BULGARIA

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                TSARS of the FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE. 3

A.         ORIGINS, KHANS of the BULGARS 802-852, PRINCES and TSARS of the BULGARIANS 802-971. 3

B.         PRINCES of the BULGARIANS 852-[969], TSARS of the BULGARIANS 913-971. 5

C.        TSARS of the BULGARIANS 997-1018 and 1040-1041 (KOMETOPOULOI) 15

Chapter 2.                TSARS of the SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE. 28

A.         TSARS of the BULGARIANS 1186-1258 (FAMILY of ASEN) 28

B.         RIVAL TSARS of the BULGARIANS 1258-1322. 40

C.        TSARS OF BULGARIA 1323-1393 (FAMILY of ŠIŠMAN) 50

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The state of Bulgaria is recorded as independent during three distinct periods.  The existence of an earlier Bulgarian state is indicated by Paulus Diaconus who records that "Iustinianus" captured and murdered the usurpers "Leonem quoque et Tiberium" with the help of "Terobelli Bulgarum regis", when he refers to the restoration of Emperor Iustinian II in 705[1].  Early Byzantine sources record details of relations with Bulgaria during the 8th century, but only from the Byzantine perspective and mainly limited to military campaigns.  The names of certain Bulgarian leaders are recorded in those sources, but the information is insufficient to reconstruct ruling families in Bulgaria at that time.  Fine provides a useful summary of pre-9th century Bulgarian history[2]

 

Krum established himself as khan of the Bulgars in [802] and was the ancestor of the family which formed the first Bulgarian empire.  His activities are recorded in Byzantine and Frankish sources although, as will be seen below, sources which confirm the precise family relationships between the early khans have not yet been identified.  The history of the early Bulgarian khanate was a constant struggle for regional power between Bulgaria and Byzantium.  Symeon I forced his own coronation as emperor (tsar) in 913 when he reached the walls of Constantinople after invading Byzantium.  Recognition of the title was confirmed by Byzantium in 927 in favour of Tsar Symeon's son Peter.  Bulgaria was conquered in 967 by Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Kiev, who forced Tsar Peter to abdicate.  The Kievan forces were defeated in 971 by the Byzantines, who then annexed Bulgaria and imprisoned the last male descendants of the Bulgarian imperial family.  The annexation did not extend to Macedonia in the west, where the four Kometopouloi brothers appear to have established themselves as rulers.  Samuil Kometopoulos was crowned tsar of Bulgaria in 997, and the first Bulgarian empire continued to survive until 1018. 

 

The second Bulgarian empire was established in 1186 after a rebellion against Byzantine rule which was led by the brothers Ivan Asen and Peter.  Tsar Kalojan was crowned king of Bulgaria with a papal crown in 1204.  Members of the Asen family ruled Bulgaria until 1257, but their influence was considerably weakened after the accession of the minors Koloman I and Mihail II Asen which followed the death of Tsar Ivan Asen II in 1241.  After Tsar Koloman II was deposed and killed in 1258, a series of rival candidates ruled in different parts of the country.  Stability was restored by Tsar Todor Svetoslav after he deposed Tsar Chaka, but a power vacuum was left when Todor´s infant son died in 1322 soon after succeeding his father.  Mihail Šišman, ruler of Vidin, was elected tsar in the following year and united Bulgaria once more.  The second empire lasted until 1393 when Bulgaria was annexed by the Ottoman Turks, the occupation lasting until 1879, which marked the start of Bulgaria's third period of independence. 

 

The successful reconstruction of the families of the Bulgarian rulers is hampered by the almost complete absence of surviving autochtonic Bulgarian primary sources.  The result is that reliance must be placed almost exclusively on Byzantine sources, whose main priority was recording events from the Byzantine perspective and which were not generally concerned with accurately reporting relationships in the Bulgarian royal families.  As will be seen below, there are numerous cases where the generally accepted relationships shown in secondary sources are open to challenge.  In consequence, they are shown in square brackets in the present document to highlight the doubt. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    TSARS of the FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS, KHANS of the BULGARS 802-852, PRINCES and TSARS of the BULGARIANS 802-971

 

 

Brother and sister, parents not known: 

1.         KRUM (-13 Apr 814).  He was a Bulgarian chieftain from Pannonia, although nothing is known of his activities there or of the timing of his arrival in Bulgaria[3].  He established himself as Khan of the Bulgars by 802.  After defeating the Avars in 805, he united Pannonia to eastern Bulgaria.  Theophanes records that "Crummus Bulgarorum princeps" pursued a vigorous war against Byzantium, attacking Sardika [Sofija] in [809] and killing 6,000 Roman troops[4].  After a crushing defeat by the invading Byzantine army which sacked Pliska, the Bulgarian capital, Krum fled to the mountains where he was able to encircle the pursuing invaders and kill Emperor Nikephoros 26 Jul 811.  He displayed the emperor's head on a pole for several days and then had it made into a drinking cup[5].  Pressing his advantage, he invaded Byzantium, sacked Adrianople and reached the walls of Constantinople[6].  According to the Royal Frankish Annals, he was "gravely wounded [in this attack] and forced to save himself by flight and return to his homeland in disgrace"[7]Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Mikhael I sought peace with "Bulgarorum dux Crumnus"[8].  Krum was planning a new attack on Constantinople when he suffered a stroke and died[9].  Apart from his military achievements, he is remembered for promulgating the first law code of the Bulgarian state, although the text has not survived. 

2.         sister .  Symeon Magister records that "Constantino Patzici" had fled to Bulgaria, where he was "logotheta", and had one son by "Crumi sorore"[10]m KONSTANTINOS Patzikos, son of --- (-813 or after). 

 

 

1.         OMURTAG (-831).  He succeeded as Khan of the BulgarsTheophanes Continuatus (Vita Basilii) names "Crumi successor Mutragi" but does not specify any family relationship between the two[11].  He negotiated a thirty year peace with Byzantium in 816, even helping Emperor Mikhael II to crush the rebellion of Thomas the Slav and lift the latter's siege of Constantinople in spring 823[12].  Einhard's Annales record that "rex Bulgarorum Omortag" sent legates to the emperor in 824[13].  He switched his military attention away from Byzantium towards expanding his territory to the north-west.  He pressed well into Pannonia, expelling the local Slav chiefs and installing Bulgar governors in 827.  The Gesta Francorum records that "rex Bulgaronum Omortag" exchanged ambassadors with Emperor Louis I in 824, 825 and 826[14].  He persecuted Christians whom he saw as a threat to the traditional Bulgar way of life. 

 

 

1.         SWINIZA [Zvinica or Svenica]m ---.  The name of Swiniza's wife is not known.  Swiniza had one child:

a)         PRESIAN [Malamir?] (-852 or after)  Presian was the son of "Svenica" according to Theophylact of Ohrid[15].  Fine refers to the arguments in favour of Presian being the same person as Malamir, maybe Bulgarian and Slav versions of the same name[16].  He succeeded in 836 as Khan of the Bulgars, until 852.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Bulgariĉ princeps Presiam" invaded Serbia but made no progress after three years of war[17].  After the peace treaty with Byzantium expired in 846, the Bulgars invaded Macedonia along the Struma river.  m ---.  The name of Presian's wife is not known.  Presian & his wife had [four] children:   

i)          [BORIS (-2 May 907).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Michael Borises Bulgariĉ princeps" and his "pater Presiam"[18].  Boris was the son of Swiniza according to Theophylact of Ohrid[19].  He succeeded as Khan of the Bulgars.] 

-         see below, Part B

ii)         [sister .  Symeon Magister records that "Bogaris Bulgarorum dux…sorore sua" was captured by the Byzantines, lived at the imperial court, was converted to Christianity, but was exchanged for the monk Theodoros Koupharas, and tried to convert her brother to Christianity after returning to Bulgaria[20].] 

iii)        [DOX .  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel et frater eius Dox et alius frater eius Gabriel"[21].] 

iv)       [GAVRIIL .  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel et frater eius Dox et alius frater eius Gabriel"[22].] 

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of the BULGARIANS 852-[969], TSARS of the BULGARIANS 913-971

 

 

BORIS, son of [PRESIAN Khan of the Bulgars & his wife --- or SWINIZA & his wife ---] (-2 May 907).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Michael Borises Bulgariĉ princeps" and his "pater Presiam"[23].  Boris was the son of Swiniza according to Theophylact of Ohrid[24].  He succeeded as BORIS I Khan of the Bulgars.  A conflict with Byzantium early in his reign was settled by a peace treaty signed in [853].  He was baptised as MIKHAEL in Constantinople in 864, Emperor Mikhael III acting as his godfather[25].  He savagely repressed a rebellion by Bulgarian boyars against the Christianisation of Bulgaria.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Michael Borises Bulgariĉ princeps" invaded Serbia but that "filium eius Blastemerum" was captured, forcing him to make peace[26].  Rebuffing Byzantine moves to appoint a Greek patriarch for Bulgaria, who would report to Constantinople, Boris turned to Pope Nicholas I in Rome to organise his new church[27].  The Pope rejected both Boris's proposed candidates for archbishop.  Boris turned back to Constantinople, the new Patriarch Ignatius agreeing to grant the Bulgarian church certain privileges.  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel et frater eius Dox et alius frater eius Gabriel et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[28].  He abdicated in 889, and became a monk at Tiča (near Preslav).  He resumed power in 893 to lead a coup against his son Vladimir.  Boris convened a council at Preslav which recognised Vladimir's deposition, released Boris's second surviving son Symeon from his monastic vows, and proclaimed him the new ruler.  The council also decreed that Preslav should replace Pliska as the Bulgarian capital[29].  Boris returned to his monastery[30]

m MARIA, daughter of ---.  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[31]

Mistress (1)PRAXI, daughter of ---.  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[32]

Khan Boris I & his wife had [seven] children:

1.         VLADIMIR (-after 893).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Michael Borises Bulgariĉ princeps" and "filium eius Blastemerum"[33].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Michael Borises Bulgariĉ princeps" invaded Serbia but that "filium eius Blastemerum" was captured, forcing him to make peace[34].  He succeeded in 889 on the abdication of his father as VLADIMIR Knjas/ Prince of Bulgaria.  He tried to re-establish paganism, many churches being defaced or destroyed[35].  He was deposed by his father in 893, imprisoned and blinded. 

2.         RASATE .  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[36]

3.         GAVRIIL .  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[37]

4.         son (-Preslava 27 May 927).  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[38]Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Bulgariĉ princeps Baldimer, Crumi nepos" as "pater Symeonis", dated to the 840s[39].  This is inconsistent with other sources.  He was sent to Constantinople in [879] where he became a novice, taking the name SYMEON, his previous name being unknown.  He returned to Bulgaria in [888] and became a monk at Tiča.  He was released from his monastic vows by the council convened by his father at Preslav and proclaimed in 893 as SYMEON I "the Great" Knjas/Prince of Bulgaria.   

-        see below

5.         JAKOB .  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[40]

6.         ANNA.  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[41].  Her possible marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[42].  The source on which the speculation is based has not yet been identified.  m [SVATOPULK [Zwentibold] King of Moravia, son of --- (-894).] 

7.         [son .  m ---.]  [Two children]: 

a)         [PINCIO (-[9 Feb 994/1 Aug 1000]).  A charter dated 9 Feb 994 records a donation by "Pincius…consanguinei Stephani imperatoris…cum fratribus meis…Armonio, Polemio, Johanne, Celestino et sorore Murca, et cum nepotibus nostris Tetralo, Martino, Alexandro, Johanne, Paulino, Georgio, Pancracio, et cum filio meo Pleso" to the church of St Michael at Split, stating that he and "fratres ac propinquos suos" were expelled from "terra…Bulgarorum ex urbe Tarnoua" by "patrem suum [=Stephani imperatoris], patruum…nostrum…Sismanum imperatorem" and were received in Croatia by "regem Dirzislaum" [Stjepan Držislav who ruled as king of Croatia from [970] to 997] who established them "in suburbia Clysii"[43].  It is assumed that "Bulgarorum imperatoris Šišmani" indicates Tsar Symeon I.  No other record has been found which indicates that Tsar Symeon had a brother who left descendants.  In any case, the names of this supposed family hardly indicate a connection with the family of the Bulgarian tsars.  It is suggested that this information should be treated with caution until other corroborating documents emerge.  The names of the supposed family, other than those named in other charters, have not been included in this document.  m ---.  The name of Pincio´s wife is not known.  Pincio & his wife had one child: 

i)          PLESO (-after [1000]).  A charter dated 9 Feb 994 records a donation by "Pincius…consanguinei Stephani imperatoris…cum filio meo Pleso" to the church of St Michael at Split[44].  "Plesus" donated property to the church of Split St Michael by charter dated 1 Aug 1000[45].  An undated charter records that "Plesus" went to live in Split after the death of "parentum meorum" and "cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael, witnessed by "Murca amita mea", and naming "sororio meo Daniele"[46]m MARIA, daughter of ---.  An undated charter records that "Plesus…cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael, witnessed by "Murca amita mea", and naming "sororio meo Daniele"[47].  Pleso & his wife had five children: 

(a)       DABRUC .  An undated charter records that "Plesus…cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael[48]

(b)       ORBAS .  An undated charter records that "Plesus…cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael[49]

(c)       PETER .  An undated charter records that "Plesus…cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael[50]

(d)       IOANNES .  An undated charter records that "Plesus…cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael[51]

(e)       NOVATA .  An undated charter records that "Plesus…cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael[52]

b)         [MURCA (-after [1000]).  An undated charter records that "Plesus" went to live in Split after the death of "parentum meorum" and "cum Maria uxore mea et filiis meis…primogenito meo Dabruco, Orbasio, Petrono, Johanne et cum sorore eorum Nouata" donated property to the church of St Michael, witnessed by "Murca amita mea"[53].] 

Khan Boris I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

8.          daughter .  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[54]

 

 

SYMEON, son of BORIS Khan of the Bulgars & his wife [Maria ---] (-Preslava 27 May 927).  A charter dated to [850/96] lists pilgrims from "Slavicĉ nationis" to monasteries in Italy and includes "de Bolgaria…rex illorum Michahel…et uxor eius Maria et filius eius Rasáte et alius Gabriel et tercius filius Simeon et quartus filius Jacob et filia eius dei ancella Praxi et alia filia eius Anna"[55]Georgius Monachus Continuatus names "Bulgariĉ princeps Baldimer, Crumi nepos" as "pater Symeonis", dated from the context to the 840s[56].  This is inconsistent with other sources.  He was sent to Constantinople in [879] where he became a novice monk, taking the name SYMEON, his previous name being unknown.  He returned to Bulgaria in [888] and became a monk at Tiča[57].  He was released from his monastic vows by the council convened by his father at Preslav[58] and proclaimed in 893 as SYMEON I "the Great" Prince [Knjas] of Bulgaria.  Following unsuccessful protests against the removal of the Bulgarian market from Constantinople to Thessaloniki, Prince Symeon invaded Byzantium in 894[59].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Liuntica Arpadĉ filium principem" led the (Magyar) army which defeated Symeon Prince of Bulgaria "in urbe Mundraga"[60].  Faced with a counter-invasion in the south by the Byzantine general Nikephoros Phokas, as well as a blockade of the Danube by the Byzantine fleet, Symeon was forced to negotiate for peace.  At the same time he secretly allied himself with the Pechenegs for a joint attack on the Magyars, subsequently renewing his attack on Byzantium and winning the battle of Bulgarophygon in 896.  Under the peace agreed in 897, Byzantium paid tribute to Bulgaria and all commercial restrictions were abolished, while the Bulgarian market was returned to Constantinople[61].  In 897, Prince Symeon established a regime of protection over Serbia in return for recognising Peter Gojniković as Knez of Serbia[62].  Taking advantage of the Arab sack of Thessaloniki 31 Jul 904, Symeon moved southwards and negotiated with Byzantium to acquire new territory as far as Nea Philadelphia [Nareš] and part of Thrace, as well as Byzantine recognition of Bulgaria's possession of Macedonia[63].  After Emperor Alexander refused in 913 to pay the annual tribute agreed under the peace of 896, Prince Symeon invaded Byzantium and arrived at Constantinople in Aug 913.  After demanding the imperial crown, Symeon was obliged to compromise, faced with the impenetrability of the city's defences, but he was crowned Tsar and Autocrat of the Bulgarians at Constantinople in 913 by Patriarch Nikolaos and at the same time betrothed his daughter to the young Emperor Konstantinos VII[64]Theophanes Continuatus records the invasion by "Symeon Bulgariĉ princeps", his arrival at Constantinople, his meeting with Patriarch Nikolaos and his return to Bulgaria[65].  His coronation was considered an affront in Constantinople.  It triggered the fall of the Patriarch, and his replacement as regent by Empress Zoe, who cancelled the betrothal.  Symeon invaded Byzantium once more.  He conquered Adrianople in Sep 914, defeated the Byzantine fleet at Achelaos on the Black Sea coast 20 Aug 917, and the Byzantine army at Katasyrtai near Constantinople in early 918, proceeding to capture most of Greece north of Corinth.  Provoked by the coronation of Romanos Lekapenos, the new regent of Byzantium, as co-emperor in 920, Tsar Symeon invaded Byzantium yet again.  Faced with a new Byzantine/Croatian alliance, Symeon also invaded Croatia but suffered a crushing defeat in 926.  Theophanes Continuatus records the death of "Symeon in Bulgaria"[66].  He died while preparing to set out for Constantinople once more. 

m firstly ---.  The name of Khan Symeon's first wife is not known.  The fact of this first marriage is confirmed by Theophanes Continuatus who names "Georgii Sursubulii sorore" as second wife of "Symeon"[67]

m secondly ---, sister of GIORGI Sursuvul, a prominent Bulgarian boyar, daughter of ---.  Theophanes Continuatus names "Georgii Sursubulii sorore" as second wife of "Symeon"[68].  Regent during the minority of her son Peter in 927. 

Symeon & his first wife had one child:

1.         MIKHAEL (-931)Theophanes Continuatus names "Michaelem ex priore coniuge", recording that he was tonsured as a monk[69].  A monk.  He was presumably excluded from the succession in 927[70].  He left his monastery and rebelled against his half-brother in 930.  He seized a fortress in the Struma region where he was recognised as Tsar, but died soon afterwards[71].  Cedrenus records that "Michaelus…alter Petri frater" rebelled and seized a fortress, dated to [928/31] from the context[72]

Symeon & his second wife had four children:

2.         daughter (before 913-).  The betrothal of this unnamed daughter, at the same time as her father's coronation as Tsar, is referred to by Fine, who says that it was arranged as part of the negotiated settlement with Prince Symeon after he invaded Byzantium, but was annulled by Empress Zoe after she seized the regency[73].  The primary source which confirms this daughter´s parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.  It is assumed that the daughter would have been little more than a child at the time of her betrothal, considering the birth date of her betrothed.  It is therefore likely that she was born from her father's second marriage.  Betrothed (913, broken 913) to Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII, son of Emperor LEON VI & his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina (905-9 Nov 959). 

