GREECE, LATIN LORDSHIPS

  v2.0 Updated 07 February 2011

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 3

Chapter 1.            ACHAIA. 4

A.       PRINCE of ACHAIA 1205-1208 (CHAMPLITTE) 4

B.       PRINCES of ACHAIA 1209-1278 (VILLEHARDOUIN) 4

GEOFFROY I 1209-[1225], GEOFFROY II [1225]-1246. 4

GUILLAUME II 1246-1278, ISABELLE 1289-1307, FLORENT 1289-1297, PHILIPPE 1301-1307. 4

C.      BARONS of AKOVA (MATAGRIFON) 4

D.      BARONS of CHALANDRITZA.. 4

E.       BARONS of KALAVRYTA.. 4

F.       BARONS of KARYTAINA.. 4

G.      BARONS of PASSAVA.. 4

H.      BARONS of VOSTITZA.. 4

Chapter 2.            ARKADIA. 4

A.       BARONS of ARKADIA (AULNAY) 4

B.       BARONS of ARKADIA (ZACCARIA) 4

Chapter 3.            ARGOS. 4

Chapter 4.            ATHENS. 4

A.       LORDS of ATHENS 1205-1260, DUKES of ATHENS 1260-1308 (de la ROCHE-sur-l'OGNON) 4

OTHON 1205-1225. 4

GUY I 1225-1263, JEAN 1263-1280, GUILLAUME 1280-1287, GUY II 1287-1308. 4

B.       DUKES of ATHENS (BRIENNE) 4

GAUTHIER 1308-1311. 4

C.      DUKES of ATHENS 1312-1388 (ARAGON) 4

MANFREDO 1312-1317, GUGLIELMO 1317-1338, GIOVANNI 1338-1348, FEDERIGO I 1348-1355, FEDERIGO II 1355-1377, MARIA 1377-1388. 4

D.      DUKES of ATHENS (ACCIAIUOLI) 4

NERIO I 1394, ANTONIO I 1405-1435. 4

NERIO II 1435/1451, ANTONIO II 1439-1441, CHIARA 1451-1455, FRANCESCO II 1455-1458. 4

Chapter 5.            BOUDONITZA. 4

A.       PALLAVICINI 4

B.       ZORZI 4

Chapter 6.            CHIOS. 4

A.       ZACCARIA.. 4

B.       GIUSTINIANI 4

Chapter 7.            EUBŒA. 4

A.       NORTHERN TRIARCHATE.. 4

B.       CENTRAL TRIARCHATE.. 4

C.      SOUTHERN TRIARCHATE.. 4

Chapter 8.            KEFALONIA. 4

A.       COUNTS of KEFALONIA (ORSINI) 4

B.       COUNTS of KEFALONIA (TOCCO) 4

LEONARDO I 1357-[1376], CARLO I [1376]-1429. 4

Chapter 9.            LESBOS (GATTILUSIO) 4

Chapter 10.           MYKONOS. 4

Chapter 11.           NAXOS (DUCHY of the ARCHIPELAGO) 4

A.       DUKES of NAXOS 1207-1362 (SANUDO) 4

B.       DUKES of NAXOS 1383-1566 (CRISPO) 4

Chapter 12.           SALONA. 4

A.       LORDS of SALONA (STROMONCOURT) 4

B.       LORDS of SALONA (ARAGON) 4

Chapter 13.           THEBES (SAINT-OMER) 4

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The establishment of the Latin lordships in Greece at the start of the 13th century is generally seen as the fall-out of the Fourth Crusade.  However, the Venetians had already built up commercial interests in Greece, after receiving trading privileges in the early 12th century from Emperor Alexios I which included the right to found colonies.  In addition, by the time of the Fourth Crusade, the Normans of Sicily already controlled Kefalonia, Zante and Ithaka, which were then governed by Maio Orsini.  In 1199, the Genoese pirate Vetrano conquered Corfu. 

 

The 1204 treaty, which projected the division of the Byzantine empire between Venice and the Crusaders, allocated Arcadiopolis, Heraclea, Rhodostos, Panidos, Adrianople, Anchiale, Ganos, Hexamili and Gallipoli (to the north of Greece) and the island of Eubœa [Evia], Egina, Salamina, most of Morea, Etolia, Acarnania, Epirus, Zante, Kefalonia, Leukadia and Corfu (to the south and west of Greece) to the Venetians.  Venetian resources were, however, insufficient to govern so many diverse territories.  They exchanged some with Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato (who was installed as king of Thessaloniki after the capture of Constantinople by the Latins) in return for the island of Crete.  Others were exchanged with Baudouin, who had been newly appointed as Latin emperor.  As far as the islands and territories to the south and west were concerned, the Venetians abandoned Eubœa, Morea, Egina, Salamina and the Ionian islands to the French conquerors, while Corfu was left to Mikhael Angelos Komnenos Dukas Lord of Epirus.  In turn, King Bonifazio abandoned all areas in continental Greece south of the Thermopyles to the Latins[1]

 

The twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, were the duchy of Athens, the duchy of the Archipelago (also known as the duchy of Naxos) in the Dodecanese islands, the duchy of Leukadia (ruled by a branch of the family of the counts of Kefalonia), the March of Boudonitza, the county of Kefalonia, the lordship of Salona (also referred to as Soula and Solona, and sometimes referred to as a county), the lordship of Arkadia in Morea, the three parts of the island of Eubœa, the lordship of Chalandritza, and the barony of Patras, all named as such in a charter dated 1301[2].  A useful list of the fiefs and fief-holders in Greece during the early 14th century is provided by a Venetian manuscript which lists the barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[3].  References from this listing have been extracted and included in this document.  The list is particular interesting as it demonstrates that the republic of Veni ce was hedging its bets at the time concerning the rulers of the principality of Achaia: Philippe de Savoie and his wife Isabelle de Villehardouin are included, as are Isabelle´s daughter Mathilde and her husband Louis de Bourgogne, even though they had all left Greece several years earlier.  In addition, the latter couple are included among nobles who took precedence over the Doge, whereas the former are not. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    ACHAIA

 

 

The name Achaia was applied to a region in north-western Peloponnesos in pre-Roman times[4].  The De Administrando Imperio of Emperor Konstantinos VII Porphyrogennetos records Peloponnesos as the sixth theme of the European part of the Byzantine empire and adds that the Romans called it “Αχαιας”[5].  After the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the Franks landed at Modon in 1205 and moved into the plains of Morea and Kato-Achaia near Patras in 1206, from where they conquered the coastal area of the gulf of Lepanto[6].  As part of the rearrangement of territories which had originally been allocated between the Venetians, the Franks and the Latin empire under the 1204 treaty, Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato (who had been installed as king of Thessaloniki) abandoned all areas in continental Greece south of the Thermopyles to the Latins[7].  The name Achaia was adopted by Guillaume de Champlitte for the principality which he founded in the Peloponnesos in 1205[8].  In the Livre de la conqueste de la Morée, the name “Achaia” generally refers to the whole territory of the principality, including the islands within its jurisdiction, whereas “Morea” refers to the Peloponnesos peninsula alone[9]

 

The principality consisted of the following baronies which were confirmed by Guillaume de Champlitte[10]

 

The barons of Kalamata, Nikli and Patras occupied existing ancient fortresses[39], whereas the remaining barons constructed new principle strongholds to protect their territories as well as minor fortifications along the borders of their baronies to protect against incursions from the neighbouring barons[40]

 

Additional territories were later added to the principality of Achaia: Corinth, Argos and Navplion, the valley of Alphea between the towns of Nikli and Veligosti, and the area of Monemvasia and Vatika as far as cape Malea[41]

 

The Villehardouin princes of Achaia established their main residence at Andravida, and secondary residences at Gastouni, Rhiolo to the north of Andravida in the foothills of mount Mavri and on the banks of the river Larissos, Vesiri at the foot of the monastery of Hagia Paraskevi near the source of the river Pourleska, Rhoviata on the banks of the river Pourleska near the sea near Gastouni, Androusa at the foot of mount Ithoma (which also became the residence of one of the captains of Morea), and Nisi near the fortress of Mikro-Magni on the river Pamisos near the sea[42].  By 1325, when Jean of Sicily Conte di Gravina [Anjou-Capet] arrived in Morea to claim the principality of Achaia, only four of the original baronies remained in the hands of the Franks: Chalandritza, Patras, Veligosti, and Vostitza[43].  After Jean Conte di Gravina sold his rights to Achaia to his cousin Robert of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] in 1332, control over the different Frankish domains in Greece was centralised, Robert's mother Catherine de Valois titular Empress of Constantinople acting on his behalf until she died in 1346.  Robert spent little time in Greece, appointing a series of baillis to rule on his behalf, and power gravitated to the Acciaiuoli family after the grant of Corinth to Niccolo Acciaiuoli in 1358[44]

 

After the Navarrese Company conquered Achaia in 1380, they maintained the fiction that they ruled as representatives of Charles III King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], who was the hereditary successor to Robert di Tarento.  By the end of the 14th century, there were at least four competing claims to Achaia: Louis II Duc de Bourbon (as heir of Marie de Clermont, widow of Robert di Tarento), the dukes of Savoy (as heirs of Philippe de Savoie, second husband of Isabelle de Villehardouin Pss of Achaia), the Knights of St John (who bought their claim from Marie de Châtillon-Blois, widow of Louis I Duc d'Anjou who had been nominated as successor by Jacques de Baux, although this was invalidated by anti-Pope Clement VII after protests from Amédée VII Duke of Savoy[45]), and the kings of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] (as successors to Jeanne I Queen of Sicily, whose claim came through the Mallorca line).  Ignoring the competing claimants, Ladislas King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] installed Pedro Bordo de San Superán as prince of Achaia in 1396, and his wife's nephew Centurione Zaccaria as prince in 1404[46].  As Latin hold over Morea weakened, the Byzantine governors of Mistra strengthened their position in the Peloponnesos, particularly after Emperor Ioannes VI appointed his son Manuel as governor in 1348.  After this, the office was regularly bestowed on junior members of the Byzantine imperial family who developed Morea into a semi-autonomous region at least as powerful and prosperous as the much-weakened central authority in Constantinople. 

 

 

 

A.      PRINCE of ACHAIA 1205-1208 (CHAMPLITTE)

 

 

1.         GUILLAUME de Champlitte, son of EUDES de Champlitte "le Champenois" & his wife Sibylle --- (-1210).  Villehardouin names "Eudes le Champenois de Champlitte and his brother Guillaume" when recording that they joined the Fourth Crusade in Sep 1200 at Cîteaux[47].  Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, King of Thessaloniki, appointed him to hold Peloponnesos which he conquered with Geoffroy de Villehardouin.  In 1205, he assumed the title Prince of Achaia.  He was able to take control of most of the peninsula with little opposition from the Greeks whom he treated as allies, averting anarchy and civil war[48].  On hearing of the death of his older brother in 1208, Guillaume left for Burgundy to claim his inheritance, appointing a commission under the presidency of Geoffroy de Villehardouin to divide Morea into fiefs, with his nephew Hugues as his bailly in Achaia.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li Champenois” was chosen as prince but that he left, after “li chastiaux de l´Arcadie” were captured, on hearing news from France that “son frere le conte de Champaigne” had died and that the king ordered him home to take over his lands[49].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li Champenois” appointed “un sien cousin…Robert” to succeed him in Achaia but that his arrival in Greece was delayed by the machinations of Geoffroy de Villehardouin beyond the year and one day which had been provided for in documentation agreed with Guillaume de Champlitte, failure to comply with which would result in Geoffroy being declared heir[50].  Guillaume died on the journey home in Apulia, followed by Hugues soon after, leaving Geoffroy de Villehardouin as bailly until the next of kin arrived from France.  Miller specifies that the appointment of Hugues de Champlitte is referred to in a letter of Pope Innocent III, although the Chronicle of Morea does not mention it[51].

-        VICOMTES de DIJON, SEIGNEURS de PONTAILLER, de CHAUSSIN, de TALMAY[52]

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of ACHAIA 1209-1278 (VILLEHARDOUIN)

 

 

GEOFFROY I 1209-[1225], GEOFFROY II [1225]-1246

 

GEOFFROY de Villehardouin, son of JEAN de Villehardouin Seigneur de Brandonvillers & his wife Céline --- (-[end-1218] or [Sep 1225/Apr 1227], bur Andravida, church of St James).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Gaufredus Campanie marescalcus et Gaufridus nepos eius de Villa Harduini appellatus", in a later passage naming him "Gaufridus de Villa Harduin, Iohannis filius"[53].  Villehardouin names "Geoffroy de Villehardouin, Marshal of Champagne, and his nephew Geoffroy" among those who joined the Fourth Crusade in 1199[54].  As one of the leaders of the Crusade, he negotiated the treaty with Venice in Apr 1201 under which the city agreed to supply transport and provisions for the crusaders in return for 85,000 silver marks (which the crusaders were unable to raise) and receiving half their conquests[55].  After the fall of Constantinople, Geoffroy sailed from Syria to Greece, landing at Modon in the southern Peloponnesos in Nov 1204.  After joining Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, King of Thessaloniki, at the siege of Navplion, he joined forces with Guillaume de Champlitte whom Bonifazio appointed to hold Peloponnesos which they conquered together.  Geoffroy was appointed Lord of Kalamata and Messenia by Guillaume de Champlitte, who had assumed the title Prince of Achaia.  He was also assigned Arkadia as compensation for Venice having captured Modon and Coron, and paid homage to Venice in [1206/09] for those parts of Morea which had previously been assigned to the Venetians under the partition treaty agreed in Mar 1204[56].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li Champenois” granted “le noble chastel de Calamate” to “monseignor Goffroy de Villarduin” and “la baillaige de la Morée” when he returned to France[57].  “Gaufridus de Villa-Harduini, Romanie senescallus” donated property to the abbey of Saphadim by charter dated 13 Sep 1209[58].  After the death of Hugues de Champlitte, he was left as bailly of Achaia while awaiting the arrival of the heir from France[59].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li Champenois” appointed “un sien cousin…Robert” to succeed him in Achaia, but that his arrival in Greece was delayed by the machinations of Geoffroy de Villehardouin beyond the year and one day which had been provided for in documentation agreed with Guillaume de Champlitte, failure to comply with which would result in Geoffroy being declared heir[60].  Although Pope Innocent III recognised Geoffroy as GEOFFROY I Prince of Achaia from that time, he did not use the title until he had acquired control over the whole of Morea with the fall of Corinth in 1210, followed by Argos in 1212[61].  "Gaufridus de Villa Arduini, princes Achaye et totius imperii Romanie senescallus" donated property to "abbati et conventui Clarevallis Aricourt" {Harricourt, Chaumont, Haute-Marne}, with the consent of "Helysabez uxoris mee et Gaufridi primogeniti mei", by charter dated 1216[62].  According to Miller, Prince Geoffroy I died in 1218[63].  Rodd adds that it was towards the end of the year[64].  It is supposed that this is based on the charter dated Mar 1220 (N.S.) under which “Goffridus de Villa-Harduini, princeps Achaie et senescallus Romanie” confirmed the appointment of “dominus Manasses de Valverra[65], the authors assuming that this charter refers to Prince Geoffroy II.  However, the wording of the version of this document which has been consulted contains nothing to indicate whether it refers to Prince Geoffroy I or Prince Geoffroy II.  Some doubt must remain about the actual date of Prince Geoffroy I´s death. 

m [as her first husband,] ELISABETH, daughter of ---.  "Goffridus de Villa-Harduini princeps Achaiæ, totiusque Romaniæ senescallus, et…Elizabeth uxor eiusdem principis" donated property to the abbey of Moustier by charter dated 1210[66].  According to Rodd[67], she was Elisabeth, daughter of Clarembaud [IV] de Chappes Vicomte de Troyes & his wife Hélisende de Traînel, but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  "Gaufridus de Villa Arduini, princes Achaye et totius imperii Romanie senescallus" donated property to "abbati et conventui Clarevallis Aricourt" {Harricourt, Chaumont, Haute-Marne}, with the consent of "Helysabez uxoris mee et Gaufridi primogeniti mei", by charter dated 1216[68].  [Elisabeth may have married secondly (after Jun 1218), as his second wife, Jacques de Saint-Omer.  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmoquartus filius Jacobus" married secondly "principissam Achayæ" by whom he had no children[69].  If this source is correct, from a chronological point of view the widow of Geoffroy de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia was the only person at that time who could be referred to as "principissam Achayæ".  However, the date of Geoffroy´s death is uncertain, as discussed above.  If he died in [1218], there was little time for his widow´s second marriage before Jacques was killed.  If Geoffroy died after this date, the reported second marriage would of course have been impossible.  In any case, Jacques´s first wife is recording as living in a charter dated Jun 1218[70].] 

Geoffroy & his wife had three children: 

1.         GEOFFROY de Villehardouin (-after 6 May 1246, bur Andravida, church of St James).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Goffrey et Guillerme” as the two sons of Geoffroy I Prince of Achaia, adding that Geoffroy inherited the principality and that Guillaume was granted “la chastellanie de Calamate” after the death of their father[71].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Gaufridus iunior de Villa Harduini filius Gaufridi principis de insula Montionis" when referring to his marriage[72].  "Gaufridus de Villa Arduini, princes Achaye et totius imperii Romanie senescallus" donated property to "abbati et conventui Clarevallis Aricourt" [Harricourt, Chaumont, Haute-Marne], with the consent of "Helysabez uxoris mee et Gaufridi primogeniti mei", by charter dated 1216[73].  He succeeded his father in 1218/[1225/27] as GEOFFROY II Prince of Achaia, and was recognised by his brother-in-law Emperor Robert as Prince of Achaia[74].  “Goffridus de Villa-Harduini, princeps Achaie et senescallus Romanie” confirmed the appointment of “dominus Manasses de Valverra” by charter dated Mar 1220 (N.S.)[75].  He was Seigneur de Courtenay from Feb 1241 to 20 Feb 1242[76].  Lord of Messenia with Kalamata and Arkadia.  He was given suzerainty over Eubœa by Baudouin II Emperor of Constantinople in 1236, in return for Achaia providing help in defending Constantinople[77].  Lord of the islands of the archipelago (Eubœa) 1240/44.  Miller states that Prince Geoffroy II is last mentioned as alive in a letter of Pope Innocent IV dated 6 May 1246[78], but this document has not yet been consulted.  m (1217 after Apr) AGNES de Courtenay, daughter of PIERRE de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople & his second wife Yolande de Flandre Marquise de Namur ([1202]-in France after 1247).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the daughter of Pierre de Courtenay (unnamed) married the son of Geoffroy de Villehardouin while she and her mother were travelling through Morea en route to Constantinople[79].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the marriage of "quartam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri]" and "Gaufridus iunior de Villa Harduini filius Gaufridi principis de insula Montionis"[80].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. 

2.         ALIX de Villehardouin .  Her parentage is indicated by the Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée which records that Guillaume I Prince of Achaia was the uncle of Geoffroy de Bruyères Lord of Karytaina[81].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m (before 1222) HUGUES de Bruyères, son of ---.  Lord of Karytaina.  Baron of Skorta. 

3.         GUILLAUME de Villehardouin (Kalamata Castle after [1208][82]-Kalamata Castle[83] 1 May 1278, bur Andravida, church of St James).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Goffrey et Guillerme” as the two sons of Geoffroy I Prince of Achaia, adding that Geoffroy inherited the principality and that Guillaume was granted “la chastellanie de Calamate” after the death of their father[84]

-        see below

 

 

GUILLAUME II 1246-1278, ISABELLE 1289-1307, FLORENT 1289-1297, PHILIPPE 1301-1307

 

GUILLAUME de Villehardouin, son of GEOFFROY I Prince of Achaia & his wife Elisabeth [de Chappes] (Kalamata Castle after [1208][85]-Kalamata Castle[86] 1 May 1278, bur Andravida, church of St James).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Goffrey et Guillerme” as the two sons of Geoffroy I Prince of Achaia, adding that Geoffroy inherited the principality and that Guillaume was granted “la chastellanie de Calamate” after the death of their father[87].  He succeeded his brother in [1246] as GUILLAUME II "le grand Dent" Prince of Achaia.  He captured Monemvasia, with Venetian naval help, after a three year siege and built the fortresses of Mistra (to protect the plain of Sparta), Old Maina (near Cape Matapan) and Levtro (also known as Beaufort, near Kisternes) to gain the submission of the Slavonic Meling tribe[88].  He was in Cyprus in May 1249 to join the Fifth Crusade of Louis IX King of France.  Claiming control over Eubœa, he invaded the island in 1256 and captured Negroponte, although it was recovered by Venice in 1258[89].  He invaded Athens in 1258, in response to the coalition against him formed by Guy Lord of Athens, and defeated Guy at the pass of Mount Karydi[90].  He joined the alliance formed by Manfredo King of Sicily and Mikhael [II] Angelos Lord of Epirus to attack Nikaia under Emperor Mikhael VIII.  Under the sébastokrator Ioannes Palaiologos, the emperor's troops defeated the alliance in the valley of Pelagonia in Autumn 1259 and captured Guillaume.  He was released end 1261, in return for swearing allegiance to Emperor Mikhael and ceding the towns of Monemvasia, Mistra, Maina and Hierakion to Byzantium.  Once back in Morea, he recaptured some of the lost territory and defeated the Byzantine army near Andravida in 1263 and at Nikli in 1264[91].  Hoping to gain support against any renewed Byzantine attack, he swore allegiance to Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] under the first Treaty of Viterbo 24 May 1267, the agreement being confirmed by the betrothal of his daughter to the king's son[92].  On Guillaume's death, the principality of Achaia passed under the direct authority of the king of Sicily, who appointed a series of baillies as his governors.  This state of affairs continued until 1289 when Guillaume's daughter Isabelle was installed as Pss of Achaia at the time of her second marriage. 

m firstly (1239) [AGNES] de Toucy, daughter of NARJOT de Toucy Lord of Bazarne & his first wife --- Branaina.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the marriage of "Guielmus" and "filiam Nargaldi natam de filia Livernes et sororis regis Francie" but does not name his wife[93].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  [1239/52]. 

[94]m secondly ([1246]) CARINTANA dalle Carceri, daughter of RIZZARDO dalle Carceri of Eubœa & his wife --- (before 1220-1255).  She was baroness in her own right of the northern third of the island of Eubœa, which her husband claimed on her death[95].  Sturdza states that "recent research" has established that Prince Guillaume did not marry Carintana but gives no further details[96]

m thirdly ([1258]) as her first husband, ANNA Komnenodukaina of Epirus, daughter of MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Theodora Dukaina Petraliphaina Basilissa (-4 Jan 1286).  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Michaelis…filia sua Anna" and "Achaiæ principe"[97].  Georgius Phrantzes names "Manfredum Siculorum rege et principem Peloponnesi et Achaiæ" as the two sons-in-law of "Aetolorum et Epirotarum despota Michaele"[98].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the marriage of “le prince Guillerme” and “la suer dou despot[99].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "il principe Guglielmo" married "Nicephoro…sorella" and that her dowry was "il castello della Liconia"[100].  She adopted the name AGNES.  After her husband died, she received the castles of Kalamata and Khlemutsi for life, although she later exchanged them for other land in Morea[101].  She married secondly (before 1280) Nicolas [II] de Saint-Omer Joint Lord of Thebes (-1294).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that, after the death of Prince Guillaume, “la princesses a feme…suer…de Quir Niccifore” married “le baron monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer le veillart, li sires de la moitié d´Estives[102].  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "Nicolaum", son of "Bilas", married "Achayæ principissam"[103]

Guillaume & his first wife had [two] children: 

1.         [SIMONE de Villehardouin (-1265).  Simone, daughter of Guillaume II de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, is named as second wife of Guglielmo by Mas Latrie, without specifying the primary source on which this is based[104].  He does not name her mother.  If Simone was Guillaume's legitimate daughter, she must have been born from his first marriage.  However, if it is correct as shown below that Guglielmo and Simone left numerous descendants, it is surprising that none should have claimed the principality of Achaia, which passed to the daughters of Guillaume de Villehardouin by his third marriage.  Another possibility is that Simone was illegitimate.  Another perspective is provided by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which records that "Il principe Guglielmo" brought "di Campagna et Borgogna tre sue nipoti" and that he married the third "a Miser Guglielmo da Verona, fiol a Miser Guglielmo signor d´ un terzero di Negroponte", adding that they had three sons and three daughters, and naming her "Madonna Simona" in a later passage[105].  It appears unlikely from a chronological point of view that this passage refers to Guglielmo [II] da Verona, son of Guglielmo [I], who is not recorded as having children.  It is more likely therefore that it refers to Guglielmo [I] da Verona, although his father was not recorded elsewhere as having been named Guglielmo.  If this is correct, Simone was not the daughter of Guillaume de Villehardouin.  m (1255) as his second wife, GUGLIELMO [I] da Verona Lord of Eubœa, son of GIBERTO da Verona Lord of Eubœa & his wife --- (-killed in battle Demetrias [1268]).]

2.         MARGUERITE de Villehardouin ([1240/41]-25 Jan 1242, bur Arripatori).  The necrology of Saint-Loup, Troyes records the death "25 Jan 1242" of "Margareta filia Guillelmi de Villa Harduini" and her burial "in ecclesia Arripatorii"[106].  Assuming that these dates are correct, Marguerite must have been born from her father´s first marriage. 

Guillaume & his third wife had two children: 

3.         ISABELLE de Villehardouin ([1260/63]-in Holland[107] 23 Jan 1312).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the proposed marriage and betrothal of “Ysabeau, la fille plus aisnée dou prince Guillerme” and “le fils dou roy [Charles le veillart, le frere dou roy de France][108].  After her first husband died, Isabelle remained at the court of Naples.  Her brother-in-law Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], in his capacity of Prince of Achaia, granted her the barony of Karitena and Bucelet 10 Jul 1289.  She was invested as ISABELLE Pss of Achaia by King Charles in 1289, jointly with her second husband, at the time of their marriage[109].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the marriage of “madame Ysabeau la dame de la Morée” and “monseignor Florant…de Haynaut[110].  She governed personally after the death of her second husband in 1297, although she retired to her castle of Nesi in Kalamata.  As her baillies, she appointed Richard Count of Kefalonia in 1297 and Nicolas de Saint Omer in 1300[111].   The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the marriage of “monseignor Philippe de Savoye, fils jadis dou conte Thomas de Savoye qui fu occis par traïson d´un carel d´arbalastre…sires de Pinerol et de Thurin et de celle contrée de Piémont” and “la princesse Ysabeau[112]A charter dated 23 Feb 1301 records the marriage between "dominum Philippum de Sabaudia" and "dominam Isabellam principissam Achayæ", and the investiture of the former as prince of Achaia by "regis domini Caroli secundi…Jerusalem et Siciliæ regis…vice filii ipsius…domini Philippi principis Tarentini"[113].  She and her third husband were forced to renounce the principality of Achaia 11 May 1307 in favour of her first husband’s nephew, Philippe of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet], receiving in exchange by agreement 11 May 1307 the county of Alba on the Adriatic coast of Italy.  She separated from her third husband, but continued to protest the loss of Achaia from Hainaut, where she was living, in spring 1307.  She affirmed her rights to Achaia, and those of her daughter Mathilde, 29 Apr 1311 at Valenciennes[114].  "Ser Phylippus de Sabaudia Princeps Achaye et Isabella Principissa" are included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[115], demonstrating that the republic of Venice continued to recognise the titles and positions of Philippe and his wife even after they had left Greece.  [116]Betrothed ([1266], contract broken 1267) to ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Batatzaina (25 Mar 1259-12/13 Feb 1332).  This betrothal was proposed by Emperor Mikhael VIII after he failed to conquer the principality of Achaia, his plan being that Andronikos should succeed in Achaia after the death of his future father-in-law, but the proposal was opposed by the Frankish barons in Achaia[117].  He succeeded his father in 1282 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS IIm firstly (betrothed 1267, Trani Cathedral 28 May 1271) PHILIPPE of Sicily, son of CHARLES I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Béatrice Ctss de Provence [Aragon-Barcelona] ([1255]-Bari 1 Jan 1277, bur Trani, Cathedral San Nicola).  This marriage was arranged to seal Prince Guillaume's alliance with the king of Sicily.  It was popular with the Frankish barons in Achaia who preferred a westerner as their potential future prince, despite the marriage contract providing that Achaia should revert to the house of Anjou whether or not any children were born of the marriage[118].  Philippe was created titular king of Thessaloniki 10 Mar 1274 at Brindisi by his brother-in-law Philippe de Courtenay Emperor of Constantinople[119]m secondly (16 Sep 1289) FLORENT de Hainaut, Stadhouder of Zeeland, Seigneur de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal en Hainaut, son of JEAN I Comte de Hainaut [Avesnes] & his wife Aleide of Holland ([1255]-Andravida 23 Jan 1297).  Constable of the kingdom of Sicily and Vicar-General of Corfu 1289-1290.  His marriage was proposed to Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] by barons in Achaia who were dissatisfied with the succession of baillies appointed to govern Achaia on behalf of the king and wished for a permanently resident prince.  The king agreed on condition that, if Isabelle survived Florent, neither she nor any female descendant would remarry without his consent, failing which Achaia would revert to the Sicilian crown[120].  He was invested as FLORENT Prince of Achaia by King Charles in 1289, jointly with his wife, at the time of their marriage[121].  His reign in Achaia was marked by a period of stability, after he negotiated a seven-year truce with the Byzantines of Mistra[122]m thirdly (Rome 12 Feb 1301, separated [1307]) as his first wife, PHILIPPE de Savoie Signore di Piemonte, son of THOMAS III Comte de Maurienne, Conte [Marchese] di Piemonte & his wife Guye de Chalon [Bourgogne-Comté] (1278-23 Sep 1334).  He was invested as THOMAS Prince of Achaia 23 Feb 1301, by right of his wife, and received the town and castle of Corinth from his wife[123].  His rule in Achaia was marked by despotism and self-interest.  Having refused to help Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] in his 1305 attempt to capture Epirus, the king finally deposed him 5 Jun 1306[124].  Thomas left Greece and received in exchange the county of Alba on the Adriatic coast of Italy by agreement 11 May 1307.  He continued using the title Prince of Achaia after his return to Italy.  "Ser Phylippus de Sabaudia Princeps Achaye et Isabella Principissa" are included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[125], demonstrating that the republic of Venice continued to recognise the titles and positions of Philippe and his wife even after they had left Greece.  Isabelle & her second husband had one child:

a)         MATHILDE de Hainaut (29 Nov 1293-Aversa 1331).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “Guis”, son of “li duc Guillerme d´Atthenes” and “la fille de quir Thodre sevastocratora, le frere bastard du despot de l´Arte”, married “madame Mehaulte la fille du prince Florant et de madame Ysabeau la princesse de Achaye[126]She succeeded her father in 1297 as Dame de Braine-le-Comte et de Hal.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Guido", son of "miser Guglielmo…della Rocia [Duca]", married "la figlia del principe Florenzò d´Anoldo", adding that her dowry was "la castellania de Calamata"[127].  Her mother affirmed her own rights over Achaia as well as those of Mathilde at Valenciennes 29 Apr 1311[128].  In 1313, Philippe Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] transferred his rights over Achaia to Mathilde, on condition that she transferred them to her second husband.  If he predeceased her, she would have only a life interest in the principality which would revert to the Burgundy family if the couple had no children[129].  "Ser Ludoycus Princeps Achaie, dominus Mahalda principissa eius uxor" are included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[130], demonstrating that the republic of Venice continued to recognise their titles and positions even though they were no longer present in Greece.  She refused the third marriage proposed by Philippe di Tarento, but was brought to Naples from Morea by force and compelled to marry.  She refused to transfer her rights to Achaia to her new husband and appealed, unsuccessfully, to Venice and the Burgundian ducal family for help.  She was taken to Avignon where Pope John XXII ordered her to obey, but she then avowed her secret marriage with Hugo de La Palice.  Her inheritance was confiscated by Robert King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] for breaching the condition of the 1289 marriage contract of her mother Isabelle which required the king's approval for her marriage.  Mathilde was imprisoned in the Castell dell'Uovo in Naples, accused of conspiring with her fourth husband to murder the king[131], before being transferred to the castle of Aversa in 1328.  Before dying, she bequeathed all her rights verbally to her cousin Jaime II King of Mallorca but made no testament[132].  She had no children by any of her marriages.  m firstly (before Sep 1304) GUY II Duke of Athens, son of GUILLAUME Duke of Athens [de la Roche] & his wife Helena Komnenodukaina (-5 Oct 1308).  Betrothed (Thebes 2 Apr 1309) to CHARLES di Tarento, son of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento, Despot of Romania & his first wife Thamar Angelina Komnene Dukaina of Epirus ([1296]-killed in battle Montecatini, between Pistoia and Lucca 29 Aug 1315).  m secondly (contract 6 Apr 1313, 31 Jul 1313) LOUIS de Bourgogne, son of ROBERT II Duke of Burgundy & his wife Agnès de France (1297-2 Aug 1316, bur Abbaye de Cîteaux).  This marriage was arranged by Philippe of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] to appease Hugues V Duke of Burgundy, who had been betrothed to Catherine de Valois titular Empress of Constantinople at the time Philippe married her as his second wife[133].  Louis was invested as Prince of Achaia when his future wife transferred her rights to him at Paris 6 Apr 1313.  His brother Duke Hugues V transferred his titular rights to the defunct kingdom of Thessaloniki to Louis at the time of the marriage.  "Ser Ludoycus Princeps Achaie, dominus Mahalda principissa eius uxor" are included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[134], demonstrating that the republic of Venice continued to recognise their titles and positions even though they were no longer present in Greece.  Louis landed at Patras in Apr 1316 to claim his principalities in Greece, defeated his rival Infante Fernando de Mallorca at Manolada 5 Jul 1316, but died soon after, allegedly poisoned by Giovanni Orsini Count of Kefalonia[135]m thirdly (Naples Mar 1318, Papal dispensation 29 Mar 1318, marriage annulled 1321 for non-consummation) JEAN of Sicily Conte di Gravina, son of CHARLES II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his wife Maria of Hungary (1294-Naples 1336, bur Naples).  The principality of Achaia was considered forfeited in his favour when his wife avowed her marriage with Hugo de La Palice.  He set sail from Brindisi in Jan 1325 to claim his principality, his expedition funded by the Acciaiuoli family, although by this time the Franks controlled only a reduced part of the original territory.  He unsuccessfully attempted to recapture Karytaina, but by 1326 he had left Greece and was in Florence[136].  He transferred his rights to Achaia to his nephew Robert 17 Dec 1332, in return for Robert's rights over the kingdom of Albania and duchy of Durazzo[137]m fourthly (secretly, divorced) HUGO de La Palice, son of ---. 

Isabelle & her third husband had [three] children (Europäische Stammtafeln shows another unnamed daughter by Philippe's first marriage married to Charles of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] Prince of Achaia[138].  This presumably results from confusion with Mathilde de Hainaut, daughter of Isabelle de Villehardouin by her second husband Florent de Hainaut Sire de Braine, who was heiress of Morea and betrothed to Charles): 

b)         [MARIE de Savoie (1301-after 1308).  Europäische Stammtafeln shows this eldest daughter[139].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  The charter dated [24 Dec 1303/29 Feb 1304], in favour of her sister Marguerite (see below), suggests that the latter was Philippe and Isabelle´s oldest daughter.  This leaves open the question of Marie´s existence.] 

c)         MARGUERITE de Savoie (Feb 1303-after 8 Dec 1371).  "Filippo di Savoia Principe d'Achaia ed Isabella sua Consorte" renounced "Castelli, giurisdizioni e pertinenze di Cariteyne e Bossorolet" [Karytena and Bucelet] in favour of "Margarita Loro figilia" for her life by charter dated [24 Dec 1303/29 Feb 1304][140].  She was required to cede them back to Achaia after her father was deposed as prince in return for land near Alba, which yielded 200 gold ounces a year for her future dowry, granted by Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet][141].  She ceded her rights in the principality of Achaia to her half-brother Jacques de Savoie[142].  Her first betrothal is suggested by the proxy dated 4 Mar 1306 issued by "Filippo di Savoia Principe d'Acaja e Isabella di Lui Consorte" appointing "Guglielmo Provana e Chialaberto di Lusema" to negotiate the marriage between "Carlo figlio Primo Genito di Filippo Re di Sicilia" and "Margarita di Savoia Loro figlia"[143], although it is not known whether the negotiations were finalised into a marriage contract.  The testament of "Filippo di Savoia Primogenito del fu Tomaso de Savoia, Signore nelle parti del Piemonte" dated 9 Jun 1330 appoints as his heirs "Margarita, Alasia, Eleonora, e Gioannetta sue figlie nelle loro rispettive Doti…"[144].  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  [Betrothed (proxy granted 4 Mar 1306) to CHARLES di Tarento, son of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento, Despot of Romania [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Thamar Angelina Komnene Dukaina of Epirus ([1296]-killed in battle Montecatini, between Pistoia and Lucca 29 Aug 1315).  Despot of Epirus, Vicar of Romania 1313.  He was killed during fighting between rival Florentine factions[145].]  m (10 Jun 1324) RENAUD de Forez Seigneur de Malleval, de Rocheblaine et de Saint-Germain-Laval, son of JEAN [I] Comte de Forez [Albon] & his first wife Alix de Viennois [de la Tour du Pin] (-[1369/70]). 

d)         ALICE de Savoie (-1368).  The "community of Novello and Sineo" ratified the marriage contract between "Manfreddo del Caretto Marchese di Savona Signore di detti luoghi" and "Alasia figlia di Filippo di Savoia Principe d'Accaja" by charter dated 14 Dec 1325[146].  The testament of "Filippo di Savoia Primogenito del fu Tomaso de Savoia, Signore nelle parti del Piemonte" dated 9 Jun 1330 appoints as his heirs "Margarita, Alasia, Eleonora, e Gioannetta sue figlie nelle loro rispettive Doti…"[147].  The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not yet been identified.  m firstly (contract, 7 Oct 1324, ratified 14 Dec 1325) MANFREDO del Carretto Marchese di Savona Signore di Novello e Sineo, son of --- [Monferrato-Saluzzo] & his wife ---.  m secondly (26 Sep 1354) as his second wife, ANTELME d'Urtières dit de Miolans, Seigneur de Saint-Hélène-du-Lac, son of [JEAN d'Urtières Vidame de Genève & his wife Mabilie ---] (-after 1363).  Seigneur d'Urtières et de Chamousset 1363. 

