CENTRAL ITALY

  v2.0 Updated 18 February 2011

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            COUNTIES in ABRUZZO. 3

A.       CONTI di ALBA.. 3

B.       CONTI di CELANO.. 7

C.      CONTI di CHIETI 9

D.      CONTI di LORETO.. 18

E.       CONTI di LORITELLO.. 20

F.       CONTI di MANOPELLO.. 25

G.      CONTI di MARSI 29

Chapter 2.            COUNTIES in LAZIO. 38

A.       CONTI di AQUINO.. 39

B.       CONTI di CALENO.. 45

C.      CONTI di CASTELLANA.. 50

D.      CONTI di CECCANO.. 51

E.       DUKES of FONDI, CONTI di FONDI 53

F.       ORSINI 63

G.      CONTI di PONTECORVO.. 66

H.      CONTI di RIETI 67

I.    CONTI di SABINA, DUCES SABINENSIS.. 73

J.       CONTI di SEGNI 76

K.       SIGNORI di TEANO.. 78

L.       CONTI di TRAETTO.. 79

M.      CONTI di TUSCULO.. 86

Chapter 3.            COUNTIES in MARCHE and UMBRIA. 98

A.       DUKES and MARCHESI of SPOLETO.. 99

B.       OTHER NOBILITY in SPOLETO.. 122

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Italian nobles families in the 6th to 12th centuries are set out in three separate sets of documents, SOUTHERN ITALY (1) and (2), NORTHERN ITALY (1) and (2), and this document CENTRAL ITALY.  This geographic split in presenting the research on Italian nobility is justified by the divergent ways in which the noble families evolved in these two areas during the early medieval period, explained in part by the different outside influences to which each area was subject. 

 

The geographical area covered by the present document represents territories which lay within the present-day Italian regions of Abruzzo, Lazio, and Marche and Umbria.  From early medieval times, the duchy of Spoleto and the Papal territories in this area represented a buffer between Northern Italy and Southern Italy, especially after the 756 Donation of Pepin under which Papal claims to many parts of central Italy were recognised by the Frankish invaders.  The duchy of Spoleto lay to the north of the southern Lombard duchy of Benevento and also bordered the Papal territories to the west of the Italian peninsula.  The growing power of the Popes is demonstrated by the papal appointment of Hildebrand as duke of Spoleto in the early 770s, which ended a long line of Lombard appointments. 

 

When the Frankish kings assumed control over the northern Italian kingdom, the nobles who accompanied them established themselves as a powerful new element in the Italian aristocracy whose influence was to outlive the rule of their royal masters.  The first notable change of administration was in the duchy of Spoleto, where Charles I King of the Franks (later known as Emperor Charlemagne) installed the Frankish duke Winichis to replace the papal appointee.  Spoleto was later ruled by a succession of dukes of Frankish descent: the families of Suppo Count of Parma, Lambert who had previously been count in the Breton march in north-western France, and finally by the descendants of the Frankish count Hucbald.  Spoleto experienced a second interval of papal control in the late 9th and early 10th centuries with the accession of Alberico as Marchese after he murdered the Frank duke Guido IV. 

 

Under Pope Nicholas I, elected in 858, the papacy developed its temporal position, profiting from the weakness of the Carolingian empire in Italy to establish a quasi-monarchical theocracy in central Italy.  However, his successors failed to maintain the momentum, and the devastation of the Roman Campania by the Saracens in 876, as well as the harassment of Pope John VIII by Lambert Duke of Spoleto, signalled a dramatic downturn in papal power.  A succession of eight brief papacies, in the eight years which followed the death of Pope Formosus in 896, culminated in the election in 904 of Pope Sergius III, the first in a series of dissolute Roman aristocrat Popes.  Rome was dominated by Theodora, her husband Teofilacto, and their descendants the counts of Tusculo.  The last count in the line transferred his properties to Pope Alexander III in 1170, after which they were incorporated into the papal territories. 

 

The counties set out in this document are grouped by present-day Italian region.  This is not especially satisfactory as it in no way reflects divisions which existed in medieval times.  Nevertheless, it is anticipated that it will prove helpful to future research to group the nobility territorially.  I am grateful to Paolo Rossi's work in helping to establish the geographical allocation of these counties[1]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    COUNTIES in ABRUZZO

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Abruzzo lies in the central part of the peninsula, and extends from east of Rome to the Adriatic coast.  The area lay to the north of the Norman kingdom of Apulia/Sicily, and was mainly under Papal jurisdiction in the medieval period.  In addition to the noble families shown below, Abruzzo itself, Comino, Penne, Teramo and Valva have been identified as medieval counties in the Abruzzo area but little information has so far emerged concerning the ruling counts and their families. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di ALBA

 

 

The precise location of the county of Alba has not yet been identified, but it is assumed that it lay near the county of Celano in Abruzzo.  No reference has been found to the county before the 1160s, but presumably it was granted to Berardo, younger brother of Rinaldo Conte di Celano.  References have also been found to "conti di Balba", which it is assumed was the same place as Alba.  The names of this family indicate that the early counts of Alba were probably members of the Roman nobility.  The territory of the county of Alba was conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily as the county was granted in 1166 to one of their supporters of Norman origin, Count Ruggiero.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius de Alba" holding "in Marsi in demanio Albe…et Castellum Novum in Marsi…et Paternum in Marsi…et Petram Aquarum in Marsi…et Tresacco…et…in Luco…et Capranicum…et Pesclum Canalem in Marsi…et Carcerem in Marsi" from "comes Raynaldus de Celano"[2].  When Count Ruggiero was granted the county of Andria in 1168, Alba was restored to the son of the previous holder of the county.  In 1230, the county is recorded in the hands of Giovanni di Poli, when it was restored to him by Emperor Friedrich II, and in 1267 as one of the counties held by Corrado di Antiochia, grandson of Emperor Friedrich.  No information has been found about the county after that date, until 11 May 1307 when it was granted by Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] to Philippe de Savoie Signore del Piemonte in exchange for his departure from Greece and relinquishing his claims to the principality of Achaia.  Robert King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] bequeathed the county of Alba to his granddaughter Marie under his testament dated 16 Jan 1343.  However, it is not certain whether this was the same Alba, as it is recorded that "Alba", referring to Alba in south-eastern Piemonte in north-west Italy, ceded itself to King Robert I in 1315[3]

 

 

1.         BERALDO (-after May 1024).  Conte di Balba.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment at "Balba in civitate Sulmona" in the court of "Beraldus comes de Balba…cum eo Berardus frater suus" by charter dated May 1024[4]

2.         BERARDO (-after May 1024).  Conte di Balba.  A charter dated Mar 1022 records a judgment by "Domnus Ambrosius…missus et capellanus domni Henrici imperatoris augusti et Berardus et Theodinus comitibus de Balva" placing various churches "in territorio Balvense" under the protection of the monastery of Volturno[5].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment at "Balba in civitate Sulmona" in the court of "Beraldus comes de Balba…cum eo Berardus frater suus" by charter dated May 1024[6].  m ---.  The name of Berardo´s wife is not known.  Berardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         TEODINO (-after Jan 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Pinnensi" in the court of "Attonis comitis filii Trasmundi comitis…Teudini comitis filii Berardi…" by charter dated Jan 1028[7]

3.         TEODINO (-after Mar 1022).  Conte di BalbaA charter dated Mar 1022 records a judgment by "Domnus Ambrosius…missus et capellanus domni Henrici imperatoris augusti et Berardus et Theodinus comitibus de Balva" placing various churches "in territorio Balvense" under the protection of the monastery of Volturno[8]m ---.  The name of Teodino´s wife is not known.  Teodino & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERARDO (-after Jan 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Berardi comitis filii comitis Theodini, Attonis comitis et filii eius Alberici comitis, Ugonis comitis, et Offredi comitis filii Monaldi comitis" were present at a donation to Casauria dated 1028[9].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio…Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi comitis" and in the presence of "Berardus comes filius Teodini comitis et Rustico comes qui rectum nomen Atto vocatur et Ugo comes filius Ameczoni et Ofredo comes filius Monaldi comitis et Albericus comes filius Actonis…" relating to property in Marsi by charter dated Jan 1028, signed by "Berardi comitis filii Todini, Belliczi comitis, Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi, Actonis comitis qui supranomen Rustico vocatur…"[10]

 

 

1.         BERARDO, son of CRESCENTIUS Conte di Marsi & his wife --- (-[1160/67])Conte di Alba.  He was dispossessed after the 1160 rebellion[11].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius de Alba" holding "in Marsi in demanio Albe…et Castellum Novum in Marsi…et Paternum in Marsi…et Petram Aquarum in Marsi…et Tresacco…et…in Luco…et Capranicum…et Pesclum Canalem in Marsi…et Carcerem in Marsi" from "comes Raynaldus de Celano" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro…de Valle Marsi principatus de eadem Comestabulia [comitis Boamundi]", with "una de proprio feudo prædicti comitis Berardi de Albe…milites XL et cum augmento…milites LXXX"[12].  Berardo & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         PIETRO (-1208 or after).  He was restored as Conte di Alba in 1168 when Ruggiero Conte di Alba was installed as Conte di Andria[13]Conte di Celano

b)         other children: see CONTI di CELANO

 

 

1.         RUGGIERO, son of RICCARDO Signor di Trevico & his wife --- (-killed 1190).  Hugo Falcandus names "Roger son of Richard" among the leaders of the conspiracy against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][14].  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Roger son of Richard"[15]Conte d'Alba 1166, after Berardo Conte di Alba was dispossessed.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius de Alba" holding "in Marsi in demanio Albe…et Castellum Novum in Marsi…et Paternum in Marsi…et Petram Aquarum in Marsi…et Tresacco…et…in Luco…et Capranicum…et Pesclum Canalem in Marsi…et Carcerem in Marsi" from "comes Raynaldus de Celano" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro…de Valle Marsi principatus de eadem Comestabulia [comitis Boamundi]", with "una de proprio feudo prædicti comitis Berardi de Albe…milites XL et cum augmento…milites LXXX"[16]Conte d'Andria 1168.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica refers to the rebellion of Roger Count of Andria after the accession of King Tancred in 1189, specifying that the kingdom of Sicily belonged to his wife, recording that he died at the hands of the Count of Acerra[17]

 

 

1.         GIOVANNI di Poli .  Senator of Rome.  Conte di Alba.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comitatum de Albe propter civitatem Fundanam" was restored to "Iohanni de Poli" on the emperor´s orders in 1230[18]m ---.  The name of Giovanni´s wife is not known.  Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARGHERITA di Poli (-after 1246/49]).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro records that "Fridericus" married "Margharitam filiam N. de Romanis cunabulis editam"[19].  The primary source which confirms her parentage more precisely has not yet been identified.  m FEDERIGO di Antiochia, illegitimate son of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his mistress Maria [Matilda] --- ([1221]-killed in battle Foggia 1256). 

 

 

1.         CORRADO di Antiochia, son of FEDERIGO di Antiochia & his wife Margherita di Poli (-after 1301).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Conradus de Antiochia et Margarita soror eius" as the two children of "Fridericus de Antiochia" and his wife[20]Conte di Loreto 1258.  Conte di Alba, Celano, Loreto ed Abruzzo 1267.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the capture in 1268 of "Coradus Antioche nepos imperatori Frederici" and his escape from jail with the help of "domno Iacobo Napolionis et sociis" who were in "castro Saraxinesci"[21].  Vicar General of the March.  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "Corradus de Antiochia comes Albas, regis…nepos, qui pro capitaneo fuerat destinatus in Marchiam" [referring to Manfredo King of Sicily] when recording that he captured "castrum Monticuli"[22].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Galvanum et filium, Corradum etiam de Antiochia" were captured by Charles Comte d´Anjou after the battle of Tagliacozzo, Abruzzi, dated to Aug 1268[23]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di CELANO

 

 

The town of Celano lies due east of Rome in central Italy.  It is assumed that the county of Celano identified below is associated with this town.  The connection with the family of the Conte di Marsi, also based in Abruzzo, suggest that this may be correct.  However, there must be some doubt: the references to the counts of Celano by the Norman chronicler Hugo Falcandus (see below) suggest that their county was closer to the heartland of the Norman kingdom.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Raynaldus de Celano" holding "Celanum in Marsi…et Focem in Marsi…et Agellum…et Piscinam…et Venerem…et Vicum…et Gorianum Siccum in Balba…et Asculum…et Orionam" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro…de Valle Marsi principatus de eadem Comestabulia [comitis Boamundi]"[24], reinforcing the probable geographical proximity to the county of Marsi. 

 

 

1.         CRESCENTIUS .  Conte di Marsi.  His relationship with the Conti di Marsi who are shown in another chapter of the present document has not been established.  m ---.  The name of Crescentius's wife is not known.  Crescentius & his wife had two children:

a)         RINALDO (-[1168]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was appointed Conte di Celano in 1143/44.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Raynaldus de Celano" holding "Celanum in Marsi…et Focem in Marsi…et Agellum…et Piscinam…et Venerem…et Vicum…et Gorianum Siccum in Balba…et Asculum…et Orionam" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro…de Valle Marsi principatus de eadem Comestabulia [comitis Boamundi]", with "de proprio feudo…milites LIV et augmentum eius CVIII" and listing his feeholders[25]m ---.  The name of Rainaldo's wife is not known.  Rainaldo & his wife had one child:

i)          ANNIBALE (-after [1168]).  Hugo Falcandus records that "the boy Hannibal, Count Rainald's son, was made count and given all his father's lands" in [1168][26]Conte di Celano

Rainaldo had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

ii)         ODO (-1184 or after).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Royal justiciar 1172/1184. 

b)         BERARDO (-[1160/67])Conte di Alba.  He was dispossessed after the 1160 rebellion[27].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Rogerius de Alba" holding "in Marsi in demanio Albe…et Castellum Novum in Marsi…et Paternum in Marsi…et Petram Aquarum in Marsi…et Tresacco…et…in Luco…et Capranicum…et Pesclum Canalem in Marsi…et Carcerem in Marsi" from "comes Raynaldus de Celano" in "comitatu Simonis comitis de Sangro…de Valle Marsi principatus de eadem Comestabulia [comitis Boamundi]", with "una de proprio feudo prædicti comitis Berardi de Albe…milites XL et cum augmento…milites LXXX"[28]m ---.  The name of Berardo's wife is not known.  Berardo & his wife had [three] children: 

i)          PIETRO (-1208 or after).  Hugo Falcandus records that Pietro was restored as Conte di Alba in 1168 when Count Roger was installed as Count of Andria[29]Conte di Celano.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "imperatrix" left "filium suum in Marchia apud Hesym civitatem…sub ducatu…[Petri] Celani comitis et Berardi Laureti comitis et Cupersani" in 1197[30]Conte di Civitate.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Peter of Celano…Count of Civitate" was among those captured by Gauthier de Brienne at the battle of Canne 25 Oct 1202[31].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Petrus de Celano et Riccardus Fundanus comites" in 1208[32]m ---.  The name of Pietro's wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had three children:

(a)       BERARDO (-after 1200).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that in 1200 Diepold fought the Count of Celano at Venafro, putting him to flight and capturing his son Berard whom he brought as a prisoner to Rocca d'Arce[33]

(b)       ROGASIATA di Celano .  The Annales Ceccanenses record the marriage in 1189 of "Rogasiatam filiam comitis Petri de Celano" and "Iohannes de Ceccano"[34]m IOHANNES Conte di Ceccano, son of --- (-after Aug 1216). 

(c)       RINALDO (-after 1201).  Archbishop of Capua.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Raynaldo Capuano archiepiscopo, filio Celani comitis" in 1201[35]

ii)         [BERARDO (-after 1197).  Conte di Loreto e Conversano.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "imperatrix" left "filium suum in Marchia apud Hesym civitatem…sub ducatu…[Petri] Celani comitis et Berardi Laureti comitis et Cupersani" in 1197[36].  The parentage of Berardo is not known.  However, his being granted custody of the young future Emperor Friedrich II jointly with Pietro conte di Celano suggests that the two may have been closely related, possibly brothers.] 

iii)        daughter .  The Annales Ceccanenses record the marriage in Oct 1160 of "filiam Berardi de Albe" and "Andreas comes Comini"[37]m (Oct 1160) ANDREA Conte di Rupecanina, son of ---. 

 

 

1.         RICCARDO di Celano (-after 1220).  Conte di CelanoThe Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Roggerius de Aquila, comes Iacobus di Sancto Severino, comes Riccardus de Celano" were present at the coronation of Friedrich II as Emperor in Rome in 1220[38]

 

2.         TOMASO (-after 1222).  Conte di Molise.  Conte di CelanoThe Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Acerrarum comes" besieged "rocce Maiennulfi" in which "comes Thomas" was holed up, in 1221[39].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Thomas de Celano" escaped by night from "roccam…Magenulfi" and made his way to "castrum" held by "Raynerius de Aversa sororius eius", in 1222[40]

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di CHIETI

 

 

The town of Chieti, previously known as Teate, is located in Abruzzo south of Pescara and lay within the Lombard duchy of Spoleto.  The first family of counts of Chieti, shown below, have Lombard names.  Amatus records that the Norman Robert Conte di Loritello attacked "the March of Chieti", dated to the 1080s, and gave part to "his brother Tasso"[41].  The Norman conquest of the area was completed in Spring 1140 when Roger of Sicily Duke of Apulia (son of Roger I King of Sicily), together with his brother Alphonse, captured Abruzzo.  No record has yet been found of a Norman count of Chieti having been appointed at that time.  Records have been found of a succession of conti di Chieti, appointed by Emperor Friedrich II and his successors.  Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] appointed one of his supporters Renaud de Courtenay as conte di Chieti in 1369 as a reward for his part in the conquest of the kingdom. 

 

 

1.         ATTO [I] .  m ---.  The name of Atto´s wife is not known.  Atto [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         ATTO [II] (-[before Apr 968]).  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Atto comes et Adelguda comitissa uxor eius" donated "curtem de Colle" to Casauria in 951[42].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that the abbot of Casauria granted land "in territorio Pinnensi…curtem in fundo Colle" to "Attonem comitem filium quondam Attonis et Aldegundam uxorem meam filiam quondam Gaidulfi" by charter dated Jun 957[43].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto comes filius quondam Attonis comitis…et Adelgunda conjux mea" claimed against "Johannes abbas de monasterio sanctæ Trinitaris…infra territorio Pinnensi" relating to property which would revert to "Transmundum comitem nepotem nostrum", by charter dated Aug 993 (presumably misdated)[44]m ADELGUNDA, daughter of GAIDULF & his wife --- (-after Jun 957).  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Atto comes et Adelguda comitissa uxor eius" donated "curtem de Colle" to Casauria in 951[45].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that the abbot of Casauria granted land "in territorio Pinnensi…curtem in fundo Colle" to "Attonem comitem filium quondam Attonis et Aldegundam uxorem meam filiam quondam Gaidulfi" by charter dated Jun 957[46].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto comes filius quondam Attonis comitis…et Adelgunda conjux mea" claimed against "Johannes abbas de monasterio sanctæ Trinitaris…infra territorio Pinnensi" relating to property which would revert to "Transmundum comitem nepotem nostrum", by charter dated Aug 993 (presumably misdated)[47].  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "quondam Attoni comitis avo meo et…quondam Adelgardæ comitissæ avæ meæ…"[48].  Atto & his wife had two children: 

i)          ATTO [III] (-after Oct 984).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[49].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment exchanging property between the bishop of Aprutio and the monastery of Casauria, in the presence of "Acto et Alkeri comites…", by charter dated Jul 976 signed by "…Petrus castaldius"[50].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records the renunciation to property by the bishop of Teano, in the court of "Atto comes et Transmundus et Alkari comites…", by charter dated Nov 978, signed by "Atto comes, Trasmundus comes…"[51].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing of a dispute by "Atto comes…in territorio Pinensi in loco…Campo-plano" by charter dated Dec 983[52].   The Chronicon Vulturnense records that Roffrid Abbot of Volturno granted land "infra territorio Pinense…medietate de…curte de Musiano" to "Attoni comiti filius quondam Attonis comitis et ad filiis et ad nepotibus tuis et usque in tertia tua legitima generatione" by charter dated Oct 984 "temporibus domni Transemundi Dux et Marchio et ducatu eius anno secundo"[53].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto et Pandulfus comites filii quondam Transmundi comitis" donated property "in pago Teatino loco…Montecle" to Casauria, for the souls of "Transmundi comitis genitoris nostri et…Maroczæ conjugis suæ et…Attonis comitis…et Bonæ conjugis suæ et…Transmundi Ducis et Marchionis et Attonis germani sui et Attonis filii eius…et Bertæ comitissæ", by charter dated Oct 1017[54]m ---.  The name of Atto´s wife is not known.  Atto [III] & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ATTO .  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto et Pandulfus comites filii quondam Transmundi comitis" donated property "in pago Teatino loco…Montecle" to Casauria, for the souls of "Transmundi comitis genitoris nostri et…Maroczæ conjugis suæ et…Attonis comitis…et Bonæ conjugis suæ et…Transmundi Ducis et Marchionis et Attonis germani sui et Attonis filii eius…et Bertæ comitissæ", by charter dated Oct 1017[55]

ii)         TRANSMUNDO [I] (-[989/Easter 993]).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…quondam Transmundi…genitor meus…"[56].  Conte di Teate, Conte di Chieti

-         see below

 

 

TRANSMUNDO [I], son of ATTO [II] Conte di Chieti & his wife Adelgunda --- (-[989/Easter 993]).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…quondam Transmundi…genitor meus…"[57].  Conte di Teate, Conte di Chieti.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment relating to Casauria´s land "Sancto Rustico" in the court of "Transmundus comes" by charter dated Jun 969[58].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records the renunciation to property by the bishop of Teano, in the court of "Atto comes et Transmundus et Alkari comites…", by charter dated Nov 978, signed by "Atto comes, Trasmundus comes…"[59].   Duke and Marchese of Spoleto 983. 

m SICHELGARDA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…quondam Transmundi…genitor meus et…Sikelgardæ quæ fuit genitricis …"[60].  Stasser proposes that she was Sichelgarda di Capua, daughter of Landulf IV Prince of Capua and Benevento & his wife [Maria di Gaeta/Euanthia ---][61].  He highlights the Chronica Monasterii Casinensis, which records "Trasmundus Teatinus comes et marchio propinquus eiusdem principes" besieging Capua after the assassination of Landenolf II Prince of Capua and Benevento[62], and suggests that the relationship "propinquus" is best explained if Transmundo´s mother was the dead prince´s paternal aunt. 

Transmundo [I] & his wife had two children: 

1.         TRANSMUNDO [II] (-before Oct 1017).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment restoring property "infra territorio Pinnensi in locum…Geberuti" to Casauria in the court of "Transimundus filius Transimundi comitis" by charter dated Oct 981[63].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records the assassination of Landenolf II Prince of Capua and Benevento (dated to Easter 993) after which "Trasmundus Teatinus comes et marchio propinquus eiusdem principes" (presumably indicating Transmundo [II] because of the date) besieged Capua[64].  Conte di Teate, Conte di Chieti.  "Transmundus comes filius quondam Transmundi Dux et Marchio" donated property "infra territorio Termolense in locum…Serramala" to Volturno, for the souls of "quondam Attoni comitis avo meo et…quondam Adelgardæ comitissæ avæ meæ et…quondam Transmundi…genitor meus et…Sikelgardæ quæ fuit genitricis meæ et…quondam Attoni comitis germano meo et…Bertæ […Marottæ] comitissæ conjuge mea", by charter dated Nov 1011[65].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights of the monastery of San Salvator at Settimo founded by "Trasemundo comite filio marchionis Trasmundi" by charter dated 1 Mar 1047[66]m MAROZIA [III] [Berta], daughter of GREGORIUS [I] Count of Tusculanum & his wife Maria --- (-before 1028).  A charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1010, records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…Bertæ […Marottæ] comitissæ conjuge mea"[67].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  A charter of Monte Cassino, dated 1028, records a donation by "Atto comes" for the souls of "Attonis comitis que fuit bisabio meo et…Trasmundi dux et marchio…avio meo et…Trasmundi comitis…genitor meo…et Landolfi comes…germano meo et…Sikelgarde…avia mea…et Marocza comitisse…genitrix mea"[68].  Transmundo & his wife had two children: 

a)         ATTO [IV] (-after Jan 1028).  A charter of Emperor Heinrich II dated Feb 1022 records that "Atto comes" was considering restoring various properties to Volturno[69]Conte di Chieti.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto et Pandulfus comites filii quondam Transmundi comitis" donated property "in pago Teatino loco…Montecle" to Casauria, for the souls of "Transmundi comitis genitoris nostri et…Maroczæ conjugis suæ et…Attonis comitis…et Bonæ conjugis suæ et…Transmundi Ducis et Marchionis et Attonis germani sui et Attonis filii eius…et Bertæ comitissæ", by charter dated Oct 1017[70].  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Berardi comitis filii comitis Theodini, Attonis comitis et filii eius Alberici comitis, Ugonis comitis, et Offredi comitis filii Monaldi comitis" were present at a donation to Casauria dated 1028[71].  A charter of Monte Cassino, dated 1028, records a donation by "Atto comes" for the souls of "Attonis comitis que fuit bisabio meo et…Trasmundi dux et marchio…avio meo et…Trasmundi comitis…genitor meo…et Landolfi comes…germano meo et…Sikelgarde…avia mea…et Marocza comitisse…genitrix mea"[72].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Pinnensi" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio" and in the presence of "Atto comes filius Trasmundi comitis et Ugo comes filius Ameczonis comitis…Guibertus qui appellabatur comes" by charter dated Jan 1028[73].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Pinnensi" in the court of "Attonis comitis filii Trasmundi comitis…Teudini comitis filii Berardi…" by charter dated Jan 1028[74]m firstly AGATA, daughter of ---.  m secondly GISLA, daughter of ---.  Attone & his first wife had four children: 

i)          ALBERICO [IV] (-after 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Berardi comitis filii comitis Theodini, Attonis comitis et filii eius Alberici comitis, Ugonis comitis, et Offredi comitis filii Monaldi comitis" were present at a donation to Casauria dated 1028[75].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio…Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi comitis" and in the presence of "Berardus comes filius Teodini comitis et Rustico comes qui rectum nomen Atto vocatur et Ugo comes filius Ameczoni et Ofredo comes filius Monaldi comitis et Albericus comes filius Actonis…" relating to property in Marsi by charter dated Jan 1028, signed by "Berardi comitis filii Todini, Belliczi comitis, Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi, Actonis comitis qui supranomen Rustico vocatur…"[76]

ii)         UGO (-after 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Berardi comitis filii comitis Theodini, Attonis comitis et filii eius Alberici comitis, Ugonis comitis, et Offredi comitis filii Monaldi comitis" were present at a donation to Casauria dated 1028[77]

iii)        PURPURA (-before 1049). 

iv)       ATTONE [V] (-1059 or after).  m firstly ---.  m secondly GAITELGRIMA di Marsi, daughter of ---. 

b)         PALDO [Pandolf/Landolf] (-before 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto et Pandulfus comites filii quondam Transmundi comitis" donated property "in pago Teatino loco…Montecle" to Casauria, for the souls of "Transmundi comitis genitoris nostri et…Maroczæ conjugis suæ et…Attonis comitis…et Bonæ conjugis suæ et…Transmundi Ducis et Marchionis et Attonis germani sui et Attonis filii eius…et Bertæ comitissæ", by charter dated Oct 1017[78].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Paldo comes quondam filius Transmundi comes" donated "monasterio Sancti Angeli…in territorio Teatino et in loco…Salevento" to Volturno, for the souls of "Abbatissæ Comitissæ quæ est conjux mea et…Bonæ comitissæ et…Transmundi Dux et Marchio et…Sigelgardæ et Adelgardæ", by charter dated Mar 1022, signed by "Paldolfi comitis"[79].  A charter of Monte Cassino, dated 1028, records a donation by "Atto comes" for the souls of "Attonis comitis que fuit bisabio meo et…Trasmundi dux et marchio…avio meo et…Trasmundi comitis…genitor meo…et Landolfi comes…germano meo et…Sikelgarde…avia mea…et Marocza comitisse…genitrix mea"[80]m [ALBASIA], daughter of ---.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Paldo comes quondam filius Transmundi comes" donated "monasterio Sancti Angeli…in territorio Teatino et in loco…Salevento" to Volturno, for the souls of "Abbatissæ Comitissæ quæ est conjux mea et…" by charter dated Mar 1022[81]

2.         ATTONE [II] (-before Nov 1011).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…quondam Attoni comitis germano meo…"[82]Conte di Chieti.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto et Pandulfus comites filii quondam Transmundi comitis" donated property "in pago Teatino loco…Montecle" to Casauria, for the souls of "Transmundi comitis genitoris nostri et…Maroczæ conjugis suæ et…Attonis comitis…et Bonæ conjugis suæ et…Transmundi Ducis et Marchionis et Attonis germani sui et Attonis filii eius…et Bertæ comitissæ", by charter dated Oct 1017[83]m BONA, daughter of ---.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Atto et Pandulfus comites filii quondam Transmundi comitis" donated property "in pago Teatino loco…Montecle" to Casauria, for the souls of "Transmundi comitis genitoris nostri et…Maroczæ conjugis suæ et…Attonis comitis…et Bonæ conjugis suæ et…Transmundi Ducis et Marchionis et Attonis germani sui et Attonis filii eius…et Bertæ comitissæ", by charter dated Oct 1017[84].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Paldo comes quondam filius Transmundi comes" donated property to Volturno, for the souls of "…Bonæ comitissæ…", by charter dated Mar 1022[85].  Attone [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         GISULFA (-after May 998).  "Jesulfa comitissa quæ fuit uxor bonæ memorie Landoni comitis comitatu Teano et filia Attoni comitis…uxor…Rainaldi comiti filii bonæ recordatione Berardi comiti" donated property to Monte Cassino by charter dated to [989/96][86].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius comes…Gervisæ coniugie suæ"[87].  "Gervisa comitissa filia Actoni comitis et uxor…Rainaldi comitis Marsicane urbis" donated property "in finibus comitatui Teanensis in loco Baccari et Corrigre…datum Landoni comitis anteriori viri mei…comes…Teanensis filius Atenolfi comitis" to Monte Cassino by charter dated May 998[88]m firstly LANDO Conte di Teano, son of ATENOLF [II] Conte di Teano & his wife Radelgarda --- (-after Nov 986).  m secondly RINALDO Conte di Marsi, son of BERARDO [I] Conte di Marsi & his wife --- (-after 1 Feb 1000). 

 

 

1.         ATTO (-after 989).  "Acto comes et Guillelmo comes missum domini Ugonis dux et Marchio" are named in a charter relating to the bishopric of Teramo dated 989[89]

2.         GUGLIELMO (-after 989).  "Acto comes et Guillelmo comes missum domini Ugonis dux et Marchio" are named in a charter relating to the bishopric of Teramo dated 989[90]

 

 

1.         TRANSMUNDO [III] (-after [1085/86]).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "the Margrave Transmund…young" invaded the land of the monastery of Casauria and burned Alano, dated to 1038[91].  Amatus records the death of "Robert of Loritello, nephew of the great Duke Robert", adding that he attacked "the March of Chieti of which Count Transmund was the lord and whose ancestors had been its lords for a long time" and gave part to "his brother Tasso"[92]

 

2.         ATTONE (-[1116/21]).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Count Atto" ("Attonem comitem") was excommunicated by Pope Pascal II because he "had abandoned his own legitimate wife and brought another woman to live with him, namely Rogata the widow of Mamouzet" ("Rogatam…uxorem defuncti Malmazetti"), dated to 1103[93].  Loud highlights a charter dated Nov 1093 in which Hugues Mamouzet donated property for the soul of "Rogate comitissa qui fuit coniuge predicti Ugoni"[94].  "Conte Atto" granted "il castello di Luco" to the bishop of Teramo and the church of Santa Maria by charter dated 1116[95]m ---.  The name of Attone´s wife is not known.  Attone & his wife had six children: 

a)         ENRICO (-before 1140).  "Conti Enrico e Matteo de Aprutio e quattro loro fratelli, Roberto, Guglielmo, Azzo e Tancredi, figli tutti del fu conte Azzo o Attone" confirmed the donation by "Fantolino di Nereto" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1121[96].  "Comes Robertus et Guillelmus" confirmed donations by "loro fratelli Matteo ed Enrico" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1140[97]

b)         MATTEO (-before 1140).  "Conti Enrico e Matteo de Aprutio e quattro loro fratelli, Roberto, Guglielmo, Azzo e Tancredi, figli tutti del fu conte Azzo o Attone" confirmed the donation by "Fantolino di Nereto" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1121[98].  "Comes Robertus et Guillelmus" confirmed donations by "loro fratelli Matteo ed Enrico" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1140[99]

c)         ROBERTO (-after 1140).  "Conti Enrico e Matteo de Aprutio e quattro loro fratelli, Roberto, Guglielmo, Azzo e Tancredi, figli tutti del fu conte Azzo o Attone" confirmed the donation by "Fantolino di Nereto" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1121[100].  "Comes Robertus et Guillelmus" confirmed donations by "loro fratelli Matteo ed Enrico" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1140[101]

d)         GUGLIELMO (-after 1140).  "Conti Enrico e Matteo de Aprutio e quattro loro fratelli, Roberto, Guglielmo, Azzo e Tancredi, figli tutti del fu conte Azzo o Attone" confirmed the donation by "Fantolino di Nereto" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1121[102].  "Comes Robertus et Guillelmus" confirmed donations by "loro fratelli Matteo ed Enrico" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1140[103]

e)         ATTONE (-after 1121).  "Conti Enrico e Matteo de Aprutio e quattro loro fratelli, Roberto, Guglielmo, Azzo e Tancredi, figli tutti del fu conte Azzo o Attone" confirmed the donation by "Fantolino di Nereto" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1121[104]

f)          TANCREDO (-after 1121).  "Conti Enrico e Matteo de Aprutio e quattro loro fratelli, Roberto, Guglielmo, Azzo e Tancredi, figli tutti del fu conte Azzo o Attone" confirmed the donation by "Fantolino di Nereto" to the bishop of Teramo by charter dated 1121[105]

 

 

1.         SIMONE (-after 1243).  Conte di Chieti.  Matthew Paris records that "comes Symon de Tuscia" was captured at Rome in 1243[106]

 

 

1.         RICCARDO, illegitimate son of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his mistress Manna --- ([1225]-1249 after Jun)Conte di Chieti.  Captain General of Tuscany, podestà of Florence.  Vicar General of the March of Ancona, the Duchy of Spoleto, and the Romagna.  Matthew Paris records the death in 1249 of "alius Fretherici filius naturalis in Apulia" directly after his report of the capture of Enzio King of Sardinia, specifying that he died "eodemque tempore", i.e. when Enzio was captured[107]

 

 

1.         OTTO von Vohburg Markgraf von Hohenburg, son of DIEPOLD [VII] Markgraf von Vohburg & his second wife Mechtild von Wasserburg (-in prison [2 Feb 1256/21 Mar 1258])Markgraf von Hohenburg 1249.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia names "Marchionis Oddonis fratres sui", referring to "Bertholdus Marchio de Honebruch"[108]Conte di Catanzaro.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that the Pope had installed "Oddo Marchio de Honebruch" with "comitatus Catanzarii"[109]Conte di Chieti 1254.  The castle of Hohenburg was transferred to the Bishop of Regensburg. 

 

 

1.         RAOUL de Courtenay Seigneur d´Illiers, son of ROBERT de Courtenay Seigneur de Champignelles & his second wife Mathilde de Mehun (-1271).  He was installed as Conte di Chieti in 1269 by Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] as a reward for his part in the conquest of the kingdom. 

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di LORETO

 

 

Loreto is situated due west of Pescara, and east of Penne, in the present-day Italian region of Abruzzo.  Its life as a county was short-lived, first emerging in the 1140s but lapsing on the death in 1189 of Iozzelino Conte di Loreto.  The county was revived in the 1250s in favour of Corrado di Antiochia, grandson of Emperor Friedrich II. 

 

 

1.         RAMBOTO (-before 1163).  Conte di Loreto [1144].  The primary source which confirms that Ramboto held the county has not been idenfitied.  m ---.  The name of Ramboto's wife is not known.  Ramboto & his wife had one child:

a)         JOSCELIN [Iozzelino] (-1189).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Loreto.  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Joscelin"[110].  He died during the Third Crusade.  m (separated) as her first husband, ADELISA of Sicily, [illegitimate] daughter of ROGER II King of Sicily & his [mistress ---] (-after [1184/87]).  Chalandon states that Adelisa, daughter of King Roger II, married "Jocelin comte de Loreto"[111].  It is unlikely that Adelisa was the king´s daughter by his first marriage, as Romoald only refers to one daughter whose death he records young.  The chronology suggests that she could not have been born from her father´s second or third marriages.  It is likely therefore that Adelisa was illegitimate.  Ctss di Florenzia.  She married secondly Roberto Conte di Loritello.  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  Iozzelino & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [ADELICIA di Adernò (-after 1161).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Hugo Falcandus names "Roger Count of Avellino" among those who conspired to capture Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1161, and records that the king pardoned him "moved by the appeals of his cousin Adelicia, the same count's grandmother…who had no other surviving heir"[112].]  m ---.  One child: 

(a)       MAGALDA .  Hugo Falcandus names "Roger Count of Avellino" among those who conspired to capture Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1161, and records that the king pardoned him "moved by the appeals of his cousin Adelicia, the same count's grandmother…who had no other surviving heir"[113].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m RICCARDO di Aquila Conte di Avellino, son of --- (-24 Sep 1152).] 

