1132. 54

IZIASLAV II 1146-1154, IAROSLAV 1172-1175, INGVAR 1202/1212. 61

MSTISLAV II 1168/1170, ROMAN [1200/01]-1205, DANIIL 1231-1240. 64

F.       GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, descendants of ROSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev (the "Rostislavichi" of Smolensk) 66

ROSTISLAV 1154/1168. 66

RURIK II 1194/1210, ROSTISLAV 1204-1205, VLADIMIR 1218-1235. 68

ROMAN 1172/1177, MSTISLAV 1214-1223, SVIATOSLAV 1235, IZIASLAV IV 1235, ROSTISLAV III 1239. 70

Chapter 2.            PRINCES OF POLOTSK. 71

Chapter 3.            PRINCES of GALICH. 77

A.       PRINCES of PEREMYSHL and TEREBOVL. 77

B.       PRINCES of GALICH 1144-1199. 80

C.      PRINCES of VOLYNIA, PRINCES and KINGS of GALICH.. 81

D.      PRINCES of GALICH 1218/1226. 89

Chapter 4.            PRINCES of TUROV and PINSK. 90

Chapter 5.            PRINCES of NOVGOROD-SEVERSKIY and KURSK. 93

Chapter 6.            PRINCES of RIAZAN, MUROM and PRONSK. 96

A.       PRINCES of RIAZAN.. 97

B.       PRINCES of PRONSK.. 102

C.      PRINCES of MUROM.. 103

Chapter 7.            PRINCES of SMOLENSK. 104

Chapter 8.             GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR, PRINCES of ROSTOV-SUZDAL. 111

A.       PRINCES OF ROSTOV-SUZDAL and VLADIMIR, GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR from 1243. 112

IURII 1125-1158, ANDREI 1158-1174. 112

VSEVOLOD III 1176-1212, IURII 1212-1216, 1218-1238, KONSTANTIN 1216-1218, SVIATOSLAV 1247-1248. 117

IAROSLAV 1238-1246, MIKHAIL 1248, ANDREI 1248-1252, IAROSLAV 1263-1271, VASILY 1271-1277. 120

ALEKSANDR 1252-1263, DMITRY 1277/1294, ANDREI 1281/1304, IURII 1318-1322. 124

B.       PRINCES of STARODUB.. 127

Chapter 9.            PRINCES of ROSTOV and BELOOZERO. 128

A.       PRINCES of ROSTOV.. 128

B.       PRINCES of BELOOZERO.. 135

Chapter 10.              GRAND PRINCES of SUZDAL and NIZHNI-NOVGOROD. 136

ALEKSANDR 1328-1331, DMITRY 1360/1363. 137

Chapter 11.           GRAND PRINCES of TVER. 142

A.       PRINCES of TVER, GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR.. 142

IAROSLAV 1263-1271, MIKHAIL 1304-1318, DMITRY 1322-1325, ALEKSANDR 1326-1327. 142

B.       PRINCES of KHOLM.. 146

C.      GRAND PRINCES of TVER.. 147

MIKHAIL 1366-1399, IVAN 1400-1425, IURII 1425-1426, BORIS 1426-1461, MIKHAIL 1461-1486. 148

Chapter 12.           GRAND PRINCES of MOSCOW, TSARS of RUSSIA. 151

A.       PRINCES of MOSCOW, GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR.. 152

IVAN I 1328-1340, SEMËN 1340-1353, IVAN II 1353-1359. 153

DMITRY 1362-1389, VASILY I 1389-1425, IURII 1433/1434, DMITRY 1446-1447. 159

B.       GRAND PRINCES of MOSCOW... 165

VASILY II 1425-1462. 165

IVAN III 1462-1506, VASILY III 1506-1533. 167

C.      TSARS of RUSSIA 1547-1598. 172

IVAN IV 1534-1584. 172

D.      TSARS of RUSSIA 1598-1605, GODUNOV.. 175

E.       TSAR of RUSSIA 1606-1610, SHUISKY.. 176

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The earliest generations of the so-called Rurikid family are reconstructed solely on the basis of the sparse information in the Povest' vremennykh let or 'Tale of the Years of Time', better known as the Primary Chronicle and also sometimes known as Nestor´s Chronicle[1].  As pointed out by Franklin & Shepard[2], the extant manuscripts of the Primary Chronicle which date from the 12th century should not be taken at face value as they must have been compiled from patchy sources of information.  It is likely that the compilers exaggerated the role of Rurik's family in the 9th and 10th centuries, in order to establish a lengthy, credible history for the Russian principalities which were flourishing by the 12th century.  In particular, the alleged establishment by "Oleg" in 882 of the principality of Kiev should be treated with caution.  Nevertheless, the historical existence of Rurik´s supposed son Igor, and Igor´s son Sviatoslav, is corroborated by the De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogennetos[3], written in the mid-10th century and therefore contemporary with Sviatoslav´s reign. 

 

The arrival of Scandinavian traders in the territories which later developed into "Rus" should be seen in the context of the Khazar and Pecheneg 9th and 10th century occupations of the area, which would appear to have left little opportunity for the establishment of powerful principalities by Scandinavian newcomers, at least in the open plain lands.  Archaeological evidence corroborates Scandinavian presence at Gorodishche, Timerëvo and other Upper Volga sites in the late 9th century.  This indicates an increasing, although still limited, number of immigrants tempted no doubt by trading opportunities, but Franklin & Shepard point out that it provides little evidence of organised government[4].  Chirovsky discusses the development of two theories concerning the origin of Russia: the "Normanistic" theory, developed by 18th century historians of German descent who supported a literal reading of the Primary Chronicle and emphasised Norse rule over the Slavs who were unable to rule themselves), and the "anti-Normanistic" theory, which posits the rapid assimilation of small groups of Norse immigrants into the local Slav community and is based on a broad interpretation of the Primary Chronicle[5].  Franklon & Shepard state that there is no firm evidence of Scandinavian settlement at the same time, either in the middle Dnieper area around Kiev or on the northern coast of the Black Sea[6].  A Scandinavian-origin trading community at Kiev appears to have been formed during the early 900s as an offshoot of the more northerly settlements, although it is possible that the Khazars still exercised hegemony in this area as late as [930][7].  The Kiev settlement appears to have developed quickly: the De Administrando Imperio describes the Rus way of life[8].  In 941, it was on the point of launching an attack on Constantinople, and in the late 950s it established diplomatic contacts both with the emperor in Constantinople and with the German emperor. 

 

The titles attributed to the rulers of the Rus principalities are a source of confusion, in particular the use of "Grand Prince/Grand Duke" as opposed to "Prince/Duke", especially in relation to the rulers of Kiev and Vladimir.  Chirovsky points out that all Kievan princes were theoretically equal  (they are all referred to in the Russian chronicles as "Knyaz", female "Knyaginya") and that Vsevolod III Prince of Vladimir was the first prince to start calling himself "Grand Prince/Duke" ("Veliki Knyaz")[9].  The author suggests that Vsevolod adopted this title to strengthen the separation of the principality of Vladimir from Kiev and also to place himself over the lesser princes of the Russian north.  Use of the title by Vladimir´s descendants was confirmed when Prince Iaroslav Vsevolodich received the title "Grand Prince of Vladimir" from Khan Batu of the Golden Horde in 1243, in return for swearing allegiance.  In the present document, the rulers of Kiev are referred to as "Grand Prince" to indicate their position of supremacy over the other principalities and to reflect the fact that they appointed the rulers of these principalities from among the various members of their own family. 

 

The system of princely appointments from Kiev was first formalised by Grand Prince Iaroslav under his 1054 testament[10], which made it clear that appointments to appanage territories were "temporary", and emphasised the common good of the whole realm in such a system[11].  In practice, the appointments were changed rapidly, giving little opportunity for any principality to develop its own hereditary leadership (except while the 1097 Liubech family accord was being observed).  Over time, certain family lines of the dynasty did establish hereditary succession for themselves in particular principalities.  However, a further problem arose with the fragmentation of this patrimony into even smaller territories to provide property for junior male members of the family.  This fragmentation increased with the expansion of the different families.  Family rivalry inevitably intensified: the sources record numerous examples of individual princes being dispossessed by more powerful rivals.  The decline was halted temporarily by the 1097 Liubech accord, but the fragmentation and dynastic rivalry soon resumed and was only eliminated when all principalities were annexed by Moscow in the early 16th century. 

 

From the time of Grand Prince Iaroslav I, the genealogy of the dynasty can be considered more reliable.  However, there are still many gaps and uncertainties, particularly relating to the female members of the family.  Iaroslav I's testament, referred to above, provided the basis for the tradition of succession to the title of Grand Prince of Kiev which, on the death of each grand prince, was inherited by the oldest surviving male member of each generation of the descendants of Iaroslav I's sons, passing from one branch to another before passing to the oldest member of the succeeding generation.  A further requirement was that the title of grand prince must previously, at some time, have been held by the successful candidate's father.  In this way, various branches of the family were excluded from the succession.  For example, the descendants of Iaroslav I's oldest son by his second marriage, Vladimir Iaroslavich, never held the title as their progenitor predeceased his father. 

 

Iaroslav I consolidated the dynasty's contacts with other European ruling families by arranging dynastic marriages.  The countries included the Scandinavian kingdoms, reflecting the dynasty's sense of origin, its neighbours Byzantium, Hungary and Poland, and countries further afield such as France and several of the Germanic states.  This policy of foreign marriages was pursued by Iaroslav's successors but did not survive long into the 13th century.  After that time, the Rus principalities restricted contacts with their western neighbours, and the Russian princes mainly sought brides from among the ever-growing number of collateral branches of their own dynasty. 

 

The Grand Prince of Kiev was recognised as the nominal head of the family and overlord of the other Rus principalities.  However, he took no active part in the government of the other territories, except through the appointment of their princes from among members of his family.  The principalities of Chernigov, Galich (Galicia), Novgorod, Pereyaslavl, Polotsk, Riazan, Smolensk, Suzdal, Turov and Volynia thus developed separately.  Appointments to rule these principalities appear to have followed no particular pattern.  Government of the principalities was exchanged and reshuffled with great regularity, all under the direction of the Grand Prince of Kiev, motivated by personal and family considerations, not least the wish to prevent rival princes from consolidating too much power in particular locations. 

 

The principality of Kiev proper was relatively small in area compared to the other Rus principalities, although the city of Kiev was strategically well-placed on the River Dnepr which gave direct access to the Black Sea in the south and indirect access to the Baltic in the north.  Kiev was bounded on its southern border by territory controlled by the Kumans.  The territorial integrity of the principality was soon fragmented as additional principalities were created for junior members of the ruling family. 

 

As Kiev's central authority declined in the 13th century, the line of the princes of Suzdal-Rostov assumed the role of "superior ruler", the focus of their political power transferring to the city of Vladimir and, in the 15th century, to Moscow. 

 

The main near contemporary sources for the history of the Rurikid dynasty are as follows[12]

§  the Ipatevskiy Chronicle, consisting of its three components, the so-called "Primary Chronicle" up to 1117, a south Russian compilation made in 1200 at the Vydubetskiy Monastery near Kiev, and the Chronicle of Galicia and Volynia (1200-1292). 

§  the Lavrentevskiy Chronicle, the chief source for the history of Suzdalia which was copied in 1377 from a 1305 compilation, and its derivatives (the Chronicle of Pereyaslavl-Suzsalskiy which covers events from 1138 to 1214, and the Moscow Academy manuscript of the Suzdal Chronicle which brings the text up to 1419). 

§  the Novgorod First Chronicle, in two versions up to 1330 and 1446/47. 

§  the Moscow svod of 1479. 

Only the Primary Chronicle and the Novgorod First Chronicle have been studied in the compilation of the present document. 

 

The descent of the Rurikid dynasty from Grand Prince Vladimir I (who died in 1015) has been treated in detail by N. de Baumgarten.  Although his works date from 1927[13] and 1934[14], they have the great advantage of citing the primary sources on which the information is based.  Nevertheless, his citations are not as helpful as they could be, firstly because the publications include no key to the abbreviations which the author uses and no full list of works cited, and secondly because the absence of exact quotations means it is impossible to judge the weight of their evidence.  In any case, many of the works cited are in the Russian language.  The outline genealogies in the present document, into which primary source information has been fitted, were compiled mainly from Baumgarten´s works.  Few primary sources have been noted for the members of the dynasty set out in chapters 7 to 12. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ORIGINS, GRAND PRINCES of KIEV

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

Bearing in mind the background to the establishment of Scandinavian settlements in Rus as discussed in the Introduction to the present document, any reconstructed genealogy of the Rurikid dynasty during the early years, as well as all dates and even names, must be viewed with caution.  The detailed genealogy for this early period set out below may be of little factual significance but is reproduced by way of interest. 

 

 

RURIK [862-879], OLEG [879-912], IGOR [912]-945

 

1.         [RURIK [Roric] (-[879]).  According to the Primary Chronicle 860/62, following a call to "the Varangian Russes [=Scandinavians]…to come to rule and reign over us", Rurik and his two brothers migrated to settle, Rurik the oldest brother settling in Novgorod[15].  Franklin & Shephard comment that "the story [in the Primary Chronicle]…remains highly controversial"[16].  The initial Scandinavian settlements seem to have been at Gorodishche, the town of Novgorod (as its name implies) being a new settlement which was probably established nearby in the 950s[17].  The Primary Chronicle records Rurik´s death in 879[18].  This chronology is dubious when compared with the more robust dates attributable to his supposed grandson Sviatoslav (see below).  m ---.  The name of Rurik´s wife is not known.  Rurik & his wife had [two possible children]:

a)         [IGOR [Ingvar] ([877/79] or [910/20]-killed Iskorosten [=Korosten] [944/46], bur Dereva near Iskorosten).  The Primary Chronicle names Igor as son of Rurik, adding that he was "very young" at his father´s death[19].  This suggests a birth date in [877/79] for consistency with the report about his supposed father´s death in the same source.  However, the chronology of Igor´s son Sviatoslav, which is more robust as shown below, suggests that it is more likely that Igor was born in [910/20].  The Primary Chronicle records that Igor succeeded (his relative) Oleg in 912[20], but this chronology is also difficult to sustain.  It is probably more accurate to suggest that Igor was established at Kiev by the end of the 930s[21].  The existence of Igor as a historical figure is nevertheless corroborated: Liudprand of Cremona records that "rex…Inger" came to Constantinople, during the reign of Emperor Romanos I, with "mille et eo amplius navibus"[22] (dated to 941 by Franklin & Shepard[23]), and the De administrando imperio names his son "Sphendosthlabus Ingor Russić principis filius"[24].  Franklin & Shepard also refer to an apparently corroborating Khazar text, in which the leader is named 'H-L-G-W' [=Oleg?] and is said to have died in the Caspian region[25].  Oleg negotiated privileged trading terms with Byzantium in [944], the text of which is incorporated into the Primary Chronicle[26].  The main terms of the treaty are corroborated by the De administrando imperio[27].  The Primary Chronicle records that Oleg was killed by Derevlian Slavs, who lived to the north-east of Kiev and were unwilling to submit to his rule[28]m ([930/35]) OLGA [Helga/Haelgha] --- (-969).  The Primary Chronicle records that a wife Olga was brought [to Igor] from Pskov in 903[29].  The date is clearly inconsistent with the suggested birth date of their son Sviatoslav in [935/40] as shown below.  After her husband was killed, the Derevlian Slavs proposed her marriage to their own leader Mal, but the Primary Chronicle records that Olga exacted prompt and effective revenge for her husband's death after besieging the Derevlian capital of Iskorosten[30].  Olga was regent for her son [from 945 to 964].  Her centre of power was based around Kiev where she owned two halls[31].  The Primary Chronicle records that Olga was baptised in Constantinople in [957] by the emperor (Konstantinos VII), and took the name HELENA after the mother of Emperor Konstantinos the Great[32].  Cedrenus records that "Elga Rossorum principis uxor" came to Constantinople after her husband died, was baptised, and returned home[33].  The Continuator of Regino records that "legati Helenć reginć Rugorum", who had been baptised at Constantinople "sub Romano imperatore Constantinopolitano", visited Otto I King of Germany in 959, and that in 960 "Libutius ex cśnobitis sancti Albani" was consecrated "genti Rugorum episcopus" by "episcopo Adaldago" [archbishop of Bremen][34].  The Annales Quedlinburgenses record the arrival of "legati Ruscić gentis ad regem Ottonem" in 960 and his sending "Adalbertum episcopum" to their country[35].  The difference in the two sources of the name of the supposed first bishop is not explained.  The Primary Chronicle records that, during the invasion of the Pechenegs in 968, Olga shut herself in the city of Kiev with her grandsons Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir and that she died in 969[36].  She was later esteemed to be a saint, her feast day being 11 July.  Igor & his wife had one child: 

i)          SVIATOSLAV ([935/40]-killed in battle 972).  The De administrando imperio names "Sphendosthlabus Ingor Russić principis filius"[37].  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatoslav as son of Olga[38].  He succeeded his father as leader in Kiev, under the regency of his mother.   

-         see below

b)         [---.  The precise relationship, if any, between the following individuals and Igor is not known.  m ---.]  [Two children]: 

i)          [IGOR.  The Primary Chronicle names Igor "nephew of Igor" in the [944] treaty with Byzantium[39]

ii)         [AKUN.  The Primary Chronicle names Akun "nephew of Igor" in the [944] treaty with Byzantium[40], although it is not known whether he shared the same parents with Igor. 

2.         [SINEUS .  According to the Primary Chronicle 860/62, following a call to "the Varangian Russes [=Scandinavians]…to come to rule and reign over us", Rurik and his two brothers migrated to settle, Sineus the second brother settling in Beloozero but dying after two years[41]

3.         [TRUVOR .  According to the Primary Chronicle 860/62, following a call to "the Varangian Russes [=Scandinavians]…to come to rule and reign over us", Rurik and his two brothers migrated to settle, Truvor the third brother settling in Izborsk but dying after two years[42]

 

 

The precise relationship, if any, between the following person and the main line of Rurik is not known. 

1.         OLEG [Helgi/Haelghe] (-912).  The Primary Chronicle records that Rurik bequeathed his realm to Oleg "who belonged to his kin"[43].  The Primary Chronicle describes Oleg´s capture of Smolensk, Lyubech and Kiev, where he killed the local rulers Askold and Dir and set himself up as prince[44].  The same source states that he established authority over the Polyanians, Derevlians, Severians and Radimichians, but waged war with the Ulichians and the Tivercians[45].  It also records that, after a Rus attack on Constantinople, Oleg concluded two treaties with Byzantium which established the conditions for future Russian trade with Constantinople[46].  Franklin & Shepard point out the lack of corroboration in Byzantine sources for these early treaties[47].  The Primary Chronicle records that Oleg died from a snake bite[48]

 

 

SVIATOSLAV I 957-972, IAROPOLK I 972-980

 

SVIATOSLAV, son of IGOR [Ingvar] of Kiev & his wife Olga --- ([935/40]-killed in battle [Mar/May] 972).  The De administrando imperio names "Sphendosthlabus Ingor Russić principis filius"[49].  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatoslav as son of Olga[50].  His birth date is estimated on the assumption that he was a young adult when the De administrando imperio was compiled, before the death of Emperor Konstantinos VII in 959.  According to the Primary Chronicle he "was but a child" in 946[51].  At an early age, Sviatoslav´s father appears to have established him in the northern town of Gorodishche, which indicates a claim to overlordship of the northern Scandinavian settlements.  The place is called "Nemogardas" in the De administrando imperio[52], which could be a corruption of Novgorod.  He succeeded his father as SVIATOSLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev, under the regency of his mother.  Kiev was besieged by the Pechenegs in 962[53].  Ruling alone by the mid-960s, Prince Sviatoslav launched a major attack against the Khazars in 965, using the Pechenegs as allies[54].  He conquered the entire middle Volga area and took control of the commercial centres of Sarkel and Ityl[55].  Sviatoslav invaded the territory of the Bulgars along the Danube in 967, having been invited to do so by Emperor Nikephoros Phokas, and established a base at Pereiaslavets on the Danube delta[56].  It is not clear whether Pereiaslavets was the same place as Preslava, the Bulgarian capital, as Franklin & Shepard appear to assume[57], or a different place which appears to be the basis on which Fine writes[58].  Zonaras records that "Borises…Bulgarorum rex" reconquered Preslav but was defeated by "Sphendosthlavus Russorum dux"[59].  Faced with the perceived threat of invasion by Sviatoslav, Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces marched into Bulgaria, captured the capital, and negotiated Sviatoslav's withdrawal.  During Sviatoslav's absence in Bulgaria, the Pechenegs raided as far as Kiev.  Fine points out that according to the Primary Chronicle the Bulgarians summoned the Pechenegs to attack Kiev, without help from Byzantium[60].  The Primary Chronicle records that, on Sviatoslav´s return journey to Kiev while crossing the Dnieper river in Spring 972, he was attacked and killed by the Pecheneg leader Kuria who reputedly made his skull into a ceremonial cup covered with gold[61].  This represents a curious echo of the report in Paulus Diaconus according to which the skull of Alboin King of the Lombards in Pannonia was allegedly made into a drinking cup after he was defeated and killed by Cunimund King of the Gepids in 567[62]

m (before [960]) --- [of Hungary], daughter of [TORMAS Prince of Hungary & his wife ---].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   She was known as PREDSLAVA in Russia.  Europäische Stammtafeln[63] suggests that Predslava was the possible daughter of Tormas but the basis for this speculation is not known.  Her marriage date is estimated from the estimated date of birth of her son. 

Mistress (1): ESFIR, daughter of ---.  She is named as Sviatoslav´s mistress in Europäische Stammtafeln[64].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and relationship with Sviatoslav has not yet been identified.  

Mistress (2): MALUSHA [Malfred], daughter of MALK of Lyubech & his wife --- (-1002).  The Primary Chronicle names Malusha, stewardess of Olga and sister of Dobrinya (naming their father Malk of Lyubech), as mother of Sviatoslav's son Vladimir[65].   

Grand Prince Sviatoslav & his wife had one child:

1.         IAROPOLK Sviatoslavich ([960]-murdered Kiev [980]).  The Primary Chronicle names Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir as grandsons of Olga[66].  The source which records that Iaropolk was his father´s legitimate son has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 972 as IAROPOLK I Grand Prince of Kiev.  The Primary Chronicle records that, after he was attacked in Kiev by his half-brother Vladimir, Iaropolk fled to Rodnia near Pecheneg territory.  He was murdered when he returned to Kiev to negotiate with Vladimir[67].  The Primary Chronicle records that "the bodies of the two princes Yaropolk and Oleg sons of Sviatoslav" were buried in the Church of the Holy Virgin after being baptised in 1044[68]m (972) ---.  The Primary Chronicle records that Yaropolk had a Greek wife who had been a nun, brought home by his father[69].  She was the mistress of her husband´s brother VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev.  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir, later Grand Prince of Kiev, had intercourse with his brother's [Yaropolk's] wife "a Greek woman"[70]

Grand Prince Sviatoslav had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

2.          OLEG Sviatoslavich (-killed [976/77], bur Vruchiy).  The Primary Chronicle names Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir as grandsons of Olga[71].  His father designated him in 972 as ruler in Dereva[72].  The source which records the name of Oleg´s mother, and the fact that he was illegitimate, has not yet been identified.  After a dispute with his brother Iaropolk over hunting rights, the latter attacked and defeated Oleg, who was pushed from the bridge leading into Ovruch, and later buried at Vruchiy[73].  The Primary Chronicle records that "the bodies of the two princes Yaropolk and Oleg sons of Sviatoslav" were buried in the Church of the Holy Virgin after being baptised in 1044[74]

Grand Prince Sviatoslav had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2): 

3.          VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich ([960]-Berestov 15 Jul 1015)The Primary Chronicle names Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir as grandsons of Olga[75].  The Primary Chronicle names Malusha, stewardess of Olga and sister of Dobrinya (naming their father Malk of Lyubech), as mother of Sviatoslav's son Vladimir[76]He succeeded in [980] as VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev.   

-        see below

 

 

The precise relationship, if any, between the following person and the main line of Rurik is not known. 

1.         KHRYSOKHIR (-killed in battle Lemnos [1022/23]).  Cedrenus records that "Anna imperatoris sorore" died "in Rossia", adding that her husband had already died, in a passage following the record of events dated to [1022], adding that "Chrysochir quidam Bladimeri cognatus" (not yet identified) sailed for Constantinople after she died but was defeated and killed at Lemnos by "Davido Achridensi Sami prćfecto ac Nicephoro Cabasila duce Thessalonicć"[77]

 

 

VLADIMIR I 980-1015, SVIATOPOLK I 1015-1019

 

VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich, son of SVIATOSLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress Malusha [Malfred] ([960]-Berestov 15 Jul 1015).  The Primary Chronicle names Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir as grandsons of Olga[78].  The Primary Chronicle names Malusha, stewardess of Olga and sister of Dobrinya, as mother of Sviatoslav's son Vladimir, when recording that his father sent him to Novgorod in 970 with his maternal uncle after the inhabitants had demanded a prince of their own[79].  After the death of his half-brother Oleg, Vladimir fled "beyond the seas" and governors were assigned to Novgorod.  With support mustered in Scandinavia, Vladimir regained control of Novgorod.  He captured Polotsk after killing Rogvolod Prince of Polotsk, who had refused Vladimir's offer to marry his daughter (whom he married anyway)[80].  He then moved southwards towards Kiev to attack his half-brother Iaropolk, who fled to Rodnia but was murdered when he returned to Kiev to negotiate with Vladimir.  He thereby succeeded in [980] as VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev.  In 981, Vladimir invaded Polish territory and conquered Czerwień, "Peremyshl" and other cities[81].  After actively promoting the worship of pagan idols, he was baptised in [987/88] as part of an agreement to help Emperor Basileios II to defeat a rebellion.  He increased his own personal prestige by marrying the emperor's sister and imposed Christianity on his people by force.  He sought to rule his diverse territories by nominating his various sons to rule in different towns, although at the end of his reign he was faced with the rebellions of his son Iaroslav and his adopted son Sviatopolk.  Vladimir died while preparing for war with Novgorod following the suspension of payment of tribute by his son Iaroslav[82].  Vladimir was described as "fornicator immensus et crudelis" by Thietmar[83].  According to the Primary Chronicle, Vladimir had 300 concubines at Vyshgorod, 300 at Belgorod and 200 at Berestovo[84].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vladimir at Berestovo 15 Jul 1015[85].  He was later esteemed to be a saint, his feast day being 15 July. 

m firstly ([977], divorced 986) as her second husband, ROGNED of Polotsk, widow of --- Jarl in Sweden, daughter of ROGVOLOD Prince of Polotsk & his wife --- ([956]-[998/1000]).  The Primary Chronicle names Rogned, daughter of Rogvolod Prince of Polotsk, recording that she at first refused to marry Vladimir, preferring his half-brother Yaropolk[86].  She became a nun in [989].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Rogned in [998/1000][87]

m secondly (Kherson 988) ANNA of Byzantium, daughter of Emperor ROMANOS II & his second wife Theophano [née Anastasia] (13 Mar 963-[1008/11] or [1022], bur Kiev, church of the Palace).  Cedrenus records that "filiam…Annć" was born two days before the death of Emperor Romanos II[88].  The Primary Chronicle names Anna, sister of Emperors Basil and Constantine, recording that her brothers agreed to her marriage to Vladimir if he accepted baptism, and her arrival and marriage at Kherson[89].  Zonaras records that "Uladimero ducem [Russorum]" married "sorore Anna" (referring to Basileios and Konstantinos)[90].  The marriage marked the start of increased influence for the Greek Orthodox church in Russia, as the new Russian church reported to the Patriarch of Constantinople.  The sources are contradictory regarding the dating of Anna´s death.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Anna wife of Vladimir in [1008/11][91].  Cedrenus records that "Anna imperatoris sorore" died "in Rossia", adding that her husband had already died, in a passage following the record of events dated to [1022], adding that "Chrysochir quidam Bladimeri cognatus" (not yet identified) sailed for Constantinople after she died but was defeated and killed at Lemnos by "Davido Achridensi Sami prćfecto ac Nicephoro Cabasila duce Thessalonicć"[92]

m thirdly (after 1011) [ADELIA] [von Öhningen, daughter of KONRAD Duke of Swabia & his wife Richlint ---] (-after 14 Aug 1018).  The Genealogia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris", specifying that the third (unnamed) married "regi Rugorum"[93].  The Historia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that they married "una Roudolfo isti [=Welforum], alia cuidam de Rinveldin, parenti Zaringiorum, tercia regie Rugiorum, quarta comiti de Diezon"[94].  As noted in the document SWABIA DUKES, these two sources are unreliable in their recording of the sons of Konrad I Duke of Swabia, so should not be assumed to be any more precise in recording his daughters.  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

Mistress (1): ---, wife of IAROPOLK Sviatoslavich, daughter of ---.  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir, later Grand Prince of Kiev, had intercourse with his brother's [Yaropolk's] wife "a Greek woman"[95]

Mistress (2): OLAVA, a Czech concubine.  The primary source which confirms her name and relationship with Vladimir has not yet been identified.  

Mistresses (3) to (9): ---.  The names of the other mistresses of Grand Prince Vladimir are not known. 

Grand Prince Vladimir & his first wife had five children:

1.         IZIASLAV Vladimirovich (-1001).   The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Izyaslav, Mstislav, Yaroslav and Vsevolod as the four sons of Vladimir and his wife Rogned[96].  The Primary Chronicle in another section names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Izyaslav in Polotsk[97].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[98], Iziaslav was the son of Rogned of Polotsk by her first husband, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Prince of Polotsk. 

-        see Chapter 2.  PRINCES of POLOTSK

2.         IAROSLAV Vladimirovich ([978]-20 Feb 1054).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Izyaslav, Mstislav, Yaroslav and Vsevolod as the four sons of Vladimir & his wife Rogned[99].  The Primary Chronicle in another section names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Yaroslav in Rostov and, after the death of Vysheslav, in Novgorod[100].  He succeeded in 1016 as IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below, Part B.  GRAND PRINCES of KIEV 1019-1132.  

3.         MSTISLAV Vladimirovich "the Brave" (978-[1034/36], bur Church of the Redeemer).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Izyaslav, Mstislav, Yaroslav and Vsevolod as the four sons of Vladimir & his wife Rogned[101].  The Primary Chronicle in another section names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Mstislav in Tmutorakan after the death of his brother Vysheslav[102].  His father sent him to rule in Tmutorokan in 988.  In 1024, he moved his headquarters north to Chernigov to challenge his half-brother Iaroslav whom he defeated at Listven.  The brothers agreed a division of territories, Mstislav taking the land on the eastern bank of the Dnieper including Chernigov and Tmutorokan.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Mstislav in [1034/36], while on a hunting expedition, and his place of burial[103].  His territories fell to Iaroslav.  m ---.  The name of Mstislav´s wife is not known.  Mstislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         IEVSTAFII Mstislavich (-1033).  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Eustathius son of Mstislav in 1033[104]

4.         VSEVOLOD Vladimirovich (-1015).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Izyaslav, Mstislav, Yaroslav and Vsevolod as the four sons of Vladimir & his wife Rogned[105].  The Primary Chronicle in another section names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Vsevolod in Vladimir after the death of his brother Vysheslav[106].  Grand Prince of Volynia and Pereyaslavl 990.  Snorre records that Vsevolod proposed marriage to Sigrid "Storrĺda/the Haughty", widow of Erik King of Sweden, adding that she ordered his murder in [995][107]

5.         daughter (-after 1018).  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir and his wife Rogned had two unnamed daughters[108].  The Primary Chronicle records that Boleslav of Poland fled from Kiev in 1018 with Iaroslav's two sisters[109]same person as…?  PREDSLAVA Vladimirovna (-after 1018).  The Primary Chronicle names Predslava as sister of Iaroslav, recording that she warned the latter to be on his guard against Sviatopolk in 1015[110].  Bolesław I Prince of Poland asked for her hand in marriage in [1017], wishing to strengthen the bond between Poland and Russia, but this was refused[111].  The Primary Chronicle records that Boleslav of Poland fled from Kiev in 1018 with Iaroslav's two sisters[112].  According to Baumgarten[113], Predslava married Boleslav III Duke of the Bohemians.  There is no indication about the date of such a marriage.  Information concerning Duke Boleslav and Predslava of Kiev which is available from primary sources shows that [999/1002] and after [1018] are the most likely dates.  However, a careful analysis of such information also shows difficulties which cast considerable doubt over the likelihood of such a marriage.  If the marriage took place in [999/1002], during Duke Boleslav's brief period of rule in Bohemia, Predslava must have been born in the late 970s/early 980s, maybe the daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir by his first wife Rogneda of Polotsk (whom he married in [978], and was separated from in [986]).  However, the three references in the Primary Chronicle cite above, which apparently relate to Predslava, show that she was still living at the court of Kiev during the period [1015/18] and that she was probably unmarried at the time.  If the marriage took place after [1018], after Predslava had been taken to Poland, the probable age difference between Predslava and Duke Boleslav would have been pronounced, and Boleslav's apparent lack of political influence at the time must have reduced his marriage prospects.  Concerning the age difference, if Predslava was still considered marriageable by Boleslaw I Prince of Poland in [1017], it is likely that she was born much later than [978/86] (in which case she would have been the daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir by one of his concubines).  Duke Boleslav's date of birth is unknown.  However, his paternal uncle is recorded as having been born in 929 and the likely birth date range of his paternal aunt was [940/45].  It is therefore unlikely that Duke Boleslav's father was born much later than the 930s.  Even if his father married late, it is therefore improbable that Duke Boleslav himself was born much later than [970].  The question of Duke Boleslav's political status probably represents a more serious obstacle.  By [1018], 15 years had passed since he had been blinded and sent into exile.  No information has been found in the primary sources about his activity during this period, which suggests that he had fallen into obscurity.  It is not known whether Boleslav spent all his years of exile in Poland and, if so, under what conditions he lived.  However, according to Europäische Stammtafeln[114], he died in a Polish prison (in 1035).  It is not known how long he had been in prison, but his absence from the scene during the early 1030s, when his younger brother Duke Jaromir was restored and deposed in Bohemia for a third time, suggests that ex-Duke Boleslav may have been dismissed as a possible successor in Bohemia due to a lengthy period of imprisonment.  His blindness may also have been considered an insuperable handicap. 

6.         daughter (-after 1018).  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir and his wife Rogned had two unnamed daughters[115].  The Primary Chronicle records that Boleslav of Poland fled from Kiev in 1018 with Iaroslav's two sisters[116]

Grand Prince Vladimir had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

7.          SVIATOPOLK Vladimirovich ([980]-1019).  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatopolk as son of Vladimir by the wife of his brother Iaropolk[117].  The Primary Chronicle in another section names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Sviatopolk in Turov[118].  After allegedly plotting against Prince Vladimir, he was arrested and held either in Kiev or in Vishgorod.  After his uncle's death, he bribed his way to assume authority in Kiev, succeeding as SVIATOPOLK I "Okayanniy/the Damned" Grand Prince of Kiev.  He proceeded to eliminate his cousins Boris, Gleb and Sviatoslav, then challenged his cousin Iaroslav of Novgorod in battle at Liubech in [1016], but was forced to flee to Poland[119].  He returned in Jul 1018 with an army led by his father-in-law Bolesław I King of Poland, defeating Iaroslav at the Western Bug and forced him to retire to Novgorod.  Sviatopolk entered Kiev again 14 Aug 1018 and resumed his rule.  Thietmar records that "Duke Boleslav invaded the Russian king's realm with his army [and placed] his long-exiled brother-in-law, the Russian's brother, on the throne"[120].  After King Bolesław returned to Poland, Iaroslav advanced once more on Kiev.  Sviatopolk fled south to raise another force with the Pechenegs, but was finally defeated at the river Alta in 1019.  He fled to Poland once more, but according to the Novgorod Chronicle died on the journey[121].  According to Ferrand[122], the two families Swiatopolk-Mirsky and Swiatopolk-Czetwertinsky descend from Grand Prince Sviatopolk I, who "according to Czech chronicles died at a very advanced age".  The author gives no details of these chronicles or these alleged descents which, until further proof is advanced, must be considered speculative.  This alleged origin of the family Swiatopolk-Mirsky is not given in the introduction to the entry about the family in the Almanach de Gotha[123].  As noted below in Chapter 4, Genealogisches Handbuch der Fürstlichen Häuser[124] states that the Swiatopolk-Mirsky family descends from a younger branch of the Princes of Turov.  m (before 15 Jul 1013) --- of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW I "Chrobry/the Brave" King of Poland & his third wife Emnilde ([991/1001]-after 14 Aug 1018).  Thietmar refers to the three (unnamed) daughters of Boleslaw & his wife Emnilde, specifying (in order) that "one was an abbess, the second married Count Hermann and the third the son of King Vladimir"[125].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the peace which followed the Polish-Russian war of 1013[126].  She was accompanied to Kiev by Bishop Reinbern, who was thrown into prison when her husband was overthrown[127]

Grand Prince Vladimir had one illegitimate son by Mistress (2):

8.          VYSHESLAV Vladimirovich (-1010).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that Vysheslav was the oldest and that his father established him in Novgorod[128]Prince of Novgorod 988. 

Grand Prince Vladimir had nine illegitimate children by unknown Mistresses (3) to (9): 

9.          SVIATOSLAV Vladimirovich (-killed in battle 1015 after 15 Jul).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Sviatoslav in Dereva after the death of his brother Vysheslav[129]Prince of the Derevlians.  He was killed on the orders of his cousin Sviatopolk I Grand Prince of Kiev while trying to escape to Hungary[130]

10.       BORIS Vladimirovich ([990]-murdered 24 Jul 1015, bur Lto river, transferred 1072 to Vishgorod[131]).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Boris in Rostov after the death of his brother Vysheslav[132]His father appointed him Prince of Rostov and Novgorod in 1010.  His father sent him on campaign against the Pechenegs.  He was murdered on the orders of his cousin Sviatopolk I Grand Prince of Kiev while camped by the river Alta[133].  He was canonised with his brother Gleb in 1072. 

11.       GLEB Vladimirovich (-murdered 5 Sep 1015, bur Lto river, transferred 1072 to Vishgorod[134]).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir, recording that his father established Gleb in Murom after the death of his brother Vysheslav[135]His father appointed him Prince of Murom in 1010.  He was lured by deceit from Murom and murdered on the orders of his cousin Sviatopolk I Grand Prince of Kiev[136].  He was canonised with his brother Boris in 1072. 

12.       POZVIZD [Kryzokyr] Vladimirovich (-after 1015).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir[137]

13.       SUDISLAV Vladimirovich (-Kiev [1062/63], bur Church of St George).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir[138]Prince of Pskov.  He was imprisoned by his half-brother Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev in [1034/36][139]The Primary Chronicle records his release from prison after 24 years in 1059 by Izyaslav, Sviatoslav and Vsevolod and his taking the monastic habit, and his death in [1062/63] and place of burial[140]

14.       STANISLAV Vladimirovich (-before 1015).  The Primary Chronicle names (in order) Vysheslav, Izyaslav, Yaroslav, Sviatopolk, Vsevolod, Sviatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb, Stanislav, Pozvizd and Sudislav as the twelve sons of Vladimir[141]Prince of Smolensk.

15.       [--- Vladimirovna Baumgarten states that the wife of Markgraf Bernhard was the illegitimate daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir Sviatoslavich.  He cites a single German secondary source, dated to 1722, but this in fact makes no mention of Bernhard´s wife[142].  The authority for his statement is therefore unknown and it is preferable to assume that it is incorrect until further information comes to light.  m ([991/92]) as his second wife, BERNHARD [von Haldensleben], son of DIETRICH Markgraf über den Gau der Heveller [Nordmark] & his wife --- (-[1044/51]).  He was installed in 1009 as BERNHARD Markgraf der Nordmark.] 

16.       PREMISLAVA Vladimirovna (-[1015])Baumgarten names the wife of Duke László and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[143].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m ([1000]) LÁSZLÓ "Szár/the Bald" Prince of Hungary, Duke between March and Gran, son of MIHÁLY Prince of Hungary Duke between March and Gran & Adelajda [Adleta] of Poland (-1029). 

17.       DOBRONEGA MARIA Vladimirovna (before 1012-1087)The Primary Chronicle records the marriage of "Yaroslav's sister" to Kazimierz of Poland in 1043 but does not name her[144].  The Annales Polanorum state that "Kazimirum duxit ex Russia Mariam" in 1025[145], although the date is clearly inaccurate.  The Chronicć Polanorum refers to the wife of King Kazimierz as "de Rusia nobilem"[146].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Kazimirus" married "Dobrognewam"[147].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death in 1087 of "Dobronega uxor Kazimir"[148].  m (1043) KAZIMIERZ I KAROL "Odnowiciel/the Renewer" Prince of Poland, son of MIESZKO II Lambert King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen] (25 Jul 1016-19 Mar 1058). 

 

 

 

B.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV 1019-1093

 

 

IAROSLAV I 1019-1054

 

IAROSLAV Vladimirovich, son of VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Rognoda of Polotsk ([978]-Vyshgorod 20 Feb 1054, bur Kiev Church of St Sophia).  Prince of Rostov 988-1010.  Prince of Novgorod 1013-1015.  He rebelled against his father and refused to pay tribute from Novgorod in 1014.  Challenged by his cousin Sviatopolk I Grand Prince of Kiev, following the latter's accession in Kiev, he defeated Sviatopolk at Liubech in [1016] and forced him to flee to Poland, succeeding as IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev.  Sviatopolk returned in Jul 1018 with an army led by his father-in-law, Bolesław I King of Poland, and defeated Iaroslav at the Western Bug and forced him to retire to Novgorod.  Sviatopolk entered Kiev again 14 Aug 1018 and resumed his rule.  After King Bolesław returned to Poland, Iaroslav advanced once more on Kiev.  Sviatopolk fled south to raise another force with the Pechenegs but was finally defeated by the river Alta in 1019, when Iaroslav resumed power in Kiev[149].  In 1024, his half-brother Mstislav Prince of Tmutorokan moved his headquarters north to Chernigov to challenge Iaroslav, whom he defeated at Listven.  The half-brothers agreed a division of territories, Iaroslav taking the land on the western bank of the Dnieper including Kiev and Novgorod.  While Iaroslav was absent in Novgorod, the Pechenegs laid siege to Kiev, but were defeated after Iaroslav returned with a formidable army to relieve the siege[150].  He succeeded in the territories of his half-brother Mstislav on the latter's death in 1036, becoming sole ruler or "Autocrat of the land of the Rus"[151].  His greatest project was the conquest of Constantinople but his armies were defeated in decisive battles in 1043[152].  He supervised the rapid expansion of the city of Kiev, modelled on Constantinople.  His law code Rus'ka Pravda also contributed to the development and consolidation of his administration especially in the area around Kiev, although it appears to have had little impact in the north[153].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Iaroslav 19 Feb 1054 at Vyshgorod aged 76 and his burial place[154].  He left a testament dividing his territories between his sons, the substance of which is recorded in the Primary Chronicle[155] although no original text has survived. 

