trebizond

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                EMPERORS in TREBIZOND 1204-1461. 3

Chapter 2.                NOBILITY in TREBIZOND. 27

A.         DORANITES.. 27

B.         KABAZITES.. 28

C.        MEITZOMATES.. 29

D.        PANARETOS.. 30

E.         SAMPSON.. 31

F.         SCHOLARIS.. 31

G.        TZANICHITES.. 33

H.        TZATZINTAION.. 34

I.      OTHER NOBILITY.. 35

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The empire at Trebizond was founded in 1204 at the eastern end of the southern shore of the Black Sea by Alexios Komnenos, grandson of Emperor Andronikos I, who while still a child had fled Constantinople for Georgia on the overthrow and murder of his grandfather in 1185.  When Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade, Alexios Komnenos took advantage of the general confusion to declare himself emperor in Trebizond, with military support from Georgia.  His empire lasted until 1461, remarkable given that it was obliged in relatively quick succession after its establishment to become the vassal firstly of the Latin empire at Constantinople, then of the Seljuk Sultan, and in 1282 of the restored empire of Byzantium ruled by Emperor Mikhael VIII Palaiologos.  Its continued reliance on the friendship of its powerful Muslim neighbours is demonstrated by the number of marriage alliances between the imperial family in Trebizond and the rulers of various Turkmen and Mongol groupings.  When the Ottoman Sultan captured Constantinople in 1453, the Trebizond emperor paid tribute to the Ottomans, before allying himself with the Khan of the White Sheep.  Trebizond was captured by the Ottomans in 1461.  The last emperor and most members of his family were executed two years later after refusing conversion to Islam. 

 

The main source for the history of the empire at Trebizond is the Chronicle of Mikhael Panaretos.  This source covers in detail the years 1204 to 1390, and also includes some entries for subsequent years until 1429 which must have been added later by a different author[1].  The original Greek text was first published by Fallmerayer, the German historian who discovered the chronicle´s existence in the early 19th century[2].  An English translation has been made by Scott Kennedy, from the edition published by Spyridon Lambros[3], and is available on the web[4].  This translation has been used in the preparation of the present document.  The history of the Trebizond empire was first studied in detail by Fallmerayer in the early 19th century[5].  Other primary sources for Trebizond history are reproduced in an earlier volume of Fallmerayer´s works[6] and in the late 19th century collection by Athanasios Papadopoulos-Kerameus[7]

 

The sources show that life in Trebizond was not easy.  They reveal a chaotic story of palace revolutions, local rebellions, rival factions, assassinations, banishments, and sometimes even returns to favour after periods of disgrace.  In addition, Trebizond was subject to continual territorial pressure from it neighbours, in particular from the newly emerging Turkmen principalities along the southern Black Sea coast, relations with whom are explored by Anthony Brier[8]

 

The information about the nobility in Trebizond other than the imperial family is sparse.  What is available is set out in Chapter 2 of this document, based on passages in the Chronicle written by Michael Panaretos (whose family is one of those which are shown) and is mainly confined to the mid-14th century.  The Chronicle refers to court titles which are similar to those found at the Byzantine empire at Constantinople, including megas doux, megas stratopedarchos, protobestiarios, epikernes, protosebastos, parakoimomenos, and megas logothetes.  There is also a single reference to megas konstabularios, which reminds one more of the Latin empire at Constantinople than the Byzantine.  The information in the Chronicle is insufficient to assess the relative levels of importance of these titles in Trebizond.  There is one case of doux applied to the territory of Chaldia, a passage in the Chronicle explaining that the individual in question was the local governor.  There is no case where the family names of these Trebizond nobles are the same as those found in the Byzantine empire at Constantinople (see the document BYZANTINE NOBILITY).  There is a single example, Andronikopoulos, where the Chronicle states that the individual came to Trebizond from Constantinople as part of a planned invasion, and then defected.  It is unsurprising that noble families from Constantinople should not have been attracted to emigrate to Trebizond.  The founders of the Trebizond empire were Byzantine refugees in Georgia, descendants of the disgraced Emperor Andronikos I whose ruthless behaviour would not have attracted a band of supporters.  It is probable that the Trebizond nobles were mainly local families who rose to prominence along with their new emperors.  Many of the names suggest Greek ancestry, for example Doranites, Meitzomates, Panaretos, and Scholaris.  However, other names are more unusual.  For example, it is unlikely that the Sampson family was Greek, and Tzatzintaion suggests Georgian or Armenian origin, while Choupakas could be derived from a Turkmen or Mongol name.  No family connections have been identified between the Trebizond noble families shown in Chapter 2 and the imperial family of Trebizond.  Presumably this is a reflection of the relative absence of surviving primary source material, as inter-marriage between the two groups would be expected. 

 

An earlier version of this document was reviewed by Morris Bierbrier, who has made additions and comments where indicated.  Scott Kennedy has also provided interesting insight into life in Trebizond during the preparation of this document.  I am grateful for their helpful collaboration. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EMPERORS in TREBIZOND 1204-1461

 

 

ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos, son of MANUEL Komnenos sébastokrator & his wife [--- of Georgia] (Constantinople [1181/82]-Trebizond 1 Feb 1222).  Niketas Choniates names "David…et Alexius fratres, Manuele Andronici Romanorum tyranny filio nati" when recording that they governed "alter Ponti Heracleam et Paphlagoniam…alter Alexius Oenæum et Sinopem urbes et ipsam Trapezuntam"[9].  He founded the empire in Trebizond, declaring himself ALEXIOS I Emperor [in Trebizond] in Apr 1204.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos…marching out from Iberia due to the zeal and labour of his paternal aunt Thamar…took control of Trebizond in Apr 1204 aged 22"[10].  This passage suggests that, following the overthrow of his father, Alexios had been brought up at the Georgian court where he had sought refuge.  He declared himself the vassal of the Latin empire of Constantinople in 1206 to help combat the empire in Nikaia, which had allied itself with the Turks.  After the conquest of Sinope by the Seljuk Sultan in 1214, Alexios was obliged to become the Sultan's vassal, paying 12,000 pieces of gold and an annual tribute of various livestock and jewels[11].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records his death 1 Feb 1222 aged 44, after reigning for 18 years[12]

m ---.  The name of Emperor Alexios's wife is not known.  Kuršankis argues that she was --- Axouchaina, daughter of Ioannes Komnenos Axouchos & his wife ---, mainly because of the name Axouchos was included in the names of the couple's first son[13].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[14], her name was Theodora.  There appears to be no basis for this name except that Emperor Alexios's wife had a granddaughter who was also called Theodora, although it is not certain that she was the couple's eldest granddaughter (the Byzantine practice being to name the eldest granddaughter after the paternal grandmother[15]). 

Emperor Alexios I & [his wife] had three children:

1.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that "his son-in-law married to his daughter, lord Andronikos Gidon Komnenos" succeeded as emperor in 1222 on the death of Emperor Alexios I[16].  It is assumed that she was older than her brothers, who were by-passed in the succession on the death of their father presumably because of their youth.  One possibility is that Andronikos Gidos engineered his accession as a result of a coup d´état and regularised his own position by marrying the previous emperor´s daughter, but this hypothesis has not been confirmed by the primary sources which have so far been consulted.  m ANDRONIKOS Gidon, son of --- (-1235, bur Church of the Theotokos Chrysokephalos, Trebizond).  He succeeded his father-in-law in 1222 as ANDRONIKOS I Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Andronikos Gidon Komnenos" died in 1235 after reigning for 13 years[17].  His place of burial is mentioned by Miller[18]

2.         IOANNES Axouchos Komnenos (-1238).  He succeeded his brother-in-law in 1235 as IOANNES I Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his wife´s brother, the eldest son of Alexios the Grand Komnenos, the lord John Komnenos Axouchos" succeeded as emperor in 1235 on the death of Emperor Andronikos Gidon, but died three years later "it is said…while [playing] polo…he fell from his horse and was trampled to death"[19]m ---.  The name of Emperor Ioannes's wife is not known.  Emperor Ioannes I & his wife had [one possible child]:

a)         [IOANNIKIOS Komnenos (-after 1238). The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records, in the passage following the report of the death of Emperor Ioannes I, that "Ioannikios was tonsured" and "his second brother the lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos" succeeded to the throne[20].  This text suggests that "Ioannikios" was the late emperor´s "first brother", second son of Emperor Alexios I, who would normally have succeeded to the throne but was displaced by their younger brother Manuel.  This interpretation is supported by the use of the same phrase in the same source in relation to the accession in 1280 of Emperor Ioannes II, who was certainly one of three brothers.  The difficulty is that "Ioannikios" is presumably a diminutive form of the name Ioannes and that it is unlikely that Emperor Ioannes would have had a younger brother with the same name.  Another possibility is that Ioannikios was the late emperor´s young son.  Although the text does not specify this relationship, it could account for the use of the diminutive name form.  It would not, however, explain why Manuel was called "his second brother", referring to the late emperor, in the same passage.] 

3.         MANUEL Megas Komnenos (-Mar 1263).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his second brother the lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos" succeeded to the throne in 1238 after the death of Emperor Ioannes[21].  He succeeded his brother in 1238 as MANUEL I Emperor in Trebizond.  He constructed the church of Santa Sophia at Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos" died in Mar 1263 after reigning for 25 years[22]m [firstly] ANNA Xylaloë, daughter of --- (-before 1253).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos names "the empress the lady Anna Xylaloe" was mother of Emperor Manuel´s son Andronikos[23].  The date of her death is set by the chronicle of Jean de Joinville, who records that a Trapezuntine ambassador was sent to Louis IX King of France in 1253 to request the marriage of one of his daughters with the widowed emperor[24].  [m] [secondly] RUSUDAN, daughter of --- [from Georgia].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos names "Russadan from Iberia" as the mother of "the lady Theodora Komnene, the first daughter of the lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos"[25].  The description of Theodora´s mother contrasts with the way in which the mother of Emperor Manuel´s son Andronikos is described as "the empress" in an earlier passage in the same source.  This suggests that the emperor´s relationship with Rusudan may not have been formalised by marriage.  [m] [thirdly] EIRENE Syrikaina, daughter of --- (-after Jun 1280).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos names "the lady Irene Syrikaina" as the mother of Emperor Georgios[26].  The description of Georgios´s mother contrasts with the way in which the mother of Emperor Manuel´s son Andronikos is described as "the empress" in an earlier passage in the same source.  This suggests that the emperor´s relationship with Eirene Syrikaina may not have been formalised by marriage.  According to the Armenian Annals of Sebastian [not yet identified more precisely], she was still living and actively countenancing her son´s ruin in Jun 1280, although Williams casts doubt on the reliability of the evidence[27].  Emperor Manuel I & his [first] wife had one child:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Komnenos (-1266).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his son by the empress the lady Anna Xylaloe, the lord Andronikos Komnenos" succeeded in 1263 after the death of Emperor Manuel I, but died in 1266[28].  He succeeded his father in 1263 as ANDRONIKOS II Emperor in Trebizond

Emperor Manuel I & his second [wife] had one child:

b)         THEODORA Komnene (-after [1285]).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records "the attack, raid and sudden flight of the lady Theodora Komnene, the first daughter of the lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos by Russadan from Iberia", dated to [1283/85] from the context[29].  She succeeded her brother in [1284/85] as THEODORA Empress in Trebizond.  The existence of 36 specimens of coins struck during her reign confirms that this laconic passage in Michael Panaretos indicates that Theodora ruled as empress for a brief period, although the circumstances of her succession and flight are unknown[30]

Emperor Manuel I & his [second/third] [wife] had two children:

c)         daughter (-after 1280).  The annals of Bishop Stephanos record that a daughter of the emperor of Trebizond married in 1273 “un didéboul[31]m (1273) --- Didebul (a lord in Georgia). 

d)         [daughter (-after 1289).  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records the marriage of King Demetre and "la fille de ce Comnène, souverain de Trébizonde"[32].  Assuming that this marriage is correctly dated as shown below, the reigning emperor at Trebizond was Georgios who would have been too young to have had children who were old enough to marry.  It is therefore more likely that the wife of King Demetre was the emperor´s sister.  There appears to be no evidence about the identity of her mother.  The Georgian Chronicle (18th century) records that, after the murder of King Demetre, "la reine et les autres épouses du roi s'étaient cachées"[33].  This text clarifies that the marriages of King Demetre were polygamous.  m (1277) as his first wife, DEMETRE II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli [Georgia], son of DAVIT Giorgishvili VII “Ulu/the Big” King of Kartli & his third wife Isukhan [Mongol] ([1262]-murdered Mughan 12 Mar 1289, bur Mtzhketa).]    