3.         PETER (after [912]-29/30 Jan 969)Theophanes Continuatus records that "Symeon" left Bulgaria to "Petro filio ex secunda uxore"[74].  His birth date is estimated on the basis of his having been 15 years old at the most when he succeeded as Tsar in 927, considering that a regent was appointed.  He succeeded his father in 927 as PETER I Tsar of the Bulgarians, with his maternal uncle George Sursuval acting as a regent. 

-        see below

4.         IVANTheophanes Continuatus names "Ioannes…et Beniamin Petri fratres"[75].  Cedrenus records that "Petro Bulgarorum principi Joannes frater ipsius" rebelled in Bulgaria, was captured and forcibly tonsured, but left for Constantinople where he renounced his vows and married, dated to [928/29] from the context[76]m (928 or after) ---.  The name of Ivan´s wife is not known but her Armenian origin is confirmed by Theophanes Continuatus which records that "Petro Bulgarorum principi Ioannes frater" was welcomed at Constantinople and married "Armeniacorum patria coniugem"[77].  No other information is known about Ivan´s wife.  However, one somewhat outlandish scenario appears to reconcile the conflicts between the different primary sources, discussed below in Chapter 1.C relating to the parentage of the four Kometopoulos brothers: that Ivan´s anonymous Armenian wife married Nikolaos [Kumet] as her second husband, and that Aaron and Moisei were her sons by her first marriage to Ivan, while Samuil and David were born to her second husband.  As noted below, it is considered that this possibility is too remote to justify recasting the presentation of the families in the present document. 

5.         BAJAN [Beniamin].  Theophanes Continuatus names "Ioannes…et Beniamin Petri fratres"[78].  "Baianum [et]…Petrum" are named as the two sons of Simeon by Liutprand, who specifies that the former studied magic and "possessed the power to transform himself suddently into a wolf or other strange animal"[79], although it is possible that "Baianum" may refer to one of the other known sons of Simeon, possibly Ivan, as this is the only reference which has been found to a son of this name. 

 

 

PETER, son of SYMEON I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife --- [Sursuvul] (after [912]-29/30 Jan 969)Theophanes Continuatus records that "Symeon" left Bulgaria to "Petro filio ex secunda uxore"[80].  "Baianum [et]…Petrum" are named as the two sons of Simeon by Liutprand[81].  His birth date is estimated on the basis of his having been 15 years old at the most when he succeeded as Tsar in 927, considering that a regent was appointed.  He succeeded his father in 927 as PETER I Tsar of the Bulgarians, with his maternal uncle George Sursuval acting as a regent[82].  He renewed the war with Byzantium after his accession and raided Thrace, but in Sep/Oct 927 made peace which including Byzantine confirmation of recognition of Bulgaria's borders established by the 897 and 904 treaties and of Peter's own title of Tsar.  The treaty was sealed by Peter's marriage to the emperor's granddaughter[83].  Although the monasteries flourished in Bulgaria under Tsar Peter, the ascetic Bogomilian sect, which rejected ecclesiastical rites and other traditional Christian beliefs, also gained popularity.  Fine discusses the sect's beliefs and casts doubt on traditional views of the importance of this movement[84].  In 965, Emperor Nikephoros Phokas refused to pay the annual tribute to Bulgaria, claiming that the payment was voided by the death of Tsar Peter's Byzantine wife.  Emperor Nikephoros attacked Bulgarian border fortresses, then summoned Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Kiev to attack Bulgaria.  The Grand Prince exceeded the terms of his mission by conquering Bulgaria in 967 and establishing a base at Pereiaslavets on the Danube delta[85].  Tsar Peter appears to have suffered a stroke after this defeat, after which he abdicated and retired to a monastery where he died soon after[86].  Leo Diaconus records the death of "Petrum…ducem Moesorum" during the reign of Emperor Nikephoros Phokas[87]

m (Constantinople 8 Oct 927) MARIA Lekapene, daughter of co-Emperor CHRISTOFOROS Lekapenos & his wife Sofia --- ([920/25]-before 15 Mar 963).  Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage of "Christophori imperatoris filia Maria" and "Petri"[88].  Liutprand records the wife of Tsar Peter as the (unnamed) daughter of Christophoros, the marriage taking place just after the Tsar's accession after which she adopted the name IRINA[89].  Considering the chronology of the birth dates of her father and paternal grandfather, it is likely that Maria can have been no more than an infant at the time of her marriage in 927.  The marriage was arranged to seal the peace agreed between her future husband and Byzantium[90].  Her date of death is estimated by Zonaras recording that "Petrus Bulgarorum princeps, uxore sua mortua" sent their sons to Byzantium as hostages in order to renew the treaty[91].  Cedrenus records the same event just after his passage recording the death of Emperor Romanos II (in 963)[92]

Peter & his wife had two children:

1.         BORIS ([940/45]-[984/86]).  Zonaras records that "Petrus Bulgarorum princeps, uxore sua mortua" sent "filios Borisem et Romanum" to Byzantium as hostages[93].  The birth date ranges of Boris and his brother Roman are estimated from the likely birth date range of their mother.  He nominally succeeded on his father's abdication, although the country's independence was still threatened by the presence of Sviatoslav Grand Prince of Kiev.  He returned to Bulgaria, where he was proclaimed BORIS II Tsar of the Bulgarians at Preslav in [968][94].  Zonaras records that "Borises…Bulgarorum rex" conquered Preslav but was defeated by "Sphendosthlavus Russorum dux"[95].  Grand Prince Sviatoslav appears to have allowed Boris to continue to rule in a dependent capacity[96].  Fearing that Grand Prince Sviatoslav would turn his attention to Byzantium, Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces marched into Bulgaria and fought Sviatoslav at Arcadiopolis[97].  The emperor pushed further into Bulgaria in 971, captured Preslav and defeated the Grand Prince's forces at Silistria, before negotiating Sviatoslav's withdrawal[98].  Emperor Ioannes at first recognised Boris II as Prince of Bulgaria, but proceeded to annex the country, converted it into a theme of the empire, abolished the Bulgarian patriarchy and took Boris back to Constantinople as a prisoner[99] where he became a Byzantine magister and patrikios.  During this period, western Bulgaria (Macedonia) remained untouched by these events, and witnessed the uprising of the Kometopoulos brothers (see Part C below) after the death of Emperor Ioannes in 976[100].  Boris left Byzantium some time after this Macedonian uprising.  The exact timing appears to be unknown.  If the supposed date range of Boris's death in [984/86] is correct, Boris's departure could hardly have been a reaction to the Macedonian uprising of 976.  Fine points out that it is not known whether he escaped or was released by the Byzantines in the hope of triggering civil war in Bulgaria[101].  He was killed by Bulgarian border guards in [984/86], supposedly in error[102]m (after 963) ---.  The name of Tsar Boris's wife is not known.  The date of this marriage is estimated on the assumption that it took place when he was no longer a hostage in Constantinople, hostages being traditionally unmarried at the time.  Cedrenus refers to Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces finding "cum coniuge et liberis Borises Bulgarorum rex" among the Russian prisoners when he invaded Bulgaria[103].  Boris & his wife had [two or more] children:

a)         children (before 971-).  Cedrenus refers to Emperor Ioannes Tzimisces finding "cum coniuge et liberis Borises Bulgarorum rex" among the Russian prisoners when he invaded Bulgaria [104]

2.         ROMAN ([940/45]-Constantinople [997/98]).  Zonaras records that "Petrus Bulgarorum princeps, uxore sua mortua" sent "filios Borisem et Romanum" to Byzantium as hostages[105].  The birth date ranges of Boris and his brother Roman are estimated from the likely birth date range of their mother.  He was a prisoner in a Kievan jail in Preslav in 969/71.  After Byzantium annexed Bulgaria in 971, Roman was imprisoned in Constantinople until [984/86], which seems to have been the time he was made a eunuch.  Zonaras records that "Petri filio Romano" was a eunuch[106].  He succeeded in escaping from Constantinople with his brother (see above concerning the timing of this escape).  He appears to have arrived successfully in Bulgaria and succeeded his brother in [984/86] as titular Tsar of the Bulgarians.  It is not clear whether Roman fulfilled any actual role in the government of Bulgaria or whether the four Kometopoulos brothers were the only effective rulers in the country at the time[107].  Cedrenus names "Romanus, Petri Bulgarorum regis filius, Borisĉ frater, Simeon etiam avi nomine appellatus" when recording that Samuil had appointed him "prĉfectus" of "urbem Scopias" which he delivered to the emperor, who rewarded him with the title "patricium" and "prĉpositumque…Abydoque"[108].  Governor of Abydos. 

 

 

 

 

C.      TSARS of the BULGARIANS 997-1018 and 1040-1041 (KOMETOPOULOI)

 

 

NIKOLAOS [Nikola] [Kumet], son of --- (-[976] or before).  Samuil, later Tsar of Bulgaria, names "my father, my mother, my brother…Nicolas…--- and David" in a monument erected in [992/93][109].  The evidence for his supposed Armenian origin is provided by the Armenian historian Asolik, who refers to "deux frères qui s´appelaient Komsajag…l´aîné…Samuel, de nationalité arménienne, originaire du canton de Derĵan" (on the Euphrates, west of Erzerum), adds that Emperor Basilieos had brought them with mercenary troops to Macedonia to fight the Bulgars, that they defected "au roi des Bulgares, qui était eunuque" (referring to Roman, see above), and that "les Comitopoules occupèrent la pays bulgare et entrèrent en guerre acharnée contre l´empereur"[110].  While it is clear that Samuil´s mother´s name was Armenian (see below), the same cannot be said for Nikolaos, although it is possible that this was not his original name.  No other information is known about Samuil´s father, or his more distant ancestry, but their family background was presumably modest in light of the passage from Asolik which is quoted above.  It is assumed that he died before the revolt organised by his sons as he is not named in the primary sources in connection with this event.   

m RIPSIME, daughter of --- (-before [992/93]).  Samuil, later Tsar of Bulgaria, names "my father, my mother, my brother…Nicolas…--- and David" in a monument erected in [992/93][111].  Adontz quotes the monument (in Bulgarian) in full, including Samuil´s mother´s name.  However, on the subsequent page he states that "du nom de la mère il ne reste que la dernière lettre" and that "Michel de Devol permet de le rétablir en témoignant que le père de Samuel s´appelait Nicolas et la mère Ριψίμη"[112].  Unfortunately, he gives no citation for this statement but on an earlier page quotes a passage inserted in another text written by "Michel évêque de Devol", and cites a German secondary source although it is not at all clear from what he writes that this is where the passage naming Samuil´s mother can be found[113].  No other information is known about Ripsimé.  However, one somewhat outlandish scenario appears to reconcile the conflicts between the different primary sources, discussed below under Ripsimé´s supposed son Aaron, which relate to the parentage of her supposed four sons: that Ripsimé was the anonymous Armenian wife of Ivan, brother of Tsar Peter I, who married Nikolaos as her second husband, and that Aaron and Moisei were her sons by her first marriage, while Samuil and David were born to her second husband.  As noted below, it is considered that this possibility is too remote to justify recasting the presentation of the families in the present document. 

Nikola Kumet & his wife had [five] children:

1.         [AARON (-murdered Ramatanitze 14 Jul [987/88]).  Zonaras records that "Bulgaricis quatuor filii, David, Moses, Aaron et Samuel" encouraged the Bulgarians to revolt against Byzantine control[114].  Cedrenus records that "Davidus, Moses, Aaron et Samuelis, filii cuiusdam in Bulgaria largiter potentis comitis" rebelled against Byzantium after the death of Tsar Peter[115].  Aaron´s parentage appears confirmed by Zonaras and Cedrenus, read together with the monumental inscription quoted below which names the father of the brothers Samuil and David.  The assumption therefore is that Aaron and Moisei were both brothers of Samuil and David.  This is corroborated by Psellos who names "Samuel and his brother Aaron…"[116].  On the other hand, Adontz suggests that Aaron and Moisei were in fact the sons of Ivan, brother of Tsar Peter I (see above).  Firstly, he cites Yahya of Antioch, according to whom "Aaron appartenait à la race qui avait regné sur la Bulgarie"[117].  Secondly, he highlights the omission of Aaron and Moisei from the inscription on the monument erected by Samuil.  He concludes by suggesting that his hypothesis would explain the rivalry between the two families which resulted in the murders of Aaron by Samuil and of Gavriil Radomir by Ivan Vladislav.  However, he ignores the sources which indicate a fraternal relationship, Zonaras and Psellos quoted above, as well as Lupus Protospatarius who refers to Samuil´s son´s killer as "suo consobrino filio Aronis"[118].  The different sources are therefore contradictory.  Detailed speculation on which hypothesis may be correct does not appear worthwhile.  It can, however, be mentioned in passing that a third scenario would conform with all the sources: that the four brothers shared the same mother, who married firstly Ivan and secondly Nikolaos.  This possibility is too remote to recast the presentation of the families in this document.  In conclusion, Aaron is shown in this document in square brackets to indicate doubt about his parentage.  Zonaras records that "quatuor fratribus Davidi, Mosi, Aaroni et Samueli…qui Comitopoli appellabantur" defeated the Byzantine forces, adding that "fratrem Aaronem cum omni familia" was killed by Samuil, with the exception of "uno…filio…Joannes Sphandosthlavus"[119].]  m ---.  The name of Aaron's wife is not known.  Aaron & his wife had two or more children:

a)         IVAN VLADISLAV (-killed in battle Durazzo Feb 1018).  Zonaras records that "fratrem Aaronem cum omni familia" was killed by Samuil, with the exception of "uno…filio…Joannes Sphandosthlavus"[120].  He murdered his cousin Gavriil Radomir, succeeding him in 1015 as IVAN VLADISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians.   

-        see below

b)         [other children] (-murdered [987/88]).  Their existence is confirmed by Zonaras recording that "fratrem Aaronem cum omni familia" was killed by Samuil, with the exception of "uno…filio…Joannes Sphandosthlavus"[121]

2.         [MOISEI (-killed in battle Serrhai [986]).  Zonaras records that "Bulgaricis quatuor filii, David, Moses, Aaron et Samuel" encouraged the Bulgarians to revolt against Byzantine control[122].  Cedrenus records that "Davidus, Moses, Aaron et Samuelis, filii cuiusdam in Bulgaria largiter potentis comitis" rebelled against Byzantium after the death of Tsar Peter[123].  Moisei´s parentage appears confirmed by Zonaras and Cedrenus, read together with the monumental inscription quoted below which names the father of the brothers Samuil and David.  The assumption therefore is that Aaron and Moisei were both brothers of Samuil and David.  As noted above, Adontz suggests that Aaron and Moisei were in fact the sons of Ivan, brother of Tsar Peter I (see above), although he cites no primary source naming Moisei on which he relies[124].  Zonaras records that "quatuor fratribus Davidi, Mosi, Aaroni et Samueli…qui Comitopoli appellabantur" defeated the Byzantine forces, adding that Moisei was killed "in opugnatione Serrĉ"[125].  Cedrenus records that "Moisis" was killed in battle "at Serras"[126].] 

3.         SAMUIL (-Prilep 6 Oct 1014).  Zonaras records that "Bulgaricis quatuor filii, David, Moses, Aaron et Samuel" encouraged the Bulgarians to revolt against Byzantine control[127].  Cedrenus records that "Davidus, Moses, Aaron et Samuelis, filii cuiusdam in Bulgaria largiter potentis comitis" rebelled against Byzantium after the death of Tsar Peter[128].  Samuil, later Tsar of Bulgaria, names "my father, my mother, my brother…Nicolas…--- and David" in a monument erected in [992/93][129].  Adontz highlights two spurious charters, fabricated in the 16th and late 18th/early 19th centuries respectively, from which it was wrongly deduced by some historians that Samuil was the son of Sišman[130].  Zonaras records that "quatuor fratribus Davidi, Mosi, Aaroni et Samueli…qui Comitopoli appellabantur" defeated the Byzantine forces[131].  He conquered Thessaly in 986, defeated a Byzantine army at Sardika [Sofija] and reconquered the territory of the original Bulgarian state as well as the region of Thessaloniki, after which he conquered Durazzo in [996][132].  In 997, he conquered Duklja, Trebinje and Zahumlje, and reduced Bosnia and Raška [Serbia] to vassals of Bulgaria.  He was crowned SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians in 997, with his capital at Prespa.  He moved his capital to Ochrida, where he restored the Bulgarian Patriarch Damian[133].  In [1000/1001], Byzantium under Emperor Basileios II launched a counter-offensive against Bulgaria, and recaptured Sardika (1001), Macedonia, Thessaly, Vidin and Skoplje (1004), and Durazzo (1005), the last following the betrayal by Samuil's son-in-law.  Samuil's army was crushed in Jul 1014 at Clidion, near Strymon, although Tsar Samuil escaped to Prilep where he died soon after[134].  Cedrenus records this defeat 20 Jul "indictione 12" and Samuil´s escape to "castellum Prilapum" where he died two days later[135]Lupus Protospatarius records that "Samuel rex" died in 1015 and was succeeded by his son[136]m ([970]) AGATHA Chryselie, daughter of IOANNES Chryselios Lord of Durazzo & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage date is estimated by Adontz on the assumption that her son Gavriil Radomir was adult in 986[137].  Samuil & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         GAVRIIL RADOMIR (-murdered Autumn 1015).  Zonaras records that "Gabrielem filium, qui et Romanus dicebatur" succeeded Samuil in "principatu Bulgarorum" but one year later was killed by "frater patruelis, Aaronis filius Uladisthlavus Joannis"[138].  He succeeded his father in 1014 as GAVRIIL RADOMIR Tsar of Bulgaria.  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios II sent "Constantinum Diogenem…in regionem Moglenorum" to defeat Gavriil Radomir Tsar of the Bulgarians[139].  Cedrenus records that "filius Gabrielus qui et Romanus dicebatur" succeeded Samuil but was poisoned by "Joanne, qui et Bladisthlabus, filio Aaronis" after ruling for one year[140]Lupus Protospatarius records that "Samuel rex" died in 1015 and was succeeded by his son, but that the latter was killed in 1016 by "suo consobrino filio Aronis" who reigned in his place[141]m firstly ([973], repudiated 988) --- of Hungary, daughter of GEZA Prince of Hungary & his first wife Sarolt of Transylvania.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly (988) IRINA, daughter of --- (-murdered Autumn 1015).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She was a slave at Larissa in 986.  Cedrenus confirms that "eiusque uxorem" was killed by "Joanne" at the same time as her husband[142].  Gavriil Radomir had & his second wife had [six] children:

i)          son (-after 1018).  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…et duas filias Radomeri, filii Samueli, ac filios quinque" (of whom one had been blinded by "Joanne") submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018)[143]

ii)         four other sons (-after 1018).  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…et duas filias Radomeri, filii Samueli, ac filios quinque" (of whom one had been blinded by "Joanne") submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018)[144]

iii)        two daughters (-after 1018).  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…et duas filias Radomeri, filii Samueli…" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018)[145]

iv)       [daughter (-after [1055][146]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir"[147].  The word "niece", presumably translated from "neptis", could be interpreted either as niece or granddaughter.  Europäische Stammtafeln[148], presumably on the basis that granddaughter is the appropriate translation, suggests that Vojislav's wife was the daughter of Gavriil Radomir Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife.  If this is correct, Vojislav's wife must have been born in [990/1000], which would place the birth of the couple's sons in [1015/25].  In this case, she was presumably one of the two unnamed daughters whom Cedrenus records as having submitted to Emperor Basileios II in 1018 along with other members of the family (see above).  If "niece" is the correct translation, Vojislav's wife could have been the niece either of Tsar Samuil himself or of his wife.  The latter possibility could account for the confusion relating to the wife of Vojislav's first cousin Ivan Vladimir, who is stated by Europäische Stammtafeln to be the niece of Tsar Samuil's wife (see above), assuming that there was also confusion in the primary sources between Ivan Vladimir and his cousin Vojislav.  In this second case, the birth of the couple's sons could be placed much earlier.  m VOJISLAV of Duklja, son of [DRAGOMIR Knez of Duklja and part Trebinje & his wife --- of Serbia] (-[1043], bur Prapratna).  He succeeded as Knez of Duklja some time after 1018, with his base at Prapratna.] 

