BYZANTIUM 1261-1453

v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                EMPERORS 1259-1453 (PALAIOLOGOS) 3

A.         ORIGINS.. 3

B.         EMPERORS 1259-1453 (PALAIOLOGOS) 17

Chapter 2.                EMPERORS 1341-1357 (KANTAKOUZENOS) 54

A.         ORIGINS.. 54

B.         EMPERORS 1341-1357 (KANTAKOUZENOS) 63

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Palaiologos and Kantakouzenos dynasties were the last two ruling imperial families in the Byzantine empire.  The name Palaiologos is first noted in the primary sources in the late 11th century, but the information available is insufficiently detailed for an accurate family reconstruction before the early 13th century.  The family was well-connected, as two of the earliest known family members married into the Dukas and Komnenos families, both these names being adopted by later descendants in memory of this illustrious ancestry.  The early members of the Palaiologos family are set out in Chapter 1.A of this document.  The Palaiologos dynasty rose to imperial power in the empire at Nikaia where Mikhael Palaiologos engineered his own coronation as co-emperor in 1259 after the accession of Emperor Ioannes IV Batatzes.  After Nikaian troops recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261, Mikhael entered the city and had himself crowned as Emperor Mikhael VIII.  The family of the Palaiologos emperors is set out in Chapter 1.B of this document. 

 

The Kantakouzenos family also first appears in the sources in the late 11th century.  Accurate reconstruction of the family before the early 13th century also presents considerable difficulties, as with the Palaiologos family.  Early members of the family married into the Dukas and Komnenos families as well, and both these family names were adopted by later descendants.  The early members of the Kantakouzenos family are set out in Chapter 2.A of this document.  The family is first recorded with imperial ambitions in 1199, but it was not until the rise to power of Ioannes Kantakouzenos, during the reign of Emperor Andronikos III in the early 14th century, that these ambitions became realistic.  After the death of Andronikos III, Ioannes established himself as regent for the infant Emperor Ioannes V, and in 1341 named himself co-emperor as Ioannes VI.  He was forced to abdicate as emperor in 1354, after which he turned his attention to historical and theological studies.  The family of the Kantakouzenos emperors is set out in Chapter 2.B of this document. 

 

After the Ottomans conquered Constantinople in 1453, surviving members of the Palaiologos and Kantakouzenos families established themselves in western Europe.  Their descendants became extinct in the male line within a couple of generations.  Numerous claims to descent from the Palaiologos family were later fabricated by individuals with fertile imaginations, but none are verifiable.  Some of these spurious descents are set out in Gauci and Mallat´s The Palaiologos Family[1].  None of them has been reproduced in the present document as they are without historical value. 

 

The history of the Byzantine empire during the second half of the 13th century was recorded by the chronicler Georgios Pachymeres[2].  The story is continued as far as the mid-14th century by Nikephoras Gregoras[3] and ex-Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos[4].  The chronicle of Doukas[5], who died in the 1460s, starts in 1341 but provides few details until 1389.  The chronicle of Georgios Sphrantzes[6] covers the period 1401 to 1477, and an expanded version produced in the 16th century deals unreliably with the period from 1285 to 1481[7].  Information from these original sources has been extracted and incorporated into the present document.  However, these extracts have been made from the 19th century Latin translations of the Greek originals, which were published in the Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ series and whose reliability cannot be completely guaranteed.  The Latin text has been compared with the Greek only in cases of extreme difficulty of interpretation.  The on-line Prosopography of the Byzantine World database (2006.02) produced by King's College, London[8] has also been consulted, especially for seals. 

 

An earlier version of this document was reviewed by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions and corrections where indicated ("MB" in the footnotes).  He highlighted in particular the absence of documentary proof to support the reconstruction of the early generations of the Palaiologos and Kantakouzenos families which are found in secondary sources, which resulted in considerable rewriting of these sections.  I am grateful for his helpful collaboration.  I am also grateful to Lindsay Brook for supplying a transcript of the Masarelli Vatican manuscript MS[9], which provides information on the later generations of the Kantakouzenos family until about [1531].  This manuscript sets out unique information which is not available in other primary sources, although there are some doubts about the accuracy of the document, as explained below in Chapter 2.B. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EMPERORS 1259-1453 (PALAIOLOGOS)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

1.         NIKEPHOROS Palaiologos (-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081).  Skylitzes names "Nicephorus Palæologus…et philosophorum princeps Constantinus Psellus, atque in primis Cæsar illius qui antea imperavorat cognatus" as military advisers during the Asia Minor campaign of Emperor Romanos Diogenes, dated to [1071/72][10].  General of Nikephoros Botaneiates.  The Alexeiad records that "George's [Georgios Palaiologos] father was extremely devoted to Nikephoros"[11].  The Alexeiad records the death of "Nikephoros father of Palaiologos" fighting Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia in Durazzo in 1081[12]m --- Kurtikaina, daughter of --- Kurtikes & his wife ---.  Her family origin is confirmed by Nikephoros Bryennios who states that "Palaeologus Georgius" was "ex sorore nepos Curtices"[13].  Nikephoros Palaiologos & his wife had two children:

a)         GEORGIOS Palaiologos .  The Alexeiad names Georgios as son of Nikephoros Palaiologos, when recording that his father supported Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates during the revolt of the Komnenoi in 1081, while his son supported the latter[14].  Imperial general.  Dux of Durazzo, the Alexeiad records that he led the defence of the city against the siege of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia which is dated to 1081[15].  The synod of 1094 names Georgios Palaiologos protonobelissimos[16]m (before 1081) ANNA Doukaina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas & his wife Maria Troiane [Bulgaria] [Mistress of the Wardrobe] (-[1110/35]).  The Alexeiad names Anna as the wife of Georgios Palaiologos, her family origin being deduced from the text stating that "the protovestiaria" was his mother-in-law and making it clear that the couple married before the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates[17].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the future commemoration of "la...sœur de ma Majesté, la pansébaste sébaste kyra Anna Doukaina" on the date of her death[18]Georgios Palaiologos & his wife had three children:

i)          NIKEPHOROS Doukas Palaiologos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastos 1116.  [Dux of Thessaloniki]. 

ii)         ANDRONIKOS Doukas Palaiologos (-[1115/18]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastos

iii)        ALEXIOS Doukas Palaiologos ([1095/1100]-after 1143).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  General of Emperor Manuel II in 1143. 

-         see below

b)         NIKOLAOS Palaiologos (-killed in battle Durazzo 18 Oct 1081).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

c)         ROMANOS Palaiologos.  The synod of 1094 names Romanos kuropalates as son of Georgios Palaiologos protonobelissimos[19]Kuropalates 1094. 

 

 

ALEXIOS Doukas Palaiologos, son of GEORGIOS Palaiologos & his wife Anna Doukaina ([1095/1100]-after 1143).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was banished before 1143.  General of Emperor Manuel II in 1143. 

m --- Komnene, daughter of [ALEXIOS Komnenos & his wife ---] ([1100/05]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

Alexios Palaiologos & his wife had [three] children:

1.         GEORGIOS Komnenodoukas Palaiologos ([1125]-[1167/68]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Grand Heteriarch.  A seal dated to [1158] names "Georgios Palaiologos, from the root of a Komnenos"[20]The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...sebasto et magno hetæreiarcha domino Georgio Palæologo...[21]A seal dated to [1175] names "Georgios Palaiologos, who proudly claims birth in the family of the Komneno-Doukai"[22]m ---.  The name of Georgios's wife is not known.  Georgios & his wife had --- children: 

a)         ALEXIOS Komnenos Palaiologos (-[1201/04]).  He was awarded the title despot in 1199.  A seal dated to [1202] names "Alexios Palaiologos, despotes in rank of Komnenian origin, gambros of the emperor…married to his first daughter the basilissa Eirene"[23]m firstly (divorced) ---.  The name of Alexios's first wife is not known.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly (early 1199) as her second husband, EIRENE Komnene Angelina, widow of ANDRONIKOS Kontostephanos mega drongarios, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS III & his wife Euphrosyne Doukaina Kamaterina (-after 1203).  Niketas Choniates names "Contostephanus Andronicus et Isaacius Comenus" as "duo generi" of Emperor Alexios[24].  Niketas Choniates records the second marriage of "imperator…filias…Irenem" and "Alexio Paleologo"[25].  Georgios Akropolites records that "Palaeologo, qui despotæ dignitate…" married "imperatoris Alexii…filiarum illius…prima Irene"[26].  She went into exile in 1203.  Alexios Palaiologos & his second wife had one child:

i)          THEODORA Palaiologina ([1200]-).  Georgios Phrantzes records that "reliquit Alexius Palaeologus unam filiam" by his wife "Alexius Angelus Comnenus imperator…filia…Irene" and that she married "Androniko Palaeologo"[27]m ([1216]) as his first wife, ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, son of ALEXIOS Palaiologos & his wife --- ([1190]-Thessaloniki [1248/52]). 

b)         other children. 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   1166. 

 

 

The precise family relationships between the preceding family, and the following individuals and family sub-groups, have not been ascertained.  However, it is likely that all these members of the Palaiologos family, many of whom added "Doukas" and "Komnenos" to their names, were descended from Georgios and Alexios Palaiologos, whose wives belonged to the Doukas and Komnenos families respectively. 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas Palaiologos (-Bari 1156).  SébastosIoannes Kinnamos records that "Michael sebastus, ex Palaeologorum gente" was exiled by Emperor Ioannes II but recalled by Emperor Manuel I[28].  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Michael sebastus ex Palaiologorum gente" met the crusaders at Sardika [Sofia], and was an envoy of Emperor Manuel I to Louis VII King of France, after the latter crossed the Danube[29]Sébastos.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Palaiologus" on missions to Italy which, from the context, appears to refer to the same person[30].  He became a monk on his deathbed at Bari. 

 

2.         ALEXIOS Doukas Palaiologos ([1140]-before 1203).  Megadux.  He became a monk as ANTONIOSm ([1165]) EIRENE Komnene, daughter of IOANNES Kantakouzenos & his wife Maria Komnene.  The wife of Alexios Doukas Palaiologos is named Eirene Komnene, and a poem discloses that Eirene Komnene, daughter of Ioannes Kantakouzenos & his wife Maria Komnene daughter of sébastocrator Andronikos married an unnamed Palaiologos.  It is assumed that the two women are the same person[31].  She is not mentioned by Nicol[32] or Trapp[33].  She became a nun as EUGENIA.  Alexios Palaiologos & his wife had two children:

a)         MIKHAEL Palaiologos (-in prison after 1257).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas chartularios.  He was imprisoned in [1256] for saying that "a man chosen to the imperial throne was not responsible for his election"[34]m ---.  The name of Mikhael's wife is not known.  Mikhael & his wife had one child:

i)          ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-1279).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pachymeres names "Andronicum alium Palaeologum ex Occidente, quem et patruelem scripsit", when recording his marriage[35]m as her second husband, --- Raulaina, widow of ANDRONIKOS Mouzalon, daughter of ALEXIOS Raul & his wife --- Batatzaina.  Pachymeres records that "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum…fratrem minorem Andronicum" married "Cloista Raulis filia"[36].  Pachymeres records that "Andronicum alium Palaeologum ex Occidente" married "vidua Andronici Muzalonis…magnum domesticum…protostratorem"[37]

b)         ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos ([1190]-Thessaloniki [1248/52]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas domestikos.  Georgios Akropolites names "Andronicum Palaeologum magnum domesticum"[38]

-        see below

 

3.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-after Sep 1191).  "Gambros protopansebastoupertatos lord Andronikos Palaiologos" [του γαμβρού του προτοπανσεβαστουπερτατου κυρου Ανδρονίκου του Παλαιολόγου] of the emperor is named in a report of a synod convened by Emperor Isaakios II in Sep 1191[39].  Stone and Owens discuss various secondary sources which speculate on the exact relationship between Emperor Isaakios and Andronikos Palaiologos, presumably through the wife of the latter who would have been a cousin or niece of the emperor[40]m --- [Angelina], daughter of ---.  Stone and Owens discuss various secondary sources which speculate on the exact relationship between Emperor Isaakios and Andronikos Palaiologos, presumably through the wife of the latter who could have been a cousin or niece of the emperor[41]

 

4.         GEORGIOS Palaiologos (-after 1195).  Niketas Choniates names "Branas Theodorus, Georgius Palaeologus, Raul Constantinus, Cantacuzenus Michael et alii complures improbi et leves homini, imperatori sanguine iuncti…" as those involved in the conspiracy to depose Emperor Isaakios II in 1195[42].  The precise relationships ("imperatori sanguine iuncti") between the conspirators and the emperor have not yet been traced. 

 

5.         --- [Palaiologina], daughter of --- .  Georgios Akropolites records that "Demetrius Tornicius…Thessalonicæ magnus domesticus" married "magni domestici consobrinam" (referring to Mikhael Palaeologus, the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)[43].  The text does not state whether the relationship was through the male or female line of the family, so it is uncertain whether Demetrios´s wife was "Palaiologina" by birth.  m as his first wife, DEMETRIOS Tornikes Komnenos, , son of KONSTANTINOS Tornikes & his wife --- Komnene (-[1252]). 

 

 

ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, son of ALEXIOS Palaiologos & his wife --- ([1190]-Thessaloniki [1248/52]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Megas domestikos.  Georgios Akropolites names "Andronicum Palaeologum magnum domesticum"[44].  A seal dated to [1239] names "Andronikos Doukas of the Palaiologos family, derived from the Komnenoi"[45].  Emperor Ioannes III appointed him governor of the European possessions of the empire of Nikaia, based at Thessaloniki, after the capture of the city in Dec 1246[46].  He became a monk as ARSENIOS

m firstly ([1216]) THEODORA Palaiologina, daughter of ALEXIOS Komnenos Palaiologos, despot & his wife Eirene Komnene Angelina ([1200]-).  Pachymeres records that "Andronicum alium Palaeologum ex Occidente" married "vidua Andronici Muzalonis…magnum domesticum…protostratorem"[47].  Georgios Phrantzes records that "reliquit Alexius Palaeologus unam filiam" by his wife "Alexius Angelus Comnenus imperator…filia…Irene" and that she married "Androniko Palaeologo" who was later installed as "magnum domesticum" by Emperor Theodoros Laskaris[48].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as THEODOSIA

m secondly ---.  The name of Andronikos's second wife is not known. 

Andronikos Palaiologos & his first wife had four children:  

1.         MARIA Palaiologina ([1216]-).  Georgios Akropolites records the marriage of "Tzuruli custodia…Nicephore Tarchaniotæ…postmodum magnus domesticus" and "magni domestici Palaeologi…primum illius filiam Maria"[49]Ephræmius records that "dux…Nicephorus…Tarchanaiotarum genitus familia…domestici magni" married "Andronici genete Palaeologi…maiorem filiam Mariam"[50].  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the Codinus Curopalates which records that Emperor Mikhael VIII awarded the title protovestiarius to "Michaelem Tarchaniotam sororis suæ filium"[51].  She became a nun before 1266 as MARTHA.  Pachymeres names "Marthæ, sororis Michælis" as mother of "Ioannes Tarchaniota consobrinus imperatoris…trium filiorum natu minimus"[52]m ([1237]) as his second wife, NIKEPHOROS Tarchanaiotes, son of MIKHAEL Tarchanaiotes & his wife --- Philanthropene.  Megas domestikos 1260. 

2.         EIRENE Komnene Palaiologina ([1218]-Atramyttion early Dec 1284)Ephræmius names "Michael imperator…sorore Eulogia"[53].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Opposed to the union of the Orthodox and Catholic churches organised by Emperor Mikhael VIII, she was arrested on her brother's orders in 1277.  She became the focus of organised opposition from the Bulgarian court of her daughter[54].  She became a nun as EULOGIA.  Pachymeres records that "eius amita Eulogia...et Theodoro Muzalone" persuaded Emperor Andronikos II to break relations with Rome and depose the catholic patriarch Ioannes XI Beccos, dated to early 1283[55].  Laurent quotes a letter from “Grégoire de Chypre” which records the death of an unnamed person who Laurent argues convincingly must have been Eirene [Eulogia] Palaiologina, dating the letter from the author´s stay at Atramyttion in early December 1284 until his return to Constantinople 20 Dec 1284[56]m IOANNES Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos, son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife --- Angelina (-before 1257).  Pinkernes 1242.  Dux of Thrakesion [1244/49].  He became a monk as IOANNIKIOS

3.         MIKHAEL Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos ([1224/25]-11 Dec 1282)Georgios Phrantzes names "Michael Comnenus, Constantinus Palaeologus et Iohannes" as the three sons of "Androniko Palaeologomagnum domesticum"[57].  He was crowned co-Emperor at Nikaia at Nymphaion 1 Jan 1259, and Emperor MIKHAEL VIII in Sep 1261.   

-        see below

4.         IOANNES Doukas Palaiologos ([1225/30]-[1273/74]).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Michael Comnenus, Constantinus Palaeologus et Iohannes" as the three sons of "Androniko Palaeologomagnum domesticum"[58].  Georgios Akropolites records that Emperor Mikhael VIII invested "fratrem germanium suum Ioannem Comnenum" as "magnum domesticum…[et] sebastocratorem"[59]Ephræmius records that Mikhael Palaiologos invested "Comnenum Ioannem fratrem suum" as "sebastocratorem"[60]Megas domestikos 1258.  Sébastokrator 1259.  Despot 1261/63.  Under his leadership, Byzantine troops defeated the Sicilian/Achaian/Epirote alliance in the valley of Pelagonia in Autumn 1259, and again defeated Mikhael II Angelos Despot of Epirus in 1264.  A short chronicle records the death in 1273/74 of Ioannes Palaiologos[61]m ([1259]) --- Tornikaine, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Tornikios & his wife ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Constantini Tornicii filiam" and "fratrem…Ioannes" (referring to the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)[62].  Her parentage is confirmed by Ephræmius which records that "sebastocrator…Ioannes cum Constantino socero Tornice" met the emperor at "Lampsaci"[63].  Ioannes Palaiologos & his wife had [two] children:

a)         [son/daughter .  m ---.] 

i)          DEMETRIOS Tornikios Palaiologos.  He is attested as the grandson of Ioannes Palaiologos, but whether through a son or daughter is not known.  Megas drongarios tes bigles 1324/39. 

b)         ANNA Komnene Doukaina Palaiologina Philanthropene (-[1280]).  She became a nun as ANTHUSAm ([1267]) NIKOLAOS Komnenos Doukas Angelos Bryennios Maliasenos, son of --- (-[1280]).  A nobleman in eastern Thessaly, he submitted to Emperor Mikhael VIII in [1267] and married his niece[64].  He became a monk as IOASSAPH

Andronikos Palaiologos & his second wife had [three] children:

5.         KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Doukas Palaiologos (-1271)Georgios Phrantzes names "Michael Comnenus, Constantinus Palaeologus et Iohannes" as the three sons of "Androniko Palaeologomagnum domesticum"[65].  Georgios Akropolites records that Emperor Mikhael VIII invested "alterum fratrem Constantinum, ex alia ortum matre" as "Cæsaris" at Paphlagonia[66]Ephræmius records that Mikhael Palaiologos invested "alium denique fratrem Constantinum" with "cæsarea dignitate"[67].  Appointed cæsar 1259.  Sébastokrator 1260.  General in the Peloponnesos 1262/64.  He became a monk as KALLINIKOSm ([1259/60]) EIRENE Komnene Laskarina Branaina, daughter of --- Branas [strategos] & his wife --- Kantakouzene (-[1271]).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Branæ filiam" and "alterum…fratrum Constantinum…cæsarem" (referring to the future Emperor Mikhael VIII)[68].  An undated seal records “Irène Comnène cæsarissa femme du césar du nom d´Ange[69].  She became a nun as MARIA.  Konstantinos Palaiologos & his wife had five children:

a)         MIKHAEL Komnenos Branas Palaiologos (after 1261-before 6 Jun 1321).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  A mystic.  He became a monk as MAKARIOS

b)         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos Branas Doukas Angelos Palaiologos (-[28 Jan 1310/46])The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Sébastos.  He became a monk as ARSENIOSm [ANNA] Tarchanaiotissa, daughter of MIKHAEL Glabas Tarchanaiotes, protostrator, strategos of Thrace & his wife Maria Doukaina Komnene Batatzaina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

c)         MARIA Komnene Branaina Laskarina Doukaina Palaiologina (-[16 Sep 1328/46])The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as MARIAMNEm ISAAKIOS Komnenos Doukas Tornikios, son of --- (-8 Jan  ----).  He became a monk as IOASSAPH

d)         --- Palaiologina (-after [1306]).  Pachymeres records that "Smiltzæ" married "neptem ex fratre suam…ex sebastocratore nata Constantino"[70].  She attempted to maintain power in the name of her infant son in 1298 after the death of her husband.  She offered to marry Milutin King of Serbia in return for his support[71].  She was expelled by Chaka the Tatar, who installed himself as Tsar in Bulgaria in 1299, and eventually returned to Constantinople[72].  Pachymeres records that "quæ uxor olim Smiltzæ fuerat" returned to Constantinople, dateable to 1306 from the context[73]m (1292) as his second wife, SMILEC Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of --- (-1298). 

e)         [THEODORA] Palaiologina (after 1268-).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that the mother of "Theodoros Synadenus protostrator" was the daughter of "fratre Michaelis primi imperatoris Palaeologi"[74].  She founded the convent of the bebaias elpidos.  She became a nun as THEODULEm IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Angelos Synadenos, son of --- (-6 Feb before [1310/28]).  Megas Stratopedarchos 1276/83.  He became a monk as IOAKEIM

6.         daughter .  Contemporary sources say that Andronikos had three sons and three daughters[75].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

7.         [--- Palaiologina .  According to Sturdza[76], based on Hopf, the sister of Emperor Mikhael VIII married Benedetto Zaccaria.  This seems chronologically improbable considering the approximate birth dates of the other known children of Andronikos Palaiologos.  If the marriage did take place, t is possible either that the bride was an illegitimate daughter or a more distant relation of the emperor.  m (after 1275) BENEDETTO Zaccaria Lord of Phocea, son of FULCONE Zaccaria & his [first/second] wife [Giulietta ---/Beatrice ---] (-1307).] 

 

 

1.         ALEXIOS Komnenodoukas Palaiologos.  1166.  Two seals dated to [1175] name "Alexios Palaiologos sebastos"[77]m ANNA Doukaina, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

2.         NIKEPHOROS PalaiologosDux of Trebizond 1180.  It is highly unlikely that he married Eirene Komnene, illegitimate daughter of Emperor Andronikos I & his mistress Evdokia Komnene. Nicetas Choniates says that he captured the illegitimate children of Andronikos and handed them over to Emperor Manuel I.  The alleged marriage was first cited by Rüdt-Collenberg who does not cite any sources[78].

 

3.         GEORGIOS Palaiologos (-killed in battle Kritsimos 1199). 

 

4.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos.  A seal dated to [1150] names "Andronikos Palaiologos sebastos, scion of the Komnenodoukas family"[79].  Two seals dated to [1165] name "Andronikos sebastos scion of the Komnenodoukas and Palaiologos families"[80].  A seal dated to [1167] names "Andronikos Doukas Palaiologos"[81].  General in Thessaloniki 1185.  A seal dated to [1200] names "Andronikos Palaiologos…from the loins of the Komnenodoukan emperors, the protopansebastohypertatos"[82]

 

5.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-[1216]).  Despot [1212].  m ([1216]) as her first husband, EIRENE Doukaina Komnene Laskarina, daughter of THEODOROS I Emperor at Nikaia & his first wife Anna Angelina (-summer 1239).  Georgios Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore", stating that "primam Irenem" married "Andronico Palaeologo…despotæ" and after her first husband died "Ioanni Ducæ, Batatzæ cognomine…e Didymtoecho…protovestiarii"[83]Ephræmius records that "Anna regina coniuge Lascario" had three daughters "Irene et Maria et Eudocia", recording that "maiorem natu Irenem" married "Palaeologorum…Andronico…despotæ" and secondly "Ioanni…Vatatzæ de Ducarum stirpe genitor et oriundo urbe Didymoticho, protovestiarii"[84].  She married secondly ([1216]) Ioannes Doukas Batatzes, who succeeded his father-in-law in 1221 as IOANNES III Emperor at Nikaia

 

6.         MIKHAEL Palaiologos (-after 1262).  Pachymeres records that "mysticum Palaeologum Michaelem…ex genere consobrinus imperatori fuisse diximus" was created "protosebastum" by Emperor Mikhael VIII in [1261/62][85]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-[1278]).  Protostrator.  Pachymeres records that "protostrator Palaeologus Andronicus, pincerna Raul Manuel, frater huius Issacius, et quartus protostratoris ex fratre nepos Palaeologus Ioannes" opposed Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches, were imprisoned (in [1278]), in a later passage recording that "protostrator Andronicus" died in prison[86]

2.         son .  m ---.  The source quoted below suggests that Ioannes's mother was a member of the Kantakouzenos family but she has not been identified.  One child: 

a)         IOANNES Komnenos Palaiologos Kantakouzenos (-after [1278/80]).  Pachymeres records that "protostrator Palaeologus Andronicus, pincerna Raul Manuel, frater huius Isaacius, et quartus protostratoris ex fratre nepos Palaeologus Ioannes" opposed Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches, were imprisoned (in [1278]), in a later passage recording that "Ioannem ex Cantacuzena familia" (presumably indicating the same person as "Palaeologus Ioannes") recanted and was released[87]

 

 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Tornikes .  Megas drungarios 1325. 

 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos m as her first husband, EVDOKIA Neokaisareitissa, daughter of --- Neokaisareites [protosekretes] & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  She married secondly as his second wife, Konstantinos Palaiologos

 

3.         MIKHAEL Palaiologos (-murdered 1345).  Leader of the Zealots who succeeded in expelling the nobles from Thessaloniki in July 1342 and imposing a programme of expropriation, carried out with extreme violence.  He was assassinated by the aristocratic party led by Ioannes Apokavkos. 

