FRANKS, merovingian kings

  v3.0 Updated 30 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                EARLY FRANKISH LEADERS in GAUL. 3

Chapter 2.                KINGS of the FRANKS [451/57]-751 (MEROVINGIANS) 4

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Early sources are inconsistent regarding the origin of the Franks.  Gregory of Tours is cautious, recording that "it is commonly said" that they came from Pannonia (see the document HUNGARY, KINGS), crossed the Rhine, and marched through Thuringia, citing "the historians whose works we still have" (although none of these works to which he refers appears to have survived to the present day)[1].  If this is correct, Frankish occupation of Pannonia predated the arrival there of the Ostrogoths, which is probably dated to the last decades of the 4th century from the account provided by Jordanes in his mid-6th century Getica[2].  The possibility of an early connection with Thuringia is reinforced by Chlodio's supposed grandson King Childerich seeking refuge there during his temporary exile from France.  A more colourful version of the early history of the Franks is provided by the 7th century chronicler known as Fredegar who records a Trojan origin, and asserts that Merovech was conceived when Chlodio's wife went swimming and encountered a Quinotaur[3].  Ian Wood comments that there is no reason to believe that the Franks were involved in any long distance migration, as "archaeology and history suggest that they originated in the lands immediately to the east of the Rhine"[4].  This could also indicate Thuringia. 

 

The Franks are first mentioned in the context of the Barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century, Aurelius Victor and Eutropius stating that they crossed the Rhine near Köln in [257].  Gregory of Tours reports that "the Franks…set up in each country district and each city long-haired kings chosen from the foremost and most noble family of their race"[5].  If correct, this suggests a multiplicity of local leaders about whom nothing is known.  Many Frankish tribes remained east of the Rhine, but by [500] most had settled west of the river[6].  Gregory reports that Chlodio was the first Frankish leader to invade Roman-occupied Gaul, as far as the river Somme[7].  He attributes to him the title "King of the Franks", but Chlodio was presumably only one of the many local Frankish leaders and hardly a "king" in the sense in which the word is used today.  It is assumed that Chlodio was not the only Frankish leader to invade Roman-occupied Gaul. 

 

The Merovingian Frankish rulers quickly imposed their authority throughout Gaul.  This presumably was partly because they were geographically well placed to fill the power vacuum left by the collapse of the Roman Empire, but was also attributable to the personality and capabilities of King Clovis.  Although there are indications that the authority of Chlodio's supposed grandson Childerich was limited to "Belgica Secunda"[8], the latter's son Clovis subjugated the different Frankish sub-groups in the territory of what is now France and, by the end of his life, ruled between the Rhine and Loire valleys as well as in Aquitaine.  His successors conquered Provence, Burgundy, Rhaetia, Alemannia and Thuringia. 

 

Merovingian royal rule was regionalised.  For example the four sons of King Clotaire I, who died in 561, ruled different territories from their bases in Paris, Orléans, Metz and Soissons.  The divisions were later formalised into the kingdoms of Austrasia (from the Rhine to the Seine valley, including Flanders and Holland) and Neustria (between the Seine and Loire valleys), these names being used for the first time by Gregory of Tours in 577. 

 

There are many areas of uncertainty in the detail of the genealogy of the Merovingian kings.  The earliest generations are reconstructed for the most part from the History of the Franks written by Gregory of Tours in the latter part of the 6th century.  As will be seen below, little supplementary information concerning the early generations is provided by other near contemporary sources, and all subsequent chroniclers appear to have used Gregory as their primary source.  Gregory was well-informed about contemporary political events and the lives of members of the ruling family[9].  For example, he writes of his personal role in the events which followed the second marriage of Queen Brunechildis [Brunechilde] to Merovech in 576[10].  However, his narrative spans more than a hundred years so it would not be surprising if there were inaccuracies relating to individuals in the earlier part of the history.  Dating presents a particular difficulty in Gregory as he rarely specifies dates, although he frequently refers to an occurrence happening a specific number of years after another event.  The documents known collectively as the Chronicle of Fredegar provide a comparable level of genealogical detail for the Merovingian rulers until the mid-7th century, although as with other sources the narrative dealing with the earlier years appears based almost exclusively on Gregory's work. 