[m firstly ---.  The fact of Iaroslav´s first marriage is indicated by the chronology of his oldest son, although as noted below no primary source has yet been identified which refers to this oldest son.  Nevertheless, Iaroslav´s birth date, if accurate as shown above, does suggest that an earlier marriage is likely.] 

m [secondly] (1019) INGIGERD Olafsdottir of Sweden, daughter of OLOF "Skotkonung" King of Sweden & his wife Estrid of the Obotriten ([1000/03]-10 Feb 1050).  Adam of Bremen names "filius Iacobus et filia Ingrad" as the children of "Olaph rex Sueonum" & his wife Estred, specifying that Ingrad married "rex sanctus Gerzlef de Ruzzia"[156].  Her birth date range is estimated based on the birth of her oldest child in 1020, and her youngest known child in [1036].  Morkinskinna names “Queen Ingigerđr the daughter of King Óláfr the Swede” as wife of “King Yaroslav [of] Russia[157].  Snorre records the betrothal of "Ingegerd the king's daughter" and "King Jarisleif…from Russia"[158].  The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of "sororem Olaui Sueonensis…Margaretam" and "rex Iarezlafus de Ruscia" at her brother's instigation, after her betrothal to Olav of Norway was terminated[159].  It is more probable that she was the daughter rather than sister of King Olof if it is correct that she had ten children by her husband.  She is referred to as IRINA in Russian sources[160].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of "the Princess wife of Yaroslav" 10 Feb [1048/50][161]

Grand Prince Iaroslav & his first wife had one child:

1.         [ILIYA Iaroslavich (-1020).   Baumgarten names him but cites only one secondary source in support[162].  He is not named in the Primary Chronicle.  Prince of Novgorod 1015.] 

Grand Prince Iaroslav & his second wife had ten children:

2.         VLADIMIR Iaroslavich (1020-Novgorod 1052, bur Novgorod Church of St Sophia).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vladimir son of Iaroslav in 1020[163].  Snorre names "Valdemar, Vissivald and Holte the Bold" as the children of "King Jarisleif" & his wife[164].  His father installed him in 1043 as Prince of Novgorod.  He subjugated the Finnic tribe of Yam to secure Novgorod's control over the Gulf of Finland[165].  Psellos records that Vladimir led an attack on Constantinople in [1045], apparently in revenge for the death of a Scythian noble in a brawl, but was defeated and forced to retreat[166].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vladimir "Yaroslav's eldest son" at Novgorod in 1052 and his place of burial[167].  As he predeceased his father, his descendants were ignored in the latter's testament and were subsequently considered ineligible to succeed as Grand Princes of Kiev.  m --- ([1022]-1066).  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Baumgarten identifies the wife of Vladimir as Oda, daughter of Luitpold Graf von Stade & his wife Ida von Elstorf [Brunswick][168].  This is based partially on the Annales Stadenses which name "Odam sanctimonialem de Rinthelen" as daughter of "Lippoldo filio domiine Glismodis" and "Ida [de Elsthorpe]", specifying that she married "regi Ruzie" by whom she had a son "Warteslaw", returning to Saxony with her son after her husband died[169].  Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich ([1045]-Tmutorakan 3 Feb 1067, bur Tmutorakan Church of the Holy Virgin).  The Primary Chronicle names Rostislav, son of Vladimir and grandson of Yaroslav, recording that in 1064 he fled to Tmutorakan from where he expelled Gleb and occupied the throne himself, only to be expelled the following year by his uncle Sviatoslav who re-established his son Gleb, whom Rostislav expelled again[170].  Prince of Rostov, Novgorod and Volynia 1056-1064.  Prince of Tmutorokan 1064-1065.  The Primary Chronicle records that Rostislav was poisoned by the Greeks 3 Feb 1067 at Tmutorakan and his place of burial[171]

-        see Chapter 3.  PRINCES of GALICH and VOLYNIA

3.         ANASTASIA Iaroslavna ([1023]-[1074/1096], bur Admont Abbey).  Baumgarten names the second wife of King András and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[172].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   After her husband's death in 1060, she and her sons took refuge at the court of Heinrich IV King of Germany but, leaving her elder son there, she and her younger son went to Austria[173].  The Annals of Lambert record that "regina Ungariorum, mater Salomonis regis" presented the sword of "rex Hunnorum Attila" to "duci Baioriorum Ottoni" after her son was restored as king of Hungary[174].  She became a nun at Admont in 1074 as AGMUNDAm ([1039]) as his second wife, ANDRÁS of Hungary, son of VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary Duke between March and Gran & --- of the Bulgarians ([1014]-Zirc autumn 1060, bur Tihany, Abbey of St Anian).  He succeeded in 1047 as ANDRÁS I "the Catholic" King of Hungary

4.         IZIASLAV Iaroslavich (1024-killed in battle Nezhatinaia Niva 3 Oct 1078 bur Kiev).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Izyaslav "a second son" to Vladimir in 1024[175].  He succeeded in 1054 as IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below, Part C.  GRAND PRINCES of KIEV

5.         IELIZAVETA Iaroslavna (-after 25 Sep 1066).  Snorre records the marriage of King Harald and Elisabeth "called by the Northmen Ellisif" daughter of "King Jarisleif", specifying in a later passage that "the Swedish king Olaf…was brother of [her] mother"[176]Morkinskinna records the marriage of “Haraldr Sigurdarson” and “King Yaroslav and Queen Ingigerdr…daughter…Elisabeth, the Norsemen call her Ellisif[177].  Snorre records that "Queen Ellisif came from the West…with her stepson Olaf and her daughter Ingegerd" after her husband was killed[178]m (1044) HARALD Sigurdson, son of SIGURD Syr King of Ringeringe & his wife Asta Gudbrandsdatter (1015-killed in battle Stamfordbridge 25 Sep 1066).  He succeeded in 1047 as HARALD III "Hardrĺde" King of Norway

6.         SVIATOSLAV Iaroslavich (1027-27 Dec 1076, bur Chernigov, Church of the Saviour).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Sviatoslav "a third son" to Vladimir in 1027[179].  He succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Chernigov, and in 1073 as SVIATOSLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below, Part D.  GRAND PRINCES of KIEV

7.         VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich (1030-13 Apr 1093, bur Kiev St Sofia).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vsevolod "a fourth son" to Vladimir in 1030[180].  Snorre names "Valdemar, Vissivald and Holte the Bold" as the children of "King Jarisleif" & his wife[181].  He succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Pereyaslavl, and in 1076 as VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below, Part E.  GRAND PRINCES of KIEV

8.         VIACHESLAV Iaroslavich ([1033/36]-Smolensk [1055/57]).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vyacheslav son of Vladimir in [1034/36][182].  In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Smolensk.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vyacheslav son of Yaroslav at Smolensk in [1056/57][183]m ---.  The name of Viacheslav´s wife is not known.  Viacheslav & his wife had one child: 

a)         BORIS Viacheslavich ([1056]-killed in battle Niezhatnaia Niva 3 Oct 1078).  Baumgarten names him, citing his primary source in support[184].  Prince of Chernigov 1077.  Prince of Tmutorokan 1077-78. 

9.         ANNA Iaroslavna (1036-5 Sep ([1075/78], bur Abbaye Villiers near La-Ferté-Alais).  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "filiam regis Russorum Annam" with King Henri[185].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Anna filia Georgii regis Sclavonum" as wife of King Henri[186].  She was consecrated Queen Consort at Reims on her wedding day.  Queen Anna caused a scandal in France by her second marriage and was forced to leave the court, although she returned after his death in 1074[187].  The Liber Modernorum Regum Francorum records the marriage of "Anna, Henrici relicta" and "Rodulfo comitis"[188].  "Rodulphus…Ambianensis comes" donated property to Sainte-Marie d'Amiens, with the consent of "Simon filius meus et Gualterus, Gualteri Tyrelli natus", by charter dated 1069, subscribed by "Anna uxor eius"[189]m firstly (Reims 19 May 1051) as his second wife, HENRI I King of France, son of ROBERT II "le Pieux" King of France & his third wife Constance d'Arles [Provence] ([end 1009/May 1010]-Palais de Vitry-aux-Loges, foręt d’Orléans, Loiret 4 Aug 1060, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  m secondly ([1061]) as his third wife, RAOUL III “le Grand” Comte de Valois, son of RAOUL II Comte de Valois & his wife Aliénor de Champagne (-Péronne 23 Feb or 8 Sep 1074, bur Montdidier, later transferred to Crépy-en-Valois, église collégiale Saint-Arnoul).  

10.      IGOR Iaroslavich ([1036]-1060).  In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Volynia.  He succeeded his brother Viacheslav in 1057 as Prince of Smolensk.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Igor son of Yaroslav in 1060[190]m ---.  The name of Igor´s wife is not known.  Igor & his wife had two children: 

a)         DAVID Igorevich ([1055-Dorogobuzh 25 Jul 1113).  The Primary Chronicle names David, son of Igor, and Volodar, son of Rostislav, recording that they captured Ratibor, agent of Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev, and established themselves as princes at Tmutorakan[191].  They were expelled in their turn by Oleg Sviatoslavich who returned from Constantinople in 1083.  David was installed as Prince of Volynia by his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev 1086 after the expulsion of his cousin Iaropolk Iziaslavich.  He was expelled from Volynia in the following year when his cousin Iaropolk was restored, but after the latter's murder restored again[192].  He was installed as Prince of Dorogobuzh at the conference of Uvetichi 30 Aug 1100[193]m ---.  The name of David´s wife is not known.  David & his wife had one child: 

i)          VSEVOLOD Davidovich (-1 Feb 1142).  Baumgarten names him but cites only one secondary source in support[194].  Prince of Gorodno[195] 1113-1142, Gorodenski 1127.  m (1116) AGAFIA Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife ---.  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing one primary source in support[196].  Vsevolod & his wife had five children (named by Baumgarten with supporting sources[197]): 

(a)       BORIS Vsevolodich.  1146/1172.  Prince of Gorodno.  

(b)       GLEB Vsevolodich (-after 1169).  Prince of Gorodno. 

(c)       MSTISLAV Vsevolodich (-after 1183).  Prince of Gorodno. 

(d)       --- Vsevolodna.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.   m firstly (1144) VLADIMIR Davidovich Prince of Chernigov, son of DAVID Sviatoslavich Prince of Smolensk & his wife Feodosia --- (-killed in battle Jul 1151).  m secondly ([1152]) BASZKARD Prince of the Kumans. 

(e)       --- Vsevolodna (-after 1190)m ([1144]) IURII Iaroslavich Prince of Turov, son of IAROSLAV Sviatopolkovich Prince of Volynia & his second wife --- of Poland (-after 1166). 

b)         VSEVOLOD Igorevich.  Baumgarten names him, citing one primary source in support[198]m ---.  The name of Vsevolod´s wife is not known.  Vsevolod & his wife had one child: 

i)          MSTISLAV Vsevolodich (-[1114/16]).  The Primary Chronicle names Mstislav grandson of Igor, recording that he accompanied Vladimir to Pereyaslavl in 1103, but does not give the name of his father[199].  Baumgarten names him but cites only one secondary source in support[200]

 

 

 

C.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, descendants of IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev (third son of IAROSLAV I)

 

Although Iziaslav was his father's oldest surviving son, and succeeded as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1054 in accordance with his father's testament, only one of his sons, Sviatopolk II, later succeeded as Grand Prince and none of his grandsons.  In accordance with the family tradition described in the Introduction, all later descendants were thereby effectively excluded from the succession.   

 

 

IZIASLAV I 1054-1078

 

IZIASLAV Iaroslavich, son of IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his [second] wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1024-killed in battle Nezhatinaia Niva 3 Oct 1078, bur Kiev Church of the Holy Virgin).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Izyaslav "a second son" to Vladimir in 1024[201].  Prince of Turov.  He succeeded on the death of his older brother in 1052 as Prince of Novgorod.  In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev.  It is also likely that his territories included Novgorod and Pskov[202].  He was deposed in Kiev by a mob which, dissatisfied with his refusal to attack the Kuman [Cumans], released Vseslav Prince of Polotsk from prison and proclaimed him Grand Prince of Kiev in Sep 1068, forcing Iziaslav to flee to Poland[203].  Iziaslav I was restored in 1069 with the help of Bolesław II King of Poland[204].  He was deposed again in Kiev in 1073 by his younger brother Sviatoslav, restored again in 1077 after Sviatoslav died.  He answered the call from his brother Prince Vsevolod for military support against their nephew Oleg Sviatoslavich, whom they defeated 3 Oct 1078 at Nezhatin Meadow near Chernigov.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Izyaslav son of Iaroslav in battle on the meadow of Nezhata 3 Oct 1078 and his place of burial[205]

m ([1043]) GERTRUDA of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO II LAMBERT King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen] ([1020]-4 Jan 1107).  Baumgarten names the wife of Grand Prince Iziaslav and gives her origin, citing primary sources in support[206].  The Primary Chronicle records that "the Princess, Sviatopolk's mother" died 4 Jan 1107[207]

Grand Prince Iziaslav I & his wife had four children:

1.         MSTISLAV Iziaslavich (-1069).  The Primary Chronicle names Mstislav son of Izyaslav, recording that his father established him as Prince of Polotsk in 1069 but that "he soon died"[208].  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod by his father.  He was expelled from Novgorod by Vseslav Prince of Polotsk in [1066/67].  He was not restored in Novgorod when his father returned from exile in Poland, but was replaced by Gleb Sviatoslavich.  m ---.  The name of Mstislav´s wife is not known.  Mstislav & his wife had one child:

a)         ROSTISLAV Mstislavich (-[10/15] Nov 1093, bur Church of the Holy Virgin of the Tithe).  The Primary Chronicle records the death in 1093 of Rostislav, son of Mstislav and grandson of Izyaslav, and his burial 16 Nov[209]

2.         IAROPOLK PIOTR Iziaslavich (-murdered 22 Nov 1086).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaropolk, son of Izyaslav, recording that he and his father attacked Chernigov together in 1078[210].  He was installed as Prince of Volynia and, maybe, Turov by his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev in 1078, but was expelled in 1085 by his cousin Vladimir "Monomakh" and found refuge in Poland.  He was restored the following year but murdered soon after.  m ([1073]) as her first husband, KUNIGUNDE von Weimar, daughter of OTTO Graf von Weimar Markgraf of Meissen & his wife Adela de Louvain (-8 Jun 1140).  The Annalista Saxo names (in order) "Odam, Cunigundam, Adelheidam" as the three daughters of Markgraf Otto & his wife, specifying that Kunigunde married firstly "regi Ruzorum", secondly "Cononi comiti de Bichlingge, filio ducis Ottonis de Northeim", and thirdly "Wipertus senior"[211].  The primary source which identifies her first husband more precisely has not yet been identified.  Baumgarten records her first marriage but cites only one secondary source in support[212].  She married secondly Kuno von Northeim Graf von Beichlingen and thirdly (1110) as his second wife, Wiprecht [II] von Groitsch.  Iaropolk & his wife had four children: 

a)         ANASTASIA Iaropolkovna (1074-8 Jan 1159).  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing primary sources in support[213]m GLEB Vseslavich Prince of Minsk, son of VSESLAV Briacheslavich "the Werewolf" Prince of Polotsk & his wife --- (-[19] Nov 1119). 

b)         IAROSLAV Iaropolkovich (-in prison Kiev 11 Aug 1102).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaroslav, son of Iaropolk, recording that he fled from 1 Oct 1101 and was captured by Iaroslav, son of Sviatopolk, and recording his death 11 Aug 1102 in a later passage[214]

c)         --- Iaropolkovna ([1076]-).  The Annalista Saxo records that the daughter of "regi Ruzorum" and "Cunigundam" married "nobilis quidam de Thuringia Gunterus nomine"[215]m firstly (after 1087) GÜNTHER [I] Graf von Schwarzburg, son of SIZZO [I] Graf & his wife --- (-1109).  m secondly W--- von Giech (-[1125/29] or after). 

d)         VIACHESLAV Iaropolkovich (-13 Dec 1104).  The Primary Chronicle names Viacheslav, son of Iaropolk, recording that he accompanied Vladimir to Pereyaslavl in 1103, and his death 13 Dec 1104 in a later passage[216]

3.         SVIATOPOLK MIKHAIL Iziaslavich (1050-16 Apr 1113).  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatopolk son of Iziaslav, recording that his father established him as Prince of Polotsk in 1069 after the death of his brother Mstislav[217].  He succeeded his uncle in 1093 as SVIATOPOLK II Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below

4.         [EUDOXIA] Iziaslavna (-1089).  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record that in 1088 "Mesko uxorem duxit" without naming his wife[218].  Baumgarten records the parentage of the wife of Mieszko and suggests that her name was Eudoxia, citing primary sources in support[219]m (1088) MIESZKO Prince of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW II "Szczodry/the Liberal" King of Poland & his wife Vizeslava Sviatoslavna of Kiev (1069-1089). 

 

 

SVIATOPOLK II 1093-1113

 

SVIATOPOLK MIKHAIL Iziaslavich, son of IZIASLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Gertrud of Poland (1050-16 Apr 1113).  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatopolk son of Iziaslav, recording that his father established him as Prince of Polotsk in 1069 after the death of his brother Mstislav[220].  He was appointed to succeed his brother Mstislav as Prince of Polotsk in 1069, but was expelled by his predecessor Prince Vseslav in 1071[221].  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod in 1078 by his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev, but transferred to Turov in 1088, relinquishing the latter in 1093 when he succeeded his uncle as SVIATOPOLK II Grand Prince of Kiev.  His possession of Kiev was confirmed in 1097 under the family accord at Liubech, which distributed the various family territories.  This was followed by the conference at Uvetichi 30 Aug 1100, at which further distributions were made.  After years suffering from raids by the Kuman [Cumans], he made peace in 1101 at Sakov near Pereyaslavl, but carried out the first of a series of counter-offensives against them in 1103[222]

m firstly ---.  Baumgarten records this first marriage, citing a secondary source in support[223]

m secondly (1094) --- Kuman princess, daughter of TUGOR Khan of the Kumans (-before 1103).  The Primary Chronicle records the marriage in 1094 of Sviatopolk and the daughter of Tugorkan[224]

m thirdly ([1103]) BARBARA Komnene, daughter of --- (-1125).  Baumgarten cites one secondary source confirming Barbara Komnene as third wife of Grand Prince Sviatopolk II[225].  The Translatio Manus Sancti Stephani, included in Orlieb's Zwiefaltensis Chronicon, records the marriage of "Bolezlai Boloniorum…ducis" and "ex nobilissimis principibus Grecorum filiam suam cuidam tradidit in matrimonium regi Rutenorum", the editor of the compilation consulted identifying "rex Rutenorum" as "Swiatopolk Michael princeps Kiewensis, cuius coniux altera filia aut cognate fuit imperatoris Alexii"[226].  Neither source specifies her parentage.  Sturdza refers to her as the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos, brother of Emperor Alexios I, although he does not name her[227].  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Grand Prince Sviatopolk II is not known. 

Grand Prince Sviatopolk II & his first wife had [four] children:

1.         IAROSLAV Sviatopolkovich (-killed in battle May 1123).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaroslav, son of Sviatopolk, recording that his father installed him in Vladimir[228].  He was installed as Prince of Volynia in 1100.   

-        see below, Chapter 4.  PRINCES of TUROV and PINSK.

2.         ZBISLAVA Sviatopolkovna (-[1109/12]).  The Primary Chronicle names Sbyslava, daughter of Sviatopolk when recording that she was taken to Poland 16 Nov 1102 to marry Boleslav[229].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that the mother of "Boleslaus suo primogenito Wladislao filio" was "ex  quadam Ruthena nobili"[230].  The Annales Cracovienses Vetusti record the marriage in 1103 of "Bolezlaus tercius"[231]m ([16 Nov 1102/early 1103]) as his first wife, BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" King of Poland, son of WŁADYSŁAW I HERMAN Prince of Poland & his second wife Judith of Bohemia (20 Aug [1086]-28 Oct 1138).  

3.         ANNA Sviatopolkovna (-after 1136).  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing a secondary source in support[232]m SVIATOSLAV Davidovich Prince of Lutsk, son of DAVID Sviatoslavich Prince of Chernigov & his wife Fedosia --- ([1080]-14 Oct 1142 or 1145). 

4.         PREDSLAVA Sviatopolkovna.  The Primary Chronicle names Predslava, daughter of Sviatopolk, when recording that she was taken to Hungary 21 Aug 1104 to marry the king's son[233].  Baumgarten names her husband as Álmos but only cites one secondary source in support[234]m (21 Aug 1104) ÁLMOS of Hungary, son of GÉZA I King of Hungary & his second wife --- Synadene ([1068]-1129).  He rebelled against his brother King Kálmán, declaring himself King of Hungary 1102-1109, but received little support.  He was blinded, together with his son, on the orders of his brother King Kálmán and fled to Constantinople[235]

Grand Prince Sviatopolk II & his third wife had three children:

5.         BRYACHESLAV Sviatopolkovich (1104-28 Aug 1127).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Bryachislav, son of Sviatopolk, in 1104[236]

6.         IZIASLAV Sviatopolkovich (-23 Dec 1128).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[237].  

7.         MARIA Sviatopolkovna (-after 1145).  The Translatio Manus Sancti Stephani, included in Orlieb's Zwiefaltensis Chronicon, records that "regi Rutenorum" arranged the marriage of "filiam…ex nobilissimis principibus Grecorum filiam suam" and "cuidam nobilissimorum Bolonić tyrannorum", but that "Boloniorum princeps…Patricius" wanted to marry her and poisoned her intended husband[238].  Baumgarten names her and her husband, citing a secondary source in support[239]m ([1118]) PETER Vlast (-1153). 

Grand Prince Sviatopolk II had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

8.          MSTISLAV Sviatopolkovich (-killed in battle 12 Jul 1099).  The Primary Chronicle names Mstislav, son of Sviatopolk "by a concubine", recording that his father established him as prince in Vladimir, recording in a later passage that he was killed in Vladimir 12 Jul 1099[240].    

 

 

 

D.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, PRINCES of CHERNIGOV, descendants of SVIATOSLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev (fourth son of IAROSLAV I)

 

This branch of the family continued to provide Grand Princes of Kiev until 1239, following the invasion of the Mongols.  The accession of Vsevolod II in 1139 was not strictly in accordance with the family tradition described in the Introduction to the present document, as his father Oleg Sviatoslavich had never himself been Grand Prince of Kiev. 

 

Chernigov was a principality to the north-east of Kiev, which covered roughly the area to the east of the River Dnepr and north of the River Dnesa, bordering the principality of Smolensk in the north.  Under the terms of the family accord reached at Liubech in 1097, the principality of Chernigov was assigned to this branch of the family.  Once Chernigov was established in this line of the dynasty, the principle of lateral succession appears to have applied, the ruling prince being succeeded by the next most senior male member of his own generation before the succession passed to the subsequent generation.  The principality of Novgorod-Severskiy was carved out of Chernigov and assigned to a junior branch of the ruling family in 1139. 

 

 

SVIATOSLAV II 1073-1076

 

SVIATOSLAV Iaroslavich, son of IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1027-27 Dec 1076, bur Chernigov, Church of the Redeemer).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Sviatoslav "a third son" to Vladimir in 1027[241].  In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Chernigov, the territory including the land of the Viatichians and Radimichians and the Murom region[242].  He was appointed to succeed his brother Igor in 1060 as Prince of Smolensk.  He was forced out of Smolensk to Chernigov by the Kuman [Cumans], but defeated the latter in 1068 and captured their leader[243].  He deposed his elder brother Iziaslav in Kiev in 1073, succeeding as SVIATOSLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev, whereupon he transferred Chernigov to his younger brother Vsevolod.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Sviatoslav son of Yaroslav 27 Dec 1076 "from the cutting of a sore" and his place of burial[244]

m [KILIKIA] von Dithmarschen, daughter of ETHELER von Dithmarschen & his wife Ida von Elsdorf [Braunschweig].  Baumgarten refers to the marriage of "[Kilikia] de Dithmarschen, fille du Comte Etheler" and Sviatoslav II Grand Prince of Kiev, adding that she was a different person from "Oda von Stade" who married Sviatoslav´s brother Vladimir (see above)[245].  This marriage is also discussed by Bloch[246].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

Grand Prince Sviatoslav II & his wife had six children:

1.         VIZESLAVA Sviatoslavna.  Baumgarten names the wife of Bolesław II and gives her origin, citing primary sources in support[247].   If this is correct, she must have been one of the older children in view of the date of birth of her son.  m (before 1069) BOLESŁAW II "Szczodry/the Liberal" Prince of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ I KAROL "Odnowiciel/the Renewer" Prince of Poland & his wife Dobronega Maria Vladimirovna of Kiev ([1039]-1081).  King of Poland 1076. 

2.         GLEB Sviatoslavich (-killed in battle 30 May 1078[248], bur Chernigov, Church of the Saviour).  The Primary Chronicle names Gleb, son of Sviatoslav, recording that he was expelled from Tmutorakan by Rostislav in 1064, restored by his father in 1065, before being expelled again by Rostislav[249].  Prince of Tmutorokan 1064-1065/69.  His father installed him as Prince of Novgorod in 1068, in succession to Mstislav Iziaslavich who had been forced out by Vseslav Prince of Polotsk, while Mstislav's father Iziaslav Grand Prince of Kiev was in exile in Poland.  He successfully defended Novgorod against a raid by the Kuman [Cumans] in Oct 1069, but was forced out in 1073, restored in 1077, but forced out again in 1078 and killed[250].  The Primary Chronicle records that Gleb, son of Sviatoslav, was killed in "Zavaloche"[251]

3.         ROMAN Sviatoslavich "the Red" (-killed 2 Aug 1079).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[252].  Prince of Murom.  Prince of Tmutorokan 1069-1079.  He was killed on the orders of his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev while advancing to take Pereyaslavl with a force of Kuman [Cumans][253]

4.         DAVID Sviatoslavich (-Jan 1123).  The Primary Chronicle names David, son of Sviatoslav, recording that he left Novgorod for Smolensk "toward the close of the year" 1095[254].  Prince of Novgorod.  He was installed as Prince of Smolensk 1094[255].  Under the family accord at Liubech 1097, he became Prince of Chernigov.  m FEODOSIA, daughter of ---.  Baumgarten records her marriage and cites a primary source in support[256].  David & his wife had five children: 

a)         SVIATOSLAV Davidovich ([1080]-14 Oct 1142 or 1145).  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatosha, son of David Sviatoslavich[257].  The Primary Chronicle records that Sviatopolk, son of David and grandson of Sviatoslav, became a monk 17 Feb 1106[258].  Prince of Lutsk.  m ANNA Sviatopolkovna of Kiev, daughter of SVIATOPOLK II Mikhail Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first wife ---] (-after 1136).  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing a secondary source in support[259].  Sviatoslav & his wife had one child: 

i)          --- Sviatoslavna.  The Chronicle of Novgorod refers indirectly to the (unnamed) daughter of Sviatoslav Davidovich, referring to the latter as "the father-in-law of Vsevolod"[260]m (1123) VSEVOLOD Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod, son of MSTISLAV II "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-11 Feb 1138). 

b)         VSEVOLOD Davidovich (-after 1124).  Baumgarten records this marriage and cites a primary source in support[261].  Prince of Murom.  m (1124) --- of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his first wife Zbislava Sviatopolkovna of Kiev (before 1111-).  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the wife of Prince Vsevolod but cites only one secondary source in support[262].  It is assumed from her marriage date that she must have been born from her father's first marriage. 

c)         VLADIMIR Davidovich (-killed in battle Jul 1151).  Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[263].  Prince of Chernigov 1139.  m (1144) as her first husband, --- Vsevolodna of Gorodeno, daughter of VSEVOLODKO Davidovich Prince of Gorodeno & his wife Agafia Vladimirovna.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.   She married secondly ([1152]) Baszkord Khan of the Kumans.  Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          SVIATOSLAV Vladimirovich (-[1166/67]).  Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[264].  Prince of Vshchizh [Wczyz].  m (1159) ROSTISLAVA Andreievna of Suzdal, daughter of ANDREI Iurievich "Bogoliubskii" Prince of Rostov and Suzdal & his first wife Ulita Stefanovna (-1167).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

d)         IZIASLAV Davidovich (-killed in battle 6 Mar 1167).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[265].  Prince of Chernigov 1151-1155.  Grand Prince of Kiev 1154-1155, 1158, 1161-1167.  m ---.  The name of Iziaslav´s wife is not known.  Iziaslav & his wife had one child:

i)          --- Iziaslavna.  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing a secondary source in support[266]m (1155) as his second wife, GLEB Iurievich Prince of Pereyaslavl, son of IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- of the Kumans (-20 Jan 1172).  He was proclaimed GLEB Grand Prince of Kiev in 1169. 

e)         ROSTISLAV Davidovich (-1120).  Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[267]

5.         OLEG MIKHAIL Sviatoslavich "Gorislavich" ([1058]-1 Aug 1115[268]).  The Primary Chronicle names Oleg, son of Sviatoslav, recording that he and Vladimir, son of Vsevolod, fought the Czechs with the Poles in 1076[269].  Prince of Volynia [1073].  He claimed Chernigov in 1076 on the death of his father, but was expelled in Apr 1078 by his uncles Iziaslav and Vsevolod to Tmutorokan.  He returned with support from the Kuman [Cumans] to take Chernigov by force and defeated his uncle Vsevolod on the river Sozh, east of Pereyaslavl, 25 Aug 1078[270].  Prince Vsevolod sought support from Prince Iziaslav.  They defeated Oleg 3 Oct 1078 at Nezhatin Meadow near Chernigov, where Prince Iziaslav was killed.  Oleg was kidnapped from Tmutorokan on the orders of his uncle Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev and taken to Constantinople (from where he went to Rhodos where he spent two years and married his first wife), being replaced by Vsevolod's agent Ratibor, who in turn was expelled by Oleg's cousins David Igorevich and Volodar Rostislavich, before returning himself to take control of Tmutorokan in [1083].  He captured Chernigov in 1094, after expelling Prince Vladimir "Monomakh".  He was expelled in 1095 by Princes Vladimir and Sviatopolk, but waged continual war against them 1096/97[271].  He installed himself as Prince of Murom and Suzdal in 1096, but was obliged to withdraw by the armed forces of Mstislav Vladimirovich Prince of Novgorod (later Mstislav II Grand Prince of Kiev)[272].  Under the terms of the family accord at Liubech in 1097, he became Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy and Riazan.  m firstly (Rhodos [1081/83]) THEOPHANO Musalonissa, from Rhodos.  Baumgarten records this marriage, citing one secondary source in support[273]m secondly --- Kuman princess, daughter of OSSOLUR Asaduk Khan of Kumans.  Baumgarten records this marriage and cites a primary source in support[274].  Oleg & his first wife had three children:

a)         VSEVOLOD Olegovich (-1 Aug 1146).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[275].  Prince of Chernigov 1127-1139.  He succeeded in 1139 as VSEVOLOD II Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below

b)         IGOR Olegovich (1096-murdered Kiev 19 Sep 1147).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[276].  Prince of Kursk 1115-1127.  Prince of Chernigov 1139-1146.  He succeeded in 1146 as IGOR Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was expelled 1147 by Iziaslav Mstislavich, became a monk, but murdered shortly after.  He came to be venerated as a saint. 

c)         GLEB Olegovich (-1138).  Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[277].  He was installed as Prince of Kursk in 1136.  He helped his brother Sviatoslav, then Prince of Novgorod, to drive out Vsevolod Mstislavich from Pskov where he had been planning to invade Novgorod[278]m ---.  The name of Gleb´s wife is not known.  Gleb & his wife had one child: 

i)          IZIASLAV Glebovich (-14 May 1134).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[279]

Oleg & his second wife had one child: 

d)         SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich (-15 Feb 1164).  Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[280].  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy in 1139. 

-        see below, Chapter 5.  PRINCES of NOVGOROD-SEVERSKIY and KURSK.

6.         IAROSLAV Sviatoslavich (-1130).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaroslav brother of Oleg, recording that the latter sent him as an outpost while he was attempting to seize Novgorod[281].  Prince of Chernigov 1123/27.  Prince of Riazan and Murom 1127/29.   

-        see below, Chapter 6.  PRINCES of RIAZAN, MUROM and PRONSK.

 

 

Baumgarten names the following family sub-group and cites sources in support[282]

 

VSEVOLOD II 1139-1146, IGOR 1146-1147

 

VSEVOLOD Olegovich, son of OLEG MIKHAIL Sviatoslavich "Gorislavich" Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy and Riazan & his [first/second] wife --- (-1 Aug 1146).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[283].  Prince of Chernigov 1127-1139.  He succeeded in 1139 as VSEVOLOD II Grand Prince of Kiev

m MARIA Mstislavna of Kiev, daughter of MSTISLAV II "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-Winter 1179).

Grand Prince Vsevolod II & his wife had four children:

1.         ANNA Vsevolodovna.  Baumgarten names her and her marriage, citing a secondary source in support[284]m IVAN Vasilkovich Prince of Terebovl, son of VASILKO Rostislavich Prince of Terebovl & his wife --- (-1141). 

2.         SVIATOSLAV Vsevolodich (-24 Jul 1194).  He succeeded in 1176 as SVIATOSLAV III Grand Prince of Kiev.

-        see below.

3.         IAROSLAV Vsevolodich ([1139/40]-[1198/99]).  Prince of Chernigov 1176.  He invaded Smolensk in 1196, triggering a fierce but inconclusive war which spread to Polotsk, Kiev and Chernigov[285]m IRINA IEFROSINIA Borisovna (-1202).  Iaroslav & his wife had three children: 

a)         ROSTISLAV Iaroslavich (24 Jun 1174-after 1214).  Prince of Snov.  m (15 Jun or 11 Aug 1187) VSESLAVA Vsevolodovna of Vladimir, daughter of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (-after 1206).  

b)         IAROPOLK Iaroslavich (-after 1214).  Prince of Novgorod-SEVERSKIY 1197.  m ---.  The name of Iaropolk´s wife is not known.  Iaropolk & his wife had one child: 

i)          VSEVOLOD Iaropolkovich.  Prince of Chernigov 1246-1263.  m ANASTASIA, daughter of ---.  

c)         --- Iaroslavnam (8 Nov 1179) VLADIMIR Glebovich Prince of Pereyaslavl, son of GLEB Iurievich Prince of Pereyaslavl Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- Iziaslavna of Chernigov (1157-18 Apr 1187). 

4.         SVENISLAVA Vsevolodovna (-[1155/63]).  Baumgarten names the first wife of Duke Boleslaw and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[286]m (1142) as his first wife, BOLESLAW I Duke of Silesia, son of WŁADYSŁAW II "Wygnaniec/the Exile" Prince of Krakow and Silesia & his wife Agnes of Austria (1127-8 Dec 1201).  He was invested in 1163 as BOLESLAW I Duke of Breslau

 

 

SVIATOSLAV III 1176-1194

 

SVIATOSLAV Vsevolodich, son of VSEVOLOD II Olegovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Mstislavna of Kiev (-24 Jul 1194).  His father installed him as Prince of Volynia [1144], triggering war with Vladimirko Vsevolodich Prince of Galich who objected to the appointment[287].  Prince of Severskiy -1176.  Prince of Chernigov 1164-1176.  He challenged the succession of Iaroslav Iziaslavich as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1174.  After allying himself with the Rostislavichi branch, Princes of Smolensk, he was able to succeed 1176 as SVIATOSLAV III Grand Prince of Kiev, introducing a period of stability in the government of Kiev which continued until his death in 1194[288].  His army inflicted a serious defeat on the Kuman in 1184, capturing several of their khans[289]

m firstly (1143) MARIA Vasilkovna of Polotsk, daughter of VASILKO Sviatoslavich Prince of Polotsk & his wife ---. 

m secondly --- (-after 1190).  The name of Sviatoslav´s second wife is not known. 

Grand Prince Sviatoslav III & his [first/second] wife had nine children: 

1.         MSTISLAV Sviatoslavich (-killed in battle Kalka River 1223).  Prince of Chernigov (1215-23).  He was killed fighting the Mongols in their first invasion of Rus territory[290]m --- Iasian princess, daughter of ---.  Mstislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         VASILKO Mstislavich (-killed in battle 31 May 1223).  Prince of Nesvich.   He was killed, along with his father, fighting the Mongols in their first invasion of Rus territory[291]

2.         VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich (-1201).  Prince of Novgorod 1180/82.  m (1177) FEBRONIA [Prebrana] [Mikhailovna, daughter of MIKHAIL Iurievich Prince of Vladimir & his wife Febronia ---.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[292], Febronia was the daughter of Iurii Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev, the father of Mikhail Iurievich.  If she was the latter's daughter, she was only an infant when she married. 

3.         GLEB Sviatoslavich (-after 1219).  Prince of Bielgorod.  Prince of Chernigov.  m ([1183]) [ANASTASIA] Rurikovna, daughter of RURIK II Rostislavich Prince of Ovrutsch Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Anna Iurievna of Turov.  Gleb & his wife had three children: 

a)         MSTISLAV FEDOR Glebovich (-after 1239).  Prince of Turov.  Prince of Chernigov 1235/1238.  The Mongols, under Batu,  captured Chernigov 18 Oct 1239[293]m ---.  The name of Mstislav´s wife is not known.  Mstislav & his wife had two children: 

i)          ANDREI Mstislavich (-killed in battle after 1261).  Prince of Chernigov.  m (1261) OLGA Vasilkovna of Galich, daughter of VASILKO Romanovich King of Galich & his second wife Helena of Poland (-after 10 Dec 1288).  Baumgarten names her and cites a Russian primary source[294]

ii)         --- Mstislavich ([1233]-after 1245). 

b)         IEVFEMIA Glebovna of Chernigov.  She was sent to Constantinople in 1194.  Betrothed (1194) to ALEXIOS Angelos, son of Emperor ISAAKIOS II Emperor & his first wife --- ([1182/83]-murdered 1204 after 28 Jan).  He succeeded in 1203 as Emperor ALEXIOS IV

c)         --- Glebovna (-killed in battle 7 Feb 1238)m (1215) VLADIMIR Vsevolodich Prince of Moscow and Pereyaslavl, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (-6 Jan 1229). 

4.         BOLESLAVA Sviatoslavna (-before 1189).  m (1167) as his first wife, VLADIMIR Iaroslavich Prince of Peremyshl, son of IAROSLAV Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" Prince of Galich & his first wife Olga Iurievna of Kiev (-1199).  He succeeded in 1187 as Prince of Galich. 

5.         VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" (-[1214/15]).  He succeeded in 1205 as VSEVOLOD Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below

6.         OLEG Sviatoslavich (-[1204]).   Prince of Chernigov 1202.  m firstly ---  Andreievna of Vladimir, daughter of ANDREI Iurievich Prince of Pereyaslavl & his wife --- of the Kumans (before 1141-before 1176).  m secondly (before 1176) --- Iurievna of Riazan, daughter of IURII Rostislavich Prince of Riazan and Murom & his wife ---.  Oleg & his second wife had one child: 

a)         DAVID Olegovich (-1196).  Prince of Chernigov 1190/96.  m (1190) --- Igorovna, daughter of IGOR ---. 

7.         --- Sviatoslavna .  Baumgarten names Mstislav but cites only two secondary sources in support, without specifying which refers to Mstislav´s wife[295]m (1170) MSTISLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Dorogobuzh, son of VLADIMIR Mstislavich Prince of Terebovl, Volynia and Dorogobuzh & his wife --- (-after 1202). 

8.         MARIA Sviatoslavna .  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[296]m (1168) as his second wife, IAROPOLK Iziaslavich, son of IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- of Lithuania (-7 Mar 1168). 

 

 

VSEVOLOD 1205/1214

 

VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi", son of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife --- (-[1214/15]).  Prince of Chernigov 1204-1212.  He challenged the rule of Rurik II Rostislavich in Kiev, seizing power in 1206 as VSEVOLOD Grand Prince of Kiev.  Vsevolod was evicted shortly after by Rurik, the pattern being repeated in 1207[297].  Vsevolod seized control again in 1211 and evicted his rival[298].  The Rostislavichi branch regained power from Vsevolod in 1212. 

m firstly ([11 Oct/24 Dec] 1178) --- of Poland, daughter of KAZIMIERZ II "Sprawiedliwy/the Just" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Helena [of Moravia/of Smolensk] (1164-1194).  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the wife of Vasilko, but cites only one secondary source in support[299].  Baumgarten records her death in 1194, citing a Russian source in support[300]

m secondly ---. 

Grand Prince Vsevolod & his first wife had two children:

1.         MIKHAIL Vsevolodich ([1185]-executed 20 Sep 1246).  He succeeded before 1237 as MIKHAIL Grand Prince of Kiev

-         see below.   

2.         AGAFIA Vsevolodovna (-killed in battle 7 Feb 1238).  Her marriage was arranged to bolster the support of the Princes of Vladimir-Suzdal for her father's bid for power in Kiev in 1211[301].  When the Mongols invaded Vladimir she sought refuge with her sons in the Cathedral of the Assumption, but this was set alight by the invaders.  m (10 Apr 1211) IURII Vsevolodich Prince of Vladimir, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (1188-1238). 

Grand Prince Vsevolod & his second wife had four children:

3.         VERA Vsevolodovnam ALEKSANDR Glebovich Prince of Dubroviczk, son of GLEB Iurievich Prince of Dubrovitsa and Turov & his wife --- Rostislavna of Smolensk (-killed in battle Kalka River 1223). 

4.         --- Vsevolodovnam (before 1208) MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Prince of Pronsk, son of VSEVOLOD Glebovich Prince of Pronsk & his wife --- (-murdered 20 Jul 1217). 

 

 

Baumgarten names the following family sub-group and cites sources in support, except for the descendants of the children of Mikhail Vsevolodich who are shown in square brackets[302]

 

MIKHAIL 1237-1239

 

MIKHAIL Vsevolodich, son of VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife [Anastasia] of Poland ([1185]-executed 20 Sep 1246).  His father established Mikhail as Prince of Pereyaslavl in 1206, during the former's first brief period of rule in Kiev, but he lost the principality to Rurik II Rostislavich Grand Prince of Kiev later the same year[303].  Prince of Chernigov 1226.  The Novgorod Chronicle records that "Mikhail son of Vsevolod grandson of Oleg" was installed as Prince of Novgorod in early 1225[304], left for Chernigov later the same year, but returned in 1229 only to leave again in 1230 leaving his son Rostislav at Novgorod[305].  Challenging the supremacy of the Rostislavichi branch in Kiev, he allied himself with the Kuman and attacked Kiev.  Vladimir Rurikovich Grand Prince of Kiev was captured, although released upon payment of a ransom, and Mikhail succeeded by 1237 as MIKHAIL Grand Prince of Kiev.  Faced with the threat of attack by the Mongols, who had invaded north-eastern Rus, Mikhail fled to Hungary after the fall of Chernigov 18 Oct 1239[306].  After several years seeking assistance and refuge in Hungary, Poland and Galich, by 1243 he accepted the Mongols' recognition of Iaroslav Vsevolodich as senior prince of the dynasty and returned to Chernigov.  He visited the Mongol capital Sarai to pay allegiance, but refused to comply with the requirements made of him and was executed.  He was later recognised as a saint in the Russian Orthodox Church[307]

m ([1211]) MARIA Romanovna, daughter of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Galich & his first wife Predslava Rurikovna (-after 1241). 

