SERBIA

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                SERBIA, 9th and 10th CENTURIES. 4

Chapter 2.                ŽUPANI of SERBIA (GRAND ŽUPANI from early 12th century) 8

A.         ŽUPANI of RAŠKA, late 10th century. 8

B.         ŽUPANI of RAŠKA, 1083-[1106] 9

C.        GRAND ŽUPANI of RAŠKA, early 12th century to 1166. 11

D.        GRAND ŽUPANI of SERBIA, 1166-1217 (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY) 13

Chapter 3.                KINGS of SERBIA 1217-1346, TSARS of SERBIA 1346-1371 (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY) 19

A.         KINGS of SERBIA 1217-1346, TSARS 1346-1371 (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY) 19

B.         FAMILY of DRAGOSLAV JOVAN.. 36

Chapter 4.                KINGS of SERBIA 1365-1395 (MRNJAVČEVIĆI) 38

Chapter 5.                PRINCES of SERBIA 1385-1457. 41

A.         LAZAROVIĆI 1385-1427. 41

B.         BRANKOVIĆI 1427-1457. 45

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The only primary source evidence regarding the first recorded dynasty of rulers in Serbia is the De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos[1], probably written in the 940s.  The De Administrando records seven generations of Serbian rulers belonging to the same family, whose rise to power coincided with the establishment of Bulgaria as an important regional force in the mid-9th century.  There must inevitably be some doubt about the accuracy of the information recorded, especially relating to the earliest generations, given the absence of corroborative evidence, although admittedly the De Adminstrando was written only a few decades later.  What is clear is that Serbia oscillated between Byzantine and Bulgarian control for much of the second half of the 9th century and first half of the 10th.  If the De Administrando is to be believed, this period was marked by continual internal rivalries between the male members of the Serbian ruling family who, sometimes with Bulgarian and sometimes with Byzantine support, ousted each other and assumed control of Serbia in turn (see Chapter 1).  Precise dating of the events recorded, and changes of rulers, is not possible from the limited information contained in the De Administrando.  Serbia was finally overrun by the Magyars after they defeated Časlav, last Knez of Serbia, dated to [955/60]. 

 

After the defeat of Časlav, the kingdom of Duklja (based in what is today Montenegro) became the dominant Slav force in the area.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Bodin who [afterwards] ruled the whole kingdom [and] Vladimir with their brothers marched into Rassa and annexed it", their father assigning it to "his son Petrislav to rule"[2].  Fine dates the conquest to between 1060 and 1074[3].  Around 1080, Konstantin Bodin King of Duklja established the brothers Marko and Vukan as joint-Župan [Lord] of Raška, the name by which Serbia was then more commonly known at the time (see Chapter 2.B).  Their collateral descendants continued to rule Serbia until the mid-12th century (Chapter 2.C). 

 

After Desa Grand Župan of Serbia was deposed for the last time in 1166, Byzantium installed as Grand Župan Tihomir, brother of Stefan Nemanja (who replaced Tihomir as Grand Župan the following year).  Later chronicles fabricated a descent of Stefan Nemanja from Licinius, rival of Constantine the Great, and his wife who was Constantine's sister whom they alleged was a Serb[4].  It is more likely that Nemanja was related to the family of the Grand Župani of Serbia set out in Chapter 2.C.  According to a charter written in 1198 by Nemanja himself, his great-grandfather and grandfather had "ruled the land".  This statement is also found in the biographies of Nemanja written by his sons.  In addition to Tihomir, Nemanja had two brothers, Miroslav and Stracimir.  Miroslav was the author of a gospel, in which he names his father as Zavid[5]. The inevitable deduction is that Nemanja's father, Zavid, was another son of Uroš I Grand Župan of Serbia (Chapter 2.C).  Emperor Manuel I's choice of Tihomir as new ruler of Serbia in [1166] also makes more sense if he was closely related to the old dynasty rather than an outsider, as such a choice is more likely to have been acceptable to Serbia's leaders. 

 

Serbia developed into a major force in the Balkan region in the late 12th century under Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja.  He conquered the areas later known as Montenegro (which he assigned to his eldest son) and Hercegovina, as well as southern Dalmatia, northern Albania and Kosovo.  Although Byzantium regained some of the lost territory under the peace treaty which followed their defeat of the Serbs at Morava River in 1190, Serb independence was recognised.  Stefan Nemanja´s son, Stefan, was crowned as first king of Serbia by a papal legate in [1217] (see Chapter 3).  His descendant, Stefan Dušan, declared himself emperor (Tsar) of Serbia and Greece in 1346 after conquering large parts of Macedonia from Byzantium, his life being glorified in later epic poetry.  His successors were less competent, and Serbia´s powerful position was eroded by competing claims to rule from different members of the royal family.  Tsar Stefan Uroš IV shared power with Vukašin Mrnjavčević, an official at his court who was unrelated to the Nemanja dynasty and who was eventually crowned as joint ruler in 1365, his family ruling Serbia until the end of the 14th century (see Chapter 4).  King Vukašin was defeated and killed in 1371 by the Ottoman Turks, and his son Marko found his power confined to a small area of Macedonia around the town of Prilep, which was annexed by the Ottomans after he too was killed in battle.  Meanwhile, the Lazarovići family rose to power in western Serbia and, through a series of matrimonial alliances, was able to group the most influential local Serbian chiefs under their rule (Chapter 5.A).  However, a major part of the army was slaughtered in 1389 at the battle of Kosovo, where Stefan Lazar was captured and executed.  After his death, his widow submitted to Ottoman suzerainty on behalf of her son, who was granted the title despot by the Byzantine emperor.  The Lazarovići were succeeded in 1427 by the Brankovići (Chapter 5.B), under whose rule Serbia was finally annexed by the Ottomans in 1459. 

 

As will be seen below, much of the information in this document has been extracted from the works of Fine[6].  Many of the family relationships of the Serbian rulers remain to be confirmed from primary source data.  Most of the present reconstruction relies on Byzantine sources.  Few Serbian sources have so far been located and used in the compilation of the document.  In particular, the biographies of Stefan Nemanja have not yet been found in translation into a western European language.  Serbian and Bosnian charters, dated between the late 12th and late 15th centuries, are collected in the mid-19th century Monumenta Serbica[7]. The documents are written in Serbian, but are headed by a brief description in Latin which includes some genealogical details.  It is probable that more relevant information is included in the body of the documents but these have not been studied due to the language difficulty. 

 

The present-day popular perspective of Serbian history has been influenced by legends which were developed by historical writers in the 16th and 17th centuries.  These relate in particular to the battle of Kosovo, and identification of the heroes and villains of the piece.  In this respect, the Regno degli Slavi, first published in 1601 by Mavro Orbini a native of Dubrovnik, has been especially influential.  The works of Giacomo Luccari are also relevant.  The works of these two authors can hardly be described as primary sources in the true sense.  It appears that much of the later genealogy of the Serbian rulers is based only on information included in such works, at least this is what appears from Du Fresne du Cange´s 1680 Historia Byzantina, Familias ac Stemmata Imperatorum, Vol. I, which includes biographies of Serbian rulers in which Orbini and Luccari are referenced frequently[8].  Du Fresne du Cange´s reconstruction of the Serbian ruling families is inconsistent with information included in some earlier primary sources, sed in the compilation of the present document but to which it appears that he did not have access.   It must therefore be considered an unreliable representation, even ignoring the question of the reliability of information included from Orbini and Luccari.  Unfortunately, I have so far been unable to locate digitised versions of the works of Orbini and Luccari, available on the internet, in their original language.  I have therefore been unable to highlight those sections of the reconstruction in the present document which rely solely on information from these sources and which should therefore be treated with caution.  The problem of the authenticity of the source known as the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, which appears to be a 17th century falsification, is discussed in the Introduction to the document MONTENEGRO. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    SERBIA, 9th and 10th CENTURIES

 

 

 

VIŠESLAV [Vojislav].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Boisesthlabus" as ancestor of the rulers of Serbia[9]

m ---.  The name of Višeslav's wife is not known. 

Višeslav & his wife had one child: 

1.         RADOSLAV.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Rodosthlabus" as son of "Boisesthlabus"[10]m ---.  The name of Radoslav's wife is not known.  Radoslav & his wife had one child:

a)         PROSOGOJ.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Prosegoes" as son of "Rodosthlabus"[11]m ---.  The name of Prosogoj's wife is not known.  Prosogoj & his wife had one child:

i)          VLADIMIR .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Blastemerus" as son of "Prosegoes"[12]Knez [Prince] of Serbia

-         see below.   

 

 

VLADIMIR, son of PROSOGOJ [of Serbia] & his wife --- .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Blastemerus" as son of "Prosegoes", recording that he made peace with Bulgaria[13]Knez [Prince] of Serbia.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Bulgarić princeps Presiam" invaded Serbia but made no progress after three years of war[14], dated to before 852 assuming that that is the accurate date of death of Presian of Bulgaria. 

m ---.  The name of Knez Vladimir's wife is not known. 

Knez Vladimir had four known children:

1.         daughter .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Blastemerum Serviorum principem…filić suć" married "Crainan Belae Terbunić zupani filium", who were parents of "Phalimeres", father of "Tzutzumeres", naming "Terbuniam, Hormum, Rhisena, Lucabete et Zetlebe" as the towns in Trebinje[15]m KRAJA Župan of Trebinje and Konavli, son of BELA Župan & his wife ---. 

2.         MUTIMIR .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Muntimerus Stroemerus et Goinicus" as the three sons of "Blastemeri" stating that they divided Serbia between them after their father died[16].  He succeeded his father as Knez of Serbia, jointly with his brothers.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Michael Borises Bulgarić princeps" invaded Serbia but that "filium eius Blastemerum" was captured, forcing him to make peace[17].  It is difficult to date this invasion any more precisely than within the approximate range [865/90], when Boris of Bulgaria was at the height of his power.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the three brothers fought with each other and that "Muntimerus" emerged victorious and sent his brothers to Bulgaria[18].  His descendants are known as the Mutimirovići.  m ---.  The name of Mutimir's wife is not known.  Mutimir & his wife had three children:

a)         PRVOSLAV Mutimirović .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pribesthlabum Branum et Stephanum" as the three sons of "Muntimerus", recording that "maximus natu Pribesthlabus" succeeded as Knez of Serbia when their father died but after one year he was deposed by his cousin Peter and fled with his two brothers to Croatia[19]m ---.  The name of Prvoslav's wife is not known.  Prvoslav & his wife had one child:

i)          ZAHARIJE Mutimirović .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Pribesthlabi Serbić principis filium Zachariam", recording that he was installed as ZAHARIJE Knez of Serbia after the Byzantines deposed Pavel[20].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the Bulgarians expelled "Zacharias", who fled to Croatia, and installed "principem Tzeesthlabum"[21]

b)         BRAN Mutimirović.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Muntimerus Stroemerus et Goinicus" as the three sons of "Blastemeri" stating that they divided Serbia between them after their father died[22].  The same source records that the three brothers fought with each other and that "Muntimerus" emerged victorious and sent his brothers to Bulgaria[23].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that, three years after the accession of Peter, "Branus" rebelled against him, but was captured and blinded[24]m ---.  The name of Bran's wife is not known.  Bran & his wife had one child:

i)          PAVEL Mutimirović.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Paulo Brani principis filio", recording that he was installed as PAVEL Knez of Serbia after the Bulgarians deposed Peter and that he held the principality for three years, until "Pribesthlabi Serbić principis filium Zachariam" was installed by Byzantium as prince[25]

c)         STJEPAN Mutimirović.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Muntimerus Stroemerus et Goinicus" as the three sons of "Blastemeri" stating that they divided Serbia between them after their father died[26].  The same source records that the three brothers fought with each other and that "Muntimerus" emerged victorious and sent his brothers to Bulgaria[27]

3.         STROJIMIR.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Muntimerus Stroemerus et Goinicus" as the three sons of "Blastemeri" stating that they divided Serbia between them after their father died[28].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the three brothers fought with each other and that "Muntimerus" emerged victorious and sent his brothers to Bulgaria[29].  His descendants are known as the Strojimirovići.  m ---.  The name of Strojimir's wife is not known.  Strojimir & his wife had one child:

a)         KLONIMIR Strojimirović (-killed in battle).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Stroemerus frater…in Bulgaria filium habuit Clonimerum"[30].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that, two years after the failed rebellion of "Branus", "Clonimerus Tzeesthlabi pater" returned from Bulgaria but was killed by Peter[31]m ---.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that "Stroemerus frater…in Bulgaria filium habuit Clonimerum" and that "Borises" gave him "uxorem Bulgaram"[32].  The name of Klonimir's wife is not known.  Klonimir & his wife had one child: 

i)          ČASLAV Strojimirović (-drowned Sava river [955/60]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Tzeesthlabum" as the son of "Clonimerum" and his Bulgarian wife, born in Bulgaria[33].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the Bulgarians expelled "Zacharias", who fled to Croatia, and installed "principem Tzeesthlabum" as Knez of Serbia[34].  The same source records that he was deposed by the Bulgarians, but that after seven years exile he returned to Serbia and with Byzantine help recovered his position[35].  He conquered much of Bosnia from Croatia[36].  He fought the Magyar, and was drowned fleeing the battle.  It is difficult to date his death with any precision.  However, the Gesta Hungarorum names "Tocsun" as leader of a Hungarian raid into Greece and Bulgaria, recorded after its report of the defeat at Augsburg (in 955), but states that this was their last raid "while living as pagans"[37].  The Gesta makes no mention of Serbia, but it is reasonable to suppose that the attack on Serbia took place around the same time, so dated to [955/60]. 

4.         GOJNIK.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Muntimerus Stroemerus et Goinicus" as the three sons of "Blastemeri" stating that they divided Serbia between them after their father died[38].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos records that the three brothers fought with each other and that "Muntimerus" emerged victorious and sent his brothers to Bulgaria[39].  His descendants are known as the Gojnikovići.  m ---.  The name of Gojnik's wife is not known.  Gojnik & his wife had one child:

a)         PETER Gojniković (-in Bulgaria).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Petrum, fratris Goinici filium" when recording that he fled "in Chrobatiam" (Croatia), recording that he returned the year after the accession of his cousin "Pribesthlabus" whom he deposed and succeeded as Knez of Serbia, ruling for twenty years under the suzerainty of "imperatore Leone" (Emperor Leon VI who ruled from 886-912) and at peace with "Symeone Bulgarić principe" (who ruled from 893 to 927)[40].  Fine dates the establishment of the Bulgarian regime of protection over Serbia to 897, and recognition of Peter as ruler, a few years after the accession of Prince Symeon[41].  The same source records that Byzantium invaded Bulgaria, and that Bulgaria invaded Serbia, deposed Peter and took him back to Bulgaria in captivity, and installed "Paulus Brani filius"[42]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    ŽUPANI of SERBIA (GRAND ŽUPANI from early 12th century)

 

 

 

A.      ŽUPANI of RAŠKA, late 10th century

 

 

No family connection has been found between Ljutomir and the previous Župan of Serbia, nor has any information been found on rulers in Serbia after Ljutomir and before the arrival of Dukljan rulers in the late 11th century. 

 

 

1.         LJUTOMIR [Lubomir] .  Grand [veliki] Župan of Raška.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names "Lutomir the veliki zupan of Rassa"[43]m --- [of Bosnia], daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja suggests that the wife of Ljutomir was from Bosnia when it records that "the daughter of Lutomir the veliki zupan of Rassa" returned to her homeland with her two daughters after her husband was killed but, finding that her father had died, travelled to Bosnia with her mother to join her uncles[44].  Ljutomir & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja names Dragomir's wife as "the daughter of Lutomir the veliki zupan of Rassa", recording that she returned to her homeland with her two daughters after her husband was killed but, finding that her father had died, travelled to Bosnia with her mother to join her uncles[45]m as his second wife, DRAGOMIR Knez of Duklja and Trebinje [Montenegro], son of CHVALIMIR Knez of Trebinje & his wife --- (-murdered Kotor 1018). 

 

 

 

B.      ŽUPANI of RAŠKA, 1083-[1106]

 

 

Two brothers, origin not known.  Two alternative possible origins have been proposed.  Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that they were great-grandsons of Ljutomir (see Chapter 2.A), assuming three unknown generations between Ljutomir and the two brothers[46].  According to Istorija Crne Gore, they were sons of Petrislav of Duklja, son of Mihail King of Duklja, who was assigned the government of Raška by his father who conquered the territory between 1060 and 1074[47].  No primary sources which support either of these theories have yet been identified. 

1.         MARKO.  The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja records that "Bodin who [afterwards] ruled the whole kingdom [and] Vladimir with their brothers marched into Rassa and annexed it", their father assigning it to "his son Petrislav to rule"[48].  Fine dates the conquest to between 1060 and 1074[49].  He was installed with his brother as Župan of Raška in [1083/84], after Serbia was reconquered by Konstantin Bodin King of Duklja. 

2.         VUKAN (-after [1106]).  He was installed with his brother as Župan of Raška in [1083/84] after Serbia was reconquered in [1082] by Konstantin Bodin King of Duklja, he remained in power there for many years[50].  After a major Byzantine offensive against Duklja in [1089/91], civil war broke out, and Raška, Bosnia and Zahumlje seceded from Dukljan control[51].  In the early 1090s, Vukan took the title Grand [veliki] Župan.  At first based around Novi Pazar, he started raiding Byzantine controlled territory, firstly around Kosovo.  The Alexeiad records that "Bolkan…ruler of all Dalmatia" invaded Byzantine land as far as "Lipenium", which he burnt down, but that Emperor Alexios I "marched against the Serbs" who sent ambassadors to arranged peace terms at Skopje, which included "sending members of [his] own family as hostages" to the emperor (although this was not complied with)[52].  He defeated an army led by the governor of Durazzo in 1092, after which Emperor Alexios I marched on Raška obliging Vukan to swear homage.  After the emperor's departure, Vukan broke his allegiance and took Vranje, Skopje and Tetovo, but was obliged to make peace again in [1094/95][53].  The Alexeiad records that "Bolkan" eventually left "his own nephews Uresis and Stephen Bolkan" as hostages with the emperor[54].  It is not certain that the peace conditions were complied with, as the Alexeiad records in a later passage that "John the sebastocrator's son" was defeated in Dalmatia, that the emperor "sent a considerable force to help him but Bolkan very craftily made inquiries about peace negotiations…[and] provided the hostages Alexius had demanded", after which Emperor Alexius stayed in the area "for a year and two months" before retiring to Thessaloniki[55].  The birth of the emperor's twin grandchildren (dated to Feb 1106) is recorded in the passage which immediately follows, which places this renewal of hostilities with Vukan to late 1104.  m ---.  The name of Vukan's wife is not known.  Vukan & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged to seal a peace treaty between Duklja and Serbia[56]m VLADIMIR King of Duklja, son of VLADIMIR of Duklja [Montenegro] & his wife --- (-Shkodra [1114]). 