Emperor Manuel I & his third [wife] had two children: 

e)         GEORGIOS Komnenos (-after [1284]).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of lord Manuel by the lady Irene Syrikaina, the lord George Komnenos" succeeded in 1266 after the death of Emperor Andronikos II[34].  He succeeded his brother in 1266 as GEORGIOS Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Georgios "was treacherously betrayed by his officials on the mountain of Taurezion and taken captive in June" after reigning for 14 years, therefore dated to [1280], adding in a later passage "the raid and capture of lord George Komnenos…called Wanderer", dated from the context to [1283/85][35].  According to the Armenian Annals of Sebastian [not yet identified more precisely], he was delivered by "the Trapezuntine archontes…his mother and his sisters" to the Il-khan in Jun 1280[36]

f)          IOANNES Megas Komnenos (-fortress of Limnia 16 Aug 1297, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the second brother the lord John the Grand Komnenos" succeeded in [1280] after Emperor Georgios was deposed[37].  He succeeded in 1280 as IOANNES II "Kaloioannes" Emperor in Trebizond

-        see below

 

 

IOANNES Megas Komnenos, son of MANUEL I Emperor in Trebizond & his third [wife] Eirene Syrikaina (-fortress of Limnia 16 Aug 1297, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the second brother the lord John the Grand Komnenos" succeeded in [1280] after Emperor Georgios was deposed[38].  He succeeded his brother in 1280 as IOANNES II "Kaloioannes" Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Ioannes II "was come upon by the revolt of Papadopoulos" after ruling for one year, but "was freed" and left for Constantinople where he "was married to the daughter, the porphyrogennita, of the emperor lord Michael Palaiologos"[39].  According to Sturdza, on his marriage he was obliged by his father-in-law to adopt the title "faithful Emperor and Autocrat of the whole of the East, the Iberians and the overseas province" to indicate his vassal status to the emperor at Constantinople[40], but the primary source on which this statement is based has not yet been identified.  He was granted the title despot by Emperor Mikhael VIII[41].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the king of Iberia, David…blockaded Trebizond" in Apr 1282 but "turned away empty-handed"[42].  Assuming that this event is correctly dated, the king of Georgia in question must have been King Demetre not King Davit.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records "the raid and capture of lord George Komnenos…called Wanderer" and "with him the attack, raid and sudden flight of the lady Theodora Komnene, the first daughter of the lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos by Russadan from Iberia", dated to [1283/85] from the context, followed by the restoration of Emperor Ioannes[43].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the Turks took control of Chalybia and made a great raid so as to make all the land uninhabitable" during the reign of Emperor Ioannes[44].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Ioannes died "in Limnia…16 Aug 1297" after reigning for 18 years in total, and the return of his body and its burial "in the church of the Golden-Headed Virgin"[45]

m (Constantinople 1282, before Dec) EVDOKIA Palaiologina, daughter of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Doukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (-13 Dec 1301).  Georgios Phrantzes names "Irenen, Eudociam et Annam" as the three daughters of Emperor Mikhael VIII[46].  Pachymeres records that "Eudocia" was "parvula" at the time of the marriages of her two sisters[47].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Ioannes II "was married to the daughter, the porphyrogennita, of the emperor lord Michael Palaiologos" after leaving for Constantinople, adding that the marriage took place while "the emperor lord Michael was still alive" but died on 10 Dec[48], which suggests that the marriage took place earlier in 1282.  Pachymeres records that "Ioannes Lazorum princeps" married "imperatoris Michaelis…filia…Eudocia", stating that she returned "ad fratrem Augustum" with one of her sons after her husband died[49].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the widowed Palaiologina departed for" Constantinople 13 Jun 1298 after her husband died and returned to Trebizond in Mar 1301[50].  After the death of her husband, her brother planned her marriage with Stefan Uroš II Milutin King of Serbia, but she refused the match[51].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 13 Dec 1301 of "the empress the lady Eudokia Palaiologina"[52]

Emperor Ioannes II & his wife had two children:

1.         ALEXIOS Palaiologos Megas Komnenos (Trebizond [Jun/Aug] 1283-3 May 1330).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the birth at Trebizond in mid-1283 of "the lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos"[53].  Pachymeres names "Alexio" as one of the two sons of "Ioannes Lazorum princeps" and his wife, specifying that he succeeded his father[54].  He succeeded his father in 1297 as ALEXIOS II Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Alexios attacked "the Turks and on reaching Kerasunt seized Koustouganes" in Sep 1301[55].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 3 May 1330 of Emperor Alexios after reigning for 33 years "by three months"[56]m ([1300/05]) --- [Djiadjak], daughter of BEKHA Jageli [protomandator of Georgia] ata beg [Lord] of Samtskhe & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that Emperor Alexios married "the daughter of Pekai from Iberia"[57].  Pachymeres records the marriage of "Alexii Lazorum domini" and "e primoribus Iberorum filiæ"[58].  The dating of this marriage is based on her grandson Emperor Manuel II being born in [1323/24].  Her name "Djiadjak" is suggested assuming that there was confusion with Alexios´s supposed second marriage, which Sturdza shows to Jidga Khanun [Jiajak] of Georgia, daughter of Demetre II “Tavdadebuli/the Devout” King of Kakheti and Kartli [Georgia] & his second wife Soratha Kathun [Mongol][59].  This supposed second marriage is not shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[60] and the information on which it is based is not known.]  Emperor Alexios II & his wife had six children:

a)         ANDRONIKOS Megas Komnenos (-murdered 8 Jan 1332).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his son the lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" succeeded Emperor Alexios in 1330 and "killed his two brothers, the lord Michael Azachatlou and the lord George Achpougas"[61].  He succeeded his father in 1330 as ANDRONIKOS III Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 8 Jan 1332 of Emperor Andronikos after reigning for one year and three months[62].  [m] [--- Syrikaina, daughter of --- (-murdered 1332).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that, after "the lord Basil the Grand Komnenos, the son of the lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos and second brother of the lord Andronikos came from Constantinople" seized the throne 22 Sep 1332, he "…imprisoned his nephew lord Manuel and they stoned to death the grand duchess Syrikaina"[63].  The text suggests, but does not state explicitly, that "the grand duchess Syrikaina" was Manuel´s mother.  If this is correct, it is unclear why she is not referred to in the passage as empress.  A parallel is drawn with the references in the same source to the mothers of the younger children of Emperor Manuel I (see above), suggesting that Emperor Andronikos´s union with "Syrikaina" may not have been formalised by marriage.  Emperor Andronikos III & his [wife] had one child:

i)          MANUEL Komnenos ([1323/24]-murdered [13 Feb] 1333).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his son the lord Manuel, eight years old" succeeded Emperor Andronikos III in 1332 and ruled for eight months[64].  He succeeded his father in 1332 as MANUEL II Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that, after "the lord Basil the Grand Komnenos, the son of the lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos and second brother of the lord Andronikos came from Constantinople" seized the throne 22 Sep 1332, he "…imprisoned his nephew lord Manuel and they stoned to death the grand duchess Syrikaina" and adds that "grand duke the eunuch John revolted" 13 Feb 1333 and "lord Manuel was put to the sword"[65]

b)         MIKHAEL Azachatlou Komnenos (-murdered May 1330).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his son the lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" succeeded Emperor Alexios in 1330 and "killed his two brothers, the lord Michael Azachatlou and the lord George Achpougas"[66]

c)         GEORGIOS Achpougas Komnenos (-murdered May 1330).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his son the lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" succeeded Emperor Alexios in 1330 and "killed his two brothers, the lord Michael Azachatlou and the lord George Achpougas"[67]

d)         BASILEIOS Megas Komnenos (-poisoned 6 Apr 1340).  Nicephoras Gregoras names "Alexio Comneno, Andronici senioris Palaeologi Romanorum imperatoris nepoti ex sorore, Basilius filius" as heir to "Trapezuntis imperium"[68].  He succeeded his nephew in 1332 as BASILEIOS Emperor in Trebizond

-        see below

e)         ANNA Anachatlou Komnene (-murdered Trebizond [Sep] 1342).  Nun.  She succeeded in 17 Jul 1341 as ANNA Empress in Trebizond, until 4 Sep 1342.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the daughter of lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos, the lady Anna called Anachoutlou" gave up "her nun´s vows" seized Lamia and "came and took over the empire with a Lazic army" 17 Jul 1341 and deposed "Palaiologina"[69].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the Anachoutlou" was strangled, having reigned one year, one month and eight days, after "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael" was crowned emperor 4 Sep 1342[70]

f)          EVDOKIA Komnene (-after 11 Nov 1357).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the despoina of Sinope, the lady Eudokia, the daughter of lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos came here" 11 Nov, in 1357 from the context[71].  The identity of her husband is unknown.  Williams reviews different theories which have been proposed about his identity[72]m --- of Sinope, son of --- (-[before 11 Nov 1357]). 

2.         MIKHAEL Megas Komnenos (1285-after 1355).  Pachymeres records that "Eudocia" took one of the two sons of "Ioannes Lazorum princeps" to "fratem Augustum in urbis" after the death of his father[73].  Nicephoras Gregoras records that "Alexii præmortui fratrem, Michaelem Comnenum" succeeded his brother in "Trapezuntis imperium"[74].  He claimed the throne of Trebizond in 1341.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Alexios´s brother, the lord Michael Komnenos came" from Constantinople 30 Jul 1341 with "the lord Niketas Scholaris and lord Gregory Meizomates", was accepted as emperor by "the officials…and the metropolitan Akakios" but was imprisoned the next day, and 3 Aug 1341 "sent to Oinaion to which he was confined" and later "to Limnia"[75].  He succeeded 3 May 1343 as MIKHAEL Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "lord Michael" deposed his son 3 May 1343, after being brought to Trebizond by "the grand duke Scholaris" after "the grand duke the eunuch who held [him] at Limnia was slain in March", and was crowned emperor 21 Sep 1343[76].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that he appointed "the lord Niketas Scholaris…grand duke…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios and Stephan Tzanichites grand constables", but adds in a later passage that "the grand duke Scholaris, the grand domestic Meizomates and others of their faction" were imprisoned in Nov 1345, at which time "the lord John Komnenos" was sent to Constantinople[77].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke John Kabazites, Michael Tzanichites and many others" were killed 5 May 1349 in a naval battle with "two Frankish galleys [which] came from Cafa", and that "the Franks on the mainland were seized and imprisoned"[78].  He lost his throne in early 1349.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "weakness prevailed over the lord Michael" when "the lord Niketas Scholaris came from Kechrina and became grand duke as well as marrying Michael Sampson´s daughter", after he had reigned for 5 years and seven and a half months, and that "the lord Michael Komnenos" was deposed 13 Dec 1349, confined "to the cave of St Sabas and tonsured", and "one year later…was sent to the City…with the tatas Michael Sampson, when the emperor´s marriage alliance was to take place"[79].  He claimed the throne once more 1355.  m (before 1324) --- Tornikaina Komnene Akropolotissa, daughter of KONSTANTINOS Akropolites pansébastos and megas logothetis & his wife Marie Komnene Tornikaina.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified, but it is referred to by Nicol[80].   Emperor Mikhael & his wife had one child:

a)         IOANNES Megas Komnenos (-Sinope Mar 1362).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael" returned to Trebizond from Constantinople 4 Sep 1342 with "lord Niketas Scholaris, lord Gregory Meitzomates, lord Constantine Doranites, his son John, Meitzomates´s brother Michael, and others" and was crowned 9 Sep "in the pulpit of the church of the Golden-Headed Virgin", that "the George´s mother, Sargale…[and] the Anachoutlou" were strangled, and "many of the nobles, the Amyrtzantarantai" killed[81].  He succeeded 9 Sep 1342 as IOANNES III Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that 3 May 1343 "lord Michael" deposed "his son…the lord John" who was "confined to the cave of Saint Sabas", having reigned one year and eight months[82].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "John Komnenos" escaped and came to "Sinope" where he died in 1362[83]m ---.  The name of Ioannes´s wife is not known.  Ioannes & his wife had one child: 

i)          son (-after 1362).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "John Komnenos´s son escaped from prison and came to Cafa and then Galata" in 1362[84]