Mikhail Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife had eight children:

1.         ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ([1225]-1263).  Prince of Novgorod 1229-1230.  Grand Prince of Kiev 1231/1240.  Prince of Galich 1236/1238.  He assumed the title ROSTISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians after 1258. 

-        see below

2.         MARIA Mikhailovna (-7 or 9 Dec 1271)m (10 Feb 1227) VASILKO Konstantinovich Prince of Rostov, son of KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich Prince of Rostov, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife --- Mstislavna of Smolensk (7 Dec 1208 or 1209-murdered 4 Mar 1238). 

3.         IEFROSINIA Mikhailovna ([1212]-25 Sep 1250).  She became a nun as THEODULABetrothed (1233) to FEDOR Iaroslavich Prince of Novgorod, son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his third wife Fedosia Igorevich of Riazan (Winter 1219-5 Jun 1233). 

4.         [ROMAN Mikhailovich (-after 1305).  Prince of Briansk 1246-88.]  m ANNA, daughter of ---.  Roman & his wife had three children: 

a)         OLEG Romanovich of Briansk and Chernigov (1288-[1290/1307]). 

b)         MIKHAIL Romanovich

c)         IELENA Romanovna .  Baumgarten names her and cites a Russian primary source[308]m VLADIMIR IVAN Vasilkovich of Galich, son of VASILKO Romanovich King of Galich & his second wife Helena of Poland (after 1248-10 Dec 1288 or [1289]).  Grand Prince of Volynia 1269. 

5.         [SEMËN Mikhailovich.  Prince of Gluchov.  Ancestor of Princes Odoevsky (extinct)[309].]  m ---.  The name of Semën´s wife is not known.  Semën & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROMAN Semënovich of Novosilsk.  m ---.  The name of Roman´s wife is not known.  Roman & his wife had one child:

i)          IURII Romanovichm ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had two children:

(a)       SEMËN Iurievich

(b)       IVAN Iurievich (-after 1371).  Prince of Novosilsk and Odoievsk.  m --- of Lithuania, daughter of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk. 

6.         [MSTISLAV Mikhailovich (1220-1280).  at Karachev.]  m ---.  The name of Mstislav´s wife is not known.  Mstislav & his wife had two children:

a)         ANDREI Mstislavich (-1339)[310]m --- of Lithuania, daughter of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna]. 

b)         TIT Mstislavich.  He is shown in the outline genealogy of the Rurikid set out in Ferrand[311], but not mentioned in Europäische Stammtafeln[312]m ---.  The name of Tit´s wife is not known.  Tit & his wife had two children:

i)          SVIATOSLAV Titovich m (after 1376) FEDORA of Lithuania, daughter of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk.  Sviatoslav & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IURII Sviatoslavich.  Prince of Massalsk.  Possible ancestor of Princes Massalsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire several times between 7 Sep 1862 and 21 Mar 1889[313]

ii)         IVAN Titovich of Kozelsk .  Ancestor of the Princes Gortchakov (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire several times between 24 Jun 1848 and 17 Mar 1871[314]m AGRAFENA Olegovna, daughter of OLEG Ivanovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosinia ---. 

7.         [IURII Mikhailovich.  Prince of Torussa.]  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had three children:

a)         [315]VSEVOLOD Iurievichm ---.  The name of Vsevolod´s wife is not known.  Vsevolod & his wife had one child:

i)          ANDREI Vsevolodich "Shutycha" of Mezetzk.  1261.  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had one child:

(a)       ALEKSANDR Andreievich.  Prince at Bariatino.  Ancestor of the Princes Bariatinsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire several times between 30 Apr 1798 and 21 Oct 1858 [316]

b)         [317]KONSTANTIN Iurievich.  Prince of Obolensk.  m ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known.  Konstantin & his wife had one child:

i)          IVAN Konstantinovich.  Prince of Obolensk.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(a)       KONSTANTIN Ivanovichm ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known.  Konstantin & his wife had two children:

(1)       IVAN Konstantinovichm ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had two children:

a.         MIKHAIL Ivanovich.  Ancestor of the Princes Repnin (extinct).  The heiress Princess Alexandra Nikolaievna Repnin (died 1834) married Prince Grigori Semënovich Volkonsky, their descendants adopting the name and arms of the Princes Repnin, and their princely status being confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire 24 Sep 1852 and 27 May 1853[318]

b.         SEMËN Ivanovich.  Ancestor of the Princes Obolensky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 25 Oct 1832 and 5 Dec 1888[319]

(2)       ANDREI Konstantinovichm ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had two children:

a.         VASILY Andreievich "Stcherbaty".  Ancestor of the Princes Stcherbatov (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 8 Feb 1828 and 30 May 1877[320]

b.         IVAN Andreievich Dolgoruky.  Possible ancestor of the Princes Dolgoruky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 2 Jan 1798 and 11 Feb 1871[321]

c)         [322]IVAN Iurievich "Tolstaia Golova" (1340-).  Ancestor of the Princes Volkonsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 4 Mar 1799 and 25 Jan 1888[323]

8.         [FEDULIA Mikhailovna ([1165-1250).  She was canonised in 1580 as St Iefrosina of Suzdal.  m (1201) SVIATOSLAV of Chernigovsk .]

 

 

ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich, son of MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Romanovna of Galich ([1225]-1263).  The Novgorod Chronicle records that he was appointed Prince of Novgorod in 1229 by his father but was expelled 8 Dec 1230[324].  Grand Prince of Kiev 1231/1240.  Prince of Galich 1236/1238.  After the Mongol invasion, he sought refuge with Bela IV King of Hungary, married the king's daughter, and was appointed Ban of Mačva.  He mediated the peace between Bulgaria and the empire of Nikaia in 1256[325].  On the death of his son-in-law Kalojan II Tsar of Bulgaria in 1258, Rostislav invaded Bulgaria from neighbouring Mačva, ostensibly to protect the interests of his daughter, who was handed to him at Trnovo.  He retreated to Vidin where he assumed the title ROSTISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, and was recognised as such by Hungary[326].  His forces were temporarily expelled from Vidin province by his rival Konstantin Tih, during Rostislav's temporary absence helping his father-in-law Bela IV King of Hungary in his war with Bohemia, but he was restored by Hungarian troops which expelled Konstantin from the area in 1261[327].  On his death, his lands were divided between his sons, Mikhail taking his part of Bosnia and Bela taking Mačva. 

m (1243) ANNA [Agnes] of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & his wife Maria Laskarina of Nikaia ([1226/27]-).  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungarić regis generum" as father-in-law of "Bulgarorum…princeps"[328].  The name of the wife of Rostislav is confirmed by the Annales Polonorum recording the marriage in 1265 of their daughter Gryfina, in a later passage specifying that she was daughter of "ducis Roczislay et…Anna"[329].  A charter dated 15 Jul 1264 records the confirmation by "ipsius patris regis Belć IV" of a donation by "Agnes, viduć post Radislaum ducem Galitić, ducissć Galitić, de Bosna et de Mazo, ac Michaeli et Belć natis eius"[330].  Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Rostislav and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[331]

Rostislav Mikhailovich & his wife had five children:

1.         GRYFINA [Agripina] Rostislavna (after 1243-[26 May 1303/09]).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the marriage of "Lestko" and "dominam Grifinam" in 1268, recording in a later passage that "domna Grifina rediit ad ducem Lestkonem" in 1276[332].  The Annales Polonorum record that in 1271 "Griphina uxor ducis Lestconis Syradiensis" declared her own virginity to record the impotence of her husband[333].  The Annales Polonorum record the marriage in 1265, in a later passage specifying that she was daughter of "ducis Roczislay et…Anna"[334].  "Lestco…dux Cracouie, Sandomirie ac Syradie" donated property to the church of Krakow, for the soul of "nostre consortis et coniugis domine Griphine…Ducisse dictarum terrarum", by charter dated 30 Nov 1286[335]m (1268) LESZKO "Czarny/the Black" Prince of Sieradz, son of KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz [Piast] & his second wife Konstanze von Schlesien [Piast] ([1240/42]-30 Sep 1288).  He succeeded in 1279 as Prince of Krakow and Sandomir.  

2.         ANNA Rostislavna ([after 1243]-[1296/98]).  Her parentage and first marriage are indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungarić regis generum" as father-in-law of "Bulgarorum…princeps"[336].  Her first marriage was arranged to confirm the alliance between Bulgaria and Hungary in 1255[337].  After the death of her first husband, his successor forcibly married her.  Georgius Akropolites records that "consobrino suo Callimano" married "Bulgarorum princeps…Michael…uxore" after killing her first husband[338].  After the latter's death shortly after, she was handed back to her father after he invaded Bulgaria[339].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[340], the wife of Moys de Dáró was the daughter of András of Hungary & his wife Ielena Mstislavna of Galich.  m firstly ([1255]) MIHAIL II ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians & his third wife Eirene Komnene Angelina of Epirus ([1238]-murdered 1257).  m secondly (1257) KOLOMAN II Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of ALEXANDER of Bulgaria, sébastokrator & his wife --- of Serbia (-murdered 1258).  m[341] thirdly (May 1260) MOYS de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans, Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron, son of --- (-end 1280). 

3.         KUNIGUNDA [Kunguta] Rostislavna (1245-9 Sep 1285, bur Prague Erlöserkirche).  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć records the marriage "VIII Kal Nov 1261" of "Cunegundem filiam Hostislai ducis Bulgarorum" and the king "in castello Ungarias…Possen"[342].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the second marriage of "Rex Przsemysl" and "Chungundam, Regis de Mazouia filiam"[343].  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in 1261 of "Otaker rex" and "Chunigundem filiam Regis Ruscie, neptem Bele regis Ungarie ex filia"[344]m firstly (Pressburg 25 Oct 1261) as his second wife, OTAKAR PŘEMYSL II King of Bohemia, son of WENZEL I King of Bohemia & his wife Kunigunde von Hohenstaufen (1233-killed in battle Dürnkrut 26 Aug 1278, bur Znaim Minoriten).  m secondly (Prague 2 Jun 1284) as his second wife, ZAVIŠ von Rosenberg zu Skalitz und Falkenstein, son of BUDIWOJ von Krumau [Rosenberg] & his wife Perchta von Skalitz (-beheaded Schloß Frauenberg 24 Aug 1290, bur Hohenfurt). 

4.         MIKHAIL Rostislavich (-after 1268).  A charter dated 15 Jul 1264 records the confirmation by "ipsius patris regis Belć IV" of a donation by "Agnes, viduć post Radislaum ducem Galitić, ducissć Galitić, de Bosna et de Mazo, ac Michaeli et Belć natis eius"[345].  On his father's death, he succeeded in the part of Bosnia held by his father.  He supported Bela IV King of Hungary in the civil war against his son István in 1263/66, and was ousted by the latter in 1268[346]

5.         BELA Rostislavich (-killed 1272).  A charter dated 15 Jul 1264 records the confirmation by "ipsius patris regis Belć IV" of a donation by "Agnes, viduć post Radislaum ducem Galitić, ducissć Galitić, de Bosna et de Mazo, ac Michaeli et Belć natis eius"[347].  According to Fine, on his father's death, Bela succeeded as Ban of Mačva[348]

 

 

 

E.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, PRINCES of PEREYASLAVL, descendants of VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev (fifth son of IAROSLAV I)

 

The principality of Pereyaslavl lay to the east and south-east of the principality of Kiev and south of the principality of Chernigov.  It was the first line of defence for Kiev for invasions from the steppe people to the east.  In the second half of the 11th and early 12th centuries, Pereyaslavl was closely linked to Kiev being ruled either directly by the Grand Prince of Kiev or his designated successor. 

 

Like the branch descended from Sviatoslav II Grand Prince of Kiev, set out in Part D, this branch of the family continued to provide Grand Princes of Kiev until 1240, following the invasion of the Mongols.  

 

 

VSEVOLOD I 1076-1078

 

VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich, son of IAROSLAV I "Mudriy/the Wise" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden (1030-13 Apr 1093, bur Kiev, Church of St Sophia).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vsevolod "a fourth son" to Vladimir in 1030[349].  Snorre names "Valdemar, Vissivald and Holte the Bold" as the children of "King Jarisleif" & his wife[350].  In accordance with the terms of his father's testament, he succeeded in 1054 as Prince of Pereyaslavl, the territory including Rostov, the whole Volga, Oka and Klazma river basin and the region of Bielooziero[351].  He was defeated in [1062] by the Kuman [Cumans], in their first attack against  Rus.  He was forced out of Pereyaslavl and retreated to Kiev[352].  He was appointed to succeed his brother Sviatoslav as Prince of Chernigov in 1073.  He succeeded his brother in 1076 as VSEVOLOD I Grand Prince of Kiev, but was deposed in 1077 by his older brother Iziaslav.  His nephew Oleg Sviatoslavich claimed Chernigov after the death of his father Sviatoslav, but was expelled by Vsevolod in Apr 1078.  Oleg returned with support from the Kuman [Cumans] to take Chernigov by force, defeating Vsevolod on the river Sozh, east of Pereyaslavl, 25 Aug 1078[353].  Prince Vsevolod thereupon sought support from his brother Iziaslav, and they defeated Oleg 3 Oct 1078 at Nezhatin Meadow near Chernigov, where Prince Iziaslav was killed[354].  Vsevolod was restored once more as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1078 after Prince Iziaslav's death.  The Primary Chronicle records the death 13 Apr 1093 of Vsevolod son of Yaroslav and his place of burial[355]

m firstly (1046) [MARIA] [Irina], daughter of [--- Monomachos] & his wife --- ([1030/35]-1067).  The Primary Chronicle refers to the wife of Vsevolod as "the Greek princess" but does not name her or give her origin[356].  The primary source which states her name has not yet been identified.  She and her marriage are not referred to in Greek sources.  No doubt her belonging to the Monomachos family has been assumed, firstly because her son is generally known as "Vladimir Monomakh" and secondly because Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos ruled in Byzantium at the date of her marriage, but no information has been found to corroborate this relationship.  It is unlikely that she was the daughter of Emperor Konstantinos himself as he is not recorded in Greek sources as having had children by any of his wives or mistresses, although her birth date range (estimated from the birth of her son in 1053) would be consistent with her having been the daughter of his second marriage.  In particular, Psellos mentions no children in his detailed review of the events of the emperor´s reign.  Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to her son in 1053.  The primary source which corroborates the date of her marriage has not yet been identified. 

m secondly --- Kuman princess, daughter of --- Khan of the Kumans (-1111).  Baumgarten records this marriage and cites a primary source in support[357].  She adopted the name ANNA after her marriage. 

Grand Prince Vsevolod I & his first wife had one child:

1.         VLADIMIR Vsevolodich (1053-19 May 1125).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vladimir son of Vsevolod "by the Greek princess" in 1053[358].  He succeeded in 1113 as VLADIMIR "Monomach" Grand Prince of Kiev.   

-        see below

Grand Prince Vsevolod I & his second wife had five children:

2.         ROSTISLAV Vsevolodich (1070-drowned Stugna River 26 May 1093, bur Kiev Church of St Sophia).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Rostislav, son of Vsevolod, in 1070[359].  Prince of Pereyaslavl.  He took part with his half-brother Vladimir and Sviatopolk Grand Prince of Kiev in the campaign against the Kuman [Cumans] in 1093, and after their defeat was drowned while retreating across the river Stugna[360].   

3.         IEVPRAXIA Vsevolodovna ([1071]-10 Jul 1109, bur Kiev, Crypt Monastery).  The Annalista Saxo names "Eupracciam filiam regis Ruscie qui in nostra lingua vocobatur Adelheid, quam postea duxit Heinricus imperator" as wife of "Heinricus marchio"[361].  She was known as ADELHEID in Germany.  Contemporary chroniclers were scandalised by the alleged sexual abuses inflicted on his second wife by Heinrich IV[362] who imprisoned her at Verona, from where she was released in 1094 by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany.  The Chronicon of Bernold records that "Praxedis reginć" made complaints about her treatment "inauditas fornicationum spurcicias" to the synod of Konstanz in 1094 and that her separation was agreed in 1095 at the same synod[363].  The Annales Sancti Diibodi gives lengthy details concerning her divorce[364].  The empress publicly denounced her husband at the council of Piacenza, presided over by Pope Urban II from 1 Mar 1095[365].  She became a nun at Kiev in 1095.  The Primary Chronicle records that Eupraxia daughter of Vsevolod took the veil 6 Dec 1106[366].  The Primary Chronicle records the death 10 Jul 1109 of Eupraxia daughter of Vsevolod and her burial place[367]m firstly HEINRICH I "der Lange" Graf von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark, son of LOTHAR UDO II Graf von Stade, Markgraf der Nordmark & his wife Oda von Werl ([1065]-27 Jun 1087).  m secondly (14 Aug 1089, divorced 1095) as his second wife, Emperor HEINRICH IV King of Germany, son of Emperor HEINRICH III King of Germany & his second wife Agnčs de Poitou ([Goslar] 11 Nov 1050-Ličge 7 Aug 1106, bur Speyer cathedral). 

4.         IEKATERINA Vsevolodovna (-11 Aug 1108).  The Primary Chronicle records the death 25 Jul 1108 of Catherine, daughter of Vsevolod[368].  Nun. 

5.         --- Vsevolodovna (-1089).  Baumgarten records this daughter and cites a primary source in support[369]

6.         IANKA [Anna] Vsevolodovna (-3 Nov 1112).  The Primary Chronicle names Ianka, daughter of Vsevolod, recording that she became a nun "while still a maiden" at the convent of the Church of St Andrew founded by her father[370].  In 1089 she was sent to Constantinople to accompany the new Metropolitan, Ioann III, back to Kiev[371].  Abbess of Janczyn. 

 

 

VLADIMIR II 1113-1125, IAROPOLK II 1132-1139, VIACHESLAV 1139, GLEB 1169/1172

 

VLADIMIR Vsevolodich, son of VSEVOLOD I Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife [Maria or Irina] of Byzantium (1053-19 May 1125).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Vladimir son of Vsevolod "by the Greek princess" in 1053[372]Morkinskinna records that “Valdimarr”, father of “Haraldr Valdimarsson”, was “the son of King Yaroslav and Ingigerdr, the daughter of Óláfr the Swede”, although this skips a generation in the generally accepted genealogy of the Rurikids[373].  Prince of Smolensk 1077 and 1095.  Prince of Chernigov 1078.  He was installed as Prince of Pereyaslavl in 1097 at the Liubech conference.  He paid considerable attention to the northern borderlands, building several castles and towns for strategic reasons.  He founded the town of Vladimir on the bank of the Kliazma river in 1108[374].  According to Martin, the town of Vladimir was founded by his son Iurii "Dolgorukii"[375] but this is chronologically impossible if the town was indeed founded in 1108.  The people of Kiev invited him to rule them in 1113 after the death of Prince Sviatopolk, but Vladimir refused.  After a second invitation, he accepted and succeeded in 1113 as VLADIMIR "Monomach" Grand Prince of Kiev.  He captured Turov, Volynia where he installed his son Andrei in 1118, and Minsk in 1119[376].  Vladimir left an autobiographical document, which is referred to as his "testament" although it contains no bequests or detailed description of the members of his family, rather recounting his warrior exploits and giving general advice to his children (unnamed)[377]

m firstly ([1070]) [GYTHA [Eadgyth], illegitimate daughter of HAROLD II King of England & [his mistress Eadgyth Swanneshals] ([1050/55]-10 Mar [1098/99]).  Gytha's estimated birth date range, based on the birth dates of her children and the estimated date of her husband's second marriage, suggests that she must have been King Harold´s daughter by his mistress Eadgyth Swanneshals, although this supposition is not based on any primary source data.  The name "Gytha" suggests that in England she was originally called Eadgyth.  Gytha´s existence, and her Russian marriage, are confirmed only by sources written in the late 12th/early 13th centuries, between 100 and 150 years after the estimated date of the marriage, although it is of course possible that these sources were based on earlier records which have since disappeared.  None of the other earlier sources which name the sons of King Harold II, such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and Florence of Worcester, mention any daughters.  According to Saxo Grammaticus, after her father's death she and her two brothers "immediately emigrated to Denmark" where Svend II Estrithsen King of Denmark "received them in a spirit of family duty" and arranged her marriage to "Waldemarus King of the Russians"[378].  Whether such a move can have been made "immediately" is open to doubt, considering the rebellions of her supposed brothers in England which are dated to 1068 and 1069 (see the document ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON & DANISH KINGS).  Gytha is named as King Harold's daughter in Fagrskinna, which also gives her marriage to "Valldimar Konongr sun Iarozlćifs konongs i Holmgarde" (which appears to skip a generation in the generally accepted family reconstruction of the Rurikid dynasty).  More details are provided by Morkinskinna, which records that the mother of “Haraldr Valdimarsson”, father of Malmfrid who married Sigurd King of Norway, was “Edith the daughter of Harold Godwinson” and that her husband was “the son of King Yaroslav and Ingigerdr, the daughter of Óláfr the Swede” (also skipping a generation)[379]Morkinskinna appears to be the only source which attributes the additional name "Harald", indicative of his English ancestry, to her son Mstislav.  The husband of Gytha has generally been identified as Grand Prince Vladimir Vsevolodich "Monomach"[380], but Morkinskinna is the only source which provides enough detail to suggest that this identification is correct.   Baumgarten, particularly thorough in his source citations, cites no Russian source which corroborates the marriage[381].  The lateness of the sources in which Gytha and her marriage are recorded suggests that the information should be treated with some caution.  In addition, it is surprising that no name from Gytha's supposed family (with the exception of "Harald" attributed to her son Mstislav in Morkinskinna) was used among the known descendants of Grand Prince Vladimir.  While it is true that the Rurikid dynasty rarely imported foreign names for the male descendants, it was not unusual for females to bear names which are recognisable from the families of foreign princesses who married into the family, the obvious example being the Scandinavian name Ingeborg used by Vladimir's son Mstislav for his daughter by Christina of Sweden.  The difficult question is to decide the likelihood of such a marriage in light of conditions at the time and contemporary attitudes: some arguments can be mustered for suggesting that a daughter of King Harold II may not have been considered a good marriage prospect.  Gytha´s supposed mother was obscure and she herself was illegitimate, although it is recognised that Gytha was related to the Danish royal family through her paternal grandmother and that illegitimacy presented few barriers at the time in Scandinavian royal families.  Her father´s death may have glorified him as a hero, or alternatively his defeat may have been viewed as ignominious, depending on the point of view.  Her family lived in exile and were without influential connections, apart it seems from the king of Denmark, and her brothers fell into complete obscurity.  If a Russian marriage was arranged for her, it is likely that her husband would have been one of the lesser princes of the dynasty: from this perspective, it is true that Vladimir Vsevolodich was at the time relatively obscure, as the son of the youngest surviving brother of the current Grand Prince without immediate prospects of succession.  As noted above, the Scandinavian sources consistently propose a name similar to Vladimir for Gytha´s husband, although this should not be viewed as conclusive because difficult Russian names were frequently transcribed into contemporary western sources with more creativity than accuracy.  The inevitable, if disappointing, conclusion is that doubts about Gytha´s existence and her Russian marriage cannot be dismissed entirely.  Nazarenko reports that, according to a pateric formerly held by the cloister of St Pantaleon, Köln, Gytha died as a nun in Palestine 10 Mar [1098/99][382].  The year is inconsistent with the estimated date of Vladimir´s supposed second marriage (see below), unless he repudiated his first wife.  This reported source has not yet been seen: hopefully, the actual text may help resolve lingering doubts concerning Gytha and her origin.]  

[m secondly (before [1090]?) --- (-7 May 1107).  The Primary Chronicle records that the wife of Vladimir died 7 May 1107, but does not name her[383].  The primary source which confirms that this supposed second wife was a different person from Vladimir´s first wife has not yet been identified.  The estimated date of this supposed second marriage is based on the marriage of the couple´s daughter Iefvemia being dated to 1104.] 

[m thirdly ([1107]) --- Kuman princess, daughter of AEPA Khan of the Kumans.  Vladimir, in his "testament", refers to making "peace with Aepa, and after receiving his daughter in marriage" proceeding to Smolensk[384].  This passage has been assumed to indicate Vladimir's own marriage with the Khan's daughter.  However, the Primary Chronicle, evidently referring to the same occasion, records the peace agreement with Aepa stating that Vladimir "took the daughter of Aepa son of Osen to be the wife of Prince George [Vladimir's son Iuri "Dolgoruki"]" 12 Jan 1108[385], not mentioning the marriage of another daughter to Vladimir himself.]

Grand Prince Vladimir & his first wife had six children:

1.         MSTISLAV Vladimirovich (1076-15 Apr 1132).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Mstislav son of Vladimir, grandson of Vsevolod, in 1076[386].  He succeeded his father in 1125 as MSTISLAV II "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below

2.         IZIASLAV Vladimirovich (1077-killed in battle Murom 6 Sep 1096, bur Novgorod St Sophia).  The Primary Chronicle names Iziaslav, son of Vladimir, recording that he arrived at Murom from Kursk in 1095[387].  Prince of Suzdal.  The Primary Chronicle records that he was killed fighting Oleg Sviatoslavich, and his burial place[388]

3.         SVIATOSLAV Vladimirovich ([1080]-16 Mar 1114).  The Primary Chronicle names Sviatoslav, son of Vladimir, recording that his father gave him as a hostage to the Polovtsian Kytan in 1095[389].  Prince of Chernigov, Smolensk and Pereyaslavl. 

4.         IAROPOLK Vladimirovich (-18 Feb 1139).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaropolk, son of Vladimir, recording that he accompanied Vladimir to Pereyaslavl in 1103[390].  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1114-1132.  He succeeded his brother in 1132 as IAROPOLK II Grand Prince of Kievm (1116) ELENA of Ossetia, daughter of --- (-after 1246).  Baumgarten records this marriage and cites a primary source in support[391]

5.         VIACHESLAV Vladimirovich (-1154).  The Primary Chronicle names Vyacheslav brother of Mstislav, recording that their father sent him "with Polovtsian support"[392].  Prince of Smolensk 1113-1125, Prince of Turov 1125-1132, 1134-1142, 1142-1146.  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1132-1134, 1142.  Prince of Peresopnin 1146-1149.  Prince of Vyshgorod 1149-1151.  He succeeded his brother in 1139 as VIACHESLAV Grand Prince of Kiev, but only ruled 8 days before ceding the city to Vsevolod Olegovich Prince of Chernigov.  He was restored 1150, but expelled Sep 1150 in favour of his younger brother Iurii.  After Iurii was in his turn expelled Mar 1151, Viacheslav ruled jointly with his nephew Iziaslav II.  m ---.  The name of Viacheslav´s wife is not known.  Viacheslav & his wife had one child: 

a)         MIKHAIL Viacheslavich (-before 1154).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[393].  Prince of Turov 1129. 

i)          [ROMAN Mikhailovich.  Baumgarten names he and his brother as possible children of Mikhail Viacheslavich[394].  1155/60.] 

ii)         [--- Mikhailovich (-before 1150).] 

6.         MARINA Vladimirovna (-1146).  Baumgarten cites Russian primary sources which confirm this couple's marriage[395]m LEON Diogenes, son of --- (-murdered 15 Aug 1116).  His parentage is unknown.  He fled to Russia where he was accepted as a son of Emperor Romanos IV, although an imposter[396]

Grand Prince Vladimir & his [second] wife had six children:

7.         ROMAN Vladimirovich (-6 Jan 1119).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[397].  Prince of Volynia 1118.  m --- Volodarovna, daughter of VOLODAR Rostislavich Prince of Peremyshl. 

8.         IEVFEMIA Vladimirovna (-4 Apr 1139).  Baumgarten names the second wife of King Kálmán and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[398].  She was repudiated by her husband and sent back to Suzdal before giving birth to her son[399]m (1104, repudiated 1113) as his second wife, KÁLMÁN King of Hungary, son of GÉZA I King of Hungary & his first wife Sophie van Looz (1065-3 Mar 1116).   

9.         IEVPRAXIA Vladimirovna (-1109). 

10.      AGAFIA Vladimirovna.  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing one primary source in support[400]m (1116) VSEVOLOD Davidovich Prince of Gorodno, son of DAVID Igorevich Prince of Dorogobuzh & his wife --- (-1 Feb 1142). 

11.      IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" (-15 May 1158).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[401].  His succeeded as Prince of Rostov-Suzdal in 1125.   

-        see below, Chapter 8.A.  PRINCES OF VLADIMIR

12.      ANDREI Vladimirovich (11 Jul 1102-1141).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[402].  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1135-1141.  He was installed by his father as Prince of Volynia 1119, after expelling Iaroslav Sviatopolkovich[403].  -1135.  m --- Kuman princess, granddaughter of Khan TUGOR of the Kumans.  Baumgarten records this marriage and cites a primary source in support[404].  Andrei & his wife had four children: 

a)         VIACHESLAV Andreievich.

b)         VLADIMIR Andreievich (-28 Jan 1170).  Prince of Dorogobuzh.  m ---, daughter of --- Ban of ---.  

c)         IAROPOLK Andreievich.  1157/1160/1161. 

d)         --- Andreievna (before 1141-before 1176)m as his first wife, OLEG Sviatoslavich of Vladimir, son of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife --- (-[1204]).  Prince of Chernigov 1202. 

 

 

MSTISLAV I 1125-1132

 

MSTISLAV Vladimirovich, son of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife [Gytha of England] (1076-Kiev 14 Apr 1132[405]).  The Primary Chronicle records the birth of Mstislav, son of Vladimir, grandson of Vsevolod, in 1076[406]Morkinskinna records that “Haraldr Valdimarsson” was the son of “Valdimarr” and “Edith the daughter of Harold Godwinsson[407].  He was appointed Prince of Novgorod by his grandfather in 1088, Prince of Rostov 1093, and restored as Prince of Novgorod 1095[408].  He was transferred to Pereyaslavl 1117 by his father.  He succeeded his father in 1125 as MSTISLAV I "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev

m firstly (1095) CHRISTINE of Sweden, daughter of INGE I Stenkilson King of Sweden & his first wife Helena --- (-18 Jan 1122).  Morkinskinna records that “Haraldr Valdimarsson” married “Kristin, the daughter of King Ingi Steinkelsson king of the Swedes[409].  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which names “Ingiburgh filia Rizlavi…Ruthenorum Regis et Cristinć Reginć…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginć[410]

m secondly (Kiev 1122) [LIUBAVA] Dmitrievna, daughter of DMITRY Zavidich boyar [Passadnik] of Novgorod & his wife --- (-after 1168).  The marriage of Mstislav to "Dmitrevna daughter of Zavidich of Novgorod" is referred to in the Novgorod Chronicle[411]

Grand Prince Mstislav I & his first wife had eleven children:

1.         VSEVOLOD Mstislavich (-11 Feb 1138[412]).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[413].  He was appointed as Prince of Novgorod in 1117 by his grandfather to succeed his father when the latter became Prince of Pereyaslavl.  He conquered most of Estonia in 1132/1133, recaptured Yuriev and strengthened Novgorodian commercial interests.  Novgorod revolted against Kievan supremacy in 1136, Vsevolod was expelled and the city became an independent community which elected its own princes over whom was superimposed the authority of the Council of Nobles[414].  The Chronicle of Novgorod records that Vsevolod attempted to force his way back but only reached Pskov where he installed himself as Prince in 1137[415]m (Novgorod 1123[416]) --- Sviatoslavna, daughter of SVIATOSLAV Davidovich Prince of Lutsk & his wife Anna Sviatopolkovna of Kiev.  The Chronicle of Novgorod refers indirectly to the (unnamed) daughter of Sviatoslav Davidovich, referring to the latter as "the father-in-law of Vsevolod"[417].  Vsevolod & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         [VLADIMIR (-after 1139).  Baumgarten names him but cites only secondary sources in support[418].  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "regi Russie nomine Musuch" as second husband of Ryksa[419].  The charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, names him “Waldemar…Ruthenorum Rex[420], although it is curious that it does not state Vladimir´s parentage as there was another line of consanguinity through Vladimir´s supposed paternal grandmother.  This does suggest that Vladimir´s parentage may not be correct as shown here.  Prince of Novgorod.]  m (before 18 May 1136) as her second husband, RYKSA [Swantosława] of Poland, widow of MAGNUS I "den Stćrke/the Strong" King of Denmark, daughter of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1116/17]-after 25 Dec 1155).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rikissam" as the only daughter of "dux Vergescelaus de Polonia" and his wife Agnes, specifying that "primo fuit regina Suecie", that by her second husband "regi Russie nomine Musuch" she was mother of "Sophiam reginam Dacie et Rikissam", the latter marrying "imperatoris Castelle Alfunso"[421].  This appears to be a confused account which contradicts other sources in many aspects.  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which records that “filia…Ducis Polonić…Bolezlavi” was mother of “Sophia cuius pater fuit Waldemar…Ruthenorum Rex[422].  She married thirdly (after 1140) Sverker I King of Sweden.  The primary source which confirms her third marriage has not yet been identified.   Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          SOFIA Vladimirovna ([1141]-5 May 1198, bur Ringsted).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Sophiam de Russia" as wife of "Waldemarum II"[423].  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which records that “Waldemarus” and “Sophia cuius pater fuit Waldemar…Ruthenorum Rex” were parents of “dominam nostrum Francić reginam[424].  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum confirms that "Lothewigus lantgravius de Thuringia, filius sororis imperatoris" repudiated his first wife on the grounds of consanguinity to marry "matrem Kanuti regis Danorum"[425].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 May" of "Sophia regine Dacie"[426].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial at Ringsted of "sanctus Kanutus dux Dacie…filius suus Waldemarus primus, ampliator huius ecclesia" and the burial next to him at Ringsted of "regina Sophia uxor sua filia Swerchonis regis Suetie" who died "III Id Mai" in 1198[427]m firstly (1157) VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark, son of KNUT "Lavard" Duke of South Jutland/Sřnderjylland [Schleswig] and King of the Obotriten & his wife Ingeborg Mstislavna of Kiev (14 Jan 1131-Vordingborg 12 May 1182, bur Ringsted).  m secondly ([1184], divorced 1187) as his second wife, LUDWIG III "der Milde" Landgraf of Thuringia, son of LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Judith [Jutta] von Staufen ([1152]-1190). 

b)         IVAN Vsevolodich (-1128).   Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[428]

c)         VIACHESLAVA Vsevolodovna (-15 Mar after 1148).  Baumgarten names and records the parentage of the first wife of Bolesław IV, citing sources in support[429]m as his first wife, BOLESŁAW of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen (1122-15 Jan 1173).  He succeeded in 1138 as BOLESŁAW IV "Kedzierwy/der Krause" Prince of Mazovia and Kujavia, and Prince of Krakow in 1146. 

2.         INGEBORG Mstislavna (-after 1131).  Snorre names "Harald Valdemarson's other daughter, sister to Malmfrid…Ingebjorg" as wife of "Canute Lavard, a son of the Danish king Eirik the Good and grandson of King Svein Ulfson"[430]Morkinskinna records that “Haraldr Valdimarsson´s second daughter…Ingibjorg” married “King Knútr lávardr[431].  A charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, names “Ingiburgh filia Rizlavi…Ruthenorum Regis et Cristinć Reginć…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginć” as mother of “Waldemarum Regem[432].  Her marriage was arranged by her maternal aunt Margareta Queen of Denmark to improve relations between the Swedish and Danish royal families[433].  Saxo Grammaticus records that she warned her husband of a possible plot against his life in 1131 but that he ignored her[434]m ([1116]) KNUD "Lavard" Count in Sřnderjylland [Schleswig], son of ERIK I “Ejegod/the Good” King of Denmark  & his wife Bodil Thorgunasdatter (Roskilde 12 [Mar/Apr] 1096-murdered Haraldsted Skov, near Ringsted 7 Jan 1131, bur Ringsted). 

3.         MALMFRIDA Mstislavna (-after 1137).  Snorre records the marriage of Sigurd King of Norway and "Malmfrid, a daughter of King Harald Valdemarson, eastward in Novgorod"[435]Morkinskinna records that Sigurd married “Malmfrídr, the daughter of Haraldr Valdimarsson from the east in Kiev…[and] Kristín, the daughter of King Ingi Steinkelsson king of the Swedes[436].  Snorre records that King Sigurd divorced her[437].  "Erici Danorum regis, Erici filius" founded "prćbendć canonicalis in ecclesia Lundensi", with the consent of "Malfride regina et filio regis Svenone", by charter dated 6 Jan 1135[438].  The source which more precisely confirms that Malmfrid, divorced wife of King Sigurd, was the same person as Malmfrid wife of King Erik II had not yet been identified.  Baumgarten records her parentage and second marriage but only cites one secondary source in support[439]m firstly (divorced 1128) as his second wife, SIGURD I "Jorsalafare/the Crusader" King of Norway, illegitimate son of MAGNUS III "Berrfřtt/Barfod/Barfot/Barefoot" King of Norway & his mistress --- ([1089/90]-Oslo 14 Aug 1130, bur Hallvardskyrka, Oslo).  m secondly ([1130]) ERIK Eriksson of Denmark, illegitimate son of ERIK I “Ejegod/the Good” King of Denmark & his mistress --- (-near Ribe 18 Sep 1137, Ribe Cathedral).  He succeeded in 1134 as ERIK II "Emun" King of Denmark

4.         --- Mstislavna.  The marriage of "the daughter of Mstislav" with Iaroslavich Sviatopolkovich is referred to in the Chronicle of Novgorod[440]m (1112 after 29 Jun, repudiated 1118) IAROSLAV Sviatopolkovich Prince of Volynia, son of SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- (-killed in battle May 1123). 

5.         MARIA Mstislavna (-Winter 1179).  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[441]m VSEVOLOD Olegovich Prince of Chernigov, son of OLEG MIKHAIL Sviatoslavich "Gorislavich" Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy and Riazan & his [first/second] wife --- (-1 Aug 1146).  He succeeded in 1139 as VSEVOLOD II Grand Prince of Kiev

6.         IZIASLAV Mstislavich (-13 Nov 1154).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[442].  He succeeded as IZIASLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev.

-        see below.

7.         XENIA Mstislavna.  Baumgarten names her, but citing only one secondary source[443]m BRIACHESLAV Davidovich of Polotsk Prince of Iziaslavl, son of DAVID Vseslavich Prince of Polotsk & his wife --- Mstislavna (-after 1129). 

8.         SVIATOPOLK Mstislavich (-1154).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[444].  Prince of Polotsk and Minsk 1132.  Prince of Novgorod 1142-1148.  Prince of Volynia 1147.  m (Novgorod [23 Dec 1143/6 Jan 1144]) --- of Moravia, daughter of [OTTO II "Niger" Duke of Moravia at Olmütz & his wife Sophie von Berg].  Sviatopolk's marriage in Novgorod "between Christmas and Epiphany" to "a wife from Moravia" is referred to in the Novgorod Chronicle[445].  Baumgarten refers to this marriage and identifies her as Euphemia, daughter of Duke Otto, whose birth is recorded in the Annales Gradicenses in 1115 "Eufemia" but which do not name her parents[446].  Baumgarten´s commentary suggests that he has not identified the source which names the wife of Sviatopolk, and that her co-identity with Euphemia is only accepted because "de toutes les princesses de Moravie, Euphémie seule pouvait ętre la femme de Swiatopolk"[447].  This does not seem a satisfactory way of proceeding as it is far from clear that the Bohemian sources name all Moravian princesses at the time.  Until more information comes to light, it is better to show her parentage in square brackets. 

9.         DOBRODJEJA Mstislavna (-before 1136).  Baumgarten states that "Irena [Dobrodeja]", daughter of Grand Prince Mstislav, married "Andronikos Komnenos", citing Byzantine primary sources in support[448].  According to Sturdza[449], the wife of Alexios Komnenos was "Irena" daughter of Grand Prince Mstislav.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[450], Alexios married firstly Dobrodeja Mstislavna, adding that she was also called Eupraxia, presumably her Orthodox baptismal name.  No primary source has so far been identified which identifies more precisely the wife of Alexios Komnenos.  [m (1122) as his first wife, ALEXIOS Komnenos co-Emperor, son of Emperor IOANNES II & his wife Piroska [Eirene] of Hungary (Balabista in Macedonia Feb 1106-Attalia late summer 1142).] 

10.      ROSTISLAV Mstislavich (-Zaruba 14 Mar 1168 bur Kiev).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[451].  He succeeded in 1154 as ROSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below, Part F.  GRAND PRINCES of KIEV

11.      ROGNEDA Mstislavna (-after 1168).  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[452]

Grand Prince Mstislav I & his second wife had two children: 

12.      IEVFROSINA Mstislavna ([1130]-before 1186).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which names “Ingiburgh filia Rizlavi…Ruthenorum Regis et Cristinć Reginć…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginć” as mother of “Waldemarum Regem” and refers to “prćdictć Ingeborgis soror” as mother of “Belć Regis Hungarić” who married “sororem Philippi Regis Francorum[453].  Baumgarten names the wife of King Géza as the daughter of Prince Mstislav but only cites one secondary source in support[454].  Her name and date of death are confirmed by the charter dated 1186 under which her daughter "Elisabeth ducis Bohemie uxor" founded a church in Bohemia for the Knights Hospitallers, who had been favoured by "Eurosine matre mee"[455]m (1146) GÉZA II King of Hungary, son of BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary & his wife Jelena of Serbia ([1130]-3 May 1162). 