3.         [--- .  m ---.]  Two children: 

a)         UROŠ.  The Alexeiad records that "Bolkan" left "his own nephews Uresis and Stephen Bolkan" as hostages with the emperor, dated from the context to [1094/95][57].  He succeeded his [uncle] as UROŠ I Grand Župan of Serbia

-        see below, Part B

b)         STEFAN VUKAN .  The Alexeiad records that "Bolkan" left "his own nephews Uresis and Stephen Bolkan" as hostages with the emperor, dated from the context to [1094/95][58]

 

 

1.         NIKETA (-after 1096).  Albert of Aix records that "comes regionis illius…Guz, unus de primatibus regis Ungarić" opposed the first crusaders led by Pierre l´Hermite during their passage through Hungary at "Malevillam" in 1096, in league with "duce Nichita…principe Bulgarorum et prćside civitatis Belegravć"[59].  "Duce Nichita" has not been positively identified, although the name appears Greek.  Albert of Aix records that the crusaders arrived at "urbem Nizh" and requested supplies from "ducem Nichitam principem Bulgarorum" who was then in the town, and were obliged to give him as hostages "Walterus filius Waleramni de Bretul castello…juxta Belvatium et Godefridus Burel de Stampis", who were returned safely after the crusading army passed on[60]

 

 

 

C.      GRAND ŽUPANI of RAŠKA, early 12th century to 1166

 

 

UROŠ, [son or nephew] of VUKAN Župan of Raška ([1080]-after 1130).  The Alexeiad records that "Bolkan" left "his own nephews Uresis and Stephen Bolkan" as hostages with the emperor, dated from the context to [1094/95][61].  He succeeded his [uncle] as UROŠ I Veliki [Grand] Župan of Serbia.  In 1125, he helped Djordje to oust Grubeša King of Duklja[62].  After the Byzantine offensive in 1126, Serbia was forced to accept Byzantine suzerainty[63]

m ANNA [Diogene], daughter of [KONSTANTINOS Diogenes & his wife Theodora Komnene].  Her possible parentage and marriage are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[64], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. 

Grand Župan Uroš & his wife had [five] children:

1.         UROŠ (-after 1161).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father [after 1130] as UROŠ II Grand Župan of Serbia.  He attacked Radoslav Knez of Duklja, occupying about two-thirds of Dukljan territory.  In response to Radoslav's appeal for help, Byzantium attacked Serbia and forced Uroš to flee to the mountains, winning a decisive victory against a combined Serbian/Hungarian army on the River Tara in 1150.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Uresi" sent envoys to Emperor Manuel I and swore fealty to the Byzantines, soon after was deposed by the Serbs in favour of "fratri…Dese", but reinstated by the emperor[65].  Uroš II was deposed for a second time in 1155 as a result of dissatisfaction within Serbia with his close connections with Byzantium, but restored once again by the Byzantines in return for reaffirming the Byzantine alliance and denouncing all connections with Hungary.  He was deposed for the third and last time [1161], and replaced once more by his brother Desa.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Primislaus" rebelled again in Serbia and replaced by "Belusem fratrem", in a passage which also names "minimum natu fratrem…Dese"[66].  He went into exile in Hungary[67]

2.         DESA (-after [1166]).  Župan of Duklja, Trebinje and Zahumlje before 1151.  After the Byzantine victory of 1150 on the River Tara, he was installed by the Byzantines as DESA Grand Župan of Serbia in place of his brother Uroš, although the latter was restored shortly afterwards.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Uresi" sent envoys to Emperor Manuel I and swore fealty to the Byzantines, soon after was deposed by the Serbs in favour of "fratri…Dese", but reinstated by the emperor[68].  Desa was restored as Grand Župan in 1155 after his brother was deposed for a second time, but Desa was deposed once again by the Byzantines shortly after, when he was granted the appanage territory of Dendra near Niš.  Desa was restored for the third time in [1161], but deposed again in [1166] when the Nemanjić Dynasty (see Part D, below) assumed power in Serbia, presumably installed there by Byzantium[69]m ---.  The name of Desa's wife is not known.  Desa & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter.  The Historia Ducum Veneticorum names "filio illius [=Vitale Michael] Leonardo " and his marriage to "comiti Absari ducis Desse filiam"[70].  Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records that "Duce…Leonardo eius nato" married "comiti Auseris filiam…Edessć"[71].The marriage date is estimated on the assumption that this text indicates that the couple married while Leonardo´s father was doge of Venice.  m ([1155/72]) LEONARDO Michieli, son of VITALE Michieli II Doge of Venice & his wife --- (-[1172]). 

3.         JELENA (after 1109-after 1146).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified.  She brought part of northern Serbia, probably north-eastern Bosnia and Mačva, to Hungary as her dowry[72].  She led a campaign of revenge against the magnates alleged to have permitted the blinding of her husband, including the execution of 68 magnates at a meeting in Arad in [1131/32][73].  A charter dated 3 Sep 1138 records the confirmation of his father´s donation by "Rege Bela secundo, bonć memorić Almi ducis filio, cum Helena regina" to "ecclesiam…Martyris Margarethć…Demesiensi"[74]m (28 Apr 1127) BÉLA of Hungary, son of ÁLMOS Prince of Hungary & his wife Predslava Sviatopolkovna of Kiev ([1109-13 Feb 1141).  He succeeded in 1131 as BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary

4.         BELOŠ.  He accompanied his sister Jelena to the Hungarian court at the time of her marriage[75].  Regent of Hungary from 1142 during the minority of his nephew Géza II King of Hungary, he took the title Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia and in 1145 that of comes palatinus[76].  After probably being forced to flee Hungary after the death of King Géza II in 1162, he returned to oust István IV in favour of Géza's son István III.  Ioannes Kinnamos records that "Primislaus" rebelled again in Serbia and was replaced by "Belusem fratrem", in a passage which also names "minimum natu fratrem…Dese"[77]m ---.  The name of Beloš´s wife is not known.  Beloš & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [daughter .  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Vladimir Mstislavich as "--- Nemanja de Serbie, fille du Ban Bela et de Lavitza de Croatie", citing a secondary source[78].  No other reference to this person has been found, but it would be chronologically consented for her to have been the daughter of Beloš.  m VLADIMIR Mstislavich, son of MSTISLAV I Vladimirovich "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife [Liubava] Dmitrievna (1132-30 May 1174).] 

5.         [ZAVID.  The basis for his possible paternity is explained in Part D below.] 

-        see below, Part C

 

 

 

D.      GRAND ŽUPANI of SERBIA, 1166-1217 (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY)

 

 

ZAVID, [son of UROŠ I Grand Župan of Serbia] & his wife [Anna Diogene].  Zavid´s supposed parentage, and the fact that he was the father of the four children shown below, is deduced from a combination of information.  Miroslav names his father as Zavid in a gospel which he wrote[79].  Other sources consistently name Tihomir, Stracimir, Miroslav and Nemanja as brothers, although it is not specified that they all shared the same father and mother.  According to a charter written in 1198 by Nemanja, his great-grandfather and grandfather had "ruled the land".  (“Stephanus Nemanja, Serbić magnus županus” visited Mount Athos, charter dated 2 Nov 1198[80], Serbian text not consulted).  This statement is also found in the biographies of Nemanja written by his sons.  The deduction is that Nemanja's father, Zavid, was another son of Uroš I Grand Župan of Serbia (Chapter 2.C).  Emperor Manuel I's choice of Tihomir as new ruler of Serbia in [1166] also makes more sense if he was closely related to the former dynasty rather than an outsider, as such a choice is more likely to have been acceptable to Serbia's leaders.  Zavid presumably rebelled in some way against his [presumed] father or oldest brother, as Zavid's son Nemanja was born while his father was exiled in Zeta[81]

m ---.  The name of Zavid's wife is not known. 

Zavid & his wife had four children:

1.         TIHOMIR (-drowned Sitnica River [1168/71]).  Miroslav, Tihomir, Stracimir and Nemanja are consistently described as four brothers, although only Miroslav is named as son of Zavid in one of his own gospels[82].  He was installed as TIHOMIR Grand Župan of Serbia in [1166], presumably by Emperor Manuel I[83].  Although he took the title Grand Župan, Serbian territory was divided between him and his three brothers, Tihomir taking control over Desniza.  He imprisoned his brother Nemanja, who escaped, mobilised an army and expelled Tihomir and his other two brothers, possibly with help from Byzantium, in [1167/68][84].   Tihomir fled to Constantinople, returned with Byzantine troops to challenge Nemanja but was defeated and killed at Pantino, near Zvečan on the Sitnica River[85]m ---.  The name of Tihomir's wife is not known.  Tihomir & his wife had one child:

a)         STEFAN PRVOSLAV .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He submitted to his uncle Nemanja after his father's death and was granted an appanage at Budimlje on the River Lim[86]

2.         STRACIMIR (-after 25 Dec 1189).  Miroslav, Tihomir, Stracimir and Nemanja are consistently described as four brothers, although only Miroslav is named as son of Zavid in one of his own gospels[87].  He was installed as Župan in northern Serbia, on the west Morava River near Čačak, in [1166].  He was expelled, along with his two brothers, by their third brother Nemanja in [1167/68][88].  He made peace with his brother Nemanja after their brother Tihomir was killed, and was restored as Župan in the territories he had previously held[89].  “Stephanus Nemanja, Serbić magnć županus et fratres Stracimir et Miroslav” made peace with “Ragusio, comite Gervasio”, dated 27 Sep 1186[90]

3.         MIROSLAV (-[1198]).  Miroslav names his father as Zavid in a gospel which he wrote[91]. He was installed as Župan in part of Serbia in [1166].  He was expelled, along with his two brothers, by their third brother Nemanja in [1167/68][92].  He made peace with his brother Nemanja after their brother Tihomir was killed, and was installed as Grand Knez of Hum (formerly Zahumlje, now Hercegovina), with his capital at Ston, which may have been the area over which he was Župan from [1166][93].  “Stephanus Nemanja, Serbić magnć županus et fratres Stracimir et Miroslav” made peace with “Ragusio, comite Gervasio”, dated 27 Sep 1186[94]m --- of Bosnia, sister of KULIN Ban of Bosnia, daughter of --- (-after 1199).

-        KNEJ of HUM

4.         STEFAN NEMANJA (near Podgorica [1113] -Mount Athos 13 Feb 1199, bur 1207 Studenica Monastery).  Miroslav, Tihomir, Stracimir and Nemanja are consistently described as four brothers, although only Miroslav is named as son of Zavid in one of his own gospels[95].  He succeeded in [1167/68] as STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia

-        see below.   

 

 

STEFAN NEMANJA of Serbia, son of ZAVID & his wife --- (near Podgorica [1125/30] or after-Mount Athos 13 Feb 1199, bur 1207 Studenica Monastery).  Miroslav, Tihomir, Stracimir and Nemanja are consistently described as four brothers, although only Miroslav is named as son of Zavid in one of his own gospels[96].  Born in Zeta while his father was exiled from Raška, he received a Catholic baptism according to the biography written by his son Stefan[97].  If Nemanja was the grandson of Uroš I Grand Župan of Serbia, it is unlikely that he could have been born much earlier than [1125/30], assuming that the birth date of Uroš I is correctly estimated to [1080].  He was re-baptised into the Greek-Orthodox faith when his family returned to Raška, also according to the same biography and another biography written by his son Archbishop Sava[98].  He inherited land from his father in the Ibar region with Toplica, south-west of Niš[99].  He was installed as Župan in Dubočica, eastern Serbia, in [1166] by Emperor Manuel I, but was imprisoned by his brother Tihomir.  He escaped, mobilised an army and expelled Tihomir and his other two brothers, possibly with help from Byzantium[100], succeeding in [1167/68] as STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia.  Tihomir returned from Constantinople with Byzantine troops but was defeated and killed in battle at Pantino, near Zvečan, in [1168/71][101].  Nemanja joined a Hungarian/Venetian coalition against Byzantium, attacking Kotor, but was isolated by the death of István III King of Hungary and Venice's withdrawal from the alliance following a domestic naval revolt.  Emperor Manuel I led an army into Serbia, Nemanja surrendered and accepted Byzantine suzerainty.  He was confirmed as Grand Župan in Constantinople and remained true to his oath of loyalty until the death of Emperor Manuel in 1180[102].  In 1183, he joined Béla III King of Hungary in invading Byzantine territory, sacked Niš and Sardika [Sofija], and moved into Thrace[103].  Taking advantage of Byzantium's internal difficulties during the reign of Emperor Andronikos I, Nemanja conquered Kosovo, Metohija, Skopje, and Niš (which he made his capital), effectively shaking off Byzantine suzerainty.  He also conquered southern Dalmatia, including the towns of Kotor, Ulcinj and Bar, and parts of northern Albania.  He attacked Dubrovnik in 1185, after it had helped the island of Korčula repel an attack by his brother Miroslav Grand Knez of Hum but was apparently unable to retain it as the town was under Norman suzerainty in 1186[104].  “Stephanus Nemanja, Serbić magnć županus et fratres Stracimir et Miroslav” made peace with “Ragusio, comite Gervasio”, dated 27 Sep 1186[105].  He gave a warm welcome to Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa", leader of the Third Crusade, as he passed through Serbia in 1189, but was unsuccessful in persuading the emperor to join a Serbian/Bulgarian alliance to attack Byzantium[106].  By 1189, Nemanja had also conquered Duklja (by then more commonly known as Zeta), which he incorporated into Serbia and subsequently assigned to his eldest son Vukan[107].  In Sep 1190, Byzantine troops defeated the Serbs at the Morava River, but under the subsequent peace treaty the Byzantines regained Niš, Beograd and northern Macedonia including Skopje, although they recognised Serb independence and Nemanja's right to rule Zeta, southern Dalmatia, Trebinje and Hum[108].  Stefan Nemanja abdicated in favour of his second son 25 Mar 1196 at Ras, becoming a monk as SIMEON, first at Studenica and by 1198 at Mount Athos[109].  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records the abdication of "l´autocrate [Grand Kniaze Némania]" in favour of his son and his becoming a monk at Studenica as "Syméon"[110].  His monastic name is confirmed by the charter dated 1314 under which his great-grandson “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex…abnepos sancti Symeonis et filius magni regis Uroš” built “templum in honorem sanctorum et justorum Joachim et Annć[111].  A document dated 13 Feb 1200 records the death of “Stephanus Nemanja, Serbić magni županus[112].  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records the death 13 Feb of "Syméon"[113].  He was canonised.  His sons Stefan and Sava each wrote his biography. 

m ANA, daughter of ---.  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "Grand Kniaze Némania…" married "Anne fille de Romanus empereur grec"[114].  "Romanus empereur grec" cannot be identified, as at the time of their marriage the Komnenos family were ruling as Byzantine emperors and no other evidence has been found which suggests that the wife of Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja was a member of that dynasty.  She became a nun as ANASTASIA on the abdication of her husband.  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "la grande-duchesse Anna" became a nun as "Anastasie" on the abdication of her husband[115]

Stefan Nemanja & his wife had five children:

1.         VUKAN (-[1209]).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan names "le prince Volkan, frčre de l´autocrate Etienne" when recording that he rebelled after the death of their father[116].  He was appointed Grand Knez of Zeta (Duklja) by his father by 1190, as an appanage of Serbia.  He was passed over in the succession to Serbia, on his father's abdication in 1196, in favour of his younger brother although the reason for this has not yet been ascertained.  From this time, Vukan called himself King of Duklja and Dalmatia, asserting himself as an independent ruler, which was recognised by the Pope and by Hungary.  He accepted Papal supremacy and became a Catholic[117].  He attacked Serbia in 1202, deposed his brother, and succeeded as VUKAN Grand Župan of Serbia, at the same time recognising Hungarian suzerainty.  He was expelled by his brother in [1204/05], and returned to Zeta, although tensions with Serbia continued.  He abdicated in [1208] in Zeta in favour of his son[118]m --- [de Segni], relative of Pope INNOCENT III, daughter of --- (-after 8 Jan 1198).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

-        GRAND KNEZ of ZETA

2.         STEFAN (-24 Sep 1227, bur Studencia).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan names "Etienne" as oldest son of "l´autocrate [Grand Kniaze Némania]" when recording that he succeeded his father as "souverain et autocrate de Serbie"[119].  He succeeded in 1196 on the abdication of his father as STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia

-        see Chapter 3. KINGS of SERBIA

3.         RASTKO (1174-Trnovo 12 Jan 1235, bur 1237 Mileševo Monastery).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan names "Saint Sabba" as son of "Grand Kniaze Némania…" and his wife "Anne fille de Romanus empereur grec", adding that he was baptised "Rastko"[120].  He was installed by his father as Grand Knez of Hum after 17 Jun 1190, probably only ruling in part of the territory as his uncle Miroslav still held the region of the Lim River with Bijelo Polje[121].  He ran away to Mount Athos in 1192 to become a monk as SAVA, founding the Serbian monastery of Hilandar[122].  He became abbot of Studenica monastery, but left Serbia in 1217 in protest at his brother's coronation by the papal legate, returning to Mount Athos[123].  He left Mount Athos for Nikaia in 1219, agreeing to recognise the Nikaian patriarch's title of 'Ecumenical Patriarch'[124] in return for autonomous status for the Serbian church, and was appointed first Archbishop of the newly independent Serbian church[125].  He abdicated in [1233/34], upset by the dissensions between his nephews, went on pilgrimage to Palestine and died on his way home in 1235 while on a visit to the Bulgarian court[126].  Soon after his death he was canonised as St SAVA.  

4.         EFIMIJA (-[1216/25]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged as part of the settlement of Epirus's war with Serbia[127]m ([1216]) as his first wife, MANUEL Angelos Dukas Komnenos [Epirus], despot, son of IOANNES KONSTANTINOS Dukas Angelos, sebastokrator & his wife --- (-[1241]). 