 

 

BASILEIOS Megas Komnenos, son of ANDRONIKOS III Emperor in Trebizond & his wife --- [Djiadjiak] (-poisoned 6 Apr 1340).  Nicephoras Gregoras names "Alexio Comneno, Andronici senioris Palaeologi Romanorum imperatoris nepoti ex sorore, Basilius filius" as heir to "Trapezuntis imperium"[85].  He succeeded his nephew in 1332 as BASILEIOS Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lord Basil the Grand Komnenos, the son of the lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos and second brother of the lord Andronikos came from Constantinople and took the throne" 22 Sep 1332, adding that he killed "the grand duke Lekes Tzatzintaion and his son the grand domestic Tzambas…imprisoned his nephew lord Manuel and they stoned to death the grand duchess Syrikaina"[86].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Sichasanes, the son of Tamartases, came to Trebizond" 5 Jul 1335 and "there was fighting at the palisade of Saint Kerykios and at Minthrion" but that "he was turned back by a flood of rain and fled, while at the same time Aftoraymes, the son of Roustames, was killed"[87].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 6 Aug 1340 of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" after reigning for 7 years and 6 months[88]

m firstly (17 Sep 1334) EIRENE Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Emperor ANDRONIKOS III & his mistress --- (-after 10 Aug 1341).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the empress lady Irene Palaiologina, the daughter of lord Andronikos Palaiologos came" 12 Sep 1334 and married "the emperor lord Basil" 17 Sep 1334[89].  Nicephoras Gregoras states that "Basilius" married "Irenen filiam iunioris Andronici Palaeologi spuriam" but that she died childless[90].  She succeeded her husband in 1340 as EIRENE Empress in Trebizond, until 17 Jul 1341.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the widowed lady Irene Palaiologina…seized the throne" after the death of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" in 1340, that she was supported by "the Amytzarantai, some of the officials, and the archons of the imperial exchange [who] held the citadel with the empress" while "Tzanichites, lord Sebastos the grand stratopedarch along with the Scholarioi, the Meitzomatai, lord Constantine Doranites, the Kabazitai, Kamachenos, some of the people and some of the palace guards held Saint Eugenios"[91].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke the eunuch John came from Limnia with a great army" 2 Jul 1340, burned "the monastery" (presumably referring to St Eugenios held by the rebels), and imprisoned "Tzanichites and the other nobles…in Limnia" where they were murdered in Jul 1341[92].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Palaiologina was deposed" 17 Jul 1341, after reigning one year and three months, when "the daughter of lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos, the lady Anna called Anachoutlou…came and took over the empire with a Lazic army", adding in a later passage that she was "sent on a Frankish galley" to Constantinople 10 Aug 1341[93]

m secondly (bigamously, 8 Jul 1339) EIRENE, daughter of --- (-after 19 Jun 1382).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the marriage 8 Jul 1339 of "the emperor lord Basil…to the empress lady Irene from Trebizond"[94].  Co-regent of Trebizond 22 Dec 1349-[1354].  The bigamous nature of this marriage is shown by a later passage in the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that "his sons, the lord Alexios and the lord Kalojannes, were sent…along with their mother" to Constantinople after the death of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" in 1340, while also recording that "the widowed lady Irene Palaiologina…seized the throne"[95].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor lord Alexios, his mother the lady Irene" were "at the Soumela monastery in Matzouka", in a passage after the record of a solar exclipse 5 May 1361[96].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor…the empress and the empress mother" descended into "Lazica with a force by land and sea" in Jun 1366[97].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his great grandmother the empress Lady Irene" was present at the baptism of her great grandson Manuel, who was born 19 Jun 1382[98]

Emperor Basileios had four illegitimate children by his second bigamous marriage: 

1.          MARIA Megala Komnene (-[1408])The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor´s sister, the lady Maria the Grand Komnene left" in Aug (dated to 1352 from the context) and married "Kutlu beg, Turali´s son, the emir of Amitiotai"[99].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the despoinachat Lady Maria, the sister of the emperor…married to the Amitiote Kutlu Beg" came to Trebizond 22 Aug 1358[100].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that on 14 Jul 1363 "the emperor´s son-in-law [error for brother-in-law] came down with his wife the Lady Maria the Grand Komnene, the despoinachat, to…Trebizond and was met by the emperor and entered the palace…camped near the church of John the Purifier for around eight days and then departed in peace honoured greatly"[101]m (Aug 1352) FAHREDDIN Kutlug [Qutlu] beg, son of TUR ALI & his wife --- (-1389).  He succeeded in 1360 as Khan of Aqqoyunlu/Turkmen horde of the White Sheep. 

2.          THEODORA Megala Komnene The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the daughter of the emperor lord Basil, the Lady Theodora" left 29 Aug 1358 to be married to "the emir Chatzymyris, Bayram´s son" with "lord Basil Choupakas Scholaris as the bridal escort"[102].  m (after 29 Aug 1358) as his [second] wife, Haji OMAR Emir of Chalybia, son of --- (-after Dec 1361). 

3.          ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos ([1335/37]-[before 1349]).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his sons, the lord Alexios and the lord Kalojannes, were sent…along with their mother" to Constantinople after the death of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" in 1340[103].  It is assumed that he died before his younger brother´s accession in 1349. 

4.          KALOIOANNES Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos (5 Oct 1338-20 Mar 1390)The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the birth 5 Oct 1338 of "the lord John Komnenos, who later was named Alexios…the second son of the lord Basil"[104].  He succeeded his uncle in 1349 as ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond

-        see below

 

 

KALOIOANNES Angelos Doukas Megas Komnenos, illegitimate son of BASILEIOS Emperor in Trebizond & his second (bigamous) wife Eirene --- (5 Oct 1338-20 Mar 1390).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the birth 5 Oct 1338 of "the lord John Komnenos, who later was named Alexios…the second son of the lord Basil"[105].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "his sons, the lord Alexios and the lord Kalojannes, were sent…along with their mother" to Constantinople after the death of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" in 1340[106].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lord John Komnenos" was sent to Constantinople, dated to Nov 1345 from the context[107].  He succeeded his uncle in 1349 as ALEXIOS III Emperor in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Basil Komnenos´s second son, the lord John who was called after his grandfather Alexios" took the throne 22 Dec 1349 "with the empress his mother the Lady Irene the Grand Komnene" and was crowned "in the church of St Eugenios" on 21 Jan [1350][108].  He founded the monastery of Dyonissiou on Mount Athos.  His reign was marked by struggles between the emirs who were his sons-in-law, and with the Genoese authorities of Crimea who wanted to extend their commercial privileges[109].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1361 "the people were nearly revolting against the emperor" and that 27 Oct 1363 "some of the nobles, the Kabazitai, the grand logothetes Lord George Scholaris and others fell upon" the emperor while he "was sitting by the St Gregory river near Katabaton" and "pursued him until the citadel"[110].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Glitzuasthlanes" besieged "places of ours in Chaldia" in Mar 1367[111].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 20 Mar 1390 of "the emperor lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos, the second son of Lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" after reigning for forty years and three months, aged 51[112]

m (Trebizond St Eugenios 21 Sep 1350) THEODORA Komnene Kantakouzene, daughter of NIKEPHOROS Kantakouzenos sébastokrator & his wife --- ([1340]-before Jun 1400).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lady Komnene Kantakouzene, the daughter of Nikephoros Kantakouzenos, first cousin to the emperor of the Romans lord John Kanatakouzenos" arrived "from the City by galley" 3 Sep 1350 and was married to the emperor 21 Sep in the monastery of St Eugenios, her name being confirmed as "the Lady Theodora" in a later passage[113].  She became a nun in Constantinople in 1390 as THEODOSIA

Mistress (1): ---.  The name of Emperor Alexios III's first mistress is not known. 

Mistress (2): EVDOKIA, daughter of ---.  Nun 1390/1400. 

Emperor Alexios III & his wife had four children:

1.         ANNA Komnene (6 Apr 1357-after 21 Nov 1386).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the birth "around April 6, Good Friday" in 1357 from the context, of "the Lady Anna…to the emperor by our empress the Lady Theodora"[114].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in Apr 1362, while on visiting Constantinople, it was agreed that "the son of the emperor Palaiologos" would marry "the daughter of the emperor of Trebizond, lord Alexios Komnenos"[115].  Anna is the only recorded daughter of the Trebizond emperor at the time.  The name of the proposed bridegroom is not given in the source.  It is assumed that it was the emperor´s oldest son Andonikos, but this is not beyond all doubt.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor´s daughter, the Lady Anna the Grand Komnene" was married "to the king of Abazgians and Iberians, Lord Bagratid Bagratian in the country of Long Beaches" in Jun 1366[116].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "a Tartar emir…Tamourlanges Tartar" [Tamerlane] destroyed Tbilisi 21 Nov 1386, captured "its king Bagrat…and his wife our emperor´s daughter…Lady Anna…[and] her son David"[117]Betrothed (Constantinople Apr 1362) to [ANDRONIKOS] Palaiologos, son of Emperor IOANNES V & his wife Helene Kantakouzene ([Constantinople 11 Apr 1348-Selymbria 28 Jun 1385]).  He succeeded as Emperor ANDRONIKOS IV in 1376.  m (Jun 1366) as his second wife, BAGRAT V King of Georgia, son of DAVIT IX King of Georgia & his wife Sindukhtar of Samtzkhe (-1395). 

2.         BASILEIOS Komnenos (Trebizond 17 Sep 1358-before Sep 1377).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the birth 17 Sep 1358 of "a son to the emperor after supper who was named Basil after his grandfather"[118].  He must have died before the marriage of his younger brother, recorded in Sep 1377. 