 

4.         ANDREAS Palaiologos (-after 1350).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andreas Palaeologus" at Thessaloniki, in a passage dated to [1346][88].  He took over leadership of the Zealots in Thessaloniki after the assassination of Mikhael Palaiologos, and exacted revenge against Ioannes Apokavkos and his supporters who were thrown from the ramparts of the town.  He was eventually forced out of Thessaloniki in 1350 and sought refuge with the Serbs. 

 

5.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Doukas Komnenosm [EVDOKIA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, cæsar, sébastokrator, & his wife ---].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[89], Evdokia was the daughter of Isaakios Komnenos cæsar, son of Emperor Alexios I, but the basis for this is not known.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

Two possible siblings, parents not known.  It is not known whether they were agnatic or cognatic descendants of the Palaiologos family. 

1.         [--- Angelos .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "uno enim magistro avunculo nostro Angelo magno stratopedarcha", "nostro" apparently referring both to "magnus domesticus" who is the speaker in this section of the text and is identified with the author, the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos, and to "Syrgiannes"[90].  The identity of this person has not been ascertained and the precise relationships are not known.  m ---.]  One possible child: 

a)         [IOANNES Angelos (-[1348/50]).  It is not certain that Ioannes was the son of the above, but it looks likely.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "magno domestico…Ioanni Angelo eius consobrino", "magnus domesticus" apparently referring to the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos, in a passage dated to [1330][91].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Ioannes Angelus pincerna, magni domestici consobrinus", in a passage dated to [1341][92].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "consobrinum Ioannem Angelum" was appointed to "Thessaliæ præfecturam", in a passage dated to [1342][93].  Kephale of Kastoria, Epirus and Megalovlachia.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Angelo consobrino meo" had died earlier, in a passage dated to [1350][94].  He died of plague.  m --- Angelina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Angelos & his wife --- Kokala.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.]    

2.         THEODORA Angelina Palaiologina ([1270]-6 Jan 1342).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Theodora Palaeologina…magni…domestici matre", stating that she was "cognata" of Emperor Andronikos II[95].  Another clue to her parentage is provided by Ioannes Kantakouzenos who names "uno enim magistro avunculo nostro Angelo magno stratopedarcha", "nostro" apparently referring both to "magnus domesticus" who is the speaker in this section of the text and is identified with the author, the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos, and to "Syrgiannes"[96].  She may have been the granddaughter of a sister of Emperor Mikhael VIII[97].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Archontes" imprisoned "matrem magni domestici cum nepote Andronico", in a passage dated to [1341][98]m --- Kantakouzenos, son of --- ([1264/65]-1294). 

 

 

1.         THOMAS Palaiologos (-after 1342).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andronicum Palaeologum generum et Thomam Palaeologum duces" in Thrace, in a passage dated to 1342[99]

 

2.         DEMETRIOS Palaiologos .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[100], he was the possible son of Andronikos Palaiologos, a descendant in the male line of Mikhael [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus, but the basis for this speculation is not known.  Megas domestikos 1357/75.  m ---.  Demetrios Palaiologos & his wife had two children: 

a)         IOANNES PalaiologosPrimikerios tes Aules 1375.  Megas primikerios

b)         EVDOKIA Kantakouzene

 

3.         MANUEL Palaiologos (-after 1451).  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Manuelem Palaeologum, Cantacuzenæ protostratorissæ consobrinum" was involved in negotiations for the potential marriage of Emperor Konstantinos XI and "despotæ Serviæ filiam" in 1451[101]same person as…?  MANUEL Palaiologosm ---.  The name of Manuel's wife is not known.  Manuel & his wife had one child: 

a)         NIKOLAOS Palaiologos (-after 1463).  Nikolaos son of Manuel Palaiologos is named in the Masarelli Vatican manuscript when recording his marriage[102].  He received Monemvasia in 1463.  m EUPHROSYNE Kantakouzene, daughter of GEORGIOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos "Sachatai" & his wife Maria Razi [Ralli].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Euphrosyne married Nikolaos son of Manuel Palaiologos[103].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had five daughters, of whom “l´autre [=la deuxième]” married “[le] seigneur Nicolas Paléologue[104].  Nikolaos & his wife had two children: 

i)          GEORGIOS Palaiologos (-Rome ----).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Georgios and Manuel as the two sons of Nikolaos Palaiologos & his wife, adding that Georgios died in Rome[105]

ii)         MANUEL Palaiologos .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Georgios and Manuel as the two sons of Nikolaos Palaiologos & his wife, adding that Georgios died in Rome[106].  m --- Bocchalina, daughter of ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names her as the wife of Manuel, son of Nikolaos Palaiologos[107].  Manuel & his wife had two children: 

(a)       daughter (-young).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Manuel Palaiologos & his wife had two daughters, of whom the older died young[108]

(b)       daughter .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Manuel Palaiologos & his wife had two daughters, of whom the younger married Contareni of Venice[109]m --- Contareni of Venice. 

 

4.         NIKEPHOROS Palaiologos (-after 1453)m --- Kantakouzene, daughter of DEMETRIOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage is confirmed by Georgios Phrantzes who records the part played by "Demetrium Cantacuzenum et Nicephorum Palaeologum generum eius" in defending Constantinople from Sultan Mohammed in 1453[110]

 

 

 

B.      EMPERORS 1259-1453 (PALAIOLOGOS)

 

 

MIKHAEL Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, son of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, megas domestikos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina ([1224/25]-11 Dec 1282, bur outside Constantinople, later transferred to Selymbria[111]).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Michael Comnenus, Constantinus Palaeologus et Iohannes" as the three sons of "Androniko Palaeologomagnum domesticum"[112].  Georgios Akropolites names "Michaelis Comneni…magni domestici primi filii" (referring to "magnum domesticum Comnenum Andronicum Palaeologum"), recording that Emperor Ioannes appointed him as governor of "Melenicum Serras", in Dec [1246] from the context of the passage[113].  Ioannes III Emperor at Nikaia appointed him strategos of Bithynia and Mesothynia to the north of Nikaia[114]Megas kontostabulos 1252/53.  He fled to the Seljuk Turks in 1256, presumably in fear of his personal safety at the Nikaian court, and remained in exile until 1258 when Emperor Theodoros II reappointed him megas konstabulos after giving assurances concerning his position[115].  Within a few days of the accession of Ioannes IV Batatzes Emperor at Nikaia, Mikhael Palaiologos overthrew the regency of Giorgios Muzalon.  Megas dux 1258.  Despot 13 Nov 1258.  He engineered his own coronation as co-emperor at Nymphaion 1 Jan 1259, Emperor Ioannes being persuaded to refuse his own coronation[116].  An alliance between Manfred King of Sicily, Mikhael II Angelos Despot of Epirus and Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia threatened the revival of Nikaia.  Led by his brother sébastokrator Ioannes Palaiologos, Mikhael's troops defeated the alliance in the valley of Pelagonia in Autumn 1259.  He tackled Venice by forming a military alliance with Genoa under the treaty of Nymphaion in 1261, granting the Genoese commercial privileges similar to those already held by Venice.  Constantinople was finally captured by Alexios Strategopulos 25 Jul 1261, in an unplanned attack after he found that the Frankish garrison was absent[117].  Co-emperor Mikhael rushed to the city 15 Aug 1261, leaving Emperor Ioannes IV in Anatolia, and had himself crowned Emperor MIKHAEL VIII in Sep 1261.  He deposed and imprisoned Ioannes IV 25 Dec 1261.  He consolidated his position by making territorial gains against Bulgaria, and in 1264 by forcing peace on despot Mikhael II Angelos Lord of Epirus who swore allegiance to him.  After the Venetians defeated a Genoese fleet in the gulf of Navplion in Spring 1263, Emperor Mikhael broke his alliance with the latter and negotiated a new treaty with the former, signed 18 Jun 1265.  He renewed his alliance with Genoa in 1266, this dual alliance strengthening Byzantine's foreign policy position.  Charles I King of Sicily, with his vision of conquering Byzantium, allied himself with Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia 24 May 1267 and agreed a future partition of the Byzantine empire with Baudouin II ex-Emperor of Constantinople at Viterbo 27 May 1267, although King Charles's attention was temporarily diverted away from Byzantium when he joined his brother's crusade against Tunis in 1270.  Emperor Mikhael allied himself with Hungary to counter-balance the threat from Serbia, sealed by the marriage of his heir with the Hungarian king's daughter.  Emperor Mikhael agreed to the union of the Orthodox and Catholic churches at the Council of Lyon 6 Jul 1274, in return for the Pope instructing Charles King of Sicily not to attack Byzantium.  The union triggered a schism within the Orthodox church.  In the face of continued opposition, by 1277 Emperor Mikhael had resorted to persecution to enforce the union, including the arrest of his sister Eirene[118].  Pope Martin IV, elected in Feb 1281 with King Charles's support, excommunicated Emperor Mikhael for not imposing union quickly enough and encouraged Charles to invade Byzantium and depose the emperor.  The threatened invasion was postponed as King Charles's attention was diverted by the rebellion in Sicily 31 Mar 1282, and the subsequent attack on the island by Pedro IV King of Aragon.  On his death, Emperor Mikhael was refused the last rites of the church and buried on a mountainside with no church service[119]

m (1253) THEODORA Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina, daughter of IOANNES Batatzes & his wife Evdokia Angelina ([1240]-4 Mar 1303).  Georgios Akropolites records the marriage between "fratris sui sebastocratoris Isaacii Ducæ neptem Theodoram" and "Michaeli Comneno" (referring to Mikhael Palaeologus, the future Emperor Mikhael VIII), commenting that "pater illius, sebastocratoris filius Ioannes, in adolescentia fato functus", dated to the early 1250s from the context of the passage[120]Ephræmius records the marriage of "Ioannes imperator…Theodoram neptem germani sui…sebastocratoris…Isaacii" and "Michaeli stirpe Palaeologo"[121].  Pachymeres names "Augusta Theodora" as mother of Emperor Andronikos II[122].  She was crowned empress with her husband in Constantinople Sep 1261. 

Mistress (1) ---.  The name of Mikhael's first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2) ([1240/50]) --- Diplobatatzaina, daughter of --- Batatzes & his wife --- Batatzaina.  Pachymeres records that "Diplobatatzina" was the mother of "filiam…notham…Mariam" of Emperor Mikhael VIII[123]

Emperor Mikhael VIII & his wife had seven children:

1.         [MANUEL] Palaiologos ([1254/57]-before 1259).  Pachymeres names "primum Manuelem fato præreptum" as the son of Emperor Mikhael VIII[124].  There must be some doubt about the name of this son, as the fact that he was named after his father does not conform to the usual naming conventions among Byzantine nobility, where the son is not normally given the name of his father. 

2.         EIRENE Palaiologina ([1255/58]-before 1328).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Irenen, Eudociam et Annam" as the three daughters of Emperor Mikhael VIII[125].  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Mytzæ primogenitor Ioanni" and "primogenita…imperatoris filia…Irenæ", dated from the context to the early part of her father's reign, a later passage recording the couple's marriage[126].  Pachymeres names "propriam germanam Irenen, Asanis viduam" when recording that Emperor Andronikos II sent her by fast ship to "Cyzicum"[127].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the 1263 agreement between Ivan's father and Emperor Mikhael VIII under which the former surrendered Mesembria to Byzantium[128]m (Betrothed 1263, 1278) IVAN ASEN III Mytzes Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN Mico [Mytzes] Tsar of the Bulgarians & Marija Asanina of Bulgaria (-before 1302).  He was installed in 1278 as Tsar of the Bulgarians by Emperor Michael VIII, concerned with the deteriorating stability in Bulgaria, and recognised as Tsar in Feb 1279 after he captured Trnovo[129].  He was expelled in 1280 by Ivajlo, and fled to the Tatars and later to Constantinople.  He was awarded the title despot in Byzantium in 1284. 

3.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (25 Mar 1259-12/13 Feb 1332).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum imperatorum et Constantinum Porphyrogenitum" as the two sons of Emperor Mikhael VIII[130].  Pachymeres records that "filius eius Andronicus" succeeded on the death of Emperor Mikhael[131].  He was proclaimed heir to the throne in 1262, crowned co-emperor in Nov 1272.  He succeeded his father in 1282 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS II.    

-        see below

4.         ANNA Komnene Palaiologina ([1260]-[1299/1300]).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Irenen, Eudociam et Annam" as the three daughters of Emperor Mikhael VIII[132].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Mikhael VIII proposed the betrothal of "[filiam] secundam Annam" and "cralem Serbiæ Stephanum Uresim, secundo eius filio Melotino", dated from the context to the early part of his reign[133].  Pachymeres records that "Michaelis despotæ filius natu minimus Demetrius" married "imperatoris…filia…Anna"[134].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaeli duci" married "Annam sororem Andronici senioris"[135].  A synodal decision dated Nov 1278 granted dispensation for the marriage “résultant de leur sixième degré d´affinité[136].  Her father arranged her marriage as part of the alliance between him and her future husband against Charles I King of Sicily.  Betrothed ([1267/68]) to STEFAN UROŠ MILUTIN, son of STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]).  m (Dispensation Nov 1278) as his first wife, MIKHAEL [Demetrios] Doukas Komnenos Angelos 'Kutrules', son of MIKHAEL [Konstantinos] Komnenos Doukas Angelos, despot, Lord of Epirus and Thessaly & his wife Theodora Doukaina Petraliphaina Basilissa (-after 13 Mar 1304). 

5.         KONSTANTINOS Doukas Palaiologos porphyrogennetos (after 1261-5 Mar 1306)Pachymeres names "tertium…natum in purpura Constantinum" as the son of Emperor Mikhael VIII, recording his later disgrace[137].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaeli primo Romanorum imperatori Palaeologo" had "filii nati tres Andronicus…Constantinus Porphyrogenitus et Theodorus"[138].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum imperatorum et Constantinum Porphyrogenitum" as the two sons of Emperor Mikhael VIII[139]. He inherited 60,000 hyperpyra from his father and boasted of his intention to amass a fortune of nearly double that amount before he died[140].  As part of his brother's campaign against the Turks in 1290, Konstantinos led an army which based itself at Nymphaion where it was alleged that he plotted against the emperor.  He was tried, condemned and taken back to Constantinople as a prisoner.  Pachymeres records the death of "Porphyrogenitum" in prison "quinta dies mensis eiusdem" (which appears from the context to refer to the month of March), as a monk named ATHANASIOS[141]m ([1285/88]) EIRENE Raoulaina, daughter of --- Raoul & his wife --- ([1265/70]-).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Porphyrogenito" to "[uxorem] ex Raulis stirpe"[142].  In a later passage, Pachymeres clarifies her parentage when he records that the "avia paterna" of "coniux Porphyrogeniti" was "Strategopulinæ neptis ex fratre"[143].  Her birth date is estimated from her marriage in [1291].  If correct, it suggests that her father must have been one of his parents´ youngest children.  Konstantinos Palaiologos & his wife had one child:

a)         IOANNES Komnenos Palaiologos ([1288/89]-Skopje 1326).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Porphyrogenitus" had "Ioannem…unigenam"[144].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II installed "proprii germani Constantini Porphyrogeniti filium" as panhypersébastos, dateable to [1305/06] from the context[145].  Governor of Thessaloniki: Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Ioannem" was "tertium Thessalonicæ…præfecturam"[146].  He rebelled against his uncle and declared the secession of his province from the empire in [1325/26], supported by the commanders of two Macedonian fortresses on the Serbian border.  He gained support from Stefan Uroš III "Dečanski" King of Serbia, to whom he married his daughter, but the rebellion ended with his death soon after[147]m (soon after 1305/06) EIRENE Metochitissa, daughter of THEODOROS Metochites, megas logothetis & his wife ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Ioannem" and "Metochites magnus logotheta Irenen filiam"[148].  Ioannes Palaiologos & his wife had [two] children:

i)          MARIA Palaiologina ([1313/14]-7 Apr 1355).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Ioannem…Mariam filiam" married "Stephano Cralæ Triballorum principi"[149].  Her marriage was arranged by her father to obtain Serbian support for his rebellion in Thessaloniki[150].  She became a nun as MARTHAm firstly ([1 Nov 1325/31 Aug 1326]) as his second wife, STEFAN UROŠ III "Dečanski" King of Serbia, illegitimate son of STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia & his mistress --- ([1276]-murdered 11 Nov 1331, bur Visoki Dečani monastery).  m secondly ([1336/37]) as his second wife, JOVAN Oliver, despot in the area of Veles, son of ---. 

6.         THEODOROS Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos (-after 1310)Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaeli primo Romanorum imperatori Palaeologo" had "filii nati tres Andronicus…Constantinus Porphyrogenitus et Theodorus"[151].  Pachymeres names "Theodorum imperatoris fratem" when recording his arrest by "Philanthropeni" (Alexios Philanthropenos Tarchanaiotes) at Ephesus, during the course of the latter's rebellion in Asia Minor [in 1295][152].  General 1305.  Betrothed (contract broken before 28 Jun 1293) to EUDOKIA, daughter of THEODOROS Mouzalon, protovestarios & his wife [--- Kantakouzene].  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "[filiam] magnum logothetam Muzalonem" and "fratri suo Theodoro", that the marriage did not proceed on grounds of consanguinity, but that "filiam…protovestiarii" married "Constantino proprio filio…despotæ"[153].  She later married Theodoros's nephew Konstantinos Palaiologosm ([1293]) ---, daughter of --- Libadarios pinkernes & his wife ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "pincernæ Libadarii filiam" and "fratri suo Theodoro"[154].  She was the daughter of one of the emperor's commanders in Asia Minor who remained loyal during the rebellion of Alexios Philanthropenos Tarchanaiotes in 1295 and arranged the arrest of the latter[155]

7.         EVDOKIA Palaiologina (-13 Dec 1301).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Irenen, Eudociam et Annam" as the three daughters of Emperor Mikhael VIII[156].  Pachymeres records that "Eudocia" was "parvula" at the time of the marriages of her two sisters[157].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Ioannes II "was married to the daughter, the porphyrogennita, of the emperor lord Michael Palaiologos" after leaving for Constantinople, adding that the marriage took place while "the emperor lord Michael was still alive" but died on 10 Dec[158], which suggests that the marriage took place earlier in 1282.  Pachymeres records that "Ioannes Lazorum princeps" married "imperatoris Michaelis…filia…Eudocia", stating that she returned "ad fratrem Augustum" with one of her sons after her husband died[159].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the widowed Palaiologina departed for" Constantinople 13 Jun 1298 after her husband died and returned to Trebizond in Mar 1301[160].  After the death of her husband, her brother planned her marriage with Stefan Uroš II Milutin King of Serbia, but Evdokia refused the match[161].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 13 Dec 1301 of "the empress the lady Eudokia Palaiologina"[162]m (Constantinople 1282, before Dec) IOANNES II Megas Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond, son of MANUEL I Emperor in Trebizond & his third [wife] Eirene Syrikaina (-fortress of Limnia 16 Aug 1297, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin). 

Emperor Mikhael VIII had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

8.          EUPHROSYNE [Eirene] PalaiologinaPachymeres records that "imperator aliam suam filiam…ex pellicle genitam…Euphrosynam" married "principi Noga", in [1266] from the context[163].  Pachymeres refers to the marriage between "Michaele Auguste…filiæ Euphrosynes" and "Nogas"[164].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm the alliance between her father and her future husband.   m (1266) NOGAI Khan of the Golden Horde, son of --- (-killed in battle on the Bug 1293).  He was killed in battle by Tokhta Khan[165]

Emperor Mikhael VIII had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (2):

9.          MARIA Palaiologina (-after 1307)Pachymeres records that "filiam…notham…Mariam…ex Diplobatatzina" was sent to marry "principem…Tocharorum Chalau", after whose death before her arrival she married "filio et successori Chalau in principatu…Apaga"[166].  Pachymeres records that "imperator Palaeologus Michael" sent "filiam suam notham Mariam" to marry "principi Tocharorum Chalau", and that after his death she married "frater [error for filius] ipsius idemque in principatu successor Apagas"[167].  Her father arranged her marriage to Hulagu Mongol Ilkhan of Persia, but by the time she arrived at his court he had died.  She was married to Hulagu's son instead.  Vardan's History records that "Abaqa was brought a wife from the Byzantines named Despina, daughter of the king called Vatatzes" in [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266] and that he was baptised at her request[168]She was known as Despina Khatun at the Ilkhan court and Despina Mugulion by the Greeks[169].  After the death of her first husband she returned to Constantinople where she founded the convent of the Virgin of Mugulion[170]Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II negotiated an alliance with "Charmpantane" and proposed his marriage to "sororem propriam Mariam…dominæ Mugullorum", granting her "comitatu deduci Nicæam" which had been invaded by the Persians, dated to [1307/08] from the context[171].  It is not clear from the text whether this marriage ever took place, especially as it is unclear why Charbanden would have considered Maria a good marriage prospect as she must have been in her 50s or early 60s at the time, assuming that the date of her first marriage is correct.  m firstly (1265) as his --- wife, ABAGA Ilkhan of Persia, son of HULAGU Ilkhan of Persia (-1 Apr 1282).  Baptised 1265.  [m secondly ([1307/08]) CHARBANDEN, Turkish prince.] 

 

 

ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (25 Mar 1259-12/13 Feb 1332)Pachymeres names "alterum Andronicum superstitem" as the second son of Emperor Mikhael VIII[172].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum imperatorum et Constantinum Porphyrogenitum" as the two sons of Emperor Mikhael VIII[173].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaeli primo Romanorum imperatori Palaeologo" had "filii nati tres Andronicus…Constantinus Porphyrogenitus et Theodorus"[174].  Pachymeres records that "filius eius Andronicus" succeeded on the death of Emperor Mikhael[175].  He was proclaimed heir to the throne in 1262, crowned co-emperor Nov 1272.  He succeeded his father in 1282 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS II.  He immediately repudiated the unpopular union of the Orthodox and Catholic churches[176].  His forces recaptured Albanian lands around Durazzo in 1284[177].  Relying heavily on the Genoese at the expense of the Venetians, he was pulled into the war between the two which broke out in 1294, the Venetians taking reprisals for Byzantium sheltering the Genoese.  This war lasted until 1302.  Under Andronikos II, Byzantium's eastern defence against the Turks was considerably weakened, resulting in the loss of most of Asia Minor.  Military help against the Turks from the Catalan company, headed by Roger de Flor (who married Andronikos's niece Maria Asen of Bulgaria), soon turned to disaster when, after relieving the siege of Philadelphia in 1304, they pillaged the whole region killing Byzantines and Turks without distinction.  After the assassination in Apr 1305 of Roger de Flor in the palace of co-Emperor Mikhael IX, the Catalan company plundered Thrace and defeated the Byzantines at Apros.  They continued a campaign of pillage in Thrace until their defeat at Thessaloniki in Spring 1308.  Emperor Andronikos lost Durazzo to Philippe Principe di Tarento in 1306.  Charles de France Comte de Valois, titular Emperor of Constantinople by right of his second wife, obtained Venice's support for an invasion of Byzantium in 1306, and was joined by the Catalan company in 1308 when he landed in western Greece, but by 1310 his threat had evaporated for lack of active support[178].  After the early death in 1320 of his eldest son and heir, co-Emperor Mikhael IX, rivalry developed between Emperor Andronikos and his grandson the future Emperor Andronikos III which eventually escalated into civil war.  The emperor's grandson finally entered Constantinople 24 May 1328 and obliged his grandfather to abdicate.  Ex-Emperor Andronikos continued to live in the royal palace, but two years later became a monk as ANTONIOS.  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "Theodorus Synadenus", at the time of the potential succession crisis triggered by the serious illness of Emperor Andronikos III in 1330, pressured ex-Emperor Andronikos II to become a monk under the name "Antonium", followed by a sworn document under which the ex-emperor renounced all future imperial pretensions[179]

Betrothed (contract broken 1267) to ISABELLE de Villehardouin, daughter of GUILLAUME II Prince of Achaia & his second wife Anna KomnenoDoukaina of Epirus ([1260/63]-23 Jan 1312).  This betrothal was proposed by Emperor Mikhael VIII after he failed to conquer the principality of Achaia, his plan being that Andronikos should succeed in Achaia after the death of his future father-in-law but the proposal was opposed by the Frankish barons in Achaia[180].  The primary source which confirms her betrothal has not yet been identified. 

m firstly (8 Nov 1273) ANNA of Hungary, daughter of ISTVÁN V King of Hungary & his wife Elisabeth [née ---] of the Kumans ([1260]-[1281/82]).  Pachymeres names "Anna Ungara" as wife of Emperor Andronikos II and their two sons "Michælem et Constantinum", a later passage confirming her precise parentage by specifying that "filiam Caroli" married "filiam regis Hungariæ" who was "matertera" of the future co-Emperor Mikhael IX[181].  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Hungarorum regis filia" was the first wife of "imperator Andronicus"[182].

m secondly ([1284], separated 1303) YOLANDA di Monferrato, daughter of GUGLIELMO IX Marchese di Monferrato & his second wife Infanta doña Beatriz de Castilla ([1273/74]-Drama, near Thessaloniki[183] 1317, bur Constantinople Pantokrator convent).  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the marriage in 1284 of "Gulielmus marchio Montis-ferrati…filiam suam" and "filio Palialogi defuncti qui in Constantinopolitane urbe habet dominium", specifying that her dowry was "regnum Thesalonice"[184].  The Chronica Jacobi de Aquis, dated to 1334, records that the two daughters of "Marchio Guliermus" and his wife "Beatricem filiam regis Anfoxi de Hispania" married "aliam…Violant…Andronico imperatori Græcorum"[185].  This marriage was arranged by the bride's maternal grandfather, Alfonso X "el Sabio" King of Castile[186].  She adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium.  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Irene, e Lombardia oriunda atque filia sororis regis Hispaniæ et nepti marchionis Montisferratensis…qui Thessalonicam…et Thessalorum rex fuit" was the second wife of "imperator Andronicus"[187].  Pachymeres records the second marriage of Emperor Andronikos II and "Irenen, e dynastis…quos marcesios sive marchioness appellant…neptem regis Hispaniæ"[188].  Her dowry consisted of the Monferrato family's titular right to Thessaloniki[189].  She was crowned empress after the birth of her first son in 1286[190].  She is portrayed as arrogant and ambitious by the contemporary historian Nikephoros Gregoras, and proposed a division of the territory of the empire in order to give her sons hereditary appanages[191].  She left her husband in 1303 and took up residence in Thessaloniki, where she conducted herself as empress in her own right, controlled her own finances and foreign policy, and witnessed documents as Augusta or Despina[192].  She inherited Monferrato after the death of her brother in 1305 and, after attempting to install her oldest son Ioannes as Marchese di Monferrato, arranged for her second son to succeed in 1306[193].  She vilified her husband and encouraged close relations with her son-in-law Milutin King of Serbia, whom she persuaded to name as his successor her son Demetrios although the latter declined the opportunity[194].   