b)         MIROSLAVA (-after [1016]).  Cedrenus records the marriage between "Samuelus…filiam suam" and "Asotĉ Taronitĉ filio", after falling in love while the latter was held captive by her father[149].  She is named "Miroslava" by Mikhael Bishop of Devol[150].  Superior of the convent of Elena in [1016].  m ([998]) ASHOT Taronites, son of GREGORIOS Taronites & his wife ---. 

c)         [KOSARA] .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Bladimeri [qui] gener…fuit Samuil" ruled "Trymalia et viciniores Serviĉ partes"[151].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records the marriage of "Vladimir" and "Cossara", daughter of Samuil Tsar of the Bulgarians[152], but it is likely that this source confuses her with Samuil´s daughter Miroslava as it recounts a story similar to that of Ashot Taronites falling in love with Miroslava while held captive by her father.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[153], Kosara was daughter of Theodoros Chryselios, whose sister married Tsar Samuil, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It appears likely that the name "Kosara" is in any case a deformation of "Chryselie" and that the name of Ivan Vladimir´s wife is in fact unknown.  m ([998]) IVAN VLADIMIR Knez of Duklja, son of PETRISLAV Knez of Duklja [Montenegro] & his wife --- (-murdered Prespa 22 May 1016, bur Krajina).] 

d)         [daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  The date of her marriage is estimated from the estimated birth date of the couple's eldest son.  The Gesta Hungarorum reports claims that the three brothers Levente, András and Béla were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun [Tátony]" rather than legitimate[154]m (before [1012]) VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary, Duke between March and Gran, son of MIHÁLY of Hungary Duke between March and Gran & his wife Adelajda of Poland (-early 1037).] 

e)         [two daughters (-after 1018).  Cedrenus records that "duĉ Samueli filiĉ" were brought to "Kastoriam" and tried to attack "Mariam Joannis quondam uxorem" when they saw her standing before the emperor but were restrained[155].  It is possible that one or both of these daughters was the same person as one of the daughters who are named above.] 

Tsar Samuil had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

f)          son .  Cedrenus records that "spurium Samueli filium" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018)[156]

4.         DAVID .  Zonaras records that "Bulgaricis quatuor filii, David, Moses, Aaron et Samuel" encouraged the Bulgarians to revolt against Byzantine control[157].  Cedrenus records that "Davidus, Moses, Aaron et Samuelis, filii cuiusdam in Bulgaria largiter potentis comitis" rebelled against Byzantium after the death of Tsar Peter[158].  Samuil, later Tsar of Bulgaria, names "my father, my mother, my brother…Nicolas…--- and David" in a monument erected in [992/93][159].  Zonaras records that "quatuor fratribus Davidi, Mosi, Aaroni et Samueli…qui Comitopoli appellabantur" defeated the Byzantine forces, adding that David died soon after[160].  David was defeated and killed by Vlachs. 

5.         [daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.    m THEODOROS Chryselios, archon of Durazzo, son of [IOANNES Chryselios Lord of Durazzo & his wife ---].  If his parentage is correct, Theodoros was the brother of Agatha Chryselie who married Samuil, later Tsar of the Bulgarians, see above.] 

 

 

IVAN VLADISLAV, son of AARON [Kometopoulos] & his wife --- (-killed in battle Durazzo Feb 1018).  Zonaras records that "fratrem Aaronem cum omni familia" was killed by Samuil, with the exception of "uno…filio…Joannes Sphandosthlavus"[161]Lupus Protospatarius records that "Samuel rex" died in 1015 and was succeeded by his son, but that the latter was killed in 1016 by "suo consobrino filio Aronis" who reigned in his place[162].  Zonaras records that "Gabrielem filium, qui et Romanus dicebatur" succeeded Samuil in "principatu Bulgarorum" but one year later was killed by "frater patruelis, Aaronis filius Uladisthlavus Joannis"[163].  Cedrenus records that "filius Gabrielus qui et Romanus dicebatur" succeeded Samuil but was poisoned by "Joanne, qui et Bladisthlabus, filio Aaronis" after ruling for one year[164].  He succeeded in 1015 as IVAN VLADISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians.  He reconquered Duklja in 1016 after murdering Knez Ivan Vladimir[165].  Cedrenus records that "Thessalonicensium duce Constantino Diogene" defeated "Joannis et eius patruelem" 9 Jan "indictione 15" and that Ivan was killed while attempting to recapture Durazzo[166].  Cedrenus records that "frater et filius…Cracrĉ" delivered Adrianople to Emperor Basileios and that they and "Cracram" were created patrikios, that "Dragomuzus" yielded "Strumpitzam" and was made patrikios, and that "Bogdanus interiorum castellorum dominus" submitted and was also created patrikios, while "Davidum patricium Arianitum" left "Scopia" and retired to "castella Stypeium et Prosacum", and that the emperor appointed "Nicephoro patricio Pegonita" as governor of Durazzo[167].  The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “en l´année 460 [19 Mar 1011/17 Mar 1012]” Emperor Basileios II defeated the Bulgarians and poisoned “le vaillant Alusianus, leur souverain” and took his wife and children to Constantinople[168], which would appear to refer more probably to the death of Tsar Ivan Vladislav than to his son Alusian.  Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios entered "Ionium…apud Eilisson castellum…caput…totius Bulgariĉ", appointed "Eustathium patricium Daphnomelum" as governor, and received the submission of "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus et duas filias Radomeri, filii Samueli, ac filios quinque" (of whom one had been blinded by "Joanne")[169].  Bulgaria was divided into three themes[170]

m MARIJA, daughter of --- (-after [1029/31]).  Zonaras names "Maria…Joannis Uladisthlavi uxor" and adds that the couple had three sons and six daughters[171].  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018), adding that the couple had three other sons, of whom two had escaped "in montem Tmuroum"[172].  Cedrenus records that "Mariam Joannis quondam uxorem" was sent to Constantinople "cum filiis suis" with gifts[173].  She settled in Constantinople where she adopted the name ZOE and became patrikia in 1019.  Cedrenus records that "Prusianus Bulgarus magister…mater eius" was exiled by Emperor Romanos Argyros, dated to [1029/31][174]

Ivan Vladislav & his wife had twelve children:

1.         FRUŽIN [Prouzianos] (-[1029/30] or after).  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018), but adds that the couple had three other sons, of whom two had escaped "in montem Tmuroum", a later passage identifying "Prusianus Bladisthlabi filius cum fratribus" as those who had escaped "in Tmorum" and adding that they later surrendered and were installed as patrikios[175].  Zonaras records that "Prusianus cum duobus fratribus" resisted the Byzantines in the mountains, adding that he was later created "magistrum…patricios"[176].  The fact that Fružin is the only son named in these two sources suggests that he was the eldest.  He became strategos of the theme of Bukellarion.  Cedrenus records that Emperor Konstantinos VIII, after his accession (in 1025), sent "Romani Sclyri filio, patricio Basilio" against "Prusianum Bulgarorum magistrum ac bucellariorum prĉfectum" and had him blinded[177].  Zonaras records that Emperor Romanos Argyros suspected "Prusianum magistrum, Bulgarum" of conspiring with "Theodora Zoes Augustĉ sorore" and imprisoned and blinded him[178].  Cedrenus records that "Prusianus Bulgarus magister" was denounced for conspiring with "Theodora Augustĉ sorore" and blinded, and exiled to "Manueli monasterium" by Emperor Romanos Argyros, dated to [1029/31][179]

2.         ALUSIAN (-after 1068).  Cedrenus records that "Alusianus patricius et Theodosiopolis prĉfectus, secundus Aaronis filius" rebelled and joined Tsar Peter Deljan, dated to [1041] from the context[180].  Zonaras also names "Aaronis…filius patricius Alusianus"[181].  It is not chronologically possible for Alusian to have been the son of Aaron.  In addition, other sources indicate that Ivan Vladislav was the only survivor of the massacre of Aaron´s family.  It is more probable that Alusian was Ivan Vladislav´s son, although the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  He settled in Constantinople and became a Byzantine patrikios in 1019, strategos of Theodosiopolis in Anatolia.  Psellos records that "the more agreeable of Aaron's sons….Alousianus" proved chiefly responsible for the victory of Emperor Mikael IV, but that he escaped back to Bulgaria to foment another rebellion[182].  Alusian's troops captured and blinded Deljan, enabling Alusian to assume leadership of the whole movement.  After an unsuccessful battle with Byzantine troops, he negotiated an amnesty for himself, left the rebellion leaderless and returned to Constantinople in 1041[183].  In Armenia in 1068.  m (1019 or after) ---, an Armenian.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  The marriage presumably took place after Alusian settled in Constantinople.  Alusian & his wife had [four] children:

a)         BASILEIOS Alusianos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Magistros.  He was appointed dux of Edessa 1065/71. 

b)         SAMUIL Alusianos (-after [1068]).  Skylitzes records that "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris uxoris frater" wintered "in Armeniorum regione", dated to [1068][184]m [--- Dalassene, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Dalassenos, Byzantine general & his wife ---.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Skylitzes who names "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris uxoris frater" (assuming that "frater" should be interpreted as meaning brother-in-law)[185].  It should be noted that an alternative interpretation is that the passage refers to Samuil´s sister [Anna] who was married to Emperor Romanos IV.]  Samuil & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [KONSTANTINOS Alusianos.  Bestiarches.] 

c)         [[ANNA] Alusiane ([1030]-before 1065).  Her parentage and marriage are deduced from Skylitzes who names "bestarches Samuel Aluisianus Bulgarus, imperatoris uxoris frater"[186], although it is curious to note that she is still referred to as "imperatoris uxoris" in a passage which refers to events after her husband´s accession and second marriage and therefore after her death.  It should be noted that an alternative interpretation is that the passage refers to the wife of Samuil.  The date of her marriage is estimated from the couple's son Konstantinos Diogenes leaving two known children when he was killed in battle in 1074.  m ([1045/50]) as his first wife, ROMANOS Diogenes, son of --- Diogenes & his wife --- Argyre (-Prote Monastery Summer 1072).  Magistros, bestiarches, dux of Triaditza [Sofija].  He succeeded in 1068 as Emperor ROMANOS IV.] 

d)         [DAVID Alusianos.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

3.         AARON (-after 1059).  Cedrenus records that "Aaron Besta Bladisthlabi filius, Prusiani frater" was archon of "Baaspracaniam" [Vaspurakan] which was invaded by the Turks, dated to [1049] from the context[187].  Zonaras names "magistro Aarone, fratris coniugis Comneni"[188].  He settled in Constantinople and became a Byzantine patrikios in 1019.  Magistros 1041, bestes [1047].  Dux of Vaspurakan [1049].  Dux of Ani in the theme of Iberia [1049/50]-after 1054.  Dux of Edessa before 1057.  Proedros 1057/58.  Dux of Mesopotamia 1059.  m ---.  The name of Aaron's wife is not known.  Aaron & his wife had two known children:

a)         THEODOROS Aaron (-killed in battle [1055/56]).  Aristakes names Aaron as father of Theodoros[189]Strategos of Taron.  He was killed fighting the Turks. 

b)         RHODOMEROS [Radomir] Aaron.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Magistros, bestiarches, strategos, proedros, dux.  1091/97.

Aaron had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: 

c)          son .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  Two children: 

i)          --- Aaron.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He and his brother plotted against Emperor Alexios I in 1107. 

ii)         THEODOROS Aaron.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He and his brother plotted against Emperor Alexios I in 1107. 

4.         TROJAN [Troianos] (-19 May ----).  His parentage is suggested by Nikephoros Bryennios who records that "uxor Andronici" was "genus a Samuele…Bulgarorum rege, e cuius filio Troianne nata ipsa erat"[190].  The primary source which confirms that he was the son of Tsar Ivan Vladislav, not Samuil, has not yet been identified.  The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 19 May of "Theodorou pappou tis ayias despoines"[191].  As the list also names the empress's paternal grandfather, this must be her maternal grandfather, indicating that he had adopted the Greek name THEODOROSm ---, descendant of the families of Konstostephanos, Abalates and Phokas.  Her ancestry is indicated by Nikephoros Bryennios who records that "uxor Andronici" (her daughter) was "materna vero ei prosapia referebatur ad Contostephanos, Aballantes et Phocadas"[192].  Trojan & his wife had one child:

a)         MARIA Troiane (-21 Nov [1089/1110]).  Her parentage is confirmed by Nikephoros Bryennios who records that "uxor Andronici" was "genus a Samuele…Bulgarorum rege, e cuius filio Troianne nata ipsa erat", adding that "materna vero ei prosapia referebatur ad Contostephanos, Aballantes et Phocadas"[193].  The Alexeiad records that "the daughter-in-law of the Cĉsar Ioannes…protovestiaria" was imprisoned "in the nunnery of Petrion near the Sidera" when the Komnenoi plot against Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates was discovered, referring to her as "kinswoman" of Anna Dalassena and, in a later passage, stating that she "was of Bulgarian descent"[194].  Protobestiaria.  She became a nun as XENE.  She received a letter from Leon ex-metropolitan of Chalcedonia dated to 1089/[1094/95][195].  The typikon of Theotokos Kecharitomenes (dated to [1110]) provides for the commemoration 21 Nov of "la...princesse et mère de ma Majesté, kyra Marie, qui fut appelée...kyra Xénè"[196]The list of obituaries of the monastery of Christ Philanthropos, founded by Empress Eirene Doukas, records the death 21 Nov of "Xenes monaxes tes metros tes ayias despoines tes protobestiarisses"[197]m ([before 1061]) ANDRONIKOS Dukas, protobestiarios, son of IOANNES Dukas & his wife Eirene Pegonitissa (-14 Oct [1077]).  Co-Emperor 1067-1070. 

5.         son (-after 1018).  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018), adding that the couple had three other sons, of whom two had escaped "in montem Tmuroum"[198]

6.         IBATZES (-killed [1019 or after]).  Cedrenus names "Ibatzes" as the only son of "Bladisthlabo" who did not submit to Emperor Basileios II, adding that he was eventually blinded and killed[199]

7.         EKATERINA (-convent of Myrelaion after 1061).  Her parentage is deduced by reading Cedrenus, who names "Aarone Duca magistro magistro, fratre uxoris Comneni"[200] (although the origin of his being named "Doukas" has not been ascertained), together with Nikephoros Bryennios who records that "Isaacio" married "maxima natu filiarum Samuelis regis Bulgarorum…Aecatharinĉ"[201].  It is chronologically improbable for Ekaterina to have been the daughter of Tsar Samuil, whose marriage is recorded in 970 (see above).  It is supposed therefore that she was the daughter of Samuil's successor, Ivan Vladislav, and that "Aarone Duca" named by Cedrenus was Ivan Vladislav´s son.  She brought a substantial dowry to her husband[202].  Skylitzes records that advice from "Ĉcaterina Augusta" helped her husband decide on his abdication and that she "eiusque filia Maria" were tonsured "in palatiis Myrelĉi" (the convent of Myrelaion), adding in a later passage that Empress Ekaterina adopted the monastic name HELENA[203].  Her surviving her husband is shown by Psellos recording that "the empress" (whom he does not name) "a most remarkable woman, descended from a very noble family" was present with their daughter at her husband's deathbed[204].  Mikhael Glykas names "imperatrix Haecaterina cum Maria filia" when recording that they both became nuns "in mansionem Myrelĉi" (in [1059])[205]m ISAAKIOS Komnenos, son of MANUEL Erotikos Komnenos & his second wife --- ([1007]-Studion monastery 1061).  Domestikos 1042-[1054/57].  He was declared Emperor ISAAKIOS I in 1057. 

8.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Romano Curcuĉ" married "sororem Prusiani"[206]m (before 1026) ROMANOS Kourkouas, son of IOANNES Kourkouas & his wife ---.   

9.         four daughters (-after 1018).  Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018)[207].  

 

 

1.         PETER DELJAN, son of --- (-[Thessaloniki 1041]).  Psellos names "a political agitator…Dolianus" who "proceeded to trace his descent from the famous Samuel and his brother Aaron [although] he did not claim to be the legitimate heir of these kings but he either invented or proved that he was a collateral relation" and was proclaimed king[208].  Zonaras records that "Dolianus" claimed to be "filium naturalem, non legitimum Aaronis…frater Samuelis" and was chosen as king by the Bulgarians[209].  He was crowned PETER DELJAN Tsar of Bulgaria in Beograd in 1040.  Cedrenus records that "Petrus quidam Bulgarus, cognomento Deleanus" captured "Morabum et Belegrados" and was declared "regem Bulgariĉ", dated to [1040] from the context[210].  His forces pushed southwards to capture Niš and Skopje.  He joined forces with a second rebellion in Durazzo led by Tihomir, who was murdered in Skopje maybe through Deljan's planning.  He then captured Prespa and parts of northern Greece[211].  His [supposed] second cousin Alusian joined the rebellion and was given troops to attack Thessaloniki, but failed in the enterprise which created divisions between the two men.  Alusian's troops captured and blinded Deljan, enabling Alusian to assume leadership of the whole movement which quickly collapsed[212] after he defected to Byzantium. 