3.         MANUEL Achpugas Megas Komnenos (16 Dec 1363-5 Mar 1412, bur Theoskepastos)The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the birth 16 Dec 1363 of "a son…to the emperor who was named Manuel"[119].  He succeeded his father in 1390 as MANUEL III Emperor in Trebizond.  He submitted to the Mongol suzerainty of Timur/Tamerlan in [1400], but freed himself following the latter's death in 1405 only to fall under the power of Kara Yussuf Turkmen Emir.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 5 Mar 1412 of "the emperor lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos" after reigning for twenty-seven years and his burial "in the Theoskepastos"[120]m firstly (Trebizond 6 Sep 1377) GULKHAN of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT IX King of Georgia & his wife Sindukhtar of Samtzkhe (-5 May 1395).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of the emperor, the despot Lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" had been betrothed to "the king of Tbilisi´s daughter, the niece on the sister´s side of Achpougas", that she was then betrothed to "the younger and legitimate and lawful son of the emperor, the younger emperor Lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos", arrived in Trebizond "around…Sep 5" in 1377, was "crowned in the imperial [chapel] and named Eudokia, as she was previously called Koulkanchat" and married 6 Sep by the "metropolitan of Trebizond Theodosios"[121].  She adopted the name EVDOKIA.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 5 May 1395 of "the empress Lady Eudokia from Iberia, mother of the emperor Lord Alexios"[122]m secondly (after 14 Sep 1395) ANNA Philanthropena Kyra, daughter of MANUEL Angelos Philanthropenos Lord in Trikkala, Thessaly & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor Manuel who was a widower" married "Philanthropenos´s daughter the Lady Anna" after she was brought back from Constantinople by his sister "the empress lady Eudokia"[123].  Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo records that "the emperor of Trebizond…Germanoli" was married to "a relation of the Emperor of Constantinople", in 1404[124].  Emperor Manuel III & his first wife had [two] children: 

a)         ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos ([1378/79]-murdered 26 Apr 1429, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin).  Ruy González de Clavijo records that "Qelex" son of "the emperor of Trebizond..Germanoli" was "about twenty-five years of age" in 1404[125].  He succeeded his father in 1412 as ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond

-        see below

b)         [BASILEIOS Megas Komnenos (19 Jun 1382-).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of the emperor lord Alexios, the lord Manuel" had a son "by the lady Eudokia from Iberia" called "Basil after his great grandfather", born 19 Jun 1382[126].  The birth of Emperor Alexios IV is not recorded in the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos.  The question arises whether he was the same person as this son Basileios whose birth is recorded in the Chronicle in 1382, and whether he simply changed his baptismal name in later life.  There is a precedent for such a name change in the family: the paternal grandfather of the supposed two brothers, Emperor Alexios III, is recorded as having changed his name from Ioannes to Alexios.  However, on closer examination the cases are different.  Emperor Alexios III shared his original birth name with his disgraced predecessor, Emperor Ioannes III.  It is therefore possible that his name change was prompted by a wish to disassociate himself from the earlier emperor.  On the other hand, in the case of the son of Emperor Manuel III, there is no apparent reason for his changing from the name of his great-grandfather in order to adopt his grandfather´s name.  It should also be noted that Ruy González de Clavijo records that the future Emperor Alexios IV was "about twenty-five years of age" when he visited the Trebizond court in 1404.  The estimation is not consistent with Alexios having been born in 1382, although three years is not an excessive amount by which the source could have over-estimated his age.  Until further information comes to light, it has been decided to show both sons separately in this document, but with Basileios in square brackets to highlight the issue.  Basileios presumably died young, if he was the second son of Emperor Manuel, as no further mention of him has been found in the sources.] 

Emperor Manuel III & his second wife had [one child]: 

c)         [--- Komnenos .  His parentage is indicated by Georgios Phrantzes who records an incident during the siege of Patras, dated to 29 Mar 1429, when he rescued Konstantinos Palaiologos [the future Emperor Konstantinos XI] but was captured after falling from his horse, a thoroughbred which "ameras" [the emir, unspecified] had given to “Isaacio Asani” who had later given it to “Georgio Philanthropeno genero [γαμβρω] suo” who, in turn had given it to “Comneno consobrino [ανεψιω], Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”[127].  One explanation for this person “Comneno” being “ανεψιω” of Georgios Philanthropenos is that the relationship was through Anna Philanthropena, second wife of Emperor Manuel III.  The question has been explored fully in a recent article by Thierry Ganchou[128].  The circumstances of the flight of this person to Galata are unknown, but given the rivalries within the Trebizond imperial family it would not be surprising if he had considered that removing himself from the court was the option which better guaranteed his safety.  m (before 29 Mar 1429) EUDOKIA Kantakouzena, daughter of MANUEL Kantakouzenos & his wife ---.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Andreas and Eudokia as the children of Manuel & his wife, stating that Eudokia married a grandson of the emperor of Trebizond but died without issue[129].  Her marriage appears to be confirmed by Georgios Phrantzes who records an incident during the siege of Patras, dated to 29 Mar 1429, when he rescued Konstantinos Palaiologos [the future Emperor Konstantinos XI] but was captured after falling from his horse, a thoroughbred which "ameras" [the emir, unspecified] had given to “Isaacio Asani” who had later given it to “Georgio Philanthropeno genero [γαμβρω] suo” who, in turn had given it to “Comneno consobrino [ανεψιω], Cantacuzeni protostratoris genero [γαμβρω]”[130].] 

4.         EVDOKIA Megala Komnene (-after 4 Sep 1395).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the marriage 8 Oct 1378 of "the emperor…his daughter the Lady Eudokia" and "çelebi Taceddin" at "Oinaion" after which "the emperor…took over Limnia"[131].  The name of her mother is not recorded, but it is probable that she would not have been called "empress" (see next quote) if her mother had not been the emperor´s lawful wife.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the empress Lady Eudokia came from Constantinople" 14 Sep 1395 with brides "for her brother the emperor Manuel…[and] for her nephew the emperor Lord Alexios"[132].  Her second marriage is indicated by Georgius Phrantzes who names "Eudocia despœna, quæ avi tui uxor fuit", which from the context appears to refer to the maternal grandfather of Emperor Konstantinos XI, commenting that she was previously "Turcum coniuge…parvæ et exilis regionis principem" by whom she had children,[133]m firstly (Oinaion 8 Oct 1378) TADJEDDIN Pasha of Sinope Emir of Limnia, son of --- (-killed in battle 1386 after 24 Oct).  m secondly (1387) KONSTANTIN Dragaš, Lord of Vardar and Serres [Serbia], son of DEJAN Governor of Macedonia sébastokrator & his wife Teodora of Serbia (-killed in battle 17 May 1394).

Emperor Alexios III had [two] [maybe illegitimate] children by [his wife or by an unknown mistress or mistresses]: 

5.         MARIA Megala Komnene .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos which records that "the emperor´s son-in-law from Limnia the emir Taceddin" set out 24 Oct 1386 "against the emperor´s other son-in-law, the son of Chatzymeris from Chalybia, Suleiman Beg" but was killed in battle in "Chalybia"[134].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m SULEIMAN beg Emir of Chalybia, son of Haji OMAR Emir of Chalybia.  1386/97. 

6.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are suggested by Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo when he records the death of "Zaratan" and adds that he was childless by his marriage with the "daughter of the emperor of Trebizond"[135].  Her father is not named in this source, but from a chronological point of view it is probable that he was Emperor Alexios III.  m MUTAKHARTAN [Tahartan] Emir of Ergincan [Erzindjan] (-before 1404). 

Emperor Alexios III had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1):.

7.          ANDRONIKOS Megas Komnenos (Nov 1355-[murdered] [14] Mar 1376, bur Theoskepastos).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor had a son, the Lord Andronikos, by another woman and not the empress", dated to 1355 from the context[136].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of the emperor, the despot Lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos fell from the palace" of the emperor 14 Mar 1376, was carried into the palace where he died, and was buried "in the Theoskepastos"[137].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, he was killed by being thrown from a tower[138], but the chronicle of Michael Panaretos does not state that Andronikos was murdered.  Betrothed to GULKHAN Khatun of Georgia, daughter of DAVIT IX King of Georgia & his wife Sindukhtar of Samtzkhe (-2 May 1395).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the son of the emperor, the despot Lord Andronikos the Grand Komnenos" had been betrothed to "the king of Tbilisi´s daughter, the niece on the sister´s side of Achpougas", that she was then betrothed to "the younger and legitimate and lawful son of the emperor, the younger emperor Lord Manuel the Grand Komnenos", arrived in Trebizond "around…Sep 5" in 1377, was "crowned in the imperial [chapel] and named Eudokia, as she was previously called Koulkanchat" and married 6 Sep by the "metropolitan of Trebizond Theodosios"[139].  She adopted the name EVDOKIA in Byzantium.  She later married Manuel Achpugas Megas Komnenos, who later succeeded as MANUEL III Emperor in Trebizond

 

 

ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos, son of MANUEL III Emperor in Trebizond & his first wife Gulkhan of Georgia (19 Jun 1382-murdered 26 Apr 1429, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin).  Ruy González de Clavijo records that "Qelex" son of "the emperor of Trebizond..Germanoli" was "about twenty-five years of age" in 1404[140].  Despotes 1395/1416.  He succeeded his father in 1412 as ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond.  He was murdered on the orders of his son Kaloioannes.  The date of his death was discussed by Bryer[141]

m (after 14 Sep 1395) THEODORA Kantakouzene, daughter of THEODOROS Kantakouzenos, [protostrator] & his wife --- (-12 Nov 1426, bur Trebizond, Church of the Golden-Headed Virgin).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the emperor Lord Alexios" married "Kantakuzenos´s daughter the lady Theodora" after she was brought back from Constantinople by his paternal aunt "the empress lady Eudokia"[142].  Ruy González de Clavijo records that "Qelex" son of "the emperor of Trebizond…Germanoli" was married "to the daughter of a knight of Constantinople" in 1404 and had "two little daughters"[143].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Theodora, Maria, and Eirene as the daughters of Theodoros & his wife, stating that Theodora married Alexios Komnenos Emperor of Trebizond[144].  The manuscript Vaticanus latinus 4789 records that “le seigneur Georges Cantacuzène...et son frère le grand domestique de Constantinople” had three sisters and that they arranged the marriage of “l´autre sœur [=la deuxième]...à l´empereur de Trébizonde[145].  An alternative marriage is provided by the Ecthesis Chronicon which records that Emperor Ioannes married "a wife from Trebizond, Maria Cantacuzena, the granddaughter of the protostrator", adding that the daughter of the latter was "wife for the protovestarius of the emperor of Trebizond"[146].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas states that "matrem regi Ioanni" was "Cantacuzena", when recording that her son was suspicious that she "had been intimate with the protovestiarius" whom he killed, before he was himself exiled by his father[147].  She founded the convent of Pharos in Trebizond.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 12 Nov 1429 of "the empress Lady Theodora Kantakouzene the Grand Komnene, the wife of the emperor lord Alexios" and her burial "in the…church of…the Golden Headed Virgin"[148]

Emperor Alexios IV & his wife had [nine] children:

1.         [daughter/son ([1396/1400]-).  Ruy González de Clavijo records that "Qelex" son of "the emperor of Trebizond…Germanoli" was married "to the daughter of a knight of Constantinople" in 1404 and had "two little daughters"[149].  If that is correct, it is possible that these two daughters were the same as Maria and her unnamed sister who are shown below.  Another published edition of a presumably different 15th century manuscript of the same source refers to the two children as “dos fijos pequenos[150].  In that case, the older of the two sons may have been the future Ioannes IV Emperor in Trebizond.  The marriage date of Ioannes’s younger brother Alexander suggests that he was probably too young to have been the second son.  It is not known which of the two versions of this source is accurate.] 

2.         [daughter/son ([1398/1402]-).  Ruy González de Clavijo records that "Qelex" son of "the emperor of Trebizond…Germanoli" was married "to the daughter of a knight of Constantinople" in 1404 and had "two little daughters"[151].  If that is correct, it is possible that these two daughters were the same as Maria and her unnamed sister who are shown below.  Another published edition of a presumably different 15th century manuscript of the same source refers to the two children as “dos fijos pequenos[152].  In that case, the older of the two sons may have been the future Ioannes IV Emperor in Trebizond.  The marriage date of Ioannes’s younger brother Alexander suggests that he was probably too young to have been the second son.  It is not known which of the two versions of this source is accurate.]   

