MONTENEGRO

  v2.1 Updated 13 February 2013

 

RETURN TO CONTENTS

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.            KNEZ (later KINGS) of DUKLJA. 3

CHVALIMIR, PETRISLAV 971-998, IVAN VLADIMIR 998-1016, DRAGOMIR 1016-1018. 5

VOJISLAV 1018-1043, MIHAILO 1046-1081, KONSTANTIN BODIN 1081-1101, DOBROSLAV, VLADIMIR -1114, DJORDJE 1114/1131. 7

KOČAPAR, GRUBEŠA 1118-1125, GRADINJA 1131-1146, RADOSLAV 1146-1189, MIHAILO.. 7

Chapter 2.             GRAND KNEZ of ZETA (DUKLJA), NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY of SERBIA. 7

Chapter 3.            NOBLE FAMILIES in 14th CENTURY ZETA. 7

A.       ŽARKOVIĆI 7

B.       BALŠIĆI 7

C.      CRNOJEVIĆI (DJURAŠEVIĆI) 7

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Montenegro was originally known as "Duklja", and later "Zeta", until gradually becoming known as "Crna Gora" [Black Mountain = Montenegro] in the 15th century. 

 

The name "Duklja" was derived from "Dioclea", a city whose ruins lie just outside present-day Podgorica and which governed the Roman province of the same name which included the territory of what is today the republic of Montenegro[1].  Duklja, along with its neighbours Zahumlje (later known as Hercegovina) and Trebinje, absorbed the state of Serbia which disintegrated after the death of Prince Časlav in [960].  Little is known about Duklja in the late 10th century, but it must have been a state of some influence in the region.  Ivan Vladimir Knez of Duklja is recorded as having entered an alliance with Emperor Basileios II in the late 990s, which was of sufficient significance in the regional politics of the day to provoke Samuil Tsar of the Bulgarians into attacking Duklja in 997.  After a period of captivity in exile, Ivan Vladimir was restored as ruler in Duklja, presumably under Bulgarian vassalship.  The reconstruction of the family of the early rulers of Duklja (see Chapter 1) is based almost entirely on the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, written in the 12th century, although it is assumed that it was based on earlier sources which have since disappeared.  It is not known how far this reconstruction is factually accurate. 

 

Duklja was conquered by Byzantium in the 1030s, but a period of Dukljan revival was triggered by the restoration of Knez Vojislav and his conquest of most of neighbouring Zahumlje.  Vojislav's son Mihailo received a royal crown from the Pope in 1077.  King Mihailo died in [1081/82], but most of his numerous family of sons had been killed in battle during his lifetime.  The Dukljan state started to break up towards the end of the 11th century after King Konstantin Bodin was captured during a Byzantine offensive, and with the secession of Raška, Bosnia and Zahumlje from Dukljan control.  There followed a series of short-lived rulers, sponsored either by Byzantium or Serbia.  Duklja was divided administratively into župa (counties), the name of one of which, Zeta, came to be applied to the whole country from the 1080s. 

 

Serbia completed its conquest of Zeta by 1189 and Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia installed his older son Vukan as Grand Knez of Zeta in 1190 (see Chapter 2).  Vukan was passed over in the Serbian succession in favour of his younger brother, and asserted Zetan independence from Serbia, which was recognised by the Pope and by Hungary.  However, this period of autonomy terminated in 1216 when Stjepan Grand Župan of Serbia regained control over Zeta.  The territory remained under Serbian control until Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans in 1441, although some nobles enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy over different parts of the country during the 14th and early 15th centuries (see Chapter 3).  The area formerly known as Zeta gradually became known as "Crna Gora" [Black Mountain = Montenegro] under the rule of the Crnojevići in the 15th century[2].  During the 1440s, Stjepan Crnojević Djurašević achieved virtual autonomy in Montenegro and defeated three attempted invasions from Serbia, although he was eventually obliged to accept Venetian suzerainty over both upper and lower Zeta.  The principality of Montenegro was finally suppressed by the Ottomans in 1496, when it became an Ottoman province. 

 

A major difficulty exists in the reconstruction of the families of early Slav rulers in the southern Balkans as most of the details, which have passed for primary source information, are based on what appear to be falsifications created in the 16th and 17th centuries. The problem has been analysed most recently by Solange Bujan[3].  Her hypothesis is that the documents were produced in the following chronological order: 

·      Li Annali della Nobilissima Republica di Ragusa, a late medieval text which survives only in an Italian translation[4]

·      the Regum Dalmatić et Croatić Gesta, written by Marko Marulić at Split in 1510 and published for the first time by Ivan Lučić in 1656[5]

·      the Rč di Dalmatia et altri luoghi vicino dell’Illirico dall’anno del Signore 495, fina 1161, published in Italian by Mauro Orbini in 1601 in the second part of his Regno de gli Slavi, which, according to the author incorporated the text of an end-12th century manuscript in old slav, but which was elaborated based on Li Annali and the Regum Dalmatić

·      the Presbyteri Diocleatis Regnum Slavorum, known in English as the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, also published by Ivan Lučić in 1656, which he states is a Latin version of the 12th century text on which Orbini´s Rč di Dalmatia was supposedly based[6]

Bujan´s conclusion is that the 12th century text never existed and that the so-called Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja is unauthentic and unreliable.  Attention is drawn to the parts of the present document which are based only on this text and which should therefore be used with great caution. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KNEZ (later KINGS) of DUKLJA

 

 

Large parts of this chapter are based only on the falsification known as the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, discussed in the Introcution to the present document.  Only information which is shown below as corroborated in Byzantine sources or later charters can be considered reliable. 

 

1.         PREDIMIR (-bur church of St Peter, Serbia).  Župan of Trebinje.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "King Predimir" was buried in the "church of St Peter in the episcopate of Rassa"[7]m (after [969]) PRECHVALA, daughter of --- Župan of Serbia & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "the Zupan of Rassa fled to King Predimir along with his two sons Plenus and Radigrad and his daughter…Prechvala" who married the king[8], dated from the context to after [969].  Predimir & his wife had four children: 

a)         CHLARIMIR (-killed in battle ----).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "King Predimir" & his wife had four sons "Chlarimir…Boleslav…Dragislav…Svevlad" among whom he divided his territories[9].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that the seven sons of Leghec, son of Kresimir, killed the sons and grandsons of "King Predimir" except for "a son of Boleslav named Sylvester"[10]

b)         BOLESLAV (-killed in battle ----).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "King Predimir" & his wife had four sons "Chlarimir…Boleslav…Dragislav…Svevlad" among whom he divided his territories[11].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that the seven sons of Leghec, son of Kresimir, killed the sons and grandsons of "King Predimir" except for "a son of Boleslav named Sylvester"[12]m CASTRECA, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that, after the massacre of his uncles, "a son of Boleslav named Sylvester" fled with "his mother Castreca to Lausium which is now called Ragusium"[13].  Boleslav & his wife had one child: 

i)          SYLVESTER .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that the seven sons of Leghec, son of Kresimir, killed the sons and grandsons of "King Predimir" except for "a son of Boleslav named Sylvester" who fled with "his mother Castreca to Lausium which is now called Ragusium" but was restored to rule after the seven sons had all died[14]m ---.  The name of Sylvester's wife is not known.  Sylvester & his wife had one child: 

(a)       TUGEMIR .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Tugemir" as son of "Sylvester" & his wife[15]m ---.  The name of Tugemir's wife is not known.  Tugemir & his wife had one child:

(1)       CHVALIMIR .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Chvalimir" as son of "Tugemir" & his wife[16]

-         see below

c)         DRAGISLAV (-killed in battle ----).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "King Predimir" & his wife had four sons "Chlarimir…Boleslav…Dragislav…Svevlad" among whom he divided his territories[17].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that the seven sons of Leghec, son of Kresimir, killed the sons and grandsons of "King Predimir" except for "a son of Boleslav named Sylvester"[18]

d)         SVEVLAD (-killed in battle ----).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "King Predimir" & his wife had four sons "Chlarimir…Boleslav…Dragislav…Svevlad" among whom he divided his territories[19].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that the seven sons of Leghec, son of Kresimir, killed the sons and grandsons of "King Predimir" except for "a son of Boleslav named Sylvester"[20]

 

 

CHVALIMIR, PETRISLAV 971-998, IVAN VLADIMIR 998-1016, DRAGOMIR 1016-1018

 

CHVALIMIR, son of TUGIMIR Župan & his wife --- .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Chvalimir" as son of "Tugemir" & his wife[21]

m ---.  The name of Chvalimir's wife is not known. 