Emperor Andronikos II & his first wife had two children:

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos (1277-Thessaloniki 12 Oct 1320).  Pachymeres names "Anna Ungara" as wife of Emperor Andronikos II and names their two sons "Michælem et Constantinum"[195].  Named co-emperor in 1281 by his father, he was crowned 21 May 1294 as co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX

-        see below.   

2.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos ([1278/81]-[1334/35]).  Pachymeres names "Anna Ungara" as wife of Emperor Andronikos II and names their two sons "Michælem et Constantinum"[196].  Despot [1292].  Epitropos of Thessaloniki 1320-1322.  His nephew co-Emperor Andronikos III captured and imprisoned him in a well in Demotika, believing that his grandfather intended to disinherit him in favour of Konstantinos[197].  He became a monk as KALLISTOSm firstly (22 May 1295) EUDOKIA, daughter of THEODOROS Mouzalon [protovestarios] & his wife [--- Kantakouzene] .  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "[filiam] magnum logothetam Muzalonem" and "fratri suo Theodoro", that the marriage did not proceed on grounds of consanguinity, but that "filiam…protovestiarii" married "Constantino proprio filio…despotæ"[198].  She had previously been betrothed to her husband's uncle Theodoros Doukas Angelos Palaiologosm secondly as her second husband, EVDOKIA Neokaisareitissa, widow of KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos, daughter of --- Neokaisareites [protosekretes] & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  Mistress (1): KATHARA, servant of his second wife.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Cathara" as mistress of "Constantinum …despotam"[199].  Konstantinos & his [second] wife had one child: 

a)         EVDOKIA Palaiologina .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Constantinus…Palaeologus, Andronici imperatoris patruus, et Demetrius Zamplaco magnus stratopedarcha eius gener", in a passage dated to [1344][200]m DEMETRIOS Tsamplakos, son of ---.  Megas stratopedarchos

Konstantinos Palaiologos had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

b)         MIKHAEL KatharosIoannes Kantakouzenos names "Michælem puerum, ipsi Constantino [despota] ex Cathara pellice natum"[201].  His paternal grandfather Emperor Andronikos II was devoted to him in his later years and allegedly planned to disinherit his grandson, the future Emperor Andronikos III, and nominate Mikhael Katharos as his successor in [1320/21][202]

Emperor Andronikos II & his second wife had seven children:

3.         IOANNES Palaiologos ([1286]-Thessaloniki [Apr] 1307).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Iohannem, Theodorum, Demetrium et filiam Simonidem" as the children of "imperator Andronicus" by his second wife, stating that Ioannes died childless by his wife[203].  Pachymeres names "Ioannem filium, quem ex Irene susceperat" when recording that he was granted the title despot "puerum adhuc"[204].  He was granted the title despot by his father in 1294 after pressure from his mother, who resented the titles granted to her husband's sons by his first marriage[205].  Governor of Thessaloniki 1305-1307.  His mother was unsuccessful in persuading her husband that Ioannes should inherit Monferrato in 1306, a plan which was also opposed by Athanasios Patriarch of Constantinople[206]m (7 Apr 1303) EIRENE Khumnaina, daughter of NIKEPHOROS Khumnos, protobestiarios & his wife --- ([1290/91]-1360).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Ioannis despota" and "filia Chumni"[207].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Nicephorus Chumnus qui Canicleo præerat…Irenen filiam eius" married "Ioanni despotæ filio suo" (referring to Emperor Andronikos II)[208].  This marriage was arranged by Emperor Andronikos, the bride's father being one of his favourite ministers of state, but disapproved of by Empress Eirene[209].  Her birth date is estimated from a letter addressed to her by her father after her husband died which specifies that she was then in her sixteenth year[210].  After her husband died, she continued to use the title basilissa, acquired on her marriage[211].  She became a nun as EULOGIA in 1308, and founded the monastery of Christ Philanthropos in Constantinople for both monks and nuns[212]

4.         THEODOROS Komnenos Doukas Angelos Palaiologos ([1291]-21 Apr 1338)Georgios Phrantzes names "Iohannem, Theodorum, Demetrium et filiam Simonidem" as the children of "imperator Andronicus" by his second wife[213].  Pachymeres names "Theodorus Michaelis Augusti frater"[214].  His mother arranged his succession to his maternal uncle in 1306 as TEODORO Marchese di Monferrato, after unsuccessfully proposing the accession of her older son Ioannes[215]

-        MARCHESI di MONFERRATO

5.         SIMONIDA Palaiologina ([1292/93]-after 1336).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Iohannem, Theodorum, Demetrium et filiam Simonidem" as the children of "imperator Andronicus" by his second wife, stating that Simonida married "Serviæ despota"[216].  Pachymeres records the marriage of "August filiam…Simonidem" and "cralis Serbiæ", after her aunt Evdokia Palaiologina had refused the marry him[217].  Mistreated by her husband, she refused to return to him after attending the funeral of her mother in Constantinople in 1317 but was forced to do so by her half-brother Konstantinos[218].  She fled to Constantinople after her husband died and became a nun[219]m ([Oct/Nov] 1300) as his fourth wife, STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia, son of STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]). 

6.         THEODORA Palaiologina (-young).  Manuel Philes names (in order) “Simonis...Theodoros...Theodoran...Isaakion...Dimitrios ...Bartholomaion” as younger siblings of Ioannes Palaiologos, specifying that Theodora, Isaakios and Bartholomaios died young[220]

7.         ISAAKIOS Palaiologos (-young).  Manuel Philes names (in order) “Simonis...Theodoros...Theodoran...Isaakion... Dimitrios...Bartholomaion” as younger siblings of Ioannes Palaiologos, specifying that Theodora, Isaakios and Bartholomaios died young[221]

8.         DEMETRIOS Angelodoukas Palaiologos ([1295/1300]-after 1343).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Iohannem, Theodorum, Demetrium et filiam Simonidem" as the children of "imperator Andronicus" by his second wife[222].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II installed "Demetrium filium suum natu minimum" as despot, dateable to [1306] from the context[223].  His mother persuaded Milutin King of Serbia to name Demetrios as his successor, although he declined the opportunity[224].  He lived at Thessaloniki[225]m THEODORA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Demetrios Palaiologos & his wife had three children:

a)         EIRENE Palaiologina.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Matthaei Cantacuzeni primogeniti magni domestici" married "filia Demetrii despotæ, Andronici Palaeologi senioris filii" in Thessaloniki, in a passage dated to [1340][226].  In prison 1356/57.  m (Thessaloniki [late 1340/early 1341]) MATHAIOS Asanes Kantakouzenos, son of Emperor IOANNES VI & his wife Eirene Asanina [Bulgaria] ([1325]-24 Jun 1383).   

b)         child .  The primary source which confirms the parentage of this child has not yet been identified. 

c)         child .  The primary source which confirms the parentage of this child has not yet been identified. 

9.         BARTHOLOMAIOS Palaiologos (-young).  Manuel Philes names (in order) “Simonis...Theodoros...Theodoran...Isaakion... Dimitrios...Bartholomaion” as younger siblings of Ioannes Palaiologos, specifying that Theodora, Isaakios and Bartholomaios died young[227]

Emperor Andronikos II had two illegitimate daughters by unknown mistresses:

10.       MARIA PalaiologinaPachymeres records the marriage of "imperator…notha ei filia Maria" and "Tuctain"[228].  m (1292) TOKHTA Khan of the Golden Horde, son of MENGU-TIMUR Khan & his concubine --- (-1312).  He succeeded as Khan in 1291 following the murder of Khan Telebuga.  He defeated and killed Nogai Khan in 1299, thereby reuniting the Golden Horde[229]

11.       EIRENE Palaiologina.  In 1303, Emperor Andronikos II requested help from Ghazzan Ilkhan to fight the Turks and arranged his marriage with "a princess" reputed to be his own illegitimate daughter[230].  The marriage never took place because Ghazzan Il-khan died, and she was offered to Oljaitu Il-khan and negotiations were ongoing in 1307 but apparently went nowhere.  Laiou assumes that the lady whose hand was offered was Eirene[231].  Her marriage was arranged by her father when her future husband accepted Byzantine suzerainty over Thessaly[232]The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m (1309 or 1315[233]) IOANNES Doukas Angelos sébastokrator Lord of Thessaly, son of KONSTANTINOS Komnenos Doukas [Angelos] sébastokrator Lord of Thessaly & his wife [Anna Evagionissa]  (-1318).  He accepted Byzantine suzerainty in 1315 in order to free himself from the regency of Guy Duke of Athens, and married the emperor's daughter[234]

 

 

MIKHAEL Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his first wife Anna of Hungary (1277-Thessaloniki 12 Oct 1320).  Pachymeres names "Anna Ungara" as wife of Emperor Andronikos II and their two sons "Michælem et Constantinum"[235].  Named co-emperor in 1281 by his father, he was crowned 21 May 1294 as co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX.  His father appointed him commander in southern Asia Minor in 1302, but he was deserted by his Alan allies, forced to abandon his camp at Magnesia, withdrew to Pergamon and later to Pegai from where his retreat to Constantinople was delayed until Jan 1304 by his serious illness[236].  After achieving some military success against the Bulgarians in 1304, he was decisively defeated by the rebellious Catalan company in two battles in Jun 1305, being wounded at Apros[237].  His health was severely affected by the murder of his second son Manuel and he died soon after[238].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the death of "Byzantii…iunior imperator"[239]

Betrothed (1288, contract broken 1295) to CATHERINE de Courtenay, daughter of PHILIPPE de Courtenay titular Latin Emperor of Constantinople & his wife Beatrice of Sicily (1274-Paris 11 Oct 1307 or 2 Jan 1308, bur Paris).  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Michælis filii [imperatoris Andronici]" and "filiam ex Balduini filio et filia Caroli natam…Aecaterina"[240].  This prospective marriage was negotiated over many years in the hope of solving the problem of the Latin claim to Constantinople but the Pope objected on religious grounds[241].   

m (16 Jan 1294) RITA of Armenia, daughter of LEO II King of Armenia & his wife Anna [Theophano] of Armenia [Hethum] (1278-Jul 1333, bur Constantinople, Convent of St Martha).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau, Ritta et Thefanon" as the three daughters of King Leo II & his wife, stating that Rita married "le fis de l'empereur de Costantinople"[242].  Pachymeres records that Emperor Andronikos II sent to Armenia for a bride for his son and that eventually it was agreed he should marry "maiorem natu duarum virginem…Mariæ", their marriage taking place on 16 Jan[243].  The Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II records that "his sister Rita became empress of all Constantinople" in [7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295][244].  She was known as MARIA in Byzantium.  She became a nun as XENE

Co-Emperor Mikhael IX & his wife had four children:

1.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (Constantinople 25 Mar 1297-Constantinople 15 Jun 1341)Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum imperatorem et Manuelem despotam" as the two sons of "imperator Michael"[245].  He succeeded in 1328 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS III after obliging his grandfather to abdicate.   

-        see below

2.         MANUEL Palaiologos (after 1298-murdered 1319).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum imperatorem et Manuelem despotam" as the two sons of "imperator Michael"[246].  He was killed by soldiers of his brother Andronikos, who had allegedly mistaken him as a rival for the affections of a girl whom co-Emperor Andronikos was courting[247]

3.         ANNA Palaiologina (-1321).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Annam et Theodoram" as the two daughters of "imperator Michael"[248].  Pachymeres records that "[βασίλισσα] Anna, neptis imperatoris" proposed the marriage of "filii sui Thomæ" and "filia iunioris Augusti Michaelis"[249].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Michael imperator…Annam filiarum alteram" and "Thomæ despotæ, Nicephori despotæ filio"[250].  Despina.  Her first marriage was arranged as part of the agreement reached in 1304 under which Emperor Andronikos II promised support for Epirus against Thessaly[251].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly ([1307]) THOMAS Komnenodoukas Angelos Lord of Epirus despot, son of NIKEPHOROS Doukas Komnenos Angelos despot, Lord of Epirus & his second wife Anna Palaiologina Kantakouzene ([1288/89]-murdered 1318).  m secondly (1318) her first husband's nephew, NIKOLAOS Angelos Komnenos Orsini Count of Kefalonia, son of GIOVANNI Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his wife Maria Komnene Doukaina Angelina (-murdered 1323).  He succeeded as Lord of Epirus on the death of his uncle (who was also his wife's first husband).  He was awarded the title despot in [1319/20].   

4.         THEODORA Palaiologina (-after 1330).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Annam et Theodoram" as the two daughters of "imperator Michael"[252].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Michael imperator…Theodoram [filiam]" and "Sphentisthlabo Mœsorum regi"[253].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaelem Streantzimeri" married "Andronici minoris germanam sororem Theodoram, Sphentisthlabo regi defuncto antea nuptam" after the war with Byzantium[254].  Her second marriage was agreed under the terms of the 1324 peace agreement between Bulgaria and Emperor Andronikos II[255].  She became a nun as THEODOSIA.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "imperatoris Andronici soror, quondam Michaeli Mœsorum regi nupta…monasticam…Theodosia ex Theodora dicta" returned to her brother after the death of her [second] husband[256]m firstly (1320) as his second wife, TODOR SVETOSLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of GEORGI Terter Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Maria --- (-1321).  m secondly (after Aug 1324) as his third wife, MIHAIL III ŠIŠMAN Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of ŠIŠMAN Prince of Vidin & his first wife --- (-killed in battle 28 Jul 1330). 

 

 

ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX & his wife Rita [Maria] of Armenia (Constantinople 25 Mar 1297-Constantinople 15 Jun 1341).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum imperatorem et Manuelem despotam" as the two sons of "imperator Michael"[257].  Appointed co-emperor in 1316 by his grandfather Emperor Andronikos II.  At first popular with his grandfather, he proved extravagant and the emperor attempted to disinherit him in [1320] after the murder of his brother Manuel[258].  The dispute developed into civil war, settled by a virtual partition of the empire when Emperor Andronikos II in Jul 1321 gave up Thrace and parts of Macedonia to his grandson, who installed himself at Adrianople.  Renewed tensions were settled by a further agreement, under which Andronikos was again recognised as heir to the throne and crowned co-emperor 2 Feb 1325.  The rivalry continued, with Macedonia declaring for the young emperor in [1327/28], followed by Thessaloniki in Jan 1328.  Andronikos entered Constantinople 24 May 1328 and obliged his grandfather to abdicate, succeeding as Emperor ANDRONIKOS III.  His alliance with Bulgaria was tested when it invaded northern Thrace, but in Oct 1328 a lasting peace strengthened Byzantium's defence against Serbia which had plundered western Macedonia[259].  Sultan Orkhan captured Nikaia after the battle of Philokrene 2 Mar 1331, and six years later Nikomedia.  Emperor Andronikos was excluded from the "league of Christian powers" formed in 1332 under Venetian leadership, mainly due to the intransigence of Pope John XXII concerning union of the Orthodox and Roman churches[260].  In 1332, Emperor Andronikos conquered further territory in Thessaly, and in 1336, taking advantage of the instability in Epirus following the death of Ioannes II Orsini, recaptured Janina.  By 1340, he had acquired control over all of Epirus.  Emperor Andronikos made no provision for the succession before he died, creating the conditions which ultimately enabled Ioannes Kantakouzenos to take control. 

m firstly (Mar 1318) ADELHEID von Braunschweig, daughter of HEINRICH I Herzog von Braunschweig und Lüneburg in Grubenhagen und Salzderhelden & his wife Agnes von Meissen ([1293]-Rhaidestes 16 Aug 1324, Constantinople Libis monastery).  She adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium.  Georgios Phrantzes names "Irene Alemanna" as the first wife of "Andronicus" stating that she died childless[261].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos states that she was "principis Brunsuicensis…filia" but does not name her[262].  The primary source which confirms her original name and precise parentage has not yet been identified. 

m secondly (betrothed Sep 1325, Constantinople Oct 1326) JEANNE de Savoie, daughter of AMEDEE V Comte de Savoie & his second wife Jeanne de Brabant (after 27 Sep 1307-Thessaloniki [1365]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "e Sabaudia…Anna imperatrix" in Feb, the marriage being celebrated in Oct when Anna was crowned[263].  Her parentage is confirmed by another passage in the same source which names "fratrem meum germanium Sabaudiæ comitem", dated to 1341[264].  The primary source which confirms her original name has not yet been identified.  She adopted the name ANNA in Byzantium.  Georgios Phrantzes names "Annam" as the second wife of "Andronicus"[265].  After the death of her husband in 1341, she became regent for her son.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos was obliged to leave for northern Thrace to restore order following a Serbian invasion.  During his absence, Alexios Apokavkos convinced Empress Anna that Kantakouzenos was her enemy and engineered his own appointment as prefect of Constantinople[266].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos declared himself emperor at Didymoteichon 26 Oct 1341, unleashing another civil war.  Empress Anna solicited support from the west, sent an emissary to Avignon in summer 1343 indicating her submission to the Pope, and in Aug 1343 pawned the Byzantine crown jewels to Venice for 30,000 ducats to raise finances[267].  A final settlement with Kantakouzenos was agreed 8 Feb 1347, under which her son was recognised as co-emperor to rule as junior to Kantakouzenos for ten years after which they would rule equally[268].  She lived in Thessaloniki from 1351, reigning as empress in her own right, issuing decrees in her own name and minting her own coins[269].  Her last known official act was a donation to the convent of the Anargyroi in Thessaloniki in [1360].  She became a nun as ANASTASIA[270]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Andronikos III is not known. 

Co-Emperor Andronikos & his first wife had one child:

1.         son (Jun [1320/24]-[Feb] [1321/25]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Irenen uxorem" gave birth to a son after returning to Constantinople in Jun [dated to 1320/22] but that he died eight months later[271]

Emperor Andronikos III & his second wife had four children:

2.         EIRENE [Maria] Palaiologina (1327-[Constantinople] after 1356).  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Andronicus" had two daughters by his second wife, of whom the older married "filio principis Mysorum"[272].  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "Irene regis Ioannis Palaeologi soror" married "regis Mysorum…Alexandri…filio" but was childless[273].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaeli, Alexandri Mœsorum regis filio" married "Mariam filiam", referring to Emperor Andronikos III[274].  She was sent back to Constantinople from Bulgaria in 1356.  m (Adrianople 1336) MIHAIL ASEN of Bulgaria, son of IVAN ALEXANDER ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Teodora Bassaraba of Walachia (-killed in battle Adrianople 1354).  Joint-Tsar of the Bulgarians in Adrianople 1336.  He was killed fighting the Turks. 

3.         IOANNES Palaiologos (Didymoteichon 18 Jun 1332-15/16 Feb 1391).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Iohannes" as the son of Emperor Andronikos by his second wife[275].  He succeeded his father in 1341 as Emperor IOANNES V, under the regency of his mother. 

-        see below.

4.         MANUEL Palaiologos (Constantinople 1337-before [1370]).  Georgios Phrantzes records that Emperor Andronikos sent "filius minor Manuel" as a hostage to Serbia, dated to [1340/41][276].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Ioannem imperatorem et fratrem Manuelem", dated to 1341[277].  Despot. 

5.         MARIA Palaiologina (-[1401]).  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Andronicus" had two daughters by his second wife, of whom the younger married "Orchanes"[278], which is not corroborated by other primary sources.  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Franciscus Gateluzus" and "Mariam sororem meam [=Iohannis imperatoris]", with the island of Lesbos as her dowry[279].  Her brother Emperor Ioannes V bought support from Francisco Gattilusio, a Genoese corsair, to help restore him to the throne in return for marriage with Maria, with the island of Lesbos as her dowry.  m ([1355]) FRANCESCO Gattilusio patrician of Genoa, son of --- (-6 Aug 1384).  He reigned from 17 Jul 1355 as FRANCESCO I Lord of Lesbos

Emperor Andronikos III had [two] illegitimate daughters by Mistress (1):

6.          EIRENE Palaiologina ([1315/20]-after 10 Aug 1341)Nicephoras Gregoras states that "Basilius" married "Irenen filiam iunioris Andronici Palaeologi spuriam" but that she died childless[280].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the empress lady Irene Palaiologina, the daughter of lord Andronikos Palaiologos came" 12 Sep 1334 and married "the emperor lord Basil" 17 Sep 1334[281]She succeeded her husband in 1340 as EIRENE Empress in Trebizond, until 17 Jul 1341.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Palaiologina was deposed" 17 Jul 1341, after reigning one year and three months, when "the daughter of lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos, the lady Anna called Anachoutlou…came and took over the empire with a Lazic army", adding in a later passage that she was "sent on a Frankish galley" to Constantinople 10 Aug 1341[282]. m (17 Sep 1334, divorced 1339) as his first wife, BASILEIOS I Megas Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond, son of ALEXIOS II Emperor in Trebizond & his [first/second] wife --- [of Georgia] (-poisoned 6 Apr 1340). 

7.          [daughterThe primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was the illegitimate daughter of Andronikos III according to Sturdza[283], but is not shown as such in Europäische Stammtafeln[284].  She converted to Islam and adopted the name BAYALUNHoworth says that “Uzbeg had married a daughter of the Greek Emperor. Ibn Batuta calls her the Khatun or Lady Beilun. This seems a generic name for princess, one so named, a wife of Uzbeg’s, died in 1324. She was doubtless a daughter of Andronicus II[285].  From a chronological point of view, it is more likely that she was the daughter of Emperor Andronikos III.  Howorth records that her husband permitted her to travel back to Constantinople with Ibn Batuta to visit her father and for the birth of her child[286].  Assuming that this journey formed part of Ibn Batuta’s second itinerary, it would be dated to the early 1330s which would also indicate that Andronikos III was the father of Uzbek’s wife.  m (1330) UZBEK Khan of the Golden Horde, son of TOGHRILCHA ([1299/1313]-1341).]   

 

 

IOANNES Palaiologos, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his second wife Jeanne [Anna] de Savoie (Didymoteichon 18 Jun 1332-15/16 Feb 1391).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Iohannes" as the son of Emperor Andronikos by his second wife[287].  He succeeded his father in 1341 as Emperor IOANNES V, under the regency of Ioannes Kantakouzenos, which was actively opposed by Alexios Apokavkos, Dowager Empress Anna and Patriarch Ioannes Kalekas.  While Kantakouzenos was absent from Constantinople leading military action against invading Serb and Turk forces, he was deposed as regent and replaced by the Patriarch, with Apokavkos as prefect of Constantinople.  In reaction, Kantakouzenos declared himself Emperor Ioannes VI at Didymoteichon 26 Oct 1341, although as co-emperor after Emperor Ioannes V and Dowager Empress Anna.  A final settlement with Kantakouzenos was agreed 8 Feb 1347, under which Ioannes V was recognised as co-emperor to rule as junior to Kantakouzenos for ten years, after which they would rule equally[288].  Emperor Ioannes V gradually reasserted himself against Ioannes VI, invaded the Thracian territory of the latter's son Matthaios in Autumn 1352, and allied himself with Bulgaria and Serbia in return for military aid.  He sent his brother Mikhael as a hostage to Serbia to seal the alliance.  Ioannes VI obtained military help from the Turks.  The conflict between the two emperors was brought to a head by the proclamation of Matthaios Kantakouzenos as co-emperor and heir to the throne in 1353.  However, opposition to the Kantakouzenos family was growing.  Ioannes V bought support from Francisco Gattilusio, a Genoese corsair, in return for marriage to his sister Maria, with the island of Lesbos as her dowry.  Ioannes VI was forced to abdicate 4 Dec 1354.  Ioannes V proposed by letter 15 Dec 1355 to Pope Innocent VI to negotiate the union of the Orthodox and Catholic churches, but this led to nothing.  The Turkish conquest of Greece continued, Didymoteichon fell in 1361 and Adrianople in 1362, where Sultan Murad I established his seat of government in [1365].  Emperor Ioannes V visited Lajos I King of Hungary in Spring 1366 to solicit help, which was refused, and found his return blocked by Ivan Alexander Asen Tsar of the Bulgarians at Vidin.  He was rescued by Amédée VI Comte de Savoie, who had left Europe on crusade and had recaptured Gallipoli from the Turks in Aug 1366[289].  Ioannes V visited Rome in 1369, where he converted to Roman Catholicism in Oct 1369.  On his journey home he was detained in Venice as an insolvent debtor.  Rescued by his second son Manuel, he returned to Constantinople in Oct 1371.  Turkish domination continued to grow, and Ioannes V was forced to accept Turkish suzerainty in 1372.  During his absence in Asia Minor with Sultan Murad, his son Andronikos rebelled against him but the rebellion was quickly crushed by the Sultan.  Emperor Ioannes V was deposed and imprisoned 12 Aug 1376 by his son Andronikos.  With Turkish help, he escaped and re-entered Constantinople 1 Jul 1379.  He was deposed once more 14 Apr 1390 when his grandson Ioannes VII was proclaimed emperor by the Turks, but returned to power 17 Sep 1390 when his son Manuel succeeded in expelling his nephew.  He died within six months. 

m (28/29 May 1347) HELENA Kantakouzene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES VI & his wife Eirene Asanina [Bulgaria] (1333-[Oct/Dec] 1396).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Cantacuzenus…Helena filia sua" and "Iohannem imperatorem", stating in a later passage that was thirteen years old at the time[290].  Her marriage took place following her father's triumphal entry into Constantinople and coronation there as emperor, in an attempt to legitimise his control over the imperial family.  She was taken to Galata in 1379 by her son Emperor Andronikos IV as a hostage, but released in 1381[291].  She became a nun at the convent of Kyra Martha in Constantinople as HYPOMONE[292].  A letter from Emperor Manuel II addressed to his mother is dated to [Oct 1396][293]

Mistress (1): KATHARA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her relationship with Emperor Ioannes has not yet been identified. 

