The menu system requires Java Script to be enabled. If it does not appear please use the Index file for navigation. THESSALONIKI

 

 

thessaloniki

  v3.1 Updated 26 April 2017

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                KINGS of THESSALONIKI 1204-1227 (MONFERRATO) 2

Chapter 2.                      EMPERORS at THESSALONIKI 1224-1246 (ANGELOS) 4

Chapter 3.                LORDS of THESSALY 1267-1318 (NEOPATRAS) 8

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

After the fall of Constantinople to the armies of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Byzantine nobles fled and established themselves both in Asia Minor and in Thrace and Epirus on the Greek mainland.  Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, one of the leaders of the crusade, bought Venice's rights to Thessaloniki where he established himself as king after failing to be chosen as emperor of the new Latin empire (see Chapter 1).  He extended his kingdom northwards to include Macedonia and southwards into Thessaly[1].  He was succeeded as king in 1207 by his infant son Demetrio.  However, between 1215 and 1217, Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus conquered most of Macedonia, and then pressed into Thessaly.  He attacked the Latin kingdom of Thessaloniki, which had been weakened by the departure of many of its knights back, to western Europe.  Theodoros entered the city of Thessaloniki in Dec 1224 and deposed King Demetrio[2].  Theodoros declared himself despot and autokrator in the kingdom of Thessaloniki, and was crowned Emperor of the Romans in direct challenge to the right of the emperors at Nikaia to assume the imperial mantle of Byzantium (see Chapter 2).  Theodoros was captured by the Bulgarians in 1230 and remained in a Bulgarian prison for seven years, after which his state disintegrated[3].  He was released in 1237 and returned to Thessaloniki, where he deposed his brother Manuel and installed his son Ioannes in his place, although Theodoros continued to exercise a strong influence[4].  He was exiled to Voden in Edessa after Ioannes III Batatzes Emperor in Nikaia captured Thessaloniki in 1246[5]

 

A younger branch of the Angelos family of Epirus established themselves as Lords of Thessaly in the mid-13th century, based at Neopatras (see Chapter 3).  Their lordship survived for more than half a century, but was under continual pressure from the re-established empire of Byzantium and, in the early 14th century, from the Latin duchy of Athens.  Ioannes, last Lord of Neopatras, accepted Byzantine suzerainty in 1315 in order to free himself from Athens, and married the emperor's daughter[6].  After his death, the lordship of Thessaly was dismembered: the Melissenos family took control of Delphos, Venice took Ptelion, Neopatras was occupied by the Catalan company, and the northern part of Thessaly was taken by Byzantium[7]

 

As will be seen below, it has been possible to verify only a small part of the information about these families against primary source documentation.  An earlier version of Chapters 2 and 3 of this document was reviewed by Morris Bierbrier, whose additions are marked "M.B." in the end-notes.  I am grateful for his helpful collaboration. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of THESSALONIKI 1204-1227 (MONFERRATO)

 

 

BONIFAZIO di Monferrato, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] (1150-killed in battle 4 Sep 1207).  The Cronica Alberti de Bezanis names "Gullielmus Spatam-longam, Conradum, Bonifacium, Fredericum et Raynerium" as the five sons of "Gulielmus marchio Montisferati" & his wife[8].  Regent of Monferrato 1191.  He succeeded his brother in 1192 as BONIFAZIO I Marchese di Monferrato.  He assisted Emperor Heinrich VI King of Germany in his conquest of Sicily in 1194[9]He joined the movement for a Fourth Crusade, and was elected leader on the death of Thibaut III Comte de Champagne[10], a decision which was ratified at Soissons in Aug 1201[11]Under the terms of the partition of the Byzantine empire agreed in March 1204 between Venice and the crusading armies, approximately 3/8 of the territory of the former empire was to be distributed between the crusaders.  Bonifazio, as leader of the crusade, expected to be installed as emperor of the newly formed Latin empire of Constantinople.  He married the widow of ex-Emperor Isaakios II in order to advance his claims, but was outmanoeuvred by Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice who secured the appointment of Baudouin IX Count of Flanders whom he considered a less powerful candidate[12].  Bonifazio was assigned a large fief in Anatolia, but demanded Thessaloniki which he claimed belonged to his family as of right since Emperor Manuel I had granted a large estate there to his brother Ranieri.  At a meeting with Venetian representatives at Adrianople 12 Aug 1204, he ceded the island of Crete (which he claimed had been given as a fief to his brother Ranieri by Emperor Manuel I) to Venice and bought Venice's rights to Thessaloniki[13].  Bonifazio captured Demotika and besieged Adrianople to press his claim.  Peace was soon mediated, and Emperor Baudouin exchanged Demotika for Thessaloniki, where Bonifazio declared himself King of Thessaloniki.  He extended his kingdom northwards to include Macedonia and southwards into Thessaly[14].  His vassals were Othon de la Roche (for Attika and Boetia, later to form the duchy of Athens), Guillaume de Champlitte and, after his death, Geoffroy de Villehardouin (for the principality of Achaia or Morea in Peloponnesos).  He was faced with continual threats from Bulgaria to the north and, against this common threat, allied himself with Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople, the alliance being confirmed by the marriage of his daughter to the emperor[15].  He was killed by a small Bulgarian raiding party, his head being sent as a trophy to Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria[16].  The Cronica of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona records the death in 1207 of "Bonifacius marchio Montis-ferrati" killed in battle[17].  One child: 