 

 

1.         CORRADO di Antiochia, son of FEDERIGO di Antiochia & his wife Margherita di Poli (-after 1301).  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro names "Conradus de Antiochia et Margarita soror eius" as the two children of "Fridericus de Antiochia" and his wife[114]Conte di Loreto 1258.  Conte di Alba, Celano, Loreto ed Abruzzo 1267.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the capture in 1268 of "Coradus Antioche nepos imperatori Frederici" and his escape from jail with the help of "domno Iacobo Napolionis et sociis" who were in "castro Saraxinesci"[115].  Vicar General of the March.  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "Corradus de Antiochia comes Albas, regis…nepos, qui pro capitaneo fuerat destinatus in Marchiam" [referring to Manfredo King of Sicily] when recording that he captured "castrum Monticuli"[116].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Galvanum et filium, Corradum etiam de Antiochia" were captured by Charles Comte d´Anjou after the battle of Tagliacozzo, Abruzzi, dated to Aug 1268[117]

 

 

 

E.      CONTI di LORITELLO

 

 

The county of Loritello was located north of the river Gargano, along the Adriatic coast.  Formerly in the principality of Benevento, it was part of the territory conquered by Godefroi, brother of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia, probably dated to the late 1050s.  Godefroi´s grandson Guillaume was the last recorded count of Loritello of his line.  It is assumed that the county was confiscated from him after he swore allegiance to Emperor Lothar in 1137.  The county of Loritello was awarded again to Robert de Bassonville, son of the count of Conversano, by Guillaume I King of Sicily in 1154.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records the feeholders "de comitatu Loritelli", but no "comes"[118], which suggests that the title had lapsed at that time, maybe confiscated during one of the Count Robert´s rebellions.  A single reference has been found to Robert de Say as conte di Loritello in 1212, but thereafter no information has been identified relating to the county in the primary sources which have been consulted. 

 

 

GODEFROI de Hauteville, son of TANCRED de Hauteville & his first wife Moriella --- ([1015/20]-Apr 1063).  Malaterra names "Gaufredum" as fourth son of Tancred & his first (unnamed) wife[119].  According to Orderic Vitalis, Tancred d'Hauteville "passed on his whole inheritance to his son Goisfredus [Geoffrey]", advising the others "to seek their living by their strength and wits outside their native land"[120].  This suggests that Godefroi was the oldest son.  As explained in the document SICILY, COUNTS & KINGS, the career path of his brother Serlon suggests that there may have been a last minute change of plan which resulted in Godefroi being chosen to inherit their father's lands.  For this reason, it is more likely that Godefroi was his father's second son.  Amatus records that the brothers "Mauger, Geoffrey, William and Roger" arrived in Apulia from Normandy[121], dated from the context to [1054/57].  Malaterra records that the Capitanata had been held by "Gaufridum fratrem suum" before it was granted to Mauger[122].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Gaufredus comes" was awarded "Neritonum et Litium" after "Humphredus" defeated "Græcis circa Oriam" in 1055[123]Conte di Loritello.  The Chronicon Casauriense records that the monastery was "made subject to Count Robert of Loritello and after his death to Hugh Mamouzet" ("Roberto primo comiti de Rotello et post mortem eius Ugonis Malmazetto"), dated to 1064[124].  It is suggested that "Count Robert" is an error in this text for "Count Godefroi".  Robert, son of Count Godefroi, would probably have been too young to have been concerned at the time, and in addition it is clear that he lived in the early years of the 12th century.  No other "Count Robert of Loritello" has been identified.  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records the death in Apr 1063 of "Gauffredus comes" and that "Goffridus filius eius" captured Taranto and "Castru Motule"[125]

m firstly ---.  The name of Godefroi's first wife is not known. 

m secondly THEODORA, daughter of PANDOLF di Salerno & his wife Theodora di Tusculanum.  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1103 which records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Geoffroy de Hauteville et de Theodora sœur de Grégoire"[126].  A charter dated 1104 records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Theodora"[127]

Godefroi & his first wife had [six] children: 

1.         [GODEFROI (-after Jun 1063).  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records the death in Apr 1063 of "Gauffredus comes" and that "Goffridus filius eius" captured Taranto and "Castru Motule"[128].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records "Goffridus comes" captured "Castanetum" in 1064[129].  The Chronicon Breve Normannicum records that "Goffridus comes" captured "Montem Pillosum" in Jun 1068, that "Hydrontum" was recaptured in Oct 1068, that "Goffridus comes" led a large fleet in attacking Brindisi in 1070, and captured Palermo in 1072[130].  No other references have been found to Godefroi, son of Godefroi Conte di Loritello.  It is possible that his parentage is incorrectly stated in the Chronicon Breve, and that all these entries refer to the exploits of Godefroi [Godofredo] Conte di Conversano, see the document SOUTHERN ITALY (2).]

2.         ROBERT (-shortly before 1107).  The Annals of Romoald name "comes Goffridus [filius Tancredi] pater Robberti comes de Lauritello"[131]Conte di Loritello.  "Robertus comes Lorotelli, Amicus inclitus comes, Riccardus Andrie comes, Goffredus comes Cupersani, Petrus comes de Lesena, Robertus comes filius Guillelmi Ybonis comitis" declared the restitution of property to the monastery of Banzi by charter dated Jun 1063[132].  "Robberto comes et dux Italie, Calabrie et Sicilie" recorded complaints by the abbot of San Pietro di Torremaggiore and "comes Rubberto de Lurotello consanguine nostro atque advocatis" by charter dated Jul 1067[133].  Orderic Vitalis names him as nepos of Robert "Guiscard" Duke of Apulia when recording that the latter called him to his deathbed in 1085[134].  The Chronicle of San Bartolomeo di Carpineto records a donation by "comiti Roberti de Lauritello et Tassoni suo fratri et…Willelmo filio Tassonis"[135].  Amatus records the death of "Robert of Loritello, nephew of the great Duke Robert", adding that he attacked "the March of Chieti of which Count Transmund was the lord and whose ancestors had been its lords for a long time" and gave part to "his brother Tasso"[136]m ---.  The name of Robert´s wife is not known.  Robert & his wife had one child:

a)         GUILLAUME (-after 1137).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Conte di Loritello.  The Annalista Saxo records that "Thomam et Matheum marchiones cum domno eorum Willehelmo palatino" swore allegiance to Emperor Lothar in 1137 in "Apuliam…secus Truntam fluvium"[137]

3.         DROGO "Tasso" (-after 1103).  The Chronicle of San Bartolomeo di Carpineto refers to "Drogone…di Tassio…fratello del duca Roberto" and "fratello di Roberto conte di Loretello"[138].  "…Taxonius nepos ducis…" subscribed the charter dated 19 Feb 1076 under which "Rotbertus dux" made concessions to the cathedral of Santa Maria at Melfi[139].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "William Tassio", who held the "castellum of Loreto in Penne and the castellum of Popoli in Valva" (the latter granted to him by the bishop of Valva), tricked the bishop into granting him "the tower of Bectorrita"[140].  The Chronicle of San Bartolomeo di Carpineto records a donation by "comiti Roberti de Lauritello et Tassoni suo fratri et…Willelmo filio Tassonis"[141].  Amatus records the death of "Robert of Loritello, nephew of the great Duke Robert", adding that he attacked "the March of Chieti of which Count Transmund was the lord and whose ancestors had been its lords for a long time" and gave part to "his brother Tasso"[142].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "William Tassio" ("Wilielmus…Tassio qui secunda persecutione post Malmazettum") sold "the abbey of St Clement, Popoli and the bishopric of St Pelinus" to "lord Richard Count of Manopello" ("comes Riccardus de Manuplello") for "1000 byzantei", dated to 1103[143].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Wielmus Tassio" sold Casauria, dated to [1113/15][144]m ---.  The name of Drogo's wife is not known.  Drogo & his wife had three children:

a)         ROBERT (-after 1115).  "Robertus, Willelmus filii quondam Drogonis domini Leucobante" are named in a charter dated 1115 which records a donation to Santa Sofia[145]

b)         ROGER.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  1100.

c)         GUILLAUME (-after 1115).  The Chronicle of San Bartolomeo di Carpineto records a donation by "comiti Roberti de Lauritello et Tassoni suo fratri et…Willelmo filio Tassonis"[146].  "Robertus, Willelmus filii quondam Drogonis domini Leucobante" are named in a charter dated 1115 which records a donation to Santa Sofia[147].  Signor di Leucobanta.  Bishop of Chieti. 

4.         RAOUL (-[1096/1111]).  Amatus names "Raul brother of Robert of Loritello" among those sent by Robert "Guiscard" to quell the rebellion in Trani[148].  "…Radulfi di Lauritello" was among the subscribers of the charter dated May 1086 under which "Roggerius dux, ducis Robberti filius" granted property to the monastery at Vietri[149]Conte di Catanzaro 1088. 

-        CONTI di CATANZARO

5.         GUILLAUME .  The Cronica Trium Tabernarum et de civitate Catanzarii records that "Guillelmus de Altavilla, frater Radulfi comitis Loretelli" claimed "terram comitatus ipsius fratris ad opus nepotum suorum", adding that he held "tria castra…Roccam Falluccæ, Tiriolum et Lamatum"[150].  Conte di Tiriolo. 

6.         EMMA (-before 1082).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  [m firstly as his third wife, RAINOLF "Drengot" Conte d'Aversa, son of --- (-Jun 1045).  This marriage is recorded in Europäische Stammtafeln[151] but is improbable chronologically.  Rainolf died in 1045, before Emma's father was first recorded in Italy.  In any case, Emma could have been no more than an infant at the time of such a suggested marriage.]  m [secondly] WIMUND de Molis . 1067. 

Godefroi & his second wife had one child: 

7.         TANCRED (-after 1104).  A charter dated 1103 records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Geoffroy de Hauteville et de Theodora sœur de Grégoire"[152].  A charter dated 1104 records that "Grégoire fils de Pandulf fils du prince Gaimar" agreed a division with Cava abbey, acting with the consent of "son neveu Tancrède fils de Theodora"[153]

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Bassonville, son of ROBERT de Bassonville Conte di Conversano & his wife Judith of Sicily (-15 Sep 1182).  William of Tyre names him and specifies that he was the son of the "amita" of Guillaume I King of Sicily[154].  "Robert de Bassonville comte de Conversano" donated the church of San Martino di Molfetta to Cava by charter dated 19 Oct 1136 which names "feue Judith femme du comte et Robert leur fils"[155]Ioannes Kinnamos names "Bassavilla Rogerii Siciliæ tyranni ex sorore nepos"[156]He succeeded his father as Conte di Conversano.  He was created Conte di Loritello by Guillaume I King of Sicily at Easter 1154: the Chronicon Casauriensis records that King Guillaume appointed "Robert de Bassonville Count of Loritello" "wishing to benefit his relatives"[157].  The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that in the first year of the reign of Guillaume I King of Sicily, [1154/55], "Robertus, qui fuerat princeps Capuanus, Robertus comes de Lauritello consanguineus regis et comes Andreas nepos condam Raynulfi" by whom he had "filium Symonem, quem constituit principem Capue" invaded the kingdom "cum Grecorum exercitu" and subjugated "totam Apuliam et Terram Laboris"[158].  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Robert of Loritello…the king's maternal cousin" (although the reference to "maternal cousin" has not been elucidated) and records that he opposed chancellor Maio of Bari who plotted against him[159].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1155 "Robbertus comes Lorotelli" invaded the kingdom, took "totam Marinam" and sacked the castle of Bari, and that in 1156 Guillaume King of Sicily destroyed Bari but allowed "comitem Lorotelli et comitem Andream" to leave[160].  A short anonymous Chronicle of Cassino records that "Robertus comes Lorotelli" captured the kingdom in 1155[161].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1160 "comes Robbertus di Lorotello et comes Andreas" entered the kingdom[162].  "…Robertus de Loritello…" was among the subscribers to a charter dated 1060 under which "Robertus dux Italie, Apulie et Calabrie atque Sicilie" donated "castrum Aquebelle" to the monastery of La Trinità at Cava[163].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "comes Robbertus" invaded "terram usque Tarrentum" in 1161[164].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Robert Count of Loritello had invaded most of the realm and got as far as Orgeolo…on the borders of Apulia and Calabria"[165].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records the feeholders "de comitatu Loritelli", but no "comes", which suggests that the title had lapsed at that time[166].  The Annales Ceccanenses and the Annales Casenses both record that in 1169 "comes Robbertus de Loretello" made peace with the king of Sicily[167].  The Chronicon Fossæ Novæ records that "comes Robertus de Loretello" made peace with the king in Sicily in Mar 1169[168]

 

 

1.         ROBERT de Say (-after Dec 1212).  Conte di Loritello.  "…Robertus de Say comes Loritelli…" subscribed the charter dated Dec 1212 under which "Fredericus…Romanorum rex…et rex Sicilie" confirmed property of the church of Bari[169]

 

 

 

F.      CONTI di MANOPELLO

 

 

Manopello is located south-west of the town and county of Chieti.  The first record in the sources relating to Manopello dates to the early 1060s, when it was held by Hugues Mamouzet who was noted for his persecution of the monastery of Casauria.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Boamundus Manupellli" holding "in demanio in Balba Paperum…et in Theta…Toccum…et Cantalupum…et Caramanicum…et Sanctum Angelum…et Roccam Murici…et Manupellum…et Angenum…et Roccam Montis Plani…et Faram…et Sanctum Angelum in Trisinio…et Præturam…et Laconiam…et Ugnum…et Casulam…et Altinum…et Roccam Scaragnam…et Cominum…et la Pennam" in "Ducatu"[170].  No mention of the county has been found after 1169 until it was held by one of the supporters of Manfredo King of Sicily in the late 1250s. 

 

 

1.         HUGUES Mamouzet (-[1097], bur Casauria).  [Conte di Manopello].  The Chronicon Casauriense records that the monastery was "made subject to Count Robert of Loritello and after his death to Hugh Mamouzet" ("Roberto primo comiti de Rotello et post mortem eius Ugonis Malmazetto"), dated to 1064[171].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Hugh Mamouzet ["Ugo…Malmazettus"] invaded many castella and fortresses and a great part of the region…captured the abbot", dated to [1079][172].  The Chronicon Casauriensis describes a plot to entrap "Hugh Mamouzet" ["Ugo Malmazettus"], who was imprisoned and exiled, but was buried in the monastery after he died, adding that "he had by his wife seven sons all of whom…he placed as counts and dukes in lands which did not belong to them…[but] in the year in which he died five of his sons followed him in death" one of whom had the same name as his father, dated to [1097] and [1113/15][173]m ROGATA, daughter of --- (-before Nov 1093).  Loud highlights a charter dated Nov 1093 in which Hugues Mamouzet donated property for the soul of "Rogate comitissa qui fuit coniuge predicti Ugoni"[174].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Count Atto" ("Attonem comitem") was excommunicated by Pope Pascal II because he "had abandoned his own legitimate wife and brought another woman to live with him, namely Rogata the widow of Mamouzet" ("Rogatam…uxorem defuncti Malmazetti"), dated to 1103[175].  These two apparently contradictory texts could be reconciled if Hugues married twice, both his wives being named Rogata.  Hugues & his wife had seven children: 

a)         HUGUES .  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that one of the sons of "Ugo Malmazettus" was named after his father[176]

b)         six other sons . 

 

 

1.         RICHARD (-after 1103).  Conte di Manopello.  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "William Tassio" ("Wilielmus…Tassio qui secunda persecutione post Malmazettum") sold "the abbey of St Clement, Popoli and the bishopric of St Pelinus" to "lord Richard Count of Manopello" ("comes Riccardus de Manuplello") for "1000 byzantei", dated to 1103[177]m ---.  The name of Richard´s wife is not known.  She outlived her husband, as shown by the Chronicon Casauriense which records that her son "Robertus Manuplelli Comes, Ricardi filius" retained himself [from persecuting Casauria abbey] after his father died "timore matris", but after his mother died acted in the same way as his father[178].  Richard & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROBERTO (-[1136/40]).  The Chronicon Casauriense records that "Robertus Manuplelli Comes, Ricardi filius" retained himself [from persecuting Casauria abbey] after his father died "timore matris", but after his mother died acted in the same way as his father[179]Conte di Manopello.  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese records that Roger King of Sicily granted land taken from "Bojanensis comes" to "Roberto Ricardi filio", dated to [1134/35] from the context[180].  Conte di Boiano.  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese names "Robertus filius Ricardi…et Rogerius Orianensis comes" as supporters of Roger King of Sicily, dated to [1134/35] from the context[181].  The De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis of Alessandro Abbot of Telese names "comes Robertus filius Ricardi" among the supporters of Roger King of Sicily, dated to [1134/35] from the context[182].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that Roger King of Sicily sent "his son Anfusus…Prince of Capua to the county of Chieti" and ordered him "to seek out the Counts of Manopello ["Manuplellentes Comites"]…and send them alive to him", adding that the counts fled and their lands were confiscated, dated to after 1136[183]

 

 

1.         BOHEMOND [I], son of --- (-[1156/57])Conte di TarsiaConte di Manopello.  The Chronicon Casauriense records that Roger King of Sicily appointed "Bohemond ["comes Boamundus"]…to the county of Manopello ["comitatu Manuplelli"]", dated to [Aug 1140], when recording that the count sought to interfere with the monastery but was stopped by the king[184].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Count Bohemond of Tarsia ["Comes Boamundus Tarsitanus"] who…held the county of Manopello" possessed "the land of the blood-relations of lord Leonas ["Domno Leonatis"] which he had been granted by King Roger"[185].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count William of Lesina, Bohemond of Tarsia" were already being held in chains in Palermo after the rebellion against Guillaume I King of Sicily in [1156][186].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "the men who had been driven out of the county of Manopello…came back and invaded it" and "expelled the count [Bohemond]", dated to [1157][187]

 

 

1.         GUALTIERI (-after 1157).  Conte di Manopello.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Gualterius comes Manuplelli" captured the county but was expelled by Guillaume I King of Sicily, dated to [1157][188]

 

 

1.         BOHEMOND [II], son of --- (-1169).  Conte di Manopello 1157, in succession to Bohemond Conte di Tarsia.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "Jonathas comes Consiæ et Gilbertus comes Gravinæ et Boamundus comes Monopelli et Rogerus comes Acerræ et Philippus comes de Sangro et Rogerius Tricarici comes" rebelled against "Mayonem Ammiratum", dated to 1160 from the context[189].  He was driven out in 1161 by Roberto di Loritello and again in 1167 by the imperial army led by Rainald von Dassel Archbishop of Köln.  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Bohemond of Manopello" was one of the leaders of the conspiracy against Richard Count of Molise[190].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Boamundus Manupellli" holding "in demanio in Balba Paperum…et in Theta…Toccum…et Cantalupum…et Caramanicum…et Sanctum Angelum…et Roccam Murici…et Manupellum…et Angenum…et Roccam Montis Plani…et Faram…et Sanctum Angelum in Trisinio…et Præturam…et Laconiam…et Ugnum…et Casulam…et Altinum…et Roccam Scaragnam…et Cominum…et la Pennam" in "Ducatu", with "milites XXXVI et augmentum eius…milites LVI, inter feudum et augmentum…milites XCII" and listing his feeholders[191]m ---.  The name of Bohemond's wife is not known.  Bohemond & his wife had one child:

a)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m PIETRO, son of ---.  He succeeded his father-in-law as Conte di Manopello

 

 

1.         GUALTIERIConte di Manopello.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "comes Gualterius de Manupello" visited the legates at "castrum…Serra Capriola" to negotiate his support for the future Manfredo King of Sicily, dated to [1256/57] from the context[192]m ---.  The name of Gualteri´s wife is not known.  Gualteri & his wife had one child: 

a)         TOMASIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m DIEPOLD [VIII] von Vohburg Markgraf von Hohenburg, son of DIEPOLD [VII] Markgraf von Vohburg & his second wife Mechtild von Wasserburg (-after 1247). 

 

 

 

G.      CONTI di MARSI

 

 

Marsi was in the duchy of Spoleto, within the present-day Italian region of Abruzzo.  According to the Chronicle of Monte Cassino (see below), the first known member of the family of the conti di Marsi, Azzo, was a Burgundian count.  As he is recorded as arriving in Italy with King Ugo, it is likely that "Burgundy" refers to the kingdom of Burgundy, more specifically Provence, which was originally the southern part of the kingdom, from which King Ugo's family originated.  The name "Azzo" also suggests a connection with the Este family, later rulers in Ferrara and Modena, although it is acknowledged that the name was not unusual in northern Italy at the time. 

 

 

Two brothers, parents unknown. 

1.         ATTO [Azzo] [I] (-after [926]).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Azzo comes Burgundiæ, avunculus Berardi", recording his arrival in Italy with King Ugo in [926][193]

2.         brother .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         BERARDO ).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Berardi…cognomentus Franciscus, a quo Marsorum comites procreati sunt", in conjunction with his "avunculus" Azzo[194]m ---.  The name of Berardo's wife is not known.  Berardo & his wife had [four] children:

i)          RINALDO (-after 1 Feb 1000).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [989/96] under which his wife "Jesulfa comitissa quæ fuit uxor bonæ memorie Landoni comitis comitatu Teano et filia Attoni comitis…uxor…Rainaldi comiti filii bonæ recordatione Berardi comiti" donated property to Monte Cassino[195]Conte di Marsi.  "Otto…imperator augustus" names "Raynaldus et Oderisi germanis comitibus" and other residents of Marsi in a charter dated 9 Aug 981 relating to a dispute concerning property of San Vincenzo, Volturno and St Mary's convent at Apinianici[196]

-         see below

ii)         [TEODINO (-after Aug 981).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" restoring property to Casauria in the court of "Arnulfus Comes, et Missus sacri Palatii et…Geboardus et Anfredus Missi sacri Palatii, et…Rainaldus comes et Teudinus comes et Oderisius comes" by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Arnolfi et Geboardi, comitis et Missi sacri Palatii, Ansfredi Missi sacri Palatii"[197].  The order in which "Rainaldus…Teudinus…Oderisius" suggests their order of relative seniority.  As another charter dated in the same month confirms that Rinaldo and Oderisio were brothers, it is likely that Teodino was another brother, older than Oderisio.] 

iii)        ODERISIO (-after 983).  "Otto…imperator augustus" names "Raynaldus et Oderisi germanis comitibus" and other residents of Marsi in a charter dated 9 Aug 981 relating to a dispute concerning property of San Vincenzo, Volturno and St Mary's convent at Apinianici[198].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" restoring property to Casauria in the court of "Arnulfus Comes, et Missus sacri Palatii et…Geboardus et Anfredus Missi sacri Palatii, et…Rainaldus comes et Teudinus comes et Oderisius comes" by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Arnolfi et Geboardi, comitis et Missi sacri Palatii, Ansfredi Missi sacri Palatii"[199].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment restoring property "in Caramanico et in Piccerico" to Casauria in the presence of "Oderisi comes…et Berardus et Walteri filii quondam Beraldi comitis" by charter dated 983[200].  [The Chronicon Vulturnense records "Atto comes et Oderisius comes" hearing a dispute involving the monastery of Volturno monastery by charter dated Jul 995, signed by "Oderisius comes, Monualdi comitis"[201].] 

iv)       [ATTO [II] .  [The Chronicon Vulturnense records "Atto comes et Oderisius comes" hearing a dispute involving the monastery of Volturno monastery by charter dated Jul 995, signed by "Oderisius comes, Monualdi comitis"[202].]  m ---.  The name of Azzo's wife is not known.  Azzo [II] & his wife had three children:

(a)       PONS .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Pontius filius Allonis de comitate Marsorum…una cum Berardo filie"[203]m ---.  The name of Pons's wife is not known.  Pons & his wife had one child:

(1)       BERARDO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Pontius filius Allonis de comitate Marsorum…una cum Berardo filie"[204]

(b)       LUPO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "abbati Lupus filius Azzoni de Aprutio"[205]

(c)       ADALBERTO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Adelpertus …Azzonis filius"[206]

 

 

[Three] brothers: 

1.         BERALDO (-[Sep 979/983]).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records "Beraldus comes et Rainaldus comes germani fratres" as part of the court hearing a claim against the monastery of Volturno, by charter dated 29 Aug 968[207].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[208].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment relating to Casauria´s land "in civitate Marsicana" in the presence of "Beraldi comitis et Teudini comitis" by charter dated Sep 970[209].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[210]

a)         BERARDO (-after 983).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment restoring property "in Caramanico et in Piccerico" to Casauria in the presence of "Oderisi comes…et Berardus et Walteri filii quondam Beraldi comitis" by charter dated 983[211]

b)         GUALTERI (-after 983).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment restoring property "in Caramanico et in Piccerico" to Casauria in the presence of "Oderisi comes…et Berardus et Walteri filii quondam Beraldi comitis" by charter dated 983[212]

2.         RINALDO (-[Sep 970/Aug 981]).  The Chronicon Vulturnense records "Beraldus comes et Rainaldus comes germani fratres" as part of the court hearing a claim against the monastery of Volturno, by charter dated 29 Aug 968[213].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[214]

3.         [TEUDINO (-[Sep 970/Aug 981]).  No direct confirmation has been found that Teudino was the brother of Beraldo and Rinaldo but this looks likely from the sources quoted below.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment relating to Casauria´s land "in civitate Marsicana" in the presence of "Beraldi comitis et Teudini comitis" by charter dated Sep 970[215].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[216].]  

 

 

RINALDO di Marsi, son of BERARDO [I] Conte di Marsi & his wife --- (-after 1 Feb 1000).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated to [989/96] under which his wife "Jesulfa comitissa quæ fuit uxor bonæ memorie Landoni comitis comitatu Teano et filia Attoni comitis…uxor…Rainaldi comiti filii bonæ recordatione Berardi comiti" donated property to Monte Cassino[217]Conte di Marsi.  "Otto…imperator augustus" names "Raynaldus et Oderisi germanis comitibus" and other residents of Marsi in a charter dated 9 Aug 981 relating to a dispute concerning property of San Vincenzo, Volturno and St Mary's convent at Apinianici[218].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" restoring property to Casauria in the court of "Arnulfus Comes, et Missus sacri Palatii et…Geboardus et Anfredus Missi sacri Palatii, et…Rainaldus comes et Teudinus comes et Oderisius comes" by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Arnolfi et Geboardi, comitis et Missi sacri Palatii, Ansfredi Missi sacri Palatii"[219].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Raynaldo comiti Marsorum", "Rainaldo et Oderisio Marsorum comitibus" and "Rainaldus comes Marsorum"[220].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that Roffrid Abbot of Volturno granted serfs to "Raynaldus comes filius quondam Berardi comiti ex natione Francorum…habitator in ducatu Spoletino" by charter dated Nov 988 at Marsi[221].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Raynaldus comes filius quondam Berardi comiti ex natione Francorum…habitator in Pago Marsorum" granted serfs to Volturno by charter dated 998[222]

m firstly ---.  The name of Rinaldo´s first wife is not known, but the chronology of his descendants suggests that his sons were born from an earlier marriage. 

m secondly (after Nov 986) as her second husand, GISULFA di Chieti, widow of LANDO Conte di Teano, daughter of ATTO Conte di Chieti & his wife --- (-after May 998).  "Jesulfa comitissa quæ fuit uxor bonæ memorie Landoni comitis comitatu Teano et filia Attoni comitis…uxor…Rainaldi comiti filii bonæ recordatione Berardi comiti" donated property to Monte Cassino by charter dated to [989/96][223].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius comes…Gervisæ coniugie suæ"[224].  "Gervisa comitissa filia Actoni comitis et uxor…Rainaldi comitis Marsicane urbis" donated property "in finibus comitatui Teanensis in loco Baccari et Corrigre…datum Landoni comitis anteriori viri mei…comes…Teanensis filius Atenolfi comitis" to Monte Cassino by charter dated May 998[225]

Rinaldo & his first wife had two children: 

1.         ODERISIO [I] (-after Jan 1012).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius comes Rainaldi filius", recording a donation of Casa Fortini to the monastery[226]Conte di Marsi.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Oderisius comes filius Rainaldi comitis" resolved a dispute between Farfa and "Rainaldum comitem" about "ecclesia Sancti Leucii in territorio Marsicano"[227]m GIBERGA, daughter of --- (-after Jan 1012).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius cum Gibborga coniuge" in recording their joint donations to the monastery[228]

2.         BERARDO [II] (-after Jan 1028).  Conte di Marsi.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio…Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi comitis" and in the presence of "Berardus comes filius Teodini comitis et Rustico comes qui rectum nomen Atto vocatur et Ugo comes filius Ameczoni et Ofredo comes filius Monaldi comitis et Albericus comes filius Actonis…" relating to property in Marsi by charter dated Jan 1028, signed by "Berardi comitis filii Todini, Belliczi comitis, Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi, Actonis comitis qui supranomen Rustico vocatur…"[229]m ---.  The name of Berardo's wife is not known.  Berardo & his wife had five children:

a)         ODERISIO [II] (-after 1077).  Amatus names Oderisius oldest brother of Berard Count of Marsi against whom the latter rebelled, specifying that he had seven sons, two of whom were bishops, a third a monk and a cardinal at Rome[230]Conte di Marsi.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Oderisius comes filius Berardi comitis, et Berardus et Oderisius filii Rainaldi, cum uxoribus suis" donated "res suas et castellum in Ophiano quod dicitur Montalianum" to Farfa, dated to 1074/75[231]m ---.  The name of Oderisio's wife is not known.  Oderisio [II] & his wife had eight children:

i)          ATTO ([1042]-[1071], bur Montecassino).  Amatus names "Bishop Atto" as son of Oderisio [II][232].  Bishop of Chieti 1057/[1071].  His epitaph records his death aged 38 and his burial at Montecassino[233]

ii)         ODERISIO (-2 Dec 1105).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisium Oderisii Marsorum comitis filium"[234].  Abbot of Montecassino 1087-1105.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius abbas…ex Marsorum comitum origine sanguine", recording that he was abbot for 18 years, and his death 2 Dec 1105[235]

iii)        TRASMUNDO (-1080 or after).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records the ordination at Monte Cassino of "Transmundum Oderisi Marsorum comitis filium"[236].  Abbot of the monastery of Santa Maria di Tremiti.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records the election of "the monk Transmund, a nobleman who was the brother of Oderisius the abbot of St Benedict" as Bishop of Valva in 1073[237]

iv)       BALDUINO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Balduinus comes filius Oderisii Marsorum comitis"[238]Conte di Marsim ---.  The name of Balduino's wife is not known.  Balduino & his wife had [two] children:

(a)       GENTILE .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Gentilis filius Balduini comitis…cum Transmundo nepote suo"[239]

(b)       [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

(1)       TRASMUNDO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Gentilis filius Balduini comitis…cum Transmundo nepote suo"[240]

v)        3 sons. 

vi)       POTARFRANDA .  Amatus names "Potarfranda" as sister of Bishop Atto who had promised her in marriage to "William's [=Guillaume de Montreuil] nephew who was called Mostrarole"[241]m GUILLAUME de Pont-Echanfrey, son of WALCHELIN de Pont-Echanfrey & his wife Heremburge ---. 

b)         BERARDO [III] (-after [1070/73]).  Conte di MarsiAmatus records that Berard Count of Marsi "through insatiable greed and desire for wealth fell out with his brother[s]"[242].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Berardus filius Berardi comitis" donated "ecclesiam Sancte Trinitatis in Avezano" to Farfa, dated to 1061[243].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Berardo comiti Marsorum"[244]m ROGATA, daughter of ---.  "Berardus comite filius qd Berardi comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the souls of "frater meus Ladolfus et animam Rogata ussorem meam", by charter dated 1062[245].  Berardo & his wife had [three] children:

i)          BERARDO .  Amatus names Berard as eldest son of Berard [III], specifying that he was ransomed at the time of his father's rebellion[246]Conte di Marsi.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Berardus comes filius Berardi Marsorum comitis", recording his donation of the castle of Roscolu to the monastery[247].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis also names "Berardus Marsorum comes" recording another donation but it is not known whether this relates to the same person[248]

ii)         RAINALDO (-before 1096).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Adelgrima comitissa filia Pandulfi principis Capuana…relicta Raynaldi comitis filii Berardi comitis"[249]Conte di Marsim ADELGRIMA di Capua, daughter of PANDULF IV Prince of Capua & his wife --- (-1096 or after).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Adelgrima comitissa filia Pandulfi principis Capuana…relicta Raynaldi comitis filii Berardi comitis", living in Auricula castle in Carseolano, and making a donation of four castles to Monte Cassino in 1096 (Mar 1096 in the margin)[250].  "Adelgrima quoque comitissa filia Pandulfi principis Capuani, habitatrix in territorio Carseolano, in castello…Auricula, relicta Raynaldi comitis filii Berardi comitis" made a donation of four castles in Carseolano in 1096[251]

iii)        [ODERISIO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Theodonis quoque et Oderisius atque Bernardus Balvenses comites", although there is nothing to link this to the Marsi family apart from the unusual name Oderisio[252]m ---.  The name of Oderisio's wife is not known.  Oderisio & his wife had one child:

(a)       BERARDO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Berardus comes filius Oderisii Sangretani comitis" recording his donation to the monastery, but it is not known to which "Odesirio" this refers[253]

c)         RINALDO .  "Marsorum comites Oderisius et Rainaldus" are named in the Chronica Mon. Casinensisn[254].  It is assumed from this text that they were brothers although this is not stated explicitly.  1054/70. 

d)         PANDULFO .  Amatus names Pandulf, brother of Berardo [III], and records his persecution by the latter[255].  Bishop of Marsia 1057/[1094/96].  "Berardus comite filius qd Berardi comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the souls of "frater meus Ladolfus et animam Rogata ussorem meam", by charter dated 1062[256]

e)         SIGENOLFO (-after 1062).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Sigenolfus filius Berardi comitis" donated "ecclesiam Sancti Vicenti" to Farfa, dated to 1062[257]

3.         DODA di Marsi (-after Jul 1011).  "Dodæ uxoris meæ et filiæ cuiusdam Rainaldi comitis" is named in a charter of Otto dated Jul 1011[258]m OTTO Conte di Rieti, son of OCTAVIANO Conte di Rieti & his wife Rogata senatrix (-[1036]). 

 

 

1.         BERARDOm ZITA, daughter of --- (-after 1083).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Teudinus comes filius Berardi comitis cum Zita genetrice sua et Gaita uxore sua" donated "medietatem monasterii Sancti Laurentii in Picta et medietatem de castello Caput Farfa et medietatem Cerreti mali…" to Farfa, dated to 1083[259].  Berardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         TODINO (-after 1083).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Todinum Berardi Marsorum comitis filium"[260]. The Chronicon Farfense records that "Teudinus comes filius Berardi comitis cum Zita genetrice sua et Gaita uxore sua" donated "medietatem monasterii Sancti Laurentii in Picta et medietatem de castello Caput Farfa et medietatem Cerreti mali…" to Farfa, dated to 1083[261]m GAITA, daughter of --- (-after 1083).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Teudinus comes filius Berardi comitis cum Zita genetrice sua et Gaita uxore sua" donated "medietatem monasterii Sancti Laurentii in Picta et medietatem de castello Caput Farfa et medietatem Cerreti mali…" to Farfa, dated to 1083[262]

 

2.         ODERISIOm ---.  The name of Oderisio´s wife is not known.  Oderisio & his wife had one child: 

a)         PANDULFO (-after 5 Oct 1130).  Roger II King of Sicily confirmed a donation to Santa Maria della Noce, near Belmonte by "Pandulfum filium comitis Oderisii" by charter dated 5 Oct 1130[263]

 

 

Brother and sister, parents not identified: 

1.         BERARDO

2.         daughter .  The Annales Casenses record the marriage in 1193 of "Bertoldus" and "sororem comitis Berardi relictam comitis Roberti di Caserta"[264]m firstly ROBERTO di Sanseverino Conte di Caserta, son of --- (-1183).  m secondly (1193) as his second wife, BERTHOLD [II] Markgraf von Vohburg, son of BERTHOLD [I] Markgraf von Vohburg & his wife --- (-25 May 1204). 

 

 

1.         ODERISIO (-1126).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Oderisius abbas…ex sangrorum comiteum prosapia", recording his appointment in 1123, that he was abbot for 3 years, and his death in 1126[265]

 

 

 

H.      OTHER COUNTS in ABRUZZO

 

 

1.         BERNARDO (-after [1038]).  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" commanded "Bernardo et filiis eius Beraldo et eius fratribus comitibus et Rainaldi filiis ac Alberici filiis et Iohannis filiis atque Luponis filiis" to protect the monastery of Casa at Pescara by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1038[266]m ---.  The name of Bernardo's wife is not known.  Bernardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERALDO (-after [1038]).  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" commanded "Bernardo et filiis eius Beraldo et eius fratribus comitibus et Rainaldi filiis ac Alberici filiis et Iohannis filiis atque Luponis filiis" to protect the monastery of Casa at Pescara by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1038[267]

 

 

2.         DONADEO (-before Dec 1052).  m EMILIA, daughter of --- (-after Dec 1052).  "Domna Imilia…Comitissa, que olim Domnus Donadeus conjugem fuit" donated property to Subiaco monastery, for the souls of "quondam Johannis…de Bene et Donadei et Domna Ista et Johanne filio meo", by charter dated Dec 1052[268].  Donadeo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GIOVANNI (-[before Dec 1052]).  "Domna Imilia…Comitissa, que olim Domnus Donadeus conjugem fuit" donated property to Subiaco monastery, for the souls of "quondam Johannis…de Bene et Donadei et Domna Ista et Johanne filio meo", by charter dated Dec 1052[269].  The wording of this charter suggests that Emilia´s son was deceased at the time. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    COUNTIES in LAZIO

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Lazio lies to the north and south of the city of Rome on the western side of the Italian peninsula, to the west of the region of Abruzzo.  The counties in this area were mainly under Papal jurisdiction.  In addition to the counties whose families are shown in this chapter, the medieval counties of Anagni, Atina, Campagna, Sora, Terracina, Tivoli, Tuscania, Velletri, Veroli, and Vicalvi have been identified in the area, but no information has yet been found on their counts. 

 

 

 

A.      CONTI di AQUINO

 

 

The Conti di Aquino are one of the few examples of a Lombard family who retained their position under the Norman rulers.  Aquino is located in the province of Frosinone in the south-east corner of the present-day Italian region of Lazio, near the border with Campania. 