 

2.         TIHOMIR (-murdered Skopje [1041]).  TIHOMIR Tsar of Bulgaria.  Cedrenus records that "Teichomerum" rebelled in Durazzo and was declared "imperatorem Bulgariĉ" and imprisoned, dated to [1040/41] from the context[213].  Peter Deljan joined forces with Tihomir, who was murdered in Skopje maybe through Deljan's planning[214]

 

 

1.         BODIN, son of MIHAILO King of Duklja & his wife --- (-[1101/08]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[215].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Bodin who [afterwards] ruled the whole kingdom [and] Vladimir with their brothers marched into Rassa and annexed it" and "captured the whole of Bulgaria which King Michael gave to his son Bodin to rule as a province"[216].  In 1072, his father sent him to lead troops to the rebellion of George Vojteh against the Byzantines in Macedonia.  On his way, he was crowned PETER Tsar of the Bulgarians at Prizren in late 1072.  Skylitzes names "Bulgariĉ princeps Michaelem" and "suo filio Constantino, cui Bodino cognomen erat", dated to [1073/75][217].  The rebellion was crushed by Byzantium, Bodin was defeated south of Skopje, captured and banished to Asia Minor where he remained until ransomed [1078][218].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Bodin declared himself emperor which triggered an invasion from Byzantium, during which Bodin was captured and sent to Antioch in exile[219].  He succeeded his father in [1081/82] as KONSTANTIN BODIN King of Duklja

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    TSARS of the SECOND BULGARIAN EMPIRE

 

 

 

A.      TSARS of the BULGARIANS 1186-1258 (FAMILY of ASEN)

 

 

---.  From the area of Trnovo, maybe a Vlach[220]

1.         IVAN ASEN (-murdered 1196).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ioanne Asani" had "duos…fratres, uni…Petro, alteri Ioanni"[221].  After attempting unsuccessfully with his brother Teodor to obtain land in the Haemus mountains from Emperor Isaakios II, they rebelled against Byzantine rule in 1185, with Bulgar, Vlach and Kuman support.  They captured fortresses near Trnovo, before moving into Thrace[222].  His brother Peter was crowned Tsar by the newly appointed archbishop of Trnovo, maybe jointly with Ivan Asen.  By early 1190, he succeeded as IVAN ASEN I "Stari/the Old" or "Belgun/the Bulgar" Tsar of the Bulgarians after his brother Peter had relinquished control[223]

-        see below

2.         TEODOR (-murdered 1197).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ioanne Asani" had "duos…fratres, uni…Petro, alteri Ioanni", recording that Peter succeeded after his brother was murdered by Ivanko[224].  The primary source which confirms his original name Teodor has not yet been identified.  After attempting unsuccessfully to obtain land in the Haemus mountains from Emperor Isaakios II, they rebelled against Byzantine rule in 1185, with Bulgar, Vlach and Kuman support.  Teodor adopted the name PETER, in honour of Peter I Tsar of the Bulgarians, and was proclaimed PETER Tsar of the Bulgarians in 1186.  After the 1186 rebellion of Alexios Branas, who had been sent to suppress the Bulgarian revolt, Emperor Isaakios led his army personally against the Bulgarian rebels and drove them across the Danube.  Further campaigns followed in Sep 1187 and 1188, but the emperor was forced to recognise Bulgarian independence under a peace treaty signed in 1188[225].  Tsar Peter retained Trnovo as his capital and unilaterally promoted the bishop of Trnovo as archbishop, although the appointment was not recognised by Byzantium.  He was crowned Tsar by the newly appointed archbishop Basil, maybe jointly with his brother Ivan Asen.  By early 1190, Peter had relinquished control to his brother, although he continued to rule as a colleague in Preslav[226].  After Ivanko murdered his brother in 1196, Tsar Peter besieged Trnovo which had been captured by Ivanko, and resumed his rule after the latter escaped to Constantinople.  He was allegedly murdered by a relative[227]

3.         KALOJAN ["Skylo-Ioannes"] ([1170]-Thessaloniki 8 Oct 1207).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ioanne Asani" had "duos…fratres, uni…Petro, alteri Ioanni", in later passages referring to Ioannes as "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)"[228].  "Johannice" is described as uncle of "Burille" by Henri de Valenciennes[229].  He was sent as a hostage to Constantinople in 1188 as part of the arrangements for the peace treaty which recognised Bulgarian independence[230].  He was awarded the title patrikios in Byzantium.  Co-Regent of Bulgaria in 1196.  He succeeded in 1197 as KALOJAN I Tsar of the Bulgarians, and was crowned by the archbishop of Trnovo.  He agreed peace with Byzantium in [1201/02][231], and was again created patrikios.  Tsar Kalojan annexed the region of Niš from Serbia in 1203, and Beograd, Braničevo and Vidin from Hungary in [1204].  Pope Innocent III supported him by ordering Imre King of Hungary not to counter-attack, Kalojan having promised to recognise papal suzerainty in return for a papal crown[232].  He also took advantage of the chaos caused by the taking of Constantinople by the army of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to assume control of Byzantine territory in Macedonia and Thrace[233].  He was crowned King of all Bulgarians and Wallachians by the Papal legate 7 Nov 1204, at the same time as the archbishop of Trnovo was consecrated primate[234].  The crusaders rejected Tsar Kalojan's proposed alliance and division of territory in Thrace.  Kalojan in revenge launched further attacks on Thrace in Feb 1205, and captured Adrianople.  He defeated Baudouin I Latin Emperor of Constantinople 14 Apr 1205, and took him back to Bulgaria as a prisoner where the emperor died in jail[235].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Balduinus imperator" was captured by "regem Bulgarorum Ioannem"[236].  Tsar Kalojan continued campaigning in Thrace, captured Serres in Jun 1205 and sent many captives back to Bulgaria.  He died while laying siege to Thessaloniki after the death of Bonifazio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, possibly murdered[237].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)" died during the siege of Thessaloniki[238].  Gardner says that "report attributed the act to the device of his wife and the hand of a Kuman warrior"[239]m [firstly] ---.  The name of Kalojan's first wife is not known.  If Georgius Akropolites is correctly interpreted as indicating that Kalojan married a "Scythian" (see below), the text implies that the alliance was contracted not long before he died.  If this is correct, his supposed Scythian wife is unlikely to have been the mother of his children, which points to an otherwise unrecorded first marriage.  [m secondly as her first husband, ---, a Kuman princess.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)" contracted an alliance with "Scythas", which could be interpreted as meaning that he married a Scythian but this is not without doubt[240].  The same source suggests that she may have married secondly ([1207/08]) her first husband's nephew, Boril (-after 1218), who succeeded as Tsar.]  Tsar Kalojan I & his [first] wife had two children:

a)         MARIJA (-after 1216).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance between her stepfather Tsar of Bulgaria and her future husband[241]m (1213) as his second wife, HENRI I Latin Emperor of Constantinople, son of BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders, BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut & his wife Marguerite I Ctss of Flanders ([1176]-murdered 11 Jul 1216). 

b)         BITHLEEM (-after 1204).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  She was sent to Rome in 1204. 

4.         daughter .  Georgius Akropolites records that "sororis illius filius Borilas" succeeded "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)"[242].  The primary source which names her husband has not yet been identified.  m STREZ, voyvode, son of ---.  Strez & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         BORIL (-1218 or after).  His parentage is confirmed by Georgius Akropolites who refers to "sororis illius filius Borilas" (referring to "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)")[243].  "Burille" is described as "cousin germain" of "Esclas [Alexei]" by Henri de Valenciennes[244].  It is assumed that he was the son of a sister of the brothers Ivan Asen, Peter and Kalojan as no reference has been found to a fourth brother.  He succeeded his uncle in 1207 as BORIL Tsar of the Bulgarians, passing over the rightful candidate, his first cousin Ivan Asen, and married his predecessor's widow to consolidate his authority.  He was faced with continual rebellions, in particular those led by his cousin Alexii Slav and his [supposed] brother Strez.  Many outlying territories in Bulgaria split away from the central authority of Trnovo.  After invading Thrace, he was defeated by a Latin army at Philippopolis in 1208[245].  He allied himself with Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople in 1213, sealed by the emperor's marriage to Tsar Boril's step-daughter[246].  He was deposed in 1218 by his cousin Ivan Asen and blinded.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Asani filius Ioannes" seized power from "Borila" whom he blinded[247].  [m [firstly] ([1207/08], maybe repudiated[248]) as her second husband, --- Kuman princess, [widow of KALOJAN I Tsar of the Bulgarians,] daughter of --- Khan of the Kumans.  Georgius Akropolites records that "sororis illius filius Borilas" (referring to "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)"), married "Scythide θείαν" (married "his Scythian aunt", presumably referring to his predecessor's widow, although this is not without doubt) and occupied "regnum Bulgarorum"[249].]  m [secondly] ([1213]) --- de Courtenay, daughter of PIERRE [II] Seigneur de Courtenay [later PIERRE I Latin Emperor of Constantinople] & his wife Yolande de Flandre Marquise de Namur.  This daughter of Pierre is mentioned by Fine, who says that her marriage was arranged by her uncle Henri Emperor of Constantinople to seal his alliance with Tsar Boril[250].  She is not referred to by Kerrebrouck[251] or in Europäische Stammtafeln[252]

b)         [STREZ (-1214).  According to Fine[253], he was a nephew of Tsar Kalojan, either the brother or first cousin of Tsar Boril, but not the same individual as Dobromir Hrs [Chrysos], who was also referred to as "Dobromir Strez" (the Slav version of his Greek name), and who had also previously held Prosek.  He opposed the succession of his [supposed] brother Boril in 1207, was expelled and fled to the Serbian court from where, supported by Stefan Grand Župan of Serbia, he invaded Bulgaria and established himself in the fortress of Prosek.  He established his own state between the Struma and Vardar rivers, and expanded westwards across Macedonia as far as Bitola.  He allied himself with Tsar Boril, who appears to have awarded him the title sébastokrator.  Their joint armies were defeated by Mikhael of Epirus at Pelagonia [Bitola] in early summer 1211[254].  Strez died while on campaign in Serbia, allied with Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople and Tsar Boril, maybe murdered[255].  After his death, it seems that his territories were shared between Epirus and Thessaloniki[256].] 

5.         [daughter .  The precise relationship between Alexii Slav and the Asan family is not known.  However, it is a reasonable speculation that he was the son of one of Tsar Ivan Asen I's sisters.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         ALEXII SLAV (-after 1230).  "Esclas" is described as "cousin germain" of "Burille" by Henri de Valenciennes[257].  It is assumed that he was the son of a sister of the brothers Ivan Asen, Peter and Kalojan as no reference is made to a fourth brother.  Voivode of Melnik.  He opposed the succession of his first cousin Boril in 1207 and established his own state in the Rhodope mountains[258].  He allied himself with Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople after the latter defeated Tsar Boril at Philippopulos in 1208, sealed by his marriage to the emperor's illegitimate daughter, and was awarded the title despot[259].  After the death of his first wife, Alexii sought an alliance with Theodoros Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus, which was sealed by his second marriage to the niece of the latter's wife[260].  His principality was finally absorbed by Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria, who went on the offensive after defeating Emperor Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus at Klokotnica, in Apr 1230[261]m firstly (Constantinople 1208) --- de Flandre, illegitimate daughter of HENRI de Flandre Latin Emperor of Constantinople & his mistress --- (-1213 or before[262]).  Georgius Akropolites names "Sthlavus Asani regis affinis" when recording that he married "imperatore Constantinopolitane Erico…filiam e pellice"[263]Ephrĉmius records that "Sthlabus…Bulgarus gente Asanisque affinis" married "imperatore Henrico…notam filiam"[264]m secondly ([1216]) --- Petraloiphaina, daughter of [THEODOROS] Petraloiphas & his wife ---.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Sthlavus Asani regis affinis" married "Petraliphĉ Theodori Comneni uxoris fratris filia" after the death of his first wife[265]

 

 

Recorded by Georgius Akropolites as "consobrinus" of Tsar Ivan Asen I, the precise relationship is not known. 

1.         IVANKO, son of --- (-murdered 1200).  Georgius Akropolites names "consobrino suo Ivango", referring to "Asanus", stating that he murdered the latter and then fled[266].  His affair with Tsar Ivan Asen I's sister-in-law was discovered by Ivan Asen, whom Ivanko murdered in 1196.  Ivanko took control of Trnovo, to which Tsar Peter laid siege.  Ivanko succeeded in sending to Constantinople for help, but the Byzantine army mutinied in the Balkan Mountains.  Ivanko escaped to Constantinople, where he was offered the emperor's granddaughter as a bride[267].  He adopted the name ALEXIOS on his marriage, and became a Byzantine military leader.  Prince in Central Thrace in early 1199.  He revolted against Emperor Alexios III, and defeated the Byzantine troops sent to attack him.  He was murdered after agreeing a meeting with the emperor[268]m ([1196/97]) as her first husband, THEODORA Angelina Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos, sébastokrator & his wife Anna Komnena Angelina.  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Isaacii sebastocratoris…filiĉ eius Theodorĉ" and "Ibancus"[269].  She was a hostage in Constantinople in [1197/99].  She married secondly ([1201/02]), as his third wife, Dobromir Hrs [Chrysos/Strez] Lord of Prosek (-murdered [1209/11]).  A Vlach fighting for Bulgaria, he occupied the fortress of Prosek overlooking the Vardar river in 1197.  He repudiated his second wife, who was the daughter of Konstantinos Kamytzes and his wife Maria Angelina (paternal aunt of Emperor Alexios III) in return for being offered the granddaughter of Emperor Alexios III as his new bride[270].  Sébastokrator. 

 

 

IVAN ASEN, son of --- (-murdered 1196).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ioanne Asani" had "duos…fratres, uni…Petro, alteri Ioanni"[271].  After attempting unsuccessfully with his brother Teodor to obtain land in the Haemus mountains from Isaakios II Emperor of Byzantium, they rebelled against Byzantine rule in 1185, with Bulgar, Vlach and Kuman support.  They captured fortresses near Trnovo, before moving into Thrace.  His brother Peter was crowned Tsar by the newly appointed archbishop of Trnovo, maybe jointly with Ivan Asen.  By early 1190, he succeeded as IVAN ASEN I "Stari/the Old" or "Belgun/the Bulgar" Tsar of the Bulgarians after his brother Peter had relinquished control.  In retaliation for Bulgarian raids on Philippopolis, Sardika [Sofija] and Adrianople, Emperor Isaakios attacked Bulgaria but was heavily defeated in [1194] near Arcadiopolis[272].  Tsar Ivan Asen I was murdered by his cousin Ivanko, whom the Tsar had discovered having an affair with his wife's sister[273]

m firstly ---.  The primary source which confirms this first marriage has not yet been identified.  The name of Ivan Asen's first wife is not known. 

m secondly ELENA "nova carica", daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  She was captured by Emperor Isaakios II during the latter's 1188 campaign against the Bulgarian rebels, but released under the 1188 peace treaty which recognised Bulgarian independence[274].  She became a nun as EVGENIJA

Tsar Ivan Asen I & his [first/second] wife had two children:

1.         IVAN ASEN ([1190]-Jun 1241).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem et Alexandrum" as the two sons of "primus Bulgarorum rex Asanus"[275].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Alsanus rex Bulgarie frater Alexandri" specifying that both were "nepotes…Burilli"[276].  He was passed over on the death of his uncle Tsar Kalojan in 1207, when his first cousin Boril succeeded as Tsar.  He was smuggled out of the country first to the Kumans, later to Galicia.  He was recalled in 1218 to lead a rebellion against Tsar Boril, marched on Trnovo and was declared IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians

-        see below

2.         ALEXANDER (-before 1241).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem et Alexandrum" as the two sons of "primus Bulgarorum rex Asanus"[277].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Alsanus rex Bulgarie frater Alexandri" specifying that both were "nepotes…Burilli"[278]Sébastokratorm --- of Serbia, daughter of STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia & his first wife Evdokia Angelina Komnene of Byzantium (before [1201/02][279]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Alexander & his wife had one child: 

a)         KOLOMAN (-murdered 1258).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Bulgarorum princeps…Michael" was killed by "consobrino suo Callimano" at Trnovo but was murdered soon after[280].  He succeeded his cousin Tsar Mihail II Asen in 1257 as KOLOMAN II Tsar of the Bulgarians, forcibly marrying his predecessor's widow.  Faced with strong opposition from the outset, he was forced to flee from Trnovo, and was captured and killed.  On his death, his father-in-law invaded Bulgaria from neighbouring Mačva, ostensibly to protect the interests of his daughter, whom he received back at Trnovo.  He retreated to Vidin where he assumed the title Tsar of Bulgaria, and was recognised as such by Hungary[281]m ([1257]) as her second husband, ANNA Rostislavna of Galich, widow of MIHAIL II ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ex-Grand Prince of Kiev, ex-Prince of Galich, Ban of Mačva & his wife Anna of Hungary ([after 1243]-[1296/98]).  Her parentage and first marriage are indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungariĉ regis generum" as father-in-law of "Bulgarorum…princeps"[282].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Georgius Akropolites records that "consobrino suo Callimano" married "Bulgarorum princeps…Michael…uxore" after killing her first husband[283].  Tsarina Ielisaveta may have married thirdly[284] (May 1260) Moys de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans, Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron, son of --- (-end 1280).  According to another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[285], the wife of Moys de Dáró was Erszebet of Hungary, daughter of András of Hungary Prince of Galich & his wife Ielena Mstislavna of Galich. 