1.         DEMETRIO ([1205]-Melfi 1230).  The Cronica of Sicardi Bishop of Cremona names "Wilielmus in Ytalia et Demetrius aput Tessalonicam" as sons and successors of "Bonifacius marchio Montis-ferrati"[18].  The Chronica Jacobi de Aquis, dated to 1334, names "Demetrio" as the son of "Bonifacio" and his second wife[19].  He succeeded his father in 1207 as King of Thessaloniki, under the regency of his mother.  The regency was taken by Uberto di Biandrate who refused to swear allegiance to Henri I Latin Emperor of Constantinople, who invaded Thessaloniki to assert his authority, captured Uberto and crowned Demetrio 6 Jan 1209[20].  Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus attacked the kingdom of Thessaloniki, which had been weakened when many of its knights had returned to western Europe, and entered the city in Dec 1224, deposing King Demetrio[21].  Demetrio bequeathed his rights to Thessaloniki to Friedrich II King of Germany (although the latter renounced his rights in favour of Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato[22]) and returned to Italy where he died[23].  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica records that "rex Thessalonicensis" died "Melphie" in 1230[24]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    EMPERORS at THESSALONIKI 1224-1246 (ANGELOS)

 

 

Two brothers:

1.         THEODOROS Komnenos Doukas Angelos, son of IOANNES Doukas Angelos Governor of Epirus & his wife --- ([1180]-in prison in Nikaia shortly after 1253).  Twin with his sister ---.  If his birth date is correct as shown here, it is likely that he was considerably younger than his brothers Isaakios and Alexios, which suggests that he may have been born from a later marriage of his father.  Nicetas reports that, immediately after the flight of Emperor Alexios V Doukas Murzuphlos and before the arrival of the crusading army (presumably 13 Apr 1204), there were two candidates for emperor "a pair of young men … Doukas and Laskaris and the name of both was that of the champion [αρχηγός] of the faith".  The latter expression has been interpreted as referring to "Konstantinos", which would indicate that Konstantinos Laskaris rather than his brother Theodoros was chosen, although another otherwise less reliable manuscript refers to the first name "Theodoros"[25].  The only "Konstantinos Doukas" at the time appears to have been Theodoros's brother, but it is unclear why a younger brother should have been proposed as candidate for the throne.  Despite the interpretation referred to above, it appears more probable that Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos was one of the chosen candidates and Theodoros Laskaris the other.  Theodoros Komnenos Doukas Angelos fled to Nikaia after the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, but went to Epirus to help his illegitimate half-brother in 1205[26].  Theodoros succeeded Leon Sgouros as Lord of Corinth, Navplion and Argos in 1208[27].  He was guardian for his nephew Mikhael, after the death of his illegitimate half-brother in 1215, but banished him to Peloponnesos and installed himself as Lord of Epirus.  He made peace with Serbia in [1216], confirmed by his brother's marriage to the sister of Grand Župan Stefan and, later, by his own daughter's marriage to Stefan's son Radoslav[28].  In 1216, he captured Pierre de Courtenay, recently crowned by the Pope as Latin emperor of Constantinople, who was passing through Epirus on his way to Constantinople having been persuaded by the Venetians to help them recapture Durazzo[29].  Between 1215 and 1217, Theodoros conquered most of Macedonia, and then pressed into Thessaly.  He attacked the Latin kingdom of Thessaloniki, weakened after many of its knights had returned to the west, and entered the city in Dec 1224[30], declaring himself despot and autokrator in the kingdom of Thessaloniki.  