Chvalimir & his wife had three children: 

1.         PETRISLAV (-before 998, bur Krajina St Maria).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Petrislav…Dragimir…Miroslav" as the three sons of "Chvalimir" & his wife, specifying that Petrislav ruled in the region of Zeta and in Podgorica after the death of his youngest brother Miroslav[22].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Petrislav" was buried in the church of "St Maria…Krajina"[23]Knez of Duklja and [part] Trebinje after 971.  m ---.  The name of Petrislav's wife is not known.  Petrislav & his wife had one child: 

a)         IVAN VLADIMIR (-murdered Prespa 22 May 1016, bur Krajina St Maria).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Vladimir" as son of "Petrislav"[24]Knez of Duklja and [part] Trebinje, in Krajina.  Ivan Vladimir entered an alliance with Emperor Basileios II, provoking Samuil Tsar of the Bulgarians into attacking Duklja in 997[25].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Vladimir was sent into exile "to the territory of Ohrid which is called Prespa" by Tsar Samuil, but married the Tsar's daughter and restored in "the land of his patrimonial kingdom and the whole of the territory of Dyrrachium"[26].  Cedrenus records that "Bladimeri [qui] gener…fuit Samuil" ruled "Trymalia et viciniores Servić partes" and that he was deceived through the machinations of "Davidi Bulgarorum archiepiscopi" and murdered[27].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Vladimir" was lured to Prespa by Ivan Vladislav Tsar of the Bulgarians and beheaded "22 May", his widow burying him at "Krajina…church of St Maria", referring to him afterwards as "St Vladimir"[28]m ([998]) [KOSARA], daughter of SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Agatha Chryselie.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by Cedrenus who records that "Bladimeri [qui] gener…fuit Samuil" ruled "Trymalia et viciniores Servić partes"[29].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records the marriage of "Vladimir" and "Cossara", daughter of Samuil Tsar of the Bulgarians[30], but it is likely that this source confuses her with Samuil´s daughter Miroslava as it recounts a story similar to that of Ashot Taronites falling in love with Miroslava while held captive by her father.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[31], she was [Kosara] Chryselie, daughter of Theodoros Chryselios Archon of Durazzo & his wife --- Kometopulotissa, whose sister married Tsar Samuil, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is likely that the name "Kosara" is in any case a deformation of "Chryselie" and that the name of Ivan Vladimir´s wife is in fact unknown. 

2.         DRAGOMIR (-murdered Kotor 1018).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Petrislav…Dragimir…Miroslav" as the three sons of "Chvalimir" & his wife, specifying that Dragomir ruled Trebinje and Chelma[32].  He succeeded his nephew as DRAGOMIR Knez of Duklja and Trebinje (part), as the vassal of Byzantium.  He was murdered by local citizens in Kotor, after which Duklja was probably placed under direct Byzantine rule[33].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Dragomir the uncle of St Vladimir" tried to seize the country after his nephew was killed but was himself murdered in a church[34]m firstly ---.  The name of Dragomir's first wife is not known.  m secondly --- [of Serbia], daughter of LJUTOMIR [of Serbia].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names Dragomir's wife as "the daughter of Lutomir the veliki zupan of Rassa", recording that she returned to her homeland with her two daughters after her husband was killed but, finding that her father had died, travelled to Bosna with her mother to join her uncles[35].  Dragomir & his first wife had one child: 

a)         VOJISLAV (-Prapatna [1043], bur Prapatna, St Andrew).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Voislav" as son of Dragomir by his first wife, recording that he "obtained the kingdom" after his father was killed, fought the Greeks and obtained "the land as far as Topliza"[36]Europäische Stammtafeln[37] conflates Vojislav and Dobroslav, who according to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja were half-brothers. 

-        see below

Dragomir & his [second] wife had three children: 

b)         daughter (-after 1018).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Dragomir's wife returned to her homeland with her two daughters after her husband was killed[38]same person as…?  [TICHIASLAVA .  She is shown as possible daughter of Dragomir, widow of Procul, and mother of Bella, in Europäische Stammtafeln[39], but the basis for this speculation is not known.]  m PROCUL de Chasaliça [Cazasiza] Patriarch of Ragusa [Dubrovnik].  Tichiaslava & her husband had one child: 

i)          [BELLA .  As noted above, Bella is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln as the daughter of Tichiaslava[40], but the primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   Nun.] 

c)         daughter (-after 1018).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Dragomir's wife returned to her homeland with her two daughters after her husband was killed[41]

d)         DOBROSLAV (posthumously 1018-).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Dragomir's wife gave birth to a son "Dobroslav" at "Brusno" while travelling to Bosnia, where he was brought up before being sent as an adolescent to "Ragusium"[42]Europäische Stammtafeln[43] conflates Dobroslav and Vojislav, who according to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja were half-brothers. 

3.         MIROSLAV .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Petrislav…Dragimir…Miroslav" as the three sons of "Chvalimir" & his wife, specifying that Miroslav ruled the territory of Podgorica and that he died in a storm while sailing through Balta[44]

 

 

VOJISLAV 1018-1043, MIHAILO 1046-1081, KONSTANTIN BODIN 1081-1101, DOBROSLAV, VLADIMIR -1114, DJORDJE 1114/1131

 

VOJISLAV, son of DRAGOMIR Knez of Duklja and part Trebinje & his [first] wife --- (-[1043], bur Prapratna).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Voislav" as son of Dragomir and his first wife, recording that he "obtained the kingdom" after his father was killed, fought the Greeks and obtained "the land as far as Topliza"[45].  Fine comments that the 12th century Chronicle is not an ideal source and could have invented such a relationship to provide continuity with the dynasty of Ivan Vladimir[46]Europäische Stammtafeln[47] conflates Vojislav and Dobroslav, who according to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja were half-brothers.  Vojislav refused homage to Byzantium in [1034/36], was captured and sent to Constantinople, after which Duklja was administered by the strategos of Durazzo.  Vojislav escaped from Byzantium and returned to Duklja, where he took refuge in the mountains with an ever-growing band of followers[48].  He freed Duklja from Byzantine suzerainty, and established his capital at Shkodra (Scutari).  After defeating Ljutovid Knez of Zahumlje and Trebinje, who led a Byzantine-inspired alliance which included Bosnia and Raška in 1042, Duklja annexed most of Zahumlje[49].  Cedrenus records that "princeps Serborum Stephanus qui et Boisthlabus" was deposed, dated to [1040/42] from the context, and "Theophilo Erotico" installed to rule Serbia[50].  Cedrenus records that "Stephanus qui et Boisthlabus" occupied "Illyricos…montes" and defeated "Michaele patricio Anastasii logothetć filio, tum Dyrrachii prćfecto" who was sent by Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos, dated to after [1042] from the context[51].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "King Voislav" reigned for 25 years, died in Prapatna, and was buried in the "church of St Andrew"[52].  After his death, his territories were divided between his widow and his five sons. 

m ---, "niece" of SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of --- (-after [1055][53]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir"[54].  The word "niece", presumably translated from "neptis", could be interpreted either as niece or granddaughter.  Europäische Stammtafeln,[55] presumably on the basis that granddaughter is the appropriate translation, suggests that Vojislav's wife was --- of the Bulgarians, daughter of Gavriil Radomir Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife Irina ---.  If this is correct, Vojislav's wife must have been born in [990/1000], which would place the birth of the couple's sons in [1015/25].  If "niece" is the correct translation, Vojislav's wife could have been the niece either of Tsar Samuil himself or of his wife.  The latter possibility could account for the confusion relating to the wife of Vojislav's first cousin Ivan Vladimir, stated by Europäische Stammtafeln to be the niece of Tsar Samuil's wife (see above), assuming that there was also confusion in the primary sources between Ivan Vladimir and his cousin Vojislav.  In this second case, the birth of the couple's sons could be placed much earlier.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "the queen ruled the kingdom with her first born son Gojislav" after the death of her husband, in a later passage recording her death after which her son Mihailo "received the kingdom"[56], which dates the event to after the death in battle of her eldest son Gojislav. 