 

 

1.         RODIPERT, son of --- (-[946/48])Gastaldo di Aquino.  m MEGALU di Gaeta, daughter of DOCIBILIS [I] Lord of Gaeta & his wife Matrona --- (-after 906).  The testament of "Docibilis ypatus civitatis istius Gaietane", dated 906, names his wife (and her father) and his children (in order) "Bona, Maria, Euphemia, Jean, Léon, Anatole, Megalu"[270].  Rodipert & his wife had five children: 

a)         SICONULF (-before [946/48]).  Gastaldo di Aquinom ---.  The name of Siconulf´s wife is not known.  Siconulf & his wife had one child: 

i)          ATENOLF [I] .  "Adenolfi castaldi filii Sichenolfi" is named in an undated charter[271].  Conte d´Aquino.  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis names "Aquinenses…Adenulfus…cognomento Megalu in castaldeum"[272]m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf [I] & his wife had three children: 

(a)       SICONULF .  The descendants of Siconulf are described by Stasser, who cites, but does not quote extracts from, various different primary and secondary sources which confirm the relationships[273]

-         CONTI di PONTECORVO

(b)       ATENOLF

-         CONTI di PONTECORVO

(c)       GUIDO (-after 998)Conte di Pontecorvo

b)         ATENOLF .  "Atenolfus iudex et Pando germani filii bone memorie Rodiperti castaldi…Pandenolfi et Landoni germanibus nostris" are named in an undated charter[274].  

c)         PANDO .  "Atenolfus iudex et Pando germani filii bone memorie Rodiperti castaldi…Pandenolfi et Landoni germanibus nostris" are named in an undated charter[275].  

d)         LANDO .  "Atenolfus iudex et Pando germani filii bone memorie Rodiperti castaldi…Pandenolfi et Landoni germanibus nostris" are named in an undated charter[276].  

e)         PANDENOLF [Marald] .  "Atenolfus iudex et Pando germani filii bone memorie Rodiperti castaldi…Pandenolfi et Landoni germanibus nostris…Pandenolfo qui Maraldo clamor filius bone memorie Rodiperti castaldi" are named in an undated charter[277].  

 

 

1.         ATENOLF [III] "Summucula" (-after 1021).  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis names "in Aquinensi gastaldatu Adenulfus cognomento Summucula, abavus…eorum qui nunc dicuntur Aquinensium comitum"[278].  The descendants of Atenolf [III] are described by Stasser, who cites, but does not quote extracts from, various different primary and secondary sources which confirm the relationships[279]m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf [III] & his wife had one child: 

a)         ATENOLF [IV] (-[1033/38]).  m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf [IV] & his wife had five children: 

i)          ATENOLF [V] di Aquino (-2 Feb 1062)Atenulf was captured by knights of Guaimar IV Prince of Salerno, but was released in exchange for Richer abbot of Monte Cassino whom Atenulf's brother Lando had captured[280].  He was installed as ATENULF I Duke of Gaeta in 1045.  Gaetans are recorded as having participated in the unsuccessful papal expedition against the Normans in 1052[281].  After the death of his son, Atenulf refused to transfer property to the daughter of Richard Prince of Capua who thereupon besieged Aquino[282]m (before 1038) MARIA of Capua, daughter of PANDOLF IV Prince of Capua & his wife Maria ---.  Amatus names "two brothers Atenulf and Lando…Counts of Aquino, who were well disposed to Pandulf because they had married his two daughters"[283].  Senatrix.  She was regent for her minor son Duke Atenulf II after the death of her husband.  She concluded an anti-Norman pact with the counts of Traetto, Maranola and Suio in 1062[284].  Guillaume de Montreuil, son-in-law of Richard Prince of Capua, plotted to marry her after repudiating his wife, but Richard Prince of Capua deflected her by promising that she should marry his son Jordan[285], although this proposal is surprising in light of the considerable difference in age between the two.  Adenolfo & his wife had three children: 

(a)       son (-Autumn 1058).  Amatus records the betrothal of Richard's daughter to "the Duke of Gaeta's son" and the latter's death before the marriage could take place[286]Betrothed (1058) to --- of Capua, daughter of RICHARD I Prince of Capua & his wife Frédésende de Hauteville. 

(b)       ATENOLF (-after Oct 1064).  He succeeded his father in 1061 as ATENULFO II Duke of Gaeta, under the regency of his mother.  He was deposed in 1062 by Jordan I Prince of Capua, although dating clauses in documents suggest that he was permitted to continue to rule jointly until 1064[287].  Amatus records that "count Atenulf of Aquino, with his brother Lando of Traetto and Lando's son Peter" joined the conspiracy of Guillaume de Montreuil in 1064[288].  He rebelled against Richard Prince of Capua[289].  He witnessed a document of Geoffroy Ridell Duke of Gaeta[290]

(c)       EMILIA .  Landolf donated property to Cava for the soul of "Imilie…coniugis mee filie quondam domni Adenolfi ducis Gagete civitatis" by charter dated Mar 1092[291]m LANDOLF di Salerno, son of GUAIMAR IV Prince of Salerno & his wife Gemma di Capua (-after Mar 1092). 

ii)         LANDO [II] di Aquino (-[1053/65]).  Amatus names "two brothers Atenulf and Lando…Counts of Aquino, who were well disposed to Pandulf because they had married his two daughters", the marriages presumably both dated to before 1038[292]m SICHELGAITA of Capua, daughter of PANDOLF IV Prince of Capua & his wife Maria ---.  Amatus names "two brothers Atenulf and Lando…Counts of Aquino, who were well disposed to Pandulf because they had married his two daughters", the marriages presumably both dated to before 1038[293].  "Adenulfus comes et Landulfus comes et Pandulfus comes et Lando comes Aquinensis et filii Landonis comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the soul of "genitricis nostre Sikelgardæ", by charter dated 1105[294].  It is possible that she was "Sicelgarda comitissa" whose death is recorded 9 Sep in a necrology of Benevento[295].  Lando & his wife had four children: 

(a)       ATENOLF [VI] (-after 1105).  "Adenulfus comes et Landulfus comes et Pandulfus comes et Lando comes Aquinensis et filii Landonis comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the soul of "genitricis nostre Sikelgardæ", by charter dated 1105[296]m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf [VI] & his wife had [two] children: 

(1)       ATENOLF [VII] (-after 1109). 

(2)       [daughter .  m PALDO di Venafro, son of ---. 

(b)       LANDULF [IV] (-after 1105).  Amatus records that, at the time of the siege of Aquino by Robert "Guiscard", "the counts of Aquino were divided…Atenulf and Landulf remained in the prince's service but Pandulf and Lando sided with Roger"[297].   "Adenulfus comes et Landulfus comes et Pandulfus comes et Lando comes Aquinensis et filii Landonis comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the soul of "genitricis nostre Sikelgardæ", by charter dated 1105[298]

(c)       PANDULF [III] (-after 1105).  Amatus records that "Atenulf defended the city [of Aquino]" against Guillaume de Montreuil "while his brother Pandulf guarded his castello of Piedimonte"[299].  "Adenulfus comes et Landulfus comes et Pandulfus comes et Lando comes Aquinensis et filii Landonis comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the soul of "genitricis nostre Sikelgardæ", by charter dated 1105[300]

(d)       LANDO [III] (-after [1064/65]).  Amatus records that "count Atenulf of Aquino, with his brother Lando of Traetto and Lando's son Peter" joined the conspiracy of Guillaume de Montreuil in 1064[301].  As is seen above, earlier lords of Traetto belonged to a younger branch of the Dukes of Gaeta.  The only possible "Lando of Traetto" in that family to whom this can refer had no brothers Atenulf and Pandulf.  Either Traetto was recently transferred to this Lando or "Traetto" is an error in the text of Amatus.  Assuming Lando is correctly identified here, he and his brother joining the conspiracy of Guillaume de Montreuil in 1064 is explained by their mother being the person whom Guillaume was plotting to marry.  This relationship is not stated in Amatus.  He was installed as LANDO Duke of Gaeta in [1064/65].  "Adenulfus comes et Landulfus comes et Pandulfus comes et Lando comes Aquinensis et filii Landonis comitis" donated property to the church of Santo Marciano, for the soul of "genitricis nostre Sikelgardæ", by charter dated 1105[302]m ---.  Amatus records that Lando "wanted to cast off his wife" in order to marry the daughter of Richard Prince of Capua[303].  Lando & his wife had one child: 

(1)       PIETRO (-after 1064).  Amatus records that "count Atenulf of Aquino, with his brother Lando of Traetto and Lando's son Peter" joined the conspiracy of Guillaume de Montreuil in 1064[304]

iii)        PIETRO (-after 1142). 

iv)       SICONULF [III] . 

v)        LANDOLF [III] . 

 

 

1.         LANDO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Lando et Adelulfus Aquinenses comites" (Jul 1108 in the margin)[305]m ---.  The name of Lando's wife is not known.  Lando & his wife had two children: 

a)         LANDO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Lando…filius Landonis comitis"[306]

b)         PANDOLFO (-after [1127]).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records a donation by "Pandulfus filius Landonis Aquinensis comitis" of a wood at Tyrilla in [1127][307]

2.         ADELOLFO .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Lando et Adelulfus Aquinenses comites" (Jul 1108 in the margin)[308]

 

 

1.         RINALDO di Aquino (-after 1197).  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Raynaldus de Aquino" holding "de Domino Rege in demanio Roccam Siccam…et Casali Cantalupi et tertiam partem Aquini" in "domini de Aquino", with "feudum III militum et cum augmento…milites XVIII"[309].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Oddo frater ipsius [=Dyopoldi]" in 1197 when recording his attacking "rocam Siccam" where "Raynaldus et Landulfus de Aquino fratres ipsius" were resisting the Emperor[310]m CECILIA di Medania, daughter of ROBERT de Meduana Conte di Buonalbergo & his wife Judith ---.  Rinaldo had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

a)         FINAGRANO (-after 1201).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Finagramum, domini Raynaldi di Aquino filium naturalem" in 1201 when recording that Gauthier de Brienne ordered that the city of Aquino be restored to its former lords after it was captured from Diepold von Vohburg[311]

2.         LANDOLFO di Aquino (-after 1197).  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Landulphus de Aquino" holding "a Domino Rege Septem Fratres…et octavam partem Aquini" in "domini de Aquino", with "feudum I militis et cum augmento…milites VIII"[312].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Oddo frater ipsius [=Dyopoldi]" in 1197 when recording his attacking "rocam Siccam" where "Raynaldus et Landulfus de Aquino fratres ipsius" were resisting the Emperor[313]

 

3.         PANDOLFO di Aquino .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Dominus Pandulphus de Aquino" holding "Rotellum" in Capitinata from "episcopus Forconen", with "I militis et dimidii"[314]

 

4.         ADENOLFO [II] di Aquino (-after 1210).  m ---.  The name of Adenolfo´s wife is not known.  Adenolfo [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         TOMASO [I] di Aquino (-27 Feb 1251)Conte di Acerra 1220.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Thomas de Aquino factus Acerrarum comes" was made "magister iustitiarius" of "Apuliæ et terre laboris" in 1221[315]

-        CONTI d´ACERRA

 

5.         LANDOLFO di Aquino .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Landulfo de Aquino…Adenulfo de Aquino filio Thome de Aquino Acerrarum comitis…domino etiam de Aquino Pandulfus et Robbertus Aquinum" supported imperial forces in 1229[316]m ---.  The name of Landolfo´s wife is not known.  Landolfo & his wife had two children: 

a)         TOMMASO di Aquino ([Roccasecca, Lazio or Belcastro, Calabria 28 Jan 1225]-Fossanuova 7 Mar 1274).  The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that "Thomas de Aquino ordinis Prædicatorum...frater comitis de Aquino" was canonised in 1323[317]

b)         TEODORA di Aquino (-after 1294).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ([1246/56]) as his second wife, RUGGIERO di Sanseverino Conte di Marsico, son of TOMMASO di Sanseverino Conte di Marsico & his wife --- (-[1281/86]). 

 

6.         PANDOLFO di Aquino .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Landulfo de Aquino…Adenulfo de Aquino filio Thome de Aquino Acerrarum comitis…domino etiam de Aquino Pandulfus et Robbertus Aquinum" supported imperial forces in 1229[318]

 

7.         ROBERTO di Aquino .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Landulfo de Aquino…Adenulfo de Aquino filio Thome de Aquino Acerrarum comitis…domino etiam de Aquino Pandulfus et Robbertus Aquinum" supported imperial forces in 1229[319]

 

8.         ANDREA di Aquino (-after Aug 1252).  "Conr. rex" wrote to "Andreæ de Aquino" forgiving his transgressions and confirming "terram tam ex paterno et materno jure, quam ex concessione d´Augusti domini patris sui", dated Aug 1252[320]

 

9.         TOMMASO di Aquino .  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "castrum S. Martini in Valle Candina" was restored to "domine Zanfredine filie q. d. Marini di Ebulo et d. Thomasio de Aquino eius viro", which had been confiscated by Manfredo King of Sicily who imprisoned and blinded "dictum d. Marinum et Riccardum filium" who died in prison[321]m ZANFREDINA di Eboli, daughter of MARINO di Eboli & his wife ---.  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "castrum S. Martini in Valle Candina" was restored to "domine Zanfredine filie q. d. Marini di Ebulo et d. Thomasio de Aquino eius viro", which had been confiscated by Manfredo King of Sicily who imprisoned and blinded "dictum d. Marinum et Riccardum filium" who died in prison[322]

 

 

 

B.      CONTI di CALENO

 

 

The ancestry of Bartolomeo di Caleno, father of Riccardo di Aquila Duke of Gaeta, is not known.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to the earlier part of the period [1166/89], records "comes Jonathas" holding "de principatu Capuæ Calenum…et Ayrola…et Sanctum Martinum"[323].  It appears that "comes Jonathas" can be identified as the son of Riccardo Conte di Carinola, Duke of Gaeta, who was apparently the son of Bartolomeo di Aversa Conte di Carinola, son of Richard I Prince of Capua (see SOUTHERN ITALY (1)).  The use of the names Bartolomeo and Riccardo in the family shown below suggests a connection with that branch of the conte di Aversa. 

 

 

1.         LANDENOLF (-[after 1076]).  Conte di Caleno.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that "Landenulfus qui fuerat comes Caleni" donated "de alveo fluminis Gariliani" to Monte Cassino, located in the text before the record of a donation which is dated to "Feb 1076" in the margin of the MGH edition[324]

 

 

1.         BARTOLOMEO di Calenom ---.  The name of Bartolomeo´s wife is not known.  Bartolomeo & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         RICCARDO di Aquila (-1111).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Richardus de Aquila…Bartholomei de Caleno filius"[325]The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that "Leo et Girardus Fundani consules…cum Richardo cognomento de Aquila" donated the church of San Onofrio di Fundi to Monte Cassino, dated to "Sep 1072" in the margin of the MGH edition[326].  Conte di Pica.  "Richardus…comes de castello Pico qui vocor de Aquila" donated four monasterios to Monte Cassino by charter dated Apr 1091[327].  "Riccardus de Aquila" donated property by charter dated Apr 1105, subscribed by "Andreas filius Richardi de Aquila, Gaufridus de Aquila…Rainaldus de Aquila…Walterus de Aquila"[328].  He was installed by the Capuans as RICCARDO Duke of Gaeta in 1105.  "Riccardus dux Gaietanorum et comes Suessanorum" donated property for the souls of "uxorisque mee Ringarde et filiorum meorum Andree et Peregrini" by charter dated Sep 1105[329].  He ruled until 1112 when he was replaced by a younger branch of the family of the princes of Capua[330].  The Chronicon Fossæ Novæ records the death in 1111 of "Richardus de Aquila"[331]m as her first husband, RANGARDA, daughter of --- after [19 Feb 1115]).  "Riccardus dux Gaietanorum et comes Suessanorum" donated property for the souls of "uxorisque mee Ringarde et filiorum meorum Andree et Peregrini" by charter dated Sep 1105[332].  Stasser suggests that she was Rangarda, daughter of [Marinus [III] Duke of Gaeta & his wife Rangarda ---], granddaughter of Marinus II Duke of Fondi, from the former inherited the church of Sa n Onofrio di Fundi[333].  If this is correct, her father was probably Marinus [III], whose wife was recorded with the same name Rangarda.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Richardus de Aquila…Bartholomei de Caleno filius" and his wife "Rangarda", the date "Feb 19 1115" in the margin in the edition consulted[334].  She married secondly (after 1111) Alessandro di Carinola.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that, after the death of "Richardi de Aquila", the castle of Suio (previously donated to Monte Cassino) was wrongfully retained by "Alexandro" who married "uxorem eiusdem Richardi", but that the inhabitants incited the abbot of Monte Cassino to capture Alessandro, after which "Rangarda…uxor præphati Richardi" captured "turrem quæ Ad mare dicitur", dated to "Feb 19 1115" in the margin of the MGH edition[335].  Riccardo & his wife had four children: 

i)          ANDREA (-Apr 1113).  "Riccardus de Aquila" donated property by charter dated Apr 1105, subscribed by "Andreas filius Richardi de Aquila, Gaufridus de Aquila…Rainaldus de Aquila…Walterus de Aquila"[336].  "Riccardus dux Gaietanorum et comes Suessanorum" donated property for the souls of "uxorisque mee Ringarde et filiorum meorum Andree et Peregrini" by charter dated Sep 1105[337].  He succeeded his father as titular Duke of Gaeta. 

ii)         PEREGRINO (-after Sep 1105).  "Riccardus dux Gaietanorum et comes Suessanorum" donated property for the souls of "uxorisque mee Ringarde et filiorum meorum Andree et Peregrini" by charter dated Sep 1105[338]

i)          GOFFREDO (-14 Jan 1148).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Goffridus filius Richardi de Aquila" with "Richardo Caleni domini et Raone Rahelis filio" recaptured "castrum Suium", (1126 in the margin of the MGH edition)[339].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1126 "castellum Suio" was occupied by "filio Ricchardi de Aquila"[340]m ADELISA di Teano, daughter of RAO Signore di Teano & his wife Agnes --- (-after 14 Jan 1148).  "Rao filius quondam Rahelis Thianæ civitatis dominus" donated property for the souls of "Agnetis uxoris meæ ac Goffredi de Aquila generi mei et Aderictiæ filiæ meæ uxoris suæ" by undated charter[341].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Riccardus filius Goffridi de Aquila et mater eius Adelitis" holding "Traiectum…et Itrum…Fundos…Monticellum…Pastinam…et Vallem de Cors…et in Gaieta…et in Pontecurvo", with "[feudum] XXXIV et augmentum eius…milites XLVI et medius, inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXXX" and lists his feeholders[342].  Goffredo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RICCARDO .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Riccardus filius Goffridi de Aquila et mater eius Adelitis" holding "Traiectum…et Itrum…Fundos…Monticellum…Pastinam…et Vallem de Cors…et in Gaieta…et in Pontecurvo", with "[feudum] XXXIV et augmentum eius…milites XLVI et medius, inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXXX" and lists his feeholders[343].  He was appointed Conte di Fondi in 1168 when Richard de Say was appointed Count of Gravina[344].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Riccardus de Fundis" holding "de eodem comite…de Campo Claro…de Caprata…de Gualdo", with "de proprio feudo suo milites VI et augmentum…milites XII" and listing his feeholders[345]

-         CONTI di FONDI

ii)         RICCARDO (-[after 1154]).  "Richard frère de Geoffroy d´Aquila" is named in a charter dated May 1132[346].  [The Ignoti Monachi Chronica records that in the first year of the reign of Guillaume I King of Sicily, [1154/55], "Robertus, qui fuerat princeps Capuanus, Robertus comes de Lauritello consanguineus regis et comes Andreas nepos condam Raynulfi" by whom he had "filium Symonem, quem constituit principem Capue" invaded the kingdom "cum Grecorum exercitu" and subjugated "totam Apuliam et Terram Laboris", and that "Robertus" was captured "in flumine Gariliano a comite Riccardo de Aquila" and sent to the king as a prisoner[347].  It is not known whether the latter reference is to Riccardo, to his son of the same or to his nephew Riccardo son of Goffredo.]  m ---.  The name of Riccardo´s wife is not known.  Riccardo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RICCARDO .  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Riccardus de Aquila" holding "demanium suum de Calvo…et Riardum", with "milites XXI et augmentum eius…milites XXI…inter proprium feudum et augmentum milites XLII" and listing his feeholders[348].  [Conte di Caleno.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Riccardus Caleni comes", who supported King Tancred, destroyed "Sanctum Germanum cum Rogerio de Foresta castellano Atini" in 1192[349].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Guilielmo Caserte comes" supported Emperor Heinrich VI against King Tancred, when recounting that he captured "Riccardum Caleni comitem" at Capua and took him to "roccam Arcis", in 1192[350].  It is not known whether this is the same person as Riccardo, son of Riccardo.  It could not have been his first cousin Riccardo who is referred to as conte di Fondi in the same source.]  m MATILDA Avenel, daughter of RAINALD Avenel & his wife Adelisa di Montescaglioso.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  

b)         [GOFFREDO (-after Apr 1105).  "Riccardus de Aquila" donated property by charter dated Apr 1105, subscribed by "Andreas filius Richardi de Aquila, Gaufridus de Aquila…Rainaldus de Aquila…Walterus de Aquila"[351].  The relationship between the donor and the last three subscribers is not specified.  It is possible that they were brothers or more remote relations.] 

c)         [RAINALDO (-after Apr 1105).  "Riccardus de Aquila" donated property by charter dated Apr 1105, subscribed by "Andreas filius Richardi de Aquila, Gaufridus de Aquila…Rainaldus de Aquila…Walterus de Aquila"[352].  The relationship between the donor and the last three subscribers is not specified.  It is possible that they were brothers or more remote relations.] 

d)         [GALTERO (-after Apr 1105).  "Riccardus de Aquila" donated property by charter dated Apr 1105, subscribed by "Andreas filius Richardi de Aquila, Gaufridus de Aquila…Rainaldus de Aquila…Walterus de Aquila"[353].  The relationship between the donor and the last three subscribers is not specified.  It is possible that they were brothers or more remote relations.] 

 

 

2.         RICCARDO di Aquila (-24 Sep 1152).  He was installed as Conte di Avellino before 1144 by Roger I King of Sicily. 

-        CONTI di AVELLINO

 

 

1.         ROBERTO di Aquilam ---.  The name of Roberto's wife is not known.  Roberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         RICCARDO di Aquila (-after 1229).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Bartholomeus…de Supino, qui castrum tenebat Sancti Iohannis de Incarica, et Ryccardus filius domini Robberti de Aquila, qui dominus erat Pastine" were routed in 1229[354].  Signore di Pastine. 

 

 

 

C.      CONTI di CASTELLANA

 

 

1.         RANIERIm ---.  The name of Ranieri´s wife is not known.  Ranieri & his wife had one child: 

a)         SAXO (-after 1072).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Saxo comes filius Rainerii comitis" donated "medietatem Civitatis Veccle cum ecclesiis et monasteriis, excepta ecclesia Sancti Silvestri" to Farfa, dated to 1072[355]Conte di Castellanam ---.  The name of Saxo's wife is not known.  Saxo & his wife had one child: 

i)          RANIERI (-after 1091).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Rainerius comes filius Saxonis comitis de comitatu Civitatus Castellane cum Stephania uxoris sua" donated "ecclesiam Sancti Laurentii in territorio Carcari, comitatu Centucellensi, iuxta mare magnum in loco…Heriflumen" to Farfa, dated to 1066[356]Conte di Castellana.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the privileges of Farfa monastery by charter dated 1084 which includes a record of property donated by "Rainerius comes filius Saxonis comitis…et filius eiusdem Rainerii Saxonis"[357].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Rainerius filius Zaczonis cum Roccia uxor sua" donated "res suas immobiles in castro Greccie" to Farfa, dated to 1091[358]m firstly STEFANIA, daughter of --- (-after 1066).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Rainerius comes filius Saxonis comitis de comitatu Civitatus Castellane cum Stephania uxoris sua" donated "ecclesiam Sancti Laurentii in territorio Carcari, comitatu Centucellensi, iuxta mare magnum in loco…Heriflumen" to Farfa, dated to 1066[359]m secondly ROCCIA, daughter of --- (-after 1091).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Rainerius filius Zaczonis cum Roccia uxor sua" donated "res suas immobiles in castro Greccie" to Farfa, dated to 1091[360].  Rainerio & his first wife had one child:

(a)       --- .  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the privileges of Farfa monastery by charter dated 1084 which includes a record of property donated by "Rainerius comes filius Saxonis comitis…et filius eiusdem Rainerii Saxonis"[361]

 

2.         RANIERI (-before 12 Feb 1085).  m ROGATA, daughter of --- (-after 12 Feb 1085).  "Donna Rogata…comitissa atque [patron]…de ecclesia Sancti Maniliani" donated "tore in castellione de Mingano in territorio Polimarci", for the soul of "Rainerio…comes qui fuit viro meo", by charter dated 12 Feb 1085[362].  

 

 

 

D.      CONTI di CECCANO

 

 

Ceccano is located in the central part of the present-day Italian region of Lazio, south of the town of Frosinone.  Primary sources record counts of Ceccano from the early 12th century, notably the Annales Ceccanenses, but it has not so far been possible to reconstruct the comital line completely. 

 

 

1.         GREGORIO (-20 Sep 1104).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1104 XII Kal Oct" of "Gregorius comes Ceccani"[363]

 

 

2.         GODEFRIDO (-1131).  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "Gottifredus, Landulfus, Raynaldus" swore allegiance to the Pope in 1125[364].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "Godefridus et Rainaldus comites Caccani" captured many towns in 1128[365].  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death of "Gottifridus comes" in 1131[366]

3.         LANDULFO (-11 Apr 1153).  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "Gottifredus, Landulfus, Raynaldus" swore allegiance to the Pope in 1125[367].  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1153 III Id Apr" of "Landulfus comes Ceccani"[368].  m ---.  The name of Landulfo's wife is not known.  Landulfo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GODEFRIDO (-17 Oct 1143).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1143 XVI Kal Nov" of "Guttifredus filius domini Landulfi"[369]

4.         RAINALDO (-after 1128).  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "Gottifredus, Landulfus, Raynaldus" swore allegiance to the Pope in 1125[370].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "Godefridus et Rainaldus comites Caccani" captured many towns in 1128[371]

 

 

5.         GREGORIO (-1162).  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "Gregorius comes Ceccani" acquired "Carpenatam in octava sanctæ Mariæ" in 1157[372].  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death in 1162 of "comes Gregorius Ceccani"[373]

 

6.         GUIDO (1 or 7 Oct 1169).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1169 Non Kal Oct" of "Guido de Ceccano comes"[374]

 

7.         LANDOLFO (-16 May 1182).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1182 17 Kal Iun" of "Landalfus comes Ceccani"[375]

a)         sons .  The Annales Ceccanenses record that in Nov 1182 "filii Landulfi de Ceccano" handed over the castle to Pope Lucio[376]

b)         MABILIA .  The Annales Ceccanenses record the marriage "1188 8 Id Nov" of "Mobilia filia Landulfi de Ceccano" and "comiti Iacobo de Triearico"[377]m (6 Nov 1188) GIACOPO di Triarico, son of ---. 

 

8.         IOHANNES (-after Aug 1216).  The Annales Ceccanenses record "1190 10 Kal Ian" that "Iohannes de Ceccano gladio militiæ acciactus est"[378].  The Annales Ceccanenses record that "domni Iohannes de Ceccano" captured and set fire "1216 III Kal Aug" to "castrum Moroli"[379]m (1189) ROGASIATA di Celano, daughter of PIETRO Conte di Celano & his wife ---.  The Annales Ceccanenses record the marriage in 1189 of "Rogasiatam filiam comitis Petri de Celano" and "Iohannes de Ceccano"[380]

 

 

1.         LANDULFO (-2 Sep 1143).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1143 4 Non Sep" of "Landulfus de Sancto Iohanne"[381]

 

2.         LANDULFO Pufano (-22 Mar 1144).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1144 11 Kal Apr" of "Landulfus Pufanus"[382]

 

3.         ADINULFO di Arpino (-Feb 1169).  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death in Feb 1169 of "Adinulfus de Arpino apud Ceccanum"[383]

 

 

 

E.      DUKES of FONDI, CONTI di FONDI

 

 

In the late 870s, Pope John VIII transferred the papal patrimonies of Fondi and Traetto to Docibilis Lord of Gaeta and his son Ioannes (see the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1)) in return for breaking their pact with the Saracens[384].  Docibilis Duke of Gaeta granted the duchy of Fondi to his son Marinus, who later succeeded as duke of Gaeta: a charter dated Feb 945 records that "Docibilis…dux istius civitatis" gave property to "Marinus dux civitatis Fundane…filio nostro"[385].  Duke Marinus granted the duchy to his two sons Marinus and Leo, who are shown below.  Their descendants ruled Fondi until the late 1130s.  Members of the Aquila family are recorded as conti di Fondi from the 1150s.  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Riccardus de Fundis" holding "de eodem comite…de Campo Claro…de Caprata…de Gualdo", with "de proprio feudo suo milites VI et augmentum…milites XII" and listing his feeholders[386].  The same source records "Riccardus filius Goffridi de Aquila et mater eius Adelitis" holding "Traiectum…et Itrum…Fundos…Monticellum…Pastinam…et Vallem de Cors…et in Gaieta…et in Pontecurvo"[387].  It has not so far proved possible to reconstruct the family of the Aquila counts of Fondi completely.  Manfredo King of Sicily granted the county of Fondi to his maternal uncle Galvano di Lancia.  No information has so far been found about the fate of the county after the arrival in the kingdom of Sicily of the Angevin dynasty. 

 

 

Brothers: 

1.         MARINUS [II] di Gaeta, son of MARINUS Duke of Gaeta & his wife Maria --- (-after Jul 1008).  A charter dated Mar 999 records the presence of "domni Iohanni et domni Iohanni patri et filio…consulis et ducis" in the court of "domnum Marinum ducem Fundanum et domnum Dauferium comitem Traiectum et domnum Docibilem filium domni Gregorii duci"[388]Duke of Fondi.  A charter dated Mar 999 records the presence of "domni Iohanni et domni Iohanni patri et filio…consulis et ducis" in the court of "domnum Marinum ducem Fundanum et domnum Dauferium comitem Traiectum et domnum Docibilem filium domni Gregorii duci"[389].  "Domnum Dauferium comitem Traiectane civitatis" recognised that half of Spinium belonged to Bishop Bernard by charter dated Apr 999, in the presence of "domnum Marinum et domnum Leonem ducibus Fundane civitatis et domnum Docibilem et domnum Gregorium et domnum Landolfum germanis fratribus filiis domni Gregori ducis"[390].  "domni Marini dux Fundanæ civitatis" is named in a charter dated Jul 1008[391]m [---, daughter of IOANNES [I] CRESCENTIUS & his wife Theodora ---.  Stasser proposes that the introduction of the name Crescentius into the family of the dukes of Fondi indicates that their mother was a member of the Tusculo family, probably the daughter of Ioannes [I] Crescentius[392].  However, the references to several individuals named Crescentius, whose relationship with the main Crescentius family cannot be confirmed (see below), shows that the family was extended in several branches in the 10th and 11th centuries or that the different persons who bore the name did not belong to the same family.]  Marinus & his wife had four children: 

a)         MARINUS [III] (-[Mar 1052/Feb 1053]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   m RANGARDA, daughter of ---.  A charter of "son fils Littefrid" names "Rangarda épouse du duc Marinus III de Fundi"[393].  Marinus [III] & his wife had [five] children: 

i)          [LEO [IV] (-after Oct 1092).  Conte di Fondi.  "Girardo…consul Fundane civitatis…cum Labinea…coniux mea" donated the monasteries of San Magno di Fondi and San Martin in Tirille to Monte Cassino, with the consent of "domno Leo consul", by charter dated Sep 1072[394].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that "Leo et Girardus Fundani consules…cum Richardo cognomento de Aquila" donated the church of San Onofrio di Fundi to Monte Cassino[395].  "Dominum Leonem comitem Fundanæ civitatis" donated land outside the city at Flexu to the bishop of Terracina by charter dated Oct [1092/93][396]m ---.  The name of Leo's wife is not known.  Leo [IV] & his wife had one child:

(a)       LEO [V] (-after 1126).  "Leonis Fundani consulis" is named in a charter dated Feb 1117 under which Robert Prince of Capua confirmed the possession of castrum Suio to Monte Cassino[397]Conte di Fondi.  A charter dated Nov 1117, which records an agreement between Pietro di Romana of castrum Sperlunga and the abbot of San Michele Arcangelo di Gaeta, refers to "temporibus domini Leoni…baiuli Fundane civitatis…et Petri filio eius"[398].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Leo Fundanus consul…cum Petro filio suo" were imprisoned by Richard II Duke of Gaeta, dated to 1124, and freed the following year[399].  "Leo consul et dominus civitate Fundanæ filius domini Leonis" is named in a charter dated 1126[400]m ---.  The name of Leo´s wife is not known.  Leo [V] & his wife had two children: 

(1)       PIETRO (-after 1138).  A charter dated Nov 1117, which records an agreement between Pietro di Romana of castrum Sperlunga and the abbot of San Michele Arcangelo di Gaeta, refers to "temporibus domini Leoni…baiuli Fundane civitatis…et Petri filio eius"[401].  The Chronica Monasterii Casinensis records that "Leo Fundanus consul…cum Petro filio suo" were imprisoned by Richard II Duke of Gaeta, dated to 1124, and freed the following year[402]Conte di Fondi.  A charter dated 1138 refers to "temporibus domini Petri…consulis Fundane civitates…et dominatore castri Spelunce"[403]

ii)          [IOANNES .  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "les autres comtes de Traetto", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[404].  1053-1069.  m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had two children: 

(a)       CRESCENTIUS [III] (-after 1099).  "Criscenzi et Littefrede germani filii Iohannis" are named as present in a charter dated Dec 1089 which records a judgment given by Jordan Prince of Capua in favour of the monastery of San Stefano di Fossanova[405].  "Domno Criscentio nobilissimo domni Iohannis filius bone memorie et avitatores in rocca de Monticelli" sold land at castrum Asprana to Docibilis Gattula by charter dated 1099, witnessed by "domnus Litefridus"[406]

(b)       LITTEFRID (-after 1099).  "Criscenzi et Littefrede germani filii Iohannis" are named as present in a charter dated Dec 1089 which records a judgment given by Jordan Prince of Capua in favour of the monastery of San Stefano di Fossanova[407].  "Domno Criscentio nobilissimo domni Iohannis filius bone memorie et avitatores in rocca de Monticelli" sold land at castrum Asprana to Docibilis Gattula by charter dated 1099, witnessed by "domnus Litefridus"[408]

iii)        [GIRARDO (-after Sep 1072).  "Girardo…consul Fundane civitatis…cum Labinea…coniux mea" donated the monasteries of San Magno di Fondi and San Martin in Tirille to Monte Cassino, with the consent of "domno Leo consul", by charter dated Sep 1072[409].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that "Leo et Girardus Fundani consules…cum Richardo cognomento de Aquila" donated the church of San Onofrio di Fundi to Monte Cassino[410]Conte di Fondim LAVINIA, daughter of --- (-after Sep 1072).  "Girardo…consul Fundane civitatis…cum Labinea…coniux mea" donated the monasteries of San Magno di Fondi and San Martin in Tirille to Monte Cassino, with the consent of "domno Leo consul", by charter dated Sep 1072[411]

iv)       [LITTEFRID (-after Sep 1072).  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that "Littefridus Fundanus consul" donated property in the city of Fondi and other property to Monte Cassino, recorded in the text between two donations which are dated to "Sep 1072" in the margin of the MGH edition[412]

v)        [RANGARDA (-after [19 Feb 1115]).  "Riccardus dux Gaietanorum et comes Suessanorum" donated property for the souls of "uxorisque mee Ringarde et filiorum meorum Andree et Peregrini" by charter dated Sep 1105[413].  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Richardus de Aquila…Bartholomei de Caleno filius" and his wife "Rangarda", the date "Feb 19 1115" in the margin[414].  Stasser suggests that the wife of Riccardo Duke of Gaeta was the granddaughter of Marinus II Duke of Fondi, from whom the former inherited the church of San Onofrio di Fundi[415].  If this is correct, her father was probably Marinus [III], whose wife was recorded with the same name Rangarda.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records that, after the death of "Richardi de Aquila", the castle of Suio (previously donated to Monte Cassino) was wrongfully retained by "Alexandro" who married "uxorem eiusdem Richardi", but that the inhabitants incited the abbot of Monte Cassino to capture Alessandro, after which "Rangarda…uxor præphati Richardi" captured "turrem quæ Ad mare dicitur", dated to "Feb 19 1115" in the margin of the MGH edition[416]m firstly RICCARDO di Aquila, son of BARTOLOMEO di Caleno & his wife --- (-1111).  He was installed by the Capuans as RICCARDO Duke of Gaeta in 1105.  m secondly ALESSANDRO di Carinola, son of ---.] 

b)         LEO [III] (-after Jul 1049).  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "les autres comtes de Traetto", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[417]Conte di Fondi

c)         CRESCENTIUS [I] (-before 1069).  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "les autres comtes de Traetto", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[418]m ---.  The name of Crescentius's wife is not known.  Crescentius & his wife had [two] children:

i)          CRESCENTIUS [II] (-after 1069).  His parentage is confirmed by the marriage contract of "Bernardus consule de civitate Fundane filius quondam bone recordationis domni Leoni" and "domnum Lando comes Suessa filius bone recordationis domni Landolfi…Offa…filiam suam", dated 1069, which names "Crescentius consule Fundano e filius quondam bone recordationis domni Crescentius" as fiduciary[419]

ii)         [MARINUS [IV] (-before Dec 1121).  The parentage of Marinus is not known, but the fact that he named his only known son Cresentius suggests that he may have been the son of Crescentius [I].]  m ---.  The name of Marinus´s wife is not known.  Marinus & his wife had one child: 

(a)       CRESCENTIUS [IV] (-after Dec 1121).  "Crescentius domni…milex et filius domini Marini consuli bone memorie" sold land in Gaeta by charter dated Dec 1121[420]

