ALBANIA

  v3.0 Updated 29 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                FAMILY of PROGON. 4

Chapter 2.                LORDS of EPIRUS (ANGELOS) 4

A.         LORDS of EPIRUS (ANGELOS) 1215-1318. 5

B.         LORDS of EPIRUS (ORSINI) 1318-1358. 25

Chapter 3.                THOPIA. 28

Chapter 4.                ARANITI 30

Chapter 5.                MUSAKI (MUSACHI) 33

Chapter 6.                KASTRIOTI 34

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The Bulgars in the 5th century, and the Slavs who started their incursions into the Balkans in the 6th century, had changed the ethnic structure of the Balkan peninsula by the end of the 7th century.  Croatia, Serbia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Montenegro, and parts of Macedonia lost their Illyrian language and were Slavicized.  The Albanians remained the only direct descendants of the ancient Illyrians.  The name from which "Albania" later evolved is first mentioned in the 2nd century AD by the geographer Ptolemy of Alexandria, who refers to the "Albanoi" tribe which inhabited what is now central Albania.  The name spread to include the rest of the country as "Arbri" and, finally, "Albania".  The origin of "Shqipria", the Albanian name for the territory which was used by the 16th and 17th centuries, is unknown but probably derives from "shqipe" (eagle) which became the country's national symbol. 

 

Part of the Roman Empire from earliest times, Albania remained under Byzantine rule until the fall of the empire in 1204, although the Albanian population settled in remote mountain regions where Byzantine jurisdiction was nominal.  During the 10th and 11th centuries, Durrës (Durazzo) and its castle of Kanina were attacked by the Bulgarians (989-1005), the Normans (1082-1083 and 1185), and Venice (1205).  There was no centrally organised state in the territory, which was controlled by tribes whose chieftains ruled different mountainous areas.  The area north of the Drin River was oriented towards Serbia and Zeta, while that to the south centred around Dürres was subject to Greek influence[1]

 

The first Albanian feudal state was declared at Krujë (Kroja) by the Archon Progon around 1190, and lasted until the mid-13th century when the country relapsed into disunity.  The leading families of the Albanian feudal nobility were the Thopia, Balša, Shpata, Muzaka, Araniti, Dukagjini and Kastrioti, the first three of which became rulers of principalities which were practically independent of Byzantium. 

 

Under the terms of the treaty under which the Venetians and the Crusaders agreed to partition the Byzantine empire before the fall of Constantinople in 1204, Albania fell to Venice.  However, the Venetian republic only established direct rule in Dürres.  Mikhael Angelos, illegitimate son of one of the last Byzantine governors of Epirus and relative of Emperor Isaakios II, became ruler of Epirus and established a powerful new force in the western part of the former Byzantine territories which came to equal in strength the newly established Greek empire at Nikaia.  Mikhael recognised the suzerainty of Venice in 1210, but captured Dürres in 1213 in breach of his treaty obligations.  His successor, and legitimate half-brother, Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos, concentrated his attention mainly on Thessaloniki, where he declared himself emperor in 1225. 

 

The Bulgarians defeated Emperor Theodoros at Klokotniça in 1230, after which his empire was dismembered.  His nephew, Mikhael [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos, whom Theodoros had exiled in 1214, succeeded in Epirus under Bulgarian suzerainty.  Mikhael reasserted his autonomy in 1240, although prolonged disputes with the emperors at Nikaia enabled local Albanian lords to enjoy another period of relative freedom from their foreign conquerors.  The Albanian territories of Valona, Durrës, and Berat formed part of the dowry of Helena Doukaina Angelina, daughter of Despot Mikhael [II], when she married Manfred King of Sicily in 1259.  After her husband was killed in battle by the Angevins at Benevento in 1266, Helena was imprisoned in Naples by the new Angevin king.  Dürres submitted to Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] in 1272, but during the following decades the sovereignty over Albania switched between the Angevins, the Byzantines, and the Serbs.  Philippe Prince of Tarento [Anjou-Capet] assumed the titles Despot of Romania, Lord of Albania and of Vlakia in 1309, but Stefan Uroš II King of Serbia adopted the rival title of king of Albania. 

 

After the Serbian empire collapsed following the death of Stefan Dušan in 1355, the local feudal lords reasserted their power in Albania, the Thopia and Dukagjini families ruling in the north, while the Muzaka and Shpata ruled in the south.  The first count of Albania of Albanian origin appears to have been a knight named Casnesio, son of Blada Blavist (Blevisti), who is recorded as count in 1304.  His son Guglielmo was marshal of Albania in 1304, was awarded the Byzantine title protosébastos, and succeeded as Count of Albania in 1318.  On his death in 1328, Guglielmo's territories fell to the Thopia family, who controlled the area between Mati and Skhumbi in central Albania, in the hinterland of Dürras, based at Matija.  Tanish Thopia's position as Lord of Matija was confirmed by Robert King of Naples [Anjou-Capet] in April 1338.  Andrea Thopia’s son Karlo played a leading role in the coaIition which defeated Nikephoros [II] Angelos Orsini, Despot of Epirus, at the battle of Achelaos in 1358.  Karlo captured the fortress of Kroja and occupied Dürres and Elbasan.  At the height of his power, his territory comprised Matija, Kroja, Petrella and Elbasan, and the area around Skutari.  In 1366, he became a citizen of the republic of Venice. 

 

The Kastriota family became the dominant force in the coastal areas of Albania in the late 14th century.  Gjon Kastriota was Lord of Matija and Dibra.  In 1407, he was recorded as “dominus satis potens in partibus Albaniæ” and in 1410 as “dominus partium Bosniæ”, as a vassal of Venice.  Gjon Kastriota changed religion depending on his current masters.  From 1407, as an ally of Venice, he was Catholic.  After concluding an alliance with Serbia in 1419, he converted to Orthodoxy.  In 1430, he converted to Islam as the ally and vassal of the Turks.  After the Ottomans confiscated part of his property in 1438, he reconverted to Catholicism and became a citizen of Venice. 

 

Although the Ottomans defeated the Serbs and Albanians at the battle of Kosovo 15 Jun 1389, the first Ottoman occupation of Albania did not occur until 1415, and only lasted a short time.  Resistance to Ottoman occupation was led by Gjergj Arianiti, whom Pope Eugene IV took under his protection in 1433.  In 1451, Gjergj Arianiti's eldest daughter, Andronika, married Gjergj Kastriota, fourth son of Gjon Kastriota, who had converted to Islam in 1430 and adopted the name Iskander-bey.  Gjergj Kastriota fought against the Persians, and was awarded the title "Skender-beg".  In 1444, he became Captain-General of the League of Alessio, formed by all the noble Albanian families, and was recognised as leader of Albania in 1455 by Gjergj Arianiti.  The final Ottoman occupation of Albania began in 1478. 

 

As will be seen below, it has been possible to verify only a small part of the information about the ruling families of Albania against primary source documentation.  Chapter 2 of this document has been reviewed in detail by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions where indicated.  I am grateful for his helpful collaboration. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    FAMILY of PROGON

 

 

The first Albanian feudal state was declared at Krujë (Kroja) by the Archon Progon in [1190].  Progon’s older son, Gjin Progonović was Lord of Krujë and Elbasan from [1200] to [1208].  The independent state of Albania founded by Progon lasted until the middle of the 13th century, after which the country relapsed into disunity.  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

1.         PROGON .  He gained possession of the castle at Krujë and the territory around it[2]m ---.  The name of Progon's wife is not known.  Progon & his wife had two children: 

a)         GJIN Progonović (-[1208] or after).  Lord of Krujë and Elbasan from [1200] to [1208].  m ---.  The name of Gjin's wife is not known.  Gjin & his wife had one child:

i)          daughter (-before 1216).  m as his first wife, GRGUR Kamonas, son of ---.  Sébastos.  Lord of Krujë.  Archon of Krujë and Elbasan. 

b)         DIMITRIJE Progonović (-1215).  Lord of Krujë by 1208[3].  His territory was conquered in [1214/15] by Mikhael Komnenos Doukas Lord of Epirus[4]m as her first husband, KOMINIA of Serbia, daughter of STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia & his first wife Evdokia Komnene Angelina.  She married secondly ([1216]) as his second wife, Grgur Kamonas Archon of Krujë and Elbasan.  Dimitrije & his wife had one child:  

i)          daughter .  m GOULAMOS Lord of Krujë, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    LORDS of EPIRUS (ANGELOS)

 

 

The 1204 treaty, which projected the division of the Byzantine empire between Venice and the Crusaders, allocated Etolia, Acarnania, Epirus, Zante, Kefalonia, Leukadia and Corfu (to the south and west of Greece) to the Venetians.  However, their resources were insufficient to govern these and the other diverse territories which had been allocated to them.  As far as the islands and territories to the west were concerned, they abandoned the Ionian islands to the French conquerors, while Corfu was left to Mikhael Angelos Komnenos Dukas Lord of Epirus[5].  Out of all the territories in western Greece, the republic of Venice established direct rule only in Durazzo (Dürres, in present-day Albania). 

 

Mikhael Angelos, illegitimate son of Ioannes Doukas Angelos who had been Byzantine governor of Epirus, joined Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, newly installed as king of Thessaloniki, in the latter's conquest of Thessaly in 1204.  Mikhael obtained the government of territories in Epirus and expanded his control northwards to the outskirts of Durazzo and southwards to Naupaktos on the Gulf of Corinth, establishing himself as Lord of EpirusMikhael recognised Venetian overlordship in 1210, but in 1213 captured Durazzo from Venice in violation of his alliance.  In 1214, he captured Corfu, also from Venice, and moved northwards to conquer Krüje and Shkodra in northern Albania.  After Mikhael was murdered in [1215], his legitimate half-brother Theodoros seized Epirus and exiled Mikhael´s young son, Mikhael.  Mikhael [II] returned to Epirus after Bulgaria defeated Theodoros in 1230 and established himself as Lord of Epirus at Arta in [1231].  He was awarded the title despot, probably by his uncle Manuel titular emperor of Thessaloniki, in the 1230s.  Numerous secondary sources thereafter refer to the “despotate” of Epirus, which appears inappropriate given that “despot” was a title bestowed on a person not in relation to the territory ruled by that person.  By 1236 Mikhael [II] had expanded his authority over the whole of Epirus and Corfu, and when his uncle died in 1241 occupied the latter's territories in Thessaly.  Although Mikhael [II] lost much of his Albanian and Macedonian territories, including Durazzo, to Emperor Ioannes III Batatzes in the 1250s, he expelled the Nikaians by 1260.  When Mikhael [II] died, his lands were divided between his son Nikephoros (who inherited Epirus) and his illegitimate son Ioannes (who took Thessaly). 

 

After the death in 1318 of Thomas Lord of Epirus, his widow married Nikolaos Orsini Count of Kefalonia who took control of Epirus which passed to Ioannes, brother of Nikolaos, (see Part B).  The descendants of Ioannes ruled Epirus until the late 1350s, after the territory was controlled by the various Albanian families which are set out in Chapter 3 of the present document. 