He was crowned THEODOROS I Emperor of the Romans at Arta in [1225] by Demetrios Bishop of Ohrid, in direct challenge to the right of the emperors of Nikaia to assume the imperial mantle of Byzantium.  Relations between the churches of Nikaia and Epirus deteriorated after this event, resulting in a full scale schism which lasted until 1232/33[31].  Theodoros defeated a Nikaian army which had taken control of Adrianople and moved on Constantinople.  To forestall a Bulgarian attack, he agreed an alliance with Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria, confirmed by the marriage of his brother Manuel to the Tsar's daughter, but was unable to seize the capital[32].  He finally marched on Constantinople in 1230, but changed course and attacked Bulgaria.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "Alsanus rex Bulgarie" captured and blinded "ducem Durachis Theodorum"[33] at Klokotnica, near Philippopolis, in Apr 1230[34].  Theodoros remained in a Bulgarian prison for seven years[35].  Tsar Ivan Asen then went on the offensive and conquered most of Macedonia and Albania, after which Theodoros's state disintegrated[36].  Theodoros was released in 1237 after Tsar Ivan Asen married his daughter, as his third wife.  He returned to Thessaloniki, where he deposed his brother Manuel and installed his son Ioannes in his place, although Theodoros exercised a strong influence over his son[37].  Theodoros was detained on a visit to Nikaia in 1240, and returned as a prisoner when the Nikaian army marched on Thessaloniki in 1242[38].  He was exiled to Voden in Edessa after Ioannes III Batatzes Emperor in Nikaia captured Thessaloniki in 1246[39].  He plotted with Mikhael I Angelos Lord of Epirus to break his 1249 treaty of friendship with Nikaia.  They were defeated in 1252 when Theodoros was captured and sent to Nikaia a prisoner.  m (before 1210) MARIA Doukaina Komnene Petraloiphaina, daughter of [THEODOROS] Petraliphos & his wife ---.  Her parentage is indicated by Georgius Akropolites who records that "Sthlavus Asani regis affinis" married "Petraliphæ Theodori Comneni uxoris fratris filia"[40].  Emperor Theodoros I & his wife had four children:

a)         IOANNES Komnenos [Angelos] (-1244).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannes et Demetrius…Anna et…Irene" as the children of "Angeli Theodori"[41]Ephræmius names "Ioannes et Demetrius atque Anna, denique Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari" as the four children of "Theodori…Comnenangeli"[42].  After his father's release from prison and return to Thessaloniki, he was installed in [1237/38] as IOANNES Emperor in Thessaloniki.  Besieged in Thessaloniki by the Nikaian army in 1242, he agreed to renounce the imperial title, in return receiving the title despot from Emperor Ioannes III Batatzes and being allowed to continue to rule as Lord of Thessaloniki[43]

b)         ANNA Doukaina Angelina (-1258).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannes et Demetrius…Anna et…Irene" as the children of "Angeli Theodori"[44]Ephræmius names "Ioannes et Demetrius atque Anna, denique Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari" as the four children of "Theodori…Comnenangeli"[45].  The life of St Sava by Domentijan records that "Radoslav son cousin" (referring to Saint Saba) married "l´empereur grec…Théodore Lascaris…la fille"[46]The primary source which confirms her correct parentage at the time of her marriage has not yet been identified.  Her marriage was arranged by her father as part of peace terms with Serbia[47].  Her influence over her husband triggered the 1233 rebellion which led to his deposition[48].  She became a nun in Serbia.  m ([29 Oct 1219/9 Feb 1220]) STEFAN RADOSLAV of Serbia, son of STEFAN Grand Župan of Serbia & his first wife Evdokia Komnene Angelina ([1191/1201]-after 1235).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father [1224/27] as RADOSLAV "Krapalo" King of Serbia, deposed 1233.  He became a monk as Jovan. 