4.         MARGUERITE (1266-Khlemutsi Feb 1315).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that Guillaume Prince of Achaia granted half of the barony of Akova to “madame Marguerite ma fille” as part of the settlement of the dispute with Marguerite Lady of Passava over her inheritance of the property[148].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li contes Richart” married “la dame de Mathe-Griphon, la suer de la princesse Ysabeau[149]On the death of her older sister Isabelle in 1312, Marguerite claimed the principality of Achaia.  She based her claim on an alleged will made by her father, the provisions of which would have been invalid in any event because of the terms of the marriage contract of Isabelle's first marriage in 1271, and even though Isabelle's children were still alive.  In order to obtain support from the powerful Catalan interest in Greece, Marguerite arranged the marriage of her daughter to whom she transferred her rights[150].  After her daughter's marriage, she was arrested by Nikolaos Mavro, acting on behalf of the Angevin/Burgundian interests of her niece's second husband, and imprisoned in the castle of Khlemutsi where she later died[151]m firstly (1 Sep 1294) ISNARD de Sabran, son of --- Conte di Ariano, in Apulia (-1297).  m secondly (1299) as his second wife, RICCARDO Orsini Count of Kefalonia, son of MAIO [Orsini] Count of Kefalonia & his wife Anna Komnene Angelina (-murdered 1304 before 7 Apr).  Marguerite & her first husband had one child: 

a)         ISABELLE de Sabran (1297-Catania 7 May 1315)The charter dated Feb 1313 between "Ferrandi Infantis, filii…quondam domini Regis Jacobi Regis Majoricarum bonæ memoriæ" and "dominæ Margaritæ filiæ quondam domini Guillelmi Ackay Principis dominæ Matagriffoni" provides for the marriage of the former with "dominam Isabellam eiusdem dominæ Margaritæ et dicti quondam domini Guillelmi filiam"[152].  Her marriage was arranged by her mother to obtain the support of the Catalans for her claim to the principality of Achaia and encouraged by Federigo I King of Sicily [Aragon] in order to increase his influence in Greece.  Her dowry was the barony of Akova [Matagrifon] and her mother's "fifth part" of the principality of Achaia[153].  Isabelle died from the after-effects of childbirth, after bequeathing her rights to Achaia to her new-born son[154]m (Messina Feb 1314) as his first wife, Infante don FERNANDO de Mallorca, son of don JAIME II de Aragón King of Mallorca & his wife Esclarmonde de Foix (Perpignan 1278-beheaded Manolada, Peloponnesos [Jul/19 Oct] 1316).  He claimed the principality of Achaia, on behalf of his infant son by this first marriage, and landed near Glarentza in Morea in summer 1315.  He captured the castle of Beauvoir [Pontikokastro] and the plain of Elis, adopting the title "Lord of the Morea" in Jul 1315[155].  He was defeated by his rival Louis de Bourgogne at Manolada 5 Jul 1316, and beheaded after the battle[156]

Marguerite & her second husband had one child: 

b)         daughter ([1300/03]-[1304]).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the death of “une fille que il avoit eue avec la contesse sa feme”, referring to Riccardo Count of Kefalonia, the context of the passage implying that this daughter died around the same time as her father[157]

 

 

 

C.      BARONS of AKOVA (MATAGRIFON)

 

 

Akova [Matagrifon], located in the interior, controlled the Greeks of Arkadia and guarded the passes to the valley of Alphea[158].  After the death of Gauthier [II] Baron of Akova (Matagrifon), the barony devolved to his niece Marguerite de Neuilly Lady of Passava but she was unable to claim her inheritance within 2 years and 2 days because she was held as a hostage in Constantinople.  Guillaume Prince of Achaia therefore declared her inheritance forfeit[159].  Marguerite´s third husband, Jean de Saint-Omer, demanded the return of her inheritance, which was refused by a specially summoned parliament at Glarentza.  Prince Guillaume granted one third of the barony to Marguerite as a concession, granting the other two-thirds to his own daughter Marguerite[160]

 

 

1.         GAUTHIER [I] de RosièresBaron of Akova (Matagrifon).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “un parlement general en Andreville”, convened by Geoffroy de Villehardouin as bailly of Achaia, affirmed that “Gautiers de Rosieres” had been granted “dou temps dou Champenois…la baronie de Mathe-Griffon” and was confirmed in the barony[161].  The barony was sold to Andronikos Palaiologos Asen, governor of Mistra, in [1316/21][162]m ---.  The name of Gauthier´s wife is not known.  Gauthier [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         GAUTHIER [II] de Rosières (-1262).  Baron of Akova (Matagrifon). His heiress was his niece Marguerite de Neuilly Lady of Passava but she was unable to claim her inheritance within 2 years and 2 days because she was held as a hostage in Constantinople. 

b)         daughter .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that the mother of “madame Margerite” was “suer charnel de…monseignor Gautier de Rosieres[163]m JEAN [II] de Neuilly Baron of Passava, son of JEAN [I] de Neuilly Baron de Passava & his wife ---. 

 

 

 

D.      BARONS of CHALANDRITZA

 

 

Chalandritza, between the barony of Patras and the mountains, protected the principality of Achaia against invasions from the interior[164].  The lordship of Chalandritza was named as one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia in a charter dated 1301[165]

 

 

1.         ROBERT de la TrémoïlleBaron of Chalandritza.  The Chronique Métrique records that “Robert de la Trémoïlle” (“Ρουμπέρτου ντε Τρεμουλα”) was granted Chalandritza[166]

 

2.         GUY de la TrémoïlleBaron of ChalandritzaThe Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “baron messire Guis de Tremolay…sires…de la Calandrice” was appointed bailly of the principality of Achaia after the death of “le duc Guillerme[167]m ---.  The name of Guy´s wife is not known.  Guy & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- de la Trémoïlle (-1288)The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “monseignor George Guis” married “la fille de monseignor Guy de Tremolay” and inherited “la baronie et la seignorie de la Chalandrice[168]m as his first wife, GIORGIO [I] Ghisi, son of BARTOLOMEO [I] Ghisi & his wife --- (-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311). 

 

 

 

E.      BARONS of KALAVRYTA

 

 

The barony of Kalavryta, between the barony of Vostitza and the mountains, protected against invasions from the interior[169]

 

 

1.         OTHON de Tournay (-[1261])Baron of Kalavryta.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “un parlement general en Andreville”, convened by Geoffroy de Villehardouin as bailly of Achaia, affirmed that “mesire Otthe de Tournay” had been granted “dou temps dou Champenois…la baronie de la Colovrate ou tout quatre fiés” and was confirmed in the grant[170]m as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly (after 1261) Anselin de ToucyThe Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “messire A de Toucy, freré de monseignor Philippe” married “la mere de messire Goffroy de Tornay[171]Othon & his wife had one child: 

a)         GEOFFROY de Tournay .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “messire A de Toucy, freré de monseignor Philippe” married “la mere de messire Goffroy de Tornay[172]m ---.  The name of Geoffroy´s wife is not known.  Geoffroy & his wife had one child: 

i)          CASSANDRA de Tournay .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "madonna Cassandra…fiola de miser Ziffredo de Tornaj" as wife of "miser Francesco Sanudo"[173]m FRANCESCO Sanudo, son of ---. 

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         JEAN de Tournay .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “monseignor Jehan de Tournay…et Otthe son frere[174]Baron of Kalavryta and Gritsena.  m --- of Kefalonia, daughter of RICCARDO Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his first wife ---.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that the wife of “monseignor Jehans” was “la fille dou conte Richard de Cephalonie[175]

2.         OTHON de TournayThe Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “monseignor Jehan de Tournay…et Otthe son frere[176]

 

 

 

F.      BARONS of KARDITSA

 

 

1.         ANTOINE le Flamenc (-after 1313).  Baron of Karditsa.  "Ser Antonius Flamengo miles" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[177]

 

 

 

G.      BARONS of KARYTAINA

 

 

The barony of Karytaina [Escorta] was adjacent to the mountains of Skorta and guarded the entrance to the valley of Alphea[178].  The Bruyères family was from the county of Champagne[179].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that, after the death of Geoffroy de Bruyères Baron of Karytaina without heirs, the barony was shared between his widow and Guillaume Prince of Achaia[180].  The barony was sold to Andronikos Palaiologos Asen, governor of Mistra, in [1316/21][181]

 

 

1.         HUGUES de Bruyères (-after 1230).  [Baron of Karytaina].  The Chronique Métrique records that Hugues de Bruyères built the castle of Karytaina in the pass of Skorta and that his son Geoffroy became baron of Karytaina[182]m (before 1222) ALIX de Villehardouin, daughter of GEOFFROY I Prince of Achaia & his wife Elisabeth [de Chappes].  Her parentage is indicated by the Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée which records that Guillaume I Prince of Achaia was the uncle of Geoffroy de Bruyères Lord of Karytaina[183].  Hugues & his wife had one child: 

a)         GEOFFROY de Bruyères (-Skorta [1269]).  The Chronique Métrique records that Hugues de Bruyére built the castle of Karytaina in the pass of Skorta and that his son Geoffroy became baron of Karytaina[184]Baron of Karytaina.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “un parlement general en Andreville”, convened by Geoffroy de Villehardouin as bailly of Achaia, affirmed that “messire Goffroy de Bruieres” had been granted “dou temps dou Champenois…vingt deux fiés à la baronie de l´Escorta” and was confirmed in the grant[185]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “monseignor Goffroy de Bruieres qui sires estoit de l´Escorta”, adding that he built “le chastel de Caraitaine[186].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the death of “monseignor Goffroy de Bruieres, le seignor de Carataine”, in a passage dated to [1269], adding that “il ne leissa nul hoir après lui[187]m ([1256]) as her first husband, ISABELLE of Athens, daughter of GUY I Duke of Athens [La Roche] & his wife [--- de Bruyères].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Ysabeau la fille dou duc d'Athanes, qui avoit esté feme dou seignor de Karitaine" as the wife of "Hugue…cuens de Brene"[188]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “messire Goffroy de Bruieres, le seignor de Caraitaine” married “la suer dou seignor d´Atthenes[189]The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "il signor della Caritena" married "la figlia del signor della Rocia" was therefore "consanguineo e assai propinquo di…Principe [Guglielmo]" [Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia], and that his widow married "al conte de Brenna"[190]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that, after the death of Geoffroy de Bruyères Baron of Karytaina without heirs, the barony was shared between his widow and Guillaume Prince of Achaia[191].  She married secondly (Andravida 1277[192]) as his first wife, Hugues de Brienne Conte di Lecce.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the second marriage of the widow of Geoffroy de Bruyères and “messire Hugue le conte de Brene et de Liche[193]

 

 

1.         GEOFFROY de Bruyères .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer” promised to grant “le fié de Moraines” to “monseignor Goffroy” and arrange his marriage to “madame Margerite, la dame de la Lisarée, qui estoit cousine de monseignor Gautier de Rosieres le seignor de Mathe-Griphon[194]m ([1287]) MARGUERITE de Cors Lady of Lisarea, daughter of GUIBERT Baron of Lisarea & his wife Marguerite de Neuilly (-after 1289).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer” promised to grant “le fié de Moraines” to “monseignor Goffroy” and arrange his marriage to “madame Margerite, la dame de la Lisarée, qui estoit cousine de monseignor Gautier de Rosieres le seignor de Mathe-Griphon[195].  Guy & his wife had one child: 

a)         HELENE .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Elaine” as daughter of “monseignor Goffroy” and his wife “madame Margerite, la dame de la Lisarée, qui estoit cousine de monseignor Gautier de Rosieres le seignor de Mathe-Griphon”, adding that she married “baron messire Villain d´Anoë, le seignor de l´Arcadye[196]m VILAIN [II] d´Aulnay Baron of Arkadia, son of ---.  Villain & his wife had two children: 

 

 

 

H.      BARONS of PASSAVA

 

 

Passava was located at the centre of the Magna[197]

 

 

Three brothers.  Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that they were sons of Guillaume de Nully, related to the Seigneurs de Nully who were descended from Guy d´Aigremont, brother of the ancestor of the Sires de Choiseul[198]

1.         JEAN [I] de Nully (-after 1209).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “un parlement general en Andreville”, convened by Geoffroy de Villehardouin as bailly of Achaia, affirmed that “mesire Jehan le marescal de Nulli” had been granted “dou temps dou Champenois…la baronie de Passavant ou tout quatre fiés” and was confirmed in the grant[199]Baron of Passava.  Jean de Nully was hereditary marshal heading the armies of the principality of Achaia.  m ---.  The name of Jean´s wife is not known.  Jean [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         JEAN [II] de Nully (-after [1250])Baron of Passava.  Hereditary Marshal of Achaia.  m --- de Rosières, daughter of GAUTHIER [I] de Rosières Baron of Akova [Matagrifon] & his wife ---.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that the mother of “madame Margerite” was “suer charnel de…monseignor Gautier de Rosieres[200].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified  Jean [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARGUERITE de Nully .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that the mother of “madame Margerite” was “suer charnel de…monseignor Gautier de Rosieres[201]Lady of Passava.  She was sent as a hostage to Constantinople in 1262 to secure the release of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, whose niece she was (her precise relationship with Prince Guillaume has not yet been identified).  She was the heiress of her maternal uncle Gauthier [II] de Rozières, baron of Akova [Matagrifon] but was unable to claim her inheritance within 2 years and 2 days due to her absence in Constantinople.  Prince Guillaume therefore declared her inheritance forfeit[202].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la mariscalca della Morea" as the wife of "miser Guglielmo" son of "miser Guglielmo da Verona"[203].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the death of “messire Guisbers de Cors” and the remarriage of his wife “la fille de monseignor Jehan de Passavant le marescal” with “monseignor Jehan de Saint Omer[204].  Her third husband demanded the return of her inheritance, which was refused by a specially summoned parliament at Glarentza.  Prince Guillaume granted one third of the barony to Marguerite as a concession, granting the other two-thirds to his own daughter Marguerite[205]m firstly GUIBERT de Cors Baron of Livoria, son of --- (-1258).  m secondly GUGLIELMO [II] da Verona Lord of Eubœa, son of GUGLIELMO da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (central part) & his second wife [Simone de Villehardouin] (-killed in battle Licario 1275).   m thirdly ([1276]) JEAN de Saint-Omer, son of BELA de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes & his wife Bonne de la Roche of Athens (-after 1278). 

2.         ERARD de Nully (-[1249/60]). 

3.         VILLAIN de Nully dit de Juzennecourt (-after [1226/29]). 

-        SEIGNEURS de BAUDIGNECOURT et de JUZENNECOURT[206]

 

 

 

I.        BARONS of VOSTITZA

 

 

The barony of Vostitza was located on the coast and protected the gulf of Lepanto[207]

 

 

1.         HUGUES de CharpignyBaron of Vostitza.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “un parlement general en Andreville”, convened by Geoffroy de Villehardouin as bailly of Achaia, affirmed that “mesire Ougues” (Hugues de Charpigny) had been granted “dou temps dou Champenois…la baronie de la Grite ou tout quatre fiés” and was confirmed in the grant[208].  The Chronique Métrique clarifies that “la Grite” was “την Βοστίτζαν”[209]

 

2.         GUY de CharpignyBaron of VostitzaThe Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “monseignor Guis de Cherpeigny, le seignor de la Vostice[210]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    ARKADIA

 

 

The lordship of Arkadia in Morea was one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, named in a charter dated 1301[211]

 

 

A.      BARONS of ARKADIA (AULNAY)

 

 

1.         VILAIN [I] d´Aulnoy, son of --- (-after 1261).  Marshal of Romania.  “Guillaume de Ville-Hardouin prince d´Achaye et seneschal de Romanie” notified Thibaut Comte de Champagne that he had entrusted “mon cher cousin Vilain d´Aunoy mareschal de l´empire de Romanie” with “mon heritage à Ville-Hardouin et à Brandonviller” by letter dated Feb 1249 (N.S.)[212].  The precise relationship between the Aulnoy and Villehardouin families has not yet been ascertained.  Baron of Arkadia.  Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia granted him the barony of Arkadia in 1261 after he installed himself in Morea following the expulsion of Emperor Baudouin II from Constantinople.  m ---.  The name of Vilain´s wife is not known.  Vilain [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         GEOFFROY d´AulnoyThe Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “monseignor Goffroy d´Anoée, le seignor de l´Arcadie” and, in a later pasaje, “monseignor Villain d´Anoée” as his father[213]Baron of Arkadia

 

 

2.         VILAIN [II] d´Aulnoy Baron of Arkadiam HELENE de Bruyères, daughter of GEOFFROY de Bruyères & his wife Marguerite de Cors Lady of Lisarea.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Elaine” as daughter of “monseignor Goffroy” and his wife “madame Margerite, la dame de la Lisarée, qui estoit cousine de monseignor Gautier de Rosieres le seignor de Mathe-Griphon”, adding that she married “baron messire Villain d´Anoë, le seignor de l´Arcadye[214].  Vilain [II] & his wife had two children: 

a)         ERARD d´Anoe .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Erars d´Anoë et Agnes sa suer” as the children of “baron messire Villain d´Anoë, le seignor de l´Arcadye” & his wife[215]

b)         AGNES .  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Erars d´Anoë et Agnes sa suer” as the children of “baron messire Villain d´Anoë, le seignor de l´Arcadye” & his wife, adding that Agnes married “monseignor Estienne le Maure le seignor dou chastel de Saint Sauveur[216]m ETIENNE le Maure, son of ---. 

 

 

 

B.      BARONS of ARKADIA (ZACCARIA)

 

 

CENTURIONE Zaccaria, son of MARTINO Zaccaria Lord of Chios & his [first/second wife] --- (-1382).  He succeeded his father in the lordships of Damala, Chalandritza[217], Maniatochori and Lisarea[218]Baron of Arkadia 1345.  Philippe of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet], whose succession as Prince of Achaia in 1364 was disputed by Hugues of Cyprus and his mother, appointed Centurione as bailly of Achaia.  As civil war spread in Achaia, Centurione was captured and imprisoned at Navarino by the forces of Hugues[219].  He was among the envoys who went to Naples in 1374 to offer the principality of Achaia to Jeanne I Queen of Naples following the death of Philippe di Tarento in 1373[220]

m --- Asanina, daughter of ---. 

Centurione & his wife had four children: 

1.         ANDRONICO ASANO Zaccaria (-1401).  He succeeded his father as Baron of Arkadia in 1382.  Constable of Achaia 1391.  m MAVROS, daughter of ERARD [III] Baron of Arkadia and Saint-Sauveur & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Jean Dardel records that "madame Ysabel de Lisegnan, fille du…roy Guy d'Armenye" wished to arrange the marriage of "Quirmauro, seigneur de l'Acadye…sa fille…Katherine" and "messire Lyon, qui estoit en Cyppre" (the future Leo V King of Armenia)[221].  Andronico & his wife had four children: 

a)         ERARDO ZaccariaBaron of Arkadia 1404. 

b)         ASANO CENTURIONE [II] Zaccaria (-1432).  He succeeded his father in 1401 as Baron of Arkadia.  He was installed in 1404 as Prince of Achaia by Ladislas King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet][222].  A Venetian charter dated 28 Feb 1422 names "dominus archiepiscopus Patracensis" and "fratris sui domini Centurionis principis Achaye"[223].  He was dispossessed in 1430 by the Byzantine emperor.  m [CREUSA] Tocco, daughter of LEONARDO [II] Tocco Lord of Zante & his wife ---.  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Centurionis principis" married "sororem Theodoræ imperatricis"[224].  1432.  Asano Centurione & his wife had one child: 

i)          AIKATERINA Asanina Zaccariaina (-Corfu 16 Aug 1462, bur Corfu)Georgius Phrantzes records that "Thomæ principis fratres despotæ" married "filiam principis Asanis Zachariæ Centerionis…Catharinam" in Jan [1430][225].  Titular Lady of Arkadia.  Heiress of the principality of Achaia.  Georgius Phrantzes records that "mater, regina" (referring to "filia…regina Serviæ"), died 16 Aug aged 70 at Corfu and was buried "Sosipatri monasterio"[226]m (Jan 1430) THOMAS Palaiologos Despot of Morea, son of Emperor MANUEL II & his wife Jelena Dragaš [Serbia] ([1409/10]-Rome 13 May 1465). 

Asano Centurione had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses:   

ii)         GIOVANNI Aseno Zaccaria (-Rome 1469).  He was declared Prince of Achaia by rebel Greeks in 1446 after Sultan Murad had destroyed the Hexamilion and inflicted a humiliating defeat on Konstantinos Palaiologos (later Emperor Konstantinos XI)[227].  He was captured and imprisoned with his eldest son in the castle of Klumutsi, but escaped and attracted support for another rebellion.  Georgius Phrantzes records that "frater uxoris Thomæ despotæ, filius Centerionis principis" escaped from imprisonment at "Chlomutza" [in "anni 6962" from the context][228].  He sought refuge in Venetian Modon, where he was granted an annuity in 1457.  He eventually retired to Rome[229]m ---.  The name of Giovanni's wife is not known.  Giovanni & his wife had [two or more] children: 

(a)        sons . 

iii)        daughter .  m (1418) OLIVERIO Franco, son of ---.  He received Clarentza as his wife's dowry in 1418, but sold it to Carlo [I] Tocco in 1421[230]

c)         BENEDETTO Zaccaria .  1412/1418. 

d)         STEFANO Zaccaria (-8 Apr 1424).  Archbishop of Patras 1404.  A Venetian charter dated 28 Feb 1422 names "dominus archiepiscopus Patracensis" and "fratris sui domini Centurionis principis Achaye"[231]

2.         MARIA Zaccaria (-1404).  Lady of Arkadia.  She succeeded her husband as Pss of Achaia in 1402.  m PEDRO Bordo de San Superán (-1402).  He was invested by Ladislas King of Sicily as hereditary Prince of Achaia in 1396[232]

3.         MANUELE Zaccaria (-before 1413).  m ELIANA Cattaneo, daughter of DAGNANO Cattaneo & his wife ---.  Manuele & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARIETTA Zaccaria .  1413.  m GALEAZZO Spinola

4.         FILIPPO Zaccaria (-before 1402).  m --- heiress of Rhiolo in Morea. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    ARGOS

 

 

The lords of Athens also held the lordships of Navplion and Argos which were granted to Athens by the Villahardouin princes of Achaia[233].  The territories of Argos and Navplion were later added to the principality of Achaia[234]

 

 

1.         GUY d'Enghien, son of GAUTHIER [III] Seigneur d'Enghien & his wife Isabelle de Brienne (-1377)Baron of Argos, the lordship over which Federigo II King of Sicily purported to grant in 1359 to Mateo de Moncada whom he had appointed Vicar-General of the duchy of Athens and Neopatras[235].  Lord of Kiverion in Cyprus.  m BONNE de Foucherolles, daughter of NICOLAS [II] de Foucherolles & his wife ---.  Guy & his wife had two children: 

a)         JACQUES d'Enghien (-young). 

b)         MARIE d'Enghien (1364-after 1393)Lady of Argos, Navplion and Kiverion in Cyprus.  “Petrus Cornario, quondam domini Federici” acquired “castris et fortalitiis Argos et Neapolis…dotis uxoris suæ…dominæ Mariæ, quondam…domini Guidonis de Engino filiæ” by charter dated 12 Sep 1388[236].  Her first marriage was engineered by Venice to increase their control over her territories[237].  After her husband died, she sold Argos to Venice for a perpetual annuity of 500 gold ducats for herself and her heirs and a further 200 ducats for herself for life, the annuities being forfeited if she married anyone other than a Venetian national[238]m firstly PIETRO Cornaro, son of FEDERIGO Cornaro & his wife --- (-1388).  Baron of Argos.  “Petrus Cornario, quondam domini Federici” acquired “castris et fortalitiis Argos et Neapolis…dotis uxoris suæ…dominæ Mariæ, quondam…domini Guidonis de Engino filiæ” by charter dated 12 Sep 1388[239]m secondly PASQUALE Zano, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    ATHENS

 

 

The lordship of Athens included Attika, Bœotia, Megaris, Argos and Navplion.  It is likely that the early lords held their court at Thebes, the lordship of which was divided between the lord of Athens himself and the head of the Saint-Omer family, after Bela de Saint-Omer married one of the sisters of the lord of Athens[240].  The lords of Athens also held the lordships of Navplion and Argos (granted to Athens by the Villahardouin princes of Achaia), Kalamata in Morea (granted to Guy II Duke of Athens as the dowry of his wife Mathilde de Hainaut), and the towns of Lamia (also known as Zeitouni or Giton) and Gardiki (granted to the dukes of Athens by the lords of Thessaly when Duke Guillaume married the daughter of Ioannes Lord of Thessaly)[241].  The lords of Athens were suzerains of many minor lordships, including the lordship of Karditza which was held by the family of Antoine le Flamenc, who built the church of St George[242].  The return of Greek exiles to live under Latin rule indicates a tolerant side to their rule[243].  The duchy of Athens was one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, named in a charter dated 1301[244]

 

 

 

A.      LORDS of ATHENS 1205-1260, DUKES of ATHENS 1260-1308 (de la ROCHE-sur-l'OGNON)

 

 

OTHON 1205-1225

 

OTHON de la Roche-sur-l'Ognon Seigneur de Ray, son of PONS de la Roche & his first wife Mathélie --- (-before 1234).  He took part in the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.  In 1205, Bonifazio di Monferrato, newly established as king of Thessaloniki, granted him as fiefs the towns of Athens, Argos and Navplion, together with large parts of Attika, with the title OTHON I Lord of Athens [megas kir] [245].  He desecrated the Byzantine church of Daphni near Athens in 1205 and transferred it to the Cistercian monks of Bellevaux in Burgundy[246].  After helping Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia capture Navplion and Argos in 1212, Othon was granted the two towns as fiefs of Achaia[247].  The papacy granted him the town of Livadia as a fief in 1214.  He returned to Burgundy in 1225, leaving his son as his successor in Greece[248]

m firstly ---.  The name of Othon's first wife is not known. 

m secondly (1208) ELISABETH de Chappes, sister of CLAREMBAUD de Chappes, daughter of [249][GUY de Ray, in Franche-Comté]. 

Othon & his first wife had three children[250]:

1.         GUILLAUME .  1218/62.  m --- heiress of Veligosti and Damala.  Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

a)         JACQUES de la Roche (-1283).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "il…baron miser Jacomo de Villegorde, padre de miser Rene e fiol de miser Guglielmo"[251]Baron of Veligosti.  m ---.  The name of Jacques´s wife is not known.  Jacques & his wife had one child: 

i)          RENAUD de la Roche (-1311).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "il…baron miser Jacomo de Villegorde, padre de miser Rene e fiol de miser Guglielmo"[252]

2.         GUY (-1263, bur Daphni).  Joint lord of Thebes 1211.  He succeeded his father in 1225 as GUY Lord of Athens

-        see below

3.         BONNE de la Roche .  Her marriage is indicated by the Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée which names “le dux Guis de la Roehc” as “cousins germains” of “le noble baron Jehan de Saint Omer, le frere monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le seignor de la moitié d Estives, et de messire Otthe[253].  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "Bilas", older son of "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmoquintus filius Nicolaus", married "dominam Thebarum"[254].  Heiress of ½ Thebes.  m (1220) BELA de Saint-Omer, son of NICOLAS [I] de Saint-Omer Lord of Boetia & his wife Margit of Hungary (-after [1240]).  He succeeded in [1240] as joint Lord of Thebes, by right of his wife. 

Othon & his second wife had one child:

4.         OTHON (-after 1251).  Seigneur de Ray 1239.  Lord of Argos and Navplion, relinquished in 1251 to his brother Guy when he returned to Burgundy.  m (before 1239) MARGUERITE de Tilchâtel, daughter of GUY [II] de Tilchâtel & his wife Guillemette de Bourbonne. 

-        SIRES de RAY[255]

 

 

GUY I 1225-1263, JEAN 1263-1280, GUILLAUME 1280-1287, GUY II 1287-1308

 

GUY de la Roche, son of OTHON [I] de la Roche Lord of Athens & his first wife --- (-1263, bur Daphni).  His father installed him as Lord of ½ Thebes in 1211.  He succeeded his father in 1225 as GUY Lord of Athens.  He joined the alliance against Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia in 1257 to prevent the latter gaining control of the island of Eubœa[256].  Prince Guillaume invaded Athens in 1258, aiming to enforce obedience to Achaia's suzerainty, and defeated Guy at the pass of Mount Karydi.  Guy appeared before the High Court of Achaia at Nikli charged with disobedience to his suzerain, but the judges ruled against their own competence to hear the case and submitted the dispute to Louis IX King of France.  The French king referred the case to a parliament in Paris which decided that a technical offence had been committed but that the fatigue and expense of the journey to attend the hearing had been sufficient punishment for Lord Guy, who was created GUY I Duke of Athens by the French king in 1260[257].  During the captivity of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia after the battle of Pelagonia in 1259, Guy was appointed bailly of Achaia.  “Guis de La Roiche sire d´Athènes” confirmed that he had borrowed funds from “Hugon duc de Bourgoigne” by charter dated Feb 1260 (N.S.)[258].  He opposed the negotiations for Guillaume's release, but was eventually obliged to yield and return power to Guillaume when he returned to Morea in 1261[259].  He agreed an alliance with Ioannes Dukas Komnenos Lord of Thessaly, whose territories were threatened by Emperor Michael VIII, sealed by the marriage of his son with the daughter of the Lord of Thessaly[260]

[261]m ---, daughter of [HUGUES de Bruyères Lord of Karytaina & his wife --- de Villehardouin].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "Il principe Guglielmo" brought "di Campagna et Borgogna tre sue nipoti" and that he married the first "al Signor della Rozia", adding that the couple had three sons and three daughters[262]

Duke Guy & his wife had [six] children: 

1.         JEAN (-Athens 1280).  He succeeded his father in 1263 as JEAN Duke of Athens.  He became the indirect vassal of Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], for the towns of Thebes, Argos and Navplion, when the latter signed the first Treaty of Viterbo 23 May 1267 with Guillaume II Prince of Achaia, who accepted Angevin suzerainty[263].  He was captured by Licario (who had made himself Lord of all Eubœa except the capital) at the siege of Negroponte in 1278, after assisting the Lombard residents of the town, and was sent to Emperor Michael VIII as a gift, although he was later released on payment of a ransom of 30,000 gold solidi[264].  Pachymeres records that negotiations were proceeding for the betrothal of Jean to "imperator…filia" when Jean died[265].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "il…Imperator" negotiated to marry his daughter to "miser Giovanni dall Roccia Duca d´Attene" who returned to Athens where he died[266]

2.         GUILLAUME (-1287).  Pachymeres records that "Gulielmum fratrem" succeeded on the death of "Ioannis"[267].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Guglielmo suo fratello della Rocia, signor della Livadia" succeeded "miser Giovanni dall Roccia Duca d´Attene" as duke of Athens[268].  Lord of Livadia 1263.  He succeeded his brother in 1280 as GUILLAUME Duke of Athens.  Joint Lord of Thebes 1280.  He was appointed bailly of the principality of Achaia in 1285 by Robert Comte d'Artois, who was acting as regent for Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] during the latter's imprisonment[269]m as her first husband, HELENA Komnenodukaina, daughter of IOANNES Dukas Komnenos [Angelos] of Epirus Lord of Thessaly & his wife --- (-[1294/95]).  Pachymeres records that "fratrem Ioannis Guillelmum" married "Ioannis nothi filiam"[270].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Guglielmo suo fratello della Rocia, signor della Livadia" married "la figlia del Sevasto Cratora Signor d´Alla patre e Blaquia" and that her dowry was "la Gravia con Sidero castro e cum Gitone" [Gravia, Siderokastron, Gardiki and Lamia][271]She was regent of Athens for her son from 1289 to 1294.  She married secondly (1291 before 14 Sep) Hugues de Brienne Conte di Lecce.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “la feme du duc Guillerme” married “le conte Hugue” as her second husband[272].  Duke Guillaume & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUY (-5 Oct 1308, bur Daphni Cistercian Abbey)The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Guis” as the son of “li duc Guillerme d´Atthenes” and “la fille de quir Thodre sevastocratora, le frere bastard du despot de l´Arte[273]The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Guido" as the son of "miser Guglielmo…della Rocia [Duca]" and his wife[274].  He succeeded his father in 1287 as GUY II Duke of Athens, minor until 1294 under the regency of his stepfather[275].  He became the guardian of the infant Ioannes II Lord of Thessaly after his accession in 1303, taking advantage of this role to assert considerable influence over Thessaly[276].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "la nobil terra d´Attene e quell Ducato" was inherited by "il conte de Brenna" after the death of Guy[277]m (before Sep 1304) as her first husband, MATHILDE de Hainaut, daughter of FLORENT de Hainaut Seigneur de Braine-le-Comte, Prince of Achaia & his wife Isabelle de Villehardouin Pss of Achaia (29 Sep 1293-Avesnes 1331).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “Guis”, son of “li duc Guillerme d´Atthenes” and “la fille de quir Thodre sevastocratora, le frere bastard du despot de l´Arte”, married “madame Mehaulte la fille du prince Florant et de madame Ysabeau la princesse de Achaye[278]The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Guido", son of "miser Guglielmo…della Rocia [Duca]", married "la figlia del principe Florenzò d´Anoldo", adding that her dowry was "la castellania de Calamata"[279]She claimed to be Pss of Achaia from 1311.  She married secondly (contract 6 Apr 1313, 31 Jul 1313) Louis de Bourgogne titular King of Thessaloniki, thirdly (Mar 1318, Papal dispensation 29 Mar 1318, divorced 1321) Jean of Sicily Conte di Gravina, and fourthly (bigamously, divorced) Hugo de La Palice

3.         ALICE (-after 1277).  The Lignages d'Outremer names "Aalis, la fille dou duc d'Athenes" as the wife of Jean son of "Balian…sire de Baruth"[280].  Her daughter Eschiva Ibelin claimed the duchy of Athens on the death in 1308 of her first cousin Duke Guy II, and travelled to Morea to assert her claim, which was rejected by the High Court of Achaia[281]m ([1249/50]) JEAN Ibelin Lord of Beirut, son of BALIAN Ibelin Lord of Beirut & his wife Echive de Montbéliard ([1230/31]-Feb 1264, bur Nicosia Cathedral).   

4.         MARGUERITE (-after 1293).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m (before 11 Feb 1252) HENRI [I] Comte de Vaudémont, son of HUGUES [III] Comte de Vaudémont & his wife Marguerite de Bar (-in Italy [1 May/10 Jul] 1278). 

5.         ISABELLE .  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Ysabeau la fille dou duc d'Athanes, qui avoit esté feme dou seignor de Karitaine" as the wife of "Hugue…cuens de Brene"[282]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “messire Goffroy de Bruieres, le seignor de Caraitaine” married “la suer dou seignor d´Atthenes[283]The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "il signor della Caritena" married "la figlia del signor della Rocia" was therefore "consanguineo e assai propinquo di…Principe [Guglielmo]" [Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia], and that his widow married "al conte de Brenna"[284]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that, after the death of Geoffroy de Bruyères Baron of Karytaina without heirs, the barony was shared between his widow and Guillaume Prince of Achaia[285].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the second marriage of the widow of Geoffroy de Bruyères and “messire Hugue le conte de Brene et de Liche[286]m firstly ([1256]) GEOFFROY de Bruyères Lord of Karytaina, son of HUGUES de Bruyères & his wife Alix de Villehardouin (-Skorta [1269]).  He died of fever while commanding the garrison at Skorta[287]m secondly (Andravida 1277[288]) as his first wife, HUGUES de Brienne Conte di Lecce, son of GAUTHIER [IV] de Brienne Count of Jaffa & his wife Marie de Lusignan of Cyprus (-9 Aug 1296).  Captain General of Brindisi, Otranto and Apulia. 