5.         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m TICH [Toichos], boyar in Skopje, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of SERBIA 1217-1346, TSARS of SERBIA 1346-1371 (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY)

 

 

 

A.      KINGS of SERBIA 1217-1346, TSARS 1346-1371 (NEMANJIĆ DYNASTY)

 

 

STEFAN of Serbia, son of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana ---  (-24 Sep 1227, bur Studenica).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan names "Etienne" as oldest son of "l´autocrate [Grand Kniaze Némania]" when recording that he succeeded his father as "souverain et autocrate de Serbie"[128].  Byzantine sébastokrator 1191.  He succeeded in 1196 on the abdication of his father as STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia.  He established close relations with the Papacy in the hopes of obtaining a royal crown, but Imre King of Hungary persuaded the Pope against this[129].  The rivalry with his older brother culminated in the latter attacking Serbia in 1202 and deposing Stefan who fled to either Bulgaria or Bosnia.  He was restored in [1204/05], although the circumstances are not clear[130].  In 1214, Serbia was attacked by the alliance of Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople and Boril Tsar of Bulgaria, and in 1215 in the area of northern Albania/Zeta by Mikhael Angelos Lord of Epirus.  The latter conflict was resolved by Mikhael's successor Theodoros Komnenos Dukas Angelos, and confirmed by the betrothal of Stefan's son to Theodoros's daughter[131].  Grand Župan Stefan intervened in Hum [1216] after the expulsion of Knez Andrej by his [supposed] brother Petar, but instead of restoring Andrej to all his former territory Stefan appears to have installed his own son Radoslav in part of Hum[132].  He annexed Zeta in 1216 after taking control from his nephew Djordje, and assigned it to his eldest son[133].  Venetian influence in Serbia increased after Stefan's third marriage in [1216/17] to the Doge's granddaughter[134].  He was crowned STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia[135] in [1217] by the papal legate, although it is not known what promises he made to the Pope to achieve this[136].  After his brother Sava negotiated the autonomy of the Serbian church with the patriarch of Nikaia in 1219, King Stefan's ties with the Catholic church diminished[137].  “Stephanus Serbić rex et filius Radoslavus” founded “monasterio Žiča” by charter dated to [1222/28][138].  He abdicated due to illness in [1224/27], and became a monk as Simon.  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "l´autocrate Etienne" abdicated and became "Symon-le-Moine", but died and was buried at Studenica, his body later being transferred by his brother to "l´archevęché de Gidtcha"[139]

m firstly (1191, repudiated [1201/02]) as her first husband, EVDOKIA Komnene Angelina, daughter of Emperor ALEXIOS III & his wife Euphrosyne Dukaina Kamaterina (-after 1208).  Ephrćmius records that "Eudociam filiam" married "Sguro", recalling that her previous husbands had been "principi…Triballorum Stephano, qui repudiatam remisit in patriam…[et] Murtzuflo Ducć"[140].  This marriage was arranged to seal the Byzantine/Serbian peace treaty of 1190[141].  After her first husband accused her of adultery, she was expelled from Serbia on foot with only the clothes on her back, and sought refuge in Zeta with her brother-in-law Vukan who provided her the means to return to Constantinople[142].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Ducas Alexius" (referring to Alexios Dukas Murzuphlos) married "imperatoris Alexii filiam Eudociam, filiarum illius postremam", commenting that "impuberem" she had married "crali Servić"[143].  She married secondly (1 Apr 1204) Alexios Dukas Mourzouflos, who became Emperor Alexios V, and thirdly (1205) Leon Sguros Archon of Nauplia. 

m secondly ([1204/07]) ---.  The name of Grand Župan Stefan's second wife is not known. 

Betrothed (before 1217) to MARIA Komnene, daughter of MIKHAEL Dukas Komnenos [Angelos] Lord of Epirus & his second wife Melissene ---.  Her betrothal is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[144] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  

m thirdly ([1216/17]) ANNA Dandolo, daughter of RANIERO Dandolo Procurator of San Marco & his wife --- (-[1264]).  Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records the marriage of "Stephanus…dominus Raxić et Servić…Megavipanus" and "neptem quondam Henrici Dandulo ducis"[145].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

Grand Župan Stefan & his first wife had three children:

1.         STEFAN RADOSLAV ([1191/1201]-after 1235).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan names "Radoslav" as oldest son of "l´autocrate Etienne" when recording that he succeeded his father[146].  In [1216], his father appears to have installed him in part of Hum, after intervening after the expulsion of Knez Andrej by his [supposed] brother Petar, and in Zeta[147].  “Stephanus Serbić rex et filius Radoslavus” founded “monasterio Žiča” by charter dated to [1222/28][148].  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in [1224/27] as RADOSLAV "Krapalo" King of Serbia, crowned at Žiča by his uncle Archbishop Sava.  Unpopular due to the influence asserted by his wife, rebellion broke out against him in Autumn 1233.  King Radoslav was forced to flee Serbia in [late 1233/early 1234], taking refuge in Dubrovnik from where he issued a charter giving himself the Byzantine name Dukas: “Stephanus Radoslav, Serbić rex” promised privileges to the merchants of Ragusa by charter dated 4 Feb 1234 at Ragusa[149].  He eventually returned to Serbia and became a monk as JOVAN[150].  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "le roi Radoslav, pour expier quelques fautes, prit la tonsure monastique" and was succeeded by his brother[151].  [Betrothed (before 1217) to THEODORA Komnene, daughter of MIKHAEL Dukas Komnenos [Angelos] Lord of Epirus & his second wife Melissene ---.  Theodora's betrothal to "--- of Serbia, son of Stefan Grand Župan of Serbia" is recorded in Europäische Stammtafeln[152].  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been found, and the identity of her betrothed has not been established, but he may have been Radoslav, the betrothal being agreed at the same time as that of his father to Theodora's sister.]  m [firstly] ([29 Oct 1219/9 Feb 1220], [separated 1234]) ANNA Dukaina Angelina, daughter of THEODOROS Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus [later Emperor at Thessaloniki] & his wife Maria Dukaina Komnene Petraliphaina (-[1258]).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannes et Demetrius…Anna et…Irene" as the children of "Angeli Theodori"[153]Ephrćmius names "Ioannes et Demetrius atque Anna, denique Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari" as the four children of "Theodori…Comnenangeli"[154].  Her marriage was arranged by her father as part of peace terms with Serbia[155].  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "Radoslav son cousin" (referring to Saint Saba) married "l´empereur grec…Théodore Lascaris…la fille"[156].  The primary source which confirms her correct parentage has not yet been identified.  Her influence over her husband triggered the 1233 rebellion which led to his deposition[157].  She became a nun.  [m secondly ---.  No proof has been found of this possible second marriage.  However, as discussed below, if Radoslav´s supposed son, Dragoslav Jovan, was still alive in 1315 he would probably have been in his eighties if born from his father´s known marriage, which suggests the possibility of an otherwise unrecorded second marriage.  The titles attributed to Dragoslav Jovan and his descendants suggest that it is unlikely that he was illegitimate.]  Radoslav & his [first] wife had [one child]: 

a)         [child .  This supposed child, born from King Radoslav´s [first] marriage, is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln, which includes no indication of the corresponding primary source basis[158].  It is possible that the information is based on a dubious interpretation of King Radoslav´s 4 Feb 1234 charter to Ragusa, which is cited above[159].  The second part of the charter (not reproduced in the digitised Monumenta Serbica version, as noted above) includes the section (word-for-word English translation) "from my royal highness - after my life after me - or is left child of mine or grandchild or greatgrandchild or any other close to me"[160].  It is difficult to decide whether this passage means that Radoslav had a child or not at the date of the charter.  It appears that the king is trying to say in the document "if, at the date of my death, I leave surviving child etc".  If this is correct, he is looking forward to the future and not commenting either way on any child or children which he had at the time of writing.  In addition, if he did have a [male] child at that time, it is probable that the document would have been more specific, referring to or even naming his son.  No reference to this supposed child has been found in other primary sources which have been consulted during the preparation of the present document.  Pending the emergence of other sources (unlikely, considering the limited number of contemporary primary sources which are available), it is preferable to show this child in square brackets in the present document.] 

Radoslav & his [first/second] wife had [one child]:

b)         [DRAGOSLAV Jovan ([1230/55]-[after 1315]).  A lengthy carved inscription on the stone lintel on the western portal of the church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria records that it was built in 1315 by "a great kaznac Jovan Dragoslav together with his wife Jelena, his son Staniša and his daughter Ana"[161].  The question of Dragoslav´s possible parentage is discussed fully below.] 

-        see below, Part B

2.         KOMINIA.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  m firstly DIMITRIJE Progonović Archon of Albania, Lord of Kruja, son of PROGON & his wife --- (-1215).  His territory was conquered in [1214/15] by Michael Komnenos Dukas Despot of Epirus[162]m secondly (1215) GRGUR Kamonas sébastos, Archon of Kruja and Elbassan.

3.         daughter (before [1201/02]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALEXANDER of Bulgaria, sébastokrator, son of IVAN ASEN I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [first/second] wife --- (-before 1241). 

Grand Župan Stefan & his [second/third] wife had three children:

4.         PREDISLAV (-1270 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He became a monk as Sava.  Appointed Bishop of Hum by his brother.  Appointed Archbishop of Serbia in 1263, until 1270.

5.         STEFAN VLADISLAV (-11 Nov after 1267 [1269]).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "son frčre Vladislav" succeeded as king on the abdication of "le roi Radoslav" and was crowned by his uncle Archbishop Sava[163].  He succeeded as VLADISLAV King of Serbia after his brother was deposed in late 1233.  He was unable to resist pillage by the Mongols as they passed through Serbia in 1242, on their way back to Karakoram after learning of the death of Great Khan Ogedei[164].  Vladislav was deposed in 1243 in favour of his younger [half-]brother Stefan Uroš, maybe because of close ties with Bulgaria through his marriage, although he remained on good relations with his successor and was still referred to as king in some official documents[165].  Regent of Primorje.  m ([1233]) BELISAVA Asenina of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Anna --- (before 1221-after 1285).  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that Saint Saba arranged the marriage of "Vladislav…roi de Serbie" and "la fille d´Aciene roi des Bulgares" soon after his accession as king[166].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   Stefan Vladislav & his wife had three children: 

a)         STEFAN.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

b)         DESA.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1281/85.

c)         daughter .  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [1240/72] under which “Georgius comes, regis Vladislavi gener” made peace with Ragusa[167]m DJURE Kačić Knez of Omiš.  “Georgius comes, regis Vladislavi gener” made peace with Ragusa by charter dated to [1240/72][168].  1239/74. 

Grand Župan Stefan & his third wife had one child:

6.         STEFAN UROŠ (-1 May 1280, bur Sopoćani).  “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex” confirmed the privileges granted by “fratre Stephano” to Ragusa by charter dated to [1240/72][169].  He succeeded in 1243 as STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia.   

-        see below

 

 

STEFAN UROŠ, son of STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia & his third wife Anna Dandolo (-1 May 1280, bur Sopoćani).  “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex” confirmed the privileges granted by “fratre Stephano” to Ragusa by charter dated to [1240/72][170].  He succeeded in 1243 as STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia, when his brother was deposed.  His reign saw the economic development of Serbia associated with the opening of silver, gold, lead, copper and iron mines, which attracted Dalmatian merchants who took over financial management of the enterprises[171].  War with Dubrovnik broke out in 1265, blamed on Dubrovnik seizing Serbian coastal territories, granting asylum to Serbian deserters, and maintaining ties with Venice.  Peace returned in 1268 when Dubrovnik agree to pay annual tribute to Serbia in return for duty-free trade within the country[172].  King Stefan Uroš I declared war on Hungary in 1268, plundered Mačva, but was himself captured and held for ransom.  The marriage between his son and the granddaughter of the Hungarian king was probably agreed as part of the terms for his release[173].  He concluded an alliance with Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] in 1273[174].  Presumably in an attempt to eliminate regional differences within Serbia, he adopted the title "King of all Serbian land and the Coast", dropping references to Hum, Trebinje and Zeta[175].  His son Dragutin, with support from Hungary, defeated him in battle near Gacko in 1276.  King Stefan Uroš I abdicated and became a monk as SIMON at the monastery of Sopoćani. 

m ([1250]) JELENA, daughter of --- (-Shkodra 8 Feb 1314).  “Helena, Serbić regina” confirmed the possessions of Ragusa by charter dated 1289[176].  The parentage of Queen Jelena is not known with certainty.  The biography by Archbishop Danilo states that "she was of a French family" and a continuator of the work that "the family was of royal or imperial blood"[177].  Fine says less specifically that Jelena was "of Catholic and French origin, probably of the Valois family"[178].  A Hungarian origin is suggested by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungarić regis generum (γαμβρόν)"[179].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[180], she was related to the kings of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], and was sister of Marie wife of Anseau de Chaurs/Cayeux (Captain General in Albania of Charles I King of Naples and Sicily).  Charles I King of Sicily and Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] addressed (the sisters) "Jelena and Maria de Chau" as "consanguinea nostra/cognata nostra/affinis nostra"[181].  McDaniel identifies "Maria de Chau" as the wife of "Anselm de Keu"[182], who can be identified as Anseau [IV] de Cayeux.  If this is correct, the wife of King Stefan Uroš I was Helena Angelina, daughter of Ioannes "Kaloiannes" Angelos & his wife Mathilde von Vianden.  McDaniel provides a trail of primary sources which appears convincing.  However, one big question remains: if he is correct, why did contemporary primary sources make so little of Queen Jelena´s direct male line descent from the Angelos imperial family and from the Hungarian kings through her paternal grandmother?  Her son King Stefan Dragutin granted her an appanage consisting of Zeta, Trebinje and part of the coast in 1276, with her court based at Shkodra[183].  On her death, her appanage was absorbed by King Milutin[184]

King Stefan Uroš I & his wife had four children:

1.         STEFAN DRAGUTIN (-12 Mar 1316, bur Ras).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was appointed associate-king [Mladi Kralj] of Serbia by his father in 1271.  He rebelled against his father, whom he defeated with Hungarian support near Gacko, and succeeded in 1276 as STEFAN DRAGUTIN King of Serbia.  He immediately granted his mother a large appanage including Zeta and Trebinje[185].  He fell from his horse and broke his leg in 1282, and possibly for health reasons abdicated in favour of his younger brother at a council convoked at Deževo.  In exchange, he was granted a large appanage in northern and western Serbia including the mining town of Rudnik[186].  In 1284, his brother-in-law László IV King of Hungary appointed him Ban of Mačva, the territory bordering his Serbian appanage[187].  He captured Braničevo from Drman and Kudelin, brothers who were probably Bulgarians of Kuman origin, in 1291[188].  Rivalry with his younger brother intensified towards the end of the century, and by 1300 Dragutin was preparing to attack.  War lasted until 1312 or 1314.  In the meantime, Dragutin was also pulled into the Hungarian civil war following the death of András III King of Hungary in 1301, in order to protect his Hungarian territories.  He proposed his son as a rival candidate for the Hungarian throne.  King Stefan Dragutin allegedly slept regularly in a coffin towards the end of his life to prepare himself for death, becoming a monk as THEOKTIST near the end[189].  A document records the death of “Stephanus Dragutin, Serbić rex” dated 12 Mar 1316[190]m ([1267/68]) KATALIN of Hungary, daughter of ISTVÁN V King of Hungary & his wife Elisabeth [née ---] of the Kumans.  Pachymeres records that "cralem Serbić Stephanum Uresim…primogenitus" was already married to "regis Pannonić filiam" when Emperor Mikhael VIII proposed the betrothal of his second daughter to Stefan Uroš I's second son[191].  Pachymeres records the marriage of "germani sui maioris Stephani" and "sororem defunctć Augustć, matris Augusti iunioris…filia regis Ungarić"[192].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was probably agreed as part of the terms for her future father-in-law's release from captivity by the Hungarians in 1268[193].  Stefan Dragutin & his wife had three children:

a)         JELISAVETA (-1331).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Regent of Bosnia to Apr 1314.  After her husband's death, she fled with her son to Dubrovnik[194]m (after 1283) STJEPAN Kotroman of Bosnia, son of UBAN PRIJEZDA, Ban in northern Bosnia & his wife --- (-[1314]).  Ban of Upper and Lower Bosnia 1290-[1299/1302]. 

b)         VLADISLAV (-in Hungary after 1326).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Under the terms of his father's abdication, it is possible that Vladislav was accepted as next in line for the Serbian throne after his uncle King Stefan Uroš II Milutin.  He claimed the throne of Hungary after the death of András III King of Hungary, in right of his mother.  He inherited both his father's Serbian and Hungarian appanages on the latter's death in 1316, but King Milutin imprisoned him in [1316/17], confiscated his Serbian lands and conquered his Hungarian territories[195].  On the death of his uncle King Milutin in 1321, he escaped from prison and claimed the throne.  He established himself as king in his former appanage around Rudnik, but fled north after his cousin King Stefan Uroš III Dečanski invaded in 1323.  He eventually went to Hungary where he died[196]m firstly ([24 Aug 1293]) CONSTANZA Morosini, daughter of MICHELE Morosini, Patrician of Venice & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m secondly (Summer 1309) ---, daughter of LÁSZLÓ Voivode of Transylvania & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Vladislav & his [first/second] wife had --- children:

i)          --- .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Vladislav left descendants but it gives no details[197].  

c)         UROSIČ (-before 1316).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He became a monk as STEFAN[198]

2.         STEFAN UROŠ MILUTIN ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]).  “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex” confirmed the donation by “matre Helena” to “monasterio S. Marić Rotaciensis” by charter dated 15 Mar [1305/07][199].  “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex…abnepos sancti Symeonis et filius magni regis Uroš” built “templum in honorem sanctorum et justorum Joachim et Annć” by charter dated 1314[200].  He succeeded in 1282 on the abdication of his brother as STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia

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3.         BRNČA [Brnjača].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m DJORDJE, Župan.  He was in prison in Hungary 1269[201]

4.         [STEFAN (-before 1264).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.] 