2.         LEO [I] di Gaeta (-[1020/21]).  "Dauferium comitem Triiecti…" and "ex diverso domnum Leonem ducem Fundanum fratrem suprascripti domni Gregorii et domni Dauferii pro vice domnæ Sichelgaitæ uxori suem cum suis consortes…domnum Docibilem filium domni Leoni pro vice domnæ Stefaniæ suæ uxoris et pro Gregorio filium domni Docibili secum habendo Docibilem et Gregorium fratres nepoti ipsius domni Gregorii…nos sumus heredes domni Leoni præfecturii" are named in a charter dated May 992 which settled a boundary dispute between their territories[421]Duke of Fondi.  "Leo dux Fundane civitatis et filius bone memorie domni Marini…consulis et duci…civitatis Gaetane…et…Sikelgaita ducissa ambo iugalibus" exchanged property with "Jean archiprêtre de la cathédrale de Gaète" by charter dated Oct 995[422].  "Domnum Dauferium comitem Traiectane civitatis" recognised that half of Spinium belonged to Bishop Bernard by charter dated Apr 999, in the presence of "domnum Marinum et domnum Leonem ducibus Fundane civitatis et domnum Docibilem et domnum Gregorium et domnum Landolfum germanis fratribus filiis domni Gregori ducis"[423].  "Leo…dux Fundane civitatis" recorded a judgment relating to the inheritance of "bone memorie domnus Iohannes" in favour of "domne Hemilie" by charter dated Feb 1010, in the presence of "Landulfus filius domni Docibili…Landulfus filius domni Gregorii duci, Docibili filius domni Leoni magnifici, Gregorius filius domni Leoni magnifici, Leo filio domni Docibili"[424].  "Anna…relicta…domni Docibili bone memorie filii domni Gregorii duci bone memorie" sold one quarter of her late husband´s property to "domni Iohanni…consuli et duci seniori nostri filio domni Iohanni…consuli et duci bone memorie", in the presence of "domne Hemilie…ducisse senatrix…matri vestre et…domni Leoni…dux Fundane civitatis", by charter dated Jun 1010[425]m SICHELGAITA, daughter of GREGORIUS & his wife --- (-after Mar 1024).  "Leo dux Fundane civitatis et filius bone memorie domni Marini…consulis et duci…civitatis Gaetane…et…Sikelgaita ducissa ambo iugalibus" exchanged property with "Jean archiprêtre de la cathédrale de Gaète" by charter dated Oct 995[426].  The testament of "Grégoire…fils de feu Léon præfecturus", dated Mar 1024, names "domni Gregorii bone memorie tii nostri et filii domni Iohanni prefecturii bone recordationis" and "domnus Docibile uterinus frater meus bone memorie…domnus Leone duc Fundane civitatis bone memorie et…domne Sikelgaite ducisse uxori sue" in relation to property of "domni Gregorii bone memorie qui fuit socero et genitores illorum"[427].  Leo & his wife had three children:

a)         LEO [II] (-[1039]).  "Domino Leo consul et domina Bona ambo iugalibus et filii quondam domini Leoni consuli bone memorie" donated property to the monastery of San Angelo di Gaeta by charter dated Mar 1028, dated to "septimo anno consulatus domin Leo filii domini Leoni consule Fundane civitatis"[428]Conte di Fondim BONA, daughter of ---.  "Domino Leo consul et domina Bona ambo iugalibus et filii quondam domini Leoni consuli bone memorie" donated property to the monastery of San Angelo di Gaeta by charter dated Mar 1028, dated to "septimo anno consulatus domin Leo filii domini Leoni consule Fundane civitatis"[429].  Leo [II] & his first wife had one son:

i)          BERNARDO (-after 1069).  The marriage contract of "Bernardus consule de civitate Fundane filius quondam bone recordationis domni Leoni" and "domnum Lando comes Suessa filius bone recordationis domni Landolfi…Offa…filiam suam" is dated 1069, names "Crescentius consule Fundano e filius quondam bone recordationis domni Crescentius" as fiduciary, and refers to "tricesimo anno ducatus domno Bernardus filius domni Leoni"[430]Conte di Fondim (1069) OFFA di Suessa, daughter of LANDO Conte di Suessa & his wife ---.  The marriage contract of "Bernardus consule de civitate Fundane filius quondam bone recordationis domni Leoni" and "domnum Lando comes Suessa filius bone recordationis domni Landolfi…Offa…filiam suam" is dated 1069, names "Crescentius consule Fundano e filius quondam bone recordationis domni Crescentius" as fiduciary, and refers to "tricesimo anno ducatus domno Bernardus filius domni Leoni"[431]

b)         IOANNES (-after Jul 1049).  "Johannes filius Leoni de Fundi dux" is named in a charter dated Jul 1014 which records a lawsuit by "comte Daufer de Castro Argento"[432].  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "les autres comtes de Traetto", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[433]

 

 

1.         RICHARDConte di Fondi

 

3.         GOFFREDO [I] di AquilaConte di Fondi.  Conte di Traetto. 

 

4.         RICCARDO di Aquila (-[1161/67]).  A short anonymous Chronicle of Cassino records that "comes Richardus de Aquila" captured "Suessam et Thranum" in 1155 and, believing that Guillaume King of Sicily was dead, captured "comitatum Alifiæ"[434].  The Annales Casenses record that in 1155 "comes Riccardus de Aquila" took "Suessam et Theanum" and, believing that Guillaume King of Sicily was dead, took "comitatum Alifiæ"[435].  Hugo Falcandus names "Count Richard of Aquila" among the conspirators against chancellor Maio in [1156][436]Conte di Fondi.  A short anonymous Chronicle of Cassino records that "comes Andriæ" captured "terram Fundanam et Aquinum et terram S. Benedicti…[et] Cominum" in 1157[437].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that, after the coronation of Guillaume I King of Sicily (in 1154), Pope Hadrian IV invaded "terra di Lavoro" with "Roberto Capuano principe et Andrea de Rupe-canina", but that "Riccardus de Aquila comes Fundanus…homo eiusdem principis" captured "Robertus…Capuanorum princeps" after he fled across "Gariliamum fluvium" and handed him to the king[438].  Hugo Falcandus records that "Count Richard of Fondi" fled into the Abruzzi after the general conspiracy in 1161[439].  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "comitem Riccardum de Aquila" was banished from the kingdom and "Montem Archanum", which he had rebuilt, was captured and destroyed together with "uxorem eius et filium"[440].  He died in exile, after which the county of Fondi remained vacant until the appointment of Richard de Say as count in 1167[441]m ---.  The name of Riccardo´s wife is not known.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "comitem Riccardum de Aquila" was banished from the kingdom and "Montem Archanum", which he had rebuilt, was captured and destroyed together with "uxorem eius et filium"[442].  Riccardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         son .  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that "comitem Riccardum de Aquila" was banished from the kingdom and "Montem Archanum", which he had rebuilt, was captured and destroyed together with "uxorem eius et filium"[443]

 

5.         RICHARD de Say (-after 1168).  Royal constable, justiciar in Calabria 1157.  The Chronicle of Romualdo Guarna records that Guillaume I King of Sicily sent "Riccardum de Saya" to suppress a rebellion by "comes Robertus", dated to [1160] from the context[444].  Hugo Falcandus records that "the queen created eight counts in that one year [1166]" including "Richard de Say"[445]Conte di Fondi 1166.  Conte di Gravina 1168. 

 

 

1.         RICCARDO di Aquila, son of GOFFREDO di Aquila & his wife Adelisia --- (-after 1168).  He was appointed Conte di Fondi in 1168 when Richard de Say was appointed Count of Gravina[446].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "comes Riccardus de Fundis" holding "de eodem comite…de Campo Claro…de Caprata…de Gualdo", with "de proprio feudo suo milites VI et augmentum…milites XII" and listing his feeholders[447].  The "Catalogus Baronum", dated to [1168], records "Riccardus filius Goffridi de Aquila et mater eius Adelitis" holding "Traiectum…et Itrum…Fundos…Monticellum…Pastinam…et Vallem de Cors…et in Gaieta…et in Pontecurvo", with "[feudum] XXXIV et augmentum eius…milites XLVI et medius, inter feudum et augmentum…milites LXXX" and lists his feeholders[448]

 

2.         RICCARDO di Aquila (-after 1208).  Conte di FondiThe Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record that "Ryccardus Fundanus comes", who had been granted "Suessam…et Teanum" by Emperor Heinrich VI, defected in 1191 from Tancred King of Sicily who appointed "fratri Alygerni Cotronis de Neapoly" to "comitatus Fundanus"[449].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Petrus de Celano et Riccardus Fundanus comites" in 1208[450]m ---.  The name of Riccardo's wife is not known.  Riccardo & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica record the marriage in 1199 of "Ryccardus de Aquila Fundanus comes…filiam suam" and "Sifrido fratri comitis Dyopuldi" arranged by the bride's father in order to ensure the safety of his lands[451]m (1199) SIEGFRIED von Vohburg, son of BERTHOLD [I] Markgraf von Vohburg & his wife ---. 

 

3.         RUGGIERO di Aquila (-1232).  Conte di FondiThe Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica name "Roggerius de Aquila Fundanus comes" when recording that he captured the castle of Motule in 1214[452].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Roggerius de Aquila, comes Iacobus di Sancto Severino, comes Riccardus de Celano" were present at the coronation of Friedrich II as Emperor in Rome in 1220[453].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Roggerium de Aquila, Thomam de Caserta, Iacobum de Sancto Severino, et filium comitis Tricaricensis, regni comites" rebelled against Emperor Friedrich II in Sicily in 1223[454].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Roggerius de Aquila" recovered his son in 1229, who had been held hostage in Sicily by the emperor[455].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Traiectum et Sugium cum comitatu Fundano" were restored to "comiti Roggerio de Aquila" on the emperor´s orders in 1230[456].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records the death in 1232 of "Roggerius de Aquila Fundanus comes" and his burial "apud Fossam novam"[457]m ---.  The name of Ruggiero´s wife is not known.  Ruggiero & his wife had one child: 

a)         GOFFREDO (-after 1229).  [The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Roggerius de Aquila" recovered his son in 1229, who had been held hostage in Sicily by the emperor[458].]  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that, after the death in 1232 of "Roggerius de Aquila Fundanus comes", his lands "Fundos, Traiectum et Sugium" were confiscated by the emperor and that "Gyffredus filius comitis ipsius" complained to the Pope and kept "turre Ytri" for himself[459]

 

 

1.         GALVANO Lancia, son of MANFREDO [II] Lancia Marchese di Busca & his wife Bianca Maletta (-beheaded Naples, Piazza del Mercato 29 Oct 1268)Podestà di Padova.  The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino names "Galvano Lanzea comiti de Panego civi Veronensi…de progenie marchionis de Este" as potestas of Padua in 1243[460]His relationship to the Este family has not yet been traced.  Vicario Imperiale in Toscana.  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that Konrad IV King of Germany and Sicily expelled "Gualvanum Lanceam", who had been appointed "vicarium suum in Tuscia" by Emperor Friedrich II, "Fredericum…Lanceam fratrem eius et Bonifacium de Anglone ipsius principis [referring to the future Manfredo King of Sicily] avunculum…omnesque ipsius consanguineus, et affines ex parte materna" from his kingdom, dated to [1253] from the context[461].  The Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Saraceni" sent legates to "Gualvanum Lanceam avunculum Principis" [referring to the future Manfredo King of Sicily] during the period when Manfredo was plotting to seize the kingdom, dated to [1254/55] from the context[462].  Conte di Salerno, Conte di Fondi, Grand Marshall of Sicily Feb 1256: the Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia records that "Gualvanus Lancea Principis avunculus" was installed as "comes principatus Salernitani et Magnus Regni Siciliæ Marescallus" in Feb 1256 by the future Manfredo King of Sicily[463].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina names "Galvanus Lancea comes Principatus et Fundorum, marescallus regni" [referring to Manfredo King of Sicily] when recording that he besieged "castrum Monticuli" which had been captured by "Corrado de Antiochia comes Alba, regis eiusdem nepos"[464].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records that "Galvanum et filium, Corradum etiam de Antiochia" were captured by Charles Comte d´Anjou after the battle of Tagliacozzo, Abruzzi, dated to Aug 1268[465].  He was beheaded with Konradin von Hohenstaufen ex-King of Sicily, Duke of Swabia.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus records the capture in 1268 of "Galvagno Lancia" and his death in Rome with his two sons[466].  The Book of Fees of Charles I King of Sicily records that "comes Galvanus" held "casale S. Cicilie in tenimento Eboli", which the king restored to monastery of San Pietro di Eboli, adding that the king granted "Ebolum" to "comiti Flandrie"[467]

 

 

 

F.      ORSINI

 

 

The Orsini were a powerful family in Rome who, over the course of time, acquired various titles in the kingdom of Sicily.  The following is an outline reconstruction of parts of the family only, copied from the website page Libro d´Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea [468], into which information from primary sources can be fitted as it becomes available.  This website provides a full genealogy of all the branches of the Orsini family.  It appears to be thorough and well-researched, although this cannot be verified completely as no sources are cited. 

 

 

1.         BOBONEm ---.  Bobone & his wife had one child: 

a)         PIETRO (-after 27 May 1159).  m ---.  Pietro & his wife had two children: 

i)          GIACINTO ([1110]-Rome 8 Jan 1198).  He was elected as Pope CELESTINE III in 1191. 

ii)         BOBONE (-after 1172).  m ---.  The name of Bobone´s wife is not known.  Bobone & his wife had children: 

(a)       ORSO (-after 1207).  m GAETANA Gaetani, daughter of CRESCENZIO Gaetani & his wife ---.  Orso & his wife had children: 

(1)       GIOVANNI (-after 12 Apr 1232).  He bought the fiefs of Vicovaro, Licenza, Roccagiovine and Nettuno in 1191, with the help of his great-uncle Pope Celestine III. 

-         see below

 

 

GIOVANNI Orsini, son of ORSO & his wife Gaetana Gaetani (-after 12 Apr 1232).  He bought the fiefs of Vicovaro, Licenza, Roccagiovine and Nettuno in 1191, with the help of his great-uncle Pope Celestine III. 

m ---. 

Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

1.         MATTEO Rosso ([1178]-13 Oct 1246).  He was Senator of Rome from May 1241 to 1243.  m firstly (before 1220) PERNA Caetani, daughter of GIOVANNI di Crescentio Caetani & his wife --- (-10 Dec ----).  m secondly GEMMA Monticelli, daughter and heiress of ODDONE Monticelli Signore di Civitella & his wife Oddolina --- (-before 1232).  m thirdly (before 1232) GIOVANNA di Aquila, daughter of --- (-Jan 1272, bur Rome).  Matteo & his first wife had five children: 

a)         GENTILE [I] (-15 Nov, before 1246).  He was founder of the Pitigliano line. 

-        see below

b)         GIOVANNI (-Soriano 23 Aug 1280).  He was elected as Pope NICHOLAS III 25 Nov 1277. 

c)         MATTEO Rosso (-after 1282).  Senator of Rome 1279.  Podestà di Siena 1281.  He was founder of the Montegiordano line. 

d)         NAPOLEONE (-after 1262).  He was founder of the Bracciano line. 

e)         RINALDO (-after [1267/86]).  He was founder of the Monterotondo line. 

 

 

GENTILE [I] Orsini, son of MATTEO Rosso & his wife --- (-15 Nov, before 1246).  He was founder of the Pitigliano line. 

m COSTANZA, daughter of ---. 

Gentile [I] & his wife had three children: 

1.         BERTOLDO (-after 1319).  "Dni Bertoldi comitis…de filiis Ursi…Dni Nicolai Papæ tertii nepos…generalis Rector" requested the Podestà di Rimini not to impose taxes on the church of Ravenna by charter dated 23 Oct and 2 Nov 1278[469]m FILIPPA, daughter of ---.  Bertoldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GENTILE [II] (after 1314).  Senator of Rome.  Podestà di Viterbo.  Grand Justiciar of the kingdom of Sicily 1314.  m firstly SIMONETTA, daughter of ---.  m secondly CLARICE Ruffo, daughter of PIETRO [II] Ruffo Conte di Catanzaro & his wife Giovanna di Aquino dei Conti d´Acerra.  m thirdly GIACOMA Pierleoni, daughter of GIOVANNI Pierleoni & his wife ---.  Gentile [II] & his first wife had children: 

i)          ROMANO ([1268/70]-[1327]).  Royal Vicar of Rome 1326.  Conte di Soana.  Conte di Nola.  m (6 Jun 1293) ANASTASIA de Montfort Contessa di Noli, daughter of GUY de Montfort Conte di Nola & his wife Margherita Aldobrandeschi ([1271/73]-1306).  Romano & his wife had children: 

(a)       ROBERTO ([1295]-before 15 Jan 1345)

-         see below.   

(b)       GUIDO (-after 1348).  Conte di Soana, Conte di Pitigliano.  He founded the Pitigliano line.  

b)         GIOVANNA (-[1285/87]).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to the wife of "primogenitus Aço" as "parentela papa Nicholai tertii natione Romani"[470]m (Ferrara 1282) as his first wife, AZZO [VIII] Signore d'Este e Ferrara, son of OBIZZO [II] Marchese d’Este Signore di Ferrara & his first wife Giacobina Fieschi (after 1263-Este 31 Jan 1308). 

c)         ORSINA m FRANCESCO d´Este Signore di Reggio, son of OBIZZO [II] Marchese d’Este Signore di Ferrara & his first wife Giacobina Fieschi (-killed in battle Ferrara 23 Aug 1312). 

 

 

ROBERTO Orsini, son of ROMANO Orsini & his wife Anastasia de Montfort ([1295]-before 15 Jan 1345)

m ([1329/30]) SVEVA del Balzo, daughter of HUGUES de Baux Seigneur de Gaudissart Conte di Soleto & his wife Giacopa della Marra ([1300/05]-[1336]). 

Roberto & his wife had children: 

1.         NICOLA (27 Aug 1331-after 14 Feb 1399).  Conte di Ariano.  Conte di Celano.  Senator of Rome.  m (Naples [1352/55]) GIOVANNA [Garizia] de Sabran, daughter of GUGLIELMO de Sabran Conte di Ariano & his wife Francesca dei Conti di Celano (-after 1357).  Nicola & his wife had children: 

a)         BEATRICE ([1352/55]-).  m ([1368/70]) LUIGI ANTONIO della Ratta Conte di Caserta, son of ---.  

b)         SVEVA (-after 28 Jan 1398)m (8 Dec 1381) FRANCESCO del Balzo Duca di Andria, son of BERTRAND de Baux Conte d'Andria e Montescaglioso & his second wife Marguerite d'Aulnay ([1329/30]-1422). 

c)         ROBERTO ([1360]-[1400]).  Conte di Nola.  m ([1378]) MARGHERITA Sanseverino, daughter of RUGGIERO Sanseverino Conte di Tricarico, Conte di Chiaramonte, son of ---. 

d)         RAIMONDO Orsini del Balzo ([1361]-Taranto 17 Jan 1406).  Conte di Soleto 1382.  Principe di Taranto 1399.  Conte di Lecce.  His fiefs in the kingdom of Sicily were confiscated at his death.  m ([1384]) as her first husband, MARIE d’Enghien Ctss di Lecce, daughter of JEAN d'Enghien Conte di Lecce & his wife Blanche [Sanche] des Baux (1367-9 May 1446).  She married secondly (Taranto 23 Apr 1407) as his third wife, Ladislas King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  She was kept a prisoner after her husband died by her sister-in-law Jeanne II Queen of Sicily. 

i)          GIANANTONIO Orsini del Balzo (1386-murdered Altamura 15 Nov 1463).  Principe di Taranto.  The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record that "Giovanni Antonio de Bauccio Orsino" was made "principe di Taranto" in 1419[471]He was created Duke of Bari by Alfonso V King of Aragon and appointed Grand Constable of the kingdom of Sicily.  He was killed during a revolt of the nobility.  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records the death in 1461 of "lo prencepe de Taranto…Iacovo Antonio"[472]m (1417) ANNA Colonna, daughter of LORENZO ONOFRIO Colonna Conte di Alba & his wife Sveva Gaetani. 

ii)         MARIAm (Naples [1408]) ANTONIO Acquaviva Duca di Atri, son of ---.  

iii)        CATERINAm BARTOLOMEO detto Tristano di Chiaramonte Conte di Cupertino, son of --- ([1380]-1432). 

iv)       GABRIELE (-1453).  Conte di Ugento.  Duca di Venosa 14 Jun 1441.  m (1431) GIOVANNA [Ippolita] Caracciolo del Sole, daughter of SERGIANNI Caracciolo del Sole Grand Seneschal of the Kingdom of Sicily & his wife Caterina Filangieri Signora di Solofra (-1451).  Gabriele & his wife had children: 

(a)       MARIA DONATA (-1481).  Duchessa di Venosa.  m PIETRO del Balzo Principe di Altamura, Duca di Andrea, son of FRANCESCO del Balzo Duca di Andrea & his wife Sancia di Chiaromonte Contessa di Copertino (-murdered 1487). 

(b)       RAIMONDINA (-[1490]).  m ROBERTO Sanseverino Duca di San Marco, son of ---. 

(c)       GIROLAMAm BERNARDINO di Morra, son of ---. 

e)         GENTILE (1365-after 1372). 

2.         GIACOMO (-1379).  Cardinal 1371. 

3.         ANASTASIA (-after 7 Apr 1351).  m GIORDANO Orsini Signore di Monterotondo, son of ---. 

 

 

1.         RAIMONDO Orsini .  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "Raimundo Ursino" was installed as "Conte de la Tripalda et de Nola" in Naples in 21 Jun 1478, with "uno suo fratello…Roberto il quale era de anni 10" who was knighted "alo castello novo" by King Ferrante I[473].  

2.         ROBERTO Orsini ([1467/68]-).  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "Raimundo Ursino" was installed as "Conte de la Tripalda et de Nola" in Naples in 21 Jun 1478, with "uno suo fratello…Roberto il quale era de anni 10" who was knighted "alo castello novo" by King Ferrante I[474].  

 

 

 

G.      CONTI di PONTECORVO

 

 

Pontecorvo is located north-east of Fondi in the present-day Italian region of Lazio.  The counts of Pontecorvo were descendants of the first dynasty of counts of Aquino.  They ruled Pontecorvo at least until the late 11th century but no information about them has so far been checked against the primary sources. 

 

 

Three brothers: 

1.         SICONULF d´Aquino, son of ATENOLF [I] Conte d´Aquino & his wife --- .  The following descendants of Siconulf are described by Stasser who cites various different sources which confirm the relationships[475]m ---.  The name of Siconulf´s wife is not known.  Siconulf & his wife had two children: 

a)         LANDOConte di Pontecorvom ---.  The name of Lando´s wife is not known.  Lando & his wife had three children: 

i)          IOANNES

ii)         PETRUS

iii)        GUIDO

b)         LANDOLF (-before Feb 1049).  Conte di Pontecorvom GEMMA, daughter of ---.  Landolf & his wife had two children: 

i)          IOANNES "Scintus" (-after Jul 1065).  Conte di Pontecorvom ALFERANA, daughter of ---.  Ioannes & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ATENOLF (-before Jun 1095).  Conte di Pontecorvo.  He lost Pontecorvo in Feb 1075 to Geoffroy Ridel Duke of Gaeta[476]m THEODORA, daughter of ---.  Atenolf & his wife had [four] children: 

(1)       LANDO

(2)       GUIDO

(3)       ATENOLF

(4)       [daughter m PALDO di Venafro, son of ---. 

(b)       LANDOLF

(c)       GEMMA m PIETRO di Ceccano, son of ---. 

ii)         LANDOLF .  

2.         ATENOLF [I] m ---.  The name of Atenolf´s wife is not known.  Atenolf [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         ATENOLF [III] .  Conte di Pontecorvo

3.         GUIDO (-after 998)Conte di Pontecorvo

 

 

 

H.      CONTI di RIETI

 

 

Rieti is located in the north-east corner of the present-day Italian province of Lazio, on the border with the province of Umbria.  Conti di Rieti are recorded in primary sources from the early 10th century, probably as vassals of the dukes of Spoleto although this has not been confirmed against primary sources.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Reatina civitas" was destroyed by the army of Roger I King of Sicily in 1149[477]

 

 

1.         GIUSEPPEm ---.  Giuseppe & his wife had one child:

a)         GODEFREDO (-after 920).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "comite Gottifredo filio Ioseph civitatis Reatine" donated "terram…in territorio Novertino in villa…Albigianus…" to Farfa[478].  "Gottifredus comes filius cuiusdam Joseph de civitate Reatina qui fuit bassus domni imperatoris" donated property by charter dated 920 at Rieti[479]m ---.  The name of Godefredo´s wife is not known.  Godefredo & his wife had one child: 

i)          GIUSEPPE (-after 955).  Conte di Rieti.  Giuseppe Conte di Rieti, son of Godefredo, is named in 955[480]m BENEDICTA, daughter of ---.  Giuseppe & his wife had four children: 

(a)       RANIERI .  "Rainerius et Atto et Gottifredus germani filii…Joseph" are named in a charter of "Petrus æpiscopus…Ticinenci æpiscopio" dated Nov 982[481]

(b)       ATTO .  "Rainerius et Atto et Gottifredus germani filii…Joseph" are named in a charter of "Petrus æpiscopus…Ticinenci æpiscopio" dated Nov 982[482]

(c)       GODEFREDO .  "Rainerius et Atto et Gottifredus germani filii…Joseph" are named in a charter of "Petrus æpiscopus…Ticinenci æpiscopio" dated Nov 982[483]

(d)       OCTAVIANO (-after Apr 1024).  "Octavianus filius…Ioseph" is named in a charter dated Aug 994[484]Conte di Rieti

-         see below

 

 

OCTAVIANO di Rieti, son of GIUSEPPE Conte di Rieti & his wife Benedicta --- (-after Apr 1024).  "Octavianus filius…Ioseph" is named in a charter dated Aug 994[485]Conte di Rieti.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Octavianus filius Ioseph et Rogata filia Crescentii comitis uxor eius" donated "res suis territorii Sabinensis, Postmontem ad Sanctam Mariam in Canneto" to Farfa[486].  "Octavianum filium…Ioseph et…Rogatam filiam…Crescentii comitis uxoremque suprascripti Octaviani" donated property to Farfa by charter dated Dec 1005[487].  "Domnum Octavianum…filium…Joseph…et domnam Rogatam…iugalem filiam…Crescentii bone memorie" donated property to Farfa, for the souls of "domini Crescentii genitoris mei et domnæ Theodoræ genitricis meæ suprascriptæ Rogatæ et…Johannis patricii Romanorum germani mei et senioris nostri", by charter dated Oct 1006[488].  "Octavianus filius…Joseph" is named in a charter dated Apr 1024[489]

m ROGATA senatrix, daughter of IOANNES [II] CRESCENTIUS & his wife Theodora ---.  "Octavianus filius…Ioseph" is named in a charter dated Aug 994[490].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Octavianus filius Ioseph et Rogata filia Crescentii comitis uxor eius" donated "res suis territorii Sabinensis, Postmontem ad Sanctam Mariam in Canneto" to Farfa[491].  "Octavianum filium…Ioseph et…Rogatam filiam…Crescentii comitis uxoremque suprascripti Octaviani" donated property to Farfa by charter dated Dec 1005[492].  "Domnum Octavianum…filium…Joseph…et domnam Rogatam…iugalem filiam…Crescentii bone memorie" donated property to Farfa, for the souls of "domini Crescentii genitoris mei et domnæ Theodoræ genitricis meæ suprascriptæ Rogatæ et…Johannis patricii Romanorum germani mei et senioris nostri", by charter dated Oct 1006[493]

Mistress (1): ROCCIA, daughter of ---.  "Otam…relictam bone memorie Ogerii et filiam cuiusdam Rocciæ" donated property  to Farfa, for the soul of "domni Octaviani genitoris mei et Ogerii viri mei et filiorum meorum", by charter dated 1036[494]

Octaviano & his wife had four children: 

1.         OTTO (-[1036]).  "Oddo comes cum Iohanne et Crescentio germanis suis, Octavianus filius" donated property to Farfa by charter dated Aug 1014[495]Conte di Rieti.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Oddone et Crescentio filiis Octaviani" donated property at "Tribuco" to Farfa[496].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Oddone et Crescentio filiis Octaviani" donated property at "Tribuco" to Farfa, dated to 1022 by the editor of the MGH edition[497]m DODA di Marsi, daughter of RINALDO Conte di Marsi & his [first wife ---].  "Dodæ uxoris meæ et filiæ cuiusdam Rainaldi comitis" is named in a charter of Otto dated Jul 1011[498].  Otto & his wife had two children: 

a)         IOANNES (-[Aug/Nov] 1058).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Iohannes…et Crescentius filii comitis Ottonis" refuted the donation of "de castello Tribuco" to Farfa, dated to 1048[499].  "Johannem et Crescentium germanos fratres filios Ottonis bonæ memoræ…comitis" donated property to Farfa by charter dated 1048[500]m DAVINIA, daughter of --- (-after Nov 1058).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Davinia uxor quondam Iohannis filii Ottonis et Otto, Iohannes atque Rainerius filii eius" donated property to Farfa, dated to 1058[501].  "Domnam Daviniam uxor quæ fui quondam domni Johannis filius Ottonis bone memorie et filios meos Ottonem, Johannem et Rainerium" donated property  to Farfa by charter dated Nov 1058[502].  Ioannes & his wife had five children: 

i)          OTTO (-after 1103).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Davinia uxor quondam Iohannis filii Ottonis et Otto, Iohannes atque Rainerius filii eius" donated property to Farfa, dated to 1058[503].  "Domnam Daviniam uxor quæ fui quondam domni Johannis filius Ottonis bone memorie et filios meos Ottonem, Johannem et Rainerium" donated property  to Farfa by charter dated Nov 1058[504].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Oddo comes frater eiusdem Octaviani" (referring to "Octavianus comes filius Iohannis Oddonis") captured "castrum…Caput Pharphe" from Farfa, dated to 1103 from the context[505]m ---.  The name of Otto´s wife is not known.  Otto & his wife had two children: 

(a)       IOANNES .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Iohannes eiusdem Oddonis filius" attacked "castrum…Collis de Nera", held by Farfa, dated to 1103 from the context[506]

(b)       OCTAVIANO .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Octavianus filius Oddonis" supported Farfa against his father, dated to 1103 from the context[507]

ii)         OCTAVIANO (-after 1103).  The Chronicon Farfense records "Octavianus comes filius Iohannis Oddonis" as present "coram Gentile comitis filio Senebaldi" at a donation to Farfa dated 1103[508]

iii)        IOANNES .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Davinia uxor quondam Iohannis filii Ottonis et Otto, Iohannes atque Rainerius filii eius" donated property to Farfa, dated to 1058[509].  "Domnam Daviniam uxor quæ fui quondam domni Johannis filius Ottonis bone memorie et filios meos Ottonem, Johannem et Rainerium" donated property  to Farfa by charter dated Nov 1058[510]

iv)       RANIERI .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Davinia uxor quondam Iohannis filii Ottonis et Otto, Iohannes atque Rainerius filii eius" donated property to Farfa, dated to 1058[511].  "Domnam Daviniam uxor quæ fui quondam domni Johannis filius Ottonis bone memorie et filios meos Ottonem, Johannem et Rainerium" donated property  to Farfa by charter dated Nov 1058[512]

v)        MARIA .  The Chronicon Sublacense names "Maria fille d´Otto…avec ses frères Jean et Rainier"[513]

b)         CRESCENTIUS (-before Apr 1061).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Iohannes…et Crescentius filii comitis Ottonis" refuted the donation of "de castello Tribuco" to Farfa, dated to 1048[514].  "Johannem et Crescentium germanos fratres filios Ottonis bonæ memoræ…comitis" donated property  to Farfa by charter dated 1048[515]m THEODORA, daughter of --- (-after Apr 1061).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano cum Iohanne Cencio et Guidone filiis suis" donated "castellum Arci" to Farfa, dated to 1061[516].  "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano bonæ memoriæ seu Johannes, Cencius, Guido, mater…et filii" restored "castellum d´Arci" to Farfa by charter dated Apr 1061[517].  Crescentius & his wife had four children: 

i)          IOANNES .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano cum Iohanne Cencio et Guidone filiis suis" donated "castellum Arci" to Farfa, dated to 1061[518].  "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano bonæ memoriæ seu Johannes, Cencius, Guido, mater…et filii" restored "castellum d´Arci" to Farfa by charter dated Apr 1061[519]

ii)         CENCIUS .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano cum Iohanne Cencio et Guidone filiis suis" donated "castellum Arci" to Farfa, dated to 1061[520].  "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano bonæ memoriæ seu Johannes, Cencius, Guido, mater…et filii" restored "castellum d´Arci" to Farfa by charter dated Apr 1061[521]

iii)        GUIDO .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano cum Iohanne Cencio et Guidone filiis suis" donated "castellum Arci" to Farfa, dated to 1061[522].  "Theodora relicta Crescentii de Octaviano bonæ memoriæ seu Johannes, Cencius, Guido, mater…et filii" restored "castellum d´Arci" to Farfa by charter dated Apr 1061[523]

iv)       RUSTICUS .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Rusticus filius Crescentii de Octaviano" refuted "castellum Arci" to Farfa, dated to 1062[524].  "Rusticus Crescentii de Octaviano quondam filius…cum Theodora et Johanne et Cencio et Guidone genitricis et fratribus meis" restored his part of "castellum d´Arci" to Farfa by charter dated 28 Sep 1062[525].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Rusticus filius Crescentii et Oddo filius eius" exchanged property at "castro Fara" for property at "castrum Currise" with Farfa, dated to 1100[526]

2.         IOANNES (-after Aug 1014).  "Oddo comes cum Iohanne et Crescentio germanis suis, Octavianus filius" donated property to Farfa by charter dated Aug 1014[527]

3.         CRESCENTIUS (-after [1022]).  "Oddo comes cum Iohanne et Crescentio germanis suis, Octavianus filius" donated property to Farfa by charter dated Aug 1014[528].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Oddone et Crescentio filiis Octaviani" donated property at "Tribuco" to Farfa[529].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Oddone et Crescentio filiis Octaviani" donated property at "Tribuco" to Farfa, dated to 1022 by the editor of the MGH edition[530]

4.         MAROZIA (-after 1056).  A charter dated 1056 records a donation by "dominam Maroziam…relictam quondam domini Gregorii atque filia domini Octaviani bonæ memoriæ" donated property "in comitatu Campaniæ" to Farfa, for the soul of "iamdicti domini Gregorii…vir meus et filius de Amato comite", by charter dated 1056[531]m GREGORIO Conte di Campania, son of AMATO Conte di Campania & his wife --- (-before 1056). 

Octaviano had one child by Mistress (1): 

5.          OTTA (-after 1036).  "Otam…relictam bone memorie Ogerii et filiam cuiusdam Rocciæ" donated property  to Farfa, for the soul of "domni Octaviani genitoris mei et Ogerii viri mei et filiorum meorum", by charter dated 1036[532]m OGERIO, son of ---. 

 

 

 

I.        CONTI di SABINA, DUCES SABINENSIS

 

 

The territory of Sabina appears to have belonged originally to the duchy of Spoleto but from 939 "rectors of Sabina" are recorded in the primary sources, sometimes with the title dux, comes or marchio[533].  Two of the names of the earliest dukes, Ranieri and Giuseppe, suggest a connection with the family of the conti di Rieti but no primary source has yet been identified which confirms the relationship. 

 

 

1.         INGELBERTm ---.  The name of Ingelbert´s wife is not known.  Ingelbert & his wife had one child: 

a)         INGEBALD (-after 939).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Ingebaldus ex gente Francorum filius Ingelberti et Theodoranda coniux eius filia Gratiani" donated "castellum Buccinianum…et…in territorio Sabinensi" to Farfa, dated to 939[534]Conte di Sabinam THEODERANDA, daughter of GRATIAN & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theoderanda filia Gratiani consulis Romani" donated "castellum…Buccinianum" to Farfa, for the soul of "mariti sui Ingebaldi Francigene, tempore Alberici Romanorum principis, qui dederat ei Sabinensem comitatum", dated to 939[535]

 

2.         LEODux SabinensisA manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" lists "Leo dux Sabinensis, Rainerius dux Sabinensis, Azo comes Sabinensis, Ioseph dux Sabinensis, Teuzo dux Sabinensis"[536]

 

3.         RAINIERIDux SabinensisA manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" lists "Leo dux Sabinensis, Rainerius dux Sabinensis, Azo comes Sabinensis, Ioseph dux Sabinensis, Teuzo dux Sabinensis"[537]Ranieri "dux et rector de Sabine" is named in a charter dated Aug 943[538]

 

4.         AZZODux SabinensisA manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" lists "Leo dux Sabinensis, Rainerius dux Sabinensis, Azo comes Sabinensis, Ioseph dux Sabinensis, Teuzo dux Sabinensis"[539]

 

5.         GIUSEPPE (-after Nov 941).  Dux SabinensisA manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" lists "Leo dux Sabinensis, Rainerius dux Sabinensis, Azo comes Sabinensis, Ioseph dux Sabinensis, Teuzo dux Sabinensis"[540]"Joseph ducis rectorisque territorii Sabinensis" is named in a charter dated Nov 941[541]

 

6.         TEUZODux SabinensisA manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" lists "Leo dux Sabinensis, Rainerius dux Sabinensis, Azo comes Sabinensis, Ioseph dux Sabinensis, Teuzo dux Sabinensis"[542]

 

7.         ROCCIO .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Roccio locopositus marchio et rector comitatus Sabinensis…cum Huberto, et Francone vicecomite, et Ascerisio…" donated property "in territorio Sabinensi infra castellum de Tophila iuxta ecclesiam Sancti Laurentii…" to Farfa, dated to 940[543]

 

 

1.         BENEDETTO [I] (-after 23 Oct 987).  "Benedictus…comes seu Stefania…comitissa senatrix" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius by charter dated 23 Oct 987, signed by "Johannes consul et dux, Crescentius consul et dux, Leo Sancti Stati, Crescentius Probe, Gopizus de Azo de Nova Costo"[544]m STEFANIA [II], daughter of --- & his wife [Stefania [I] ---] (-after 23 Oct 987).  "Benedictus…comes seu Stefania…comitissa senatrix" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius by charter dated 23 Oct 987, signed by "Johannes consul et dux, Crescentius consul et dux, Leo Sancti Stati, Crescentius Probe, Gopizus de Azo de Nova Costo"[545].  The reference to the title "senatrix" suggests that Stefania, wife of Benedetto, was a member of the family of Teofilacto [I] and Theodora.  The date of this document suggests that Stefania [II] was not the same person as Stefania [I].  Stefania [II] is shown as the possible daughter of Stefania [I] in this document, based only on their sharing the same name. 