6.         [CATERINA .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m CARLO di Lagonessa Seneschal of Sicily (-31 Jul 1304).] 

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of ATHENS (BRIENNE)

 

 

GAUTHIER 1308-1311

 

GAUTHIER [V] de Brienne, son of HUGUES de Brienne Conte di Lecce & his first wife Isabelle de la Roche of Athens ([1278]-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1312, his head bur Lecce Church of Santa Croce[289]).  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Gautier et Agnes" as the children of "Hugue…cuens de Brene" and his wife "Ysabeau la fille dou duc d'Athanes, qui avoit esté feme dou seignor de Karitaine"[290].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "[il figlio]…[del] conte de Brenna" and his wife "la figlia del signor della Rocia" was killed "a Valmiro della compagnia de Catelani"[291].  He succeeded his mother as Lord of ½ Karitaina and Thebes.  He succeeded his father as Conte di Lecce.  He succeeded his first cousin (and uterine half-brother) in 1308 as GAUTHIER Duke of Athens, his accession being confirmed by the High Court of Achaia when it rejected the claim of his first cousin Eschiva Ibelin[292].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "la nobil terra d´Attene e quell Ducato" was inherited by "il conte de Brenna" after the death of Guy[293].  Gauthier hired the Catalan Company to conquer Thessaly, but subsequently refused to pay them for their services.  He was killed fighting the Catalan Company who took control of Athens.  The testament of "Gautiers dux d´Atheinnes cuens de Brienne et de Liche" is dated 1312 (N.S.) and names "Jehanette nostre suer…Madame nostre marâtre…nostre…compaigne Jehanne de Chasteilon duchesse d´Atheinnes, comtesse de Brienne et de Liche", chooses burial "auf Daufenins", and appoints "Messire Jehanz Truilarz nostre…coisins" as executor in Apulia[294].  In 1312, the Company chose as their suzerain Federigo King of Sicily [Aragon] who appointed his son as titular duke of Athens[295]

m (before Oct 1305) JEANNE de Châtillon, daughter of GAUCHER [V] de Châtillon-sur-Marne Comte de Porcien & his wife Isabeau de Dreux [Capet] (-16 Jan 1354, bur Troyes Saint-Jacques).  The testament of "Gautiers dux d´Atheinnes cuens de Brienne et de Liche" is dated 1312 (N.S.) and names "…nostre…compaigne Jehanne de Chasteilon duchesse d´Atheinnes, comtesse de Brienne et de Liche"[296].  After her husband was killed, she escaped to Italy with her son and from there returned to France[297].  "Duchisse Athenarum et Comitisse Brene et Licie" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[298], demonstrating that the republic of Venice continued to recognise her title and position even after she had left Greece.  A list of foundations at Troyes records the memory "16 Jan" of "madame Jeanne de Chastillon, épouse de Gaucher Comte de Brienne et de Liche, duc d'Athènes, décédée le 16 Jan 1353…inhume aux Jacobins"[299]

Duke Gauthier & his wife had two children: 

1.         GAUTHIER [VI] de Brienne (Lecce 1302-killed in battle Poitiers 19 Sep 1356, bur Abbaye de Beaulieu).  He succeeded his father in 1311 as Conte di Lecce e Conversano.  He was brought up at the court of Robert King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet].  He was sent by Charles of Sicily Duca di Calabria to take possession of Florence 17 May 1326.  He claimed the duchy of Athens, supported by his father-in-law who conferred on him the title "Vicar-General in Romania".  After landing in Epirus in 1331, he captured the island of Santa Mavra, the fortress of Vonitza and the city of Arta.  However, he had less success against the Catalans and returned to Italy in 1332[300].  He entered the service of the popolari party in Florence, was elected Captain of the War and Protector of the Town for life in 1342, but was expelled 26 Jul 1343 after his tyrannical behaviour provoked riots.  He entered the service of the king of France, was appointed Grand Connétable of France by King Jean II 9 May 1356, and died in the battle of Poitiers fighting the English[301].  He was succeeded by his nephew.  m firstly (Brindisi Dec 1325) BEATRICE di Tarento, daughter of PHILIPPE of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Thamar Angelina Komnene Dukaina of Epirus (-after 1332).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "[il figlio]…[del] conte de Brenna" had one son who married "la figlia del principe Filippo di Taranto"[302]m secondly ([18 Jun 1342/10 Mar 1343]) as her first husband, JEANNE de Brienne Dame de Château-Chinon et de Darcy, daughter of RAOUL I de Brienne Comte d'Eu & his wife Jeanne de Mello dame de Lormes et de Chateau-Chinon (-Sens 6 Jul 1389, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  The Chronique des comtes d´Eu, written in 1390, names "Jehanne...et Marie" as the two daughters of "Raoul" and his wife "madame de Mello", adding that Jeanne married "au duc d´Athènes et depuis au conte d´Estampes"[303]She married secondly (contract 16 Jan 1358) Louis d'Evreux Comte d'Etampes [Capet].  Gauthier [VI] & his first wife had one child: 

a)         GAUTHIER de Brienne (-young in Greece). 

Gauthier [VI] & his second wife had two children: 

b)         JEANNE de Brienne (-bur Abbaye de Beaulieu). 

c)         MARGUERITE de Brienne (-bur Abbaye de Beaulieu). 

2.         ISABELLE de Brienne (-1360).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "[il figlio]…[del] conte de Brenna" had one daughter who married "al signor d´Angloin" who the son "della figlia del conte di Fiandra"[304].  She claimed to succeed her brother in 1356 as Contessa di Lecce e di Conversano.  Dame de Ramerupt.  Her descendants claimed the duchy of Athens in opposition to the dukes of the house of Aragon.  m (contract Jan 1321) GAUTHIER [III] Seigneur d'Enghien, son of GAUTHIER [II] Seigneur d'Enghien & his wife Yolande de Flandre (5 Jun 1302-[16 Oct] 1345). 

 

 

 

C.      DUKES of ATHENS 1312-1388 (ARAGON)

 

 

In 1312, the Catalan Company invited Federigo I King of Sicily [Aragon] to be their suzerain after conquering the duchy of Athens.  King Federigo named his infant son Manfredo as Duke of Athens, appointing Berenguer Estañol as Vicar-General to govern in his name.  Manfredo and his successor dukes from the Aragon dynasty never visited Athens.  The duchy continued to be ruled by the Catalans under the leadership of the successive resident Vicars-General appointed by the king of Sicily.  After the Catalans conquered Neopatras and large parts of the lordship of Thessaly in 1319, the Sicilian dukes styled themselves Dukes of Neopatras in addition to Athens. 

 

 

MANFREDO 1312-1317, GUGLIELMO 1317-1338, GIOVANNI 1338-1348, FEDERIGO I 1348-1355, FEDERIGO II 1355-1377, MARIA 1377-1388

 

Infante don FADRIQUE de Aragón, son of don PEDRO III "el Grande" King of Aragon & his wife Constanza of Sicily [Hohenstaufen] (1272-Palermo or near Pamplona 25 Jun 1337)He was recognised as FEDERIGO I King of Sicily in 1296.  In 1312, the Catalan Company invited King Federigo to become its suzerain in the duchy of Athens, after defeating Gauthier de Brienne Duke of Athens in battle at the Kephissos River.  The king named his son Manfredo as titular Duke of Athens. 

1.         other children: see SICILY

2.         PIETRO of Sicily (1304-Calataxibeta 15 Aug 1342).  He succeeded his father in 1338 as PIETRO II King of Sicily

a)         FEDERIGO of Sicily (1 Sep 1341-Messina 27 Jul 1377).  Marchese di Randazzo.  He succeeded his first cousin in Jul 1355 as Duke of Athens and Neopatras.  He succeeded his brother in Aug 1355 as FEDERIGO II “il Simplo” King of Sicily.  In 1357, he proposed that Athens and Neopatras be transferred to his sister Eleonora, wife of Pedro IV King of Aragon, in return for military help from the latter in Sicily, a proposal which was refused[305]

i)          MARIA of Sicily ([1362/63]-25 Mar 1401).  She succeeded her father in 1377 as MARIA I Queen of Sicily, Duchess of Athens and Neopatras, although this was considered unlawful in Sicily as succession in the female line had been prohibited by her great grandfather King Federigo I[306].  King Pedro deprived Maria of the duchies of Athens and Neopatras in 1380, with the military help of the Navarrese Company[307], although Athens was captured by Florence in 1388, Neopatras in 1391 and Salona in 1394. 

3.         MANFREDO of Sicily ([1307]-Trapani 9 Nov 1317, bur Trapani).  His father named him Duke of Athens in 1312, after the Catalan Company invited King Federigo to be their suzerain following their conquest of the territory.  Berenguer Estañol, a knight of Ampurias, was appointed as Governor[308].  "Ser Dux Athenarum" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[309].  This entry presumably refers to the duke from the Aragon dynasty as "Duchisse Athenarum et Comitisse Brene et Licie", widow of the last duke from the Brienne family who had been killed in 1311, is also included in the list, demonstrating that the republic of Venice was hedging its bets concerning the rulers of Athens.  Manfredo never visited his duchy[310]

4.         GUGLIELMO of Sicily (1312-Valencia 22 Aug 1338, bur Palermo).  Principe di Tarento.  He succeeded his brother Manfredo in 1317 as Duke of Athens, although he never visited the territory.  He added the title Duke of Neopatras in 1319, after his half-brother Alfonso Fadrique captured the town and large parts of Thessaly[311].  A charter dated 5 Apr 1331 records a peace agreement relating to the island of Eubœa and names "domini Guilielmi duchatuum Athenarum et Neupatrie ducis…domini Frederici Sicilie regis…filii" acting with the advice of "Alfonsum Friderici, insularum Melineti et Gaudisii comitem, dicti…regis Friderici filium"[312]m (1335) as her first husband, doña MARÍA Álvarez de Ejérica, daughter of don JAIME II de Aragón Barón de Ejérica & his wife doña Beatriz de Lauria Señora de Cocentaina ([1310]-before 1364).  She married secondly (Valencia 1338) as his second wife, Infante don Ramón Berenguer de Aragón Conde de Prades, later Conde de Ampurias.  

5.         GIOVANNI of Sicily (Apr/May 1317-Catania 3 Apr 1348).  Marchese di Randazzo.  He succeeded his brother 1338 as Duke of Athens and Neopatras, although he never visited the territory.  Regent of Sicily 1338-1348.  He died of plague[313]m CESARINA [Cesarea] Lancia, daughter of PIETRO Lancia Signor di Delia, Conte di Caltanissetta & his wife --- d'Alagón.  Duke Giovanni & his wife had three children: 

a)         FEDERIGO de Aragón ([1340]-11 Jul 1355, bur Santa Agata Palermo).  He succeeded his father in 1348 as Duke of Athens and Neopatras.  He died of plague[314]

b)         LEONOR de Aragón ([1346]-after 1369).  m GUILLÉN de Peralta Conde de Castelbellotta. 

c)         CONSTANZA de Aragón .  It was proposed in [1366/70] that Constanza should marry Jean d'Enghien, titular Duke of Athens, to resolve the rival claims to Athens from the Aragonese family and the heirs of Gauthier de Brienne[315]

 

 

 

D.      DUKES of ATHENS (ACCIAIUOLI)

 

 

The Acciaiuoli family originated in Brescia, and moved to Florence in [1160] where they established a steelworks from which their name derives.  Later enterprising biographers provided them with a fabricated pedigree showing their alleged descent from Angelo, supposed brother of Emperor Justin II.  The steelworkers made money, lent it out at interest and became bankers[316].  The family operated a flourishing bank which lent funds to the kings of England, the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, the Pope and the Angevin kings of Sicily[317].   

 

 

1.         NICOLÒ Acciaiuoli .  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “dominus Nicolaus avus suus” in his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[318]m ---.  The name of Nicolò´s wife is not known.  Nicolò & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Acciaiuoli .  He settled in Naples where he was appointed chamberlain and privy councillor by King Robert I[319]m ---.  The name of his wife is not known.  He & his wife had three children: 

i)          NICOLÒ degli Acciaiuoli (Montegufoni, Val di Pesa 12 Sep 1310-Naples 8 Nov 1365, bur Galuzzo, Carthusian monastery, near Florence).  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli records the birth "pridie Id Sep" in 1310 of "Nicolaus…Acciajolus"[320]

-         see below

ii)         LAPA Acciaiuoli .  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “domine Lape de Accajolis sorori sue” and “Franciscus et Esau nati…dicte domine Lape” under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[321]m MANENTE Buondelmonti, son of ---.  Manente & his wife had three children: 

(a)       FRANCESCO Buondelmonti .  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “domine Lape de Accajolis sorori sue” and “Franciscus et Esau nati…dicte domine Lape” under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[322]

(b)       ESAU Buondelmonti .  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “domine Lape de Accajolis sorori sue” and “Franciscus et Esau nati…dicte domine Lape” under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[323]

(c)       MADDALENA Buondelmonti (-after 11 Mar 1401)m (before autumn 1361) LEONARDO I Count of Kefalonia, son of GUGLIELMO Tocco Governor of Corfu & his [second] wife Margherita Orsini of Kefalonia (-[20 Mar 1375/25 Aug 1377]). 

iii)        ANDREA Acciaiuoli .  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “domina Andrea, consors viri…domini Carlotti Artus comitis montis Odorisii, soror sua” under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[324]m CARLO Artus Conte di Monte Odorisio, son of ---. 

 

 

NICOLÒ degli Acciaiuoli, son of --- (Montegufoni, Val di Pesa 12 Sep 1310-Naples 8 Nov 1365, bur Galuzzo, Carthusian monastery, near Florence).  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli records the birth "pridie Id Sep" in 1310 of "Nicolaus…Acciajolus"[325].  He was sent by his family to Naples in 1331 to manage a branch of the bank.  He won the favour of Catherine de Valois titular Empress of Constantinople, who it was rumoured became his mistress[326].  In 1334, his family bank ceded him the lordships of Lichina and Mandria in Morea, which had been given as security for a loan by Jean of Sicily Conte di Gravina [Anjou-Capet] in 1324 and had never been redeemed[327].  In return for helping Robert of Sicily Principe di Tarento, titular Emperor of Constantinople, establish his authority over the principality of Achaia in 1338/39, the latter granted Nicolò the lordship of Kalamata and named him bailly of Achaia, Kefalonia and Lepanto[328].  Grand Marshall of Naples.  He was appointed hereditary Grand Seneschal of Sicily and Lord of Satriano in 1348 by Louis of Sicily Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] in return for financing the formation of his army.  Conte di Terliezi 1349.  Conte di Melfi 1352.  “Nicolaus de Azarolis comes Melfie, magnus regnis Sicilie senescallus…” appointed “Symonis de Ulmeto” in Achaia by charter dated 11 Aug 1354[329].  Conte di Malta e Gozo 1357.  He was appointed hereditary châtelain of Corinth in 1358 by Robert of Sicily Principe di Tarento and spent large sums on increasing its defences against the Ottomans[330], although in 1359 Federigo II King of Sicily [Aragón] purported to grant the lordship over Corinth to Mateo de Moncada whom he had appointed Vicar-General of the duchies of Athens and Neopatras[331].  Nicolò was appointed Governor of Bologna and la Romagna in 1360 by the Pope.  He divided his territories in Greece between his son Angelo and his cousin Angelo who was his adopted son[332].  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appointed “filios suos legitimos et naturales: dominum Angelum comitem Malte natu majorem, Benedictum et Laurentium” as his heirs under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358, which refers to part of the property in Achaia held by “domino Angelo, filio quondam Alamanni Montis de Acciaiolis, filio suo adoptivo[333].  “Nicholaus de Aczarolis, Melfie et palatinus comes, magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appointed “nobili viro Donato de Aczarolis de Florentia, nepoti nostro” as his representative in Achaia and Corinth by charter dated 1 Jan 1365[334].  A letter dated 12 Nov 1365 from Angelo Acciaiuoli announced the death of “reverendo padre mio” on 8 Nov 1365[335].  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli records the death "Neapoli…VI Id Nov" in 1366 of "Nicolai Acciajoli" aged 56 and his burial "a Florentia Carthusium"[336]

m MARGARITA degli Spini, daughter of --- (-after 30 Sep 1358).  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli records that "Nicolaus…Acciajolus" married "Margaritam ex…Spinorum familia genitam" and had four sons[337].  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “Margarite comitisse Melfi uxori sue”, in a later passage referred to as “dominam Margheritam de Spinis, comitissam Melfie, consortem suam”, under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[338]

Nicolò & his wife had four children: 

1.         ANGELO Acciaiuoli (-after 1365).  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appointed “filios suos legitimos et naturales: dominum Angelum comitem Malte natu majorem, Benedictum et Laurentium” as his heirs under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[339].  Conte di Melfi, Conte di Malta 1357.  His father bequeathed him the lordship of Corinth under the division of territories with his cousin Angelo, but he appointed the latter's brother Nerio as his Vicar-General being more preoccupied with his inheritance in Italy.  He later pawned the castles of Corinth to his cousin for a loan which was never repaid[340].  He was imprisoned in Naples after the death of his father and his Neapolitan assets confiscated[341]m ---.  The name of Angelo's wife is not known.  Angelo & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANGELO Acciaiuoli (-1391).  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” appointed “Robert son légataire universel, et à son défaut ses deux autres fils Jacques et Jean” as his heirs under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391, which also names “ses filles Messina, Ghilla, Margherita plus Johannella[342]m ---.  The name of Angelo's wife is not known.  Angelo & his wife had seven children:

i)          ROBERTO Acciaiuoli (-1412).  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” appointed “Robert son légataire universel, et à son défaut ses deux autres fils Jacques et Jean” as his heirs under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[343]Conte di Melfi. 

ii)         GIACOPO Acciaiuoli .  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” appointed “Robert son légataire universel, et à son défaut ses deux autres fils Jacques et Jean” as his heirs under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[344]

iii)        GIOVANNI Acciaiuoli .  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” appointed “Robert son légataire universel, et à son défaut ses deux autres fils Jacques et Jean” as his heirs under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[345]

iv)       MESSINA Acciaiuoli .  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” names “ses filles Messina, Ghilla, Margherita plus Johannella” under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[346]

v)        GHILLA Acciaiuoli .  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” names “ses filles Messina, Ghilla, Margherita plus Johannella” under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[347]

vi)       MARGHERITA Acciaiuoli .  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” names “ses filles Messina, Ghilla, Margherita plus Johannella” under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[348]

vii)      GIOVANELLA Acciaiuoli .  “Angelus de Aczarolis de Florentia, miles palatinus, Malte et Melfie comes ac magnus regni Sicilie senescallus” names “ses filles Messina, Ghilla, Margherita plus Johannella” under his testament dated 2 Nov 1391[349]

2.         BENEDETTO Acciaiuoli (-after 30 Sep 1358).  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appointed “filios suos legitimos et naturales: dominum Angelum comitem Malte natu majorem, Benedictum et Laurentium” as his heirs under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[350].  It is not certain from this text whether both Benedetto and Lorenzo were illegitimate, but this is probably correct.  Betrothed (after 30 Sep 1358) --- comitissa Esculi, daughter of ---.  The testament of “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” dated 30 Sep 1358 refers to the future marriage of “comitissam Esculi” and “filios suos…Benedictum[351]

3.         LORENZO Acciaiuoli (-after 30 Sep 1358).  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appointed “filios suos legitimos et naturales: dominum Angelum comitem Malte natu majorem, Benedictum et Laurentium” as his heirs under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[352]

4.         son .  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli records that "Nicolaus…Acciajolus" married "Margaritam ex…Spinorum familia genitam" and had four sons[353]

 

 

1.         ALAMANNO Acciaiuoli .  Cousin of Nicolò Acciaiuoli, the precise relationship has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Alamanno´s wife is not known.  Alamanno & his wife had one child: 

a)         ANGELO Acciaiuoli (1349-12 Jul 1409).  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli names "Angelum Alamanni et Nerium Jacobi filium, Acciajoleos ambos" as adopted sons of "Nicolaus…Acciajolus"[354].  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appoints “domino Angelo, filio quondam Alamanni Montis de Acciaiolis, filio suo adoptivo” as his heir as baron of Vourkano in Messenia and his lands in Kalamata under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358, but on condition that he marry “filiam ducis Agiopelagi[355], identified as Fiorenza Sanudo heiress of the duchy of Naxos, whom Angelo did not marry.  Bishop of Kapolla 1376.  Archbishop of Florence 1383.  He was appointed Cardinal in 1384.  Archbishop of Patras 1394/1400.  Bishop of Ostia and Velletri 1397.  Bailli of Morea. 

 

 

NERIO I 1394, ANTONIO I 1405-1435

 

GIACOPO Acciaiuoli, son of --- (-1356).  Cousin of Nicolò Acciaiuoli, the precise relationship has not yet been identified. 

m BARTOLOMEA Ricasoli, daughter of ---. 

Giacopo & his wife had four children: 

1.         GIOVANNI Acciaiuoli .  Archbishop of Patras 1360-1365. 

2.         NERIO Acciaiuoli (-Corinth 25 Sep 1394, bur Parthenon[356]).  The Vita Nicolai Acciajoli names "Angelum Alamanni et Nerium Jacobi filium, Acciajoleos ambos" as adopted sons of "Nicolaus…Acciajolus"[357].  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “domino Nerio de Acciazolis adoptivo filio suo” under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[358].  He was appointed Vicar-General in Corinth by his cousin Angelo Acciaiuoli, and bought the baronies of Vostitza and Nivelet from Marie de Clermont, widow of Robert di Tarento titular Emperor of Constantinople and Prince of Achaia, although his plan to expand his sphere of influence into the Aegean by marrying Fiorenza Sanudo, heiress of the duchy of Naxos, was frustrated by Venice.  Later his cousin Angelo pawned the castle of Corinth to Nerio for a loan which was never repaid[359].  He became a citizen of Venice in 1369.  Lord of Corinth 1371.  After the Congress of Thebes, called in Oct 1373 by Pope Gregory XI to reach agreement among all competing interests in Greece about how to counter the growing Ottoman threat, Nerio captured Megara, disregarding the Pope's appeal[360].  Taking advantage of the weakness of the Catalan government, Nerio invaded Salona in 1385 from where he launched his attack on Athens.  He styled himself "Lord of Corinth and the duchy" from Jul 1385, and was present in Athens by Jan 1387, taking the Acropolis 2 May 1388[361].  After his son-in-law Theodoros Palaiologos captured Argos from Venice, Nerio agreed to meet the Navarrese company representatives for negotiations, but he was arrested 10 Sep 1389 by the Venetians and imprisoned in the castle of Listrina near Patras.  He was released in 1390 in exchange for his younger daughter as hostage and consigning the city of Megara to Venice, although Venice did not recover Argos until 1394[362].  Following the capture of Salona by the Ottomans in 1294, Nerio appealed for help to Ladislas King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] who invested him as NERIO I Duke of Athens in Jan 1394, provided he accepted the direct overlordship of Naples[363].  “Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene” bequeathed the city of Athens to the church of “Santa Maria di Athene” under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, which also names “madamma la duchessa nostra figlia…Maria figlia di Dimitri Rendi…Donato nostro frate…nostro figlio Antonio…Lucia figlia di ser Saracim…Bartolomea vasilisa nostra figlia…la duchessa Francesca nostra figlia…Gismonda Acciaioli nostra sore[364].  The Greek metropolitan invited the Turks into the city, finding their occupation preferable, but the governor of the Akropolis invited the Venetians to intervene and annex the city[365].  Neopatra was invaded by Turkey 1396.  m AGNESE Saraceno, daughter of --- Saraceno of Eubœa & his wife --- (-[Jun] 1394).  “Dominus Donatus eius frater” names “madonna Angnesa, donna di messer Neri” in a document dated 1394[366]Mistress (1): MARIA Rendis, daughter of DIMITRIOS Rendis, notary in Athens & his wife ---.  “Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene”, under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, names “…Maria figlia di Dimitri Rendi…[367]Duke Nerio & his wife had two children: 

a)         BARTOLOMEA Acciaiuoli (-[1397])Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene”, under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, names “…Bartolomea vasilisa nostra figlia…[368].  She received Corinth as dowry[369]m (1385) THEODOROS Palaiologos Despot of Morea, son of Emperor IOANNES V & his wife Helene Kantakouzene ([1351]-Mistra 1407).  He sealed an alliance with his future father-in-law by his marriage, on the understanding that he would eventually inherit Corinth[370].  In 1394, Theodoros besieged Corinth, which had passed to Carlo Tocco (Nerio's other son-in-law) in breach of the terms of the 1385 marriage contract, but he was defeated by the Ottomans under Evrenoz-beg.  Theodoros finally acquired Corinth in 1396, after Venice mediated the release of Pedro Bordo de San Superano[371] whom Theodoros had captured, but sold it in 1400 to the Knights of St John[372]

b)         FRANCESCA Acciaiuoli Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene”, under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, names “madamma la duchessa nostra figlia…la duchessa Francesca nostra figlia…[373].  She received Megara and Sikyon [Basilicata] under her father's will[374].  “Karolo duca de la Lucata et contato di Cephalonia palatino” agreed to respect the testamentary dispositions of “messer Neri nostro patre e socero” by charter dated 27 Oct 1395 which names “madama Francesca nostra mollier…fillia de lo predetto meser Neri[375].  Having inherited the political ability of her father, she advised her husband in his councils[376]m (1388) CARLO I Tocco Count of Kefalonia Duke of Leukadia, son of LEONARDO Tocco Count of Kefalonia & his wife Maddalena Buondelmonte ([1374/75]-Janina 4 Jul 1429, bur Zante, Franciscan monastery).  He inherited Corinth in 1394 on the death of his father-in-law, in breach of the latter's arrangement with his other son-in-law Theodoros Palaiologos who unsuccessfully besieged the town in the same year but finally captured it in 1396. 

Duke Nerio had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

c)          ANTONIO Acciaiuoli (-1435).  “Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene”, under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, names “…nostro figlio Antonio…[377].  His father bequeathed to him the government of Thebes and the castle of Livadia.  Dissatisfied with his inheritance, he attacked Attika and encouraged the Ottomans to attack Athens[378].  He took the lower town of Athens in 1402, declaring his suzerainty to the Sultan, and captured the Acropolis in 1404.  He was recognised as ANTONIO I Duke of Athens in 1405, as vassal to the Republic of Venice[379], although the kings of Aragon continued to bear the same title and claim the territory[380].  He granted freedom of trade in Athens to Florentine merchants, in return for which he enjoyed tax-free status on his assets in Florence[381].  Despite Ottoman suzerainty, his territory suffered Turkish raids in 1416, and in 1423 he was forced to join in the Turkish invasion of Morea[382].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death in "anno 6943" of "Antonius Lantziola Comnenus Athenarum Thebarumque dominus"[383]m firstly as her second husband, ---.  The daughter of a Greek priest, she became Antonio's mistress while still married[384]m secondly as her first husband, MARIA Melissene, daughter of LEON Melissenes, archonte of Astros & his wife ---.  Georgius Phrantzes names "Maria Melissena, filia Leonis Melisseni, primi et patruelibus Nicephori Melisseni" as the widow of "Antonius Lantziola Comnenus Athenarum Thebarumque dominus"[385].  Her dowry was Astros, Leonidi and other places in Kynouria[386].  On the death of her husband in 1435, she plotted with her relations the Chalkokondylos family in an attempt to have them inherit the duchy of Athens[387].  Peace was secured with her second marriage to her husband's successor, Nerio II Duke of Athens, and the banishment of the Chalkokondylos family[388].  Duke Antonio adopted two children, who were the daughters of --- Protimo, a nobleman of Eubœa: 

i)          BENVENUTA Protimo m (1402) NICOLÒ Zorzi, son of FRANCESCO Zorzi Marchese of Boudonitza & his wife --- (-1436).  He was installed as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) by Venice in 1406[389].  He was installed as Marchese of Boudonitza in 1416. 

ii)         daughter m ANTONELLO Caopena Lord of Aegina (-1451).  Dying without heirs, he bequeathed the island of Aegina to Venice[390]

3.         DONATO Acciaiuoli (-1400).  “Nicholaus de Aczarolis, Melfie et palatinus comes, magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” appointed “nobili viro Donato de Aczarolis de Florentia, nepoti nostro” as his representative in Achaia and Corinth by charter dated 1 Jan 1365[391].  Gonfalionere of Florence.  Senator of Rome.  Vicar of Morea.  “Dominus Donatus eius frater” issued instructions dated 1394 relating to the liberation of “domini Nerii[392].  “Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene”, under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, names “…Donato nostro frate…[393].  Although Donato should have succeeded his brother Nicolò as Duke of Athens, under the arrangements made when the latter was awarded the title, his brother bequeathed him his property in Florence[394].  Donato had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

a)         FRANCESCO Acciaiuoli (-1420).  His parentage is confirmed by the document dated 21 May 1421 under which “domina Margarita vidua, filia quondam…Bardi Malpigli, civis Florentini, et olim uxor…nobilis viri Franchi quondam…militis domini Donati de Azaiolis de Florentia” accepted an inheritance on behalf of her sons[395]. 

-        see below

b)         --- .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          ANGELO Acciaiuoli .  He was exiled from Florence by Albizzi, after Cosimo de' Medici was banished, and settled in Greece[396]

4.         GISMONDA Acciaiuoli .  “Neri Acciaioli, signor di Corinto et del ducato di Athene”, under his testament dated 17 Sep 1394, names “…Gismonda Acciaioli nostra sore”, appointing her co-executor so long as she remained in Greece[397]

 

 

The precise relationship between the following person and the preceding family has not yet been identified. 

1.         BERNARDINO Acciaiuoli .  “Nicolaus de Acciaiolis de Florentia, miles, Corynthi dominus, Melfie et palatinus comes, ac magnus senescalcus regni Sicilie” names “Bernardino de Acciaiolis consanguineo suo” under his testament dated 30 Sep 1358[398]

 

 

NERIO II 1435/1451, ANTONIO II 1439-1441, CHIARA 1451-1455, FRANCESCO II 1455-1458

 

FRANCESCO Acciaiuoli, illegitimate son of DONATO Acciaiuoli & his mistress --- (-1420).  His parentage is confirmed by the document dated 21 May 1421 under which “domina Margarita vidua, filia quondam…Bardi Malpigli, civis Florentini, et olim uxor…nobilis viri Franchi quondam…militis domini Donati de Azaiolis de Florentia” accepted an inheritance on behalf of her sons[399].  He settled in Greece at the castle of Sykaminon near Oropos[400]

m MARGHERITA Malpigli, daughter of BARDI Malpigli & his wife ---.  “Domina Margarita vidua, filia quondam…Bardi Malpigli, civis Florentini, et olim uxor…nobilis viri Franchi quondam…militis domini Donati de Azaiolis de Florentia et mater ac tutrix Nerii et Antonii…filiorum…dicti Franchi de Acciaiolis” accepted an inheritance on behalf of her sons, by charter dated 21 May 1421, which specifies that they were younger than 14 years but older than 8 years[401]

Francesco & his wife had three children: 

1.         NERIO Acciaiuoli ([1407/11]-1451).  “Domina Margarita vidua, filia quondam…Bardi Malpigli, civis Florentini, et olim uxor…nobilis viri Franchi quondam…militis domini Donati de Azaiolis de Florentia et mater ac tutrix Nerii et Antonii…filiorum…dicti Franchi de Acciaiolis” accepted an inheritance on behalf of her sons, by charter dated 21 May 1421, which specifies that they were younger than 14 years but older than 8 years[402].  Nominated by Duke Nerio I as his successor, he succeeded in 1435 as NERIO II Duke of Athens, with the support of Venice.  A weak ruler, he soon made himself unpopular with his arrogance[403].  He was exiled by his brother to Florence in 1439, but was recalled and resumed power in 1441 after his brother died[404].  In 1444, Konstantinos Palaiologos (then despot at Morea, later Emperor Konstantinos XI) invaded Bœotia, occupied Thebes, and exacted tribute from Duke Nerio[405].  The Turks responded by raiding Bœotia and Attika.  Nerio renewed his commitment to paying tribute to the Sultan, and in 1446 cooperated with Sultan Murad when he invaded and drove the Greek forces back into Morea[406][407]m firstly ([1435/36]) as her second husband, MARIA Melissene, widow of ANTONIO Acciaiuoli Duke of Athens, daughter of LEON Melissenes, archonte of Astros & his wife ---.  m secondly as her first husband, CHIARA Zorzi, daughter of NICOLÒ Zorzi Lord of Karystos & his wife --- Protimo [adopted daughter of Antonio I Duke of Athens] (-murdered 1455).  On the death of her husband in 1451, she proclaimed herself CHIARA Duchess of Athens.  She became the mistress of [Pietro Priuli or Bartolomeo Contarini][408], Venetian patrician, son of --- Venetian Governor of Navplion.  She married him in 1453 as his second wife, after he poisoned his first wife[409].  He and his stepson were summoned to Sultan Mohammed, who ordered the deposition of his wife and installed Francesco II as Duke of Athens.  She was imprisoned at Megara on the orders of her nephew Duke Francesco II and murdered[410].  Duke Nerio & his second wife had one child: 

a)         FRANCESCO Acciaiuoli (-after 1453).  He was imprisoned by Sultan Mohammed and disappeared[411]

2.         ANTONIO Acciaiuoli ([1408/12]-1441).  “Domina Margarita vidua, filia quondam…Bardi Malpigli, civis Florentini, et olim uxor…nobilis viri Franchi quondam…militis domini Donati de Azaiolis de Florentia et mater ac tutrix Nerii et Antonii…filiorum…dicti Franchi de Acciaiolis” accepted an inheritance on behalf of her sons, by charter dated 21 May 1421, which specifies that they were younger than 14 years but older than 8 years[412].  He succeeded his brother in 1439 as ANTONIO II Duke of Athensm as her first husband, MARIA Zorzi, daughter of NICOLÒ Zorzi Lord of Karystos & his wife --- Protimo [adopted daughter of ANTONIO I Duke of Athens] .  She married secondly (1446) Giovanni Malipiero, Venetian bailly of Negropont.  Duke Antonio II & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRANCESCO Acciaiuoli (-murdered 1460).  An infant when his father died, he was living at the Turkish court at that time[413].  He was installed by Sultan Mohammed in 1455 as FRANCESCO II Duke of Athens.  He ordered the imprisonment and murder of his predecessor Duchess Chiara, which developed into the pretext for an Ottoman invasion.  Athens was captured 4 Jun 1456, although the Akropolis held out until 1458 when Duke Francesco left and was installed as Lord of Thebes by the Sultan[414].  He was eventually strangled on the orders of the Sultan after hearing rumours that the Athenians were plotting to restore him[415]m MARIA Asanina, daughter of DEMETRIOS Asanes Archante of Mouklion & his wife --- Tsampaklonissa (-after 1460).  After the death of her husband, she was taken to Constantinople where she was courted by George Amiroutzes, former minister of David Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond whom he had betrayed, who "dropped down dead, a dice-box in his hand"415.  Duke Francesco II & his wife had three children: 

i)          MATTEO Acciaiuoli .  He and his brothers were taken to Constantinople and enrolled in the janissaries415

ii)         GIACOPO Acciaiuoli

iii)        GABRIELE Acciaiuoli

3.         LAUDAMIA Acciaiuoli .  Lady of Sykaminon.  m --- Pitti, son of ---. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    BOUDONITZA

 

 

The area north of the principality of Achaia, adjacent to the frontier of Thermopyles, was safeguarded by the establishment of a “March”, along the lines of the protected March areas established by France and Germany in exposed frontier areas to improve military control.  Boudonitza was the name of the fortress constructed in the area.  The territory of the March of Boudonitza extended along the mainland coast opposite the island of Eubœa, protecting both the passages of Thermopyles and Sauromata, as far as the lordships of Athens and Thebes[416].  The March of Boudonitza was one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, named in a charter dated 1301[417].  The march of Boudonitza was inherited by Nicolò Giorgi who married Guglielma Pallavicini in 1335 as her second husband.  It remained in his family until the Turkish conquest in the early 15th century[418]

 

 

 

A.      PALLAVICINI

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         GUIDO Pallavicini (-after 2 May 1237).  He was invested with the fief of Boudonitza and built the castle on his land[419]Marchese of Boudonitzam SIBYLLE, daughter of ---.  Guido & his wife had three children: 

a)         UBERTINO Pallavicini (-after 1264).  Marchese of Boudonitza.  He joined the alliance against Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia in 1257 to prevent the latter gaining control of the island of Eubœa[420]

b)         MABILIA Pallavicini (-Feb 1264).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam names "Mabilia [filia domnus Markesopolus Pellavicini]" & his wife "de Burgundia" as the wife of "domno Açoni marchioni Hestensi"[421].  She bequeathed property in Parma to her brother Ubertino by her will dated 1264[422]m (1238) as his second wife, AZZO [VII] Marchese d´Este, son of AZZO [VI] "Azzolino" d'Este Marchese di Ancona & his third wife Alix de Châtillon ([1205]-17 Feb 1264, bur Ferrara San Francesco). 

c)         ISABELLA Pallavicini (-1286).  She succeeded her brother as Marchesa of Boudonitza[423].  On her death without children, the succession was disputed by her husband and her cousin Tomaso, who settled the matter by seizing the castle[424]

2.         RUBINO Pallavicini m ---.  The name of Rubino´s wife is not known.  Rubino & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Pallavicinim ---.  One child: 

i)          TOMASO Pallavicini (-[1290/1300]).  He seized the castle of Boudonitza after the death of his cousin Isabella and established himself as Marchese of Boudonitza[425]

-         see below

 

TOMASO Pallavicini, son of --- Pallavicini & his wife --- (-[1290/1300]).  He seized the castle of Boudonitza after the death of his cousin Isabella and established himself as Marchese of Boudonitza[426]

m ---.  The name of Tomaso´s wife is not known. 