 

A.      LORDS of EPIRUS (ANGELOS) 1215-1318

 

 

IOANNES Doukas Angelos, son of KONSTANTINOS Angelos & his wife Theodora Komnene ([1120/30]-[1200]).  His birth date is estimated from the estimated marriage date of his parents, which means that he must have already been an old man when appointed sébastokrator in 1186.  The record of the synod of 2 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...patruele...regis nato ex...patruo...regis, pansebasto...domino Constantino Angelo, domino...Joanne Duca; fratre eiusdem...nepote...regis domino Andronico Duca...[6].  The record of the synod of 1166 records the presence of “...patruelibus...nostri regis filiis...patrui...eius pansebasti...domini Constantini Angeli, domino Joanne, domino Alexio, domino Andronico, domino Isaacio...[7]Niketas Choniates names "Angeli Constantini duo filii Iohannes et Andronicus...Macroducas Constantinus et Lapartas Andronicus" among those who witnessed the defeat at Myriokephalon, dated to 17 Sep 1176[8].  The record of the synod in Sep 1191 records “Jean Doukas sebastocrator...”, identified by Stiernon as the son of Konstantinos Angelos and his wife Theodora Komnene[9]He claimed the imperial throne in 1199.  Governor of Epirus and Thessaly[10]

m ---.  The name of Ioannes's wife is not known.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[11], Ioannes married twice, both his wives possibly being named Zoe.  The source for Ioannes's wife being named Zoe goes back to an author in 1643 but no further[12].  The speculation concerning his two marriages may result from the apparent chronological anomaly of his son Theodoros being born when his father must have been in his fifties or sixties.  Sturdza shows only one marriage, to Zoe Doukas, daughter of Konstantinos Doukas Makrodoukas & his wife Anna Komnene[13], but there appears to be no proof that this person ever existed.  If Ioannes was married twice, and if the marriage to Zoe Doukas is correct and her parentage as stated by Sturdza, it is likely that she was his second wife and mother of Theodoros as her own mother would have been born in [1134/44].  There remains the anomaly of the estimated birth date of Ioannes's son Theodoros, which does indeed suggest that Ioannes may have been married twice. 

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Ioannes's mistress is not known. 

Ioannes Doukas Angelos & his wife had [eight] children:

1.         ISAAKIOS Komnenos Doukas (-killed in battle Constantinople 1203).  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Johannem sebastocratorem patruum suum [Isaacii imperatoris]…filio suo" and "Brana…filiam"[14].  The primary source which confirms his name has not yet been identified.   m ([1187]) EVDOKIA Komnene Branaina, daughter of ALEXIOS Branas, anti-Emperor & his wife Anna Komnene Batatzaina.  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Johannem sebastocratorem patruum suum [Isaacii imperatoris]…filio suo" and "Brana…filiam"[15].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  

2.         ALEXIOS Komnenos Doukas (-1183 or after).  Blinded 1183.  Two seals dated to [late 12th/early 13th century] name "Alexios Komnenos son of the sebastokrator Ioannes"[16]

3.         THEODOROS Komnenos Doukas Angelos ([1180]-in prison in Nikaia shortly after 1253).  Georgius Akropolites states that "Michaeli…quem Epire imperasse" had "tres…fratres, Constantinus, Theodorus and Manuel", that Theodoros lived with Theodoros Lascaris Emperor in Nikaia, and that he succeeded in Epirus after the murder of his half-brother Mikhael[17].  Twin with his sister ---.  If his birth date is correct as shown here, it is likely that he was considerably younger than his brothers Isaakios and Alexios, which suggests that he may have been born from a later marriage.  Nicetas reports that, immediately after the flight of Emperor Alexios V Doukas Murzuphlos and before the arrival of the crusading army (presumably 13 Apr 1204), there were two candidates for emperor "a pair of young men … Doukas and Laskaris and the name of both was that of the champion [αρχηγός] of the faith".  The latter expression has been interpreted as referring to "Konstantinos", which would indicate that Konstantinos Laskaris rather than his brother Theodoros was chosen, although another otherwise less reliable manuscript refers to the first name "Theodoros"[18].  The only "Konstantinos Doukas" at the time appears to have been Theodoros's brother, but it is unclear why a younger brother should have been proposed as candidate for the throne.  Despite the interpretation referred to above, it appears more probable that Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos was one of the chosen candidates and Theodoros Laskaris the other.  Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos fled to Nikaia after the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, but went to Epirus to help his illegitimate half-brother in 1205[19].  Theodoros succeeded Leon Sgouros as Lord of Corinth, Navplion and Argos in 1208[20].  He was guardian for his nephew Mikhael, after the death of his illegitimate half-brother in 1215, but banished him to Peloponnesos and installed himself as Lord of Epirus.  He made peace with Serbia in [1216], confirmed by his brother's marriage to the sister of Grand Župan Stefan and, later, by his own daughter's marriage to Stefan's son Radoslav[21].  In 1216, he captured Pierre de Courtenay, recently crowned by the Pope as emperor of Constantinople, who was passing through Epirus on his way to Constantinople having been persuaded by the Venetians to help them recapture Durazzo[22].  Between 1215 and 1217, Theodoros conquered most of Macedonia, and then pressed into Thessaly.  He attacked the Latin kingdom of Thessaloniki, which had been weakened after many of its knights had returned to the west, and entered the city in Dec 1224[23], declaring himself despot and autokrator in the kingdom of Thessaloniki.  He was crowned THEODOROS I Emperor of the Romans at Arta in [1225] by Demetrios Bishop of Ohrid, in direct challenge to the right of the emperors of Nikaia to assume the imperial mantle of Byzantium. 

-        THESSALONIKI

4.         daughter ([1180]-).  Twin with her brother Theodoros.  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

5.         KONSTANTINOS Komnenos Doukas Angelos (-after 1242).  Georgius Akropolites states that "Michaeli…quem Epire imperasse" had "tres…fratres, Constantinus, Theodorus and Manuel"[24].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[25], he claimed the Byzantine throne 12 Apr 1204.  However, as pointed out above under his brother Theodoros, the validity of this statement appears to depend on an interpretation of an unclear statement in Niketas Choniates and is unlikely to be correct.  Konstantinos was awarded the title despot by his brother after the latter's coronation as emperor in [1225][26].  He was installed by his brother as Governor of Aetolia and Acarmania in 1227/28[27]

6.         MANUEL Angelos Doukas Komnenos (-1241).  Georgius Akropolites states that "Michaeli…quem Epire imperasse" had "tres…fratres, Constantinus, Theodorus and Manuel"[28].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Theodorus Thessalonice rex cecatus…frater eius Manuel" when recording his flight in 1235 to "dominum Gaufridum" [Prince of Achaia][29].  Lord of Pharsale, Larissa and Platámona.  Manuel was awarded the title despot by his brother after the latter's coronation as emperor in [1225][30].  After his brother Theodoros was captured by the Bulgarians at Klokotniça in Apr 1230, Manuel succeeded as regent of the kingdom of Thessaloniki, but was controlled by his father-in-law Tsar Ivan Asen[31].  Manuel assumed the title Emperor in Thessaloniki, although his territory was by then confined to the town of Thessaloniki itself[32].  His brother Theodoros deposed Manuel after being released from Bulgaria in 1237, and installed his own son in his place.  Manuel escaped to Nikaia to seek help for his restoration.  He returned to Greece in 1239, landed in Thessaly and conquered Larissa.  He reached a settlement with his brother Theodoros, who accepted him as Lord of Thessaly[33]m firstly ([1216]) EFIMIJA of Serbia, daughter of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana ---  (-[1216/25]).  This marriage was arranged as part of the settlement of Epirus's war with Serbia[34]m secondly ([1225], repudiated [1238]) MARIJA of Bulgaria, daughter of IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Anna --- (before 1221-).  Georgius Akropolites records that "rege Ioanne Asane…filia Maria ex pellice" married "Theodorus Comnenus…fratri suo Manueli"[35]Ephræmius records the marriage of "Asane Ioanne…Mariam…notham filiam" and "Manueli"[36].  This marriage was arranged as part of the alliance with the Bulgarians agreed by Manuel's brother Theodoros[37].  Georgius Akropolites records that "fratrem Manuelem" sent back "coniugem ad Asanam patrem", dated from the context to after her father's third marriage[38]

7.         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   It is not known whether this daughter was legitimate or illegitimate, but the chronology of her descendants is consistent with her having been born around the same time as her brother Theodoros.  m --- Kantakouzenos, son of ---. 

8.         [ANNA Komnene.  The name of Count Maio [II]'s wife is attested as Anna.  An unnamed count of Kefalonia is described as "sororius" of Theodoros Angelos, Emperor at Thessaloniki, but it is not known whether this refers to Maio [II][39].  If it does, his wife may have been the daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos.  This is the solution proposed by Sturdza[40], who says that her brother Theodoros gave her husband Corfu as dowry on his marriage.  However, if it is correct that the marriage took place shortly before 1228, there appear to be chronological difficulties with this proposed parentage.  Europäische Stammtafeln[41] suggests that Theodora, daughter of Mikhael [I] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus was the same person as Anna, wife of Count Maio [II].  The basis for this speculation is not known, although it would appear to be more acceptable from a chronological point of view.  It is always possible that "sororius" is an error in the source referred to above.  Another possibility is that the Count of Kefalonia in question was Maio [I] and that the daughter of Ioannes Angelos was his [first/second] wife who is unrecorded elsewhere.  If this is correct, there would be no basis for stating that her name was Anna.  m (before 1228) MAIO [II] Orsini Count of Kefalonia, son of [MAIO Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his wife --- Margaritone] (-[1259/64]).] 

Ioannes Doukas Angelos had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

9.          MIKHAEL Angelos (-murdered Berat [1215])Niketas Choniates names "Michael…Iohannis sebastocratoris nothus filius" when recording that Emperor Alexios III sent him as missus to "Mylassenæ province"[42].  Lord of Epirus

-        see below

 

 

MIKHAEL Angelos, illegitimate son of IOANNES Doukas Angelos & his mistress --- (-murdered Berat [1215]).  Niketas Choniates names "Michael…Iohannis sebastocratoris nothus filius" when recording that Emperor Alexios III sent him as missus to "Mylassenæ province"[43].  The Historia de Expeditione Friderici records that Emperor Isaakios II sent “domnum Michaelem filium patrui sui sevostratoris Ioannis Duca et domnum Michaelem filium alterius patrui eius domni Alexii Angeli et Manuel consobrinum imperii eius filium stratovasilum et domnum Alexium filium consobrini eius protostratoris Manuel Camizi et tertium Manuel sevaston Monomachii filium Uriennii Ioseph et pansevaston acolithon Eumathium Philocalim” as hostages to Emperor Friedrich I, dated to Feb 1190[44].  During his early career he served different masters depending on who was in the ascendant.  He served Emperor Alexios III, who created him sébastos, dux and anagraphaos at Mylasa and Melanudion, until 1195 and from 1201.  After attempting rebellion against the emperor, Mikhael defected to the Seljuk Sultan by whom he was appointed governor in the regions of the Meander[45].  An act dated Jan [1204] names “o theios tis...basileias...o Komnenos Mikhael o Doukas, tin doukikin arkhin tou thematou Molassis kai Melanoudiou[46].  Mikhael joined Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, newly installed as king of Thessaloniki, in the latter's conquest of Thessaly in 1204.  According to the Chronicle of Geoffrey of Villehardouin, a "Greek named Michaelis who had come from Constantinople with the marquis" married "the daughter of a wealthy Greek who held his land from the emperor" at Arta, and "after seizing that land for himself, began to make war on the marquis"[47].  According to the life of St Theodora Petraliphina of Arta, written at the end of the 13th century, Mikhael helped suppress the rebellion in the theme of Nikopolis against its Governor Senacherim and, after the latter's murder, married his widow as his second wife[48].  Whichever version is correct, Mikhael obtained the government of territories in Epirus and expanded his control northwards to the outskirts of Durazzo and southwards to Naupaktos on the Gulf of Corinth, establishing himself as Lord of Epirus.  According to Fine, no contemporary sources indicate that Mikhael was installed as despot (a title which was granted by an emperor)[49].  He added "Komnenos" and "Doukas" to his name to increase his authority[50].  He was opposed by Venice which had been assigned Epirus under the treaty agreed with the crusading armies in March 1204 before the capture of Constantinople, but sought protection from the papacy in 1207, declaring himself willing to discuss church union[51].  He made a treaty with the Latin Empire of Constantinople in 1209, sealed by the marriage of his oldest daughter, although this did not prevent Mikhael from attacking Thessaloniki in 1210 for which he was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.  He was forced to retreat by Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople.  On 20 Jun 1210, Mikhael concluded an alliance with Venice, recognising Venetian overlordship and granting the Venetians the right to free trade in Epirus.  He invaded Thessaly in 1212, capturing Larissa.  In 1213, Mikhael captured Durazzo from Venice in violation of his alliance.  In 1214, he captured Corfu, also from Venice, and moved northwards to conquer Krüje and Shkodra in northern Albania.  He was on campaign against Serbia in northern Albania when he was murdered by a servant[52]

m firstly --- Melissene, daughter of --- Melissenos.  This marriage is recorded in the life of St Theodora Petraliphina of Arta, written at the end of the 13th century[53]

m secondly (1204) as her second husband, his first wife's cousin, --- Melissene, widow of SENACHERIM strategos of the theme of Nikopolis, daughter of --- Melissenos & his wife ---.  This second marriage is recorded in the life of St Theodora Petraliphina of Arta, written at the end of the 13th century[54].  According to the Chronicle of Geoffrey of Villehardouin, a "Greek named Michaelis who had come from Constantinople with the marquis" married "the daughter of a wealthy Greek who held his land from the emperor" at Arta, and "after seizing that land for himself, began to make war on the marquis"[55].  From the context, this marriage must be dated to mid-1204 and so presumably refers to Mikhael's second marriage.  The primary source which identifies her relationship with her second husband's first wife and names her first husband has not yet been identified. 