 

From the later 7th century onwards, less detail is known about the families of the Merovingian kings.  This reflects the decline in their personal power and the corresponding rise in the influence of their palace maiores domus, particularly those from the family whose descendants were later known as the Carolingian dynasty.  This absence of information about the later kings is so marked that the relationships between two of them, Clotaire IV and Childerich III, and the main royal line is entirely speculative. 

 

This document sets out the families of the Merovingian Frankish kings.  The families of the maiores domus of the kingdoms of Austrasia, Burgundy and Neustria, as well as other Merovingian nobility, are shown in the companion document MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EARLY FRANKISH LEADERS in GAUL

 

 

1.         [CHLODIO, son of ---.  Chlodio appears to have been the first Frankish leader to have invaded northern France.  Gregory of Tours records that, according to "the consular lists", Chlodio "a man of high birth and marked ability among his people" was king of the Franks and lived in the castle of Duisburg [Dispargum] in Thuringia.  He reports that Chlodio defeated the Romans and captured the town of Cambrai, before occupying Gaul as far as the river Somme[11].  Assuming that Chlodio was a historical figure, he was presumably only one of several local Frankish leaders as Gregory also reports that "the Franks…set up in each country district and each city long-haired kings chosen from the foremost and most noble family of their race"[12].  It is assumed that Chlodio was not the only Frankish leader who invaded Roman Gaul.  There is no direct reference to the dating of the invasion, but it presumably took place during the first half of the 5th century.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Faramundo rege, Chlodionem filium eius" when recording that he succeeded his father, in a later passage stating that he reigned for 20 years[13], but there is no basis for assuming that Faramund was a historical figure.]    

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of the FRANKS [451/57]-751 (MEROVINGIANS)

 

 

[MEROVECH (-[451/57]).  It is not known whether Merovech, after whom the dynasty was named, was a purely mythical figure or if there is some factual basis for his existence.  If he did exist, his precise ancestry is not known.  Gregory of Tours writes that "some say that Merovech, the father of Childeric, was descended from Chlodio"[14] but this is the only reference he makes to Merovech in his work.  The early 8th century Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Merovechus de genere eius" as successor to Chlodio, commenting that he gave his name to the dynasty[15].  Fredegar asserts, colourfully, that Merovech was conceived when Chlodio's wife went swimming and encountered a Quinotaur[16].  It is possible that Merovech succeeded Chlodio as leader of the Franks in Roman Gaul.  Assuming that he did enjoy some sort of leadership role over some or all of the Frankish tribes in Gaul, it seems inappropriate to attribute the title "king" to Merovech.  In the first place, it is likely that his leadership was localised.  In addition, Roman domination continued until the overthrow in 476 of the last Roman Emperor in the West, Romulus Augustulus, and no documentary evidence has so far been found which suggests that there was a sub-level of Frankish administration under the Roman emperor, despite the fact that imperial authority was in decline during the later years.] 

m ---.  The name of Merovech's wife is not known. 

Merovech is recorded as having one child: 

1.         CHILDERICH (-Tournai [481/82], bur Tournai).  Gregory of Tours records that Merovech was the father of Childerich[17].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Merovechus…filium…Childerico"[18].  He succeeded in [451/57] as leader of the Franks in Roman Gaul, and subsequently adopted the title CHILDERICH I King of the Franks, confirmed by his undated seal which bears the title "Childerici Regiz"[19].  Gregory of Tours records that King Childerich's "private life was one long debauch" and that he was forced into exile in Thuringia by his subjects who chose as his replacement the Roman General Ægidius, named magister militum per Gallias in [456/57] and who ruled for 8 years[20].  Gregory of Tours records Childerich's restoration as king in Gaul, followed by his alliance with "Odovacar…[and] his Saxons" (indicating that this is unlikely to refer to the Ostrogoth leader in Italy), and their joint subjugation of the Alamans[21].  A letter from Remigius Bishop of Reims to Childerich's son Clovis congratulates the latter on taking over his father's position in "Belgica Secunda"[22], implying that Childerich's authority was limited to the north-east part of Gaul.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericus rex" reigned for 24 years[23]m ([464]) as her second husband, BASINA, formerly wife of BASINUS King of Thuringia, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Basina as wife of Basinus King of Thuringia, with whom King Childerich sought refuge after being deposed, Basina deserting her first husband to join Childerich after he was restored as king in Gaul[24].  The marriage date is estimated on the basis of how long Childerich was allegedly in exile, assuming that the date of his deposition is accurate, and appears to be consistent with the estimated dates of birth of the couple's descendants.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericus rex" committed adultery with "in Toringam…Basina regina uxorem Bisini regis" who abandoned her husband to join Childerich[25].  Assuming that Basina existed, it is unlikely that her first name is correct considering that it is the feminine form of her first husband's name.  King Childerich & his wife had four children: 