 

 

STEFAN UROŠ MILUTIN, son of STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]).  “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex” confirmed the donation by “matre Helena” to “monasterio S. Marić Rotaciensis” by charter dated 15 Mar [1305/07][202].  He took up residence at his mother's court at Shkodra after the accession of his brother in 1276[203].  Ban of Hum until 1282.  He succeeded in 1282 on the abdication of his brother as STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia and Lord of Primorje.  Serbia attacked Macedonia in 1282, conquering Skopje (which became King Milutin's main residence) either then or during the 1290s, and Durazzo in 1296[204].  In retaliation for the invasion of Serbia by Šišman, Lord of Vidin in Bulgaria, King Milutin conquered Vidin in 1292 and forced Šišman to seek refuge with his Tatar overlords.  Peace was restored, but to appease the Tatars King Milutin sent his son as a hostage[205].  He made peace with Emperor Andronikos II in 1299, agreeing the Serbian/Byzantine border through Macedonia, and marrying the emperor's daughter as his fourth wife, her dowry being deemed to be the Byzantine territory which King Milutin had conquered over the previous years[206].  War with his brother broke out in 1300, lasting until 1312 or 1314.  Milutin funded the war by increasing production from his mines, minting large quantities of silver coins, although Venice complained about their doubtful silver content.  He also built numerous churches in Serbia during his reign, in return for which he received firm ecclesiastical support in his government[207].  “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex…abnepos sancti Symeonis et filius magni regis Uroš” built “templum in honorem sanctorum et justorum Joachim et Annć” by charter dated 1314[208].  He imprisoned his nephew Vladislav in [1316/17], confiscated his Serbian lands and conquered his Hungarian territories.  Hungary quickly retaliated and re-established Mačva as a Banate under a Hungarian appointee[209].  King Stefan Uroš II Milutin died after falling from his bed, without nominating his successor which triggered immediate civil war between his sons and his nephew[210].  A document records the death of “Stephanus Uroš, Serbić rex” dated 29 Oct 1321[211]

Betrothed ([1267/68]) to ANNA Komnene Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Dukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (1260-[1299/1300]).  Pachymeres records that Emperor Mikhael VIII proposed the betrothal of "[filiam] secundam Annam" and "cralem Serbić Stephanum Uresim, secundo eius filio Melotino", dated from the context to the early part of his reign[212]

m firstly ([1273/76], repudiated [1283]) [HELENA] Angelina, daughter of IOANNES Dukas Angelos sébastokrator, Lord of Thessaly & his wife --- of the Vlachs (-[1298/99]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She is named "Helene/Jelena" in Europäische Stammtafeln[213] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. 

m secondly (Autumn 1284, repudiated [1294]) as her first husband, ANA of Bulgaria, daughter of GEORGI I Terter Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Maria --- (-after 1304).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Terteris filiam, ex sorore genitam Asanis" and "cralis Serbić"[214].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her birth date range is estimated from the estimated birth dates of her two children by her first marriage.  If these are correct, Ana must have been born from her father's first marriage irrespective of the report in Pachymeres.  She married secondly (1301) Mikhael [Demetrios] Dukas Komnenos Angelos 'Kutrules' despot (-1304).  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified. 

m thirdly ([1295], repudiated [1298/99]) as her second husband, ERSZEBET of Hungary, widow of ZAVIŠ von Rosenberg, daughter of ISTVÁN V King of Hungary & his wife Elisabeth [née ---] of the Kumans (1255-[1313/26]).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "sororem defunctć Augustć, matris Augusti iunioris…filia regis Ungarić…germanam tertiam" and the king of Serbia, despite the couple's consanguinity (due to his brother already being married to her sister)[215].  The primary source which confirms her name and first marriage has not yet been identified. 

m fourthly (betrothed 1299, [Oct/Nov] 1300) SIMONIDA Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his second wife Yolanda di Monferrato ([1292/93]-Constantinople after 1336).  Pachymeres records the marriage of "August filiam…Simonidem" and "cralis Serbić", after her aunt Evdokia Palaiologina had refused the marry him[216].  Mistreated by her husband, she refused to return to him after attending the funeral of her mother in Constantinople in 1317 but was forced to do so by her half-brother Konstantinos[217].  She fled to Constantinople after her husband died and became a nun[218]

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of the mistress of Stefan Uroš Milutin is not known. 

Stefan Uroš II Milutin & his second wife had two children:

1.         STEFAN KONSTANTIN ([1283/94]-killed in battle in Zeta 1323).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Knez of Zahumlje 1303/06.  His father granted him the appanage of Zeta some time after 1314[219].  He was proclaimed king in Zeta on his father's death in 1321[220], and refused to submit to his half-brother but the latter invaded Zeta and defeated Stefan Konstantin in battle[221]

2.         child .  The primary source which confirms his/her parentage has not yet been identified.  1286/1292.

Stefan Uroš II Milutin had & his third wife had one child:

3.         NEDA ([1295/98]-after 1346).  Her first betrothal was part of the treaty agreed between her father and Charles Comte de Valois aimed at ensuring the latter's support in Milutin's war with his brother[222].  The primary source on which it is based has not yet been identified.  Ioannes Kantakuzenos refers to "sorori…Stephani [Crali]" as the previous wife of "Michaelis", who was then married to "imperatoris sororem"[223].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  She was imprisoned by her husband after her repudiation[224].  She was restored as regent for her son in [Aug/Sep] 1330, on the insistence of her brother Stefan Uroš III Dečanski King of Serbia, but fled to Serbia after her son was deposed in 1331.  Betrothed (15 Jun 1308) to CHARLES de Valois, son of CHARLES de France Comte de Valois & his first wife Marguerite of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] (1297-killed in battle Crécy 26 Aug 1346, bur Paris, église des Jacobins).  He succeeded in Apr 1326 as Comte d'Alençon et de Perche.  m (after 1308, repudiated 1324) as his first wife, MIHAIL ŠIŠMAN Lord of Vidin, son of ŠIŠMAN Lord of Vidin & his first wife --- ([1275/80]-Velbužd 28 Jul 1330).  He was elected  as MIHAIL III Tsar of the Bulgarians at Trnovo in Jun 1323. 

King Stefan Uroš II Milutin had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

4.          STEFAN UROŠ ([1276]-murdered 3 Nov 1336, bur Visoki Dečani monastery).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 1322 as STEFAN UROŠ III "Dečanski" King of Serbia

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STEFAN UROŠ of Serbia, illegitimate son of STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia & his mistress --- ([1276]-murdered 3 Nov 1336, bur Visoki Dečani monastery).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His father sent him as a hostage to the Tatars in [1293], as a gesture of appeasement to forestall an attack on Serbia, and he remained there until 1299[225].  His father gave him Zeta as an appanage on his return[226].  He revolted against his father in 1314, was defeated, captured, maybe blinded, and exiled with his family to Constantinople, although they were allowed to return in 1320[227] when he was given the appanage of Budimlje [Ivangrad][228].  He claimed the throne on his father's death in 1321, asserting that he had miraculously regained his sight[229], and was crowned 6 Jan 1322 by the Archbishop of Serbia as STEFAN UROŠ III "Dečanski" King of Serbia.  In 1323, he defeated and killed his half-brother Konstantin, retaking Zeta, and forced his cousin Vladislav to flee, retaking his Serbian lands.  In [1326], he supported his father-in-law's secession in Thessaloniki, which signalled a revival of Serbian interest in Byzantine politics[230].  He failed to intervene in 1328 when Emperor Andronikos III successfully rebelled against his grandfather[231].  He attacked western Macedonia in 1328, and defeated Tsar Mihail III Šišman of Bulgaria at Velbužd in 1330 after his Byzantine allies failed to arrive for the battle[232].  A large segment of the Serbian nobility was dissatisfied with his failure to wage war on Byzantium as a result of this.  After quarrelling with his son Dušan, he sent an army into Zeta to capture him but Dušan fled.  Dušan caught up with his father at Petrić where on 21 Aug 1331, he was deposed, imprisoned in chains, and later murdered[233].  A document records the death of “Stephanus Uroš III, Serbić rex” dated 3 Nov 1336[234].  He founded Dečani monastery. 

m firstly ([24 Aug 1293/1298]) TEODORA of Bulgaria, daughter of SMILEC Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife --- of Bulgaria (-Oct 1322).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Her marriage took place when her future husband was a hostage with the Tatars (with whom her father had close ties), where he was sent in [1293] as a gesture of appeasement to forestall an attack on Serbia and where he remained until 1299.  Fine suggests that it took place in late 1298[235]

m secondly ([1 Nov 1325/31 Aug 1326]) as her first husband, MARIA Palaiologina, daughter of IOANNES Komnenos Palaiologos panhypersébastos, Governor of Thessaloniki & his wife Eirene Metochitissa ([1313/14]-7 Apr 1355).  Ioannes Kantakuzenos records that "Ioannem…Mariam filiam" married "Stephano Cralć Triballorum principi"[236].  This marriage was arranged by Maria's father to obtain Serbian support for his rebellion in Thessaloniki[237].  She married secondly ([1336/37]) as his second wife, Jovan Oliver, despot in the area of Veles.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as MARTA

Stefan Uroš III had & his first wife had two children:

1.         STEFAN DUŠAN ([1308]-20 Dec 1355).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was crowned "Young King" [Mladi Kralj] at the time of his father's coronation Jan 1322[238], and was granted Zeta as an appanage after his father defeated his half-brother Konstantin[239].  He deposed his father at Petrić 21 Aug 1331, succeeding as STEFAN DUŠAN King of Serbia, crowned Sep 1331.  He made peace with Tsar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria [1331/32], sealed by his marriage to the Tsar's sister[240].  King Stefan Dušan attacked Byzantine Macedonia in 1332, recapturing Ohrid, Prilep and Strumica, gains which were recognised under the terms of the peace agreed in 1334[241].  After the death of Emperor Andronikos III in 1341, he profited from the civil war between Ioannes Kantakuzenos and the party of the Dowager Empress Anna to take control over remaining parts of Macedonia, except Thessaloniki, finally capturing Serrhes 25 Sep 1345 after a long siege.  Profiting from this newfound power, he declared himself Tsar of Serbia and Greece[242], crowned 16 Apr 1346 at Skopje by the newly elevated Patriarch of Serbia and in the presence of representatives from the monastery of Mount Athos (of whom he was a major patron).  He crowned his son as king to rule in the old Serbian part of his empire, while taking direct control of his new Greek acquisitions.  He conquered Albania and Epirus, as well as Thessaly, by the end of his reign without being challenged in a major battle, effectively taking from Byzantium half of its remaining territory.  Citizen of the Republic of Venice in 1350, he unsuccessfully sought Venetian maritime help to carry out his ultimate goal, the conquest of Constantinople.  He promulgated the code of Dušan, firstly at an imperial diet convened at Skopje in May 1349 confirmed in a more extensive version at Serres in 1354, which formed the legal base for the new Serbian Empire.  He died of a stroke.  He became the hero of later epic poetry which glorified his life.  m (19 Apr 1332) JELENA of Bulgaria, sister of IVAN ALEXANDER Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of STRACIMIR, despot & his wife Kereza Petriza of Vidin (-[7 Nov] 1374).  Ioannes Kantakuzenos names "Mśsorum rege…Alexander…Helenam sororem suam" as the wife of "Cralem"[243].  Ioannes Kantakuzenos names "Helena eius mater", referring to "Ouresis, Cralis filius", in a passage dated to 1355[244].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the peace agreement between her brother and her future husband in [1331/32][245].  Citizen of Venice 1350.  Regent of Serbia 1355-56.  On her husband's death, she inherited Serbia's Greek lands between the lower Vardar and the Mesta as well as the Chalcidic peninsula, basing her court at Serres[246].  She became a nun as JELISAVETA in 1359/60, but continued to play an active political role.  A charter records the death of “Eugenia, Serborum et Grćcorum imperatrix, uxor Stephani” 7 Nov, year not stated[247].  This record could refer either to the wife of Stefan Dušan or to the wife of his son Stefan Uroš IV.  If the former is correct, it is unclear whether “Eugenia” is an error for “Elisabetha” or whether the former was in fact her correct monacal name.  Stefan Dušan & his wife had two children:

a)         STEFAN UROŠ ([1 Sep 1336/31 Aug 1337]-3 Dec 1367 or 1371).  Ioannes Kantakuzenos records that "Ouresis, Cralis filius" raised an army against his uncle "Simon, Cralio frater…Acarnanić dominus" who had rebelled against his brother, in a passage dated to 1355[248].  On his father's coronation as Tsar in 1346, he was crowned as STEFAN UROŠ IV King of Serbia, placed by his father in charge of the Serb part of the new empire.  Citizen of the republic of Venice in 1350[249].  He succeeded his father in 1355 as Tsar of Serbia.  He was weak, possibly feeble-minded, and his reign witnessed the disintegration of the empire created by his father[250].  From 1365, he ruled jointly with Kralj Vukasin Mrnjavčević (see below, Chapter 4).  A document records the death of “Stephanus Uroš, Serborum et Grćcorum imperator” dated 3 Dec 1367[251]m (Jul 1360) ANA [Anka] Basaraba, daughter of NICOLAE ALEXANDRU Voivode of Wallachia & his second wife Clara de Doboca ([1345]-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  This marriage was probably intended to seal a Serbian/Wallachian alliance against Hungary[252]

b)         IRINA ([1328/30]-after 1361).  She is named as Dušan's daughter by Fine[253], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The primary source which confirms her two marriages has not yet been identified.  After her first husband's death, she attempted to retain control of Thessaly in the name of her minor son Tomo Preljubović, but she was displaced and forced to return to Serbia by Nikephoros II ex-Lord of Epirus[254]m firstly GRGUR Preljub, son of --- (-killed in battle early 1356).  Vojvoda of King Dušan 1340.  Governor of Thessaly [Trikkala][255]m secondly RADOSLAV Hlapen, son of --- (-[1383/85]).  Governor of Voden and Veria.  Lord of Kastoria 1360[256]

2.         DUŠICA (-Constantinople before 1318).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

Stefan Uroš III & his second wife had three children:

3.         JELENA [Lelika] (-after 1355).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  After her husband's death, she tried to maintain rule over his cities on behalf of her infant son but was challenged by Hungary and Venice.  Her half-brother Tsar Stefan Dušan sent troops to help her garrison Klis and Skadrin against Hungary in 1355[257]m (Oct 1347) MLADEN [III] Šubić Knez of Klis, Omiš and Skradin, son of --- (-May 1348).  He died of plague. 

4.         SYMEON UROŠ ([1324/26]-[1369/72]).  Ioannes Kantakuzenos names "Simon, Cralio frater…Acarnanić dominus" recording that he rebelled against his brother, in a passage dated to 1355[258].  He was awarded the title Despot by his half-brother.  The Historia Epiri records that he ruled Epirus [from 1349] after its conquest by his half-brother, marrying the daughter of the previous Despot to consolidate his position[259].  The Historia Epiri records that he was expelled from Epirus [in 1355] by "Nicephorus dominus, frater reginć" and occupied Kastoria where he proclaimed himself "rex"[260].  Forces of the Serbian nobility met him near Skadar and forced his retreat to Kastoria in 1358.  He conquered Thessaly in 1359 after Nikephoros II was killed in battle near Acheloos in Aetolia, and recaptured Arta and Jannina in Epirus.  Under an agreement reached with Hlapen, Governor of Voden and Veria, who was also ambitious to extend his control in the area, Symeon confined his rule to Thessaly, confirmed by the betrothal of his daughter with Hlapen's stepson[261].  He established his court at Trikkala, calling himself 'Symeon Uroš Palaiologos', and imitated the Byzantine court[262]m (before 1349) TOMAIDA Komnene Angelina Orsini, daughter of IOANNES [II] Dukas Komnenos Angelos Orsini Lord of Epirus & his wife Anna Komnene Palaiologina Angelina of Epirus.  The Historia Epiri records the marriage of "Symeonis…ex filia sororis regis Palaeologi" and "Ioannis tyranni beati filiam…Thomaim"[263].  The Historia Epiri records that, when he retreated to Kastoria (in 1358), Symeon left "Thomaim…cum duobus liberis…alter puer, altera…puella" there[264].  Symeon Uroš & his wife had three children:

a)         JOVAN UROŠ Dukas Palaiologos ([1349]-1423 after 24 Feb).  The Historia Epiri records that, when he retreated to Kastoria (in 1358), Symeon left "Thomaim…cum duobus liberis…alter puer, altera…puella" there[265].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified.  Proclaimed Joint Tsar with his father 1356.  He succeeded his father in [1369/72] in Thessaly.  He appointed Alexios Angelos as administrator in Thessaly, and became a monk as JOASAF in [1372/73].  His sister invited him to Jannina as her adviser after the murder of her first husband in 1384, but he departed after her second marriage and spent the rest of his days as a monk at Meteora[266].   

b)         MARIJA ANGELIKI Dukaina Palaiologina ([1350/51]-18 Dec 1394)The Historia Epiri records that, when he retreated to Kastoria (in 1358), Symeon left "Thomaim…cum duobus liberis…alter puer, altera…puella" there[267].  The Historia Epiri records that "Chlapenus, unus satraparum Serbicorum" married "mulierem Prelumpi…quem…in Valachiam antea dominatum esse", died leaving "in urbe Triccala…filiorum uno", and that Symeon arranged the marriage of "filiam suam" and "Thoma eius filio" (referring to "Prelumpus"), naming her "Angelica Palaeologa" in a later passage[268].  Her first marriage was arranged to confirm the agreement between her father and Hlapen, Governor of Voden and Veria, dividing their authority in Thessaly and Epirus[269].  After her first husband was murdered, the population of Jannina declared their allegiance to her.  She invited her brother monk Joasaf to come to Jannina as her adviser.  Basilissa 1367 [1360]/1394.  Lady of Jannina.  The Historia Epiri records that "Izaum, qui et…in Cephalenium dominabatur" married "reginć"[270].  The Historia Epiri records the death 28 Dec 1395 of "regina…Angelica imperatrix Palaeologa"[271]m firstly ([1362/67]) TOMO Preljubović, son of PRELJUB Governor of Thessaly & his first wife Irena Asen (-murdered 23 Dec 1384).  His father-in-law appointed him Governor of Janina [1366/67], but he faced considerable opposition from Albanian tribesmen who prevented him from exercising much control outside the town itself.  The Historia Epiri records his cruel oppression of Janina and records that "Thomas" arranged the marriage of "Irenen filiam suam" to "Petri Leosć" in an attempt to establish peace at Janina, dated to 1373, but that "Irene filia Thomć" died of plague in 1375, and then the marriage of "Helenam sororem suam" to "Ioannes Spatas tyrannus"[272].  Fine suggests that the account of Tomo´s tyrannical rule recorded in the Chronicle of Jannina, an anonymous account written during the reign of his successor, is biased[273].  The Historia Epiri records that "Thomas" was murdered 23 Dec (in 1384) by his bodyguards "Nicephorace, et Rainace, et Artabesto, et Antonio Franco"[274].  Fine highlights another source which claims that he was murdered by his wife and her lover, whom she married as her second husband[275]m secondly (1385 after 31 Jan) as his first wife, ISAUL de' Buondelmonti-Acciaiuoli, son of MANENTE de' Buondelmonti & his wife Lapa Acciajuoli (-6 Feb 1411).  A rich Florentine adventurer, he was captured by Tomo Preljubović at Acarnania in his victory over the Hospitaller Knights of St John, who were then ruling Achaia, and brought back a captive to Jannina[276].  He became Governor of Jannina on his marriage.  The Historia Epiri records that "Izaus" married "Irenen Spatć filiam" in Jan 1396[277].  He was defeated and captured by the Zenevisi, an Albanian tribe, in Apr 1399 but released on payment of a huge ransom by the Florentines and returned to Jannina in Jul 1400[278]

c)         STEFAN Dukas ([after 1358]-1397).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He must have been born after 1358, as the Historia Epiri refers to only two children being left with their mother at Kastoria by Symeon when he was forced to retreat to the city[279].  Lord of Pharsalos and Domokos [Pinkernes].  Betrothed ([1386]) to dońa MARÍA Fadrique de Aragón, daughter of don LUIS Fadrique de Aragón [Sicily], Lord of Zituni [Lamia] Conte di Salona [Amphissa, Albania] & his wife Helena Asanina Kantakuzene ([1370]-murdered Adrianople 1395).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified. 