Tomaso & his wife had one child: 

1.         ALBERTO Pallavicini (-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311)Marchese of Boudonitza by 1309.  He succeeded as triarch of Eubœa, by right of his wife.  He was succeeded as triarch of Eubœa by Andrea Cornaro from Venice.  "Ser Albertus Pallavicinus, comes Bondenize et dominus sexterij Nigropontis, decessit" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[427]m as her first husband, MARIA dalle Carceri, daughter of GAETANO dalle Carceri of Eubœa & his wife ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that the daughter of "miser Gaetan signore d´un Sestier di Negroponte" and his wife married "il marchese della Bondonizza" who was killed in battle by the Catalan company and married secondly "miser Andrea Cornaro grande uomo in Candia", by whom she was childless[428].  After the death of her first husband, she married secondly Andrea Cornaro of Eubœa, who succeeded to the march of Boudonitza which, although ravaged by the Catalans, remained independent paying an annual tribute of four horses to the Catalan vicar-general[429].  Alberto & his wife had one child: 

a)         GUGLIELMA Pallavicini (-1358)Marchesa of Boudonitzam firstly BARTOLOMEO Zaccaria, son of MARTINO Zaccaria Lord of Chios & his [first/second wife] --- (-[1334]).  Lord of Damala and Marchese of Boudonitza 1327-1334.  He inherited the march of Boudounitza after the death of Andrea Cornaro[430]m secondly (1335, separated) as his second wife, NICOLÒ Giorgi [Zorzi] (-Venice 1354).  Of Venetian origin, he inherited the march of Boudounitza on his marriage.  It remained in his family until the Turkish conquest[431].  Guglielma & her first husband had one child: 

i)          MARULLA Zaccaria ([1330]-before 1358)m (Papal dispensation 3o 3 Aug 1350) don JUAN Fadrique de Aragón, son of don ALFONSO Fadrique de Aragón Lord of Salona & his wife Marulla da Verona of Eubœa (-[1362/3 Aug 1366]).  Lord of Aegina and Salamis [1350-1362]. 

 

 

 

B.      ZORZI

 

 

1.         NICOLÒ Giorgi [Zorzi] (-Venice 1354).  Of Venetian origin, he inherited the march of Boudounitza on his marriage.  It remained in his family until the Turkish conquest[432]m firstly ---.  m secondly (1335, separated) as her second husband, GUGLIELMA Pallavicini Marchesa of Boudonitza, daughter of ALBERTO Pallavicini & his wife Maria dale Carceri (-1358).  Nicolò & his first wife had --- children: 

a)         --- . 

Nicolò & his second wife had one child: 

b)         FRANCESCO Zorzi (-[1388]).  Marchese of Boudonitza.  In 1359, Federigo II King of Sicily [Aragón] purported to grant the march to Mateo de Moncada whom he had appointed Vicar-General of the duchy of Athens and Neopatras[433].  He supported Maria of Sicily [Aragon] against the competing claims of Pedro IV King of Aragon after the death of her father Federigo II King of Sicily in 1377[434]m EUPHROSINA Sommaripa, daughter of ---.  Francesco & his wife had three children: 

i)          GIACOMO Zorzi (-murdered 1410).  Marchese of Boudonitza.  He paid tribute to Sultan Suleyman to guarantee the independence of his territories[435].  His fortress at Thermopylae was attacked by Sultan Musa in 1410 and Giacomo was assassinated, although for some months his sons held the castle which fell after promised Venetian help failed to arrive.  The march was incorporated into the Pashalik of Thessaly[436]m ---.  The name of Giacomo's wife is not known.  Giacomo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       NICOLÒ Zorzi (-after 1416).  Marchese of Boudonitza.  He was taken captive to the Sultan's court at Adrianople after Boudonitza was annexed by the Ottomans, but he was released and restored after Venetian intervention.  Boudonitza fell to Sultan Mohammed I 20 Jun 1414, and Nicolò fled to Venice.  The restoration of Boudonitza was a condition of the 1416 treaty imposed on the Sultan by Venice but Nicolò ceded the title to his uncle and accepted the rectorship of Pteleon, near the mouth of the Gulf of Volo in north-eastern Greece, as compensation[437]

ii)         NICOLÒ Zorzi (-1436).  A Venetian charter dated 6 Jul 1406 names "Marchio Bondanicie…Nicolao Georgio fratri dicti Marchionis" when recording that the latter was appointed by Venice to govern "insulas…Tinarum et Micholarum"[438].  He was installed as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) by Venice in 1406[439].  He was installed as Marchese of Boudonitza in 1416 after his nephew ceded the title to him after the marquesate was restored under the terms of the 1416 Venetian/Ottoman treaty.  He acted as Venetian ambassador to the court of Sigismund King of Hungary and to Sultan Murad II, but died while on a diplomatic mission to the latter poisoned allegedly on the Sultan's orders[440]

-         TRIARCHS of EUBŒA (NORTHERN PART)

iii)        daughter .  According to Miller, Francesco Zorzi´s daughter married "a Serbian princelet" but he gives no further details[441]m ---. 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    CHIOS

 

 

 

A.      ZACCARIA

 

 

ZACCARIA, son of ZACCARIA "de Castro" & his wife ---.  According to Miller, the Zaccaria family had emigrated to Genoa from Gavi in the [11th century], and Zaccaria was known as "de Castro" from the district of Santa Maria di Castello in Genoa where he lived[442].  The Annales of Ogerio Panis name "Zacharias de Castello" among the advisers of "domnus Guifredotus Grassellus, nobilissimus Mediolanensis civis" after his election as Doge of Genoa in 1202[443]

m ---.  The name of Zaccaria's wife is not known. 

Zaccaria & his wife had one child: 

1.         FULCONE Zaccaria (-1275 or after).  He was one of the Genoese signatories of the Treaty of Nymphaion signed in 1264 with Emperor Mikhael VIII and helped the emperor reconquer Constantinople[444]m firstly GIULIETTA, daughter of ---.  m secondly BEATRICE, daughter of ---.  1266.  Fulcone & his [first/second] wife had five children: 

a)         MANUELE Zaccaria (-[1287/early 1288]).  Pachymeres names "cuidam Genuensi nobili…Manueli…Zachariæ filio", stating that Emperor Mikhael VIII had granted him privileges over "Phocacæ montana"[445].  Lord of Phocea.  "Benedetto Zaccaria…and…his brother Manuele" gave a receipt at Genoa to "Percivalis Spinula" dated 17 Apr 1287[446]m firstly ELIANA Grillo, daughter of ---.  1268.  m secondly (1268) CLARISIA di Fieschi, daughter of TEDISIO di Fieschi di Lavagna & his wife Simona della Volta.  "Clarisia, wife of the late Manuele Zaccaria" appointed an agent for the sale of a female slave, on behalf of "her sons Tedisio, Leonardo, Odoardo and Manfred" dated 9 May 1291[447].  Manuele & his second wife had nine children: 

i)          TIDISINO [Tedisio/Ticino] Zaccaria (-1313).  "Clarisia, wife of the late Manuele Zaccaria" appointed an agent for the sale of a female slave, on behalf of "her sons Tedisio, Leonardo, Odoardo and Manfred" dated 9 May 1291[448].  Governor of Phocea 1302-1307.  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records that "un brave homme génois…Ser Tici Zacharie…neveu de micer Benoît Zacharie" ravaged the castle and town of "Fuylla", dated to 1308[449].  Lord of Thasos 1306-1313.  m BENEDETTA Fármasi, daughter of ---. 

ii)         LEONARDO Zaccaria (-after 9 May 1291).  "Clarisia, wife of the late Manuele Zaccaria" appointed an agent for the sale of a female slave, on behalf of "her sons Tedisio, Leonardo, Odoardo and Manfred" dated 9 May 1291[450]

iii)        ODOARDO Zaccaria .  "Clarisia, wife of the late Manuele Zaccaria" appointed an agent for the sale of a female slave, on behalf of "her sons Tedisio, Leonardo, Odoardo and Manfred" dated 9 May 1291[451].  1313. 

iv)       MANFREDO Zaccaria (-after 9 May 1291).  "Clarisia, wife of the late Manuele Zaccaria" appointed an agent for the sale of a female slave, on behalf of "her sons Tedisio, Leonardo, Odoardo and Manfred" dated 9 May 1291[452]

v)        five other children. 

b)         LIA Zaccaria .  1288.  m GUGLIELMO de Gavi

c)         BENEDETTO [I] Zaccaria (-1307).  Lord of Phocea 1288. 

-        see below

d)         NICCOLINO Zaccaria (-1288).  "Nicolino" was named as brother of "Benedetto and Manuele Zaccaria" dated 24 Jan 1287[453]m ANNA Kontostephaina, daughter of IOANNES Kontostephanos & his wife ---. 

e)         VINCIGUERRA Zaccaria .  1277. 

 

 

BENEDETTO [I] Zaccaria, son of FULCONE Zaccaria & his [first/second] wife [Giulietta ---/Beatrice ---] (-1307).  A Genoese adventurer, he arrived with his brother in Constantinople in 1275[454].  Emperor Mikhael VIII appointed him administrator of the alum mines of Phokaia in Asia Minor.  In 1282, the emperor employed him as one of his intermediaries with Pedro III King of Aragon, with the aim of prolonging Aragon's war against the Angevin Kings of Sicily[455].  Lord of Phocea 1288.  Admiral of France.  In 1304, he captured the island of Chios which was subsequently ceded to him as a fief by Emperor Andronikos II although in practice he governed as an independent prince[456]Lord of Chios

m (after 1275) [--- Palaiologina, daughter of ANDRONIKOS Dukas Komnenos Palaiologos megas domestikos & his wife Theodora Palaiologina.  According to Sturdza[457], the sister of Emperor Mikhael VIII married Benedetto Zaccaria.  This seems chronologically improbable considering the approximate birth dates of other children of Andronikos Palaiologos.  If the marriage did take place, it is possible either that the bride was an illegitimate daughter or a more distant relation of the emperor.] 

Benedetto & his wife had three children: 

1.         PALEOLOGO Zaccaria (-1314).  He succeeded his father in 1307 as Lord of Chiosm GIACOMINA Spinola, daughter of ---.  Paleologo & his wife had three children: 

a)         BENEDETTO Zaccaria (-1330).  He succeeded his father in 1314 as joint Lord of Chios, jointly with his brother.  He acted against his brother Martino during the 1329 uprising in Chios[458].  He unsuccessfully attempted to recapture Chios in 1335[459], although this date contradicts the date of his death given in Sturdza[460]m GINEVRA Doria, daughter of CORRADO Doria & his wife --- (-after 1340). 

b)         MARTINO Zaccaria (-beheaded Smyrna 15 Jan 1345).  He succeeded his father in 1314 as joint Lord of Chios, jointly with his brother.  He succeeded the family la Roche as baron of Damala in Argolis, and the family of La Trémoïlle at Chalandritza[461].  He was called "King and Despot of Asia Minor" by Philippe of Sicily Prince of Tarento [Anjou-Capet] in 1325.  The Greek inhabitants of Chios, led by Leo Kalothetos, rebelled against his rule in 1329.  The emperor intervened, captured Martino Zaccaria and imprisoned him in Constantinople[462].  He was captured by Turks while attending mass in the cathedral of Smyrna and beheaded in the courtyard outside, his head being presented as a trophy to Omar beg of Aydin[463]m firstly --- Ghisi Lady of ½ Chalandritza, daughter of GIORGIO [I] Ghisi Lord of Mykonos & his [first wife --- de Dramelay].  m secondly JACQUELINE de la Roche Lady of Veligosti and Damala, daughter of ---.  Martino & his [first/second] wife had two children: 

i)          BARTOLOMEO Zaccaria (-[1334]).  Lord of Damala and Marchese of Boudonitza 1327-1334.  m (1327) as her first husband, GUGLIELMA Pallavicini Marchesa of Boudonitza, daughter of ALBERTO Pallavicini & his wife --- (-1358).  She married secondly (1335, separated) as his second wife, Nicolò Giorgi [Zorzi]. 

-         MARCHESI of BOUDONITZA

ii)         CENTURIONE Zaccaria (-1382).  Baron of Arkadia. 

-         LORDS of ARKADIA

c)         GIOVANNI Zaccaria (-1359).  m ---.  The name of Giovanni's wife is not known.  Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

i)          MANUELE Zaccaria .  1350. 

2.         ELIANA Zaccaria m ANDRIOLO Cattaneo "Paleologo", son of ANDRIOLO Cattaneo della Volta & his wife --- (-1331).  Governor of Phocea 1307.  Lord of Phocea 1314.  Andriolo & his wife had one child: 

a)         DOMENICO Cattaneo (-1336).  Lord of Phocea 1331.  He was expelled by the Byzantines in 1335. 

3.         MANUELE Zaccaria .  1300. 

 

 

 

B.      GIUSTINIANI

 

 

The Genoese admiral Vignoso conquered the island of Chios for the republic of Genoa in 1345.  The island was governed by a commercial company "Mahone", with Vignoso as director.  Disputes between the shareholders resulted in a new "Mahone" being established in 1362 by Simone Boccanegra Doge of Genoa.  It was agreed that the new shareholders, members of different Genoese ruling families, would all change their names to Giustiniani.  After the French occupied Genoa in 1408, the Giustiniani of Chios declared their independence.  The Ottoman Turks conquered Chios in 1546[464]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    EUBŒA

 

 

The 1204 treaty, which projected the division of the Byzantine empire between Venice and the Crusaders, allocated the island of Eubœa to the Venetians but they abandoned it to the Frankish conquerors[465].  It was conquered by Jacques d'Avesnes for Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato and divided into three baronies.  These were ruled by Ravano dalle Carceri, Peccoraro de' Peccorari (both from Verona) and Giberto dalle Carceri (from Mantua), who had taken part in the capture of the island and were henceforth known as the "Terzieri" [triarchs] of Eubœa.  Ravano dalle Carceri united the three units following the return to Italy of Peccoraro and the death of Giberto in [1209][466].  He agreed in 1209 to become the vassal of Venice, which appointed a bailly to rule the Venetian colonies on the island.  After Ravano died in 1216, the Venetian bailly increased Venetian authority over the island by further dividing it between the six rival claimants, thereafter known as the "hexarchs", on condition that on the death of any one of the six his/her rights would accrue to the remaining rulers rather than devolve to his/her heirs[467].  In 1236, Emperor Baudouin II transferred the suzerainty of Eubœa to Geoffroy II Prince of Achaia, although Venice continued to exercise practical control[468].  On the death of Merino dalle Carceri in 1246, Guillaume Prince of Achaia attacked Eubœa, signalling the start of a lengthy civil war between the different rulers of the island.  The Catalans conquered the island of Eubœa in 1317 but, under the terms of a tripartite Venetian, Sicilian and Catalan agreement in 1319, the rule of the triarchs (the hexarchs had once more been reduced to three by the process of inheritance described above) was maintained although Venice extended its influence on the island[469].  The last of the triarchs, Niccolo III dalle Carceri who died in 1383 and Giorgio Ghisi, bequeathed their shares to the republic of Venice.  Rather than take direct control themselves, the Venetians leased the island to the three Giustiniani brothers at a very low rent, mindful of the need to avoid the cost of upkeep and to respect the sensitivities of the local nobility[470].  The lordships in the island of Eubœa were three of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, named in a charter dated 1301[471]

 

 

 

A.      NORTHERN TRIARCHATE

 

 

Three brothers, parents not known: 

1.         RAVANO dalle Carceri (-1216).  A noble from northern Italy.  According to Sturdza, he was related to Giberto da Verona[472].  He took part in the capture of the island of Eubœa in Aug 1205 and was named one of the Terzieri [Triarchs] of Eubœa and awarded the northern part of the island by Jacques d'Avesnes, in the name of his suzerain Bonifazio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, centred around Karystos and Larmena[473].  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record that "Bonefasio marchese de Monfera" enfeoffed "Ravan da le Carcere, ditto Pegoraro, et a Gilberto da Verona" with "tutta la isola de Negroponte" in Aug 1205, and names "Redondelli fratris eiusdem Ravani"[474]Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  After the return to Italy of his fellow triarch, Peccoraro de' Peccorari, and the death in [1209] of the third co-ruler Giberto da Verona, Ravano dalle Carceri united the island, rebelled against Bonifazio di Monferrato and joined Venice, which recognised him as Lord of the island of Euboea, under Venetian suzerainty, by act dated Mar 1209[475].  On his death, the island was partitioned again between three groups of his heirs: (1) his nephews, Merino [I] and Rizzardo, (2) his widow and daughter, and (3) Guglielmo and Alberto, sons of Giberto[476]m as her second husband, ISABELLA, widow of ---, daughter of ---.  This marriage was contracted during the life of Isabella's first husband, regularised after his death by the archbishop of Athens based on a letter of authorisation from Pope Innocent III dated 25 May 1212[477].  Under the division of Eubœa established in 1217 by Venice following the death of her husband, Isabella acquired half of the southern barony, the other half being assigned to her daughter[478].  She and her daughter were dispossessed by the lords of the other two triarchates at an unknown date and in unknown circumstances[479].  Ravano & his wife had one child: 

a)         BERTA dalle Carceri .  Under the division of Eubœa established in 1217 by Venice following the death of her father, Berta acquired half of the southern barony, the other half being assigned to her mother478.  She and her mother were dispossessed by the lords of the other two triarchates at an unknown date and in unknown circumstances[480].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Michiel Morosini" held a sixth part of Eubœa "per la moglie del Principe sopradetto", the latter referring to Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia[481]m MICHELE Morosini, son of ---. 

2.         ARRIGO dalle Carceri .  Bishop of Mantua[482]

3.         RIONDELLO dalle Carceri .  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record that "Bonefasio marchese de Monfera" enfeoffed "Ravan da le Carcere, ditto Pegoraro, et a Gilberto da Verona" with "tutta la isola de Negroponte" in Aug 1205, and names "Redondelli fratris eiusdem Ravani"[483].  Podestà at Verona 1210[484]m ---.  The name of Riondello's wife is not known.  Riondello & his wife had two children: 

a)         MARINO [I] dalle Carceri (-1247)Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  Under the division of Eubœa established by Venice in 1217 following the death of Ravano dalle Carceri, he acquired half of the northern barony with the town of Oreos, the other half being assigned to his brother[485].  He succeeded as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part), after his marriage.  m MARGHERITA de' Peccoraro,  daughter of PECCORARO de' Peccorari Triarch of Eubœa (southern part) & his wife ---.  Marino [I] & his wife had one child: 

i)          NARZOTTO dalle Carceri (-1264).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Jan 1275 of “Merinetus de Carceri Verone, dominator tercie parties Nigripontis, filius…domini Narzoti de Carcere[486].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).   

-         see Part C

b)         RIZZARDO dalle Carceri (-[1220]).  Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  Under the division of Eubœa established by Venice in 1217 following the death of Ravano dale Carceri, he acquired half of the northern barony with the town of Oreos, the other half being assigned to his brother485m ---.  The name of Rizzardo's wife is not known.  Rizzardo & his wife had one child: 

i)          CARINTANA dalle Carceri (before [1220]-1255).  Baroness in her own right of 1/3 Eubœa.  Sturdza states that "recent research" has established that Prince Guillaume did not marry Carintana but gives no further details[487]m ([1246]) as his second wife, GUILLAUME de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, son of GEOFFROY I Prince of Achaia & his wife [Elisabeth de Chappes] (Kalamata Castle after [1208][488]-1 May 1278, bur Andravida, church of St James).  He claimed the succession to his wife's third of the island of Eubœa when she died[489].  He captured Negroponte, but the Venetians took it back in 1258 after a thirteen month siege[490].  The dispute was finally resolved by the treaty of Thebes end 1261, under which the prince recognised the rights of the triarchs Guglielmo da Verona, Narzotto dalle Carceri and Grapella in return for their recognition of his suzerainty[491]

c)         NICOLÒ dalle Carceri .  “Merinetus de Carceri Verone, dominator tercie parties Nigripontis, filius…domini Narzoti de Carcere” issued a charter dated 1 Jan 1275 relating to his inheritance which names “avus noster…dominus Merinus de Carcere…[et] domino Nicolao de Carcere fratri suo…[et] domino Merino de Carcere filio quondam dicti domini Nicolai[492]m ---.  The name of Nicolò´s wife is not known.  Nicolò & his wife had one child: 

i)          MARINO dalle Carceri .  “Merinetus de Carceri Verone, dominator tercie parties Nigripontis, filius…domini Narzoti de Carcere” issued a charter dated 1 Jan 1275 relating to his inheritance which names “avus noster…dominus Merinus de Carcere…[et] domino Nicolao de Carcere fratri suo…[et] domino Merino de Carcere filio quondam dicti domini Nicolai[493].  

 

 

1.         JACQUES de Cicon (-before 1215).  Seigneur de Châtillon-Guyotte. Lord of Karystos in Eubœa.  m SIBYLLE de la Roche, daughter of PONS de la Roche Seigneur de Ray & his second wife Pontia [de Rougement/de Dramelay].  Jacques & his wife had two children: 

a)         OTHON de Cicon (-after 1278).  He gave refuge to Baudouin II Emperor of Constantinople after the latter fled Constantinople, to whom he lent 5,000 Byzantine hyperperes receiving in exchange an arm of St John the Baptist[494].  Titular Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  m AGNESINA Ghisi, daughter of ---.  Othon & his wife had one child: 

i)          GUY de Cicon .  Titular Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  m ---.  The name of Guy's wife is not known.  Guy & his wife had one child: 

(a)       AGNES de Cicon .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Bonifacio da Verona, figlio de miser Francesco" acquired "il castel di Caristo…per sua consorte"[495].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m (1294) BONIFAZIO da Verona Lord of 1/3 Eubœa, son of GUGLIELMO [II] da Verona Lord of 1/3 Eubœa & his wife --- (-1317). 

b)         PONS (-1249).  Sire de Châtillon-Guyotte.  

-        SIRES de CHÂTILLON-GUYOTTE[496]

 

 

BONIFAZIO da Verona Lord of 1/3 Eubœa, son of GUGLIELMO [II] da Verona Lord of 1/3 Eubœa & his wife --- (-1317).  Guy II Duke of Athens granted him a revenue of 50,000 sols, his own mother's dowry of Gardiki in Thessaly and the island of Salamis, and arranged his marriage at the ceremony of his coming of age in 1294[497].  He recaptured Karistos from the Greeks, establishing himself as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) in 1296[498].  Duke Guy appointed Bonifazio as temporary administrator of the duchy of Athens when he died[499].  He fought at Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311 against the Catalans, but the latter asked him to be their leader after the battle, which he refused[500].  "Ser Bonifacius de Verona, dominator Caristi et Gardichie, Selizirij et Egue" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[501]

m AGNES de Cicon, daughter of GUY de Cicon Titular Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) & his wife ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Bonifacio da Verona, figlio de miser Francesco" acquired "il castel di Caristo…per sua consorte"[502].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  

Bonifazio & his wife had two children: 

1.         TOMASO da Verona (-Feb 1326)Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  A charter dated 2 Sep 1318 records that "dominus Alphonsus Friderici" married "Marule filie quondam nobilis domini Bonifatii de Verona", with "castra Caristi et Larmene" [Karystos, Larmena] granted as her dowry by "Thomasatii fratris dicte Marule civis Venetiarum"[503].  He was dispossessed by his brother-in-law Alfonso Fadrique[504]m ---.  The name of Tomaso's wife is not known.  Tomaso & his wife had one child: 

a)         AGNESE (-1339).  Lady of Larmena.  m (1327) AGNOLOTTO Sanudo, son of GIOVANNI Sanudo & his wife --- (-1342). 

2.         MARULLA da Verona .  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records the marriage of "Alphonse-Frédéric" and "la fille de messire Boniface de Véronne", dated to 1313[505].  A charter dated 2 Sep 1318 records that "dominus Alphonsus Friderici" married "Marule filie quondam nobilis domini Bonifatii de Verona", with "castra Caristi et Larmene" [Karystos, Larmena] granted as her dowry by "Thomasatii fratris dicte Marule civis Venetiarum"[506].  On her marriage, her brother granted her the castles of Karystos, Larmena, Aegina, Zeitounion and Gardiki in the Duchy of Athens.  She allowed her brother to use the castle of Larmena in 1324 but reclaimed it when he died[507]m (1317) don ALFONSO Fadrique, illegitimate son of FEDERIGO II King of Sicily & his mistress Sibilla Sormella ([1290]-[20 Dec 1335/4 Mar 1339]).  His father named him Vicar General of the Duchy of Athens in 1317 after the death of Berenguer Estañol.  After the death of his father-in-law in 1317, Alfonso conquered the island of Eubœa, but he was instructed to withdraw by his father following pressure from the Angevins, although he retained possession of the castles of Karystos and Larmena.  Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  A formal truce was negotiated with Venice in 1319 in which the triarchs were included[508].  Lord of Salona in 1319/20.  Alfonso & his wife had seven children: 

a)         don BONIFACIO Fadrique de Aragón (-[1375/76])He was deprived of his assets in Sicily during the civil war between the Sicilian and Catalan parties, and left for Greece[509].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) in 1338.  He sold his share of the island of Eubœa, including Karystos, to Venice in 1365 for 6,000 ducats[510]

-        other children: see SALONA

 

 

1.         GIOVANNI [II] Giustiniani .  Joint Lord of Chios and Seriphos.  m ---.  The name of Giovanni's wife is not known.  Giovanni [II] & his wife had three children: 

a)         MICHELE Giustiniani (-1402).  He and his brothers were installed as Triarchs of Eubœa (northern part) by Venetian decree dated 21 Mar 1386[511]

b)         ANDREA Giustiniani (-before 1406).  He and his brothers were installed as Triarchs of Eubœa (northern part) by Venetian decree dated 21 Mar 1386[512]m ---.  The name of Andrea's wife is not known.  Andrea & his wife had one child: 

i)          ANTONIO Giustiniani (-after 1438).  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part), but lost Karystos in 1406.  Counsellor at Negroponti 1434 and 1438[513]m MARIA Morosini, daughter of PIETRO Morosini & his wife --- (-1427 or after). 

c)         GIOVANNI Giustiniani (-before 1406).  He and his brothers were installed as Triarchs of Eubœa (northern part) by Venetian decree dated 21 Mar 1386[514]

 

 

NICOLÒ Zorzi, son of FRANCESCO Zorzi Marchese of Boudonitza & his wife --- (-1436).  He was installed as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) by Venice in 1406[515].  He was installed as Marchese of Boudonitza in 1416 after his nephew ceded the title to him after the march was restored under the terms of the 1416 Venetian/Ottoman treaty.  He acted as Venetian ambassador to the court of Zsigmond King of Hungary and to Sultan Murad II, but died while on a diplomatic mission to the latter poisoned allegedly on the Sultan's orders[516]

m (1402) BENVENUTA Protimo, adopted daughter of ANTONIO Acciaiuoli Duke of Athens, daughter of --- Protimo & his wife ---. 

Nicolò & his wife had one child: 

1.         GIACOMO [II] Zorzi (-1447).  He succeeded his father as as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) and titular Marchese of Boudonitza.  m ---.  The name of Giacomo's wife is not known.  Giacomo [II] & his wife had one child.  

a)         ANTONIO Zorzi (-1498).  He succeeded his father as as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) and titular Marchese of Boudonitza.  He retained his lordship until it was conquered by the Turks in 1470[517]

2.         CHIARA Zorzi (-murdered 1455).  On the death of her husband in 1451, she proclaimed herself CHIARA Duchess of Athens.  She became the mistress of [Pietro Priuli or Bartolomeo Contarini], Venetian patrician, son of --- Venetian Governor of Navplion.  She married him in 1453 as his second wife, after he poisoned his first wife[518].  He and his stepson were summoned to Sultan Mohammed, who ordered the deposition of his wife and installed Francesco II as Duke of Athens.  She was imprisoned at Megara on the orders of her nephew Duke Francesco II and murdered[519]m firstly as his second wife, NERIO II Duke of Athens, son of FRANCESCO Acciaiuoli & his wife --- (-1451).  m secondly (1453) as his second wife, [PIETRO Priuli or BARTOLOMEO Contarini][520], Venetian patrician, son of --- Venetian Governor of Navplion. 

3.         MARIA Zorzi (-after 1446)m firstly ANTONIO Acciaiuoli, son of FRANCESCO Acciaiuoli & his wife --- (-1441).  He succeeded his brother in 1439 as ANTONIO II Duke of Athensm secondly (1446) GIOVANNI Malipiero, Venetian bailly of Negropont. 

 

 

 

B.      CENTRAL TRIARCHATE

 

 

1.         GIBERTO da Verona (-1209).  A noble from Mantua, related to Ravano dale Carceri according to Sturdza[521].  He took part in the capture of the island of Eubœa in Aug 1205 and was named one of the Terzieri [Triarchs] of Eubœa by Bonifazio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record that "Bonefasio marchese de Monfera" enfeoffed "Ravan da le Carcere, ditto Pegoraro, et a Gilberto da Verona" with "tutta la isola de Negroponte" in Aug 1205, and names "Redondelli fratris eiusdem Ravani"[522].  He was awarded the central part of the island by Jacques d'Avesnes, in the name of his suzerain Bonifazio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, centred around Chalkis[523]Triarch of Eubœa (central part).  m ---.  The name of Giberto's wife is not known.  Giberto & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUGLIELMO [I] da Verona (-killed in battle Demetrias [1268]).  He and his brother were minors when their father died.  Under the division of Eubœa established in 1217 by Venice following the death of Ravano dalle Carceri, he and his brother were installed as Triarchs of Eubœa (central part) with the town of Negroponte[524].  After the death of his brother, the latter's share devolved to Guglielmo who granted it to his nephew Grapella together with the hand in marriage of his daughter Margherita[525].  He claimed to be titular king of Thessaloniki from his first marriage[526].  He claimed the title Marshal of Morea following his second marriage.  He was killed during the attack on Eubœa by Byzantine forces in [1268][527]m firstly (before 1240) ELENA [di Monferrato], niece and heiress of DEMETRIO King of Thessaloniki, daughter of ---.  Baldwin II Emperor of Constantinople confirmed her rights over Thessaloniki 5 Feb 1240, confirmed in 1244 by the Pope.  m secondly (1255) SIMONE [de Villehardouin, daughter of GUILLAUME [II] de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia] & his [first wife Agnes de Toucy] (-1265).  Simone, daughter of Guillaume II de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, is named as second wife of Guglielmo by Mas Latrie, without specifying the primary source on which this is based[528].  He does not name her mother.  If Simone was Guillaume's legitimate daughter, she must have been born from his first marriage.  However, if it is correct as shown below that Guglielmo da Verona left numerous descendants by his second wife, it is surprising that none should have claimed the principality of Achaia which passed to the daughters of Guillaume de Villehardouin by his third marriage.  Another possibility is that Simone was illegitimate.  Another perspective is provided by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which records that "Il principe Guglielmo" brought "di Campagna et Borgogna tre sue nipoti" and that he married the third "a Miser Guglielmo da Verona, fiol a Miser Guglielmo signor d´ un terzero di Negroponte", adding that they had three sons and three daughters, and naming her "Madonna Simona" in a later passage[529].  It appears to be unlikely from a chronological point of view that this passage refers to Guglielmo [II] da Verona, son of Guglielmo [I], who is not recorded as having children.  It is more likely therefore that it refers to Guglielmo [I] da Verona, although his father was not recorded elsewhere as having been named Guglielmo.  If this is correct, Simone was not the daughter of Guillaume de Villehardouin.  Guglielmo & his first wife had three children: 

i)          three children (-young). 

Guglielmo & his [second] wife had five children: 

ii)         GUGLIELMO [II] da Verona (-killed in battle Licario 1275).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "el primo…miser Gilberto, il secundo miser Guglielmo…il terzer miser Francesco" as the three sons of "miser Guglielmo da Verona"[530].  He succeeded his father in [1268] as Triarch of Eubœa (central part).  m as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Neuilly Lady of Passava, widow of GUIBERT de Cors, daughter of JEAN [II] de Neuilly Baron of Passava [Hereditary Marshal of Achaia] & his wife ---.   The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la mariscalca della Morea" as the wife of "miser Guglielmo" son of "miser Guglielmo da Verona"[531].  She was sent as a hostage to Constantinople in 1262 to secure the release of Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, whose niece she was.  She was the heiress of her maternal uncle Gauthier [II] de Rosières, baron of Akova [Matagrifon] but was unable to claim her inheritance within 2 years and 2 days due to her absence in Constantinople.  Prince Guillaume therefore declared her inheritance forfeit[532].  She married thirdly Jean de Saint-Omer of Thebes, who demanded the return of her inheritance, which was refused by a specially summoned parliament at Glarentza.  Prince Guillaume granted one third of the barony to Marguerite as a concession, granting the other two-thirds to his own daughter Marguerite[533]

iii)        GIBERTO da Verona (-after 1278).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "el primo…miser Gilberto, il secundo miser Guglielmo…il terzer miser Francesco" as the three sons of "miser Guglielmo da Verona"[534].  He succeeded his brother as Triarch of Eubœa (central part), escaping immediately to Chalkis after the attack on Eubœa by Byzantine forces in [1268][535].  He was captured by Licario, taken to Constantinople as a prisoner, and died when being presented before Emperor Mikhael VIII[536]m MARIA Navigajoso of Lemnos, daughter of PAOLO Navigajoso & his wife --- Sanudo (-after 1313).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "la prima [figlia]…Maria" of "la mega duchessa…sorella de miser Marco Sanuco duca di Nicossia e Andre" and her husband "del Mega Duca" married "miser Giberto da Verona"[537]"Domina Maria de Verona dominatrix tertiarii Nigropontis, Beatrix eius filia et Bartholomeus della Gronda pro magnifico viro Ioanne Demassi" are included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[538].  Giberto & his wife had three children: 

(a)       GUGLIELMO (-young).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Guglielmo e miser Francesco" as the two sons of "miser Giberto da Verona" and his wife, adding that they both died young[539]

(b)       FRANCESCO (-young).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Guglielmo e miser Francesco" as the two sons of "miser Giberto da Verona" and his wife, adding that they both died young[540]

(c)       BEATRICE da Verona (-1328).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "madonna Beatrice" as the daughter of "miser Giberto da Verona" and his wife, adding that she married "Grappola signor d´un Terzier di Negroponte" and secondly "miser Giovanni de Masi huomo nobile e grande…propinquo del signor de Noers de Borgogna" by whom she was childless[541]m firstly GRAPOZZO dalle Carceri Triarch of Eubœa (central part), son of FRANCISCO dalle Carceri & his wife ---.  m secondly JEAN de Noyers Sire de Maisy (-1326). 

iv)       FELISA da Verona (-after 1278).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Felisa married "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer"[542].  An earlier passage of the same source names "miser Guglielmo da Verona e miser Narze suo genero", naming the wife of Narzotto "Madonna Felisa fiola moglie de miser Narze" in a later passage[543].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "un cavalier della città di Caristo ditto miser Licario", whose "antecessori erano stati Vesentini e vennero alcuni di Castel Novo", lived "in casa de miser Giberto suo fratello", adding that Felisa married him as her second husband[544]m firstly NARZOTTO dale Carceri Triarch of Eubœa (southern part), son of MARINO [I] dalle Carceri Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) & his wife Margherita de' Peccoraro (-1264).  m secondly as his first wife, LICARIO, son of ---.  Her second husband was a penniless adventurer from Vicenza who had settled on Eubœa.  Hounded out of Negroponte, he returned to a castle in Karystos from where he raided the surrounding countryside, eventually being employed by Emperor Mikhael VIII to carry out guerrilla warfare against the Lombard rulers of the island.  His success was rewarded by the emperor's grant of the island of Eubœa as a fief and the hand of a Greek noble lady as his second wife.  He captured Giberto da Verona, Triarch of Eubœa (central part) and took him to Constantinople as a prisoner[545].  He returned to rule Eubœa, was made a Byzantine admiral and awarded the title mega dux, but then disappeared from history[546]

v)        MARGHERITA da Verona .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Margherita married "miser Grapella signor d´un Terzer" and secondly "miser Oston de S. Homer signor della mità di Tebbe"[547]m firstly her first cousin, GRAPELLA da Verona, son of ALBERTO da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (central part) & his wife --- (-[1262/64]).  m secondly OTHON de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes, son of BELA de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes & his wife Bonne de la Roche of Athens (-before 1299). 

vi)       PORZIA da Verona .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Porzia married "miser Marin Sanudo signor della mità di Nicosia e di tutto Pario"[548]m MARINO Sanudo Lord of Paros and Antiparos, son of ANGELO Sanudo Duke of Naxos & his wife --- (-1270 or after) . 

vii)      FRANCESCO da Verona .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "el primo…miser Gilberto, il secundo miser Guglielmo…il terzer miser Francesco" as the three sons of "miser Guglielmo da Verona"[549]

-         see below

b)         ALBERTO da Verona (-before 1255).  He and his brother were minors when their father died.  Under the division of Eubœa established in 1217 by Venice following the death of Ravano dale Carceri, he and his brother were installed as Triarchs of Eubœa (central part) with the town of Negroponte[550].  After his death, his share devolved to his brother Guglielmo who granted it to Alberto's son Grapella together with the hand in marriage of his daughter Margherita[551]m ---.  The name of Alberto's wife is not known.  Alberto & his wife had one child: 

i)          GRAPELLA da Verona (-[1262/64]).  He was placed by his uncle in control of the third of the island of Eubœa which was claimed by Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia in 1255[552].  On his death without issue, he left his part to his two cousins Grapozzo and Gaetano.  m as her first husband, his first cousin, MARGHERITA da Verona, daughter of GUGLIELMO da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (central part) & his second wife [Simone de Villehardouin].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Margherita married "miser Grapella signor d´un Terzer" and secondly "miser Oston de S. Homer signor della mità di Tebbe"[553].  She married secondly Othon de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes. 