a)         CHLODOVECH [Clovis] ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours names Clovis as son of Childerich & Basina[26].  He succeeded his father in [481/82] as CLOVIS I King of the Franks

-        see below

b)         LANDECHILDIS [Lantilde].  Gregory of Tours names Lanthechild as sister of King Clovis, specifying that she was baptised with him after having followed the Arian faith[27].  She converted to Arianism, according to the title of one of the sermons of Avitus Bishop of Vienne[28]

c)         AUDOFLEDIS .  Gregory of Tours names Audofleda as sister of King Clovis, recording that she married Theodoric King of Italy[29].  Iordanes records the marriage of Theodoric and "Lodoin Francorum regem filiam eius Audefledam" and names her brothers "Celdebertum et Heldebertum et Thiudebertum"[30], although this is presumably an incorrect reference to her nephews and great-nephew with similar names.  m ([492]) THEODORIC King of the Ostrogoths in Italy, illegitimate son of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia & his concubine Ereleuva --- ([454]-30 Aug 526). 

d)         ALBOFLEDIS (-after 496).  Gregory of Tours names Albofled as sister of King Clovis, specifying that she was baptised but died soon after, St Rémy sending a letter of condolence to her brother[31].  From the context, it would appear that her baptism took place around the same time as her brother was baptised.  “Remigius Episcopus” wrote to “Chlodoveo Regi” consoling him on the death of “germana vestra…Albochledis[32]

 

 

Three brothers, relatives of King Clovis although the exact relationship is not known: 

1.         RAGNACHAR .  Gregory of Tours records "a king called Ragnachar…sunk in debauchery" living at Cambrai whom King Clovis defeated in battle and murdered[33].  The relationship between the two monarchs is indicated by the Liber Historiæ Francorum which records that "Clodovechus" defeated "Ragnachario parente suo"[34]

2.         RICCHAR .  Gregory of Tours names Ricchar as brother of Ragnachar, recording that he was murdered with his brother by King Clovis[35]

3.         RIGNOMER (-killed Le Mans ----).  Gregory of Tours names Rignomer as brother of Ragnachar and Ricchar, recording that he was put to death at Le Mans after his brothers were killed[36]

 

 

CHLODOVECH [Clovis], son of CHILDERICH I King of the Franks & his wife Basina --- ([464/67]-Paris [27 Nov] 511, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours names Clovis as son of Childerich & Basina[37].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childerico" as father of "Chlodovecho rege"[38].  He succeeded his father in [481/82] as CLOVIS I King of the Franks.  He defeated Syagrius, ruler at Soissons, in 486.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlodovechus" expanded his kingdom "usque Sequanam" and afterwards "usque Ligere fluvio"[39].  He remained a pagan after his marriage to a Catholic wife, but converted to Christianity in [496] allegedly having vowed to do so if successful in a battle against the Alamans[40].  He allied with Godegisel against Gondebaud King of Burgundy in [500][41].  He defeated and killed Alaric II King of the Visigoths at the campus Vogladensis[42], probably Voulan, near Poitiers, athough this is popularly known as the battle of Vouillé[43], in 507.  Gregory of Tours records that Clovis took control of the territory of Sigebert King of the Franks of the Rhine, after persuading Sigeric's son Chloderic to kill his father and then killing Chloderic, as well as the territory of Chararic King of the Salian Franks[44].  Gregory of Tours records the death of King Clovis in Paris "five years after the battle of Vouillé" and his burial in the church of the Holy Apostles, which he and Queen Clotilde had built[45]

[m firstly] ---, daughter of --- [of the Franks of the Rhine].  According to Gregory of Tours, the mother of Theoderich was one of King Clovis's concubines not his first wife[46].  Settipani[47] suggests that Theoderich’s mother was a Frank from the Rhine region, based on the inheritance of Austrasia by Theoderich and the roots "Theode-" and "-rich" in his name, possibly transmitted through his mother from Theodemer and Richomer who were both 4th century Frankish kings. 