c)         EIRENE Komnene Angelina ([before 1220][49]-after 1241).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannes et Demetrius…Anna et…Irene" as the children of "Angeli Theodori", and records the marriage of Tsar Ivan Asen and "filiam Angeli Theodori Irenem"[50]Ephræmius records that "Asanes" married "Theodori filiam Comnenangeli…Irenam" after the death of his first wife "Ungarica consorte"[51].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the second wife of "Alsannus rex" as "filia Theodori ceci" but does not name her[52].  Ivan Asen II Tsar of the Bulgarians had defeated her father at Klokotnica, near Philippopolis, in Apr 1230, blinded him and kept him prisoner in Bulgaria for seven years[53].  It appears that he was released in 1237 after he gave Tsar Ivan Asen permission to marry his daughter Eirene.  Tsarina Irina was probably exiled from Bulgaria soon after the accession in 1241 of her stepson, living with her brother in Thessaloniki[54].  She became a nun as XENIAm ([1237/38]) as his third wife, IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN ASEN I Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [first/second] wife --- ([1190]-Jun 1241). 

d)         DEMETRIOS Komnenos Doukas [Angelos] ([1225]-in prison after Dec 1246).  Georgius Akropolites names "Ioannes et Demetrius…Anna et…Irene" as the children of "Angeli Theodori"[55]Ephræmius names "Ioannes et Demetrius atque Anna, denique Irene uxor Asanis Bulgari" as the four children of "Theodori…Comnenangeli"[56].  He succeeded his brother in 1244 as Lord of Thessaloniki.  "An extravagant and reckless young man", his unpopularity provided the opportunity for Ioannes III Batatzes Emperor of Nikaia to capture Thessaloniki in Dec 1246.  Demetrios was deposed and briefly imprisoned, before being given large estates in Anatolia as compensation[57]

2.         MANUEL Angelos Doukas Komnenos (-1241).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Theodorus Thessalonice rex cecatus…frater eius Manuel" when recording his flight in 1235 to "dominum Gaufridum" [Prince of Achaia][58].  Lord of Pharsale, Larissa and Platámona.  He was awarded the title despot by his brother after the latter's coronation as emperor in [1225][59].  After his brother Theodoros was captured by the Bulgarians at Klokotnica in Apr 1230, Manuel succeeded as regent of the kingdom of Thessaloniki, but was controlled by his father-in-law Tsar Ivan Asen[60].  Manuel assumed the title Emperor in Thessaloniki, although his territory was by then confined to the town of Thessaloniki itself[61].  His brother Theodoros deposed Manuel after being released from Bulgaria in 1237, and installed his own son in his place.  Manuel escaped to Nikaia to seek help for his restoration.  He returned to Greece in 1239, landed in Thessaly and conquered Larissa.  He reached a settlement with his brother Theodoros, who accepted him as Lord of Thessaly[62]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    LORDS of THESSALY 1267-1318 (NEOPATRAS)

 

 

IOANNES Doukas Komnenos Angelos, illegitimate son of MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Doukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his mistress Gangrene --- (-before Mar 1289).  Pachymeres names "Nicephori frater notus, Ioannes sebastocrator"[63].  His father appointed him governor of Thessaly, where he consolidated his position by his marriage.  He led a unit of Vlachs in his father's attack on Nikaia in 1259, but withdrew from the battle in the valley of Pelagonia after quarrelling with Guillaume de Villehardouin, and defected to Nikaia.  Forgiven by his father, they planned a joint counter-attack and succeeded in expelling the Nikaians from Epirus[64].  He succeeded his father as Lord of Thessaly in [1267/68], his capital being at Neopatras.  Emperor Mikhael VIII attempted to establish a durable alliance with Ioannes by arranging the marriage of his daughter with the emperor's nephew, Andronikos Tarchanaiotes, and by awarding Ioannes the title sébastokrator in 1271, although Tarchanaiotes subsequently turned against the emperor.  Ioannes made an alliance with Charles I King of Sicily in 1273[65].  Emperor Mikhael VIII attacked Thessaly in 1275 and besieged Neopatras, from where Ioannes escaped to Athens where he agreed an alliance with Jean de la Roche Duke of Athens, which was confirmed by the marriage of the duke's son to Ioannes's daughter[66].  Ioannes organised opposition to the emperor's union of the Orthodox and Roman churches, his council declaring the emperor a heretic in 1278.  He attacked Epirus in [1284/85] in revenge for the kidnap of his son by his half-brother Nikephoros and the latter's wife, who had tricked him into visiting Epirus with the promise of marriage to their daughter[67].  He became a monk. 