13.      VLADIMIR Mstislavich (1132-30 May 1174).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[456].  Prince of Terebovl, Volynia and Dorogobuzh.  m (1150) --- of Serbia, daughter of BELOŠ of Serbia Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia & his wife ---.  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Vladimir Mstislavich as "--- Nemanja de Serbie, fille du Ban Bela et de Lavitza de Croatie", citing a secondary source[457].  No other reference to this person has been found, but it would be chronologically consented for her to have been the daughter of Beloš.  Vladimir & his wife had four children: 

a)         MSTISLAV Vladimirovich (-after 1202).  Baumgarten names Mstislav but cites only two secondary sources in support, without specifying which refers to Mstislav´s wife[458].  Prince of Dorogobuzh.  m (1170) --- Sviatoslavna, daughter of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife ---.  Baumgarten names Mstislav but cites only two secondary sources in support, without specifying which refers to Mstislav´s wife[459]

b)         IAROSLAV Vladimirovich (-after 1207). He was installed as Prince of Novgorod in 1182, but "fetched away" in 1184 by Vsevolod "for the men of Novgorod were indignant with him because he had done them many wrongs"[460].  He was restored 20 Nov 1187, expelled again in 1196, restored again in 1197[461].  He is referred to as "Grand Prince" in 1198, but was "fetched out of" Novgorod again in 1199[462].  /99.  m --- of Ossetia, daughter of --- (-25 Dec 1202).  The Chronicle refers to "Iaroslav's Knyaginya" founding a monastery in 1199[463].  This would usually refer to his wife, but may be his daughter as the word was used in reference to the latter at her birth (see below).  Baumgarten refers to a primary source recording the death of Iaroslav´s wife[464].  It is not known whether this source also refers to her origin.  Iaroslav & his wife had three children: 

i)          --- Iaroslavna (Novgorod 15 Aug 1189-).  Her birth is recorded in the Novgorod Chronicle, which does not give her name but refers to her as "Knyaginya"[465]

ii)         IZIASLAV Iaroslavich (Novgorod 1190-Spring Lutsk 1198, bur Monastery of St Iurii).  His birth and death are recorded in the Novgorod Chronicle[466].  Prince of Lutsk. 

iii)        ROSTISLAV Iaroslavich (Novgorod 1193-Novgorod Spring 1198, bur Monastery of St Iurii).  His birth and death are recorded in the Novgorod Chronicle[467]

c)         ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich.  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[468].  1198/1202. 

d)         SVIATOSLAV Vladimirovich.  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[469].  1189/1202.

 

 

IZIASLAV II 1146-1154, IAROSLAV 1172-1175, INGVAR 1202/1212

 

IZIASLAV Mstislavich, son of MSTISLAV I "the Great" Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-13 Nov 1154).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[470].  He succeeded in 1146 as IZIASLAV II Grand Prince of Kiev, deposed 1149, restored 1150, deposed again and restored once more 1151-1154. 

m firstly ---.  The identity of Iziaslav´s first wife is not known.  Baumgarten quotes a Polish source which records that Isiaslav´s daughter´s mother was "consanguinea Friderici imperatoris"[471]

m secondly ([1151/54]) as her first husband, RUSUDAN of Georgia, daughter of DEMETRE I King of Georgia & his wife --- (-after 1157).  Baumgarten records this marriage and refers to his sources[472].  She married secondly Sanjar Shah

Grand Prince Iziaslav II & his first wife had five children:

1.         MSTISLAV Iziaslavich (-13 Aug [1172]).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[473].  He succeeded in 1168 as MSTISLAV II "Chabry" Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below

2.         --- Iziaslavna.  Baumgarten records her marriage and cites a primary source[474]m (1144) ROGVOLOD [Vasily] Borisovich Prince of Polotsk, son of BORIS Vseslavich  (-[1162]). 

3.         IEVDOKIA Iziaslavna.  Baumgarten names and records the parentage of the second wife of Mieszko III but cites only one secondary source in support[475].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the second wife of Mieszko III as "filia regis Russie"[476]m ([1151/54]) as his second wife, MIESZKO III "Stary" Prince of Greater Poland, son of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1126/27]-13 Mar 1202). 

4.         IAROSLAV Iziaslavich (-1175).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[477].  Prince of Novgorod 1148/54.  Prince of Volynia 1154.  He was chosen to rule Kiev after the overthrow of Andrei Iurievich "Bogoliubskii", succeeding in 1172 as IAROSLAV Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was, however, challenged by Sviatoslav Vsevolodich Prince of Chernigov who, after reaching agreement with the Rostislavichi branch, Princes of Smolensk, became sole Prince in Kiev after Iaroslav's death[478]m [--- of Bohemia, daughter of VLADISLAV II King of Bohemia & his first wife Gertrud of Austria.  Baumgarten cites a Russian source in which Prince Iziaslav is recorded as addressing the king of Bohemia as the father-in-law of one of his (unnamed) children[479].  Baumgarten suggests that some corroboration is provided by a visit by Vladislav II King of Bohemia to Kiev and the presence of Iaroslav at the Bohemian court in 1165 which suggests that he may have been the child in question[480].]  Iaroslav & his wife had four children (all of whom, and whose descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[481]): 

a)         INGVAR Iaroslavich (-[1212/24]).  Prince of Lutsk and Dorogobuzh after 1203.  He was appointed as INGVAR Grand Prince of Kiev in 1199 by his first cousin Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich after the latter expelled Grand Prince Rurik II Rostislavich from Kiev[482].  Ex-Grand Prince Rurik recaptured Kiev in 1203.  Ingvar was either captured or fled back to Volynia but may have been restored in Kiev later the same year when Rurik was again expelled by Prince Roman[483].  1212.  m ---.  The name of Ingvar´s wife is not known.  Ingvar & his wife had four children: 

i)          IAROSLAV Ingvarovich (-after 1240).  Prince of Peremyshl 1227/28.  Prince of Lutsk 1228.  m ---.  The name of Iaroslav´s wife is not known.  Iaroslav & his wife had three children: 

(a)       BORIS Iaroslavich.  Prince of Medziboi and Bolochou. 

(b)       [IZIASLAV] Iaroslavich.  Prince of Bolochou. 

(c)       --- Iaroslavich.  Prince of Bolochou.  

ii)         GREMISLAVA Ingvarovna (-8 Nov 1258).  Baumgarten names her, and shows her parentage, citing numerous sources in support[484].  "Grimislava Cracovie Ductrix et Sandomirie" restored property to the bishop of Kujavia, in the presence of "Duce Conrado Masovie et Cuiavie cum Boleslao et Casimiro suis filiis", by charter dated 1228[485].  "Bolezlaus filius Lesconis…Dux Cracović et Sandomirić" founded the monastery of Krzyzanowice, at the request of "matris nostrć Grzymislavć", for the souls of "patris nostri Lesconis et uxoris nostrć Gunebundis", by charter dated 28 Jun 1254[486].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", by charter dated 18 May 1255[487].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[488].  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1258 of "ducissa Grimislava Cracovie", specifying that she was buried "in Zawichost aput fratres Minores"[489]m (1207) LESZKO II "Bialy/the White" Prince of Krakow and Sandomir, son of KAZIMIERZ II "Sprawiedliwy/the Just" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Helena [of Moravia/of Smolensk] ([1186/87]-23 Nov 1227). 

iii)        VLADIMIR Ingvarovich.  1229. 

iv)       IZIASLAV Ingvarovich (-killed in battle 16 Jun 1224).  Prince of Lutsk.  

b)         MSTISLAV Iaroslavich "Nyemiy/the Mute" (-1227).  Prince of Galich, Peresopnika and Lutsk 1214.  

c)         VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich (-after 1210).  Prince of Lutsk.  m (1166) MALFRIDA Iurievna of Turov, daughter of IURII Iaroslavich Prince of Turov & his wife --- Vsevolodovna of Gorodno. 

d)         IZIASLAV Iaroslavich (-Feb 1196).  Prince of Lutsk.

5.         IAROPOLK Iziaslavich (-7 Mar 1168).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[490]m firstly ---.  This first marriage is indicated by the date of birth of Iaropolk´s son, many years before the date recorded for his second marriage.  m secondly (1168) MARIA Sviatoslavna, daughter of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife ---.  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[491].  Iaropolk & his first wife had one child:

a)         VASILKO Iaropolkovich (before 1151-after 1178).  Baumgarten names Vasilko, but cites only secondary sources in support[492].  Prince of Brest and Druck [Drohiczyn].  m --- of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW IV "Kedzierwy/der Krause" Prince of Masovia and & his first wife Viacheslava Vsevolodovna of Novgorod.  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the wife of Vasilko, but cites only secondary sources in support[493]

 

 

MSTISLAV II 1168/1170, ROMAN [1200/01]-1205, DANIIL 1231-1240

 

MSTISLAV Iziaslavich, son of IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- of Lithuania (-13 Aug [1172]).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[494].  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1146-1149, 1151-1155.  Prince of Lutzk 1155-1157.  Prince of Volynia 1157-1170.  Together with Iaroslav Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" Prince of Galich, he installed Rostislav Mstislavich as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1158[495].  He seized power in Kiev in 1168, also with the support of Iaroslav Prince of Galich, succeeding as MSTISLAV II "Chabry" Grand Prince of Kiev.  In 1168, he mounted a massive campaign against the Kuman, leading an alliance of thirteen princes from different branches of the Rurikid dynasty, and stabilised conditions along their trade routes.  Mstislav II was removed from power after the sack of Kiev in 1169 and replaced as Grand Prince of Kiev by Gleb Iurievich[496].   

m ([1161/62]) AGNIESKA of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1137/38]-after 1181).  The Translatio Manus sancti Stephani names "filiam suam [=Salome uxor [Bolezlai Bolionorum ducis] Agnetam"[497].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum names "primogenitum sororis sue [=Mieszko III] nomine Romanum patrem Danielis", but does not specify which sister was his mother, when recording Mieszko's military campaign to help restore Roman in Galicia[498]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Grand Prince Mstislav II is not known. 

Grand Prince Mstislav II & his wife had three children:

1.         ROMAN Mstislavich (after 1160-murdered 19 Jun 1205).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum which names "primogenitum sororis sue [=Mieszko III] nomine Romanum patrem Danielis", when recording Mieszko's military campaign to help restore Roman in Galicia[499].  He succeeded in 1199 as ROMAN Prince of Galich, and in [1200/01] as ROMAN "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see Chapter 3.  PRINCES of GALICH

2.         VSEVOLOD Mstislavich (-Apr 1195).  Prince of Volynia and Bielsk 1188.  He became a monk.  m ---.  The name of Vsevolod´s wife is not known.  Vsevolod & his wife had two children (both of whom, along with their descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[500]): 

a)         ALEKSANDR Vsevolodich (-after 1234).  Prince of Bielsk 1195.  Prince of Volynia 1207/14.  m --- Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR Rurikovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife ---.  Aleksandr & his wife had three children: 

i)          VSEVOLOD Aleksandrovich.  Prince of Bielsk 1244.  m ---.  The name of Vsevolod´s wife is not known.  Vsevolod & his wife had [one possible child]: 

(a)       [GRIMISLAVA Vsevolodovna (-15 Apr ----).  According to Baumgarten, the wife of Duke Boleslaw was named Grimislava, citing only secondary sources in support[501].  He suggests that she was the daughter of Vsevolod Aleksandrovich Prince of Belz, citing in support only secondary sources which he says refer to primary sources which can no longer be found[502]m BOLESLAW I Duke of Oppeln, son of WLADISLAW Duke of Oppeln & his wife Euphemia of Poland [Piast] ([1254/21 Oct 1258-14 May 1313).] 

ii)         ANASTASIA Aleksandrovna.  Baumgarten names her, shows her parentage, and both her marriages, citing Russian primary sources in support[503]m firstly ([1245/Jul 1247]) as his second wife, BOLESŁAW I Prince of Masovia, son of KONRAD I Prince of Mazovia & his wife Agafia Sviatoslavna of Novgorod-Sieviersk ([1208]-1248 after 25 Feb).  m secondly DEMETRI, magnate in Hungary. 

iii)        --- Aleksandrovnam ---, a lord in Poland. 

iv)       [ROMAN Alexandrovich.  According to Ferrand, he was the ancestor of the Princes Drutskoy-Sokolinsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 30 Apr 1801 and 18 Jan 1866[504], and of Princes Poutiatine (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire several times between 22 Dec 1805 and 9 Nov 1850[505].  He is not named by Baumgarten[506].] 

b)         VSEVOLOD Vsevolodich (-[1215]).  Prince of Chervenj. 

3.         VLADIMIR Mstislavich (-[1173]).  Baumgarten names him and cites a secondary source in support[507].  Prince of Brest. 

Grand Prince Mstislav II had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

4.          SVIATOSLAV Mstislavich (-[1183]).  Baumgarten names him and cites his sources[508].  Prince of Brest 1170.  

 

 

 

F.      GRAND PRINCES of KIEV, descendants of ROSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev (the "Rostislavichi" of Smolensk)

 

 

ROSTISLAV 1154/1168

 

ROSTISLAV Mstislavich, son of MSTISLAV I "the Great" Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden (-Zaruba 14 Mar 1168 bur Kiev).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[509].  He was installed as Prince of Smolensk on the death of his paternal grandfather in 1125, until 1160.  He succeeded in 1154 as ROSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev, largely due to the support of Iaroslav Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" Prince of Galich and Mstislav Iziaslavich Prince of Volynia[510]

m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known. 

Rostislav & his wife had eight children (all of whom, along with their descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[511]): 

1.         ROMAN Rostislavich (-14 Jun 1180).  He succeeded in 1172 as ROMAN Grand Prince of Kiev.  

-        see below

2.         [IELENA Rostislavna ([1140/42]-[1202/06]).  Baumgarten cites Polish chronicles which name her, from which her marriage can be dated, and which record that she died before [1206/07][512].  There is some contradiction about the identity of the wife of Kazimierz II.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[513], she was Helena of Moravia, daughter of Konrad Duke of Moravia [Přemyslid] & his wife Marija of Serbia, although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  Baumgarten cites in particular the Ipatiewskaia Chronicle which records that Mstislav was the first cousin of Prince Leszek "Bialy", the son of Helena, to confirm this Russian parentage[514]m (1163) KAZIMIERZ of Poland, son of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen (1138-5 May 1194).  He succeeded in 1177 as KAZIMIERZ II "Sprawiedliwy/the Just" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow, and in 1186 as Prince of Kujavia and Mazovia.] 

3.         SVIATOSLAV Rostislavich (-1170).  Prince of Novgorod 1159-1161, 1162-1167.  m ---.  

4.         DAVID Rostislavich (1140-23 Apr 1197).  Prince of Novgorod 1154.  Prince of Torzhok 1158-1161.  Prince of Vitebsk 1165-1167.  Prince of Vishgorod 1168.  Prince of Smolensk 1180-1197. 

-        see below, Chapter 7.  PRINCES of SMOLENSK

5.         AGAFIA Rostislavna (-after [16/18] Jan 1180)m (19 or 29 Jun 1165) as his second wife, OLEG Sviatoslavich Prince of Novgorod-Seversk, son of SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich Prince of Chernigov & his first wife --- of the Kumans (-[16/18] Jan 1180). 

6.         RURIK Rostislavich (-Chernigov [1215]).  Prince of Ovruch.  He succeeded in 1194 as RURIK II Grand Prince of Kiev

-        see below

7.         AGRAFENA Rostislavna (-murdered Dec 1237)m IGOR Glebovich Prince of Riazan, son of GLEB Rostislavich Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosina Rostislavna of Pereyaslavl (-1194). 

8.         MSTISLAV Rostislavich "Khrabriy/the Brave" (-Novgorod 14 Jun 1180, bur Novgorod St Sofia[515]).  Prince of Belgorod 1161, 1171-1173.  Prince of Smolensk 1175-1177.  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod 1 Nov 1179 in succession to his brother Roman[516]m firstly ---.  m secondly (before 1176) --- Glebovna, daughter of GLEB Rostislavich Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosina Rostislavna of Pereyaslavl (-after 1180).  Mstislav & his first wife had one child:

a)         MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloy/the Daring" (before 1176-1228).  Prince of Toropetz, Novgorod and Galich. 

-        see below, Chapter 3.C. PRINCES of GALICH 1215-1234

Mstislav & his second wife had two children:

b)         VLADIMIR Mstislavich (-after 3 Feb 1226).  The people of Novgorod chose him to succeed his father as Prince of Novgorod in 1180[517].  Prince of Pskov 1208-1213, 1216-.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          IAROSLAV Vladimirovich (-after 1245).  Prince of Pskov 1214.  Prince of Torzhok 1218-1245.  [source? - not in ES II 137] m firstly ---.  m secondly IEFPRAXIA [Vasilkovich, daughter of VASILKO Bryacheslavich Prince of Vitebsk & his wife --- Davidovna of Novgorod and Smolensk] (-killed 8 May 1243).  Iaroslav & his first wife had one child:

(a)       son.  He murdered his stepmother in 1243[518].  

c)         DAVID Mstislavich (-killed in battle near Usviat 9 Feb 1226).  Prince of Toropeck. 

 

 

RURIK II 1194/1210, ROSTISLAV 1204-1205, VLADIMIR 1218-1235

 

RURIK Rostislavich, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-Chernigov[519] [1215]).  Prince of Ovruch.  Prince of Novgorod 1169-1171.  During the reign in Kiev of Grand Prince Sviatoslav III, Rurik Rostislavich became his co-ruler according to some accounts.  He succeeded on the death of Sviatoslav in 1194 as RURIK II Grand Prince of Kiev, sponsored by Vsevolod Iurievich[520] who was acknowledged as the senior representative of the dynasty.  In 1199, his rule was challenged by Roman Mstislavich Prince of Volynia (Rurik's ex-son-in-law) who drove Rurik to the town of Vruchiy and installed his cousin Ingvar Iaroslavich at Kiev[521].  Rurik succeeded in ousting Ingvar in 1203 with Kuman forces, but was expelled again and forced to become a monk[522].  When Roman was himself ousted in the following year, Rurik's son Rostislav became Prince in Kiev in Rurik's place.  However, after Roman was killed in battle in 1205, Rurik arranged to be released from his monastic vows and retook power in Kiev from his son[523].  Rurik's rule was challenged by his former ally Vsevolod Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" Prince of Chernigov who seized power briefly in 1206 and again in 1207, and finally evicted Rurik permanently in 1211[524]

m firstly (1162) --- Kuman princess, daughter of BYELAK Khan of the Kumans. 

m secondly (before 1172) ANNA Iurievna of Turov, daughter of IURII Iaroslavich Prince of Turov & his wife --- Vsevolodovna of Gorodno (-[1205/14] maybe [19 Apr 1211]).  She was forceably tonsured in 1203 when her husband was expelled from Kiev by Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich and Volynia[525]

Rurik & his second wife had six children (all of whom, along with their descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[526]):

1.         ROSTISLAV Rurikovich (13 Apr 1172-1218).  Prince of Vishgorod.  He was taken as a prisoner to Galich in 1203 with his brother when their father was expelled from Kiev by Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich and Volynia, but released after the intervention of Vsevolod III Prince of Vladimir who installed him in 1204 as ROSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev[527].  When the latter was killed in battle 1205, Rostislav's father Rurik II arranged to be released from his monastic vows and took power in Kiev from his son.  Prince of Galich 1210.  m (15 Jun or 11 Aug 1187) VERCHOSLAVA Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia ([1179/81]-).  Rostislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         IEFROSINIA Rostislavna (1198-). 

2.         [ANASTASIA] Rurikovnam (1182) GLEB Sviatoslavich Prince of Bielgorod and Chernigov, son of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife --- (-after 1219). 

3.         PREDSLAVA Rurikovna (-after 1203).  According to the Lavrentevskiy Chronicle, Roman repudiated his wife because "he wished to make her take the veil", which she resisted.  She was sent back to her father in Kiev[528].  She was forceably tonsured in 1203 when her father was expelled from Kiev by her ex-husband[529]m (repudiated [1196]) as his first wife, ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Volynia, son of MSTISLAV II Iziaslavich "Chabry" Prince of Volynia and Kiev & his wife Agniesk of Poland (after 1160- killed in battle Zawichost 19 Jun 1205).   He succeeded as Prince of Galich in 1199. 

4.         IAROSLAVA Rurikovnam (1187) SVIATOSLAV Igorevich, son of IGOR Sviatoslavich Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy [later Prince of Chernigov] & his wife Iefrosina Iaroslavna of Galich (1177-hanged Sep 1211).  Prince of Volynia 1206. 

5.         VLADIMIR Rurikovich (1187-3 Mar 1239).  He was taken as a prisoner to Galich in 1203 with his brother when their father was expelled from Kiev by Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich and Volynia but released after the intervention of Vsevolod III Prince of Vladimir[530].  Prince of Smolensk 1212-1219.  He succeeded in 1218 as VLADIMIR Grand Prince of Kiev.   His rule was challenged by Mikhail Vsevolodich who, allied with the Kuman, attacked Kiev.  Vladimir was captured, though released on payment of a ransom, and replaced by Mikhail in 1237 as Grand Prince of Kiev[531].  1238-1239.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich.  1241/43. 

b)         MARINA Vladimirovna (-killed in battle 7 Feb 1238)m (14 Apr 1230) VSEVOLOD Iurievich Prince Novgorod, son of IURII Vsevolodich Prince of Vladimir & his wife Agafia Vsevolodovna of Kiev (23 Oct 1212-killed in battle Sit River 4 Mar 1238). 

c)         --- Vladimirovnam ALEKSANDR Vsevolodich Prince of Brest and Volynia, son of VSEVOLOD Mstislavich Prince of Volynia and Bielsk & his wife --- (-after 1234). 

d)         [ANDREI Vladimirovich.  He is not shown by Baumgarten[532].  Prince of Viazma.  According to Ferrand, he is the possible ancestor of Princes Wiazemsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 26 May 1804 and 24 Sep 1890[533].  The genealogy of the Princes Wiazemsky from Prince Leonid Dmitrievich Wiazemsky (died 1909) until the present day is set out in full, but no outline descent from Andrei Vladimirovich to Prince Leonid is shown, nor any reference to the sources which prove this descent, although "certain inexactitudes and difficulties" relating to the descent are referred to.  In the absence of further proof, this descent must be considered speculative.] 

6.         VSESLAVA Rurikovnam (1189) IAROSLAV Glebovich of Riazan, son of GLEB Rostislavich Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosina Rostislavna of Pereyaslavl. 

 

 

ROMAN 1172/1177, MSTISLAV 1214-1223, SVIATOSLAV 1235, IZIASLAV IV 1235, ROSTISLAV III 1239

 

ROMAN Rostislavich, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-14 Jun 1180).  Prince of Smolensk 1159-1172, 1177-1180.  He succeeded as ROMAN Grand Prince of Kiev 1172-1174, 1175-1177.  Prince of Novgorod 1154, 1178-1179. 

m (9 Jan 1149) as her first husband, MARIA Sviatoslavna, daughter of SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich Prince of Chernigov & his second wife Maria [Ekaterina] of Novgorod.  She married secondly Roman Glebovich Prince of Riazan

Grand Prince Roman & his wife had three children (all of whom, along with their descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[534]):

1.         IAROPOLK Romanovich (-after 1176).  Prince of Smolensk 1172-1174.  m ---.  The name of Iaropolk´s wife is not known.  Iaroolk & his wife had one child: 

a)         [VISLAVA Iaropolkovna .  Baumgarten quotes an early secondary source which names "Wislawa fil. Jarolphi Principis Russić" as the wife of Duke Bogislaw, suggesting that "Jarolphi" is a corruption of "Jaropolk", and suggests three possible contemporary Princes Iaropolk[535].  He dismisses Iaropolk Prince of Buzsk on the basis that any of his daughters would have been too old, and Iaropolk of Suzdal on the basis that his branch contracted no known western marriages as they had orientated themselves towards Byzantium, leaving only Iaropolk Romanovich Prince of Smolensk.  m as his first wife, BOGISLAW II Duke of Pomerania, son of BOGISLAW I Duke of Pomerania & his second wife Anastasia of Poland (-24 Jan 1220).]

2.         --- Romanovnam VSESLAV II Vasilkovich Prince of Polotsk, son of VASILKO Sviatoslavich Prince of Polotsk & his wife --- (-1186]). 

3.         MSTISLAV Romanovich "Dobriy/the Good" (-killed in battle Kalka River 30 May 1223).  Prince of Pskov 1178-1195.  Prince of Smolensk 1197-1213.  He succeeded in 1214 as MSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was captured and killed by the Mongols during their first wave of invasions into Rus territory.  m --- Vasilkovna, daughter of VASILKO Bryacheslavich Prince of Vitebsk & his wife --- Davidovna of Novgorod and Smolensk.  Mstislav & his wife had seven children: 

a)         SVIATOSLAV Mstislavich.  Prince of Novgorod 1218-1219.  Prince of Polotsk 1222-1232.  Prince of Smolensk 1232-1239.  SVIATOSLAV Grand Prince of Kiev 1235. 

b)         IZIASLAV MstislavichIZIASLAV IV Grand Prince of Kiev 1235.  Prince of Smolensk 1239.  

c)         VSEVOLOD Mstislavich (-[1238/39]).  Prince of Pskov 1214.  Prince of Novgorod 1219-1221.  Prince of Smolensk 1238. 

d)         ROSTISLAV Mstislavich.  He claimed the vacant throne of Kiev after Mikhail Vsevolodich fled to Hungary in the face of the Mongol invasion, succeeding in 1239 as ROSTISLAV III Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was expelled in his turn by Daniil Romanovich Prince of Volynia[536].    

e)         ANDREI Mstislavich (-killed in battle 1245). 

f)          --- Mstislavnam ANDREI Prince of --- (-killed in battle 1223).  

g)         --- Mstislavna (-24 Jan 1221 or [1222])m (15 Oct 1195) KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (-2 Feb 1218).

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    PRINCES OF POLOTSK

 

 

The principality of Polotsk was situated to the west of Smolensk and to the north of Turov.  It was independent from Kiev during the 11th and 12th centuries, having been inherited by Iziaslav, the oldest son of Vladimir I Grand Prince of Kiev, whose descendants were passed over in the succession to Kiev and never bore the title Grand Prince.  After enjoying a period of strength during the 11th century under Prince Briacheslav and his son Prince Vseslav, after the death of the latter in 1101 it fragmented into different districts assigned to their descendants.  The Lithuanians attacked Polotsk from [1240/45], and by the early 1250s the western part of Polotsk was recognised as Lithuanian territory under the terms of a truce concluded by Vaišvilkas, son of Mingaudas Grand Duke of Lithuania[537].  Very little information has been found about the Rurikid Princes of Polotsk.  Baumgarten names the members of the family shown below, citing primary sources[538]

 

 

RAGNVALD, son of --- (-[978/80]).  The Primary Chronicle records that he arrived "from overseas" and installed himself on the Western Dvina at Polotsk, where he was known as ROGVOLOD and enjoyed princely status[539].  He and his two sons were killed by Vladimir, later Grand Prince of Kiev, after he refused the latter's offer to marry his daughter Rogned[540]

m ---.  The name of Rogvolod´s wife is not known. 

Rogvolod & his wife had three children: 

1.         son (-[978/80]).  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir, later Grand Prince of Kiev, killed Rogvolod and his two unnamed sons[541]

2.         son (-[978/80]).  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir, later Grand Prince of Kiev, killed Rogvolod and his two unnamed sons[542]

3.         ROGNED ([956]-[998/1000]).  The Primary Chronicle names Rogned, daughter of Rogvolod Prince of Polotsk, recording that she at first refused to marry Vladimir, preferring his half-brother Iaropolk[543].  She became a nun in [989].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Rogned in [998/1000][544]m firstly --- Jarl in Sweden (-before [977]).  m secondly ([977], divorced 986) as his first wife, VLADIMIR Prince of Novgorod, son of SVIATOSLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress Malusha [Malfred] ([960]-Berestov 15 Jul 1015).  After her father refused his offer to marry Rogneda, Prince Vladimir killed him and his two sons and married Rogneda anyway540.  He succeeded in [980] as VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev

 


IZIASLAV [Vladimirovich], son of [545]VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Rogneda of Polotsk (-1001).  Prince of Polotsk.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Izyaslav in 1001[546]

m ---.   The name of Iziaslav´s wife is not known. 

Iziaslav & his wife had two children: 

1.         VSESLAV Iziaslavich (-[1002/03]).  He succeeded his father in 1001 as Prince of Polotsk.  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Vseslav son of Izyaslav and grandson of Vladimir in [1002/03][547]

2.         BRYACHESLAV Iziaslavich (997]-1044).  The Primary Chronicle names Bryachislav son of Izyaslav[548].  He succeeded his father in 1001 as Prince of Polotsk and Vitersk.  Prince of Lutsk 1015.  The Primary Chronicle records that Bryacheslav captured Novgorod in 1021 but was expelled by Yaroslav and returned to Polotsk[549].  The Primary Chronicle records the death of Bryachislav son of Izyaslav in 1044[550]m ---.

a)         VSESLAV Briacheslavich "the Werewolf" (1030-14 Apr 1101).  He succeeded in 1044 as Prince of Polotsk and Vitersk. 

-        see below

 

 

VSESLAV Briacheslavich "the Werewolf", son of BRYACHESLAV Iziaslavich Prince of Polotsk and Vitersk & his wife --- (1030-14 Apr 1101).  The Primary Chronicle names Vseslav son of Bryacheslav, recording that he was born with a caul over his head[551].  He succeeded in 1044 as Prince of Polotsk and Vitersk.  He attacked Novgorod in 1066/67, but was defeated by the brothers Iziaslav, Sviatoslav and Vsevolod at the river Nemega 3 Mar 1067[552].  A truce was concluded 10 Jun 1067, but Vseslav was arrested, and imprisoned by Iziaslav and lost Polotsk.  He was released in Kiev by a mob dissatisfied with Prince Iziaslav for refusing to attack the Kuman [Cumans] and proclaimed VSESLAV Grand Prince of Kiev in Sep 1068, forcing Iziaslav to flee to Poland.  He was deposed in Kiev Apr 1069 when Iziaslav reclaimed the throne with the military help of Bolesław II King of Poland, and fled back to Polotsk[553].  Prince of Tmutorokan [Taman] [1069].  He expelled Sviatopolk Iziaslavich from Polotsk 1071, installing himself once more as Prince of Polotsk[554]

m ---.  The name of Vseslav´s wife is not known. 

Prince Vseslav & his wife had seven children:

1.         DAVID Vseslavich (-after 1129).  The Primary Chronicle names David, son of Vseslav, recording that he accompanied Vladimir to Pereyaslavl in 1103[555].  Prince of Polotsk [1127].  Went to Constantinople.  m ---.  

a)         BRYACHESLAV Davidovich.  Prince of Iziaslavl.  1129.  m XENIA ---, maybe XENIA Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV II "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden.  Baumgarten names her, but citing only one secondary source[556]

2.         ROMAN Vseslavich (-1116).  Prince of Polotsk 1114. 

3.         GLEB Vseslavich (-Kiev 13 or 19 Nov 1119).  Prince of Minsk 1101.  Prince of Polotsk 1116.  He was expelled from Minsk in 1119 by Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev, who obliged him and his family to live at Kiev[557]m ANASTASIA Iaropolkovna, daughter of IAROPOLK PIOTR Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Volynia and Turov & his wife Kunigunde von Weimar-Orlamünde (1074-8 Jan 1159).  Gleb & his wife had three children: 

a)         ROSTISLAV Glebovich (-1159).  Prince of Minsk [1151].  Prince of Polotsk 1151-1158.  m SOFIA Iaroslavna, daughter of IAROSLAV Sviatopolkovich Prince of Volynia & his second wife --- of Poland ([1111]-1158).  Rostislav & his wife had one child: 

i)          GLEB Rostislavich.  Prince of Driutezk 1151-1158.

b)         VOLODAR Glebovich (-after 1186).  Prince of Minsk 1151-1158, and 1165-1167.  Prince of Gorodno.  m ---.  The name of Volodar´s wife is not known.  Volodar & his wife had two children: 

i)          VASILKO Volodarovich (-1196).   Prince of Logotzk 1186. 

ii)         VLADIMIR Volodarovich (-Feb 1216).  Prince of Minsk 1182.  Prince of Polotsk 1200. 

c)         VSEVOLOD Glebovich. 1158.  Prince of Strezev.  Prince of Iziaslavl.  

4.         BORIS Vseslavich (-1128).  Prince of Polotsk 1101/[1127].  m ---.  The name of Boris´s wife is not known.  Boris & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROGVOLOD [Vasily] Borisovich (-[1162]).  Prince of Polotsk.  m ([1143/44]) --- Iziaslavna, daughter of IZIASLAV II Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- of Lithuania.  Rogvolod & his wife had two children: 

i)          VSESLAV Rogvolodich.  Prince of Driutezk 1159.  Prince of Polotsk 1161-1167, 1181.  Prince of Vitebsk 1175, 1178.

ii)         GLEB Rogvolodich (-after 1186).  Prince of Driutezk 1181. 

b)         SVENISLAVA Borisovna.  Nun as IEFPRAXIA

5.         ROGVOLOD Vseslavich.  Prince of Polotsk 1127-1129.  He and his family were expelled from Polotsk in 1130 by Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev and exiled to Constantinople[558]m ---.  The name of Rogvolod´s wife is not known.  Rogvolod & his wife had two children: 

a)         VASILY Rogvolodich.  1129. 

b)         IVAN Rogvolodich.  Prince of Polotsk 1132. 

6.         SVIATOSLAV Vseslavich.  Prince of Polotsk.  1140. 

-        see below

7.         ROSTISLAV Vseslavich.  Prince of Polotsk 1128.  m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known.  Rostislav & his wife had four children: 

a)         VASILKO Rostislavich.  1168.  m ---.  The name of Vasilko´s wife is not known.  Vasilko & his wife had two children: 

i)          KORINIA Vasilkovna.  Nun. 

ii)         OLGA Vasilkovna.  Nun. 

b)         PREDSLAVA Rostislavna (-23 May 1173).  She was canonised as St EUPHROSINE

c)         GODISLAVA (-after 1173).  A nun as EUDOXIA

d)         DAVID Rostislavichm ---.  The name of David´s wife is not known.  David & his wife had two children: 

i)          BORIS Davidovich (-1226).  [Prince of Droutsk].  Prince of Polotsk 1221.  m firstly ---.  m secondly SWIETOSLAWA [Swiatochna] von Pommern, daughter of KASIMIR von Pommern Castellan of Kołobrzeg & his wife --- (-after Aug 1217).  Baumgarten names "Swiatochna de Poméranie, fille de Casimir" as second wife of Boris but cites no sources in support[559].  Boris & his first wife had two children: 

(a)       VIATSKO (-killed 1224).  Prince of Kukeinos. 

(b)       VASILKO .  1218.  m ---.  The name of Vasilko´s wife is not known.  Vasilko & his wife had one child: 

(1)       IEFPRAXIA Vasilkovna (-killed 8 May 1243).  m as his second wife, IAROSLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Pskov and Torzhok, son of VLADIMIR Prince of Pskov & his wife --- van Buxhoeden (-after 1245). 

Boris & his second wife had one child: 

(c)       VLADIMIR VOICHEK

ii)         GLEB Davidovich .  Prince of Polottsk 1221. 

 

 

SVIATOSLAV Vseslavich, son of VSESLAV Briacheslavich "the Werewolf" Prince of Polotsk & his wife ---.  Prince of Polotsk.  1140. 

m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known. 

Sviatoslav & his wife had one child: 

1.         VASILKO Sviatoslavich (-[1143]).  Prince of Polotsk 1132.  m ---.  The name of Vasilko´s wife is not known.  Vasilko & his wife had six children: 

a)         VSEVOLOD Vasilkovich

b)         VSESLAV Vasilkovich (-[1186]).  Prince of Vitebsk.  Prince of Polotsk 1162.  m --- Romanovna, daughter of ROMAN Rostislavich Grand Prince of Kiev Prince of Smolensk Prince of Novgorod & his wife Maria Sviatoslavna of Chernigov.  Vseslav & his wife had one child: 

i)          --- Vseslavnam (3 Feb 1174) IAROPOLK Rostislavich Prince of Torzok, son of ROSTISLAV Iurievich Prince of Pereyaslavl & his wife --- of Riazan (-after 1196).  Prince of Chernigov 1174, Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir 1175.  No issue. 

c)         BRIACHESLAV Vasilkovich.  Prince of Iziaslav 1158-1159.  Prince of Vitebsk 1159-1181.  m ---.  The name of Briacheslav´s wife is not known.  Briacheslav & his wife had one child: 

i)          VASILKO II Bryacheslavich (-after 1216).  Prince of Vitebsk 1192.  m --- Davidovna, daughter of DAVID Rostislavich Prince of Novgorod and Smolensk & his wife ---. 

(a)       BRYACHESLAV II Vasilkovich.  Prince of Polotsk and Vitebsk.  m ---. 

(1)       PARASKEVIYA [Aleksandra] Bryacheslavna (-[1261/62]).  m (Smolensk 1239) as his first wife, ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich Prince of Novgorod, Dmitrov and Pereyaslavl, son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his third wife Fedosia Igorevich of Riazan ([30 May 1220]-Gorodetzk 14 Nov 1263, bur Vladimir).  He succeeded his brother in 1252 as ALEKSANDR "Nievskiy" Grand Prince of Vladimir

(b)       --- Vasilkovnam MSTISLAV Romanovich "Dobriy/the Good" Prince of Pskov, son of ROMAN Rostislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife MARIA Sviatoslavna of Chernigov (-killed in battle Kalka River 30 May 1223).  Prince of Smolensk 1197-1213.  He succeeded in 1214 as MSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev

(c)       LIUBOV Vasilkovnam (1209) as his second wife, VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir and Riazan, son of IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Helena Komnene (1154-14/15 Apr 1212). 

d)         IZIASLAV Vasilkovich (-before 1185).  Prince of Gorodno. 

e)         VOLODAR Vasilkovich.  1159

f)          MARIA Vasilkovna m (1143) as his first wife, SVIATOSLAV Vsevolodich of Kiev, son of VSEVOLOD II Olegovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Mstislavna of Kiev (-24 Jul 1194).  He was installed as Prince of Volynia [1144], Prince of Chernigov 1164-1176.  He succeeded in 1176 as SVIATOSLAV III Grand Prince of Kiev

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    PRINCES of GALICH

 

 

The principality of Galich looked to the west rather than to the other Russian principalities to its east.  It was situated to the west of Kiev, bounded on its western side by the kingdom of Poland and on the south-west by the Carpathian mountains which separated it from Hungary.  Its western boundary was fluid, for example ownership of the areas around Peremyshl was exchanged with Poland many times.  Galich had direct river access to the Baltic in the north and the Black Sea to the south, providing a tempting prize to its western neighbours. 

 

The area of Galich was inherited by the descendants of Vladimir Iaroslavich, eldest son of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev, who predeceased his father.  This branch of the dynasty was excluded from succession to the title of Grand Prince of Kiev, in accordance with the family tradition described in the Introduction to the present document, because Prince Vladimir himself had never been Grand Prince.  In the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the area which later became known as Galich was divided into the principalities of Peremyshl (in the western part of the territory) and Terebovl (in the eastern part), confirmed as belonging to the family under the agreement reached at Liubech in 1097.  Vladimirko Volodarevich was the first to be described as Prince of Galich in 1144. 

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of PEREMYSHL and TEREBOVL

 

 

ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich, son of VLADIMIR Iaroslavich Prince of Novgorod & his wife [Oda von Stade] ([1045]-3 Feb 1067).  Prince of Rostov, Novgorod and Volynia 1056-1064.  Prince of Tmutorokan 1064-1065. 

m (before 1064) LANKA of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife [Ryksa] of Poland ([1045]-after 1095).  Baumgarten names Lanka as the wife of Prince Rostislav and daughter of King Béla but only cites secondary sources in support[560].  She is not shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[561].  Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to three known children before her husband died in early 1067. 

Rostislav & his wife had three children: 

1.         RURIK Rostislavich (-1092).  The Primary Chronicle records the death in 1092 of Rurik son of Rostislav[562].  Prince of Peremyshl. 

2.         VOLODAR Rostislavich (-19 Mar 1124).  The Primary Chronicle names David son of Igor and Volodar son of Rostislav, recording that they captured Ratibor, agent of Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev, and established themselves as princes at Tmutorakan[563].  Prince of Peremyshl. 

-        see below.

3.         VASILKO Rostislavich (-[28 Feb] 1124/25).  The Primary Chronicle names Vasilko, son of Rostislav, recording that he attacked the Poles with the Polovtsians in 1092[564].  Prince of Terebovl.  He helped to defend Byzantium against the Pechenegs in 1091 and also led successful campaigns against Poland and Hungary[565].  He was confirmed as Prince of Terebovl under the terms of the family accord reached at Liubech in 1097[566].  He was arrested and blinded in 1098 by the agents of his cousins Sviatopolk Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev and David Igorevich Prince of Volynia[567]m ---.  The name of Vasilko´s wife is not known.  Vasilko & his wife had three children: 

a)         IVAN Vasilkovich (-1141).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source[568].  Prince of Terebovl.  m ANNA Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD II Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Mstislavna of Kiev.  Baumgarten names her and records her marriage, citing one secondary source in support[569]

b)         GRIGORII Vasilkovich (-1144).  Baumgarten names him, citing one secondary source in support[570].  Prince of Terebovl. 

c)         --- Vasilkovna.  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć records the marriage of "Wratislaus dux de parte Moravić quć vocatur Bruinzco, filius Dedalrici" with a wife from Russia in 1132[571].  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Duke Vratislav as the (unnamed) daughter of Vasilko, citing only an early secondary source in support[572]m VRATISLAV Markgraf of Moravia, son of UDALRICH Markgraf of Moravia at Brno & his wife --- (-16 Aug 1156). 

 

 

VOLODAR Rostislavich, son of ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Rostov, Novgorod and Volynia, later Prince of Tmutorokan, & [Lanka] of Hungary (-19 Mar 1124).  The Primary Chronicle names David son of Igor and Volodar son of Rostislav, recording that they captured Ratibor, agent of Vsevolod Grand Prince of Kiev, and established themselves as princes at Tmutorakan[573].  He was expelled in turn by Oleg Sviatoslavich who returned from Constantinople in 1083[574].  Prince of Peremyshl.  He was confirmed as Prince of Peremyshl under the terms of the family accord reached at Liubech in 1097[575]

m [ANNA] von Pommern, daughter of ---.  Baumgarten names her and records her marriage, citing a secondary source in support[576]

Volodar & his wife had four children (all of whom, along with their descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[577]): 

1.         ROSTISLAV Volodarovich (-1126).  Prince of Peremyshl.  m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known.  Rostislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         IVAN Rostislavich "Berladnik" (-in Greece 1161).  He was installed as Prince of Galich after the defeat of his uncle Prince Vladimirko by a coalition of reigning princes led by the Grand Prince of Kiev, but was expelled by his uncle soon after and escaped to Kiev from where he launched raids on Galich[578]m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child: 

i)          ROSTISLAV Ivanovich (-murdered 1189). 

2.         [IRINA] Volodarovna.  The Primary Chronicle records that the daughter of Volodar was taken to Tsargrad 20 Jul 1104 to become the wife of the son of Emperor Alexios[579].  The primary source which names her and confirms that her husband was Andronikos has not yet been identified.  There appears to be no basis for supposing that her husband was Andronikos Komnenos rather than his younger brother Isaakios.  m (betrothed 20 Aug 1104) [ANDRONIKOS] Komnenos, son of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his second wife Eirene Dukaina ([15 Apr 1091]-[1130/31]).  Sébastokrator. 