 

 

FRANCESCO da Verona, son of GUGLIELMO da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (central part) & his second wife Simone [de Villehardouin] .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "el primo…miser Gilberto, il secundo miser Guglielmo…il terzer miser Francesco" as the three sons of "miser Guglielmo da Verona"[554]

m ---.  The name of Francesco´s wife is not known. 

Francesco & his wife had three children: 

1.         GRAPOZZO dalle Carceri .  He succeeded his cousin Grapella as Triarch of Eubœa (central part) jointly with his brother Gaetano, but lived in Naples and appointed Leone dalle Carceri as his deputy[555]m as her first husband BEATRICE da Verona, daughter of GIBERTO da Verona & his wife Maria Navigajoso of Lemnos (-1328).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "madonna Beatrice" as the daughter of "miser Giberto da Verona" and his wife, adding that she married "Grappola signor d´un Terzier di Negroponte" and secondly "miser Giovanni de Masi huomo nobile e grande…propinquo del signor de Noers de Borgogna" by whom she was childless[556].  She married secondly Jean de Noyers Sire de Maisy.  Grapozzo & his wife had one child: 

a)         PIETRO [Perulli] dalle Carceri (-Dec 1340)The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Pietro…signor d´un Terzer di Negroponte" as the son of "Grappola signor d´un Terzier di Negroponte" and his wife[557].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (central part) jointly with his cousin Maria and her husband Andrea Cornaro.  He captured the sixth held by Andrea Cornaro in 1323[558].  He inherited a further part of the central Triarchate on the death of his mother in 1328.  By agreement dated 8 Sep 1338 with Bartolomeo Ghisi, Triarch of the southern part of Eubœa, he agreed that Venice should control the town of Negroponte[559]m firstly --- Ghisi Lady of ½ Chalandritza, daughter of GIORGIO [I] Ghisi Lord of Mykonos & his [first wife --- de Dramelay].  m secondly [as her second husband,] BALZANA Gozzadini, [widow of ERARD [II] d'Aulnoy Baron of Arkadia,] daughter of DOMENICO Gozzadini Lord of Namfto & his wife ---.  Pietro & his second wife had one child: 

i)          GIOVANNI dalle Carceri (-1358).  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (central part), under the guardianship of his mother and the protection of Venice[560]m (1349) as her first husband, FIORENZA Sanudo, daughter of GIOVANNI Sanudo Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelago & his wife Maria --- (-1371).  Her first marriage is confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which names "Fiorenza Sanudo…fiola…de Marco Sanudo fradelo fu de Januli Sanudo ducha de Archipielago" as mother of "Nicolò dale Carcere ducha del Arcipielago" when recording the latter´s death "in la citade de Nicosia" in 1383[561].  She succeeded her father in 1362 as Duchess of Naxos and of the Archipelago.  She married secondly (1364) as his second wife, Nicolò Sanudo "Spezzabanda".  Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

(a)       NICOLÒ [III] dalle Carceri (-murdered Naxos 1383).  His parentage is confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which names "Fiorenza Sanudo…fiola…de Marco Sanudo fradelo fu de Januli Sanudo ducha de Archipielago" as mother of "Nicolò dale Carcere ducha del Arcipielago" when recording the latter´s death "in la citade de Nicosia" in 1383[562].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (central part), under the guardianship of his mother.  He succeeded his mother in 1371 as NICOLÒ II Duke of Naxos and the Archipelago.  He continued to reside in Eubœa, appointing Januli Gozzadini of Anaphe as his regent in Naxos.  He plotted to extend his influence in Eubœa, planning the capture of Negroponte in 1380 with assistance from the Navarrese Company.  He aroused resentment among his subjects by his extorsion and was murdered, apparently with the connivance of Francesco Crispo who was immediately accepted as his successor[563].  On his death, Venice confiscated the two thirds of the island of Eubœa which he held[564]m (1372) as her first husband, PETRONILLA Tocco, daughter of LEONARDO I Count of Kefalonia & his wife Maddalena Buondelmonti (-[22 Jun 1409/27 Sep 1410]).  After her first husband's death, she was compensated by property near the hot baths of Aedepsos on the island of Eubœa.  She married secondly ([1383]) Nicola Vernier, of Venice[565].  Nicolò had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

(1)        FRANCESCO dalle Carceri (-1427).  Treasurer of Venice at Navplion.  He left descendants on Naxos, extinct in the 17th century[566]

2.         GAETANO da Verona (-1280).  He succeeded his cousin Grapella as Triarch of Eubœa (central part) jointly with his brother Grapozzo, but lived in Naples and appointed Leone dalle Carceri as his deputy[567]m AGNESE Navigajoso, daughter of PAOLO Navegajoso & his wife --- Sanudo (-[1322]).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "la seconda [figlia]" of "la mega duchessa…sorella de miser Marco Sanuco duca di Nicossia e Andre" and her husband "del Mega Duca" married "miser Gaetan signore d´un Sestier di Negroponte"[568]Gaetano & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARIA dalle Carceri .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that the daughter of "miser Gaetan signore d´un Sestier di Negroponte" and his wife married "il marchese della Bondonizza" who was killed in battle by the Catalan company and married secondly "miser Andrea Cornaro grande uomo in Candia", by whom she was childless[569]m firstly ALBERTO Pallavicini Marchese of Boudonitza, son of TOMASO Pallavicini Marchese of Boudonitza & his wife --- (-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311).  He supported Gauthier de Brienne Duke of Athens and was killed in battle at Lake Kopais[570]m secondly ANDREA Cornaro, son of ---.  His sixth of the island of Eubœa, which he held by right of his wife, was captured in 1323 by his wife's first cousin Pietro dalle Carceri[571].  He was deprived of his lands in 1323 by Pietro dalle Carceri and pursued legal proceedings against Marula dall Carceri and her husband Fadrique de Aragón between 1326 and 1328[572]

3.         BONIFAZIO da Verona (-1317).  His parentage is confirmed by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which names "miser Francesco da Verona padre de miser Bonifacio"[573].  Guy II Duke of Athens granted him a revenue of 50,000 sols, his own mother's dowry of Gardiki in Thessaly and the island of Salamis, and arranged his marriage at the ceremony of his coming of age in 1294[574].  He recaptured Karistos from the Greeks, establishing himself as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) in 1296[575].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Bonifacio da Verona, figlio de miser Francesco" acquired "il castel di Caristo…per sua consorte"[576]

-        EUBŒA - TRIARCHATE (NORTHERN PART)

 

 

1.         GASPARO di Sommaripa (-1402)m (1390) MARIA Sanudo, daughter of NICOLÒ Sanudo "Spezzabanda" Duke of Naxos & his second wife Fiorenza Sanudo Dss of Naxos (-1426).  She was granted the island of Andros as a fief.  She was deprived of Andros by Francesco Crispo who bestowed it on his son-in-law Pietro Zeno, bailie in Eubœa, in an effort to increase his influence on the island.  She was compensated by the island of Paros on condition that she marry Gasparo di Sommaripa[577].  Venice granted her 1/3 of the island of Eubœa, her descendants continuing to hold this part under Venice until the Ottoman Turks invaded the island 15 Jun 1470[578].  Gasparo & his wife had two children: 

a)         CRUSINO di Sommaripa (-1462).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Cursi Summaripa signor de Pario et Antiparo" as son of "Maria Sanudo"[579].  He succeeded as Triarch of Eubœa (central part), under the tutelage of his mother until 1414.  m --- Zeno, daughter of ANDREO Zeno Lord of Andros & his wife ---.  A Venetian charter dated 22 Dec 1439 records that "domini Andree Geno…filia" married "dominus Crusinus Summaripa filius et heres quondam domine Marie Sanuto"[580].  Crusino & his wife had two children: 

i)          NICOLÒ di Sommaripa (-after 1470).  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (central part), retaining his lordship until it was conquered by the Turks in 1470[581]

ii)         daughter .  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Cursi Sumaripa…una fiola" married "Zuan Loredano…de Aluise Loredan Procurator" in 1439, adding that her dowry was "la isola di Antipario"[582]m (1439) as his first wife, GIOVANNI Loredano, son of ---. 

b)         FIORENZA di Sommaripa (-after 13 Jan 1436).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Fiorenza" as wife of "Giacomo Crespo olim Duca", in a later passage specifying that she was "Fiorenza Sumaripa" and made her testament 13 Jan 1436[583].  Heiress of Paros, confiscated by her brother-in-law Duke Giovanni II after the death of her husband, but restored after pressure from Venice[584]m GIACOPO Crispo, son of FRANCESCO I Duke of Naxos & his wife Fiorenza Sanudo Dss of Naxos (-1418).  He succeeded his father in 1397 as GIACOPO I Duke of Naxos

 

 

 

C.      SOUTHERN TRIARCHATE

 

 

1.         PECORARO de' Pecoriari (-Verona 1233).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record that "Bonefasio marchese de Monfera" enfeoffed "Ravan da le Carcere, ditto Pegoraro, et a Gilberto da Verona" with "tutta la isola de Negroponte" in Aug 1205, and names "Redondelli fratris eiusdem Ravani"[585]He was awarded the southern part of the island by Jacques d'Avesnes, in the name of his suzerain Bonifazio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, centred around Oreos[586]Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).  m ---.  The name of Pecoraro's wife is not known.  Pecoraro & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARGHERITA m MARINO [I] dalle Carceri, son of REDONDELLO dalle Carceri & his wife --- (-1247).  Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  Under the division of Eubœa established by Venice in 1217 following the death of Ravano dalle Carceri, he acquired half of the northern barony with the town of Oreos, the other half being assigned to his brother[587].  He succeeded as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part), after his marriage. 

 

 

NARZOTTO dalle Carceri, son of MARINO [I] dalle Carceri Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) & his wife Margherita de' Peccoraro (-1264).  His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Jan 1275 of “Merinetus de Carceri Verone, dominator tercie parties Nigripontis, filius…domini Narzoti de Carcere[588].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part). 

m as her first husband, FELISA da Verona, daughter of GUGLIELMO [I] da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (central part) & his second wife Simone [de Villehardouin] (-after 1278).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Felisa married "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer"[589].  An earlier passage in the same source names "miser Guglielmo da Verona e miser Narze suo genero", naming the wife of Narzotto "Madonna Felisa fiola moglie de miser Narze" in a later passage[590].  She married secondly, and secretly, Licario, a penniless adventurer from Vicenza who had settled on Eubœa.  Hounded out of Negroponte, he returned to a castle in Karystos from where he raided the surrounding countryside, eventually being employed by Emperor Mikhael VIII to carry out guerrilla warfare against the Lombard rulers of the island.  His success was rewarded by the emperor's grant of the island of Eubœa as a fief and the hand of a Greek noble lady as his second wife.  He captured Giberto da Verona, Triarch of Eubœa (central part) and took him to Constantinople as a prisoner[591].  He returned to rule Eubœa, was made a Byzantine admiral and awarded the title mega dux, but then disappeared from history[592]

Narzotto & his wife had five children: 

1.         MARINO [II] dalle Carceri (-1278).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer" and his wife had "miser Marin e quarto femmine"[593].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).  “Merinetus de Carceri Verone, dominator tercie parties Nigripontis, filius…domini Narzoti de Carcere” issued a charter dated 1 Jan 1275 relating to his inheritance which names “avus noster…dominus Merinus de Carcere…[et] domino Nicolao de Carcere fratri suo…[et] domino Merino de Carcere filio quondam dicti domini Nicolai[594]

2.         ALIX dalle Carceri .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer" and his wife had "miser Marin e quarto femmine"[595]m as his second wife, GIORGIO [I] Ghisi Lord of Tinos and Mykonos, son of BARTOLOMEO [I] Ghisi & his wife --- (-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311).  He succeeded as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part), after his marriage.  He supported Gauthier de Brienne Duke of Athens and was killed in battle at Lake Kopais[596].  "Ser Georgius Gisi tertie partis Insule Negropontis, Tynarum et Michollarum dominator fidelis, decessit" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[597].  Giorgio Ghisi & his second wife had four children

-        other children: see MYKONOS

a)         BARTOLOMEO [II] Ghisi (-1341)Triarch of Eubœa (southern part) and Lord of Mykonos.  Grand Constable of Achaia.  His son's father-in-law granted him the castle of St Omer[598]

i)          GIORGIO [II] Ghisi (-1358).  He succeeded his father [after 1331] as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part) and Lord of Mykonos

(a)       BARTOLOMEO [III] Ghisi (-[18 Sep 1383/24 Jul 1390])Triarch of Eubœa (southern part) and Lord of Mykonos and Tinos, under the guardianship of his mother. 

(1)       GIORGIO [III] Ghisi (-1390).  Triarch of Eubœa (southern part), he bequeathed his share in Eubœa to Venice in 1390[599]

3.         daughter .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer" and his wife had "miser Marin e quarto femmine"[600]m GALERAN d'Ivry .  Baily of Morea 1278-1280. 

4.         daughter .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer" and his wife had "miser Marin e quarto femmine"[601]

5.         daughter .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Narze da le Carcere Terzer" and his wife had "miser Marin e quarto femmine"[602]

 

 

1.         JANULI [I] de Noë (-1394).  He was a possible descendant of Jean de Noë.  The Venetian Senate awarded him one third of Eubœa by agreement dated 22 Jun 1385.  He subsequently bought the third of Mandructrio in the south from Francisco Crispo[603]Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).  m ---.  The name of Januli's wife is not known.  Januli [I] & his wife had one child: 

a)         NICOLAS de Noë (-before 14 Sep 1426).  The Venetian Senate confirmed to him the third of Eubœa held by his father by agreement dated 3 Jul 1394[604]Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).  m ---.  The name of Nicolas's wife is not known.  Nicolas & his wife had one child: 

i)          JANULI [II] de Noë (-1434 before 31 Jul).  The Venetian Senate confirmed to him the third of Eubœa held by his father by decision dated 14 Sep 1426[605]Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).  A Venetian charter dated 31 Jul 1434 records the death of "Januli de Noe de Nigroponte…filio Nicolai"[606]m ---.  The name of Januli's wife is not known.  Januli [II] & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GEOFFROY de Noë (-1446).  A Venetian charter dated 31 Jul 1434 records the death of "Januli de Noe de Nigroponte…filio Nicolai" "dominam Mariam Sanuto" and Venetian recognition for the succession of "Zifredus de Noe filius dicti Januli"[607]Triarch of Eubœa (southern part).  m ---.  The name of Geoffroy's wife is not known.  Geoffroy & his wife had one child: 

(1)       JANULI [III] de Noë (-after 1470).  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part), retaining his lordship until it was conquered by the Turks in 1470[608]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    KEFALONIA

 

 

The county of Kefalonia consisted of the Ionian islands of Ithaka, Leukadia, Paxos, Zante, Cerigo and Kefalonia itself.  The island of Leukadia was raised to the status of a separate duchy at the end of the 14th century and conferred on a member of the family of the counts of Kefalonia[609].  The county of Kefalonia and duchy of Leukadia were two of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, named in a charter dated 1301[610]

 

 

A.      COUNTS of KEFALONIA (ORSINI)

 

 

1.         MAIO [I] [Orsini] (-[1238]).  Born in Monopoli, Apulia.  Count of Kefalonia, Zante and Ithaka from [1194], islands previously captured by the Normans of Sicily whose suzerainty he recognised[611].  Count of Zakynthos, Leufkas [1194]-before 1228.  Pope Innocent III named “Maio comes…insulæ Cefaloniæ” in a letter dated 23 Mar 1207 relating to the appointment of the bishop of Kefalonia[612].  He became a Venetian citizen 1209.  Vassal of the Pope 1216.  He accepted the suzerainty of Geoffroy II Prince of Achaia in 1236[613]m ---, daughter of [MARGARITONE Conte di Malta, admiral of Sicily].  Count Maio [I] & his wife had [one possible child]: 

 

 

2.         MAIO [II] [Orsini] (-[1259/64]).  The parentage of Maio [II] is not known.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[614], he was the possible son of Maio [I].  Sturdza states that his father was Riccardo Orsini[615].  The basis for these speculations is not known.  It is possible that they are founded on no more than guesswork.  Count of Kefalonia before 1228.  Vassal of Epirus 1228.  Vassal of Achaia 1236.  m (before 1228) ANNA, daughter of ---.  The name of Maio's wife is attested as Anna.  An unnamed count of Kefalonia is described as "sororius" of Theodoros Angelos, Emperor at Thessaloniki, but it is not known whether this refers to Maio [II][616].  If it does, his wife may have been Anna Komnene [Angelina], daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Angelos & his wife ---.  This is the solution adopted by Sturdza[617], who says that her brother Theodoros gave her husband Corfu as dowry on his marriage.  However, if the marriage took place shortly before 1228, there appear to be chronological difficulties with this proposed parentage.  Europäische Stammtafeln[618] suggests that Theodora, daughter of Mikhael [I] Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus was the same person as Anna, wife of Count Maio [II].  The basis for this speculation is not known, although it would appear to be more acceptable from a chronological point of view.  It is always possible that "sororius" is an error in the source referred to above.  Another possibility is that the Count of Kefalonia in question was Maio [I] and that the daughter of Ioannes Angelos was his [first/second] wife who is unrecorded elsewhere.  If this is correct, there would be no basis for stating that her name was Anna.  Count Maio [II] & his wife had four children: 

a)         daughter m GUILLAUME de Méry, son of GEOFFROY de Méry [Constable of the Latin Empire of Constantinople] & his wife ---. 

b)         RICCARDO Orsini (-murdered 1304 before 7 Apr)Count of Kefalonia [1264].   

-        see below

c)         TEODORO Orsinisame person as…?  THEODOSIOS .  Greek Patriarch of Antioch. 

d)         daughter m BAUDOUIN d'Aine

 

 

1.         BENEDICTUS .  He was related to this family[619] but the precise relationship has not been found.  He became the first Bishop of Kefalonia 1207 appointed by the Pope.  Bishop of Zante 1222.   

 

 

RICCARDO Orsini, son of MAIO [Orsini] Count of Kefalonia & his wife Anna Komnene Angelina (-murdered 1304 before 7 Apr)Count of Kefalonia [1264].  He became the indirect vassal of Charles I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] when the latter signed the first Treaty of Viterbo 23 May 1267 with Guillaume II Prince of Achaia who accepted Angevin suzerainty[620].  Conte di Gravina 1284/91.  Vicar General of Corfu 1286/89.  He was appointed bailli of Achaia by Isabelle Pss of Achaia in 1297[621].   The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li contes Richard” was killed “à Clarence par un sien chevalier…messire Lion[622]

m firstly ---.  The name of Riccardo's first wife is not known. 

m secondly (1299) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de Villehardouin Lady of Matagriphon (Akova) and Katochi, widow of ISNARD Sire de Sabran, daughter of GUILLAUME de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia & his [third] wife Anna Komnenodukaina of Epirus (-Feb 1315).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “li contes Richart” married “la dame de Mathe-Griphon, la suer de la princesse Ysabeau[623]She died in prison. 

Count Riccardo & his first wife had six children:

1.         GIOVANNI Orsini (-1317)The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Jehan de Cephalonie” as oldest son of “le conte Richart de Cephalonie[624]Lord of Leukas 1295.  He succeeded his father in 1304 as Count of Kefalonia.  “Jehan, comte palatins, sire de Chephalonie et de Jachint” issued a charter dated 7 Apr 1304 relating to his inheritance in which he names “madame Marie Comnene nostre comtesse…et leal espose[625]m ([1293]) MARIA Komnene Dukaina Angelina, daughter of NIKEPHOROS Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his second wife Anna Palaiologina Kantakuzene.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée refers to “la dame dou conte Jehan” as “le despot…sa fille”, the marriage being dated to [1293] from the context of a later passage[626].  “Jehan, comte palatins, sire de Chephalonie et de Jachint” issued a charter dated 7 Apr 1304 relating to his inheritance in which he names “madame Marie Comnene nostre comtesse…et leal espose[627].  Her marriage was arranged as a reward for her future father-in-law helping her father expel the Byzantines from Epirus in [1292][628].  Count Giovanni & his wife had four children: 

a)         NICCOLO Orsini (-murdered 1323).  He succeeded his father in 1317 as Count of Kefalonia.  He murdered his uncle Thomas Lord of Epirus in 1318, married his widow, and became Lord of Epirus with his capital at Arta. 

-        LORDS of EPIRUS

b)         GIOVANNI Orsini (-murdered Arta 1335).  After murdering his brother in 1323, he succeeded as Lord of Epirus, Count of Kefalonia, converted to the Greek Orthodox religion and adopted the names "Angelos Komnenos Dukas"[629]

-        LORDS of EPIRUS

c)         GUIDO Orsini .  1324/26.  m ---.  The name of Guido's wife is not known.  Guido & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [IOANNES Tsaphas Orsine Dukas .  Titular Count of Leukas.  Serbian megas Kontostaulos.  1361.  He may have been the ancestor of Nicolò Orsini Ducatoria who was pretender of Leucadia in 1588[630].] 

d)         MARGHERITA Orsini (-1339).  Heiress of ½ Zakinthos (Zante).  m (before 1311) GUGLIELMO II Tocco, son of --- (-22 Sep 1335).  Governor of Corfu 1328. 

2.         [daughter .  The primary source which confirms her existence and marriage has not yet been identified.  It is possible that they are based on the charter dated 7 Apr 1304 under which “Jehan, comte palatins, sire de Chephalonie et de Jachint” confirmed aspects of his inheritance in which he names “nostre chier frere le grand connestable[631].  As Engelbert van Liederkerke was Grand Constable at that date, it is possible that this passage indicates that he may have married an otherwise unrecorded sister of Giovanni Orsini Count of Kefalonia but this is not beyond doubt.  m (before 1294) ENGELBERT van Liedekerke, son of ---.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “frere germain…l´aisné…monseignor Guilebert de Lindequerc et l´autre messire Gautiers” as “li princes Florant…deux nepveux”, adding that Gauthier was appointed to “la chapitainerie de Corinte[632]Grand Constable of Achaia.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “monseignor Anglibert de Lindequerc…niés dou prince Florant” was installed as “grant conestable de la princée” after the death of “monseignor Jehan Chauderon”, dated from the context to [1297][633].] 

3.         daughter The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that the wife of “monseignor Jehans” was “la fille dou conte Richard de Cephalonie[634]m JEAN de Tournay Baron of Kalavryta and Gritsena, son of ---. 

4.         GUGLIELMO Orsini .  1305. 

5.         GUILLERME Orsini (-after 30 May 1317).  Heiress of one third of the properties of Saint-Omer.  m firstly JEAN Chauderon Baron of Estamira and Roviata (-1294 before 7 Jul).  de Beauvoir 1289.  Grand Constable of Achaia.  m secondly NICOLAS [III] de Saint-Omer Seigneur de Passavant joint Lord of Thebes, son of JEAN de Saint-Omer & his wife Marguerite de Nully Lady of Passava and 1/3 Akova (-30 Jan 1314).  Marshal and Bailli of Achaia. 

6.         AGNESE Orsini (-after 1316)m firstly (end 1282) JEAN de Clérym secondly AMAURY de Saint-Clairm thirdly GEOFFROY de Millym fourthly (1300) GAUCHER de Noyers (-Naples 1303). 

Count Riccardo & his second wife had one child:

7.         daughter ([1300/03]-[1304]).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the death of “une fille que il avoit eue avec la contesse sa feme”, referring to Riccardo Count of Kefalonia, the context of the passage implying that this daughter died around the same time as her father[635]

 

 

 

B.      COUNTS of KEFALONIA (TOCCO)

 

 

The Tocco family originated in Benevento.  Europäische Stammtafeln[636] shows over a dozen individuals named Tocco who lived in Naples and Melfi in the 13th and 14th centuries but in few cases does it show any relationship between them.  Three generations of the Tocco family are shown in the document SOUTHERN ITALY (2) as lords of the castle of Buonalbergo in the 13th century.  It is not known whether they were direct ancestors of the Tocco family which is shown below. 

 

 

1.         GUGLIELMO Tocco, son of [PIETRO Tocco notario in Melfi & his [first/second] wife ---] (-Naples 22 Sep 1335).  He was appointed Governor of Corfu by Philippe Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Sicily] in [1330/31].  [m firstly GIOVANNA Torelli][637]m [secondly] MARGHERITA Orsini, daughter of GIOVANNI Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his wife Maria Komnene Dukaina Angelina of Epirus (-1339).  Heiress of ½ Zakinthos (Zante).  Guglielmo & his [first] wife had one child: 

a)         PIETRO [Pietrillo] di Tocco (-[23 May 1381/8 Feb 1383]).  Seneschal of Robert Principe di Tarento 1345/1354.  Conte di Martina 21 Oct 1364.  m firstly GIOVANNA d'Aversana, daughter of ---.  m secondly (before 19 May 1359) ISABELLE de Sabran, daughter of GUILLAUME de Sabran 3rd Conte d'Ariano & his wife Francesca di Celano. 

-        TOCCO FAMILIES in ITALY, SIGNORI, CONTI e PRINCIPI di MONTEMILETTO[638]

Guglielmo & his [second] wife had four children: 

b)         LEONARDO Tocco (-[20 Mar 1375/25 Aug 1377]).  He was invested as Count of Kefalonia in 1357.  Lord of Ithaca and Zante. 

-        see below

c)         NICOLETTO Tocco (-[18 Apr 1347/12 Jan 1354]).  Monk. 

d)         LISULO [Ludovico] Tocco (-[11 Dec 1360]).  Seneschal of Robert Principe di Tarento 1354. 

e)         MARGHERITA Tocco .  Nun at Naples.  [1340].  1377. 

 

 

LEONARDO I 1357-[1376], CARLO I [1376]-1429

 

LEONARDO Tocco, son of GUGLIELMO Tocco Governor of Corfu & his [second] wife Margherita Orsini of Kefalonia (-[20 Mar 1375/25 Aug 1377]).  He negotiated to secure the liberation of Robert Principe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] titular Emperor of Constantinople and Prince of Achaia from imprisonment in Hungary in 1352[639].  He was invested as Count of Kefalonia by Robert in 1357.  Lord of Ithaca and Zante.  He conquered the island of Santa Mavra and the fort of Vonitza in 1362.  He was among the envoys who went to Naples in 1374 to offer the principality of Achaia to Jeanne I Queen of Naples following the death of Philippe di Tarento [Anjou-Capet] in 1373[640]

m (before autumn 1361) MADDALENA Buondelmonti, daughter of MANENTE Buondelmonti & his wife Lapa Acciaiuoli (-after 11 Mar 1401). 

Count Leonardo & his wife had five children: 

1.         PETRONILLA Tocco (-[22 Jun 1409/27 Sep 1410]).  After her first husband's death, she was compensated by property near the hot baths of Aedepsos on the island of Eubœa.  m firstly ([1372]) NICOLÒ dalle Carceri Lord of Eubœa Duke of Naxos and the Archipelago, son of GIOVANNI dalle Carceri Lord of Eubœa & his wife Fiorenza Sanudo Dss of Naxos and the Archipelago (-murdered Naxos 1383).  m secondly ([1383]) as his first wife, NICOLA Vernier, son of --- Doge of Venice & his wife --- (-before 30 Sep 1422).  Venetian bailly of Negroponte 1408. 

2.         GIOVANNA Tocco m ENRICO di Ventimiglia Conte di Gorace (-[1413]). 

3.         SUSANNA Tocco (-before 1414)m NICOLA Ruffo Conte di Cantanzaro (-1401 or after).  Viceroy of Calabria 1384.  Marchese di Cotrone 1390. 

4.         CARLO Tocco ([1374/75]-Janina 4 Jul 1429, bur Zante, Franciscan monastery[641]).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Carlo dal Tocco, primo fiolo…de Lunardo dal Tocco" when recording that he succeeded his father as "Duca di Leucata et Conte Palatin de Zeffalonia"[642].  He succeeded his father in [1375/77] as Count of Kefalonia, Duke of Leukadia, Lord of Zante, Ithaca and Vonizza.  “Karolo duca de la Lucata et contato di Cephalonia palatino” agreed to respect the testamentary dispositions of “messer Neri nostro patre e socero” by charter dated 27 Oct 1395 which names “madama Francesca nostra mollier…fillia de lo predetto meser Neri[643].  He obtained from Ladislas King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] the abolition of the feudal tie which united Kefalonia to Achaia[644].  He seized Glarentza with his brother Leonardo, but was dislodged by the Zaccaria family helped by Albanian forces[645].  After his territorial conquests in the former lordship of Epirus, he styled himself "Despot of the Romans" from 1418, residing either at Arta or Janina[646].  Theodoros Spandounes, writing in 1538, records that "Carlo Tocco" ruled for eleven years in Janina[647]m (1388) FRANCESCA Acciaiuoli, daughter of NERIO Acciaiuoli Duke of Athens & his wife Agnese Saraceno .  “Karolo duca de la Lucata et contato di Cephalonia palatino” agreed to respect the testamentary dispositions of “messer Neri nostro patre e socero” by charter dated 27 Oct 1395 which names “madama Francesca nostra mollier…fillia de lo predetto meser Neri[648].  Having inherited the political ability of her father, she advised her husband in his councils[649].  She inherited the island of Santa Mavra and the fortress of Vonitza when her husband died[650].  Spandounes records that "Carlo Tocco" married "la unica figliola de Gin Spata" but had no legitimate children by his marriage[651].  Count Carlo had seven illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: 

a)         ERCOLE .  Lord of Dragomesto 1429.  m ---, daughter of SGOUROS Bua Shpata. 

b)         TORNO

c)          MENUNO [Memnon] .  He challenged the succession of Carlo II in Kefalonia after his father died and sought help from Sultan Murad I[652]m ---, daughter of MURIKI Bua. 

d)         TRIANO

e)         [ORLANDO .  Lord of Riniassa, dispossessed by the Ottoman Turks before 1463.] 

f)          daughter .  m CARLO Marchesano .  Lord of Rhogoi 1414/15. 

g)         daughter m firstly ([1414]) MUSA-beg Emir, brother of MAHOMET.  m secondly HAMZA Pasha Lord of Argirocastro, brother of BAYEZID. 

5.         LEONARDO Tocco ([1375/76]-[1418/19]).  Spandounes names "il conte Leonardo suo fratello" when recording that "Carlo Tocco" adopted his "figliolo legitimo…Carlo" as his heir after his brother died[653].  Governor of Corinth 1395/1400.  Lord of Clarenza and Angelokastron 1407/08.  Lord of Zante.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Lunardo…suo fratello…signor de Zante" when "Carlo" died, clarifying in a later passage that Leonardo predeceased his brother[654]m ---.  The name of Leonardo's wife is not known.  Leonardo & his wife had three children: 

a)         CARLO [II] Tocco (-30 Sep 1448).  Spandounes records that "Carlo Tocco" adopted "il conte Leonardo suo fratellofigliolo legitimo…Carlo" as his heir[655].  Count of Zante 1424.  He succeeded his uncle in 1429 as despot in Epirus.   

-        see below

b)         MADDALENA Tocco[656] (-Nov 1429).  She was the adopted daughter of her uncle Carlo I Count of Kefalonia.  Lady of Clarenza.  Georgius Phrantzes records the marriage of "Constantino despotæ" and "Carolo…consobrinam", naming her in a later passage "Theodora domina, cognate Caroli"[657].  She adopted the name THEODORA on her marriage.  m (Jul 1428) as his first wife, KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos, son of Emperor MANUEL II & his wife Jelena Dragaš [Serbia] (8 Nov 1405-murdered Constantinople 29 May 1453).  He succeeded in 1448 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS XI

c)         [CREUSA] Tocco .  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Centurionis principis" married "sororem Theodoræ imperatricis"[658].  1432.  m ASANO CENTURIONE [II] Zaccaria Baron of Arkadia, son of ANDRONICO ASANO Zaccaria & his wife Mavros --- (-1432). 

 

 

CARLO [II] Tocco, son of LEONARDO Tocco Lord of Zante & his wife --- (-30 Sep 1448).  Spandounes records that "Carlo Tocco" adopted "il conte Leonardo suo fratellofigliolo legitimo…Carlo" as his heir[659].  He was the adopted son of his uncle Carlo I Count of Kefalonia.  Count of Zante 1424.  He succeeded his uncle in 1429 as despot in Epirus.  The Ottomans captured Janina 9 Oct 1430 after being asked to intervene by Carlo's cousin Memnon, but Carlo was permitted to continue ruling in the rest of Epirus.  He styled himself "Lord of Arta".  Carlo appealed for Venetian protection, and was made a Venetian citizen and elected to the Grand Council[660].  In 1444, Carlo repudiated Turkish suzerainty but was captured by the Turks and forced back to vassalage[661]

m RAIMONDINA di Ventimiglia, daughter of GIOVANNI di Ventimiglia e Aragona Marchese di Gerace [Viceroy of Naples and Sicily] & his wife ---. 

Carlo & his wife had four children: 

1.         LEONARDO [III] Tocco (-Rome [1495/96]).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Lunardo primogenito…Antonio et Zuane" as three sons of "Carlo secondo…Dispoti de Arta, Duca de Leucata et Conte Palatino de Cefalonia" who were minors when their father died[662].  He succeeded his father in 1448 under the regency of four governors, appointed by his father before he died, who immediately opened negotiations to accept Venetian suzerainty.  The Ottomans captured Arta 24 Mar 1449 and annexed all the mainland territories of the Tocco family except Vonnitza, Varnazza and Angelokastro, although Leonardo continued to style himself "Despot of Arta", although he based his court on the island of Santa Mavra[663].  During the Venetian/Turkish war of 1463-1479, many refugees from mainland Greece fled to the islands of Santa Mavra and Zante[664].  In retaliation for Leonardo's rapprochement with Naples following his second marriage, Venice omitted his territories from the 1479 peace which ended the war with the Ottomans.  When Sultan Mohammed threatened the Ionian islands in 1479, Leonardo embarked for Taranto before the invasion.  He sought refuge in Naples where he was granted land at Briatico and Calimera in Calabria from where he planned to recapture his domain in Greece[665]m firstly (Dubrovnik 1 May 1463) MILICA Branković, daughter of LAZAR Branković Despot of Serbia & his wife Helene Palaiologina (-1464).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Maria, Militzia and Irene as the children of Lazar & his wife, stating that Militzia married Carlo[666].  Theodoros Spandounes names "Maria…la seconda…Miliza…la terza et ultima Erina" as the three daughters of "Lazaro Despoto" and his wife, adding that "Miliza" married "signor Leonardo di Tocco"[667]m secondly (1477) FRANCESCA Marzano d'Aragona, daughter of MARIANO Marzano Principe di Rossano, Duca di Squillace e Sessa & his wife Leonora d'Aragona.  Leonardo contracted this second marriage to obtain support from Naples after Venetian protection was withdrawn[668].  Leonardo [III] & his first wife had one child: 

a)         CARLO [III] Tocco (1464-Rome [end 1518]).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Carlo, Rimonda and Maria as the children of "Carlo" and his wife Militzia[669].  Titular Despot of Arta and Count of Zante.  m ANDRONICA Araniti, daughter of KONSTANDINI Comnino Araniti Prince of Macedonia Signore di Refrancore.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript states that Carlo married a daughter of Constantine and had one son[670]

-        TOCCO FAMILIES in ITALY, SIGNORI di REFRANCORE, CONTI di MONTAPERTO, PRINCIPI di MONTEMILETTO[671]

Leonardo [III] & his second wife had five children: 

b)         IPPOLITA Tocco .  1507. 

c)         RAIMUNDINA [Remusia] Tocco .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Carlo, Rimonda and Maria as the children of "Carlo" and his wife Militzia, stating that Raimundina married in Italy[672].  1519.  m [FEDERIGO] Pico Conte della Mirandola (-1502). 

d)         LEONORA Tocco .  Nun. 

e)         PIETRO Tocco (-young). 

f)          MARIA Tocco .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Carlo, Rimonda and Maria as the children of "Carlo" and his wife Militzia[673]m PIETRO Talamanca "la Grua" Signore di Carini.   