5.         TEODORA (1330-after 1381).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She became a nun as EUDOKIJA[280].  “Eudocia imperatrix et filius Constantinus” donated property to “monasterio Chilandar” by charter dated 1379[281].  The explanation for her being given the title “imperatrix” has not yet been found.  m ([1347]) DEJAN, son of ---.  Governor of Macedonia.  He was awarded the title sébastokrator by his brother-in-law Tsar Stefan Dušan[282].  Dejan & his wife had two children: 

a)         IVAN (-1378).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was awarded the title Despot.  After the death of Uglješa at the battle of Marica River, he and his brother were able to occupy Strumica and Štip. 

b)         KONSTANTIN Dragaš (-killed in battle 17 May 1395).  “Eudocia imperatrix et filius Constantinus” donated property to “monasterio Chilandar” by charter dated 1379[283].  His main residence was at Kumanovo.  After the death of Uglješa at the battle of Marica River, he and his brother were able to occupy Strumica and Štip.  He succeeded his brother, and continued to increase his holdings, acquiring Vranje in 1380[284].  Authentes of Serbia, Gospodin of Vardar and Serrhes.  “Constantinus Dragaš despotes” issued a charter relating to “monasterii Russorum” dated 1395[285].  A charter records the death of “Constantinus Dragaš” 17 May 1395[286]m firstly ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified, but the phrase in Georgius Phrantzes which describes Konstantin´s known wife Evdokia "quć avi tui uxor fuit" (see below) suggests that she was not the mother of his children.  m secondly (1387) as her second husband, EVDOKIA Megala Komnene, widow of TADJEDDIN Pasha of Sinope Emir of Limnia, daughter of ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakazune.  Georgius Phrantzes names "Eudocia despśna, quć avi tui uxor fuit", which from the context appears to refer to the maternal grandfather of Emperor Konstantinos XI, commenting that she was previously "Turcum coniuge…parvć et exilis regionis principem" by whom she had children[287].  1378/95.  Konstantin & his first wife had two children:

i)          JELENA Dragaš (-23 Mar 1450).  Georgius Phrantzes records that "imperator Manuel" married "Constantini Dragasis filiam"[288].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death 23 Mar in "anni 6958" of "despśna Irene…nomine Hypomone monacha dicta" and her burial "in monasterio Pantacratoris, iuxta…imperatorem coniugem suum"[289]m (Constantinople 10 Feb 1392) Emperor MANUEL II, son of Emperor IOANNES V & his wife Helene Kantakuzene (27 Jun 1350-21 Jul 1425, bur Constantinople Pantokrator Monastery). 

ii)         --- Dragaš.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m IOANNIS Rallis, son of ---. 

 

 

 

B.      FAMILY of DRAGOSLAV JOVAN

 

 

DRAGOSLAV Jovan, son of [RADOSLAV King of Serbia] & his [first/second] wife [Anna Dukaina Angelina/---] ([1230/55]-[after 1315]).  A lengthy carved inscription on the stone lintel on the western portal of the church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria records that it was built in 1315 by "a great kaznac Jovan Dragoslav together with his wife Jelena, his son Staniša and his daughter Ana"[290].  Dragoslav may have been the son of King Radoslav, his patronymic "Jovan" being his supposed father´s monastic name[291].  His close relationship with the Serbian royal family is indicated by the prestigious marriage of his daughter, arranged by King Stefan Uroš II Milutin, and also by Dragoslav´s grandson being referred to later as "brother" by Stefan Uroš IV King of Serbia.  The titles "Grand Zupan" and Great Kaznac" which he bore would also be justified by a close relationship with the royal family[292].  The theory is appealing, although no record has been found of either Dragoslav or his descendants claiming the Serbian throne, despite their superior claim based on descent from the oldest son of Stefan "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbia.  If Dragoslav was King Radoslav´s son, the identity of his mother is uncertain.  Anna Dukaina Angelina is the only recorded wife of the king, and Dragoslav naming his daughter Ana suggests a family connection.  However, the dating of the foundation of Hodegetria (assuming that the date is correct) indicates that Dragoslav would have been in his eighties at the time if born from his father´s known marriage.  It is possible therefore that, if Dragoslav was Radoslav´s son, he was born from an otherwise unrecorded second marriage, contracted after he was deposed as king.  The date of the marriage contract of Ana, Dragoslav´s daughter, suggests Dragoslav´s birth in the range [1245/55].  This range has been extended back to [1230] above, to indicate the possibility that he was born from his father´s first marriage (and, in that case, he could have been the supposed unnamed child whose existence is discussed above).  On balance, it appears likely that Dragoslav was not the son of Anna Dukaina Angelina.  During the 13th and 14th centuries, the prestige in the Balkan region associated with marriages into, and descent from, the Byzantine imperial families was reflected in the names adopted by descendants of such marriages.  The descendants of the second marriage of Stefan Uroš III "Dečanski" King of Serbia provide an example in the Serbian royal family.  No such names, or other claim to Byzantine descent, have so far been found in relation to Dragoslav´s descendants. 

m JELENA, daughter of --- (-after 1315).  A lengthy carved inscription on the stone lintel on the western portal of the church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria records that it was built in 1315 by a great kaznac Jovan Dragoslav together with his wife Jelena, his son Staniša and his daughter Ana[293]

Dragoslav & his wife had two children: 

1.         STANIŠA (-after 1315).  A lengthy carved inscription on the stone lintel on the western portal of the church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria records that it was built in 1315 by a great kaznac Jovan Dragoslav together with his wife Jelena, his son Staniša and his daughter Ana[294].  Protovestiar at the court of Stefan Uroš III "Dečanski" King of Serbia, with the title župan[295]m ---.  The name of Staniša´s wife is not known.  Staniša & his wife had [five or more] children: 

a)         NIKOLA Stanjevic (-[1371]).  Military commander of Stefan Dušan King of Serbia, he ruled in Macedonia, and was referred to as "brother" by Stefan Uroš IV King of Serbia[296].  "Noble brother of my imperial highness Grand Duke Nikola [veliki vojvoda Mikola]" requested Stefan Uroš IV King of Serbia to confirm donations to the monastery of Chilandar by charter dated 9 May 1366[297].  He founded the monastery of Konce, probably before 1366[298]

b)         GEORGIE Staniše .  Guardian of Agios Oros, Holly Mountain, Sveta Gora, close to Jerisos. 

c)         three or four daughters . 

2.         ANA ([1270/80]-after 1315).  A lengthy carved inscription on the stone lintel on the western portal of the church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria records that it was built in 1315 by "a great kaznac Jovan Dragoslav together with his wife Jelena, his son Staniša and his daughter Ana"[299].  Her marriage was agreed as part of the settlement agreed between her husband and Milutin King of Serbia after the latter captured Vidin (in 1292)[300].  The date of this marriage contract suggests that Ana was born in [1270/80].  m ([1292]) as his second wife, ŠIŠMAN, son of --- (-1313). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of SERBIA 1365-1395 (MRNJAVČEVIĆI)

 

 

 

MRNJAN.  Treasurer [Kaznac] in Trebinje to Queen Jelena 1280/1289. 

m ---.  The name of Mrnjan's wife is not known. 

Mrnjan & his wife had [one possible child]: 

1.         [MRNJAVA.  He is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[301] as possible son of Mrnjan, but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  He originated in Hum.  m ---.  The name of Mrnjava's wife is not known.  Mrnjava & his wife had three children: 

a)         VUKAŠIN Mrnjavčević (Livno ---- -drowned Marica 26 Sep 1371).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Official at the court of Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia before 1356.  He was appointed Župan in Prilep [1350].  Awarded the title Despot 1364 by Stefan Uroš IV Tsar of Serbia, he was crowned VUKAŠIN King of Serbia [Aug/Sep]1365 as co-ruler although in time he came to act increasingly on his own. 

-        see below

b)         JOVAN UGLJEŠA Mrnjavčević (-killed in battle Černomen 26 Sep 1371).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Župan of Zahumlje.  “Joannes Uglješa despotes” founded “monasterii Simopetrć” by charter dated 1363[302].  He inherited Drama, presumably from his wife's family[303].  He was crowned Despot when his brother was crowned King of Serbia, and by 1366 was de facto ruler of Serres.  By 1370, the Ottoman Turks had conquered Thrace and were threatening the borders of Uglješa's lands[304].  He and his brother Vukašin advanced into Turkish-held territory in western Thrace but their forces were annihilated by the Turks at Černomen on the Marica River 26 Sep 1371 where both brothers were killed.  m ([1364]) JELENA Voijinović, daughter of VOIJIN of Drama, caesar & his wife --- (-after 1404).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   A poet.  She became a nun as JEFIMIJA.   “Euphemia monacha, vidua despotć Uglješć” is named in a document dated to [1389/99][305].  “Euphemia monacha, vidua despotć Uglješć” donated property to “monasterio chilandarensi” by charter dated 1399[306].  Jovan & his wife had three children: 

i)          TRVTKO (-[1366/71]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

ii)         UGLJEŠA (-before 26 Sep 1371).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

iii)        DRAGINA VITOSLAVA (-31 Jan 1374).  A charter records the death of “Dragina Vitoslava, filia Ugleješć” 31 Jan 1374[307]

iv)       EUPRAXIA.  Nun 1405.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         JELENA (-before 11 Mar 1365, bur Prodromoskl near Serrhes).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1350]) NIKOLA Radonja [Branković], son of BRANKO Mladenović & his wife --- (-Mount Athos after 1365).    

 

 

VUKAŠIN Mrnjavčević, son of MRNJAVA & his wife --- (Livno ---- -drowned Marica 26 Sep 1371).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  An official at the court of Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia before 1356.  He was appointed Župan in Prilep [1350].  Awarded the title Despot in 1364 by Stefan Uroš IV Tsar of Serbia, he was crowned VUKAŠIN King of Serbia in [Aug/Sep]1365 as co-ruler although in time he came to act increasingly on his own[308].  He added Skopje to his personal holdings by 1366, and Prizren and Ohred by 1370.  “Vlkašin, Serbić rex” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 5 Apr 1370[309].  He and his brother Uglješa advanced into Turkish-held territory in western Thrace but their forces were annihilated by the Turks at Černomen on the Marica River 26 Sep 1371 where both brothers were killed. 

m JELENA [Jevrosina], daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

Vukašin & his wife had six children: 

1.         MARKO Kraljević ([1335]-killed in battle Rovine 17 May 1395).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  His father crowned him Mladi Kralj [young king].  He was crowned as MARKO King of Serbia after his father's death in 1371, but was obliged to accept Turkish suzerainty following the defeat at Marica River.  “Marko rex” issued a charter dated Oct 1370[310].  Djurdje Balšić seized Prizren in 1371 and Peć in 1372, Lazar Hrebljanović captured Priština, and Vuk Branković took Skopje in 1377[311].  King Marko was unable to resist these rebellions against his central authority because of the manpower losses suffered by his father at the battle of Marica River, but was forced to accept the suzerainty of the Turks who had defeated and killed his father in battle.  Eventually, his power was confined to a small area in Macedonia around Prilep.  He was killed fighting with the Ottomans against Mircea Prince of Wallachia, and after his death the Ottomans annexed his lands which became part of the Ottoman province of kjustendil [Velbužd][312].  His career was immortalised in later Serbian epics in which he was described as "Kraljević" [the king's son][313]m [firstly] (repudiated, later remarried) JELENA Hlapena, daughter of HLAPEN [Radoslav Hlapen] Voivode of Edessa and Berrhoia & his wife [Irina of Serbia] (1356-).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  [m secondly TODORA, wife or daughter of GRGUR.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.]  She was Marko's mistress [1381/85].   

2.         ANDRIJAŠ (-after 1403).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Fled from Ragusa to Hungary 1394.  [Betrothed to KATARINA of Bribir [Subić], daughter of GRGUR comes of Bribir, Busano, Sebenico and Ostravica & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.  The marriage was forbidden by the Pope 8 Apr 1370.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, Katarina was betrothed to the oldest of the three sons Andrijaš, Ivanis or Dmitar, but it is not known which this was[314].] 

3.         IVANIŠ (-killed in battle Berat 18 Sep 1385).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was killed fighting the Turks.

4.         DMITAR Kraljević (-after 1407).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He fled from Ragusa to Hungary in 1394.  Obergespan in Zarand county, and Castellan of Világos in Hungary.   

5.         MILICA Mrnjavčević .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m as his second wife, STRACIMIR Balšić Lord of Zeta, son of BALŠA [I] & his wife --- (-Sava [15 Jan 1372/1373]). 

6.         OLIVERA.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (repudiated [1371/72]) as his first wife, DJURADJ Balšić Lord of Zeta and Primorje, son of BALŠA [I] & his wife --- (-Jan 1379).

 

 

The relationship between the following and the above family is not known, but the common use of the name Ugleša suggests a connection[315]

1.         VLADKO.  Sebastokrator 1366/67.  m ---.  The name of Vladko's wife is not known.  Vladko & his wife had one child: 

a)         UGLEŠA ([1360/64]-after 1423).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Serbian Caesar before 1381.  Lord of Vranja, Inogošt and Preševo.  Vassal of Knez Stefan Lazarević.  m ---.  The name of Ugleša´s wife is not known.  Ugleša & his wife had one child: 

i)          STEFAN .  “Stephanus, cćsaris Uglješć filius” is named in an undated inscription[316]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    PRINCES of SERBIA 1385-1457

 

 

 

A.      LAZAROVIĆI 1385-1427

 

 

1.         PRIBAC Hrebeljanović, son of ---.  Logothete [chancellor] of Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia[317]m ---.  The name of Pribac's wife is not known.  Pribac & his wife had three children:

a)         DRAGINJA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ČELNIK Mlsa, from Brvenik.  1363/1381. 

b)         STEFAN LAZAR Hrebljanović (Priljebac, near Novo Brdo [1329]-executed Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, bur Ravanica Monastery).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

-        see below

c)         [daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are assumed from the undated church inscription which records the burial of [her son] “Vaniš Altomanović, nepotis imperator Lazari[318].]  m ALTOMAN, son of ---.  Altoman & his wife had one child: 

i)          IVANIŠ .  The burial of “Vaniš Altomanović, nepotis imperator Lazari” is recorded in an undated church inscription[319]

 

 

STEFAN LAZAR Hrebljanović, son of PRIBAC Hrebeljanović & his wife --- (Priljebac, near Novo Brdo [1329]-executed Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, bur Ravanica Monastery).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  After his marriage, he left the Serbian court in [1363] for his lands on the Ibar, South Morava and West Morava rivers, based at Kruševac[320].  Allied with Tvrtko Ban of Bosnia, he defeated Nikola Altomanović, nominal Knez of Hum, in 1373 and captured his lands in eastern Hum, including the mines of Rudnik[321].  He negotiated peace with the Patriarch of Constantinople in 1375 by renouncing the right of the Serbs to hold the imperial title, in return confirmation of the Serbian church's autocephalous state[322].  He acquired Braničevo and Kučevo in 1379.  “Lazarus, Serborum imperator” donated to “monasterio Ždrelo” by charter dated 1 Aug 1380[323].  He was appointed Ban of Mačva by Lajos King of Hungary before 1381.  By a careful policy of matrimonial alliances, he was able to group the most influential local Serbian chiefs to fight the Turks jointly, from which time he could be said to have become Prince of Serbia.  The Ottomans captured Niš in 1386, and launched a major campaign against Serbia in 1388 when Lazar refused Ottoman suzerainty[324].  He allied himself with Trvtko King of Bosnia and Vuk Branković against the Ottomans, but was captured at the battle of Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, in which the bulk of both armies was wiped out.  The Historia Epiri records that "Amuratus et Lazarus" were killed in Jun 1389[325].  A charter records the death of “Stephanus Lazarus, Serborum imperator” 15 Jun 1389[326].  He was executed after being brought before Sultan Bayezid I.  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "Ilderim Bayazid avenged the death of his father by killing Count Lazaro in battle with his own hand"[327].  The battle became the subject of Serbian epics from the 17th century[328]

m ([1353]) MILICA, daughter of --- (-11 Nov 1405).  An undated inscription, dated to after 1405, “in Ljubostinja” names “Milica, imperatoris Lazari uxor[329].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[330], she was MILICA Nemanjić, daughter of Knez VRATKA Nemanjić, but this alleged descent appears to have been fabricated by later chronicles[331].  She was regent in Serbia after the death of her husband for her son until he reached the age of majority in 1393[332].  She became a nun as JEVGENIJA[333].  “Eugenia monacha cum filiis knez Stephano et fratre eius Vlk” issued a charter relating to “monasterii Russorum” dated 8 Jun 1395[334].  “Stephanus, Serborum despotes, cum  matre Milica et fratre Vlk” donated property to “monasterio Chilandar” by charter dated to [1403/05][335].  A charter records the death of “Milica, Serborum imperatrix, monacha Euphrosina” 11 Nov 1405[336], although the reference to “Euphrosina” appears to be an error for “Eugenia” as Milica is recorded with the latter monacal name with her two sons Stefan and Vuk (see below). 

Stefan Lazar & his wife had eight children: 

1.         MARA (-12 Apr 1426).  The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis names "Georgius Wulci filius" and his mother "Maria Lazari filia et Stephani defuncti sorore"[337].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that one of the daughters of "Eleazarus" married "Bulco Branci qui fuit Placidć filius, regenti Castoriam et Ochridem Macedonić regionem, quam antea Nicolaus Zopani filius tenuerat"[338].  She became a nun as MARINA[339]m ([1365/66]) VUK Branković, son of BRANKO Mladenović & his wife --- (-6 Oct 1397). 

2.         DOBROVOJ Lazarević.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

3.         JELENA ([1365/70]-Mar 1443).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  Her birth date range is estimated on the birth of her first son in 1387.  m firstly ([1386/87]) DJURADJ [II] Stracimirović Balšić Lord of Zeta, son of STRACIMIR Balšić & his [first/second] wife --- (-Apr 1403).  m secondly (Krain 1411 after 8 Dec) as his fourth wife, SANDALJ Hranić Kosača Grand Voivode of Bosnia Knez of Zahumlje, son of HRANJA Vojvoda of Bosnia & his wife Anka (-15 Mar 1435). 