Vojislav & his wife had five children: 

1.         GOJISLAV (before 1025-killed in battle [1054/55]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons (in order) "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir", recording that "Goyslav and Predimir his youngest brother received Tribunia and Grispuli" on the death of their father[57].  The Chronicle records that "the queen ruled the kingdom with her first born son Gojislav" after the death of her husband, but that Gojislav and his brother Predimir were murdered by "men from Tribunia called Scrobiniesi [who] set up their leader Domanech as ruler"[58]

2.         MIHAILO (before 1025-[1081/82], bur Monastery of St Sergius & St Bacchus).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons (in order) "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir", recording that Mihailo received "Oblik, Prapatna and Cermeniza" on the death of their father[59].  Mihailo succeeded in [1046] as Knez of Duklja.  Cedrenus records that "Michaelas Stephani filius" succeeded his father in "Triballorum ac Serborum principatum" and agreed a treaty with Emperor Konstantinos X Monomachos who awarded him "protospathiariique…honore", dated to [1050][60].  After the death of his brother Gojislav in Trebinje, Mihailo defeated the rebel leader Domanek and installed his brother Saganek as Knez of Trebinje [1052/54][61].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records the rebellion of "men from Tribunia called Scrobiniesi [who] murdered Gojislav and his brother Predimir and set up their leader Domanech as ruler", that the brothers "Michael, Saganic and Radoslav" marched on Trebinje, and that Radoslav killed Domanech and captured the "region of Chelmena"[62].  The Chronicle records that, after the death of the queen, her son Mihailo "received the kingdom"[63], which dates the event to after the death in battle of his older brother Gojislav.  He declared himself MIHAILO King of Duklja.  Skylitzes names "Bulgarić princeps Michaelem" and "suo filio Constantino, cui Bodino cognomen erat", dated to [1073/75][64].  He sought an alliance with the Papacy aiming to establish a separate archbishopric in Duklja, and received a crown from the Pope in 1077[65].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that King Mihailo died after reigning for 35 years and that he was buried in the monastery of "the Martyrs Saints Sergius and Bacchus"[66]m firstly ---.  The name and origin of Mihailo's first wife are not known.  m secondly (after [1056]) ---, a Greek.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records Mihailo's second marriage (after his accession) to "a Greek woman…a relative of the emperor" and names "Dobroslav, Petrislav, Nicephorus, Theodorus" as their four sons[67].  Fine says that Byzantine sources do not mention Mihailo's second marriage, but comments that Emperor Konstantinos IX Monomachos (died 1055) ruled Byzantium at the time and suggests that he was the emperor to whom Mihailo's second wife was related[68].  However, the phrase "relative of the emperor" may have been used to indicate that the king's new bride was from a Byzantine noble family, many of whom were distantly related to one or other of the emperors (see BYZANTINE NOBILITY).  Fine also says that Mihailo's eldest son by his second marriage was about 25 years old when he succeeded as king of Duklja[69].  If this is correct, it would indicate that the marriage took place much later than 1055.  King Mihailo & his first wife had eight children:

a)         VLADIMIR (-killed in battle before [1081/82]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo and records that Mihailo took the zupania of Zeta from his brother Radoslav and gave it to his son Vladimir after succeeding as king[70].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Bodin who [afterwards] ruled the whole kingdom [and] Vladimir with their brothers marched into Rassa and annexed it"[71].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that all of Bodin's brothers died in battle during the lifetime of their father[72]m ---.  The name of Vladimir's wife is not known.  Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          VLADIMIR (-Skadar [1114]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was elected to succeed his cousin Kočapar as VLADIMIR King of Duklja.  He was poisoned by Queen Jakvinta.  m --- of Raška, daughter of VUKAN Grand Župan of Raška [Serbia] & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  This marriage was arranged to seal a peace treaty between Duklja and Serbia[73].  King Vladimir & his wife had one child: 

(a)       MIHAILO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was accused of plotting with the Byzantines, imprisoned by Djordje King of Duklja and blinded on his orders in [1131][74]

b)         PRIASLAV (-killed in battle before [1081/82]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[75].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that all of Bodin's brothers died in battle during the lifetime of their father[76]

c)         SERGIUS (-killed in battle before [1081/82]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[77].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that all of Bodin's brothers died in battle during the lifetime of their father[78]

d)         DERIA (-killed in battle before [1081/82]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[79].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that all of Bodin's brothers died in battle during the lifetime of their father[80]

e)         GABRIEL (-killed in battle before [1081/82]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[81].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that all of Bodin's brothers died in battle during the lifetime of their father[82]

f)          MIROSLAV (-killed in battle before [1081/82]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[83].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that all of Bodin's brothers died in battle during the lifetime of their father[84]

g)         BODIN (-[1101/08]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names (in order) "Vladimir, Priaslav, Sergius, Deria, Gabriel, Miroslav and Bodin" as the seven sons of Mihailo[85].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Bodin who [afterwards] ruled the whole kingdom [and] Vladimir with their brothers marched into Rassa and annexed it" and "captured the whole of Bulgaria which King Michael gave to his son Bodin to rule as a province"[86].  In 1072, his father sent him to lead troops to join the rebellion of George Vojteh against the Byzantines in Macedonia.  On his way, he was crowned PETAR Tsar of the Bulgarians at Prizren in late 1072.  Skylitzes names "Bulgarić princeps Michaelem" and "suo filio Constantino, cui Bodino cognomen erat", dated to [1073/75][87].  The rebellion was crushed by Byzantium, Bodin was defeated south of Skopje, captured and banished to Asia Minor where he remained until ransomed in [1078][88].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Bodin declared himself emperor which triggered an invasion from Byzantium, during which Bodin was captured and sent to Antioch in exile[89].  He succeeded his father in [1081/82] as KONSTANTIN BODIN King of Duklja.  He helped in the Byzantine defence of Durazzo against the attack by the Normans in 1081, although his last minute neutrality contributed to the Normans' successful conquest of the town[90].  The Alexeiad records that "Monomachatos…won the friendship of Bodin and Michaelas exarchs of Dalmatia" in the war against Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia[91].  He recaptured Raška, presumably after a revolt following the death of his father[92].  Konstantin's support for Pope Urban II against anti-Pope Clement III in 1089 was rewarded by the bishopric of Bar being raised to the status of an archbishopric, with an area of jurisdiction which included Serbia, Bosnia and Trebinje[93].  During a major Byzantine offensive against Duklja in [1089/91], Konstantin was taken prisoner.  Civil war broke out, Raška, Bosnia and Zahumlje seceding from Dukljan control[94].  Orderic Vitalis records that the "Serbian prince Bodin" received the crusading armies of Adhemar Bishop of Le Puy and Raymond de Toulouse after passing "through Dalmatia" on their journey eastwards in [1096/97][95].  "Bodino rege" donated the church of St Martin de Zonchetto to the monastery of St Benedict by charter dated 1100[96]m (Apr 1081[97]) JACINTA Argyre, daughter of --- (-Constantinople after 1115).  The primary source which confirms her origin and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was the daughter of the leader of the pro-Norman party in Bari, Apulia[98].  She ordered the capture of her husband's first cousin Branislav in [1093/95], anxious to safeguard the rights of her children over Branislav's family in case her husband died.  Fine suggests that it is likely that these events took place during King Konstantin's imprisonment by the Byzantines[99].  She poisoned Vladimir King of Duklja in [1114], and installed her son Djordje as king in his place.  "Georgius…rex…cum matre mea domina Jaquinta regina et Gerdo consobrino meo" confirmed donations to the church of St Martin made by "patres nostri" by charter dated Aug 1115[100].  When King Djordje was deposed in [1118], Jakvinta was arrested and sent to Constantinople where she died[101].  King Konstantin Bodin & his wife had five childen (the primary sources which confirm their parentage have not yet been identified): 

i)          MIHAILO

ii)         DJORDJE (-Constantinople 1131).  He succeeded in [1114] as DJORDJE King of Duklja.  The dating clause of a charter dated Nov 1114 records "regnante rege Georgio filio regis Bodini"[102].  "Georgius…rex…cum matre mea domina Jaquinta regina et Gerdo consobrino meo" confirmed donations to the church of St Martin made by "patres nostri" by charter dated Aug 1115[103].  He was deposed in [1118] by a Byzantine army from Durazzo and fled to Serbia, being replaced on the throne by Grubeša[104].  After King Grubeša was killed in battle in 1125 during the Hungarian/Byzantine war, Djordje returned from Serbia and was restored as king with the help of Uroš I Grand Župan of Serbia.  He was deposed by a Byzantine army in [1131] and fled, but remained in the woods of Duklja from where he waged a guerrilla campaign.  He was eventually captured by the Byzantines and taken to Constantinop le where he died[105]

iii)        MARKUS .  A charter dated 1107 confirms the possessions of the church of St Martin, including donations made by "…Riccatina Marciusii filii regis Bodini…"[106].  1114. 