m [secondly] (492) CHROTECHILDIS [Clotilde/Rotilde[48]] of Burgundy, daughter of CHILPERICH King of Burgundy & his wife --- ([480]-Tours, monastery of Saint-Martin 544 or 548, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours names "Clotilde" as the younger daughter of Chilperich, recording that she and her sister were driven into exile by their paternal uncle King Gundobad, but that the latter accepted a request for her hand in marriage from Clovis King of the Franks[49].  Fredegar states that she was driven into exile to Geneva by her uncle, after he allegedly murdered her father, and that King Clovis requested her hand in marriage as a means of controlling Gundobad's power[50].  A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" names "uxoris meæ Chrochildis…patris Chilperici regis Burgundiorum"[51].  Gregory of Tours records Clotilde's lack of success in converting her husband to Christianity until the fifteenth year of his reign, when he and his people were baptised by St Rémy Bishop of Reims[52].  Gregory of Tours records that Queen Clotilde became a nun at the church of St Martin at Tours after her husband died, and in a later passage records her death in Tours and burial in Paris next to her husband in the church which she had built[53].  She was canonised by the Catholic church, feast day 3 Jun[54]

King Clovis & his first [wife/concubine] had one child: 

1.         THEODERICH ([485]-end 533, bur Metz).  Gregory of Tours names Theoderich as son of King Clovis by one of his mistresses, born before his marriage to Clotilde[55].  "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[56].  In 508, he led his father's campaign against the Visigoths, allied with the Burgundians[57], and temporarily occupied Aquitaine.  He succeeded his father in 511 as THEODERICH I King of the Franks, based at Reims, his territory covering the right bank of the Rhine, the Moselle valley and Champagne, the lands which were later to become the kingdom of Austrasia.  He helped Hermanfrid King of the Thuringians defeat the latter's brother Baderic, after being promised half his kingdom, a promise which was not kept[58].  Gregory of Tours records that King Theoderich and his half-brother King Clotaire invaded Thuringia in 531, deposed King Hermanfred (who was later killed) and annexed the kingdom[59].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum", a marginal addition recording that "Teodericus filius Clodovei ex concubina" threw "Ermenfridum regem" from a wall and killed his two sons[60].  Adam of Bremen names "Hadugato" as the duke of the Saxons to whom "Theodericus rex Francorum" sent legates[61], undated but recorded immediately after the Thuringian invasion of 531.  Gregory of Tours records the death of Theoderich in the twenty third year of his reign[62]m firstly ---.  The assumed birth date range of King Theoderich's son, Theodebert, indicates that the king's known wife, the daughter of the Burgundian king, could not have been Theodebert’s mother, considering her estimated birth date.  The king must therefore have been married earlier, or at least have had an earlier concubine, although no information has been found about this first partner in any of the primary sources consulted.  Europäische Stammtafeln states that the king’s first wife was named "Suavegotta (died by 566)"[63].  Presumably this is based on Flodoard’s history of Reims, quoted below under the king’s second wife.  If this is correct, the king must have repudiated his first wife before marrying the Burgundian king’s daughter.  However, no indication has been found in any source about such a repudiation.  It is more natural to assume that, if Suavegotha was indeed the name of one of Theoderich’s wives (which in itself cannot be proved conclusively as discussed further below), she was his second wife.  m secondly ([507/16]) [SUAVEGOTHA] of Burgundy, daughter of SIGISMOND King of Burgundy & his first wife Ostrogotha of the Ostrogoths (495 or later-[after 549]).  Gregory of Tours records that Theoderich King of the Franks married the daughter of Sigismond but does not name her[64].  Gregory does not name the mother of King Theoderich’s wife, but chronologically it is more probable that she was born from King Sigismond's first marriage, which is also suggested by the root "-gotha" in her first name.  Her name is suggested by Flodoard’s history of the church of Reims, dated to the mid-10th century.  This source records that "Suavegotta regina" bequeathed one third of "ville Virisiaci" by testament to the church of Reims during the bishopric of Bishop Mapinius, subject to the life interest of "Teudichildi prefate regine filie", adding that the latter later confirmed the donation during the bishopric of Bishop Egidius[65].  The identification of "Suavegotha regina" as King Theoderich’s wife depends on the identification of "Teudchildi" as their daughter which, as explained in more detail below, is uncertain.  The link cannot therefore definitively be made between "Suavegotha" and the daughter of Sigismond King of Burgundy.  Nevertheless, the chronology for such a link is favourable, as the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores edition of Flodoard dates Mapinius’s bishopric to "ca 549-573" and Egidius’s to "ca 573-590"[66].  King Theoderich & his first [wife/concubine] had one child: 