4.         STEFAN Lazarević ([1372/77]-Glava 19 Jul 1427).  The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis names "Lazari…filius Stephanus" when recording his military campaign against Sultan Bayezid I[340].  His birth date range is estimated on his having reached the age of majority in 1393.  He succeeded his father in 1389 as Prince of Serbia, under the regency of his mother.  King Sigismund of Hungary immediately attacked northern Serbia, hoping to take advantage of Serbian weakness after the battle of Kosovo.  Fearing further incursions by Hungary in her own territories to the north, Regent Milica submitted to the suzerainty of the Ottomans whose armies had advanced to Serbia's border in summer 1390[341].  He acquired the bulk of the lands of Vuk Branković in Kosovo after the latter was expelled by the Ottomans in [1395][342].  “Eugenia monacha cum filiis knez Stephano et fratre eius Vlk” issued a charter relating to “monasterii Russorum” dated 8 Jun 1395[343].  He appears to have remained loyal to Sultan Bayezid I, avoiding the annexation of Serbia by the Ottomans, and fought with him against Timur Khan at the battle of Ankara 1402.  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "the son of this Lazaro marched with Bayazid, and he now lives with Muzulman Chalabi, the son of this Ilderim Bayazid"[344].  Stopping in Constantinople on his return, Emperor Manuel II granted him the title Despot in 1402[345].  He defeated the forces of his nephew Djuradj Vuković in Nov 1402 at Tripolje.  Seeking allies in case the war with his nephew broke out again, he accepted Hungarian suzerainty in [1403] in return for being granted Mačva, after which he installed himself at Beograd as his capital[346].  “Stephanus, Serborum despotes, cum  matre Milica et fratre Vlk” donated property to “monasterio Chilandar” by charter dated to [1403/05][347].  After supporting Sultan Suleiman I in his succession struggle against his brothers, Stefan Lazarević defected to join Suleiman's brother Musa in 1409, whereupon Suleiman supported a rebellion in Serbia by Stefan's brother Vuk[348].  Stefan rejoined Suleiman shortly before the latter's defeat, and in revenge was attacked by Musa in 1411 whereupon he sought further support from Hungary which granted him Srebrnica, recently captured from Bosnia by Hungary[349].  He also made peace with Djuradj Vuković, forming a Slavic coalition which defeated Musa near Vitoša on the upper Iskar in Jul 1413[350].  He inherited Zeta on the death of Balša III Balšić in 1421, but was forestalled by Venice, which defeated Serb forces at Skadar in Dec 1422.  Venice's territorial boundaries were recognised by treaty negotiated in 1426, under which Serbia's claim to most of Zeta was recognised[351].  Before his death he obtained recognition of Djuradj Branković as his successor in May 1426 from Sigismund King of Hungary (who insisted on the return of Mačva, including Beograd, to Hungary as a condition) and from a council of nobility held at Srebrnica in Jul 1426[352]m (Galata 1405) HELENA Gattilusio, daughter of FRANCESCO Gattilusio Lord of Lesbos & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 

5.         VUK Lazarević (-beheaded 6 Jul 1410).  “Eugenia monacha cum filiis knez Stephano et fratre eius Vlk” issued a charter relating to “monasterii Russorum” dated 8 Jun 1395[353].  “Stephanus, Serborum despotes, cum  matre Milica et fratre Vlk” donated property to “monasterio Chilandar” by charter dated to [1403/05][354].  He revolted against his brother Stefan Lazarević in 1409, aided by Sultan Suleiman I.  He was captured and beheaded by supporters of the Sultan's brother Musa[355]

6.         TODORA (-before 1405).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged to seal the peace between her father, who had initially supported the rebellion of Jan Horvat Ban of Mačva, and Sigismund King of Hungary[356]m ([1387/88]) as his first wife, MIKLÓS [I] Garai, son of MIKLÓS [I] Garai & his wife --- ([1366]-before 17 Jan 1434).  Ban of Mačva 1386-1390.  Ban of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia 1394-1402.  Palatin of Hungary 1402-1433. 

7.         DRAGANA.  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that one of the daughters of "Eleazarus" married "Susmano Odrysiorum sive Moldavorum regi"[357].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m as his second wife, IVAN ŠIŠMAN Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN ALEXANDER ASEN Tsar of the Bulgarians & his second wife Sarah [Theodora] --- (-murdered in prison Philippopolis 1395). 

8.         OLIVERA (-after 1443).  The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis records that "Maria Lazari filia…Stephani soror" married "Baiaziti"[358].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged when her mother accepted Ottoman suzerainty over Serbia in 1390[359]m (1390) Sultan BAYEZID I, son of Sultan MURAD I & his first wife Gülchichek (Bursa 1360-Mar 1403, bur Brusa Mausoleum). 

 

 

 

B.      BRANKOVIĆI 1427-1457

 

 

MLADEN, son of --- (-1326 or after).  He was deputy of Stefan Dušan Tsar of Serbia at Ohrid.  Serbian Governor at Zahumlje 1324/1326[360]

m ---.  The name of Mladen's wife is not known. 

Mladen & his wife had two children:

1.         BRANKO Mladenović.  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 21 Nov 1392 under which “Vuk, filius sebastocratoris Branko, nepos vojvodć Mladen” promised rights to “monasterii chilandarensis[361].  He ruled a principality in western Macedonia, probably including Ohrid.  m ---.  The name of Branko's wife is not known.  Branko & his wife had four children:

a)         GRGUR Branković (-before 1398).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m TEODORA, daughter of --- (-after 16 Jul 1398).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. 

b)         NIKOLA Radonja Branković (-after 1365).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He became a monk as ROMANOS at Chilandar (Athos) before 11 Mar 1365.  m ([1350]) JELENA Mrnjavčević, daughter of MRNJA & his wife --- (-before 11 Mar 1365, bur Prodromooski near Serrhes).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Nikola & his wife had two children: 

i)          two daughters (-before 11 Mar 1365).  The primary source which confirms their parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         TEODORA [Vojislava] (-before 26 Sep 1393).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m GJERGJ Thopia, son of KAROLUS Thopia & his wife Voisava Balšić (-1392).  Prince of Durazzo 1388. 

d)         VUK Branković (-6 Oct 1398).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 21 Nov 1392 under which “Vuk, filius sebastocratoris Branko, nepos vojvodć Mladen” promised rights to “monasterii chilandarensis[362].  He lost Ohrid, his territories being reduced to a small holding around Drenica.  Taking advantage of the weakness of Marko King of Serbia after his accession and following the battle of Marica River in 1371, Vuk expanded his authority over Kosovo and Macedonia, acquiring Skopje and Priština by 1376/77 and Prizren after the death of Djurdje Balšić in Jan 1379[363].  After Lazar Hrebljanović and Tvrtko Ban of Bosnia defeated Nikola Altomanović, nominal Knez of Hum, in 1373, Vuk acquired Sjenica and Zvecan[364].  He supported Lazar Prince of Serbia at the battle of Kosovo in 1389.  He was depicted in later Serbian epics as a traitor, which Fine suggests was due to an effective propaganda campaign by the supporters of Regent Milica (whom Vuk later opposed) as, according to Turkish sources, he is reported as having fought well[365].  The nobles of Ragusa promised a welcome in their town for “Vlk Branković et dominć Marć et eorum filiis Gregorio, Georgio et Lazaro” by charter dated 9 May 1390[366].  Ottoman armies forced him to surrender Skopje in 1392, and accept Ottoman suzerainty[367].  He was driven into exile in [1395] by the Ottomans, angered at the alliance he concluded with Venice in 1394.  Vuk may have been captured and died soon after in captivity.  A charter records the death of “Vlk Branković” 6 Oct 1398[368]m ([1365/66]) MARA Lazarević, daughter of LAZAR Hrebljanović Knez of Serbia & his wife Jelena (-1426).  The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis names "Georgius Wulci filius" and his mother "Maria Lazari filia et Stephani defuncti sorore"[369].  The nobles of Ragusa promised a welcome in their town for “Vlk Branković et dominć Marć et eorum filiis Gregorio, Georgio et Lazaro” by charter dated 9 May 1390[370].  “Gregorius et Georgius Branković cum matre Mara et fratre Lazaro” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 29 Dec 1405[371].  She became a nun as MARINA[372].  Vuk & his wife had three children: 

i)          GRGUR (-13 Mar 1408).  The nobles of Ragusa promised a welcome in their town for “Vlk Branković et dominć Marć et eorum filiis Gregorio, Georgio et Lazaro” by charter dated 9 May 1390[373].  He was in a Tartar prison 28 Jul 1402.  “Gregorius et Georgius Branković cum matre Mara et fratre Lazaro” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 29 Dec 1405[374].  He became a monk as GERASIM[375]

ii)         DJURADJ Vuković Branković ([1375]-Semendria 24 Dec 1456)The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis names "Georgius Wulci filius" and his mother "Maria Lazari filia et Stephani defuncti sorore"[376]

-         see below

iii)        LAZAR Vuković (-beheaded near Adrianople 11 Jul 1410).  The nobles of Ragusa promised a welcome in their town for “Vlk Branković et dominć Marć et eorum filiis Gregorio, Georgio et Lazaro” by charter dated 9 May 1390[377].  “Gregorius et Georgius Branković cum matre Mara et fratre Lazaro” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 29 Dec 1405[378]

2.         VITOSLAVA (-bur Banja near Pribej).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALTOMAN Vejinović Župan of Uzić (-1351). 

 

 

DJURADJ Vuković Branković, son of VUK Branković & his wife Mara Lazarević ([1375]-Semendria 24 Dec 1456).  The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis names "Georgius Wulci filius" and his mother "Maria Lazari filia et Stephani defuncti sorore"[379].  The nobles of Ragusa promised a welcome in their town for “Vlk Branković et dominć Marć et eorum filiis Gregorio, Georgio et Lazaro” by charter dated 9 May 1390[380].  Between 1398/1402, Sultan Bayezid I restored to him and his brother Grgur most of the lands confiscated from his father, possibly forcing him to purchase it with money which their father had smuggled out to Dubrovnik[381].  After returning to Serbia following the battle of Ankara, where he fought with the Ottomans against Timur Khan, tensions with his uncle Stefan Lazarević developed into war, but Djuradj was defeated by Stefan at Tripolje in Nov 1402[382].  “Gregorius et Georgius Branković cum matre Mara et fratre Lazaro” confirmed the privileges of Ragusa by charter dated 29 Dec 1405[383].  “Georgius, Serborum despotes” is named in a charter dated 14 Oct 1410[384], although it is unclear whether this document means that Djuradj had temporarily replaced Stefan Lazarević as ruler of Serbia or whether the latter had granted Djuradj the title despot (although he would have had no right to do so) as a mark of alliance.  Whatever the true situation, “Stephanus, Serbić despotes” is named in a charter dated 1412[385], indicating that Djuradj had lost power if he had temporarily displaced Stefan.  Djuradj was accepted as Stefan Lazarević's successor by a council of nobility held at Srebrnica, and succeeded following Stefan's death in Jul 1427, calling himself Lord [Gospodin] of Serbia[386].  He was awarded the title Despot by a Byzantine envoy in May 1429[387].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[388].  Immediately on his accession, he was faced with Hungarian troops invading to retake Mačva and Beograd in accordance with his predecessor's agreement with Sigismund King of Hungary and with attacks in the south by the Ottomans who retook Niš, Kruševac and Golubac and insisted on Djuradj accepting Ottoman suzerainty[389].  He installed his capital at the newly-built fortress of Smederevo at the confluence of the Morava and Danube Rivers, near Belgrade, until it fell to the Ottomans in Aug 1439[390].  By the end of the Ottoman campaign of 1439, Djuradj's only remaining Serbian territory was Novo Brdo, which fell in Jun 1441 when Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans[391].  A papally sponsored Hungarian/Serb led crusade in 1443 recaptured Smederovo, Niš and Sofija, but was turned back at Adrianople.  Sultan Murad II negotiated peace terms under which he agreed to the restoration of the Serb state under Djuradj and a ten-year truce[392].  Djuradj refused to participate in the second crusade launched by the Hungarians the following year, with papal encouragement, in defiance of the agreed truce and reaffirmed his vassal ties to the Ottomans after their victory at Varna 10 Nov 1444.  “Georgius, Serbić despotć, et filii Gregorius, Stephanus et Lazarus” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 17 Sep 1445[393].  After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, many Greeks came to Serbia, Djuradj ransoming many from Turkish slavery[394].  Sultan Mohammed II attacked Serbia in 1454 and again in 1455, reducing Djurdje's control to the area north of the West Morava River.  Djurdje was captured by Mihály Szilágyi and held for ransom, but died soon after his release[395].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death "anno 6965" of "Capistranus et Servić princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus"[396]

[m firstly ---.  According to Nicol[397], the first wife of Djuradj Branković was the sister of Ioannes IV Emperor of Trebizond although he cites no source to support this.  From a chronological point of view, this is unlikely to be correct as the father of Emperor Ioannes was born in 1382 and married in late 1395.  There appears to be no evidence that Djuradj had a former wife[398].] 

m [secondly] ([26 Dec 1414]) EIRENE Kantakuzene, daughter of THEODOROS Kantakuzenos & his wife --- (-Rudnik 2 May 1457).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodora, Maria, and Eirene as the daughters of Theodoros & his wife, stating that Eirene married George of Serbia[399]Theodoros Spandounes names "il signor Georgio Cantacusino nomato Sachatai…sua sorella Helena" as "moglie del Despoto Jurgo di Servia" but names her "Erina Cantacusina" in a later passage[400]The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...et son frčre le grand domestique de Constantinople” had three sisters and that they arranged the marriage of “la premičre...Irčne au despote de Serbie[401].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[402].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death 2 May in "anno 6965" of "Capistranus et Servić princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus…regina uxor eius"[403].  She became known as 'Prokleta [the Cursed] Jerina' in later Serbian epics[404].  It was rumoured that she was poisoned by her youngest son Lazar[405]

Djuradj & his [second] wife had [six] children: 

1.         [TODOR (-before 11 Sep 1429).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified, but he is not named in the document of his father dated 11 Sep 1429 which names his other known brothers and sisters.] 

2.         GRGUR ([1415]-Čilandar 16/17 Oct 1459).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Gregory, Stephen, Lazar, Maria, and Cantacuzina as the children of George of Serbia & his wife, stating that Gregory died unmarried[406].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records names (in order) “Etienne...Grégoire...Lazare” as the three sons of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...[sa sśur] Irčne” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie”, adding that “leur gendre...le grand turc” captured “Etienne et...Grégoire” and blinded them[407].  Theodoros Spandounes names "il primo…il Despoto Stefano, el secundo…il Despoto Curgur…il terzo…Lazaro Despoto" as the three sons of "Despoto Jurgo" and his wife, adding that Grgur was blinded by the Ottomans and died in Hungary without legitimate children[408].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[409].  He was installed by the Ottomans as Governor in the former Branković lands in southern Serbia in 1439.  Accused of plotting against the sultan, his governorship was confiscated in Apr 1441, he was taken to Amaseia in Asia Minor and blinded 8 May 1441[410].  “Georgius, Serbić despotć, et filii Gregorius, Stephanus et Lazarus” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 17 Sep 1445[411].  He became a monk as GERMAN at Čilandar[412].  He and his son may have tried to seize power in Serbia after the death of his brother Lazar, maybe with Turkish support[413]m JELISAVETA, daughter of ---.  According to the Masarelli Vatican manuscript, Grgur was unmarried and it mentions no children[414].  Grgur had one possible illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

a)         [VUK Grgurević ([1438]-16 Apr 1485).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Hungarian general.  Titular despot of Raitzen[415]m as her first husband, VARVARA [Borbála] Frangepan, daughter of ANŽ Frangepan [Frankopani] Count of Veglia [Krk] & his wife Elisabetta Morosini (-[1508]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  She married secondly Franja Berislavić de Graborja Ban of Jajce (-after 1517).] 

3.         MARA ([1416/17]-Ježovo 14 Sep 1487, bur Kosinitza, Eikosiphoinissa monastery of the Virgin[416]).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Gregory, Stephen, Lazar, Maria, and Cantacuzina as the children of George of Serbia & his wife, stating that Maria married Murad Sultan of Turkey but died childless[417].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that the sister of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...la premičre...Irčne” married “[le] despote de Serbie” had two daughters, of whom “la premičre Mara” married “le grand-pčre du sultan Djem qui fut ŕ Rome[418].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[419].  The Historia Byzantina of Michćlis Ducć Nepotis records the marriage of "Georgii Servić despotć filiam" and "Moratis"[420].  Theodoros Spandounes records the marriage of "la figliola di Jurgo Dispoto di Servia…Maria" and "lo imperator Amurath"[421].  She and her husband are named in the Masarelli Vatican manuscript[422].  Nicol refers to her betrothal in Jun 1444 but states that Mara was born from her father's first marriage (without citing the source on which this is based)[423].  If this was correct, she would have been rather old to have presented an attractive marriage prospect for the Sultan.  Her father agreed her marriage in 1433 in the face of growing Ottoman pressure on his territory, although it did not prevent further raids.  Mara's dowry was the districts of Toplica and Dubočica[424].  It was rumoured that the marriage was never consummated.  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Amurates ameras" had married "despotć Servić filiam", recording that she was sent back "ad parentes" after the death of her husband and rejected a proposal for a second marriage with Emperor Konstantinos XI[425].  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Capistranus et Servić princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus…filia…cum cćco fratre natu maximo et Thoma Cantacuzeno avunculo" went "ad ameram et amerissam" after the death of Djuradj's wife 3 May 1457[426].  She lived at the court of her stepson Sultan Mohammed II, and was given an estate at Ježevo (formerly Daphni) near Mount Athos[427].  Joined by her [half-]sister in 1469, the two ladies acted as intermediaries during the Turkish/Venetian war which lasted until 1479[428]m (betrothed Jun 1433, Adrianople 4 Sep 1435) as his sixth wife, Sultan MURAD II, son of Sultan MOHAMMED I & his second wife Amina Khanum (Amasya Jun 1404-Adrianople 13 Feb 1451, bur Bursa, near Muradiya Mosque). 