m (before 1259) ---, daughter of TARON, Vlach chief in Thessaly.  Pachymeres records that "Michaeli…nothum filium Ioannem" and "Taronæ filia dynasta gentis populosæ"[68].  After her husband's death, she agreed to Byzantine suzerainty over Thessaly on behalf of her sons Konstantinos and Theodoros in order to obtain recognition of their right to rule[69].  She became a nun as HYPOMONE

Ioannes & his wife had [six] children:

1.         MIKHAEL Doukas Komnenos Angelos (-murdered Constantinople 1307)Pachymeres records that "Michaeli Ioannis Ducæ Occiduorum…sebastocratoris filio" was tricked by the offer of marriage to the daughter of "Annæ reginæ consobrinæ suæ…ex Eulogia natæ", but was kidnapped and sent to Constantinople where he was imprisoned[70].  This must presumably be dated to after his betrothal to the daughter of the Bulgarian Tsar.  Pachymeres, in a later passage, records that "maximus natu frater Michael [referring to "in partibus Occiduis Ioannis sebastocratoris filio…Ioannis"] detinebatur" in Constantinople[71]Betrothed ([1283, contract broken 1283/84]) to --- Asanina, daughter of IVAN ASEN III Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Eirene Palaiologina.  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Michaeli Ioannis Ducæ Occiduorum…sebastocratoris filio" to "filiam ex Asane natam"[72].  The dating of this betrothal is unclear from the text, but it presumably predated Mikhael's capture and imprisonment in Constantinople.  The identity of the daughter of Tsar Ivan Asen is not known, but she was probably either Maria or Theodora, daughters of the Tsar known from other sources. 

2.         KONSTANTINOS Komnenos Doukas (-1303).  He succeeded his father in [1289] as Lord of Thessaly, sharing power with his younger brother Theodoros.  He was granted the title sébastokrator under the treaty recognising Byzantine suzerainty over Thessaly which was negotiated by his mother[73].  However, he reversed this pro-Byzantine policy by recognising in 1296 the suzerainty of Charles II King of Sicily[74]m [ANNA Evagionissa], daughter of --- (-1317).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   Konstantinos & his wife had [one possible child]:

a)         [IOANNES Doukas Angelos ([1295/1300]-1318).  His parentage is nowhere stated, he could have been the son either of Konstantinos or of Konstantinos's brother Theodoros[75]Sébastokrator.  He succeeded his father in 1303 as Lord of Thessaly, but a council of nobles invited Guy II Duke of Athens to become the infant's guardian in light of continuing threats of attack from Epirus.  Duke Guy took advantage of this role to assert considerable influence over Thessaly[76].  After Duke Guy was killed by the Catalans at Kephissos in 1311, Ioannes adopted the title "Lord of the lands of Athens and Neopatras" although he had no control over the territory[77].  Ioannes accepted Byzantine suzerainty in 1315 in order to free himself from Athens, and married the emperor's daughter[78].  After the death of Ioannes, the Lordship of Thessaly was dismembered: the Melissenos family took control of Delphos, Venice took Ptelion, Neopatras was occupied by the Catalans, and the northern part of Thessaly was taken by Byzantium[79]m (1309 or 1315[80]) EIRENE Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS II & his mistress ---.  Her marriage was arranged when her future husband accepted Byzantine suzerainty over Thessaly[81].] 