iv)       ARCISIUS .  Nov 1114. 

v)        TOMAS

h)         daughter .  Skylitzes records that "Longibardopulus" married "Michaelem…filiam" after being captured and taken to him during the Bulgarian rebellion of his son Konstantin Bodin, dated to [1073][107]m ([1073]) --- Longibardopoulos .  Byzantine general.  He quickly deserted back to the Byzantines in [1073][108]

King Mihailo & his second wife had [five] children:

i)          DOBROSLAV (-after [1114]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records Mihailo's second marriage (after his accession) to "a Greek woman…a relative of the emperor" and names (in order) "Dobroslav, Petrislav, Nicephorus, Theodorus" as their four sons[109].  Fine says that Mihailo's eldest son by his second marriage was about 25 years old when he succeeded as king of Duklja[110].  He succeeded his half-brother in [1101/08] as DOBROSLAV King of Duklja, in Skutari.  Faced with the challenge of his first cousin Kočapar, King Dobroslav accepted Byzantine suzerainty over Duklja to protect his position.  He was, however, captured during the battle of the Morača river and taken to Serbia as a prisoner[111].  He returned to Duklja, but after the death of his nephew King Vladimir in [1114], Dobroslav was blinded and imprisoned in the monastery of St Sergius on the orders of Queen Jakvinta to prevent his restoration to the throne[112]

j)          PETRISLAV (-[before 1082]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records Mihailo's second marriage (after his accession) to "a Greek woman…a relative of the emperor" and names (in order) "Dobroslav, Petrislav, Nicephorus, Theodorus" as their four sons, specifying that Petrislav was the only one to have children[113].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Bodin who [afterwards] ruled the whole kingdom [and] Vladimir with their brothers marched into Rassa and annexed it", their father assigning it to "his son Petrislav to rule"[114].  Fine dates the conquest to between 1060 and 1074[115]m ---.  The name of Petrislav's wife is not known.  Petrislav & his wife had [three] children:

i)          KOČOPAR

ii)         [MARKO .  Marko and his brother Vukan were sons of Petrislav according to Istorija Crne Gore[116].  Marko was installed with his brother as župan of Raška in [1083/84] after the latter was reconquered by Konstantin Bodin King of Duklja.] 

iii)        [VUKAN .  Marko and his brother Vukan were sons of Petrislav according to Istorija Crne Gore[117].  If this is correct, Vladimir King of Duklja (see below) would have married the daughter of his first cousin.  Vukan was installed with his brother as župan of Raška in [1083/84] after the latter was reconquered in [1082] by Konstantin Bodin King of Duklja, and remained in power there for many years[118].] 

-         see SERBIA

k)         NIKEPHOROS .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records Mihailo's second marriage (after his accession) to "a Greek woman…a relative of the emperor" and names (in order) "Dobroslav, Petrislav, Nicephorus, Theodorus" as their four sons[119]

l)          THEODOROS .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records Mihailo's second marriage (after his accession) to "a Greek woman…a relative of the emperor" and names (in order) "Dobroslav, Petrislav, Nicephorus, Theodorus" as their four sons[120]

m)       [TIDIASLAVA .  A charter dated 1107 confirms the possessions of the church of St Martin, including donations made by "…Bella uxor Proculi de Cazariza monaca filia Thyhaslaue, que fuit soror domino Regi Dabraslauo…"[121]m ---.] 

3.         SAGANEC (before 1025-).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons (in order) "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir", recording that Saganec received "the zupania of Gorsca, Cupelnik and Barezi" on the death of their father[122].  He was installed as Knez of Trebinje by his brother Mihailo who defeated the rebel leader Domanek [1052/54], but was expelled in his turn by Domanek soon after[123].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records the rebellion of "men from Tribunia called Scrobiniesi [who] murdered Gojislav and his brother Predimir and set up their leader Domanech as ruler", that the brothers "Michael, Saganic and Radoslav" marched on Trebinje, and that Radoslav killed Domanech and captured the "region of Chelmena"[124]

4.         RADOSLAV (-1089 or after).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons (in order) "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir"[125]

-        see below

5.         PREDIMIR (-killed in battle [1054/55]).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons (in order) "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir", recording that "Goyslav and Predimir his youngest brother received Tribunia and Grispuli" on the death of their father[126].  The Chronicle records that "the queen ruled the kingdom with her first born son Gojislav" after the death of her husband, but that Gojislav and his brother Predimir were murdered by "men from Tribunia called Scrobiniesi [who] set up their leader Domanech as ruler"[127]

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

KOČAPAR, GRUBEŠA 1118-1125, GRADINJA 1131-1146, RADOSLAV 1146-1189, MIHAILO

 

RADOSLAV, son of VOJISLAV Knez of Duklja & his wife --- (-1089 or after).  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Voislav" married "the niece of emperor Samuel" by whom he had five sons (in order) "Goyslav, Michael, Saganec, Radoslav and Predimir"[128].  According to the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, "Voislav" gave "the zupania called Kozca" to his son Radoslav[129].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Radoslav received "the zupania of Lusca, Podlugic [and] Cucceri [with] Budva" on the death of his father[130].  Knez of Zeta.  After agreeing an alliance with his four brothers in [1055], he attacked and took control of Trebinje, killing the rebel leader Domanek[131].  An incomplete charter dated to [1058] records the foundation of "monasterium in Baleni" by "Radoslauus rex…cum uxore mea Julia et filio Branislauo"[132].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records the rebellion of "men from Tribunia called Scrobiniesi [who] murdered Gojislav and his brother Predimir and set up their leader Domanech as ruler", that the brothers "Michael, Saganic and Radoslav" marched on Trebinje, and that Radoslav killed Domanech and captured the "region of Chelmena"[133].  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that Mihailo took the zupania of Zeta from his brother Radoslav and gave it to his son Vladimir after succeeding as king[134].  Knez of Zahumlje until 1089. 

m JULIA, daughter of ---.  An incomplete charter dated to [1058] records the foundation of "monasterium in Baleni" by "Radoslauus rex…cum uxore mea Julia et filio Branislauo"[135]

Radoslav & his wife had eight children:

1.         BRANISLAV (-after [1095]).  An incomplete charter dated to [1058] records the foundation of "monasterium in Baleni" by "Radoslauus rex…cum uxore mea Julia et filio Branislauo"[136].  He succeeded his father in Zeta, but appears to have rebelled against his cousin Konstantin Bodin King of Duklja before accepting the suzerainty of the latter[137].  Queen Jakvinta, probably during her husband's imprisonment, ordered the capture of Branislav in [1093/95], anxious to safeguard the rights of her children over Branislav's family in case her husband died.  He died soon after in jail[138]m ---.  The name of Branislav's wife is not known.  Branislav & his wife had six children:

a)         GRUBEŠA (-killed in battle Antivari 1125).  He was imprisoned after the accession of King Djordje, but released after the latter's deposal by a Byzantine army from Durazzo in [1118] and declared GRUBEŠA King of Duklja[139].  He was killed in the Hungarian/Byzantine war[140]m ---.  The name of Grubeša's wife is not known.  King Grubeša & his wife had three children:

i)          RADOSLAV .   