 

 

IVAN ASEN, son of IVAN ASEN I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [first/second] wife --- ([1190]-Jun 1241).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem et Alexandrum" as the two sons of "primus Bulgarorum rex Asanus", recording that "Asani filius Ioannes" fled "in Rusos" when "Borila" usurped power[286].  His parentage is confirmed by Georgius Akropolites who refers to the fact that "sororis illius filius Borilas" (referring to "Scylo-Ioannes (Σκυλοϊωάννης)") displaced "filius…Asani Ioannes" when he seized Bulgaria[287].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Alsanus rex Bulgarie frater Alexandri" specifying that both were "nepotes…Burilli"[288].  He was passed over on the death of his uncle Tsar Kalojan in 1207, when his first cousin Boril succeeded as Tsar.  He was smuggled out of the country first to the Kumans, later to Galicia[289].  He was recalled in 1218 to lead a rebellion against Tsar Boril, marched on Trnovo and was declared IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Asani filius Ioannes" seized power from "Borila" whom he blinded[290].  After his accession, he quickly consolidated his control over his territories and built up his army, reviving Bulgaria's strength as a Balkan power[291].  He unsuccessfully proposed the marriage of his daughter Elena to Baudouin II Latin Emperor of Constantinople in 1228[292].  Theodoros Angelos Lord of Epirus, who had crowned himself emperor in 1225, marched on Constantinople in 1230 but changed course and attacked Bulgaria.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Alsanus rex Bulgarie" captured and blinded "ducem Durachis Theodorum"[293] at Klokotniça, near Philippopolis, in Apr 1230[294].  Ivan Asen then went on the offensive, conquering most of Macedonia and Albania[295].  When Ivan Asen learnt of Jean de Brienne's arrival in Constantinople in 1231, as regent for Emperor Baudouin II, he opened negotiations with Nikaia for a joint attack on the city, his alliance later being confirmed by the marriage of his daughter Elena to the heir to the Nikaian throne[296].  András II King of Hungary attacked north-west Bulgaria in 1232 and recaptured Beograd and Braničevo, which he had been forced to cede as part of the dowry of his daughter when she became Tsar Ivan Asen's second wife[297].  In return for recognising the Nikaian patriarch's title of 'Ecumenical Patriarch'[298], the latter granted autonomy to the Bulgarian church in 1235[299].  Tsar Ivan Asen and his Nikaian allies laid siege to Constantinople in 1236, but the city was saved by a quarrel between the two allies[300].  Relations with Hungary improved at the end of his reign, possibly because of the threat posed to both states by the Mongols[301].  Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Bulgarorum princeps Asanus" and the succession of "Callimanus eius ex Ungara filius"[302]

m firstly (repudiated before Jan 1221) ANNA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.    She was banished to Asia Minor after her repudiation. 

m secondly (Jan 1221) MARIA of Hungary, daughter of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (early 1204-Trnovo Autumn 1237).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the first wife of "Alsannus rex" as "soror Bele regis Hungarie et…sancta Elizabeth" but does not name her[303].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary was detained in Bulgaria by "Oxano Bulgarorum rege" until he agreed the marriage of "suam filiam"[304]Ephrĉmius names "Maria de genus de populo Pĉoanum" as the wife of "Asanes"[305].  Her dowry included the cities of Beograd and Braničevo[306].  She converted to Roman Catholicism[307].  Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Asano…uxorem Ungaram" at "citissime Trinobum" while her husband was besieging "Tzuruli castrum"[308]

m thirdly ([1237/38]) EIRENE Komnene Angelina, daughter of ex-Emperor THEODOROS I Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Maria Dukaina Komnene Petraliphaina ([before 1220][309]-after 1241).  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of Tsar Ivan Asen and "filiam Angeli Theodori Irenem"[310]Ephrĉmius records that "Asanes" married "Theodori filiam Comnenangeli…Irenam" after the death of his first wife "Ungarica consorte"[311].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the second wife of "Alsannus rex" as "filia Theodori ceci" but does not name her[312].  Tsar Ivan Asen II had defeated her father at Klokotniça, near Philippopolis, in Apr 1230, blinded him and kept him prisoner in Bulgaria for seven years[313].  It appears that he was released in 1237 after he gave Tsar Ivan Asen permission to marry his daughter.  Tsarina Irina was probably exiled from Bulgaria soon after the accession in 1241 of her stepson, who was living with her brother in Thessaloniki[314].  She became a nun as XENIA

Tsar Ivan Asen II & his first wife had two children: 

1.         MARIJA (before 1221-after 1237).  Georgius Akropolites records that "rege Ioanne Asane…filia Maria ex pellice" married "Theodorus Comnenus…fratri suo Manueli"[315]Ephrĉmius records the marriage of "Asane Ioanne…Mariam…notham filiam" and "Manueli"[316].  It is not known whether her alleged illegitimacy resulted from her mother's repudiation (as noted above) or whether her mother was the concubine not the wife of her father.  Her marriage was arranged as part of the alliance with the Bulgarians agreed by her future husband's brother Emperor Theodoros[317].  Georgius Akropolites records that "fratrem Manuelem" sent back "coniugem ad Asanam patrem", dated from the context to after her father's third marriage[318]m ([1225], repudiated [1238]) as his second wife, MANUEL Angelos Dukas Komnenos [Epirus], despot, son of IOANNES KONSTANTINOS Dukas Angelos, sebastokrator & his wife --- (-[1241]). 

2.         BELISAVA (before 1221-).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that Saint Saba arranged the marriage of "Vladislav…roi de Serbie" and "la fille d´Aciene roi des Bulgares" soon after his accession as king[319].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m ([1233]) STEFAN VLADISLAV King of Serbia, son of STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia & his second wife --- or his third wife Anna Dandolo (-11 Nov after 1267 [1269]). 

Tsar Ivan Asen II & his second wife had five children: 

3.         ELENA ([1224]-before 1254).  Georgius Akropolites records the betrothal of "imperator Ioannes…filium…Theodoro …undecim annos" and "Asanus…filiolam…Helenam…ab Ungara…novennem", a later passage recording their marriage at "Lampsacum"[320]Ephrĉmius records that "Lascari Theodoro" married "Asanis…filia… Helena"[321].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the daughter of "Alsannus rex" & his wife "soror Bele regis Hungarie" as the wife of "Caloiohannes Vastachii filius" but does not name her[322].  Her father proposed her betrothal to Baudouin II Latin Emperor of Constantinople in 1228, but the Latins rejected the offer because they feared Tsar Ivan Asen's ambitions[323].  Her marriage was agreed to confirm the alliance between her father and the Nikaian emperor, who were planning a joint attack on Constantinople[324]m (Betrothed [1233], Lampsaka early 1235) THEODOROS Dukas Laskaris, son of IOANNES III Emperor in Nikaia & his first wife Eirene Dukaina Komnene Laskarina ([Dec 1221]-16 Aug 1258, bur Monastery of Sosandra).  He was crowned as co-emperor in [1241] by his father.  He succeeded his father in 1254 as THEODOROS II Emperor in Nikaia

4.         TAMARA (-after [1252]).  Ephrĉmius names "Thamar germana soror" of "Callimanus", son of "Asanes" by his wife "Maria genus de populo Pĉonum"[325].  Georgius Akropolites names "Callimano soror…Thamari"[326].  Georgius Akropolites records the proposed marriage between "Callimani Bulgari soror Thamar, nulli nupta" and "Comnenus Michael" (referring to Mikhael Palaiologos, the future Emperor Mikhael VIII), dated to the early 1250s from the context[327]same person as…?  daughter .  Pachymeres records that "Mytzes" was "gener…Asanis" and that "sororem" of his wife had married "Theodorus Lascaris"[328].  The primary source which confirms the name of Ivan Mico's wife has not yet been identified.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, she was Maria, daughter of Tsar Ivan II by his third marriage.  However, if this was correct, it seems unlikely Pachymeres would have highlighted her relationship with her [half-]sister Elena.  In addition, the betrothal of the couple's older son, dated to [1263], suggests that his mother must have been born earlier than [1239], Maria's estimated birth date.  It therefore appears more likely that Ivan Mico's wife was Tamara, the only recorded full sister of Elena, wife of Emperor Theodoros.  m IVAN Mico [Mytzes] boyar, son of --- (-after 1262). 

5.         son (-Trnovo Autumn 1237).  Georgius Akropolites records the death of "filiolum ipsius et Trinobi episcopum" at the same time as the death of "Asano…uxorem Ungaram", while Tsar Ivan Asen was besieging "Tzuruli castrum"[329]

6.         KOLOMAN ([1233/34]-Aug 1246)Ephrĉmius names "Callimanus" as the son of "Asanes" by his wife "Maria genus de populo Pĉonum"[330].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Colmannum" as the son of "Alsannus rex" & his wife "soror Bele regis Hungarie"[331].  He succeeded in 1241 as KOLOMAN I Tsar of the Bulgarians, under a regency, the joint regents quarrelling among themselves[332].  Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Bulgarorum princeps Asanus" and the succession of "Callimanus eius ex Ungara filius", adding in a later passage that Koloman was twelve years old, just before the sentence which records his death[333].  Ioannes III Emperor at Nikaia took advantage of Bulgarian weakness during the minority of Tsar Koloman to conquer major parts of Thrace, the Rhodopes and Macedonia[334].  Presumably this was also the time when Mongol suzerainty over Bulgaria was established. 

Tsar Ivan Asen II & his third wife had three children:

7.         MIHAIL ASEN ([1238]-murdered Trnovo 1257)Ephrĉmius names "Michaelem Mariam et Theodoram" as the three children of "Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari"[335].  Georgius Akropolites names "Michaelem Theodoram Mariam" as the children of "Asanus" and his wife "filiam Angeli Theodori Irenem"[336].  He succeeded his half-brother in 1246 as MIHAIL II ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians.  Taking advantage of the death of Ioannes III Emperor in Nikaia in 1254, Bulgaria reconquered Macedonia, which was recaptured by Nikaia by 1256[337].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Bulgarorum princeps Michael", receiving the news of the death of Emperor Ioannes III, "agitasset regionem" and captured territory from the empire[338].  Bulgaria entered an alliance with Hungary in 1255, confirmed by Tsar Mihail's marriage to the granddaughter of Bela IV King of Hungary[339].  Tsar Mihail II was murdered and replaced on the throne by his cousin Koloman.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Bulgarorum princeps…Michael" was killed by "consobrino suo Callimano" at Trnovo[340]m ([1255]) as her first husband, ANNA Rostislavna of Galich, daughter of ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ex-Grand Prince of Kiev, ex-Prince of Galich, Ban of Mačva & his wife Anna of Hungary ([after 1243]-[1296/98]).  Her parentage and first marriage are indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungariĉ regis generum" as father-in-law of "Bulgarorum…princeps"[341].  Her first husband's cousin and successor, Tsar Koloman II, forced her to marry him as her second husband[342].  Georgius Akropolites records that "consobrino suo Callimano" married "Bulgarorum princeps…Michael…uxore" after killing her first husband[343].  Tsarina Anna may have married thirdly (May 1260) Moys de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans, Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron, son of --- (-end 1280), although according to another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[344], the wife of Moys de Dáró was Erszebet of Hungary, daughter of András of Hungary Prince of Galich & his wife Ielena Mstislavna of Galich.  . 

8.         MARIJA ([1239]-)Ephrĉmius names "Michaelem Mariam et Theodoram" as the three children of "Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari"[345].  Georgius Akropolites names "Michaelem Theodoram Mariam" as the children of "Asanus" and his wife "filiam Angeli Theodori Irenem"[346]

9.         TEODORA [Anna] ([1240/41]-).  Ephrĉmius names "Michaelem Mariam et Theodoram" as the three children of "Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari", in a later passage naming the second daughter "Annam"[347].  Georgius Akropolites names "Michaelem Theodoram Mariam" as the children of "Asanus" and his wife "filiam Angeli Theodori Irenem", also in a later passage naming the second daughter "Annam"[348].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  m PJOTR, son of ---.  Sébastokrator.  Probably chief regent for Tsar Mihail II Asen after 1246[349].  1253. 

 

 

 

B.      RIVAL TSARS of the BULGARIANS 1258-1322

 

 

After the death of Tsar Koloman II in 1258, there was a series of rival claimants to the throne:

 

ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ex-Prince of Galich, son of MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Romanovna of Galich ([1225]-1263).  After the Mongol invasion, he sought refuge with Béla IV King of Hungary, married the king's daughter, and was appointed Ban of Mačva.  He mediated the peace between Bulgaria and the empire of Nikaia in 1256[350].  On the death of his son-in-law Koloman II Tsar of Bulgaria in 1258, Rostislav invaded Bulgaria from neighbouring Mačva, ostensibly to protect the interests of his daughter, who was handed to him at Trnovo.  He retreated to Vidin where he assumed the title ROSTISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, and was recognised as such by Hungary[351].  His forces were temporarily expelled from Vidin province by his rival Konstantin Tih, during Rostislav's temporary absence helping his father-in-law in his war with Bohemia, but he was restored by Hungarian troops which expelled Konstantin from the area in 1261[352].  On his death, his lands were divided between his sons, Mikhail taking his part of Bosnia and Bela taking Mačva. 

-        see RUSSIA

 

 

IVAN Mico [Mytzes], boyar, son of --- (-after 1262).  He was proclaimed IVAN Tsar of the Bulgarians in 1258 after the overthrow of Tsar Koloman II, but probably never obtained Trnovo and simply created his own principality which was centred on the Black Sea port of Mesembria in south-east Bulgaria[353].  Following the Byzantine invasion of 1263, he capitulated to Emperor Michael VIII in 1263, surrendering Mesembria in return for land in Asia Minor. 

m --- of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [second wife ].  Pachymeres records that "Mytzes" was "gener…Asanis" and that "sororem" of his wife had married "Theodorus Lascaris"[354].  The primary source which confirms the name of Ivan Mico's wife has not yet been identified.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, she was Maria, daughter of Tsar Ivan II by his third marriage.  However, if this was correct, it seems unlikely Pachymeres would have highlighted her relationship with her [half-]sister Elena.  In addition, the betrothal of the couple's older son, dated to [1263], suggests that his mother must have been born earlier than [1239], Maria's estimated birth date.  It therefore appears more likely that Ivan Mico's wife was Tamara, the only recorded full sister of Elena, wife of Emperor Theodoros. 

Tsar Ivan & his wife had two children: 

1.         IVAN ASEN (-before 1302).  Pachymeres names "Mytzĉ primogenitor Ioanni" when recording his betrothal[355].  He was installed in 1278 Emperor Michael VIII, who was concerned with the deteriorating stability in Bulgaria, as IVAN ASEN III Mytzes Tsar of the Bulgarians.  With a Byzantine army he besieged Trnovo in Autumn 1278.  The city opened the gates to him in Feb 1279, during Ivajlo's absence fighting the Tatars, and he was recognised as Tsar[356].  His forces pursued Ivajlo and besieged him in the fortress of Silistria.  To increase his power base, Ivan Asen married his sister to a leading Trnovo boyar[357].  He was expelled in 1280 by Ivajlo, and fled to the Tatars and then to Constantinople.  He was awarded the title despot in Byzantium 1284, his descendants rising to prominence in the Byzantine empire. 

-        ASANES

2.         [KERAMARIJA].  Pachymeres records that "Terterum" married "sororem…Asanis" after repudiating his first wife, but that he later repudiated her and took back his first wife[358]m ([1279], repudiated 1284) as his second wife, GEORGI Terter, son of --- (-1304).  He succeeded in 1280-1292 as GEORGI I Tsar of the Bulgarians.

 

 

TICH [Toichos], boyar in Skopje, son of ---

m --- of Serbia, daughter of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

Boyar Tich & his wife had one known son:

1.         KONSTANTIN Tih (-killed in battle Autumn 1277).  Georgius Akropolites records that "Toechi filium Constantinum" was elected to "Bulgarorum principatus" after Tsar Koloman was killed[359].  One of the boyars in Trnovo, he was elected in 1258 as KONSTANTIN Tih Tsar of the Bulgarians by his fellow boyars.  He was based in Trnovo.  In order to boost his claim, he married as his second wife the granddaughter of Tsar Ivan Asen II.  He took advantage of his rival Rostislav's temporary absence from Vidin (he was helping his father-in-law Béla IV King of Hungary in his war against Bohemia) to recapture Vidin province.  However, the Hungarians counter-attacked and forced his withdrawal[360].  He fell from his horse in 1264 and was paralysed from the waist down.  His personal leadership of his armies became difficult and his power declined[361].  He fell under the influence of his ambitious second wife who assumed greater control due to her husband's physical incapacity.  His third marriage with the niece of Emperor Michael VIII was arranged to confirm a new alliance with Byzantium, under which he was promised Mesembria and Anchialos, although the Byzantines later reneged on the arrangement[362].  He was killed while trying to suppress the rebellion of Ivajlo, who had also proclaimed himself Tsar[363]m firstly (repudiated [1257/58]) ---.  Georgius Akropolites records that "Toechi filium Constantinum" repudiated his first wife to marry "imperatorem Theodorum…filiam suam maiorem…Irene"[364].  The name of the first wife of Konstantin Tih is not known.  m secondly (early 1258) EIRENE Laskarina, daughter of THEODOROS II Emperor in Nikaia & his wife Elena Asenina of Bulgaria (-[1269]).  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Toechi filium Constantinum" and "imperatorem Theodorum…filiam suam maiorem…Irene"[365]Ephrĉmius records the marriage of "Irene filia Cĉsaris natu maior" and "Constantino…Ticho"[366].  Tsar Konstantin arranged this marriage with the granddaughter of Tsar Ivan Asen II to boost his claim to the Bulgarian throne.  After the coup engineered by Mikhail Palaiologos against her brother Emperor Ioannes, Eirene urged her husband to attack the territories which Palaiologos controlled[367]m thirdly (1269) as her second husband, MARIA Palaiologina Kantakouzene, widow of ALEXIOS Philes, daughter of IOANNES Kantakouzenos & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (-after 1279).  Pachymeres records that "regis Bulgarorum Constantini" married "imperator…propriam neptem, Eulogiĉ suĉ sororis filiam secundo genitam Mariam", previously married to "Philes Alexius magnus domesticus", after the death of his first wife[368].  Pachymeres names "Constantini quondam…regis ex Maria filium"[369].  Her marriage was arranged to confirm Byzantium's new alliance with Bulgaria, under which her uncle promised to return Mesembria and Anchialos, although the Byzantines later reneged on the arrangement[370].  With the decline in her husband's effective leadership following his incapacity, she assumed an increasing role in governing Bulgaria.  On behalf of her husband, she negotiated an arrangement with his rival Jakov Svetoslav.  She adopted him as their second son in 1273 but had him poisoned in [1275/77][371].  She continued to rule in Trnovo after her husband was killed in battle, but after Ivajlo besieged Trnovo she opened the city gates to him in late spring 1278 and married him as her third husband[372].  After Trnovo opened its gates to Byzantine troops in Feb 1279, she was sent to Emperor Mikhael VIII who imprisoned her in Adrianople[373].  Tsar Konstantin & his [first/second] wife had one child:

a)         daughter (-1292 or after).  She died or was repudiated in 1292.  m ([1284]) as his first wife, SMILEC, ruler in western Sredna Gora (-1298).  He succeeded in 1292 as SMILEC Tsar of the Bulgarians, after Georgi Terter fled to Byzantium, possibly installed by Nogai Khan of the Tartars. 

Tsar Konstantin & his third wife had one child:

b)         MIHAIL ASEN ([1270/71]-murdered [1300/01]).  Pachymeres records that "Maria…[et] Constantino" had a son "Michaelem"[374].  He was crowned as co-Tsar of the Bulgarians by his father in 1273[375].  In a Byzantine prison 1279.  Pachymeres names "Constantini quondam…regis ex Maria filium" when recording that Byzantium unsuccessfully attempted to install him as Tsar[376], dated to 1298 by Fine[377]m ---.  The name of his wife is not known. 