3.         HELENE KomnenoDoukaina (-[1294/95]).  Pachymeres records that "fratrem Ioannis Guillelmum" married "Ioannis nothi filiam"[82].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Guglielmo suo fratello della Rocia, signor della Livadia" married "la figlia del Sevasto Cratora Signor d´Alla patre e Blaquia" and that her dowry was "la Gravia con Sidero castro e cum Gitone" [Gravia, Siderokastron, Gardiki and Lamia][83]She was regent of Athens for her son from 1289 to 1294.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “la feme du duc Guillerme” married “le conte Hugue” as her second husband[84]m firstly GUILLAUME de la Roche Duke of Athens, son of GUY I Duke of Athens & his wife --- [Briel/Bruyères of Karytena] (-1287).  Joint Lord of Thebes 1280.  m secondly (1291 before 14 Sep) HUGUES de Brienne Conte di Lecce, son of GAUTHIER [IV] "le Grand" de Brienne Count of Jaffa & his wife Marie of Cyprus (-before 27 Aug 1296).  Captain-General of Brindisi, Otranto and Apulia.   

4.         THEODOROS [Ioannes] KomnenoDoukas Angelos (-after [1299]).  He shared power with his older brother Konstantinos when the latter succeeded their father as Lord of Thessaly.  He was granted the title sébastokrator under the treaty recognising Byzantine suzerainty over Thessaly which was negotiated by his mother[85]Betrothed ([1295/96]) to THEOPHANU of Armenia, daughter of LEO II King of Armenia & his wife Anna of Lampron [Armenia-Hethum] ([11 Jan 1278/10 Jan 1279]-[1296], bur Thessaloniki).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Ysabeau, Ritta et Thefanon" as the three daughters of King Leo II & his wife, stating that "Thefanon" died young[86].  Pachymeres names "minorem…novæ Augustæ sororem…Theophanu" when recording that she was renamed THEODORA in honour of "matris Augusti senioris" and later betrothed to "in partibus Occiduis Ioannis sebastocratoris filio…Ioannis", but that Theodora died on the journey to Constantinople and was buried at Thessaloniki[87]

5.         daughter .  Pachymeres records that "Nicephoro…fratri…eius notho Ioanni…filia" married "Tarchanaiotæ Andronico August nepote e sorore Martha"[88].  Her marriage was arranged by her future husband's uncle, Emperor Mikhael VIII, as part of his policy of establishing close relations with her father[89], although this backfired after the marriage when her husband supported her father against the emperor.  m ANDRONIKOS Tarchanaiotes, son of NIKEPHOROS Tarchanaiotes, megas domestikos & his wife Maria Palaiologina (-1283).  Megas kontostavlos.  He allied himself with his father-in-law to challenge Emperor Mikhael VIII.  He died of the plague. 

6.         [HELENA] Angelina (-[1298/99]).  She is named "[Helene]/Jelena" in Europäische Stammtafeln[90] but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  m ([1276], repudiated 1283) as his first wife, STEFAN UROŠ MILUTIN, son of STEFAN UROŠ I "Veliki/the Great" or "Arapavi/the Holy" King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]).  He succeeded in 1282 on the abdication of his brother as STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia

7.         [daughter .  Pachymeres records the betrothal of "Bulgariæ rex Terteres…suo filio Osphentisthlabo" to "Ioannis sebastocratoris patris…Michaelis…filia"[91].  The identity of this daughter is not clear, although she was probably one of the other daughters shown here and identified in other sources.  Betrothed ([1284]) to TODOR SVETOSLAV of the Bulgarians, son of GEORGI Terter Tsar of the Bulgarians & his first wife Maria --- (-1321).  He succeeded in 1300 as TODOR SVETOSLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians

8.         [daughter .  An unnamed daughter is attested in 1299, but she could have been one of the other known daughters of Ioannes.] 

 

 

 



[1] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 63. 

[2] Fine (1994), pp. 119-20. 

[3] Fine (1994), p. 125. 

[4] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[5] Fine (1994), p. 157. 

[6] Fine (1994), p. 241. 

[7] Fine (1994), p. 247, and Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 247. 

[8] Cronica Alberti de Bezanis, MGH SS rerum Germanicarum in usum Scholarum II (Hannover, 1908), pp. 41-2. 

[9] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 537. 

[10] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") Continuator (“WTC”) XXVII.XXIV, p. 246. 

[11] Runciman, S. (1951, 1952 and 1954) A History of the Crusades, Vol. 1 (Penguin Books, 1978), Vol. 3, pp. 110-11. 

[12] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 124-5. 

[13] Sturdza (1999), p. 542. 

[14] Fine (1994), p. 63. 

[15] Sturdza (1999), p. 542. 

[16] Fine (1994), p. 87. 

[17] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS XXXI, p. 179. 