ii)         JOVAN

iii)        VLADIMIR

b)         GRADINJA (-[1146]).  After King Djordje was deposed by the Byzantines in 1131, he was declared GRADINJA King of Duklja by the Byzantine commander.  Strengthening his ties with Byzantium, he was able to rule unchallenged after Djordje was finally captured in [1131][141]m ---.  The name of Gradinja's wife is not known.  King Gradinja & his wife had one child:

i)          RADOSLAV Gradišnić .  He succeeded his father in [1146], installed during a visit to Constantinople as RADOSLAV Knez of Duklja.  Uroš II Grand Župan of Serbia attacked Duklja, occupying about two-thirds of its territory.  Radoslav appealed for help to Byzantium which attacked Serbia, forcing Uroš to flee to the mountains and winning a decisive victory against a combined Serbian/Hungarian army on the River Tara in 1150.  Under the terms of the resulting peace treaty, Duklja's territories were restored and Radoslav's position as Knez confirmed[142].  He lost Duklja in [1162] to Kotor Skutari.  m ---.  The name of Radoslav's wife is not known.  King Radoslav & his wife had [one] child:

(a)       [MIHAIL .  He succeeded as MIHAILO Knez of Duklja.  He was faced with growing pressures from Serbia, which completed its conquest of Duklja (by then more commonly known as Zeta) by 1189.  Grand Župan Nemanja ruled Duklja (Zeta) directly as part of Serbia until his abdication in 1196 when his older son Vukan succeeded as Grand Knez of Zeta (see Chapter 2, below)[143]m DESISLAVA, daughter of ---.  According to Fine, Desislava widow of Mihailo was in exile at Dubrovnik in 1189[144].] 

c)         PREDINHA (-beheaded Dubrovnik [1101]).  After his father's death, he sought refuge in Dubrovnik, which was attacked by King Konstantin Bodin.  Probably influenced by his wife Queen Jakvinta, Konstantin Bodin had Predinha beheaded[145].

d)         PREDISLAV

e)         TVARDISLAV

f)          DRAGELLO

2.         DOBROSLAV

3.         GRADISLAV (-beheaded [1101]).  After the death of his brother Branislav, he sought refuge in Dubrovnik, which was attacked by King Konstantin Bodin.  Probably influenced by his wife Queen Jakvinta, Konstantin Bodin had Gradislav beheaded[146]

4.         KOČAPAR .  After the succession of his first cousin Dobroslav in [1101/08], Kočapar went to Serbia with Byzantine support to seek help from Župan Vukan to overthrow his cousin.  With help from Vukan, Kočapar defeated and captured Dobroslav at the battle of the Morača river, and succeeded as KOČAPAR King of Duklja.  Vukan soon expelled King Kočapar, who fled first to Bosnia and later to Zahumlje, where he died[147]

5.         4 sons. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    GRAND KNEZ of ZETA (DUKLJA), NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY of SERBIA

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the following members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

VUKAN of Serbia, son of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana --- (-[1209]).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan names "le prince Volkan, frčre de l´autocrate Etienne" when recording that he rebelled after the death of their father[148].  He was appointed VUKAN Grand Knez of Zeta (Duklja) by his father by 1190, as an appanage of Serbia.  He was passed over in the succession to Serbia, on his father's abdication in 1196, in favour of his younger brother although the reason for this has not yet been ascertained.  From this time, Vukan called himself King of Duklja and Dalmatia, asserting himself as an independent ruler, which was recognised by the Pope and by Hungary.  He accepted Papal supremacy and became a Catholic[149].  He attacked Serbia in 1202, deposed his brother, and succeeded as VUKAN Grand Župan of Serbia, at the same time recognising Hungarian suzerainty.  He was expelled by his brother in [1204/05], and returned to Zeta, although tensions with Serbia continued.  He abdicated in [1208] in Zeta in favour of his son[150]

m (after 8 Jan 1198) --- [de Segni], relative of Pope INNOCENT III, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

Vukan & his wife had four children: 

1.         DJORDJE (-after 21 Aug 1242).  He succeeded in 1208 as DJORDJE Grand Knez of Zeta on the abdication of his father.  "Rex Georgius et Bladinus frater meus, Stranco et Petrusslao consobrini mei" swore allegiance to "domino Petro Ziani Venetiarum, Dalmatie atque Croatie duci" by charter dated Jul 1208[151].  Tensions with Serbia continued after his accession and, in order to secure his position, Djordje recognised Venetian suzerainty over Zeta[152].  His uncle Stefan Grand Župan of Serbia appears to have gained control over Zeta by 1216, putting an end to Zeta's independence[153].  After the succession of Radoslav as king of Serbia in [1224/27], Djordje re-emerged as governor of Zeta under Radoslav's suzerainty, apparently with the title Prince, although Zeta appears to have reverted to Serbian control after the accession of Stefan Uroš I as King in 1243[154].  After the death od Djordje, the status of his descendants declined in Zeta:  they were normally referred to with the simple title "Župan", Zeta being granted as an appanage by Stefan Dragutin King of Serbia to his mother Jelena in 1276[155]m ---.  The name of Djordje's wife is no known.  Djordje & his wife had [two] children:   

a)         [DIMITRIJE .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, he and his brother were sons of one of the two brothers Djordje or Vladin[156].  Župan of Zeta [1271]-[1286].  He founded the monastery of Davidovica.  He became a monk in 1286 as DAVID.]  m ---.  The name of Dimitrije's wife is not known.  Dmitrije & his wife had one child:

i)          VRATISLAV .  Knez.  m ---.  The name of Vratislav's wife is not known.  Vratislav & his wife had two children:

(a)       VRATKO [Braktes].  Leader in the battle of Serrhai 1342.  m ---.  The name of Vratko's wife is not known.  Vratko & his wife had [one] child:

(1)       [MILICA (-11 Nov 1405).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[157], the wife of Knez Lazar was the daughter of Vratoko, but this alleged descent appears to have been fabricated by later chronicles[158].  Regent of Serbia 1389.  She became a nun as JEVGENIJA[159]m ([1353]) LAZAR Hrebeljanović Knez of Serbia, son of PRIBAC Hrebeljanović & his wife --- (Priljebac, near Novo Brdo [1329]-executed Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, bur Ravanica Monastery).] 

(b)       RADOSLAV

b)         [STEFAN .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, he and his brother were sons of one of the two brothers Djordje or Vladin[160].  1252.] 

2.         VLADIN .  "Rex Georgius et Bladinus frater meus, Stranco et Petrusslao consobrini mei" swore allegiance to "domino Petro Ziani Venetiarum, Dalmatie atque Croatie duci" by charter dated Jul 1208[161]

3.         STEFAN .  He built the Morača monastery in 1251/52.  He was referred to as king in a 17th century fresco[162]

4.         DIMITRIJE .  He was referred to as Župan, he built a church at Brodarevo on the River Lim in 1281, and soon thereafter became a monk[163]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    NOBLE FAMILIES in 14th CENTURY ZETA

 

 

The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of the following families have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

A.      ŽARKOVIĆI

 

 

1.         ŽARKO .  A leading nobleman in Zeta, referred to on the coast in Jun 1357 as vassal of Stefan Uroš IV Tsar of Serbia[164]m ---.  The name of Žarko's wife is no known.  Žarko & his wife had one child:

a)         MRKŠE Žarković (-1415).  He succeeded his mother-in-law in 1396 as Lord of Valona, in right of his wife.  m (1391) RUGINA [Rudina] Balšić, daughter of BALŠO [II] Balšić Lord of Zeta & his wife Kominia of Bulgaria.  Their marriage was ratified by the Patriarch of Constantinople as it violated canons of the church because of the parties' close relationship[165].  She succeeded her husband as Lady of Valona, until 1417 when it was conquered by the Ottomans[166]

 

 

 

B.      BALŠIĆI

 

 

BALŠA [I] (-before May 1362).  A petty nobleman who held one village in Zeta under Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia.  He or his sons acquired Skadar in [1360], then expanded his territory to the coast[167].  General under King Stefan Dusan, who became lord of Upper Zeta (Montenegro) and conquered northern Albania.  Citizen of Ragusa 1361[168]

m ---.  The name of Balša's wife is not known. 