 

 

1.         JAKOV SVETOSLAV, son of --- (-murdered [1275/77]).  Of Russian origin, he was created despot in Bulgaria in 1261 (although by which rival Tsar is not known) and granted land south of Vidin province.  He was granted Vidin under a treaty agreed with Hungary, which had invaded to drive Byzantine forces from Jakov's lands in 1263.  From the time of a second Hungarian invasion in 1266, he was referred to in Hungarian documents as JAKOV SVETOSLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians[378].  He was able to assert his independence from Hungary after the accession of the minor King László IV in 1272, and negotiated a settlement with his rival Tsar Konstantin Tih, who adopted him as his second son in 1273.  He was poisoned by Maria, third wife of Konstantin Tih[379]m ([1273]) as her second husband, THEODORA Laskarina, widow of MATHIEU de Mons Baron of Veligosti, daughter of THEODOROS II Emperor in Nikaia & his wife Elena Asanina of Bulgaria (-after 1273).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannem…Theodoram et Eudociam" as the three remaining unmarried children of Emperor Theodoros II[380]Ephrĉmius names "parvulum Ioannem…duasque virgunculas, Eudociam…ac Theodoram" as the three children still remaining at home when "Theodorus" died[381].  Pachymeres records that "pueri Ioannis sorores germanas…unam" married "nobili Latino Malo de Belicarto" and that "tertiam" married "Bulgaro Sphentisthlabo…circa Hĉmum regionis in Mysia principi"[382].  As Georgius Akropolites (a contemporary) only names four sisters in total, it is likely that two of the three marriages recorded by Pachymeres relate to the same daughter.  As Evdokia left south-eastern Europe after her marriage (see below), it is more likely that Theodora's (first) husband died early and that she was the daughter who married the Bulgarian prince.  The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         IVAJLO, son of --- (-murdered 1280).  He was a pig farmer who led local resistance to Tatar raids in the mid-1270s.  As his reputation grew, the territory from which he gathered support widened[383].  He proclaimed himself IVAJLO Tsar of the Bulgarians, and in 1277 defeated the troops sent by Konstantin Tih to repress his rebellion, Tsar Konstantin being killed in the battle.  Ivajlo besieged Trnovo, and in late Spring 1278 Tsarica Maria opened the gates of the city to him, recognised him as Tsar and married him as her third husband[384].  His followers became alienated by his assimilation into the establishment[385].  He left Trnovo to combat the Tatars in late 1278, the city opening its gates in Feb 1279 to Byzantine forces and Ivan Asen III who was recognised as Tsar.  Ivajlo's wife was sent to Emperor Michael VIII, who imprisoned her in Adrianople[386].  Pursued by the Byzantine forces of Tsar Ivan Asen III, Ivajlo occupied the fortress of Silistria but succeeded in defeating Ivan Asen III in Jun and Aug 1279.  He was murdered by Tatar supporters of Nogaj[387]m (1278) as her third husband, MARIA Palaiologina Kantakouzene, widow firstly of ALEXIOS Philes and secondly of KONSTANTIN Tih Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of IOANNES Kantakouzenos & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (-after 1279).  She continued to rule in Trnovo after her second husband was killed in battle, but after Ivajlo besieged Trnovo she opened the city gates to him in late spring 1278 and married him as her second husband[388].  After Trnovo opened its gates to Byzantine troops in Feb 1279, she was sent to Emperor Mikhael VIII who imprisoned her in Adrianople[389].  Tsar Ivajlo & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter ([1279/80]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

 

 

1.         GEORGI Terter, son of --- (-1304).  Pachymeres records that "Osphentishlabo…pater eius Terteris e Comanis erat"[390].  A leading Trnovo boyar, he repudiated his first wife to accept the offer of marriage to Tsar Ivan Asen III's sister[391].  After Tsar Ivan Asen III fled Trnovo in late 1279, he was installed as GEORGI Terter Tsar of the Bulgarians.  He was recognised as Tsar by Emperor Andronikos II in 1284, received the title Despot, and accepted the repudiation of his second wife and the return of his first wife[392].  Subject to frequent raids by the Tatars led by Nogai, his territory was soon reduced to the eastern part of Bulgaria.  He finally accepted Tartar suzerainty in 1285, confirmed by sending his son to Nogai as a hostage and by his daughter's marriage to Nogai's son[393].  Under increased pressure from Tatar raids, he fled to Byzantium in 1292 and was replaced as Tsar by Smilec[394].  He was imprisoned in Byzantium until 1298.  He was banished from Byzantium in 1304.  m firstly (repudiated [1279], reaccepted 1284) MARIA, daughter of ---.  The origin of the first wife of Georgi Terter is not known.  Pachymeres records that "Osphentishlabo…materno genere Bulgarus"[395], although he may be referring to the second wife of Georgi Terter.  Pachymeres records that she was sent to Nikaia after her repudiation, but later accepted back by her husband[396]m secondly ([1279], repudiated 1284) [KERAMARIJA] of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN Mico Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Marija Asenina of Bulgaria.  Pachymeres records that "Terterum" married "sororem…Asanis" after repudiating his first wife, but that he later repudiated her and took back his first wife[397].  Georgi Terter & his [first] wife had three children:

a)         TODOR SVETOSLAV (-1321).  Pachymeres records that "Tertero cuius coniux prior cum filio Osphentisthlabo" went "ad imperatorem" after he remarried[398].  His betrothal in [1284] indicates that he was probably born from his father's first marriage.  He was sent to Nikaia with his mother after she was repudiated by his father in [1279][399].  His father sent Todor as a hostage to Nogai Khan of the Tartars in 1285 when he accepted Tatar suzerainty over Bulgaria[400].  Returning with his brother-in-law Chaka after Nogai's defeat in 1299, Todor Svetoslav supported Chaka's installation as Tsar but deposed him shortly afterwards and succeeded in 1300 as TODOR SVETOSLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians.  He was able to extend his rule over southern Bessarabia as far as Akkerman on the River Dnestr, territories formerly held by Nogai Khan and which were presumably transferred to Tsar Todor Svetoslav by Tokhta Khan who had united the Tatar Khanate after defeating Nogai[401].  Tsar Todor Svetoslav defeated a Byzantine army in 1304, probably recovering Mesembria and Anchialos at this time or in the following year, but in 1307 he made peace with Byzantium which then recognised his conquests[402].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the sudden death of "Sphentisthlabus Mœsorum rex", specifying that "filius eius Georgius Terteres" succeeded[403]Betrothed ([1284]) to --- of Thessaly, daughter of .  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Bulgariĉ rex Terteres…suo filio Osphentisthlabo" to "Ioannis sebastocratoris patris…Michaelis…filia"[404]m firstly EUPHROSYNE [Enconen], daughter and heiress of MANKUS, a merchant in Constantinople & his wife ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Osphentishlabo" and "puellam…Enconen…e Mancuso…natam", and that she had been baptised by "Euphrosyne Nogĉ coniuge"[405]m secondly (1320) as her first husband, THEODORA Palaiologina, daughter of co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX & his wife Rita [Maria] of Armenia (-after 1330).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the marriage of "Michael imperator…Theodoram [filiam]" and "Sphentisthlabo Mœsorum regi"[406].  She married secondly (after Aug 1324) Mihail III Šišman Tsar of the Bulgarians.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaelem Streantzimeri…" married "Andronici minoris germanam sororem Theodoram, Sphentisthlabo regi defuncto antea nuptam" after the war with Byzantium[407].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "imperatoris Andronici soror, quondam Michaeli Mœsorum regi nupta…monasticam…Theodosia ex Theodora dicta" returned to her brother after the death of her [second] husband[408].  She became a nun as THEODOSIA.  Tsar Todor Svetoslav & his first wife had one child: 

i)          GEORGI Terter (-end 1322).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the sudden death of "Sphentisthlabus Mœsorum rex", and states that "filius eius Georgius Terteres" succeeded[409].  He succeeded in 1321 as GEORGI II Tsar of the Bulgarians, but died soon after, leaving a power vacuum which was eventually filled by the election in Jun 1323 of Mihail Šišman Lord of Vidin as Tsar[410].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records the death of "rege Tertere sine herede"[411]

b)         ANA ([1270/75]-after 1304).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Terteris filiam, ex sorore genitam Asanis" and "cralis Serbiĉ"[412].  Her birth date range is estimated from the estimated birth dates of her two children by her first marriage.  If these dates are correct, Ana must have been born from her father's first marriage irrespective of the report in Pachymeres.  Pachymeres records that "Sphentisthlabus Bulgarorum" arranged the marriage of "repudiatĉ a crale Serbiĉ suĉ sororis, Terteris filiĉ" and "Michaelem despotam"[413]m firstly (Autumn 1284, repudiated 1294) as his second wife, STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia, son of STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]).  m secondly (1301) MIKHAEL [Demetrios] Dukas Komnenos Angelos 'Kutrules' despot, son of MIKHAEL [Konstantinos] Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus, despot & his wife Theodora Dukaina Petraliphaina Basilissa (-after 13 Mar 1304).

c)         daughter .  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Nogĉ…filio…ex muliere Alacca…Tzacĉ" and "Terteris filiam"[414].  Her marriage was arranged when her father accepted Tatar suzerainty in 1285[415]m (1285) CHAKA Khan, son of NOGAI Khan of the Tartars & his [wife/concubine] --- (-murdered 1300).  After his father's defeat and death, he fled to Bulgaria.  Pachymeres names "Nogĉ…filio…ex muliere Alacca…Tzacĉ" when recording that he conquered Bulgaria[416].  With the help of his brother-in-law Todor Svetoslav, he installed himself as ČAKA Tsar of the Bulgarians in 1299 after expelling the widow of Tsar Smilec[417].  He was deposed in 1300 by his brother-in-law, strangled and his decapitated head sent to Tokhta Khan in Crimea. 

2.         ELTIMIR (-after 1305).  Pachymeres records that "Eltemeres…Cruno…exarchus regionis" was "frater…Terteris"[418].  He established a secessionist principality in the region between Sliven and Kopsis[419].  He fled from Bulgaria in 1292[420].  He was appointed despot by Tsar Smilec in 1292.  Exarchos of Krounos before 1304.  He was granted the fortresses of Jambol and Lardaia by Tsar Todor Svetoslav, he defected to the Byzantines after the attack led by co-Emperor Michael IX on Bulgaria in 1305[421]m --- of Bulgaria, daughter of SMILEC Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife --- of Bulgaria.  Pachymeres records that "Eltemeres" was "Smiltzĉ gener"[422].  Eltimir & his wife had one child: 

a)         IVAN Dragusin .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m MARIA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  

3.         [daughter .  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Smiltzo" and "Eltimerĉ despotĉ sororem"[423].  This contradicts other sources.  It is assumed to be incorrect: the same passage contains the error relating to the marriage of Tsar Georgi Terter (see above) which suggests that the whole passage may be garbled.] 

4.         [daughter .  Pachymeres records the marriage of "rex Terterus" and "Eltimerĉ germanam alteram"[424], which must be incorrect assuming that Eltimir was the brother of Tsar Georgi Terter which Pachymeres reports in a later passage[425].] 

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known: 

1.         SMILEC (-1298).  Ruler in western Sredna Gora in [1284], jointly with his brothers, the territory's independence was apparently supported by Byzantium[426].  He succeeded in 1292 as SMILEC Tsar of the Bulgarians, after Tsar Georgi Terter fled to Byzantium, possibly installed by Nogai Khan of the Tartars.  He appears to have maintained good relations with both the Tatars and Byzantines during his reign[427]m firstly ([1284]) --- of Bulgaria, daughter of KONSTANTIN Tih Tsar of the Bulgarians & [his first wife --- or his second wife Eirene Laskarina].  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Smiltzo" and "Eltimerĉ despotĉ sororem"[428].  Died or repudiated 1292.  m secondly (1292) --- Palaiologina, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Angelos Komnenos Dukas Palaiologos, sébastokrator & his wife Eirene Komnene Laskarina Branaina (-after [1306]).  Pachymeres records that "Smiltzĉ" married "neptem ex fratre suam…ex sebastocratore nata Constantino"[429].  She attempted to maintain power in the name of her infant son in 1298 after the death of her husband.  She offered to marry Milutin King of Serbia in return for his support[430].  She was expelled by Chaka the Tatar, who installed himself as Tsar in 1299.  She eventually returned to Constantinople[431].  Pachymeres records that "quĉ uxor olim Smiltzĉ fuerat" returned to Constantinople, dateable to 1306 from the context[432].  Tsar Smilec & his first wife had three children:

a)         IOANNES (-8 Aug [before 1286]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He became a monk as JOASAPH

b)         TEODORA (-Oct 1322).  Her marriage took place when her future husband was a hostage with the Tatars (with whom her father had close ties), where he was sent in [1293] as a gesture of appeasement to forestall an attack on Serbia and where he remained until 1299.  Fine suggests that it took place in late 1298[433]m ([24 Aug 1293/1298]) as his first wife, STEFAN UROŠ of Serbia, illegitimate son of STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia & his mistress --- ([1276]-murdered 11 Nov 1331, bur Visoki Dečani monastery).  He succeeded in 1323 as STEFAN UROŠ III "Dečanski" King of Serbia, deposed in 1331.   

c)         daughter.  Pachymeres records that "Eltemeres" was "Smiltzĉ gener"[434]m ELTIMIR, brother of GEORGI I Terter Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of ---. 

Tsar Smilec & his second wife had one child:

d)         IOANNES (-before 1330).  He was expelled from Trnovo with his mother in 1299.  In Constantinople, he adopted the name "Ioannes Komnenos Dukas Angelos Branas Palaeologos".  He became a monk[435]

2.         RADOSLAV.  Ruler in western Sredna Gora in [1284], jointly with his brothers.  He fled to Constantinople in 1295.  Pachymeres names "Radosthlabus" when recording that he was granted the title sebastocrator, specifying that he belonged to "nobilitate familiĉ…primĉ", recording in a later passage that "Eltimeres" blinded him and sent him and his wife to Thessaloniki [in 1298/99][436]m ---.  The name of Radoslav's wife is not known.  Pachymeres records that she was sent to Thessaloniki with her husband in [1298/99][437]

3.         VOJSIL.  Ruler in western Sredna Gora [1284], jointly with his brothers.  He fled to Constantinople in 1295.  He fought against the Catalan Grand Company in 1305.  He commanded one unit of the Byzantine army led by co-Emperor Michael IX which invaded Bulgaria in 1305[438].  Despot of Bulgaria 1323/28.  Prince in the upper Tundcha valley near Kopsis. 

 

 

 

C.      TSARS OF BULGARIA 1323-1393 (FAMILY of ŠIŠMAN)

 

 

ŠIŠMAN, son of --- (-1313).  A boyar.  He established the principality of Vidin and declared himself independent from Bulgaria, under Tatar suzerainty.  He attacked Serbia in 1292, possibly in revenge for Dragutin's capture of Braničevo[439].  In retaliation, Milutin King of Serbia captured Vidin, forcing Šišman to flee to his Tatar overlords, although he soon returned after peace was negotiated, the agreement for which included Šišman's second marriage to the daughter of a powerful Serbian noble[440]

m firstly ---.  The name of the first wife of Šišman is not known. 

m secondly ([1292]) ANA, daughter of DRAGOSLAV Jovan [Serbian Knez] & his wife Jelena ---.  This marriage was agreed as part of the settlement agreed between her husband and Milutin King of Serbia after the latter captured Vidin (in 1292)[441].  A lengthy carved inscription on the stone lintel on the western portal of the church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria records that it was built in 1315 by "a great kaznac Jovan Dragoslav together with his wife Jelena, his son Staniša and his daughter Ana"[442]

Šišman & his first wife had two children:

1.         MIHAIL ŠIŠMAN ([1275/80]-killed in battle Velbužd [Kjustendil] 28 Jul 1330).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He succeeded his father in 1313 as Lord of Vidin, being referred to in a Venetian source in the same year as "Despot of Bulgaria, Lord of Vidin", which suggests that he had established good relations with Todor Svetoslav Tsar of the Bulgarians who was the only Tsar who could have awarded him the title despot.  He also seems to have maintained good relations with his Serbian overlord, King Stefan Uroš II Milutin, whose daughter he married.  In the confusion which followed the death of his father-in-law in 1321, Mihail Šišman took advantage of Serbia's weakness to establish closer relations with Trnovo where he took an active part in councils[443].  A power vacuum followed the death in late 1322 of the infant Tsar Georgi II Terter, until Mihail Šišman was elected at Trnovo in Jun 1323 as MIHAIL III Tsar of the Bulgarians, unifying the two parts of Bulgaria into a single state again.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaelem Streantzimeri…Bydinĉ prĉfectum" was declared king after the death of "rege Tertere sine herede"[444].  Tsar Mihail III immediately went to war against Byzantium and reconquered territory to the south, recorded by Ioannes Kantakouzenos[445].  Under the 1324 peace agreement, he repudiated his second wife to marry his predecessor's widow, the granddaughter of Emperor Andronikos II[446].  In May 1327, the future Emperor Andronikos III allied himself with Tsar Mihail who agreed to provide support against the old Emperor Andronikos II[447].  After the accession of Emperor Andronikos III in 1328, Bulgaria invaded northern Thrace but the Byzantine/Bulgarian alliance was reaffirmed in Oct 1328[448].  War broke out between Bulgaria and Serbia in 1330.  Although Byzantium agreed to send troops for a joint attack on Serbia, they failed to arrive and Tsar Mihail was defeated at Velbužd, fled, fell from his horse and was killed[449]m firstly ---.  The name of the first wife of Mihail Šišman is not known.  m secondly (after 1308, repudiated 1324) NEDA of Serbia, daughter of STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia & his third wife Erszebet of Hungary (-after 1346).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos refers to "sorori…Stephani [Crali]" as the previous wife of "Michaelis", who was then married to "imperatoris sororem"[450].  She was imprisoned by her husband after her repudiation[451].  She was restored as regent for her son [Aug/Sep] 1330, on the insistence of her brother Stefan Uroš III "Dečanski" King of Serbia, but fled to Serbia after her son was deposed in 1331.  m thirdly (after Aug 1324) as her second husband, THEODORA Palaiologina, widow of TODOR SVETOSLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX & his wife Rita [Maria] of Armenia.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaelem Streantzimeri…" married "Andronici minoris germanam sororem Theodoram, Sphentisthlabo regi defuncto antea nuptam" after the war with Byzantium[452].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "imperatoris Andronici soror, quondam Michaeli Mœsorum regi nupta…monasticam…Theodosia ex Theodora dicta" returned to her brother after the death of her [second] husband[453].  She became a nun as THEODOSIA.  Tsar Mihail Šišman & his second wife had three children:

a)         IVAN STEFAN ŠIŠMAN (after 1308-killed in battle Slobozia, Romania 1373).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Sismanum" as the son of "Michaelis…ex Stephani Triballorum principis sorore" when recording that he succeeded his father[454].  Appointed co-ruler with his father in 1323, he was deprived of his rights and imprisoned in 1324 at the time of his father's agreement with Byzantium[455].  In the negotiations which followed his father's defeat and death at Velbužd in 1330, the Serbian king demanded the immediate restoration to power of his sister, and the succession of Ivan[456].  He was installed in Trnovo by Serbian troops in [Aug/Sep] 1330 as IVAN STEFAN Tsar of the Bulgarians, under the regency of his mother.  Byzantium invaded Bulgaria to avenge Tsar Ivan Stefan's stepmother, the sister of Emperor Andronikos III, and recaptured the Black Sea towns of Mesembria and Anchialos.  Tsar Ivan Stefan was deposed in 1331 by a group of Trnovo boyars, and replaced by his first cousin Ivan Alexander[457].  He exiled himself with his mother in Naples, where he was known as LODOVICO.  He fled to Constantinople with Ioannes Kantakouzenos in 1342.  m ([1332/42]) AGNESE di Tarento, illegitimate daughter of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento, titular Emperor of Constantinople [Anjou-Capet] & his mistress ---. 

b)         ŠIŠMAN (-in Dubrovnik). 

c)         MIHAIL.  Lord of Vidin, Despot[458]

2.         KEREZA PETRIZA .  Ioannes Kantakouzenos refers to the mother of "Alexandrum Stranzimero" as "Michaelis sorore", when recording that her son claimed the Bulgarian throne in 1331[459].  She became a nun as THEOFANAm STRACIMIR, Despot. 