3.         VLADIMIRKO Volodarovich (-1153).  He became the first Prince of Galich in 1144.   

-        see below

4.         --- Volodarovnam (11 Sep 1114) ROMAN Vladimirovich, son of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev & his third wife --- Kuman princess (-6 Jan 1119).  Prince of Volynia 1118. 

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of GALICH 1144-1199

 

 

VLADIMIRKO Volodarovich, son of VOLODAR Rostislavich Prince of Peremyshl & his wife [Anna] von Pommern (-1153).  He became the first Prince of Galich in 1144.  After his objection to Vsevolod Olegovich appointing his son as Prince of Volynia, Prince Vladimirko was defeated by a coalition of reigning princes led by the Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was deposed as Prince by the people of Galich in favour of his nephew Ivan Rostislavich Prince of Zvenigorod, but forced his way back into Galich and expelled Prince Ivan.  He presided over the expansion of Galich, allying himself with Iurii Prince of Suzdal and Emperor Manuel I, and invaded Kiev in 1149.  Galich also became the seat of a bishop[580]

m ([1117]) --- of Hungary, daughter of KÁLMÁN "Könyves/the Bookman" King of Hungary & his first wife --- of Sicily.  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Prince Vladimirko as the daughter of King Kálmán but only cites one secondary source in support[581]

Prince Vladimirko & his wife had one son (who, along with his descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[582]):

1.         IAROSLAV Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" (-1 Oct 1187).  He succeeded his father in 1153 as Prince of Galich.  A strong leader, he unified the principality which experienced an upsurge of commercial activity during his reign.  Together with Mstislav Iziaslavich Prince of Volynia, he had installed Rostislav Mstislavich as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1158.  He also supported the accession of Mstislav in 1167[583].  On his death, Galich fell into political disarray and was seized by Hungary[584]m firstly ([1150], repudiated [1185]) OLGA Iurievna, daughter of of IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- of the Kumans (-1189).  She became a nun at Volynia.  m secondly ---.  Mistress (1): ANASTASIA, daughter of --- (-1171).  Prince Iaroslav & his first wife had four children:

a)         --- Iaroslavna.  Baumgarten mentions the betrothal of King István and the daughter of Prince Iaroslav, citing secondary sources in support, but comments that the marriage was not finalised and that she was sent back from Hungary in 1169[585]Europäische Stammtafeln refers to this as King István's first marriage, stating that she was repudiated in 1168, but it is not known whether this is based on other sources[586]Betrothed (1167, repudiated 1168) to ISTVÁN III King of Hungary, son of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1147-murdered 4 Mar 1172). 

b)         IEFROSINIA Iaroslavna m IGOR Sviatoslavich Prince of Novgorod-Seversk, son of SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich Prince of Chernigov & his second wife Maria [Ekaterina] of Novgorod (-29 Dec 1202). 

c)         VIACHESLAVA Iaroslavna (-after 1200).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to "dux Galatie" as the father-in-law of one of his sons but does not specify which son (although he is named first in the list) or name the son's wife[587].  Baumgarten cites Polish sources which give her parentage[588].  Baumgarten cites another Polish source which names her and records that she survived her husband[589]m (after 1184) ODON Prince of Posen, son of MIESZKO III "Stary/the Old" Prince of Greater Poland & his first wife Erszebet of Hungary ([1141/49]-20 Apr 1194).

d)         VLADIMIR Iaroslavich (-[1199]).  Prince of Peremyshl.  A man "addicted to heavy drinking and bigamously married a priest's wife", he was ousted by his boyars acting with Imre King of Hungary, who imprisoned Vladimir after he asked for asylum.  He escaped from Hungary iin 1190 and returned to Galich with the help of Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" and Poland[590]m firstly (1167) BOLESLAVA Sviatoslava, daughter of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife --- (-before 1189).  m secondly (bigamously) as her second husband, ---.  She was a "priest's wife"590.  Vladimir & his first wife had two children: 

i)          VASILKO Vladimirovich (-in Hungary 1188)m (1187, divorced) FEDORA Romanovna of Volynia, daughter of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Volynia and Galich & his first wife Predslava Rurikovna (-after 1200).  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[591]

ii)         VLADIMIR Vladimirovich (-in Hungary 1188). 

Prince Iaroslav had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

e)         OLEG Nastasich (after 1161-1189). 

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of VOLYNIA, PRINCES and KINGS of GALICH

 

 

The principality of Volynia had been left by Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev to his sixth son Igor under his 1054 testament, but it did not remain in Igor´s family for long.  His descendants were forced into the northern part of Volynia where they ruled as Princes of Gorodno.  The main part of Volynia passed between the different branches of the family of the Grand Princes of Kiev and enjoyed little autonomy.  Possession of Volynia eventually settled in the descendants of Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev.  It was joined to Galich by Roman Mstislavich after the death of Vladimir Iaroslavich Prince of Galich without surviving issue (see above Part B). 

 

 

ROMAN Mstislavich "the Great", son of MSTISLAV II Iziaslavich "Chabry" Prince of Volynia and Kiev & his wife Agnieska of Poland (after 1160-killed in battle Zawichost[592] 19 Jun 1205).  His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum which names "primogenitum sororis sue [=Mieszko III] nomine Romanum patrem Danielis", when recording Mieszko's military campaign to help restore Roman in Galicia[593].  Prince of Novgorod 1167-1169.  Prince of Volynia 1170.  On the death of Vladimir Iaroslavich without direct heirs in 1199, Roman succeeded in uniting Galich with Volynia, succeeding as ROMAN Prince of Galich[594].  In 1199, Roman challenged the rule in Kiev of Rurik II Rostislavich and drove him out.  Unwilling to weaken his grip on Volynia-Galich by assuming the throne himself, he appointed his first cousin Ingvar Iaroslavich Prince of Lutsk as Grand Prince of Kiev[595].  The Chronica principum Polonie records that Mieszko III Prince of Poland invaded Russia in support of "sororis sue primogeniti Romani, patris Danielis" who has been expelled by "fratres de Russia"[596].  Rurik regained power in 1203, but Roman expelled him once more although he was thwarted by Vsevolod III Prince of Vladimir who installed Rurik's older son Rostislav at Kiev.  Roman invaded Poland but was defeated and killed by Leszko I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow while he was marching towards Krakow[597].  Fennell calls him "capable and vigorous" and says that he was called "rex Russić" by a French 13th century chronicler (whom the author does not name), "rex Ruthenorum" in Erfurt and "ever-memorable autocrat of all Rus" in the Ipatevskiy Chronicle[598].  The Traditiones St Petri Erfordić record the death "XIII Kal Jul" of "Romanus rex Ruthenorum"[599]

m firstly (repudiated [1196]) PREDSLAVA Rurikovna, daughter of RURIK II Rostislavich Prince of Ovruch Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Anna Iurievna of Turov (-after 1203).  According to the Lavrentevskiy Chronicle, Roman repudiated his wife because "he wished to make her take the veil", which she resisted.  She was sent back to her father[600].  She was forceably tonsured in 1203 when her father was expelled from Kiev by her ex-husband[601]

m secondly ([1197/1200]) ---, relative of Emperor ISAAKIOS II.  Fennell[602] identifies her as Anna [Angelina], daughter of [Emperor ISAAKIOS II & his first wife ---].  He says that she was "energetic and enterprising" and that the Lavrentevskiy Chronicle gives her first name, but does not provide the basis for his speculation about her parentage.  It is not impossible that Emperor Isaakios would have wished to pursue a Russian alliance by marriage: his son Alexios had already been betrothed in 1194 to a princess of Chernigov.  Anna has not been identified in Byzantine sources consulted.  After her husband was killed, she was unable to remain in Galich.  It appears that she settled with her two sons in Volynia.  Under the 1214 treaty of Spisz between Hungary and Poland, she was assigned Vladimir in Volynia[603].  She established her authority over the town of Vladimir in Volynia in 1219[604]

Grand Prince Roman & his first wife had three children:

1.         FEDORA Romanovna (-after 1200).  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[605]m (1187, divorced 1188) VASILKO Vladimirovich of Galich, son of VLADIMIR Iaroslavich Prince of Galich & his wife --- (1168 or after-in Hungary 1188). 

2.         MARIA Romanovna (-after 1241).  Baumgarten names her and cites a primary source[606]m ([1211]) MIKHAIL Vsevolodich ex-Prince of Pereyaslavl, son of VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife [Anastasia] of Poland ([1185]-executed 20 Sep 1246).  Prince of Chernigov 1226.  He succeeded by 1237 as MIKHAIL Grand Prince of Kiev

3.         [SALOMEA Romanovich (-before [1220]).  Baumgarten quotes an early secondary source which records that "Swantipolk II Cassaborum et Henitorum in Pomerella Princeps" married "Salome fil. Romari Russi", suggesting that "Romari" is a corruption of "Romani" and identifying her father as Roman of Galich whose maternal grandmother was Salome von Berg, after whom her supposed great-granddaughter would have been named[607].  It is not certain that her husband was Swantopolk [I], but it seems likely from a chronological point of view as daughters of Roman (by his first wife) would have been born in [1185/95].  If this is correct, Salomea must have died before [1220], as Swantopolk's second wife is recorded as having died before 1225, after giving birth to two known children.  m [as his first wife,] SWANTOPOLK [I] Duke of Pommerellen, son of MESTWIN I Duke of Pommerellen & his wife Swinislava --- (-10 Jan 1266). 

Grand Prince Roman & his second wife had two children:

4.         DANIIL Romanovich ([1201/02]-1264).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source, adding that he was four years old when his father died[608].  He succeeded in 1239 as DANIIL Grand Prince of Kiev.  He was installed as DANIIL King of Galich from 1253.   

-        see below

5.         VASILKO Romanovich ([1203/04]-1269).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source, adding that he was two years old when his father died[609].  Prince of Bielsk, Lutsk and Volynia.  He succeeded his brother in 1260 as VASILKO King of Galich, Prince of Volynia when the latter fled to Poland and Hungary.  He was obliged to destroy his brother's fortifications by the Mongols, whose control over Galich tightened[610]m firstly (before 1229) DOBRAVA [Ielena] Iurievna of Suzdal, daughter of IURII Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir Prince of Suzdal & his wife Agafia Vsevolodovna of Kiev (-after 5 Dec 1247).  Baumgarten names her, and cites a Russian primary source and a letter of Pope Innocent IV dated 5 Dec 1247[611]m secondly (1248) HELENA of Poland, daughter of LESZKO I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Gremislava Ingvarovna of Lutsk and Dorogobuz [Rurikid] (-1265).  Her origin is confirmed by the Russian source cited by Baumgarten which specifies that Prince Bolesław V was the maternal uncle of the children of Prince Vasilko[612].  Baumgarten records the death in 1265 of Helena, wife of Vasilko, citing a Russian source[613].  Vasilko & his second wife had two children: 

a)         VLADIMIR IVAN Vasilkovich (after 1248-10 Dec 1288 or [1289]).  Baumgarten names him and cites a Russian primary source[614].  Grand Prince of Volynia 1269.  m (1263) IELENA Romanovna, daughter of ROMAN Mikhailovich Prince of Briansk & his wife Anna --- (-after 10 Dec 1288).  Baumgarten names her and cites a Russian primary source[615]

b)         OLGA Vasilkovna (after 1248-after 10 Dec 1288).  Baumgarten names her and cites a Russian primary source[616]m (1261) ANDREI Mstislavich Prince of Chernigov, son of MSTISLAV FEDOR Glebovich Prince of Chernigov & his wife (-killed in battle after 1261). 

 

 

DANIIL Romanovich, son of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Galich, Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- ([1201/02]-1264).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source, adding that he was four years old when his father died[617].  After his father's death in 1205, he and his brother Vasilko were forced to flee Galich, which became the object of squabbling between the Princes of Chernigov, Smolensk and Volynia, as well as Poland and Hungary[618].  Three of the sons of Igor Sviatoslavich Prince of Chernigov eventually installed themselves in Galich, Zvenigorod and Vladimir in Volynia in 1206/1207 but were deposed and hanged in 1211[619].  Further confusion followed, until Hungary and Poland divided south-west Russia between them under the treaty of Spisz in 1214, under which eastern Galicia was assigned to Hungary, western Galicia to Poland, and Vladimir in Volynia to Prince Daniil's mother[620].  His mother installed Daniil as Prince of Volynia some time before 1218.  On the accession of Mikhail Vsevolodich as Grand Prince of Kiev in 1237, Daniil was able to take control of Galich[621].  After expelling Rostislav Mstislavich, he succeeded in 1239 as DANIIL Grand Prince of Kiev.  He fled Kiev in 1240 in the face of the Mongol invasion led by Batu, the city falling to the conquerors 6 Dec 1240[622].  Galich was overrun by the Mongols, under Batu, in early 1240[623].  Daniil was confirmed as Prince of Galich and Volynia in [1245] after swearing allegiance to the Golden Horde and reorganised his army along the model of the Mongol forces[624].  Daniil began organising resistance to the Mongol overlords, together with Andrei Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir the alliance with whom was sealed by the latter's marriage to Daniil's daughter.  He also attempted to gain support from other ruling families with whom he arranged other marriages for his children.  After establishing closer ties with the Papacy, he received the title Rex Russć Minoris from the Pope in 1253 (from which time he styled himself DANIIL King [korol] of Galich), although he broke these ties after failing to receive Papal support for a crusade against the oppressors[625].  He moved his capital city to Kholm in Volynia, which developed as a vital cultural centre[626].  He entered an alliance with Mindovg Duke of Lithuania against the Mongols, declaring war on the latter in 1256.  Mindovg abandoned the alliance, and Daniil joined forces with the Mongols to attack Lithuania.  However, when the Mongols ordered him to destroy his fortifications in 1260, he fled once more to Poland and Hungary[627]

m firstly (1218) ANNA Mstislavna of Novgorod, daughter of MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloi" Prince of Novgorod and Galich & his wife --- of the Kumans (-before 1252). 

m secondly (before 1252) --- of Lithuania, sister of TOWTIWIL Prince of Lithuania. 

Daniil of Galich & his first wife had ten children (all of whom, and whose descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[628]):

1.         IRAKLY Daniilovich ([1223]-before 1240). 

2.         LEV Daniilovich ([1228]-1301).  The Annales Polononum name "dux Leo filius Danielis regis Rusie" when recording that he killed "Woyslaum filium Mendogi ducis Lithwanonum" in 1267[629].  He succeeded his uncle in 1269 as LEV King of Galich, under Mongol suzerainty.  During his reign Mongol control tightened, but by the end of the 13th century their grip relaxed and Lev was able to reunite Galich and Volynia under his control[630].  He founded the city of Lwów [Leopolis] which he made his capital[631]m ([1251/52]) KONSTANTIA of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & his wife Maria Laskarina of Nikaia.  Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Lev and gives her origin citing sources in support[632].  King Lev & his wife had two children:

a)         IURII Levovich ([24 Apr 1252/57]-24 Apr 1308).  He succeeded his father in 1301 as IURII I King of Galichm firstly (1282) --- Iaroslavna of Tver, daughter of IAROSLAV III Iaroslavich Prince of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his second wife Xenia Iurievna (-[1288]).  m secondly (before 1300) EUFEMIA of Poland, daughter of KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz [Piast] & his third wife Euphrosyne von Schlesien-Oppeln (-18 Mar 1308).  Baumgarten names the wife of Iuri, and states her parentage, but cites only a Polish secondary source[633].  King Iurii I & his first wife had one child:

i)          MIKHAIL Iurievich ([1283]-1286). 

King Iurii I & his second wife had four children:

ii)         ANDREI Iurievich (-killed in battle [Jul/Dec] 1322).  Grand Prince of Volynia.  The attack on Brest by Gediminas Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1315 led Prince Andrei and his brother Lev to agree a treaty of mutual defence with the Knights of the Teutonic Order[634].  He was killed by the Lithuanians who invaded and took control of Volynia[635]m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IURII Andreievich (-[1336]).  He succeeded as IURII II King of Galich.  Galich was eventually absorbed by Poland in 1349[636]

iii)        LEV Iurievich (-killed in battle Belgorod [Apr] 1323).  Prince of Galich and Volynia.  He fled to Prince Dmitry Romanovich at Briansk after his brother was killed, but was killed fighting the Lithuanians during their attack on the Kievan cities635

iv)       MARIA Iurievna (before 1293-11 Jan 1341).  Baumgarten names the wife of Trojden citing a Polish source[637].  Baumgarten records that her origin is determined by her son Bolesław Jerzy naming King Iurii Levovich as "noster avus"[638]m (before 1310) TROJDEN of Mazovia, son of BOLESŁAW II Prince of Mazovia & his first wife Zofia [Gaudemantč] of Lithuania ([1284/86]-13 Mar 1341).  He succeeded his father in 1313 as TROJDEN I Prince of Czersk, the eastern part of Mazovia. 

v)        ANASTASIA Iurievna (-1365).  She is not shown in Baumgarten[639]m (1320) ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich of Tver, son of MIKHAIL Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife Anna Dmitrievna of Rostov (7 Oct 1301-executed 22 Oct 1339).   He succeeded in 1326 as ALEKSANDR Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Tver. 

b)         ANASTASIA Levovna (-12 Mar 1335).  The Ephemerides Wladislavienses record the death "1335 4 Id Mar" of "domina Anastasia, ducissa Lanciciensis et quondam Dobrinensis relicta domini ducis Semoviti, fratris domini Wladislai regis Polonie"[640]m (before 1301) SIEMOWIT of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ I Prince of Kujavia, Łęczyca and Sieradz [Piast] & his third wife Euphrosyne von Schlesien-Oppeln ([1262/67]-[1309/14])

3.         PEREIASLAVA Daniilovna (-12 Apr 1283).  Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Ziemowit, and states her parentage, but citing only a Polish secondary source[641]m ([1248]) SIEMOWIT I Prince of Mazovia, son of KONRAD I Prince of Mazovia & his wife Agafia Sviatoslavna of Novgorod-Sieviersk ([1228]-23 Jun 1262). 

4.         [DOBROSLAVA][642] Daniilovna.  Her marriage was arranged to seal her father's alliance with her husband in opposition to the Mongols.  m (winter [1250/51]) ANDREI Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir, son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his third wife Fedosia Igorevich of Riazan (-1264). 

5.         [SOFIA (-before 28 Jul 1287, bur Kloster Ilm).  Baumgarten cites documents which confirm the consanguinity between the brothers Günther and Sieghard von Schwarzburg and the princes of Galicia, suggesting that it must have been through their paternal grandmother whose origin is not otherwise known, adding that it is chronologically consistent if she was the daughter of Daniil[643]m GÜNTHER [IV] Graf von Schwarzburg in Blankenburg, son of HEINRICH [II] Graf von Schwarzburg & his wife Irmgard von Orlamünde (-[19 Sep 1275/25 Sep 1278], bur Kloster Ilm).] 

6.         ROMAN Daniilovich ([1230]-after 1260).  Prince of Slonim. Duke of Austria 1251-1252.  He was installed as Prince at Novogorodok, previously the base of Mindovg Duke of Lithuania, as part of his father's alliance with the Lithuanians against the Mongols.  However, when relations with the Mongols deteriorated further, Mindovg arrested Roman.  m firstly (27 Jun 1252, divorced 1253) as her third husband, GERTRUD of Austria Herzogin von Mödling, widow firstly of VLADISLAV Markgraf of Moravia and secondly of HERMANN VI Markgraf von Baden, daughter of HEINRICH "dem Grausamen" Duke of Austria & his wife Agnes of Thuringia ([1228]-24 Apr 1288).  The Annales Mellicenses in 1246 record the marriage of "Gerdrudem, filiam ducis Heinrici" and "filius regis Boemorum" and in 1248 her marriage to "Hermannus marchio de Badem"[644].  The Continuatio Garstensis records her third marriage in 1252 with "rex Ruscie", specifying that it was arranged by Béla King of Hungary[645].  The Continuatio Florianensis names her third husband "Romanus rex Russie"[646]m secondly ([1255]) HELENA of Swislod, daughter of GLEB Prince of Volkowyk [Lithuania].  Roman & his first wife had one child: 

a)         MARIA Romanovna ([1253/54]-).  The Continuatio Florianensis names Maria daughter of Gertrud and her third husband "Romanus rex Russie"[647]m ---, son of STEFAN IV Ban of Zagreb & his wife ---. 

Roman & his second wife had one child:

b)         VASSILKO DANIIL Romanovich.  Prince of Ostrog 1343.  Ancestors of the Princes Ostrozsky, extinct[648]

7.         MSTISLAV Daniilovich (-killed in battle 1315).  Prince of Volynia.  m ([1253]) --- Kuman princess, daughter of TEPAK Khan of the Kumans.  Mstislav & his wife had two children: 

a)         DANIIL Mstislavich.  1280. 

b)         VLADIMIR Mstislavich (-killed in battle 1315).  Prince of Volynia.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          EUFEMIA [Offa] Vladimirovna (-before 1349).  Her marriage was arranged to increase the Lithuanian dynasty's influence in south-west Rus[649]m ([1320]) as his first wife, LIUBARTAS Prince of Lithuania, son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna] ([1299]-1384).  He was baptised DMITRY.  He took control of Volynia in 1340 after the assassination of Bołeslaw Jerzy of Mazovia Prince of Galich[650].  Prince of Vladimir-Volhynsk and Lutsk [1379]. 

8.         SHVARN [Ioann] Daniilovich (-1269, bur Kholm).  He succeeded his father in 1264 as SHVARN King of Galich, under Mongol suzerainty.  He acquired "Black Rus" (the upper Neman river basin) from his brother-in-law Duke of Lithuania Vaišvilkas Grand Duke of Lithuania, but it reverted to Lithuania when Shvarn died[651]m (1255) --- of Lithuania, daughter of MINDAUGAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his wife Morta ---. 

9.         son (-young). 

10.      daughter (-young). 

 

 

 

D.      PRINCES of GALICH 1218/1226

 

 

MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloy/the Daring", son of MSTISLAV Rostislavich "Khrabriy/the Brave" & his first wife --- Iaroslavna of Kiev (before 1176-1228).  He held the fortress of Trepol in Kiev in 1193, and was stationed at Torchesk on the Ros River in 1207 when he was driven out by Vsevolod "Chermnyi" and fled to the principality of Smolensk where he took the eastern outpost of Torzhok.  He invaded Novgorod in 1208, installing himself as prince in place of Sviatoslav Vsevolodich[652].  As Prince of Novgorod, he defeated the principality of Vladimir at Lipitsa in 1216 in order to defend Novgorodian autonomy and commerce[653].  He left Novgorod in 1217[654] after being asked to intervene in Galich by Leszko I Prince of Krakow, expelled Kálmán of Hungary from Galich in 1218 and established himself as Prince of Galich.  He was himself expelled in 1219 by Hungary, but expelled the Hungarians again in 1221 remaining in control until 1226[655].  He negotiated a protective alliance with his father-in-law against the Mongols, but their forces were crushed at the River Kalka 16 Jun 1223[656]

m --- Kuman princess, daughter of KUTHEN [Köten] Khan of Kumans.  Khan Kuthen is referred to as father-in-law of Prince Mstislav in the Novgorod Chronicle[657]

Mstislav & his wife had six children (all of whom are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[658]): 

1.         VASILY Mstislavich (-Torzhok 1218, bur Novgorod St Sofia[659]).  Prince of Torzhok 1217.  Prince of Novgorod.  

2.         ROSTISLAVA Mstislavna .  Prince Iaroslav is called "Mstislav's son-in-law" in the Novgorod Chronicle, although his wife's name is not given[660]m (1214, divorced 1216) as his second wife, IAROSLAV FEDOR Vsevolodich Prince of Pereyaslavl, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (8 Feb 1191-30 Sep 1246).  He succeeded his older brother in 1238 as IAROSLAV Prince of Vladimir

3.         ANNA Mstislavna (-before 1252)m (1218) as his first wife, DANIIL Romanovich Prince of Galich, son of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Galich, Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- ([1201/02]-1264).  He styled himself DANIIL King [korol] of Galich from 1253. 

4.         IELENA Mstislavna.  Baumgarten names the wife of András and gives her origin citing sources in support[661]m (1221) ANDRÁS of Hungary, son of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano ([1210/12]-1234).  He replaced his father-in-law as Prince of Galich 1226, until 1234. 

5.         --- Mstislavich.  Prince of Torzek. 

6.         MSTISLAV Mstislavich.  1231. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    PRINCES of TUROV and PINSK

 

 

The principality of Turov-Pinsk was located north of Kiev.  It was bordered on the west by Volynia, on the east by Chernigov and on the north by Polotsk.  The town of Turov, situated on the river Pripyat, was an episcopal see.  Turov was ruled by descendants of Iziaslav Grand Prince of Kiev, eldest surviving son and successor of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev but it was not mentioned in the latter's 1054 testament.  After being held by Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev and his son Mstislav, administration of Turov reverted to the line of Iziaslav when his great grandson Iurii Iaroslavich was appointed Prince of Turov in 1157.  Pinsk became a separate principality in the late 12th century.  Very little information has been found about the princes of Turov and Pinsk. 

 

 

IAROSLAV Sviatopolkovich, son of SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- (-killed in battle May 1123).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaroslav, son of Sviatopolk, recording that his father installed him in Vladimir[662].  He was installed as Prince of Volynia at the conference of Uvetichi 30 Aug 1100[663].  He fought "the Yatvyag people" in 1113[664].  He was expelled in 1118 by Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev, who replaced him by own son Andrei[665].  As Iaroslav never became Grand Prince of Kiev, his descendants were effectively excluded from the succession in accordance with the family tradition referred to in the introduction to Chapter 1, Part B. 

m firstly (before 1091) --- of Hungary, daughter of LÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary & his wife Adelheid von Rheinfelden (-before 1106).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 1091 under which her father "Ladislauo…Rex" founded the church of St Egidius, Sumich, witnessed by "Dux Lambertus frater eius, Dux David consobrinus, Gerazclauus filius regis Rutenorum gener ipsius…"[666].  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Prince Iaroslav as the daughter of King László but only cites one secondary source in support[667]

m secondly (before 1108) --- of Poland, daughter of WŁADYSŁAW I HERMAN Prince of Poland & his third wife Judith-Maria of Germany (-before 12 May 1112).  The Chronicć Polanorum refers to (but does not name) the three daughters of King Władysław and his second wife, specifying that one of them "in Rusia viro nupsit"[668].  Baumgarten records the parentage of, but does not name, the second wife of Prince Iaroslav but cites only one secondary source in support[669]

m thirdly (1112 after 29 Jun, repudiated 1118) --- Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV I Vladimirovich "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife Christine of Sweden.  The marriage of "the daughter of Mstislav" with Iaroslavich Sviatopolkovich is referred to in the Chronicle of Novgorod[670]

Iaroslav & his second wife had two children (all of whom, together with their descendants named below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[671]):

1.         IURII Iaroslavich (-after 1166).  Prince of Turov 1157.  m ([1144]) --- Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD Davidovich Prince of Gorodno & his wife Agafia Vladimirovna of Kiev (-after 1190).  Iurii & his wife had seven children: 

a)         SVIATOPOLK Iurievich (-19 Apr 1190).  Prince of Turov.  m ---.  The name of Sviatopolk´s wife is not known.  Sviatopolk & his wife had two children: 

i)          VLADIMIR Sviatopolkovich .  Prince of Pinsk.  1207. 

ii)         ROSTISLAV Sviatopolkovich .  Prince of Pinsk.  1228/1236.  His descendants are not shown in Baumgarten[672]m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known.  Rostislav & his wife had two children: 

(a)       VLADIMIR Rostislavich .  Prince of Pinsk.  1228/29.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had three children:

(1)       FEDOR Vladimirovich .  Prince of Pinsk.  1262. 

(2)       IURII Vladimirovich (-1292).  Prince of Pinsk.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had two children:

a.         son.  1292. 

b.         son.  1292.  m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  He may have been the ancestor of Aleksandr Prince of Czetwertnin, ancestor of the Princes Swiatopolk-Czetwertynski[673]

(3)       DIONID Vladimirovich .  Prince of Pinsk.  1292. 

(b)       MIKHAIL Rostislavich .  Prince of Pinsk.  1247. 

b)         IVAN Iurievich (-19 Apr 1207).  Prince of Turov 1167-1190, 1195-1207. 

c)         IAROSLAV II Iurievich (-1202).  Prince of Pinsk 1184.  m IEFROSINIA Borisovna of Belgorod, daughter of BORIS Iurievich Prince of Belgorod and Turov & his wife Maria --- (-1202).  

d)         IAROPOLK Iurievich .  Prince of Pinsk.  m (1190) ---.  

e)         GLEB Iurievich (-after 1195).  Prince of Dubrovitsa 1182-1190.  Prince of Turov 1190-1195.  m ---.  The name of Gleb´s wife is not known.  Gleb & his wife had three children:

i)          VLADIMIR Glebovich of Pinsk.  He and his descendants are not shown in Baumgarten[674].  1228.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had three children:

(a)       FEDOR Vladimirovich .  of Pinsk.  1262

(b)       DEMIN Vladimirovich (-after 1292).  of Pinsk.  

(c)       IURII Vladimirovich (-1292).  of Pinsk. 

ii)         ALEKSANDR Glebovich (-killed in battle Kalka River 1223).  Prince of Dubrovitsa.  He was killed fighting the Mongols during their first invasion of Rus territory.  m VERA Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- .   

iii)        ROSTISLAV Glebovich .  He and his descendants are not shown in Baumgarten[675].  1228.  m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known.  Rostislav & his wife had one child:

iv)       GLEB Rostislavich (-before 1292).  of Stepan.  m ---.  The name of Gleb´s wife is not known.  Gleb & his wife had one child:

(a)        IVAN Glebovich (-1292).  of Stepan.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(1)       VLADIMIR Ivanovich ([1290]-).  of Stepan. 

f)          ANNA Iurievna (-[1205/14] maybe [19 Apr 1211])m (before 1172) as his second wife, RURIK Rostislavich Prince of Ovruch, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-[1215]).  Prince of Novgorod 1169-1171.  He succeeded in 1194 as RURIK II Grand Prince of Kiev

g)         MALFRIDA Iurievna m (1166) VSEVOLOD Iaroslavich Prince of Lutsk, son of IAROSLAV Iziaslavich Prince of Volynia [later Grand Prince of Kiev] & his wife --- of Bohemia (-after 1210). 

2.         SOFIA Iaroslavna (-1158)m ROSTISLAV Glebovich, son of GLEB Vseslavich Prince of Minsk and Polotsk & his wife Anastasia Iaropolkovna of Volynia and Turov (-[1162]).  Prince of Minsk [1151].  Prince of Polotsk 1151-1158. 

Iaroslav & his third wife had two children:

3.         VIACHESLAV Iaroslavich (after 1112-after 1128).  Prince of Smolensk and Kletsk after 1128. 

4.         PRIBISLAVA Iaroslavna (-[1156]).  Baumgarten names the wife of Ratibor and states her origin but cites only another of his works as the one secondary source in support[676].  Konrad Bishop of Pomerania confirmed the possessions of Kloster Grove, including donations by "dominus Ratiboro cum…consorte sua Pribizlaua…successors eius Bogozlauus et Cazimerus", by charter dated 1168[677]m ([1136]) RATIBOR I Duke of Pomerania, son of --- dux de Kolberg & his wife --- (-1155 or 7 May 1156). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    PRINCES of NOVGOROD-SEVERSKIY and KURSK

 

 

The principality of Novgorod-Severskiy was created in 1139, its territory being carved out of the principality of Chernigov.  The town of Novgorod-Severskiy lies on the River Dnesa upstream of Chernigov in a north-easterly direction.  Although the boundaries between the two principalities are hard to identify, it appears that Novgorod-Severskiy governed the southern half of the territory while Chernigov continued to govern in the northern and western areas[678].  The principle of lateral succession appears to have applied to Novgorod-Severskiy, the ruling prince being succeeded by the next most senior male member of his own generation before the succession passed to the subsequent generation.  The members of the family shown below are named by Baumgarten with reference to primary sources[679]

 

 

SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich, son of OLEG MIKHAIL Sviatoslavich Prince of Chernigov & his second wife --- (-15 Feb 1164).  Baumgarten names him, citing a secondary source in support[680].  Prince of Novgorod 1136, he was driven out of Novgorod 17 Apr 1138[681].  Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy 1139/41.  Prince of Chernigov 1157-1164. 

m firstly (1107) --- Kuman princess, daughter of AEPA Girgenevich Khan of the Kumans.  The Primary Chronicle records that Oleg "took for his son the daughter of Aepa son of Girgen" 12 Jan 1108[682]

m secondly (Novgorod 1136[683]) MARIA [Ekaterina] of Novgorod, daughter of PETRILLA possadnik of Novgorod (-Apr 1164). 

Sviatoslav & his first wife had one child:

1.         OLEG Sviatoslavich (-[16/18] Jan 1180).  Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy.  m firstly (1150) MARIA Iurievna, daughter of IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- of the Kumans (-before 1165).  m secondly (19 or 29 Jun 1165) AGAFIA Rostislavna, daughter of son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-after [16/18] Jan 1180).  Oleg & his second wife had one child:

a)         SVIATOSLAV Olegovich (1167-after 1186).  Prince of Rilsk.  m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known.  Sviatoslav & his wife had one child: 

i)          MSTISLAV Sviatoslavich (-killed in battle 1241).  Prince of Rilsk. 

Sviatoslav & his second wife had three children:

2.         MARIA Sviatoslavna m firstly ([1148/49]) ROMAN Rostislavich, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-14 Jun 1180).  Prince of Smolensk 1159-1172, 1177-1180.  He succeeded as ROMAN Grand Prince of Kiev from 1172-1174, and 1175-1177.  m secondly ROMAN Glebovich Prince of Riazan, son of GLEB Rostislavich Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosina Rostislavna of Pereyaslavl (-killed in battle 1217). 

3.         IGOR Sviatoslavich (10 Apr 1151-29 Dec 1202).  Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy 1179-98.  He was defeated by the Kuman in 1185, commemorated in The Lay of Igor's Campaign[684].  Prince of Chernigov 1199.  m ([1184]) IEFROSINIA Iaroslavna, daughter of IAROSLAV Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" Prince of Galich & his first wife Olga Iurievna of Kiev.  Igor & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         VLADIMIR PIOTR Igorevich (-[1210/11]).  Prince of Putivl 1185-1198.  Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy 1198-1208.  After the period of confusion in Galich which followed the death of Prince Roman Mstislavich, Vladimir and his brothers succeeded in installing themselves in Galich and Volynia, Vladimir becoming Prince of Galich in 1206.  The 17th century Gustinskiy Chronicle states that Vladimir was driven out of Galich in [1209] by his brother Roman with Hungarian help and returned to Putivl[685]m ([1188]) SVOBODA Kuman princess, daughter of KONCHAK Khan of Kumans.  Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          IZIASLAV Vladimirovich (-after 1256).  Prince of Terebovl 1210.

b)         ROMAN Igorevich (-hanged Sep 1211).  Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy.  After the period of confusion in Galich which followed the death of Prince Roman Mstislavich, Roman and his brothers succeeded in installing themselves in Galich and Volynia, Roman becoming Prince of Zvenigorod in 1207.  He drove his brother Vladimir from Galich in [1209] and resumed control there himself.  He was deposed and hanged by boyars in Galich in 1211[686].  His descendants are not shown in Baumgarten[687]

i)          IVAN Romanovichm ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child: 

(a)       IVAN Ivanovich (-murdered by Mongols).  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had three children: 

(1)       VLADIMIR Ivanovich (-1303).  Grand Prince of Kiev. 

(2)       FEDOR Ivanovich (-1362).  Grand Prince of Kiev.  

(3)       ANDREI Ivanovich of Ovruch.  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had one child: 

a.         VASILY Andreievich of Ovruch.

c)         OLEG Igorevich (1175-after 1183).  Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy.  

d)         SVIATOSLAV Igorevich (1177-hanged Sep 1211).  After the period of confusion in Galich which followed the death of Prince Roman Mstislavich, Sviatoslav and his brothers succeeded in installing themselves in Galich and Volynia, Sviatoslav becoming Prince of Volynia in 1206.  He and his brothers were deposed and hanged by boyars in Galich in 1211[688].  m [source? - not in ES II 132] ([1188]) IAROSLAVA Rurikovna, daughter of RURIK II Rostislavich Prince of Ovruch Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Anna Iurievna of Turov.  Sviatoslav & his wife had two children: 

i)          AGAFIA Sviatoslavna (-after 31 Aug 1247).  Baumgarten names her, and shows her parentage, citing Polish sources in support[689].  "Conradus Dux Mazowie et Cuyawííe" donated property to the monastery of Czyrwen, in the presence of "uxore mea Shaphia et liberis meis Bolezlao et Semovitho", by charter dated 1221[690]m (1207) KONRAD I Prince of Masovia, son of KAZIMIERZ II "Sprawiedliwy/the Just" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Helena [of Moravia/of Smolensk] ([1187/88]-31 Aug 1247). 

ii)         OLEG Sviatoslavich (-after 1228).  Prince of Kursk 1224.  m ---.  The name of Oleg´s wife is not known.  Oleg & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MARINA Olegovna (-1 Mar 1279)m VSEVOLOD Konstantinovich Prince of Iaroslavl, son of KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich Prince of Rostov, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife --- Mstislavna of Kiev (-after 4 Mar 1238).  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1227-1228. 

e)         [ROSTISLAV Igorevich (-[hanged Sep 1211]).  He is referred to in Ipatevskaya letopis as one of the Igorevich brothers who took control in Galicia and Volynia in 1206/1207, although other sources only name the other three brothers as set out above[691].  If this is correct, he was presumably hanged at the same time as his brothers.] 

4.         VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich ([1153]-May 1196).  Prince of Kursk and Trubtschevsk.  m OLGA Glebovna of Pereyaslavl, daughter of GLEB Iurievich Prince of Pereyaslavl Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- Iziaslavna of Chernigov. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    PRINCES of RIAZAN, MUROM and PRONSK

 

 

The principality of Riazan was originally part of the principality of Chernigov, left under the 1054 testament of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev to his son Sviatoslav.  Riazan was separated from Chernigov in 1127 for Sviatoslav's younger son Iaroslav and remained in his family until it was annexed by Vasily III Grand Prince of Moscow in 1517.  Riazan was located to the east of the principality of Chernigov and south of the principality of Suzdal.  Riazan-Murom was extremely vulnerable to attack from the east, as shown by the speed with which the Mongol armies of Batu Khan overran it in the 13th century.  The principality of Murom, located in the north-east of Riazan, was split from the main principality after the death of Prince Iaroslav in 1130 and was eventually inherited by the descendants of his second son Sviatoslav.  It was located in the north-eastern part of Riazan and covered a much smaller area than its mother principality.  It appears that the princes of Riazan and Murom were subservient to the Princes of Rostov-Suzdal, later Vladimir, who obliged them to participate in their frequent wars against Kiev, Novgorod and Chernigov[692].  Very little information has been found about the princes of Murom. 

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of RIAZAN

 

 

IAROSLAV Sviatoslavich, son of SVIATOSLAV II Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- von Dithmarschen (-1130).  The Primary Chronicle names Iaroslav brother of Oleg, recording that the latter sent him as an outpost while he was attempting to seize Novgorod[693].  Prince of Chernigov 1123.  He was ousted from Chernigov in 1127 and installed as Prince of Riazan and Murom. 

m --- (-1124). 

Iaroslav & his wife had three children (who are shown in Baumgarten with reference to primary sources)[694]

1.         IURII Iaroslavich (-[1143]).  Prince of Murom. 

2.         SVIATOSLAV Iaroslavich (-1145).  Prince of Murom.  m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known.  Sviatoslav & his wife had three children: 

a)         VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich (-1161).  Prince of Murom.  Prince of Riazan 1146.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had one child:

i)          IURII Vladimirovich (-18 Jan 1174).  Prince of Murom. 

-         see below, Part C.  PRINCES of MUROM

b)         DAVID Sviatoslavich (-1147).  Prince of Riazan. 

c)         IGOR Sviatoslavich .  Prince of Riazan 1147/49. 

3.         ROSTISLAV Iaroslavich (-[1155]).  Prince of Riazan 1129.  Prince of Murom 1145.  m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known.  Rostislav & his wife had three children:

a)         ANDREI Rostislavich .  Prince of Yaletz 1147. 

b)         GLEB Rostislavich (-31 Jul 1178).  Prince of Riazan 1145. 

-        see below

c)         IURII Rostislavich (-19 Jan 1174).  Prince of Riazan.  Prince of Murom.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had two children:

i)          --- Iurievna m (before 1176) as his second wife, OLEG Sviatoslavich of Vladimir, son of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife --- (-[1204]).  Prince of Chernigov 1202. 

ii)         --- Iurievich .  1176. 

 

 

GLEB Rostislavich, son of ROSTISLAV Iaroslavich Prince of Riazan & his wife --- (-31 Jul 1178).  Prince of Riazan 1145.  He attempted to assert himself against the princes of Vladimir after the death in 1174 of Andrei "Bogoliubskiy" but he was decisively defeated on the river Koloksha near Vladimir in 1176 and died in captivity[695]

m IEFROSINIA Rostislavna, daughter of ROSTISLAV Iurievich Prince of Pereyaslavl & his wife ---. 

Gleb & his wife had seven children: 

1.         ROMAN Glebovich (-killed in battle 1217).  He succeeded his father in 1178 as Prince of Riazan.  Vsevolod III [Grand] Prince of Vladimir arrested all members of the Riazan princely branch in 1207, accusing them of intrigues, and installed his own son as Prince of Riazan[696].  Prince Roman was imprisoned until 1212[697]m (after Jun 1180) as her second husband, MARIA Sviatoslavna, widow of ROMAN Rostislavich Grand Prince of Kiev, daughter of SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich Prince of Chernigov & his second wife Maria [Ekaterina] of Novgorod. 

2.         IGOR Glebovich (-1194).  Prince of Riazan.  m AGRAFENA Rostislavna, daughter of of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-murdered Dec 1237).  Igor & his wife had five children: 

a)         INGVAR  Igorevich (-[1237/52]).  Prince of Riazan 1217-35. 

i)          ROMAN Ingvarevich (-killed in battle after 21 Feb 1237).  Prince of Kolomna.  Prince of Riazan. 

ii)         INGVAR Ingvarevich (-[1252]).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1237.  Riazan was captured by the Mongols, under Batu, in Dec 1237, commemorated in several successive versions in the Tale of the Destruction of Riazan by Batu[698]

iii)        OLEG Ingvarevich "Krasny" (-8 or 20 Mar 1258).  Prince of Riazan [1252].  m ---.  

(a)       ROMAN Olegovich (-killed in battle 19 Jul 1270).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1258.  m ANASTASIA, daughter of ---.  Roman & his wife had three children: 

(1)       FEDOR Romanovich (-Winter 1294).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1270. 

(2)       IAROSLAV Romanovich (-1299).  Prince of Pronsk 1270-94.  Grand Prince of Riazan 1294.     