 

2.         --- .  m ---.  The Chronicon Farfense indicates that the mother of Benedetto was probably the sister of Pope John XIII, when it records that "Iohannes…papa" arranged the marriage of "nepotem suum…Benedictum" and "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a Caballo marmoreo" and noted their donation of "comitatum Sabinensem" to Farfa[546].  --- & his wife had one child: 

a)         BENEDETTO [II] (-before Aug 1012).  According to Gregorovius, Benedetto [II] was the son of Benedetto [I] and his wife Stefania senatrix, but he cites no primary source on which this speculation is based[547]Conte di Sabina.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Iohannes…papa" arranged the marriage of "nepotem suum…Benedictum" and "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a Caballo marmoreo" and noted their donation of "comitatum Sabinensem" to Farfa[548]m [[965/70]) THEODERANDA, daughter of CRESCENTIUS "de caballo marmoreo" & his wife ---.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Iohannes…papa" arranged the marriage of "nepotem suum…Benedictum" and "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a Caballo marmoreo" and noted their donation of "comitatum Sabinensem" to Farfa[549].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Iohannes…papa qui appellatus est maior" [Pope John XIII?] invested "nepotem suum…Benedictum" with "comitatum Sabinensem" and arranged his marriage with "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a caballo marmoreo", dated to 985 although this date appears incorrect if it is correct that Pope John XIII was the Pope in question[550].  An earlier marriage date than 985 is suggested by the fact that the couple´s two sons were already recorded as active in 1002.  Benedetto & his wife had two children: 

i)          IOANNES (-after 1026).  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis names "Iohannes et Crescentius" as sons of "comitis Benedicti", adding that Ioannes donated property to Farfa[551].  The Chronicon Farfense names "Iohannes et Crescentius" as sons of "comitis Benedicti" and "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a Caballo marmoreo" and records the donation to Farfa by Ioannes[552].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Iohannes Crescentii filius" was installed as "patricius", dated to 1002 by the editor of the MGH edition, and that he allied himself with "Iohannem et Crescentium filios predicti comitis"[553].  "Johannes…urbis…Prefectus, qui vocatur de Benedicta…" is named as present in the charter dated to 1002 under which "Eufemianus" founded the church of St Alexius in Rome[554].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Crescentius comes et Iohannes marchio filii Benedicti quondam comitis" refuted the donation of "medietatem curtis Sancti Gethulii" to Farfa, dated to 1012[555].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "filios comitis Benedicti…Iohannem et Crescentium" donated property to Farfa, dated to 1026 by the editor of the MGH edition[556]m (before 1012) ITTA, daughter of ---.  "Domnus Crescentius comes…[et] Iohannes marchio…cum sua coniuge domna Hitta…ducatrice" refuted the donation of "medietatem curtis Sancti Gethulii" to Farfa by charter dated Aug 1012[557]

ii)         CRESCENTIUS (-after 1026).  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis names "Iohannes et Crescentius" as sons of "comitis Benedicti"[558].  The Chronicon Farfense names "Iohannes et Crescentius" as sons of "comitis Benedicti" and "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a Caballo marmoreo" and records the donation to Farfa by Ioannes[559].  "…Cresentius fidelis eiusdem Prefecto…" (referring to "Johannes…urbis…Prefectus, qui vocatur de Benedicta…") is named as present in the charter dated to 1002 under which "Eufemianus" founded the church of St Alexius in Rome[560].  It is assumed that this document refers in this passage to Crescentius, brother of Ioannes, although this is not beyond all doubt.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Crescentius comes et Iohannes marchio filii Benedicti quondam comitis" refuted the donation of "medietatem curtis Sancti Gethulii" to Farfa, dated to 1012[561].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "filios comitis Benedicti…Iohannem et Crescentium" donated property to Farfa, dated to 1026 by the editor of the MGH edition[562]

 

 

 

J.      CONTI di SEGNI

 

 

Segni is located in the central part of the present-day Italian province of Lazio, south-east of Rome.  Conti di Segni are recorded from the 12th century, but little information has been found in the primary sources which have so far been consulted during the preparation of the present document.  Only a sparse outline reconstruction has proved possible. 

 

 

Two siblings: 

1.         TRASIMONDO .  A manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" records "Bonefatius et Tebaldus filius eius duces"[563]Conte di Segnim CLARICIA di Scotti, daughter of ---.  Trasimondo & his wife had [five] children: 

a)         --- .  m ---.  [Two children]: 

i)          PAOLOConte di Segnim ---.  Paolo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       LUCIA di Caccamo-Segni (-after 1252)William of Tyre (Continuator) records that Prince Bohémond "manda a Rome et li fu amenée Luciene, la fille do conte Pol, fiz do conte Richart qui avoit esté frere dou vaillant pape Innocent"[564].  The Lignages d'Outremer record that "Buemont" son of "le prince Borgne" and his wife Plaisance married "la princesse Lucie" as his second wife[565].  This marriage was arranged by Pope Gregory IX at Prince Bohémond's request[566].  She invited numerous relatives and friends to Antioch from Rome, which irritated the local barons[567].  Regent of Antioch and Tripoli Jan-Dec 1252.  The Chronicle of Amadi records that "Beimonte jovene principe de Antiochia…con Lucia sua matre" went to Jaffa [in 1252, from the context] where he was knighted by the French king[568]m (1235) as his second wife, BOHEMOND V Prince of Antioch, son of BOHEMOND IV Prince of Antioch & his first wife Plaisance Embriaco of Jebail (-Jan 1252). 

ii)         [daughter .  m FILIPPO Conte di Jenne, son of ---.]  One child: 

(a)       RINALDO di Jenne ([1185]-25 May 1261).  Cardinal-Deacon 1227.  He was elected as Pope ALEXANDER IV 12 Dec 1254. 

b)         GREGORIO di Segnim ---.  The name of Gregorio´s wife is not known.  Gregorio & his wife had two children: 

i)          son . 

ii)         GIOVANNI di Segni (-14 Jun 1213).  Deacon of Santa Maria, Cosmedin 1200.  Chancellor. 

c)         TRISTANO di Segnim ---.  The name of Tristano´s wife is not known.  Tristano & his wife had one child: 

i)          UGOLINO di Segni (Anagni [1155]-22 Aug 1241).  He was elected 19 Mar 1227 as Pope GREGORY IX. 

d)         [--- .  m --- .]  [One child]:   

i)          [--- m VUKAN Grand Knez of Zeta, son of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana --- (-[1209]).] 

e)         LOTARIO (Gavignano [1160/61]-16 Jul 1216).  Deacon of SS Sergio e Baccho.  Cardinal.  He was elected as Pope INNOCENT III 8 Jan 1198. 

2.         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         GIACOPO (-after 1218).  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica refers to Pope Innocent III sending "Iacobum Andrie postea comitem, consobrinum suum" to oppose Markward who was defeated in Apulia in 1199[569]Conte di Andria.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Pelagius Albanensis episcopus" left Brindisi "cum Iacobo comite Andrie" sailing "in Syriam" in 1218[570]

 

 

 

K.      SIGNORI di TEANO

 

 

Teano is located south-east of Pontecorvo in the present-day Italian region of Lazio.  The county of Teano first developed in the Lombard principality of Benevento in the early 10th century and is recorded as a Lombard county until the mid-11th century, see CONTI di TEANO in the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1).  References to a Norman held signoria di Teano have been identified in the sources dating from the early 12th century. 

 

 

1.         RAHEL .  Signore di Teano.  m ---.  The name of Rahel´s wife is not known.  Rahel & his wife had one child: 

a)         RAO di Teano (-after Mar 1140).  "Rao filius quondam Rahelis Thianæ civitatis dominus" donated property for the souls of "Agnetis uxoris meæ ac Goffredi de Aquila generi mei et Aderictiæ filiæ meæ uxoris suæ" by undated charter[571].  "Rao filius quondam Rahelis, Thianæ civitatis dominus" donated property to Monte Cassino by charter dated Mar 1140[572]m AGNES, daughter of ---.  "Rao filius quondam Rahelis Thianæ civitatis dominus" donated property for the souls of "Agnetis uxoris meæ ac Goffredi de Aquila generi mei et Aderictiæ filiæ meæ uxoris suæ" by undated charter[573].  Rao & his wife had one child: 

i)          ADELISIA di Teano (-after 14 Jan 1148).  "Rao filius quondam Rahelis Thianæ civitatis dominus" donated property for the souls of "Agnetis uxoris meæ ac Goffredi de Aquila generi mei et Aderictiæ filiæ meæ uxoris suæ" by undated charter[574]m GOFFREDO di Aquila, son of RICCARDO di Aquila Duke of Gaeta & his wife Rangarda --- (-14 Jan 1148).  

 

 

 

L.      CONTI di TRAETTO

 

 

The county of Traetto was one of the counties of the Lombard duchy of Gaeta, in the present-day Italian region of Lazio.  It was ruled by the descendants of a junior branch of the family of the dukes of Gaeta, together with the county of Castro Argento.  No information has so far been identified about the fate of the county after the arrival of the Normans. 

 

 

Brothers: 

1.         GREGORIUS di Gaeta, son of MARINUS Duke of Gaeta & his wife Maria --- (-[991]).  Conte di Castro Argento.  m MARIA, daughter of IOANNES & his wife --- (-after Jan 1020).  "Dauferium comitem Triiecti et…Maria comitissam uxor domni Gregorii bonæ memoriæ comiti…mecum habendo domnum Iohannem patrem meum filio domni Iohanni et…filiis meis" are named in a charter dated May 992[575].  "Maria domini…comitissa" sold property under a charter dated Jan 1020, recorded as "vicesimo quinto anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni, seu et quintodecimo anno comitatus domni Hederadi et domni Marini"[576].  "Landulfus longobardus Capuanus filius bone recordationis Astolfi" sold land in the county of Traetto to "domne Marie Gaietane comitisse ex comitatu Treiecti relicte bone memorie domni Gregorii comitis" by charter dated May 1026, which names "Dauferii comitis nepoti tuo filii quondam bone memorie Dauferii comitis qui fuit filius tuus"[577].  She received land at Passignano, near Traetto, from Landolf son of Astolf in 1026[578].  Gregorius & his wife had two children: 

a)         DAUFER [II] (-[1024]).  "Docibilis filio domni Leoni, Daoferius comes, Docibili filius domni Leoni magnifici" witnessed a charter dated Oct 995 of Leo [I] Duke of Fondi[579].  Pope Sylvester II ceded Terracinia to 'count Daiferius' in 1000[580].  Conte di Castro Argento.  A charter dated Jul 1014 records a judgment in a dispute between "Dauferius filius…domni Gregorii bone memorie comitis intus Castro Argenti pertinentia Gaietane civitatis" and the abbot of Monte Cassino, dated to "vicesimo tertio anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni seu duodecimo anno comitatus domni Ederadi et domni Marini"[581]m ALZEIZA, daughter of ---.  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[582].  Daufer & his wife had two children: 

i)          DAUFER [III] (-after 1039).  "Hederado…comes" granted land at Fracta to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Apr 1025 which refers to "vicesimo anno comitatus domni Landoni et domni Hederadi seu et septimodecimo anno comitatus di Marini et domni Iohanni et primo anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Roffredi"[583].  "Landulfus longobardus Capuanus filius bone recordationis Astolfi" sold land in the county of Traetto to "domne Marie Gaietane comitisse ex comitatu Treiecti relicte bone memorie domni Gregorii comitis" by charter dated May 1026, which names "Dauferii comitis nepoti tuo filii quondam bone memorie Dauferii comitis qui fuit filius tuus"[584].  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[585].  A charter dated Sep 1030 records an exchange of property between Pietro, son of Giczo, and "domno Lando et domno Marino et domno Iohanni toti tres germani fratres et filius…domini Dauferi comitis bone memorie", which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[586].  A charter dated May 1039 refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni, necnon et domni Daferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[587]m SICHELGISA, daughter of ---.  "Landulfus longobardus Capuanus filius bone recordationis Astolfi" sold land in the county of Traetto to "domne Marie Gaietane comitisse ex comitatu Treiecti relicte bone memorie domni Gregorii comitis" by charter dated May 1026, which names "Dauferii comitis nepoti tuo filii quondam bone memorie Dauferii comitis qui fuit filius tuus", a later document dated to [1060/69] adding that "Sikelgisa comitissa et…Dauferio comes ambo mater et filio" sold the same property to the monastery of San Erasmo[588].  Daufer & his wife had one child: 

(a)       DAUFER [V] (-after Jun 1062).  "Landulfus longobardus Capuanus filius bone recordationis Astolfi" sold land in the county of Traetto to "domne Marie Gaietane comitisse ex comitatu Treiecti relicte bone memorie domni Gregorii comitis" by charter dated May 1026, which names "Dauferii comitis nepoti tuo filii quondam bone memorie Dauferii comitis qui fuit filius tuus", a later document dated to [1060/69] adding that "Sikelgisa comitissa et…Dauferio comes ambo mater et filio" sold the same property to the monastery of San Erasmo[589].  A charter dated Jun 1062 records an agreement between "Marinus et…Dauferius et…Lando…et Pandolfo et…Dauferi filius domni Dauferi iuniori comitis…thio et nepotibus atque comitibus…civitatis Triiectu et Iohannes…comes de castro Maranula simulque…Raineri et…Leo et…Landulfo et…Iohannes et…Petro et…Iohannes…thiani et nepotes et fratres et comites de castro Suiu"[590]

ii)         ROFRIT (-after May 1039).  "Hederado…comes" granted land at Fracta to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Apr 1025 which refers to "vicesimo anno comitatus domni Landoni et domni Hederadi seu et septimodecimo anno comitatus di Marini et domni Iohanni et primo anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Roffredi"[591].  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[592].  A charter dated Sep 1030 records an exchange of property between Pietro, son of Giczo, and "domno Lando et domno Marino et domno Iohanni toti tres germani fratres et filius…domini Dauferi comitis bone memorie", which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[593].  A charter dated May 1039 refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni, necnon et domni Daferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[594]

b)         LANDO (-after Jan 1020).  "Maria domini…comitissa" sold property under a charter dated Jan 1020, recorded as "vicesimo quinto anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni, seu et quintodecimo anno comitatus domni Hederadi et domni Marini"[595]Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Lando´s mistress is not known.  Lando had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

i)          GREGORIUS (-after Apr 1048).  "Iohannes…comes et filius…domni Marini senatori…qui fuit filius…domini Iohannes…consuli et duci" granted rights to water, which had belonged to "domno Leoni ziani meus dux et filius domni Iohanni…consuli et duci", for a mill to "Gregorius naturalis filius domni Landoni…comiti…de civitate Triiectu" by charter dated May 1045[596].  "Dardano filio…Petri" sold land at Traetto to "Gregorio naturali filio…domni Landoni…comite…bone memorie" by charter dated Apr 1048[597]. 

2.         DAUFER di Gaeta (-[Dec 1002])Conte di Traetto.  "Dauferium comitem Triiecti et…Maria comitissam uxor domni Gregorii bonæ memoriæ comiti…mecum habendo domnum Iohannem patrem meum filio domni Iohanni et…filiis meis" and "ex diverso domnum Leonem ducem Fundanum fratrem suprascripti domni Gregorii et domni Dauferii pro vice domnæ Sichelgaitæ uxori suem cum suis consortes…domnum Docibilem filium domni Leoni pro vice domnæ Stefaniæ suæ uxoris et pro Gregorio filium domni Docibili secum habendo Docibilem et Gregorium fratres nepoti ipsius domni Gregorii…nos sumus heredes domni Leoni præfecturii" are named in a charter dated May 992 which settled a boundary dispute between their territories[598]A charter dated Mar 999 records the presence of "domni Iohanni et domni Iohanni patri et filio…consulis et ducis" in the court of "domnum Marinum ducem Fundanum et domnum Dauferium comitem Traiectum et domnum Docibilem filium domni Gregorii duci"[599].  "Domnum Dauferium comitem Traiectane civitatis" recognised that half of Spinium belonged to Bishop Bernard by charter dated Apr 999, in the presence of "domnum Marinum et domnum Leonem ducibus Fundane civitatis et domnum Docibilem et domnum Gregorium et domnum Landolfum germanis fratribus filiis domni Gregori ducis"[600].  A charter dated Dec 1002 records the division of property between "Docibiles et Gregorius huterinis fratribus filii domni Leoni bone memorie prefecturii et…domna Drosu…relicta domni Gregorii bone recordationis prefecturii…cum domna Stefania filia sua et domno Dauferio comite genere suo"[601]m STEFANIA, daughter of GREGORIUS & his wife Drosu --- (-after Dec 1002).  A charter dated Dec 1002 records the division of property between "Docibiles et Gregorius huterinis fratribus filii domni Leoni bone memorie prefecturii et…domna Drosu…relicta domni Gregorii bone recordationis prefecturii…cum domna Stefania filia sua et domno Dauferio comite genere suo"[602].  Daufer & his wife had four children: 

a)         EDERAD (-after Apr 1025).  The documents quoted below do not specify that Ederad and Marinus were the sons of Daufer.  However, the comital years specified correspond to the likely year of death of Daufer.  A charter dated Jul 1014 records a judgment in a dispute between "Dauferius filius…domni Gregorii bone memorie comitis intus Castro Argenti pertinentia Gaietane civitatis" and the abbot of Monte Cassino, dated to "vicesimo tertio anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni seu duodecimo anno comitatus domni Ederadi et domni Marini"[603].  "Maria domini…comitissa" sold property under a charter dated Jan 1020, recorded as "vicesimo quinto anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni, seu et quintodecimo anno comitatus domni Hederadi et domni Marini"[604].  "Hederado…comes" granted land at Fracta to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Apr 1025 which refers to "vicesimo anno comitatus domni Landoni et domni Hederadi seu et septimodecimo anno comitatus di Marini et domni Iohanni et primo anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Roffredi"[605]m ---.  The name of Ederad´s wife is not known.  Ederad [I] & his wife had one child: 

i)          EDERAD [II] (-after 1053).  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[606].  A charter dated May 1039 refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni, necnon et domni Daferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[607].  A charter dated Dec 1048 refers to "temporibus domni Marini et domni Hederado et domni Pandolfi et domni Dauferi domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[608].  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "domno Marino zio mio et…Doferius et Lando fratribus et meis consanguineis", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[609]

b)         LANDO (-before Dec 1048).  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[610].  A charter dated Sep 1030 records an exchange of property between Pietro, son of Giczo, and "domno Lando et domno Marino et domno Iohanni toti tres germani fratres et filius…domini Dauferi comitis bone memorie", which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[611].  A charter dated May 1039 refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni, necnon et domni Daferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[612]m ---.  Lando & his wife had three children: 

i)          DAUFIER [IV] (-after Dec 1062).  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "domno Marino zio mio et…Doferius et Lando fratribus et meis consanguineis", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[613].  "Dauferius…comes" donated property to the monastery of San Marino, for the souls of "domini Landoni nostri genitori et…Berardi germani fratri nostri", by charter dated Nov 1049[614].  A charter dated Jun 1062 records an agreement between "Marinus et…Dauferius et…Lando…et Pandolfo et…Dauferi filius domni Dauferi iuniori comitis…thio et nepotibus atque comitibus…civitatis Triiectu et Iohannes…comes de castro Maranula simulque…Raineri et…Leo et…Landulfo et…Iohannes et…Petro et…Iohannes…thiani et nepotes et fratres et comites de castro Suiu"[615].  A charter dated Dec 1062 refers to "quinquagesimo septimo anno comitatus domni Marini et vicesimo anno comitatus domni Dauferi et domni Landoni…tio et nepotibus atque comitibus"[616]

ii)         LANDO [III] (-after Dec 1062).  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "domno Marino zio mio et…Doferius et Lando fratribus et meis consanguineis", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[617].  Duke of Gaeta.  A charter dated Jun 1062 records an agreement between "Marinus et…Dauferius et…Lando…et Pandolfo et…Dauferi filius domni Dauferi iuniori comitis…thio et nepotibus atque comitibus…civitatis Triiectu et Iohannes…comes de castro Maranula simulque…Raineri et…Leo et…Landulfo et…Iohannes et…Petro et…Iohannes…thiani et nepotes et fratres et comites de castro Suiu"[618].  A charter dated Dec 1062 refers to "quinquagesimo septimo anno comitatus domni Marini et vicesimo anno comitatus domni Dauferi et domni Landoni…tio et nepotibus atque comitibus"[619]

iii)        BERARDO (-before Nov 1049).  "Dauferius…comes" donated property to the monastery of San Marino, for the souls of "domini Landoni nostri genitori et…Berardi germani fratri nostri", by charter dated Nov 1049[620]

c)         MARINUS (-after Nov 1062).  The documents quoted below do not specify that Ederad and Marinus were the sons of Daufer.  However, the comital years specified correspond to the likely year of death of Daufer.  A charter dated Jul 1014 records a judgment in a dispute between "Dauferius filius…domni Gregorii bone memorie comitis intus Castro Argenti pertinentia Gaietane civitatis" and the abbot of Monte Cassino, dated to "vicesimo tertio anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni seu duodecimo anno comitatus domni Ederadi et domni Marini"[621].  "Maria domini…comitissa" sold property under a charter dated Jan 1020, recorded as "vicesimo quinto anno comitatus domni Daoferi et domni Landoni, seu et quintodecimo anno comitatus domni Hederadi et domni Marini"[622].  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[623].  A charter dated Sep 1030 records an exchange of property between Pietro, son of Giczo, and "domno Lando et domno Marino et domno Iohanni toti tres germani fratres et filius…domini Dauferi comitis bone memorie", which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[624].  A charter dated May 1039 refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni, necnon et domni Daferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[625].  A charter dated Dec 1048 refers to "temporibus domni Marini et domni Hederado et domni Pandolfi et domni Dauferi domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[626].  A charter dated Jul 1049 records the settlement of a dispute between "Ederradus" and "domno Marino zio mio et…Doferius et Lando fratribus et meis consanguineis", in the presence of "domno Leoni et domno Iohanni fratribus et ducibus et domno Leone episcopo Gaietano et domno Leone et domno Criscencio ducibus Fundanis"[627].  A charter dated Jun 1062 records an agreement between "Marinus et…Dauferius et…Lando…et Pandolfo et…Dauferi filius domni Dauferi iuniori comitis…thio et nepotibus atque comitibus…civitatis Triiectu et Iohannes…comes de castro Maranula simulque…Raineri et…Leo et…Landulfo et…Iohannes et…Petro et…Iohannes…thiani et nepotes et fratres et comites de castro Suiu"[628].  A charter dated Dec 1062 refers to "quinquagesimo septimo anno comitatus domni Marini et vicesimo anno comitatus domni Dauferi et domni Landoni…tio et nepotibus atque comitibus"[629]m ODDOLANA, daughter of ---.  A charter dated Jun 1061 records a donation by "domnus Marinus…cum coniuge sua Oddolana comitissa"[630]

d)         IOANNES [I] (-[May 1039/Dec 1048]).  "Alzeiza…comitissa" donated land at Bocabulo to Pietro, son of Giczo, by charter dated Jul 1029, which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[631].  A charter dated Sep 1030 records an exchange of property between Pietro, son of Giczo, and "domno Lando et domno Marino et domno Iohanni toti tres germani fratres et filius…domini Dauferi comitis bone memorie", which refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni toti tres germani fratres nec non et domni Dauferi et domni Roffreda…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[632].  A charter dated May 1039 refers to "temporibus domni Landoni et domni Marini et domni Iohanni, necnon et domni Daferi et domni Roffreda et Ederado…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[633].  m ---.  Ioannes & his wife had two children: 

i)          PANDOLF (-after Jun 1062).  A charter dated Dec 1048 refers to "temporibus domni Marini et domni Hederado et domni Pandolfi et domni Dauferi domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[634].  A charter dated Jun 1062 records an agreement between "Marinus et…Dauferius et…Lando…et Pandolfo et…Dauferi filius domni Dauferi iuniori comitis…thio et nepotibus atque comitibus…civitatis Triiectu et Iohannes…comes de castro Maranula simulque…Raineri et…Leo et…Landulfo et…Iohannes et…Petro et…Iohannes…thiani et nepotes et fratres et comites de castro Suiu"[635]

ii)         IOANNES [II] (-after 1049).  A charter dated Dec 1048 refers to "temporibus domni Marini et domni Hederado et domni Pandolfi et domni Dauferi domini…fratribus nepotibus et comitibus"[636]

 

 

 

M.     CONTI di TUSCULO

 

 

"Tusculum" was an ancient Roman town whose ruins are found north-east of Frascati, south east of Rome in the present-day Italian province of Lazio.  The Roman family of the counts of Tusculo adopted their title from this town.  The family was descended in the female line from Teofilacto [I] who is recorded as senator of Rome in the early 10th century.  They are also connected through the female line with the family of Crescentius.  Neither the Teofilacto nor Crescentius families are known to have borne the title Conte di Tusculo: they are shown in this section of the document for convenience.  Many members of the Teofilacto/Crescentius families were senators of Rome and, among their female descendants both through the male and female line, the title "senatrix" can be traced.  The family also provided several Popes during the 10th and 11th centuries. 

 

 

1.         TEOFILACTO [I] (-[920]).  The wife of "Albericus marchio" is referred to as "Theophilacti filia" in the Benedicti Chronicon, although not named[637].  An inscription in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore records the burial of "Sergia et Boni[facius] ermani filii Theophilacti vesterarii et Theodor[æ] vesterarisse q. vixit mensib. VII et…anno I", adding that their parents donated "Fundum integrum…Nzanus…territorio Nepesino"[638].  Senator of Rome 915.  m THEODORA --- (-after 916).  Liudprand names Theodora as the mother of "Marotiam et Theodora"[639] which, read with the Benedicti Chronicon which records that the wife of "Albericus marchio" was "Theophilacti filia", infers that she was the wife of Teofilacto[640].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodora" became "Romane civitatis monarchiam"[641].  Teofilacto & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         MAROZIA [I] (-in prison 7 Jan [932/37]).  Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[642].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Marotia", daughter of "Theodora", gave birth "ex papa Sergio" to "filium…Iohannem" who succeeded "Stephanum septimum" as Pope, and that she was mother of "Albericum" by "Alberico marchione"[643].  The wife of "Albericus marchio" is referred to as "Theophilacti filia" in the Benedicti Chronicon, although not named[644].  Liudprand names "Maroziam scortum Romanam" as wife of Guido[645], and in a later passage names "Marozia, scortum impudens satis" when recording her marriage to King Ugo after the death of her second husband[646].  The Memorial of "Maroza" states that she died "Jan VII indic IX"[647]Mistress of: Pope SERGIUS III, son of --- (-14 Apr 911).  m firstly ALBERICO Marchese di Spoleto, son of --- (-[923/24]).  m secondly GUIDO Marchese of Tuscany, son of ALBERTO II Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Berta of Lotharingia .  m thirdly ([932]) as his third wife, UGO King of Italy, son of THEOTBALD Comte d'Arles & his wife Berta of Lotharingia [Carolingian]  ([880]-10 Apr 947).  Marozia had one illegitimate son by Pope Sergius I: 

i)          IOHANNES ([904/11]-[Dec 935/Jan 936]).  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Marotia", daughter of "Theodora", gave birth "ex papa Sergio" to "filium…Iohannem" who succeeded "Stephanum septimum" as Pope[648].  Liudprand names "Iohannem" as the son of "Marotia ex papa Sergio"[649].  He was elected as Pope JOHN XI [Feb/Mar] 931. 

b)         THEODORA (-950).  Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[650].  Her parentage, and the names of her two daughters, are confirmed by a charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, which records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[651].  m IOANNES, son of ---. 

c)         [SERGIA (-aged 7 months).  An inscription in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore records the burial of "Sergia et Boni[facius] ermani filii Theophilacti vesterarii et Theodor[æ] vesterarisse q. vixit mensib. VII et…anno I", adding that their parents donated "Fundum integrum…Nzanus…territorio Nepesino"[652].  The names of the children´s parents suggest that they must have been the same as Teofilacto senator and his wife Theodora.] 

d)         [BONIFAZIO (-aged 1).  An inscription in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore records the burial of "Sergia et Boni[facius] ermani filii Theophilacti vesterarii et Theodor[æ] vesterarisse q. vixit mensib. VII et…anno I", adding that their parents donated "Fundum integrum…Nzanus…territorio Nepesino"[653].  The names of the children´s parents suggest that they must have been the same as Teofilacto senator and his wife Theodora.] 

 

 

Two probable brothers, parents not known. 

1.         IOANNES [I] .  The name of Theodora´s husband is known only from the Memorial of their son "Crescentius…Iohanne patre Theodora matre" states that he died "VII Jul 984"[654].  It is not known whether he was Theodora´s only husband, or that he was also the father of her daughters Marozia [II], Stefania [I].  However, the fact that his great-granddaughter Rogata, descended from his son Crescentius, named her daughter Marozia suggests that the couple may have been the parents of all the children who are shown below.  m THEODORA, daughter of TEOFILACTO [I] & his wife Theodora --- (-950).  Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[655].  Her parentage and the names of her two daughters are confirmed by a charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, which records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[656].  Ioannes [Crescentius] & his wife had [four] children: 

a)         MAROZIA [II] (-979 or before).  Her mother´s name is confirmed by a charter dated 985 which records land boundaries at Albano including the property of "Gregorius de Maroza de Theodoru"[657].  The question whether Ioannes was her father (a fact which is not referred to in any of the primary sources) is discussed above.  A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[658].  "Maroza nobili femina conius…Theophilactus…bestarario" sold land in the territory of Albano called Zizinni by charter dated 949[659]Senatrix.  "Marozza senatrix omnium Romanorum" donated property to the monastery of Subiaco by charter dated 959[660].  A charter dated 979 records that, after the death of "Maroze nobilissime femine", her uncle Demetrius "at her desire gave property at Zizinni" to the monastery of Subiaco, witnessed by "Gregorius consul et dux"[661].  m TEOFILACTO [II], son of --- (-after 949). 

b)         STEFANIA [I] (-970 or after).  Her mother´s name is confirmed by a charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, which records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[662].  The question whether Ioannes was her father (a fact which is not referred to in any of the primary sources) is discussed above.  [m ---.  The name of Stefania´s possible husband is not known.  Stefania [I] & her husband had [one possible child]: 

i)          [STEFANIA [II] (-after 23 Oct 987)Senatrix.  "Benedictus…comes seu Stefania…comitissa senatrix" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius by charter dated 23 Oct 987, signed by "Johannes consul et dux, Crescentius consul et dux, Leo Sancti Stati, Crescentius Probe, Gopizus de Azo de Nova Costo"[663].  The reference to the title "senatrix" suggests that Stefania, wife of Benedetto, was a member of the family of Teofilacto [I] and Theodora.  The date of this document suggests that Stefania [II] was not the same person as Stefania [I].  Stefania [II] is shown as the possible daughter of Stefania [I] in this document, based only on their sharing the same name.  m BENEDETTO, son of --- (-after 23 Oct 987).] 

c)         [THEODORA (-before 963)Senatrix.  No primary source has been found which confirms that Theodora, wife of Ioannes III Duke of Naples, was the sister of Marozia [II] and Stefania [I].  However, the title senatrix attributed to her, as well as her name, suggests that this affiliation may be correct.  The dating clause of a charter dated to [945/60] refers to "principatum ducatus totius Campaniæ dominantibus Iohanne et Marino…ducibus et consulibus" and "[Iohannis] coniugem…Theodoram…senatricem Romanorum"[664].  The Memorial of her son "Landolfus…senatricis Theodoræ…Ioha[nnis] consulis atque ducis…progenies" states that he was "adoptivum Maroza senatrix"[665], which suggests a close family relationship with Marozia.  "Iohannes…consul et dux filius…domini Marini duci" exchanged property with "Cesario ferrario filio Iohannis dudum ferrarii et maiorarii postmodum…monachi", with the consent of "Theodore…ducisse coniugi meæ", by charter dated 3 Nov [951][666]m (after 928) IOANNES III Duke of Naples, son of MARINUS I Duke of Naples & his wife --- (-968).] 

d)         CRESCENTIUS [I] "de Theodora" (-7 Jul 984).  The Memorial of "Crescentius…Iohanne patre Theodora matre" states that he died "VII Jul 984"[667]m SERGIA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by a charter dated 15 Oct 989 which names her sons "Johannes et Crescentius…germani filii D. Crescentii olim consulis et ducis qui dicebatur de Theodora, seu Sergiæ…olim jugalium"[668].  Crescentius & his wife had two children: 

i)          IOANNES [II] CRESCENTIUS (-988).  "Benedictus…comes seu Stefania…comitissa senatrix" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius by charter dated 23 Oct 987, signed by "Johannes consul et dux, Crescentius consul et dux, Leo Sancti Stati, Crescentius Probe, Gopizus de Azo de Nova Costo"[669].  "Johannes et Crescentius…germani filii D. Crescentii olim consulis et ducis qui dicebatur de Theodora, seu Sergiæ…olim jugalium" are named in a charter dated 15 Oct 989[670]m THEODORA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated Oct 1006 under which her son-in-law and daughter "domnum Octavianum…filium…Joseph…et domnam Rogatam…iugalem filiam…Crescentii bone memorie" donated property to Farfa for the souls of "domini Crescentii genitoris mei et domnæ Theodoræ genitricis meæ suprascriptæ Rogatæ et…Johannis patricii Romanorum germani mei et senioris nostri"[671].  Ioannes [I] Crescentius & his wife had three children: 

(a)       IOHANNES [III] (-1012).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated Oct 1006 under which his brother-in-law and sister "domnum Octavianum…filium…Joseph…et domnam Rogatam…iugalem filiam…Crescentii bone memorie" donated property to Farfa for the souls of "domini Crescentii genitoris mei et domnæ Theodoræ genitricis meæ suprascriptæ Rogatæ et…Johannis patricii Romanorum germani mei et senioris nostri"[672].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Iohannes Crescentii filius" was installed as "patricius", dated to 1002 by the editor of the MGH edition, and that he allied himself with "Iohannem et Crescentium filios predicti comitis"[673]

(b)       ROGATA .  "Octavianum filium…Ioseph et…Rogatam filiam…Crescentii comitis uxoremque suprascripti Octaviani" donated property to Farfa by charter dated Dec 1005[674].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Octavianus filius Ioseph et Rogata filia Crescentii comitis uxor eius" donated "res suis territorii Sabinensis, Postmontem ad Sanctam Mariam in Canneto" to Farfa[675].  "Domnum Octavianum…filium…Joseph…et domnam Rogatam…iugalem filiam…Crescentii bone memorie" donated property to Farfa, for the souls of "domini Crescentii genitoris mei et domnæ Theodoræ genitricis meæ suprascriptæ Rogatæ et…Johannis patricii Romanorum germani mei et senioris nostri", by charter dated Oct 1006[676]m OCTAVIANO Conte di Rieti, son of GIUSEPPE Conte di Rieti & his wife Benedicta ---. 

(c)       [daughter .  Stasser proposes that the introduction of the name Crescentius into the family of the dukes of Fondi indicates that their mother was a member of the Tusculo family, and suggests that she may have been the daughter of Ioannes [I] Crescentius[677].  However, the references to several individuals named Crescentius, whose relationship with the main Crescentius family cannot be confirmed (see below), shows that the family was extended in several branches in the 10th and 11th centuries or that the different persons who bore the name did not belong to the same family.  m MARINUS [II] Duke of Fondi, son of MARINUS Duke of Gaeta & his wife Maria --- (-after Jul 1008).] 

ii)         CRESCENTIUS [II] "Nomentanus" (-beheaded Rome 29 Apr 998).  "Johannes et Crescentius…germani filii D. Crescentii olim consulis et ducis qui dicebatur de Theodora, seu Sergiæ…olim jugalium" are named in a charter dated 15 Oct 989[678].  Rodulfus Glaber records the rebellion of Crescentius against the emperor's authority over papal appointments and his capture by the emperor's forces and murder by being thrown from the ramparts[679].  The Gesta Mediolanensium records that "Crescentius" was beheaded "in prato Neroniano"[680].  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Crescentius" was killed during the wars between Emperor Otto III and Pope Gregory, dated to 29 Apr 998 by the editor of the MGH edition[681].  [m [THEODORA] [Stefania], daughter of --- (-[before 1006]).  The Gesta Mediolanensium records that "Stephania…uxor eius traditur adulteranda Teutonibus" (referring to "Crescentius")[682].  Lyndsay Brook states that "a wife attributed to Crescentius, Stephania, is almost certainly apocryphal"[683], although it is unclear why the author thinks it unlikely that Crescentius [II] was married at all.  She was named as deceased in a document dated 1006[684], although it remains to be clarified whether this is a reference to Theodora, widow of Crescentius [II]'s older brother Ioannes [I] Crescentius.  [She married secondly (after Feb 998, divorced [998/1000]) Emperor Otto III.  This alleged second marriage is unlikely to be correct.  It is based on Rodulfus Glaber who recounts that Otto III married the widow of Crescentius Senator of Rome but "dismissed her by divorce" shortly afterwards[685].  No corroborative sources have been identified, and the report appears unlikely, not only because of what must have been an evident age difference between the parties but also the unlikelihood that the young emperor would appear to condone his enemy's treachery by marrying his widow.] 