Leonardo [III] had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress:

g)         FERRANTE Tocco (-[13 Apr] 1535, bur Madrid).  He is recorded at Zante in 1481[674].  He was Spanish ambassador to the court of Henry VII King of England in 1506[675]m ---.  The name of Ferrante's wife is not known.  Ferrante & his wife had three children: 

i)          CARLO Tocco (-[Tunis 1535]).  1525. 

ii)         LEONARDO Tocco .  1525. 

iii)        MARC ANTONIO Tocco (-[13 May 1581/1585]).  1525.  He became a Benedictine monk as BENEDETTO.  Abbot of Montserrat 1562.  Bishop of Vique 1562.  Bishop of Gerona 1571/1574.  Bishop of Lérida 1581. 

2.         ANTONIO Tocco (-killed in battle Kefalonia 1483).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Lunardo primogenito…Antonio et Zuane" as three sons of "Carlo secondo…Dispoti de Arta, Duca de Leucata et Conte Palatino de Cefalonia" who were minors when their father died[676].  He commanded the galley sent by his brother to relieve Negroponte in 1470[677].  He fled to Taranto with his brothers when the Turks threatened to invade the Ionian islands[678].  In 1481, Antonio Tocco recaptured Kefalonia and Zante from the Turks with the help of Catalan mercenaries.  He was dislodged from Zante in 1482 by the Venetian governor of Modon, and was killed by the garrison of Kefalonia castle who opened the gates to the Venetians in 1483[679]

3.         GIOVANNI Tocco .  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Lunardo primogenito…Antonio et Zuane" as three sons of "Carlo secondo…Dispoti de Arta, Duca de Leucata et Conte Palatino de Cefalonia" who were minors when their father died[680].  He was in Rome 1480/1501.  m LUCREZIA, daughter of ---.  She received a pension from the Pope after her husband died[681]

4.         ELVIRA Tocco (-young). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    LESBOS (GATTILUSIO)

 

 

Domenico Cattaneo, Genoese lord of Phokaia, occupied Mitylene on the island of Lesbos in 1335 although it was recaptured by Emperor Andronikos III in 1336 with military support from Umur Emir of Aydin[682].  This family is dealt with in two articles by Thierry Ganchou[683]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         FRANCESCO Gattilusio (-6 Aug 1384).  A Genoese freebooter, he landed on the island of Tenedos where he found Ioannes V Palaiologos ex-Emperor.  The latter agreed to give him his sister in marriage in return for help in recovering his throne from Ioannes VI Kantakouzenos.  His father-in-law gave him the island of Lesbos as his daughter's dowry, he reigned from 17 Jul 1355 as FRANCESCO I Lord of Lesbos.  He was killed in an earthquake with his wife and two eldest sons.  m ([1355]) MARIA Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his second wife Jeanne [Anna] de Savoie ([1327/41]-[1401]).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Franciscus Gateluzus" and "Mariam sororem meam [=Iohannis imperatoris]", with the island of Lesbos as her dowry[684].  Francisco I & his wife had three children: 

a)         ANDRONICO Gattilusio ([1356]-6 Aug 1384).

b)         DOMENICO Gattilusio ([1358]-6 Aug 1384). 

c)         GIACOPO Gattilusio ([1365]-26 Oct 1404).  He succeeded his father in 1384 as FRANCESCO II Lord of Lesbos, under the regency of his uncle Niccolo.  After being bitten by a scorpion, his attendants rushed to his aid in such numbers that the floor of his room collapsed, which killed him on the spot.  m (1384) VALENTINA Doria, daughter of DORINO Doria & his wife ---.  Francesco II & his wife had six children: 

i)          GIACOPO Gattilusio (-[1428]).  He succeeded his father in 1404 as GIACOPO Lord of Lesbosm BONA Grimaldi, daughter of ---.  Giacopo & his wife had one child: 

(a)       daughter .  Nicolò refers to the Lord of Mytilene [Lesbos] as "socer sui" in 1426[685], Giacopo ruling Lesbos in that year.  m (before 1418) NICOLÒ Crispo Lord of Santorini, son of FRANCESCO I Duke of Naxos & his wife Fiorenza Sanudo Dss  of Naxos (-1450

ii)         DORINO Gattilusio (-30 Jan 1455).  He succeeded his brother in [1428] as DORINO Lord of Lesbosm ORIETTA Doria, daughter of ---.  Dorino & his wife had six children: 

(a)       FRANCESCO Gattilusio .  Lord of Thasos.  m his first cousin, --- Gattilusio, daughter of PALAMEDE Gattilusio & his wife ---. 

(b)       DOMENICO Gattilusio (-murdered 1458).  He succeeded his father in 1455 as DOMENICO Lord of Lesbos.  He was overthrown and strangled by his younger brother.  m MARIA Giustiniani-Longo, daughter of ---.

(c)       NICOLO Gattilusio (-murdered 1462).  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis names "dominus Nicolaus Gateluzus, principis Lesbi frater"[686].  He deposed, strangled and succeeded his brother as NICOLÒ Lord of Lesbos.  The Turks invaded Lesbos Sep 1462.

(d)       GINEVRA Gattilusio m (1444) GIACOPO II Duke of Naxos and the Archipelago, son of GIOVANNI II Crispo Duke of Naxos & his wife Francesca --- (-1447).

(e)       AIKATERINA Gattilusaina (-Aug 1442).  Georgius Phrantzes records that 6 Dec in "anni 6949" he was sent to Lesbos to collect "Aecaterinam, Notaræ Palæologi Cateliutzæ, eius insulæ principis, filiam" for the marriage to "Constantinus despota"[687]m (27 Jul 1441) as his second wife, KONSTANTINOS Palaiologos Despot of Morea, son of Emperor MANUEL II & his wife Jelena [Helene] Dragaš [Serbia] (8 Nov 1405-murdered Constantinople 29 May 1453).  He succeeded his brother in 1448 as Emperor KONSTANTINOS XI

(f)        MARIA Gattilusaina.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Maria Gattilusio as the wife of Alexander, son of Emperor Alexios[688].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "rex Alexius…filium suum…Scantarim" married "filiam Galiuzis…Mitylenis"[689]m (1437) ALEXANDER [Skantarios] Megas Komnenos co-Emperor in Trebizond, son of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakuzene (-[1454/59][690]).

iii)        PALAMEDE Gattilusio (-1455).  He succeeded his great uncle Nicolo I 1409 as Lord of Ainos.  m [--- Doria].  The name of Palamede's wife is not known.  Palamede & his wife had seven children: 

(a)       GIORGIO Gattilusio (-1449).  m HELENA Notaraina, daughter of LUCAS Notaras & his wife ---.  Giorgio & his wife had --- children: 

(1)       children .  Alive in 1455, when their uncle Dorino seized Ainos, but presumably died young as they are not named in the Genoese records concerning the estate of Lucas Notaras[691]

(b)       DORINO [II] Gattilusio .  He succeeded his father as Lord of Ainos.  He was absent when the Turks invaded in Jan 1456.  He settled in Naxos after the Turkish invasion[692]m his first cousin, ELISABETTA Crispo, daughter of GIACOPO II Crispo & his wife Ginevra Gattilusio.

(c)       CATERINA Gattilusio m MARINO Doria .

(d)       GINEVRA Gattilusio (-after 3 May 1489)m LODOVICO Campofregoso Doge of Genoa (-1490).

(e)       COSTANZA Gattilusio m GIANGALEAZZO Campofregoso

(f)        daughter m her first cousin, FRANCESCO Gattilusio Lord of Thassos, son of DORINO Gattilusio Lord of Lesbos & his wife Orietta Doria. 

(g)       VALENTINA Gattilusiom (1455) GIORGIO del Carreto

iv)       EIRENE Gattilusaina Palaiologina (-1 Jun 1440, bur Constantinople Pantokrator Monastery).  As a widow she lived at Kokkinos on Lemnos.  She became a nun as EUGENIA.  Georgius Phrantzes records the death 1 Jun in "anni 6948" of "despœna Eugenia, Cateliutzæ, Lesbiorum principis filia" and her burial "in monasterio Pantocratoris"[693]m (before 1397) IOANNES VII Palaiológos ex-Emperor, son of Emperor ANDRONIKOS IV & his wife Keratza of Bulgaria (1370-Thessaloniki 23 Sep 1408).  His uncle appointed him Regent in Byzantium 1399-1402, during the former's absence seeking help from the European powers.  He was banished 1403 for claiming the throne once more.  He was appointed co-Emperor of Thessaloniki 1403/04-1408.  He became a monk as Ioaseph

v)        HELENA Gattilusio m (Galata 1405) STEFAN Lazarević Despot of Serbia, son of LAZAR Hrebljanović Knez of Serbia & his wife Jelena ([1372/77][694]-Glava 19 Jul 1427).  No children.

vi)       CATERINA Gattilusio m PIETRO Grimaldi Baron de Bueil. 

Francisco I had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: 

d)         GIORGIO Gattilusio ([1375]-[1414]). 

2.         NICCOLO Gattilusio (-1409).  Lord of Ainos.  He was regent of Lesbos for his nephew in 1384.  m [PETRA Doria].  Niccolo & his wife had one child: 

a)         MARIETTA Gattilusio . 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  MYKONOS (GHISI)

 

 

 

1.         ANDREA Ghisi (-after 1243).  He and his brother captured the islands of Mykonos, Skyros, Skiathos, Skopelos, Seriphos, Tinos, Amorgos and Chios in 1207, which they ruled as vassals of the Dukes of Naxos.  Afterwards they established themselves on Eubœa.  Landowner in Crete.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record in 1243 that "el castello de Andre" had been granted "al nobel homo Marin Dandolo et alla nobil donna Maria Dorò sua sorella" and was then granted to "Gieremia Guizi et Andrea Guizi"[695]m ---.  The name of Andrea's wife is not known.  Andrea & his wife had two children: 

a)         FILIPPO Ghisi .  He became Lord of Amorgos, by right of his wife.  He captured the islands of Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos, inherited by his brother-in-law Lorenzo Tiepolo, although he was obliged to share them with their original owner by Venice in 1261[696].  He was captured by Licario who conquered his possessions in [1276/77].  m his first cousin, ISABETTA Ghisi, daughter of GEREMIA Ghisi & his wife ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Filippo Gisi" married "una sua congiunta figlia di miser" without obtaining a dispensation[697].  Filippo & his wife had two children: 

i)          GIOVANNI Ghisi (-1309).  He recovered Amorgos under a 1303 treaty between Venice and Byzantium, but the island was taken again by Domenego Schiavo after the death of Giovanni.  m ---.  The name of Giovanni's wife is not known.  Giovanni & his wife had one child:

(a)       ---.  m ---.  One child: 

(1)       ZANNACHI Ghisi (-executed 1363).  He was executed for his part in the rebellion in Crete of the Venier. 

ii)         NICOLÒ Ghisi (-1291).  Landowner in Crete, Kalamata and Corinth.  Constable of Achaia, after the death of Engelbert de Liedekerke.  m BARTOLOMEA Chauderon, daughter of JEAN Chauderon [Grand Constable of Achaia]. 

b)         ANDREA Ghisim ---.  The name of Andrea's wife is not known.  Andrea & his wife had one child:

i)          BARTOLOMEO [I] Ghisi (-1303).  He inherited the property of his cousin Nicolò Ghisi, consisting of the islands of Tinos and Mykonos and ½ Seriphos and Chios.  His islands were captured by Licario, but Bartolomeo recovered possession of Chios and Seriphos in 1296[698].  Member of the Grand Council of Venice in 1301.  m ---.  The name of Bartolomeo's wife is not known.  Bartolomeo & his wife had one child:

(a)       GIORGIO [I] Ghisi .  His parentage is confirmed by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which names "miser Bortolamio Gisi avo di…miser Bortolamio che vive al presente"[699]

-         see below

2.         GEREMIA Ghisi (-after 1243).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record in 1243 that "el castello de Andre" had been granted "al nobel homo Marin Dandolo et alla nobil donna Maria Dorò sua sorella" and was then granted to "Gieremia Guizi et Andrea Guizi"[700].  Lord of Andros.  m ---.  The name of Geremia's wife is not known.  Geremia & his wife had two children:

a)         MARCHESINA Ghisi (-before 1298).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "maggior figlia…de miser Jeremia" married "miser Lorenzo Tiepolo"[701].  Heiress of Skyros, Skiathos and Skopelos.  m (before 1263) LORENZO Tiepolo, son of GIACOMO Tiepolo Doge of Venice & his wife --- (-1275).  He was elected Doge of Venice in 1268. 

b)         ISABETTA Ghisi .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "miser Filippo Gisi" married "una sua congiunta figlia di miser" without obtaining a dispensation[702].  Heiress of the island of Amorgos.  m her first cousin, FILIPPO Ghisi, son of ANDREA Ghisi & his wife ---. 

3.         AGNESINA Ghisi m OTHON de Cicon, son of JACQUES de Cicon Seigneur de Châtillon-Guyotte. Lord of Karystos & his wife Sibylle de la Roche. 

 

 

GIORGIO [I] Ghisi, son of BARTOLOMEO [I] Ghisi & his wife --- (-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311).  His parentage is confirmed by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which names "miser Bortolamio Gisi avo di…miser Bortolamio che vive al presente"[703].  He inherited one third of Eubœa by right of his second wife.  He was named Captain of Kalamata by Florent de Hainaut Prince of Achaia[704]

m firstly --- de la Trémoïlle, daughter of GUY de la Trémoïlle Lord of Chalandritza & his wife --- (-1288).  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “monseignor George Guis” married “la fille de monseignor Guy de Tremolay” and inherited “la baronie et la seignorie de la Chalandrice[705]

m secondly ALIX dalle Carceri, daughter of NARZOTTO dalle Carceri Triarch of Eubœa & his wife Felisa ---.  He supported Gauthier de Brienne Duke of Athens and was killed in battle at Lake Kopais[706]

Giorgio [I] & his first wife had [two] children: 

1.         [--- Ghisi .  Lady of ½ Chalandritza.  m as his first wife, PIETRO dalle Carceri Triarch of Eubœa (central part), son of GRAPOZZO dalle Carceri Triarch of Eubœa & his wife Beatrice da Verona (-Dec 1340).] 

2.         [--- Ghisi .  Lady of ½ Chalandritza.  m as his first wife, MARTINO Zaccaria Lord of Chios, son of PALEOLOGO Zaccaria & his wife Giacomina Spinola (-beheaded Smyrna 15 Jan 1345).] 

Giorgio [I] & his second wife had four children: 

3.         BARTOLOMEO [II] Ghisi (-1341).  His parentage is indicated by the Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello which names "miser Bortolamio Gisi avo di…miser Bortolamio che vive al presente"[707]Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) and Lord of Mykonos.  Grand Constable of Achaia.  His son's father-in-law granted him the castle of St Omer[708]m --- de Liedekerke, daughter of ENGELBERT de Liedekerke [Grand Constable of Achaia] & his wife ---.  Bartolomeo & his wife had one child: 

a)         GIORGIO [II] Ghisi (-1358).  He succeeded his father [after 1331] as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) and Lord of Mykonos.  He was killed fighting the Turkish Emir of Smyrna in the war organised by Pope Clement VI[709]m ([1327]) doña SIMONA Fadrique de Aragón, daughter of don ALFONSO Fadrique de Aragón Lord of Salona & his wife Marulla da Verona of Eubœa (-[1358]).  Her dowry was the town of Thebes.  Giorgio [II] & his wife had one child: 

i)          BARTOLOMEO [III] Ghisi (-[18 Sep 1383/24 Jul 1390])Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) and Lord of Mykonos and Tinos, under the guardianship of his mother.  Marshall of the Principality of Achaia.  He was appointed member of the High Council of the Republic of Venice in 1383, in compensation for Venice having bought the suzerainty over Eubœa from Jacques des Baux titular Emperor of Constantinople[710]m THEODORA Asanina, daughter of --- (-1/21 May 1398).  Bartolomeo [III] & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GIORGIO Ghisi (-1390).  Triarch of Eubœa, he bequeathed his share in Eubœa to Venice in 1390[711]

4.         MARINO Ghisi .  Lord of Tinos.  m (1326) HELENE de Charpigny heiress of Vostitza. 

5.         FILIPPA Ghisi .  Heiress of ½ Seriphos.  m DANIELE Bragadin Patrician of Venice (-1334). 

6.         [ALIX] Ghisim RUGGIERO Premarin Patrician of Venice. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  NAXOS (DUCHY of the ARCHIPELAGO)

 

 

The Cyclades or Dodecanese islands comprised a single lordship which fell to the Venetian family of Sanudo, who bore the title duke of Naxos (also called duke of the Archipelago) under the suzerainty of the princes of Achaia.  It consisted of the islands of Naxos, Paros (with Antiparos), Thermia, Khios, Tinos and Andros, and the island groups of Amorgos, Astypalea and Nicaria, Santorini and Anaphi, Nios, Sikinos and Polykandros, Milos, Antimilos and Kimolos, Siphnos and Serphos, and Syra, Delos and Myconi, totalling twelve in all with the groups arranged in this way[712].  After the duchy of the Archipelago passed to the Crispo family, some of the islands achieved a degree of autonomy: Paros under the Sommariva family, Nios under the Pisani, Siphnos under the Coruna, and Andros under the Zeno family[713].  The duchy of the Archipelago was one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, established outside the Peloponnesos, all named as such in a charter dated 1301[714]

 

An end-13th century manuscript lists the Sporades islands as follows[715]

The document states that there were castles on each of these islands, but also that many other islands not included in the list may or may not have had castles. 

 

 

A.      DUKES of NAXOS 1207-1362 (SANUDO)

 

 

MARCO Sanudo, son of --- .  A Venetian. 

m --- Dandolo, sister of ENRICO Dandolo Doge of Venice, daughter of ---. 

Marco & his wife had one child: 

1.         MARCO Sanudo (-1227).  He accompanied his maternal uncle Enrico Dandolo on the Fourth Crusade[716].  After Venice authorised its patricians to acquire territories in Greece, in furtherance of the Acti Partitio Imperii Romanae of Mar 1204, Marco Sanudo unsuccessfully negotiated with Bonifazio di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki to acquire Crete[717].  He conquered the Cyclades and Dodecanese islands between 1207 and 1211, retaining Naxos for himself.  Marco refused to acknowledge the suzerainty of Venice, even though the Cyclades islands had been assigned to Venice under the 1204 agreement.  He swore allegiance to Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople who elevated the islands into a duchy, installing him as MARCO I Duke of Naxos, or Duke of the Archipelago[718].  He attempted the conquest of Crete in 1212, but after temporarily taking Candia, returned to Naxos.  He also captured Smyrna in 1213 but was defeated and captured by the fleet of Theodoros Laskaris Emperor in Nikaia[719]m ([1213]) [--- Laskaraina, daughter of --- Laskaris & his wife ---.  According to Miller[720], Theodoros Laskaris Emperor in Nikaia bestowed the hand of his sister on Marco Sanudo after the latter was captured while attempting to take Smyrna.  He quotes Laurentius de Monachis and several Italian chronicles which do not appear to be contemporary.  According to Sturdza[721], "it is certain" that this marriage did not take place.  It does seem surprising that Emperor Theodoros, the main opponent of the Latins, should have arranged the marriage of his sister to one of the newly arrived Latin rulers, assuming that he had any marriageable sisters at all[722].]  Duke Marco & his wife had two children: 

a)         ANGELO Sanudo (-1262).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Miser Angelo Sanudo" as son of "Miser Marco Sanudo, ch´ aquistò le Isole"[723].  He succeeded his father in 1227 as ANGELO Duke of Naxos.  His fleet of ships helped in the defence of Constantinople against the attack by the Nikaian/Bulgarian alliance in 1236, leading the vanguard with Geoffroy II Prince of Achaia on whom the Latin Emperor conferred the suzerainty over Naxos and the Archipelago as a reward for his services[724].  Vexed by Angelo's support for the Latin empire, Ioannes III Emperor in Nikaia captured the island Amorgos, which he bestowed on Geremia Ghisi[725]m (Constantinople) ---, daughter of MACAIRE de Saint-Ménéhould Seigneur de Charax & his wife ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "la madre de miser Marco Sanudo" was "figlia de miser Machario de Santo Montalto di Campagna di Francia", adding that she had been married "in palazzo del…Imperator Latino"[726].  "A French dame of high degree",  She welcomed Baudouin ex-Emperor of Constantinople when he attempted to reclaim his throne in 1262, her husband being awarded the title "king" as a reward for her services[727].  Duke Angelo & his wife had three children: 

i)          MARCO Sanudo (-1303).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Marco Sanudo, Marin Sanudo" as the sons of "Angelo Sanudo"[728].  He succeeded his father in 1263 as MARCO II Duke of Naxos

-         see below

ii)         daughter .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la mega duchessa…sorella de miser Marco Sanuco duca di Nicossia e Andre" as wife "del Mega Duca"[729]She held out against the Byzantines for 3 years after her husband's death before leaving Lemnos[730]m PAOLO Navigajoso (-1267).  Appointed mega dux by the Latin Emperor, he held the island of Lemnos as a fief and resisted Byzantine attempts to reconquer it[731].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that the third daughter of "la mega duchessa…sorella de miser Marco Sanuco duca di Nicossia e Andre" and her husband "del Mega Duca" married "miser Anzolo Querini di Candida" by whom she had "una figliola…moglie a miser Zanachij Gradenigo"[732]

iii)        MARINO Sanudo (-1270 or after).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Marco Sanudo, Marin Sanudo" as the sons of "Angelo Sanudo"[733].  Lord of Paros and Antiparos 1262/1270.  m PORZIA da Verona, daughter of GUGLIELMO da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (central part) & his second wife [Simone de Villehardouin].  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Porzia married "miser Marin Sanudo signor della mità di Nicosia e di tutto Pario"[734]

b)         --- Sanudom ---.  Her name is not known.  One child: 

i)          MARINO Sanudo (-after 30 Dec 1334[735]).  He was the author of a chronicle detailing the history of Greece written in [1328/33][736]

 

 

1.         FRANCESCO Sanudo m CASSANDRA de Tournay, daughter of GEOFFROY de Tournay Baron of Kalavryta & his wife ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "madonna Cassandra…fiola de miser Ziffredo de Tornaj" as wife of "miser Francesco Sanudo"[737]

 

2.         LEO Sanudom ---.  The name of Leo´s wife is not known.  Leo & his wife had one child: 

a)         FILIPPO Sanudo .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Filippo Sanudo" as son of "miser Lion Sanudo" when recording that he was "capitaneo delle Gallee di Negroponte eletto per commune concordio"[738]

 

 

MARCO Sanudo, son of ANGELO Sanudo Duke of Naxos & his wife --- (-1303, bur Naxos Church of St Catherine[739]).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Marco Sanudo, Marin Sanudo" as the sons of "Angelo Sanudo"[740].  He succeeded his father in 1263 as MARCO II Duke of Naxos.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "miser Marco Sanudo…suoi consobrini", which from the context appears to refer to "miser Narzi di Torzi armiraglio del Rè Carlo" and "la principessa d´Antiochia sua moglie" who are named earlier in the same paragraph[741].  The relationship between Marco Sanudo and the Toucy family has not yet been traced.  The island of Melos rebelled against his rule, led by a Greek monk whom Duke Marco had bound hand and foot and thrown into the sea as punishment, although he showed clemency to the other rebels[742].  He was deprived of Ios, Siphnos, Sikinos and Polykandros by Byzantine forces but Duke Marco's remaining islands were included in the peace treaties negotiated by Venice with Emperors Mikhael VIII and Andronikos I in 1277 and 1285 on condition they harboured no corsairs[743].  Duke Marco rejected Venetian claims to suzerainty over his islands, swearing allegiance to the Princes of Achaia and (after 1278) their successors the Angevin kings of Sicily[744].  During 1296-1303 Venice's war with Emperor Andronikos II, the islands of Ios, Santorini, Therasia, Amorgos, Keos and Seriphos were recaptured from the Byzantines.  However, their new leaders asserted their autonomy from Naxos and recognised Venetian suzerainty[745]

m ---.  The name of Marco's wife is not known. 

Duke Marco & his wife had two children: 

1.         GUGLIELMO Sanudo (-1323).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Miser Guglielmo Sanudo, 1260 fatto Rè da Balduin" as the son of "Marco Sanudo"[746].  He succeeded his father in 1303 as GUGLIELMO I Duke of Naxos.  He attempted to reassert the suzerainty of Naxos over the islands recaptured from the Byzantines prior to his accession.  He captured Giacopo Barozzi, Lord of Santorini, but was obliged by Venice to release him.  He had more success with Amorgos, although at Siphnos its new leader Januli da Corogna declared himself an independent sovereign as did Januli Gozzadini at Anaphe[747].  "Ser Guillielmus Sanutus Duchatus Nichoxie et Andre dominator fidelis" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[748].  Alfonso Fadrique, as Vicar-General of the Duchy of Athens, conquered the island of Melos in reaction to the support given by Naxos to the princes of Achaia[749]m ---.  The name of Guglielmo's wife is not known.  Duke Guglielmo & his wife had six children: 

a)         NICOLÒ Sanudo (-1341).  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "Miser Nicolò Sanduo, ch´ ora regna" as the son of "Miser Guglielmo Sanudo"[750].  He was sent by his father to assist the Knights of St John in their conquest of Rhodos in 1309[751].  He commanded a contingent from Naxos at the battle of Kephisos in 1311, being one of the few Latin nobles to survive.  He also fought for Mathilde Pss of Achaia against Infante don Fernando de Mallorca and was taken prisoner at the battle of Elis[752].  He succeeded his father 1323 as NICOLÒ I Duke of Naxos.  He conquered the islands of Santorini and Therasia in 1335, and attacked Mykonos, ruled by --- Ghisi whose wife he kidnapped[753].  In 1341, the islands were ravaged by Umur Beg Emir of Aydin who forced payment of tribute for the first time[754]m (1330) JEANNE de Brienne, daughter of HUGUES de Brienne Comte de Brienne Conte di Lecce & his second wife Helena Komnenedukaina.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “madame Jehanne” as the daughter of “le conte Hugue” and his second wife, and her marriage to “messire Nicole Sanu le duc de Nixie[755].  1341.  Regent of Athens. 

b)         GIOVANNI Sanudo (-1362).  He succeeded his brother 1341 as GIOVANNI Duke of Naxos.  In 1344, Turks occupied part of Naxos and carried off 6000 people into slavery[756].  Duke Giovanni supported Venice in the Venetian/Genoan war but was captured by enemy forces and taken captive to Genoa in 1354.  He was released under the peace terms agreed in 1355[757]m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Duke Giovanni & his wife had one child: 

i)          FIORENZA Sanudo (-1371).  She succeeded her father in 1362 as FIORENZA I Dss of Naxos.  Her first marriage is confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which names "Fiorenza Sanudo…fiola…de Marco Sanudo fradelo fu de Januli Sanudo ducha de Archipielago" as mother of "Nicolò dale Carcere ducha del Arcipielago" when recording the latter´s death "in la citade de Nicosia" in 1383[758].  Venice vetoed her potential second husbands, first the Genoese lord of Chios, then Nerio Acciaiuoli future Duke of Athens, anxious to increase its influence over the duchy by arranging a suitable match for her.  She was kidnapped by Venetian agents, taken to Crete and blackmailed into marrying her cousin Niccolo[759]m firstly GIOVANNI dalle Carceri Lord of Euboea, son of PIETRO [Perulli] dalle Carceri Lord of Eubœa & his wife --- (-1358).  m secondly as his second wife, NICOLÒ Sanudo "Spezzabanda", son of GUGLIELMO Sanudo & his wife --- (-1374).  The candidate of Venice, the republic granted him the title Duke on his marriage.  After the death of his wife, he continued to govern the duchy as avogier on behalf of his stepson[760].  Fiorenza & her first husband had one child:

(a)       NICCOLO dalle Carceri (-murdered Naxos 1383).  His parentage is confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which names "Fiorenza Sanudo…fiola…de Marco Sanudo fradelo fu de Januli Sanudo ducha de Archipielago" as mother of "Nicolò dale Carcere ducha del Arcipielago" when recording the latter´s death "in la citade de Nicosia" in 1383[761].  He was Lord of 2/3 of the island of Euboea.  He succeeded his mother in 1371 as NICCOLO II Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelago.  He continued to reside in Eubœa, appointing Januli Gozzadini of Anaphe as his regent in Naxos.  He plotted to extend his influence in Eubœa, planning the capture of Negroponte in 1380 with assistance from the Navarrese Company.  He aroused resentment among his subjects by his extorsion and was murdered, apparently with the connivance of Francesco Crispo who was immediately accepted as his successor[762]

Fiorenza & her second husband had two children:

(b)       MARIA Sanudo (-1426).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno record that the marriage of "Mariæ Sanutæ" was prevented by Venice in 1372 but does not name her proposed husband[763].  She was granted the island of Andros as a fief.  She was deprived of Andros by Francesco Crispo who bestowed it on his son-in-law Pietro Zeno, bailie in Eubœa, in an effort to increase his influence on the island.  She was compensated by the island of Paros on condition that she marry Gasparo di Sommaripa[764].  A Venetian charter dated 19 Jun 1423 records disputes between "Petro Geno", "dominam Mariam Sanuto" and "domina Florentia relicta quondam…domini Jacobi Crispo, olim Duche Egeopelagi" regarding succession to the islands of "Andre, Parii et Antiparii et Melos"[765].  Venice granted her one third of the island of Eubœa, her descendants continuing to hold this part under Venice until the Ottoman Turks invaded the island 15 Jun 1470[766]m (1390) GASPARO di Sommaripa, son of --- (-1402). 

(c)       ELISABETTA Sanudo .  1384/1460.  Betrothed to GIACOPO Crispo, son of FRANCESCO I Duke of Naxos & his wife Fiorenza Sanudo Dss of Naxos (-1418).  He succeeded his father in 1397 as GIACOPO I Duke of Naxos

c)         MARINO Sanudo .  Lord of Nio.  Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem 1347. 

d)         MARCO [Marcolino] Sanudo (-after 1376).  Lord of Milos 1341.  He transferred Milos to his son-in-law in 1376.  m ---.  The name of Marco's wife is not known.  Marco & his wife had one child: 

i)          FIORENZA Sanudo (-1437).  Her marriage is confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which records that "Pietro Zen et Petronilla sua mogier" were granted "dominio dell´ isola di Andre" by "Franguli Crispo suo padre et Fiorenza sua madre Duca et Duchessa dell´ Arcipelago"[767].  Lady of Milos.  She succeeded in 1383 as FIORENZA II Dss of Naxosm FRANCESCO Crispo Baron of Astrogidis in Eubœa, son of FRANCESCO Crispo & his wife --- (-1397).  Lord of Milos 1376.  He succeeded in 1383 as FRANCESCO I Duke of Naxos

e)         PIETRO [Peruli] Sanudo .  Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem 1347. 

f)          daughter (-before 1375).  Betrothed to ADAM le Vicomte Seigneur de Tremblay.  m PIETRO Dandolo, son of --- (-1382 or after). 

2.         MARCO Sanudo (-1349).  Lord of Griffa.  m ---.  The name of Marco's wife is not known.  Marco & his wife had one child:

a)         GUGLIELMO Sanudo .  Lord of Griffa.  m ---.  The name of Guglielmo's wife is not known.  Guglielmo & his wife had one child: 

i)          NICOLÒ Sanudo "Spezzabanda" (-1374).  Lord of Griffa.  m firstly ---.  m secondly as her second husband, FIORENZA I Dss of Naxos, widow of GIOVANNI dalle Carceri Lord of Euboea, daughter of daughter of GIOVANNI Sanudo Duke of Naxos and of the Archipelago & his wife Maria --- (-1371).  Nicolò & his first wife had one child: 

(a)       ANGELETTO Sanudo .  Lord of ½ Chios.  m ALICE Premarin (-1439 or after).  Angeletto & his wife had one child: 

(1)       FILIPPA Sanudom NICOLA Gozzadini Lord of Thermia.  1439. 

Nicolò & his second wife had two children: 

-         see above

 

 

 

B.      DUKES of NAXOS 1383-1566 (CRISPO)

 

 

FRANCESCO Crispo, son of ---.  Citizen of Negroponte. 

m ---.  The name of Francesco's wife is not known. 

Francesco & his wife had one child: 

1.         FRANCESCO Crispo (-1397).  Baron of Astrogidis in Eubœa.  Lord of Milos 1376.  After murdering his predecessor, he succeeded in 1383 as FRANCESCO I Duke of Naxos, supported by Venice which was pleased that he made no move to succeed the late Duke in his property on the island of Eubœa[768].  He captured the island of Andros which he gave as dowry to his daughter[769].  He left his territories to be divided between his five sons[770]m FIORENZA Sanudo, daughter of MARCO [Marcolino] Sanudo Lord of Milos & his wife --- (-1437).  Her marriage is confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which records that "Pietro Zen et Petronilla sua mogier" were granted "dominio dell´ isola di Andre" by "Franguli Crispo suo padre et Fiorenza sua madre Duca et Duchessa dell´ Arcipelago"[771].  She succeeded in 1383 as FIORENZA II Dss of Naxos.  Duke Francesco & his wife had eight children: 

a)         GIACOPO Crispo (-Ferrara 1418).  He succeeded his father in 1397 as GIACOPO I Duke of Naxos.  In 1416, Sultan Mohammed I sent a Turkish fleet to attack the Cyclades, in response to the Duke's failure to salute him at Smyrna[772].  A Venetian charter dated 17 Nov 1419 records the death "in partibus Ferrarie" of "domini Jacobi Crispo Duche Egeopelagi"[773].  Duke Giacopo died on his way to meet Pope Martin V at Mantua[774]Betrothed to ELISABETTA Sanudo, daughter of NICOLÒ Sanudo "Spezzabanda" & his second wife Fiorenza II Dss of Naxos.  1384/1460.  m FIORENZA di Sommaripa, daughter of GASPARO di Sommaripa & his wife Maria Sanudo of Naxos (-after 13 Jan 1436).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Fiorenza" as wife of "Giacomo Crespo olim Duca", in a later passage specifying that she was "Fiorenza Sumaripa" and made her testament 13 Jan 1436[775].  Heiress of Paros, confiscated by her brother-in-law Duke Giovanni II after the death of her husband, but restored after pressure from Venice[776].  A Venetian charter dated 19 Jun 1423 records disputes between "Petro Geno", "dominam Mariam Sanuto" and "domina Florentia relicta quondam…domini Jacobi Crispo, olim Duche Egeopelagi" regarding succession to the islands of "Andre, Parii et Antiparii et Melos"[777].  Duke Giacopo & his wife had two children: 

i)          daughter .  m (1419) ANDREA Dandolo

ii)         daughter .  m (1424) GIOVANNI Michieli

b)         PETRONELLA Crispo (-after 1427).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Pietro Zen et Petronilla sua mogier" were granted "dominio dell´ isola di Andre" by "Franguli Crispo suo padre et Fiorenza sua madre Duca et Duchessa dell´ Arcipelago", and adds that after Pietro´s death "Andrea Zen suo figliolo primogenito" succeeded, and after he died "Jacomo Crespo Duca dell´ Arcipelago"[778]m (1384) PIETRO Zeno Lord of Andros (-1427).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Andrea Zen…domino de Andre" had "una sola figliola Petronilla" who was a minor when he died, adds that she was betrothed to "Giacomo Crespo Duca" in 1437, and also names "Marco Zen suo fratello…Guielma Zorzi mugier…di…Andrea Zen"[779]

c)         AGNESE Crispo (-1428 or after).  m DRAGONETTO Clavelli of Rhodos Lord of Nisyros.  1401/1415. 

d)         GIOVANNI Crispo (-before 26 Dec 1433).  Under the division of territories agreed by his father, he received Milos and Kimolos in 1397.  Appointed successor by his brother in preference to the latter's daughters, he succeeded in 1418 as GIOVANNI II Duke of Naxos.  A Venetian charter dated 17 Nov 1419 records that, after the death "in partibus Ferrarie" of "domini Jacobi Crispo Duche Egeopelagi", the succession of "dominus Joannes Crispo eius frater" was recognised on condition of accepting Venetian suzerainty[780].  Naxos and Andros were seized in 1431 by Genoa, in revenge for Venetian raids on Chios and Duke Giovanni was obliged to make a treaty with them to retain his independence[781].  Miller highlights a document from the ducal chancery at Naxos dated 26 Dec 1433 which refers to Duke Giovanni as being dead[782]m FRANCESCA Morosini, daughter of --- (-after 1455).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno which names "Francesca Morosini" as mother of "Zuanne Crispo…figliolo…Giacomo", the same source adding in a later passage that she was "sorella di Nicolò Morosini de S. Polo" when recording that she arrived in Venice 15 Mar 1453[783].  She was regent of Naxos from 1437 to 1444.  Duke Giovanni II & his wife had three children: 

i)          GIACOPO Crispo (-1447).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Giacomo" as son of "Zuanne Crispo" when recording that he was "Governatori d´Arcipelago"[784].  He succeeded his father in 1433 as GIACOPO II Duke of Naxos.  After the death of his cousin Andrea Zeno Lord of Andros in 1437, the Venetians installed their nominee Francesco Quirini to rule the island, Duke Giacomo being blackmailed into acceptance by threat of attack.  In 1440, a Venetian court ruled in favour of Crusino Sommaripa, son of Maria Sanudo, as ruler of Andros[785]Betrothed (1437) to PETRONILLA Zeno, daughter of ANDREA Zeno Lord of Andros & his wife Guglielma Giorgio (-after 1466).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Andrea Zen…domino de Andre" had "una sola figliola Petronilla" who was a minor when he died, adds that she was betrothed to "Giacomo Crespo Duca" in 1437[786].  She became a nun at Santa Croce della Giudecca, Venice.  m GINEVRA Gattilusio, daughter of DORINO Gattilusio Lord of Lesbos & his wife Orietta Doria.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Catterina Summarippa" as wife of "Jacomo Crespo Duca di Arcipelago", adding that she was pregnant when her husband died and gave birth to "una fiola o uni fiolo…Zuan Jacomo"[787].  Duke Giacopo II & his wife had two children: 

(a)       ELISABETTA Crispo .  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Catterina Summarippa" as wife of "Jacomo Crespo Duca di Arcipelago", adding that she was pregnant when her husband died and gave birth to "una fiola o uni fiolo…Zuan Jacomo"[788]m her first cousin, DORINO II Gattilusio Lord of Ainos, son of PALAMEDE Gattilusio Lord of Ainos & his wife ---. 