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of Ioannes´s second mistress is not known. 

Emperor Ioannes V & his wife had nine children:

1.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (Constantinople 11 Apr 1348-Selymbria 28 Jun 1385)The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Andronicum…Manuelem et Theodorum" as the first three children of "Imperator Iohannes"[294].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "iuniori imperatori…filio iuniore…Manuel…altero filio Andronico imperatore et successore", in a passage dated to [1352][295].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum despotam, Manuelem imperatorem, Theodorum Porphyrogenitum et Michaelem despotam" as the sons of "imperator Iohannes"[296].  Co-emperor from 1352.  Regent of Byzantium during the absence of his father in Italy 1367-1371.  He refused to help release his father from detention in Venice.  He rebelled against his father in May 1373 when the latter was visiting Sultan Murad I.  With the Sultan's help, the rebellion was quickly crushed.  Andronikos was imprisoned and deprived of his rights.  According to Sturdza[297], an attempt to blind him with boiling vinegar only resulted in disfigurement as the vinegar was not hot enough. Andronikos escaped to Galata with Genoese help, and returned to Constantinople 12 Aug 1376 when he deposed and imprisoned his father and younger brother, succeeding as Emperor ANDRONIKOS IV.  He was deposed in 1379 when his father, with Turkish help, recovered the throne.  His father was nevertheless obliged by the Turks to recognise Andronikos as his heir.  Andronikos was invested as Basileos in Selymbria, Dation, Herakleia, Rhaidestes and Panion in Thrace in 1381.  He rebelled again in 1385, but died soon after.  [Betrothed (Constantinople Apr 1362) to ANNA Komnene, daughter of ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (6 Apr 1357-after 21 Nov 1386).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in Apr 1362, while on visiting Constantinople, it was agreed that "the son of the emperor Palaiologos" would marry "the daughter of the emperor of Trebizond, lord Alexios Komnenos"[298].  Anna is the only recorded daughter of the Trebizond emperor at the time.  The name of the proposed bridegroom is not given in the source.  It is assumed that it was the emperor´s oldest son Andonikos, but this is not beyond all doubt.]  m (betrothed 17 Aug 1355, [1365]) KERATZA [Mara Kyratza] of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN ALEXANDER ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife Sarah [Teodora] --- ([1348]-[1390]).  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "regi Andronico regis Ioannis Palaeologi filio" married "Maria regis Mysorum Alexandri filia"[299].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records the marriage of "Susmanum Mysiæ regem…filia" and "Græcorum regi, Andronico Ioannis filio"[300].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Marco…qui…partem Bulgariæ tenebat" as father-in-law of "Andronicus"[301].  She became a nun as MATHISSA.  Emperor Andronikos IV & his wife had three children:

a)         IOANNES Palaiologos (1370-Thessaloniki 22 Sep 1408).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names "Andronicus…Iohannes filius eius" when recording that he was sent to Selymbria "cum uxore et filiolo" after his father's rebellion[302].  He was imprisoned with his father in 1373, in revenge for the latter's rebellion.  Co-emperor of Byzantium [12 Aug/18 Oct] 1377-1390.  Lord in Thessaloniki 1385/1390.  With the support of Sultan Bayezid I, he was declared Emperor IOANNES VII at Constantinople 14 Apr 1390.  He was expelled 17 Sep 1390 by his uncle Manuel.  Lord of Selymbria 1390.  He attempted in 1398 to sell his rights to Byzantium to Charles VI King of France.  His uncle appointed him regent 1399-1402, during the former's absence seeking help from the European powers.  He was banished in 1403 for claiming the throne once more.  Co-emperor of Thessaloniki 1403/04-1408.  He became a monk as IOASEPHm (before 1397) EIRENE Palaiologina Gattilusaina of Lesbos, daughter of FRANCESCO II Palaiologos Gattilusio Lord of Lesbos & his wife --- (-1 Jun 1440, bur Constantinople Pantokrator Monastery).  As a widow she lived at Kokkinos on Lemnos.  She became a nun as EUGENIA.  Georgios Phrantzes records the death 1 Jun in "anni 6948" of "despœna Eugenia, Cateliutzæ, Lesbiorum principis filia" and her burial "in monasterio Pantocratoris"[303].  Ex-Emperor Ioannes VII & his wife had one child:

i)          ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-before 1408, aged 7).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was named co-emperor. 

b)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  1374. 

c)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  1374. 

2.         EIRENE Palaiologina ([1349]-).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "iuniori imperatori…Irene filia", in a passage dated to [1352][304]Betrothed ([1358]) to KHALIL of Bithynia, son of Sultan ORKHAN & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (-soon after 1362).  He was imprisoned by robbers in 1356/58, and freed by Emperor Ioannes V who offered him his daughter in marriage. 

3.         MANUEL Palaiologos (27 Jun 1350-21 Jul 1425, bur Constantinople Pantokrator Monastery)The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Andronicum…Manuelem et Theodorum" as the first three children of "Imperator Iohannes"[305].  He succeeded his father in 1391 as Emperor MANUEL II

-        see below.   

4.         THEODOROS Palaiologos ([1355]-Mistra 24 Jun 1407).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Andronicum…Manuelem et Theodorum" as the first three children of "Imperator Iohannes"[306].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum despotam, Manuelem imperatorem, Theodorum Porphyrogenitum et Michaelem despotam" as the sons of "imperator Iohannes"[307].  Installed by his father as Despot of Morea in 1382, he was faced with the revolt of Demetrios Kantakouzenos who refused to accept his father's surrender of Morea to Theodoros[308].  Theodoros sealed an alliance with Nerio Acciaiuoli Lord of Corinth by his marriage to the latter's daughter on the understanding that he would eventually inherit Corinth[309].  He accepted Ottoman suzerainty in [1387], the Ottomans helping him suppress a Greek rebellion[310].  In 1394, Theodoros besieged Corinth, which had passed to Carlo Tocco (Nerio Acciaiuoli's other son-in-law) despite the 1385 marriage arrangement with Theodoros, but was defeated by the Ottomans under Evrenoz-beg who then invaded Morea.  Theodoros finally acquired Corinth in 1396, after Venice mediated the release of Pedro Bordo de San Superano (commander of the Navarrese company who in 1396 had declared himself Prince of Achaia which by that time was reduced to a narrow strip of land in western Peloponnesos around Arcadia) whom Theodoros had captured, but sold it in 1400 to the Knights of St John[311].  At the end of his life he became a monk at Mistra as THEODORETOS.  The Chronicon Breve records the death in 1407 of "despota Porphyrogenitus"[312]m (1385) BARTOLOMEA Acciaiuoli, daughter of NERIO Acciaiuoli Lord of Corinth [later Duke of Athens], Lord of Vestitza & his wife Agnese Saraceno (-[1397]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She received Corinth from her father as dowry[313]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Theodoros is not known.  Theodoros Palaiologos had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (1):

a)         --- PalaiologinaGeorgios Phrantzes records the marriage of "Musulmanus" and "Theodori despotam filiam"[314].  m (1404) as his second wife, Sultan SÜLEYMAN, son of Sultan BAYEZID I & --- (-murdered Feb 1411).   

5.         MIKHAEL Palaiologos (-killed Tristia near Varna [1376/77]).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum despotam, Manuelem imperatorem, Theodorum Porphyrogenitum et Michaelem despotam" as the sons of "imperator Iohannes"[315].  Despotes.  He claimed the throne of Trebizond in 1373.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of the Roman emperor Lord John Palaiologos, the Lord Michael" came to Trebizond "with two great galleys and a smaller one against our emperor" 11 Nov 1373 but "after setting there ofr five days, he went back the other way, having not accomplished anything out of the unexpected"[316]m (before 1373) ---, daughter of DOBROTICH Prince of Varna & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

6.         MARIA Palaiologina (-Sep 1376).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  same person as…?  --- Palaiologina (-after Aug 1376).  A daughter of Emperor Ioannes V was offered in marriage to Sultan Murad in Aug 1376 but died before the marriage took place[317].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.  Betrothed (Aug 1376) Sultan MURAD I, son of Sultan ORKHAN & his second wife Nilüfer (-murdered Kosovo 15 Jun 1389). 

7.         --- Palaiologina (-after Nov 1372).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  A daughter of Emperor Ioannes V was offered in marriage to Pierre II King of Cyprus in Nov 1372[318].  

8.         --- Palaiologina (-after 1373).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun 1373. 

9.         --- Palaiologina (-after 1373).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Nun 1373. 

Emperor Ioannes V had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

10.       MANUEL Palaiologos (-in prison after 1422).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "duce Emanuele, notho regis Ioannis filio" defeated a Turkish naval fleet[319].  Admiral 1405.  m GIACOBINA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

Emperor Ioannes V had one illegitimate child by Mistress (2):

11.       --- Palaiologina .  Du Cange names "Zampia Palæologina, Manuelis filia notha" (referring to Emperor Manuel II) recording that she married "Hilario Doriæ nobili Genuensi" in 1393 and referring to the marriage of their unnamed daughter to "Mustapha Bajazethi Gilderuni Sultani filio" which was arranged by Emperor Manuel II[320].  The basis for the date 1393 is not known.  Thierry Ganchou notes that there is no primary source which confirms her name, which he says was possibly confused with the name of one of her daughters[321]The precise relationship between the wife of Ilario Doria and Emperor Manuel II has been the source of much debate.  The earliest source which refers to Ilario is Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo who records that, during his visit to Constantinople 30 Oct 1403, he met the emperor who "directed his son-in-law a Genoese named Ilario who was married to one of his illegitimate daughters, to accompany them and show them what they wanted"[322].  Ganchou notes that in the original Spanish Ruy González calls Ilario "su yerno...Ylario, genués"[323].  A charter dated 30 Oct 1418 under which Emperor Manuel II renewed agreements with Venice is witnessed by tou...gambrou tes basileias...kyrou Ilarionos Doria[324].  Ganchou notes the difficulty in interpreting these passages due to the ambiguity of the word "gambros" (meaning either son-in-law or brother-in-law) and similar terms[325].  This recalls the similar difficulty surrounding “nepos” in western European medieval documentation.  At first sight, the relationship appears to be expressed more precisely by Laonicus Chalcocondylas in his later chronicle (dated to [1463/64]) when he records that “musulmanes Paiazitis filius” married "Byzantium...regis neptem [νιιδουν] Iannii Tuntoriæ [Iαννυου του Ντόρια] filiam", in a passage dated to [1403][326].  However, Ganchou highlights the difficulty of knowing whether Chalcocondylas used additional documentation which no longer survives or whether he was only interpreting the same documentation which is quoted above[327].  Indeed, in Niebuhr´s Latin translation (1843 Bonn edition) of Chalcocondylas the word “neptem” is used to translate "νιιδουν", recalling the difficulties over “nepos”.  Ganchou reviews the earlier secondary sources which acknowledged the ambiguity of the word “gambros”, and cites in particular Agostino Calcagnino in 1599 who named Ilario as “cugnato” of Emperor Manuel presumably on the basis of bulls of Pope Boniface IX dated between 1398 and 1400 in which Ilario is named “cognatus” of the emperor[328].  The debate concerning the precise family relationship appears resolved by a document issued by Ilario himself, quoted by Ganchou: “dominus Ilarius de Auria sororius...domini Manuelis...Imperatoris Romeorum Paleologi” presented himself as such before the magistrates of the Officium Provisionis Romanie at Genoa 3 Nov 1397[329]m ([1393]) ILARIO Doria, Patrician of Genoa, son of PERCIVALE Doria & his wife Isabella Salvaigo ([1372]-after 18 Jan 1424). 

 

 

MANUEL Palaiologos, son of Emperor IOANNES V & his wife Helene Kantakouzene (27 Jun 1350-21 Jul 1425, bur Constantinople Pantokrator Monastery).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "Andronicum…Manuelem et Theodorum" as the first three children of "Imperator Iohannes"[330].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "iuniori imperatori…filio iuniore…Manuel", in a passage dated to [1352][331].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Andronicum despotam, Manuelem imperatorem, Theodorum Porphyrogenitum et Michaelem despotam" as the sons of "imperator Iohannes"[332].  His father proposed him as hostage to Pope Innocent VI in 1355 as a sign of his good faith in offering to negotiate the union of the Orthodox and Catholic churches, proposals which led to nothing.  Regent in Thessaloniki 1369.  He rescued his father from detention in Venice in 1371 after his older brother Andronikos refused to help.  He recaptured Serrhes from the Turks in 1372.  Declared heir to the throne, he was crowned co-emperor 25 Sep 1373 following the disgrace of his older brother.  He was deposed and imprisoned 12 Aug 1376 by his brother Andronikos.  With Turkish help, he escaped with his father and was restored to power in 1379.  He was invested as Basileios in Thessaloniki in 1381.  Emperor of Thessaloniki 1382 until Apr 1387, when the city was captured by the Turks.  He was restored as heir to the throne in 1385 on the death of his older brother.  Co-emperor 1389.  He fled to Lemnos on the accession of his nephew Ioannes VII, but expelled the latter 17 Sep 1390 and returned to power with his father, although he lived at the court of Sultan Bayezid I and marched with him to capture Philadelphia, the last remaining Byzantine town in Asia Minor.  He rapidly regained Constantinople on the death of his father in 1391, and succeeded as Emperor MANUEL II, crowned 11 Feb 1392.  The Turks conquered Thessaly in 1393, and besieged Constantinople in 1394.  Following the defeat of Hungary at Nicopolis 25 Sep 1396, Manuel II appealed for help in 1398 to Vasily Grand Prince of Moscow, the Doge of Venice and the kings of France, England and Aragon.  The small French contingent sent in response, under Maréchal Boucicaut, succeeded in relieving the siege but made no lasting impact on the situation.  Encouraged by Boucicaut, Manuel left for the west to seek help personally, visiting Venice and other Italian cities, Charles VI King of France in Paris and in 1400 Henry IV King of England at Eltham Palace[333].  Receiving a warm welcome but empty promises, Byzantium was finally relieved by the defeat of the Turks by the Mongols under Timur Khan at the battle of Ankara 28 Jul 1402.  Under the treaty concluded with Sultan Suleiman I in 1403, Thessaloniki and parts of the coastline along the Aegean and Black Seas were restored to Byzantium, in return for help in fighting Suleiman's brothers in Asia Minor.  After Suleiman was defeated and killed by his brother Musa, the latter besieged Constantinople again, until he was defeated in 1413 by his brother Sultan Mohammed I.  Taking advantage of Sultan Mohammed's consolidation of his internal position, Emperor Manuel reinforced his control over Thessaloniki and in Peloponnesos, constructing the Hexamilion along the isthmus of Corinth to protect Morea.  He installed his son Theodoros in Thessaloniki, and his oldest son Ioannes as Despot of Morea in 1416.  Mohammed's successor Sultan Murad II laid siege to Constantinople once more 8 Jun 1422, but was obliged to lift the siege to crush the rebellion of his younger brother Mustafa.  Sultan Murad invaded Morea in 1423 and destroyed the Hexamilion.  Emperor Manuel was forced to agree to renew the payment of tribute as the price of peace.  Emperor Manuel II retired from active government after the coronation of his son Ioannes as co-emperor in Jan 1421, and became a monk as MATTHAIOS

m (Constantinople 10 Feb 1392) JELENA Dragaš, daughter of KONSTANTIN Dragaš [Serbia], authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhes & his first wife --- (-23 Mar 1450, bur Constantinople Pantokrator Monastery).  Georgios Phrantzes records that "imperator Manuel" married "Constantini Dragasis filiam"[334].  She became a nun as HYPOMONE.  Georgios Phrantzes records the death 23 Mar in "anni 6958" of "despœna Irene…nomine Hypomone monacha dicta" and her burial "in monasterio Pantacratoris, iuxta…imperatorem coniugem suum"[335]

Emperor Manuel II & his wife had [ten] children:

1.         [daughter .  Georgios Phrantzes records that "imperator Manuel…primum filiam procreavit --- nomine"[336].  The name is left blank.  It is possible that there is confusion with Emperor Manuel's illegitimate daughter (see below).] 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos (-[Monemvasia [1400/05]]).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[337].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, during his visit to Constantinople 28 Oct 1403, he met the emperor who "had with him the empress his wife and three small children, the eldest being about eight years old"[338].  It is not known which of the emperor´s children may have been living at that time. 

3.         IOANNES Palaiologos (-31 Oct 1448).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "primus…Iohannes qui a patre Romæorum imperator coronatus est, secundus Theodorus quem Lacedæmonis despotam constituit, tertius Andronicus Thessaliæ imperavit, quartus Constantinus regions ad Pontum sitas Chazariæ…quintus Demetrius, sextus Thomas" as the six sons of "imperator…Manuel"[339].  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[340].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, during his visit to Constantinople 28 Oct 1403, he met the emperor who "had with him the empress his wife and three small children, the eldest being about eight years old"[341].  It is not known which of the emperor´s children may have been living at that time.  His father installed him as Despot of Morea in 1416.  Crowned co-emperor 19 Jan 1421, he took over the active government of Byzantium from his father.  He succeeded his father in 1425 as Emperor IOANNES VIII.  He ruled only in Constantinople itself, the other remaining territories of the empire being governed autonomously by his brothers.  Emperor Ioannes restarted negotiations to unite the Orthodox and Catholic churches in 1431 as part of a desperate attempt to obtain western aid against the Ottomans, leaving Constantinople 24 Nov 1437 to assist in the final stages which concluded with agreements at Ferrara in Apr 1438 and Florence 6 Jul 1439.  He appointed his younger brother Konstantinos as regent in Constantinople during his absence.  Far from achieving the emperor's desired ends, the union plunged the empire into further internal conflict and produced little help from abroad.  The main beneficiary of the papally sponsored joint Hungarian/Serb crusade of 1443 was Serbia, which was restored as a state under the terms negotiated with Sultan Murad II in 1444.  The defeat by Sultan Murad II of the Christian army led by Władysław King of Poland at Varna 10 Nov 1444 marked the end of Byzantine hopes for a united Christian offensive against the Ottomans.  m firstly ([1411]) ANNA Vasilievna of Moscow, daughter of VASILY I Dmitrievich Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Sofija of Lithuania (1393-Aug 1417).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Manuelis imperatoris…filio suo Iohanni" and "Russiæ rege (Moscoviæ duce) filiam eius…Annam" and her death from bubonic plague[342]m secondly (Santa Sofia, Constantinople 19 Jan 1421, repudiated Aug 1426) SOFIA di Monferrato, daughter of TEODORO II Paleologo Marchese di Monferrato & his second wife Jeanne de Bar (-21 Aug 1434).  A continuation of the Chronica Jacobi de Aquis names "Zan Jacobo & Sophia" as the children of "Theodoro", son of "Zoanne figlolo del…Theodoro Paleologo", and his first wife, adding that Sofia married "Zoanne Imperatore di Constantinopoli"[343].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Iohanni liberoram primogenitor" and "marchionem Montisferrati…filiam" and, in a later passage, his repudiation of his wife[344].  Georgios Phrantzes records the marriage 19 Jan in Santa Sofia of Emperor Iohannes and "domina Sophia filia marchionis Montisferrati"[345].  Papal permission for the marriages of the brothers Ioannes and Theodoros with catholic westerners was given as a gesture to improve relations with the Orthodox church after Emperor Manuel II sent ambassadors to the church council at Konstanz[346].  Reputedly extremely unattractive, her husband "was so disgusted with her that he kept her out of his sight in a remote corner of the palace"[347] and eventually repudiated her.  m thirdly (Sep 1427) MARIA Kantakouzene Komnene, daughter of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (before 1404-17 Dec 1439, bur Constantinople, Pantokrator monastery).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Iohanni liberoram primogenitor" and "Mariam Alexii Comneni Trapezuntini imperatoris filiam"[348].  Georgios Phrantzes records the marriage in Sep "anni 6936" of "Maria Comnena…Alexii Comneni Trapezuntiorum regis" and "imperator Iohannes"[349].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor of Trebizond & his wife, stating that Maria married Ioannes VIII emperor of Constantinople[350].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "filiam suam…Alexius rex Comnenus" married "Ioanni Byzantio regi"[351].  Georgios Phrantzes records the death 17 Dec in "anni 6948" of "despœna Maria Trapezuntia"[352].  She died of the plague[353]

4.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-4 Mar 1428).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[354].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names "…tertius Andronicus Thessaliæ imperavit…" as one of the six sons of Emperor Manuel[355].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that, during his visit to Constantinople 28 Oct 1403, he met the emperor who "had with him the empress his wife and three small children, the eldest being about eight years old"[356].  It is not known which of the emperor´s children may have been living at that time.  His father installed him as governor of Thessaloniki in 1408 after the death of ex-Emperor Ioannes VII[357].  Threatened on all sides by the Turks, in 1423 he sold Thessaloniki to Venice (which finally lost it to Sultan Murad II 29 Mar 1430).  He became a monk as AKAKIOS at the monastery of the Pantokrator in Constantinople.  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records that "Andronicus despota, Manuelis Imperatoris filius post Iohannem imperatorem et Theodorum tertius" died of leprosy[358]

5.         daughter [1394/98]-before 1405).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[359]

6.         THEODOROS Palaiologos (-Selymbria 26 Jun 1448).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[360].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names "…secundus Theodorus quem Lacedæmonis despotam constituit…" as one of the six sons of "imperator…Manuel"[361].  Appointed Despot of Morea at Mistra in 1407, in succession to his uncle Theodoros, he was invested by his father with full authority in Mar 1415 on coming of age[362].  He supervised the construction of the Hexamilion across the Isthmus of Corinth in 1415, unpopular because it was funded by increased taxes.  He maintained a lively court at Mistra, hosting a variety of literary figures and philosophers, and was himself a scholar and mathematician.  The Ottomans launched a major raid on Peloponnesos in 1423, breaking through the Hexamilion, and another in 1431.  His brother Emperor Ioannes VIII carved out part of south-western Morea as an appanage for their younger brother Konstantinos in 1427.  A further division of territory was effected in 1432 to provide an appanage for another brother Thomas, Theodoros retaining south-east Morea including Mistra, with honorary precedence over his two brothers[363].  Theodoros was assigned temporary rule over that part of Morea which was ruled by his brother Konstantinos on the latter's appointment as regent in Constantinople during the absence of their brother Emperor Ioannes VIII in the west.  He was reassigned to Selymbria in 1443 from his brother Konstantinos, who was sent back to Morea.  Ottoman vassal from 1446.  He died of the plague.  m (19 Jan 1421) CLEOFA Malatesta, daughter of MALATESTA Malatesta Signor di Pesaro e Fano & his wife Elisabetta Varano di Camerino (-1433, bur Mistra, Zoodotou Monastery[364]).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Theodoro natu minori" and "comes Malatesta filiam suam"[365].  Papal permission for the marriages of the brothers Ioannes and Theodoros with catholic westerners was given as a gesture to improve relations with the Orthodox church after Emperor Manuel II sent ambassadors to the church council at Konstanz[366].  She converted to Greek Orthodoxy, much to the displeasure of her cousin Pope Martin V[367].  Georgios Phrantzes records the death in "anno 6941" of "Malatestæ filia, uxor Theodori despotæ porphyrogeniti, Cleops domina" and her burial "in monasterio Christi Salvatoris"[368].  Theodoros Palaiologos & his wife had one child:

a)         HELENE Palaiologina ([1428]-Nicosia 17 Mar or 11 Apr 1457 or 1458, bur Nicosia Dominican Church).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Helena, figliola de chir Theodoro Paleologo signor de la Morea" as the second wife of "Joanne, secondo figliolo de re Jannus"[369].  The Chronicle of Amadi records the arrival in Cyprus 2 Feb 1442 of "madama Helena Paleologo de la Morea" and her marriage 3 Feb to King Jean[370].  The Chronicle of Strambaldi records the arrival 2 Feb 1441 of "la signora Helena Paleologo, figliola della Morea" and her marriage 3 Feb 1441 "in santa Sophia"[371], the year presumably being old style.  She was instrumental in reasserting the influence of the Greeks in Cyprus, welcoming many Byzantine refugees after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.  She poisoned her son-in-law.  She died in the fortress of Nicosia where she and her husband had barricaded themselves after the rebellion of his illegitimate son.  The "New Chronicle" records her death 17 Mar 1457[372].  The Chronicle of Strambaldi records the death in 1458 of "la signora regina Helena" and her burial "a san Domenico", later commenting that her husband died in the same year as his wife[373], which suggests that 1458 was the correct year of her death.  On the other hand, the Chronicle of Florio Bustron records the death 26 Jul 1458 of "il re", about sixteen months after the death of his queen[374]m (Nicosia Santa Sophia 3 Feb 1442) as his second wife, JEAN II King of Cyprus and Armenia, son of JANUS I King of Cyprus & his second wife Charlotte de Bourbon (16 May 1418-Nicosia 28 Jul 1458). 