a)         THEODEBERT ([499/504]-end 547).  Gregory of Tours names Theodebert as son of Theoderich, specifying that he was born before the death of his paternal grandfather[67].  His birth date range is narrowed more precisely to [499/504] on the assumption that he was a young adolescent when he led the Frankish campaign against the Danes, dated to 515: Gregory of Tours records that his father sent him "with a powerful army" to repel the Danish invasion led by Chlochilaich[68].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum"[69].  He succeeded his father in 533 as THEODEBERT I King of the Franks at Reims, Gregory of Tours recording that his childless uncle Childebert then adopted him as his heir[70].  Gregory records King Theodebert's campaign in northern Italy, which he appears to date to before the death of Queen Wisigardis which is recorded in the following section[71].  Theodebert subjugated Pannonia and threatened to attack Byzantium across the Danube.  He was killed while hunting[72].  Gregory of Tours records that he died in the fourteenth year of his reign, and 37 years after the death of his paternal grandfather[73].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 548 of "Theudebertus rex magnus Francorum"[74]m firstly ([end 533/early 534]) as her second husband, DEOTERIA, widow of ---, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours records that Theodebert seduced Deoteria, wife of an inhabitant of Cabrières near Béziers, after his betrothal to Wisigardis, and in a later passage that he married her after the death of his father[75].  According to Gregory of Tours, Theodebert deserted her after being pressured to marry his previous betrothed, but refused to take her back after his second wife died[76]m secondly (betrothed before 533, 540) WISIGARDIS, daughter of WACHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha of the Gepides (-[541/42]).  Paulus Diaconus names "Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Wisigarda married "Theodeperto regi Francorum[77].  Gregory of Tours records that Theoderich betrothed his son Theodebert to "Wisigard, a king's daughter" and in a later passage that Theodebert married her "seven years [after he] had become engaged to [her]" after being pressured to desert Deoteria but that Wisigardis "soon died"[78]m thirdly ([542/47]) ---.  Gregory of Tours records that Theodebert "married another woman" after his second wife died but gives no details[79].  King Theodebert & his first wife had two children: 

i)          daughter ([532/33] or before-drowned Verdun ----).  Gregory of Tours records that Deoteria bore a daughter to Theodebert, who left mother and child at Clermont-Ferrand when he returned to assert his claim to the throne on learning that his father was dying[80].  In a later passage, he records that this daughter drowned in the river after her mother tipped her over a bridge in Verdun "afraid that the king might desire her and take advantage of her"[81]

ii)         THEODEBALD ([534]-555).  Gregory of Tours names Theodebald as the son of Theodebert and his wife Deoteria, implying that he was born after his parents' marriage[82].  He succeeded his father in 547 as THEODEBALD I King of the Franks at Reims, "sous la régence de sa tante Theodechildis"[83].  Settipani does not provide the source reference on which he bases this last statement.  On Theodebald’s death, his territory was taken by his great uncle King Clotaire.  Gregory of Tours records that he had a stroke and could not move from the waist down, dying in the seventh year of his reign[84].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 555 of "Theudebaldus rex Francorum"[85]m ([554]) as her first husband, WALDRADA, daughter of WACHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha of the Gepides.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Wisigarda…secundæ Walderada" as the two daughters of Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Waldrada married "Scusuald regis Francorum" and later "Garipald"[86].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Waldrada" as Wacho's second daughter by his second wife, specifying that she married "Chusubald rex Francorum"[87].  Paulus Diaconus names "Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho and his second wife, specifying that Waldrada married "Cusupald alio regi Francorum" and later "Garipald"[88].  Gregory of Tours names "Vuldetrada" as the wife of King Theodebald[89]Herimannus names "Wanderadam" wife of "Theodpaldus rex Francorum" when recording her second marriage to "Lotharius rex patris eius Theodeberti patruus"[90].  According to Gregory of Tours, King Clotaire "began to have intercourse" with the widow of King Theodebald before "the bishops complained and he handed her over to Garivald Duke of Bavaria"[91], which does not imply that Clotaire married Waldrada.  She [married secondly], her first husband's great-uncle, Clotaire I King of the Franks, and thirdly (after 555) Garibald Duke in Bavaria