Balša [I] & his wife had four children:

1.         STRACIMIR Balšić (-Sava [15 Jan 1372/1373]).  He succeeded his father jointly with his brothers.  They supported Dubrovnik in 1361, in opposition to their overlord Stefan Uroš IV Tsar of Serbia, after it was attacked by Vojislav Vojinović Knez of Hum[169].  Citizen of Venice [May/3 Jul] 1361[170].  He and his brothers converted to Catholicism in [1368/69] to further their coastal ambitions[171].  He became a monk at Sava[172]m firstly IRENE Duklina, daughter of ---.  m secondly MILICA Mrnjavčević, daughter of Kralj VUKAŠIN Kralj of Serbia & his wife Jelena ---.  Stracimir & his [first/second] wife had three children: 

a)         DJURADJ [II] Stracimirović Balšić (-Apr 1403)He succeeded as Lord of Upper Zeta on the death of his father.  “Georgius Balšić…fratrem Balša et Georgium juniorem” swore peace to Ragusa by charter dated 30 Nov 1373[173].  He was held captive by his uncle Balša for some time between [1380]-1385, but was released on the death of his uncle whom he succeeded as Lord of Zeta[174].  He lost Durazzo to Karlo Thopia in 1385.  He established his major residence at Ulcinj, where he maintained an elaborate court despite his shrinking fortunes[175].  “Georgius Balšić, Stracimiri filius” granted the Venetians mercantile rights in his lands by charter dated 28 Feb 1388[176].  He was captured by the Ottomans at Skopje in 1392, negotiating his freedom in return for accepting Ottoman suzerainty[177].  Prince of Albania, Count at Korcula and Hvar, under Hungarian suzerainty, in Dec 1396/1399[178]m ([1386]) as her first husband, JELENA Lazarević, daughter of LAZAR Hrebljanović Knez of Serbia & his wife Jelena (-1443).  She married secondly (end 1411) as his fourth wife, Sandalj Hranić Kosača Grand Voivode of Bosnia Knez of Zahumlje.  Djuradj & his wife had one child: 

i)          BALŠA [III] Stracimirović ([1387]-28 Apr 1421).  He succeeded his father in 1403.  He converted from Catholicism to Serbian Orthodoxy, under the influence of his mother[179].  Venice surrended the ports of Bar (which Balša established as his capital), Ulcinj and Budva[180].  After Sultan Mohammed I captured Kroja in 1415, Balša reaffirmed his vassalage to the Sultan[181].  He died on a visit to the Serbian court attempting to gain support in his fight against Venice from his uncle Stefan Lazarević, who inherited his lands after his death, although he was forestalled by Venice who captured them[182]m ([27 Jul/16 Aug] 1407]) MARA Thopia, daughter of [NICHETA Thopia & his wife ].  After the death of her husband, she became the mistress of Antonio Giustianiani, citizen of Venice[183].  1407/1427.  Balša [III] & his wife had three children: 

(a)       JELENA (-Oct 1453).  She converted to Roman Catholicism[184]m ([Nov/Dec] 1424, repudiated [1451/53], remarried 1453) as his first wife, STEFAN Vukšić Kosača Voyvoda of Bosnia, son of VUKA Ranić & his wife --- (-22/23 May 1466).  He dropped his title 'Vojvoda of Bosnia' in 1448, assumed the title "Herceg[185] [Duke] of Hum and the Coast", and changed the title again in 1449 to "Herceg of Saint Sava"[186], in recollection of the Serbian saint[187]

(b)       TODORA (-after 12 Apr 1445)m PETAR Vojsalić (-after 1453).  

(c)       son (-young). 

b)         GOJKO (-before 1372). 

c)         IVANIS (-before 1372). 

2.         DJURADJ [I] Balšić (-31 Jan 1378).  He succeeded his father jointly with his brothers.  War broke out with the Thopia of Albania in 1363, and Djuradj Balšić was captured in spring 1364.  Dubrovnik mediated peace in 1366 and secured his release[188].  After the battle of Mariča River in 1371, he and his brother marched eastwards and conquered Prizren and Peć.  Lord of Trebinje, Canali and Dračevica 1373/1377[189].  “Georgius Balšić…fratrem Balša et Georgium juniorem” swore peace to Ragusa by charter dated 30 Nov 1373[190]m firstly (repudiated [1371/72]) OLIVERA Mrnjavčević, daughter of VUKAŠIN Kralj of Serbia & his wife Jelena ---.  m secondly ([1372/75]) as her second husband, TODORA Dejanović, widow of ŽARKO Mrkšić, daughter of Despot DEJAN & his wife Jelena ---.  She became a nun as XENIA in 1378[191], and joined her son Konstantini at Kroja after 1394[192].  Djuradj [I] & his first wife had two children:

a)         ELISANTA [Jelisaveta] (-1443 before 8 Oct)m RAJKO Moneta, a noble at Skutari (-before 9 May 1424). 

b)         GOJSLAVA m RADIĆ Stanković Voivoda of Zahumlje .  [1391/1399]/1404. 

Djuradj [I] & his wife had two children: 

c)         JEVDOKIA (-after 1428).  Despot of Jannina until 26 Feb 1411.  m (6 Aug 1402) ISAUL Buondelmonti Acciaujuoli Despot of Jannina (-6 Feb 1411). 

d)         KONSTANTINI (-executed Durazzo 1402 before 22 Oct).  Having been passed over on the death of his father when he was still a minor, he emerged as a major rival to his first cousin Djuradj Stracimirović.  He declared himself an Ottoman vassal when visiting the court of Sultan Bayezid I in [1391] and established good relations both with Vuk Branković and with his own half-brother Mrkše Žarković[193].  The Ottomans appointed him Lord of Kroja in 1394 in place of Marco Barbadigo, whose wife he later married[194].  He was captured and executed by the Venetians after an unsuccessful attempt to capture Durazzo[195]m firstly ---.  m secondly ([1395/8 Aug 1401]) as her second husband, ELENA Thopia, divorced wife of Ser MARCO Barbarigo Lord of Kroja, daughter of KAROLUS Thopia & his wife Voisava Balšić (-after 1402). 

Djuradj [I] had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

e)         GJERGJ Balšić .  Citizen of Venice 10 Mar 1392. 

3.         BALŠA [II] Balšić (-killed in battle near Berat 18 Sep 1385).  He succeeded his father jointly with his brothers.  He obtained Valona, Berat, Himara and Kanina as dowry on his marriage[196].  “Georgius Balšić…fratrem Balša et Georgium juniorem” swore peace to Ragusa by charter dated 30 Nov 1373[197].  He succeeded as Lord of Zeta, in the territories of his older brother Djuradj, on the latter's death in 1379, ignoring the rights of his nephew Konstantini.  He captured Durazzo from Karlo Thopia in 1385, calling himself Duke of Durazzo in Apr 1385[198].  He was killed fighting the Turks.  m (1372) KOMINIA of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN Asen Komnenos, despot, Lord of Valona, Kanina and Berat & his second wife Anna Palaiologina Angelina of Epirus (-[5 Oct 1395/Sep 1396]).  She succeeded her husband as Lady of Valona, Kanina, Berat and Himara.  Regent 1385/95.  Vassal of Venice 1389/90 for the islands of Sasene and Torre di Pirgo.  She became a nun as XENIA[199].  Balša [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         RUDJINA (-after 1421).  Kraljica.  Lady of Valona 1396, until 1417.  Lady of Berat, Cimera and Pirgi, until 1420.  m (Mar 1391) MRKŠE Žarković, son of ŽARKO & his wife --- (-Oct 1414).  Lord of Valona 1396. 

4.         VOISAVA m ([1370]) KAROLUS Thopia Lord of Matija, son of ANDREA Thopia & his wife --- of Sicily (-[1387/88], bur near Elbasan). 