3.         KALOIOANNES Megas Komnenos (before 1403-[Apr] 1460).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond & his wife[153].  Despotes/co-Emperor 1417/26.  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "regi Ioanni" was exiled by his father after attempting to kill his mother "Cantacuzena" whom he suspected "had been intimate with the protovestiarius" whom he killed[154].  He succeeded his father in 1429 as IOANNES IV Emperor in Trebizond.  He purchased immunity in 1453 by promising Sultan Mohammed II a handsome tribute[155].  Faced with the threat of invasion from the Sultan, Ioannes allied himself with the Khan of the White Sheep, who became his son-in-law.  The post scriptum dated 5 May 1460, to a letter dated 19 Apr 1460 from the Genoese authorities in Caffa to the “Protectores Sancti Georgii” of Genoa, notes “Imperator Trapezundarum diem suum obiit. In cuius imperio successit...dominus Dispotus eius frater[156].  The precise time for news of the emperor’s death to arrive at Caffa (city in eastern Crimea, now called Feodosia) from Trebizond is not known, nor therefore the precise date of his death.  m firstly --- of Georgia, daughter of ALEKSANDRI I King of Georgia & his wife --- ([1411/12]-[before 1429]).  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "Ioannes" married "in Iberiam…regis Alexandri filiam"[157]m secondly (before 1438) ---, daughter of [a Turk].  The Spanish traveller Pero Tafur records that Emperor Ioannes was "married to a daughter of a Turk" when he visited the Trebizond court in 1438[158].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[159], she was the daughter of Devlet Berdi Khan of the Crimean Turks at Solkhat, but the basis for this is not known.  Emperor Ioannes IV & his [first] wife had one child: 

a)         son (-after Apr 1449).  George Amirutzes, ambassador of Trebizond, went to Genoa in Apr 1449 to propose, among other things, the marriage of one of the daughters of Ludovico Campofregoso Doge of Genoa to the only son of Emperor Ioannes IV and heir to the throne of Trebizond[160].  The identity of the mother of this unnamed son is suggested by another document which records that he “aspecta da parte de soa madre una heredita grande de imperio Liberio[161], assuming that “Liberio” indicates “Iberia”, an alternative name for Georgia.  He must have predeceased his father. 

Emperor Ioannes IV & his [second] wife had one child.   

b)         THEODORA Megala Komnene (-after 1478, bur Diyarbekir St George).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that Ioannes Komnenos Emperor of Trebizond had one daughter who married Uzun Hasan[162].  Georgius Phrantzes records that a proposed marriage between Emperor Konstantinos XI and "Trapezuntiorum regis filiam" failed in 1451[163].  The proposed bride is assumed to have been Theodora as she is the only known daughter of the Trebizond emperor who ruled at the time[164].  An alternative parentage is provided by the Ecthesis Chronicon which records that "lord David…Comnene" had a daughter "the despoina Hatun" who married "Uzun Hasan in Tabriz and had three sons by him", adding in a later passage that "Rustam bey…the ruler in Persia" was one of these sons and that "Sheikh Khaytar had a son by the daughter of Uzun Hasan, the sheikh Ishmael"[165].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that the emperor of Trebizond made a marriage alliance with “barbaris finitimis...Albos Probstantes[166].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "consobrina Davidis regis uxor Chasanis" wrote to David requesting him to send “regis filium aut patruelem eius Alexium Comnenum ex Mytilensis” to her[167]m (Autumn 1458) UZUN HASAN Khan Aqqeyunlu "of the White Sheep", son of --- & his wife Sara Khatun (1426-Tabris 5 Jan 1478, bur Tabriz, Nasriye Mosque). 

c)         [A second child has been incorrectly attributed to Emperor Ioannes IV.  According to Sturdza[168], the wife of Niccolò Crispo Lord of Santorini was Valenza, daughter of Emperor Ioannes IV.  The alleged relationship is based on the 1574 account by Caterino Zeno, who was married to a descendant of the Crespon family[169], but it is impossible chronologically, assuming that the date of the marriage of Valenza's oldest daughter in 1429 is correct.  Even assuming that this daughter was no more than 15 years old when she married, Valenza must have been born in [1390/1400].  Even if her daughter's marriage date is incorrect (which is likely), Valenza could not have been born later than [1410/15] at the very latest, given that she was the mother of eleven children and in light of the other known dates of birth and marriage of her descendants.  None of these dates is compatible with her being the daughter of Emperor Ioannes IV, assuming his birth in [1396/1403] and the likely chronology of his marriages.]

4.         MARIA Kantakouzene Komnene (before 1404-17 Dec 1439, bur Constantinople, Pantokrator monastery).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond & his wife, stating that Maria married Ioannes VIII emperor of Constantinople[170].  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records the marriage of "Iohanni liberoram primogenitor" and "Mariam Alexii Comneni Trapezuntini imperatoris filiam"[171].  Georgius Phrantzes records the marriage in Sep "anni 6936" of "Maria Comnena…Alexii Comneni Trapezuntiorum regis" and "imperator Iohannes"[172].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "filiam suam…Alexius rex Comnenus" married "Ioanni Byzantio regi"[173].  An alternative parentage is provided by the Ecthesis Chronicon which records that Emperor Ioannes married "a wife from Trebizond, Maria Cantacuzena, the granddaughter of the protostrator", adding that the daughter of the latter was "wife for the protovestarius of the emperor of Trebizond"[174].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death 17 Dec in "anni 6948" of "despœna Maria Trapezuntia"[175].  She died of the plague[176]m (Sep 1427) as his third wife, Emperor IOANNES VIII, son of Emperor MANUEL II & his wife Jelena [Helene] Dragaš [Serbia] (Dec 1392-31 Oct 1448). 

5.         ALEXANDER [Skantarios] Megas Komnenos (-[1454/59][177]).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond & his wife[178].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "rex Alexius" declared "filium suum…Scantarim regem" because of the treachery of his son Ioannes[179].  Despotes/co-Emperor 1418-[1427/29] and [1447/48]-[1454/59].  m (1437) MARIA Gattilusaina, daughter of DORINOS [II] Palaiologos Gattilusios Lord of Mytilene-Lesbos & his wife Orietta Doria.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Maria Gattilusio as the wife of Alexander, son of Emperor Alexios[180].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "rex Alexius…filium suum…Scantarim" married "filiam Galiuzis…Mitylenis" during the life of his father[181].  Pero Tafur, Spanish ambassador, records a meeting with Alexander in Constantinople in Nov 1437 and a subsequent visit to Trebizond, the description indicating that Alexander´s marriage had taken place shortly before[182].  Runciman states that she was taken prisoner by the Ottomans after they entered the city of Trebizond 15 Aug 1461, and entered the harem of Sultan Mohammed II[183].  Alexander Megas Komnenos & his wife had one child:

a)         ALEXIOS Megas Komnenos (1454-beheaded Adrianople 26 Mar 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Alexios as the son of Alexander & his wife, stating that he was executed with his uncle at Adrianople[184].  Despotes 1454/1459.  Although the rightful heir, he was set aside as emperor by his uncle David in [1458/59]: Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "regem Davidem" had invaded Trebizond, setting aside the rights of "fratris filium...quattuor annos natum"[185].  He went with his mother when she entered the harem of Sultan Mohammed II[186]: Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that the sultan brought "rege David nepotem...huius...filius...infans prioris regis" to his palace, adding that "consobrina Davidis regis uxor Chasanis" wrote to David requesting him to send “regis filium aut patruelem eius Alexium Comnenum ex Mytilensis” to her[187].  According to tradition he was allotted lands just outside the walls of Pera and was known locally as the "Son of the Bey"[188].  However, a contemporary account of executions states that David Emperor of Trebizond was executed with his nephew Alexios Skantarios[189]

6.         DAVID Megas Komnenos (-beheaded Constantinople 1 Nov 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond & his wife[190].  He succeeded in 1460 as DAVID Emperor in Trebizond, setting aside the rightful heir his nephew Alexios. 

-        see below

7.         daughter.  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond & his wife, stating that the unnamed daughter married "Imperator di Iveria in le parte di Soria"[191].  Her husband, presumably a Georgian nobleman, has not been identified.  m --- “Lord of Iberia”, son of ---. 

8.         daughter .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis which names "Karaiulucus...Alexii Comneni imperatoris Trapezuntini gener" as ruler in "vicinus Lazis ac Persis"[192]Kuršankis dates the marriage to [1422] when he says that Kara Ilük conquered Karahisar, Tercan, Bayburt et Akşehir and besieged Erzincan with the help of Emperor Alexios IV[193].  If this dating is correct, her father must have been Emperor Alexios IV.  There is no indication whether this daughter was legitimate or illegitimate.  m ([1422]) KARA YÜLÜK, son of --- (-[Aug/Sep] 1435). 

9.         [daughter .  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that the emperor of Trebizond made marriage alliances “cum Temiris nepotibus...nati...ab Tzokiis et Carasuphis liberis”, an earlier passage explaining that “Tzanisas Tzokiis nepos et Caraisuphis filius” was the son born "ex filia Tzokiis, quæ matrimonio iuncta fuit Charaisuphi"[194]Kuršankis suggests that this text is unlikely to be correct, stating that “les Timurides et les Kara-koyonlu étaient ennemis mortels au début du 15 siècle, et une alliance matrimoniale entre eux est impensable à cette époque[195].  He also highlights the chronological difficulties, given that Juki, son of Shahrukh, was born in 1402.] 

 

 

DAVID Megas Komnenos, son of ALEXIOS IV Emperor in Trebizond & his wife Theodora Kantakouzene (-beheaded Constantinople 1 Nov 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names (in order) Ioannes, Alexander, David, Maria and another unnamed daughter as the children of Alexios Komnenos Emperor in Trebizond & his wife[196].  He is referred to with the title "despot" in the record of his marriage in the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos (see below).  He was still known by the title “despot” at his accession, as shown by the post scriptum dated 5 May 1460, to a letter dated 19 Apr 1460 from the Genoese authorities in Caffa to the “Protectores Sancti Georgii” of Genoa, which notes “Imperator Trapezundarum diem suum obiit. In cuius imperio successit...dominus Dispotus eius frater[197].  He succeeded in 1460 as DAVID Emperor in Trebizond, setting aside the rightful heir his nephew Alexios.  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "regem Davidem" had invaded Trebizond, setting aside the rights of "fratris filium...quattuor annos natum"[198].  He provoked war with Sultan Mohammed II by demanding the return of the tribute which his older brother had paid some years before.  The Sultan sent an invading force, entered the city of Trebizond 15 Aug 1461.  Emperor David was forced to abdicate.  The Historia Byzantina of Michælis Ducæ Nepotis records that "David Comnenus…Alexii Comneni filius, Iohannis decessoris sui frater" and "tota gente sua, soceris, avunculis et nepotibus suis" were allowed to leave for Constantinople[199].  He and his family were established in the Strymon Valley near Serres in Macedonia, in a fiefdom conceded by Sultan Mohammed II[200].  Suspected of plotting to recover Trebizond, he was imprisoned at Adrianople 26 Mar 1463, taken to Constantinople, and ordered to convert to Islam.  On refusing to do so, he and his sons were executed and their burial prohibited by the Sultan[201]

m [firstly] ([Nov] 1429) MARIA of Gothia, daughter of ALEXIOS Gabras Prince of Gothia & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the marriage in Nov 1429 of "the empress lady Maria…from Gothia, the daughter of Alexios from Theodoro" and "the pious despot…Lord David the Grand Komnenos"[202].  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that David married the daughter of the ruler of Gothia[203]