-        see below

Šišman had another child, possibly by his second marriage:

3.         BELAUR (-after 1331).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Boësilas Mœsorum regis frater"[460].  He became governor of Vidin, with the title Despot, after his [half-]brother was elected Tsar at Trnovo in 1323[461].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Boesilas demortui regis frater", who fled "ad Romanos", was accepted as "despotam Mœsiĉ", in a passage dated to 1323[462].  He led the Bulgarian delegation which sought to negotiate with Stefan Uroš III Dečanski after the latter defeated Tsar Mihail III at Velbužd in 1330[463].  He opposed the deposition of Tsar Ivan Stefan, but was defeated by an army of Tatar mercenaries hired by the new Tsar, fled from Bulgaria and died in exile[464]

 

 

STRACIMIR, son of ---.  Despot. 

m KEREZA PETRIZA, Despotica, daughter of ŠIŠMAN Lord of Vidin & his first wife ---.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos refers to the mother of "Alexandrum Stranzimero" as "Michaelis sorore", when recording that her son claimed the Bulgarian throne in 1331[465].  She became a nun as THEOPHANA

Stracimir & his wife had three children: 

1.         IVAN ALEXANDER Asen Srazimirović (-17 Feb 1371)Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Alexandrum Stranzimero", whose mother was "Michaelis sorore", when recording that he claimed the Bulgarian throne in 1331[466].  Despot of Lowetch and Kran.  He succeeded in 1331 as IVAN ALEXANDER ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians, after his first cousin was deposed. 

-        see below

2.         JELENA (-7 Nov 1374).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Mœsorum rege…Alexander…Helenam sororem suam" as the wife of "Cralem"[467].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Helena eius mater", referring to "Ouresis, Cralis filius", in a passage dated to 1355[468].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the peace agreement between her brother and her future husband in [1331/32][469].  Citizen of Venice 1350.  Regent of Serbia 1355-56.  On her husband's death, she inherited Serbia's Greek lands between the lower Vardar and the Mesta as well as the Chalcidic peninsula, basing her court at Serres[470].  She became a nun as JELISAVETA in [1359/60], but continued to play an active political role in Serbia.  m (19 Apr 1332) STEFAN DUŠAN King of Serbia, son of STEFAN UROŠ III "Dečanski" King of Serbia & his first wife Teodora of Bulgaria ([1308]-20 Dec 1355).  He was crowned Tsar of Serbia and Greece in 1346. 

3.         IVAN Komnenos Asen (-before 12 May 1363).  He was awarded the title despot by his brother-in-law Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia, and installed as governor in central Albania, including Valona, Kanina and Berat in [1349].  He rejected Serbian suzerainty from 1358[471].  He maintained close ties with Venice to secure his position, becoming a citizen of Venice in 1353.  He died of the plague.  [m firstly ---.]  ---.  Nothing is known about Ivan's possible first wife.  m [secondly] (before 1355) as her second husband, ANNA Palaiologina Angelina, widow of IOANNES Komnenos Angelos Orsini despot of Epirus, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Angelos [Epirus] protobestiarios & his wife --- Kokalatissa.  The Historia Epiri records that "mater…Thomaidis…eiusque fratris…Anna regina nostra" married "cuidam ex Bulgaris, Comneno tyranno, fratri regis Stephani", adding that he ruled "Caninam et Belgradam"[472].  Regent of Epirus 1335/39 and 1341/42.  She was imprisoned in Constantinople 1342/49. 

Ivan had one possible child by his first marriage:

a)         [ALEXANDER (-[killed in battle Maritza 26 Sep 1371]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He succeeded his [supposed] father in 1363 as Lord of Valona and Kanina.  Citizen of Ragusa 1368.] 

Ivan & his second wife had one child:

b)         KOMINIA (-[5 Oct 1395/Sep 1396]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   She succeeded her husband as Lady of Valona, Kanina, Berat and Himara.  Regent 1385/95.  Vassal of Venice 1389/90 for the islands of Sasene and Torre di Pirgo.  m (1372) BALŠA Balšić, son of BALŠA Lord of Skadar & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Berat 18 Sep 1385).  He obtained Valona, Berat, Himara and Kanina as dowry on his marriage[473].  He succeeded as Lord of Zeta, in the territories of his older brother Djuradj, on the latter's death in 1379.  He captured Durazzo from Karlo Thopia in 1385, calling himself Duke of Durazzo in Apr 1385[474].  He was killed fighting the Turks.  

 

 

IVAN ALEXANDER Asen Srazimirović, son of STRACIMIR despot & his wife Kereza Petriza of Vidin (-17 Feb 1371).  Ioannes Kantakouzenos names "Alexandrum Stranzimero", whose mother was "Michaelis sorore", when recording that he claimed the Bulgarian throne in 1331[475].  Despot of Lowetch and Kran.  He succeeded in 1331 as IVAN ALEXANDER ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians, after his first cousin was deposed.  He made peace with Stefan Dušan King of Serbia [1331/32], sealed by the marriage of his sister to the Serbian king[476].  His central authority from Trnovo was weakened by his older son's autonomy at Vidin and by the secession of Balik at Karbona [Balčik] in the region now called Dobrudja in north-eastern Bulgaria.  This is the only indication so far found of Bulgarian participation in the mid-14th century wars in northern Italy.  Byzantium captured Anchialos in a war with Bulgaria in 1364, and Mesembria and Sozopolis in 1366, in reprisal for Tsar Ivan Alexander having detained Emperor Ioannes V in Bulgaria on his return from a visit to Hungary[477]

m firstly ([1320], repudiated 1340) TEODORA Bassaraba, daughter of IOAN [Ivanco] Bassarab "cel Mare/the Great" Voivode of Wallachia & his wife Ana --- (-after 1340).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   She became a nun as THEOFANA

m secondly ([1345]) SARAH, a Jewish woman (-after 1367).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   She was baptised as TEODORA

Tsar Ivan Alexander Asen & his first wife had three children:

1.         MIHAIL ASEN (1321-killed in battle [1354]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Joint-Tsar of the Bulgarians in Adrianople in 1336.  He was killed fighting the Turks.  m (Adrianople 1336) EIRENE [Maria] Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his second wife Jeanne [Anna] de Savoie (1327-[Constantinople] after 1356).  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Andronicus" had two daughters by his second wife, of whom the older married "filio principis Mysorum"[478].  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "Irene regis Ioannis Palaeologi soror" married "regis Mysorum…Alexandri…filio" but was childless[479].  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Michaeli, Alexandri Mœsorum regis filio" married "Mariam filiam", referring to Emperor Andronikos III, the second passage which records the actual marriage is dated to 1336[480].  She was sent back to Constantinople in 1356.  Mihail Asen & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ALEXIOS Asanes .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   In Serrhai 1365/75.  In Byzantine service from [1371].  m ---.  The name of Alexios´s wife is not known.  Alexios & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          EIRENE Asanina .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m PAOLO di Bernardo, a patrician of Venice (-before 18 Apr 1395). 

ii)         [ISAAKIOS Asanes (-after 1429).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He was brought up at the Byzantine court.  Defensor 1400.  Eparchos of Constantinople.  Ambassador to the Turks 1420.] 

b)         [ANDREAS Asanes (-before 1415).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Senator and Governor in Lemnos 1405.]  m ---.  The name of Andreas´s wife is not known.  Andreas & his wife had [three or more] children: 

i)          MANUEL Palaiologos Asanopulos .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   In Constantinople 1416. 

ii)         sons .  The primary source which confirms their parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         IVAN STRACIMIR (-after 15 Sep 1396).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Joint-Tsar of the Bulgarians from 1355 to 1360.  His father disinherited him in favour of his son by his second marriage and granted Vidin to Ivan Stracimir in compensation[481].  The Hungarians captured Vidin 2 Jun 1365, along with Ivan Stracimir and his family, and established a Hungarian banate with a Hungarian appointed Ban.  Ivan Stracimir recovered Vidin in 1370, as the vassal of Hungary, Lajos King of Hungary retaining his two daughters at the Hungarian court.  He assumed the title Tsar of Vidin, removed Vidin's church from the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Trnovo to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and minted his own money[482].  On his father's death in 1371, he attempted to conquer Bulgaria and briefly captured Sofija[483].  In 1388, he submitted to Ottoman suzerainty after the Ottoman army arrived at Vidin's borders after conquering parts of Bulgaria[484].  Sultan Bayezid I annexed Vidin after the battle of Nikopolis in Sep 1396 in which Ivan Stracimir had supported the army of Zsigmond King of Hungary[485].  Ivan Stracimir died in a Turkish prison.  m (before 1369) ANA [Slava] Bassarab, daughter of NICOLAE ALEXANDRU Voyvode of Wallachia & his second wife Clara de Doboca (before 1345-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Ivan Stracimir & his wife had three children: 

a)         DOROTEJA (-before Aug 1390).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Lajos King of Hungary retained her and her sister at the Hungarian court after her father was restored in Vidin in 1370, later arranging her marriage[486].  “Stephanus Tvrtko, Bosnĉ rex…cum matre Helena et coniuge Dorothea” confirmed the privileges granted previously to the Ragusans by “Bosnĉ et Serbiĉ regibus” by charter dated 10 Apr 1378[487]m ([1376/84]) STJEPAN TVRTKO I King [Kralj] of Bosnia and Serbia, son of VLADISLAV Kotromanić Knez [of Bosnia] & his wife Jelena Subić ([1338]-10 Mar 1391). 

b)         daughter (-young).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

c)         KONSTANTIN (-Belgrade 16 Sep 1422).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

3.         IVAN ASEN (-killed in battle Sredec 1354).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Joint Tsar [1337].  He was killed fighting the Turks. 

Tsar Ivan Alexander Asen & his second wife had four children:

4.         KERATAMAS [Tamara].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records the marriage of "Susmanum Mysiĉ regem…filia" and "Amuratem"[488]m ([1371/76]) as his fourth wife, Sultan MURAD I, son of Sultan ORKHAN & his second wife Nilüfer (-murdered Kosovo 15 Jun 1389). 

5.         KERATZA [Mara Kyratza] ([1348]-[1390]).  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "regi Andronico regis Ioannis Palaeologi filio" married "Maria regis Mysorum Alexandri filia"[489].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records the marriage of "Susmanum Mysiĉ regem…filia" and "Grĉcorum regi, Andronico Ioannis filio"[490].  Georgius Phrantzes names "Marco…qui…partem Bulgariĉ tenebat" as father-in-law of "Andronicus"[491].  She became a nun as MATHISSAm (betrothed 17 Aug 1355, [1365]) ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of Emperor IOANNES V & his wife Helene Kantakuzene ([1348]-Selymbria 28 Jun 1385).  He succeeded in 1376 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS IV.  He was deposed in 1379. 

6.         DESISLAVA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m KONSTANTIN Prince of Welbuschd, Walachea (-killed in battle 1394). 

7.         IVAN ŠIŠMAN (-murdered in prison Philippopolis 1395).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   His father declared him Joint Tsar in 1360, disinheriting his older half-brother[492].  He succeeded his father in 1371 as IVAN ŠIŠMAN Tsar of the Bulgarians.  He became a vassal of the Ottomans in 1376, some time after agreeing his sister's marriage to Sultan Murad I[493].  The Ottomans captured Sofija in 1385.  He tried to assert his independence from Ottoman overlordship in 1388, but merely provoked the capture of Preslav, Šumen and Silistria.  Learning of Tsar Ivan Šišman's secret negotiations with Zsigmond King of Hungary for a joint attack on the Ottomans, the latter launched a major offensive into Bulgaria, captured Trnovo 17 Jul 1393 after a three month siege, and annexed the country[494]m firstly MARIA, daughter of DESISLAV & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m secondly [DRAGANA], daughter of LAZAR Hrebljanović Knez of Serbia & his wife Milica ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Tsar Ivan Šišman & his [first/second] wife had three children:

a)         ALEXANDER (-killed in battle).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He converted to Islam, and became Governor in Asia Minor, later in Smyrna.

b)         FRUTSCHIN [Vladislav] .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Hungarian diplomat in Albania 1435.  He had property in Temešvar. 

c)         KERAZA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

Tsar Ivan Šišman had one possible illegitimate son. 

d)         [IOSEPH (-Florence 10 Jun 1439, bur Florence Santa Maria Novella).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Metropolitan of Ephesus before 1416.  He was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople as IOSEPH II in 1416.] 

8.         IVAN ASEN .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

 



[1] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.31, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 175. 

[2] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), pp. 74-7. 

[3] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 94. 

[4] Classen, J. (ed.) (1841) Theophanes Chronographia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Theophanes") Vol, I, 6301/802, pp. 752-3. 

[5] Theophanes, Vol. I, 6303/803, p. 764, and Zonaras XV 15. 10-13, 15, and 18-19, quoted in Martindale, J. R. (2001) Prosopography of the Byzantine Empire I: (641-867) (Ashgate, CD Rom) ("PBI I CD-Rom"). 

[6] Historia Leone Bardĉ Armenii filio ("Scriptor Incertus"), 342-6, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[7] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 813, p. 97. 

[8] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Theophanes Continuatus"), Leonis Armenii Imperium, I, 5, p. 12. 

[9] Scriptor Incertus, 346-8, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom).

[10] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Symeon Magister"), De Leone Armenio, 8, p. 613. 

[11] Theophanes Continuatus, V, Historia de Vita et rebus gestis Basilii inclyti imperatoris, 4, p. 217. 

[12] Theophanes Continuatus II, 17-18, pp. 64-6, and Zonaras XV 23, 17-20, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[13] Einhardi Annales 824, MGH SS I, p. 212. 

[14] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 824, 825 and 826, MGH SS I, pp. 358-9. 

[15] Theophylact of Ohrid ([1090]-1109), cited in Fine (1991), p. 108. 

[16] Fine (1991), p. 108. 

[17] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio") 32, p. 154. 

[18] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[19] Fine (1991), p. 112, citing Theophylact of Ohrid. 

[20] Symeon Magister, De Michaele et Theodora, 21, p. 664. 

[21] Academia scientiarum et artum Slavorum meridionalium (1878) Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb) ("Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium"), Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[22] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[23] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[24] Fine (1991), p. 112, citing Theophylact of Ohrid. 

[25] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1842) Leo Grammaticus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Leo Grammaticus") 238, Georgii Monachi Vitĉ Recentiorum Imperatorum (referred to as Georgius Monachus Continuatus in PBE I CD-Rom) ("Georgius Monachus"), 824, and Symeon Magister (referred to as Pseudo Symeon in PBE I CD-Rom) 665, quoted in PBE I (CD-Rom). 

[26] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[27] Liber Pontificalis, 107, 68-75. 

[28] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[29] Fine (1991), p. 130. 

[30] Fine (1991), p. 131. 

[31] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[32] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[33] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[34] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[35] Fine (1991), p. 130. 

[36] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[37] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[38] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[39] Georgius Monachus Continuatus, De Michaele et Theodora, 8, p. 818. 

[40] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[41] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[42] ES II 167. 

[43] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 16 and 19, pp. 20 and 23. 

[44] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 16 and 19, pp. 20 and 23. 

[45] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 22, p. 28. 

[46] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[47] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[48] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[49] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[50] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[51] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[52] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[53] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 23, p. 31. 

[54] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[55] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 194, p. 382. 

[56] Georgius Monachus Continuatus, De Michaele et Theodora, 8, p. 818. 

[57] Fine (1991), p. 132. 

[58] Fine (1991), p. 130. 

[59] Fine (1991), p. 137. 

[60] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 172. 

[61] Fine (1991), p. 139. 

[62] Fine (1991), p. 141. 

[63] Fine (1991), p. 140. 

[64] Fine (1991), pp. 142-48. 

[65] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Constantini Leonis filii imperium, 5, p. 385. 

[66] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[67] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[68] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[69] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[70] Fine (1991), p. 160. 

[71] Fine (1991), p. 162. 

[72] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, Patrologiĉ cursus completus, Series Grĉca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 46. 

[73] Fine (1991), pp. 142-48. 

[74] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[75] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[76] Cedrenus II, col. 46. 

[77] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, De Romano Lacapeno, 28, p. 419. 

[78] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[79] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.29, MGH SS III, p. 309. 

[80] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 21, p. 410. 

[81] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.29, MGH SS III, p. 309. 

[82] Fine (1991), p. 160. 

[83] Fine (1991), p. 161. 

[84] Fine (1991), pp. 172-78. 

[85] Franklin, S and Shepard, J. (1998) The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (Longman), pp. 143, 146-47.  It is not clear whether Pereiaslavets was the same place as Preslav, the Bulgarian capital, as Franklin & Shepherd appear to assume, or different, which appears to be the basis on which Fine (1991), p. 182-83, writes. 

[86] Fine (1991), p. 181. 

[87] Hasius, C. B. (ed.) (1828) Leo Diaconus, Historia Byzantina, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn), Liber V, 2, p. 78.  

[88] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 22, p. 413. 

[89] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.38, MGH SS III, pp. 310-1. 

[90] Fine (1991), p. 161. 

[91] Migne, J. P. (1887) Ioannes Zonarĉ Annales, Patrologiĉ cursus completus, Series Grĉca Tomus CXXXV (Paris) ("Zonaras II"), Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 111. 

[92] Cedrenus II, col. 79. 

[93] Zonaras II, Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 111. 

[94] Fine (1991), pp. 182-83. 

[95] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, II, col. 138. 

[96] Fine (1991), pp. 184-85. 

[97] According to the Russian Primary Chronicle, Sviatoslav won this battle, but according to Byzantine sources it was a Byzantine victory, see Fine (1991), p. 186. 

[98] Fine (1991), pp. 186-87. 

[99] Fine (1991), pp. 187-88. 

[100] See below, Part B. 

[101] Fine (1991), p. 189. 

[102] Fine (1991), p. 189. 

[103] Cedrenus II, col. 127. 

[104] Cedrenus II, col. 127. 

[105] Zonaras II, Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 111. 

[106] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 151. 

[107] Fine (1991), pp. 189-90. 

[108] Cedrenus II, col. 187. 

[109] Adontz, N. (1938) Samuel l´Arménien, roi des Bulgares (Mémoires publiés par l´Académie royale de Belgique), p. 5 (also published in Adontz, N. (1965) Etudes arméno-byzantines (Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon), pp. 347-409), p. 40. 

[110] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1883) Asolik Histoire universelle (volume and page number not cited), quoted in Adontz (1938), p. 37.   

[111] Adontz (1938), p. 40. 

[112] Adontz (1938), p. 41. 

[113] Prokić, V. B. (1906) Die Zusätze in der Handschrift des Iohannes Skylitzes (München), cited by Adontz (1938), p. 40. 

[114] Zonaras II, Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 114. 

[115] Cedrenus II, col. 82. 

[116] Mikhael Psellos, Chronographia: Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1966) Fourteen Byzantine Rulers, the Chronographia of Mikhael Psellos (Penguin Books) ("Psellos"), p. 110. 

[117] Adontz (1938), p. 44, citing Rosen, Baron V. R. (1883) Extraits de la Chronique de Yahya d´Antioche (St. Petersburg), p. 58. 

[118] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 57. 

[119] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, cols. 151 and 154. 