7.         MIKHAEL Palaiologos(-[1409/10]).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[375]

8.         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos (8 Nov 1405-murdered Constantinople 29 May 1453).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[376].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names "…quartus Constantinus regions ad Pontum sitas Chazariæ…" as one the six sons of "imperator…Manuel"[377].  He was appointed regent of Mesembria and Anchialos in 1417.  Despot 1423.  Governor of Constantinople 1423-1424.  In 1427, his brother Emperor Ioannes VIII created an appanage for him in south-western Morea, out of the territory held by his brother Theodoros.  He helped conquer the remaining parts of the Latin Principality of Achaia, defeated Carlo Tocco Lord of Epirus and received his remaining possessions in Peloponnesos as well as the hand in marriage of his niece.  He conquered Patras in 1430, and (together with his brother Thomas) the last parts of the principality of Achaia in 1432.  A further division of territory was effected in 1432 to provide an appanage for his brother Thomas, Konstantinos taking Patras, the area north of Arcadia with Kalavryta, and the north-eastern part with Corinth[378].  Emperor Ioannes appointed him regent of Constantinople 1437-1440 during his absence in Italy negotiating church union.  He was appointed Lord of Selymbria in 1442, in succession to his brother Demetrios, but was reassigned to Morea in 1443.  He reconstructed the Hexamilion along the isthmus of Corinth, destroyed by the Turks in 1423, and recaptured Athens and Thebes forcing Nerio II Acciacuo li to accept his suzerainty.  After pushing further into Bœotia in 1446, he retreated behind the Hexamilion pursued by Sultan Murad II.  The Sultan exacted his revenge by destroying the Hexamilion again 10 Dec 1446, invading Morea and obliging Konstantinos to accept Ottoman suzerainty.  He succeeded his brother in 1448 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS XI, crowned emperor at Mistra 6 Jan 1449.  He entered Constantinople 12 Mar 1449.  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Amurates ameras" had married "despotæ Serviæ filiam" (who was Mara of Serbia, widow of Sultan Murad II, daughter of Djuradj Vuković Despot of Serbia and his wife Eirene Kantakouzene), recording that she was sent back "ad parentes" after the death of her husband and rejected a proposal for a second marriage with Emperor Konstantinos XI[379].  Georgios Phrantzes records that another marriage proposal with "Trapezuntiorum regis filiam" (who may be identified as Theodora Megala Komnena, daughter of Ioannes IV Emperor at Trebizond & his first wife --- of Georgia, the only known daughter of the reigning Trebizond emperor at the time) also failed[380].  Georgios Phrantzes records yet another marriage proposal with "in Iberia…regis filiam…Georgi" (who may be identified as --- of Georgia, daughter of Giorgi VIII King of Kakheti and Kartli [Georgia] and his wife Thamar Daria [Nestan-Darejan] of Georgia) which failed to proceed because of the large payment insisted upon by the bride's father[381].  Sultan Mohammed II, who succeeded his father Murad II in 1451, placed the conquest of Constantinople as his first objective.  As part of his strategy for obtaining foreign support, Konstantinos had the union of the churches, still unimplemented since the agreement of 1439, proclaimed in Santa Sofia 12 Dec 1452.  The Sultan launched his assault on Constantinople in Apr 1453 and broke through the city's defences 29 May 1453.  Emperor Konstantinos was killed during the attack, although it is not known exactly how and where, and his body was never officially identified[382]m firstly (Jul 1428) MADDALENA Tocco, adopted daughter of CARLO I Tocco Count of Kefalonia, Duke of Leukadia, daughter of LEONARDO II Tocco Lord of Zante & his wife --- (-Nov 1429, bur Mistra, Zoodotou Monastery[383]).  Georgios Phrantzes records the marriage of "Constantino despotæ" and "Carolo…consobrinam", naming her in a later passage "Theodora domina, cognate Caroli"[384].  The primary source which confirms her original name has not yet been identified.  This marriage was arranged when Emperor Ioannes VIII defeated Carlo Tocco and forced him to relinquish all claims to southern Greece[385].  She adopted the name THEODORA on her marriage.  [Betrothed to ANNA Notaraina, daughter of LUKAS Notaras & his wife --- Palaiologina ([1406/08]-Venice 8 Jul 1507).  A document dated at Siena 22 Jul 1472 requests a request for assistance by "Domina…Anna, sposa già dell´Imperadore, figlia del…Principe mess. Luca, Granduca Romeorum"[386].  A document dated 18 Jun 1475 records donations by "domine Anne Paleologine Hermineutine filie quondam…Megaduche Constantinopolis et domine Eudochie Cantacusini uxoris…Mathei Spandonini"[387].]  m secondly (27 Jul 1441) AIKATERINA Gattilusaina, daughter of DORINOS II Palaiologos Gattilusio Archon of Lesbos & his wife Orieta Doria (-Aug 1442).  Georgios Phrantzes records that 6 Dec in "anni 6949" he was sent to Lesbos to collect "Aecaterinam, Notaræ Palæologi Cateliutzæ, eius insulæ principis, filiam" for her marriage to "Constantinus despota"[388]

9.         DEMETRIOS Palaiologos ([1407/08]-Adrianople 1470).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[389].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "…quintus Demetrius, sextus Thomas" as the youngest of the six sons of "imperator…Manuel", specifying that they were children at the time of writing[390].  At Lemnos in 1417.  Georgios Phrantzes records that "princeps Demetrius cum Hilarione Doria et huius genero Georgio Hizaulo" fled Galata and found refuge in Hungary, dated to 1423[391].  Despotes 1423/29.  He was appointed Governor at Selymbria in 1440, but was reassigned to Morea in 1442, to which he reacted by attempting to attack Constantinople with the help of Ottoman forces.  He was reappointed to Selymbria in 1448 on the death of his brother Theodoros.  He claimed the throne on the death of his brother Emperor Ioannes, but withdrew in favour of his brother Konstantinos following pressure from their mother.  Following the accession of his brother Konstantinos, he was appointed co-Despot of Morea with his brother Thomas at Mistra in 1449, Demetrios receiving the eastern part of the peninsula[392].  The two brothers soon began to quarrel over territory and religion.  Demetrios declared war on his brother and sought support from Turakhan beg, Ottoman Governor of Thessaly, who brokered a peace agreement[393].  Faced with the increased Ottoman threat after the fall of Constantinople, Demetrios became more subservient in the hope of retaining his position.  The Ottomans finally conquered Morea in 1460, Demetrios defecting to the Sultan's court.  He was installed as Ottoman vassal at Ainos, Lemnos, Imbros and Samothrakos, but this was confiscated in 1467 and he was sent to Didymoteichon where he lived in poverty[394].  He became a monk in Adrianople as DAVID.  Georgios Phrantzes records the death in autumn "anni 6979" of "Demetrius despota Adrianopoli…monachus David appellatus"[395].  [m firstly ---, daughter of --- Kantakouzenos Stravometes & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and possible marriage has not yet been identified.]  m [firstly/secondly] ([25 Mar Mar/Apr] 1436) ZOE Paraspondylina, daughter of --- Paraspondylos megas dux & his wife --- (-17 Jan 1440).  Georgios Phrantzes records the arrival 25 Mar in "anno 6944" of "Paraspondeli magni ducis filia…Zoe" for her marriage to "Demetrio despotæ"[396]m [secondly/thirdly] (Jun 1441) THEODORA Asanina, daughter of PAULOS Asanes [Bulgaria] & his wife --- (-[1470/71]).  Her origin is confirmed by Georgios Phrantzes who names "Matthaeus Asanes, frater uxoris Demetrii despotæ, filius Pauli Asanis"[397].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Georgios Phrantzes records the death in autumn "anni 6979" of "Demetrius despota Adrianopoli…monachus David appellatus" and "eiusdem uxor, regina, non multo post"[398].  Demetrios Palaiologos & his [second/third] wife had one child:

a)         HELENE Palaiologina (23 Apr 1442-Adrianople [1470/71]).  Georgios Phrantzes records that in Oct "anni 6967 ameras" sent to "Demetrium despotam" to request in marriage his daughter born "ex Pauli Asanis, patris Matthæi, filia, uxore legitima"[399].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  She was taken into the harem of Sultan MOHAMMED II 30 May 1460, but later released[400].  Georgios Phrantzes records the death in autumn "anni 6979" of "Demetrius despota Adrianopoli…monachus David appellatus" and "paulo ante…eius filia"[401]

10.      THOMAS Palaiologos (Constantinople [1409/10]-Rome 13 May 1465, bur Rome St Peter's[402]).  Georgios Phrantzes names (in order) "primum filiam…deinde Constantinum, imperatorem Iohannem et Andronicum despotam, tum alteram filiam cui --- nomen…Theodorum despotam et porphyrogenitum, Michaelem principem, Constantinum minorum qui imperator fuit, Demetrium despotam et Thomas despotam" as the children of Emperor Manuel[403].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names (in order) "…quintus Demetrius, sextus Thomas" as the youngest of the six sons of "imperator…Manuel", specifying that they were children at the time of writing[404].  At Mistra in 1418.  At Kalavryta in 1428.  Despot in Morea 1430.  Together with his brother Konstantinos, he led the conquest of the remaining parts of the Latin Principality of Achaia in 1429 and married the daughter of the last prince[405].  On the death of his father-in-law in 1432, he succeeded as Lord of Arcadia, in right of his wife.  Morea was further divided in 1432 to provide an appanage for Thomas who took the south-west with Androusa, Elis in the north-west with Clarenza, and kept Arcadia[406].  At Leontarion in 1443.  Following the accession of his brother Konstantinos, he was appointed co-Despot of Morea with his brother Demetrios at Mistra in 1449, Thomas receiving the western part of the peninsula[407].  The two brothers soon quarelled over territory and religion.  Demetrios declared war on his brother and sought support from Turakhan beg, Ottoman Governor of Thessaly, who brokered a peace agreement[408].  Faced with the increased Ottoman threat after the fall of Constantinople, Thomas was more belligerent than his brother, his lands suffering more attacks as a consequence.  The Ottomans finally conquered Morea in 1460.  Thomas fled first to Corfu, then to Italy, arriving 7 Mar 1461 in Rome where he converted to Catholicism and lived on a pension granted by the Pope[409].  Recognised as "Emperor in exile" by Papal Bull 7 Feb 1461.  m (Jan 1430) AIKATERINA Asanina Zaccariaina Lady of Arcadia, daughter of ASANO CENTURIONE [II] Zaccaria Lord of Arcadia & his wife --- Tocco of Zante (-Corfu 16 Aug 1462, bur Corfu Church of Saints Jason and Sosipater[410]).  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Thomæ principis fratres despotæ" married "filiam principis Asanis Zachariæ Centerionis…Catharinam" in Jan [1430][411].  This marriage was arranged when her future husband defeated her father, the dowry consisting of almost all the possessions of the latter[412].  Georgios Phrantzes records that "mater, regina" (referring to "filia…regina Serviæ"), died 16 Aug aged 70 at Corfu and was buried "Sosipatri monasterio"[413].  Thomas Palaiologos & his wife had four children:

a)         HELENE Palaiologina ([1431]-Levkas 7 Nov 1473).  Georgios Phrantzes records that in Oct in "anni 6955" "Helena Despœna, Thomas despotæ filia" was sent to Serbia to marry "Lazaro, filio Georgii despotæ"[414].  In view of the date of her own marriage, and probable birth of her eldest daughter in 1447, Helena must have been born in the early years of her parents' marriage, although if this is correct the long gap before the birth of her younger brothers and sister is somewhat surprising.  Theodoros Spandounes records that "Lazaro Despoto" married "la figliola di Thoma Paleologo Dispoto della Morea"[415]The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “Lazare”, son of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène...[sa sœur] Irène” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie”, married “la fille du despote de Morée, le seigneur Thomas[416].  After her husband's death, she attempted to assume power in Serbia together with her brother-in-law Stefan[417].  Local Serbs rebelled after Ottomans seized Smederevo in Mar 1458, taking Mikhael Andjelović prisoner, which enabled Jelena to assume power.  She arranged the marriage of her daughter to the king of Bosnia in an attempt to gather support for her position.  The Ottomans captured Smederevo during a major assault 20 Jun 1459 which marked the final end of the Serbian state[418].  She fled with her two younger daughters to the island of Levkas[419], where she converted to Catholicism and became a nun as HYPOMONE.  Georgios Phrantzes records that in autumn "anni 6977 regina domina Helena Palaeologa despotæ Serviæ uxor" left "ad rem publicam Venetorum" from Corfu[420].  Georgios Phrantzes records the death 7 Nov "anni 6982" of "Helena Palaeologa regina, monacha…Hypomone"[421]m (Semendria [Oct/18 Dec] 1446) LAZAR Branković of Serbia, son of DJURADJ Vuković & his wife Eirene Kantakouzene ([1421]-20 Jan 1458).  He succeeded his father in 1456 as Gospodin [Lord] of Serbia. 

b)         ZOE Palaiologina ([1448/51][422]-7 Apr 1503).  Summoned to Rome from Corfu by her father in 1465, she was adopted by the papacy, along with her two brothers, after her father's death[423].  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Andream despotam et Manuelem principe" arranged the marriage of "sororem suam" and "Paraciolo"[424].  Her first marriage is mentioned by Runciman and Miller[425], but it is possible that she was betrothed not married to this supposed first husband.  Pope Paul II arranged her [second] marriage with a view to reconciling the Russian Orthodox church with Rome[426], but on arrival in Moscow she converted to Orthodoxy under the name SOPHIA.  Theodoros Spandounes records that Pope Sixtus IV arranged the marriage of "Thoma…figliola" and "al gran Moscoviti Gioane"[427].  She was alleged to have supported the plot in 1497 to assassinate her husband's grandson Dmitry Ivanovich and was disgraced along with her eldest son[428].  [m firstly (Jun 1466) --- Caracciolo, son of --- (-[1466]).]  m [secondly] (by proxy Rome St Peter's 31 May 1471, in person Moscow [Russian Orthodox] 2 Nov 1472) as his second wife, IVAN III Vasilievich Grand Prince of Moscow, son of VASILY II Grand Prince of Vladimir, Prince of Moscow & his wife Maria Iaroslavich of Bobrovsk (22 Jan 1440-27 Oct 1506). 

c)         ANDREAS Palaiologos (Patras 17 Jan 1453-Rome [7 Apr 1502/1505]).  Theodoros Spandounes names "il Despoto Andrea et il Despoto Emanuel" as the two sons of "Despoto…Thoma", adding that Andreas lived in Rome "in grandissima calamità et miseria"[429].  Georgios Phrantzes records that "filium natu maximum, Andream Palaeologum" was given the title despot by the Pope[430].  Summoned to Rome from Corfu by his father in 1465, he was adopted by the papacy, along with his brother and sister, after his father's death[431].  Titular Despot of Morea.  He claimed the imperial throne[432] and was given two million golden ducats by Pope Sixtus IV to finance an expedition to Morea, but used the money for other purposes.  Still short of money, he sold his rights to the thrones of Constantinople, Trebizond and Serbia to Charles VIII King of France 16 Sep 1494.  He signed a new deed in 1502 giving the same rights to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel of Aragon and Castile, but received no money from them[433].  [m firstly ---.  As shown below, if the parentage of Andreas's supposed daughter Maria is correct as reported in the sources cited below, she must have been born either from an otherwise unknown first marriage or illegitimate.]  m [secondly] (1480) CATERINA, daughter of ---.  She was "a woman of the streets of Rome"[434].  Andreas Palaiologos & his [first] wife had one child:

i)          [MARIA Palaiologina (-1505).  Her marriage is shown by Baumgarten, citing a Russian source[435].  Fennell also refers to the marriage, citing the same and other sources[436].  The marriage took place when her father was in Moscow in 1480 visiting his sister[437].  If her parentage is correct, the date of her marriage shows that she must have been either the child of an otherwise unknown first marriage of her father or illegitimate.  As her supposed father was born in 1453, Maria must have been young at the time of her marriage.  m VASILY Mikhailovich "Udaloy", son of MIKHAEL Andreievich Prince of Vereia & his wife Elena Iaroslavna of Bobrosk (-[1501]).] 

Andreas & his [second] wife had one child: 

ii)         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Commander of the Papal Guard in Rome in 1508[438]

d)         MANUEL Palaiologos (2 Jan 1455-before 1512, bur Constantinople).  Georgios Phrantzes records the birth 2 Jan "anni 6963" of "Thomæ despotæ filius…Manuel Palaeologus", adding that he returned to Constantinople where he was well received by Sultan Mohammed II[439].  Theodoros Spandounes names "il Despoto Andrea et il Despoto Emanuel" as the two sons of "Despoto…Thoma"[440].  Summoned to Rome from Corfu by his father in 1465, he was adopted by the papacy, along with his brother and sister, after his father's death[441].  He returned to Constantinople in 1476[442].  He was known as "el Ghazi" and was given Syretzion and Amplitzion, and a pension.  Turkish admiral.  m ---.  The name of Manuel's wife is not known.  Manuel Palaiologos & his wife had two children:

i)          IOANNES Palaiologos (-young).  Theodoros Spandounes records that "Emanuel" had "due figlioli bastardi, nati di due schiave", adding that the older son was a Christian[443].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified. 

ii)         ANDREAS Palaiologos (-after 1519).  Theodoros Spandounes records that "Emanuel" had "due figlioli bastardi, nati di due schiave", adding that the younger son became a Muslim[444].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified.  He converted to Islam as MOHAMMED PASHA and became an official at the Sultan's court[445]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EMPERORS 1341-1357 (KANTAKOUZENOS)

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

The information available in the primary sources is insufficient to establish the family relationships between the following individuals. 

 

 

1.         --- Kantakouzenos (-after Oct 1107).  Byzantine military leader 1094/1107.  The Alexeiad records that "Cantacuzenus and Taticius" fought in the war with the Pechenegs, dated to [1094/95][446].  The Alexeiad records that "Cantacuzenus" defeated "the Kelts" and forces of Bohemond Prince of Apulia at Avlona near Durazzo, dated to Oct 1107[447]

 

2.         MANUEL Kantakouzenos .  Military leader 1079/95. 

 

3.         IOANNES Kantakouzenos ([1110/20]-killed in battle Myriokephalon 17 Sep 1176)Pansébastos sébastos.  Military commander in the west 1150/70.  The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...genero...regis sebasto domino Joanne Cantacuzeno...[448]The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto et genero...nostri regis domino Joanne Cantacuzeno...[449]m ([1145/50]) as her second husband, MARIA Komnene, widow of THEODOROS Dasiotes, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene [Aineiadissa] ([1126]-).  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannes cognomento…Cantacuzenus" married "Andronici sebastocratoris filiam"[450].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos & his wife had [two] children:

a)         MANUEL Kantakouzenos .  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioanni Contacuzene…filius erat Manuel"[451].  He was imprisoned and blinded by Emperor Manuel I before 1175[452].  Niketas Choniates names "Manuel Cantacuzenus"[453].  According to Sturdza[454], he was blinded in 1180. 

b)         [EIRENE Komnene .  The wife of Alexios Doukas Palaiologos is named Eirene Komnene, and a poem discloses that Eirene Komnene, daughter of Ioannes Kantakouzenos & his wife Maria Komnene daughter of sébastocrator Andronikos married an unnamed Palaiologos.  It is assumed that the two women are the same person[455].  She is not mentioned by Nicol[456] or Trapp[457]m ([1165]) ALEXIOS Doukas Palaiologos, son of [MIKHAEL Doukas Palaiologos, sébastos & his wife ---].] 

 

4.         THEODOROS Kantakouzenos (-killed in battle 1184).  He defended Nikaia against Emperor Andronikos I[458]

 

5.         MIKHAEL Kantakouzenos (-after 1195).  Niketas Choniates names "Branas Theodorus, Georgius Palaeologus, Raul Constantinus, Cantacuzenus Michael et alii complures improbi et leves homini, imperatori sanguine iuncti…" as those involved in the conspiracy to depose Emperor Isaakios II in 1195[459].  The precise relationships ("imperatori sanguine iuncti") between the conspirators and the emperor have not yet been traced. 

 

6.         ANDRONIKOS Kantakouzenos.  He is shown as nephew of Ioannes Kantakouzenos in Europäische Stammtafeln[460].  According to Sturdza, Andronikos and Ioannes Kantakouzenos were the sons of Ioannes Kantakouzenos, Byzantine general & his wife Maria Komnene[461].  No primary source has yet been identified which confirms either of these propositions.  Sébastos, gambros of Emperor Isaakios II.  A seal dated to [1150] names "Andronikos Kantakouzenos, sebastos"[462]Dux and anagraphaos of Mylasa and Melanudion 1175. 

 

7.         --- Kantakouzene .  Her origin and marriage are confirmed by a seal dated to [1175] names "Basileios sebastos, Kamateros on his father's side and Kantakouzenos on his mother's"[463], Basileios being recorded elsewhere as the son of Andronikos Kamateros.  m ANDRONIKOS Doukas Kamateros, son of GREGORIOS Kamateros & his wife Eirene Doukaina (-executed 1185). 

 

8.         IOANNES Kantakouzenos ([1140/55]-after 1186).  He is shown as possible brother of Andronikos Kantakouzenos in Europäische Stammtafeln[464].  A seal dated to [1163] names "Ioannes Kantakouzenos"[465].  He was blinded in 1183 by Emperor Andronikos I.  Appointed cæsar in 1185.  A seal dated to [1186] names "gambros of the emperor, despotes Ioannes Kantakouzenos, kaisar"[466].  He was a military commander in Bulgaria, but dispossessed and his title confiscated.  m (before 1170, dispensation [1185/86]) EIRENE Angelina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Angelos & his wife Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Ioannes cognomento…Cantacuzenus" married "Andronici sebastocratoris filiam"[467].  Niketas Choniates records that "Iohannes Cantacuzenus" married "imperatoris sororem"[468].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos & his wife had one child:

a)         --- Kantakouzenos .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He claimed the throne in 1199.  [469]same person as …?  MIKHAEL Kantakouzenos.  He was imprisoned by Emperor Alexios III in 1195. 

 

9.         --- Kantakouzenos m --- [Doukaina], daughter of IOANNES Doukas Angelos & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  This couple had one child: 

a)         IOANNES Komnenos Angelos Kantakouzenos ([1205/15]-before Jun 1257).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Pinkernes 1242.  Georgios Akropolites names "pincerna Ioannes Cantacuzenus" when recording his part in a battle with the Latins at Rhodos, in [1248] from the context of the passage[470]Dux of Thrakesion [1244/49].  Two seals dated to [1250] name "Ioannes Komnenos Kantakouzenos"[471].  He became a monk as IOANNIKIOSm EIRENE Komnene Palaiologina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Doukas Komnenos Palaiologos, megas domestikos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina ([1218]-Adramyttion[472] early Dec 1284).  Ephræmius names "Michael imperator…sorore Eulogia"[473].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as EULOGIA after her husband died[474].  Opposed to the union of the Orthodox and Roman churches organised by Emperor Mikhael VIII, she was arrested on her brother's orders in 1277.  She became the focus of organised opposition from the Bulgarian court of her daughter Maria[475].  Pachymeres records that "eius amita Eulogia...et Theodoro Muzalone" persuaded Emperor Andronikos II to break relations with Rome and depose the catholic patriarch Ioannes XI Beccos, dated to early 1283[476].  Laurent quotes a letter from “Grégoire de Chypre” which records the death of an unnamed person who Laurent argues convincingly must have been Eirene [Eulogia] Palaiologina, dating the letter from the author´s stay at Atramyttion in early December 1284 until his return to Constantinople 20 Dec 1284[477].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos & his wife had four children:

i)          THEODORA Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzene ([1240]-6 Dec 1300)Pachymeres records the marriage of "Theodoram e Cantacuzanorum gente, Palaeologi neptam ex sorore" and "Georgium Muzalonem Atramyttinum"[478].  Pachymeres records that "Ioannem…Raulem, protovestiarii Raulis filium" married "vidua protovestiarii Muzalonis…Theodora, neptis…imperatoris Palaeologi, eius sororis Eulogiæ ex Cantacuzeno filia" (in [1261/62])[479].  She became a nun after the death of her second husband[480].  Pachymeres names "Theodora" as daughter of Eulogia[481].  She became a nun after the death of her second husband[482].  She was imprisoned in [1277] for opposing Emperor Mikhael VIII's policy of pursuing the reunion of the Orthodox and Roman churches[483].  "Theodora niece of Mikhael Palaiologos" was accused of "magical machinations against the emperor's health" and, according to Pachymeres, was tested by being put into a bag with some cats[484].  After the accession of Emperor Andronikos II she was released.  She restored the church of St Andrew of Crete at Krisis in Constantinople and lived in the convent there for the rest of her life, during which she amassed a library and acquired a reputation for learning.  She wrote hagiographies of the 9th century Theophanes the Confessor and his brother Theodore[485].  She made an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate with Alexios Philanthropenos who in 1295 rebelled in Asia Minor and was proclaimed emperor[486]m firstly (1256) GEORGIOS Mouzalon, son of --- (-murdered Sosandra Sep 1258).  m secondly ([1261/62]) IOANNES Raoul Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas, son of ALEXIOS Raoul & his wife --- Batatzaina (-[1273/74]).  Protobestiarios 1261. 

ii)         MARIA Palaiologina Kantakouzene (-after 1279).  Pachymeres records that "Eulogiæ filiam alteram…Mariam" married "Alexio, Philæ qui excæcatus fuerat filio, quem et magnum domesticum declaravit" (in [1261/62])[487].  Pachymeres records that "regis Bulgarorum Constantini" married "imperator…propriam neptem, Eulogiæ suæ sororis filiam secundo genitam Mariam", previously married to "Philes Alexius magnus domesticus", after the death of his first wife[488].  Her second marriage was arranged to confirm Byzantium's new alliance with Bulgaria, under which her uncle promised to return Mesembria and Anchialos, although the Byzantines later reneged on the promise[489].  With the decline in her husband's effective leadership following his incapacity, she assumed an increasing role in governing Bulgaria.  On behalf of her husband, she negotiated an arrangement with his rival Jakov Svetoslav, whom she adopted as their second son in 1273 but had poisoned in [1275/77][490].  She continued to rule in Trnovo after her husband was killed in battle, but after Ivajlo besieged the city she opened the gates to him in late spring 1278 and married him as her second husband[491].  After Trnovo opened its gates to Byzantine troops in Feb 1279, she was sent to Emperor Mikhael VIII who imprisoned her in Adrianople[492].  Pachymeres names "Constantini quondam…regis ex Maria filium"[493]m firstly ([1261/62]) ALEXIOS Philes, megas domestikos, son of --- (-before 1269).  m secondly (1269) as his second wife, KONSTANTIN Tih Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of TICH [Toichos], boyar in Skopje & his wife --- of Serbia (-killed in battle Autumn 1277).  m thirdly (1278) IVAJLO Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of --- (-murdered 1280). 

iii)        ANNA Palaiologina Kantakouzene (-after 1313).  Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ…filii…quorum… Nicephorus" married "tertiam Eulogiæ natarum Annam", in a passage dated to [1263/64][494].  Pachymeres names "Annæ reginæ consobrinæ suæ [=imperatoris Andronicis]…ex Eulogiæ natæ patris sui sorore"[495].  This marriage was arranged to confirm the peace negotiated between her uncle Emperor Mikhael VIII and her future father-in-law[496].  The leader of the pro-Byzantine party in Epirus, she dominated her husband[497].  Despina of Neopatras/Neopatrai [1289].  She became regent of Epirus on the death of her husband.  Epirus was subject to continued attacks from Thessaly, and in 1304 Anna sought support from Emperor Andronikos II, the agreement confirmed by the marriage of her son with his granddaughter[498].  "Domina Anna…Despina Cumnina Duccissa" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[499]m (Autumn 1264) as his second wife, NIKEPHOROS Doukas Komnenos Angelos despot in Nikaia, son of MIKHAEL II Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Theodora Doukaina Petraliphaina Basilissa ([1240]-[3 Sep 1296/25 Jul 1298]).  He succeeded his father in [1266/67] as Lord of Epirus

iv)       EVGENIA Palaiologina Kantakouzene ([1255]-after 1329).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Eugenia Palaeologina monacha, e sorore Michaelis primi Palaeologi imperatoris progenita"[500]Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "mater eius…consobrina mea", "eius" apparently refers to "Syrgiannes", while "mea" appears to refer to "magnus domesticus" who is the speaker in this section of the text and is identified with the author, the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos[501].  Her precise relationship with Emperor Ioannes VI is not known.  She became a nun.  m (before 1290) --- Syrgiannes megas domestikos (-before 1321). 