Mistress (1): (before 1205) ---.  The name of Ioannes's mistress is not known.  She was banished to Peloponnesos with her son by the latter's half-brother Theodoros[56]

Mikhael Komnenos Doukas Angelos & his [first] wife had one child:

1.         daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage, to the younger brother of the late Baudouin I Latin Emperor of Constantinople, was arranged by her father to seal his alliance with the Latin Empire[57].  It is assumed that she was the daughter of Mikhael's first marriage in view of the date of her betrothal, although it is not impossible that she was still an infant at the time.  m (betrothed [Jun/Jul] 1209) EUSTACHE de Flandre, son of BAUDOUIN V Comte de Hainaut [BAUDOUIN VIII Count of Flanders] & his wife Marguerite I Ctss of Flanders (-after 1217). 

Mikhael Komnenos Doukas Angelos & his [first/second] wife had one child:

2.         THEODORA Komnene.  Her betrothal is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[58] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified  The betrothal was terminated because of the church's objections[59]Europäische Stammtafeln[60] suggests that Theodora was the same person as Anna Komnene Angelina, possible wife of Maio [II] Count of Kefalonia.  The basis for this speculation is not known.  As noted above, it would be chronologically more acceptable for Maio's wife to have been the daughter of Mikhael [I] Lord of Epirus than his half-sister.  However, the only source as yet identified points the other way.  Betrothed (before 1217) to --- of Serbia, son of STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia.  Her betrothed has not been identified, although he may have been Stefan Radoslav of Serbia, son of Stefan Grand Župan of Serbia & his first wife Evdokia Komnene Angelina ([1191/1201]-after 1235), who succeeded his father in [1224/27] as Radoslav "Krapalo" King of Serbia.  If this is correct, the betrothal would have been agreed at the same time as that of Theodora's sister Maria to Radoslav's father.   

Mikhael Komnenos Doukas Angelos & his second wife had two children:

3.         MARIA Komnene.  Her first betrothal is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[61] but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Georgius Akropolites names "Chabaronem Constantinum" as husband of "Michaele despota…sororis Mariæ", stating that she had previously been married to "viro Sphrantzæ cognomine"[62]Betrothed (before 1217) to STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia, son of STEFAN NEMANJA Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Ana --- (-24 Sep 1227), who in [1217] was crowned STEFAN "Prvovenčani/the First-Crowned" King [Kralj] of Serbiam firstly --- Sphrantzes, son of ---.  m secondly KONSTANTINOS Chabaron, son of ---.  Maria & her [first/second] husband had one child: 

a)         daughter .  Georgius Akropolites records that "Michael despota" send legates to the emperor "Xerum metropolitam Naupacti, Maliassenum sororis suæ generum, et Lampetem"[63]m --- Melissenos, son of ---. 

4.         KONSTANTINOS Komnenos (-before 1214).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

Mikhael Komnenos Doukas Angelos had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

5.          KONSTANTINOS Komnenos Doukas Angelos ([1205]-[1267/68]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He was known as MIKHAEL after the death of his father.  Lord of Epirus

-        see below

 

 

MIKHAEL [KONSTANTINOS] Komnenos Doukas Angelos, illegitimate son of MIKHAEL Komnenos Doukas [Angelos] Lord of Epirus & his mistress --- ([1205]-[1267/68]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Baptised as KONSTANTINOS, he was known as MIKHAEL after the death of his father, whom he succeeded in [1215] as Lord of Epirus, under the guardianship of his uncle Theodoros who exiled him with his mother to Peloponnesos and seized the lordship[64].  He returned to Epirus after Bulgaria defeated Theodoros at Klokotniça in 1230, and installed himself at Arta as Lord of Epirus in [1231][65].  He was awarded the title despot, probably by his uncle Manuel titular emperor of Thessaloniki, in the 1230s.  By 1236 he had expanded his authority over the whole of Epirus, as well as Corfu, acting as an independent prince free from the control of his uncle[66].  On the death of his uncle Manuel in 1241, he occupied the latter's territories in Thessaly[67].  He concluded a treaty with Emperor Ioannes III Batatzes, sealed by his son's betrothal to the emperor's granddaughter, but broke the treaty and attacked Thessaloniki in 1251.  He made peace in 1253, losing much of his Albanian and Macedonian territories, although his title of despot was confirmed[68].  Forced to surrender Durazzo to Nikaia in 1256 in order to secure the release of his wife, he was held hostage after attending their son's marriage.  Mikhael launched a military campaign to regain his lost Albanian and Macedonian lands.  He halted his attack on Thessaloniki after Manfredo King of Sicily occupied Corfu, Durazzo and other Albanian towns, but made peace with King Manfredo in return for support against Nikaia, the alliance being confirmed by the king's marriage to Mikhael's daughter Helena, whose dowry consisted of the territories which Manfredo had already conquered[69].  Allied with King Manfredo and Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, he attacked Nikaia in 1259 but was defeated in the valley of Pelagonia in Autumn 1259, largely due to disunity among the allies[70].  Nikaia overran Epirus, but Mikhael regrouped with his illegitimate son Ioannes and expelled the Nikaians by 1260[71].  Mikhael rebelled again in 1264, but was obliged to swear allegiance to Emperor Mikhael VIII, confirmed by the marriage of his son Nikephoros to the emperor's niece.  On his death, Mikhael's lands were divided between his son Nikephoros (who inherited Epirus) and his illegitimate son Ioannes (who took Thessaly)[72]

m ([1230], repudiated Easter [1252/56]) THEODORA Doukaina Petraloiphaina Basilissa, daughter of IOANNES Petraloiphas & his wife Helena --- (bur Arta).  Ephræmius names "Theodora Michaelis coniux" when recording that she attended the marriage of her son Nikephoros[73].  Her parentage is indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Petraliphas…uxoris Michaelis frater"[74].  She was banished by her husband in favour of his mistress, but was later restored to favour[75].  After attending her son's marriage to the daughter of Theodoros II Emperor in Nikaia in 1256, she was held hostage and only released after her husband surrendered Durazzo to Nikaia[76].  She became a nun, known as Holy Theodora of Arta, and was the subject of a hagiography by the 13th century monk Job (Melias Iasites)[77]

Mistress (1): GANGRENE, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her relationship with Mikhael has not yet been identified.  

Mistress (2): ([1252/56]) ---.  Mikhael's mistress for whom he exiled in his wife in [1252/56][78].  Her name is not known.  However, it is clear that she was a different person from the mother of his three illegitimate children shown below, who must have been born much earlier than the date Mikhael repudiated his wife. 

Mikhael [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos & his wife had six children:

1.         EVDOKIA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

2.         IOANNES Doukas (-[1281/89]).  Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ" had three legitimate sons, of whom "Ioannes" was "in the hands and power of the emperor"[79].  Imprisoned and blinded in 1280.  He committed suicide.  m ([1262]) --- Tornikaine, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Komnenos Tornikios sébastokrator and Kephale of Thessaloniki, son of ---.  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Tornicii filiam secundogenitam" and "Ioanni filio despotæ Occidentis"[80].  The same source confirms this information in a later passage when it records that "Michaeli…despotæ…filii…quorum Ioannes" became "generum…sebastocratoris Tornicii"[81]

3.         NIKEPHOROS Doukas Komnenos ([1240]-[3 Sep 1296/25 Jul 1298])Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ" had three legitimate sons, of whom "Nicephorus et Demetrius"[82].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Epirus in [1267/68].   

-        see below

4.         DEMETRIOS Doukas Komnenos Angelos (-after 13 Mar 1304)Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ" had three legitimate sons, of whom "Nicephorus et Demetrius"[83].  He adopted the name MIKHAEL, and was known as "Kutrules" after the death of his father.  Emperor Mikhael VIII, hoping to use Mikhael against his brother Nikephoros, allied himself with Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], awarded Mikhael the title despot in 1278 and married him to his daughter[84].  Pachymeres records that "Michaelis despotæ" was accused of treason and imprisoned, dated to 13 Mar 1304[85]m firstly (Dispensation Nov 1278) ANNA Komnene Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (1260-[1299/1300]).  Ioannes Kantakuzenus records that "Michaeli duci" married "Annam sororem Andronici senioris"[86].  A synodal decision dated Nov 1278 granted dispensation for the marriage “résultant de leur sixième degré d´affinité[87]m secondly (1301) as her second husband, ANA of Bulgaria, repudiated wife of STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia, daughter of GEORGI I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Maria ---.  Pachymeres records that "Sphentisthlabus Bulgarorum" arranged the marriage of "repudiatæ a crale Serbiæ suæ sororis, Terteris filiæ" and "Michaelem despotam"[88].  Mikhael "Kutrules" & his first wife had [three] children:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Angelos (-Prilep [1326/28]).  Ioannes Kantakuzenus names "Annam sororem Andronici senioris" as the mother of "Andronicum Palaeologum protovestiarium"[89].  Hegemon of Stenimachos and Tsepaina 1321.  Protobestiarios and Archon of Belgrade 1326.  Military governor/strategos for Emperor Andronikos II, he fled to Serbia.  m --- Kokala, daughter of GEORGIOS Kokalas & his wife ---.  Andronikos Angelos & his wife had two children:

i)          ANNA Palaiologina Angelina (-after 1355).  Ioannes Kantakuzenus names "Annæ…filiæ protovestiarii" as the wife of "Ioannis despotæ"[90].  Nicephoras Gregoras names "Anna" as wife of "Ioannes…Angelus…Cephalonum comitis"[91].  She poisoned her first husband, becoming regent of Epirus in 1335/1339 and 1341-1342.  She was imprisoned in Constantinople 1342/49.  The Historia Epiri records that "mater…Thomaidis…eiusque fratris…Anna regina nostra" married "cuidam ex Bulgaris, Comneno tyranno, fratri regis Stephani", adding that he ruled "Caninam et Belgradam"[92]m firstly ([1328]) IOANNES II Doukas Komnenos Angelos Orsini ex-Count of Kefalonia, Archon of Epirus, despot, son of GIOVANNI Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his wife Maria Komnene Doukaina Angelina (-murdered Arta 1335).  m secondly (before 1355) IVAN Asen Komnenos of Bulgaria, Serbian Governor of Valona, Kanina and Berat, son of STRACIMIR despot & his wife Kereza Petriza of Vidin (-before 13 May 1363).