[18] Sicardi Episcopi Cremonensis Cronica, MGH SS XXXI, p. 179. 

[19] Moriondus, J. B. (1790) Monumenta Aquensia (Turin), Pars II, Historiam Aquensem,Monferratensem ac Pedemontanam, col. 176. 

[20] Fine (1994), pp. 88-9. 

[21] Fine (1994), pp. 119-20. 

[22] Sturdza (1999), p. 542. 

[23] Miller (1908), p. 85. 

[24] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Chronica 1230, MGH SS XIX, p. 362. 

[25] Gardner, A. (1912) The Lascarids of Nicæa, The Story of an Empire in Exile (Methuen, London), pp. 55-57, quoting Nicetas Chroniates on p. 55. 

[26] Fine (1994), p. 68. 

[27] Sturdza (1999), p. 209. 

[28] Fine (1994), p. 105. 

[29] Fine (1994), p. 113. 

[30] Fine (1994), pp. 113-4 and 119-20. 

[31] Fine (1994), p. 121. 

[32] Fine (1994), pp. 122-3, and Gardner (1912), p. 141. 

[33] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1230, MGH SS XXIII, p. 927. 

[34] Fine (1994), p. 124. 

[35] Fine (1994), pp. 124-5. 

[36] Fine (1994), p. 125. 

[37] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[38] Fine (1994), p. 134. 

[39] Fine (1994), p. 157. 

[40] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1837) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Georgius Akropolites") 24, p. 42. 

[41] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[42] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephræmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Ephræmius") 8330, p. 335. 

[43] Fine (1994), pp. 69 and 134. 

[44] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[45] Ephræmius 8330, p. 335. 

[46] Givkovich, C. (ed.) (1858) Vie des saints apôtres serbes Symeon et Sabba (Paris) ("Domentijan"), p. 56. 

[47] Fine (1994), p. 105. 

[48] Fine (1994), p. 136. 

[49] This is probably the latest possible date for her birth as Eirene gave birth to her first child in 1238. 

[50] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[51] Ephræmius 8330, p. 335. 

[52] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[53] Fine (1994), pp. 124-5. 

[54] Fine (1994), p. 156, citing Lazarov, I. 'Upravlenieto na Mihail II Asen I Irina Komnina (1246-1256)', Vekove, 1984, no. 2: 12-19, which discredits the evidence indicating that Eirene was a regent for her son Mihail II Asen from 1246. 

[55] Georgius Akropolites 38, p. 65. 

[56] Ephræmius 8330, p. 335. 

[57] Fine (1994), p. 157. 

[58] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1235, MGH SS XXIII, p. 938. 

[59] Fine (1994), p. 128. 

[60] Fine (1994), p. 126. 

[61] Sturdza (1999), p. 209, and Fine (1994), p. 128. 

[62] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[63] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 4, p. 201. 

[64] Fine (1994), pp. 162-4. 

[65] Fine (1994), p. 185. 

[66] Fine (1994), p. 188. 

[67] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[68] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber I, 30, p. 83. 

[69] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[70] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 25 and 27, pp. 67 and 72-3. 

[71] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 6, p. 206. 

[72] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 27, p. 72. 

[73] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[74] Sturdza (1999), p. 211. 

[75] M. B., in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[76] Fine (1994), p. 238. 

[77] Miller (1908), pp. 246-7. 

[78] Fine (1994), p. 241. 

[79] Fine (1994), p. 247, and Miller (1908), p. 247. 

[80] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1830-1855) Nicephorus Gregoras, Historiæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol. I, 249, says that Ioannes was "lately married" in 1309, but at I, 278, says he had been "married three years" when he died, see Miller (1908), p. 222 footnote 2.  It is possible that the earlier date refers to his betrothal. 

[81] Fine (1994), p. 241. 

[82] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 27, p. 413. 

[83] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[84] Buchon (1845) Livre de la conqueste de la Morée, p. 269. 

[85] Fine (1994), p. 235. 

[86] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIIII, p. 92. 

[87] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 6, p. 206. 

[88] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber IV, 26, p. 308. 

[89] Sturdza (1999), p. 211. 

[90] ES II 161 and 180. 

[91] Pachymeres Vol. II, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber I, 27, p. 73.