[m secondly [HELENA Kantakouzene, daughter of ---] (-Constantinople [1463/64]).  According to the 16th century historian Theodoros Spandounes, writing in 1538, "David Commino imperator de Trapessonda" married "Helena Cantacusina, sorella de mio avo materno", adding that the couple had eight sons and one daughter[204].  Spandounes, in an earlier passage, names "principe Georgio Cantacusino, mio avo materno"[205].  These passages have given rise to considerable confusion in secondary sources which deal with the Trebizond and Kantakouzenos families[206].  Firstly, Georgios Kantakouzenos (son of Theodoros Kantakouzenos who died in 1410) was one of Spandounes´s maternal great-grandfathers not his maternal grandfather (see the document BYZANTIUM 1261-1453).  Secondly, the marriage of David Komnenos to a daughter of Theodoros Kantakouzenos would have been impossible from a chronological point of view, bearing in mind that the documented marriages of Theodoros´s other known daughters are dated to 1395 and [1414].  Thirdly, one of these daughters was David´s own mother, which would mean that he married his maternal aunt if Spandounes´s report is accurate as written.  Nevertheless, the question remains why Spandounes would have fabricated the connection completely, especially as the family relationships which he describes in other parts of his narrative can be corroborated by other primary sources.  It would be easy to understand why Spandounes might have been confused about the earlier generations of his own family, especially because both his maternal grandmother (Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of Ioannes Kantakouzenos) and his maternal grandfather (Theodoros Kantakouzenos, son of Georgios Kantakouzenos who is named above) were members of different branches of the Kantakouzenos family.  It is possible therefore that there is some grain of truth in the source which, at this distance in time, is now impossible to prise out.  The Masarelli manuscript (which can be dated to a couple of years before Spandounes) only mentions the Gothian ruler´s daughter as David´s wife.  No other reference to her has been found in the primary sources which have so far been consulted in the preparation of the present document.  It is therefore not impossible that she died young and that her widowed husband married again, possibly to a member of the Kantakouzenos family.  Spandounes recounts that, after the death of her husband and sons, his widow ("Helena") was condemned to pay a fine of 15,000 ducats or face the same fate[207].  The money was paid, but the widow put on sackcloth, built a hovel from straw beside the corpses outside the city walls, and secretly dug their graves with her own hands, dying a few days after completing the task.  If there is any truth in this romanticised story, it is not known whether it should refer to David´s Gothian wife or to his alleged "Kantakouzene" wife.] 

Emperor David & his [first/second] wife had [ten] children:

1.         BASILEIOS Megas Komnenos (-beheaded Constantinople 1 Nov 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that David and his wife had two (unnamed) sons killed by the Turks[208]

2.         MANUEL Megas Komnenos (-beheaded Constantinople 1 Nov 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that David and his wife had two (unnamed) sons killed by the Turks[209]

3.         GEORGIOS Megas Komnenos (-beheaded Constantinople 1 Nov 1463).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

4.         --- Komnene .  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that David and his wife had two (unnamed) daughters, one of whom married the Seigneur de Mammia and the other a Turkish Pasha[210]m --- Lord of Mamia, eristavi of Guria, son of ---. 

5.         ANNA Komnene (1447-after 1463).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript records that David and his wife had two (unnamed) daughters, one of whom married the Seigneur de Mammia and the other a Turkish Pasha[211].  She was divorced by her husband when she refused to convert to Islam[212].  Laonicus Chalcocondylas records that "filiam Trapezuntii regis Annam" married "Zagano, inferioris Macedoniæ præfecto"[213].  In later life, she retired to the country near Trebizond and founded a village called Kyranna[214]m firstly (1462, divorced 1463) MOHAMMED Zagan Pasha, son of ---.  Governor of Thessaly [beglerbeg of Macedonia] 1460/64.  [215]m secondly SINAN beg, son of ILVAN beg. 

6.         [five sons .  Spandounes records that "David Commino imperator de Trapessonda" and his wife "Helena Cantacusina, sorella de mio avo materno" had eight sons and one daughter [216].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    NOBILITY in TREBIZOND

 

 

 

A.      DORANITES

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         KONSTANTINOS Doranites (-after 1349).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the widowed lady Irene Palaiologina…seized the throne" after the death of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" in 1340, that she was supported by "the Amytzarantai, some of the officials, and the archons of the imperial exchange [who] held the citadel with the empress" while "Tzanichites, lord Sebastos the grand stratopedarch along with the Scholarioi, the Meitzomatai, lord Constantine Doranites, the Kabazitai, Kamachenos, some of the people and some of the palace guards held Saint Eugenios"[217].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Niketas Scholaris, Lord Gregory Meitzomates, Lord Constantine Doranites, his son John, Meitzomates´s brother Michael" fled Trebizond for Constantinople on "a Venetian galley" 10 Sep 1341, and returned with "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael…in two galleys of their own and three Genoese ones" and took over Trebizond 4 Sep 1342[218]Protobestiarios.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand stratopedarch the lord Theodore Doranites who was called Pileles…[and] his brother the protobestiarios Constantine, and all his family" were "confined to the homes of the Archontes" in 1349 but "after the seventh of the month, they were recalled"[219]m ---.  The name of the wife of Konstantinos is not known.  Konstantinos & his wife had one child:  

a)         IOANNES Doranites (-after 4 Sep 1342).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Niketas Scholaris, Lord Gregory Meitzomates, Lord Constantine Doranites, his son John, Meitzomates´s brother Michael" fled Trebizond for Constantinople on "a Venetian galley" 10 Sep 1341, and returned with "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael…in two galleys of their own and three Genoese ones" and took over Trebizond 4 Sep 1342[220]

2.         THEODOROS Doranites (-hanged Kenchina Jul 1351).  Megas stratopedarchos.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand stratopedarch the lord Theodore Doranites who was called Pileles…[and] his brother the protobestiarios Constantine, and all his family" were "confined to the homes of the Archontes" in 1349 but "after the seventh of the month, they were recalled"[221].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the former protovestarios Leo Kabazites was taken" in Jan 1350 and "Pileles…elevated to the rank of protovestiarios"[222].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Pileles his son and his son-in-law were hanged in the fortress of Kenchina" in Jul 1351[223]m ---.  The name of the wife of Theodoros is not known.  Theodoros & his wife had two children: 

a)         --- Doranites (-hanged Kenchina Jul 1351).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Pileles his son and his son-in-law were hanged in the fortress of Kenchina" in Jul 1351[224]

b)         --- Doranitissam --- (-hanged Kenchina Jul 1351).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Pileles his son and his son-in-law were hanged in the fortress of Kenchina" in Jul 1351[225]

 

 

 

B.      KABAZITES

 

 

1.         IOANNES Kabazites (-killed in battle May 1349).  Megas logariastes.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[226]Megas doux.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand dux John Kabazites, Michael Tzanichites and many others were killed" in May 1349 during an attack by "two Frankish galleys"[227]Doux of Chaldia.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in Aug 1354 "the duke of Chaldia, John Kabazites…took Cheriana and made it our own"[228].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the duke of Chaldia John Kabazites was seized" during a Turkish raid 27 Nov 1355[229].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that the emperor "removed John Kabazites from his governorship" in Apr 1360[230]

 

2.         LEO Kabazites (-after Jan 1350).  Protobestiarios.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the former protovestarios Leo Kabazites was taken" in Jan 1350 and "Pileles…elevated to the rank of protovestiarios"[231]

 

 

 

C.      MEITZOMATES

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         GREGORIOS Meitzomates (-after Oct 1355).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Niketas Scholaris, Lord Gregory Meitzomates, Lord Constantine Doranites, his son John, Meitzomates´s brother Michael" fled Trebizond for Constantinople on "a Venetian galley" 10 Sep 1341, and returned with "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael…in two galleys of their own and three Genoese ones" and took over Trebizond 4 Sep 1342[232]Megas stratopedarchos.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[233]Megas domestikos.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand dux Scholaris, the grand domestic Meizomates and others of their faction" were imprisoned in 1345[234].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand domestic Meizomates and the grand stratopedarch Sampson…came until Kechrina and took Scholaris and his supporters" in Oct 1355[235]m ---.  The name of the wife of Gregorios is not known.  Gregorios & his wife had one child: 

a)         --- Meitzomates (-after 1343).  Epikernes.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[236]

2.         MIKHAEL Meitzomates (-after 1343).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Niketas Scholaris, Lord Gregory Meitzomates, Lord Constantine Doranites, his son John, Meitzomates´s brother Michael" fled Trebizond for Constantinople on "a Venetian galley" 10 Sep 1341, and returned with "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael…in two galleys of their own and three Genoese ones" and took over Trebizond 4 Sep 1342[237]Amytzantarios.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[238]

 

 

 

D.      PANARETOS

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Panaretos (-after Apr 1362).  Protosebastos and protonotariosThe author of the Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, which records that "the grand logothetes Lord George Scholaris and the protosebastos and protonotarios Michael Panaretos who is writing these things" were sent to pay homage in Constantinople in Apr 1362[239]m ---.  The name of Mikhael´s wife is not known.  Mikael & his wife had two children: 

a)         ROMANOS Panaretos ([1349/50]-[Jul/Aug] 1367).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "my most beloved son Romanos died ailing with a disease that makes it hard to pee aged seventeen" after his brother died in Jul 1367[240]

b)         KONSTANTINOS Panaretos ([1351/52]-Jul 1367).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "my beloved son Constantine…fell into the sea on the celebration of the Metamorphosis near the monastery of Saint Sophia and died aged fifteen" in Jul 1367[241]

 

 

 

E.      SAMPSON

 

 

1.         MIKHAEL Sampson (-after Oct 1355).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "weakness prevailed over the lord Michael" when "the lord Niketas Scholaris came from Kechrina and became grand duke as well as marrying Michael Sampson´s daughter", after he had reigned for 5 years and seven and a half months, and that "the lord Michael Komnenos" was deposed 13 Dec 1349, confined "to the cave of St Sabas and tonsured", and "one year later…was sent to the City…with the tatas Michael Sampson, when the emperor´s marriage alliance was to take place"[242].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Michael Sampson" left for Constantinople in Jan 1350 "to make a marriage alliance, take possession of the lady and return"[243].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand domestic Meizomates and the grand stratopedarch Sampson…came until Kechrina and took Scholaris and his supporters" in Oct 1355[244]m ---.  The name of Mikhael´s wife is not known.  Mikhael & his wife had one child: 

a)         daughter .  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lord Niketas Scholaris came from Kechrina and became grand dux and married Michael Sampson´s daughter" in 1349 after "frailty prevailed over the lord Michael"[245]m as his second wife, NIKETAS Scholaris, son of --- (-4 Jul 1361). 