2.         [DEMETRIUS (-[979/9 Apr 987]).  A charter dated 979 records that, after the death of "Maroze nobilissime femine" (identified as Marozia [II]), her uncle Demetrius "at her desire gave property at Zizinni" to the monastery of Subiaco, witnessed by "Gregorius consul et dux"[686].  The mother of Marozia [II] is already known from other primary sources, and the absence of any reference to succession by male members of the family suggests that she had no brothers.  If this is correct, it is probable that Demetrius was the paternal uncle of Marozia [II].]  m ---.  The name of Demetrius´s wife is not known.  Demetrius & his wife had two children: 

a)         IOANNES (-after 9 Apr 987).  "Johannes…consulus et dux, Demetrii quondam bone memorie filius…et Theodora nobile femine germane mee" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius, for the soul of "predicto nostro genitore Demetrius", with the consent of "Franco nobili viro, Gregorius…consul et dux", by charter dated 9 Apr 987, signed by "…Gregorius senescalco, Stefanus de Berardo, Zacharias nobili viro, Crescentius de Sancto Adriano, Stefanus nobilis viro, de Numenculator filius"[687]

b)         THEODORA (-after 9 Apr 987).  "Johannes…consulus et dux, Demetrii quondam bone memorie filius…et Theodora nobile femine germane mee" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius, for the soul of "predicto nostro genitore Demetrius", with the consent of "Franco nobili viro, Gregorius…consul et dux", by charter dated 9 Apr 987, signed by "…Gregorius senescalco, Stefanus de Berardo, Zacharias nobili viro, Crescentius de Sancto Adriano, Stefanus nobilis viro, de Numenculator filius"[688]

 

 

Other references to individuals named Crescentius in the 10th and 11th centuries.  Their relationship, if any, to the main Crescentius family which is shown above cannot be confirmed: 

 

1.         CRESCENTIUS "de caballo marmoreo" (-after 964).  m ---.  The name of Crescentius´s wife is not known.  Crescentius & his wife had one child: 

a)         THEODERANDA .  Hugo´s Historia Farfensis records that "Iohannes…papa qui appellatus est maior" [Pope John XIII?] invested "nepotem suum…Benedictum" with "comitatum Sabinensem" and arranged his marriage with "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a caballo marmoreo", dated to 985 although this date appears incorrect if it is correct that Pope John XIII was the Pope in question[689].  An earlier marriage date than 985 is suggested by the fact that the couple´s two sons were already recorded as active in 1002.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Iohannes…papa" arranged the marriage of "nepotem suum…Benedictum" and "Theoderandam…filiam Crescentii qui vocabatur a Caballo marmoreo" and noted their donation of "comitatum Sabinensem" to Farfa[690].  ]  m ([965/70]) BENEDETTO Conte di Sabina, son of --- (-before 10 Aug 1012).

 

2.         CRESCENTIUS (-3 Apr 1010).  The Memorial of "Crescentius" states that he died "III Apr 1010" but does not name his parents[691]

 

3.         CRESCENTIUS "sub Janiculo" (-after 1002).  "…Cresentius sub Janiculo…" is named as present in the charter dated to 1002 under which "Eufemianus" founded the church of St Alexius in Rome[692]

 

4.         CRESCENTIUS "de Polla" (-after 1002).  "…Cresentius de Polla…" is named as present in the charter dated to 1002 under which "Eufemianus" founded the church of St Alexius in Rome[693]

 

5.         CRESCENTIUS "de Sancto Andreo" (-after 9 Apr 987).  "Johannes…consulus et dux, Demetrii quondam bone memorie filius…et Theodora nobile femine germane mee" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius, for the soul of "predicto nostro genitore Demetrius", with the consent of "Franco nobili viro, Gregorius…consul et dux", by charter dated 9 Apr 987, signed by "…Gregorius senescalco, Stefanus de Berardo, Zacharias nobili viro, Crescentius de Sancto Adriano, Stefanus nobilis viro, de Numenculator filius"[694]

 

 

1.         TEOFILACTO [II] (-after 949).  The relationship, if any, between Teofilacto [II] and Teofilacto [I] (see above) cannot be confirmed.  "Maroza nobili femina conius…Theophilactus…bestarario" sold land in the territory of Albano called Zizinni by charter dated 949[695]m MAROZIA [II], daughter of IOANNES [Crescentius] & his wife Theodora --- (-979 or before).  Her parentage is confirmed by a charter dated 985 which records land boundaries at Albano including the property of "Gregorius de Maroza de Theodoru"[696].  A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[697].  "Maroza nobili femina conius…Theophilactus…bestarario" sold land in the territory of Albano called Zizinni by charter dated 949[698].  "Marozza senatrix omnium Romanorum" donated property to the monastery of Subiaco by charter dated 959[699].  A charter dated 979 records that, after the death of "Maroze nobilissime femine", her uncle Demetrius "at her desire gave property at Zizinni" to the monastery of Subiaco, witnessed by "Gregorius consul et dux"[700].  Teofilacto [II] & his wife had one child: 

a)         GREGORIUS [I] (-before 11 Jun 1012).  His mother´s name is confirmed by a charter dated 985 which records land boundaries at Albano including the property of "Gregorius de Maroza de Theodoru"[701].  "…Gregorius consul et dux…" witnessed a charter dated 961 which records a donation of vinyards in the territory of Albano to the monastery of Subiaco[702].  A charter dated 979 records that, after the death of "Maroze nobilissime femine", her uncle Demetrius "at her desire gave property at Zizinni" to the monastery of Subiaco, witnessed by "Gregorius consul et dux"[703].  A charter dated [980/81] records an agreement between "Gregorius…filius Maroze senatrix…rectorem monasterii sancti Andree apostoli et sancte Lucie…Renati" and the abbot of the same monastery[704].  "Gerardo…comite atque imperialis militiæ magistro, Gregorio…qui vocatur de Tusculana atque prefecto navali, Gregorio…qui vocatur Miccinus atque vestarario sacri palatii, Alberico filio Gregorii atque imperiales palatii magistro" are named as lay judges in a charter dated 999 which records a lawsuit at Rome[705].  Romanorum consul, dux et senator.  m MARIA, daughter of --- (-before 11 Jun 1012).  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Gregorius & his wife had four children: 

i)          TEOFILACTO (-1024).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was elected as Pope BENEDICT VIII 1012. 

ii)         ROMANUS (-1032).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was elected as Pope JOHN XIX 1024.  

iii)        ALBERICUS [III] .  "Gerardo…comite atque imperialis militiæ magistro, Gregorio…qui vocatur de Tusculana atque prefecto navali, Gregorio…qui vocatur Miccinus atque vestarario sacri palatii, Alberico filio Gregorii atque imperiales palatii magistro" are named as lay judges in a charter dated 999 which records a lawsuit at Rome[706].  Consul, dux et patricius Romanorum.  m ERMELINA ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Albericus & his wife had four children: 

(a)       THEOFILACTUS [IV] (-before 9 Jan 1056).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was elected as Pope BENEDICT IX 1032. 

(b)       GREGORIUS [II] (-[1058]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records the death of "Gregorius de Alberico Tusculanensis comes", in a paragraph which is undated but which follows one dealing with events in 1058[707].  Lateranensis et Tusculanensis comes.  Romanorum patricius, consul, dux et senator. 

-         see below

(c)       PETRUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Consul, dux et senator Romanorum.  m ---.  Petrus & his wife had two children: 

(1)       GREGORIUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

(2)       OTTO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

(d)       OCTAVIANUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

iv)       MAROZIA [III] [Berta] .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  A charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1010, records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…Bertæ […Marottæ] comitissæ conjuge mea"[708].  A charter of Monte Cassino, dated 1028, records a donation by "Atto comes" for the souls of "Attonis comitis que fuit bisabio meo et…Trasmundi dux et marchio…avio meo et…Trasmundi comitis…genitor meo…et Landolfi comes…germano meo et…Sikelgarde…avia mea…et Marocza comitisse…genitrix mea"[709]m TRANSMUNDO [II] Conte di Teate e Chieti, son of TRANSMUNDO [I] Duke and Marchese di Spoleto & his wife Sichelgarda --- (-before Oct 1017). 

 

 

GREGORIUS [II], son of ALBERICUS [III] & his wife Ermelina --- (-[1058]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis records the death of "Gregorius de Alberico Tusculanensis comes", in a paragraph which is undated but which follows one dealing with events in 1058[710].  Lateranensis et Tusculanensis comes.  Romanorum patricius, consul, dux et senator. 

m ---.  The name of Gregorius's wife has not yet been identified. 

Gregorius & his wife had four children: 

1.         THEODORA (-after Jul 1068).  A charter dated Oct 1052 records a donation "pro parte domne Theodore…uxor fuit domni Paldulfi…filium bone memorie domni Guaimarii…princeps et pro parte de filiis eorum"[711].  A charter dated Mar 1053 records a donation by "Guiselmari vicecomite filius quondam Martini" with the consent of "domne Theodore filie Gregorii et de domne Guaimarii, et Gregorii et Iohanni germani filii sui", which names "domnus Paldulfus…genitor supradicti domni…seniori"[712].  A charter dated Feb 1054 names "Theodora…filia domni Gregorii Romanorum ducis et consulis et fuerat uxor Paldulfi filii…domni Guaimarii principis" when recording a donation[713].  A charter dated Aug 1056 names "domne Theodore filie domne Gregorii consulis et ducis Romanorum, que fuerat uxor Paldulfi…filius…domni Guaimarii principis…et Guaimarii et Gregorii et Iohannis et Guidonis filii ipsius domne Theodore et iamdicti Paldulfi"[714].  Theodora is also named in charters dated Dec 1058 and Jul 1059[715].  A charter dated Jul 1068 records that "Ursus et Petrus germani…fils du défunt Alfan avec leurs épouses Fresa et Laita" donated property to the church of San Michele Arcangelo di Venanzana near Capaccio which belonged to "domne Theodore et domni Guaimarii et Gregorii et Guidoni et Iohannes germani filii quondam domni Paldulfi et prefate Theodore"[716]m ([1040/45]) PANDULF of Salerno, son of GUAIMAR III Prince of Salerno & his wife Gaitelgrima of Capua (-murdered 3 Jun 1052). 

2.         IOHANNES (19 Oct 1030-28 Oct 1030).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

3.         PETRUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

4.         GREGORIUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Patricius et consul.  m ---.  The name of Gregorius's wife has not yet been identified.  Gregorius & his wife had five children:

a)         TOLOMEO [I] .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Petrus filius Gregorii Romanorum consulis" and records his donation of the church of St Antonio "in monte Porculo" to Monte Cassino (24 Sep 1077 in the margin), also referring to a donation by "superius Gregorius consul Romanorum…cum filio suo Ptolomeo"[717]m ---.  The name of Tolomeo's wife has not yet been identified.  Tolomeo & his wife had one child:

i)          TOLOMEO [II] (-25 Feb 1153).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  consul Romanorum.  "Dns Tholomeus" donated property to the church of SS Bonifacius and Alexius by charter dated 14 Mar 1141[718].  The Annales Ceccanenses record the death "1153 5 Kal Mar" of "Ptolomæus Tusculanus"[719]m firstly BERTHA, illegitimate daughter of Emperor HEINRICH V & his mistress ---.  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Bertam filiam suam [=imperator]" wife of "Ptolomeo illustrissimo, Octavia stirpe progenitor, Ptlomei magnificentissimi consulis Romanorum filio" when recording their marriage in 1117 during the Emperor's visit to Rome[720]m secondly ---, filia Leonis Petri Leonis.  Tolomeo & his first wife had three children:

(a)       REGINULFUS [Raino] .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Reginulfo filio eius [=Tolomeo duce]" recording his father leaving him as a hostage in Rome, in a passage dealing with events in 1137[721]

(b)       IORDANIS de Gahiniano .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   

(c)       IONATHAS .  The Annales Pisani record that "Ionatta filius Tolomei de Tusculan" came to Pisa in 1161 and swore allegiance to "Villano archiepiscopo Pisanorum et consulibus"[722].  comes Tusculanus.  He swore fidelity to the Pope 9 Jul 1155, and in 1170 resigned Tusculum to Pope Alexander III[723]

b)         GREGORIUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         PETRUS .  The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Petrus filius Gregorii Romanorum consulis" and records his donation of the church of St Antonio "in monte Porculo" to Monte Cassino (24 Sep 1077 in the margin), also referring to a donation by "superius Gregorius consul Romanorum…cum filio suo Ptolomeo"[724]m ---.  The name of Petrus's wife has not yet been identified.  Petrus & his wife had one possible child:

i)          [PETRUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  prefect 1116.] 

d)         EGIDIUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Egidius's wife has not yet been identified.  Egidius & his wife had one child:

i)          PETRUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  diaconus. 

ii)         GUYLLA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m LANDULF de Santo Iohanne, son of ---. 

e)         ISDARA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    COUNTIES in MARCHE and UMBRIA

 

 

The present-day Italian region of Marche lies on the eastern coast of Italy, east of the region of Toscana and north of Abruzzo, with the smaller region of Umbria directly to its west.  In addition to the duchy of Spoleto, the following medieval counties have been identified in the Umbria region: Corbara, Gubbio, Narni, Norcia and Perugia; and in the Marche region: Ancona, Ascoli, Cagli, Camerino, Carpegna, Fano, Fermo, Fossombrone, Jesi, Montefeltro, Osimo, Pesaro, Senigallia, Traversaria.  No information has so far been found about their counts.  

 

 

 

A.      DUKES and MARCHESI of SPOLETO

 

 

The Lombard Faraold seized Classe, the port of Ravenna, after the Lombard migration into Italy and was installed as Duke of Spoleto[725].  Appointees of the Lombard kings ruled as dukes of Spoleto until the early 770s, when Pope Hadrian I appointed duke Hildebrand as vassal of the Papal see.  His successors of Frankish origin, initially Winichis who was appointed by Charles I King of the Franks (later known as Emperor Charlemagne) towards the end of the 8th century, who was followed by Suppo Count of Parma and his descendants, in turn succeeded by the descendants of Lambert Comte de Nantes.  An interval of Papal control in Spoleto occurred in the late 9th and early 10th centuries, after Alberico murdered Guido IV Duke of Spoleto in 897 and installed himself as Marchese of Spoleto.  Finally, descendants of the Frank Hucbald were installed as Marchesi of Spoleto in the mid-10th century. 

 

 

FAROALD [I] [570]-584.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Faraold primus Spolitanorum dux" invaded "Classem" with an army of Lombards[726]

1.         THEUDELAPIUS (-[641]).  Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of "Ariulfus dux", two sons of Faroald fought to succeed, the victor being "Teudelapius"[727].  He succeeded as THEUDELAPIUS Duke of Spoleto.  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Spoletium…Theudalaupo" and the accession of Atto, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to 641[728]

2.         son .  Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of "Ariulfus dux", two sons of Faroald fought to succeed, the victor being "Teudelapius"[729]

 

 

1.         ARIULF [590/91]-[600/01].  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Ariulfus dux", specifying that he had succeeded "Farualdo aput Spoletium" and had defeated the Romans in Camerino[730].  He succeeded in 584 as ARIULF Duke of Spoleto

 

 

1.         ATTO (-[665]).  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "aput Spoletium…Theudalaupo" and the accession of Atto, the passage being undated but immediately following the report of the death of Emperor Heraclius which is dated to 641[731].  He succeeded Theudelapius as ATTO Duke of Spoleto

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known, although the name Faroald provides an indication of a family relationship with Faraold I Duke of Spoleto:

1.         TRASIMUND [Transamundus] (-703).  Count of Capua.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Transamundum…Capuæ comes" was installed as TRASIMUND Duke of Spoleto after helping Grimoald Duke of Benevento to secure the Lombard throne[732], the event probably being dated to [665].  m (663) --- of Benevento, daughter of GRIMOALD King of the Lombards, Duke of Benevento & his first wife ---.  Paulus Diaconus records that King Grimoald arranged the marriage of "sua filia, Romualdi altera sorore" to "Transamundum…Capuæ comes"[733].  Duke Trasimund & his wife had one child: 

a)         FAROALD (-after 720).  Paulus Diaconus names "Farualdus, eius filius [Transamundo duce Spolitanorum]" when recording that he succeeded as duke on the death of his father[734].  He succeeded his father in 703 as FAROALD II Duke of Spoleto.  He seized Classis but restored it to the Romans of the orders of Liutprand King of the Lombards.  He was deposed by his son and forced to become a cleric[735]m ---.  Duke Faroald II & his wife had one child: 

i)          TRASIMUND (-after 742).  Paulus Diaconus names "Faraoldum ducem filius suus Transamundus" when recording his rebellion against his father[736].  He deposed his father and succeeded as TRASIMUND II Duke of Spoleto.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Transmundus…dux Spoletanus et filius quondam Faroaldi ducis" donated "ecclesiam Sancti Gethulii" to Farfa[737].  He rebelled against Liutprand King of the Lombards, but fled to Rome when the king marched against him.  He returned to Spoleto in 740, killed Hilderic, and again rebelled against the king.  Liutprand expelled him in 742 and forced him to become a cleric[738]

2.         WACHILAP .  Paulus Diaconus names "Wachilapus germanus Transamundi" when recording that he ruled Spoleto jointly with his brother[739]

 

 

1.         HILDERIC (-murdered 740).  He was appointed HILDERIC Duke of Spoleto in 739 when Trasimund II rebelled and was driven out by Liutprand King of the Lombards, but was himself killed by Trasimund when he returned to Spoleto in 740. 

 

 

1.         AGIPRAND, son of --- (-744).  Paulus Diaconus records that Liutprand King of the Lombards installed "Agiprandum suum nepotem" as AGIPRAND Duke of Spoleto[740], although the source does not specify his parentage.  Dux of Clusium in 742, he was sent by King Liutprand to escort Pope Zacharias on his return from Interamna and restore to him en route certain cities which the Lombards had seized[741]

 

 

1.         LUPUS (-751).  He succeeded in [745] as LUPUS Duke of Spoleto.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Luponis ducis" donated "casalem…Turris" to Farfa[742]

 

 

1.         RATCHIS, son of PEMMO Duke of Friulia & his wife Ratperga --- (-after 757).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[743].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Achis filius Pimon" when recording that he succeeded "Utprand" and ruled for five years[744].  King Liutprand appointed him Duke of Friulia, after the dismissal of his father, although Ratchis persuaded the king to accept his father back into favour[745].  He attacked the Slavs living in Carniola and also accompanied the king on his expedition against Spoleto and Benevento[746].  He was chosen as RATCHIS King of the Lombards when King Hildeprand was deposed in 744.  He besieged Perugia where he was visited by Pope Zacharias, a few days later abdicating his throne and leaving with his wife and children for Rome where he was ordained as a priest[747].  He was sent to the monastery of Montecassino in 749[748].  One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus records that King Ratchis reigned for 4 years and 9 months[749].  After the death of King Aistulf in Dec 756, Ratchis unsuccessfully tried to seize the throne from Desiderius[750].  He succeeded his brother in 757 as RATCHIS Duke of Spoleto

2.         AISTULF [Aistulfus] (-756).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[751].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Aistulfus frater eius" when recording that he succeeded his brother "Achis" and ruled for eight years[752].  "Astulphus" is named brother of Ratchis in the Benedicti Chronicon, although their father is named as King Liutprand[753].  He tried to attack King Liutprand after the latter tried to arrest his supporters following the dismissal of his father[754].  He succeeded in 749 as AISTULF King of the Lombards.  He succeeded in 751 as AISTULF Duke of Spoleto

 

 

1.         ALBOIN (758).  He succeeded in 757 as ALBOIN Duke of Spoleto

 

 

1.         DESIDERIUS, son of --- (-Corbie after 774).  A Lombard dux, King Aistulf sent him to command Lombard troops in Tuscia, where he learnt of the king's death in Dec 756 and assembled troops to seize the throne[755].  He succeeded in 758 as DESIDERIUS Duke of Spoleto, until 759.  With the support of Fulrad and Frankish troops, as well as the promise of Roman soldiers from Pope Stephen II (III), he prevailed over his rival Ratchis and installed himself as DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards[756]

 

 

1.         GISULF (-761).  He succeeded in 759 as GISULF Duke of Spoleto

 

 

1.         THEODICIUS (-before 9 Jun 776).  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the properties of Farfa monastery by charter dated 9 Jun 776, including property which "Theodicius dux…restituit…et…Hildeprandus dux noster fecit"[757].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Theodicius…dux" donated "casalem Paternionem qui pertinet ad curtem Germanicianam" to Farfa[758]

 

 

1.         HILDEPRAND (-after Jul 781).  774-[776].  He fled to Rome when Charles I King of the Franks invaded Italy in 773.  Pope Hadrian I appointed him in 774 as HILDEPRAND Duke of Spoleto, subject to the see of Rome[759].  He fought successfully against imperial troops in Italy.  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" confirmed the properties of Farfa monastery by charter dated 9 Jun 776, including property which "Theodicius dux…restituit…et…Hildeprandus dux noster fecit"[760].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Hildeprandus…dux" donated "gualdum…Tancia…in territorio Reatino" to Farfa[761].  "Ildeprandus…dux ducatus Spoletani" confirmed the possessions of Farfa monastery, in the presence of "…Lupo comes de Firmo…Lupo comes de Esculo…Halo comes…", by charter dated Dec 776[762].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Hildeprandus…Dux Ducatus Spoletino" donated "ecclesiam sancti Donati in territorio Cumino" to Volturno monastery by charter dated May 778[763].  The Annales Laurissenses record that "Hildebrandus dux Spolitanus" submitted to Charles I King of the Franks "in villa…Virciniacum" in 779[764].  A charter dated Jul 781 of "Karolus…rex Francorum atque Langobardorum" relating to Farfa names "Hildeprandus…dux", and is witnessed by "Halo…comes"[765].  He was succeeded by the Frank Winichis as dux of Spoleto[766]

 

 

1.         WINICHIS [Winigisus], son of --- (-822).  Of Frankish origin, he was sent by Charles I King of the Franks in 788 with Frankish troops to check the activities of Hildeprand dux of Spoleto and Grimoald dux of Benevento.  He defeated the Byzantine troops under Theodoros in Calabria[767].  He was later appointed dux of Spoleto to succeed Hildeprand.  He escorted Pope Leo III to safety in Spoleto after he was rescued following the assaults on him 25 Apr 799[768].  "Bebroardus comes palacii in cancellis finibus Spoleti" confirmed possessions of Farfa by charter dated Aug 800 in the presence of "Guinichisii ducis…"[769].  He was besieged by Grimoald Duke of Benevento at Lucera, surrendered in 802 and was "held in honourable captivity", but released in 803[770].  Einhard records that "Grimaldus Beneventanorum dux" captured "Winigisum comitem Spoletii" at "Luceria" and released him the following year[771].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Winigisus dux Spolitanus" was besieged and captured by  "Grimoldo" in 803[772].  Bernard King of Italy sent Winichis to suppress a revolt by the Romans when Pope Leo III was dying in 815[773].  He retired in 822 and became a monk, dying soon after.  Einhard's Annales record that "Winigisius dux Spolitinus" died in 822 after becoming a monk, and that he was succeeded by "Suppo Brixiæ civitatis comes"[774].  The Royal Frankish Annals also record that he was succeeded as dux of Spoleto by Suppo Count of Brescia[775]

 

 

1.         ADALHARD (-[Aug] 824).  He was appointed ADELHARD Duke of Spoleto in Mar 824.  Einhard's Annales record the appointment of "Adalhardus comes palatii, qui iunior vocabatur" after the death of "Suppo dux Spolitinus" and that he died after 5 months[776]

 

 

SUPPO [I], son of --- (-[5 Mar] 824[777]).  Of Frankish origin.  Count of Brescia, Parma, Piacenza, Modena and Bergamo in 817.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Rathaldo episcopi et Suppone comite Brixiensi" as missi [in 817][778].  He was instrumental in suppressing the revolt of Bernard ex-King of Italy[779].  He was installed as SUPPO I Duke of Spoleto in 822[780].  Einhard's Annales record that "Winigisius dux Spolitinus" died in 822 after becoming a monk, and that he was succeeded by "Suppo Brixiæ civitatis comes"[781].  Einhard's Annales record the announcement of the death "III Non Mar" of "Suppo dux Spolitinus"[782].  He was succeeded as Duke of Spoleto by "Adalhard the younger", who died "after holding the office for barely five months"[783]

m ---.  The name of the Duke Suppo's wife has not yet been identified.  However, the fact that their son was named Adelgis suggests a Lombard origin.  Duke Suppo [I] & his wife had two children: 

1.         MARINO (-[Aug/Sep] 824).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Count of Brescia.  He succeeded in [Aug] 824 as MARINO Duke of Spoleto.  "Mauring Count of Brescia" was elected to succeed Adalhard as Duke of Spoleto, but died "within a few days"[784].  Einhard's Annales record the appointment of "Moringus Brixiæ comes" as Duke of Spoleto after the death of "Adalhardus" but that he died within a few days[785].  Neither of these sources specify the relationship between Mauring and Duke Suppo I. 

2.         ADELGIS [I] (-after 861).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 824 as ADELGIS I Duke of Spoleto, Count of Parma.  m ---.  The name of the Duke Adelgis's wife has not yet been identified.  Duke Adelgis & his wife had three children: 

a)         SUPPO [II] .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father as SUPPO II Duke of Spoletom ---.  The name of the Duke Suppo's wife has not yet been identified.  Duke Suppo & his wife had five children: 

i)          ADELGIS [II] .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father as ADELGIS II Duke of Spoleto.  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "in vico…Rovereto…in comitatu Regiensi" to "Roperto vasso…Adelgisi comitis", at the request of "…Adelgisi…comitis", by charter dated 20 Oct 890[786]

ii)         WIFRED .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Count of Piacenza.  He supported Rudolf II King of Upper Burgundy against Berengario I King of Italy in 922[787]

iii)        BOSO .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Probably Count of Parma.  He revolted against Berengario I King of Italy in 913[788]

iv)       ARDING .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Bishop of Brescia. 

v)        BERTILA (-executed before Dec 915).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "Mercoriatico in territorio [comitatu] Regiensi" to "Iohanne presbiter", at the request of "Berchtilæ…coniugis et consortis regni nostri", by charter dated 3 Nov 890[789].  Berengario I King of Italy "conjugis nostreque Regni consortis Berchtile" granted property "in comitatu Veronense" to "Anselmo…Comite, nostroque Compatre et Consiliario" by charter dated 26 Jul 910[790].  She was executed for alleged adultery.  m ([880/3 Nov 890]) as his first wife, BERENGARIO [I] Marchese of Friulia, son of EBERHARD Marchese of Friulia & his wife Gisela [Carolingian] ([840/45]-murdered Verona 7 Apr 924). 

b)         EGFRED .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         ARDING .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         MARINO (-before Jun 872).  m ---.  The name of Marino´s wife is not known.  Marino & his wife had one child: 

a)         SUPPO [III] (-[878/79])Marchese of Spoleto.  He was archiminister and consiliarius of Emperor Louis II King of Italy[791].  Count Suppo was referred to in 870 as consobrinus of the empress's wife[792].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Suppo Dux filius quondam Maurini" donated property "in loco…Paterno in civitate Pinnensi" to Casauria by charter dated Jun 872[793].  An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[794].  He was deposed.  m --- [of Friulia], daughter of Comte UNRUOCH & his wife Engeltrude --- .  The wife of Suppo III is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[795] as the daughter of Unruoch but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It is probably speculative, based on the name of his son who was called "consanguineus" of Berengar I King of Italy in the latter´s charter dated 12 May 890.  Suppo [III] & his wife had one child: 

i)          UNRUOCH (-after 12 May 890).  "Berengarius rex" confirmed grants of property "in comitatu Parmense in gastaldiato Bismantino" to "Unroch consanguineus noster filius quondam Supponi…marcionis", at the request of "…Vualtfredi…marchionis", by charter dated 12 May 890[796]m ---.  The name of Unruoch´s wife is not known.  Unruoch & his wife had one child: 

(a)       RODOLFO (-after 17 Mar 945).  A charter dated 17 Mar 945 records a judgment in favour of "Rodulfus filius quondam Unrochi Comes" relating to a dispute with the bishop of Reggio[797]

 

 

1.         ---. 

a)         SUPPO [IV] (-after 942).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Count of Modena. 

2.         ARDING .  Uncle of Suppo IV.  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Bishop of Modena[798]

 

 

1.         ENGELBERGA (-[896/901]).  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" names "sponsam nostram Angilbergam" in a charter dated 5 Oct [860] by which he granted Campo Miliacio in the county of Modena to her[799].  Engelberga´s origins are unknown.  According to some secondary sources[800], she was the daughter of Adalgis [I] Count of Parma, Duke of Spoleto [Supponidi] (see above).  Jean-Noël Mathieu highlghts that this is supported only by Count Suppo [III] being referred to in 870 as consobrinus of the emperor´s wife[801].  The origin of Empress Engelberga is discussed briefly by Odegaard, who dismisses the proposed Supponidi connection but proposes no alternative theory[802].  Some clue is also suggested by Emperor Karl III who confirmed grants to "Angilbergam…Hludouuici…imperatori consobrini nostri coniugem augustam, dilectam sororem nostram" by charter dated 23 Mar 880[803].  In addition, Emperor Karl refers to Engelberga's daughter as "neptam nostram Hermingardam…filioque suo Hludouuico nepoti nostro et sororibus eius"[804].  Jean-Noël Mathieu suggests that these references could mean that Engelberga was the uterine half-sister of the emperor, the daughter of his mother Emma by an otherwise unknown first marriage[805].  However, this assumes that "soror" and "neptis" should be interpreted in these documents in their strictest sense, although a wide variety of meaning is attributed to the terms in contemporary sources.  Another possibility is that Engelberta was related to Emperor Karl III through his wife Richardis, who was the daughter of Graf Erchanger (see FRANCONIA).  The different possibilities are too numerous and uncertain for further speculation about Engelberga´s parentage to be worthwhile.  Engelberga´s over-bearing manner triggered her arrest and that of her husband at Benevento in Aug 871, although their release was negotiated within a month by the bishop of Benevento[806].  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[807].  Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 868.  Suspected of supporting the usurpation of her son-in-law King Boso, she was imprisoned in a convent in Alemania by Charles III "le Gros" King of the East Franks, but returned to Italy with his permission in Oct 882[808].  Abbess of San Sisto at Piacenza in 896.  m (betrothed 851 before 5 Oct, [852]) Emperor LOUIS II King of Italy, son of Emperor LOTHAR I King of Lotharingia & his wife Ermengarde de Tours ([825]-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio). 

 

 

LAMBERT, son of WIDO Comte et Marquis de Nantes & his wife --- (-Ticino 30 Dec 836).  The primary source which confirms the parentage of Lambert has not yet been identified.  He succeeded as Count of the Breton march.  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Walam et Warnarium, necnon et Lambertum sed et Ingobertum" as missi [in 813], recording that "Warnarius comes…accito nepote Lantberto" acted without the knowledge of "Wala et Ingelberto"[809].  He was expelled from Aachen with his uncle Werner in 814 by King Louis I after the death of Emperor Karl I, Werner being killed in the conflict which followed[810].  The forces of "Count Lambert" defeated and killed Wihomarc who had rebelled in Brittany in 825[811].  "Lambert" was one of the supporters of the rebellion of co-Emperor Lothar I in 833/34, and consequently lost his position in the Breton march[812].  The Annales Fuldenses record fighting with "Mahtfredo et Lantberto", during which battle "Uodo comes Aurelianensium et Theodo abbas sancti Martini Turonensis" were killed[813].  In 834 he was sent to Italy where Lothar gave him land and installed him as LAMBERT I Marchese and Duke of Spoleto.  The Annales Fuldenses record the earthquake at Ticino in Italy "837 III Kal Ian" in which "plures ex primoribus Italiæ" were killed including "Lantbertus et Hugus"[814].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Wala Corbeiensis abbas, Matfridus, Hugo, Lantbertus, Godefridus, itemque filius eius Godefridus, Agimbertus comes Pertensis…sed et Richardus" died between "Kal Sep usque ad missam sancti Martini" [in 836][815]

m [--- of Italy, daughter of PEPIN I King of Italy & his mistress ---.  According to Winkhaus[816], one of the last four daughters of Pepin King of Italy married Lambert Comte de Nantes, but the source on which this is based has not been identified.] 

Comte Lambert & his wife had [eight] children:

1.         LAMBERT (-killed in battle 1 May 852, bur Savenai).  The Chronicon Fontanellensis names "Lambertus comes et Wernarius frater eius" when recording that they fought in Brittany[817] but the primary source which specifies Lambert's parentage explicitly has not yet been identified.  He established himself as Comte de Nantes in 843, asserting his independence from Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, and distributed the honores of the Breton march among his supporters. 

-        COMTES de NANTES

2.         DODA (-after [846]).  "Soror Lamberti…Doda" is named "S Clementis civitatis Nanneticæ Monasterio…Abbatissa" in an undated passage[818].  Abbess of Saint-Clément at Nantes and at Craon [846].  The Chronicle of Nantes names "Lamberti soror…Doda" as abbess of St Clement, Nantes[819]

3.         GUIDO [Wido] (-[860]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He accompanied Emperor Lothar north of the Alps in 840 and was granted Kloster Mettlach, but renounced it in 842 before returning to Italy[820].  He was invested in 842 as GUIDO II Duke and Count of Spoleto, Lord of the Abruzzi.  He supported his brother-in-law Siconulf Prince of Salerno in his war with Radelchis Prince of Benevento[821]m ([843/44]) ---.  The name and origin of Guido´s wife is not known.  Duke Guido & his wife had three children: 

a)         LAMBERT ([845/50]-880 before 8 Jul).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Lamberto filio Guidonis senioris"[822].  He succeeded his father in 860 as LAMBERT II Duke of Spoleto-Camerino.  Together with the duke of Benevento, he rebelled against Emperor Louis II King of Italy.  He captured Capua in 866, installing himself as Prince of Capua.  As the opponent of Pope Nicholas I, he plundered Rome in 867.  He rebelled against Emperor Louis again in 870/71, captured in Benevento, and deposed.  He was reinstated by Emperor Charles II "le Chauve" in 876 in the western part of the Duchy of Spoleto, named "defensor patrimonii Petri" and adopted by Pope John VIII[823].  However, the Annales Fuldenses record that "Lantbertus Witonis filius et Adalbertus Bonifacii filius" entered Rome in 878 and captured Pope John[824]m ---.  The name of Duke Lambert's wife has not yet been identified.  Duke Lambert & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUIDO (-[882/83]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Guido iunior" and specifies that he succeeded Lambert in Spoleto and Camerino, but does not give his relationship to his predecessor[825].  He succeeded his father in 880 as GUIDO II Duke of Spoleto.  He complained to Pope John VIII about the lack of support he received from Emperor Karl III[826]

b)         GUIDO (855-River Taro 12 Dec 894, bur Parma Cathedral)The Chronica Mon. Casinensis names "Lambertum ducem et fratrem eius Guidonem" in 876[827].  The Gesta regum Francorum names "Wito filius Lantberti" when recording that he proposed himself in 888 as king of "Galliam Belgicam necnon Provinciam"[828].  He became Duke of Camerino in 876, and succeeded his nephew in [882/83] as GUIDO III Duke of Spoleto[829].  He was called to France by nobles opposed to Emperor Charles III "le Gros", and consecrated King of France at Langres by Bishop Gilon in [Jan/Feb] 888.  He returned to Italy after the election of Eudes as King of France 29 Feb 888.  He was elected GUIDO I King of Italy at Pavia 12 Feb 889, in opposition to Berengario Marchese di Friulia.  During this time he transferred the duchy of Spoleto to his [cousin] Duke Guido IV.  Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 Feb 891 by Pope Stephen V[830].  "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[831].  He died after a blood haemorrhage.  m ([875/76]) AGELTRUDA of Benevento, daughter of ADELCHIS Prince of Benevento & his wife --- (-after 27 Aug 923).  Herimannus names "Angildruda" widow of Guido and mother of Lambert, but does not give her origin[832].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  "Vuido…imperator augustus" confirmed earlier donations to the church of Parma by "coniugi nostræ Ageltrudi" by charter dated 21 Feb 891[833].  The Annales Fuldenses name "Ageldrudis vidua Widonis" in 896[834].  A document dated 1 Dec 898 records a peace agreement reached between Berengar King of Italy and "Ageltrudæ relicta quondam Widoni imperatoris" and "filio eius Lamberto [imperatoris]"[835].  Duke Guido & his wife had two children: 

i)          LAMBERT ([876]-near Marengo 15 Oct 898, bur Piacenza).  Lambert is named as son of Guido in the Guidonis Chronica[836].  His father appointed him as LAMBERT associate King of Italy in May 891, and 30 Apr 892 he was crowned co-Emperor by Pope Formosius[837].  "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[838].  "Lanbertus cæsar imperator augustus" granted property "in comitatu et pago Placentino" to "fideli nostro Amalgiso", at the request of "Evurardus comes" and with the advice of "Sigefredi comitis", by charter dated Jan 895[839].  Supported by his mother, Lambert took advantage of the illness of Emperor Arnulf and was recognised as King of Italy by Pope Stephen VI in 896, confirmed at the Synode of Ravenna in May 898[840].  He died following a fall from his horse[841]

c)         ROTHILDIS (-after 27 May 884).  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by the charter dated 27 May 889 under which "Vuido…rex" donated property to the bishop of Fiesole at the request of [her son] "Adalbertus…nepos noster et marchio"[842].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m (before 863) as his second wife, ADALBERT I Marchese of Tuscany, son of BONIFAZIO Conte at Lucca & his wife --- (-after 884). 

4.         WERNER [Warnarius] (-executed 853).  The Chronicon Fontanellensis names "Lambertus comes et Wernarius frater eius" when recording that they fought in Brittany and that Werner was captured by "Gausberto comite"[843].  Comte en Bretagne. 