[120] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 154. 

[121] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 154. 

[122] Zonaras II, Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 114. 

[123] Cedrenus II, col. 82. 

[124] Adontz (1938), p. 44, citing Rosen, Baron V. R. (1883) Extraits de la Chronique de Yahya d´Antioche (St. Petersburg), p. 58. 

[125] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 151. 

[126] Cedrenus Tome II, p. 455, cited in Adontz (1938), p. 11. 

[127] Zonaras II, Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 114. 

[128] Cedrenus II, col. 82. 

[129] Adontz (1938), p. 40. 

[130] Adontz (1938), p. 36. 

[131] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 151. 

[132] Fine (1991), pp. 192-93. 

[133] Fine (1991), p. 196. 

[134] Fine (1991), pp. 195, 197-98. 

[135] Cedrenus II, col. 191. 

[136] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 57. 

[137] Adontz (1938), p. 51. 

[138] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, IX, col. 166. 

[139] Cedrenus II, col. 194. 

[140] Cedrenus II, col. 191. 

[141] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 57. 

[142] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[143] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[144] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[145] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[146] Fine (1991), p. 212. 

[147] Sisic, F. (ed.), Stephenson, P. (trans. 1998) Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, Johannes Lucius (1666) De Regno Dalmatiĉ et Croatiĉ (Amsterdam), available at <http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/lpd.1.htm> (10 Jan 2007) (extract only), XXXVII. 

[148] ES II 159 A. 

[149] Cedrenus II, col. 183. 

[150] Prokić, V. B. (1906) Die Zusätze in der Handschrift des Iohannes Skylitzes (München), p. 29, s. 14, cited by Adontz (1938), p. 52. 

[151] Cedrenus II, col. 195. 

[152] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVI. 

[153] ES II 159 A. 

[154] Kézai, S., Veszprémy, L. and Schaer, F. (eds. and trans.) (1999) Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum (CEP) 55, p. 125. 

[155] Cedrenus II, col. 207. 

[156] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[157] Zonaras II, Liber XVI, XXIII, col. 114. 

[158] Cedrenus II, col. 82. 

[159] Adontz (1938), p. 40. 

[160] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 151. 

[161] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 154. 

[162] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 57. 

[163] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, IX, col. 166. 

[164] Cedrenus II, col. 191. 

[165] Fine (1991), p. 198. 

[166] Cedrenus II, col. 199. 

[167] Cedrenus II, col. 199. 

[168] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d´Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris), I, XXXVI, p. 40. 

[169] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[170] Fine (1991), pp. 199-200. 

[171] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, IX, col. 166. 

[172] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[173] Cedrenus II, col. 207. 

[174] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[175] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[176] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, X, col. 174. 

[177] Cedrenus II, col. 215. 

[178] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, X, col. 172. 

[179] Cedrenus II, col. 219. 

[180] Cedrenus II, col. 263. 

[181] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XVI, col. 194. 

[182] Psellos, pp. 113-14. 

[183] Fine (1991), pp. 205-06. 

[184] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologiĉ cursus completus, Series Grĉca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzĉ curopalatĉ ("Skylitzes"), col. 407. 

[185] Skylitzes, col. 407. 

[186] Skylitzes, col. 407. 

[187] Cedrenus II, col. 306. 

[188] Zonaras XVIII, 1, p. 660. 

[189] "Aaron 101" in PBW (2006.2), citing Aristakes, Canard M. and Berbérian, H. (1973) Récit des malheurs de la nation arménienne (Brussels) 89.96. 

[190] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Nikephoros Bryennios") Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[191] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes Philanthrope' (2005), pp. 45 and 64. 

[192] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[193] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber III, 6, p. 106. 

[194] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books), Book 2, pp. 85 and 87. 

[195] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), Revue des études byzantines, Tome 27 (1969), p. 248, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1969_num_27_1_1423> (21 Dec 2012), citing Ekkles. Alètheia 20 (1900), 36, p. 404, and Grumel Regestes 957. 

[196] Gautier, P. 'Le typikon de la Théotokos Kécharitôménè' Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), 71, p. 124, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1985_num_43_1_2170> (21 Dec 2012). 

[197] Kouroupou, M. & Vannier, J. F. 'Commémoraisons des Comnènes dans le typikon liturgique du monastère du Christ Philanthrope (ms. Panaghia Kamariotissa 29)', Revue des études byzantines, Tome 63 (2005), pp. 45 and 52, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2005_num_63_1_2305> (21 Dec 2012). 

[198] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[199] Cedrenus II, col. 203. 

[200] Cedrenus II, col. 354. 

[201] Nikephoros Bryennios Liber I, 2, p. 19. 

[202] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 271.  

[203] Skylitzes, col. 375. 

[204] Psellos, p. 324. 

[205] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Michael Glycas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Mikhael Glykas") IV, p. 604. 

[206] Cedrenus II, col. 215. 

[207] Cedrenus II, col. 202. 

[208] Psellos, p. 110. 

[209] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, XVI, col. 191. 

[210] Cedrenus II, col. 259. 

[211] Fine (1991), pp. 203-05. 

[212] Fine (1991), pp. 205-06. 

[213] Cedrenus II, col. 259. 

[214] Fine (1991), pp. 203-05. 

[215] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[216] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[217] Skylitzes, col. 446. 

[218] Fine (1991), pp. 213-14. 

[219] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[220] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), pp. 10 and 13. 

[221] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Georgius Akropolites") 12, pp. 22 and 23. 

[222] Fine (1994), p. 13. 

[223] Fine (1994), p. 16. 

[224] Georgius Akropolites 12, p. 22. 

[225] Fine (1994), p. 15. 

[226] Fine (1994), p. 16. 

[227] Fine (1994), p. 29. 

[228] Georgius Akropolites 12, p. 22 and 13, p. 26. 

[229] Michaud and Poujoulat (eds.) Continuation de l'histoire de Villehardouin d'après les mémoires de Henri de Valenciennes, Nouvelle Collection des Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de France, 1e série, I (Paris) ("Henri de Valenciennes"), 2, p. 118. 

[230] Fine (1994), p. 15. 

[231] Fine (1994), p. 32. 

[232] Fine (1994), pp. 48 and 55. 

[233] Fine (1994), p. 55. 

[234] Fine (1994), p. 56. 

[235] Fine (1994), pp. 81-2. 

[236] Georgius Akropolites 12, p. 24. 

[237] Fine (1994), pp. 87 and 91. 

[238] Georgius Akropolites 13, p. 26. 

[239] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicĉa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), p. 79. 

[240] Georgius Akropolites 13, p. 26. 

[241] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[242] Georgius Akropolites 13, p. 26. 

[243] Georgius Akropolites 13, p. 26. 

[244] Henri de Valenciennes, 2, p. 118. 

[245] Fine (1994), p. 92. 

[246] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[247] Georgius Akropolites 20, p. 36. 

[248] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[249] Georgius Akropolites 13, p. 26. 

[250] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[251] Kerrebrouck, P. Van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), pp. 458-61. 

[252] ES II 17. 

[253] Fine (1994), p. 94. 

[254] Fine (1994), pp. 93-9. 

[255] Fine (1994), p. 103. 

[256] Fine (1994), p. 106. 

[257] Henri de Valenciennes, 2, p. 118. 

[258] Fine (1994), pp. 93-4. 

[259] Fine (1994), p. 94, and Henri de Valenciennes, 17 and 21, pp. 127 and 129, the latter specifying that the marriage took place in Constantinople. 

[260] Fine (1994), p. 102.  

[261] Fine (1994), p. 125. 

[262] Fine (1994), p. 102. 

[263] Georgius Akropolites 24, p. 42. 

[264] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephrĉmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Ephrĉmius") 8130, p. 326. 

[265] Georgius Akropolites 24, p. 42. 

[266] Georgius Akropolites 12, p. 23. 

[267] Fine (1994), p. 28-9. 

[268] Fine (1994), pp. 30-1. 

[269] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetĉ Choniatĉ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Niketas Choniates"), Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 2, p. 620. 

[270] Fine (1994), p. 32. 

[271] Georgius Akropolites 12, pp. 22 and 23. 

[272] Fine (1994), p. 27. 

[273] Fine (1994), p. 28. 

[274] Fine (1994), p. 15. 

[275] Georgius Akropolites 20, p. 35. 

[276] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1230, MGH SS XXIII, p. 927. 

[277] Georgius Akropolites 20, p. 35. 

[278] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1230, MGH SS XXIII, p. 927. 

[279] The date when her father repudiated her mother. 

[280] Georgius Akropolites 73, pp. 161-2. 

[281] Fine (1994), p. 171. 

[282] Georgius Akropolites 62, p. 134. 

[283] Georgius Akropolites 73, pp. 161-2. 

[284] ES II 131. 

[285] ES II 155. 

[286] Georgius Akropolites 20, p. 35. 

[287] Georgius Akropolites 12, p. 26. 

[288] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1230, MGH SS XXIII, p. 927. 

[289] Fine (1994), p. 91. 

[290] Georgius Akropolites 20, p. 36. 

[291] Fine (1994), p. 122. 

[292] Fine (1994), p. 123. 

[293] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1230, MGH SS XXIII, p. 927. 

[294] Fine (1994), p. 124. 

[295] Fine (1994), p. 125. 

[296] Fine (1994), pp. 126 and 129. 

[297] Fine (1994), p. 129. 

[298] The patriarch's need for recognition resulted from the irregular election of the first Nikaian patriarch in 1208 by an ecclesiastical council appointed in Nikaia, rather than by a properly constituted council in Constantinople, the latter being impossible after the fall of the Byzantine empire and the establishment in its place of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 

[299] Fine (1994), p. 130. 

[300] Fine (1994), p. 130. 

[301] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[302] Georgius Akropolites 39, p. 69. 

[303] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[304] Karbić, D., Matijević Sokol, M. and Sweeney, J. R. (eds. trans.) (2006) Thomĉ archidiaconi Spalatensis, Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (CEP) ("Thomas Archdeacon of Split") 25, p. 165. 

[305] Ephrĉmius 8385, p. 337. 

[306] Fine (1994), p. 129. 

[307] Fine (1994), p. 131. 

[308] Georgius Akropolites 36, p. 60. 

[309] This is probably the latest possible date for her birth as Eirene gave birth to her first child in 1238. 

[310] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[311] Ephrĉmius 8330, p. 335. 

[312] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[313] Fine (1994), pp. 124-5. 

[314] Fine (1994), p. 156, citing Lazarov, I. 'Upravlenieto na Mihail II Asen I Irina Komnina (1246-1256)', Vekove, 1984, no. 2: 12-19, which discredits the evidence indicating that Eirene was a regent for her son Mihail II Asen from 1246. 

[315] Georgius Akropolites 25 and 26, pp. 43 and 47. 

[316] Ephrĉmius 8060, p. 325. 

[317] Gardner (1912), p. 141. 

[318] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 66. 

[319] Givkovich, C. (ed.) (1858) Vie des saints apôtres serbes Symeon et Sabba (Paris) ("Domentijan"), p. 65. 

[320] Georgius Akropolites 31 and 32, pp. 52 and 54. 

[321] Ephrĉmius 8175, p. 329. 

[322] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[323] Fine (1994), p. 123. 

[324] Fine (1994), pp. 126 and 129. 

[325] Ephrĉmius 8385, p. 337. 

[326] Georgius Akropolites 39, p. 69. 

[327] Georgius Akropolites 50, p. 101. 

[328] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Pachymeres") Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 5, p. 349. 

[329] Georgius Akropolites 36, p. 60. 

[330] Ephrĉmius 8385, p. 337. 

[331] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[332] Fine (1994), p. 154. 

[333] Georgius Akropolites 39 and 43, pp. 69 and 77-8. 

[334] Fine (1994), p. 135. 

[335] Ephrĉmius 8330, p. 335. 

[336] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[337] Fine (1994), p. 159. 

[338] Georgius Akropolites 54, p. 113. 

[339] Fine (1994), p. 159. 

[340] Georgius Akropolites 73, pp. 161-2. 

[341] Georgius Akropolites 62, p. 134. 

[342] Fine (1994), p. 171. 

[343] Georgius Akropolites 73, pp. 161-2. 

[344] ES II 155. 

[345] Ephrĉmius 8330, p. 335. 

[346] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[347] Ephrĉmius 8330 and 8390, pp. 335 and 336. 

[348] Georgius Akropolites 38 and 39, pp. 65 and 69. 

[349] Fine (1994), p. 156. 

[350] Fine (1994), p. 159. 

[351] Fine (1994), p. 171. 

[352] Fine (1994), p. 174. 

[353] Fine (1994), p. 172. 

[354] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 5, p. 349. 

[355] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 5, p. 350. 

[356] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[357] Fine (1994), p. 198. 

[358] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber I, 20, p. 57. 

[359] Georgius Akropolites 73, p. 162. 

[360] Fine (1994), p. 174. 

[361] Fine (1994), p. 180. 

[362] Fine (1994), p. 180. 

[363] Fine (1994), p. 196. 

[364] Georgius Akropolites 73, p. 162. 

[365] Georgius Akropolites 73, p. 162. 

[366] Ephrĉmius 9240 and 9290, pp. 369 and 371. 

[367] Gardner (1912), p. 245, citing Pachymeres ii 26. 

[368] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 3, p. 343. 

[369] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 265. 

[370] Fine (1994), p. 180. 

[371] Fine (1994), p. 182. 

[372] Fine (1994), p. 196. 

[373] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[374] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 3, p. 344. 

[375] Fine (1994), p. 182. 

[376] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 265. 

[377] Fine (1994), p. 229. 

[378] Fine (1994), p. 177. 

[379] Fine (1994), pp. 181-2. 

[380] Georgius Akropolites 74, p. 164. 

[381] Ephrĉmius 9285, p. 371. 

[382] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 6, pp. 180-1. 

[383] Fine (1994), p. 195. 

[384] Fine (1994), p. 196. 

[385] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[386] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[387] Fine (1994), p. 198. 

[388] Fine (1994), p. 196. 

[389] Fine (1994), p. 197. 

[390] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 265. 

[391] Fine (1994), p. 198. 

[392] Fine (1994), p. 199. 

[393] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[394] Fine (1994), p. 226. 

[395] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 265. 

[396] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber I, 20, p. 57. 

[397] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber I, 20, p. 57. 

[398] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 8, p. 447. 

[399] Fine (1994), p. 198. 

[400] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[401] Fine (1994), p. 228. 

[402] Fine (1994), pp. 229-30. 

[403] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1828-1832) Cantacuzenus Vols I, II and III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Ioannes Kantakuzenos") Vol. I, I, 35, p. 169

[404] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber I, 27, p. 73. 

[405] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 265. 

[406] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 1, p. 13

[407] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 38, p. 186. 

[408] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. II, III, 36, p. 222. 

[409] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 35, p. 169

[410] Fine (1994), p. 269. 

[411] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 36, p. 175. 

[412] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 30, p. 274. 

[413] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber V, 18, p. 406. 

[414] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 264. 

[415] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[416] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 264. 

[417] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[418] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber V, 18, p. 406, and Liber VI, 35, p. 559. 

[419] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[420] Fine (1994), p. 226. 

[421] Fine (1994), p. 230. 

[422] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber V, 18, p. 406, and Liber VI, 35, p. 559. 

[423] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 266. 

[424] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 266. 

[425] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber V, 18, p. 406. 

[426] Fine (1994), p. 225. 

[427] Fine (1994), p. 226. 

[428] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 267. 

[429] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber V, 18, p. 407. 

[430] Fine (1994), p. 226. 

[431] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[432] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber VI, 35, p. 558. 

[433] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[434] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber V, 18, p. 406, and Liber VI, 35, p. 559. 

[435] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[436] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, pp. 266-7. 

[437] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palĉologus, Liber III, 26, p. 267. 

[438] Fine (1994), p. 230. 

[439] Fine (1994), p. 220. 

[440] Fine (1994), p. 221. 

[441] Fine (1994), p. 221. 

[442] Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan/Survey of the Architectural and Archaeological heritage (IRRP/SAAH), Feasibility Study: The church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria Mušutište/Suva Reka Kosovo/UNMIK (Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Serbia, 20 Nov 2007) 5, p. 3, available at <http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/Regional/SEE/IRPPSAAH/FS/FS_KosovoUNMIK_ChurchHodegetria_APP.pdf> [22 Jun 2009]. 

[443] Fine (1994), pp. 268-9. 

[444] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 36, p. 175. 

[445] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 36-38, pp. 175-187. 

[446] Fine (1994), pp. 269-70. 

[447] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 167. 

[448] Nicol (1972), pp. 173-4, and Fine (1994), p. 271. 

[449] Fine (1994), p. 271. 

[450] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 21, p. 430. 

[451] Fine (1994), p. 270. 

[452] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 38, p. 186. 

[453] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. II, III, 36, p. 222. 

[454] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. II, III, 1, p. 19. 

[455] Fine (1994), p. 270. 

[456] Fine (1994), p. 272. 

[457] Fine (1994), p. 273. 

[458] Fine (1994), p. 273. 

[459] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 26, p. 459. 

[460] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 27, p. 134. 

[461] Fine (1994), p. 269. 

[462] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 36, p. 172. 

[463] Fine (1994), p. 272. 

[464] Fine (1994), p. 273. 

[465] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 26, p. 459.  

[466] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 26, p. 459. 

[467] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. II, III, 56, p. 338. 

[468] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. III, IV, 43, p. 314. 

[469] Fine (1994), p. 274. 

[470] Fine (1994), p. 364. 

[471] Fine (1994), p. 357. 

[472] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1849) Historia Politica et Patriarchica Constantinopoleos, Epirotica, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[473] Fine (1994), p. 383. 

[474] Fine (1994), p. 390. 

[475] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 26, p. 459. 

[476] Fine (1994), p. 274. 

[477] Fine (1994), p. 368. 

[478] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Georgius Phrantzes") Liber I, 8, p. 39. 

[479] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1830-1855) Nicephorus Gregoras, Historiĉ Byzantinĉ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ Vols. I, II and III (Bonn) ("Nikephoros Gregoras") Vol. III, Historiĉ Byzantinĉ XXXVII, 48-51, p. 557. 

[480] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 14 and 33, pp. 394 and 504-5. 

[481] Fine (1994), p. 366. 

[482] Fine (1994), p. 367. 

[483] Fine (1994), p. 368. 

[484] Fine (1994), p. 408. 

[485] Fine (1994), pp. 424-5. 

[486] Fine (1994), p. 367. 

[487] Academia scientiarum et artum Slavorum meridionalium (1892) Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb) ("Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium"), Vol. XXIII, Actĉ Bosnĉ, CCXXVIII, p. 43. 

[488] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiĉ Byzantinĉ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber I, p. 37. 

[489] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. III, Historiĉ Byzantinĉ XXXVII, 48-51, p. 557. 

[490] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 37. 

[491] Georgius Phrantzes Liber I, 13, p. 56. 

[492] Fine (1994), p. 366. 

[493] Fine (1994), p. 407. 

[494] Fine (1994), pp. 422-3.