 

10.      MIKHAEL KantakouzenosPinkernes and oikeios of Emperor Ioannes III in 1250.  same person as…?  MIKHAEL Kantakouzenos (-killed in battle Mesikli Mar 1264).  Megas kontostavlos.  Military commander against Mikhael II Lord of Epirus in 1263.  Kephalia in Monemvasia and military commander in Morea.  Pachymeres names "Cantacuzenos Michael" among those who fought in Monemvasia in the early years of the reign of Emperor Mikhael VIII, stating that he was later made "magnus conostaulus", the same passage naming "illiusque patrueles Tarchaniotas" as another who fought in the same campaign[502].  His relationship with the Tarchanaiotes family has not been traced.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that the emperor sent “Catacusino” with an army to Morea, recording in a later passage (only in one manuscript of the Livre) that they marched to Monemvasia, and that “Catacusino…ung des plus grans seignors de Constantinople” was killed in battle at “Mesiscli[503].  The common reference to Monemvasia in Pachymeres and the Livre indicates that both passages refer to the same person. 

 

11.      KONSTANTINOS Kantakouzenos .  An undated seal, dated to the 13th/14th century, records “Constantin Cantacuzène[504]

 

 

[Four] siblings, parents not known: 

1.         --- Kantakouzenos ([1264/65]-1294).  According to Sturdza[505], his possible name was Mikhael but the basis for this speculation is not known.  Emperor Andronikos II appointed him governor of Mistra, styled "captain of the land and castles in the Peloponnesos".  Miller specifies that he was killed in 1316 after governing the province for eight years[506], which is inconsistent with the death date shown here as stated in Europäische Stammtafeln[507]m THEODORA Angelina Palaiologina, daughter of --- (-6 Jan 1342).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Theodora Palaeologina…magni…domestici matre", stating that she was "cognata" of Emperor Andronikos II[508].  Another clue to her parentage is provided by Ioannes Kantakouzenos who names "uno enim magistro avunculo nostro Angelo magno stratopedarcha", "nostro" apparently referring both to "magnus domesticus" who is the speaker in this section of the text and is identified with the author, the future Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos, and to "Syrgiannes"[509].  She may have been the granddaughter of a sister of Emperor Mikhael VIII[510].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Archontes" imprisoned "matrem magni domestici cum nepote Andronico", in a passage dated to [1341][511].  --- Kantakouzene & his wife had two children:

a)         IOANNES Palaiologos Angelos Komnenos Kantakouzenos ([1294/95]-Mistra 15 Jun 1383)His parentage is confirmed by his own History which names "Theodora Palaeologina…magni…domestici matre", stating that she was "cognata" of Emperor Andronikos II[512].  He was proclaimed Emperor IOANNES VI in 1341. 

-        see below, Part B

2.         --- Kantakouzenos .  If "patruelis" is interpreted correctly in the text cited below, the father of Nikephoros Kantakouzenos was the paternal uncle of Emperor Ioannes VI.  This appears to be corroborated by the later passage in which Nikephoros is described as "patruus" of the emperor's son Matthaios, assuming that the word can be interpreted as indicating father's first cousin on the paternal side instead of paternal uncle and also by the passage in the chronicle of Michael Panaretos which is quoted below.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         NIKEPHOROS Kantakouzenos (-1355 or after).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Nicephorum Cantacuzenum, magni domestici patruelem" (referring to the future Emperor Ioannes VI), in a passage dated to [1341], which records that he was imprisoned[513].  The same source, in a later passage, names "Nicephorum Sebastocratorem Cantacuzenum" as "Matthæus…patruum", in a passage dated to [1353][514].  Sébastokrator.  He was imprisoned by Apokavkos 1341.  Governor of Adrianople 1352/55.  m ---.  The name of Nikephoros's wife is not known.  Nikephoros Kantakouzenos & his wife had one child:

i)          THEODORA Komnene Kantakouzene ([1340]-before Jun 1400).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lady Komnene Kantakouzene, the daughter of Nikephoros Kantakouzenos, first cousin to the emperor of the Romans lord John Kanatakouzenos" arrived "from the City by galley" 3 Sep 1350 and was married to the emperor 21 Sep in the monastery of St Eugenios, her name being confirmed as "the Lady Theodora" in a later passage[515].  She became a nun in Constantinople in 1390 as THEODOSIAm (Trebizond St Eugenios 28 Sep 1350) ALEXIOS III Megas Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond, illegitimate son of BASILEIOS Emperor in Trebizond & his second wife[516] Eirene --- (5 Oct 1338-20 Mar 1390). 

3.         [--- Kantakouzenos .  If "patruelis" is interpreted correctly in the text cited below, the father of Manuel Kantakouzenos was the paternal uncle of Emperor Ioannes VI.  m ---.  One child: 

a)         MANUEL Kantakouzenos (-Adrianople [1352/63]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Manuelem Cantacuzenum patruelem", which appears to refer to Emperor Ioannes VI but this is not entirely clear from the text, as ambassador, in a passage dated to [1353][517].  Commander at Adrianople.  He died of the plague.  same person as…?  MANUEL Kantakouzenos Strategopulos .  He is shown as the possible grandson of Mikhael Kantakouzenos megas kontostavlos (see above) in Europäische Stammtafeln[518].  According to Sturdza[519], he was the son of Nikephoros Kantakouzenos sébastokrator, see above, but if that is correct he must have been considerably older than Nikephoros's known daughter Theodora.  He was an opponent of Emperor Ioannes VI in 1341.  m --- Khumnaina, daughter of GEORGIOS Khumnos & his wife ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by Ioannes Kantakouzenos who names "Chumnus cum filio et genero Manuele Cantacuzeno duce", in a passage dated to [1341][520]

4.         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         --- [Kantakouzene] (-[1330]).  Nicephoras Gregoras records the marriage of "defuncti imperatoris consobrinus Guido Armenius" and "Cantacuzeni consobrinam"[521]m ([1318]) as his first wife, GUY de Lusignan, son of AMAURY of Cyprus & his wife Zabel of Armenia (-murdered 17 Apr 1344, bur Adana, transferred to Tarsus[522]).  He succeeded in 1342 as CONSTANTINE II King of Armenia

 

 

1.         --- Kantakouzene .  Pachymeres records that "Theodorus Muzalo" married "filiam Cantacuzeni"[523].  1280/1300.  m (after 1282) THEODOROS Mouzalon, son of --- (-1294).  Protobestiarios, logothetis.  He became a monk. 

 

2.         THOMAIS Komnene Doukaina Laskarina Kantakouzene (-11 Feb ----).  She became a nun as XENEm as his first wife, IOANNES Synadenos Komnenos Doukas Palaiologos, son of IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Angelos Synadenos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina.  Megas kontostavlos 1321/22. 

 

3.         NIKEPHOROS Kantakouzenos (-killed in battle Pelekamon 10 Jun 1329).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Manuel Tarchaniota et Nicephorus Cantacuzenus, ambo cognate magni domestici", referring to the future Emperor Ioannes VI, were killed, in a passage dated to [1329][524].   

 

 

 

B.      EMPERORS 1341-1357 (KANTAKOUZENOS)

 

 

IOANNES Palaiologos Angelos Komnenos Kantakouzenos, son of --- Kantakouzenos & his wife Theodora Angelina Palaiologina ([1294/95]-Mistra 15 Jun 1383)His parentage is confirmed by his own History which names "Theodora Palaeologina…magni…domestici matre", stating that she was "cognata" of Emperor Andronikos II[525]Parakoimomenos (grand chamberlain).  He was one of the followers of the young co-emperor Andronikos and supported the latter's rebellion against his grandfather Emperor Andronikos II in [1321][526].  He was appointed megas domestikos in [1325] by co-emperor Andronikos.  After Emperor Andronikos III's accession in 1328, Ioannes Kantakouzenos acquired a position of considerable influence and became de facto ruler of the state[527].  He was appointed panhypersébastos in Nov 1340.  He established himself as regent for Emperor Ioannes V in Jun 1341 on the death of Andronikos III, but was actively opposed by Alexios Apokavkos and Patriarch Ioannes Kalekas.  As leader of the army, Kantakouzenos was obliged to leave for northern Thrace following a Serbian invasion.  During his absence, Apokavkos engineered his own appointment as prefect of Constantinople by convincing Empress Anna that Kantakouzenos was her enemy[528].  In reaction, he had himself declared Emperor IOANNES VI at Didymoteichon 26 Oct 1341, although only naming himself as co-emperor after Emperor Ioannes V and Dowager Empress Anna.  During the subsequent civil war, the Zealots succeeded in evicting the nobles from Thessaloniki and instituted their programme of expropriation with extreme violence.  As leader of the aristocrats, Ioannes Kantakouzenos found his power broken.  He sought refuge firstly in Serbia in Jul 1342 with Dušan, later with Umur Beg Emir of Aydin[529].  With Turkish military help, he succeeded in taking control in Thrace by end-1343.  Although the regime of the Zealots was maintained in Thessaloniki, Kantakouzenos was able to impose himself against the Dowager Empress's party, hastened by the assassination of Apokavkos and supported by Sultan Orkhan with whom he concluded an alliance in the winter of 1344/45, sealed by the Sultan's marriage with Kantakouzenos's daughter.  He was crowned emperor at Adrianople 21 May 1346 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, entered Constantinople 3 Feb 1347, and agreed to share power with Emperor Ioannes V, although the latter was to hold the junior position for ten years.  They were crowned jointly at Constantinople 21 May 1347 by the Patriarch, and Ioannes V married Ioannes VI's daughter Helene[530].  Although this marked the end of the civil war, it was not until 1350 that the Zealots were finally expelled from Thessaloniki and Ioannes VI and Ioannes V made their solemn entry into the town.  His reign was marked by the territorial expansion of Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia, who conquered Macedonia (except Thessaloniki), Albania, Epirus and Thessaly without being challenged in a major battle, reducing Byzantium's remaining territory by half.  Chios was lost to the Genoese in 1346, becoming the main base of the commercial company of the Giustiniani.  The territory of the empire was thereby reduced to Thrace, the islands in the north of the Aegean, Thessaloniki and the Peloponnesos, as well as Constantinople itself.  The empire's territorial losses were accompanied by financial ruin, with Byzantine commerce languishing after the neglect of years of civil war.  The empire's government ceased regular budgeting, relying exclusively on the generosity of wealthy citizens and foreign loans[531].  The position was worsened by the Black Death of 1348 which, according to western chronicles[532], resulted in the death of 8/9 of the population.  In an attempt to maintain control in this worsening situation, Emperor Ioannes created autonomous regions in Thrace and Morea, ruled by his two older sons.  He also reduced customs tariffs in Constantinople to tempt commerce from the Genoese at Galata, but was forced to capitulate to the superior Genoese maritime force which destroyed the newly created Byzantine navy in 1349.  Meanwhile Emperor Ioannes V gradually reasserted himself, invaded the Thracian territory of Matthaios Kantakouzenos in Autumn 1352, and allied himself with Bulgaria and Serbia in return for military aid, sending his brother Mikhael as a hostage to the latter to seal the alliance.  Ioannes VI obtained military help from the Ottomans, but the latter seized Gallipoli.  The conflict between the two emperors was brought to a head by the proclamation of Matthaios Kantakouzenos as co-emperor and heir to the throne in 1353.  However, opposition to the Kantakouzenos family was growing, and Ioannes VI announced his abdication 3 Dec 1354[533].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that he became a monk as IOASAPH at the monastery of St George of the Mangana in Constantinople[534].  During his retirement he wrote his celebrated History and various theological treatises.  He was taken to Galata in 1379 by Emperor Andronikos IV as a hostage, was released in 1381 and spent his last years in Morea[535]

m (before 1320) EIRENE Asanina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Asanes, despot [Bulgaria] & his wife --- Tarchanaiotissa (-[1369/79]).  Nicephoras Gregoras refers to "imperatrice Irene Cantacuzena" and "de duobus illius fratribus", in a later passage naming "eius fratri Manueli Asani" and recording that he was granted "Didymotichi præfecturam"[536]Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Andronicum Asanem magni domestici socerum", dated to 1341, and in a later passage “Andronico Asane Cantacuzeni socero”, dated to 1343[537]Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that Eirene became a nun as EVGENIA in 1354 in the convent of St Martha[538]

Emperor Ioannes VI & his wife had six children:

1.         MATTHAIOS Asanes Kantakouzenos ([1325]-24 Jun 1383).  Nicephoras Gregoras names "duo imperatoris filii Matthæus et Manuel" (referring to Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos)[539].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names "Iohannes Cantacuzenus, imperatoris socer…et Matthæus filius eius"[540].  Military leader 1341.  His father appointed him Governor in Thrace in 1343.  He was declared first in rank after the emperor, but without a title, and was granted rule over a large part of Western Thrace around Adrianople in 1347.  Emperor Ioannes V Palaiologos invaded this territory in Autumn 1352, but was defeated by Ioannes VI.  Proclaimed co-emperor 15 Apr 1353, and declared heir to his father, Matthaios was crowned in Feb 1354.  He maintained his authority in Thrace after his father's abdication, but was eventually defeated by the Serbs, arrested in Feb 1356, and forced to abdicate in Dec 1357.  He settled in Morea at the court of his brother Manuel Despot of Morea.  After an initial attempt to seize power, he accepted his brother's continued rule and succeeded him as Epitropos in Morea 1380[541].  He was deprived of Morea in 1382 by Emperor Ioannes V who installed his third son Theodoros as ruler.  m (Thessaloniki [late 1340/early 1341]) EIRENE Palaiologina, daughter of DEMETRIOS AngeloDoukas Palaiologos, despot & his wife Theodora ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Matthaei Cantacuzeni primogeniti magni domestici" married "filia Demetrii despotæ, Andronici Palaeologi senioris filii" in Thessaloniki, in a passage dated to [1340][542].  In prison 1356/57.  Co-Emperor Matthaios & his wife had five children:

a)         IOANNES Kantakouzenos ([1342]-after 1380).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Matthæus Cantacuzeni filius…Ioannem ac Demetrium, eius filios" were honoured, "Ioannes…despotam" and "Demetrium sebastocratorem", in a passage dated to [1356][543].  Despotes Dec 1357.  In Peloponnesos from 1361. 

b)         DEMETRIOS Kantakouzenos ([1343/44]-[1383/84]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Matthæus Cantacuzeni filius…Ioannem ac Demetrium, eius filios" were honoured, "Ioannes…despotam" and "Demetrium sebastocratorem", in a passage dated to [1356][544]Sébastokrator Dec 1357.  In Peloponnesos from 1361.  He opposed his father's surrender of Morea to Theodoros Palaiologos in 1382, and by Theodoros's arrival in Dec 1383 he had assumed control over most of the Byzantine Peloponnesos.  The revolt collapsed when Demetrios died[545]m ---.  The name of Demetrios´s wife is not known.  Demetrios Kantakouzenos & his wife had [two possible children]: 

i)          [THEODOROS Kantakouzenos (after 1361-1410).  His parentage is not known.  If it is correct as suggested below that Theodoros's eldest son was named Demetrios, it is probable that Theodoros's father was also named Demetrios, consistent with the Byzantine custom of naming the eldest son after his paternal grandfather[546].] 

-         see below

ii)         [--- Kantakouzenosm ---.]  --- Kantakouzenos & his wife had [two possible children]:

(a)       [IOANNES Palaiologos Kantakouzenos.  Governor of Patras 1436/1443.  He was a general of Konstantinos Palaiologos Despot of Morea [later Emperor Konstantinos XI], marching with him into Attica in 1444.  Governor of Corinth 1446/48.  In Constantinople in 1449, he fled 29 May 1453.]  m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos & his wife had one child:

(1)       KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos (-after 1452).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Governor of Vostitza 1446/1448.  Comes palatinus lateranensis 21 Jun 1446. 

(b)       [DEMETRIOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos ([1392]-after 1453).  In a Turkish prison 1422/24.  Georgios Phrantzes records the part played by "Demetrium Cantacuzenum et Nicephorum Palaeologum generum eius" in defending Constantinople from Sultan Mohammed in 1453[547].]  m ---.  The name of Demetrios's wife is not known.  Demetrios Kantakouzenos & his wife had two children:

(1)       --- Kantakouzenos (-murdered Constantinople 3 Jun 1453).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Protostrator. 

(2)       --- Kantakouzene .  Her parentage and marriage is confirmed by Georgios Phrantzes who records the part played by "Demetrium Cantacuzenum et Nicephorum Palaeologum generum eius" in defending Constantinople from Sultan Mohammed in 1453[548]m NIKEPHOROS Palaiologos, son of --- (-after 1453).   

c)         THEODORA Kantakouzene (-1360 or after).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Matthaei…Theodora…senior filia", recording that she was educated "apud aviam paternam Eugeniam", presumably indicating that she was a nun at the convent of St Martha[549]

d)         HELENA Asanina Kantakouzene (-after Feb 1394).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Regent of Salona for her daughter 1382-1394.  She was killed by the Ottomans who invaded the city of Salona.  m (after 1361) don LUIS Fadrique de Aragón, son of don JAIME Fadrique de Aragón [Sicily] Conte di Malta e Gozo, Lord of Salona, Loidoriki and Aegina (-[1381/23 Oct 1382]).  He succeeded his father in 1365 as Conte di Malta e Gozo, Lord of Zeitunion, Loidoriki, Gardiki, Galaxidi and Vitrinitza, Captain of Siderokastron.  Lord of Aegina 1379-1381.  Vicar General of the Duchy of Athens and Neopatras 1375-1381.  

e)         MARIA Kantakouzene.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  1356.  m (1365 before 18 Apr, not consummated) IOANNES Laskaris Kalopheros (-Cyprus 1392).  Senator in Cyprus. 

2.         MANUEL Palaiologos Kantakouzenos ([1326]-Mistra 10 Apr 1380)Nicephoras Gregoras names "duo imperatoris filii Matthæus et Manuel" (referring to Emperor Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos)[550]Kephale of Berrhoia 1343/47.  His father installed him as Despot in Morea in May 1347.  His capital Mistra became a thriving cultural centre[551]Eparchos of Constantinople 1348/49.  Emperor Ioannes V confirmed his appointment in [1356] after unsuccessfully attempting to displace him in favour of his cousins Mikhael Asen and Andreas Asen[552]Betrothed (Jul 1342, contract broken [1346/47]) to ANNA [Maria] Oliver, daughter of JOVAN Oliver Voivode of Ovčepolje and Lesovo, Serbian despot[553] & his [---] wife ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the betrothal of "Manuele iuniori filio" and "Liberi filiam", in a passage dated to [1342][554]m (betrothed [1341], after May 1347) ZAMPEA [Isabelle] de Lusignan, daughter of CONSTANTINE II King of Armenia & his second wife --- (-in Cyprus [1382/87]).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the betrothal of "imperatore, Manueli filio" and "Syrgem Ntelensuziam, imperatoris Andronici consobrinum, Cypriorum regis filium…filiam", in a passage dated to [1341], the same source recording in a later passage that "Syrgen" terminated the betrothal after learning of Manuel's betrothal in 1342 to "Liberi filiam"[555].  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel names "madame Ysabel de Lisegnan, fille du…roy Guy d'Armenye", when recording that Pierre I King of Cyprus met her at "Moudon"[556].  She was known as MARIA or MARGARETA in Greece.  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "madama Margarita de Lusignan, nezza del signor de Sur et sorella del re Livon de Armenia, relitta del quondam Manoel Catacusino despotto della Morea" came to Cyprus in 1372[557]

3.         MARIA Kantakouzene (-Constantinople after 1379).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records a betrothal proposal between "Nicephoro", son of "Ioannis despotæ" & his wife, and "magni domestici filiam" (referring to the future Emperor Ioannes VI), in a passage dated to [1336], and that they were betrothed in a later passage dated to [1342][558].  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "sororis [Matthæi]" married "Conti Cephaleniæ filius"[559].  The Historia Epiri records that the brother of "Thomaim" married "Cantacuzeni filia"[560].  She became a nun at Constantinople.  m (summer 1342, repudiated [1356/57], taken back [1359]) NIKEPHOROS II Doukas Orsini titular Count of Kefalonia, son of IOANNES II Doukas Komnenos Angelos Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his wife Anna Palaiologina Angelina ([1328/29]-murdered summer 1359). 

4.         THEODORA Kantakouzene (-after May 1381).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records the marriage of "Orchanes" and "Cantacuzeni Græcorum regis filiam"[561].  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Cantacuzenus" married "sorore illi" to "Orchanum Turcarum"[562].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "imperator…filia Theodora, Orchanis coniuge"[563].  Her marriage was arranged by her father to win the support of Sultan Orkhan in the civil war with the supporters of Emperor Ioannes V[564].  She refused to convert to Islam, and returned to Constantinople after the death of her husband[565].  She was imprisoned by Emperor Andronikos IV in 1379/81.  m (Selymbria[566] early Summer 1346) as his third wife, Sultan ORKHAN, son of Sultan OSMAN (-Bursa Mar 1362, bur Bursa). 

5.         HELENA Kantakouzene (1333-[Oct/Dec] 1396).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Cantacuzenus…Helena filia sua" and "Iohannem imperatorem", stating in a later passage that she was thirteen years old at the time[567].  Her marriage took place following her father's triumphal entry into Constantinople and coronation as emperor, in an attempt to legitimise his control over the imperial family.  She was imprisoned by Emperor Andronikos IV in 1379/81.  She became a nun as HYPOMONE.  A letter from Emperor Manuel II addressed to his mother is dated to [Oct 1396][568]m (28/29 May 1347) Emperor IOANNES V, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his second wife Jeanne [Anna] de Savoie (18 Jun 1332-15 Feb 1391). 

6.         ANDRONIKOS Kantakouzenos ([1334]-1347).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Archontes" imprisoned "matrem magni domestici cum nepote Andronico", in a passage dated to [1341][569].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "filio…minimum natu Andronicum" died of the plague, in a passage dated to [1347][570].  Imprisoned 1341/42. 

 

 

THEODOROS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos, son of [DEMETRIOS] Kantakouzenos & his wife --- (after 1361-1410).  His parentage is not known.  If it is correct as suggested below that Theodoros's eldest son was named Demetrios, it is probable that Theodoros's father was also named Demetrios, consistent with the Byzantine custom of naming the eldest son after his paternal grandfather[571].  Ambassador 1397.  Senator 1409.  Patrician of Venice 27 Dec 1398.  He died of the plague. 

m (after 1383) EUPHROSYNE, daughter of --- Sincrula Palaiologos & his wife ---.  She is named as wife of Theodoros in the Masarelli Vatican manuscript[572]

The descendants of Theodoros Kantakouzenos shown below are reconstructed based on the Masarelli Vatican manuscript[573].  This document can be dated accurately to [1531], because of the inclusion of Maria di Monferrato, who died in that year, and her marriage.  However, the accuracy of the document is in doubt: another section of the same manuscript purports to set out the direct family of Emperor Ioannes VI but most of the details are inconsistent with the information on the emperor's family which is contained in contemporary primary sources.  Little corroboration has been found in other primary sources for the information contained in the Masarelli manuscript. 