ii)         daughter .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m IOANNES Angelos, son of --- (-[1348/50]).  Pinkernes.  Kephale of Kastoria, Epirus and Megalovlachia. 

b)         KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos [Angelos] (-after 1345).  Kantakuzenus names "Constantino Palaeologo, Michaelis ducis despotæ filio", in a passage dated to [1342][93]Protosébastos.  Kephale of Megavlachia 1342.  Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Constantinus...Palaeologus, Andronici imperatoris patruus et Demetrius Zamplaco magnus stratopedarcha eius gener" supported Byzantium in the conflict with "factioni Triballicæ”, dated to 1345[94]m ---.  The name of Konstantinos's wife is not known.  Konstantinos Palaiologos & his wife had [four] children:

i)          EVDOKIA Palaiologina (-after 1366/67).  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Ioannes Kantakouzenos who records that "Constantinus...Palaeologus, Andronici imperatoris patruus et Demetrius Zamplaco magnus stratopedarcha eius gener" supported Byzantium in the conflict with "factioni Triballicæ”, dated to 1345[95], confirmed by the testament of Demetrios Tsamplakon which records that “o pentherós mou kyr Konstantinos o Palaiologos” had granted him land at Serres as dowry with his wife[96].  Demetrios Tsamplakon megas stratopedarches donated property to Vatopedi, naming his wife Evdokia, by charter dated 1362[97]m DEMETRIOS Tsamplakon, son of ALEXIOS Tsamplakon megas papias & his wife --- (-after 1366/67).  Megas stratopedarches: Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Constantinus...Palaeologus, Andronici imperatoris patruus et Demetrius Zamplaco magnus stratopedarcha eius gener" supported Byzantium in the conflict with "factioni Triballicæ”, dated to 1345[98].  Demetrios Tsamplakon, in his testament dated 1366/67, names his wife, records that “o pentherós mou kyr Konstantinos o Palaiologos” had granted him land at Serres as dowry with his wife, and refers to his unnamed son and unnamed daughter, wife of Nikephoros Laskaris[99].  Their descendants were the family of Palaiologos-Tsamplakones. 

ii)         ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos (-drowned Jul 1344).  His parentage is confirmed by Kantakuzenus who names "Apocauchum" as "Constantinus Palaeologos, filii sui Andronici socerum"[100]ProtostratorMegas stratopedarchos.  Kantakuzenus records that "Andronicus Palaiologos, Apocauchi gener" was designated "magnus stratopedarcha" following the coronation of Emperor Ioannes V in 1341[101]Protostrator: Ioannes Kantakouzenos records that "Apocauchus" appointed "Andronico Palaeologo protostratore genero suo" to defend “Dydimotichum”, dated to [1343][102].  Nicephoras Gregoras names "Andronico Paleologo, qui Apocauci gener erat", when recording that he drowned [in 1344][103].  A short chronicle records the drowning “au mois de juillet” [1344] of “o gambros tou megalou doukos o protostrator” in “ton potamov tou Didymoteichou[104]m ([1341]) as her first husband, --- Apokavke, daughter of ALEXIOS Apokavkos megas dux & his first wife ---.  Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by Nicephoras Gregoras who names "Andronico Paleologo, qui Apocauci gener erat", when recording that he drowned [in 1344][105].  She married secondly Ioannes Asanes [Bulgaria].  Nicephoras Gregoras records the second marriage of "Alexii Apocauci filiam…Andronico Palaeologo antehac nuptam" and "Irenem imperatricis [frater]…Ioannes"[106].  Andronikos & his wife had one child: 

(a)       ALEXIOS Palaiologos ([1342/43]-died in battle before Dec 1376).  Theodora Palaiologina Philanthropena “theia de l´empereur”, acting “en qualité de curatrice [epitropos] des enfants de son neveu Alexios Palaiologos, mort récemment au combat, qu´elle avait élevé comme son propre fils, car le père d´Alexios, le frère de Theodora, était décédé jeune”, donated the village of “Saint-Georges dit Mperzitzikon, situé près de Serrès”, which Alexios had received “de son grand-père, le père de Theodora, dit aussi pappos de l´empereur régnant”, to the monastery of Philotheou by charter dated Dec 1376[107]m ---.  Alexios & his wife had children: 

(1)       children .  Theodora Palaiologina Philanthropena “theia de l´empereur”, acting “en qualité de curatrice [epitropos] des enfants de son neveu Alexios Palaiologos, mort récemment au combat, qu´elle avait élevé comme son propre fils, car le père d´Alexios, le frère de Theodora, était décédé jeune”, donated the village of “Saint-Georges dit Mperzitzikon, situé près de Serrès”, which Alexios had received “de son grand-père, le père de Theodora, dit aussi pappos de l´empereur régnant”, to the monastery of Philotheou by charter dated Dec 1376[108]

iii)        THEODORA Palaiologina (-after Dec 1376).  Theodora Palaiologina Philanthropena “theia de l´empereur”, acting “en qualité de curatrice [epitropos] des enfants de son neveu Alexios Palaiologos, mort récemment au combat, qu´elle avait élevé comme son propre fils, car le père d´Alexios, le frère de Theodora, était décédé jeune”, donated the village of “Saint-Georges dit Mperzitzikon, situé près de Serrès”, which Alexios had received “de son grand-père, le père de Theodora, dit aussi pappos de l´empereur régnant” [Andronikos IV], to the monastery of Philotheou by charter dated Dec 1376, signed by “Mikhael Astras, Theodoros Kantakouzenos, Georgios Gabrielopoulos, Doukas Malesenos, Andronikos Tarchaneiotes Ap---das, Andronikos Oinaiotes, Komnenos Branas[109].  Estangüi Gómez discusses the extended family relationships which are indicated by the terms “theia” (strictly, aunt) and “pappos” (strictly, grandfather or ancestor) as used in this document, illustrated by similar examples found in other contemporary documentation[110]m --- Philanthropenos, son of ---.  Estangüi Gómez states that, while her name indicates that Theodora married “un membre de la famille Philanthropenos”, his identification “demeure incertaine”, although he notes a suggestion that he was megas stratopedarches Mikhael Philanthropenos, son of ---, who is recorded as “exadelphos de l´empereur Jean V et propriétaire foncier dans la région de Thessalonique en décembre 1350” which could provide an alternative explanation for Theodora being described as “theia” of Emperor Andronikos IV[111].  Estangüi Gómez also comments that her husband “ait pu appartenir à la branche des Philanthropenoi kaisares de Thessalie”, naming “Alexios Angelos Philanthropenos [1378-1389]” and “Manoul Angelos Philanthropenos [1392-1394]” although he states that neither of these individuals was recorded as claiming a family relationship with the imperial family[112]

iv)       [ANNA Palaiologina (-after Jan 1400).  A synodal decision dated Jan 1400 restored to Anna Palaiologina “theia de l´empereur” her dower which “ses fils les Palaiologi” had claimed as property of “leur père défunt Komnenos Branas”, and referring to property which her husband had granted to “Astras” who had married their eldest daughter[113].  Estangüi Gómez comments that “la confrontation entre l´acte de 1376 [see below under Anna´s husband] et ce document patriarcal...rend très probable que cette Anna ait été une parente proche de Théodora [Palaiologina Philanthropena]” her dower which “ses fils les Palaiologi” had claimed as property of “leur père défunt Komnenos Branas” and in a genealogical table shows her as the possible sister of Theodora´s nephew, Alexios Palaiologos[114].  However, Anna´s son-in-law Mikhael Astras also signed the charter dated Dec 1376, suggesting that he was already a member of Theodora´s family before that date.  If that is correct, from a chronological point of view his wife is unlikely to have been the niece of Alexios Palaiologos, whose birth is dated to [1342/43].  It is more likely, therefore, that Anna was Theodora´s younger sister: the reference to both as “theia” of the emperor also suggests that they bore the same family relationship to him.  Estangüi Gómez discusses the possible origin of Anna´s husband and provides some details of the couple´s children[115]m KOMNENOS Branas, son of ---.  “Mikhael Astras, Theodoros Kantakouzenos, Georgios Gabrielopoulos, Doukas Malesenos, Andronikos Tarchaneiotes Ap---das, Andronikos Oinaiotes, Komnenos Branas” signed the charter dated Dec 1376 under which Theodora Palaiologina Philanthropena “theia de l´empereur” donated property to the monastery of Philotheou[116].] 

c)         [daughter .  Alexios Raul's wife is recorded as the daughter of "Despot Mikhael Angelos".  It appears more likely from a chronological point of view that she was the daughter of Mikhael "Kutrules", although she would presumably have been very young at the time of the marriage.  It is improbable that she was the daughter of Mikhael [II] Lord of Epirus, whose children would have been born in the range [1235/45].  m as his second wife, ALEXIOS Raul, son of [IOANNES Komnenos Doukas Angelos Petraliphas Raul & his wife Theodora Palaiologina Komnene Kantakouzene] (-1303).] 

5.         HELENA Doukaina Angelina ([1242]-Lucera Jul 1271)Georgius Phrantzes names "Manfredum Siculorum rege et principem Peloponnesi et Achaiæ" as the two sons-in-law of "Aetolorum et Epirotarum despota Michaele"[117].  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Michaelis…filiam Helenam" and "Manfredo Siciliæ regi"[118].  The Historia Sicula of Bartolomeo di Neocastro records that "Manfredum" married "Helenam filiam despoti regis Thessalie" after the death of his first wife[119].  Her marriage was arranged as part of her father's peace treaty with Manfredo King of Sicily in 1258, her dowry of Corfu, Durazzo, Valona and Berat being the territories which King Manfredo had already conquered[120].  The Anonymous Chronicle of Trano records that "filia de lu Despotu d´Epiru…Alena" arrived 2 Jun 1259 at Trani where she married "Re Manfridu"[121].  After her husband's defeat, she was captured trying to escape to Greece and imprisoned at Naples.  She died in prison.  m (betrothed before Feb 1258, Trani 2 Jun 1259) as his second wife, MANFREDO King of Sicily, illegitimate son of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his mistress Bianca Lancia (Venosa 1232-killed in battle Benevento 26 Feb 1266). 

6.         ANNA KomnenoDoukaina (-4 Jan 1286).  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Michaelis…filia sua Anna" and "Achaiæ principe"[122].  Georgius Phrantzes names "Manfredum Siculorum rege et principem Peloponnesi et Achaiæ" as the two sons-in-law of "Aetolorum et Epirotarum despota Michaele"[123].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the marriage of “le prince Guillerme” and “la suer dou despot[124].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "il principe Guglielmo" married "Nicephoro…sorella" and that her dowry was "il castello della Liconia"[125].  She adopted the name AGNES.  After her first husband died, she received the castles of Kalamata and Khlemutsi for life[126].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that, after the death of Prince Guillaume, “la princesses a feme…suer…de Quir Niccifore” married “le baron monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer le veillart, li sires de la moitié d´Estives[127].  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "Nicolaum", son of "Bilas", married "Achayæ principissam"[128]m firstly ([1258]) as his third wife, GUILLAUME II de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, son of GEOFFROY I Prince of Achaia & his wife [Elisabeth de Chappes] (Kalamata Castle after [1208]-Kalamata Castle 1 May 1278, bur Andravida, church of St James).  m secondly (before 1280) as his second wife, NICOLAS II de Saint-Omer joint Lord of Thebes, Bailli of the Principality of Achaia, son of BELA joint Lord of Thebes & his wife Bonne de la Roche-sur-Oignon [Athens] co-heiress of Thebes (-1294). 