(b)       GIAN GIACOMO Crispo (posthumously 1447-1453).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Catterina Summarippa" as wife of "Jacomo Crespo Duca di Arcipelago", adding that she was pregnant when her husband died and gave birth to "una fiola o uni fiolo…Zuan Jacomo"[789].  He succeeded his father at birth in 1447 as GIAN GIACOMO Duke of Naxos.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuan Jacomo Crespo Duca dell´ Arcipelago" died in 1452 and was succeeded by "Vielmo Crespo Signor d´Anamfio fratello…di Januli Crespo Duca, padre di Jacomo, padre di questo Zuan Jacomo"[790]

ii)         ADRIANA Crispo (-1454 or after).  Despite her marriage contract stipulating that she would be her brother's successor if he died without heirs, she was displaced on the death of her nephew in 1453 by her uncle Guglielmo[791]m DOMENICO Sommaripa Lord of Andros (-1466). 

iii)        CATERINA Crispo (-before 1454). 

e)         GUGLIELMO Crispo (-1463).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Nicolo di Sant Erini et Suda, et Vielmo Signor de Ananfio" as brothers of "Zuanne Crispo"[792].  Under the division of territories agreed by his father, he received Anaphe.  He acted as joint regent for his great-nephew Duke Gian Giacomo, jointly with his brother Niccolo.  They imprisoned their sister-in-law Francesca who also claimed the regency[793].  He succeeded his great nephew in 1453 as GUGLIELMO II Duke of Naxos, with the agreement of his nephew and co-regent Francesco, depriving his niece Adriana of her rightful inheritance as well as his own daughter as it was also agreed that Francesco would succeed Duke Guglielmo[794].  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuan Jacomo Crespo Duca dell´ Arcipelago" died in 1452 and was succeeded by "Vielmo Crespo Signor d´Anamfio fratello…di Januli Crespo Duca, padre di Jacomo, padre di questo Zuan Jacomo"[795]m (1454) as her first husband, ELISABETTA da Pesaro, daughter of ---.  She married secondly (1464) Giovanni da Pesaro.  Duke Guglielmo II & his wife had two children: 

i)          MARCO Crispo (-young). 

ii)         FIORENZA Crispo (-1528).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Fiorenza" as only daughter and heiress of "Vielmo Crespo" who was a minor when her father died[796].  The same source records that "Francesco Crespo Signor de Saint´ Erini…Ducà" wished to betrothe "Giacomo suo fiolo primogenito" to "Fiorenza fiola del…Vlielmo" but that this did not take place, and adds in a later passage that Fiorenza married "Aluise Barbaro" with "l´isola de Nanfio" [Anaphe] as her dowry[797]m (1469) LUIGI Barbaro, son of --- (-1485). 

Duke Guglielmo II had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

iii)        GIACOMO Crispo (-1505).  He inherited lands and female serfs in Naxos from his father[798].  After the death of Duke Giovanni III in 1494, he assumed the title of Governor of Naxos on behalf of the late Duke's infant son but the population submitted to Venice which appointed a Venetian governor[799].  His possible descendants, extinct in the male line before 1585, are shown in Sturda[800]

iv)        GIOVANNA Crispom ANTONIO da Corogna1470. 

f)          NICOLÒ Crispo (-1450).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Nicolo di Sant Erini et Suda, et Vielmo Signor de Ananfio" as brothers of "Zuanne Crispo"[801].  He succeeded his father in 1433 as GIACOPO II Duke of Naxos.  After the death of his cousin Andrea Zeno Lord of Andros Under the division of territories agreed by his father, he received Syra in 1397. 

-        see below

g)         MARCO Crispo (-1450).  Under the division of territories agreed by his father, he received Nio [Ios].  His brother Giovanni installed him as Lord of Therasia[802]

-        LORDS of NIO and THERASIA[803]

h)         PIETRO Crispo (-1440 or after).  m ---.  The name of Pietro's wife is not known.  Pietro & his wife had one child: 

i)          GIOVANNI Crispo (-1475).  Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem 1452.  Commendator at Naxia 1471. 

 

 

NICOLÒ Crispo, son of FRANCESCO I Duke of Naxos & his wife Fiorenza Sanudo Dss  of Naxos (-1450).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno names "Nicolo di Sant Erini et Suda, et Vielmo Signor de Ananfio" as brothers of "Zuanne Crispo"[804].  Under the division of territories agreed by his father, he received Syra in 1397.  His brother Giovanni installed him as Lord of Santorini[805].  He acted as regent for his nephew Duke Giacomo II in 1433[806], and as joint regent for his great-nephew Duke Gian Giacomo, jointly with his brother Niccolo[807]

m (before 1418) --- Gattilusio, daughter of GIACOPO Gattilusio Lord of Lesbos & his wife Bona Grimaldi ([1405]-).  Nicolò refers to the Lord of Mytilene [Lesbos] as "socer sui" in 1426[808], Giacopo ruling Lesbos in that year.  According to Sturdza[809], the wife of Nicolò was [Valenza] Megala Komnene, daughter of Ioannes IV Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond.  The alleged relationship is based on the 1574 account by Caterino Zeno, who was married to a descendant of the Crespon family[810], but it is impossible chronologically, assuming that the date of the marriage of Valenza's oldest daughter in 1429 is correct.  Even assuming that this daughter was no more than 15 years old when she married, Valenza must have been born in [1390/1400].  Even if her daughter's marriage date is incorrect (which is likely), Valenza could not have been born later than [1410/15] at the very latest, given that she was the mother of eleven children and in light of the other known dates of birth and marriage of her descendants. 

Nicolò & his wife had eleven children: 

1.         FRANCESCO Crispo (-Coron 1463).  He was elected to succeed his father in 1450 as joint regent for his cousin Duke Gian Giacomo[811].  He succeeded his uncle in 1463 as FRANCESCO II Duke of Naxos, in accordance with the agreement reached with his predecessor.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Francesco Crespo Signor de Saint´ Erini" succeeded "Vielmo Crespo" as duke but died after seeking medical help at Coron[812]m firstly as her second husband, GUGLIELMA Zorzi, widow of ANDREA Zeno Lord of Andros, daughter of ---.  m secondly PETRONILLA Bembo, daughter of ---.  She was regent for her son from 1463[813].  Duke Francesco II & his second wife had three children: 

a)         MARGHERITA Crispom firstly MARCO Quirinim secondly (1479) AMBROGIO Contarini (-1499). 

b)         GIACOPO Crispo (-1480).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Francesco Crespo Signor de Saint´ Erini…Ducà" wished to betrothe "Giacomo suo fiolo primogenito" to "Fiorenza fiola del…Vlielmo" but that this did not take place[814].  He succeeded his father in 1463 as GIACOPO III Duke of Naxos, under the regency of his mother.  The Turks attacked Andros in 1468 and 1470, and Naxos in 1477.  The citizens of Naxos were treated as Venetian citizens after the 1479 peace agreement which ended the Venetian/Turkish war[815]m CATERINA Gozzadini, daughter of ---.  Duke Giacopo III & his wife had two children: 

i)          FIORENZA Crispo .  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Iacobus Naxi dux" married "Florentiam filiam" to "Dominico Pisano, filio Ioannis Cretæ ducis" and that "insula Sancte Erini" [Santorini] was her dowry on condition that the couple had a son, the grant being confirmed by the Venetian senate 6 Jul 1480 when the couple visited Venice[816]m (Melos castle, Naxos Feb 1480) DOMENICO Pisani, son of GIOVANNI Pisani Duke of Candia & his wife ---. 

ii)         PETRONELLA .  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Iacobus Naxi dux" left "Florentia et alia filia nubili" when he died[817]m (1485) NADALE da Molin (-1502). 

c)         GIOVANNI Crispo (-killed 1 Jul 1494).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Ioannes Crispus frater eius" succeeded on the death of "Iacobus dux", adding that he occupied and held Santorini despite protests from Venice[818].  He succeeded his brother in 1480 as GIOVANNI III Duke of Naxos.  He invaded the island of Santorini, then held by his predecessor's daughter and her husband, and retained it in the face of protests from Venice.  During the enquiry which followed in Venice, the genealogy of the Sanudi and Crispi was drawn up which is the oldest surviving pedigree of the families.  A compromise was reached under which the duke retained Santorini in return for payment of compensation to Domenico Pisani[819].  The citizens of Naxos besieged the duke in his castle, exasperated by his tyrannical conduct.  He was freed with the help of the Knights of St John from Rhodos, but his harsh treatment of the rebel leaders did not improve relations with the population[820].  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuane Crespo Ducha de Nicosia isola in Arcipelago et signor dele isole de Santo Herini, Melo et Sira" died 1 Jul 1494[821].  After his death, the people submitted to Venice which appointed Pietro Contarini as Venetian governor of Naxos, although it agreed that the Crispo family should administer the island revenues[822]m (repudiated) --- Morosini, daughter of VETTORE Morosini & his wife ---.  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuane Crespo Ducha de Nicosia isola in Arcipelago et signor dele isole de Santo Herini, Melo et Sira" repudiated his wife because she was childless[823].  Duke Giovanni III had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

i)          FRANCESCO (-Candia 17 Aug 1511).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuane Crespo Ducha de Nicosia" left "Francisco filio" aged 11 years and "filia annorum trium", born from "inlegitima moier", when he died[824].  After the period of direct rule by Venice which followed his father's death in 1494, the Venetian senate restored the duchy to him in 1500 when he succeeded as FRANCESCO III Duke of Naxos

-         see below

ii)         daughter ([1491]-).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuane Crespo Ducha de Nicosia" left "Francisco filio" aged 11 years and "filia annorum trium", born from "inlegitima moier", when he died[825]. 

2.         DOMENICO Crispo (-young). 

3.         CATERINA Crispom (1429) ANGELO [II] Gozzadini Lord of Thermia. 

4.         LUCREZIA Crispom LEONE Malipiero

5.         PETRONELLA Crispom (1437) GIACOPO Priuli

6.         MARIA Crispom (1442) NICOLÒ Balbi

7.         FIORENZA Crispo ([Venice 1435/43]-)m MARCO Cornaro, son of --- ([Venice 1435/43]-). 

8.         VALENZA Crispom (1446) as his second wife, GIOVANNI Loredano Lord of Antiparos (-1468). 

9.         MARCO Crispo (-1475 or after).  Knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem 1452.  Commendator of Verona 1472-1475. 

10.      VIOLANTA Crispom (1453) CATERINO Zeno ([Venice] [1435/43]-after 1471).   

11.      ANTONIO Crispo (-1476).  Lord of Syra 1460.  m --- Paterio, daughter of PIETRO Paterio joint Lord of Chios & his wife Catochina Giustiniani Rocca.  Antonio & his wife had two children: 

a)         MARIA Crispo .  1477. 

b)         MARGHERITA Crispo .  1477. 

 

 

FRANCESCO Crispo, illegitimate son of GIOVANNI III Duke of Naxos & his mistress --- (-Candia 17 Aug 1511[826]).  The 16th century Annali Veneti of Stefano Magno records that "Zuane Crespo Ducha de Nicosia" left "Francisco filio" aged 11 years and "filia annorum trium", born from "inlegitima moier", when he died[827].  After the period of direct rule by Venice which followed his father's death in 1494, the Venetian senate restored the duchy to him in 1500 when he succeeded as FRANCESCO III Duke of Naxos.  His rule was so cruel that the population appealed to Venice which recalled him in 1507.  He was declared insane and imprisoned by the Venetians at San Michele di Murano in 1509, but soon released.  He returned to Naxos where he murdered his wife and attempted to murder his son.  He was deposed by the people and sent to Santorini in custody, later transferred to Khandia where he died.  His brother-in-law Antonio Loredano was appointed governor of Naxos by Venice[828]

m (1496) CATERINA Loredano, daughter of MATTEO Loredano & his wife --- (-murdered Naxos 17 Aug 1510).  She was murdered by her husband. 

Duke Francesco III & his wife had two children: 

1.         GIOVANNI Crispo (1499-1564).  He succeeded as GIOVANNI IV Duke of Naxos when he came of age in May 1517.  He was kidnapped by a Turkish corsair and ransomed.  He claimed Paros on the extinction of the Sommaripa family, captured the fortresses of Kephalos and Paroikia, and installed his own officials, although in 1520 Venice ordered it to be transferred to Fiorenza Venier, sister of the last ruler[829].  Naxos was attacked in 1532 by the Turkish corsair Kurtoglu, and Khaireddin "Barbarossa" Pasha conquered many of the smaller islands in 1536 before invading Naxos.  Duke Giovanni agreed to pay tribute to the Ottomans 11 Nov 1536.  m (before 1517) ADRIANA Gozzadini .  Duke Giovanni IV & his wife had four children: 

a)         CATERINA Crispom (1534) NICOLÒ [III] Gozzadini

b)         FRANCESCO Crispo (-before 1550).  His father appointed him as co-ruler in Naxos[830]m as her first husband, FIORENZA Gozzadini, daughter of ---.  She married secondly (1550) Francesco [Nicolò] Pasqualigo.  Francesco had two illegitimate children by an unknown mistress or mistresses: 

i)          GIOVAN MATTIA Crispo .  He claimed to inherit the duchy of Naxos after the death of his uncle in 1576.  He left descendants[831]

ii)         FIORENZA Crispom GIOVANNI Sirigo1580. 

c)         GIACOPO Crispo (-Pera 1576, bur Pera).  He succeeded his father in 1564 as GIACOPO IV Duke of Naxos.  His court descended into debauchery, and in 1566 the citizens appealed to Sultan Suleyman to appoint a more suitable ruler.  Duke Giacopo visited Constantinople to plead his cause but was stripped of his possessions and imprisoned.  After Sultan Selim II appointed Joseph Nasi as Governor of Naxos, the people appealed for Duke Giacopo's release and restoration, unwilling to submit to a Jewish ruler.  Giacopo was released but not restored, and fled with his family to Morea and thence to Rome.  He was finally granted a pension by Venice[832].  After the death of Sultan Selim, ex-Duke Giacopo unsuccessfully appealed to be restored[833]m CANTIANA [Cecilia] Sommaripa, daughter of ---.  Duke Giacopo IV & his wife had six children: 

i)          GIOVANNI Crispo (-Venice ----).  [m MARGHERITA de Lusignan, daughter of ---.] 

ii)         FRANCESCO Crispo

iii)        MARCANTONIO Crispo

iv)       ADRIANA Crispo

v)        CANTIANA Crispo

vi)       CATERINA Crispom (1577) VETTORE Marin (-1603). 

d)         TADDEA Crispom GIAN FRANCESCO Sommaripa Lord of Andros.  He was expelled from Andros in 1566 by the Greeks and fled to Naxos[834]

2.         CATERINA Crispo .  Lady of Chios 1541.  m (1519) GIANLUIGI Pisani (-1566).  Lord of Chios 1541.   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  SALONA

 

 

The lordship of Salona (also referred to as Soula and Solona) was established as one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia, and was named as such in a charter dated 1301[835].  The territory of the Lords of Salona lay to the west of the lordship of Athens[836].  It was captured by the Ottomans in 1394. 

 

 

 

A.      LORDS of SALONA (STROMONCOURT)

 

 

1.         THOMAS [II] de Stromoncourt (-[1276/77]?).  Lord of Salona.  He joined the alliance against Guillaume de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia in 1257 to prevent the latter gaining control of the island of Eubœa[837]m ---, niece of GUILLAUME de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, daughter of ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "Il principe Guglielmo" brought "di Campagna et Borgogna tre sue nipoti" and that he married the second "al Signor d´Insola", adding that they had one son and one daughter[838].  Thomas [II] & his wife had two children: 

a)         GUILLAUME de Stromoncourt .  He succeeded his father as Lord of Salona.  He is referred to as "Guglelmo domino de Salona" in the notice of his daughter's marriage in the Angevin archives[839]m ---.  The name of Guillaume's wife is not known.  Guillaume & his wife had two children: 

i)          AGNES de Stromoncourt (-after 1279).  m (16 Sep 1275) DREUX de Beaumont [en-Gâtinais] marshal of Charles I King of Sicily (-[14 Nov 1276/30 Mar 1277]). 

ii)         THOMAS [III] de Stromoncourt (-killed in battle Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311).  The Chronicle of Amadi names "signor Thomaso de la Sola, cusin zerman de la madre de la dama de Barutho"[840], although the precise relationship between Thomas [III] and Alice, daughter of Guy I Duke of Athens, has not yet been established.  Lord of Salona by 1308.  "Ser Thomas de la Sola Dominator Solone et principatus Achaye mareschalcus, mortuus" is included in the list of Barons "de Romania" with whom Venice maintained relations in 1313[841]m as her first husband, ---.  She married secondly Roger Deslaur, a knight from Roussillon, who fought at Kephissos River, near Thebes 15 Mar 1311 against the Catalans, who appointed him their leader after the battle, gave him the castle of Salona and the widow of the previous lord[842].  After the arrival in Athens of Berenguer Estañol, appointed as Governor by Federigo I King of Sicily [Aragon], Roger relinquished his leadership of the Catalans and retired to Salona[843]

b)         daughter .  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello records that "Il principe Guglielmo" brought "di Campagna et Borgogna tre sue nipoti" and that he married the second "al Signor d´Insola", adding that they had one son and one daughter

 

 

 

B.      LORDS of SALONA (ARAGON)

 

 

Don ALFONSO Fadrique de Aragón, illegitimate son of FEDERIGO II King of Sicily & his mistress Sibilla Sormella ([1290]-[20 Dec 1335/4 Mar 1339]).  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records that the Catalan Company elected "Alphonse-Frédéric" son of the king of Sicily as their leader, dated to 1313[844].  His father named him Vicar General of the duchy of Athens in 1317 after the death of Berenguer Estañol.  He called himself "President of the fortunate army of Franks in the duchy of Athens"[845].  After the death of his father-in-law in 1317, Alfonso conquered the island of Eubœa, but he was instructed to withdraw by his father following pressure from the Angevins, although he retained possession of the castles of Karystos and Larmena.  Triarch of Eubœa (northern part).  A formal truce was negotiated with Venice in 1319 in which the triarchs were included[846].  After the death of Ioannes Dukas Angelos Lord of Thessaly in 1318, Alfonso invaded Thessaly and conquered Loidoriki, Siderokastro, Zeitounion, Gardiki, Galaxidi and Vitrinitza.  Alfonso styled himself "Vicar-General of the duchies of Athens and Neopatras"[847].  He became Lord of Salona after the death of Roger Deslaur without heirs.  He was replaced as Vicar-General in 1330 by Niccolo Lancia, although he remained in Greece[848].  He was installed as Conte di Malta e Gozo, under the suzerainty of the kings of Sicily, in 1330.  A charter dated 5 Apr 1331 records a peace agreement relating to the island of Eubœa and names "domini Guilielmi duchatuum Athenarum et Neupatrie ducis…domini Frederici Sicilie regis…filii" acting with the advice of "Alfonsum Friderici, insularum Melineti et Gaudisii comitem, dicti…regis Friderici filium"[849].  Pharsalos, Domokos and Gardiki were captured by Albanians in 1337[850]

m (1317) MARULLA da Verona, daughter of BONIFACIO da Verona Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) & his wife Agnes de Cicon.  The Chronicle of Ramon Muntaner records the marriage of "Alphonse-Frédéric" and "la fille de messire Boniface de Véronne", dated to 1313[851].  A charter dated 2 Sep 1318 records that "dominus Alphonsus Friderici" married "Marule filie quondam nobilis domini Bonifatii de Verona", with "castra Caristi et Larmene" [Karystos, Larmena] granted as her dowry by "Thomasatii fratris dicte Marule civis Venetiarum"[852].  On her marriage, her brother granted her the castles of Karystos, Larmena, Aegina, Zeitounion and Gardiki in the Duchy of Athens.  She allowed her brother to use the castle of Larmena in 1324 but reclaimed it when he died[853]

Alfonso & his wife had seven children: 

1.         don PEDRO Fadrique de Aragón (-before 15 Oct 1355).  He succeeded his father in [1338] as Conte di Malta e Gozo, Lord of Salona, Loidoriki and Aegina.  He was dispossessed of his lands in 1350. 

2.         don JAIME Fadrique de Aragón (-[23 Feb 1365/3 Aug 1366]).  He succeeded his brother in 1355 as Conte di Malta e Gozo, although the lordship of Salona and Loidoriki was withheld from him due to the disturbed state then prevailing in the duchy of Athens[854].  Lord of the island of Aegina 1362-1365.  He was appointed Vicar-General of the duchy of Athens and Neopatras in 1356 by Federigo II King of Sicily, Duke of Athens, after the local nobility petitioned the king for the removal from office of his predecessor Ramón Bernardi for lack of proper authority.  Internal discontent evidently persisted, as the hereditary marshal of Athens, Ermengol de Novelles, revolted, after which Jaime confiscated his castle at Siderokastron in [1358].  In 1359, he was replaced as Vicar-General by Gonsalvo Ximenes de Arenos[855]m ---.  The name of Jaime's wife is not known.  Jaime & his wife had one child: 

a)         don LUIS Fadrique de Aragón (-[1381/23 Oct 1382])He succeeded his father in 1365 as Conte di Malta e Gozo, Count of Salona, Lord of Zeitunion, Loidoriki, Gardiki, Galaxidi and Vitrinitza, Captain of Siderokastron.  Lord of Aegina 1379-1381.  He was elected Vicar-General of the duchy of Athens and Neopatras in 1375 by the communities of the duchy without waiting for approval from Sicily in the face of continuing internal disturbance and the growing external threat from Nerio Acciaiuoli of Thebes, subsequently ratified by King Federigo II.  He restored order to the duchy, but after King Federigo's death in 1377 supported the claims of Pedro IV King of Aragon against Maria of Sicily, the late king's daughter[856].  In 1380, Salona was captured by the Navarrese Company, although King Pedro allowed Luis to retain the title of Count of Malta and the castle of Siderokastron.  He was replaced as Vicar-General in 1381 by Felipe Dalmau I Vizconde de Rocaberti[857]m HELENA Asanina Kantakuzene, daughter of MATTHAIOS Asanes Kantakuzenos ex-co-Emperor of Byzantium & his wife Eirene Palaiologina (-after Feb 1394).  Regent of Salona for her daughter 1382-1394.  She was killed by the Turks who had invaded the city of Salona.  Luis & his wife had one child: 

i)          doña MARÍA Fadrique de Aragón ([1370]-murdered Adrianople 1395)She succeeded her father in [1381/82] as Ctss of Salona, Lady of Siderokastron, under the regency of her mother.  The Turks, under Sultan Bayezid I, besieged Salona in early 1394.  The Greek Orthodox Bishop of Salona opened the city gates to them as he was anxious to dispossess Maria and her mother, whose administrative abuses had been excessive[858].  Maria was taken for the Sultan's harem, but he refused her.  She died in prison at Adrianople shortly after[859]Betrothed firstly ([1381/82]) to JOFRE de Rocaberti, son of FELIPE DALMAU I Vizconde de Rocaberti & his second wife Esclaramunda de Fenollet (-1403).  This betrothal was terminated by Pedro IV King of Aragon after Jofre's father fell into disgrace for supporting the king's son Infante don Juan in his dispute with his father[860].  He succeeded his father in 1392 as JOFRE VI Vizconde de RocabertiBetrothed secondly ([1384/85]) to STEFAN Dukas Nemanjić of Serbia Lord of Pharsalos and Domokos [Pinkernes], son of SYMEON UROŠ of Serbia & his wife Tomaida Komnene Angelina Orsini of Epirus (-1397).  This betrothal caused indignation among the Greeks and Franks in Salona, resentful that a Slav could be their future ruler, and contributed to the success of the invasion of the duchy of Athens by Nerio Accaiuoli in 1385[861]Betrothed thirdly (1390) to MATEO de Montcada .  This betrothal was arranged by Juan I King of Aragon, still anxious to retain Aragonese control over Salona, the most important fief of the duchy of Athens, although the duchy was by then controlled by Nerio Acciaiuoli[862]

3.         don JUAN Fadrique de Aragón (-[1362/3 Aug 1366])Lord of Aegina and Salamis [1350-1362].  m (Papal dispensation 3o 3 Aug 1350) MARULLA Zaccaria, daughter of BARTOLOMEO Zaccaria Marchese di Vodonitza & his wife Guglielma Pallavicini Marchesa di Vodonitza (-before 1358). 

4.         don BONIFACIO Fadrique de Aragón (-[1375/76])He was deprived of his assets in Sicily during the civil war between the Sicilian and Catalan parties, and left for Greece[863].  He succeeded his father as Triarch of Eubœa (northern part) in 1338.  He sold his share of the island of Eubœa, including Karystos, to Venice in 1365 for 6,000 ducats[864].  He succeeded his brother as Lord of the island of Aegina in 1365-1375.  Lord of Gittina 1366.  He became a citizen of Venice 1368.  m doña DULCE, from Aragon.  Lady of Aegina 1381.  Bonifacio & his wife had three children: 

a)         doña CONSTANZA Fadrique de Aragón (-after 1380)m HUGH Calverley.  English captain, he served under Du Guesclin, and (from 1366) Pedro III King of Aragon in his war against Castile in 1366[865]

b)         don JUAN Fadrique de Aragón (-after 1381).  Lord of Aegina 1368.  Captain in Malta 1376.  He was restored as Lord of Aegina 8 May 1381 by Felipe Dalmau I de Rocaberti, Vicar-General of the Duchies of Athens and Neopatras[866]m ---.  The name of Juan's wife is not known.  Juan & his wife had [one possible child]: 

i)          [--- de Aragón.  She succeeded as Lady of Aegina.  m (1394) ANTONELLO Caopena, son of ---.  Maybe of Catalan origin, he had settled at Navplion.  He became Lord of Aegina, his descendants continuing their rule until 1451[867]

c)         don PEDRO Fadrique de Aragón (-in prison in Aragon after 1379).  Lord of Aegina 1375.  He supported Maria of Sicily against the competing claims of Pedro IV King of Aragon after the death of her father Federigo II King of Sicily in 1377, but this rebellion against his cousin Luis Fadrique (who supported King Pedro) resulted in his forfeiture of Aegina[868].  

5.         don GUILLERMO Fadrique de AragónTitular Lord of Stiris 1366.  Aragonese Vicar of Livadia

6.         doña SIMONA Fadrique de Aragón (-[1358])Her dowry was the town of Thebes.  m ([1327]) GIORGIO Ghisi, son of BARTOLOMEO II Ghisi Lord of 1/3 Negroponte and Mykonos [Grand Constable of Achaia] & his wife --- de Liedekerke (-after 1345[869]).  He succeeded his father [after 1331] as Triarch of Eubœa (southern part) and Lord of Mykonos. 

7.         doña JUANA Fadrique de Aragón.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  THEBES (SAINT-OMER)

 

 

The lordship of Thebes was established to the west of the March of Boudonitsa, and received homage from the lords in the valley of Dorida, including the barons of Gravia[870].  The lordship of Thebes was not one of the twelve high fiefdoms of the principality of Achaia as its territory was part of the lordship of Athens.  The lordship was held jointly by the lord of Athens himself and by the head of the Saint-Omer family, after Bela de Saint-Omer married one of the sisters of the lord of Athens[871].  The Greek castle of Saint-Omer was built in the town of Thebes but was destroyed by the Catalan company.  A new castle of Saint-Omer was built in 1310 on the side of Mount Movri between Larissa and Penea by Nicolas [III] de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes and hereditary marshal of the principality of Achaia, the mountain later acquiring the name “Santameri” deriving from the original French name[872]

 

 

NICOLAS de Saint-Omer, son of GUILLAUME [IV] Châtelain de Saint-Omer, Seigneur de Fauquembergues & his wife Ida d'Avesnes (-[1217/19]).  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmo" and his wife had five sons, of whom "quintus…Nicolaus"[873].  Guillaume Châtelain de Saint-Omer donated property to the abbey of Saint-André, with the consent of "fratrum meorum Galteri…prepositi ecclesie sancti Audomari, Jacobi, Willelmi, Nicholai", by charter dated Apr 1207[874].  Lord of Boetia. 

m (after Sep 1207) as her third husband, MARGIT of Hungary, widow firstly of Emperor ISAAKIOS II and secondly of BONIFAZIO I Marchese di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, daughter of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnès [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1175-after 3 Mar 1229).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[875].  She brought Beograd, Braničevo and probably Niš as part of her dowry for her first marriage[876].  The special wedding tax levied by Emperor Isaakios II to finance their elaborate nuptial ceremonies may have contributed to attracting support for the rebellion in Bulgaria by the brothers Ivan Asen and Tedor[877].  She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium.   The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "Bonifacius marchio" and "Margaritam imperatricem condam Ysachii, sororem Aimerici regis Ungari"[878].  Villehardouin records that the wife of Emperor Isaakios, and stepmother of his son, was "the king of Hungary's sister", in a later passage naming her "the Empress Marie"[879].  Villehardouin records the marriage of "the Marquis Boniface de Montferrat" and "the lady who had been the Emperor Isaac's wife…the king of Hungary's sister"[880].  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmoquintus filius Nicolaus" married "reginam Thessalonicæ, sororem Wilelmi de Rupe ducis Athenarum"[881].  Her second marriage was arranged by Bonifazio to advance his claim to be installed as emperor of the new Latin Empire of Constantinople[882], but he was outmanoeuvred by Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice who secured the appointment of Baudouin Count of Flanders who was considered a less powerful candidate.  Her second husband installed her as regent of Thessaloniki while he was on campaign to conquer Thessaly[883].  She was also regent for her infant son after the death of her husband, but in the face of opposition from local nobles was replaced by Uberto di Biandrate.  The primary source which confirms her third marriage has not so far been identified.  She was restored as regent by Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople to whom Uberto refused to swear allegiance, after the latter was captured in Euboea by the emperor in 1209[884].  Pope Gregory IX confirmed that "[Margaretha] soror…regis Ungarie" acquired "terram…ulterior Sirmia" by bull dated 3 Mar 1229[885]

Nicolas & his wife had two children: 

1.         BELA de Saint-Omer (-after [1240]).  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis names "Bilas…Wilelmo" as the two sons of "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmoquintus filius Nicolaus" and his wife[886].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Belas…de Saint Omer” as father of “ces trois freres de Saint Omer” (“le noble baron Jehan de Saint Omer, le frere monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le seignor de la moitié d Estives, et de messire Otthe”), adding that “si ot pour moullier la suer du roy d´Onguerie[887].  He succeeded in [1240] as joint Lord of Thebes, by right of his wife.  m (1220) BONNE de la Roche, daughter of OTHON de la Roche Lord of Athens & his first wife ---.  Her parentage is indicated by the Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée which names “le dux Guis de la Roehc” as “cousins germains” of “le noble baron Jehan de Saint Omer, le frere monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le seignor de la moitié d Estives, et de messire Otthe[888].  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "Bilas", older son of "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmoquintus filius Nicolaus", married "dominam Thebarum"[889].  Bela & his wife had three children: 

a)         NICOLAS de Saint-Omer (-1294).  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis names "Nicolaum, Ottonem et Joannem" as the three sons of "Bilas"[890]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Belas…de Saint Omer” as father of “ces trois freres de Saint Omer” (“le noble baron Jehan de Saint Omer, le frere monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le seignor de la moitié d Estives, et de messire Otthe”)[891].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Jehans et messire Othe de Sainct Omer” as brothers of “messire Nicolas de Saint Omer[892]He succeeded as NICOLAS II joint Lord of Thebes 1258-1294.  He built the castle of St Omer on the Kadmeia, funded by the wealth of his first wife[893].  He was appointed Bailly of the principality of Achaia in 1287 by Robert Comte d'Artois, who was acting as regent for Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] during the latter's imprisonment, in succession to Guillaume Duke of Athens, and served until King Charles's release in 1289 when Guy de Charpigny Lord of Vostitza was appointed in his place[894]m firstly ([Naples 24 Jan 1278]) MARIE of Antioch, daughter of BOHEMOND VI Prince of Antioch & his wife Sibylle of Armenia (-before 1280).  The Lignages d'Outremer name (in order) "Beymont, Ysabeau, Marie et Lucie" as the four children of "Beymont" & his wife, stating that Marie married "Nicole de Saint Omer" and died without heirs[895].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that “la princesse d´Antioche” was the first wife of “le baron monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer le veillart, li sires de la moitié d´Estives[896]m secondly ([1279]) as her second husband, AGNES [Anna] Komnenodukaina of Epirus Lady of Kalamata and Khlemutsi, widow of GUILLAUME II de Villehardouin Prince of Achaia, daughter of MIKHAEL [II] Komnenos Dukas Angelos Lord of Epirus & his wife Theodora Dukaina Petraliphaina Basilissa (-4 Jan 1286).  Georgius Akropolites records the marriage of "Michaelis…filia sua Anna" and "Achaiæ principe"[897].  Georgius Phrantzes names "Manfredum Siculorum rege et principem Peloponnesi et Achaiæ" as the two sons-in-law of "Aetolorum et Epirotarum despota Michaele"[898].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the marriage of “le prince Guillerme” and “la suer dou despot[899].  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis records that "Nicolaum", son of "Bilas", married "Achayæ principissam"[900].  She adopted the name AGNES.  After her first husband died, she received the castles of Kalamata and Khlemutsi for life[901].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records that, after the death of Prince Guillaume, “la princesses a feme…suer…de Quir Niccifore” married “le baron monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer le veillart, li sires de la moitié d´Estives[902]

b)         OTHON de Saint-Omer (-before 1299).  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis names "Nicolaum, Ottonem et Joannem" as the three sons of "Bilas"[903]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Belas…de Saint Omer” as father of “ces trois freres de Saint Omer” (“le noble baron Jehan de Saint Omer, le frere monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le seignor de la moitié d Estives, et de messire Otthe”)[904].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Jehans et messire Othe de Sainct Omer” as brothers of “messire Nicolas de Saint Omer[905].  Joint Lord of Thebes 1294-1296.  m (after [1262/64]) as her second husband, MARGHERITA da Verona, widow of GRAPELLA da Verona, daughter of GUGLIELMO I da Verona Triarch of Eubœa & his wife ---.  The Istoria of Marino Sanudo Torsello names "la prima…madonna Felisa…la seconda…madonna Margarita…la terze…madonna Porzia" as the three daughters of "miser Guglielmo da Verona", adding that Margherita married "miser Grapella signor d´un Terzer" and secondly "miser Oston de S. Homer signor della mità di Tebbe"[906]

c)         JEAN de Saint-Omer .  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis names "Nicolaum, Ottonem et Joannem" as the three sons of "Bilas"[907]The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “messire Belas…de Saint Omer” as father of “ces trois freres de Saint Omer” (“le noble baron Jehan de Saint Omer, le frere monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le seignor de la moitié d Estives, et de messire Otthe”)[908].  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “monseignor Jehan de Saint Omer…yssi…monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer[909]1258/78.  Marshal of Morea and Baron of Passava 1276/78.  m ([1276]) as her third husband, MARGUERITE de Neuilly Lady of Passava and 1/3 Akova, widow firstly of GUIBERT de Cors Lord of Lisarea and secondly of GUGLIELMO [II] da Verona Lord of Eubœa, daughter of JEAN [II] de Neuilly Lord of Passava & his wife ---.  The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée records the death of “messire Guisbers de Cors” and the remarriage of his wife “la fille de monseignor Jehan de Passavant le marescal” with “monseignor Jehan de Saint Omer[910].  Jean & his wife had one child: 

i)          NICOLAS [III] de Saint-Omer (-30 Jan 1314)The Livre de la Conqueste de la Morée names “Marguerite, la fille jades de monseignor Jehan de Passavant le mariscal de la princée de Achaye” as mother of “monseignor Nicole de Saint Omer, le grant mariscal de la dicte princée et seignor de la moitié d´Estives[911]Baron of Passava and Marshal of Morea 1290.  Joint Lord of Thebes 1299.  He was appointed bailly by Isabelle Pss of Achaia in 1300 when she left for Italy for her third marriage[912].  /1302 and 1305/07.  m as her second husband, GUILLERME Orsini, widow of JEAN Chaudron Baron of Estamira and Roviata, daughter of RICCARDO Orsini Count of Kefalonia & his first wife --- (-after 30 May 1317). 