Theodoros Kantakouzenos & his wife had [nine] children:

1.         DEMETRIOS .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Demetrios, Manuel, Georgios, Andronikos, Thomas, as the sons of Theodoros & his wife, commenting that Demetrios died as a young man[574].  He died as a young man.  m ALEXANDRA, daughter of ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Alexandra as the wife of Demetrios, son of Theodoros[575].  Demetrios Kantakouzenos & his wife had one child: 

a)         son (posthumously-died aged 18).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript refers to the posthumous son of Demetrios and his wife Alexandra, commenting that he died aged 18[576]

2.         MANUEL .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Demetrios, Manuel, Georgios, Andronikos, Thomas, as the sons of Theodoros & his wife, commenting that Manuel was protostrator[577]Protostrator 1420/29.  Georgios Phrantzes records an incident during the siege of Patras, dated to 29 Mar 1429, when he rescued Konstantinos Palaiologos [the future Emperor Konstantinos XI] but was captured after falling from his horse, a thoroughbred which "ameras" [the emir, unspecified] had given to “Isaacio Asani” who had later given it to “Georgio Philanthropeno genero [γαμβρω] suo” who, in turn had given it to “Comneno consobrino [ανεψιω], Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”, adding that the latter “Galatam fugientem” [fleeing to Galata] had been captured by Phrantzes’s brother (who had been granted the horse as a reward)[578]Theodoros Spandounes names "signore Emanuel Cantacusino fratello di Giorgio nomato Sachatai"[579]Georgios Phrantzes records that Emperor Ioannes VIII installed "stratopedarcham…Cantacuzeni filium propter affinitatem et patrem eius protostratorum"[580]m ---, daughter of ASEN & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Manuel, son of Theodoros, married a daughter of Asen[581].  Manuel & his wife had two children: 

a)         ANDREAS .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Andreas and Eudokia as the children of Manuel & his wife[582].  Georgios Phrantzes records that Emperor Ioannes VIII installed "stratopedarcham…Cantacuzeni filium propter affinitatem et patrem eius protostratorum"[583]m ---, daughter of --- Sincrula Palaiologos.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names her as the wife of Andreas[584].  Andreas Kantakouzenos & his wife had three children: 

i)          son (-died aged 15).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that the two (unnamed) sons of Andreas & his wife died aged 15 and 13 respectively[585]

ii)         son (-died aged 13).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that the two (unnamed) sons of Andreas & his wife died aged 15 and 13 respectively[586]

iii)        daughter (-died aged 5).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that the (unnamed) daughter of Andreas & his wife died aged 5[587]

b)         EUDOKIA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Andreas and Eudokia as the children of Manuel & his wife, stating that Eudokia married a grandson of the emperor of Trebizond but died without issue[588].  Her marriage appears to be confirmed by Georgios Phrantzes who records an incident during the siege of Patras, dated to 29 Mar 1429, when he rescued Konstantinos Palaiologos [the future Emperor Konstantinos XI] but was captured after falling from his horse, a thoroughbred which "ameras" [the emir, unspecified] had given to “Isaacio Asani” who had later given it to “Georgio Philanthropeno genero [γαμβρω] suo” who, in turn had given it to “Comneno consobrino [ανεψιω], Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”[589]m (before 29 Mar 1429) --- Komnenos, son of [Emperor in Trebizond & his second wife Anna Philanthropena. 

3.         GEORGIOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos "Sachatai" (-before 1459).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Demetrios, Manuel, Georgios, Andronikos, Thomas, as the sons of Theodoros & his wife[590]Theodoros Spandounes names "il signor Georgio Cantacusino nomato Sachatai…nipote…figliolo del figliolo dell´imperatore Ioanne Cantacusino"[591]In Peloponnesos 1431/36.  In Trebizond 1436/37.  He lived at the court of his brother-in-law Djuradj Branković of Serbia 1437.  Serbian Archon at Semendria 1454/56.  m ([1424]) MARIA, daughter of MANUEL Razi [Ralli] & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Maria, daughter of Manuel Razi as the wife of Georgios, son of Theodoros, adding that they had twelve sons and twelve daughters, of whom five sons and eight daughters survived[592].  Georgios Kantakouzenos & his wife had 12 sons and 12 daughters:

a)         THEODOROS Kantakouzenos (-after 1456).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros, Manuel, Thomas, Demetrios and Andronikos as the five surviving sons of Georgios & his wife[593].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had four sons (in order) “le seigneur Théodore...le seigneur Manuel, le seigneur Thomas et le seigneur Démétrius[594].  In Serbia 1453/56.  m HELENA Kantakouzene, daughter of IOANNES Kantakouzenos & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Helena, daughter of Ioannes Kantakouzenos as the wife of Theodoros, son of Georgios[595].  Theodoros Kantakouzenos & his wife had four children: 

i)          GEORGIOS .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Georgios, Maria, Eudokia and Alexandra as the children of Theodoros, son of Georgios, and his wife[596]m EIRENE, daughter of a Grand Chancellor of the Turks [Georgios Amiroutzes?].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Eirene, daughter of the Grand Chancellor of the Turks, as the wife of Georgios, son of Theodoros, and that the couple had two children[597].  Georgios Kantakouzenos & his wife had two children: 

(a)       two children. 

ii)         MARIA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Georgios, Maria, Eudokia and Alexandra as the children of Theodoros, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Maria married Ierachi[598]m --- Ierachi, son of ---. 

iii)        EVDOKIA Kantakouzene (-after 9 Dec 1488).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Georgios, Maria, Eudokia and Alexandra as the children of Theodoros, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Eudokia married Matthaios Spandounes[599].  Her son, Theodore Spandunes, described Helena Kantakouzene, widow of David Emperor in Trebizond, as "sorella de mio avo materno"[600], which is consistent with his mother having been the daughter of one of the ex-empress's brothers.  In Venice 1453/88.  A document dated 18 Jun 1475 records donations by "domine Anne Paleologine Hermineutine filie quondam…Megaduche Constantinopolis et domine Eudochie Cantacusini uxoris…Mathei Spandonini"[601].  "Catherina comitissa Cillii" donated "castrum Bellogradi" to "Mathaeo Spandonino equiti et comiti palatino" for the love of "nepotis sue, uxoris dicti Mathaei" by document dated 9 Dec 1488 at Constantinople[602]m MATTHAIOS Spandounes [Spandugnino] (-before 1511).  Venetian Stratiotes.  Reichsgraf und Herr of Loidoriki and Trizonia. 

iv)       ALEXANDRA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Georgios, Maria, Eudokia and Alexandra as the children of Theodoros, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Alexandra married Conneu[603]m --- Conneu, son of ---. 

b)         MANUEL Kantakouzenos "Chin".  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros, Manuel, Thomas, Demetrios and Andronikos as the five surviving sons of Georgios & his wife[604].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had four sons (in order) “le seigneur Théodore...le seigneur Manuel, le seigneur Thomas et le seigneur Démétrius[605].  Governor of Mani.  Despot of the rebellious Albanians in Peloponnesos 1453/Oct 1454.  Georgios Phrantzes records that "Albanitæ Pelopennesii" created "Manuelem Cantacuzenum despotam" in autumn of "anni 6962"[606].  In Dubrovnik 1454/69.  m (before 1453) HELENA, daughter of MIKHAEL Palaiologos & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Helena, daughter of Mikhael Palaiologos, as the wife of Manuel, son of Georgios[607].  Manuel Kantakouzenos & his wife had two children: 

i)          THEODOROS .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros and Maria as the children of Manuel, son of Georgios, and his wife[608]m ---, daughter of NICOLA Bocchali.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Theodoros, son of Manuel, married a daughter of Nicola Bocchali and that the couple had five sons and one daughter[609]

ii)         MARIA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros and Maria as the children of Manuel, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Maria married Suriano[610]m --- Suriano, son of ---. 

c)         THOMAS Kantakouzenos.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros, Manuel, Thomas, Demetrios and Andronikos as the five surviving sons of Georgios & his wife[611].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had four sons (in order) “le seigneur Théodore...le seigneur Manuel, le seigneur Thomas et le seigneur Démétrius[612].  Governor of Selymbria 1444.  In Serbia 1468.  m --- Sphrantzes, daughter of ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Thomas, son of Georgios, married Sphrantzes and that the couple had one daughter who died young[613].  Thomas Kantakouzenos & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter (-young). 

d)         DEMETRIOS Kantakouzenos "Sechtanes".  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros, Manuel, Thomas, Demetrios and Andronikos as the five surviving sons of Georgios & his wife[614].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had four sons (in order) “le seigneur Théodore...le seigneur Manuel, le seigneur Thomas et le seigneur Démétrius[615]Domestikos of the Megale Ekklesia in Constantinople 1466/73.  m SIMONIS Goudelina, daughter of MANUEL Goudeles & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Demetrios, son of Georgios, married a daughter of Manuel Gundeli[616].  1473.  Demetrios Kantakouzenos & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANDRONIKOS .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Andronikos, Manuel, Theodora and Maria as the children of Demetrios, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Andronikos died childless[617]

ii)         MANUEL .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Andronikos, Manuel, Theodora and Maria as the children of Demetrios, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Manuel married but died childless[618]m ---. 

iii)        THEODORA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Andronikos, Manuel, Theodora and Maria as the children of Demetrios, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Theodora married Scipio Seigneur de Santa Maura and died childless[619]m SCIPIO Signor di Santa Maura. 

iv)       MARIA Kantakouzene .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Andronikos, Manuel, Theodora and Maria as the children of Demetrios, son of Georgios, and his wife, stating that Maria married Theodoros Palaiologos[620]m (Corfu Nov 1486) THEODOROS Palaiologos, son of PAULOS Palaiologos & his wife --- ([1450]-1532).  Theodoros Palaiologos is the subject of a study by Marianna Koliva[621].  According to this study, Theodoros was born probably at Mistra in [1450], although his descent from the main Palaiologos family is uncertain, and entered the service of the republic of Venice in 1479. 

e)         ANDRONIKOS .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodoros, Manuel, Thomas, Demetrios and Andronikos as the five surviving sons of Georgios & his wife[622]

f)          seven other sons (-young). 

g)         EUPHROSYNE Kantakouzene .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Euphrosyne married Nikolaos son of Manuel Palaiologos[623].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had five daughters, of whom “l´autre [=la deuxième]” married “[le] seigneur Nicolas Paléologue[624]m NIKOLAOS Palaiologos, son of MANUEL Palaiologos & his wife ---.  Received Monemvasia 1463.  Nikolaos & his wife had two children: 

h)         MARIA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Maria was a nun[625].  Nun. 

i)          PHILIPPA Kantakouzene .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that the first named Philippa married Georgios Ralli[626].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had five daughters, of whom “l´aînée se maria au seigneur Georges Rhallis[627].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Georgius Raulus…gener eius", referring to "Giorgios Palaiologos"[628]m GEORGIOS [Giovangiorgi] Rallis, son of IOANNES Rallis & his wife --- Dragaš [Serbia].  In Corfu 1460. 

j)          EIRENE .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Eirene married Georgios Urana and had two sons Manuel and Alexios[629]m GIORGIOS Urana

k)         ANNA [Cherana/Kyr Anna] Kantakouzene (-after 1476).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Anna married Vladislav son of Stefan duke of Bosnia[630]m (Mar 1455) VLADISLAV of Saint Sava [Bosnia], son of STEFAN Vukčić Kosaca, Herceg of Saint Sava, [Vojvoda of Bosnia], & his first wife Jelena Balša of Zeta ([1427]-[27 Oct 1487/1 Nov 1489]). 

l)          THEODORA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife[631].  Nun at Thessaloniki. 

m)       PHILIPPA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that the second named Philippa married Alexios Kantakouzenos but died childless[632]m ALEXIOS Kantakouzenos

n)         ZOE Kantakouzene (-after 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Euphrosyne, Maria, Philippa, Eirene, Cherana, Theodora, Philippa and Zoia as the eight surviving daughters of Georgios & his wife, stating that Zoia married the Count of Jaffa and had one son (who left issue) and one daughter[633].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène” had five daughters, of whom “l´autre [=la troisième]...Zoé Cantacuzène” was sent to Cyprus and married “[le] comte de Jaffa, messire Jacques de Flory” and had three children “l´âinée Carola et deux garçons, le premier Hercule et l´autre Jazon”, also listing the children and grandchildren of their daughter Carola[634].  The "New Chronicle" records the marriage 8 Oct 1444 of "the lady who came from Morea" and Jacques de Flory[635].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records the birth in 1447 of [her son] “Manuel...fil Jaque de Flory Co[m]te de Jaffe, et de Zoy Ca[n]tacouzini la co[m]tesse, une très noble dame de Gresse”, a subsequent passage setting out the ancestry of “Carola Cantacuzène de Flory, fille [du] comte de Jaffa, et de ses enfants[636]m (8 Oct 1444) as his second wife, JACQUES de Flory Count of Jaffa and Carpasso on Cyprus, son of --- (-murdered 1463). 

o)         four other daughters (-young). 

4.         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos (-murdered Constantinople 3 Jun 1453).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Demetrios, Manuel, Giorgios, Andronikos, Thomas, as the sons of Theodoros & his wife[637]Megas domestikosm ---, sister of --- Protobestiarios of Trebizond [Giorgios Amiroutzes?].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Andronikos, son of Theodoros, married a sister of Provestiar of Trebizond and that the couple had sons who were killed by the Turks[638].  Andronikos Kantakouzenos & his wife had [---] children:

a)         THEODOROS Kantakouzenos (-murdered Constantinople 3 Jun 1453).  He was beheaded with his brother-in-law and father-in-law on the orders of Sultan Murad II after the fall of Constantinople[639]m MARIA Notaraina, daughter of LUKAS Notaras megas dux & his wife --- Palaiologina. 

b)         sons (-murdered Constantinople 3 Jun 1453). 

5.         THOMAS Kantakouzenos (-25 Jul 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Demetrios, Manuel, Giorgios, Andronikos, Thomas, as the sons of Theodoros & his wife[640].  Georgios Phrantzes names "Thoma Cantacuzeno avunculo" of "Capistranus et Serviæ princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus…filia", when recording that they went "ad ameram et amerissam" after the death of her mother 3 May 1457[641].  He lived at the court of his brother-in-law Djuradj Branković of Serbia 1433/39.  He was among the defenders during the siege of Smederevo by Sultan Murad II in 1439[642].  Serbian military leader 1448/52.  m ---, "daughter of Emperor of Germany".  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Thomas, son of Theodoros, married a daughter of the emperor of Germany but died without issue[643].  This person has not been identified. 

6.         THEODORA Kantakouzene (-12 Nov 1426, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor Lord Alexios" married "Kantakuzenos´s daughter the lady Theodora" after she was brought back from Constantinople 14 Sep 1395 by his paternal aunt "the empress lady Eudokia"[644].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Qelex" son of "the emperor of Trebizond…Germanoli" was married "to the daughter of a knight of Constantinople" in 1404 and had "two little daughters"[645].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodora, Maria, and Eirene as the daughters of Theodoros & his wife, stating that Theodora married Alexios Komnenos Emperor of Trebizond[646].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène...et son frère le grand domestique de Constantinople” had three sisters and that they arranged the marriage of “l´autre sœur [=la deuxième]...à l´empereur de Trébizonde[647].  An alternative marriage is provided by the Ecthesis Chronicon which records that Emperor Ioannes married "a wife from Trebizond, Maria Cantacuzena, the granddaughter of the protostrator", adding that the daughter of the latter was "wife for the protovestarius of the emperor of Trebizond"[648].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas states that "matrem regi Ioanni" was "Cantacuzena", when recording that her son was suspicious that she "had been intimate with the protovestiarius" whom he killed, before he was himself exiled by his father[649].  She founded the convent of Pharos in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 12 Nov 1429 of "the empress Lady Theodora Kantakouzene the Grand Komnene, the wife of the emperor lord Alexios" and her burial "in the…church of…the Golden Headed Virgin"[650]m (after 14 Sep 1395) ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos, son of MANUEL III Emperor in Trebizond & his first wife Gulkhan of Georgia (19 Jun 1382-murdered 1429 before 28 Oct).  He succeeded in 1417 as ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond

7.         MARIA (-[young]).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodora, Maria, and Eirene as the daughters of Theodoros & his wife[651].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène...et son frère le grand domestique de Constantinople” had three sisters and that they arranged the marriage of “l´autre sœur [=la troisième]...au roi d´Ibérie”, adding that the couple “procréèrent des enfants qui tous disparurent, les turcs les ayant pris[652].  Laurent comments that “ce...renseignement me paraît nouveau et bon, quoi qu´il m´ait été impossible d´en contrôler le bien fondé”, speculates on the possible identity of her husband assuming that the information is correct, but concludes (at least in respect of the alleged disappearance of the couple´s supposed children at the hands of the Turks) that “je croirais volontiers que Busac [author of the manuscript] a confondu...les destins de deux sœurs: celui de la reine anonyme de Géorgie avec celui de l´impératrice de Trébizonde Hélene[653].  If the information is correct, there are several possible candidates for the husband of this daughter (see the document GEORGIA) but further speculation on his identity appears pointless unless further corroboration about the marriage emerges. 

8.         EIRENE Kantakouzene (-Rudnik 3 May 1457).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodora, Maria, and Eirene as the daughters of Theodoros & his wife, stating that Eirene married George of Serbia[654]Theodoros Spandounes names "il signor Georgio Cantacusino nomato Sachatai…sua sorella Helena" as "moglie del Despoto Jurgo di Servia" but names her "Erina Cantacusina" in a later passage[655]Georgios Phrantzes records the death 2 May in "anno 6965" of "Capistranus et Serviæ princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus…regina uxor eius"[656].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène...et son frère le grand domestique de Constantinople” had three sisters and that they arranged the marriage of “la première...Irène au despote de Serbie[657].  She became known as "Prokleta [the Cursed] Jerina" in later Serbian epics[658]m ([26 Dec 1414]) DJURADJ Vuković Branković, son of VUK Branković & his wife Mara Lazarević ([1375]-Semendria 24 Dec 1456).  He succeeded in 1427 as Lord [Gospodin] of Serbia.  He was awarded the title despot by a Byzantine envoy in May 1429. 

 

 

The precise relationships between the following individuals and the main Kantakouzenos line shown above have not been traced. 

 

1.         IOANNES Kantakouzenosm ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

a)         HELENA Kantakouzene .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Helena, daughter of Ioannes Kantakouzenos as the wife of Theodoros, son of Georgios[659]m THEODOROS Kantakouzenos, son of GEORGIOS Palaiologos Kantakouzenos "Sachatai" & his wife Maria Razi [Ralli] (-after 1456). 

 

 

2.         [HELENA Kantakouzene (-Constantinople [1463/64]).  According to the 16th century historian Theodoros Spandounes, writing in 1538, "David Commino imperator de Trapessonda" married "Helena Cantacusina, sorella de mio avo materno", adding that the couple had eight sons and one daughter[660].  Spandounes, in an earlier passage, names "principe Georgio Cantacusino, mio avo materno"[661].  These passages have given rise to considerable confusion in secondary sources which deal with the Trebizond and Kantakouzenos families[662].  Firstly, Georgios Kantakouzenos (son of Theodoros Kantakouzenos who died in 1410) was one of Spandounes´s maternal great-grandfathers not his maternal grandfather (see above).  Secondly, the marriage of David Komnenos to a daughter of Theodoros Kantakouzenos would have been impossible from a chronological point of view, bearing in mind that the documented marriages of Theodoros´s other known daughters are dated to 1395 and [1414].  Thirdly, one of these daughters was David´s own mother, which would mean that he married his maternal aunt if Spandounes´s report is accurate as written.  Nevertheless, the question remains why Spandounes would have fabricated the connection completely, especially as the family relationships which he describes in other parts of his narrative can be corroborated by other primary sources.  It would be easy to understand why Spandounes might have been confused about the earlier generations of his own family, especially because both his maternal grandmother (Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of Ioannes Kantakouzenos) and his maternal grandfather (Theodoros Kantakouzenos, son of Georgios Kantakouzenos who is named above) were members of different branches of the Kantakouzenos family.  It is possible therefore that there is some grain of truth in the source which, at this distance in time, is now impossible to prise out.  The Masarelli manuscript (which can be dated to a couple of years before Spandounes) only mentions the Gothian ruler´s daughter as David´s wife.  No other reference to her has been found in the primary sources which have so far been consulted in the preparation of the present document.  It is therefore not impossible that she died young and that her widowed husband married again, possibly to a member of the Kantakouzenos family.  Spandounes recounts that, after the death of her husband and sons, his widow ("Helena") was condemned to pay a fine of 15,000 ducats or face the same fate[663].  The money was paid, but the widow put on sackcloth, built a hovel from straw beside the corpses outside the city walls, and secretly dug their graves with her own hands, dying a few days after completing the task.  If there is any truth in this romanticised story, it is not known whether it should refer to David´s Gothian wife or to his alleged "Kantakouzene" wife.]  [m as his second wife, DAVID Megas Komnenos, son of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene.  He succeeded in 1458/59 as DAVID Emperor in Trebizond.]  

 

 



[1] Gauci, C. A. & Mallat, P. (1985) The Palaiologos Family, A Genealogical Review (PEG Ltd). 

[2] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[3] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1830-1855) Nicephorus Gregoras, Historiæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ Vols. I, II and III (Bonn). 

[4] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1828-1832) Cantacuzenus Vols I, II and III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[5] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Michælis Ducæ Nepotis, Historia Byzantina, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[6] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn). 

[7] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 264. 

[8] Prosopography of the Byzantine World ("PBW"), Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources 1025-1102, second edition (2006.02), consulted at <http://www.pbw.kcl.ac.uk/content/index.html> (Sep 2007). 

[9] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[10] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzæ curopalatæ ("Skylitzes"), col. 418. 

[11] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books), Book 2, p. 86. 

[12] Alexeiad, Book 4, p. 148. 

[13] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Nikephoros Bryennios Liber IV, 33, p. 160. 

[14] Alexeiad, Book 2, p. 100. 

[15] Alexeiad, Book 4, pp. 141-2. 

[16] "Romanos 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Synod of 1094 217. 

[17] Alexeiad, Book 2, pp. 86-7. 

[18] Gautier, P. 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), 71, p. 124, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1985_num_43_1_2170> (21 Dec 2012). 

[19] "Romanos 105" in PBW (2006.2), citing Synod of 1094 217. 

[20] "Georgios 20140" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 1793. 

[21] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[22] "Georgios 20114" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 751. 

[23] "Alexios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 92. 

[24] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 605. 

[25] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 2, p. 674. 

[26] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1837) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn)Georgios Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[27] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 1, p. 6. 

[28] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber II, 13, p. 71. 

[29] Ioannes Kinnamos II, 13, p. 70, and 17, p. 82. 

[30] Ioannes Kinnamos II, IV, 2, pp. 137-47. 

[31] MB, in a private email to the author dated 14 Dec 2006, citing Cheynet, pp. 168-9. 

[32] Nicol, D. The Family of Kantakouzenos, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[33] Trapp, E. Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologisichen-Zeit, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[34] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 223. 

[35] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[36] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[37] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[38] Georgios Akropolites 28, p. 49. 

[39] Stone, D. C. & Owens, C. R. ´[Eirene?], First Wife of Emperor Isaakios II Angelos, is a Probable Tornikina and Gateway to Antiquity´, Foundations, Vol. 3, No. 5 (Jan 2011), p. 366, quoting Verpeaux, J. ´Les "Oikeioi", notes d´histoire institutionnelle et sociale´, Revue des études byzantines 23 (1965), pp. 88-9, and Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analekta hierosolymitikes stachiologias II (Leipzig), p. 362 (available on Google Book, full view). 

[40] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 366. 

[41] Stone & Owens ´[Eirene?]´, p. 366. 

[42] Niketas Choniates, De Isaacio Angelo, III, p. 593. 

[43] Georgios Akropolites 50, p. 100. 

[44] Georgios Akropolites 28, p. 49. 

[45] "Andronikos 20134" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4392. 

[46] Gardner (1912), p. 186. 

[47] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[48] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 1, p. 6. 

[49] Georgios Akropolites 36, p. 60. 

[50] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 8255, p. 332. 

[51] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1839) Codinus Curopalates, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Berlin) ("Codinus Curopalates") II, p. 8. 

[52] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 12, p. 38. 

[53] Ephræmius 9535, p. 381. 

[54] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 191. 

[55] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 2, p. 14. 

[56] Laurent, V. ‘Notes de chronologie et d´histoire byzantine de la fin du XIIIe siècle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 27 (1969), pp. 210-13, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1969_num_27_1_1421> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Εκκλησιαστικός Φάρος, IV (1909), p. 116. 

[57] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 1, p. 7. 

[58] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 1, p. 7. 

[59] Georgios Akropolites 77, p. 171. 

[60] Ephræmius 9355, p. 374. 

[61] Magdalino, P. ‘Notes on the last years of John Palaiologos, brother of Michael VIII’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 34 (1976), pp. 250-1, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1976_num_34_1_2049> (21 Dec 2012), citing Lampros, S. Ενθυμήσεων ητοι χρονικων σημειωμάτων συλλογη πρώτη, NE 7 (1910), Codex Laurentianus Plut. LXXXVII, cod. 16, f. 63v, p. 36. 

[62] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97. 

[63] Ephræmius 9430, p. 377. 

[64] Fine (1994), p. 170. 

[65] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 1, p. 7. 

[66] Georgios Akropolites 77, p. 171. 

[67] Ephræmius 9355, p. 374. 

[68] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 5, p. 97. 

[69] Schlumberger, G. (1884) Sigillographie de l´Empire Byzantin (Paris), p. 616. 

[70] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 18, p. 407. 

[71] Fine (1994), p. 226. 

[72] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[73] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VI, 35, p. 558. 

[74] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 8, p. 37. 

[75] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[76] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 562. 

[77] "Alexios 20118" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 4026 and 4027. 

[78] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[79] "Andronikos 20135" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4393. 

[80] "Andronikos 20136" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 4394 and 4395. 

[81] "Andronikos 20137" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4396. 

[82] "Andronikos 20122" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3054. 

[83] Georgios Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[84] Ephræmius 7720, p. 312. 

[85] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 109. 

[86] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 16, p. 459, and 24, p. 484. 

[87] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 16, p. 459, and 24, p. 484. 

[88] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 94, p. 575. 

[89] ES II 175. 

[90] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 333. 

[91] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 6, p. 350. 

[92] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 11, p. 77. 

[93] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 53, p. 312. 

[94] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 20, p. 147. 

[95] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 25, p. 125. 

[96] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 333. 

[97] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[98] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 23, p. 143. 

[99] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 36, p. 225. 

[100] ES II 180. 

[101] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 216. 

[102] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[103] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[104] Brayer, E., Lemerle, P., Laurent, V. ‘Le Vaticanus latinus 4789: histoire et alliances des Cantacuzènes aux XIV-XV siécle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 9 (1951) (“Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951)”), p. 75, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1951_num_9_1_1037> (21 Dec 2012).  

[105] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[106] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[107] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[108] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[109] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[110] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 4, p. 255. 

[111] Nicol (1972), p. 94. 

[112] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 1, p. 7. 

[113] Georgios Akropolites 46, p. 90. 

[114] Gardner (1912), p. 222. 

[115] Gardner (1912), pp. 222-5. 

[116] Gardner (1912), p. 238. 

[117] Fine (1994), p. 165. 

[118] Fine (1994), pp. 191-2. 

[119] Fine (1994), p. 194. 