 

 

 

C.      CRNOJEVIĆI (DJURAŠEVIĆI)

 

 

RADIĆ Crnojević, son of CRNOJE & his wife --- (-killed in battle 25 Apr 1396).  Lord of Zenta, Budva and part of Sclavonia.  Lord at Alessio [1393].  Citizen of Venice 30 Nov 1392[200]

m ---.  The name of Radić's wife is not known. 

Possible sons[201]

1.         DJORDJE Djurašević .  Lord of Zenta, Budva and part of Sclavonia.  1403/1431.  m ---.  The name of Djordje's wife is no known.  Djordje & his wife had four children:

a)         GOJČIN Djurašević (-1451 or after).  He and his two younger brothers defected to Venice after their older brother concluded his alliance with Stjepan Vukčić Kosača[202].  Citizen of Venice Jul 1444[203]m ---.  The name of Gojčin's wife is no known.  Gojčin & his wife had one child:

i)          LEKA

b)         DJURAŠIN Djurašević (-1451 or after).  Citizen of Venice Jul 1444199m ---.  The name of Durašin's wife is no known.  Durašin & his wife had one child:

i)          STJEPAN .  1444. 

c)         STJEPAN Crnojević Djurašević (-1465).  Lord of Budva and Lower Zeta from [1435].   

-        see below

d)         son (-1443). 

2.         LJEŠ .  Lord of Zenta, Budva and part of Sclavonia.  1403/1481. 

 

 

STJEPAN Crnojević Djurašević, son of DJORDJE Djurašević Lord of Zenta, Budva and part of Sclavonia & his wife --- (-1465).  Lord of Budva and Lower Zeta from [1435].  With the gradual collapse of Serbia under Ottoman pressure, he became the virtually independent ruler of most of Zeta, although nominally under Serbian suzerainty until the Ottoman annexation of Serbia in 1441[204].  Stjepan Vukčić Kosača of Bosnia invaded upper Zeta as far as the Morača River in 1441 and forced Stefan Crnojević to conclude an alliance by obliging him to give his son as a hostage[205].  He concluded an alliance against Djurdje Branković Despot of Serbia in [1451/52] with Venice, which recognised him as Grand Vojvoda of Zeta.  He defeated three Serbian invasions in 1452 and 1453, but was obliged to accept Venetian suzerainty over both upper and lower Zeta[206]

m MARIJA Kastriota, daughter of GJON Kastrioti Lord of Matja & his wife Voisava Tripalda. 

Stjepan & his wife had one child: 

1.         JOVAN [Ivan] Crnojević (-early Jul 1490).  His father was obliged to give him as a hostage to Stefan Vukčić of Bosnia in 1441[207].  He remained at the Bosnian court until released with Venetian help after his father defeated the Serbian invasions of Zeta in 1453[208].  He succeeded as ruler of Zeta in 1465 on the death of his father.  He agreed an alliance with Venice in 1474 against an offensive by the Ottomans, who withdrew after besieging Skadar.  He attacked the Ottomans in 1476 jointly with his brother-in-law Vlatko Kosača Herceg of Saint Sava, but the two soon quarelled[209].  Another wave of Ottoman attacks in 1477 resulted in most of Zeta being overrun.  Ivan fled to the coast and his state was annexed[210].  In 1482, he negotiated his restoration to a small vassal principality of Montenegro with Sultan Bayezid II, who later took Ivan's youngest son Staniša to his court as a hostage, and moved his capital to Cetinje.  m firstly GOJISAVA Araniti, daughter of GJERGJ Araniti & his first wife Maria Musaki (-before Jul 1469).  m secondly (Jul 1469) MARA Kosača, daughter of STEFAN Vukšić Kosača Duke of Saint Sava & his [second] wife [Varvara ---].  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Gojsava married "signor Giovanni Cernovichi…signore de Cernagora e de Ceta"[211]Jovan & his [second] wife had five children: 

a)         DJURADJ (-in Anatolia after 26 Nov 1503).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "il primo…il signor Giorgio, il secondo il signor Scanderbego" as the two sons of "signor Giovanni Cernovichi…signore de Cernagora e de Ceta" and his wife[212].  He was de facto ruler of Montenegro during his father's lifetime by 1489, and succeeded his father in 1490.  He established the first Cyrillic printing press.  Sultan Bayezid suppressed his principality in 1496, and Djuradj left for Budva from where he sailed for Venice[213]m firstly JELA Thopia, daughter of MUSAKI Thopia & his wife ---.  m secondly (Jul 1490) ELISABETTA Erizzo, daughter of ANTONIO Erizzo, Captain-General at Bergamo (-1510 or after).  Djuradj & his first wife had one child: 

i)          SOLOMUM (-killed in battle Sep 1521).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "il primo…signor Salamone, il secondo signor Costantino" as the two sons of "signor Giorgio"[214].  A Moslem.  m ELISAVETA, daughter of ---. 

Djuradj & his second wife had five children: 

ii)         KONSTANTIN .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "il primo…signor Salamone, il secondo signor Costantino" as the two sons of "signor Giorgio", adding that Konstantin married in Venice[215].  Patrician of Venice 1524.  m (1523) MARIA Contarini, daughter of GIOVANNI MATTEO Contarini.  Konstantin & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GIOVANNIm firstly (6 Jul 1547) PAOLA Alberti, daughter of GIOVANNI BATTISTA Alberti.  m secondly (7 Dec 1559) ORSETA Valaresso, daughter of GABRIELE Valaresso.  Giovanni & his [first/second] wife had two children: 

(1)       VITTORIOm (17 Jun 1585) ELENA Calbo, daughter of PIETRO Calbo.  Vittorio & his wife had two children: 

a.         GIOVANNI (-1660). 

b.         FAUSTINAm (24 Feb 1636) GASPARO LUIGI Dolfin

(2)       COSTANTINO

iii)        IVAN [Giovanni] .  1505.  Prison governor at Padua[216]

iv)       ANTONIJA .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family records that two of the three daughters of "signor Giorgio" married in Hungary and the third in Venice[217]m JEROLIM Zagurović Lord of Kotor (-after 1571). 

v)        daughter .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family records that two of the three daughters of "signor Giorgio" married in Hungary and the third in Venice[218]m ---, from Hungary. 

vi)       daughter .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family records that two of the three daughters of "signor Giorgio" married in Hungary and the third in Venice[219]m ---, from Venice. 

b)         STEFAN (-1499 or after).  He attempted unsuccessfully to succeed his brother Djuradj in 1496[220].  He became a monk as MAKSIM[221]

c)         STANIŠA (-1528 or after).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "il primo…il signor Giorgio, il secondo il signor Scanderbego" as the two sons of "signor Giovanni Cernovichi…signore de Cernagora e de Ceta" and his wife, adding that "Scanderbego" converted to Islam[222].  He was given to Sultan Bayezid II as a hostage in 1485, converted to Islam and adopted the name SKENDER, later Skenderbeg Ivanbegović[223].  He was appointed one of the governors of the Ottoman province of Montenegro [Sandshak-Bey] in 1513[224].  His descendants were the Pashas of Skodra[225]

d)         daughter .  m (Kotor) ---. 

e)         daughter .  m (Kotor) ---. 

 

 



[1] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 193. 

[2] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 532. 

[3] Bujan, S. 'La Chronique du Prętre de Dioclée un faux document historique', Revue des études byzantines, Tome 66 (2008), available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2008_num_66_1_3031> (21 Dec 2012).  

[4] Nodilo, S. (ed.) (1883) Annales Ragusini Anonymi, Scriptores, Vol. I, Monumenta spectantia Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XIV (Zagreb). 

[5] Lucius J. (1656) De regno Dalmatić et Croatić libri sex (Amsterdam), Regum Dalmatić et Croatić Gesta a Marco Marulo, pp. 304-9. 

[6] Lucius (1656), Presbiteri Diocleatis Regnum Slavorum, pp. 287-302. 

[7] Sisic, F. (ed.), Stephenson, P. (trans. 1998) Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, based on Lucius (1666) De regno Dalmatić et Croatić, ("Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja"), XXX. 

[8] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXX. 

[9] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXX. 

[10] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXI. 

[11] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXX. 

[12] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXI. 

[13] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXI. 