Mikhael [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos had three illegitimate children by Mistress (1):

7.          IOANNES Doukas Komnenos Angelos (-before Mar 1289)Pachymeres names "Nicephori frater notus, Ioannes sebastocrator"[129].  Lord of Thessaly. 

-        LORDS of THESSALY

8.          THEODOROS KomnenoDoukas (-killed in battle Verdena [1257/58]).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Teodoro" as "Nicephoro…fratel illegitimo" adding that he was "signor de la Parte, d´Odrich e…della Blachia"[130].  Georgius Akropolites names "Michael despota…filio suo spurio Theodoro" when recording that he led his father's forces against Mikhael Palaiologos (the future Emperor Mikhael VIII), general of Theodoris II Emperor at Nikaia in the area of Thessaloniki, and that he was killed in battle[131]

9.          MANUEL .  Pachymeres names "Michaelis despotæ nothus et obscurus filius Manuel" in a passage dated to the 1260s[132]. 

 

 

NIKEPHOROS Doukas Komnenos, son of MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Theodora Doukaina Petroliphaina Basilissa ([1240]-[3 Sep 1296/25 Jul 1298]).  Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ" had three legitimate sons, of whom "Nicephorus et Demetrius"[133].  He was sent to Nikaia as a hostage by his father in 1252, and awarded the title despot[134].  He led an Epirote army into Thessaly in 1260 and defeated the Nikaian army at Trikorifi, where he captured the Nikaian commander Alexios Strategopolos[135].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Epirus in [1267/68].  He concluded a treaty with Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] in 1276 after the Byzantines captured Butrinti, which Nikephoros believed was his by right, and accepted Sicilian suzerainty over Epirus in 1278[136].  His half-brother Ioannes Lord of Thessaly attacked Epirus in [1284/85] in revenge for the kidnapping of his son, Mikhael, whom Nikephoros and his wife had tricked into visiting Epirus with the promise of marriage to their daughter[137].  Nikephoros was dominated by his second wife, who led the pro-Byzantine party in Epirus[138].  Nevertheless, after the failure of the Byzantine marriage proposal of his daughter Thamar in [1290], Nikephoros declared war on Byzantium[139].  Byzantium attacked Epirus in [1292], occupied much of the north and besieged Jannina, having been angered by negotiations for the marriage of Nikephoros's daughter with the son of Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  The Byzantines were expelled with the help of Florent de Hainaut Prince of Achaia and Riccardo Orsini Count of Kefalonia, the marriage of the latter's son with Nikephoros's daughter being agreed as a reward for his help[140].  Negotiations for the Angevin marriage were concluded in 1294, when Nikephoros accepted Sicilian suzerainty and agreed that his future son-in-law would inherit Epirus in place of his son Thomas[141], although this succession plan appears to have been ignored on Nikephoros's death.  Pachymeres records the death of "despotæ Nicephori, ex familia…Angelis", stating that he left two children[142]

m firstly (betrothed 1249, Thessaloniki [17 Sep/23 Oct] 1256) MARIA Doukaina Laskarina, daughter of THEODOROS II Laskaris [Batatzes] Emperor in Nikaia & his wife Elena Asanina of Bulgaria (-[1258/59]).  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Michaelis…Nicephoro filii sui" and "imperatoris Theodori filiam Mariam"[143]Ephræmius records the marriage of "filius…despotæ [Michaele] Nicephorus" and "Theodoro…imperatoris filio Mariam"[144].  This marriage was arranged as part of the peace treaty concluded with Epirus in 1249, but the ceremony did not take place, due to her future father-in-law's hostilities against Nikaia, until after the latter defeated Bulgaria in 1256 when her father was once more anxious to contain Epirus's ambitions[145].  Georgius Akropolites records that "Mariam" wife of "defectoris Michaelis filio Nicephoro" died around the time of her father's death[146].  Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ…filii…quorum…Nicephorus" was "viduus…nuper mortua ipsius coniuge filia Lascaris Augusti", in a passage dated to [1263/64][147]

m secondly (Autumn 1264) ANNA Palaiologina Kantakouzene, daughter of IOANNES Kantakouzenos & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (-after 1313).  Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…despotæ…filii…quorum…Nicephorus" married "tertiam Eulogiæ natarum Annam", in a passage dated to [1263/64][148].  Pachymeres names "Annæ reginæ [βασίλισσα] consobrinæ suæ [=imperatoris Andronicis]…ex Eulogiæ natæ patris sui sorore"[149].  This marriage was arranged to confirm the peace negotiated between her uncle Emperor Mikhael VIII and her future father-in-law[150].  The leader of the pro-Byzantine party in Epirus, she dominated her husband[151].  Despina of Neopatras [1289].  She became regent of Epirus, for her son Thomas, on the death of her husband and immediately reversed her husband's pro-Latin policy, in particular refusing to implement the transfer of Epirus to her son-in-law Philippe Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet].  Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] was unable to enforce the pact relating to his son's inheritance of Epirus in 1304.  Epirus was subject to continued attacks by the Lords of Thessaly, cousins of her late husband, with whom relations remained bad since the kidnapping of Mikhael of Thessaly in [1283/84].  In 1304, Anna sought support from Emperor Andronikos II, the agreement being confirmed later by the marriage of her son with the emperor's granddaughter[152].  Pachymeres records that "[βασίλισσα] Anna, neptis imperatoris" proposed the marriage of "filii sui Thomæ" and "filia iunioris Augusti Michaelis"[153].  "Domina Anna…Despina Cumnina Duccissa" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[154].  

[Nikephoros & his first wife had one child:]

1.         [daughter (1258-[before 1294]).  There appears to be no evidence for the existence of this person.  An unnamed daughter of Nikephoros & his first wife is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[155], according to which she was later baptised as Catarina and married (presumably as his second wife) Infante don Fadrique de Castilla, son of don Fernando III "el Santo" King of Castile.  Szabolcs de Vajay states that Infante Fadrique's alleged marriage to the daughter of Nikephoros Lord of Epirus "seems apocryphal, perhaps based on a typical speculation by Pellicer", possibly resulting from confusion with her half-sister Katarina née Thamar, wife of Philippe Prince of Tarento[156].  Sturdza does not show a daughter by the first marriage of Nikephoros Lord of Epirus[157].] 

Nikephoros & his second wife had four children:

2.         MARIA Komnene Doukaina .  [She or her sister was offered in marriage in [1283/84] by her parents to her cousin Mikhael, son of Ioannes Lord of Thessaly, who was kidnapped when he arrived in Epirus for the wedding and sent to Constantinople where he later died in prison[158].]  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée refers to “la dame dou conte Jehan” as “le despot…sa fille”, the marriage being dated to [1293] from the context of a later passage[159].  Her marriage was arranged as a reward for her future father-in-law having helped her father expel the Byzantines from Epirus in [1292][160].  It is uncertain whether she was born from her father's first or second marriage.  Polemis, Trapp and other sources indicate that Nikephoros had one daughter by his first marriage and identify her as Maria, citing various Greek sources[161].  If this is correct, the chronology seems unlikely for her 1292 marriage, although it is not impossible.  On the other hand, Nicol suggests that Maria was a daughter by her father's second marriage, which appears more likely.  It is of course possible that there were two daughters named Maria, one by the first marriage who died young and one by the second[162].  “Jehan, comte palatins, sire de Chephalonie et de Jachint” issued a charter dated 7 Apr 1304 relating to his inheritance in which he names “madame Marie Comnene nostre comtesse…et leal espose[163]m ([1293]) GIOVANNI Orsini of Kefalonia, son of RICCARDO Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his first wife --- (-1317).  He succeeded his father in 1304 as Count of Kefalonia

3.         THAMAR Angelina Komnene Doukaina (-1311).  Pachymeres names "impubem Thomam et paulo adultiorem illo puellam Ithamarem" as the two children left by "despotæ Nicephori, ex familia…Angelis" when he died[164].  Pachymeres refers to her mother's proposal to betrothe "sua filia Ithamare" to "Michaeli Augusto iuniori", commenting that it was opposed by the church because of their "sexto consanguinitatis grado"[165].  Nicol dates this to [1290], although Pachymeres comments on this proposal after his report of the death of Thamar's father[166].  Her marriage to the son of Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] was proposed by the anti-Byzantine faction in Epirus, and agreed by her father despite her mother's objections.  Negotiations were finalised after her father agreed to accept Sicilian suzerainty and recognised her future husband as his successor in place of his son Thomas.  Pachymeres refers to the arrangements for the marriage of "filiam" to "Philippe Caroli nepote"[167].  Thamar's dowry consisted of the fortresses of Vonitsa, Vrachova, Angelokastron and Naupaktos[168].  She was forced to renounce her Orthodox religion and adopted the name CATARINA in 1301.  Charged (probably falsely) with adultery with 40 Neapolitan noblemen, she was imprisoned and repudiated by her husband in 1309[169]m (by proxy 12 Jul 1294, in person Aquila, Abruzzi 13 Aug 1294, repudiated 1309) as his first wife, PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento, son of CHARLES II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his wife Maria of Hungary ([1278]-Naples 26 Dec 1332).   

4.         MIKHAEL Doukas Angelos (-before [1296/98]).  Pachymeres names "reginæ Annæ…Michælem…sui filium"[170].  He was a hostage at Naples in 1291.  He presumably died before his father. 

5.         THOMAS Komneno Doukas Angelos ([1288/89]-murdered 1318).  Pachymeres names "impubem Thomam et paulo adultiorem illo puellam Ithamarem" as the two children left by "despotæ Nicephori, ex familia…Angelis" when he died[171].  He was awarded the title despot in [1290][172].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Epirus in [1296/98], under the regency of his mother, despite the plan that his brother-in-law Philippe Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Sicily] would inherit Epirus, which had been agreed during the negotiations for the latter's marriage with Thomas's sister.  Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] attempted to enforce this pact in 1304, but was repulsed[173].  "Ser Thomasius…Despoti Romanie Comninus dux" and "Ser Thomas…Romanie Dispotus, Princeps Blachie, Archang dominus, Dux Vigenitie, comes Achilo et Nepanti ac Regalis Castri Ioannine Dominus" are included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313, both entries presumably referring to the same person[174].  After a dispute with the Byzantine commander in southern Albania, Byzantine forces attacked Epirus in 1315, raiding as far as Arta, and Thomas was declared a rebel by Emperor Andronikos II.  He turned to Philippe di Tarento for help, but was murdered shortly after by his nephew Niccoló Orsini Count of Kefalonia who thereupon assumed power in Epirus and married Thomas's widow[175]m ([1307]) as her first husband, ANNA Palaiologina, daughter of co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX & his wife Rita [Maria] of Armenia (-1321).  Pachymeres records that "[βασίλισσα] Anna, neptis imperatoris" proposed the marriage of "filii sui Thomæ" and "filia iunioris Augusti Michaelis"[176].  Ioannes Kantakuzenus records the marriage of "Michael imperator…Annam filiarum alteram" and "Thomæ despotæ, Nicephori despotæ filio"[177].  Her marriage was arranged as part of the agreement reached in 1304 under which Emperor Andronikos II promised support for Epirus against Thessaly[178].  She married, as her second husband, Nikolaos Angelos Komnenos Orsini Count of Kefalonia, the murderer of her first husband, who took control of Epirus after he murdered her first husband. 