[120] Georgios Akropolites 51, p. 107. 

[121] Ephræmius 8865, p. 355. 

[122] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 20, p. 55. 

[123] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 3, p. 174. 

[124] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 183. 

[125] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[126] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 5, p. 350, and Liber VI, 6, p. 440. 

[127] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 21, p. 421. 

[128] Fine (1994), p. 177. 

[129] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[130] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[131] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 1, p. 11. 

[132] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[133] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 6, p. 350. 

[134] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 6, pp. 439-40. 

[135] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 211. 

[136] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 135, citing Laurent, V. (ed.) (1971) Les regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constantinople, I, Les actes des patriarches, IV, Les regestes de 1208 à 1309 (Paris), no. 1441. 

[137] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 183. 

[138] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, pp. 208-9. 

[139] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[140] Pachymeres I 157, cited in Nicol (1972), p. 115. 

[141] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 22, p. 424. 

[142] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 18, p. 153. 

[143] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 155. 

[144] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 209. 

[145] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VI, 20, p. 517. 

[146] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 209. 

[147] Nicol (1972), p. 166. 

[148] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 209. 

[149] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 209. 

[150] Nicol (1972), p. 166. 

[151] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, pp. 208-9. 

[152] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 9, p. 214. 

[153] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 26, pp. 180-1. 

[154] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 26, p. 181. 

[155] Nicol (1972), p. 132. 

[156] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[157] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 6, p. 440. 

[158] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, 6, available at <http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael-panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008).  

[159] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 29, p. 270. 

[160] Michael Panaretos 9. 

[161] Nicol, D. M. (1994) The Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits 1250-1500 (Cambridge University Press), p. 51, and Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 30, p. 274. 

[162] Michael Panaretos 10. 

[163] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 5, p. 180. 

[164] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 263. 

[165] Martin, J. (1999) Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge University Press), p. 171. 

[166] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 3, p. 174. 

[167] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 22, p. 611. 

[168] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2007) Vardan Areweltsi's Compilation of History (New Jersey) 97, 714 A.E. [14 Jan 1265/13 Jan 1266], available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[169] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, pp. 331-2. 

[170] Nicol (1972), p. 147. 

[171] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 25, p. 620. 

[172] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 7, p. 183. 

[173] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[174] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, pp. 208-9. 

[175] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 1, p. 11. 

[176] Fine (1994), p. 194. 

[177] Fine (1994), p. 194. 

[178] Fine (1994), p. 233. 

[179] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. I, IX, 10, pp. 441, 446. 

[180] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 125. 

[181] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 33, p. 87, and Liber II, 18, p. 153. 

[182] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[183] Nicol (1994), p. 56. 

[184] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CCCVI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 570. 

[185] Moriondus, J. B. (1790) Monumenta Aquensia (Turin), Pars II, Historiam Aquensem,Monferratensem ac Pedemontanam, col. 171. 

[186] Nicol (1994), p. 49. 

[187] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[188] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 33, p. 87. 

[189] Nicol (1994), p. 49, and Sturdza (1999), p. 211. 

[190] Nicol (1994), p. 49. 

[191] Nicol (1994), p. 50. 

[192] Nicol (1994), pp. 52-3 and 57. 

[193] Nicol (1994), pp. 52-3. 

[194] Nicol (1994), pp. 52-4. 

[195] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 33, p. 87. 

[196] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 33, p. 87. 

[197] Fine (1994), p. 251. 

[198] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 26, pp. 180-1. 

[199] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 1, p. 14

[200] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 87, p. 535. 

[201] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 1, p. 14

[202] Nicol (1972), pp. 159 and 161. 

[203] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[204] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 2, p. 197. 

[205] Nicol (1994), p. 50. 

[206] Nicol (1994), pp. 52-3. 

[207] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 5, p. 379. 

[208] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 14, p. 69. 

[209] Nicol (1994), p. 52. 

[210] Failler, A. ‘Le second mariage d´Andronic II Palaiologos’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 57 (1999), p. 234, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1999_num_57_1_1972> (21 Dec 2012), citing Boissonade, J. F. (1829) Anecdota graeca (Paris), Tome I, p. 293 [not yet consulted]. 

[211] Nicol (1994), p. 60-1. 

[212] Nicol (1994), pp. 63-70, and Laurent, V. 'Une princesse byzantine au cloître. Irène-Eulogie Choumnos Paléologine, fondatrices du couvent des femmes' Echos d´Orient, 33, no. 157 (1930), pp. 29-60, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_1146-9447_1930_num_29_157_2630> (21 Dec 2012)

[213] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[214] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 28, p. 447. 

[215] Nicol (1994), pp. 52-3. 

[216] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[217] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 31, p. 276. 

[218] Nicol (1994), pp. 57-8. 

[219] Fine (1994), p. 263. 

[220] Failler ‘Le second mariage d´Andronic II Palaiologos’ (1999), p. 231, quoting Martini, M (1900) Manuelis Philæ Carmina inedita ex cod. C VII 7 Bibliothecæ Nationalis Taurinensis et cod. 160 Bibliothecæ Publicæ Cremonensis (Naples), pp. 13-17 [not yet consulted]. 

[221] Failler ‘Le second mariage d´Andronic II Palaiologos’ (1999), p. 231, quoting Martini (1900), pp. 13-17 [not yet consulted]. 

[222] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[223] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber VII, 18, p. 598. 

[224] Nicol (1994), pp. 54-5. 

[225] Nicol (1972), p. 160. 

[226] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 38, p. 534. 

[227] Failler ‘Le second mariage d´Andronic II Palaiologos’ (1999), p. 231, quoting Martini (1900), pp. 13-17 [not yet consulted]. 

[228] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 27, p. 268. 

[229] Martin, p. 171. 

[230] Nicol (1972), p. 147. 

[231] Laiou, A. E. (1972) Constantinople and the Latins: The Foreign Policy of Andronicus II 1282-1328 (Harvard UP), pp. 175-6, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[232] Fine (1994), p. 241. 

[233] Nikephoras Gregoras, I, 249, says that Ioannes was "lately married" in 1309, but at I, 278, says he had been "married three years" when he died, see Miller (1908), p. 222 footnote 2. 

[234] Fine (1994), p. 241. 

[235] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 33, p. 87. 

[236] Nicol (1972), pp. 134-6. 

[237] Nicol (1972), p. 140. 

[238] Nicol (1972), p. 161. 

[239] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 36, p. 172

[240] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber II, 19, p. 153. 

[241] Nicol (1972), p. 159. 

[242] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[243] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 5, pp. 204 and 206. 

[244] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Chronicle attributed to King Hethum II (New Jersey) 743 A.E. [7 Jan 1294/6 Jan 1295], available at <http://rbedrosian.com> (20 Aug 2007). 

[245] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 5, p. 34. 

[246] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 5, p. 34. 

[247] Nicol (1972), p. 161. 

[248] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 5, p. 34. 

[249] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 30, p. 450. 

[250] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 1, p. 13

[251] Fine (1994), p. 237. 

[252] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 5, p. 34. 

[253] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 1, p. 13

[254] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 38, p. 186. 

[255] Fine (1994), pp. 269-70. 

[256] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 36, p. 222. 

[257] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 5, p. 34. 

[258] Nicol (1972), p. 161. 

[259] Nicol (1972), pp. 173-4, and Fine (1994), p. 271. 

[260] Nicol (1972), p. 178. 

[261] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[262] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 10, p. 50. 

[263] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 42, pp. 204-5. 

[264] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 4, p. 34. 

[265] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[266] Nicol (1972), p. 195. 

[267] Nicol (1972), p. 204. 

[268] Nicol (1972), p. 212. 

[269] Nicol (1994), pp. 92-3. 

[270] Nicol (1994), p. 93. 

[271] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 24, p. 117. 

[272] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[273] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. III, Historiæ Byzantinæ XXXVII, 48-51, p. 557. 

[274] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 14, p. 394. 

[275] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[276] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 12, p. 53. 

[277] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 40, p. 560. 

[278] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[279] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 11 and 12, pp. 41 and 46. 

[280] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 11, p. 678. 

[281] Michael Panaretos 18. 

[282] Michael Panaretos 25 and 26. 

[283] Sturdza (1999), p. 372. 

[284] ES II 183. 

[285] Howorth, H. H. (1880) History of the Mongols (London), Part II, Division 1, p. 165. 

[286] Howorth (1880), Part II, Division 1, p. 166. 

[287] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[288] Nicol (1972), p. 212. 

[289] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 454-5. 

[290] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 5 and 10, pp. 20 and 39. 

[291] Nicol (1972), pp. 292-3. 

[292] Nicol (1972), p. 305. 

[293] Laurent, V. ‘La date de mort d´Hélène Cantacuzène, femme de Jean V Paléologue’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 14 (1956), pp. 200-1, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1956_num_14_1_1139> (21 Dec 2012), citing Legrand, E. (1893) Lettres de l´empereur Manuel Paléologue (Paris), pp. 92-3 [not yet consulted]. 

[294] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[295] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 32, p. 238. 

[296] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 12, p. 47. 

[297] Sturdza (1999), p. 369. 

[298] Michael Panaretos 71. 

[299] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. III, Historiæ Byzantinæ XXXVII, 48-51, p. 557. 

[300] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber I, p. 37. 

[301] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 13, p. 56. 

[302] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 46. 

[303] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 17, p. 192. 

[304] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 32, p. 238. 

[305] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[306] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[307] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 12, p. 47.  

[308] Fine (1994), pp. 403-4. 

[309] Fine (1994), pp. 403-4. 

[310] Fine (1994), p. 427. 

[311] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[312] Chronicon Breve, Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, p. 517. 

[313] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[314] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 28, p. 87. 

[315] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 12, p. 47. 

[316] Michael Panaretos 85. 

[317] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[318] Luttrell, A. (1986) John V's daughters: A Palaiologan Puzzle (Dumbarton Oaks Papers 40), pp. 103-5, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[319] Laonici Chalcocondylæ De Rebus Turcicis, IV, p. 176. 

[320] Du Fresne du Cange, C. (1680) Historia Byzantina, Familias ac Stemmata Imperatorum, Vol. I (Paris), p. 245, citing "Hist. Polit. p. 2, Itinerar. Regina Polonia, p. 337". 

[321] Ganchou, T. 'Ilario Doria, le Gambros génois de Manuel II Palaiologos: Beau-frère ou gendre?' Revue des études byzantines, Tome 66 (2008), pp. 86-7, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2008_num_66_1_3033> (21 Dec 2012). 

[322] Markham, C. L. (1859) Narrative of the Embassy to the Court of Timour at Samarcand 1403-6 (London), pp. 29-30. 

[323] Ganchou 'Ilario Doria' (2008), p. 73, quoting López Estrada, F. (1943) Embajada a Tamorlán (Madrid), p. 35. 

[324] Miklosich, F. & Müller, J. (1865) Acta et diplomata graeca medii aevi III (Vienna), xxxv, p. 162. 

[325] Ganchou 'Ilario Doria' (2008), p. 73. 

[326] Laonici Chalcocondylæ De Rebus Turcicis, IV, p. 172. 

[327] Ganchou 'Ilario Doria' (2008), p. 75. 

[328] Ganchou 'Ilario Doria' (2008), pp. 76-9, 81, citing on p. 76 Calcagnino, A. (1599) Annali (Genoa), f. 446r, and on p. 81 references to the Papal bulls. 

[329] Ganchou 'Ilario Doria' (2008), p. 84, citing Calcagnino (1599), f. 446r-7r, and p. 89 quoting the complete document. 

[330] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 12, p. 43. 

[331] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 32, p. 238. 

[332] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 12, p. 47. 

[333] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), p. 1. 

[334] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 13, p. 59. 

[335] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 210. 

[336] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[337] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[338] Markham (1859), p. 29. 

[339] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 23, p. 134. 

[340] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[341] Markham (1859), p. 29. 

[342] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 20, p. 98. 

[343] Monumenta Aquensia, Pars II, Historiam Aquensem,Monferratensem ac Pedemontanam, col. 177. 

[344] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 20, p. 102. 

[345] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 36, p. 110. 

[346] Nicol (1972), p. 346. 

[347] Nicol (1972), p. 346. 

[348] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 20, pp. 100 and 102. 

[349] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 1, p. 123. 

[350] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[351] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 462. 

[352] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 17, p. 192. 

[353] Runciman (2000), p. 21. 

[354] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[355] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 23, p. 134. 

[356] Markham (1859), p. 29. 

[357] Nicol (1972), p. 341. 

[358] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 29, p. 198. 

[359] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[360] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[361] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 23, p. 134. 

[362] Fine (1994), p. 539. 

[363] Fine (1994), p. 545. 

[364] Miller (1908), p. 415. 

[365] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 20, p. 100. 

[366] Nicol (1972), p. 346. 

[367] Runciman (2000), p. 48. 

[368] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 10, p. 158. 

[369] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Lusignan 8, p. 170. 

[370] Chronicle of Amadi I, Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 80. 

[371] Chronicle of Strambaldi II, Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 80. 

[372] Balard, M. (ed.) (2001) Dei gesta per Francos. Crusader studies in honour of Jean Richard (Grivaud), pp. 317-38, 334, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[373] Chronicle of Strambaldi II, Mas de Latrie, Histoire de Chypre Vol. 3, p. 81. 

[374] Mélanges Historiques (Paris, 1886), Tome V, Chronique de l'Ile de Chypre par Florio Bustron ("Florio Bustron"), p. 384. 

[375] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[376] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[377] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 23, p. 134. 

[378] Fine (1994), p. 545. 

[379] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 213. 

[380] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 214. 

[381] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 2, pp. 217-20. 

[382] Runciman (2000), pp. 143-4. 

[383] Miller (1908), p. 415. 

[384] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 1 and 2, pp. 128 and 129. 

[385] Nicol (1972), p. 364. 

[386] Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), p. xxxiv, quoting Arch. di Rifor. di Siena, Consigli della Campana, traduzione in Italiano. 

[387] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxviii, quoting Consiglio Dicci, Misti, XVIII, f. 113 v. 

[388] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 18, p. 192. 

[389] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[390] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 23, p. 134. 

[391] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 118. 

[392] Fine (1994), p. 562. 

[393] Fine (1994), pp. 562-3. 

[394] Runciman (2000), pp. 181-2. 

[395] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 449. 

[396] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 12, p. 162. 

[397] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 387. 

[398] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 449. 

[399] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 16, p. 388. 

[400] Runciman (2000), pp. 181-2. 

[401] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 449. 

[402] Miller (1908), p. 454. 

[403] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 40, p. 123. 

[404] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 23, p. 134. 

[405] Fine (1994), p. 544. 

[406] Fine (1994), p. 545. 

[407] Fine (1994), p. 562. 

[408] Fine (1994), pp. 562-3. 

[409] Runciman (2000), p. 182. 

[410] Miller (1908), p. 453. 

[411] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 9, p. 154. 

[412] Nicol (1972), p. 364. 

[413] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 19, p. 413. 

[414] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 19, p. 202. 

[415] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas (1890) Tome IX (Paris), p. 158. 

[416] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[417] Fine (1994), p. 572. 

[418] Fine (1994), p. 575. 

[419] Runciman (2000), pp. 182-3. 

[420] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 446. 

[421] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 450. 

[422] According to Runciman (2000), p. 183, she was probably born in 1456. 

[423] Runciman (2000), pp. 182-3. 

[424] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 22, p. 424. 

[425] Runciman (2000), p. 183, and Miller (1908), p. 454. 

[426] Kelly, J. N. D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford University Press), French translation (Brepols, 1994), p. 520. 

[427] Spandounes, p. 157. 

[428] Martin, J. (1999) Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge University Press), p. 247. 

[429] Spandounes, p. 157. 

[430] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 22, p. 424. 

[431] Runciman (2000), pp. 182-3. 

[432] Using the title "Deo gratia Fidelis Imperator Constantinopolitanus", see Runciman (2000), p. 184. 

[433] Runciman (2000), p. 184. 

[434] Nicol (1972), p. 424. 

[435] Baumgarten (1934), p. 32, citing "II. C. P. Л. VI 235". 

[436] Fennell, J. L. I. (1961) Ivan the Great of Moscow, pp. 313-4 and 323, citing Polnoe sobranie russikikh letopisey VI/235, XXIV/202-3, XX/350, and Dworzaczek, W. Genealogia Tables 23 and 162, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 14 Dec 2006. 

[437] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 14 Dec 2006. 

[438] Nicol (1972), p. 425, and Runciman (2000), p. 184. 

[439] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 14, p. 385. 

[440] Spandounes, p. 157. 

[441] Runciman (2000), pp. 182-3. 

[442] Runciman (2000), p. 183. 

[443] Spandounes, p. 175. 

[444] Spandounes, p. 175. 

[445] Runciman (2000), p. 183. 

[446] Alexeiad, X, p. 299. 

[447] Alexeiad, XIII, pp. 409-13. 

[448] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[449] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[450] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109. 

[451] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber VII, 1, p. 293. 

[452] ES III 197. 

[453] Niketas Choniates, Liber VI Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 8, p. 256. 

[454] Sturdza (1999), p. 249. 

[455] MB, in a private email to the author dated 14 Dec 2006, citing Cheynet, pp. 168-9. 

[456] Nicol, D. The Family of Kantakouzenos, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[457] Trapp, E. Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologisichen-Zeit, cited by MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[458] ES III 197. 

[459] Niketas Choniates, De Isaacio Angelo, III, p. 593. 

[460] ES III 197. 

[461] Sturdza (1999), p. 249. 

[462] "Andronikos 20131" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 3934. 

[463] "Ioannes 20548" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 4037. 

[464] ES III 197. 

[465] "Alexios 20102" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 92. 

[466] "Ioannes 20113" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seal 85. 

[467] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 109. 

[468] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 6, p. 489. 

[469] ES III 197. 

[470] Georgios Akropolites 48, p. 95. 

[471] "Ioannes 20532" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 3876 and 3975. 

[472] Nicol (1994), p. 40. 

[473] Ephræmius 9535, p. 381. 

[474] Nicol (1994), p. 34. 

[475] Fine (1994), p. 191. 

[476] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 2, p. 14. 

[477] Laurent, V. ‘Notes de chronologie et d´histoire byzantine de la fin du XIIIe siècle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 27 (1969), pp. 210-13, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1969_num_27_1_1421> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Εκκλησιαστικός Φάρος, IV (1909), p. 116. 

[478] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 8, p. 24. 

[479] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 108. 

[480] Nicol (1994), p. 37, which notes in footnote 10 that the name Kyriake attributed to her derives from a misreading of the manuscript recording her death. 

[481] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 21, p. 59. 

[482] Nicol (1994), p. 37, which notes in footnote 10 that the name Kyriake attributed to her derives from a misreading of the manuscript recording her death. 

[483] Nicol (1994), p. 37. 

[484] Gardner (1912), p. 229, citing Pachymeres in footnote 1. 

[485] Nicol (1994), pp. 40-5. 

[486] Nicol (1994), p. 46. 

[487] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, pp. 108-9. 

[488] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 3, p. 343. 

[489] Fine (1994), p. 180. 

[490] Fine (1994), p. 182. 

[491] Fine (1994), p. 196. 

[492] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[493] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 26, p. 265. 

[494] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[495] Pachymeres Vol II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 25, p. 67. 

[496] Fine (1994), p. 169. 

[497] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[498] Fine (1994), p. 237. 

[499] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiv, Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[500] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 22, p. 109. 

[501] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 334. 

[502] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 16, p. 205. 

[503] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 161, 170, and 172. 

[504] Schlumberger (1884), p. 630. 

[505] Sturdza (1999), p. 250. 

[506] Miller (1908), pp. 258-9. 

[507] ES III 197. 

[508] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 25, p. 125. 

[509] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 4, p. 333. 

[510] MB in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[511] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 23, p. 143. 

[512] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 25, p. 125. 

[513] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 22, pp. 138-9. 

[514] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 33, p. 243. 

[515] Michael Panaretos 39 and 42. 

[516] Whom he married bigamously. 

[517] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 34, p. 251. 

[518] ES III 197. 

[519] Sturdza (1999), p. 250. 

[520] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 20, p. 126. 

[521] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 15, p. 623. 

[522] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1963) The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans, The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (Paris, Librairie Klincksieck), p. 74, 179. 

[523] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 24, p. 484. 

[524] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 8, p. 362. 

[525] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 25, p. 125. 

[526] Nicol (1972), p. 163. 

[527] Sturdza (1999), p. 249. 

[528] Nicol (1972), pp. 194-6. 

[529] Nicol (1972), pp. 202-4. 

[530] Sturdza (1999), p. 249. 

[531] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 548. 

[532] Ostrogorsky (1977), p. 549, footnote (2). 

[533] Failler, P. A. ‘Notes sur la chronologie du règne de Jean Cantacuzène’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 29 (1971), p. 298, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1971_num_29_1_1447> (21 Dec 2012). 

[534] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 42, p. 307. 

[535] Nicol (1972), pp. 292-3. 

[536] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 16, pp. 624 and 626. 

[537] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 17 and 68, pp. 111 and 421. 

[538] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 42, p. 307. 

[539] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 16, p. 628. 

[540] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 20, pp. 38-9. 

[541] Fine (1994), p. 328. 

[542] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 38, p. 534. 

[543] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 49, p. 358. 

[544] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 49, p. 358. 

[545] Fine (1994), p. 403. 

[546] MB in a private email to the author. 

[547] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 4, p. 255. 

[548] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 4, p. 255. 

[549] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 45, p. 331. 

[550] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XII, 16, p. 628. 

[551] Fine (1994), p. 328. 

[552] Fine (1994), p. 328. 

[553] He was the second husband of Maria Palaiologina, widow of Stefan Uroš III Dečanski King of Serbia. 

[554] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 48, p. 290. 

[555] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 31 and 48, pp. 191 and 290. 

[556] RHC, Documents arméniens, II (1869) Chronique de Jean Dardel (Paris) XLVIII, p. 37. 

[557] Amadi, p. 436. 

[558] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 32, pp. 499 and 500, And Vol. II, III, 32, p. 195. 

[559] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. III, Historiæ Byzantinæ XXIX, 36-39, p. 249. 

[560] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1849) Historia Politica et Patriarchica Constantinopoleos, Epirotica, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[561] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 24. 

[562] Georgios Phrantzes Liber I, 11, p.429. 

[563] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 4, p. 28. 

[564] Runciman (2000), p. 34. 

[565] Nicol (1994), p. 74. 

[566] Nicol (1972), p. 209. 

[567] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 5 and 10, pp. 20 and 39. 

[568] Laurent ‘La date de mort d´Hélène Cantacuzène, femme de Jean V Paléologue’ (1956), pp. 200-1, citing Legrand (1893), pp. 92-3 [not yet consulted]. 

[569] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 23, p. 143. 

[570] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. III, IV, 8, p. 49. 

[571] MB in a private email to the author. 

[572] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[573] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[574] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[575] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[576] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[577] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[578] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 4, p. 138. 

[579] Spandounes, p. 156. 

[580] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 2, p. 228. 

[581] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[582] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[583] Georgios Phrantzes Liber III, 2, p. 228. 

[584] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[585] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[586] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[587] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[588] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[589] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 4, p. 138. 

[590] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[591] Spandounes, p. 151. 

[592] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[593] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[594] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 75-6.   

[595] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[596] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[597] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[598] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[599] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[600] Spandounes, p. 159, and Nicol (1994), p. 123 footnote 9. 

[601] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xxxviii, quoting Consiglio Dicci, Misti, XVIII, f. 113 v. 

[602] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xiv, quoting Valentinelli, J. (1864) Regesta documentorum Germaniæ historiam illustrantium (Munich), p. 238. 

[603] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[604] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[605] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 75-6.   

[606] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 14, p. 383. 

[607] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[608] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[609] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[610] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[611] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[612] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 75-6.   

[613] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[614] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[615] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 75-6.   

[616] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[617] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[618] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[619] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[620] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[621] Koliva, M. ´Θεόδορος Παλαιολόγος αρχηγός μισθοφόρων "στρατιωτών" και διερμηνέας στην υπηρεσία της Βενετίας (1452c.-1532)´ [´Teodoro Paleologo, capo di mercenari stradioti e interprete al servicio di Venezia (1452-1532)´], Thesaurismata, Vol. 10 (Istituto Ellenico di Studi Bizantini e Postbizantini di Venezia, 1973), pp. 138-62, website <http://www.istitutoellenico.org/archivio/index.html> (13 Feb 2011).  [information provided by Giovanni F. M. Pirrello, in a private email to the author dated 11 Feb 2011]

[622] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[623] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[624] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[625] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[626] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[627] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[628] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 19, p. 410. 

[629] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[630] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[631] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[632] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[633] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[634] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 75-6.   

[635] Balard, M. (ed.) (2001) Dei gesta per Francos. Crusader studies in honour of Jean Richard (Grivaud), pp. 317-38, 330, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 15 Mar 2007. 

[636] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 70.   

[637] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[638] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[639] Runciman (2000), p. 151. 

[640] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[641] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[642] Nicol (1994), p. 112. 

[643] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[644] Michael Panaretos 97. 

[645] Markham (1859), p. 62. 

[646] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[647] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 74-5.   

[648] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, p. 6, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronicon, available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/978233&authorid=15905> (25 Oct 2008). 

[649] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber IX, p. 462, English translation by Kennedy, S. (2007), available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/957721> (25 Oct 2008). 

[650] Michael Panaretos 98. 

[651] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[652] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 74-5.   

[653] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 84-5.   

[654] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[655] Spandounes, pp. 151 and 153. 

[656] Georgios Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[657] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), pp. 74-5.   

[658] Fine (1994), p. 529. 

[659] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[660] Spandounes, p. 159. 

[661] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[662] See the discussion by Williams, J. W. ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, Foundations Vol. 2, number 3 (Jan 2007), p. 185, citing Nicol, D. M. (1968) The Byzantine family of Kantakouzenos, a genealogical and prosopographical study (Dunbarton Oaks), pp. 188-190. 

[663] Spandounes, pp. 159-60, discussed in Nicol (1994), p. 123.