4.         STEFAN ([1417]-Belgrado in Friulia 9 Oct 1476).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Gregory, Stephen, Lazar, Maria, and Cantacuzina as the children of George of Serbia & his wife[429].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records names (in order) “Etienne...Grégoire...Lazare” as the three sons of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...[sa sśur] Irčne” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie”, adding that “leur gendre...le grand turc” captured “Etienne et...Grégoire” and blinded them[430].  Theodoros Spandounes names "il primo…il Despoto Stefano, el secundo…il Despoto Curgur…il terzo…Lazaro Despoto" as the three sons of "Despoto Jurgo" and his wife[431].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[432].  Citizen of Venice 1435.  He was taken to Amaseia in Asia Minor and blinded 8 May 1441[433].  “Georgius, Serbić despotć, et filii Gregorius, Stephanus et Lazarus” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 17 Sep 1445[434].  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Capistranus et Servić princeps et despota Georgius Bulcus…filia…cum cćco fratre natu maximo et Thoma Cantacuzeno avunculo" went "ad ameram et amerissam" after the death of Djuradj's wife 3 May 1457[435].  After the death of his brother Lazar, he attempted to assume power together with Lazar's widow, but was exiled from Serbia by his sister-in-law immediately after her daughter's marriage to Stjepan Tomašević King of Bosnia[436].  “Stephanum Branković” commended “conjugem et liberos, Georgium, Maram et Ioannem” to the Ragusans on his deathbed by charter dated 1 Oct 1476[437]m (Skutari 1461) ANGELJINA Araniti, daughter of GJERGJ Komino Araniti & his first wife Maria Musaki (-Krušedol 1516).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Agneljina married "signor Stefano…figliolo del signor Despoto de Servia…Giorgio"[438]The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Angelina Arianiti as the wife of Stephen[439].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “Etienne”, son of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...[sa sśur] Irčne” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie”, married “la fille de l´Albanais, la sśur du seigneur Constantin[440].  Theodoros Spandounes records that "Stefano Despoto" married "Angelina figliola del signor Golemo Araniti"[441].  “Angelina, uxor Stephani despotć” is named in an undated inscription[442].  “Stephanum Branković” commended “conjugem et liberos, Georgium, Maram et Ioannem” to the Ragusans on his deathbed by charter dated 1 Oct 1476[443].  “Angelina et filii eius” promised donations to “monasterio S. Pauli in monte Atho” by charter dated 3 Nov 1495[444].  She became a nun at Krušedol in Hungary[445].  Stefan & his wife had five children: 

a)         DJORDJE Stefanović ([1462]-18 Jan 1516).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) John, George, Irene, Maria as the children of Stephen & his wife[446].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Jurgo et Ioanne Despoti" as the two sons of "Stefano Despoto" and his wife[447].  “Stephanum Branković” commended “conjugem et liberos, Georgium, Maram et Ioannem” to the Ragusans on his deathbed by charter dated 1 Oct 1476[448].  Hungarian titular despot at Raitzen 1486/1496.  Metropolitan of Wallachia after 1507.  Archbishop of Belgrade before 1514.  He became a monk as MAKSIM[449]m ISABELLA del Balzo, daughter of AGILPERTO del Balzo Duca di Nardo & his wife Antonia Sanseverino Ctsa di Castro e Ugento (-1498).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   D|jordje & his wife had one child: 

i)          JELISAVETA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ALESSIO Span Lord of Drivasto and Polog (-1495)

b)         MARIJA Branković ([1464/66]-27 Aug 1495).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) John, George, Irene, Maria as the children of Stephen & his wife, stating that Maria married Bonifazio marchese of Monferrato[450].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that the daughter of “Etienne”, son of “[le] despote de Serbie”, and his wife “la fille de l´Albanais, la sśur du seigneur Constantin” married “le marquis de Monferrat et eut trois enfants[451].  A continuation of the Chronica Jacobi de Aquis names "Maria di Servia" as the second wife of "Bonifacio", third son of "Zoanne Jacobo figlolo di Teodoro"[452].  “Stephanum Branković” commended “conjugem et liberos, Georgium, Maram et Ioannem” to the Ragusans on his deathbed by charter dated 1 Oct 1476[453].  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "signora Maria" as the daughter of "signor Stefano…figliolo del signor Despoto de Servia…Giorgio" and his wife, adding that she married "il signor marchese de Monferrato"[454].  Theodoros Spandounes records that "figliola…Maria…[di Stefano Despoto]" married "signor Bonifatio marchese di Monferrato"[455]m (by proxy Innsbruck 8 Jul 1485) as his third wife, BONIFACIO IV Marchese di Monferrato, son of GIANGIACOMO Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Jeanne de Savoie (Jun 1424-31 Jan 1494). 

c)         JOVAN Stefanović ([1465/67]-10 Dec 1502).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) John, George, Irene, Maria as the children of Stephen & his wife[456].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Jurgo et Ioanne Despoti" as the two sons of "Stefano Despoto" and his wife[457].  “Stephanum Branković” commended “conjugem et liberos, Georgium, Maram et Ioannem” to the Ragusans on his deathbed by charter dated 1 Oct 1476[458].  Hungarian titular despot at Raitzen 1496/1502.  “Ioannes, Serbić despotes” donated land to “monasterio Krušedol” by charter dated 4 May 1496[459]m as her first husband, JELENA Jakšić, daughter of STEFAN Jakšić & his wife --- (-after 1529).  “Helena, Serbić despotissa” donated to “monasterio Chilandar” by charter dated 11 Jun 1502[460].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two marriages has not yet been identified.  She married secondly (1503) Ivaniš Berislavić, heir of the despotate of Raitzen.  Jovan & his wife had two children: 

i)          MARIJA Branković (-1540).  This daughter (unnamed) and her husband are mentioned in the Masarelli Vatican manuscript[461].  The primary source which confirms her name and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (before 1509) FERDINÁND [Alfons] Count Frangepán, son of BERNÁT Graf Frangepán at Modruš and Vinodol & his wife donna Luisa Marzano d'Aragona (-[1527]).  

ii)         JELENA [Ekaterina] (before 1502-murdered after 1552).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She was strangled[462]m (1530) as his second wife, PETER IV Rareş Lord of Transylvania and the Moldau (-3 Sep 1546). 

d)         IRENA (-young).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) John, George, Irene, Maria as the children of Stephen & his wife[463]

e)         MILICA Branković ([1474]-30 Jan 1554).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and two possible marriages has not yet been identified.  She founded Kružedol convent 15 Jun 1519.  She became a nun as Platonida.  She died of the plague.  [464][m firstly ---.]  m [secondly] NEAGOE Basaraba Lord of Wallachia, son of PÎRVU Craiovescu & Neaçsa de Hotărani, heiress of Brancovani (-15 Sep 1521). 

5.         CANTACUZINA [Catherina] (-Ježovo [1490/92]).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Gregory, Stephen, Lazar, Maria, and Cantacuzina as the children of George of Serbia & his wife, stating that Cantacuzina married Ulrich count of Cilly[465].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that the sister of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...la premičre...Irčne” married “[le] despote de Serbie” had two daughters, of whom “l´autre [=la deuxičme]” married “[le] seigneur Ulrich[466].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[467]Theodoros Spandounes records that "el Dispoto Jurgo di Servia…figliola…Catherina" married "uno fratello dello imperador Federico di casa d´Austria, conte de Cil"[468]Heiress of Belgrado.  She succeeded to his properties on the death of her husband but was obliged to conclude a treaty 15 Dec 1457 with Friedrich III Duke of Austria under which the latter received all the Cilli castles in Carinthia, Styria and Carniola while Katarina retained the family castles in Hungary and Croatia.  However, in 1460 she was obliged to sell her remaining properties to Vitovec Ban of Slavonia, and retired to Dubrovnik[469].  Nicol says that she joined her [younger] [half-]sister Mara at Ježevo in 1469[470].  "Catherina comitissa Cillii" donated "castrum Bellogradi" to "Mathaeo Spandonino equiti et comiti palatino" for the love of "nepotis sue, uxoris dicti Mathaei" by document dated 9 Dec 1488 at Constantinople[471]m (20 Apr 1434) ULRIC von Celje, son of FREDERIC Graf von Celje [Cilly] & his first wife (1406-murdered Belgrade 9 Nov 1456). 

6.         LAZAR Branković ([1421]-20 Jan 1458).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Gregory, Stephen, Lazar, Maria, and Cantacuzina as the children of George of Serbia & his wife[472].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records names (in order) “Etienne...Grégoire...Lazare” as the three sons of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...[sa sśur] Irčne” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie[473].  Theodoros Spandounes names "il primo…il Despoto Stefano, el secundo…il Despoto Curgur…il terzo…Lazaro Despoto" as the three sons of "Despoto Jurgo" and his wife[474].  “Georgius, Serbić despotes” donated to “monasterio montis Atho Esphigmeni” by charter dated 11 Sep 1429, with “imagines Georgii et conjugis Irenć et filiorum Gregorii, Stephani (et Lazari) et “filiarum Marć et Cantacuzenć[475].  “Georgius, Serbić despotć, et filii Gregorius, Stephanus et Lazarus” confirmed the privileges of the Ragusans by charter dated 17 Sep 1445[476].  Byzantine despot 1446.  He succeeded his father in 1456 as Despot of Serbia, but submitted to Sultan Mohammed II in Jan 1457.  His short reign seems to have been marked by family quarrels with his mother and brother, in the face of extreme threat of an Ottoman invasion.  He appointed Michael Andjelović [Angelos] as Grand Vojvoda in Serbia, who after Lazar's death was chosen to lead a collective council to rule Serbia[477].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death in Nov "anno 6966" of "Lazarus despota" and that "ameras Mehemeti" sent "beglerbego suo" to capture "Smentorobum et totam Serviam"[478]m (Semendria [Oct/18 Dec] 1446) HELENE Palaiologina, daughter of THOMAS Palaiologos Despot of Morea & Aikaterina Asanina Zachariaina Lady of Arcadia ([1431][479]-Leukas 7 Nov 1473).  Georgius Phrantzes records that in Oct in "anni 6955" "Helena Despśna, Thomas despotć filia" was sent to Serbia to marry "Lazaro, filio Georgii despotć"[480].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Lazar married a daughter of Despot Thomas Palaiologos[481].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “Lazare”, son of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzčne...[sa sśur] Irčne” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie”, married “la fille du despote de Morée, le seigneur Thomas[482]Theodoros Spandounes records that "Lazaro Despoto" married "la figliola di Thoma Paleologo Dispoto della Morea"[483]After her husband's death, she attempted to assume power in Serbia together with her brother-in-law Stefan[484].  Local Serbs rebelled after Ottomans seized Smederevo in Mar 1458, taking Michael Andjelović prisoner, which enabled Jelena to assume power.  She arranged the marriage of her daughter to the King of Bosnia in an attempt to gather support for her position.  The Ottomans captured Smederevo during a major assault 20 Jun 1459 which marked the final end of the Serbian state[485].  She fled with her two younger daughters to the island of Leukas[486], where she converted to Catholicism and became a nun as HYPOMONE[487].  Georgius Phrantzes records that in autumn "anni 6977 regina domina Helena Palaeologa despotć Servić uxor" left "ad rem publicam Venetorum" from Corfu[488].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death 7 Nov "anni 6982" of "Helena Palaeologa regina, monacha…Hypomone"[489].  Lazar & his wife had three children: 

a)         JELENA Branković (1447-in Hungary after 1498).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Maria, Militzia and Irene as the children of Lazar & his wife, stating that Maria married the king of Bosnia and had issue[490].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Maria…la seconda…Miliza…la terza et ultima Erina" as the three daughters of "Lazaro Despoto" and his wife, adding that "Maria" married "rč Stephano di Bossina"[491].  She adopted the name MARIJA on her marriage.  She fled to the coast after Bosnia was annexed by the Ottomans[492].  According to Runciman, Queen Marija was taken into the harem of a Turkish general[493]m (Smederevo 1 Apr 1459) STJEPAN Tomašević of Bosnia, son of STJEPAN TOMAŠ King of Bosnia & his first wife Vojača (-beheaded Jajce Jun 1463).  He was created despot on his marriage, presumably by his mother-in-law although she had no right to grant this title[494].  He and his wife escaped to Bosnia after Smederevo was captured by the Ottomans 20 Jun 1459[495].  He succeeded his father 1461 as STJEPAN King of Bosnia.  He sought outside help against the Ottomans from the Pope, and also requested a royal crown, which he received from the Papal legate in Nov 1461[496].  The Ottomans invaded Bosnia in 1463, captured the King who was brought before the Sultan and beheaded. 

b)         JERINA .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Maria, Militzia and Irene as the children of Lazar & his wife, stating that Irene married John son of Scanderbeg and had issue[497].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 names “deux filles, Milica et Maria” as the children of “Lazare”, son of “[le] despote de Serbie”, and his wife “la fille du despote de Morée, le seigneur Thomas”, adding that “Maria” married “le fils de Scandarbec[498].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Maria…la seconda…Miliza…la terza et ultima Erina" as the three daughters of "Lazaro Despoto" and his wife, adding that "Erina" married "Ioanne Castrioto Duca di Santo Pietro"[499].  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family records that "il signor Giovanni Castrioto…Duca de Santo Pietro in Galatina" married "la signora donna Erina Paliologa…fiiglia del signor Lazaro Despoto de Servia", and names their surviving children "Don Ferrante Castrioto…Duca de Santo Petro" and "Donna Maria Castriota"[500]m GJON Castrioti, son of GJERGJ Kastrioti "Skanderbeg" & his wife Andronika Araniti (before 1457-after 1495).  Conte di Spoleto 1485, Duca di San Pietro in Galatina 1495. 

c)         MILICA (-1464).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Maria, Militzia and Irene as the children of Lazar & his wife, stating that Militzia married Carlo[501].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 names “deux filles, Milica et Maria” as the children of “Lazare”, son of “[le] despote de Serbie”, and his wife “la fille du despote de Morée, le seigneur Thomas”, adding that “Milica” married “le despote d´Arta et de Santa Maura” and had “trois enfants: don Carlo, la comtesse de Mirandole et une autre mariée en Sicile[502].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Maria…la seconda…Miliza…la terza et ultima Erina" as the three daughters of "Lazaro Despoto" and his wife, adding that "Miliza" married "signor Leonardo di Tocco"[503]m (Dubrovnik 1 May 1463) as his first wife, LEONARDO Tocco Count of Zante and Kefalonia Duke of Leucadia, son of CARLO [II] Tocco "Lord of Arta" & his wife Raimondina di Ventimiglia (-[1495/96]). 

 

 



[1] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn), 32, p. 154. 

[2] Sisic, F. (ed.), Stephenson, P. (trans. 1998) Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, Johannes Lucius (1666) De Regno Dalmatić et Croatić (Amsterdam), available at <http://homepage.mac.com/paulstephenson/trans/lpd.1.htm> (10 Jan 2007) (extract only), XL. 

[3] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 213. 

[4] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 526. 

[5] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[6] Fine (1991) and (1994). 

[7] Miklosich, Fr. (ed.) (1858) Monumenta Serbica spectantia Historiam Serbić Bosnć Ragusii (Vienna) ("Monumenta Serbica"). 

[8] Du Fresne du Cange, C. (1680) Historia Byzantina, Familias ac Stemmata Imperatorum, Vol. I (Paris). 

[9] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[10] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[11] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[12] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[13] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[14] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[15] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 34, p. 163. 

[16] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[17] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[18] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[19] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[20] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 157. 

[21] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 158. 

[22] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[23] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[24] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 156. 

[25] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 157. 

[26] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[27] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[28] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[29] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[30] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[31] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 156. 

[32] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[33] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[34] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 158. 

[35] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, pp. 158-9. 

[36] Fine (1991), p. 265. 

[37] Kézai, S., Veszprémy, L. and Schaer, F. (eds. and trans.) (1999) Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum (CEP) 42, pp. 99-101. 

[38] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 154. 

[39] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 155. 

[40] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 156. 

[41] Fine (1991), p. 141. 

[42] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 32, p. 157. 

[43] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[44] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[45] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XXXVII. 

[46] ES III 181.   

[47] Crne Gore, Vol I (Titograd, 1967), p. 396, cited in Fine (1991), p. 222. 

[48] Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, XL. 

[49] Fine (1991), p. 213. 

[50] Fine (1991), p. 223. 

[51] Fine (1991), p. 224. 

[52] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 276. 

[53] Fine (1991), p. 225. 

[54] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 290. 

[55] Alexeiad, Book 12, p. 379. 

[56] Fine (1991), p. 231. 

[57] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 290. 

[58] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 290. 

[59] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber I, Cap. VII, p. 276. 

[60] Albert of Aix (RHC), Liber I, Cap. IX, p. 278.  

[61] Alexeiad, Book 9, p. 290. 

[62] Fine (1991), p. 233. 

[63] Fine (1991), p. 235. 

[64] ES III 181. 

[65] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 113. 

[66] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 2, p. 204. 

[67] Fine (1991), pp. 237-39. 

[68] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber III, 9, p. 113. 

[69] Fine (1991), pp. 237-39 and 243. 

[70] Historia Ducum Veneticorum 5, MGH SS XIV, p. 76. 

[71] Andreć Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber IX, Cap. XV, Pars XV, RIS XIV, col. 292. 

[72] Fine (1991), p. 236. 

[73] Hungarian Chronicle, c. 160, quoted in Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 226 footnote 17. 

[74] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić (Buda), Tome II, p. 94. 

[75] Fine (1991), p. 236. 

[76] The title given to the King's deputy in Hungary. 

[77] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 2, p. 204. 

[78] Baumgarten, N. de 'Généalogies et mariages occidentaux des Rurikides Russes du X au XIII sičcles´, Orientalia Christiana Vol. IX - 1, No. 35, May 1927 (reprint, Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Rome) (“Baumgarten (1927)”), p. 25, citing Capone Généalogie des Nemagna de Serbie

[79] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[80] Monumenta Serbica, VIII, p. 3. 

[81] According to the biography of Nemanja written by son Stefan, Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[82] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[83] Fine (1991), pp. 243-44, referring to a Byzantine oration, published by R. Browning, "A New Source on Byzantine-Hungarian Relations in the Twelfth Century", Balkan Studies 2, no. 2 (1961): 173-214, according to which Emperor Manuel I appointed the new ruler of Serbia. 

[84] Fine (1994), p. 4. 

[85] Fine (1991), p. 244, Fine (1994), p. 5. 

[86] Fine (1994), p. 5. 

[87] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[88] Fine (1994), p. 4. 

[89] Fine (1991), p. 244, and Fine (1994), p. 5. 

[90] Monumenta Serbica, III, p. 1. 

[91] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[92] Fine (1994), p. 4. 

[93] Fine (1991), p. 244, and Fine (1994), p. 5. 

[94] Monumenta Serbica, III, p. 1. 

[95] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[96] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[97] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[98] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[99] Fine (1994), p. 3. 

[100] Fine (1994), p. 4. 

[101] Fine (1991), p. 244, and Fine (1994), p. 5. 

[102] Fine (1991), p. 244, and Fine (1994), pp. 5-6. 

[103] Fine (1994), p. 6. 

[104] Fine (1994), p. 8. 

[105] Monumenta Serbica, III, p. 1. 

[106] Fine (1994), p. 24-25. 

[107] Fine (1991), p. 244, and Fine (1994), p. 7. 

[108] Fine (1994), pp. 25-26. 

[109] Fine (1994), p. 38. 

[110] Givkovich, C. (ed.) (1858) Vie des saints apôtres serbes Symeon et Sabba (Paris) ("Domentijan"), p. 28. 

[111] Monumenta Serbica, LXVIII, p. 70. 

[112] Monumenta Serbica, XIII, p. 7. 

[113] Domentijan, p. 43. 

[114] Domentijan, p. 1. 

[115] Domentijan, p. 28. 

[116] Domentijan, p. 44. 

[117] Fine (1994), pp. 42 and 44-5. 

[118] Fine (1994), p. 47. 

[119] Domentijan, p. 28. 

[120] Domentijan, pp. 1-2. 

[121] Fine (1994), p. 52. 

[122] Fine (1994), pp. 19 and 38. 

[123] Fine (1994), p. 107. 

[124] The patriarch's need for recognition resulted from the irregular election of the first Nicean patriarch in 1208 by an ecclesiastical council appointed in Nicea, rather than by a properly constituted council in Constantinople, the latter being impossible after the fall of the Byzantine Empire and the establishment in its place of the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 

[125] Fine (1994), pp. 116-7. 