5.         [--- .  The identity of the father of Guido IV Duke of Spoleto and his sister Ita is not known.  Their descent from Lambert I Marchese and Duke of Spoleto is confirmed by the Chronica Mon. Casinensis which records that Ita´s grandson "Gisulfus…Salernitanus princeps filius Guaimarii" donated property possessed by "Lambertus dux et marchio…in comitatu Marsicano, et Balva, et Forcone, et Amiterno, necnon et marchia Firmana et ducatu Spoletino" to the monastery[844].  The estimated birth date attributed to Ita means that it is unlikely that she could have been the daughter of a brother of Emperor Guido.  The most likely possibility is therefore that they were the children of one of the emperor´s paternal uncles, possibly the same person as one of the other possible sons of Lambert I who are shown in this document.  m ---.]  Two children: 

a)         GUIDO (-murdered Rome early 897).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his [cousin] in [888/89] as GUIDO IV Duke of Spoleto.  He expelled the Byzantines from Benevento in 895, forcing them back to Bari, and established himself as GUIDO Prince of Benevento[845].  He returned to Spoleto in 897 and offered Benevento to his brother-in-law Guaimar Prince of Salerno, who was captured and blinded on his way to the city[846].  He was killed by Alberico, who later succeeded as Marchese of Spoleto. 

b)         ITTA ([865]-after [897/98]).  The Chronicon Salernitanum quotes a letter addressed to "Guaimario principi", when Benevento was threatened by the Byzantines, requesting help from "Guidoni cognato vestro…sororem suam vestramque coniugem", the same passage later referring to "Guido marchio" [Guido IV Duke and Marchese of Spoleto] and "suæque sorori Idte", dated to 896 in the margin of the MGH edition of the text[847].  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "Idte uxore præfati principis senioris" (referring from the context to "Guaimarii principis") refused the marriage of her daughter to Landolf, son of Atenulf Count of Capua, on the basis that she was "ex regali stegmate orta", dated to [897/98] from the context[848].  The date of her marriage is based on the assumption that her daughter was nubile at the time, and is also consistent with the dates attributed to her son Guaimar.  Her estimated birth date follows from her assumed marriage date.  Her having inherited property in Spoleto, which she transmitted to her descendants, is confirmed by the Chronica Mon. Casinensis which records that her grandson "Gisulfus…Salernitanus princeps filius Guaimarii" donated property possessed by "Lambertus dux et marchio…in comitatu Marsicano, et Balva, et Forcone, et Amiterno, necnon et marchia Firmana et ducatu Spoletino" to the monastery[849]m GUAIMAR of Salerno, son of GUAIFAR Prince of Salerno & his wife --- (-901).  He succeeded his father in 880 as GUAIMAR I Prince of Salerno

6.         [---.  m ---.]  [One child]: 

a)         [KONRAD (-before 926).  "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[850].  Interpreting the relationships referred to in this document is difficult.  If patruus is given is strict meaning of paternal uncle, it is impossible to see how Konrad could have been paternal uncle to one donor while cousin to the other, when the donors were father and son.  It is assumed therefore that the relationship was one generation removed, although this solution is not ideal unless "patruus" and "patruelis" are assumed to refer to Guido and Lambert in that order rather than the order in which they are named in the document.  m ERMENGUNDE, daughter of --- (-after 1 May 892).  "Vuido et Lantbertus…imperatores augusti" granted "cortem…Lemennis in comitatu Bergomensi" to "Cohunradum…patruum ac patruelem nostrum…marchionem…et uxori eius Ermengundi et filiis…eorum", at the request of "Ageltrudim…coniugem nostrum imperatricem augustam", by charter dated 1 May 892[851].] 

7.         [---.  m ---.]  One child: 

a)         GUNFERIO .  Seigneur d'Erbauges, in Brittany.  The Chronicle of Nantes records how "Lambertus" granted "Gunferio nepoti suo, regionem Herbadillicum" after he became comte de Nantes[852].  The precise relationship between the two men has not yet been identified. 

8.         [ITTA (-after [Nov/Dec] 849).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names "Sikenolfus…suæ coniugis Ittæ" when recording that she survived her husband[853].  The origin of Prince Siconulf's wife is not known.  Erchempert names "Guido dux Spoletanorum, Siconulfi cognatus" when recording that the former attacked the latter, dated to [843/43][854].  The Chronicon Salernitanum also names "Sikenolfus…suum cognatum Guidonem" when recording the same event[855].  This has been interpreted in two ways.  Hlawitschka and Bougard proposed that the relationship indicated was that Guido of Spoleto had married a sister of Siconulf, daughter of Sico I Prince of Benevento[856].  On the other hand, Taviani Carozzi and Settipani considered that the correct interpretation was that Siconulf´s wife was Guido´s sister[857], and therefore Itta di Spoleto, daughter of .  Stasser approves the principle argument in favour of the latter hypothesis, which is based on the Chronicon Salernitanum recording the marriages of three of the daughters of "Sico princeps" and adding that the author could not remember the husbands of the others[858], and the unlikelihood that a marriage of one daughter with Guido of Spoleto would have been forgotten.  The difficulty with both hypotheses is the assumption that "cognatus" should be interpreted only as meaning "brother-in-law", although the word could indicate a more remote family relationship.  m SICONULF Prince of Salerno, son of SICO I Prince of Benevento & his wife --- (-Salerno [Nov/Dec] 849).] 

 

 

1.         ALBERICO (-[923/24]).  An agreement dated Feb 876 of Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi, Richardi comitis, Walfridi comitis, Liutfridi comitis, Alberici comitis, Supponis comitis, Hardingi comitis, Bodradi comitis palatii, Cuniberti comitis, Bernardi comitis, Airboldi comitis" as present in Italy with the king[859].  He killed Guido IV Duke of Spoleto in 897, and installed himself as Marchese di Spoleto.  m as her first husband, MAROZIA, daughter of TEOFILACTO Senator of Rome & his wife Theodora --- (-in prison [932/37]).  Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[860].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Marotia", daughter of "Theodora", was mother of "Albericum" by "Alberico marchione"[861].  The wife of "Albericus marchio" is referred to as "Theophilacti filia" in the Benedicti Chronicon, although not named[862].  She married secondly Guido Marchese of Tuscany, and thirdly ([932]) as his third wife, Ugo King of Italy.  Liudprand names "Maroziam scortum Romanam" as wife of Guido[863], and in a later passage names "Marozia, scortum impudens satis" when recording her marriage to King Ugo after the death of her second husband[864].  The Memorial of "Maroza" states that she died "Jan VII indic IX"[865].  Alberico & his wife had three children: 

a)         ALBERICO ([905]-954).  "Albericum" is named as son of Marozia by "Alberico marchione" by Liutprand, who specifies that he controlled Rome after he drove his stepfather King Ugo from the city[866].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Marotia", daughter of "Theodora", was mother of "Albericum" by "Alberico marchione"[867].  Patrician and Princeps of the Romans.  A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[868].  The Annales Farfenses record the death in 954 of "Albericus princeps Romæ"[869]m (936) ALDA of Italy, daughter of UGO King of Italy & his second wife Hilda --- ([925]-954).  Her parentage is confirmed by Liutprand naming Alda as daughter of King Ugo and "Lotharii regis nati sui germanam", when recording her marriage to Alberico[870].  Alberico had one illegitimate son by an unknown mistress:

i)          OCTAVIANO ([939]-14 May 964).  Flodoard names him as son of "Albrico patricio Romanorum defuncto" when recording his succession to his father[871].  He was elected Pope JOHN XII 955.  The Benedicti Chronicon records that "ex concubinam filium…Octabianus" was elected as Pope John XII, after the death of "Albericus", and after the death of Pope Agapitus, adding that he was "quasi homo ferus"[872].  The Benedicti Chronicon records that Pope John was obliged to resign the papacy by Emperor Otto I and retired to Campania"ex concubinam filium…Octabianus" was elected as Pope John XII, after the death of "Albericus", and after the death of Pope Agapitus, adding that he was "quasi homo ferus"[873]. 

b)         CONSTANTINO (-after 14 Jan 945).  A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[874].  

c)         SERGIO (-after 14 Jan 945).  A charter dated 14 Jan 945, reproduced in a notarial transcript dated 1301, records a donation to the monastery of SS Andrea e Gregorio "Clivuscauri" and names "Albericus…princeps atque omnium Romanorum senator atque Sergius…episcopus sancte Nepesine ecclesie, nec non et Constantinus illustris vir atque Bertha nobilissima puella uterine, et germani fratres Marozze quondam Romanorum senatricis filii, nec non et Marozza seu Stephania nobilissima femina, germane sorores et consobrine eorum Theodore quondam Romanorum senatricis filie", subscribed by (in order) "Alberic, Marozza, Stephania, Bertha, Sergius, Constantine"[875].  

 

 

ANSCARIO di Ivrea, son of ADALBERTO I Marchese d'Ivrea & his second wife Ermengarde of Tuscany (-murdered [940/41]).  Anscario is named as brother of Berengar by Liutprand, who specifies that he was born "ex Adelberto Hermengarda regis Hugonis soror"[876].  He was installed by Ugo King of Italy in [923/24] as ANSCARIO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto e Camerino.  Ugo [de Provence] King of Italy sent an armed force to attack Anscario whom he accused of plotting against him.  Anscario was defeated, killed by Saribono, and his body thrown into a ravine.  After his death, the Duchy of Spoleto passed as a reward to his assassin, and then to Hubert, illegitimate son of King Ugo & his mistress Wandelmoda [Anscario's possible half-sister]. 

 

 

1.         TEOBALDO (-936).  "Tedbaldus…proxima Hugoni regi affinitate coniunctus" is named Marchese di Spoleto and Camerino by Liutprand[877].  His precise relationship to Ugo King of Italy has not yet been identified.  He succeeded in 928 as TEOBALDO Marchese of Spoleto

 

 

1.         SARIBONO (-[942/43]).  He murdered Duke Anscario in [940/41] and succeeded as SARIBONO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto

 

 

1.         UBERTO, illegitimate son of UGO King of Italy & his mistress Wandalmodis --- ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]).  Liudprand names "Hubertum" as son of King Ugo by Wandelmoda[878].  He was installed by his father as UBERTO Marchese of Tuscany in 937.  Conte palatino 941-945.  He succeeded as UBERTO Duke and Marchese of Spoleto and Camerino [942/43]-early 945, succeeding Saribono who had murdered Anchario di Ivrea, previously Duka e Marchese di Spoleto.  As one of the chief vassals of Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy of Italy, he joined Pope John XII in requesting the intervention of Otto I King of Germany to curb Berengario's excesses.  Hubert was expelled from Tuscany after 13 Feb 962, but later reinstated.  Founder of the Badia at Florence. 

 

 

HUCBALD, son of --- (-before 1 Mar 893).  Of Frankish origin from the Rhine area, he settled in Tuscany.  Palatine of Emperor Louis II[879].  "Karolus…imperator augustus" ordered "Hubaldo comes" to protect Wintiola and Casalias, donated to the canons of the church of St Antonin & Victor at Piacenza, by an undated charter, inserted in the compilation among charters dated 881[880]

m ANDABERTA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her name and marriage has not yet been identified. 

Hucbald & his wife had three children: 

1.         INGELRADA (-[8 Sep 896/27 Sep 899]).  "Ingelarda filia Apaldi Comitis Palatii" donated property to "Petro…Diacono…Ravennasis Ecclesiæ" by charter dated Sep 896 which names "quondam Martini…Duci…viri mei…ceteris filiis et filiabus meis"[881]m (before 14 Dec 870) MARTIN Duke of Ravenna, son of --- (-before Sep 896). 

2.         BERTA (-before 1 Mar 893).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Sant' Andrea at Florence 852. 

3.         HUCBALD (-after 893).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte in Bologna and Romagna.  He was a supporter of Emperor Guido Duke of Spoleto 888/93[882]m ---.  The identity of Hucbald's wife has not yet been identified.  Hucbald & his wife had two children: 

a)         BERTA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  Abbess of Sant' Andrea at Florence before 1 Mar 892. 

b)         BONIFAZIO (-[Jul/Dec] 953).  Bonifazio is named as son of "Hubaldus" by Liudprand[883].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hubaldus Bonifacii pater" specifying that he was later "Camerinorum et Spoletinorum marchio"[884].  Marchese in the area of Bologna/Modena 924/936.  Conte di Bologna.  He succeeded in [Jul/Nov] 945 as BONIFAZIO Marchese and Duke of Spoleto.  Consiliarius of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy[885]m ([921/17 Jul 923]) WALDRADA of Upper Burgundy, daughter of RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Willa --- (-[10 Feb] ----).  "Waldradam sororem suam [=rex Rodulfus]" is named as wife of "Bonefatio comiti"[886].  The 13th century obituary of the Eglise primatiale de Lyon records the death "IV Id Feb" of "Valdrada comitissa"[887], which may refer to the wife of Bonifacio.  Marchese Bonifazio & his wife had three children: 

i)          TEOBALDO ([923/25]-[Jul 957/961]).  A manuscript "Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum Catalogi" records "Bonefatius et Tebaldus filius eius duces"[888].  He succeeded in 945 as TEOBALDO Marchese and Duke of Spoletom WALDRADA, daughter of ---.  Her marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 981 under which her son "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris" for the souls of "Domna Gualdrada…Comitissa…et Domno Teobaldo…Dux et Marchio, genitore et genitrice meis…"[889].  The fact that she bore the same name as her supposed mother-in-law, wife of Teobaldo´s father Bonifazio, suggests some error in one or other of the sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the Teobaldo himself or his father.  However, as will be seen above, Bonifazio´s marriage to Waldrada of Upper Burgundy is dated to the early 920s, which is not inconsistent with the marriage of Waldrada of Burgundy´s parents in the range [880/85] as shown in the corresponding document which shows her parentage.  The estimated birth date ranges assigned in the present document to Teobaldo, to Teobaldo´s son Adalberto, and to Adalberto´s children would not be consistent with Teobaldo´s wife having been the daughter of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy.  In conclusion, it would appear that the apparent anomaly of the wives of both father and son sharing the same name should be accepted at face value.  Teobaldo & his wife had [two possible] children: 

(a)       ADALBERTO ([945/55]-after [1011]).  "Adelbertus Comes et Bertilla…Comitissa" donated property to "monasterio…sancti Bartolomei Apostoli et beati Savini martiris", for the souls of "Domna Gualdrada…Comitissa…et Domno Teobaldo…Dux et Marchio, genitore et genitrice meis…et Bonifacii et Walfredi et Adelberti filiorum nostrorum", by charter dated 981[890]Conte di Bologna

-         CONTI di BOLOGNA

(b)       [GUILLA [Willa] (-30 Aug before 1007 bur Florence[891]).  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[892] as the possible daughter of Duke Teobaldo but the primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissa Giuliam" as wife of "dux et marchio Tedaldus" and her death "penultime die Aug"[893].  The Poema de Vita Comitissæ Mathildis names "Guillia dicta Ducatrix" as the wife of "Tedaldi"[894], and it is supposed that the speculation concerning her Spoletan origin is based on this source.  m (before [985]) TEDALDO Conte di Canossa, son of ADALBERTO ATTO Signor di Canossa, Conte di Mantua & his wife Ildegarda (-8 May [1012], bur Canossa).] 

ii)         WILLA di Spoleto (-after her husband).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  She founded the abbey of Florence after her husband died[895].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted immunities to the convent of San Ponziano at Lucca founded by "matrona Wuillia mater Hugonis marchionis" by an undated charter, with other charters dated 998 in the compilation[896]m ([945]) UBERTO Marchese of Tuscany, illegitimate son of UGO King of Italy & his mistress Wandalmodis --- ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]). 

iii)        EVERARDUS .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Bishop of Arezzo 979. 

 

 

1.         PANDOLF, son of LANDOLF IV Prince of Capua & his wife Ivantie --- (-Mar 981).  The Annales Beneventani record that "Pandolfus filius eius [=Landolfus princeps]" was installed as Prince of Benevento in 944[897].  He succeeded his father in 961 as PANDOLF I "Capiferreus/Ironhead" Prince of Capua.  According to the "Catalogus Principum Capuæ", "Landulfus III et Pandulfus Capiteferreus eius frateri" ruled jointly after the death of their father before dividing their territories, Pandolf ruling in Capua and Landolf in Benevento[898].  On his accession, Pope John XII sent a papal army south apparently with the intention of seizing Capua, but Gisulf I Prince of Salerno sent help to Capua and the papal forces dispersed[899].  Pandolf supported Emperor Otto I against the papacy, sheltering the emperor's nominee Pope John XIII when he was temporarily driven from Rome in [966], and was rewarded by being installed as Marchese of Camerino and Duke of Spoleto[900].  He led Emperor Otto's forces in the invasion of Apulia in 969 but was captured and briefly taken prisoner to Constantinople[901].  The bishoprics of Capua and Benevento were made into archbishoprics in [967] and 969 respectively[902].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[903].  He reinstated Gisulf I Prince of Salerno in [973/74] after the latter was deposed in a palace revolution[904].  On his death, the principality of Benevento separated from Capua.  The Annales Beneventani record the death of Prince Pandolf in Mar 981[905]

 

 

1.         TRANSMUNDO [I] [di Chieti], son of ATTONE [I] & his wife Adelgunda --- (-[989/Easter 993]).  His parentage is confirmed by a charter in the Chronicon Vulturnense, dated Nov 1011, which records a donation by "Transmundus comes" for the souls of "…quondam Transmundi…genitor meus…"[906].  Conte di Teate, Conte di Chieti.  Duke and Marchese of Spoleto 983. 

 

 

2.         UGO (-after Jan 1028).  Duke and Marchese of Spoleto.  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Pinnensi" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio" and in the presence of "Atto comes filius Trasmundi comitis et Ugo comes filius Ameczonis comitis…Guibertus qui appellabatur comes" by charter dated Jan 1028[907]

 

 

1.         UGO di Bologna, son of BONIFAZIO di Bologna Marchese of Tuscany & his wife --- (-before 14 Jan 1056).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Conte di Bologna.  He was installed [Jul/Nov 1037/Feb 1043] as Duke of Spoleto

 

 

2.         WARNERIO (-after 1119).  Marchese di Spoleto.  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the rights of St Maria, Pomposa in property "quod Ugo marchio filius Huberti dedit" at the request of "marchionis Warnerii atque…marchionis Burchardi" by charter dated 7 Oct 1095[908].  The bishop of Camerino granted "castellum Sancti Severini" to "W. Marchioni et A. Comitisse jugalibus" by charter dated 1119[909]m ALTRUDA, daughter of --- (-after 1119).  The bishop of Camerino granted "castellum Sancti Severini" to "W. Marchioni et A. Comitisse jugalibus" by charter dated 1119[910]

 

 

1.         WELF [VI], son of HEINRICH "dem Schwarzen" Duke of Bavaria [Welf] & his wife Wulfhild of Saxony [Billung] ([16 Dec 1114/15 Dec 1116]-Memmingen 14/15 Dec 1191, bur Steingaden).  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as the children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild[911].  In 1152, Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany invested Welf as Duke of Spoleto and Marchese of Tuscany, and with Sardinia and the lands formerly held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, as a means of acquiring Welf support after his election[912].  Vogt von Zwiefalten 1152.  Von Ravensburg 1152.  Short of money, Welf gradually returned his Italian lands to Emperor Friedrich I, and from 1173 ceased to use his Italian titles.  Welf VI also agreed to make Emperor Friedrich his successor in the Welf lands around Ravensburg[913].  The necrology of Raitenbuch records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "dux Guelfo VI fundator monasterii Staingadensis"[914].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XVIII Kal Jan" of "Welfo dux, Welfonum ultimus filius Heinrici ducis"[915]

a)         WELF [VII] (-Siena 12 Sep 1167, bur Steingaden).  The Annales Sindelfingenses name "Welphonem iuniorem" as son of "Welphoni de Spoleto" and his wife Uta, specifying that he besieged Tübingen "1165 VIII Id Sep"[916]Duke of Spoleto 1160.  He died of malaria while fighting on Emperor Friedrich I's Italian expedition of 1167[917].  The Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica records the death in 1167 of "Welfo filius Welfonis" during the emperor's Italian campaign[918].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "II Id Sep" of "Welf dux iunior"[919]

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         REINHOLD von UrslingenDuke of Spoleto.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Raynaldus dux Spoleti cum imperiali gente" besieged "dominos Popliti in Capitinnano" and afterwards entered "Marchiam" while "Bertoldus frater eius" remained "circa Nursie provinciam" , in 1226[920].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that Pope Gregory IX excommunicated "Raynaldum…ducem Spoleti et Bertoldum fratrem eius" in 1230 (4 Apr inserted in the margin of the edition consulted)[921].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Rayndaldus dictus dux Spoleti" was captured on the emperor´s orders "aput Fogiam" in May 1231[922].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Bertoldus" surrendered "Introducum" in Jul 1233 and that he and his brother went into exile[923]

2.         BERTHOLD .  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "comes Raynaldus filius Raynaldi de Barato" held "Introduco" against Emperor Friedrich II and that "Bertoldus frater Raynaldi dicti ducis Spoleti" forced its surrender, in 1226[924].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Raynaldus dux Spoleti cum imperiali gente" besieged "dominos Popliti in Capitinnano" and afterwards entered "Marchiam" while "Bertoldus frater eius" remained "circa Nursie provinciam" , in 1226[925].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that Pope Gregory IX excommunicated "Raynaldum…ducem Spoleti et Bertoldum fratrem eius" in 1230 (4 Apr inserted in the margin of the edition consulted)[926].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Bertoldus frater ipsius ducis" held out against imperial forces "in Introduco" after "Rayndaldus dictus dux Spoleti" was captured on the emperor´s orders "aput Fogiam" in May 1231[927].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "Bertoldus" surrendered "Introducum" in Jul 1233 and that he and his brother went into exile[928]

 

 

 

B.      OTHER NOBILITY in SPOLETO

 

 

1.         LUPO (-after Dec 776).  Conte di Firmo.  "Ildeprandus…dux ducatus Spoletani" confirmed the possessions of Farfa monastery, in the presence of "…Lupo comes de Firmo…Lupo comes de Esculo…Halo comes…", by charter dated Dec 776[929]

 

2.         LUPO (-after Dec 776).  Conte di Esculo.  "Ildeprandus…dux ducatus Spoletani" confirmed the possessions of Farfa monastery, in the presence of "…Lupo comes de Firmo…Lupo comes de Esculo…Halo comes…", by charter dated Dec 776[930]

 

3.         HALO (-after Jul 781).  "Ildeprandus…dux ducatus Spoletani" confirmed the possessions of Farfa monastery, in the presence of "…Lupo comes de Firmo…Lupo comes de Esculo…Halo comes…", by charter dated Dec 776[931].  A charter dated Jul 781 of "Karolus…rex Francorum atque Langobardorum" relating to Farfa names "Hildeprandus…dux", and is witnessed by "Halo…comes"[932]

 

4.         BEBROARDO (-after Aug 800).  "Bebroardus comes palacii in cancellis finibus Spoleti" confirmed possessions of Farfa by charter dated Aug 800 in the presence of "Guinichisii ducis…"[933]

 

5.         TEUDERICm TACIPERGA, daughter of ---.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Hildericus castaldus filius Teuderici…cum genitrice sua Taciperga" donated "Sancti Iacobi prope civitatem Reatinam…et curtem in Marsi…" to Farfa[934].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "avus Hilderici castaldi" founded "monasterium Sancti Iacobi apostoli" and "ipse Hildericus…cum Taciperga genitrice sua et Hilciperga coniuge sua" donated land "in Aufigiano et de ecclesia Sancti Laurentii et partum in Lauriano territorii Reatini…"[935].  Teuderic & his wife had one child: 

a)         HILDERIC .  The Chronicon Farfense records that "Hildericus castaldus filius Teuderici…cum genitrice sua Taciperga" donated "Sancti Iacobi prope civitatem Reatinam…et curtem in Marsi…" to Farfa, dated to before 796 from the context[936].  The Chronicon Farfense records that "avus Hilderici castaldi" founded "monasterium Sancti Iacobi apostoli" and "ipse Hildericus…cum Taciperga genitrice sua et Hilciperga coniuge sua" donated land "in Aufigiano et de ecclesia Sancti Laurentii et partum in Lauriano territorii Reatini…", dated to the late 8th century from the context[937].  Gastald.  m HILCIPERGA, daughter of ---.  The Chronicon Farfense records that "avus Hilderici castaldi" founded "monasterium Sancti Iacobi apostoli" and "ipse Hildericus…cum Taciperga genitrice sua et Hilciperga coniuge sua" donated land "in Aufigiano et de ecclesia Sancti Laurentii et partum in Lauriano territorii Reatini…"[938]

 

 

1.         TUITELO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[939]

 

2.         GRIMALDO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[940]

 

3.         MUNALDOm ---.  The name of Munaldo´s wife is not known.  Munaldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         LUPO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[941]

 

4.         ALBERICO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[942]

5.         LIUDULFO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[943]

 

6.         RODELANDO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[944]

 

7.         EZACA [Azeca] (-after Sep 970).  Comes palatiiThe Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[945]

 

8.         PIETRO (-after Sep 970).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[946].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[947].  m ---.  The name of Pietro´s wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had one child: 

a)         ATTO (-after Apr 968).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[948]

 

9.         DADO (-after Sep 970).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[949]

 

10.      MAINARDO (-after Sep 970).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a hearing in the court of "Pandulfus Princeps Dux et Marchio et Tuitelo Comes Missus Domini Imperatoris", in the presence of "Atto comes et Mainardo comes et Beraldo comes et Lupo vicecomes et Grimaldo comes et Petri comes et Atto filius Petri comes et Lupo filius Munaldi comes et Alberico et Liudulfo…germani comites et Rodelando de Asculo comes…" by charter dated Apr 968[950].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[951]

 

11.      LUPO (-after Sep 970).  Conte di FirmoThe Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[952]

 

12.      ANSELMO (-after Sep 970).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" relating to Casauria´s land "de Furcone" in the presence of "Pandulfus Dux et Marchio…Ezaca Duce et Marchione, et Comite Palatii, et Petro Comite, et Dado Comite, et Beraldo, et Rainaldo, et Teodino Comitibus ipsius Comitatus…Mainardo Comite, et Lupo Comite de Firmo" by charter dated Sep 970, signed by "Ezeca Comitis Palatii, Beraldus Comes, Petri Comitis, Dado, Anselmus comes"[953]

 

13.      ALKERI (-after Nov 978).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment exchanging property between the bishop of Aprutio and the monastery of Casauria, in the presence of "Acto et Alkeri comites…", by charter dated Jul 976 signed by "…Petrus castaldius"[954].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records the renunciation to property by the bishop of Teano, in the court of "Atto comes et Transmundus et Alkari comites…", by charter dated Nov 978, signed by "Atto comes, Trasmundus comes…"[955]

 

14.      ARNULF (-after Aug 981).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" restoring property to Casauria in the court of "Arnulfus Comes, et Missus sacri Palatii et…Geboardus et Anfredus Missi sacri Palatii, et…Rainaldus comes et Teudonus comes et Oderisius comes" by charter dated Aug 981, signed by "Arnolfi et Geboardi, comitis et Missi sacri Palatii, Ansfredi Missi sacri Palatii"[956]

 

15.      INGELRAMO (-before Jan 983).  m TEBURGA, daughter of --- (-before Jan 983).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Ingelramo filius quondam Ingelrami comes" exchanged property acquired from "Teburga quæ fuit genitrix mea" with the abbot of Casauria by charter dated Jan 983[957].  Ingelramno & his wife had one child: 

a)         INGELRAMO (-after Jan 983).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records that "Ingelramo filius quondam Ingelrami comes" exchanged property acquired from "Teburga quæ fuit genitrix mea" with the abbot of Casauria by charter dated Jan 983[958]

 

16.      AMECZOm ---.  The name of Ameczo´s wife is not known.  Ameczo & his wife had one child: 

a)         UGO (-after Jan 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Pinnensi" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio" and in the presence of "Atto comes filius Trasmundi comitis et Ugo comes filius Ameczonis comitis…Guibertus qui appellabatur comes" by charter dated Jan 1028[959].  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio…Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi comitis" and in the presence of "Berardus comes filius Teodini comitis et Rustico comes qui rectum nomen Atto vocatur et Ugo comes filius Ameczoni et Ofredo comes filius Monaldi comitis et Albericus comes filius Actonis…" relating to property in Marsi by charter dated Jan 1028, signed by "Berardi comitis filii Todini, Belliczi comitis, Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi, Actonis comitis qui supranomen Rustico vocatur…"[960]

 

17.      MONALDOm ---.  The name of Monaldo´s wife is not known.  Monaldo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GOFFREDO [Offredo] (-after Jan 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio…Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi comitis" and in the presence of "Berardus comes filius Teodini comitis et Rustico comes qui rectum nomen Atto vocatur et Ugo comes filius Ameczoni et Ofredo comes filius Monaldi comitis et Albericus comes filius Actonis…" relating to property in Marsi by charter dated Jan 1028, signed by "Berardi comitis filii Todini, Belliczi comitis, Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi, Actonis comitis qui supranomen Rustico vocatur…"[961]

 

18.      ATTO "Rustico" (-after Jan 1028).  The Chronicon Casauriensis records a judgment "in territorio Marsicano" in the court of "Ugo Dux et Marchio…Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi comitis" and in the presence of "Berardus comes filius Teodini comitis et Rustico comes qui rectum nomen Atto vocatur et Ugo comes filius Ameczoni et Ofredo comes filius Monaldi comitis et Albericus comes filius Actonis…" relating to property in Marsi by charter dated Jan 1028, signed by "Berardi comitis filii Todini, Belliczi comitis, Berardi comitis filii Rainaldi, Actonis comitis qui supranomen Rustico vocatur…"[962]

 

 



[1] His work on Italian counties is available at <http://www.df.unipi.it/~rossi/comites.html> (14 Aug 2007). 

[2] Catalogus Baronum Neapolitano in regno versantium ("Catalogus Baronum"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), p. 605. 

[3] Marie José (1956) La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge (Paris, Albin Michel), p. 130, footnote 1. 

[4] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 988. 

[5] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 499. 

[6] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 988. 

[7] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 989. 

[8] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 499. 

[9] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 846. 

[10] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 992. 

[11] Loud, G. A. and Wiedmann, T. (eds. and trans.) (1998) The History of the Tyrants of Sicily by Hugo Falcandus (Manchester UP) (“Hugo Falcandus”), p. 157 footnote 161. 

[12] Catalogus Baronum, p. 605. 

[13] Hugo Falcandus, p. 157 footnote 161. 

[14] Hugo Falcandus 4, p. 67, footnote 25 giving the ancestry shown here. 

[15] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 161 specifying that he was created Count of Alba and transferred to Andria in 1168. 

[16] Catalogus Baronum, p. 605. 

[17] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1190, MGH SS XIX, p. 325. 

[18] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1230, MGH SS XIX, p. 362. 

[19] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 414. 

[20] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[21] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CCLXXVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 535. 

[22] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, VIII, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 231. 

[23] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XII, p. 280. 

[24] Catalogus Baronum, p. 604. 

[25] Catalogus Baronum, p. 604. 

[26] Hugo Falcandus 53, p. 195. 

[27] Hugo Falcandus, p. 157 footnote 161. 

[28] Catalogus Baronum, p. 605. 

[29] Hugo Falcandus, p. 157 footnote 161. 

[30] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1197, MGH SS XIX, p. 329. 

[31] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1202, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[32] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1208, MGH SS XIX, p. 333. 

[33] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1200, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[34] Annales Ceccanenses 1189, MGH SS XIX, p. 288. 

[35] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1201, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[36] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1197, MGH SS XIX, p. 329. 

[37] Annales Ceccanenses 1160, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[38] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1220, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[39] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1221, MGH SS XIX, pp. 340-2. 

[40] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1222, MGH SS XIX, p. 342. 

[41] Dunbar, P. N. (trans.) Loud, G. A. (rev.) (2004) Amatus of Montecassino, The History of the Normans (Boydell) ("Amatus") VII.30, p. 180. 

[42] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber III, RIS II.2, col. 825. 

[43] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 952. 

[44] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 984. 

[45] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber III, RIS II.2, col. 825. 

[46] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 952. 

[47] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 984. 

[48] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[49] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 982. 

[50] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 965. 

[51] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 970. 

[52] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 979. 

[53] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 485. 

[54] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 986. 

[55] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 986. 

[56] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[57] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[58] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 957. 

[59] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 970. 

[60] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[61] Stasser (2008), pp. 364-5. 

[62] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.10, MGH SS VII, p. 635. 

[63] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 974. 

[64] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.10, MGH SS VII, p. 635. 

[65] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[66] D H III 185, p. 230. 

[67] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[68] Stasser (2008), p. 365, quoting Archivio dell´abbazia de Montecassino, caps. 111, fasc. 8, no. 79. 

[69] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 497. 

[70] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 986. 

[71] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 846. 

[72] Stasser (2008), p. 365, quoting Archivio dell´abbazia de Montecassino, caps. 111, fasc. 8, no. 79. 

[73] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 988. 

[74] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 989. 

[75] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 846. 

[76] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 992. 

[77] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 846. 

[78] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 986. 

[79] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 502. 

[80] Stasser (2008), p. 365, quoting Archivio dell´abbazia de Montecassino, caps. 111, fasc. 8, no. 79. 

[81] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 502. 

[82] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[83] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 986. 

[84] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 986. 

[85] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 502. 

[86] Stasser (2008), p. 56, quoting Gattola, E. (1733) Historia abbatiæ Cassinensis (Venice), p. 106. 

[87] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.26, MGH SS VII, p. 643. 

[88] Stasser (2008), p. 56, quoting Feller, L. ´Autour des archives du Mont-Cassin et du cartulaire de Pierre Diacre: Morgengabe de Iesulfa comtesse de Teano´, Retour aux sources. Textes, etudes et documents d´histoire médievale offerts à Michel Parisse (Paris, 2004), p. 483. 

[89] Savini, F. ´Sul dominio vescovile in Teramo´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno XV, Fascicolo IV (Naples, 1890), p. 808, citing Gattula (1733), pp. 123 and 140. 

[90] Savini (1890), p. 808, citing Gattula (1733), pp. 123 and 140. 

[91] Loud, G. A. (trans.) (2002) The Chronicle of St Clement, Casauria, by John Berard (extracts) (Leeds) ("Chronicon Casauriensis"), Book IV, c. 19, p. 9. 

[92] Amatus VII.30, p. 180. 

[93] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 874, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 26. 

[94] Chronicon Casauriensis, p. 26 footnote 29, quoting Chronicon di S. Bartolomeo, p. 297 (no citation reference, but this is in Ughelli, F. (1722) Italia Sacra (Venice), Tome X, cols. 349.392. 

[95] Savini (1890), p. 809, citing Ughelli Italia Sacra, Tome I, p. 356. 

[96] Savini (1890), p. 812, citing Mss. cit. ad. an 1221, corretto dal 1122. 

[97] Savini (1890), p. 814, citing Palma, N. Storia Ecclesiastica e Civile dell cittá di Teramo, Vol. I, pp. 155-6. 

[98] Savini (1890), p. 812, citing Mss. cit. ad. an 1221, corretto dal 1122. 

[99] Savini (1890), p. 814, citing Palma, N. Storia Ecclesiastica e Civile dell cittá di Teramo, Vol. I, pp. 155-6. 

[100] Savini (1890), p. 812, citing Mss. cit. ad. an 1221, corretto dal 1122. 

[101] Savini (1890), p. 814, citing Palma, N. Storia Ecclesiastica e Civile dell cittá di Teramo, Vol. I, pp. 155-6. 

[102] Savini (1890), p. 812, citing Mss. cit. ad. an 1221, corretto dal 1122. 

[103] Savini (1890), p. 814, citing Palma, N. Storia Ecclesiastica e Civile dell cittá di Teramo, Vol. I, pp. 155-6. 

[104] Savini (1890), p. 812, citing Mss. cit. ad. an 1221, corretto dal 1122. 

[105] Savini (1890), p. 812, citing Mss. cit. ad. an 1221, corretto dal 1122. 

[106] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. IV, 1243, pp. 267-8. 

[107] MP, Vol. V, 1249, p. 78. 

[108] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 148. 

[109] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 181. 

[110] Hugo Falcandus 32, p. 157, footnote 162 specifying that he was created Count of Loreto formerly held by his father Rambotus and also names his wife. 

[111] Chalandon, F. (1907) Histoire de la domination normande en Italie et en Sicile (Paris), Tome II, p. 106, citing Archivio di statò at Naples, Proces. di r. padr, 1069, fo. 14-16, cited in Bindi (1889) Monumenti storici ed artistici degle Abruzzi (Naples), p. 586. 

[112] Hugo Falcandus, 14 and 21, pp. 105 and 120, footnote 80 naming his wife, his parents and his maternal grandmother.   

[113] Hugo Falcandus, 14 and 21, pp. 105 and 120, footnote 80 naming his wife, his parents and his maternal grandmother.   

[114] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, p. 414. 

[115] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CCLXXVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 535. 

[116] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, VIII, p. 231. 

[117] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XII, p. 280. 

[118] Catalogus Baronum, p. 581. 

[119] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabriæ et Siciliæ comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna) (“Malaterra”), I.4, p. 9. 

[120] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. II, Book III, pp. 99 and 101. 

[121] Amatus III.43, p. 101. 

[122] Malaterra, I.15, p. 16. 

[123] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[124] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 863, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book IV, p. 11. 

[125] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[126] Stasser (2008), p. 427, citing Archives of Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinita, Arca XVII 84 (1103). 

[127] Stasser (2008), p. 427, citing Archives of Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinita, Arca XVII 103 (1104). 

[128] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[129] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[130] Chronicon Breve Nortmannicum, RIS V, p. 278. 

[131] Romoaldi Annales 1057, MGH SS XIX, p. 405. 

[132] Ménager, L. R. (ed.) (1980) Recueil des actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie 1046-1127, Tome I Les premiers ducs 1046-1087 (Bari) ("Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie") I, 9, p. 35. 

[133] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 18, p. 76. 

[134] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VII, p. 33. 