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas Angelos (-before 17 Aug 1304).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[179], he was the same person as Mikhael, son of Nikephoros Doukas Komnenos Lord of Epirus, but the basis for this is not known.  It is not known how he was related to the previous family, if at all.  Pansébastos sébastosm firstly ---, daughter of --- Pharmakes sébastos & his wife ---.  m secondly MARIA Spartena, daughter of DEMETRIOS Spartenos & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of EPIRUS (ORSINI) 1318-1358

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         NIKOLAOS Orsini, son of GIOVANNI Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his wife Maria Komnene Doukaina Angelina (-murdered 1323).  He succeeded his father in 1317 as Count of Kefalonia.  He murdered his maternal uncle Thomas Lord of Epirus in 1318, married the latter's widow, and installed himself as Lord of Epirus with his capital at Arta.  He converted to the Greek Orthodox religion, was created despot by Byzantium, and styled himself "Count Palatine, Despot of Romania".  Anxious to wrest control from the Byzantines, he submitted himself to Venetian suzerainty and attacked the Greek-held city of Ianina[180].  He was murdered by his brother.  m ([1318/19]) as her second husband, ANNA Palaiologina, widow of THOMAS Komnenodoukas Angelos Lord of Epirus, daughter of co-Emperor MIKHAEL IX & his wife Maria [Rita] of Armenia (-1321). 

2.         IOANNES Orsini (-murdered Arta 1335).  After murdering his brother in 1323, he succeeded as Lord of Epirus and Count of Kefalonia, converted to the Greek Orthodox religion and adopted the names "Angelos Komnenos Doukas"[181].  He was deposed as Count of Kefalonia in 1325 by Jean Conte di Gravina [Anjou-Capet] who stopped in the island to enforce his suzerainty on his way to Morea to claim the principality of Achaia[182].  Lord of Janina until 1328.  He accepted Byzantine suzerainty over Epirus in 1328, and was granted the title Despot[183].  Lord of Bonditza and Leukas until 1331.  He converted to the Greek Orthodox religion.  He was poisoned by his wife[184]m (1328) as her first husband, ANNA Palaiologina Angelina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos Angelos & his wife --- Kokala (-after 1355).  Ioannes Kantakuzenus names "Annæ…filiæ protovestiarii" as the wife of "Ioannis despotæ"[185].  Nicephoras Gregoras names "Anna" as wife of "Ioannes…Angelus…Cephalonum comitis"[186].  She became regent of Epirus for her son in 1335 after poisoning her husband.  She was expelled from Epirus with her son in 1339 by Emperor Andronikos III, who reasserted Byzantine control over the territory[187].  She was in prison in Constantinople 1342-1349.  She married secondly (1355) Ioannes Komnenos Asen of Bulgaria, Serbian despot and Governor of Valona, Kanina and Berat.  The Historia Epiri records that "mater…Thomaidis…eiusque fratris…Anna regina nostra" married "cuidam ex Bulgaris, Comneno tyranno, fratri regis Stephani", adding that he ruled "Caninam et Belgradam"[188].  Ioannes & his wife had three children: 

a)         NIKEPHOROS [II] Doukas ([1328/29]-murdered summer 1359).  Ioannes Kantakuzenus names "Nicephoro" as the son of "Ioannis despotæ" & his wife, stating that he was seven years old, in a passage dated to [1336][189].  He succeeded his father in 1335 as Lord of Epirus and titular Count of Kefalonia.  He was expelled from Epirus in 1339 and awarded the title panhypersébastos, but was restored in 1341 and awarded the title despot by Ioannes Kantakouzenos whom he supported in the Byzantine civil war[190].  Byzantine Governor of Ainos and the towns on the Hellespont 1351/55.  He invaded Thessaly in 1355, on the death of Preliub the Serbian nominee ruler.  The Historia Epiri records that "Nicephorus dominus, frater reginæ" expelled his brother-in-law from Epirus [in 1355][191].  He crossed into Akarnania from where he expelled the Serbian ruler, his brother-in-law Symeon Uroš, and re-established himself in Epirus.  The Albanians of Epirus rebelled against him in 1358 after Nikephoros repudiated his wife.  Nikephoros was defeated at the battle of Acheloos in 1358[192].  Archon of Epirus, and Etolia in Trikkala 1356/58.  m (summer 1342, repudiated [1356/57], restored [1359]) MARIA Kantakouzene, daughter of Emperor IOANNES VI & his wife Eirene Asanina (-after 1379).  Ioannes Kantakuzenus records a betrothal proposal between "Nicephoro", son of "Ioannis despotæ" & his wife, and "magni domestici filiam" (referring to the future Emperor Ioannes VI), in a passage dated to [1336], and that they were betrothed in a later passage dated to [1342][193].  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "sororis [Matthæi]" married "Conti Cephaleniæ filius"[194].  The Historia Epiri records that the brother of "Thomaim" married "Cantacuzeni filia"[195].  After reconquering Epirus, Nikephoros repudiated his wife in order to marry the sister-in-law of Symeon Uroš, his aim being to placate Serbia.  Maria took refuge with her brother Manuel at Mistra[196].  This sister-in-law of Symeon Uroš has not been identified, and presumably the marriage never took place.  Maria became a nun at Constantinople.  Nikephoros [II] & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [ANTONIOS Kantakouzenos .  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Monk.  He founded the monastery of Meteora in [1400][197].] 

b)         daughter (-young).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  

c)         TOMAIDA Komnene Angelina .  The Historia Epiri records the marriage of "Symeonis…ex filia sororis regis Palaeologi" and "Ioannis tyranni beati filiam…Thomäim"[198]m (before 1349) SYMEON UROŠ Nemanjić, son of STEFAN UROŠ III "Dečanski" King of Serbia & his second wife Maria Palaiologina (-[1369/72]).  He ruled as Lord of Epirus from 1349 after its conquest by his half-brother, marrying the daughter of the previous Despot to consolidate his position[199].  He was expelled from Epirus by Nikephoros [II] ex-Lord of Epirus who regained control in 1355[200].  He had himself proclaimed Tsar of Serbia at Kastoria in 1356. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    THOPIA

 

 

This family's lands lay between the Shkumbi and Mati Rivers.  They also held Krujë and Dürres[201].  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

1.         TANUSH [Tanusio] Thopia, son of --- (-[1359]).  The Pope granted him the title Count and recognised him as holder of the lands between the Mati and Shkumbi Rivers, in central Albania[202]m ---.  The name of Tanush's wife is not known.  Tanush & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANDREA Thopia (-executed before 1343).  He abducted his future wife and was executed with her by his father-in-law[203].  m (1338) --- of Sicily, illegitimate daughter of ROBERT I "le Bon" King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his mistress --- (-executed before 1343).  Andrea & his wife had three children: 

i)          KAROLUS [Karlo] Thopia (-Jan 1388, bur near Elbasan).  He succeeded his paternal grandfather in 1359 as Lord of Matija.  He acquired the fortress of Krujë in 1363, and came to dominate the region around Dürres, although he only acquired the town of Dürres itself in Mar 1368[204].  War broke out with the Balšići of Zeta in 1363, and Djuradj Balšić was captured in spring 1364.  Dubrovnik mediated peace in 1366 and secured his release[205].  After the death of Blaž Matarango in 1367, Karlo Thopia occupied his lands beyond the Shkumbi in southern Albania.  He enjoyed close relations with Venice, which granted him Venetian citizenship and recognised him as Prince of Albania.  He lost Dürres in 1376 to Louis d'Evreux, recovered it in [1383][206], but lost it again to Balša Balšić Lord of Zeta in 1385, only to recapture it once more later the same year[207]m ([1370]) VOISAVA Balšić, daughter of BALŠA [I] Lord of Skadar & his wife ---.  Karlo & his wife had [five] children: 

(a)       GJERGJ (-late 1392).  He succeeded his father, but the family's power declined under his rule, particularly after his surrender of Durazzo to Venice in 1392[208]m TODORA Branković, daughter of BRANKO Mladenović & his wife ---. 

(b)       ELENA .  She succeeded on the death of her brother as Lady of Krujë.  m firstly Ser MARCO Barbarigo, son of ---.  Venetian patrician, who ruled his wife's lands in her name, usually residing in the fortress of Krujë.  He accepted Ottoman suzerainty in return for being allowed to keep Krujë.  In 1394 when he was replaced by Konstantini Balšić (who later married Marco's wife), after being defeated by Nikola Thopia (Venetian Governor of Dürres) as punishment for plundering Venetian territory[209]m secondly as his second wife, KONSTANTINI Balšić Lord of Kroja, son of DJURADJ Balšić & his wife Todora Dejanović (-executed Durazzo 1402 before 22 Oct). 

(c)       VOJSAVA (-after 8 Aug 1401)m firstly Kyr ISAAC [Cursachio] , son of --- (-beheaded [20 Sep 1393/21 May 1394]).  A Durazzo patrician.  m secondly (Venetian marriage licence 16 Jul 1394) PROGON Dukagjin Lord of Alessio, son of --- (-before 27 May 1402). 

(d)       [MARIA (-after 1400).  m FILIPPO di Maramonte, son of --- (-after 1400).] 

(e)       [NICHETA Thopia (-[4 Jul 1413/6 May 1415]).  Lord of Krujë.]  m (before 1394) ---, daughter of COMINUM Shpata.  Europäische Stammtafeln[210] suggests that her father was the same person as Comino Araniti.  Nicheta & his wife had two children: 

(1)       MARA .  After the death of her husband, she became the mistress of Antonio Giustianiani, citizen of Venice[211].  1407/1427.  m ([27 Jul/16 Aug] 1407]) BALŠA [III] Stracimirović Balšić, son of DJURADJ [II] Stracimirović Balšić & his wife Jelena Lazarević ([1387]-28 Apr 1421). 

(2)       JACUBÍEuropäische Stammtafeln[212] refers to him as "germanus consanguineus" of Mara. 

(f)        [TANUSH .  Citizen of Dürres.] 

(g)       [LAZARO .  1417.] 

ii)         DOMENICUS .  Bishop of Durazzo 1359.  Archbishop of Zara. 

iii)        GJORGJ .  At Krujë. 