-         see below

(3)       KONSTANTIN Romanovich (-murdered 1305).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1299/1301.  m ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known.  Konstantin & his wife had one child: 

a.         VASILY Konstantinovich (-murdered 1308).  Grand Prince of Riazan. 

iv)       DAVID Ingvarevich (-killed in battle Dec 1237). 

v)        GLEB Ingvarevich (-killed in battle Dec 1237). 

vi)       IEVDOKIA [Nadezhda[699]] Ingvarevna (-1278)m (1232) VLADIMIR Konstantinovich Prince of Uglich, son of KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich Prince of Rostov, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife --- Mstislavna of Kiev (-12/27 Dec 1249). 

b)         ROMAN Igorevich (-murdered 20 Jul 1217).  

c)         GLEB Igorevich (-murdered 20 Jul 1217). 

d)         IURII Igorevich (-killed in battle 21 Dec 1237).  Prince of Pskov.  Prince of Riazan 1232.  

i)          FEDOR Iurievich (-murdered 21 Dec 1237).  m IEFPRAXIA --- (-committed suicide Dec 1237). 

(a)       IVAN Fedorevich "Postnik" (-committed suicide 1237). 

e)         FEDOSIA [Iefrosinia] Igorevich ([1194]-4 May 1244, bur Novgorod St Iurii [700]).  She is named Iefrosinia in the Novgorod Chronicle700m (1218) as his third wife, IAROSLAV FEDOR Vsevolodich Prince of Pereyaslavl, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (8 Feb 1191-30 Sep 1246).  He succeeded his older brother in 1238 as IAROSLAV Prince of Vladimir

3.         --- Glebovna (-after 1180)m (before 1176) as his second wife, MSTISLAV Rostislavich "Khrabriy/the Brave" Prince of Bielgorod, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-13 Jun 1180).  Prince of Smolensk 1175-1177, and Prince of Novgorod 1179-1180. 

4.         SVIATOSLAV Glebovich (-[1210]).  Prince of Pronsk.  m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known.  Sviatoslav & his wife had two children:

a)         MSTISLAV Sviatoslavich (-murdered 20 Jul 1217). 

b)         ROSTISLAV Sviatoslavich (-murdered 20 Jul 1217).

5.         VSEVOLOD Glebovich (-1207).  Prince of Pronsk [1187].   m ---.  The name of Vsevolod´s wife is not known.  Vsevolod & his wife had one child:

a)         MIKHAIL Vsevolodich (-murdered 20 Jul 1217).  Prince of Pronsk.  m --- Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife ---. 

6.         VLADIMIR Glebovich (-1207).  1185.  Prince of Riazan.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had four children:

a)         GLEB Vladimirovich (-killed in battle 1219)m --- Davidovna, daughter of DAVID Rostislavich Prince of Novgorod and Smolensk & his wife ---.  

b)         OLEG Vladimirovich (-1208).  Prince of Pronsk. 

c)         KONSTANTIN Vladimirovich (-after 1241).  Prince of Riazan.  m ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known.  Konstantin & his wife had one child:

i)          IEFSTAFY Konstantinovich (-killed in battle 1264). 

d)         IZIASLAV Vladimirovich (-murdered 20 Jul 1217).  Prince of Pronsk.  

7.         IAROSLAV Glebovich m (1189) VSESLAVA Rurikovna, daughter of RURIK II Rostislavich Prince of Ovruch Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Anna Iurievna of Turov.  

 

 

IAROSLAV Romanovich, son of ROMAN Olegovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife Anastasia --- (-1299).  Prince of Pronsk 1270-94.  Grand Prince of Riazan 1294. 

m FEDORA Daniilovna, [701][daughter of DANIEL Aleksandrovich Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria ---]. 

Iaroslav & his wife had two children: 

1.         IVAN Iaroslavich (-murdered 1327).  Prince of Pronsk 1294-1308.  Grand Prince of Riazan.  m VASILISA, daughter of ---.  Ivan & his wife had one child: 

a)         IVAN Ivanovich "Korotopol" (-murdered 1343).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1327-1342.

2.         MIKHAIL Iaroslavich (-1303).  Prince of Pronsk.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had one child:

a)         ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich (-murdered 1340).  Prince of Pronsk.  m ---.  The name of Aleksandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had three children:

i)          IVAN Aleksandrovich (-1351).  He succeeded in 1344 as Prince of Riazan.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had [three] children:

(a)       [SOFIA Ivanovna (-1364)m VSEVOLOD Aleksandrovich Prince of Kholm, son of ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich "the Fugitive" Prince of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife Anastasia of Galich (after 1327-1364).  He succeeded his uncle in 1346 as Prince of Tver, but was expelled in 1348.] 

(b)       OLEG Ivanovich (-5 Jul 1402).  He succeeded his father in 1351 as Prince of Riazan.    

-         see below

(c)       ANASTASIA Ivanovna m (1371) SALACHMIR, Tartar.  Christened IVAN Miroslavich. 

ii)         IAROSLAV DMITRY Aleksandrovich (-1344).  Prince of Pronsk 1342.  Grand Prince of Riazan. 

-         see below, Part B.  PRINCES of PRONSK.

iii)        VASILY Aleksandrovich (-1350).  Prince of Riazan (1344-50).  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

(a)       VLADIMIR Vasilievich (-1373).  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had one child:

(1)       IOANN Vasilievich (-1409).

 

 

OLEG Ivanovich, son of IVAN III Aleksandrovich Prince of Riazan & his wife --- (-5 Jul 1402).  Prince of Riazan [1350/51]-1371, 1372-1402.  An ambitious ruler, he seized the district of Lopania on the Oka River from Ivan II "the Meek" Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir[702].  He refused to support Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, at the battle of Kulikovo Pole in 1380 against Mamai Khan, and was temporarily replaced as Prince in Riazan by Dmitry's own governors in retribution.  He helped Khan Tokhtamysh when he besieged Moscow in 1382 and forced Grand Prince Dmitry to flee north[703].  He acknowledged Dmitry's seniority in 1385, the peace treaty being confirmed by the marriage of his son to Dmitry's daughter[704].  Riazan became the target of Vitovt Grand Duke of Lithuania's expansionist ambitions, and a decade-long war broke out in 1395 during which Oleg received little support from Moscow[705]

m IEFROSINIA, daughter of ---. 

Oleg & his wife had six children: 

1.         FEDOR Olegovich (-[1429]).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1402/08, 1408/09-[1429].  m ([1386/87]) SOFIA Dmitrievna of Moscow, daughter of DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal.  Her marriage was agreed as part of the 1385 peace treaty between her father and her future father-in-law[706].  Fedor & his wife had three children: 

a)         VASILY Fedorevich (-1407). 

b)         IVAN Fedorevich (-early 1456).  Grand Prince of Riazan.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had two children:

i)          VASILY Ivanovich ([1448]-7 Jan 1483).  Grand Prince of Riazan.  m (28 Jan 1465) ANNA Vasilievna of Moscow, daughter of VASILY II Vasilievich Grand Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria Iaroslavich of Bobrovsk (1451-Apr 1501).  Vasily & his wife had four children: 

(a)       IVAN Vasilievich (14 Apr 1467-29 May 1500).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1483.  m (1485) AGRAFENA Vasilievna, daughter of VASILY Prince Babich von Druck (-after 1520).  Ivan & his wife had one child: 

(1)       IVAN Ivanovich (1496-[1533/34]).  Grand Prince of Riazan.  He was imprisoned in 1517 by Vasily III Grand Prince of Moscow who annexed his territories[707].  Stokliszki in Lithuania 1521. 

(b)       PIOTR Vasilievich (1468-young). 

(c)       FEDOR Vasilievich "Tretnoy" (-1502).  of Staroriazanj (1483-1502). 

(d)       --- Vasilievna m (Jan 1498) FEDOR Prince Belsky (-soon after 1506). 

ii)         FEDOSIA Ivanovna .  1456. 

c)         VASILISA Fedorovna m (Winter 1401) IVAN Vladimirovich Prince of Sierpukhov, son of VLADIMIR Andreievich "Khrobry/the Brave" Prince of Sierpukhov & his wife Ielena of Lithuania (-7 Oct 1422). 

2.         --- Olegovna m VLADIMIR Iaroslavich Prince of Pronsk, son of IAROSLAV DMITRY Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife --- (-1372). 

3.         AGRAFENA Olegovna m IVAN Titovich Prince of Kozelsk, son of TIT Mstislavich & his wife ---. 

4.         ANASTASIA Olegovna (-after 12 Aug 1399)m firstly DMITRY Vasilievich Prince of Druck (-[1384]).  m secondly KORIBUTAS [Korybut] DIMITRY of Lithuania Prince of Novgorod SEVERSKIY [Nowogrodzko-Siewierski], son of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk ([1331]-after 1404).   

5.         --- Olegovna (-after 1404)m IURII Sviatoslavich Grand Prince of Smolensk, son of SVIATOSLAV Ivanovich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- (-14 Sep 1407). 

6.         RADOSLAV Olegovich (-14 Nov 1407).  He ravaged Lithuania in 1402 but was captured by Szymon [Lengvenis] Olgerdovich[708]

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of PRONSK

 

 

IAROSLAV DMITRY Aleksandrovich, son of ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich Prince of Pronsk & his wife --- (-1344).  Prince of Pronsk 1342.  Grand Prince of Riazan. 

m ---.   The name of Iaroslav Dmitry´s wife is not known. 

Iaroslav Dmitry & his wife had two children: 

1.         VLADIMIR Iaroslavich (-1372).  Prince of Pronsk (1343-71) Prince of Riazan (1371-72).  m --- Olegovna, daughter of OLEG Ivanovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosinia ---.  Vladimir & his wife had two children: 

a)         IVAN Vladimirovich (-after 1430).  Prince of Pronsk.  Prince of Riazan 1408/09.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had four children:

i)          --- Ivanovna m (14 Jan 1416) IVAN Vasilievich Prince of Moscow and Vladimir, son of VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Sofia of Lithuania (-20 Jul 1417). 

ii)         FEDOR Ivanovich (-before 1479).  Prince of Pronsk.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had four children:

(a)       IURII Fedorevich (-1528).  Prince of Pronsk.  m firstly --- Pss Olełkowicz of Sluck, daughter of ---.  m secondly --- Pss Solomerecka, daughter of ---.  Iurii & his first wife had one child:

(1)       IVAN Iurievich .  1480. 

Iurii & his second wife had two children: 

(2)       GLEB Iurievich (-killed in battle near Minsk 1513).  He was ancestor of the Princes Pronski in Lithuania, extinct 1533/34.  m as her first husband, --- Podbipienk, daughter of ---.  She married secondly Andrei Czyczewicz.  

(3)       --- Iurievna m DANIIL Dedkowicz (-after 8 Jan 1519). 

(b)       FEDOR Fedorevich .

(c)       DANILO Fedorevich (-1551).  m ---.  The name of Danilo´s wife is not known.  Danilo & his wife had two children:

(1)       PIOTR Danilovich (-1577).

(2)       SEMËN Danilovich (-1584).

(d)       IVAN Fedorevich (-1523).  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(1)       IVAN Ivanovich "Turuntay" (-murdered 1570).  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

a.         PIOTR Ivanovich (-1652).  m ---.  The name of Piotr´s wife is not known.  Piotr & his wife had two children:

(i)         MIKHAIL Petrovich (-1654).

(ii)        IVAN Petrovich .  The last member of the family of Pronsk.

iii)        IVAN Ivanovich .  Prince of Pronsk.  His descendants were extinct in the 16th century. 

iv)       ANDREI Ivanovichm ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had one child:

(a)       DMITRY Andreievich .  1487.  His descendants were extinct in the 17th century. 

b)         FEDOR Vladimirovich .  Prince of Pronsk. 

2.         DANIIL Iaroslavich .  Prince of Pronsk.  1378. 

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of MUROM

 

 

IURII Vladimirovich, son of VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich Prince of Murom and Riazan & his wife --- (-18 Jan 1174).  Prince of Murom. 

m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known. 

Iurii & his wife had one child:

1.         VLADIMIR Iurievich (-6 Feb [1203/05]).  Prince of Murom (1171.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had two children:

a)         DAVID Iurievich (-Apr 1228).  Prince of Murom 1204.  Prince of Pronsk 1208-1209.  m ---.  The name of David´s wife is not known.  David & his wife had four children:

i)          IURII Davidovich (-1237).  Prince of Murom 1228-1237.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had one child:

(a)       IAROSLAV Iurievich .  Prince of Murom 1237-1248.  m ---.  The name of Iaroslav´s wife is not known.  Iaroslav & his wife had one child:

(1)       MARIA Iaroslavna (-1297)m (1248) BORIS Vasilkovich Prince of Rostov, son of VASILKO Konstantinovich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Mikhailovna of Chernigov (24 Jul 1231-16 Sep 1277).

ii)         SVIATOSLAV Davidovich (-Apr 1228).  

iii)        --- Davidovich .  1228. 

iv)       IEVDOKIA Davidovna m SVIATOSLAV GABRIEL Vsevolodich Prince of Iuriev, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (27 Mar 1196-3 Feb 1252).  He was appointed Prince of Suzdal 1238.  He succeeded his brother 1247 as SVIATOSLAV Grand Prince of Vladimir

b)         IURII Iurievich .  1220.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had one child:

i)          OLEG Iurievich .  1220. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    PRINCES of SMOLENSK

 

 

Until 1125, Smolensk was transferred between different branches of the descendants of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev, with frequent changes of ruler.  After the death of Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev in 1125, his grandson Rostislav Mstislavich was installed as Prince of Smolensk and the principality remained in the "Rostislavichi" family until the early 15th century.  Smolensk became a bishopric in 1136.  It enjoyed a flourishing economy due to its strong commercial links with Riga and the main trading centres in Germany.  Its government was stable due to the absence of internal disputes within the ruling family and its relatively remote geographical position in the north-east of the Russian territories, which protected it from outside invasions[709]

 

 

DAVID Rostislavich, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (1140-23 Apr 1197).  Prince of Novgorod 1154.  Prince of Torzhok 1158-1161.  Prince of Vitebsk 1165-1167.  Prince of Vishgorod 1168.  Prince of Smolensk 1180-1197.  Iaroslav Vsevolodich Prince of Chernigov invaded Smolensk in 1196, triggering a fierce but inconclusive war which spread to Polotsk, Kiev and Chernigov[710]

m --- (-after 1197).  She became a nun after the death of her husband. 

David & his wife had five children (all of whom, along with their descendants shown below, are named by Baumgarten with primary sources[711]): 

1.         IZIASLAV Davidovich .  1183.

2.         --- Davidovna m GLEB Vladimirovich Prince of Riazan, son of VLADIMIR Glebovich Prince of Riazan & his wife --- of the Kumans (-killed in battle 1219).

3.         KONSTANTIN Davidovich (1218).  m ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known.  Konstantin & his wife had one child (he and descendants shown below are not named by Baumgarten[712]): 

a)         IURII Konstantinovich .  Prince of Fominsk.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had one child: 

i)          FEDOR Iurievich (-1367).  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child: 

(a)       VASILY Fedorevich .  Prince at Berezul and Kozlovskaia.  Ancestor of Princes Kozlovsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire several times between 18 Nov 1849 and 20 Jun 1857[713]

4.         --- Davidovna m VASILKO II Bryacheslavich Prince of Polotsk and Vitebsk, son of BRYACHESLAV Vasilkovich Prince of Vitebsk & his wife --- (-after 1216). 

5.         MSTISLAV FEDOR Davidovich (-1231).  Prince of Novgorod 1184-1187.  Prince of Polotsk 1221.  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1223-1231.  m (1185) --- Kuman princess, daughter of TALGUYI Khan of the Kumans.   Mstislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROSTISLAV Mstislavich (-in Hungary 1238).  Grand Prince of Smolensk. 

-        see below

 

 

ROSTISLAV Mstislavich, son of MSTISLAV FEDOR Davidovich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- Kuman princess (-in Hungary 1238).  Grand Prince of Smolensk. 

m ---.  The name of Rostislav´s wife is not known.  Rostislav & his wife had [four] children:

1.         GLEB Rostislavich (-1277).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1249-1278.  m ---.  The name of Gleb´s wife is not known.  Gleb & his wife had three children:

a)         ALEKSANDR Glebovich (-1313).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1297-1313.  m ---.  The name of Aleksandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had [two] children:

i)          IVAN Aleksandrovich (-1358).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1313-1359.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had three children:

(a)       SVIATOSLAV Ivanovich (-killed in battle 29 Apr 1386).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1359-1386.  He was killed fighting the Lithuanians[714]m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known.  Sviatoslav & his wife had nine children:

(1)       GLEB Sviatoslavich (-killed in battle Vorskla River 12 Aug 1399).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1394-1395.  m ---.  The name of Gleb´s wife is not known.  Gleb & his wife had two children:

a.         DMITRY Glebovich .  1435.  Ancestor of the Princes Zizemsky, extinct 18th century. 

b.         IVAN Glebovich .  Ancestor of the Princes Korkodinov, extinct 16th century. 

(2)       ANNA Sviatoslavna (-14 Aug 1418)m (before 1387) as his second wife, VYTAUTAS [Witold] of Lithuania, son of KESTUTIS [Kiejstut] ALEKSANDER of Lithuania & his second wife Birutč --- (1344-27 Oct 1430).  He succeeded in 1393 as VYTAUTAS Grand Duke of Lithuania

(3)       IURII Sviatoslavich (-14 Sep 1407).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1386-1394, restored in 1401.  Smolensk was captured by Vytautas Grand Duke of Lithuania in 1404, wherepon Prince Iurii went to Novgorod[715]m --- Olegovna of Riazan, daughter of OLEG Ivanovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife Iefrosinia --- (-after 1404).  Iurii & his wife had two children: 

a.         FEDOR Iurievna .  Prince of Porchov 1400-1412.  

b.         ANASTASIA Iurievna (-11 Jul 1422)m (1400) IURII Dmitrievich Prince of Galich and Zvenigorod, son of DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal (26 Nov 1374-5 Jun 1434).  He succeeded as IURII Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow in 1433, but was unable to retain the position through lack of support among the boyars. 

(4)       AGRIPINA Sviatoslavna m IVAN Olgimontowicz Prince of Holczany (-before 1401). 

(5)       --- Sviatoslavna (-after 1408)m (8 Nov 1384) BORIS Mikhailovich of Tver Prince of Kachin, son of MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver & his wife Ievdokia Konstantinovna of Suzdal ([1362]-17 Jul 1395). 

(6)       IVAN Sviatoslavich .  1422.

(7)       IULIANA Sviatoslavna m firstly TAUTVILAS [Towtiwil] KONRAD of Lithuania, son of KESTUTIS [Kiejstut] ALEKSANDER of Lithuania & his second wife Birutč --- (-1390).  m secondly MONIWID, lord (pan) in Lithuania.    

(8)       ALEKSANDR Sviatoslavich

(9)       [716]VASILY Sviatoslavich .  Ancestor of Princes Kropotkine (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 5 Jun 1823 and 22 Aug 1861[717]

(b)       VASILY Ivanovich .  Prince of Selekhov -1396.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had [two] children:

(1)       IVAN Vasilievich (-killed in battle 29 Apr 1386). 

(2)       [ALEKSANDR Vasilievich .  1375.] 

(c)       LEV Ivanovich (-1369).  Prince of Smolensk. 

ii)         [DMITRY Aleksandrovich (-killed in battle 1300).] 

b)         ROMAN Glebovich (-after 1300).  m ---.  The name of Roman´s wife is not known.  Roman & his wife had two children:

i)          VASILY Romanovich (-1314).  Prince of Briansk 1309.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

(a)       IVAN Vasilievich (-1386). 

ii)         DMITRY Romanovich Prince of Briansk.  1340

c)         SVIATOSLAV Glebovich (-killed in battle Briansk 1310).  Prince of Mozhaisk (1297-1303) Prince of Briansk (1309-10).  m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known.  Sviatoslav & his wife had two children:

i)          GLEB Sviatoslavich (-murdered 6 Dec 1340).  Prince of Briansk.  

ii)         FEDOR Sviatoslavich .  1345

2.         MIKHAIL Rostislavich (-1279).  Grand Prince of Smolensk.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had two children:

a)         SVIATOSLAV Mikhailovich .  Prince of Mozhaisk -1315.  m ---.  The name of Sviatoslav´s wife is not known.  Sviatoslav & his wife had one child:

i)          FEDOR Sviatoslavich .  Prince of Dorogobuzh and Viazma.  1343/1346.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had [two] children:

(a)       IEFPRAXIA Fedorovna m firstly (1345, repudiated 1346) as his second wife, SEMËN Ivanovich Grand Prince of Moscow, son of IVAN I Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Elena --- (1316-21 Apr 1353).  m secondly (1346) FEDOR Konstantinovich Prince of Fomin,. 

(b)       [VLADIMIR Fedorevich (-killed in battle 8 Sep 1380).  Prince of Dorogobuzh.] 

b)         ANDREI Mikhailovich (-after 1300).  Prince of Viazma.  Regent of Smolensk 1284.  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had one child:

i)          IVAN Andreievich .  Prince of Viazma.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(a)       MIKHAIL Ivanovich .  Prince of Viazma.  1386.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had one child:

(1)       ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich .  Prince of Viazma.  1403. 

3.         FEDOR Rostislavich "Cherniy/the Black" (-19/20 Sep 1299).  Prince of Mozhaisk 1260-1297.  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1279/80-1287.  Prince of Iaroslavl 1281-1299.  He lived for a lengthy period with the Golden Horde, participating in their military campaigns in the Caucasus (1278), Bulgaria (1278) and Pereyaslavl (1281) and marrying the Khan's daughter as his second wife.  He supported Andrei Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Vladimir in his dispute with his brother Dmitry and received Mongol support when trying to resume the throne of Iaroslavl in 1293[718]m firstly ([1260/61]) MARIA Vasilievna of Iaroslavl, daughter of VASILY Vsevolodich Prince of Iaroslavl & his wife Xenia --- ([1246]-).  m secondly --- Mongol princess, daughter of MENGU-TIMUR Khan of the Mongols.  She adopted the name ANNA on her marriage.  Fedor & his first wife had five children:

a)         MIKHAIL Fedorevich (-[1287/88]).  Prince of Iaroslavl. 

-        see below

b)         --- Fedorovna (-1299).  m DAVID Konstantinovich Prince of Galich and Dmitrov, son of KONSTANTIN Iaroslavich Prince of Glaich and Dmitrov & his wife --- (-2 Apr 1280). 

c)         --- Fedorovna m (15/31 Jul 1278) MIKHAIL Glebovich of Beloozero, son of GLEB Vasilkovich Prince of Beloozero & his wife --- of the Tartars (Nov 1266-Summer 1293).  He succeeded as Prince of Beloozero late 1278/early 1279 after the death of his father. 

d)         DAVID Fedorevich (-Winter 1321).  Prince of Iaroslavl 1299-1321.  

e)         KONSTANTIN Fedorevich "the Artist".  Prince of Iaroslavl. 

4.         [KONSTANTIN Rostislavich .  Prince of Smolensk.  m (before 1262) IEVDOKIA Aleksandrovna of Novgorod, daughter of ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich "Nievskiy" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Paraskeviya [Aleksandra] Bryacheslavna of Polotsk.] 

 

 

MIKHAIL Fedorevich, son of FEDOR Rostislavich "Cherniy/the Black" Prince of Iaroslavl & his first wife Maria Vasilievna of Iaroslavl (-[1287/88]).  Prince of Iaroslavl. 

m ---.  Mikhail & his wife had two children: 

1.         VASILY I Mikhailovich "Groznye Ochi/Horrible Eyes" (-Winter 1345).  Prince of Iaroslavl 1321-1345.  He formed a coalition with Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prince of Tver, who had been deposed as Grand Prince of Vladimir, against the latter's successor Ivan Daniilovich Prince of Moscow.  He also unsuccessfully challenged the succession of Ivan's son Semën in 1341[719]m IEVDOKIA Ivanovna, daughter of IVAN I Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Elena --- (-1342).  Vasily & his wife had four children: 

a)         VASILY II Vasilievich (-after 1380).  Prince of Iaroslavl.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had five children:

i)          IVAN Vasilievich "Bolshoy/the Big" (-1426).  Prince of Iaroslavl.  m ANNA Ivanovna, daughter of IVAN Vladimirovich Prince of Rostov & his wife Vera Andreievna of Rostov.  Ivan & his wife had four children: 

(a)       ROMAN Ivanovich

(b)       ALEKSANDR Ivanovich (-1455).  He was ancestor of the Princes Alabytschev, Alenkin, Troyekurov and Syssoyev. 

(c)       VASILY Ivanovich .  He was ancestors of the Princes Shestounov, Gaguine, and Velikoyaguin.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

(1)       VASILY Shestoukim ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

a.         DMITRY Shestoukim ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had one child:

(i)         IVAN Shestouki m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(a)       XENIA MARIA Ivanovna (-1631)m FEDOR Nikitich Romanov (-1633).   

(d)       MARIA Ivanovna m (17 Jan 1412) ALEKSANDR Fedorevich Prince of Mikulin, son of FEDOR Mikhailovich Prince of Mikulin & his wife Anna Fedorovna Kochkaia (-[1412/53]). 

ii)         FEDOR Vasilievich .  Prince of Iaroslavl.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ALEKSANDR Fedorevich "Bryukhatiy" (-17 Apr 1471).  Prince of Iaroslavl 1434-1463.  m ---.  The name of Aleksandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had one child:

(1)       DANIIL Aleksandrovich (-1520).  Boyar.  He was ancestor of the Penkov family. 

iii)        SEMËN Vasilievich .  Prince of Novlensk.  m ---.  The name of Semën´s wife is not known.  Semën & his wife had two children:

(a)       DANIIL Semënovich .  Prince of Novlensk.  Ancestor of the Princes Yukorski. 

(b)       ANNA Semënovna (-1 Dec 1411)m (1408) as his first wife, IAROSLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Iaroslavich, son of VLADIMIR Andreievich "Khrobry/the Brave" Prince of Sierpukhov & his wife Ielena of Lithuania (-16 Aug 1426). 

iv)       DMITRY Vasilievich .  Prince of Zaozersk.  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had three children:

(a)       ANDREI Dmitrievich (-1457).  Prince of Zaozersk. 

(b)       SOFIA Dmitrievna (-in Lithuania after 1456)m (1436) DMITRY Iurievich "Shemiakha" Prince of Uglich and Rtschyev, son of IURII Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Anastasia Iurievna of Smolensk ([1420]-murdered 18 Jul 1453).  Prince of Galich 1441-1450.  He succeeded in 1446 as DMITRY Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow. 

(c)       SEMËN Dmitrievich .  Prince of Kubena.  m --- Ivanovna of Iaroslavl, daughter of IVAN Dmitrievich "Djei" of Iaroslavl & his wife ---. 

v)        IVAN Vasilievich "Voin" . 

b)         ROMAN Vasilievich .  He founded the town of Romanov.  m ---.  The name of Roman´s wife is not known.  Roman & his wife had three children:

i)          IVAN Romanovichm ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(a)       FEDOR Ivanovich "Mortka" . 

ii)         DMITRY Romanovich (-12 Oct 1414).  Prince of Romanov.  

iii)        DANIIL Romanovich

c)         VASILY Vasilievich (1339-1380).  Prince of Iaroslavl 1345.  

d)         GLEB Vasilievichm ---.  The name of Gleb´s wife is not known.  Gleb & his wife had one child:

i)          CONSTANTIN Glebovich .  Ancestor of Princes Schakhovskoy (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 3 Sep 1798 and 12 Apr 1888[720]

2.         MIKHAIL Mikhailovich (-after 1362).  Prince of Mologa.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had three children:

a)         FEDOR Mikhailovich (-6 Apr 1408).  Prince of Mologa.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had five children: 

i)          --- Fedorovna m (1397) ALEKSANDR II Ivanovich Grand Prince of Tver, son of IVAN Mikhailovich Grand Prince of Tver & his first wife Miklausč [Miklova] Maria of Lithuania (-25 Oct 1425). 

ii)         DMITRY Fedorevich .  Prince of Mologa.  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had one child:

(a)       PIOTR Dmitrievich .  Prince of Mologa.  m ---.  The name of Piotr´s wife is not known.  Piotr & his wife had --- children:

(1)       sons. 

iii)        VASILY Fedorevich .  Prince of Mologa.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

(a)       DMITRY Vasilievich "the Blind".  

iv)       SEMËN Fedorevich .  Prince of Sitzki.  m ---.  The name of Semën´s wife is not known.  Semën & his wife had two children:

(a)       BORIS Semënovich (-14450. 

(b)       PIOTR Semënovich .  Prince of Sitzki.  Ancestor of the Princes Sitzki. 

v)        IVAN Fedorevich .  Prince of Prosorov.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had two children:

(a)       IURII Ivanovich .  Ancestor of the Princes Sudzki. 

(b)       ANDREI Ivanovich .  Ancestor of the Princes Prosorovski. 

b)         IVAN Mikhailovich (-killed in battle Kulikov Field 8 Sep 1380).  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had three children:

i)          ANDREI Ivanovich

ii)         GLEB Ivanovich .  Prince of Tschumorov.  Ancestor of the Princes Tschumorovski, Tschamin and Golypin. 

iii)        FEDOR Ivanovich .  Ancestor of the Princes Uschatiy-Iaroslavski, extinct. 

c)         LEV Mikhailovich .  Ancestor of the Princes Dulov, extinct. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR, PRINCES of ROSTOV-SUZDAL

 

 

The principality of Suzdal consisted of extensive territory to the north and north-east of Moscow, straddling the river basins of the upper reaches of the Volga, Unzha, Klyazma and Sheksma rivers. 

 

Prince Iurii "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" started the rise to power of the Rostov-Suzdal line over the other Russian princes with his proposal in 1136 for his principality to elect its own princes.  Hs son Andrei "Bogoliubskii" moved his capital to the town of Vladimir, founded in 1108 by Prince Vladimir "Monomakh", the first step which later evolved into its replacement of Kiev as the "superior" principality over the other Rus territories.  Prince Vsevolod Iurievich, who succeeded as Prince of Vladimir in 1174, never ruled in Kiev.  Although this effectively excluded his descendants from the Kievan succession in accordance with the dynastic tradition described in the Introduction to the present document, the exclusion ceased to be of practical significance with the decline of Kiev which was hastened by its sack by the Mongols.  The final stage in Kiev's eclipse was the transfer by Metropolitan Maksim of the centre of the Russian Orthodox Church to Vladimir in 1299, formalised in 1354 by Metropolitan Aleksei. 

 

Prince Vsevolod's sons withdrew themselves from the politics of southern Rus, concentrating their efforts on establishing Vladimir as the new focus of power among the Rus principalities.  The newly centralised authority was weakened during the reign of Prince Iurii II when his relatives were able to reassert the autonomy of their own appanage principalities.  This weakness was a factor in the success of the Mongol invasions of 1220/1238.  Prince Iaroslav Vsevolodich received the title Grand Prince of Vladimir from Khan Batu of the Golden Horde in 1243, in return for swearing allegiance.  Although he and his successors remained vassals of the Mongols, with the latter appointing each Grand Prince in turn and confirming the authority of each to rule, the new title acquired significance within the dynasty.  The pattern of succession followed that previously established in Kiev, with the title passing between each surviving member of the older generation before moving to the younger generation.  Exceptions to this tradition were triggered by the Mongol overlords who were more concerned with choosing the most appropriate candidate than with observing tradition.  Thus, the succession of Grand Prince Sviatoslav Vsevolodich in 1247 was at first accepted by the Mongol overlords, but they later replaced him by his nephew Andrei Iaroslavich, who was replaced by his own older brother Aleksandr a few years later.   

 

The period following the Mongol invasion was characterised by even further sub-division of the various Rus principalities to create more appanages for members of the family.  The result was a reduction in overall power of the dynasty as each prince ruled over ever smaller territories.  In addition, the central "superior" authority of the Grand Prince of Vladimir over the other principalities was considerably weakened in the second half of the 13th century by a series of weak princes, lack of support from the Mongols, and manoeuvring particularly on the part of Novgorod to reassert its autonomy.  This situation continued until the emergence of the Muscovite state. 

 

The members of this family shown below are named by Baumgarten who cites primary sources[721]

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES OF ROSTOV-SUZDAL and VLADIMIR, GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR from 1243

 

 

IURII 1125-1158, ANDREI 1158-1174

 

IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm", son of VLADIMIR "Monomach" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- (-15 May 1158).  Baumgarten names him and cites a primary source in support[722].  Vladimir, in his "testament", refers to the death of "George's mother" in a passage which appears to coincide chronologically with the Primary Chronicle which records that the wife of Vladimir died 7 May 1107 without naming her[723].  He succeeded as Prince of Rostov-Suzdal in 1125.  Following the example of Novgorod, Prince Iurii suggested that Rostov-Suzdal elect its own prince, which signalled the start of the development of the principality independent of Kiev[724].  He moved his capital from Rostov to the less important town of Suzdal in order to weaken the role of the people's meeting and Council of Nobles in the former city[725].  He succeeded in getting Novgorod out of Kievan control and forced the Novgorodians to accept his sons as princes[726].  He tried to dominate Kiev several times, using the Kumans as his allies, but was never able to hold it for long[727].  He deposed his nephew Iziaslav II Mstislavich from Kiev in 1149, succeeding as IURII Grand Prince of Kiev, but was expelled in 1150 in favour of his older brother Viacheslav.  Iurii was restored in Kiev from Sep 1150 to Mar 1151.  He succeeded again in Kiev in 1155 on the death of his older brother.  He is alleged to have built the first fortifications at Moskva (Moscow). 

m firstly (12 Jan 1108) --- Kuman princess, daughter of AEPO Ocenevich Khan of Kumans.  The Primary Chronicle records that Vladimir "took the daughter of Aepa son of Osen to be the wife of Prince George" 12 Jan 1108[728]

m secondly [HELENA] [Komnene], daughter of --- (-[1183]).  Baumgarten cites one secondary source which discusses "the probability" that the second wife of Prince Iurii was of Byzantine origin, suggesting her possible name on a subsequent page[729].  Although the date of his second marriage is not known, the timing suggests that his wife may have belonged to the Komnenos family if she was indeed of Byzantine origin.  Sturdza states that she was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos cćsar, but the primary source on which this might be based has not yet been identified.  She adopted the name OLGA in Russia. 

Iurii & his first wife had eleven children:

1.         ROSTISLAV Iurievich (-6 Apr 1151).  Prince of Novgorod 1141/42.  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1149-1151.  m --- of Riazan, daughter of --- (-after 1176).  Rostislav & his wife had three children: 

a)         IEFROSINIA Rostislavna (-1179)m GLEB Rostislavich of Riazan, son of ROSTISLAV Iaroslavich Prince of Riazan & his wife --- (-31 Jul 1178). 

b)         MSTISLAV Rostislavich "Bezokiy/Without Eyes" (-20 Apr 1178[730]).  Prince of Novgorod 1161/62.  After he and his son were expelled from Novgorod in 1176, Mstislav went to Suzdal but was captured and blinded by his uncle Vsevolod.  He was restored as Prince of Novgorod in 1177[731]m firstly --- (-before 1176).  The name of Mstislav´s first wife is not known.  m secondly (Novgorod Spring 1176) --- Iakuvovna, daughter of IAKUV Miroslavich boiar of Novgorod.  The Chronicle of Novgorod refers to the marriage in Spring 1176 of Mstislav to "the daughter of Yakun Miroslavich"[732].  Mstislav & his first wife had one child:

i)          SVIATOSLAV Mstislavich .  His father installed him in 1176 as Prince of Novgorod, but he was expelled by the Novgorodians[733]

c)         IAROPOLK Rostislavich (-after 1196).  Prince of Torzok.  Prince of Novgorod 1175.  Prince of Vladimir 1175.  Prince of Chernigov 1174-1196.  He went to Suzdal with his brother Mstislav but was captured and blinded by his uncle Vsevolod.  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod in 1178 after the death of his brother[734]m (3 Nov 1174) --- Vseslavna of Polotsk, daughter of VSESLAV II Vasilkovich Prince of Polotsk and Vitebsk & his wife --- Romanovna of Kiev. 

2.         IVAN Iurievich (-24 Feb 1147).  Prince of Kursk 1146. 

3.         OLGA Iurievna (-1189).  She became a nun at Volynia.  m ([1150], repudiated [1185]) as his first wife, IAROSLAV Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" of Galich, son of VLADIMIRKO Volodarevich Prince of Galich & his wife (-1 Oct 1187).  He succeeded his father in 1153 as Prince of Galich. 

4.         ANDREI Iurievich "Bogoliubskii" (-murdered Bogoliubovo 29 Jun 1174).  His father appointed him as Prince of Vladimir, which he ruled "with the iron hand of a despot" bringing him into conflict with the local people's meeting and Council of Nobles.  In 1154, his father installed him as Prince of Vyshhorod, near Kiev but soon left the place secretly and returned to Vladimir[735].  He succeeded his father in 1158 as Prince of Rostov and Suzdal, but his residence in Kiev was pillaged and the Suzdalians abused[736].  Prince Andrei moved his capital from Suzdal to Vladimir, to avoid the opposition of the people's meeting and Council of Nobles in Suzdal which had strengthened their positions during his father's absence in Kiev[737].  He established his main place of residence at Bogoliubovo, near Vladimir, hence the epithet "Bogoliubskii", and in effect installed himself as ANDREI [Grand] Prince of Vladimir.  He launched a series of successful campaigns against Bulgar in 1164, although his oldest son was killed in the campaign of 1172[738].  Always placing the northern Rostov-Suzdal-Vladimir interests above those of southern Kiev, he assembled a coalition of princes which sacked Kiev in Mar 1169 and installed his younger brother Gleb as Prince of Kiev, the first time the Kievan throne was treated as an appanage principality[739].  The Primary Chronicle stated that "such merciless destruction and looting had never been witnessed before"[740].  He acted as head prince of the family, despite being based in the north, signalling the start of transfer of superior authority among the Rus principalities from Kiev to Vladimir.  Andrei controlled the government of Kiev, but antagonised other members of the family who chose Iaroslav Iziaslavich to succeed in Kiev.  In 1170, Andrei attacked Novgorod but was repulsed, although he succeeded in imposing his son as Prince of Novgorod[741].  He fortified and enlarged the city of Vladimir, collecting objects of value from his lootings of Kiev and other cities[742].  He was murdered by his own retainers in his palace, the assassination triggering an outburst of hatred with the massacre of his lieutenants and pillaging of his residences[743]m firstly ULITA Stefanovna, daughter of STEFAN Ivanovich Kuchka of Moscow.  m secondly --- of Ossetia, daughter of ---.  Andrei & his first wife had four children:

a)         IZIASLAV Andreievich (-28 Oct 1165).  [Prince of Rostov].  

b)         MSTISLAV Andreievich (-killed in battle 28 Mar 1172).  He was the military commander of the attack on Kiev Mar 1169, after which his uncle Gleb was installed as Prince of Kiev[744].  He was killed in one of his father's campaigns against Bulgar[745]m ---.  The name of Mstislav´s wife is not known.  Mstislav & his wife had one child: 

i)          VASILY Mstislavich (1171-young).  

c)         GLEB Andreievich (-24 Jul before 1174).  The Holy Mikhalko. 

d)         ROSTISLAVA Andreievna (-1167).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (1159) SVIATOSLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Vshchizh [Wczyz], son of VLADIMIR Davidovich Prince of Chernigov & his wife --- Vsevolodovna of Gorodeno (-[1166/67]).

Andrei & his second wife had one child:

e)         IURII Andreievich (-[after 1191]).  Prince of Novgorod 1171/75.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the first marriage of Queen Thamar and "le fils du souverain des russes, du grand monarque André", commenting that he had lost his father at a young age and had been exiled by "son oncle Sawalth" and was "dans la ville de Swindj, du roi des Qiphtchaqs"[746].  Vardan's History records that "Soslan, son of the Russian king" was brought as husband for Queen Thamar[747], conflating the identities of her two known husbands.  A later passage in Vardan's History clarifies the position somewhat, stating that Queen Thamar "broke with her Russian husband and married the Ossete Soslan"[748]m ([1184 or after], repudiated) as her first husband, THAMAR I Queen of Georgia, daughter of GIORGI III King of Georgia & his wife Burdukhan of Alania (-18 Jan 1213, bur Gelati, St George's Cathedral).  The Histoire Universelle of Vartan le Grand records that "sa fille Thamar" succeeded "Giorgi roi de Géorgie", stating that she married "le fils du roi des Russes, lequel s'empara de la ville de Tevin et ensuite Soslan"[749]

5.         MARIA Iurievna (-before 1165)m (1150) as his first wife, OLEG Sviatoslavich Prince of Novgorod-Seversk, son of SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich Prince of Chernigov & his first wife --- of the Kumans (-[16/18] Jan 1180). 

6.         SVIATOSLAV Iurievich (-11 Jan 1174). 

7.         IAROSLAV Iurievich (-12 Apr 1166). 

8.         GLEB Iurievich (-20 Jan 1172).  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1155-1160.  Following the sack of Kiev in Mar 1169 by a coalition of princes led by his older brother Andrei, he was proclaimed Prince of Kiev[750]m firstly --- (-1154).  m secondly (1155) --- Iziaslavna, daughter of IZIASLAV Davidovich Prince of Chernigov & his wife ---.  Baumgarten records her parentage and marriage, citing a secondary source in support[751].  Gleb & his second wife had three children:

a)         IZIASLAV Glebovich (-killed in battle Bulgar 1184). 

b)         VLADIMIR Glebovich (1157-18 Apr 1187).  He was appointed Prince of Pereyaslavl in 1169 when his father was proclaimed Grand Prince of Kiev.  m (8 Nov 1179) --- Iaroslavna, son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Prince of Chernigov & his wife [Irina ---]. 

c)         OLGA Glebovna m VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich Prince of Kursk and Trubtschevsk, son of SVIATOSLAV NIKOLAI Olegovich Prince of Chernigov & his second wife Maria [Ekaterina] of Novgorod ([1153]-May 1196). 

9.         BORIS Iurievich (-2 May 1159).  Prince of Belgorod and Turov [1154/57].  m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Boris & his wife had one child: 

a)         IEFROSINIA Borisovich (-1202)m IAROSLAV II Iurievich Prince of Pinsk, son of IURII Iaroslavich Prince of Turov & his wife --- Vsevolodovna of Grdono (-1202). 

10.      MSTISLAV Iurievich (-1166).  Prince of Novgorod.  m --- Petrovna, daughter of PIOTR Mikhailovich [of Novgorod] & his wife ---.  Mstislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         IAROSLAV Mstislavich "Krasniy/the Red" (-1199).  Prince of Volokolam.  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1177.  