[14] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXI and XXXII. 

[15] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXII. 

[16] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIII. 

[17] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXX. 

[18] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXI. 

[19] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXX. 

[20] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXI. 

[21] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIII. 

[22] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIV and XXXV. 

[23] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXV. 

[24] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVI. 

[25] Fine (1991), p. 194. 

[26] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVI. 

[27] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, Patrologić cursus completus, Series Grćca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 195.  

[28] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVI and XXXVII. 

[29] Cedrenus II, col. 195. 

[30] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVI. 

[31] ES II 159 A. 

[32] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIV. 

[33] Fine (1991), p. 202. 

[34] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[35] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[36] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXVIII. 

[37] ES II 159 A. 

[38] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[39] ES II 159 A. 

[40] ES II 159 A. 

[41] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[42] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[43] ES II 159 A. 

[44] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIV and XXXV. 

[45] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXVIII. 

[46] Fine (1991), pp. 202-203. 

[47] ES II 159 A. 

[48] Fine (1991), p. 203. 

[49] Fine (1991), p. 206. 

[50] Cedrenus II, col. 259. 

[51] Cedrenus II, col. 275. 

[52] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVIII. 

[53] Fine (1991), p. 212. 

[54] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[55] ES II 159 A. 

[56] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIX and XL. 

[57] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[58] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIX. 

[59] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[60] Cedrenus II, col. 338. 

[61] Fine (1991), p. 212. 

[62] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[63] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIX and XL. 

[64] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologić cursus completus, Series Grćca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzć curopalatć ("Skylitzes"), col. 446. 

[65] Fine (1991), pp. 215-16. 

[66] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[67] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[68] Fine (1991), p. 213. 

[69] Fine (1991), p. 230. 

[70] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[71] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[72] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[73] Fine (1991), p. 231. 

[74] Fine (1991), p. 233. 

[75] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[76] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[77] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[78] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[79] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[80] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[81] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[82] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[83] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[84] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[85] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[86] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[87] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologić cursus completus, Series Grćca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzć curopalatć ("Skylitzes"), col. 446. 

[88] Fine (1991), pp. 213-14. 

[89] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[90] Fine (1991), p. 221. 

[91] Sewter, E. R. A. (trans.) (1969) Anna Comnena The Alexiad (Penguin Books), I, p. 72. 

[92] Fine (1991), p. 222. 

[93] Fine (1991), p. 223, and Kelly, J. N. D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford University Press, 1994). 

[94] Fine (1991), p. 224. 

[95] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. V, Book IX, p. 35. 

[96] Sakcinski, I. K. (ed.) (1874) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatić, Dalamatić et Slavonić, Diplomatički Zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije I Slavonije (Zagreb) ("Codex Diplomaticus Croatić"), Vol. I, CCXXIX, p. 188. 

[97] Fine (1991), p. 222. 

[98] ES II 159 A. 

[99] Fine (1991), p. 229. 

[100] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. II, XXIV, p. 19. 

[101] Fine (1991), pp. 231-32. 

[102] Sakcinski, I. K. (ed.) (1875) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatić, Dalamatić et Slavonić, Diplomatički Zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije I Slavonije (Zagreb) ("Codex Diplomaticus Croatić"), Vol. II, XXIII, p. 18. 

[103] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. II, XXIV, p. 19. 

[104] Fine (1991), p. 232. 

[105] Fine (1991), p. 233. 

[106] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. II, XV, p. 13. 

[107] Skylitzes, col. 447. 

[108] Fine (1991), p. 214. 

[109] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[110] Fine (1991), p. 230. 

[111] Fine (1991), p. 231. 

[112] Fine (1991), p. 232. 

[113] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[114] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[115] Fine (1991), p. 213. 

[116] Crne Gore, Vol I (Titograd, 1967), p. 396, cited in Fine (1991), p. 222. 

[117] Crne Gore, Vol I (Titograd, 1967), p. 396, cited in Fine (1991), p. 222. 

[118] Fine (1991), p. 223. 

[119] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[120] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[121] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. II, XV, p. 13. 

[122] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[123] Fine (1991), p. 212. 

[124] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[125] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[126] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[127] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIX. 

[128] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[129] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVIII. 

[130] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXIX. 

[131] Fine (1991), p. 212. 

[132] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. I, CXXXIV, p. 118. 

[133] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII and XXXIX. 

[134] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[135] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. I, CXXXIV, p. 118. 

[136] Codex Diplomaticus Croatić, Vol. I, CXXXIV, p. 118. 

[137] Fine (1991), p. 221. 

[138] Fine (1991), p. 229. 

[139] Fine (1991), p. 232. 

[140] Fine (1991), p. 233. 

[141] Fine (1991), p. 233. 

[142] Fine (1991), p. 238. 

[143] Fine (1991), pp. 233 and 244. 

[144] Fine (1994), p. 7. 

[145] Fine (1991), p. 229. 

[146] Fine (1991), p. 229. 

[147] Fine (1991), p. 231. 

[148] Givkovich, C. (ed.) (1858) Vie des saints apôtres serbes Symeon et Sabba (Paris) ("Domentijan"), p. 44. 

[149] Fine (1994), pp. 42 and 44-5. 

[150] Fine (1994), pp. 47-9. 

[151] Academia scientiarum et artum Slavorum meridionalium (1868) Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb) ("Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium"), Vol. I, XXXV, p. 27. 

[152] Fine (1994), p. 50. 

[153] Fine (1994), p. 50. 

[154] Fine (1994), pp. 137-8. 

[155] Fine (1994), pp. 203-4. 

[156] ES II 160. 

[157] ES III 188. 

[158] Fine (1994), p. 526. 

[159] ES II 160. 

[160] ES II 160. 

[161] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. I, XXXV, p. 27. 

[162] Fine (1994), p. 138. 

[163] Fine (1994), p. 138. 

[164] Fine (1994), p. 358. 

[165] Fine (1994), p. 417. 

[166] Fine (1994), p. 391. 

[167] Fine (1994), p. 358. 

[168] ES III 179. 

[169] Fine (1994), p. 361. 

[170] ES III 179. 

[171] Fine (1994), p. 362. 

[172] ES III 179. 

[173] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXIII, p. 183. 

[174] Fine (1994), p. 390. 

[175] Fine (1994), p. 392. 

[176] Monumenta Serbica, CDXC, p. 566. 

[177] Fine (1994), p. 419. 

[178] ES III 179. 

[179] Fine (1994), p. 511. 

[180] Fine (1994), pp. 512-3. 

[181] Fine (1994), p. 514. 

[182] Fine (1994), p. 516. 

[183] ES III 179. 

[184] ES III 179. 

[185] Hence the name of the territory 'Hercegovina', meaning the Duke's lands, see Fine (1994), p. 578.  . 

[186] Fine (1994), p. 578. 

[187] The son of Stefan Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, who became a monk adopting the name Sava, and was first Archbishop of the independent church in Serbia. 

[188] Fine (1994), p. 372. 

[189] ES III 179. 

[190] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXIII, p. 183. 

[191] ES III 179. 

[192] Fine (1994), p. 420. 

[193] Fine (1994), p. 417. 

[194] Fine (1994), pp. 419-20. 

[195] Fine (1994), p. 422. 

[196] Fine (1994), p. 383. 

[197] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXIII, p. 183. 

[198] Fine (1994), p. 390. 

[199] ES III 179. 

[200] ES III 182. 

[201] ES III 182. 

[202] Fine (1994), p. 533. 

[203] ES III 182. 

[204] Fine (1994), p. 531. 

[205] Fine (1994), p. 532. 

[206] Fine (1994), pp. 559-61. 

[207] Fine (1994), p. 532. 

[208] Fine (1994), pp. 559-61. 

[209] Fine (1994), pp. 599-600. 

[210] Fine (1994), p. 600. 

[211] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[212] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[213] Fine (1994), pp. 603-4. 

[214] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[215] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[216] ES III 182. 

[217] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[218] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[219] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[220] Fine (1994), p. 604. 

[221] ES III 182. 

[222] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[223] Fine (1994), p. 603. 

[224] Fine (1994), p. 604. 

[225] ES III 182.