King Theodebert & his [first/second/third] wife had one child:

iii)        BERTHOARA (-after 566).  The Carmina of Fortunat name "Berthoara…filie digna patri, te, Theudebercthe" when recording that she encouraged the building of the baptistry of the church of Mainz[92].  She is not mentioned by Gregory of Tours, and it is not known who was her mother. 

King Theoderich & his second wife had one child:

b)         [THEODECHILDIS] [Techilde] ([516/20]-[570/595]).  Procopius records that "Varnis…Hermegisclus” married "Theodeberti Francorum regis sororem" after the death of his first wife, that she gave birth to "Radiger", for whom his father requested marriage with "puellæ…natione Brittiæ, cuius frater tunc temporis Rex Anglorum erat", and that Radiger later married his own stepmother after his father died[93].  It is possible that the name of this daughter was Theodechildis but, as will be explained, the link is tentative.  Three different primary sources name a Queen Theodechildis.  Fortunatus, dated to the late 6th century, wrote an epitaph to “Theodechildis Reginæ”, commenting that "frater, genitor, conjux, avus, atque priores" of his eponymous subject were "regius ordo"[94].  Gregory of Tours, in one of his lesser-known works, records the return of "Nunninus…tribunus" from Auvergne and his entry in Auxerre "tempore…Theudechildæ reginæ" after giving tribute which he had collected "de Francia" to the same queen[95].  Flodoard, in his mid-9th century history of the church of Reims, names "Teudechildi, prefatæ reginæ [=Suavegotta regina] filiæ" when recording that her mother allowed her daughter the usufruct of property which she donated to the church of Reims, and later that Theodechildis made her own testamentary donation of the same property to Reims[96].  It is probable that these three sources all refer to the same person:  the only reference to another person named "Theodechildis" in the mid- to late-6th century relates to the concubine of King Charibert, who was a shepherd’s daughter (see below).  However, none of the sources specifies that Queen Theodechildis was the daughter of King Theoderich.  In addition, there is no source which confirms that "Suavegotha" was the name of Theoderich’s wife, as discussed more fully above.  There are three indications that Queen Theodechildis may have been King Theoderich’s daughter, and if so that she may also have been the same daughter who married the two kings of the Warnes.  Firstly, Fortunatus and Gregory accord the title "regina" to her, which provides the possible link to the Procopius text concerning the king’s daughter.  This is particularly relevant as so few individuals were described in contemporary sources as "queen" and therefore the number of alternative possible co-identities is restricted.  Secondly, the common use of the root "Theode-" in the first part of the two names suggests a close relationship.  Thirdly, the chronology is favourable.  Little help is provided by the history written by Gregory of Tours, the most thorough contemporary source for early Merovingian history, which does not refer to any daughter of King Theoderich I.  The reference to Auxerre in Gregory’s other work suggests a connection with Burgundy, which was ruled by King Gontran at the time (see below).  Assuming that the co-identity between Theodechildis and the daughter of King Theoderich is correct, it is possible that she retired to Burgundy after being repudiated by her second husband.  One remaining possible thread to trace further is indicated by Settipani, who states that her nephew King Theodebald succeeded as king in 547 "sous la régence de sa tante Theodechildis"[97].  However, the author does not provide the source reference on which he bases this statement.  There is no way therefore at present to verify whether the primary source in question includes the crucial link between the phrase "sa tante" and the name "Theodechildis".  [A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" purports to be written when "filia mea…Theodechildis" was becoming a nun[98].  The editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores series assumes that this charter refers to the daughter of King Theoderich[99], but if this is correct the document must be misdated.  Another charter, also classified as spurious, in the name of "Theodechildis filia Chlodoveo" purports to record a donation to the monastery of St Peter at Sens dated Sep 569[100].]  m firstly ([540]) as his [second] wife, HERMENGISEL King of the Warnes, son of --- (-before 547).  m secondly (before 547, repudiated [547/50]) her stepson, RADEGIS of the Warnes, son of HERMENGISEL King of the Warnes & his [first] wife ---.  .  