11.      VASILKO Iurievich (-after 1164).  Prince of Suzdal -1161. 

Iurii & his second wife had two children:

12.      MIKHAIL Iurievich (after Jul 1151-20 Jun 1176).  He nominally succeeded his half-brother Prince Andrei as Prince of Vladimir in 1174, but this was challenged by his brother Vsevolod which resulted in a bloody succession struggle[752]m [FEBRONIA], daughter of --- (-5 Aug 1202).  Mikhail & his wife had one child: 

a)         FEBRONIA [Prebrana] Mikhailovna .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[753], Febronia was the daughter of Iurii Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev, the father of Mikhaeil Iurievich.  If she was the daughter of Mikhail Iurievich, she was only an infant when she married.  m (1177) VLADIMIR Sviatoslavich Prince of Novgorod, son of SVIATOSLAV III Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his [first/second] wife --- (-1201).  

13.      VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" (1154-14/15 Apr 1212).  He succeeded his half-brother Andrei as Prince of Vladimir in 1174. 

-        see below

 

 

VSEVOLOD III 1176-1212, IURII 1212-1216, 1218-1238, KONSTANTIN 1216-1218, SVIATOSLAV 1247-1248

VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest", son of IURII Vladimirovich "Dolgorukiy/Longarm" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Helena Komnene (1154-14/15 Apr 1212).  Vsevolod challenged the succession of his brother Mikhail to their half-brother Prince Andrei which resulted in a bloody succession struggle, culminating in [1176] with his succession as VSEVOLOD III [Grand] Prince of Vladimir[754].  Prince Vsevolod was the first prince to start calling himself "Grand Prince", on the one hand to strengthen the separation of the principality of Vladimir from Kiev and on the other to place himself over the lesser princes of the Russian north[755].  He continued his predecessors' policy of attacking Bulgar, mounting a campaign in 1183 which drove deep into Bulgar territory before retreating when he accepted his opponents' peace proposal.  This attack was followed by further campaigns in 1185 and 1205, which resulted in the extension of Suzdalian control down the Volga river to its juncture with the Oka[756].  By the end of the 12th century, Vsevolod was widely acknowledged as the senior prince of the dynasty.  He attacked Novgorod and forced it to submit to his authority, although the city retained a certain amount of autonomy[757].  After learning of the intrigues of the Princes of Riazan in 1207, he arrested all members of the Riazan princely branch and installed his son Iaroslav as Prince of Riazan[758].  He supported the successful bid by Vsevolod Sviatoslavich "Chermny" to seize power in Kiev in 1211, sealing the alliance by the marriage of his son to Vsevolod Sviatoslavich's daughter[759].  His epithet "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" was given because of his large family[760]

m firstly MARIA of Ossetia, daughter of --- (-19 Mar 1206). 

m secondly (1209) LIUBOV Vasilkovna, daughter of VASILKO Bryacheslavich Prince of Vitebsk & his wife --- Davidovna of Novgorod and Smolensk. 

Vsevolod & his first wife had twelve children:

1.         SBISLAVA Vsevolodovna (26 Oct 1178-). 

2.         VSESLAVA Vsevolodovna (-after 1206)m ([15 Jun] or 11 Aug 1187) ROSTISLAV Iaroslavich Prince of Snov, son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Prince of Chernigov & his wife [Irina ---] (24 Jun 1174-after 1214). 

3.         VERCHOSLAVA Vsevolodovna ([1179/81]-)m (26 Sep 1189) ROSTISLAV Rurikovich Prince of Vishgorod, son of RURIK II Rostislavich Prince of Ovrutsch Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Anna Iurievna of Turov (13 Apr 1172-1218).  He succeeded in 1204 as ROSTISLAV Grand Prince of Kiev

4.          KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich "Dobry/the Good/the Book-like" ([1185] or 18 May 1186-2 Feb 1218).  Prince of Rostov 1208.  He succeeded as KONSTANTIN Prince of Vladimir in 1216. 

-        see below, Chapter 9.  PRINCES of ROSTOV and BELOOZERO.

5.         BORIS Vsevolodich ([1187/88]-). 

6.         GLEB Vsevolodich (-29 Sep 1189).   

7.         IURII Vsevolodich (1190-killed in battle Sit River 4 Mar 1238).  His father originally planned for Iurii to rule in Rostov while his older brother Konstantin would succeed him in Vladimir, but Konstantin refused to move from Rostov.  In 1211, their father summoned a congress in Vladimir which bestowed the succession there, and seniority among his sons, on Iurii[761].  He succeeded his father in 1212 as IURII II Prince of Vladimir, but was not strong enough to dominate his brothers, who were ambitious to increase the autonomy of their own principalities.  Together with his younger brother Iaroslav, he challenged their older brother Konstantin in 1215 but was defeated in 1216 at Lipitsa and replaced by Konstantin as Prince of Vladimir[762].  Prince of Suzdal 1217.  He returned to power in Vladimir in 1218 on the death of his older brother Konstantin.  He invaded the territory held by the Volga Bulgars in 1220, successfully pushing back their western frontier by taking possession of Ustiug and the land on which he built the southern outpost of Nizhni-Novgorod in 1221 at the confluence of the Volga and Oka rivers[763].  He was killed fighting the Mongols, led by Batu, in their second invasion of Rus territory.  m (10 Apr 1211) AGAFIA Vsevolodovna, daughter of VSEVOLOD Sviatoslavich "Chermnyi" Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- of Poland (-killed 7 Feb 1238).  This marriage was arranged by her father to bolster support for his successful bid for the throne of Kiev in 1211[764].  When the Mongols invaded Vladimir she sought refuge with her sons in the Cathedral of the Assumption, but this was set alight by the invaders.  Iurii & his wife had five children: 

a)         VSEVOLOD Iurievich (23 Oct 1212-killed in battle Sit River 4 Mar 1238).  The Chronicle of Novgorod records that he was appointed Prince of Novgorod by his father in 1222, "fled by night secretly out of Novgorod with all his court" the same winter, was reappointed in [1223/24], but was replaced in Novgorod in early 1225[765].  He was killed fighting the Mongols.  m (14 Apr 1230) MARINA Vladimirovna, daughter of VLADIMIR Rurikovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- (-killed 7 Feb 1238). 

b)         DOBRAVA [Ielena] Iurievna (-after 5 Dec 1247)Baumgarten names her, and cites a Russian primary source and a letter of Pope Innocent IV dated 5 Dec 1247[766]m (1248) as his second wife, VASILKO Romanovich of Galicia Prince of Bielsk, Lutsk and Volynia, son of ROMAN Mstislavich Prince of Galich, Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife --- [of Byzantium] (1203-1269).  He succeeded his brother in 1260 as VASILKO King of Galich

c)         MSTISLAV Iurievich (1218-killed in battle Sit River 4 Mar 1238).  Killed by the Mongols with his brother.  m (1236) MARIA, daughter of ---.  

d)         FEDORA Iurievna (21 Sep 1219-killed in battle Sit River 4 Mar 1238).  Killed by the Mongols with her brothers. 

e)         VLADIMIR Iurievich (-killed in battle 3/6 Feb 1238).  He was killed fighting the Mongols in their second invasion of Rus territory.  m (1236) CHRISTINA, daughter of ---.  

8.         IAROSLAV FEDOR Vsevolodich (8 Feb 1191-30 Sep 1246).  He succeeded his older brother in 1238 as IAROSLAV Prince of Vladimir, under Mongol suzerainty. 

-        see below

9.         IELENA Vsevolodovna (-30 Dec 1203). 

10.      VLADIMIR Vsevolodich (25 Oct 1194-6 Jan 1229).  He was installed as Prince of Iuriev Polskiy after his father's death in 1213 and at first supported his brother Iurii against their brother Konstantin.  However, he defected to Konstantin who sent him to capture Moscow.  He was sent to southern Pereyaslavl by his brother Iurii in 1213[767]m (1215) --- Glebovna, daughter of GLEB Sviatoslavich Prince of Bielgorod and Chernigov & his wife [Anastasia] Rurikovna of Ovrutsch (-killed in battle 7 Feb 1238). 

11.      SVIATOSLAV GABRIEL Vsevolodich (27 Mar 1196-3 Feb 1252)He was installed by his father as Prince of Novgorod 1 Jan 1200.  He was replaced in 1205 by his older brother Konstantin[768], but was reappointed to Novgorod in 1209, although he was soon displaced when the territory was invaded by Mstislav Mstislavich "Udaloy"[769].  After his father's death, Sviatoslav supported his brother Konstantin against their brother Iurii but in 1213 defected to Iurii who installed him as Prince of Iuriev Polskiy, which their brother Vladimir had lost when he also switched sides[770].  He was appointed Prince of Suzdal in 1238 by his older brother Iaroslav, after the family's defeat at the battle of Sit River by the Mongols.  He succeeded his brother in 1247 as SVIATOSLAV Grand Prince of Vladimir, on learning of the latter's death returning from Sarai.  His succession was challenged by his nephew Andrei Iaroslavich, who assumed the title of Grand Prince apparently with Mongol support, whereupon Sviatoslav became Prince of Iuriev Polsky[771]m IEVDOKIA Davidovna of Murom, daughter of DAVID Rostislavich Prince of Murom & his wife ---.  She became a nun in 1228[772].  Sviatoslav & his wife had one child: 

a)         DMITRY Sviatoslavich (before 1228-[1267/69]).  He succeeded his father as Prince of Iuriev Polsky. 

12.      IVAN Vsevolodich "Kasha" (28 Nov 1197-after 1247).  He was appointed Prince of Starodub in 1238 by his older brother Iaroslav, after the family's defeat at the battle of Sit River by the Mongols.   

-        see below, Part B.  PRINCES of STARODUB

 

 

IAROSLAV 1238-1246, MIKHAIL 1248, ANDREI 1248-1252, IAROSLAV 1263-1271, VASILY 1271-1277

 

IAROSLAV FEDOR Vsevolodich, son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (8 Feb 1191-30 Sep 1246).  His father installed him as Prince of Pereyaslavl 10 Aug 1200, in order to secure the continued support of this principality (previously ruled by his nephews) as part of his strategy to counterbalance the growing power of Roman Prince of Galicia and Volynia[773].  His father installed him as Prince of Riazan in 1207 after the arrest of all members of the Riazan princely branch who were accused of intrigues[774].  Together with his older brother Iurii, he challenged the dominance of their older brother Konstantin in Vladimir-Suzdal in 1215[775].  Iaroslav seized power as Prince of Novgorod in 1215, but quickly alienated his new subjects.  The Chronicle of Novgorod records that he was defeated at the battle of Lipitsa in 1216 by his older brother Konstantin and Mstislav Mstislavich "Udaloi" Prince of Smolensk, and lost power in Novgorod[776].  He continued to rule in Pereyaslavl, and was reappointed to Novgorod in 1223 by his brother Iurii when the latter's son fled the city but left for Pereyaslavl later the same year[777].  In early 1226, he returned to Novgorod where, according to the Chronicle of Novgorod, in 1227 "four sorcerers … [were] burned … in Iaroslav's court", but was replaced at Easter 1229 after which "the men of Novgorod took much money from Iaroslav's favourites"[778].  He returned to Novgorod 30 Dec 1230, but was faced with rebellion in 1232[779].  He left Novgorod "to [take] the throne in Kiev" in 1236, installing his son Alexander at Novgorod[780].  He succeeded his older brother in 1238 as IAROSLAV Prince of Vladimir, under Mongol suzerainty.  In 1239 he repulsed an invasion by Lithuania[781].  In 1243, he journeyed to Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde, to swear allegiance, receiving in return the titles of Grand Prince of Vladimir and Grand Prince of Kiev, although following its earlier sack by the Mongols the latter's importance as a focal point for the dynasty was diminished.  He died while on his way to Karakoram on a visit to the Great Khan three years later[782]

m firstly (1205) --- Kuman princess, daughter of IURII Kondakovich Khan of the Kumans. 

m secondly (1214, divorced 1216) ROSTISLAVA Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloy" Prince of Novgorod & his wife --- of the Kumans. 

m thirdly (1218) FEDOSIA [Iefrosinia] Igorevich of Riazan, daughter of IGOR Glebovich Prince of Riazan & his wife Agrafena Rostislavna of Kiev ([1194]-4 May 1244, bur Novgorod St Iurii[783]).  She is named Iefrosinia in the Novgorod Chronicle783

Iaroslav & his third wife had twelve children (it is clear that all Prince Iaroslav's sons were born from his third marriage as, according to the Novgorod Chronicle, their mother was buried "by the side of her son Fedor"[784] who is described as his father's eldest son in another passage in the same source[785]): 

1.         FEDOR Iaroslavich (Winter 1219-5 Jun 1233, bur Novgorod St Iurii[786]).  He died the day before his marriage786[787]Betrothed to IEFROSINIA Mikhailovna of Chernigov, daughter of MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Prince of Chernigov [later Grand Prince of Kiev] & his wife Maria Romanovna of Galich ([1212]-25 Sep 1250).  She became a nun as THEODULA

2.         ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich "Nevsky" ([30 May 1220]-Gorodetzk 14 Nov 1263 bur Vladimir).  He succeeded his brother in 1252 as ALEKSANDR Grand Prince of Vladimir, under the suzerainty of the Golden Horde[788]

-        see below.

3.         ANDREI Iaroslavich (-1264).  He challenged the succession of his uncle Sviatoslav Vsevolodich and was appointed ANDREI Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1248, apparently with Mongol support[789].  Together with Daniil Romanovich Prince of Galich, his alliance with whom was sealed by his marriage to the former's daughter, he organised resistance to the Mongols.  Andrei refused to renew his allegiance to the oppressors after the death of the Great Khan Guyuk in 1251, but was defeated in battle and forced to flee to Novgorod and Sweden, being replaced by his brother as Grand Prince in 1252[790].  He returned in 1255, was pardoned and installed as Prince of Suzdal by the Mongols through the intercession of his brother Aleksandr[791].  The Novgorod Chronicle states that Andrei "fled beyond the sea to the land of the Svei and they killed him"[792], although the latter statement appears to be incorrect.  Prince of Gorodeno and Nizhni-Novgorod 1256.  m (winter [1250/51]) [DOBROSLAVA] Daniilovna, daughter of DANIIL Romanovich Prince [later King] of Galich & his first wife Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod.  Andrei & his wife had three children: 

a)         IURII Andreievich (-8 Mar 1279).  Prince of Suzdal 1264.  Prince of Pskov 1268. 

b)         MIKHAIL Andreievich (1264-after 1305).  Prince of Suzdal 1279.  Prince of Nizhni-Novgorod 1304.  m (1305) --- Pss of the Mongols.  

c)         VASILY Andreievich (1264-1309).  According to Baumgarten, Vasily was the son of Mikhail Andreievich, shown here as his older brother, by a first unknown wife married before the Mongol princess[793].  This, however, seems impossible from a chronological point of view.  Considering the dates of birth of Vasily's grandchildren, sons of Konstantin Vasilievich, it is unlikely that Vasily himself could have been born later than 1280 at the latest, which is inconsistent with his own father having been born in 1264.  Prince of Suzdal after 1305.    

-        see below, Chapter 10.  PRINCES of SUZDAL and NIZHNI-NOVGOROD

4.         MIKHAIL Iaroslavich "Khorobrit" (-killed in battle Protva 15 Jan 1248).  Prince of Moscow 1247.  He succeeded briefly in 1248 as MIKHAIL Grand Prince of Vladimir.   He was killed fighting an invasion by the Lithuanians who were eventually defeated at Zubtsov near the Smolensk border[794]

5.         DANIIL Iaroslavich (-1256). 

6.         IAROSLAV Iaroslavich (-16 Sep 1271).  He was appointed Prince of Tver in 1247 by his uncle Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He succeeded his brother in 1263 as IAROSLAV Grand Prince of Vladimir

-        see Chapter 11. GRAND PRINCES of TVER.

7.         KONSTANTIN Iaroslavich (before 1238-Mar 1255).  He was appointed Prince of Galich and Dmitrov 1247 by his uncle Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Vladimir.   m ---.  The name of Konstantin´s wife is not known.  Konstantin & his wife had two children:

a)         DAVID Konstantinovich (-2 Apr 1280).  Prince of Galich and Dmitrov 1255/1280.  m --- Fedorovna of Iaroslavl, daughter of FEDOR Rostislavich "Cherniy/the Black" Prince of Iaroslavl & his first wife Maria Vasilievna of Iaroslavl (-1299).   David & his wife had three children:

i)          IVAN Davidovich

ii)         FEDOR Davidovich (-1335).  Prince of Galich.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child:

(a)       IVAN Fedorevichm ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(1)       DMITRY Ivanovich .  Prince of Galich 1360.  He was expelled in 1362 by Dmitry "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow[795].  Supposedly ancestor of the noble families of Berezin, Ossinin, Ivin and Liapunov[796]m --- .  1362.  She was captured by Dmitry "Donskoy" during the expulsion of her husband[797]

iii)        BORIS Davidovich (-1334).  Prince of Dmitrov.   

b)         VASILY Konstantinovich .  Prince of Galich and Dmitrov 1310.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

i)          FEDOR Vasilievich (-[young][798]).  1310. 

8.         [799]AFANASY Iaroslavich .  1239. 

9.         MARIA Iaroslavna (1240-). 

10.      VASILY Iaroslavich (1241-1277, bur Kostroma Church of St Fedor[800]).  He was appointed Prince of Kostroma[801] in 1247 by his uncle Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He succeeded his brother in 1272 as VASILY Grand Prince of Vladimir.  With Mongol help, he deprived his nephew Dmitry Aleksandrovich of Novgorod in 1273[802].  He tried to restore Vladimir's authority over Novgorod, which had declined during the reign of his brother Iaroslav[803]m (Kostroma 1266) ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had two children:

a)         [804]child (-young).  

b)         [805]child (-young).

11.      IEVDOKIA Iaroslavna

12.      IULIANA Iaroslavna

 

 

ALEKSANDR 1252-1263, DMITRY 1277/1294, ANDREI 1281/1304, IURII 1318-1322

 

ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich "Nievskiy", son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his third wife Fedosia Igorevich of Riazan ([30 May 1220]-Gorodets 14 Nov 1263, bur Vladimir Monastery of the Nativity[806]).  His father installed him as Prince of Novgorod in 1236[807].  He was also Prince of Dmitrov 1238/1246, and Prince of Pereyaslavl 1238/1252.  Pereyaslavl was captured by the Mongols in Mar 1239.  Aleksandr defended north-western Rus against Germany and Sweden.  He defeated the Swedes at the battle of Neva River in 1240, from which he earned his epithet 'Nievskiy', and the Teutonic Knights at Lake Peipus (in Estonia) in Apr 1242 after ending their occupation of Pskov[808].  He left Novgorod for the Mongol court in 1246, returning in 1250[809].  He was created Grand Prince of Kiev in 1250 by the Great Mongol Khan at Karakoram, but maintained Novgorod as his main base of operations.  He succeeded his brother in 1252 as ALEKSANDR Grand Prince of Vladimir, under the suzerainty of the Golden Horde[810].  The Novgorod Chronicle records that, in 1255, he was opposed by his brother Iaroslav whom "the men of Novgorod led … from Pskov and set … on the throne" in Novgorod, but Aleksandr reasserted his position later the same year[811].  In alliance with the Mongols, he forced Novgorod to submit to the Mongol request for payment of taxes and taking a census in 1259[812].  He died at Gordodets monastery on the journey back from a visit to the Mongol capital Sarai[813].  He was the subject of a hagiographic biography to which Metropolitan Kirill, patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church during Aleksandr's reign, largely contributed[814]

m firstly (Toropets[815] 1239) PARASKEVIYA [Aleksandra] Bryacheslavna of Polotsk, daughter of BRYACHESLAV Vasilkovich Prince of Polotsk and Vitebsk & his wife --- (-[1261/62]).  Her marriage is referred to in the Novgorod Chronicle, which names her father but does not give her own first name[816]

m secondly ([1262/63]) VASILISA, daughter of ---. 

Aleksandr & his first wife had five children:

1.         VASILY Aleksandrovich ([1239/45]-1271).  Prince of Novgorod 1255.  He was driven out by the Novgorodians in 1257 as a gesture of defiance to his father and fled to Pskov where he was arrested and sent back to Suzdalia in disgrace[817][818]Betrothed (1251, contract broken before Feb 1258) to CHRISTINA of Norway, daughter of HAAKON IV "den Gamle/the Old" King of Norway & his wife Margareta Skulesdotter (1234-Seville 1262, bur Covarrubias, monastery of San Cosme and San Damian). 

2.         IEVDOKIA Aleksandrovna m (before 1262) KONSTANTIN Rostislavich Prince of Smolensk, son of [ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife ---].

3.         DMITRY Aleksandrovich ([1250]-Volok 1294[819]).  He was appointed Prince of Pereyaslavl in 1253 by his father.  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod by his father in 1259, but was removed by his uncle Iaroslav Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1264 after his father died[820].  The Novgorod Chronicle records that he was restored in Novgorod on the death of Prince Iaroslav, only to be removed again in 1273 in favour of his uncle Vasily, but succeeded again in 1277 on the death of the latter[821].  He succeeded his uncle in 1277 as DMITRY I Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He was deposed by the Mongols in 1281, apparently for refusing to visit Sarai to swear allegiance.  However, he gained support of the Mongol commander Nogai who had acquired a powerful position as an independent leader among the Golden Horde and returned as Grand Prince in 1283[822].  Dmitry was deposed in 1293 by the new khan Tokhta, who gave his support to the restoration of his brother Andrei.  Prince of Kostroma 1276-1293.  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had five children:

a)         IVAN Dmitrievich "Tikhiy" ([1276]-15 May 1302).  Prince of Kostroma 1293-1294.  Prince of Pereyaslavl Zalesskii 1294-1302.  He unsuccessfully challenged the accession of his uncle Andrei as Grand Prince of Vladimir, who in turn reclaimed the right to rule in Pereyaslavl Zalesskii.  The dispute triggered the assembly of princes of 1296, which decided to allow Ivan to remain at Pereyaslavl Zalesskii [823].  He retained the territory, with the support of his uncle Daniil Prince of Moscow and Mikhail Prince of Tver, against two attempts by Prince Andrei to capture it in 1296 and 1298[824]m ([1292/96]) --- Dmitrievna of Rostov, daughter of DMITRY Borisovich Prince of Rostov & his wife ---. 

b)         ALEKSANDR Dmitrievich (-1292).  He "died among the Tartars"[825]

c)         IVAN Dmitrievich (-1290).  

d)         MARIA Dmitrievna (-1300).  According to the Novgorod Chronicle, "his [=Dmitry's] two daughters [were] … brought to Novgorod as hostages" from Koporya in 1282[826]m DAUMANTAS [Dowmont] TIMOFEI [of Lithuania] Prince of Pskov, son of --- (-1299).

e)         --- Dmitrievna .  Dmitry had a second daughter, as "his two daughters" were taken hostage in 1282 according to the Novgorod Chronicle[827]

4.         ANDREI Aleksandrovich ([1255]-27 Jul 1304, bur Gorodets[828]).  Prince of Gorodeno and Kostroma 1276.  He took part in the Mongol campaign against the north Caucasus in 1277[829].  He succeeded in 1281 as ANDREI Grand Prince of Vladimir when his brother was deposed by the Mongols, but was deposed in his turn in 1283 after his brother gained the support of the Mongol commander Nogai.  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod in 1283, but was replaced by his brother Dmitry in 1284, 1293[830].  Andrei was restored as Grand Prince in 1293 with the support of the new khan Tokhta[831]m (1294) VASILISA Dmitrievna of Rostov, daughter of DMITRY Borisovich Prince of Rostov & his wife ---.  Andrei & his wife had one child: 

a)         BORIS Andreievich ([1295]-Kostroma 25 Feb 1303).  Prince of Novgorod 1299.  Prince of Kostroma [1303]. 

5.         DANIIL Aleksandrovich (1261-4/5 Mar 1303).  Prince of Novgorod 1255, 1264-1272.  Prince of Moscow [1283]. 

-        see Chapter 12.  GRAND PRINCES of MOSCOW.   

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of STARODUB

 

 

IVAN Vsevolodich "Kasha", son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia (28 Nov 1197-after 1247).  He was appointed Prince of Starodub in 1238 by his older brother Iaroslav, after the family's defeat at the battle of Sit River by the Mongols. 

m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child: 

1.         MIKHAIL Ivanovich (-after 1281).  Prince of Starodub.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had one child:

a)         IVAN Mikhailovich "Kalistrat" (-[1315]).  Prince of Starodub.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

i)          FEDOR Ivanovich "Blagovierniy" (-killed in battle 1330).  Prince of Starodub.  He was killed fighting the Mongols.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had three children:

(a)       DMITRY Fedorevich (-1354).  Prince of Starodub.  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had one child:

(1)       SEMËN Dmitrievich "Krapiva" (-killed in battle 1368).

(b)       IVAN Fedorevich .  1356/63.  Prince of Starodub, from where he was expelled in 1363[832]

(c)       ANDREI Fedorevich (-after 8 Sep 1380).  Prince of Starodub [1363].  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had four children:

(1)       VASILY Andreievich "Pozharsky".  Ancestor of the Counts Pozharskoy Gagarin. 

(2)       FEDOR Andreievich .  Prince of Starodub 1380-[1425].  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had five children:

a.         FEDOR Andreievich .  Prince of Starodub.  His sons were ancestors of the Princes Krivoborsky, Lialovsky, Kovrov Nieushkin, Gundorov, Tulupov, Pestry, Strigin and Nerogaty (all extinct), and the Princes Khilkov.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had six children:

(i)         VLADIMIR Fedorevich .  Prince of Starodub. 

(ii)        IVAN Fedorevich

(iii)       KONSTANTIN Fedorevich "Lialo". 

(iv)      PIOTR Fedorevich

(v)       SEMËN Fedorevich

(vi)      IVAN Fedorevich "Ovka". 

b.         IVAN Andreievich "Morchinya".  Prince of Starodub. 

c.         IVAN Andreievich .  Prince Gobliesovsky. 

d.         PIOTR Andreievich

e.         VASILY Andreievich .  Prince Romodanovsky. 

(3)       IVAN Fedorevich "Nogavika".  Prince Riapalovsky.  Ancestor of Princes Gagarin (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire many times between 13 Mar 1798 and 24 Sep 1890[833]

(4)       DAVID Fedorevich "Palica".  Ancestor of the Princes Palitzky. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    PRINCES of ROSTOV and BELOOZERO

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of ROSTOV

 

 

KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich "Dobry/the Good/the Book-like", son of VSEVOLOD Iurievich "Balshoe Gniezdo/Big Nest" Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Maria of Ossetia ([1185] or 18 May 1186-2 Feb 1218).  His father appointed him Prince of Novgorod in 1205 in place of his younger brother Sviatoslav, but he was replaced in 1209 by Sviatoslav[834].  His father installed him as Prince at Rostov and five other unspecified towns in 1208.  His father planned in 1211 for Konstantin to succeed him, based at Vladimir, but the latter refused to move from Rostov.  Eventually, his father bestowed Vladimir, and seniority among his sons, on his younger son Iurii[835].  Koonstantin was challenged by his younger brothers Iurii and Iaroslav, defeating Iaroslav at the battle of Lipitsa in 1216, in alliance with Mstislav Mstislavich "Udaloi" Prince of Smolensk, thereafter reigning as KONSTANTIN Prince of Vladimir until his death in 1218[836]

m (15 Oct 1195) --- Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV Romanovich "Dobriy/the Good" Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife --- Vasilkovna of Vitebsk (-24 Jan 1221 or [1222]).  She became a nun as AGAFIA after her husband died[837]

Konstantin & his wife had three children (who are named by Baumgarten with reference to primary sources[838]): 

1.         VASILKO Konstantinovich (7 Dec 1208-killed in battle Sit River 4 Mar 1238).  He succeeded his father in 1218 as Prince of Rostov. 

-        see below

2.         VSEVOLOD Konstantinovich (18 Jun 1210-after 4 Mar 1238).  He succeeded as Prince of Iaroslavl 1218 after the death of his father.  Prince of Pereyaslavl 1227-1228.  He fought at the battle of Sit River against the Mongols, led by Batu, in their second invasion of Rus territory, but nothing is known about him after this[839]m (1226) MARINA Olegovna, daughter of OLEG Sviatoslavich Prince of Kursk & his wife ---(-1 Mar 1279).  Vsevolod & his wife had two children: 

a)         VASILY Vsevolodich ([1229]-27 Dec 1249, but 8 Feb 1250 Iaroslavl[840]).  He succeeded his father in 1238 as Prince of Iaroslavl.  m ([1245/46]) XENIA, daughter of ---.  Vasily & his wife had three children: 

i)          VASILY Vasilievich .  1250. 

ii)         MARIA Vasilievna ([1246]-)m ([1260/61]) as his first wife, FEDOR Rostislavich Prince of Mozhaisk, son of ROSTISLAV Mstislavich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- (-19/20 Sep 1299).  Grand Prince of Smolensk 1279/80-1287.  He was appointed Prince of Iaroslavl in 1281, by right of his wife. 

iii)        ANASTASIA Vasilievna (bur Iaroslavl, Convent of St Peter & St Paul[841]). 

b)         KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich (1238-killed in battle Tugovaia Gora 1256).  He was killed fighting the Mongols. 

3.         VLADIMIR Konstantinovich (1214-12/27 Dec 1249).  Prince of Uglich.  m (1232) IEVDOKIA [Nadezhda] Ingvarevna, daughter of INGVAR Igorevich Prince of Riazan & his wife --- (-1278).  Vladimir & his wife had two children: 

a)         ANDREI Vladimirovich (-1261).  He succeeded his father in 1249 as Prince of Uglich.  m IUSTINA, daughter of --- (-1278). 

b)         ROMAN Vladimirovich (-Uglich 3 Feb 1285, bur Uglich).  He succeeded his brother in 1261 as Prince of Uglich. 

 

 

VASILKO Konstantinovich, son of KONSTANTIN Vsevolodich Prince of Rostov, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife --- Mstislavna of Kiev (7 Dec 1208 or 1209-murdered 4 Mar 1238).  He succeeded his father in 1218 as Prince of Rostov.  Prince of Beloozero.  He was killed fighting the Mongols, led by Batu, in their second invasion of Rus territory[842]

m (10 Feb 1227) MARIA Mikhailovna of Chernigov, daughter of MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Romanovna of Galich (-7 or 9 Dec 1271). 

Vasilko & his wife had two children: 

1.         BORIS Vasilkovich (24 Jul 1231-16 Sep 1277).  He succeeded his father in 1239 as Prince of Rostov.  m (1248) MARIA Iaroslavna of Murom, daughter of IAROSLAV Iurievich Prince of Murom & his wife --- (-1297).  Boris & his wife had three children: 

a)         DMITRY Borisovich (11 Sep 1253-[1293/94]).  He succeeded his uncle in 1277 as Prince of Rostov, until 1286, and again from 1289.  Strongly anti-Mongol, he clashed with his brother Konstantin, who sought support from the Mongols, the dispute lasting fourteen years[843].  He supported Andrei Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Vladimir in the latter's dispute with his brother Dmitry[844].  Deprived of Rostov by his brother, he succeeded his cousin as Prince of Uglich in 1286.  He expelled his brother from Rostov in 1288, the latter being relegated to Uglich[845]m (1276) ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had four children: 

i)          MIKHAIL Dmitrievich (1286-young). 

ii)         --- Dmitrievna .  Her marriage was arranged by her father to gain support against his brother Konstantin[846]m ([1292/96]) IVAN Dmitrievich "Tikhiy" Prince of Pereyaslavl, son of DMITRY I Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife --- ([1276]-15 May 1302). 

iii)        ANNA Dmitrievna (-3 Oct 1368).  She became a nun as SOFIA.  She was canonised as St Anne of Kashin 21 Jul 1650, although her cult was prohibited from 1677 until 7 Nov 1908[847]m (8 Sep 1294) MIKHAIL Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Tver, son of IAROSLAV III Iaroslavich Prince of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his second wife Xenia Iurievna (-murdered 22 Nov 1318). 

iv)       VASILISA Dmitrievna m (1294) ANDREI Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Vladimir, son of ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich "Nievskiy" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Paraskeviya [Aleksandra] Bryacheslavna of Polotsk (-27 Jul 1304). 

b)         KONSTANTIN Borisovich (30 Jul 1255-1307).  He succeeded his brother 1286 as Prince of Rostov. 

-        see below

c)         [848]VASILY Borisovich (16 Apr 1268-young). 

2.         GLEB Vasilkovich (1237-13 Dec 1278).  Prince of Beloozero [1251].  He succeeded his brother in 1277 as Prince of Rostov. 

-        see below, Part B.  PRINCES of BELOOZERO

 

 

KONSTANTIN Borisovich, son of BORIS Vasilkovich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Iaroslavna of Murom (30 Jul 1255-1307).  He succeeded his brother 1286 as Prince of Rostov.  His brother expelled him from Rostov in 1288, after which he was transferred to Uglich.  He succeeded his brother once more in [1293/94] at Rostov[849]

m firstly --- (-1299). 

m secondly (1302) --- Mongol princess, daughter of Khan KUTLUKOTKA of the Mongols. 

Konstantin & his first wife had three children: 

1.         --- Konstantinovna (-before 1317)m (1297) as his first wife, IURII Daniilovich of Vladimir, son of DANIIL Aleksandrovich Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria --- (-murdered 29 Nov 1325).  He succeeded his father in 1303 as Prince of Pereyaslavl Zalesskii, and Prince of Moscow.  He succeeded in 1318 as IURII Grand Prince of Vladimir

2.         ALEKSANDR Konstantinovich (1286-[before 1307]).  He succeeded his father in 1294 as Prince of Uglich, when the latter succeeded as Prince of Rostov[850]m (1302) ---.  The name of Aleksandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had one child: 

a)         IURII Aleksandrovich (-30 May 1320).  Prince of Uglich [1316].  He succeeded his uncle as Prince of Rostov. 

3.         VASILY Konstantinovich (1291-[1316/20]).  Prince of Rostov 1307-1316.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had two children:

a)         FEDOR Vasilievich (-28 Mar 1331).  He succeeded his first cousin 1320 as joint Prince of Rostov, jointly with his brother Konstantin.  m (1326) MARIA, daughter of --- (-after 21 Nov 1355).  Fedor & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANDREI Fedorevich ([1330]-Winter 1409).  He succeeded his father as joint Prince of Rostov 1331, until 1360.  He was reappointed Prince of Rostov 1364 by Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, after the latter had expelled Andrei's uncle Konstantin Vasilievich.  He became one of the Muscovite prince's closest allies[851]m (1347) ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had [seven] children: 

(a)       [852]IVAN Andreievich .  Joint Prince of Rostov.  He sold his part of Rostov to Moscow in 1425.  He left descendants, extinct in the fourth generation. 

(b)       FEDOR Andreievich .  Joint Prince of Rostov.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had five children:

(1)       ALEKSANDER Fedorevich "Shchepa" m --- Dmitrievna Zernova, daughter of DMITRY Konstantinovich Zernov & his wife ---.  Ancestors of the family of Shchepin-Rostovsky. 

(2)       IVAN Fedorevich "the elder". 

(3)       FEDOR Fedorevich "Russan". 

(4)       DMITRY Fedorevich .  Ancestor of the families of Primkov-Rostovsky, Bakhteiarov-Rostovsky and Gvosdev-Rostovsky[853]

(5)       IVAN Fedorevich "the younger". 

(c)       VERA Andreievna m her second cousin, IVAN Vladimirovich Prince of Rostov, son of VLADIMIR Konstantinovich Prince of Rostov-Borisoglebsk & his wife ---. 

(d)       IURII Andreievich (-1413).  Prince of Rostov. 

(e)       KONSTANTIN Andreievich (-27 Apr 1407).  Prince of Rostov.  He became a monk as Kassian[854]

(f)        [MIKHAIL Andreievich .] 

(g)       [BORIS Andreievich . ] 

b)         KONSTANTIN Vasilievich (1312-1365).  He succeeded his first cousin 1320 as joint Prince of Rostov, jointly with his brother Fedor.  Prince of Rostov 1360/1364.  He was expelled from Rostov in 1364 by Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow, following the latter's succession as Grand Prince of Vladimir, and replaced by his nephew Andrei Fedorevich[855].  He died from an epidemic with his wife and two oldest children[856]m (1328) MARIA Ivanovna of Moscow, daughter of IVAN I Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Elena --- (-2 Jun 1365).  Konstantin & his wife had [nine] children: 

i)          IVAN Konstantinovich (-1365). 

ii)         GLEB Konstantinovich (-1365). 

iii)        VASILY Konstantinovich .  Prince of Rostov.  1375. 

iv)       ALEKSANDR Konstantinovich (-9/19 Jun 1404).  Prince of Rostov.  m ---.  The name of Aleksandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had three children: 

(a)       ANDREI Aleksandrovich (-after 17 Jul 1417).  Prince of Rostov.  Prince of Pskov 1415, he was deprived 17 Jul 1417.  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had three children: 

(1)       IVAN Andreievich (-before 1474).  Probable ancestor of the families of Khokholkov-Rostovsky, Katirev-Rostovsky and Buisonov-Rostovsky[857]m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had two children:

a.         IURII Ivanovich "Nyemoy/the Mute".

b.         FEDOR Ivanovich "Golenia".  Ancestor of the Counts Goleniny-Rostovsky. 

(2)       VLADIMIR Andreievich .  Joint Prince of Rostov with his cousin Ivan Ivanovich.  They sold the principality of Rostov to Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow[858]m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had three children:

a.         [859]--- Vladimirovich .  Boyar at Moscow. 

b.         [860]--- Vladimirovich .  Boyar at Moscow. 

(3)       IVAN Andreievich (-before 1474).  Prince of Rostov.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

a.         IVAN Ivanovich Rostovsky "Temkin" (-killed in battle Orcha 8 Sep 1514).  Ancestor of the families Temkin-Rostovsky and Yanov-Rostovsky (both extinct)[861]

(b)       FEDOR Aleksandrovich (-after 1420).  Prince of Rostov.  Prince of Pskov after the eviction of his brother Andrei until 1420.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child:

(1)       ALEKSANDR Fedorevich .  Prince of Pskov three times from 1410 to 28 Feb 1434[862]m ---.  The name of Alexsandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had two children:

a.         [863]DMITRY Aleksandrovich .  1429. 

b.         [864]--- Aleksandrovna m VLADIMIR Daniilovich Prince of Pskov, 1434 to 1439. 

(c)       IVAN Aleksandrovich .  Prince of Rostov.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had two children:

(1)       IVAN Ivanovich .  Joint Prince of Rostov with his cousin Vladimir Andreievich.  They sold the principality of Rostov to Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow[865].  Ancestors of the Princes Puibolsky-Rostovsky (extinct). 

(2)       ALEKSANDR Ivanovich (-before 1474).  Prince of Rostov. 

v)        [ARSEN Konstantinovich (-1405).  Baumgarten specifies that Arsen Bishop of Rostov was a member of the family of the Princes of Rostov[866].  While indicating that the sources are contradictory regarding his precise relationship, the author says that it is probable that he was the son of Konstantin Vasilievich.  Bishop of Rostov.] 

vi)       VLADIMIR Konstantinovich .  Prince of Rostov-Borisoglebsk.  m ---.  The name of Vladimir´s wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had two children:

(a)       KONSTANTIN Vladimirovich (-1415).  Prince of Rostov.   

(b)       IVAN Vladimirovich .  Prince of Rostov.  m his second cousin, VERA Andreievna of Rostov, daughter of ANDREI Fedorevich Prince of Rostov & his wife ---.  Ivan & his wife had two children: 

(1)       ALEKSANDR Ivanovichm ---.  The name of Alexsandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had two children:

a.         IVAN Aleksandrovich "Loban".  Ancestor of Princes Lobanov-Rostovsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire several times between 8 Apr 1820 and 3 Dec 1869[867]

b.         MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich "Kossatka".  Ancestor of Princes Kossatkine-Rostovsky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire three times between 28 Apr 1838 and 20 Sep 1849[868]

(2)       ANNA Ivanovna m IVAN Vasilievich Prince of Iaroslavl, son of VASILY Vasilievich Prince of Iaroslavl & his wife --- (-1426).

vii)      VASILISA [Anna] Konstantinovna m DMITRY Konstantinovich of Suzdal, son of KONSTANTIN Vasilievich Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod & his second wife Ielena --- (-5 Jul 1383).  Prince of Suzdal 1355.  He succeeded in 1360 as DMITRY Grand Prince of Vladimir, deposed 1362.  He succeeded his half-brother as Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhniy Novgorod in 1365. 

viii)     [869]MARIA Konstantinovna (-1390)m (1345) ANDREI Ivanovich Prince of Bobrovsk and Sierpukhov, son of IVAN I Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Elena --- (-6 Jun 1353). 

ix)       OLGA Konstantinovna m as his second wife, LIUBARTAS Prince of Lithuania, son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna] ([1299]-1384).  He was baptised DMITRY.  He took control of Volynia in 1340 after the assassination of Bołeslaw Jerzy of Mazovia[870].  Prince of Vladimir-Volhynsk and Lutsk [1379]. 

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of BELOOZERO

 

 

GLEB Vasilkovich, son of VASILKO Konstantinovich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Mikhailovna of Chernigov (1237-13 Dec 1278).  Prince of Beloozero [1251].  He succeeded his brother in 1277 as Prince of Rostov[871].  Nine weeks after he died, his nephew Dmitry Borisovich ordered the exhumation of his corpse from Rostov cathedral in an attempt to demonstrate that Gleb's descendants had no claim on Rostov[872]

m (1257) --- Mongol princess, daughter of SARTAK Khan (-20 Dec 1273).  She was baptised into the Orthodox church as FEDORA[873]

Gleb & his wife had two children: 

1.         DAMIAN Glebovich (1 Jul 1262-soon after 1277).  

2.         MIKHAIL Glebovich (Nov 1266-Summer 1293).  He succeeded as Prince of Beloozero late 1278/early 1279 after the death of his father.  In [1279/80], his cousin Dmitry Borisovich confiscated part of the principality of Beloozero from Mikhail[874]m (15 or 31 Jul 1278) --- Fedorovna of Iaroslavl, daughter of FEDOR Rostislavich "Cherniy/the Black" Prince of Iaroslavl & his first wife Maria Vasilievna of Iaroslavl.  Mikhail & his wife had two children: 

a)         FEDOR Mikhailovich (-after 1314).  Prince of Beloozero.  m firstly (1302) ---, daughter of BELBAS Mysh of the Tartars.  m secondly (1314) --- Dmitrievna, daughter of DMITRY Zhidimirich boyar from Novgorod.  

b)         ROMAN Mikhailovich .  Prince of Beloozero 1339.  m ---.  The name of Roman´s wife is not known.  Roman & his wife had two children: 

i)          FEDOR Romanovich (-killed in battle Kulikov 8 Sep 1380).  Prince of Beloozero.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child:

(a)       IVAN Fedorevich (-killed in battle Kulikov 8 Sep 1380).  Prince of Beloozero.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(1)       KONSTANTIN Ivanovich .  Prince of Novgorod 1393/1396.  Prince of Pskov 1408. 

ii)         VASILY Romanovich (-before 1380).  Prince of Sugorie.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had four children:

(a)       IURII Vasilievich .  Prince of Beloozero after 1380.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had two children:

(1)       ANDREI Iurievich .  Ancestor of Princes Vadbolski (extinct)[875]

(2)       ROMAN Iurievich .  Ancestor of Princes Belosselsky-Belozersky (extant), whose princely status was confirmed by the Senate of the Russian Empire 26 May 1804 and 4 Oct 1845[876].  and Vadbolski, and Princes Andoysky (extinct)[877].  