[126] Fine (1994), p. 136. 

[127] Fine (1994), p. 105. 

[128] Domentijan, p. 28. 

[129] Fine (1994), p. 46. 

[130] Fine (1994), pp. 47-8. 

[131] Fine (1994), pp. 103-5. 

[132] Fine (1994), p. 54. 

[133] Fine (1994), p. 106. 

[134] Fine (1994), p. 107. 

[135] "Dei gratia totius Servie, Dioclee, Tribunie, Dalmatie atque Chlumie Rex", according to ES II 160. 

[136] Fine (1994), p. 107. 

[137] Fine (1994), p. 117. 

[138] Monumenta Serbica, XVIII, p. 11. 

[139] Domentijan, pp. 65 and 67. 

[140] Ephrćmius 7295, p. 296. 

[141] Fine (1994), p. 26. 

[142] Fine (1994), p. 46. 

[143] Georgius Akropolites 5, p. 10. 

[144] ES II 180. 

[145] Andreć Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber X, Cap. III, Pars XXIX, RIS XIV, col. 340. 

[146] Domentijan, p. 68. 

[147] Fine (1994), pp. 54 and 106. 

[148] Monumenta Serbica, XVIII, p. 11. 

[149] Monumenta Serbica, XXIII, p. 19 (the digitised version available in Google Book omits page 20, on which the second part of the charter is reproduced). 

[150] Fine (1994), p. 136. 

[151] Domentijan, p. 65. 

[152] ES II 180. 

[153] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[154] Ephrćmius 8330, p. 335. 

[155] Fine (1994), p. 105. 

[156] Domentijan, p. 56. 

[157] Fine (1994), p. 136. 

[158] ES II 160. 

[159] Monumenta Serbica, XXIII, p. 19. 

[160] "ot kraljevstva mi - po zivotje ze mojem nakon mene - ili ostane djete moje ili ounuce ili praunuce ili in kto prisni moj", information communicated by Bozidar Vukcevic (with his English translation) in a private email to the author dated 25 Jun 2009. 

[161] Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan/Survey of the Architectural and Archaeological heritage (IRRP/SAAH), Feasibility Study: The church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria Mušutište/Suva Reka Kosovo/UNMIK (Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Serbia, 20 Nov 2007) ("Feasibility Study: Hodegetria") 5, p. 3, available at <http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/Regional/SEE/IRPPSAAH/FS/FS_KosovoUNMIK_ChurchHodegetria_APP.pdf> [22 Jun 2009]. 

[162] Fine (1994), pp. 69. 

[163] Domentijan, p. 65. 

[164] Fine (1994), p. 155. 

[165] Fine (1994), p. 137. 

[166] Domentijan, p. 65. 

[167] Monumenta Serbica, LVI, p. 54. 

[168] Monumenta Serbica, LVI, p. 54. 

[169] Monumenta Serbica, LI, p. 50. 

[170] Monumenta Serbica, LI, p. 50. 

[171] Fine (1994), pp. 199-200. 

[172] Fine (1994), p. 202. 

[173] Fine (1994), p. 203. 

[174] Fine (1994), p. 185. 

[175] Fine (1994), p. 203. 

[176] Monumenta Serbica, LIX, p. 56. 

[177] McDaniel, G. ´On Hungarian-Serbian Relations in the 13th Century: John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, Ungarn-Jahrbuch, Vol. 12 (1982/83), pp. 43-50, available at <http://www.feefhs.org/links/Serbia/jelena.html> (consulted 19 Jul 2010), citing Makushev, V. ´Itallianskie arkhivy i khranisashchiesia v nikh materialy dlia slavianskoi istorii´, Sbornik Otdelelniia Russkogo Iazyka i Slovesnosti, VIII/4 (1871), pp. 30-33. 

[178] Fine (1994), p. 220. 

[179] Georgius Akropolites 62, p. 134. 

[180] ES II 160. 

[181] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´, citing (in his translation) Daničić, D. (ed.) (1866) Zivoti kraljeva i arhiepiskopa srpskih (Beograd), reprinted Variorum, London (1973), p. 58 lines 9-10, and 8.14. 

[182] McDaniel ´John Angelos and Queen Jelena´. 

[183] Fine (1994), p. 204. 

[184] Fine (1994), p. 259. 

[185] Fine (1994), p. 204. 

[186] Fine (1994), p. 217. 

[187] Fine (1994), p. 219. 

[188] Fine (1994), p. 220. 

[189] Fine (1994), pp. 260-1. 

[190] Monumenta Serbica, LXIX, p. 70. 

[191] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 6, p. 350. 

[192] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber IV, 1, p. 280. 

[193] Fine (1994), p. 203. 

[194] According to a source dated 1601, whose reliability is unknown, cited at Fine (1994), p. 276. 

[195] Fine (1994), p. 261. 

[196] Fine (1994), pp. 264-5. 

[197] ES II 161. 

[198] ES II 161. 

[199] Monumenta Serbica, LXV, p. 67. 

[200] Monumenta Serbica, LXVIII, p. 70. 

[201] ES II 161. 

[202] Monumenta Serbica, LXV, p. 67. 

[203] Fine (1994), p. 217. 

[204] Fine (1994), p. 219. 

[205] Fine (1994), p. 221. 

[206] Fine (1994), p. 222. 

[207] Fine (1994), p. 257. 

[208] Monumenta Serbica, LXVIII, p. 70. 

[209] Fine (1994), p. 261. 

[210] Fine (1994), pp. 260 and 262. 

[211] Monumenta Serbica, LXXIX, p. 84. 

[212] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 6, p. 350. 

[213] ES II 161 and 180. 

[214] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber III, 30, p. 274. 

[215] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber IV, 1, p. 280. 

[216] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber III, 31, p. 276. 

[217] Nicol (1994), pp. 57-8. 

[218] Fine (1994), p. 263. 

[219] Fine (1994), p. 260. 

[220] Fine (1994), p. 263. 

[221] Fine (1994), p. 264. 

[222] Fine (1994), p. 258. 

[223] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, II, 21, p. 430. 

[224] Fine (1994), p. 270. 

[225] Fine (1994), p. 221. 

[226] Fine (1994), p. 221. 

[227] Fine (1994), pp. 259-60. 

[228] Fine (1994), p. 262. 

[229] Fine (1994), p. 263. 

[230] Nicol (1992), pp. 166-7. 

[231] Fine (1994), pp. 270-1. 

[232] Fine (1994), p. 271. 

[233] Fine (1994), pp. 273-4. 

[234] Monumenta Serbica, XCVIII, p. 115. 

[235] Fine (1994), p. 227. 

[236] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 209. 

[237] Nicol (1972), p. 166. 

[238] Fine (1994), p. 263. 

[239] Fine (1994), p. 264. 

[240] Fine (1994), p. 274. 

[241] Fine (1994), pp. 287-88. 

[242] He titled himself "Car Srba I Grka" in Serb, βασιλεύς και αυτοκράτωρ Σερβίας και Ρωμανίας in Greek, and Imperator Rasciae et Romaniae in Latin. 

[243] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. II, III, 56, p. 338. 

[244] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. III, IV, 43, p. 314. 

[245] Fine (1994), p. 274. 

[246] Fine (1994), p. 364. 

[247] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXXIV, p. 246. 

[248] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. III, IV, 43, p. 314. 

[249] ES II 161. 

[250] Fine (1994), pp. 344-5. 

[251] Monumenta Serbica, CLX, p. 177. 

[252] Fine (1994), p. 360. 

[253] Fine (1994), p. 346. 

[254] Fine (1994), pp. 346-7. 

[255] ES III 183. 

[256] ES III 183. 

[257] Fine (1994), p. 323. 

[258] Ioannes Kantakuzenos Vol. III, IV, 43, p. 314. 

[259] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1849) Historia Politica et Patriarchica Constantinopoleos, Epirotica, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211, and Fine (1994), p. 320. 

[260] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, pp. 211-12, and Fine (1994), p. 347. 

[261] Fine (1994), pp. 349-50. 

[262] Fine (1994), p. 352. 

[263] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[264] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 213. 

[265] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 213. 

[266] Fine (1994), pp. 353-4, and Miller, pp. 295-6. 

[267] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 213. 

[268] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, pp. 213-14 and 216. 

[269] Fine (1994), p. 349. 

[270] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, pp. 230-1. 

[271] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 230. 

[272] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, pp. 220-2. 

[273] Fine (1994), p. 351. 

[274] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 235. 

[275] Fine (1994), p. 354. 

[276] Fine (1994), p. 352. 

[277] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 236. 

[278] Fine (1994), p. 355. 

[279] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 213. 

[280] ES II 161. 

[281] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXXII, p. 188. 

[282] Fine (1994), p. 310. 

[283] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXXII, p. 188. 

[284] Fine (1994), p. 381. 

[285] Monumenta Serbica, CCXII, p. 227. 

[286] Monumenta Serbica, CCXIV, p. 227. 

[287] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 215. 

[288] Georgius Phrantzes Liber I, 13, p. 59. 

[289] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 210. 

[290] Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan/Survey of the Architectural and Archaeological heritage (IRRP/SAAH), Feasibility Study: The church of the Holy Virgin Hodegetria Mušutište/Suva Reka Kosovo/UNMIK (Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Serbia, 20 Nov 2007) ("Feasibility Study: Hodegetria") 5, p. 3, available at <http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/Regional/SEE/IRPPSAAH/FS/FS_KosovoUNMIK_ChurchHodegetria_APP.pdf> [22 Jun 2009]. 

[291] Dusan Orlovic of Toronto, Canada, in a private email to the author dated 13 Jun 2009.  

[292] Dusan Orlovic of Toronto, Canada, in a private email to the author dated 25 Jun 2009.  

[293] Feasibility Study: Hodegetris, 5, p. 3. 

[294] Feasibility Study: Hodegetris, 5, p. 3. 

[295] Dusan Orlovic of Toronto, Canada, in a private email to the author dated 13 Jun 2009.  

[296] Dusan Orlovic of Toronto, Canada, in a private email to the author dated 13 Jun 2009.  

[297] Bozidar Vukcevic of Toronto, Canada, in a private email to the author dated 6 Dec 2009. 

[298] Jasna Šoptrajanova – Vrteva (2001) Come to Macedonia and Your Heart Will Remain Here, Monastery Konce, available at <http://www.culture.org.mk/eMANKON.HTM> [23 Jun 2009]. 

[299] Feasibility Study: Hodegetris, 5, p. 3. 

[300] Fine (1994), p. 221. 

[301] ES II 162. 

[302] Monumenta Serbica, CLII, p. 171. 

[303] Fine (1994), p. 364. 

[304] Fine (1994), p. 378. 

[305] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXX, p. 243. 

[306] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXXI, p. 245. 

[307] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXIV, p. 184. 

[308] Fine (1994), p. 363. 

[309] Monumenta Serbica, CLXVII, p. 179. 

[310] Monumenta Serbica, CLXVIII, p. 181. 

[311] Fine (1994), p. 380. 

[312] Fine (1994), p. 424. 

[313] Fine (1994), p. 380. 

[314] ES II 162. 

[315] ES II 162. 

[316] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXXV, p. 246. 

[317] ES III 188. 

[318] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXXIX, p. 250. 

[319] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXXIX, p. 250. 

[320] Fine (1994), p. 374. 

[321] Fine (1994), p. 385. 

[322] Fine (1994), p. 387. 

[323] Monumenta Serbica, CLXXXIV, p. 193. 

[324] Fine (1994), p. 408. 

[325] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 234. 

[326] Monumenta Serbica, CCI, p. 214. 

[327] Markham, C. R. (1859) Narrative of the embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the court of Timour at Samarcand 1403-1406 (London), p. 77. 

[328] Fine (1994), pp. 409-10. 

[329] Monumenta Serbica, CCL, p. 266. 

[330] ES III 188. 

[331] Fine (1994), p. 526. 

[332] Fine (1994), p. 426. 

[333] ES III 188. 

[334] Monumenta Serbica, CCXV, p. 227. 

[335] Monumenta Serbica, CDXCIII, p. 568. 

[336] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXLIX, p. 266. 

[337] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 30, p. 205. 

[338] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 53. 

[339] ES III 188. 

[340] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 4, p. 17. 

[341] Fine (1994), p. 412. 

[342] Fine (1994), p. 425. 

[343] Monumenta Serbica, CCXV, p. 227. 

[344] Markham (1859), p. 77. 

[345] Fine (1994), p. 429. 

[346] Fine (1994), p. 502. 

[347] Monumenta Serbica, CDXCIII, p. 568. 

[348] Fine (1994), p. 505. 

[349] Fine (1994), p. 507. 

[350] Fine (1994), p. 508. 

[351] Fine (1994), pp. 517-21. 

[352] Fine (1994), p. 524. 

[353] Monumenta Serbica, CCXV, p. 227. 

[354] Monumenta Serbica, CDXCIII, p. 568. 

[355] Fine (1994), p. 506. 

[356] Fine (1994), p. 398. 

[357] Laonicus Chalcocondylas Liber I, p. 53. 

[358] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 4, p. 17. 

[359] Fine (1994), p. 412. 

[360] ES III 187. 

[361] Monumenta Serbica, CCVII, p. 222. 

[362] Monumenta Serbica, CCVII, p. 222. 

[363] Fine (1994), p. 383. 

[364] Fine (1994), p. 385. 

[365] Fine (1994), p. 413. 

[366] Monumenta Serbica, CCIII, p. 215. 

[367] Fine (1994), p. 412. 

[368] Monumenta Serbica, CCXXIII, p. 231. 

[369] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 30, p. 205. 

[370] Monumenta Serbica, CCIII, p. 215. 

[371] Monumenta Serbica, CCLII, p. 269. 

[372] ES III 187. 

[373] Monumenta Serbica, CCIII, p. 215. 

[374] Monumenta Serbica, CCLII, p. 269. 

[375] ES III 187. 

[376] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 30, p. 205. 

[377] Monumenta Serbica, CCIII, p. 215. 

[378] Monumenta Serbica, CCLII, p. 269. 

[379] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 30, p. 205. 

[380] Monumenta Serbica, CCIII, p. 215. 

[381] Fine (1994), p. 426. 

[382] Fine (1994), pp. 501-2. 

[383] Monumenta Serbica, CCLII, p. 269. 

[384] Monumenta Serbica, CCLVII, p. 277. 

[385] Monumenta Serbica, CCLVIII, p. 277. 

[386] Fine (1994), pp. 524-6. 

[387] Fine (1994), p. 526. 

[388] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[389] Fine (1994), p. 526-8. 

[390] Fine (1994), pp. 529-30, and Nicol (1994), p. 110. 

[391] Fine (1994), p. 531. 

[392] Fine (1994), p. 548-9. 

[393] Monumenta Serbica, CCCL, p. 433. 

[394] Fine (1994), p. 529. 

[395] Fine (1994), p. 570. 

[396] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[397] Nicol (1994), p. 110. 

[398] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author. 

[399] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[400] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs ŕ l'histoire de la Grčce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), pp. 151 and 153. 

[401] Brayer, E., Lemerle, P., Laurent, V. ‘Le Vaticanus latinus 4789: histoire et alliances des Cantacuzčnes aux XIV-XV siécle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 9 (1951) (“Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951)”), pp. 74-5, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1951_num_9_1_1037> (21 Dec 2012).   

[402] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[403] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[404] Fine (1994), p. 529. 

[405] Nicol (1994), p. 115. 

[406] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[407] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[408] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[409] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[410] Fine (1994), p. 531, and Nicol (1994), p. 112. 

[411] Monumenta Serbica, CCCL, p. 433. 

[412] ES III 187. 

[413] Fine (1994), p. 574. 

[414] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[415] ES III 187.  

[416] Nicol (1994), pp. 118-19. 

[417] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[418] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[419] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[420] Ducć Michćlis Nepotis, 33, p. 231. 

[421] Spandounes, p. 152. 

[422] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[423] Nicol (1994), p. 111. 

[424] Fine (1994), p. 530. 

[425] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 213. 

[426] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[427] Nicol (1994), p. 115. 

[428] Nicol (1994), p. 116. 

[429] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[430] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[431] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[432] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[433] Nicol (1994), p. 112. 

[434] Monumenta Serbica, CCCL, p. 433. 

[435] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[436] Fine (1994), pp. 572 and 573. 

[437] Monumenta Serbica, CDXLII, p. 518. 

[438] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, pp. 284-5. 

[439] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[440] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[441] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[442] Monumenta Serbica, CDXCV, p. 572. 

[443] Monumenta Serbica, CDXLII, p. 518. 

[444] Monumenta Serbica, CDLXII, p. 539. 

[445] ES III 187. 

[446] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[447] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[448] Monumenta Serbica, CDXLII, p. 518. 

[449] ES III 187. 

[450] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[451] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[452] Moriondus, J. B. (1790) Monumenta Aquensia (Turin), Pars II, Historiam Aquensem,Monferratensem ac Pedemontanam, col. 177. 

[453] Monumenta Serbica, CDXLII, p. 518. 

[454] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 285. 

[455] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[456] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[457] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[458] Monumenta Serbica, CDXLII, p. 518. 

[459] Monumenta Serbica, CDLXIII, p. 541. 

[460] Monumenta Serbica, CDLXX, p. 546. 

[461] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[462] ES III 187. 

[463] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[464] ES III 187. 

[465] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[466] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[467] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[468] Spandounes, p. 152. 

[469] Fine (1994), pp. 553-4. 

[470] Nicol (1994), p. 116. 

[471] Sathas Tome IX (1890), p. xiv, quoting Valentinelli, J. (1864) Regesta documentorum Germanić historiam illustrantium (Munich), p. 238. 

[472] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[473] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[474] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[475] Monumenta Serbica, CCCIV, p. 359. 

[476] Monumenta Serbica, CCCL, p. 433. 

[477] Fine (1994), p. 572. 

[478] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 15, p. 386. 

[479] In view of the date of her own marriage, and probable birth of her eldest daughter in 1447, Helena must have been born in the early years of her parents' marriage. 

[480] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 19, p. 202. 

[481] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[482] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[483] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[484] Fine (1994), p. 572. 

[485] Fine (1994), p. 575. 

[486] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), pp. 182-3. 

[487] ES III 187. 

[488] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 446. 

[489] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 23, p. 450. 

[490] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[491] Spandounes, p. 159. 

[492] Fine (1994), p. 584. 

[493] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), p. 182. 

[494] Despot was a title which, according to long tradition, could only by granted by an Emperor, originally only the Byzantine Emperor but extended to themselves by Emperors (Tsars) of Serbia as well as Bulgaria. 

[495] Fine (1994), p. 575. 

[496] Fine (1994), pp. 583-4. 

[497] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[498] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[499] Spandounes, p. 159. 

[500] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[501] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[502] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[503] Spandounes, p. 159.