[135] Guerrieri, G. (1899) Il conte normanno Riccardo Siniscalco (1081-1115) e i monastery benedettini cavesi in terra d´Otranto (sec. XI-XIV) (Trani), p. 10, citing Chronica monasterii S. Bartholomei de Carpineto, p. 362. 

[136] Amatus VII.30, p. 180.  

[137] Annalista Saxo, 1137, MGH SS VI, p. 772. 

[138] Guerrieri (1899), p. 9, citing Chronica monasterii S. Bartholomei de Carpineto, Ughelli, F. Italia Sacra, Tomo X, p. 362. 

[139] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 23, p. 87. 

[140] Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, pp. 20-1. 

[141] Guerrieri (1899), p. 10, citing Chronica monasterii S. Bartholomei de Carpineto, p. 362. 

[142] Amatus VII.30, p. 180. 

[143] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 873, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 23. 

[144] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 879. 

[145] Guerrieri (1899), p. 10, citing di Meo, Annali del Regno di Napoli, an. 1115. 

[146] Guerrieri (1899), p. 10, citing Chronica monasterii S. Bartholomei de Carpineto, p. 362. 

[147] Guerrieri (1899), p. 10, citing di Meo, Annali del Regno di Napoli, an. 1115. 

[148] Amatus VII.3, p. 166. 

[149] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 51, p. 178. 

[150] Caspar, E. ´Die Chronik von Tres Tabernæ in Calabrien´, Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken, Band X (Rome, 1907), Chronica Trium Tabernarum, 16, p. 41. 

[151] ES II 204. 

[152] Stasser (2008), p. 427, citing Archives of Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinita, Arca XVII 84 (1103). 

[153] Stasser (2008), p. 427, citing Archives of Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinita, Arca XVII 103 (1104). 

[154] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) XVIII.II, p. 819. 

[155] Chalandon (1907), Tome II, p. 182, citing Archives de Cava, G. 

[156] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Ioannes Kinnamos Liber IV, 2, p. 136. 

[157] Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 38. 

[158] Gaudenzi, A. (ed.) (1888) Ignoti monachi Cisterciensis S. Maria de Ferraria Chronica (Naples) ("Ignoti Monachi Chronica"), p. 29. 

[159] Hugo Falcandus 1 and 2, pp. 61 and 63-4. 

[160] Annales Casenses 1155 and 1156, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[161] Cassinensis breve chronicon, p. 468. 

[162] Annales Casenses 1160, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[163] Actes des Ducs Normands d'Italie I, 12, p. 47. 

[164] Annales Ceccanenses 1161, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[165] Hugo Falcandus, 23, p. 126.   

[166] Catalogus Baronum, p. 581. 

[167] Annales Ceccanenses 1169, MGH SS XIX, p. 286, and Annales Casenses 1169, MGH SS XIX, p. 312. 

[168] Chronicon Fossæ Novæ auctore anonimo ("Chronicon Fossæ Novæ)", Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Naples), p. 514. 

[169] Huillard-Bréholles, J. L. A. (ed.) (1852) Historia diplomatica Friderici secundi (Paris), Tome I, Pars 1, p. 232. 

[170] Catalogus Baronum, p. 600. 

[171] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 863, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book IV, p. 11. 

[172] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 866, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book IV, p. 14. 

[173] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, cols. 869-70 and 880, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book IV, p. 19. 

[174] Chronicon Casauriensis, p. 26 footnote 29, quoting Chronicon di S. Bartolomeo, p. 297 (no citation reference, but this is in Ughelli, F. (1722) Italia Sacra (Venice), Tome X, cols. 349.392. 

[175] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 874, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 26. 

[176] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber IV, RIS II.2, col. 880. 

[177] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 873, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 23. 

[178] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 886. 

[179] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 886. 

[180] Alexandri Telesini Cœnobii Abbatis de Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis ("Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis)", Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), II.LXVIII, p. 128. 

[181] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, III.VI, p. 138.  

[182] Alessandro of Telese´s De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Siciliæ Regis, III.XXVI, p. 141. 

[183] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 888, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 30. 

[184] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 891, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 33. 

[185] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 894, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 36. 

[186] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75. 

[187] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, cols. 895-7, and Chronicon Casauriensis, Book V, p. 38.  

[188] Chronicon Casauriense, Liber V, RIS II.2, col. 897. 

[189] Cronica di Romualdo Guarna arcivescovo Salernitano (Chronicon Romualdi II archiepiscopi Salernitani) ("Romualdo Guarna"), Re, G. del (ed.) (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Napoli), p. 24. 

[190] Hugo Falcandus 50, p. 176. 

[191] Catalogus Baronum, p. 600. 

[192] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 149. 

[193] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis I.61, MGH SS VII, p. 623. 

[194] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis I.61, MGH SS VII, p. 623. 

[195] Stasser (2008), p. 56, quoting Gattola (1733), p. 106. 

[196] D O II 255, p. 295. 

[197] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 973. 

[198] D O II 255, p. 295. 

[199] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 973. 

[200] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 977. 

[201] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 484. 

[202] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 484. 

[203] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.31, MGH SS VII, p. 648.  . 

[204] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.31, MGH SS VII, p. 648.  . 

[205] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.26, MGH SS VII, p. 645.  . 

[206] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.32, MGH SS VII, p. 649. 

[207] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 441. 

[208] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 982. 

[209] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 961. 

[210] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 962. 

[211] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 977. 

[212] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 977. 

[213] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 441. 

[214] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 962. 

[215] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 961. 

[216] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 962. 

[217] Stasser (2008), p. 56, quoting Gattola (1733), p. 106. 

[218] D O II 255, p. 295. 

[219] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 973. 

[220] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.7, 11 and 23, MGH SS VII, pp. 634, 636 and 643, the dates "993" and "1 Feb 1000" being written in the margin in the latter two respectively. 

[221] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 487. 

[222] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber IV, RIS I.2, p. 490. 

[223] Stasser (2008), p. 56, quoting Gattola (1733), p. 106. 

[224] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.26, MGH SS VII, p. 643. 

[225] Stasser (2008), p. 56, quoting Feller (2004), p. 483. 

[226] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.26, MGH SS VII, p. 643. 

[227] Balzano, U. (ed.) (1903) Il Chronicon Farfense di Gregorio di Catino (Rome) ("Chronicon Farfense"), Vol. II, p. 26. 

[228] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.26 and 32, MGH SS VII, pp. 644 and 649, the dates "May 1010" and "Jan 1012" being written, respectively, in the margin by the editor.  . 

[229] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 992. 

[230] Amatus V.8, pp. 152-3. 

[231] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 160. 

[232] Amatus V.8, p. 152. 

[233] Carme di Alfano, 170 no. 31, cited in Amatus, p. 152 footnote 20. 

[234] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.14, MGH SS VII, p. 706. 

[235] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.1 and 25, MGH SS VII, pp. 760 and 773. 

[236] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.25, MGH SS VII, p. 715. 

[237] Chronicon Casauriensis, Book IV, c. 23, p. 12. 

[238] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.1, MGH SS VII, p. 760, the date "Apr 1087" being written in the margin by the editor further down in the same paragraph. 

[239] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.1, MGH SS VII, p. 760, the date "1 May 1089" being written in the margin by the editor. 

[240] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.1, MGH SS VII, p. 760, the date "1 May 1089" being written in the margin by the editor. 

[241] Amatus V.8, p. 152, footnote 21 specifying that this refers to Guillaume de Pont-Echanfrey. 

[242] Amatus V.8, pp. 152-3. 

[243] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 148. 

[244] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.65, MGH SS VII, p. 673, the date "1049" being written in the margin by the editor. 

[245] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola, E. (1734) Ad historiam abbatiæ Casinensis accessiones (Venice), p. 241. 

[246] Amatus V.8, p. 153. 

[247] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.61, MGH SS VII, p. 745. 

[248] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.19, MGH SS VII, p. 771. 

[249] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.16, MGH SS VII, p. 769. 

[250] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.16, MGH SS VII, p. 769. 

[251] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.16, MGH SS VII, p. 769. 

[252] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.39, MGH SS VII, p. 731. 

[253] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.20, MGH SS VII, p. 771. 

[254] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.20, MGH SS VII, p. 687. 

[255] Amatus VII.15, pp. 183-4. 

[256] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 241. 

[257] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 149. 

[258] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Giorgi, I and Balzano, U. (eds.) (1879-1914) Il regesto di Farfa compilato da Gregorio di Catino (Rome) ("Farfa"), Vol. IV, no. 617. 

[259] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 167. 

[260] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.24, MGH SS VII, p. 715. 

[261] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 167. 

[262] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 167. 

[263] Brühl, C. R. (ed.) (1987) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Siciliæ, Series I, Tomus II/1. Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina (Köln, Wien) ("Rogerius II. Regis Diplomata Latina"), 15, p. 43. 

[264] Annales Casenses 1193, MGH SS XIX, p. 316. 

[265] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.78 and 88, MGH SS VII, pp. 802 and 807. 

[266] D K II 266, p. 367. 

[267] D K II 266, p. 367. 

[268] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 248. 

[269] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 248. 

[270] Stasser (2008), pp. 255-6, citing Codex Diplomaticus Cajetanus (Monte Cassino 1887) ("CDC"), Vol. I, no. 19. 

[271] Stasser (2008), p. 272, quoting "RPD no. 322", and Scandone, F. ´Il gastaldo di Aquino dalla meta del sec IX alla fine del X´, Archivio storico per le provincie Napoletane, Vol. 34 (1909), doc. III, p. 69. 

[272] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.1, MGH SS VII, p. 628. 

[273] Stasser (2008), p. 71.  

[274] Stasser (2008), p. 272, quoting "RPD no. 230", and Scandone ´Il gastaldo di Aquino´ (1909), doc. IV, p. 71. 

[275] Stasser (2008), p. 272, quoting "RPD no. 230", and Scandone ´Il gastaldo di Aquino´ (1909), doc. IV, p. 71. 

[276] Stasser (2008), p. 272, quoting "RPD no. 230", and Scandone ´Il gastaldo di Aquino´ (1909), doc. IV, p. 71. 

[277] Stasser (2008), p. 272, quoting "RPD no. 230", and Scandone ´Il gastaldo di Aquino´ (1909), doc. IV, p. 71. 

[278] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.16, MGH SS VII, p. 640. 

[279] Stasser (2008), p. 70.  

[280] Amatus II.41, p. 83. 

[281] Amatus III. 24, cited in Skinner, P. (2002) Family Power in Southern Italy. The duchy of Gaeta and its neighbours, 850-1139 (Cambridge University Press), p. 154. 

[282] Amatus IV.12, p. 115. 

[283] Amatus II.41, p. 83. 

[284] CDC 215, cited in Skinner (2002), p. 154. 

[285] Amatus V.1, pp. 148-50. 

[286] Amatus IV.12, p. 115. 

[287] Skinner (2002), p. 156. 

[288] Amatus V.1, pp. 148-50. 

[289] Amatus, V. 9, cited in Skinner (2002), p. 157. 

[290] CDC 249, cited in Skinner (2002), p. 157. 

[291] Stasser (2008), p. 265, citing Archives of Cava dei Tirreni, Abbazia di S. Trinita, XV, 46. 

[292] Amatus II.41, p. 83. 

[293] Amatus II.41, p. 83. 

[294] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 188. 

[295] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Mallet, J. and Thibaut, A. (1997) Les manuscrits en écriture bénéventaine de la bibliothèque capitulaire de Bénévent (Paris), Tome 2, p. 226. 

[296] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 188. 

[297] Amatus VII.11, pp. 169-70. 

[298] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 188. 

[299] Amatus V.5, p. 151. 

[300] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 188. 

[301] Amatus V.1, pp. 148-50. 

[302] Stasser (2008), p. 373, quoting Gattola (1734), p. 188. 

[303] Amatus V.1, p. 150. 

[304] Amatus V.1, pp. 148-50. 

[305] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.32, MGH SS VII, p. 777. 

[306] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.57, MGH SS VII, p. 789. 

[307] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.93, MGH SS VII, p. 809, undated but "1127" added in the margin by the editor. 

[308] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.32, MGH SS VII, p. 777. 

[309] Catalogus Baronum, p. 600. 

[310] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1197, MGH SS XIX, p. 329. 

[311] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1201, MGH SS XIX, p. 332. 

[312] Catalogus Baronum, p. 600. 

[313] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1197, MGH SS XIX, p. 329. 

[314] Catalogus Baronum, p. 615. 

[315] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1221, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[316] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, p. 351. 

[317] RHGF XX, Continuatio Chronici Guillelmi de Nangiaco, p. 655. 

[318] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, p. 351. 

[319] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, p. 351. 

[320] Capasso, B. (1874) Historia diplomatica regni Siciliæ 1250-1266 (Naples), 62, p. 33. 

[321] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 347. 

[322] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 347. 

[323] Catalogus Baronum, p. 594. 

[324] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.41, MGH SS VII, p. 733. 

[325] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.54, MGH SS VII, p. 788. 

[326] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.39, MGH SS VII, p. 731. 

[327] Stasser (2008), p. 266, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 263, p. 143. 

[328] Spinelli, A. (ed.) (1857) Regii Neapolitani archivi Monumenta edita ac illustrata (Naples) ("Regii Neapolitani Monumenta"), Vol. V, DXIX, p. 297. 

[329] Stasser (2008), p. 266, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 281, p. 177. 

[330] Skinner (2002), p. 159. 

[331] Chronicon Fossæ Novæ, p. 507. 

[332] Stasser (2008), p. 266, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 281, p. 177. 

[333] Stasser (2008), p. 267. 

[334] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.54, MGH SS VII, p. 788. 

[335] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.54, MGH SS VII, p. 788. 

[336] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXIX, p. 297. 

[337] Stasser (2008), p. 266, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 281, p. 177. 

[338] Stasser (2008), p. 266, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 281, p. 177. 

[339] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.90, MGH SS VII, p. 807. 

[340] Annales Casenses 1126, MGH SS XIX, p. 308. 

[341] Stasser (2008), p. 267, quoting Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1738-1742) Antiquitates Italicæ medii ævi (Milan), Vol. II, col. 811 (reference incorrect). 

[342] Catalogus Baronum, p. 599. 

[343] Catalogus Baronum, p. 599. 

[344] Hugo Falcandus, p. 157 footnote 160. 

[345] Catalogus Baronum, p. 591. 

[346] Stasser (2008), p. 267, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 323, p. 250. 

[347] Ignoti Monachi Chronica, p. 29. 

[348] Catalogus Baronum, p. 594. 

[349] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1192, MGH SS XIX, p. 327. 

[350] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1192, MGH SS XIX, p. 327. 

[351] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXIX, p. 297. 

[352] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXIX, p. 297. 

[353] Regii Neapolitani Monumenta, Vol. V, DXIX, p. 297. 

[354] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, p. 351. 

[355] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 171. 

[356] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 156. 

[357] D H IV 358, p. 472. 

[358] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 210. 

[359] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 156. 

[360] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 210. 

[361] D H IV 358, p. 472. 

[362] Egidi, P. (ed.) L´archivio della cattedrale di Viterbo, Bulletino dell´Istituto Storico Italiano, No. 27 (Rome, 1906) ("Viterbo Catedrale"), XVII, p. 45. 

[363] Annales Ceccanenses 1104, MGH SS XIX, p. 281. 

[364] Annales Ceccanenses 1125, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[365] Annales Ceccanenses 1128, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[366] Annales Ceccanenses 1131, MGH SS XIX, p. 283. 

[367] Annales Ceccanenses 1125, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[368] Annales Ceccanenses 1153, MGH SS XIX, p. 284. 

[369] Annales Ceccanenses 1143, MGH SS XIX, p. 283. 

[370] Annales Ceccanenses 1125, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[371] Annales Ceccanenses 1128, MGH SS XIX, p. 282. 

[372] Annales Ceccanenses 1157, MGH SS XIX, p. 284. 

[373] Annales Ceccanenses 1162, MGH SS XIX, p. 285. 

[374] Annales Ceccanenses 1169, MGH SS XIX, p. 286. 

[375] Annales Ceccanenses 1182, MGH SS XIX, p. 287. 

[376] Annales Ceccanenses 1182, MGH SS XIX, p. 287. 

[377] Annales Ceccanenses 1188, MGH SS XIX, p. 288. 

[378] Annales Ceccanenses 1190, MGH SS XIX, p. 288. 

[379] Annales Ceccanenses 1216, MGH SS XIX, p. 301. 

[380] Annales Ceccanenses 1189, MGH SS XIX, p. 288. 

[381] Annales Ceccanenses 1143, MGH SS XIX, p. 283. 

[382] Annales Ceccanenses 1144, MGH SS XIX, p. 283.  

[383] Annales Ceccanenses 1169, MGH SS XIX, p. 286. 

[384] Skinner (2002), p. 28. 

[385] Stasser (2008), p. 258, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 46, p. 76. 

[386] Catalogus Baronum, p. 591. 

[387] Catalogus Baronum, p. 599. 

[388] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 152. 

[389] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 100. 

[390] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 101. 

[391] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 115. 

[392] Stasser (2008), pp. 280-1. 

[393] Stasser (2008), p. 479, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 249. 

[394] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 247. 

[395] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.39, MGH SS VII, p. 731. 

[396] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 267. 

[397] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 290. 

[398] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 291. 

[399] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.84, MGH SS VII, p. 805. 

[400] Stasser (2008), p. 277, quoting Amante, B. and Bianchi, R. (1903) Memorie storiche e statutarie del ducato, della contea e dell´episcopato di Fondi in Campania (Rome), p. 86. 

[401] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 291. 

[402] Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.84, MGH SS VII, p. 805. 

[403] Stasser (2008), p. 278, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 333. 

[404] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[405] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 248. 

[406] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 274. 

[407] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 248. 

[408] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 274. 

[409] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 247. 

[410] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.39, MGH SS VII, p. 731. 

[411] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. II, no. 247. 

[412] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.39, MGH SS VII, p. 731. 

[413] Stasser (2008), p. 266, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 281, p. 177. 

[414] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.54, MGH SS VII, p. 788. 

[415] Stasser (2008), p. 267. 

[416] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.54, MGH SS VII, p. 788. 

[417] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[418] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[419] Stasser (2008), p. 61, quoting CDC, Vol. 2, 239, p. 94. 

[420] Stasser (2008), p. 278, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 298. 

[421] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 90. 

[422] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 94. 

[423] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 101. 

[424] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 120. 

[425] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 121. 

[426] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 94. 

[427] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 143. 

[428] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 154. 

[429] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 154. 

[430] Stasser (2008), p. 61, quoting CDC, Vol. 2, 239, p. 94. 

[431] Stasser (2008), p. 61, quoting CDC, Vol. 2, 239, p. 94. 

[432] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 130. 

[433] Stasser (2008), p. 277, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[434] Anonymi monachi Cassinensis breve chronicon ("Cassinensis breve chronicon"), Re, G. del (1845) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 1 (Naples), p. 468. 

[435] Annales Casenses 1155, MGH SS XIX, p. 311. 

[436] Hugo Falcandus 9, p. 75. 

[437] Cassinensis breve chronicon, p. 468. 

[438] Romualdo Guarna, p. 20. 

[439] Hugo Falcandus, 24, p. 129.   

[440] Romualdo Guarna, p. 28. 

[441] Hugo Falcandus, p. 157 footnote 160. 

[442] Romualdo Guarna, p. 28. 

[443] Romualdo Guarna, p. 28. 

[444] Romualdo Guarna, p. 28. 

[445] Hugo Falcandus, 32, p. 157, footnote 160 specifying that he was made Count of Fondi and transferred to Gravina in 1168.   

[446] Hugo Falcandus, p. 157 footnote 160. 

[447] Catalogus Baronum, p. 591. 

[448] Catalogus Baronum, p. 599. 

[449] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1191, MGH SS XIX, p. 326. 

[450] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1208, MGH SS XIX, p. 333. 

[451] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[452] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1214, MGH SS XIX, p. 337. 

[453] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1220, MGH SS XIX, p. 340. 

[454] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1223, MGH SS XIX, p. 343. 

[455] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, p. 355. 

[456] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1230, MGH SS XIX, p. 361. 

[457] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1232, MGH SS XIX, p. 369. 

[458] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1229, MGH SS XIX, p. 355. 

[459] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1232, MGH SS XIX, p. 369. 

[460] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. V, 11, MGH SS XIX, p. 80. 

[461] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 117. 

[462] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 156. 

[463] Nicolai de Jamsilla Historia, p. 193. 

[464] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, II, VIII, p. 231. 

[465] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, IV, XII, p. 280. 

[466] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CCLXXVII, MGH SS XXXI, p. 534. 

[467] Capasso (1874), Liber inquisitionum Carolo I pro feudatariis regni, p. 346. 

[468] Libro d´Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea, Orsini, consulted at <http://www.genmarenostrum.com/pagine-lettere/letterao/Orsini/orsini.htm> (20 Nov 2009). 

[469] Tonini, L. (1842) Rimini nel secolo XIII (Rimini), Vol. 3, Documenti, CXXXV, p. 605. 

[470] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 168. 

[471] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 225. 

[472] Capasso, B. (ed.) ´Le chronache de li antique ri del regno di Napoli di D. Gaspare Fuscolillo´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno Primo, Fascicolo I (Naples, 1876) ("Gaspare Fuscolillo"), I, p. 50. 

[473] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, pp. 51-2. 

[474] Gaspare Fuscolillo, I, pp. 51-2. 

[475] Stasser (2008), p. 71.  

[476] Stasser (2008), p. 71. 

[477] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, Appendice, p. 321. 

[478] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 302. 

[479] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 342, p. 44. 

[480] Stasser (2008), p. 241, citing Zucchetti, G. (ed.) (1913) Liber largitorius vel notarius monasterii Pharphensis (Regesta Chartarum Italiæ, Vol. 11), nos. 168 and 171. 

[481] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 300, p. 101. 

[482] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 300, p. 101. 

[483] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 300, p. 101. 

[484] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 411, p. 120. 

[485] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 411, p. 120. 

[486] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 34. 

[487] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 469, p. 178. 

[488] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 471, p. 181. 

[489] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, p. 283. 

[490] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 411, p. 120. 

[491] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 34. 

[492] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 469, p. 178. 

[493] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 471, p. 181. 

[494] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 695, p. 97. 

[495] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 493, p. 199. 

[496] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 86. 

[497] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 543. 

[498] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 617. 

[499] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 124. 

[500] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, p. 219. 

[501] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 131. 

[502] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, p. 269. 

[503] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 131. 

[504] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, p. 269. 

[505] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[506] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 231. 

[507] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 231. 

[508] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 230. 

[509] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 131. 

[510] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, p. 269. 

[511] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 131. 

[512] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, p. 269. 

[513] Stasser (2008), p. 243, citing Morghen, R. (ed.) (1927) Chronicon Sublacense (Rome), p. 18. 

[514] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 124. 

[515] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, p. 219. 

[516] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 143. 

[517] Stasser (2008), p. 244, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 905. 

[518] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 143. 

[519] Stasser (2008), p. 244, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 905. 

[520] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 143. 

[521] Stasser (2008), p. 244, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 905. 

[522] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 143. 

[523] Stasser (2008), p. 244, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 905. 

[524] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 149. 

[525] Stasser (2008), p. 244, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 931, p. 325. 

[526] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 264. 

[527] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 493, p. 199. 

[528] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 493, p. 199. 

[529] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 86. 

[530] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 543. 

[531] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 891, p. 286. 

[532] Stasser (2008), p. 243, quoting Farfa, Vol. IV, no. 695, p. 97. 

[533] Gregorovius, F. (Hamilton, A. trans.) (1895) History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages, 4th edn. (London), Vol. 3, p. 316. 

[534] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 312. 

[535] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 82. 

[536] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum nec non Pontificum Romanorum Catalogi, p. 89. 

[537] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum nec non Pontificum Romanorum Catalogi, p. 89. 

[538] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, p. 83. 

[539] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum nec non Pontificum Romanorum Catalogi, p. 89. 

[540] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum nec non Pontificum Romanorum Catalogi, p. 89. 

[541] Stasser (2008), p. 241, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 387. 

[542] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum nec non Pontificum Romanorum Catalogi, p. 89. 

[543] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 313. 

[544] Nerini, F. (1752) De Templo et Cœnobio sanctorum Bonifacii et Alexii Historica Monumenta (Rome), Appendix, III, p. 381. 

[545] Nerini (1752), Appendix, III, p. 381. 

[546] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 79. 

[547] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 358. 

[548] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 79. 

[549] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 79. 

[550] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 541. 

[551] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 540. 

[552] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 81. 

[553] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 541. 

[554] Nerini (1752), p. 33. 

[555] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 91. 

[556] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 543. 

[557] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 91, footnote 9, quoting the charter in full. 

[558] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 540. 

[559] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 81. 

[560] Nerini (1752), p. 33. 

[561] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 91. 

[562] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 543. 

[563] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, Imperatorum, Regum aliorumque Principum nec non Pontificum Romanorum Catalogi, p. 89. 

[564] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator (“WTC”) XXXIII.XLI, p. 408. 

[565] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Marciana Ms Francese 20, CC.XCII, p. 67. 

[566] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin), Vol. 3, p. 207. 

[567] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 230. 

[568] Mas Latrie, R. de (ed.) (1891) Chroniques d'Amadi et de Strambaldi (Paris) (“Amadi”), p. 202. 

[569] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1199, MGH SS XIX, p. 331. 

[570] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1204, MGH SS XIX, p. 339. 

[571] Stasser (2008), p. 267, quoting Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1738-1742) Antiquitates Italicæ medii ævi (Milan), Vol. II, col. 811 (reference incorrect). 

[572] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XI, col. 365. 

[573] Stasser (2008), p. 267, quoting Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1738-1742) Antiquitates Italicæ medii ævi (Milan), Vol. II, col. 811 (reference incorrect). 

[574] Stasser (2008), p. 267, quoting Muratori, L. A. (ed.) (1738-1742) Antiquitates Italicæ medii ævi (Milan), Vol. II, col. 811 (reference incorrect). 

[575] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 90. 

[576] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 137. 

[577] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 151. 

[578] Skinner (2002), p. 167. 

[579] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 94. 

[580] Skinner (2002), p. 176. 

[581] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 130. 

[582] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[583] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 203. 

[584] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 151. 

[585] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[586] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 159. 

[587] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 171. 

[588] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 151. 

[589] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 151. 

[590] Stasser (2008), p. 286, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 215. 

[591] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 203. 

[592] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[593] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 159. 

[594] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 171. 

[595] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 137. 

[596] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 179. 

[597] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 183. 

[598] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 90. 

[599] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 100. 

[600] Stasser (2008), p. 276, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 101. 

[601] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 108. 

[602] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 108. 

[603] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 130. 

[604] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 137. 

[605] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 203. 

[606] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[607] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 171. 

[608] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 185. 

[609] Stasser (2008), pp. 277 and 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[610] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[611] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 159. 

[612] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 171. 

[613] Stasser (2008), pp. 277 and 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[614] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 188. 

[615] Stasser (2008), p. 286, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 215. 

[616] Stasser (2008), p. 287, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 216. 

[617] Stasser (2008), pp. 277 and 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[618] Stasser (2008), p. 286, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 215. 

[619] Stasser (2008), p. 287, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 216. 

[620] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 188. 

[621] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 130. 

[622] Stasser (2008), p. 283, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 137. 

[623] Stasser (2008), p. 284, citing CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[624] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 159. 

[625] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 171. 

[626] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 185. 

[627] Stasser (2008), pp. 277 and 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 187. 

[628] Stasser (2008), p. 286, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 215. 

[629] Stasser (2008), p. 287, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 216. 

[630] Stasser (2008), p. 286, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 104. 

[631] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 157. 

[632] Stasser (2008), p. 284, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 159. 

[633] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 171. 

[634] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 185. 

[635] Stasser (2008), p. 286, quoting CDC, Vol. II, no. 215. 

[636] Stasser (2008), p. 285, quoting CDC, Vol. I, no. 185. 

[637] Benedicti Chronicon 29, MGH SS III, p. 714. 

[638] Galletti. P. (1758) Del Vestarario della Santa Romana chiesa (Rome), p. 46. 

[639] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[640] Benedicti Chronicon 29, MGH SS III, p. 714. 

[641] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 241. 

[642] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[643] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 241. 

[644] Benedicti Chronicon 29, MGH SS III, p. 714. 

[645] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.40, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[646] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.41, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[647] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 343. 

[648] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 241. 

[649] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[650] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[651] Poole, R. L. (1917) Benedict IX and Gregory VI, Proceedings of the British Academy Vol. VIII (London), p. 34, quoting Marini, G. (1805) I Papiri Diplomatici, C, p. 155". 

[652] Galletti (1758), p. 46. 

[653] Galletti (1758), p. 46. 

[654] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 341. 

[655] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[656] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Marini, G. (1805) I Papiri Diplomatici, C, p. 155". 

[657] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 138, p. 189. 

[658] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Marini, G. (1805) I Papiri Diplomatici, C, p. 155". 

[659] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 251 footnote 1, quoting "Cod. Subl. Sessor." 217, and Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 126, p. 176. 

[660] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 65, p. 106. 

[661] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 125, p. 175. 

[662] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Marini, G. (1805) I Papiri Diplomatici, C, p. 155". 

[663] Nerini (1752), Appendix, III, p. 381. 

[664] Capasso, B. (ed.) (1881) Monumenta ad Neapolitani Ducatus historiam pertinentia (Naples) ("Monumenta Neapolitani Ducatus"), Vol. I, p. 339. 

[665] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 340. 

[666] Monumenta Neapolitani Ducatus, Vol. II, Part 2 (1892), V, Diplomata et chartæ ducum Neapolis, IV, p. 13. 

[667] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 341. 

[668] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 386, quoting Vatican Ms, n. 8043, Lateran documents of 15 Oct 989. 

[669] Nerini (1752), Appendix, III, p. 381. 

[670] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 386, quoting Vatican Ms, n. 8043, Lateran documents of 15 Oct 989. 

[671] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 471, p. 181. 

[672] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 471, p. 181. 

[673] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 541. 

[674] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 469, p. 178. 

[675] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 34. 

[676] Stasser (2008), p. 242, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, no. 471, p. 181. 

[677] Stasser (2008), pp. 280-1. 

[678] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 386, quoting Vatican Ms, n. 8043, Lateran documents of 15 Oct 989. 

[679] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.12, pp. 25-7. 

[680] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.12, MGH SS VIII, p. 10.  

[681] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 540. 

[682] Arnulfi Gesta, Archiepiscoporum Mediolanensium I.12, MGH SS VIII, p. 10.  

[683] Brook, L. 'Popes and Pornocrats:Rome in the early middle ages' Foundations (Vol. 1, no. 1, Jan 2003), p. 12, footnote 34 citing Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, pp. 432-3. 

[684] Balzani, U. and Giorgi, I. (eds.) (1879-1919) Il Regesto di Farfa di Gregorio di Gatino (Rome), Vol. III, p. 180, no. 471, cited in Glaber, p. 30 footnote 1. 

[685] Rodulfi Glabri, Historiarum I.15, p. 31. 

[686] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 125, p. 175. 

[687] Nerini (1752), Appendix, II, p. 378. 

[688] Nerini (1752), Appendix, II, p. 378. 

[689] Hugonis Opuscula, Historiæ Farfensis, MGH SS XI, p. 541. 

[690] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. II, p. 79. 

[691] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 342. 

[692] Nerini (1752), p. 33. 

[693] Nerini (1752), p. 33. 

[694] Nerini (1752), Appendix, II, p. 378. 

[695] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 251 footnote 1, quoting "Cod. Subl. Sessor." 217, and Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 126, p. 176. 

[696] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 138, p. 189. 

[697] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Marini, G. (1805) I Papiri Diplomatici, C, p. 155". 

[698] Gregorovius (1895), Vol. 3, p. 251 footnote 1, quoting "Cod. Subl. Sessor." 217, and Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 126, p. 176. 

[699] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 65, p. 106. 

[700] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 125, p. 175. 

[701] Poole (1917), p. 34, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 138, p. 189. 

[702] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 139, p. 191. 

[703] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 125, p. 175. 

[704] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Regesto Sublacense, 109, p. 155. 

[705] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, 437, p. 150. 

[706] Poole (1917), p. 33, quoting Farfa, Vol. III, 437, p. 150. 

[707] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.99, MGH SS VII, p. 695. 

[708] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber V, RIS I.2, p. 494. 

[709] Stasser (2008), p. 365, quoting Archivio dell´abbazia de Montecassino, caps. 111, fasc. 8, no. 79. 

[710] Leonis Marsicani, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis II.99, MGH SS VII, p. 695. 

[711] Morcaldi, M. (ed.) (1888) Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis Tome VII (Naples), MCLXXII, p. 189. 

[712] Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis Tome VII, MCLXXVIII, p. 198. 

[713] Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis Tome VII, MCXCIV, p. 221. 

[714] Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis Tome VII, MCCXXXII, p. 300. 

[715] Morcaldi, M. (ed.) (1893) Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis Tome VIII (Naples), MCCLXXXII, p. 90, and MCCXCII, p. 106. 

[716] Stasser (2008), p. 426, quoting Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis Tome IX, p. 193. 

[717] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.60, MGH SS VII, p. 745. 

[718] Nerini (1752), Appendix, VIII, p. 394. 

[719] Annales Ceccanenses 1153, MGH SS XIX, p. 284. 

[720] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.61, MGH SS VII, p. 791. 

[721] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis IV.125, MGH SS VII, p. 841. 

[722] Bernardi Marangonis Annales Pisani, MGH SS XIX, p. 245. 

[723] Romuald. Sal, p. 210. 

[724] Petri Diaconi, Chronica Monasterii Casinensis III.60, MGH SS VII, p. 745. 

[725] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 85. 

[726] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.13, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 100. 

[727] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.16, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 121. 

[728] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 137. 

[729] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.16, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 121. 

[730] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.16, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 121. 

[731] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 137. 

[732] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.16, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151. 

[733] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.16, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 151. 

[734] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 175. 

[735] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.44, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 180. 

[736] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.44, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 180. 

[737] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 147. 

[738] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.55 and 57, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 184 and 185. 

[739] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 175. 

[740] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.57, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 185. 

[741] Liber Pontificalis 93.11. 

[742] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 148. 

[743] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[744] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[745] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 182. 

[746] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.52 and 56, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 183 and 185. 

[747] Liber Pontificalis 93.23. 

[748] Christie (1998), p. 104. 

[749] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Casinensis 3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 198. 

[750] Liber Pontificalis 94.50. 

[751] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[752] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[753] Benedicti Chronicon 15 and 16, MGH SS III, p. 702. 

[754] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 183. 

[755] Liber Pontificalis 94.48. 

[756] Liber Pontificalis 94.50. 

[757] D Kar. 1, 111, p. 156. 

[758] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 154. 

[759] Liber Pontificalis 97. 32-3. 

[760] D Kar. 1, 111, p. 156. 

[761] Chronicon Farfense, Vol. I, p. 158. 

[762] Ficker, J. (1874) Forschungen zur Reichs- und Rechtsgechichte Italiens (Innsbruck), Band IV, 1, p. 1. 

[763] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber II, RIS I.2, p. 373. 

[764] Annales Laurissenses 779, MGH SS I, p. 160. 

[765] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 2, p. 2. 

[766] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 788, p. 68. 

[767] RFA, 788, pp. 67-8. 

[768] Liber Pontificalis 98. 15, RFA, 799, p. 77.   

[769] Ficker (1874), Band IV, 5, p. 6. 

[770] RFA, 802 and 803, p. 83. 

[771] Einhardi Annales 802 and 803, MGH SS I, pp. 190 and 191. 

[772] Annales Fuldenses 802 and 803, MGH SS I, p. 353. 

[773] RFA, 815, p. 100. 

[774] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS I, p. 209. 

[775] RFA, 822, p. 110. 

[776] Einhardi Annales 824, MGH SS I, p. 213. 

[777] RFA 824, p. 116. 

[778] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 29, MGH SS II, p. 623. 

[779] Wickham, C. (1981) Early Medieval Italy, Central Power and Local Society 400-1000 (Macmillan, London), p. 57. 

[780] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Band VIII, p. 328. 

[781] Einhardi Annales 822, MGH SS I, p. 209. 

[782] Einhardi Annales 824, MGH SS I, p. 212. 

[783] RFA 824, p. 116. 

[784] RFA 824, p. 116. 

[785] Einhardi Annales 824, MGH SS I, p. 213. 

[786] Berengario I Diplomi, IX, p. 35. 

[787] Wickham (1981), p. 182. 

[788] Wickham (1981), p. 182. 

[789] Schiaparelli, L. (ed.) (1903) I diplomi di Berengario I, Fonti per la Storia d´Italia (Rome) ("Berengario I Diplomi"), X, p. 37. 

[790] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome IV, p. 446. 

[791] Wickham (1981), p. 57. 

[792] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 177, citing (footnote 54) Hlawitschka, E. (1960) Franken, Alemannen, Bayern und Burgunder in Oberitalien (774-962) (Freiburg), pp. 271-3. 

[793] Chronicon Casauriense, Additamenta, RIS II.2, col. 935. 

[794] Karoli II Conventus Ticinensis, MGH LL 1, p. 528. 

[795] ES II 188A. 

[796] Berengario I Diplomi, VIII, p. 33. 

[797] Muratori, L. A. (1773) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome II, p. 26. 

[798] Wickham (1981), p. 182. 

[799] MGH Diplomata, IV, 30, p. 125. 

[800] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Band I, p. 634, and Ennen, Edith Frauen im Mittelalters, p. 59. 

[801] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 177, citing (footnote 54) Hlawitschka, E. (1960) Franken, Alemannen, Bayern und Burgunder in Oberitalien (774-962) (Freiburg), pp. 271-3. 

[802] Odegaard, Charles E. 'The Empress Engelberga', Speculum 26 (1951), 77-103. 

[803] DD Karl, 22, p. 36. 

[804] DD Karl, 165, p. 267. 

[805] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 178. 

[806] Kreutz, B. M. (1996) Before the Normans. Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Philadelphia), pp. 46-7.