(b)       AFANASY Vasilievich .  Prince of Sheleshpan.  Ancestor of the Princes Sheleshpansky877.  

(c)       SEMËN Vasilievich .  Prince of Sugorye and Kem.  Ancestor of the Princes Sugorsky and Kemsky (both extinct)877.  

(d)       IVAN Vasilievich .  Prince of Kargolom and Uchtom.  Ancestor of the Princes Ukhtomsky and Princes Kargolomsky (both extinct)877

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  GRAND PRINCES of SUZDAL and NIZHNI-NOVGOROD



This line provided only two candidates for the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir, Aleksandr Vasilievich and his nephew Dmitry Konstantinovich, appointed in 1360 by Khan Navruz to succeed Ivan Ivanovich Prince of Moscow.  Both appointments were short-lived.  Although both represented an older generation than the alternative candidate from the Daniilovich line of princes of Moscow, neither could claim that his succession was legitimate in accordance with the old dynastic tradition as in neither case had their fathers ruled as Grand Prince before them. 

 

 

ALEKSANDR 1328-1331, DMITRY 1360/1363

 

VASILY Andreievich, son of ANDREI Iaroslavich Prince of Suzdal, Gorodeno and Nizhni-Novgorod & his wife [Dobroslava] Daniilovna of Galich (1264-1309).  According to Baumgarten[878], Vasily was the son of Mikhail Andreievich, shown here as his older brother, by a first unknown wife whom he had married before the Mongol princess.  This, however, seems impossible from a chronological point of view.  Considering the dates of birth of Vasily's grandchildren, sons of Konstantin Vasilievich, it is unlikely that Vasily himself could have been born later than 1280 at the latest, which is inconsistent with his own father having been born in 1264.  Prince of Suzdal after 1305. 

m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known. 

Vasily & his wife had two children:

1.         ALEKSANDR Vasilievich (-1332).  Prince of Suzdal 1309.  He may have been appointed ALEKSANDR Grand Prince of Vladimir by the Mongols in 1328, ruling jointly with Ivan Daniilovich Prince of Moscow[879]

2.         KONSTANTIN Vasilievich ([1295/1303][880]-21 Nov 1355).  Prince of Suzdal 1332.  He unsuccessfully challenged the succession of Semën Ivanovich Prince of Moscow as Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1341.  He seized Gorodets and Nizhnii Novgorod, making the latter his capital, his occupation later being legitimised by Khan Janibeg[881].  He declared himself Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod in 1350 as an indication of his challenge to the central authority of the Muscovite principality.  After the death of Semën "Gordiy/the Proud" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow in 1353, Konstantin unsuccessfully attempted to seize the senior position of Grand Prince from the line of Moscow[882]m firstly ANNA of Mankup, daughter of VASILY Prince of Mankup [Gothia] & his wife --- (-[1321]).  m secondly ([1321/23]) IELENA, daughter of --- (-after 1365).  Konstantin & his first wife had one child:

a)         ANDREI Konstantinovich ([1321] or before-2 Jun 1365).  Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod 1355.  m (1343) ANASTASIA [Vasilisa] Ivanovna Kiassovskaia, daughter of IVAN Kiassovski & his wife --- (1331-1378)..  She became a nun as FEDORA[883]

Konstantin & his second wife had four children:

b)         DMITRY Konstantinovich "the Elder" ([1323/24]-5 Jul 1383).  Prince of Suzdal 1355.  He succeeded in 1360 as DMITRY Grand Prince of Vladimir, appointed by Nevruz Khan of the Golden Horde.  His appointment was short-lived, however, as it was not renewed by Navruz's successor who appointed Dmitry Ivanovich Prince of Moscow in his place in 1362.  There was a period of confusion during which rival rulers of the Golden Horde supported Dmitry Prince of Moscow and Dmitry Prince of Suzdal, but Dmitry of Suzdal was eventually expelled from Vladimir by Dmitry of Moscow[884].  Dmitry of Suzdal's eventual recognition of Muscovite authority was confirmed by the 1367 marriage of his daughter to Dmitry Prince of Moscow.  He succeeded his half-brother as Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhniy Novgorod in 1365.  m VASILISA [Anna] Konstantinovna of Rostov, daughter of KONSTANTIN III Vassilievich Prince of Rostov & his wife Maria Ivanovna of Moscow.  Dmitry & his wife had five children: 

i)          VASILY Dmitrievich "Kirdiapa" (-1403).  Prince of Gorodeno 1387.  Prince of Nizhniy Novgorod 1387-1389.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had four children: 

(a)       IVAN Vasilievich (-1417).  Prince of Suzdal.  

(b)       IURII Vasilievich .  Prince of Shuia.  [Count Shuisky].     

-         see below.

(c)       FEDOR Vasilievich . 

(d)       DANIIL Vasilievich (-killed in battle Liskovo 15 Jan 1411). 

ii)         IVAN Dmitrievich (-drowned in Pyana River 2 Aug 1377).  Prince of Nizhni-Novgorod.  

iii)        SEMËN Dmitrievich ([1357]-21 Dec 1402).  Prince of Suzdal.  He claimed the throne of Nizhni-Novgorod[885]m ALEKSANDRA, daughter of --- (-after 1402).  Semën & his wife had one child: 

(a)       VASILY Semënovich .  Prince of Shuia 1414.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had six children: 

(1)       BORIS Vasilievich .  Prince of Pskov 1436. 

(2)       IVAN Vasilievich (-after 1478).  He renounced the principalities of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod in 1451, receiving Gorodetzk.  Ancestor of the Princes Gorbaty-Shuisky (extinct) [886]

(3)       ALEKSANDR Vasilievich .  1451.  m ---.  The name of Aleksandr´s wife is not known.  Aleksandr & his wife had two children:

a.         son .  Ancestor of the Princes Barbachin and Glafatuy-Shuisky (extinct)[887]

b.         ANASTASIA Aleksandrovna (-after 1486)m (1453) as his second wife, BORIS Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver, son of ALEKSANDR Ivanovich of Tver & his wife --- Fedorovna of Mologa (-10 Feb 1461). 

(4)       ANDREI Vasilievich "Lougvitza" (-killed in battle Soukhodrov 1445). 

(5)       VASILY Vasilievich "Grebenka" (-after 1477).  Prince of Pskov and Novgorod 1451.  He reconciled himself with Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow 1475[888]

(6)       ROMAN Vasilievich

iv)       IEVDOKIA Dmitrievna (-7 Jun 1407)m (18 Jan 1367) DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoi" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow, son of IVAN II Ivanovich "Krotkiy/the Beauty" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his second wife Aleksandra Vasilievna Veliaminova (12 Oct 1350-18/19 May 1389). 

v)        MARIA Dmitrievna m NIKOLAI Vasilievich Veliaminov, son of VASILY Veliaminov. 

c)         BORIS Konstantinovich (before 1340-12 May 1394).  Prince of Gorodeno 1355.  He succeeded his brother 1383 as Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod.  After the victory of Khan Tokhtamysh against Dmitry "Donskoi" Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1382, Boris took advantage of Moscow's weakness and established direct relations with the Mongols[889].  He was deposed in 1392 by Vasily Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow with the approval of Khan Tokhtamysh[890].  He was imprisoned and died in chains[891]m (1354) MARIA [Agrafena] of Lithuania, daughter of ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his first wife [Maria] Iaroslavna of Vitebsk (-1393).  Boris & his wife had two children: 

i)          DANIIL Borisovich (-after 1425).  He was restored as Prince of Nizhni-Novgorod in 1414, but expelled the same year[892]m MARIA, daughter of --- (-1425).  She became a nun as MARINA[893].  Daniil & his wife had one child:  

(a)       ALEKSANDR Daniilovich "Vzmetenj" .  Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod.  m (after 1418) as her second husband, VASILISA Vasilievna of Moscow, widow of ALEKSANDR Ivanovich "Brukhaty" Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod, daughter of VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Sofia of Lithuania. 

ii)         IVAN Borisovich "Tugiy Luk" (1370-1418).  Prince of Nizhni-Novgorod 1412-1414.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(a)       ALEKSANDR Ivanovich "Brukhaty" (-1418).  According to Baumgarten, Aleksandr Ivanovich was the son of Ivan Vasilievich, son of Ivan Borisovich's first cousin Vasily Dmitrievich "Kirdiapa" Prince of Gorodeno and Nizhni-Novgorod[894].  Although he cites two sources which apparently confirm that Aleksandr was the son of Ivan Borisovich, he prefers the arguments that (1) Fedor Vasilievich Prince Shuia described Aleksandr Ivanovich as his "brother" when confirming certain donations, the usage of this word being confined to first cousins and actual brothers, and (2) the prohibition under Russian canon law of an individual marrying the first cousin of a deceased spouse, which would have been breached by Vasilisa Dmitrievna of Moscow if Aleksandr Ivanovich had been the son of Ivan Borisovich.  Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod 1417.  m (1417) as her first husband, VASILISA Vasilievna of Moscow, daughter of VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Sofia of Lithuania.  She married secondly ([1418]) the first cousin of her first husband, ([1418]) Aleksandr Daniilovich "Vzmetenj" Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod.  Aleksandr & his wife had one child: 

(1)       SEMËN Aleksandrovich (1418-[1423/24]).  Prince of Nizhni-Novgorod. 

d)         DMITRY Konstantinovich "Nogot".  1375.  Possible ancestor of the Princes Nogtev (extinct early 17th century)[895]

e)         IEVDOKIA Konstantinovna (-1 Nov 1404)m (1354) MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich Prince of Mikulin, son of ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich "the Fugitive" Prince of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir, & Anastasia of Galich (1333-26 Aug 1399).  Prince of Dorogobuzh 1364.  He succeeded in 1366 as Prince of Tver. 

 

 

IURII Vasilievich, son of VASILY Dmitrievich "Kirdiapa" Prince of Gorodeno and Nizhni-Novgorod & his wife --- .  Prince of Shuia.  [Count Shuisky]. 

m ---.  

Iurii & his wife had three children: 

1.         VASILY Iurievich (-1458).  Prince of Shuia 1445.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had two children:

a)         VASILY Vasilievich "Bledniy" (-1487).  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

i)          IVAN Vasilievich "Skopa".  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

(a)       FEDOR Ivanovich (-1557).  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child:

(1)       VASILY Fedorevich .  A boyar 1577-1595.  m ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

a.         MIKHAIL Vasilievich (1587-poisoned 23 Apr 1610 bur Moscow).  Count Skopin-Shuisky. 

b)         MIKHAIL Vasilievich (-1445).  Prince Shuisky.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had two children:

i)          IVAN Mikhailovich "Pletenj" (-1559).  

ii)         ANDREI Mikhailovich "Chastokol" Shuisky (-murdered 1543).  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had one child:

(a)       IVAN Andreievich (-killed in battle 1573).  m MARTA Fedorovna, daughter of --- (-before 1593).  Ivan & his wife had five children: 

(1)       ANDREI Ivanovich (-murdered 1589). 

(2)       VASILY Ivanovich (1553-in prison in Poland 22 Sep 1612).  He succeeded in 1606 as VASILY IV Tsar of Russia, deposed 17 Jul 1610. 

-         see Chapter 13.E. TSAR of RUSSIA 1606-1610, SHUISKY

(3)       DMITRY Ivanovich (-in prison in Warsaw 27 Sep 1613)m ([1587/90]) EKATERINA Maliutevna Skuratova, daughter of MALIUTA Skuratov & his wife --- (-15 Nov 1612). 

(4)       ALEKSANDR Ivanovich (-1601). 

(5)       IVAN Ivanovich "Pugovka" (-1638).  Prince Shuisky.  m (3 Dec 1622) MARIA Vasilievna Dolgorukaia, daughter of VASILY Prince Dolgoruky & his wife --- (-Jun 1634). 

2.         FEDOR Iurievich Prince of Shuia 1445.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had one child:

a)         VASILY Fedorevichm ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had three children:

i)          VASILY Vasilievich "Nemoy Shuisky" (-1538).  He entered the service of the Grand Prince of Moscow by 1491/92 and acquired the rank of boyar by 1509/09[896]

ii)         DMITRY Vasilievichm ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had one child:

(a)       IVAN Dmitrievich "Gubka" (-1560).  He fled to Lithuania in 1534, founding the House of Shuisky in Poland[897]m MARIA Bohowityn. 

iii)        IVAN Vasilievich (-1546).  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had two children:

(a)       ANDREI Ivanovich (-Kargopol 1587). 

(b)       PIOTR-GURIY Ivanovich (-killed in battle Ulla River 1564).  m ---.  The name of Piotr-Guriy´s wife is not known.  Piotr-Guriy & his wife had two children:

(1)       IVAN Piotrevich (-Beloozero 1587).  He was strangled[898]

(2)       NIKITA Piotrevich .

3.         IVAN Iurievich .  Prince of Shuia. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  GRAND PRINCES of TVER

 

 

Tver was a town founded in the late 12th century at the confluence of the Tvertsa and Volga rivers, the westernmost town of the district of Pereyaslavl[899].  It appears to have been made a separate principality for the first time when it was granted to Iaroslav Iaroslavich in 1247 by his uncle Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Vladimir. 

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of TVER, GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR

 

 

IAROSLAV 1263-1271, MIKHAIL 1304-1318, DMITRY 1322-1325, ALEKSANDR 1326-1327

 

IAROSLAV Iaroslavich, son of IAROSLAV Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his third wife Fedosia Igorevich of Riazan (-16 Sep 1271, bur Tver Church of Saints Kosma and Demyan[900]).  He was appointed Prince of Tver 1247 by his uncle Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Vladimir, the principality acquiring its own bishop some time during his reign[901].  Prince of Pskov in 1253.  The Novgorod Chronicle records that, in 1255, "the men of Novgorod led him from Pskov and set him on the throne" in Novgorod in opposition to Prince Alexander his brother, the latter reasserting his position later the same year[902].  He succeeded his brother in 1263 as IAROSLAV Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod in 1264 after "the men of Novgorod … drove out" his nephew Dmitry[903].  Novgorod asserted its autonomy against Prince Iaroslav by refusing to accept the prince's wishes which it considered against its commercial interests.  Prince Iaroslav's authority was undermined when the Mongols supported Novgorod in the dispute (presumably as a result of bribery), obliging him in 1269 to negotiate new trading terms for the city.  These new terms subsequently proved crucial to Rus recovery after the period of Mongol oppression in particular the new rules governing the visits of foreign merchants [904]

m firstly [NATALIA][905], daughter of --- (-murdered 1252). 

m secondly (1263) XENIA Iurievna, daughter of IURII Mikhailovich, a boyar in Novgorod (-after 1286[906]).

Iaroslav & his first wife had two children:

1.         SVIATOSLAV Iaroslavich (-[1282/85]).  Prince of Pskov 1266.  He succeeded his father in 1271 as Prince of Tver. 

2.         MIKHAIL Iaroslavich .  1268/1271. 

Iaroslav & his second wife had four children: 

3.         --- Iaroslavna (-[1286])m IURII Levovich of Galich, son of LEV Daniilovich Prince of Galich and Volynia & his wife Konstantia of Hungary ([24 Apr 1252/57]-24 Apr 1308).  He succeeded his father in 1301 as IURII I King of Galich

4.         [SOFIA] Iaroslavna .  Nun 1291.

5.         [907]DANIIL Iaroslavich (-1280). 

6.         MIKHAIL Iaroslavich (posthumously 1271 after 16 Sep-executed [Sarai] 22 Nov 1318).  He succeeded his half-brother as Prince of Tver in [1282/85].  He supported Dmitry Grand Prince of Vladimir in his dispute with his brother Andrei, refusing to visit Sarai to renew his allegiance to the Mongol overlords[908].  He nevertheless obtained Mongol support to succeed his cousin Andrei in 1304 as MIKHAIL Grand Prince of Vladimir.  His succession was opposed by his cousin Iurii Daniilovich Prince of Moscow, against whom Mikhail fought two military campaigns in 1305 and 1308[909].  Mikhail clashed with the Orthodox church when the patriarch of Constantinople installed his own nominee as head of the Russian church, sidelining Mikhail's own nominee[910].  Mikhail subjugated Novgorod in 1312 with Tartar help and reduced the city's ancient liberties[911].  Iurii took advantage of Mikhail's absence at the court of Uzbek Khan in 1313 to consolidate his power in Novgorod, and in 1317 raised a strong military challenge against Mikhail with Mongol support.  Mikhail defeated Iurii, but was accused by the Mongols of responsibility for the death of Khan Uzbek's sister (Iurii's wife) whom he had captured during the campaign and who had died while in his custody.  Mikhail was executed for this alleged crime[912]m (8 Nov 1294) ANNA Dmitrievna of Rostov, daughter of DMITRY Borisovich Prince of Rostov & his wife --- (-3 Oct 1368).  She became a nun as SOFIA.  She was canonised as St Anne of Kashin 21 Jul 1650, although her cult was prohibited from 1677 until 7 Nov 1908[913].  Mikhail & his wife had five children: 

a)         DMITRY Mikhailovich "Groznye Otchi/Menacing Ees" (15 Oct 1299-executed [Sarai] 15 Sep 1325).  He succeeded his father in 1318 as Prince of Tver.  He succeeded in 1322 as DMITRY Grand Prince of Vladimir, after his father's first cousin Iurii Daniilovich was deposed by the Mongols.  He murdered his predecessor, and was executed by the Mongols for this crime[914]m (1320) MARIA of Lithuania, daughter of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & his [third] wife [Ievna [Eva] Ivanovna] ([1305]-1348).  She retired to a convent at Tver after her husband was killed[915]

b)         FEDORA Mikhailovna (11 Oct 1300-). 

c)         ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich "the Fugitive" (7 Oct 1301-executed 22 Oct 1339).  During his family's dispute with his father's first cousin, Iurii Daniilovich, Aleksandr robbed Iurii of the treasure which he was taking to Sarai to offer Khan Uzbek[916].  After his brother's execution for the murder of Iurii, he succeeded in 1326 as ALEKSANDR Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He succeeded his brother in 1326 as Prince of Tver.  Tver rebelled against the Mongols in 1327.  The rebellion was suppressed by Ivan Daniilovich Prince of Moscow, who forced Aleksandr to flee to Pskov[917].  He was obliged to leave Pskov after Metropolitan Feognost threatened its entire population with excommunication[918].  He was permitted to return as Prince of Tver in 1335 by the Mongols[919].  He was executed by the Mongols while on a visit to Sarai[920]m (1320) ANASTASIA [921][Iurievna of Galich, daughter of IURII II Levovich King of Galich & his second wife Euphemia of Poland] (-1365).  Aleksandr & his wife had eight children: 

i)          LVOV Aleksandrovich (1321-young).

ii)         FEDOR Aleksandrovich (before 1327-murdered 22 Oct 1339).  He was killed by the Mongols[922]

iii)        VSEVOLOD Aleksandrovich (after 1327-1364).  Prince of Kholm [1339]-1364.  He succeeded his uncle in 1346 as Prince of Tver, but was expelled in 1348.   

-         see below, Part B.  PRINCES of KHOLM

iv)       MARIA Aleksandrovna (-17 Mar 1397)m ([1347]) as his third wife, SEMËN Ivanovich "Dumniy/the Proud" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow, son of IVAN I Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Elena --- (1316-21 Apr 1353). 

v)        IULIANA Aleksandrovna ([1325]-1392)m ([1350]) as his second wife, ALGIRDAS Grand Duke of Lithuania, son of GEDIMINAS Grand Duke of Lithuania & [his second wife Olga Vsevolodovna of Smolensk]  ([1296]-end May 1377). 

vi)       MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich (1333-26 Aug 1399).  Prince of Mikulin 1339.  Prince of Dorogobuzh 1364.  He succeeded in 1366 as Prince of Tver. 

-         see below, Part C.  GRAND PRINCES of TVER

vii)      VLADIMIR Aleksandrovich (-1364). 

viii)     ANDREI Aleksandrovich (-1364).  m IEVDOKIA, daughter of --- (-1364).  

d)         KONSTANTIN Mikhailovich ([1304]-1345).  He succeeded his brother Aleksandr in 1327 as Prince of Tver, was in turn replaced by Aleksandr in 1337 but restored after the latter's death in 1339.  Prince of Dorogobuzh.  He unsuccessfully challenged the succession of Semën Ivanovich Prince of Moscow as Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1341, on the basis of his own seniority following the traditional rules of succession[923]m firstly (1320) SOFIA Iurievna of Vladimir, daughter of IURII III Daniilovich Prince of Moscow & his first wife --- Konstantinovna of Rostov (-murdered 1325).  m secondly IEVDOKIA, daughter of ---.  Konstantin & his first wife had one child: 

i)          IEREMEI Konstantinovich (-1372).  He succeeded his father as Prince of Dorogobuzh.  m ANASTASIA, daughter of --- (-1407).  Ieremei & his wife had two children: 

(a)       DMITRY Ieremeievich (-1407).  He succeeded his father in 1372 as Prince of Dorogobuzh.  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had four children: 

(1)       ANDREI Dmitrievich .  Prince of Dorogobuzh.  Prince at Novgorod 1418, 1445.  m ---.  The name of Andrei´s wife is not known.  Andrei & his wife had two children:

a.         IOSIP Andreievich (-after 1485).  Prince of Dorogobuzh.  He submitted to Moscow in 1485, and was awarded Iaroslavl.  Ancestor of the Princes Dorogobuisky (extinct 16th century)[924]m (before 1448) ANASTASIA Mikhailovna of Vereya, daughter of MIKHAIL Andreievich Prince of Vereya & his wife Elena Iaroslavna of Bobrovsk. 

b.         IURII Andreievich .  Prince of Dorogobuzh 1471. 

(2)       [925]--- Dmitrievna .

(3)       IEVDOKIA Dmitrievna (-13 Apr 1411)m (1408) as his second wife, IVAN Mikhailovich Grand Prince of Tver, son of MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Tver & his wife Ievdokia Konstantinovna of Suzdal (1357-22 May 1425).   

(4)       IVAN Dmitrievich .  Prince of Chernyatin.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

a.         SEMËN Ivanovich .  Prince of Chernyatin.  Ancestor of the Princes Chernyatinsky[926]

(b)       IVAN Ieremeievich .  1407.  Prince of Dorogobuzh. 

Konstantin & his second wife had one child:

ii)         SEMËN Konstantinovich (-1364).  Prince of Dorogobuzh.  He bequeathed his part in the principality to his first cousin Mikhail Aleksandrovich Prince of Mikulin[927], who later became Grand Prince of Tver.  m --- (-after 1364).   

e)         VASILY Mikhailovich (-1368).  Prince of Kashin 1339.  He succeeded his nephew Vsevolod Aleksandrovich 1348 as Prince of Tver, but was expelled in 1366 by his nephew Mikhail Aleksandrovich.  m (1329)[928] IELENA Ivanovna of Briansk, daughter of IVAN Prince of Briansk & his wife ---.  Vasily & his wife had two children: 

i)          VASILY Vasilievich (-1362). 

ii)         MIKHAIL Vasilievich (1331-1373).  He succeeded his father in 1368 as Prince of Kashin.  m (1349) VASILISA Semënovna of Vladimir, daughter of SEMËN Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his first wife Anastasia [Aigusta] of Lithuania (-20 Apr 1369).  Mikhail & his wife had one child: 

(a)       VASILY Mikhailovich (-6 May 1382).  He succeeded his father as Prince of Kashin. 

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of KHOLM

 

 

VSEVOLOD Aleksandrovich, son of ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich "the Fugitive" Prince of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife Anastasia of Galich (after 1327-1364).  Prince of Kholm [1339]-1364.  He succeeded his uncle 1346 as Prince of Tver, but was expelled 1348. 

m SOFIA [Ivanovna, daughter of IVAN III Aleksandrovich Prince of Riazan & his wife ---] (-1364). 

Vsevolod & his wife had two children: 

1.         IURII Vsevolodich (-after 1408).  He succeeded his father as Prince of Kholm.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had one child: 

a)         DMITRY Iurievich .  He succeeded his father as Prince of Kholm 1408-[1453].  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had four children: 

i)          MIKHAIL Dmitrievich (-after 12 Sep 1486).  He succeeded his father as Prince of Kholm, which was absorbed by Moscow in 1486.  m ---.  The name of Mikhail´s wife is not known.  Mikhail & his wife had three children:

(a)       IULIANA Mikhailovna (-1504)m (9 May 1471) BORIS Vasilievich of Moscow Prince of Volokolansk, of VASILY II Vasilievich Grand Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria Iaroslavich of Bobrovsk (-May 1494). 

(b)       VASILY Mikhailovichm ---.  The name of Vasily´s wife is not known.  Vasily & his wife had one child:

(1)       --- Vasilievich

(c)       IVAN Mikhailovich

ii)         VASILY Dmitrievich

iii)        IVAN Dmitrievich .  Ancestor of the Princes Kholmsky (extinct 16th century)[929]

iv)       DANIIL Dmitrievich .  Prince of Kholm.  He passed into the service of Moscow before 1469[930]m VASILISA Ivanovna Vsevoloyskaia, daughter of IVAN Vsevoloysky & his wife ---.  Daniil & his wife had three children: 

(a)       SEMËN Daniilovichm MARIA, daughter of ---. 

(b)       VASILY Daniilovich (-1509).  Boyar.  He died in exile in prison[931]m (13 Feb 1500) FEDOSIA Ivanovna of Moscow, daughter of IVAN III Vasilievich Grand Prince of Moscow & his second wife Zoe Palaiologina (29 May 1485-19 Feb 1501). 

(c)       ANNA Daniilovnam IVAN Vladimirovich Golov, boyar. 

2.         IVAN Vsevolodich (-27 Mar 1402).  Prince of Kholm 1364.  Prince of Pskov 1398.  m firstly [932]---, daughter of BORIS Konstantinovich of Suzdal Prince of Gorodetzk Grand Prince of Nizhni-Novgorod (-1395).  m secondly (1397) ANASTASIA Dmitrievna of Moscow, daughter of DMITRY Ivanovich "Donskoy" Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Ievdokia Dmitrievna of Suzdal.  

 

 

 

C.      GRAND PRINCES of TVER

 

 

MIKHAIL 1366-1399, IVAN 1400-1425, IURII 1425-1426, BORIS 1426-1461, MIKHAIL 1461-1486

MIKHAIL Aleksandrovich, son of ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich "the Fugitive" Prince of Tver, Grand Prince of Vladimir, & Anastasia of Galich (1333-26 Aug 1399, bur Tver Church of St Saviour[933]).  Prince of Mikulin 1339.  Prince of Dorogobuzh 1364.  He succeeded in 1366 as Prince of Tver, with the help particularly of his brother-in-law Algirdas Grand Duke of Lithuania.  In 1368, Mikhail was imprisoned by Dmitry Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, until the Mongols forced his release.  After Muscovite forces invaded Tver, Mikhail unsuccessfully besieged Moscow but forced peace terms under which he gained territory.  In 1370, Grand Prince Dmitry invaded Tver again and captured Mikulin.  Mikhail responded by obtaining recognition as Grand Prince from the Mongols but, even with Lithuanian military help, he was unable to capture Moscow and enforce his claim[934].  The dispute was settled in 1375 after Dmitry besieged Tver and forced Mikhail to surrender.  Under the peace treaty, Mikhail's title of Grand Prince was confirmed, but he recognised Dmitry's superiority as Grand Prince of Vladimir and renounced all claim to Novgorod[935].  Prince of Katschin 1382.  After the victory of Khan Tokhtamysh against Dmitry "Donskoi" Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1382, Mikhail took advantage of Moscow's weakness, freed himself from the 1375 treaty and re-established Tver's independent relationship with the Mongols[936]

m (1354) IEVDOKIA Konstantinovna of Suzdal, daughter KONSTANTIN Vasilievich Grand Prince of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod & his second wife Ielena --- (-1 Nov 1404). 

Mikhail & his wife had six children: 

1.         ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich (after 1354-1358).  

2.         ALEKSANDR Mikhailovich "Ordynietz" (-1389).  Prince of Kashin. 

3.         IVAN Mikhailovich (1357-22 May 1425).  He succeeded his father in 1399 as Grand Prince of Tver.  He succeeded in reuniting the principality of Tver, broke his alliance with Vasily I Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1406, and created direct relationships with the Mongol and Lithuanian leaders[937].  He died a monk as Job[938]m firstly (end 1375) MIKLAUSČ [Miklova] MARIA of Lithuania, daughter of of KESTUTIS [Kiejstut] ALEKSANDER of Lithuania & his second wife Birutč --- (-30 Oct 1404).  m secondly (1408) IEVDOKIA Dmitrievna of Dorogobuzh, daughter of DMITRY Ieremievich Prince of Dorogobuzh & his wife --- (-13 Apr 1411).  Ivan & his first wife had three children:

a)         IVAN Ivanovich (-[1406/25]).  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

i)          ANNA Ivanovna (-[1471/28 Sep 1484]).  She adopted the name SOFIA in Lithuania.  m ([1430/33]) ŠVITRIGAILA [Svidrigaila] BOŁESLAW Grand Duke of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] Grand Duke of Lithuania & his second wife Iuliana Aleksandrovna of Tver [Rurikid] (-10 Feb 1452). 

b)         ALEKSANDR Ivanovich (-25 Oct 1425).  He died of plague.  m (1397) --- Fedorovna of Mologa, daughter of FEDOR Mikhailovich Prince of Mologa & his wife ---.  Aleksandr & his wife had three children: 

i)          IURII Aleksandrovich (after 1398-22 Apr 1426).  He was appointed Grand Prince of Tver in 1426 in succession to his grandfather.  m ---.  The name of Iurii´s wife is not known.  Iurii & his wife had two children:

(a)       IVAN Iurievich (-after 1453).  Appointed Prince of Zubczow by his uncle in 1426.  

(b)       [939]DMITRY Iurievich .  1449.  m ---.  The name of Dmitry´s wife is not known.  Dmitry & his wife had one child:

(1)       DANIIL Dmitrievich (-1495).  Prince of Kholm. 

ii)         BORIS Aleksandrovich (-10 Feb 1461).  He succeeded his brother in 1426 as Grand Prince of Tver.  He recognised the seniority of Vitovt Grand Duke of Lithuania by treaty in 1427[940]m firstly ANASTASIA Andreievna, daughter of ANDREI Dmitrievich Prince of Beloozero & his wife Agripina Aleksandrovna of Starodub (-12 Feb 1451).  m secondly ([1452/53]) ANASTASIA Aleksandrovna of Suzdal, daughter of ALEKSANDR Vasilievich Prince of Shuia & his wife --- (-after 1486).  Boris & his first wife had one child:

(a)       MARIA Borisovna ([1442]-22 Apr 1467).  Her marriage was agreed as part of the arrangement under which Tver agreed to support Grand Prince Vasily II in his struggle with his cousin Dmitry Iurievich "Shemiakha"[941]m (Betrothed 1446, 4 Jul 1452) as his first wife, IVAN Vasilievich of Moscow, son of VASILY II Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria Iaroslavich of Bobrovsk (22 Jan 1440-27 Oct 1506).  He succeeded his father in 1462 as IVAN III "the Great" Grand Prince of Moscow

Boris & his second wife had two children:

(b)       MIKHAIL Borisovich (1453-before 1505).  He succeeded his father in 1461 as Grand Prince of Tver.  Under pressure from Ivan III Grand Prince of Moscow, he joined the Grand Prince's campaign against Novgorod in return for a commitment to respect Tver's autonomy.  When this commitment was broken, Mikhail sought support from Lithuania but Grand Prince Ivan invaded Tver in the winter of 1484/85.  Mikhail was forced to agree a humiliating peace treaty and recognise the Grand Prince's superiority.  Deserted by his nobles, he turned to Lithuania again, whereupon Ivan invaded again in Sep 1485 and forced Mikhail into exile[942]m (Winter 1471) SOFIA Pss Olełkowicza, daughter of SZYMON Olełkowicz of Lithuania Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Gasztold (-6 Feb 1483).  

(c)       ALEKSANDR Borisovich (b and d 1455). 

iii)        IAROSLAV Aleksandrovich (-killed in battle 1435).  Prince of Gorodeno 1432. 

c)         IURII Ivanovich (after 1399-after 1422)m (1421) --- Ivanovna Vsevolozhskaia, daughter of IVAN Dmitrievich Vsevolozhsky, a boyar in Moscow & his wife ---. 

4.         BORIS Mikhailovich ([1362]-17 Jul 1395).  Prince of Kashin 1389.  m (8 Nov 1384) --- Sviatoslavna of Smolensk, daughter of SVIATOSLAV Ivanovich Grand Prince of Smolensk & his wife --- (-after 1408).  Boris & his wife had one child: 

a)         IVAN Borisovich .  1399-1408.   Prince of Kashin 1412.  Moscow absorbed Kashin.  m ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known.  Ivan & his wife had one child:

i)          ANDREI Ivanovich .  [1437/40]. 

5.         VASILY Mikhailovich (-after 1426).  Prince of Kashin and Krosnya 1390-1403, 1406-1412, 1425-1426.  m firstly (1385) --- of Lithuania, daughter of OLEŁKO WŁODZIMIERZ of Lithuania Prince of Kiev, Kopylsk and Słuck & his wife --- (-1396).  m secondly ANASTASIA of Lithuania, daughter of [KORIBUT [Dmitry] of Lithuania Prince of Starodub and Trubeshevsk & his wife Anna Ivanovna of Druck.  Vasily & his second wife had one child:

a)         DMITRY Vasilievich (1401-young). 

6.         FEDOR Mikhailovich (-after 1406).  Prince of Mikulin.  m (1390) ANNA Fedorovna Kochkaia, daughter of FEDOR Andreievich Kochky boyar in Moscow & his wife ---.  Fedor & his wife had two children: 

a)         ALEKSANDR Fedorevich ([1392]-[1412/53]).  Prince of Mikulin.  m (17 Jan 1412) MARIA Ivanovna of Iaroslavl, daughter of IVAN Vasilievich "Bolshoy/the Big" Prince of Iaroslavl & his wife Anna Ivanovna of Rostov.  Aleksandr & his wife had two children: 

i)          BORIS Aleksandrovich (-shortly before 1477).  Prince of Mikulin.  m ---.  The name of Boris´s wife is not known.  Boris & his wife had one child:

(a)       ANDREI Borisovich .  Prince of Mikulin 1477 until 1485, when the territory was absorbed by Moscow.  Andrei received Dmitrov in return.  His sons were Princes Mikulinsky, boyars in Moscow, but died in the 16th century without descendants[943]

ii)         FEDOR Aleksandrovich .  Prince of Teliatiev.  1437.  m ---.  The name of Fedor´s wife is not known.  Fedor & his wife had two children:

(a)       MIKHAIL Fedorevich .  Prince of Teliatiev 1477.  Teliatiev was absorbed by Moscow.  Ancestor of the Princes Teliatevsky (extinct 17th century)943

(b)       ANDREI Fedorevich .  Prince of Teliatiev.  Ancestor of the Princes Teliatevsky-Punkov (extinct 16th century, two generations later)943

b)         FEDOR Fedorevich .  Prince of Mikulin 1453. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  GRAND PRINCES of MOSCOW, TSARS of RUSSIA

 

 

The gravitation of the focus of central power to Moscow represented the final phase in the development of the Russian state.  The city of Vladimir failed to recover from the devastation of the Mongol invasion.  Although the title "Grand Prince of Vladimir" continued to be used by the senior representative of the dynasty, the princes concentrated their attention on expanding the principality of Moscow as the more important centre for the dynasty.  Moscow became the capital of the Russian Orthodox Church early in the reign of Ivan I, strengthening its central position from a political as well as religious viewpoint. 

 

The succession of Ivan Daniilovich as Grand Prince of Vladimir was not in accordance with the dynastic tradition, both because his father had never been Grand Prince before him and because there were still surviving candidates for the title from the previous generation.  Ivan and his successors were therefore obliged to rely on support from the Mongols to maintain power in the face of challenges from candidates with a more legitimate claim.  The Grand Prince served as intermediary between the Mongols and the other Russian principalities, in particular acting as the conduit for collection of the tribute paid to the Mongol Khan[944]

 

A further advantage for the Princes of Moscow was its relative territorial unity.  Only the principalities of Sierpukhov and Mozhaisk were carved out of the Muscovite realm as appanages, respectively in 1341 for Andrei Ivanovich son of Ivan "Kalita" and in 1389 for Andrei Dmitrievich son of Dmitry "Donskoy". 

 

By the time of the accession of Vasily II, the principality of Moscow was firmly established as leader of the various Rus principalities which were governed by members of the Rurikid dynasty.  The Grand Princes of Moscow expanded their territories, in particular by annexing Iaroslavl, Rostov and Tver, and even gradually absorbing Novgorod into their domain.  They were also fortunate in being able to retain central control over their territory.  Unlike their predecessors during the 13th and 14th centuries, they did not split their domain by creating large appanages for junior members of the family.  This was partly due to accidents of birth which meant that few collateral lines survived in the male line for many generations.  However, there also appears to have been a conscious effort on the part of each successive Grand Prince, from Vasily II onwards, to regroup their domain under a single central authority.  This dual process of territorial expansion and centralisation on Moscow produced a radical change in the ranks of the nobility.  Displaced from their historical spheres of influence, they gravitated to Moscow, where they formed a new exclusive elite which swelled the ranks of the court, filled the most senior administrative posts, increasingly penetrated the 'boyar' class, and eventually dominated the duma.  Examples of such families including the Shuisky (descended from the Grand Princes of Suzdal and Nizhni-Novgorod, see Chapter 10), the Belsky and the Glinsky (both from Lithuania).  Another result of this process was the dismantling of the provincial armies as the outlying principalities were absorbed into Moscow, enabling Ivan III in particular to centralise his military resources. 

 

 

 

A.      PRINCES of MOSCOW, GRAND PRINCES of VLADIMIR

 

 

DANIIL Aleksandrovich, son of ALEKSANDR Iaroslavich "Nievskiy" Grand Prince of Vladimir & his first wife Paraskeviya [Aleksandra] Bryacheslavna of Polotsk (1261-4/5 Mar 1303).  Prince of Novgorod 1255, 1264-1272.  Prince of Moscow [1283].  He supported his brother Dmitry in his dispute with their brother Andrei, refusing to visit Sarai to renew his allegiance to the Mongol overlords[945].  On the death of his nephew Ivan Dmitrievich Prince of Pereyaslavl Zalesskii, Daniil prevented his brother Andrei from retaking the principality and assumed control of it himself. 

m MARIA, daughter of ---[946]

Daniil & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         IURII Daniilovich "Red hair" ([1281]-murdered Sarai 21 Sep 1325, bur Moscow[947]).  He succeeded his father in 1303 as Prince of Pereyaslavl Zalesskii, despite attempts by his uncle Andrei Aleksandrovich Grand Prince of Vladimir to deprive him.  He succeeded his father in 1303 as Prince of Moscow, although ceased to rule there between 1319 and 1322 while he reigned as Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He opposed the succession of his cousin Mikhail Iaroslavich Prince of Tver as Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1304, but was defeated by the latter in two military campaigns in 1305 and 1308.  He took advantage of Mikhail's absence at the court of Khan Uzbek in 1313 to seize power in Novgorod, although he lost it again to Mikhail in 1316.  He was ordered to the Khan's court, where he married the Khan's sister.  With the Khan's support he returned to challenge Mikhail, who captured Iurii's wife during the campaign[948].  After Mikhail's execution by the Mongols for alleged responsibility for the death of Iurii's wife, Iurii succeeded in 1318 as IURII Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He was installed as Prince of Novgorod in 1322[949].  It appears that the Mongols were disappointed with Iurii's performance as Grand Prince, and he was replaced in 1322 by Dmitry Mikhailovich, the son of his predecessor.  Iurii journeyed to Sarai with a treasure intended as an offering for the Khan, but was robbed by Aleksandr Mikhailovich, Dmitry's brother.  After arriving at Sarai, he was murdered by Dmitry, who was later arrested and executed for this crime by the Mongols[950]m firstly (1297) --- Konstantinovna of Rostov, daughter of KONSTANTIN II Borisovich Prince of Rostov & his first wife --- (-before 1317).  m secondly (1317) KONCHAKA, sister of Khan UZBEK (-1318).  She adopted the name AGAFIA on her marriage.  She was captured by the forces of Mikhail Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir during her husband's rebellion against his authority and died during her captivity[951], her death triggering the chain of events which led to her husband being nominated Grand Prince.  Iurii & his first wife had one child:

a)         SOFIA Iurievna m (1320) as his first wife, KONSTANTIN Mikhailovich of Tver, son of MIKHAIL Iaroslavich Grand Prince of Vladimir & his wife Anna Dmitrievna of Rostov ([1304]-1345).  He succeeded his brother in 1327 as Prince of Tver. 

2.         ALEKSANDR Daniilovich (-Autumn 1308).  

3.         BORIS Daniilovich (-1320).  Prince of Kostroma 1304. 

4.         AFANASY Daniilovich (-1322, bur Gorodets, Church of the Holy Saviour[952]).  He was installed by his brother Iurii as Prince of Novgorod in 1315[953]m ANNA --- (-after 1326). 

5.         [954][FEDORA Daniilovna m IAROSLAV Romanovich Prince of Pronsk, son of ROMAN Olegovich Grand Prince of Riazan & his wife Anastasia --- (-1299).  Grand Prince of Riazan 1294.] 

6.         IVAN Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags" (posthumously 1304-Moscow 31 Mar 1340).  Prince of Moscow 1325-1328.  He appears to have been appointed as IVAN Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1328. 

-        see below

 

 

IVAN I 1328-1340, SEMËN 1340-1353, IVAN II 1353-1359

 

IVAN Daniilovich "Kalita/Moneybags", son of DANIEL Aleksandrovich Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria --- (posthumously 1304-Moscow 31 Mar 1340).  Prince of Moscow 1325-1328.  Metropolitan Theognost officially transferred his seat to Moscow, making it the capital of the Russian Orthodox Church[955].  Ivan suppressed the 1327 rebellion in Tver with Mongol support, expelling Aleksandr Mikhailovich Grand Prince of Vladimir.  He appears to have been appointed as IVAN Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1328, although he may at first have shared power with Aleksandr Prince of Suzdal and only succeeded as sole holder of the title on the latter's death in 1331[956].  He was installed 26 Mar 1329 as Prince of Novgorod[957].  He acquired his epithet "Moneybags" from his careful management of the economy.  He used wealth, saved by secretly cheating the Mongol Khan out of tribute payments, to buy principalities from minor princes of the dynasty, including Beloozero, Uglich and Galich