2.         GUILLAUME de Saint-Omer (-after 19 Oct 1265).  The late 13th century genealogy by Balduinus de Avennis names "Bilas…Wilelmo" as the two sons of "castellano Sancti-Audomari domino Wilelmoquintus filius Nicolaus" and his wife, adding that Guillaume died childless[913].  In Naples, later in Flanders.  m (before 15 Oct 1256) as her second husband, PERNEL de Lacy, widow of RAOUL [VI] de Tosny, daughter of WALTER de Lacy & his wife [Marguerite de Briouze] (-after 25 Nov 1288). 

 

 



[1] Buchon (1845) Livre de la conqueste de la Morée, Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxvi. 

[2] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon, S. (1780) Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie (Turin) ("Guichenon (Savoie)"), Tome IV, pp. 127-8. 

[3] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiv, Dynastæ Græciæ, pp. 177-8. 

[4] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxviii. 

[5] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), p. 52. 

[6] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxviii. 

[7] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxvi. 

[8] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 70. 

[9] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxviii. 

[10] Rodd, Sir R. (1907) The Princes of Achaia and the Chronicles of Morea (London, Edward Arnold), Vol. 1, 118-9, and Miller, W. (1908) The Latins in the Levant.  A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1566) (Cambridge and New York), p. 147. 

[11] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[12] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 50. 

[13] Miller (1908), p. 259. 

[14] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[15] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 53, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[16] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[17] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxii. 

[18] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52. 

[19] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxii. 

[20] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxii. 

[21] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[22] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52. 

[23] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[24] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 50. 

[25] Miller (1908), p. 259. 

[26] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxii. 

[27] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52. 

[28] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[29] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxii. 

[30] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 53. 

[31] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi-xxxii. 

[32] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 51. 

[33] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[34] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi-xxxii. 

[35] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 51. 

[36] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[37] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52. 

[38] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[39] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxiv. 

[40] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxv. 

[41] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxx. 

[42] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xl-xli. 

[43] Miller (1908), p. 259. 

[44] Miller (1908), pp. 285-6. 

[45] Miller (1908), p. 318. 

[46] Miller (1908), pp. 368 and 370. 

[47] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) (“Villehardouin”), 3, p. 38. 

[48] Fine (1994), p. 70. 

[49] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 44-5. 

[50] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 61-9. 

[51] Miller (1908), p. 50. 

[52] ES III.348 NEU (end III.1), III.349-350, and III.351 NEU (end III.1). 

[53] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1202 and 1205, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 880 and 885. 

[54] Villehardouin, I, p. 30. 

[55] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 113-14. 

[56] Fine (1994), pp. 69-. 

[57] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 47-9. 

[58] Buchon II (1845), p. 375. 

[59] Miller (1908), p. 50. 

[60] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 61-9. 

[61] Miller (1908), p. 62. 

[62] D´Arbois de Jubainville, H. (1855) Voyage paléographique dans le département de l´Aube (Troyes, Paris), p. 343. 

[63] Miller (1908), p. 86. 

[64] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 131. 

[65] Buchon II (1845), p. 377. 

[66] Buchon (1826) Histoire de l'empire de Constantinople par du Fresne du Cange, Vol. I, p. 425, and Buchon II (1845), p. 376.  

[67] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 131. 

[68] Arbois de Jubainville (1855), p. 343. 

[69] Balduinus de Avennis Genealogia, RHGF XIII, p. 562. 

[70] Giry, A. ´Les chàtelains de Saint-Omer (1042-1386)´, Bibliothèque de l´Ecole des Chartes, Tome 36 (1875), p. 95, quoting Archives du Nord, Cartulaire de Maroilles, fol. 63. 

[71] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 73. 

[72] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[73] Arbois de Jubainville (1855), p. 343. 

[74] Miller (1908), p. 86. 

[75] Buchon II (1845), p. 377. 

[76] Kerrebrouck, P, van (2000) Les Capétiens 987-1328 (Villeneuve d'Asq), p. 460. 

[77] Fine (1994), p. 188. 

[78] Miller (1908), p. 97 footnote 4. 

[79] RHC, Historiens occidentaux II, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer"), Continuator (“WTC”) XXIX.XIV, p. 291. 

[80] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[81] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 107. 

[82] Miller (1908), p. 98. 

[83] Miller (1908), p. 145. 

[84] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 73. 

[85] Miller (1908), p. 98.  Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 131 footnote 2, points out that Sanudo calls him "native of Champagne like his brother". 

[86] Miller (1908), p. 145. 

[87] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 73. 

[88] Miller (1908), pp. 98-100. 

[89] Miller (1908), pp. 103-5. 

[90] Miller (1908), p. 105. 

[91] Fine (1994), p. 167. 

[92] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 497. 

[93] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1235, MGH SS XXIII, p. 939. 

[94] Miller (1908), pp. 102-3. 

[95] Miller (1908), p. 103. 

[96] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[97] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), 75, p. 168. 

[98] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Liber I, 2, p. 17. 

[99] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 99. 

[100] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, pp. 106-7. 

[101] Miller (1908), pp. 147 and 165. 

[102] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 271. 

[103] Balduinus de Avennis Genealogia, RHGF XIII, p. 562. 

[104] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 419. 

[105] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, pp. 101 and 103. 

[106] Troyes Necrologies, 4 Obituaire de Saint-Loup, p. 342. 

[107] Miller (1908), p. 205. 

[108] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 199 and 217. 

[109] Miller (1908), p. 171. 

[110] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 290. 

[111] Miller (1908), pp. 190 and 195. 

[112] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 395. 

[113] Guichenon (Savoie), Tome IV, Preuves, p. 103. 

[114] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 250. 

[115] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[116] Sturdza (1999), p. 497. 

[117] Miller (1908), p. 125. 

[118] Miller (1908), p. 129. 

[119] Kerrebrouck, p. 250. 

[120] Miller (1908), pp. 169-70. 

[121] Miller (1908), p. 171. 

[122] Fine (1994), p. 234. 

[123] Miller (1908), pp. 195-6. 

[124] Fine (1994), pp. 234 and 239. 

[125] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[126] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 267. 

[127] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[128] Kerrebrouck (2000), p. 250. 

[129] Miller (1908), p. 252. 

[130] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[131] Miller (1908), pp. 257-8. 

[132] Miller (1908), p. 258. 

[133] Fine (1994), p. 240. 

[134] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[135] Miller (1908), p. 256. 

[136] Miller (1908), pp. 260-1. 

[137] Longnon, J. and Topping, P. Documents sur la Principauté de Morée, pp. 7-8, cited in Sturdza (1999), p. 499. 

[138] ES II 191. 

[139] ES II 191. 

[140] Inventory of the State Archives of Turin (“State Archives”), volume 109, page 35, fascicule 1, consulted at <http://ww2.multix.it/asto/asp/inventari.asp> (14 Nov 2003) ("State Archives"). 

[141] Miller (1908), p. 204. 

[142] Sturdza (1999), p. 500, footnote 17. 

[143] State Archives, volume 102, page 30, fascicule 1. 

[144] State Archives, volume 104, page 42, fascicule 25. 

[145] Sturdza (1999), p. 499.

[146] State Archives, volume 102, page 44.1. 

[147] State Archives, volume 104, page 42, fascicule 25. 

[148] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 250. 

[149] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 404. 

[150] Miller (1908), p. 253. 

[151] Miller (1908), p. 254. 

[152] Spicilegium Tome III, p. 704. 

[153] Miller (1908), p. 253. 

[154] Miller (1908), p. 254. 

[155] Miller (1908), p. 254. 

[156] Sturdza (1999), p. 501.  According to Miller (1908), p. 255, he was beheaded on the field of battle. 

[157] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 404. 

[158] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[159] Miller (1908), pp. 143-4. 

[160] Miller (1908), pp. 143-5. 

[161] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 50. 

[162] Miller (1908), p. 259. 

[163] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 241. 

[164] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[165] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[166] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 53, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[167] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 271. 

[168] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 364. 

[169] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[170] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52. 

[171] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, Prologue, p. 29. 

[172] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, Prologue, p. 29. 

[173] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 114.  

[174] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 364. 

[175] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 368. 

[176] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 364. 

[177] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[178] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[179] ES XV 19 B. 

[180] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 237. 

[181] Miller (1908), p. 259. 

[182] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 51, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[183] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 107. 

[184] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 51, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[185] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 50. 

[186] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 100. 

[187] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 236-7. 

[188] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIII, p. 90. 

[189] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 107. 

[190] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, pp. 116-7. 

[191] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 237. 

[192] Miller (1908), p. 143. 

[193] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 238. 

[194] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 287. 

[195] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 287. 

[196] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 287. 

[197] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxii. 

[198] ES XIII 92. 

[199] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 53. 

[200] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 241. 

[201] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 241. 

[202] Miller (1908), pp. 143-4. 

[203] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[204] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 109. 

[205] Miller (1908), pp. 143-5. 

[206] ES XIII 92, extinct in the male line alter 1348.  

[207] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxxi. 

[208] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52. 

[209] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 52, quoting “Chron. métr.”. 

[210] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 328. 

[211] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[212] Buchon II (1845), p. 378. 

[213] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 338 and 358. 

[214] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 287. 

[215] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 287. 

[216] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 287. 

[217] Miller (1908), p. 270. 

[218] Sturdza (1999), p. 562. 

[219] Miller (1908), p. 288. 

[220] Miller (1908), p. 307. 

[221] RHC, Documents arméniens, II (1869) Chronique de Jean Dardel (Paris) XLVIII, p. 38. 

[222] Miller (1908), p. 370. 

[223] Sathas, C. N. (1880) Documents inédits relatifs à l´histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge (Paris), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 84, p. 128. 

[224] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 8, p. 148. 

[225] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 9, p. 154. 

[226] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 19, p. 413. 

[227] Miller (1908), pp. 413-4. 

[228] Georgius Phrantzes Liber IV, 14, p. 384. 

[229] Miller (1908), pp. 428-30. 

[230] Sturda, p. 562. 

[231] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 84, p. 128. 

[232] Miller (1908), p. 368. 

[233] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxxi. 

[234] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. xxx. 

[235] Miller (1908), p. 280. 

[236] Buchon II (1845), p. 460. 

[237] Miller (1908), p. 319. 

[238] Miller (1908), p. 339. 

[239] Buchon II (1845), p. 460. 

[240] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxxi. 

[241] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxxi. 

[242] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxxi. 

[243] Miller (1908), p. 67. 

[244] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[245] Sturdza (1999), p. 534. 

[246] Sturdza (1999), p. 535. 

[247] Fine (1994), p. 90, and Miller (1908), p. 62. 

[248] Sturdza (1999), p. 534, and Miller (1908), p. 91, the latter stating that his successor was his nephew not his son. 

[249] Miller (1908), p. 66.  

[250] According to Miller (1908), p. 66, they were nephews/niece of Othon not his children. 

[251] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 126. 

[252] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 126. 

[253] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 243. 

[254] Balduinus de Avennis Genealogia, RHGF XIII, p. 562. 

[255] See ES III 442-443. 

[256] Miller (1908), p. 105. 

[257] Miller (1908), pp. 105-7. 

[258] Buchon II (1845), p. 385. 

[259] Fine (1994), p. 166. 

[260] Fine (1994), p. 188. 

[261] Bon, A. La Morée Franque, Bibl. de l'Ecole Française d'Athènes et de Rome ( Paris, 1969), p. 186, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1979), p. 134, footnote 54. 

[262] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 101. 

[263] Sturdza (1999), p. 497. 

[264] Fine (1994), p. 190, and Miller (1908), pp. 138-9. 

[265] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 27, p. 413. 

[266] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[267] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 27, p. 413. 

[268] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[269] Miller (1908), p. 164. 

[270] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 27, p. 413. 

[271] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[272] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 269. 

[273] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 267. 

[274] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[275] Miller (1908), p. 191. 

[276] Fine (1994), p. 238. 

[277] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[278] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 267. 

[279] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[280] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXVII, p. 98. 

[281] Amadi, F. Chronique, ed. R. de Las Matrie, Coll. de doc. inédits (Paris, 1891), p. 294, and Bustron, F. Chronique de l'île de Chypre, ed. R. de Las Matrie, Coll. de doc. inédits (Paris, 1886), p. 173, cited in Rüdt-Collenberg (1979), p. 135. 

[282] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIII, p. 90. 

[283] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 107. 

[284] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, pp. 116-7. 

[285] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 237. 

[286] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 238. 

[287] Miller (1908), p. 142. 

[288] Miller (1908), p. 143. 

[289] Miller (1908), pp. 227-8. 

[290] Lignages d'Outremer, Le Vaticanus Latinus 4789, CCC.XXXIII, p. 90. 

[291] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 117. 

[292] Miller (1908), p. 221. 

[293] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, III, p. 136. 

[294] D´Arbois de Jubainville (1855), p. 332. 

[295] Fine (1994), p. 242, and Miller (1908), pp. 235-6. 

[296] D´Arbois de Jubainville, H. (1855) Voyage paléographique dans le département de l´Aube (Troyes, Paris), p. 332. 

[297] Miller (1908), p. 230. 

[298] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiv, and Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[299] Troyes Necrologies, 2 Obituaire de Saint-Etienne, III Fondations établies en l'église royale de Troyes, p. 271. 

[300] Miller (1908), pp. 262-3. 

[301] Sturdza (1999), p. 507. 

[302] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 117. 

[303] RHGF XXIII, Chronique des comtes d´Eu, p. 447. 

[304] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 118. 

[305] Miller (1908), p. 278. 

[306] Fine (1994), p. 400. 

[307] Miller (1908), pp. 311-13. 

[308] Miller (1908), pp. 235-6. 

[309] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiv, and Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[310] Sturdza (1999), p. 502. 

[311] Miller (1908), p. 247. 

[312] Thomas, G. M. (ed.) (1870) Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum sive acta et diplomata res Venetas, Græcas atque Levantis a. 1300-1350, Monumenti storici publicati dalla R. deputazione Veneta di storia patria, Vol. V, Serie prima, Documenti (Venice) ("Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum"), 108, p. 214. 

[313] Miller (1908), p. 278. 

[314] Miller (1908), p. 278. 

[315] Miller (1908), p. 299. 

[316] Miller (1908), pp. 270-1. 

[317] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[318] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[319] Miller (1908), p. 271. 

[320] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1205. 

[321] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[322] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[323] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[324] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[325] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1205. 

[326] Miller (1908), p. 271. 

[327] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[328] Sturdza (1999), p. 494 and 500. 

[329] Buchon II (1845), p. 387. 

[330] Miller (1908), pp. 285-6. 

[331] Miller (1908), p. 280. 

[332] Miller (1908), p. 290. 

[333] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[334] Buchon II (1845), p. 416. 

[335] Buchon II (1845), p. 420. 

[336] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1229. 

[337] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1205. 

[338] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[339] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[340] Miller (1908), pp. 290-1. 

[341] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[342] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[343] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[344] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[345] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[346] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[347] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[348] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[349] Buchon II (1845), p. 422. 

[350] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[351] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[352] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[353] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1205. 

[354] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1227. 

[355] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[356] Miller (1908), p. 349. 

[357] Vita Nicolai Acciajoli, RIS XIII, col. 1227. 

[358] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[359] Miller (1908), pp. 290-1. 

[360] Miller (1908), pp. 303-4. 

[361] Miller (1908), p. 323. 

[362] Miller (1908), pp. 340-1. 

[363] Miller (1908), pp. 348-9. 

[364] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[365] Miller (1908), p. 354. 

[366] Buchon II (1845), p. 424. 

[367] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[368] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[369] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[370] Fine (1994), pp. 403-4. 

[371] Commander of the Navarrese company, who in 1396 had declared himself Prince of Achaia, which by that time was reduced to a narrow strip of land in western Peloponnesus around Arkadia. 

[372] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[373] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[374] Miller (1908), p. 350. 

[375] Buchon II (1845), p. 484. 

[376] Miller (1908), p. 371. 

[377] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[378] Miller (1908), pp. 359-60. 

[379] Miller (1908), p. 362. 

[380] Miller (1908), pp. 397-8, refers to the appointment of Tomaso Beraldo as absentee governor by Alfonso V King of Aragon. 

[381] Sturdza (1999), p. 494. 

[382] Miller (1908), p. 397. 

[383] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 10, p. 159. 

[384] Miller (1908), p. 399. 

[385] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 10, p. 159. 

[386] Miller (1908), p. 399. 

[387] Sturdza (1999), p. 495. 

[388] Miller (1908), p. 405. 

[389] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 431. 

[390] Miller (1908), p. 462. 

[391] Buchon II (1845), p. 416. 

[392] Buchon II (1845), p. 424. 

[393] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[394] Miller (1908), p. 351. 

[395] Buchon II (1845), p. 441. 

[396] Miller (1908), p. 400. 

[397] Buchon II (1845), p. 435. 

[398] Buchon II (1845), p. 388. 

[399] Buchon II (1845), p. 441. 

[400] Miller (1908), p. 400. 

[401] Buchon II (1845), p. 441. 

[402] Buchon II (1845), p. 441. 

[403] Miller (1908), p. 406. 

[404] Sturdza (1999), p. 495. 

[405] Miller (1908), p. 410. 

[406] Miller (1908), pp. 411-12. 

[407] Miller (1908), p. 405. 

[408] Named Pietro Priuli by Litta, P. Famiglie celebri italiani 1st series Vol. LX (1844), and Bartolomeo Contarini by Hopf, K. Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues, both cited in Sturdza (1999), p. 495.  Miller (1908), p. 436, calls him Bartolomeo Contarini. 

[409] Miller (1908), p. 436. 

[410] Miller (1908), p. 436-7. 

[411] Miller (1908), p. 436. 

[412] Buchon II (1845), p. 441. 

[413] Miller (1908), p. 406. 

[414] Miller (1908), pp. 437-8. 

[415] Miller (1908), pp. 456-7. 

[416] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxix-lxx. 

[417] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[418] Miller (1908), p. 248. 

[419] Miller, W. (1921) Essays on the Latin Orient (Cambridge), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 245. 

[420] Miller (1908), p. 105. 

[421] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, p. 377. 

[422] Miller (1921), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 249, citing Litta Le famiglie celebri italiane, Vol. V. 

[423] Miller (1908), p. 149. 

[424] Miller (1921), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 249, citing Hopf, Ersch and Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopadie, LXXXV, p. 321. 

[425] Miller (1921), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 249, citing Hopf, Ersch and Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopadie, LXXXV, p. 321. 

[426] Miller (1921), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 249, citing Hopf, Ersch and Gruber, Allgemeine Encyklopadie, LXXXV, p. 321. 

[427] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[428] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[429] Miller (1908), p. 248. 

[430] Miller (1908), p. 248. 

[431] Miller (1908), p. 248. 

[432] Miller (1908), p. 248. 

[433] Miller (1908), p. 280. 

[434] Miller (1908), p. 305. 

[435] Miller (1908), p. 373. 

[436] Miller (1908), p. 374. 

[437] Miller (1908), pp. 374-5, and Miller (1921), p. 256. 

[438] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 14, p. 14. 

[439] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 431. 

[440] Miller (1908), p. 375. 

[441] Miller (1921), 10, The Marquisate of Boudonitza, p. 253, citing Orbini Regno degli Slavi, p. 271. 

[442] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, p. 284. 

[443] Ogerii Panis Annales, MGH SS XVIII, p. 119. 

[444] Sturdza (1999), p. 561. 

[445] Pachymeres Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 30, p. 420. 

[446] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[447] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[448] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[449] Buchon, J. A. (trans.) (1827) Chronique de Ramon Muntaner (Paris), Tome II, CCXXXIV, p. 230. 

[450] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[451] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[452] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[453] Miller (1921), IV.I, The Zaccaria of Phocæa and Chios, Appendix, Digest of Genoese Documents, p. 295. 

[454] Sturdza (1999), p. 561. 

[455] Miller (1908), p. 174. 

[456] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 176, and Miller (1908), p. 585. 

[457] Sturdza (1999), p. 562. 

[458] Nicol (1972), p. 176. 

[459] Nicol (1972), p. 179. 

[460] Sturdza (1999), p. 562. 

[461] Miller (1908), p. 270. 

[462] Nicol (1972), p. 176. 

[463] Sturdza (1999), p. 561. 

[464] Sturdza (1999), pp. 525-6, which states that the genealogy of the families appears in Hopf, C., trans. Vlasto, E. (1888) Die Giustiniani (Paris). 

[465] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxvi. 

[466] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 154. 

[467] Miller (1908), pp. 77-8, and Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 155-6. 

[468] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 156. 

[469] Miller (1908), p. 244-5. 

[470] Miller (1908), p. 320. 

[471] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[472] Sturdza (1999), p. 514. 

[473] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 415. 

[474] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 179. 

[475] Archiv. stor. ital., t. IX, app., p. 378, cited in Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[476] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[477] Migne, t. CCXVI, col. 613, cited in Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[478] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 155. 

[479] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[480] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[481] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 103. 

[482] Rodd (1907), Vol. 2 273. 

[483] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 179. 

[484] Rodd (1907), Vol. 2 273. 

[485] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 156. 

[486] Buchon II (1845), p. 492. 

[487] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[488] Miller (1908), p. 98. 

[489] Miller (1908), p. 103. 

[490] Miller (1908), p. 104. 

[491] Miller (1908), p. 117. 

[492] Buchon II (1845), p. 492. 

[493] Buchon II (1845), p. 492. 

[494] Sturdza (1999), p. 535. 

[495] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 130. 

[496] ES XV 77. 

[497] Miller (1908), pp. 193-4. 

[498] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 420. 

[499] Miller (1908), p. 220. 

[500] Miller (1908), p. 231. 

[501] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[502] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 130. 

[503] Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum, 64a, p. 111. 

[504] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[505] Ramon Muntaner, Tome II, CCXLIII, p. 259. 

[506] Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum, 64a, p. 111. 

[507] Miller (1908), p. 246. 

[508] Miller (1908), p. 244. 

[509] Sturdza (1999), p. 503. 

[510] Sturdza (1999), pp. 503 and 516. 

[511] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 430. 

[512] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 430. 

[513] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 431. 

[514] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 430. 

[515] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 431. 

[516] Miller (1908), p. 375. 

[517] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 432. 

[518] Miller (1908), p. 436. 

[519] Miller (1908), p. 436-7. 

[520] Named Pietro Priuli by Litta, P. Famiglie celebri italiani 1st series Vol. LX (1844), and Bartolomeo Contarini by Hopf, K. Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues, both cited in Sturdza (1999), p. 495.  Miller (1908), p. 436, calls him Bartolomeo Contarini. 

[521] Sturdza (1999), p. 514. 

[522] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 179. 

[523] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 415. 

[524] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 155. 

[525] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[526] Miller (1908), p. 103. 

[527] Miller (1908), p. 135. 

[528] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 419. 

[529] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, pp. 101 and 103. 

[530] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[531] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[532] Miller (1908), pp. 143-4. 

[533] Miller (1908), pp. 143-5. 

[534] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[535] Miller (1908), p. 135. 

[536] Miller (1908), p. 139. 

[537] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[538] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[539] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[540] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[541] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[542] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[543] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 103. 

[544] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, pp. 119-20. 

[545] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 120, and Miller (1908), pp. 136-7. 

[546] Miller (1908), p. 141. 

[547] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[548] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[549] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[550] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 155. 

[551] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 416. 

[552] Miller (1908), p. 103. 

[553] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[554] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[555] Sturdza (1999), p. 514. 

[556] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[557] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[558] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[559] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 424. 

[560] Sturdza (1999), p. 516. 

[561] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 183. 

[562] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 183. 

[563] Miller (1908), pp. 593-4. 

[564] Sturdza (1999), p. 516. 

[565] Miller (1908), p. 595. 

[566] Sturdza (1999), p. 549. 

[567] Sturdza (1999), p. 514. 

[568] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[569] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[570] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[571] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[572] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 420. 

[573] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 104. 

[574] Miller (1908), pp. 193-4. 

[575] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 420. 

[576] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 130. 

[577] Miller (1908), pp. 594-5. 

[578] Sturdza (1999), p. 516. 

[579] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 189. 

[580] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 135, p. 203. 

[581] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 432. 

[582] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 194. 

[583] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 186 and 188. 

[584] Miller (1908), p. 602. 

[585] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 179. 

[586] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 415. 

[587] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 156. 

[588] Buchon II (1845), p. 492. 

[589] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[590] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 103. 

[591] Miller (1908), pp. 136-7. 

[592] Miller (1908), p. 141. 

[593] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[594] Buchon II (1845), p. 492. 

[595] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[596] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[597] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[598] Miller (1908), p. 263. 

[599] Miller (1908), p. 320, and Sturdza (1999), p. 516. 

[600] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[601] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[602] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[603] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 430. 

[604] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 430. 

[605] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 431. 

[606] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 129, p. 197. 

[607] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 129, p. 197. 

[608] Mas Latrie, L. de 'Les Seigneurs Tierciers de Négrepont', Revue de l'Orient Latin, Tome I, 1893 (Paris), p. 432. 

[609] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxxii-lxxiii. 

[610] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[611] Miller (1908), p. 2. 

[612] Buchon II (1845), p. 477, quoting Baluze, t. II, p. 16 lettre 33. 

[613] Sturdza (1999), p. 497. 

[614] ES III 199. 

[615] Sturdza (1999), p. 213. 

[616] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[617] Sturdza (1999), p. 209. 

[618] ES II 180. 

[619] ES III 199. 

[620] Sturdza (1999), p. 497. 

[621] Miller (1908), p. 190. 

[622] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 306. 

[623] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 404. 

[624] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 306. 

[625] Buchon II (1845), p. 482. 

[626] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, pp. 306 and 319. 

[627] Buchon II (1845), p. 482. 

[628] Fine (1994), p. 236. 

[629] Miller (1908), p. 250. 

[630] ES III 199. 

[631] Buchon II (1845), p. 482. 

[632] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 325. 

[633] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 387. 

[634] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 368. 

[635] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 404. 

[636] ES III 594. 

[637] This possible first marriage is shown in ES III 594, which confuses matters by showing her dying "before 1370" which is chronologically unlikely. 

[638] ES III 594 shows his descendants extinct in the male line in 1631. 

[639] Miller (1908), p. 292. 

[640] Miller (1908), p. 307. 

[641] Miller (1908), p. 484. 

[642] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 195. 

[643] Buchon II (1845), p. 484. 

[644] Miller (1908), p. 371. 

[645] Miller (1908), p. 371. 

[646] Miller (1908), p. 373. 

[647] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), p. 150. 

[648] Buchon II (1845), p. 484. 

[649] Miller (1908), p. 371. 

[650] Miller (1908), p. 395. 

[651] Spandounes, p. 150. 

[652] Miller (1908), p. 395. 

[653] Spandounes, p. 150. 

[654] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 196. 

[655] Spandounes, p. 150. 

[656] She was the adopted daughter of Carlo I Tocco Despot Count of Kefalonia Duke of Leucadia. 

[657] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 1 and 2, pp. 128 and 129. 

[658] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 8, p. 148. 

[659] Spandounes, p. 150. 

[660] Miller (1908), pp. 396-7. 

[661] Miller (1908), pp. 415-6. 

[662] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 196. 

[663] Miller (1908), pp. 416 and 484. 

[664] Miller (1908), pp. 483-4. 

[665] Miller (1908), pp. 485-6. 

[666] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[667] Spandounes, p. 159. 

[668] Miller (1908), p. 485. 

[669] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[670] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[671] ES III 595-596 shows these descendants, extinct in the male line in 1888. 

[672] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[673] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[674] Miller (1908), p. 487. 

[675] Miller (1908), p. 488. 

[676] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 196. 

[677] Miller (1908), p. 483. 

[678] Miller (1908), pp. 485-6. 

[679] Miller (1908), p. 487. 

[680] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 196. 

[681] ES III 595. 

[682] Nicol (1972), p. 179. 

[683] Ganchou, T. Revue des etudes byzantines 56 (1990), pp. 141-68, and Nuova Rivista Storica 88 (2004), pp. 619-88, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email dated 6 Feb 2006. 

[684] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Michælis Ducæ Nepotis, Historia Byzantina, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) 11 and 12, pp. 41 and 46. 

[685] Valentini, G. Acta Albaniæ veneta sæculorum XIV et XV, Vol. XII (1971), pp. 258-60, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 2 Mar 2007. 

[686] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 44, p. 333. 

[687] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 18, p. 192. 

[688] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[689] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber IX, p. 462. 

[690] ES II 175.  He died before 1446 according to Sturdza (1999), p. 281, which is incompatible with his second period as co-emperor mentioned in ES II 175. 

[691] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 6 Feb 2006. 

[692] Miller (1908), p. 609. 

[693] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 17, p. 192. 

[694] Estimated date range based on Stefan Lazarević having reached the age of majority in 1393. 

[695] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 180-1. 

[696] Sturdza (1999), p. 524. 

[697] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 123. 

[698] Sturdza (1999), p. 524. 

[699] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 113. 

[700] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 180-1. 

[701] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 123. 

[702] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 123. 

[703] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 113. 

[704] Sturdza (1999), p. 524. 

[705] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 364. 

[706] Sturdza (1999), p. 515. 

[707] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 113. 

[708] Miller (1908), p. 263. 

[709] Sturdza (1999), p. 524. 

[710] Sturdza (1999), p. 524. 

[711] Miller (1908), p. 320, and Sturdza (1999), p. 516. 

[712] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxxiii. 

[713] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p. lxxiii. 

[714] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx-lxxi, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[715] Hopf, C. (1873) Chroniques gréco-romanes inédites ou peu connues (Berlin), Introduction, p. xxiii, and Insulæ Ægeopelagi, pp. 175-6. 

[716] Miller (1908), p. 43. 

[717] Sturdza (1999), p. 511. 

[718] Miller (1908), pp. 570-1. 

[719] Miller (1908), pp. 571-2. 

[720] Miller (1908), p. 572. 

[721] Sturdza (1999), p. 549. 

[722] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[723] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 100. 

[724] Miller (1908), pp. 573-4. 

[725] Miller (1908), p. 574. 

[726] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 115. 

[727] Miller (1908), p. 574. 

[728] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 100. 

[729] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 124. 

[730] Miller (1908), p. 577. 

[731] Miller (1908), p. 577.  

[732] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 125. 

[733] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 100. 

[734] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 119. 

[735] The date of the last extant letter of Marino Sanudo, see Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 19. 

[736] Rodd (1907), Vol. 1 19. 

[737] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 114. 

[738] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, II, p. 120. 

[739] Miller (1908), p. 583. 

[740] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 100. 

[741] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 114. 

[742] Miller (1908), pp. 576-7. 

[743] Miller (1908), pp. 577-8. 

[744] Miller (1908), pp. 578-9. 

[745] Miller (1908), pp. 582-3. 

[746] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 100. 

[747] Miller (1908), pp. 583-4. 

[748] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 177. 

[749] Miller (1908), p. 586. 

[750] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 100. 

[751] Miller (1908), p. 585. 

[752] Miller (1908), pp. 585-6. 

[753] Miller (1908), pp. 586-8. 

[754] Miller (1908), p. 589. 

[755] Livre de la conqueste de la princée de la Morée, p. 271. 

[756] Miller (1908), p. 589. 

[757] Miller (1908), p. 590. 

[758] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 183. 

[759] Miller (1908), pp. 591-2. 

[760] Miller (1908), p. 592. 

[761] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 183. 

[762] Miller (1908), pp. 593-4. 

[763] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 182. 

[764] Miller (1908), pp. 594-5. 

[765] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 85, p. 129. 

[766] Sturdza (1999), p. 516. 

[767] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[768] Miller (1908), pp. 595-6. 

[769] Sturdza (1999), p. 511. 

[770] Sturdza (1999), p. 514. 

[771] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[772] Miller (1908), p. 598. 

[773] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 66, p. 96. 

[774] Miller (1908), p. 601. 

[775] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 186 and 188. 

[776] Miller (1908), p. 602. 

[777] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 85, p. 129. 

[778] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[779] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 187-8. 

[780] Sathas (1880), Tome I, Monumenta historiæ hellenicæ, 66, p. 96. 

[781] Miller (1908), p. 603. 

[782] Miller (1908), p. 603. 

[783] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 186 and 199. 

[784] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[785] Miller (1908), p. 604. 

[786] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 187-8. 

[787] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 197. 

[788] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 197. 

[789] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 197. 

[790] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 198. 

[791] Miller (1908), p. 607. 

[792] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[793] Miller (1908), p. 607. 

[794] Miller (1908), p. 608. 

[795] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 198. 

[796] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 204. 

[797] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, pp. 204 and 207. 

[798] Miller (1908), p. 608. 

[799] Miller (1908), p. 615. 

[800] Sturdza (1999), p. 513. 

[801] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[802] Miller (1908), p. 602. 

[803] His descendants, extinct in the male line in [1627], are set out in Sturdza (1999), p. 513. 

[804] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 186. 

[805] Miller (1908), p. 602. 

[806] Miller (1908), p. 604. 

[807] Miller (1908), p. 607. 

[808] Valentini, G. Acta Albaniæ veneta sæculorum XIV et XV, Vol. XII (1971), pp. 258-60, cited by Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 2 Mar 2007. 

[809] Sturdza (1999), pp. 281 and 512, the latter reproduding a table from Hopf, C. Chroniques gréco-romanes, and Kursankis, M. 'Une alliance problématique au XVe siècle. Le marriage de Valenza Comnène, fille d'un empereur de Trébizonde avec Niccolo Crispo Seigneur de Santorin', Archeïon Pontou (1974), pp. 94-106. 

[810] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[811] Miller (1908), p. 607. 

[812] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 204. 

[813] Miller (1908), p. 611. 

[814] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 204. 

[815] Miller (1908), pp. 611-2. 

[816] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[817] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[818] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[819] Miller (1908), p. 614. 

[820] Miller (1908), p. 615. 

[821] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[822] Miller (1908), pp. 615-6. 

[823] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[824] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[825] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[826] Miller (1908), p. 620. 

[827] Estratti degli Annali Veneti di Stefano Magno, p. 209. 

[828] Miller (1908), pp. 619-20. 

[829] Miller (1908), pp. 621-3. 

[830] Miller (1908), p. 635. 

[831] Sturdza (1999), p. 512, sets out his descendants, extinct in the male line in 1812. 

[832] Miller (1908), pp. 637-8. 

[833] Miller (1908), p. 641. 

[834] Miller (1908), p. 636. 

[835] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. Lxx, citing Guichenon Preuves de la maison de Savoie, pp. 127-8. 

[836] Miller (1908), p. 67. 

[837] Miller (1908), p. 105. 

[838] Marino Sanudo Torsello Historia del Regno di Romania, I, p. 101. 

[839] Miller (1908), p. 149. 

[840] Amadi, p. 294. 

[841] Dynastæ Græciæ, p. 178. 

[842] Miller (1908), pp. 231-2. 

[843] Miller (1908), p. 236. 

[844] Ramon Muntaner, Tome II, CCXLIII, p. 258. 

[845] Miller (1908), p. 242. 

[846] Miller (1908), p. 244. 

[847] Miller (1908), p. 247. 

[848] Miller (1908), pp. 265-6. 

[849] Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum, 108, p. 214. 

[850] Sturdza (1999), p. 503. 

[851] Ramon Muntaner, Tome II, CCXLIII, p. 259. 

[852] Diplomatarium Veneto-Levantinum, 64a, p. 111. 

[853] Miller (1908), p. 246. 

[854] Miller (1908), p. 279. 

[855] Miller (1908), pp. 279-80. 

[856] Miller (1908), pp. 304-5. 

[857] Miller (1908), p. 314. 

[858] Miller (1908), pp. 346-7. 

[859] Sturdza (1999), p. 503, which emphasises that Maria never married the Sultan as claimed by some authorities. 

[860] Miller (1908), p. 321. 

[861] Miller (1908), p. 323. 

[862] Miller (1908), p. 326. 

[863] Sturdza (1999), p. 503. 

[864] Sturdza (1999), pp. 503 and 516. 

[865] Sturdza (1999), p. 503. 

[866] Miller (1908), pp. 316-17. 

[867] Miller (1908), p. 326. 

[868] Miller (1908), p. 305.  

[869] According to Sturdza (1999), p. 524, he was killed fighting the Turkish Emir of Smyrna in the war organised by Pope Clement VI. 

[870] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, pp. lxx. 

[871] Buchon (1845), Tome I, Mémoire sur la géographie politique de la principauté française d´Achaïe, p