 

 

 

F.      SCHOLARIS

 

 

1.         NIKETAS Scholaris (-4 Jul 1361).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Niketas Scholaris, Lord Gregory Meitzomates, Lord Constantine Doranites, his son John, Meitzomates´s brother Michael" fled Trebizond for Constantinople on "a Venetian galley" 10 Sep 1341, and returned with "lord John Komnenos, the son of lord Michael…in two galleys of their own and three Genoese ones" and took over Trebizond 4 Sep 1342[246]Megas doux.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand dux Scholaris" elevated "lord Michael" to the throne in May 1343 after "the grand dux the eunuch" was assassinated in Limnia, adding in the next paragraph that "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[247].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "the grand dux Scholaris came and took lord Michael" who succeeded to the throne, adding in the next paragraph that "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[248].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand dux Scholaris, the grand domestic Meizomates and others of their faction" were imprisoned in 1345[249].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lord Niketas Scholaris came from Kechrina and became grand dux and married Michael Sampson´s daughter" in 1349 after "frailty prevailed over the lord Michael"[250].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke Scholaris fled to Kerasunt" in Jun 1353 and that he "and his son came against Trebizond…[with] the protobestiarios Basil Choupakas" 21 Mar 1354, that after "many words and disturbances…peace was made and they departed for Kerasunt", but that the following May "the emperor…came…against Scholaris in Kerasunt"[251].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand domestic Meizomates and the grand stratopedarch Sampson…came until Kechrina and took Scholaris and his supporters" in Oct 1355[252].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the death 4 Jul 1361 of "the grand dux Niketas Scholaris…mourned…greatly" by the emperor[253]m firstly ---.  m secondly --- [Sampson], daughter of MIKHAEL Sampson & his wife ---.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the lord Niketas Scholaris came from Kechrina and became grand dux and married Michael Sampson´s daughter" in 1349 after "frailty prevailed over the lord Michael"[254].  Niketas & his first wife had one child: 

a)         --- ScholarisParakoimomenos.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[255].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke Scholaris fled to Kerasunt" in Jun 1353 and that he "and his son came against Trebizond…[with] the protobestiarios Basil Choupakas" 21 Mar 1354 but that after "many words and disturbances…peace was made and they departed for Kerasunt"[256]

 

2.         GEORGIOS Scholaris (-after 27 Oct 1363).  Megas logothetes.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1361 "the people were nearly revolting against the emperor" and that 27 Oct 1363 "some of the nobles, the Kabazitai, the grand logothetes Lord George Scholaris and others fell upon" the emperor while he "was sitting by the St Gregory river near Katabaton" and "pursued him until the citadel"[257].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand logothetes Lord George Scholaris and the protosebastos and protonotarios Michael Panaretos who is writing these things" were sent to pay homage in Constantinople in Apr 1362[258].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand logothetes Lord George Scholaris and others fell upon [the emperor] suddenly and pursued him until the citadel" 27 Oct 1363 and fled "for Kerasunt and then Aminsoun"[259]

 

3.         --- Scholaris (-after 14 Sep 1395).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the ameriales Scholaris the grand dux served as…escort" when brides arrived from Constantinople for the emperor and his son 14 Sep 1395[260]

 

 

 

G.      TZANICHITES

 

 

1.         --- Tzanichites (-murdered Limnia Jul 1341).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the widowed lady Irene Palaiologina…seized the throne" after the death of "the emperor lord Basil the Grand Komnenos" in 1340, that she was supported by "the Amytzarantai, some of the officials, and the archons of the imperial exchange [who] held the citadel with the empress" while "Tzanichites, lord Sebastos the grand stratopedarch along with the Scholarioi, the Meitzomatai, lord Constantine Doranites, the Kabazitai, Kamachenos, some of the people and some of the palace guards held Saint Eugenios"[261].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke the eunuch John came from Limnia with a great army" 2 Jul 1340, burned "the monastery" (presumably referring to St Eugenios held by the rebels), and imprisoned "Tzanichites and the other nobles…in Limnia" who they murdered in Jul 1341[262]

 

2.         STEFANOS Tzanichites (-after 1343).  Megas konstabularios.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that in 1343 "when the chief archontes were robbed of life, the lord Niketas Scholaris was honoured as grand dux…Gregory Meizomates grand stratopedarch, his son epikernes, John Kabazites grand logariastes, Scholaris´s son parakoimomenos, Michael Meizomates amytzantarios, and Stephen Tzanichites grand constable"[263]

 

3.         MIKHAEL Tzanichites (-killed in battle May 1349).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand dux John Kabazites, Michael Tzanichites and many others were killed" in May 1349 during an attack by "two Frankish galleys"[264]

 

4.         IOANNES Tzanichites (-after Jan 1351).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the pikernes John Tzanichites entered and held Tzanicha proper in anarchy" in Jan 1351[265]

 

 

 

H.      TZATZINTAION

 

 

1.         LEKES Tzatzintaion (-murdered Sep 1332).  Megas doux.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that, after "the lord Basil the Grand Komnenos, the son of the lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos and second brother of the lord Andronikos came from Constantinople" seized the throne 22 Sep 1332, he "took the lives of the grand dux Lekes Tzatzintaion and his son the grand domestic Tzambas"[266]m ---.  The name of the wife of Lekes is not known.  Lekes & his wife had one child: 

a)         TZAMBAS Tzatzintaion (-murdered Sep 1332).  Megas domestikos.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that, after "the lord Basil the Grand Komnenos, the son of the lord Alexios the Grand Komnenos and second brother of the lord Andronikos came from Constantinople" seized the throne 22 Sep 1332, he "took the lives of the grand dux Lekes Tzatzintaion and his son the grand domestic Tzambas"[267]

 

 

 

I.        OTHER NOBILITY

 

 

1.         IOANNES (-murdered Limnia Mar 1343).  Megas doux.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "Lord Manuel" was killed 13 Feb 1333 during an uprising led by "the grand dux the eunuch John"[268].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke the eunuch John came from Limnia with a great army" 2 Jul 1340, burned "the monastery" (presumably referring to St Eugenios held by the rebels), and imprisoned "Tzanichites and the other nobles…in Limnia" who they murdered in Jul 1341[269].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand dux the eunuch" was assassinated in Mar 1343 in Limnia[270]

 

2.         BASILEIOS Choupakas (-after 29 Aug 1358).  Protobestiarios.  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "the grand duke Scholaris fled to Kerasunt" in Jun 1353 and that he "and his son came against Trebizond…[with] the protobestiarios Basil Choupakas" 21 Mar 1354, that after "many words and disturbances…peace was made and they departed for Kerasunt", but that later the same year "the protovestiarios came here from Limnia with his supporters"[271].  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records that "lord Basil Choupakas Scholaris" acted as bridal escort for "the Lady Theodora" 29 Aug 1358[272]

 

3.         IOANNES Andronikopoulos (-after Nov 1373).  The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos records the attempted invasion of Trebizond by "Lord John Palaiologos…with…the protovestiarios the Lord John Andronikopoulos, who when Palaiologos departed came and became our emperor´s vassal" in Nov 1373[273]

 

 



[1] Nicol, D. M. (1994) The Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits 1250-1500 (Cambridge University Press), p. 122. 

[2] Fallmerayer, J. P. ´Original-Fragmente, Chroniken, Inschriften und anderes Materiale zur Geschichte des Kaiserthums Trapezunt´ (part two), Abhandlung der historischen Classe der königlich bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band IV (Munich, 1846).  [available on Google Book]

[3] Lambros, S. Neos Hellenomnemon (1907), pp. 266-94. 

[4] Kennedy, S. (trans.) (2008) The Chronicle of Michael Panaretos, available at <http://scotisc.blogspot.com/2008/12/history-of-michael-panaretos.html> (6 Dec 2008).  

[5] Fallmerayer, J. P. (1827) Geschichte des Kaiserthums von Trapezunt (Munich).  [available on Google Book]

[6] Fallmerayer, J. P. ´Original-Fragmente, Chroniken, Inschriften und anderes Materiale zur Geschichte des Kaiserthums Trapezunt´ (part one), Abhandlung der historischen Classe der königlich bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band III (Munich, 1841).  [available on Google Book]

[7] Papadopoulos-Kerameus, A. (ed.) (1897) Fontes Historiæ imperii Trapezuntini (St Petersburg).  [not yet consulted, "no preview" on Google Book]

[8] Bryer, A. ´The Pontic Exception´, Dunbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 29 (1975), pp. 113-48, available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1291371 [30 Jun 2008]. 

[9] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetæ Choniatæ Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Liber de Rebus post captam urbem gestis, 16, p. 842. 

[10] Michael Panaretos 1. 

[11] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 278. 

[12] Michael Panaretos 1. 

[13] Kuršankis, M. ´Autour des sources Géorgiennes de la foundation de l´empire de Trébizonde´, Archeion Pontou 30, pp. 112-3, cited by Williams, J. W. ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, Foundations Vol. 2, number 3 (Jan 2007), p. 173. 

[14] ES II 175. 

[15] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[16] Michael Panaretos 2. 

[17] Michael Panaretos 2. 

[18] Miller, W. (1926) Trebizond: the last Greek empire of the Byzantine era 1204-1462 (London), p. 24, cited by Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, p. 174. 

[19] Michael Panaretos 3. 

[20] Michael Panaretos 4. 

[21] Michael Panaretos 4. 

[22] Michael Panaretos 4. 

[23] Michael Panaretos 5. 

[24] Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, p. 174. 

[25] Michael Panaretos 8. 

[26] Michael Panaretos 5. 

[27] Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, pp. 174 and 175 footnote 8, citing Bryer, A. ´The Fate of George Komnenos, ruler of Trebizond (1266-1280)´, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 66 (1973), p. 343, and Annals of Sebastian 1279 (no precise citation reference). 

[28] Michael Panaretos 5. 

[29] Michael Panaretos 8. 

[30] Kuršankis, M. ‘L´usurpation de Théodora Grande Comnène’ Revue des études byzantines, Tome 33 (1975), p. 189, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1975_num_33_1_2030> (21 Dec 2012). 

[31] Kuršankis ‘Théodora Grande Comnène’ (1975), p. 200, citing Galstyan, A. G. (1962) Armyanskie istotchniki o Mongolakh (Moscow), p. 36 [not yet consulted], available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1975_num_33_1_2030> (21 Dec 2012). 

[32] Brosset, M.-F. (trans.) (1849) Histoire de la Géorgie Vol. I (St Petersburg) ("Georgian Chronicle (18th century)"), p. 591. 

[33] Georgian Chronicle (18th century), p. 603. 

[34] Michael Panaretos 5. 

[35] Michael Panaretos 5. 

[36] Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, p. 175 footnote 8, citing Annals of Sebastian 1279 (no precise citation reference). 

[37] Michael Panaretos 6. 

[38] Michael Panaretos 6. 

[39] Michael Panaretos 6. 

[40] Sturdza (1999), p. 278. 

[41] Nicol, D. M. (1972) The Last Centuries of Byzantium 1261-1453 (London), p. 81. 

[42] Michael Panaretos 7. 

[43] Michael Panaretos 8. 

[44] Michael Panaretos 8. 

[45] Michael Panaretos 8. 

[46] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Liber I, 3, p. 24. 

[47] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber VI, 6, p. 440. 

[48] Michael Panaretos 6. 

[49] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 29, p. 270. 

[50] Michael Panaretos 9. 

[51] Nicol (1994), p. 51. 

[52] Michael Panaretos 10. 

[53] Michael Panaretos 8. 

[54] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 29, p. 270. 

[55] Michael Panaretos 10. 

[56] Michael Panaretos 14. 

[57] Michael Panaretos 9. 

[58] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber IV, 7, p. 288. 

[59] Sturdza (1999), p. 280. 

[60] ES II 175. 

[61] Michael Panaretos 15. 

[62] Michael Panaretos 15. 

[63] Michael Panaretos 17. 

[64] Michael Panaretos 16. 

[65] Michael Panaretos 17. 

[66] Michael Panaretos 15. 

[67] Michael Panaretos 15. 

[68] Schopen, L. (ed.) (1830-1855) Nicephorus Gregoras, Historiæ Byzantinæ, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 11, p. 678. 

[69] Michael Panaretos 25. 

[70] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[71] Michael Panaretos 55. 

[72] Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, p. 177. 

[73] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palæologus, Liber III, 29, p. 270. 

[74] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 11, p. 679. 

[75] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[76] Michael Panaretos 27. 

[77] Michael Panaretos 28 and 29. 

[78] Michael Panaretos 33. 

[79] Michael Panaretos 34 and 35. 

[80] Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, p. 178, citing Nicol, D. M. ´Constantine Akropolites: a prosopographical note´, Dunbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965), pp. 252-3. 

[81] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[82] Michael Panaretos 27. 

[83] Michael Panaretos 70. 