 

 

1.         ANDREA Thopia .  He revolted against his Ottoman overlords in 1432[213]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    ARANITI

 

 

This family's lands extended from behind Valona towards the north east to Mokro on the western shore of Lake Ohrid[214].  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

1.         COMINO Aranitim ---, daughter of NIKOLA Sakati Lord of Sendir & his wife ---.  Comino & his wife had four children: 

a)         GJERGJ Araniti (-after 1456).  He raised a large rebellion among his own tribesmen against the Ottomans in 1433, which quickly spread throughout Albania from Valona to Skadar and defeated three major Ottoman attacks between 1433 and 1436.  The rebellion was finally suppressed in 1436[215].  He was established by Venice as Grand Vojvoda between Skadar and Dürres in 1456, at which time his daughter married the son of Stefan Crnojević, previously appointed Grand Vojvoda in Zeta[216]m firstly MARIA Musaki, daughter of ANDREA Musaki & his wife Ana Zenevesi (-before 1444).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family notes the marriage of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and "signora Maria [Musachi]"[217]m secondly (before 1449) as her second husband, PIETRINA Franco, widow of --- Sarmazza from Corfu, daughter of OLIVIERO Franco Barone di Taurisano & his wife --- (-in Italy after 11 Jul 1489).  The name of Gjergj's wife is not known.  Gjergj & his first wife had nine children:

i)          ANDRONIKA (-after 1500).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Andronika married "il signor Scanderbego Castrioto…signor de Dibra e de Matia e de Croya…"[218]m (26 May 1451) GJERGJ Kastriot, son of GJON Kastriot & his wife --- ([1404]-17 Jan 1468). 

ii)         GOJSAVA (-before Jul 1469).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Gojsava married "signor Giovanni Cernovichi…signore de Cernagora e de Ceta"[219]m as his first wife, JOVAN [Ivan] Crnojević, son of STJEPAN Crnojević Djurašević & his wife Mara Castriota (-early Jul 1490). 

iii)        THOMAI [Tomaso] (-after 11 Jul 1489).  Papal protonotary. 

iv)       KYRANA .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Kyrana married "il signor Giorgio Ducaguino" by whom she had two sons[220]m NIKOLLA Dukagjin, son of --- (-after 25 Jun 1462). 

v)        ELENA .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Elena married "il signor Giorgio Ducaguino" and had several children who all converted to Islam, of whom "Scanderbego et…Sangiacco" were living [when the manuscript was written][221]m GJERGJ Dukagjin, son of --- (-before 1462). 

vi)       DESPINA .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Despina married "il signor Tanusso Ducaguino" by whom she had one son and one daughter "signora Theodora" who had two sons "il signor Blasio e lo signor Jacobo"[222]m TANUSO Dukagjin, son of ---. 

vii)      ANGELJINA (-Krušedol 1516).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Agneljina married "signor Stefano…figliolo del signor Despoto de Servia…Giorgio"[223]The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Angelina Arianiti as the wife of Stephen[224].  She became a nun at Krušedol in Hungary[225].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “Etienne”, son of “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène...[sa sœur] Irène” and her husband “[le] despote de Serbie”, married “la fille de l´Albanais, la sœur du seigneur Constantin[226].  Theodoros Spandounes records that "Stefano Despoto" married "Angelina figliola del signor Golemo Araniti"[227]m (Skutari 1461) STEFAN Branković, son of DJURADJ Branković Despot of Serbia & his wife Eirene Kantakouzene ([1417]-Belgrado in Friulia 9 Oct 1476). 

viii)     COMITA (-[1461]).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Comita married "il signor Colco Balsichi…signor de Misia" by whom she had one son and one daughter "signora Maria" who married "lo signor conte de Muro" and had two daughters "la signora donna Beatrice e…signora donna Isabella", of whom the former married "signor Don Ferrante Orsino duca de Gravina" and the latter "signor Luise de Gesualdo conte de Conza"[228]m GOJKO Stresi Balšić Lord of Misja, son of --- (-after 1478). 

ix)       KATERINA .  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Katerina married "lo signor Nicolò Bocali" by whom she had two sons "lo signor Manoli e lo signor Constantino Boccalj" and two daughters[229]m firstly ANDREA Span, son of ---m secondly NIKOLA Bochalis Barone della Morea, son of --- (-[1519]).  m thirdly ([1519]) MERCURIO Bua-Spata Signor de Viano e Cerveteri, son of ---. 

Gergj & his second wife had four children: 

x)        KONSTADINI [Constantino] COMINO Araniti ([1456/57]-Montefiore 8 May 1530).  He was called "Principe di Macedonia, Duca di Acaja" in 1490.  Regent of Monferrato 1495-1499.  Imperial Vicar General in Italy.  Signor di Ozano e Terugia 1492-1521.  Signor di Fano 1515.   m ([1495/99]) [as her first husband,] FRANCESCA Paleologo di Monferrato, illegitimate daughter of BONIFAZIO IV Marchese di Monferrato & his mistress --- (-after 27 Dec 1561).  She maybe married secondly ([1535]) --- Caracciolo.  Konstadini & his wife had seven children[230]

xi)       MARIJA (-after 1474)m BARTOLOMEO GIUPPO della Rovere, son of RAFAELO della Rovere & his wife ---. 

xii)      TEDORAm ---, an Albanian in Venice. 

xiii)     COMINO (-murdered Apr 1486). 

b)         COMINOm GOJSAVA, daughter of ---. 

c)         VLADEN GOLEM Araniti .  Lord of Biasca and Çermenica.  m ANGJELINA Castriota, daughter of GJON Castrioti & his wife Voisava Tripalda. 

d)         daughter .  m as his first wife, PAL Dukagjin, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    MUSAKI (MUSACHI)

 

 

This family's lands lay between the Vijosë and Shkumbi Rivers, and eastwards to the region of Kastoria[231].  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below.  Hopf includes a collection of early manuscripts relating to this family in his collection Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues[232]

 

 

1.         --- Musaki .  He lost the city of Kastoria to the Turks in [1385]. 

a)         ANDREI [III] Musaki (-1393).  He succeeded in 1388, regularly residing in Dürres. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KASTRIOTI

 

 

This family's lands lay between the upper Mati and upper Drin Rivers, eastwards to Debar[233].  The primary sources which confirm the parentage and marriages of the members of this family have not yet been identified, unless otherwise stated below. 

 

 

1.         GJON Kastrioti (-[1437/40]).  He accepted Venetian suzerainty and citizenship in 1413.  He held Tirane, and the territory north to the Mati River, by 1415.  He submitted to Ottoman suzerainty in 1417[234].  He took control of the coastal territory between the Mati and Erzen Rivers [1417/20], taking advantage of the decline of the Thopia family after the death in 1415 of Nikola Thopia.  m VOISAVA Tripalda, daughter of ---.  Gjon & his wife had nine children:

a)         REPOSH (-after 1426).  He died as a monk at the monastery on Mount Sinai. 

b)         STANISHA (-after 1445).  Lord of Matja and Dibra.  Citizen of Venice 1438.  m ---, a Turk. 

-        SCANDERBEGH CASTRIOTA, DUKES of FERRANDINA[235]

c)         KONSTADINI (in Turkey before 1438). 

d)         GJERGJ Kastrioti ([1404]-Jan 1468).  He converted to Islam soon after arriving at Adrianople in 1423, adopting the name ISKENDAR, known as "Skanderbeg".  He served the Sultan and became a high ranking military commander[236].  On his father's death, Sultan Murad II ordered Hasan beg, Ottoman Governor of Krujë, to take control of all Kastriot property.  Skanderbeg revolted in 1443, deserting the Ottoman army which opposed the western crusaders when they recaptured Niš.  He obtained possession of Krujë by tricking Hasan beg with a forged instruction from the sultan, and announced his reconversion to Christianity.  He allied himself with the Araniti family, marrying Gjergj Araniti's daughter.  He called a congress at Alessio, inviting all the Albanian chiefs, and was appointed commander of the Albanian armies which defeated the Ottomans in Jun 1444 and again at Danj in Sep 1448[237].  “Georgius Castriot, dictus Skender beg” sent an envoy to Ragusa “appropinquante Turcarum imperatore” by charter dated [1450][238].  He defeated a further Ottoman attack in 1456, although in 1457 a large Ottoman army occupied the plains of Albania up to the borders of Venice's Alassio.  After the Venetians were drawn into the war in 1463, Sultan Mohammed II agreed a peace treaty signed in Apr 1463, although the peace soon collapsed.  After unsuccessfully besieging Krujë in 1467, the Sultan returned the following year only to be defeated once more by Skanderbeg[239]m ([1443/44]) ANDRONIKE Araniti, daughter of GJERGJ COMINO Araniti & his first wife Maria Musaki.  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "la prima signora Andronica, la seconda signora Goysava, la terza signora Chiranna, la quarta signora Helena, la quinta signora Despina, la sesta signora Angelina, la settima signora Comita, l´ottava signora Caterina" as the eight daughters of "signor Arainiti Comnino…signor de Cerminica et de Mochino e de Spatennia" and his wife "signora Maria [Musachi]", adding that Andronika married "il signor Scanderbego Castrioto…signor de Dibra e de Matia e de Croya…"[240]Gjergj & his wife had one child: 

i)          GJON Kastrioti (before 1457-after 1495).  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family names "il signor Giovanni Castrioto…Duca de Santo Pietro in Galatina" as the son of "il signor Scanderbego Castrioto…signor de Dibra e de Matia e de Croya…" and his wife[241].  He succeeded as head of the Albanian league in 1468 on the death of his father, immediately seeking Venetian protection[242].  Conte di Soleto 1485.  Duca di San Pietro in Galatina 1495.  m JERINA Palaiologina Branković, daughter of LAZAR Branković Despot of Serbia & his wife Helena Palaiologina.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Maria, Militzia and Irene as the children of Lazar & his wife, stating that Irene married John son of Scanderbeg and had issue[243].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 names “deux filles, Milica et Maria” as the children of “Lazare”, son of “[le] despote de Serbie”, and his wife “la fille du despote de Morée, le seigneur Thomas”, adding that “Maria” married “le fils de Scandarbec[244].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Maria…la seconda…Miliza…la terza et ultima Erina" as the three daughters of "Lazaro Despoto" and his wife, adding that "Erina" married "Ioanne Castrioto Duca di Santo Pietro"[245].  A manuscript which records details of the Musaki family records that "il signor Giovanni Castrioto…Duca de Santo Pietro in Galatina" married "la signora donna Erina Paliologa…fiiglia del signor Lazaro Despoto de Servia", and names their surviving children "Don Ferrante Castrioto…Duca de Santo Petro" and "Donna Maria Castriota"[246]

-         SCANDERBEGH CASTRIOTA, DUKES of SAN PIETRO in GALATINA[247]

e)         MARIJA m STJEPAN Crnojević Voivode of Zeta, son of DJORDJE Djurašević Lord of Zenta, Budva and part of Sclavonia & his wife --- (-1465). 

f)          JELAm GJIN Musaki, son of ---. 

g)         ANGJELINA m VLADEN GOLEM Araniti Lord of Biasca and Çermenica, son of COMINO Araniti & his wife ---. 

h)         VLAICA m STEFAN Maramonte Stresi Balšić Lord of Dulcigno (-after 1444). 

i)          MAMICA m (26 Jan 1445) [KARLO] Musachi Thopia, son of --- (-killed in battle 1455). 

 

 

 

 



[1] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 51. 

[2] Fine (1994), p. 51. 

[3] Fine (1994), pp. 50-1. 

[4] Fine (1994), pp. 69. 

[5] Buchon (1845) Livre de la conqueste de la Morée, Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française dÁchaïe, p. lxvi. 

[6] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio II, 1, col. 236. 

[7] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[8] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Niketas Choniates"), Liber VI De Manuele Comneno, 9, p. 233. 

[9] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines. A propos de trois membres de la famille Rogerios (XII siècle)’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 22 (1964), p. 192, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1964_num_22_1_1324> (21 Dec 2012), quoting Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (1894) Analecta Hierosolymitikès Stachyologias II, p. 367. 

[10] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 208. 

[11] ES II 179. 

[12] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[13] Sturdza (1999), pp. 208 and 277. 

[14] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 502. 

[15] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 7, p. 502. 

[16] "Alexios 20120" in PBW (2006.2), citing Seals 4390 and 4391. 

[17] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Georgius Akropolites") 14, p. 27. 

[18] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), pp. 55-57, quoting Nicetas Chroniates p. 55. 

[19] Fine (1994), p. 68. 

[20] Sturdza (1999), p. 209. 

[21] Fine (1994), p. 105. 

[22] Fine (1994), p. 113. 

[23] Fine (1994), pp. 113-4 and 119-20. 

[24] Georgius Akropolites 14, p. 27. 

[25] ES II 180. 

[26] Fine (1994), p. 128. 

[27] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[28] Georgius Akropolites 14, p. 27. 

[29] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1235, MGH SS XXIII, p. 938. 

[30] Fine (1994), p. 128. 

[31] Fine (1994), p. 126. 

[32] Sturdza (1999), p. 209, and Fine (1994), p. 128. 

[33] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[34] Fine (1994), p. 105. 

[35] Georgius Akropolites 25, p. 43. 

[36] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 8060, p. 325. 

[37] Gardner (1912), p. 141. 

[38] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 66. 