[84] Michael Panaretos 70. 

[85] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 11, p. 678. 

[86] Michael Panaretos 17. 

[87] Michael Panaretos 19. 

[88] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[89] Michael Panaretos 18. 

[90] Nikephoros Gregoras Vol. II, Historiæ Byzantinæ XIII, 11, p. 678. 

[91] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[92] Michael Panaretos 24 and 25. 

[93] Michael Panaretos 25 and 26. 

[94] Michael Panaretos 21. 

[95] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[96] Michael Panaretos 62. 

[97] Michael Panaretos 77. 

[98] Michael Panaretos 90. 

[99] Michael Panaretos 42. 

[100] Michael Panaretos 58. 

[101] Michael Panaretos 76. 

[102] Michael Panaretos 59. 

[103] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[104] Michael Panaretos 21. 

[105] Michael Panaretos 21.  

[106] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[107] Michael Panaretos 28 and 29. 

[108] Michael Panaretos 35. 

[109] Sturdza (1999), p. 279. 

[110] Michael Panaretos 70 and 72. 

[111] Michael Panaretos 79. 

[112] Michael Panaretos 94. 

[113] Michael Panaretos 39 and 42. 

[114] Michael Panaretos 42. 

[115] Michael Panaretos 71. 

[116] Michael Panaretos 77. 

[117] Michael Panaretos 93. 

[118] Michael Panaretos 60. 

[119] Michael Panaretos 74. 

[120] Michael Panaretos 95. 

[121] Michael Panaretos 87. 

[122] Michael Panaretos 96. 

[123] Michael Panaretos 97. 

[124] Markham, C. R. (1859) Narrative of the embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the court of Timour at Samarcand 1403-1406 (London), p. 62. 

[125] Markham (1859), p. 62. 

[126] Michael Panaretos 90. 

[127] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 4, p. 138. 

[128] Ganchou, T. ‘A propos d’un cheval de race: un dynaste de Trébizonde en exil à Constantinople au début du Xve siècle’, Shukurov, R. (ed.) Mare et Litora, Essays Presented to Sergei Karpov for his 60th Birthday (Moscow, 2009), pp. 553-73. 

[129] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[130] Georgios Phrantzes Liber II, 4, p. 138. 

[131] Michael Panaretos 88. 

[132] Michael Panaretos 97. 

[133] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 215. 

[134] Michael Panaretos 92. 

[135] Markham (1859), p. 71. 

[136] Michael Panaretos 51. 

[137] Michael Panaretos 87. 

[138] ES II 176. 

[139] Michael Panaretos 87. 

[140] Markham (1859), p. 62. 

[141] Bryer, A. ‘The Faithless Kabazitai and Scholarioi’, Moffatt, A. (ed.) (1984) Maistor: Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning (Canberra), pp. 309-27. 

[142] Michael Panaretos 97. 

[143] Markham (1859), p. 62. 

[144] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[145] Brayer, E., Lemerle, P., Laurent, V. ‘Le Vaticanus latinus 4789: histoire et alliances des Cantacuzènes aux XIV-XV siécle’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 9 (1951) (“Laurent ‘Vaticanus latinus 4789’ (1951)”), pp. 74-5, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1951_num_9_1_1037> (21 Dec 2012).   

[146] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, p. 6, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronicon, available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/978233&authorid=15905> (25 Oct 2008). 

[147] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1843) Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Laonicus Chalcocondylas") Liber IX, p. 462, English translation by Kennedy, S. (2007), available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/957721> (25 Oct 2008). 

[148] Michael Panaretos 98. 

[149] Markham (1859), p. 62. 

[150] Ganchou ‘Un cheval de race’ (2009), p. 563, quoting Estrada, F. L. (1943) Embajada a Tamorlán (Madrid), p. 75. 

[151] Markham (1859), p. 62. 

[152] Ganchou ‘Un cheval de race’ (2009), p. 563, quoting Estrada, F. L. (1943) Embajada a Tamorlán (Madrid), p. 75. 

[153] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[154] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 462, English translation by Kennedy, S. (2007), available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/957721> (25 Oct 2008). 

[155] Runciman, S. (2000) The Fall of Constantinople 1453 (Cambridge University Press, Canto edition), p. 173. 

[156] Ganchou, T. ‘La date de la mort du Basileus Jean IV Komnènos de Trébizonde’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, Vol. 93, Issue 1 (Jan 2000), p. 120, quoting Archivio di Stato di Genova, San Giorgio, Cancellieri 223, doc. sine numero, au verso de la seconde filza, lignes 23-24. 

[157] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 462. 

[158] Letts, M. (ed. & trans.) (1926) Pero Tafur: Travels and Adventures 1435-1439 (New York, London), Chap. XVI, p. 131, available at <http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/tafur.html#ch16> (10 May 2014). 

[159] ES II 175. 

[160] Karpov, S. P. (1986) L’impero di Trebizonda, Venezia, Genova e Roma 1204-1461. Rapporti politici, diplomatici et commerciali (Roma, Il Veltro Editrice), p. 168, quoting Archivio di Stato di Genova, Archivio Segreto, 1793, Litt. 17, f. 115r – 3/V 1449 (information provided by Alberto Busata in a private email to the author dated 5 May 2014). 

[161] Karpov (1986), p. 168, quoting Archivio di Stato di Genova, Archivio Segreto, 1793, Litt. 15, f. 163r – 22/V 1449 (information provided by Alberto Busata in a private email to the author dated 5 May 2014). 

[162] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[163] Georgius Phrantzes Liber III, 1, p. 214. 

[164] Morris Bierbrier in a private email to the author dated 10 Dec 2006. 

[165] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, pp. 25 and 59-60, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronicon, available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/978233&authorid=15905> (25 Oct 2008). 

[166] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber III, pp. 461-2. 

[167] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 497. 

[168] Sturdza (1999), pp. 281 and 512, the latter reproducing a table from Hopf, C. Chroniques gréco-romanes, and Kursankis, M. 'Une alliance problématique au XVe siècle. Le marriage de Valenza Comnène, fille d'un empereur de Trébizonde avec Niccolo Crispo Seigneur de Santorin', Archeïon Pontou (1974), pp. 94-106. 

[169] Morris Bierbrier, in a private email to the author dated 18 Jan 2007. 

[170] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[171] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Michælis Ducæ Nepotis, Historia Byzantina, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), 20, pp. 100 and 102. 

[172] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 1, p. 123. 

[173] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 462. 

[174] Lambros, S. P. (1901) Ecthesis Chronica and Chronicon Athenarum, p. 6, English translation: Kennedy, S. (2007) Trapezuntine excerpts from the Ecthesis Chronicon, available at <http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Post/978233&authorid=15905> (25 Oct 2008). 

[175] Georgius Phrantzes Liber II, 17, p. 192. 

[176] Runciman (2000), p. 21. 

[177] ES II 175.  He died before 1446 according to Sturdza (1999), p. 281, which is incompatible with his second period as co-emperor mentioned in ES II 175. 

[178] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[179] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 462. 

[180] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[181] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 462. 

[182] Kuršankis, M. ‘La descendance d´Alexis IV, empereur de Trébizonde. Contribution à la prosopographie des Grands Comnènes’ Revue des études byzantines, Tome 37 (1979), p. 241, citing Letts (1926), pp. 116, 130, 150 [not yet consulted], available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1979_num_37_1_2098> (21 Dec 2012). 

[183] Runciman (2000), p. 176. 

[184] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[185] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 494. 

[186] Runciman (2000), p. 176. 

[187] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 497. 

[188] Runciman (2000), p. 186. 

[189] Powell, J. E. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 37 (1937), pp. 359-60.  [MB]

[190] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[191] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[192] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 22, pp. 124-5. 

[193] Kuršankis ‘La descendance d´Alexis IV’ (1979), p. 245, citing “l´historien Abu Bakr Tihrani-Isfahani” (no precise citation reference). 

[194] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber III and IX, pp. 167 and 461-2. 

[195] Kuršankis ‘La descendance d´Alexis IV’ (1979), p. 244. 

[196] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[197] Ganchou ‘Jean IV Komnènos de Trébizonde’ (Jan 2000), p. 120, quoting Archivio di Stato di Genova, San Giorgio, Cancellieri 223, doc. sine numero, au verso de la seconde filza, lignes 23-24. 

[198] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber IX, p. 494. 

[199] Ducæ Michælis Nepotis, 45, p. 345. 

[200] Nicol (1994), p. 123. 

[201] Runciman (2000), p. 185. 

[202] Michael Panaretos 99. 

[203] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[204] Theodore Spandounes (Spandugnino), De la origine deli Imperatori Ottomani, Sathas, C. N. (ed.) (1890) Documents inédits relatifs à l'histoire de la Grèce au moyen âge, IX (Paris), p. 159. 

[205] Spandounes, p. 158. 

[206] See the discussion by Williams ´A genealogy of the Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond´, p. 185, citing Nicol, D. M. (1968) The Byzantine family of Kantakouzenos, a genealogical and prosopographical study (Dunbarton Oaks), pp. 188-190. 

[207] Spandounes, pp. 159-60, discussed in Nicol (1994), p. 123. 

[208] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[209] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[210] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[211] Massarelli, A. Dell'Imperadori Constantinopolitani Vat. Lat. 12127 f. 349v-353.  [MB]

[212] Nicol (1994), p. 124.

[213] Laonicus Chalcocondylas, Liber X, p. 527. 

[214] Runciman (2000), p. 185. 

[215] Sturdza (1999), p 281.  This second marriage is not mentioned in ES II 175. 

[216] Spandounes, pp. 159-60, discussed in Nicol (1994), p. 123. 

[217] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[218] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[219] Michael Panaretos 36. 

[220] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[221] Michael Panaretos 36. 

[222] Michael Panaretos 37. 

[223] Michael Panaretos 41. 

[224] Michael Panaretos 41. 

[225] Michael Panaretos 41. 

[226] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[227] Michael Panaretos 33. 

[228] Michael Panaretos 47. 

[229] Michael Panaretos 50. 

[230] Michael Panaretos 61. 

[231] Michael Panaretos 37. 

[232] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[233] Michael Panaretos 28. 

[234] Michael Panaretos 29. 

[235] Michael Panaretos 49. 

[236] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[237] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[238] Michael Panaretos 27 and 28. 

[239] Michael Panaretos 71. 

[240] Michael Panaretos 78. 

[241] Michael Panaretos 78. 

[242] Michael Panaretos 34 and 35. 

[243] Michael Panaretos 37. 

[244] Michael Panaretos 49. 

[245] Michael Panaretos 34. 

[246] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[247] Michael Panaretos 27 and 28. 

[248] Michael Panaretos 27 and 28. 

[249] Michael Panaretos 29. 

[250] Michael Panaretos 34. 

[251] Michael Panaretos 44, 45 and 46. 

[252] Michael Panaretos 49. 

[253] Michael Panaretos 65. 

[254] Michael Panaretos 34. 

[255] Michael Panaretos 28.  

[256] Michael Panaretos 44 and 45. 

[257] Michael Panaretos 70 and 72. 

[258] Michael Panaretos 71. 

[259] Michael Panaretos 72. 

[260] Michael Panaretos 97. 

[261] Michael Panaretos 22. 

[262] Michael Panaretos 24 and 25. 

[263] Michael Panaretos 28. 

[264] Michael Panaretos 33. 

[265] Michael Panaretos 41. 

[266] Michael Panaretos 17. 

[267] Michael Panaretos 17. 

[268] Michael Panaretos 17. 

[269] Michael Panaretos 24 and 25. 

[270] Michael Panaretos 26. 

[271] Michael Panaretos 44, 45 and 46. 

[272] Michael Panaretos 59. 

[273] Michael Panaretos 85.