[39] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[40] Sturdza (1999), p. 209. 

[41] ES II 180. 

[42] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 700. 

[43] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Alexii Comneni fratris Isaacii Angeli, Liber 3, 6, p. 700. 

[44] MGH SS (New Series), Tome V, p. 65. 

[45] Gardner (1912), p. 89. 

[46] Miklosich, F. & Müller, J. (eds.) 1871) Acta et diplomata græca medii ævi (Vienna), Tome IV, p. 327. 

[47] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) (“Villehardouin”), pp. 106-7. 

[48] The Life of St Theodora Petraliphina of Arta, cited in Fine (1994), p. 66. 

[49] Fine (1994), p. 68. 

[50] Sturdza (1999), p. 209. 

[51] Fine (1994), p. 67. 

[52] Fine (1994), pp. 67-9 and 105. 

[53] Fine (1994), p. 66. 

[54] Fine (1994), p. 66. 

[55] Villehardouin, pp. 106-7. 

[56] Sturdza (1999), p. 209. 

[57] Fine (1994), p. 67. 

[58] ES II 180. 

[59] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[60] ES II 180. 

[61] ES II 180. 

[62] Georgius Akropolites 68, p. 150. 

[63] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98. 

[64] Sturdza (1999), p. 209, and Fine (1994), p. 112. 

[65] Fine (1994), p. 128. 

[66] Fine (1994), pp. 69 and 128. 

[67] Sturdza (1999), p. 210, and Fine (1994), p. 134. 

[68] Fine (1994), pp. 157-8. 

[69] Fine (1994), p. 161. 

[70] Fine (1994), pp. 162-3. 

[71] Fine (1994), pp. 163-4. 

[72] Fine (1994), p. 169. 

[73] Ephræmius 8655, p. 348. 

[74] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 98. 

[75] Nicol, D. M. (1994) The Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits 1250-1500 (Cambridge University Press), p. 15. 

[76] Fine (1994), p. 160. 

[77] Nicol (1994), p. 16. 

[78] Nicol (1994), p. 15. 

[79] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[80] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber II, 13, p. 108. 

[81] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[82] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[83] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[84] Fine (1994), p. 185. 

[85] Pachymeres Vol I, De Andronico Palaeologo, Liber V, 18, p. 407. 

[86] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1828-1832) Cantacuzenus Vols I, II and III, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ioannes Kantakouzenos") Vol. I, I, 43, p. 211. 

[87] Estangüi Gómez, R. ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 66 (2008), p. 135, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_2008_num_66_1_3035> (21 Dec 2012), citing Laurent, V. (ed.) (1971) Les regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constantinople, I, Les actes des patriarches, IV, Les regestes de 1208 à 1309 (Paris), no. 1441. 

[88] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 18, p. 406. 

[89] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 43, p. 211. 

[90] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 32, p. 499. 

[91] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 6, p. 657. 

[92] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1849) Historia Politica et Patriarchica Constantinopoleos, Epirotica, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[93] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 32, p. 196. 

[94] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 87, p. 535. 

[95] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 87, p. 535. 

[96] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 149, quoting Theocharides, G. ´Eine Vermächtnisurkunde des Gross-Stratopedarchen Demetrios Tzamblakon’, Polychronion, Festschrift Franz Dölger zum 75. Geburtstag (Heidelberg, 1966), pp. 486-95. 

[97] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 150, footnote 89 continued from p. 149, and p. 152, citing Lefort, J., Giros, C., Kravari, V. & Smyrlis, K. (2006) Actes de Vatopédi, II De 1330 à 1376, Archives de l´Athos 22 (Paris), no. 118. 

[98] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 87, p. 535. 

[99] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 149 and 153, quoting Theocharides, G. ´Eine Vermächtnisurkunde des Gross-Stratopedarchen Demetrios Tzamblakon’, Polychronion, Festschrift Franz Dölger zum 75. Geburtstag (Heidelberg, 1966), pp. 486-95. 

[100] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 55, p. 329. 

[101] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 36, p. 218. 

[102] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. II, III, 52, p. 305. 

[103] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1830-1855) Nicephorus Gregoras, Historiæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIV, 6, p. 710. 

[104] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 133, quoting Schreiner, P. (1975) Die byzantischen Kleinchroniken I (Vienna), p. 83. 

[105] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIV, 6, p. 710. 

[106] Nikeforos Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XVI, 1, p. 797. 

[107] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 126, citing Kravari, V. ´Nouveaux documents du monastère de Philothéou’, Travaux et Mémoires 10 (1987), 6, pp. 315-23. 

[108] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 126, citing Kravari ´Nouveaux documents du monastère de Philothéou’ (1987), 6, pp. 315-23. 

[109] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 126 and 160, citing Kravari ´Nouveaux documents du monastère de Philothéou’ (1987), 6, pp. 315-23. 

[110] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 127. 

[111] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 134, Trapp, E. (1976-95) Prosopograhisches Lexicon der Palaiologenzeit (Vienna), no. 29774, entry Filanqrwphνός Miaήl

[112] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), p. 134. 

[113] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 161-2, citing Miklosich, F. & Müller, J. (1862) Acta et diplomata græca medii ævi (1862), Tome II, 595, pp. 329-33. 

[114] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 161 and 171. 

[115] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 163-9. 

[116] Estangüi Gómez ‘Théodôra Palaiologina Philanthropènè’ (2008), pp. 126 and 160, citing Kravari ´Nouveaux documents du monastère de Philothéou’ (1987), 6, pp. 315-23. 

[117] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Liber I, 2, p. 17. 

[118] Georgius Akropolites 75, p. 168. 

[119] Bartholomæi de Neocastro Historia Sicula, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 415. 

[120] Fine (1994), p. 161. 

[121] Anonimo Tranese, quoted in Giudice, G. ´La famiglia di Re Manfredi´, Archivio storico per le province Napoletane, Anno Tertio, Fascicolo I (Naples, 1878), Note illustrative e documenti, I, Matrimonio tra Elena degli Angeli e Manfredi, p. 54,

[122] Georgius Akropolites 75, p. 168. 

[123] Georgius Phrantzes Liber I, 2, p. 17. 

[124] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 99. 

[125] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, pp. 106-7. 

[126] Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 147. 

[127] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 271. 

[128] Balduinus de Avennis Genealogia, RHGF XIII, p. 562. 

[129] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 201. 

[130] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 107. 

[131] Georgius Akropolites 71, pp. 156-7. 

[132] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 10, p. 26. 

[133] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[134] Fine (1994), pp. 157-8. 

[135] Fine (1994), p. 164. 

[136] Fine (1994), p. 185. 

[137] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[138] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[139] Sturdza (1999), p. 211. 

[140] Fine (1994), p. 236. 

[141] Fine (1994), p. 236. 

[142] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 200. 

[143] Georgius Akropolites 49, p. 95. 

[144] Ephræmius 8655, p. 348. 

[145] Fine (1994), p. 160. 

[146] Georgius Akropolites 74, p. 164. 

[147] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[148] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber III, 27, p. 243. 

[149] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 25, p. 67. 

[150] Fine (1994), p. 169. 

[151] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[152] Fine (1994), p. 237. 

[153] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 30, p. 450. 

[154] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiv, Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[155] ES II 180. 

[156] Szabolcs de Vajay 'From Alfonso VII to Alfonso X, the first two centuries of the Burgundian dynasty in Castile and Leon - a prosopographical catalogue in social genealogy, 1100-1300', Studies in Genealogy and Family History in tribute to Charles Evans, edited Lindsay L Brook (Association for the Promotion of Scholarship in Genealogy Ltd, Occasional Publication no 2, 1989, Salt Lake City, Utah), p. 387. 

[157] Sturdza (1999), p. 210. 

[158] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[159] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 306 and 319. 

[160] Fine (1994), p. 236. 

[161] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007, referring to Polemis, D. I. (1968) The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography (London, Athlone Press) and Trapp, E. Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologisichen-Zeit

[162] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[163] Buchon Tome II (1845), p. 482. 

[164] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 201. 

[165] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 201. 

[166] Nicol (1994), p. 28.   

[167] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 202. 

[168] Fine (1994), p. 236. 

[169] Sturdza (1999), p. 499, and Nicol (1994), pp. 30-1. 

[170] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 26, p. 71. 

[171] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 201. 

[172] Fine (1994), p. 236. 

[173] Fine (1994), p. 239. 

[174] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiv, and Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[175] Fine (1994), pp. 240 and 247. 

[176] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber V, 30, p. 450. 

[177] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, I, 1, p. 13

[178] Fine (1994), p. 237. 

[179] ES II 180. 

[180] Fine (1994), p. 247, and Miller (1908), p. 249. 

[181] Miller (1908), p. 250. 

[182] Miller (1908), p. 260. 

[183] Fine (1994), p. 247. 

[184] Miller (1908), p. 273. 

[185] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 32, p. 499. 

[186] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 6, p. 657. 

[187] Miller (1908), p. 273. 

[188] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[189] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 32, p. 500. 

[190] Miller (1908), p. 274. 

[191] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211, and Fine (1994), p. 347. 

[192] Miller (1908), p. 293, and Fine (1994), p. 347. 

[193] Ioannes Kantakouzenos Vol. I, II, 32, pp. 499 and 500, And Vol. II, III, 32, p. 195. 

[194] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. III, Historiæ Byzantinæ XXIX, 36-39, p. 249. 

[195] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[196] Miller (1908), p. 293. 

[197] ES III 199. 

[198] Historia Epiri a Michaele nepote Duce conscripta, p. 211. 

[199] Fine (1994), p. 320. 

[200] Fine (1994), p. 347. 

[201] Fine (1994), p. 415. 

[202] Fine (1994), p. 371. 

[203] ES III 410. 

[204] Fine (1994), pp. 371-2. 

[205] Fine (1994), p. 372. 

[206] Fine (1994), p. 373. 

[207] Fine (1994), pp. 390-1. 

[208] Fine (1994), p. 418. 

[209] Fine (1994), p. 419. 

[210] ES III 410. 

[211] ES III 179. 

[212] ES III 410. 

[213] Fine (1994), p. 535. 

[214] Fine (1994), p. 415. 

[215] Fine (1994), p. 534. 

[216] Fine (1994), p. 561. 

[217] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 283. 

[218] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[219] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[220] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[221] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[222] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, pp. 284-5. 

[223] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, pp. 284-5. 

[224] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[225] ES III 187. 

[226] Brayer, E., Lemerle, P., Laurent, V. ‘Le Vaticanus latinus 4789: histoire et alliances des Cantacuzènes aux XIV-XV siécle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 9 (1951) (“Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951)”), p. 75, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1951_num_9_1_1037> (21 Dec 2012).  

[227] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), p. 158. 

[228] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, pp. 284-5. 

[229] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, pp. 284-5. 

[230] ES III 412, extinct in the male line 1551. 

[231] Fine (1994), p. 415. 

[232] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, pp. 270-340. 

[233] Fine (1994), p. 415. 

[234] Fine (1994), p. 514. 

[235] ES III 411, extinct in the male line in 1560. 

[236] Fine (1994), p. 522. 

[237] Fine (1994), pp. 556-8. 

[238] Miklosich, Fr. (ed.) (1858) Monumenta Serbica spectantia Historiam Serbiæ Bosnæ Ragusii (Vienna), CCCLVI, p. 443. 

[239] Fine (1994), pp. 595-7. 

[240] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[241] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[242] Fine (1994), p. 598. 

[243] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[244] Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951), p. 75.   

[245] Spandounes, p. 159. 

[246] Breve memoria de li discendenti de nostra casa Musachi, p. 284. 

[247] ES III 411, extinct in the male line in [1561].