King Clovis & his second wife had [six] children:

2.         INGOMER (b and d 493).  Gregory of Tours names Ingomer as eldest son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, recording that his mother insisted on having him baptised against the wishes of her husband, who considered his early death as a sign of dissatisfaction on the part of the pagan gods[101]

3.         CHLODOMER ([494/95]-killed in battle Vézeronce 21 Jun 524).  Gregory of Tours names Chlodomer as second son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde[102].  "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[103].  He succeeded his father in 511 as CHLODOMER King of the Franks, at Orléans, his territory covering the Loire valley from Orléans to Tour, Chartres, Sens and Auxerre.  Gregory of Tours records that Chlodomer's mother incited him to attack Burgundy to revenge the death of her parents.  He defeated and captured Sigismond King of Burgundy in his first invasion, but was defeated and killed by Sigismond's brother Gondemar during a second invasion[104].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlodomiris" led an army into Burgundy against "Godmarum", a marginal additional recording that "Gladmirus filius Clodovei regis Francorum" was killed during the course of the attack[105]m ([514] or 521) as her first husband, GUNTHEUCA [Gondioque], daughter of --- [King of Burgundy].  Gregory of Tours names Guntheuc as widow of King Chlodomer and records her second marriage with his brother Clotaire, but does not give her origin[106].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlotharius" married "uxorem fratris sui…Gundeucam"[107].  Settipani suggests, for onomastic reasons only, that she may have belonged to the Burgundian royal family which, if correct, means that she may have been the daughter of either King Gondebaud or his brother Godogisel[108].  However, Gregory makes no mention of this in his lengthy description of King Chlodomer's campaigns in Burgundy, an omission which is surprising if the king’s wife was related to his opponents.  She married secondly ([524]) as his first wife, Clotaire I [Chlothachar/Lothar] King of the Franks.  King Chlodomer & his wife had three children: 

a)         THEODEBALD ([521]-murdered Paris 531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudovald, Gunthar and Chlodovald as the sons of King Chlodomer, specifying that their paternal grandmother took them into her own household after the death of their father[109].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "filios…Chlodomire orfanos Theudovaldo, Gunthario et Chlodoaldo" were brought up by "Chrodchildis regina" after their father was killed[110].  In a later passage, Gregory records that the two older sons were murdered by their uncle King Clotaire, who suspected that his mother was plotting for their succession to the throne, specifying that the older son was 10 years old[111]

b)         GUNTHAR ([523]-murdered Paris 531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudovald, Gunthar and Chlodovald as the sons of King Chlodomer, specifying that their paternal grandmother took them into her own household after the death of their father[112].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "filios…Chlodomire orfanos Theudovaldo, Gunthario et Chlodoaldo" were brought up by "Chrodchildis regina" after their father was killed[113].  In a later passage, Gregory records that the two older sons were murdered by their uncle King Clotaire, who suspected that his mother was plotting for their succession to the throne, specifying that the younger son was 7 years old[114]

c)         CHLODOVALD [Cloud] ([524]-7 Sep [560], bur Monastery of Saint-Martin [later Saint-Cloud] near Paris).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudovald, Gunthar and Chlodovald as the sons of King Chlodomer, specifying that their paternal grandmother took them into her own household after the death of their father[115].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "filios…Chlodomire orfanos Theudovaldo, Gunthario et Chlodoaldo" were brought up by "Chrodchildis regina" after their father was killed[116].  In a later passage, Gregory records that Chlodovald escaped the fate of his brothers and entered a religious life[117].  He became a monk at Nogent (now Saint-Cloud), near Paris, where he founded the monastery of Saint-Martin, renamed Saint-Cloud by the 8th century.   The Vita Sancti Chlodovaldi records the death of Chlodovald on "VII Id Sep" but does not specify the year[118].  He was canonised as St Cloud, feast day 7 Sep[119]

4.         CHILDEBERT ([497]-23 Dec 558, bur Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés).  Gregory of Tours names Childebert as son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, listed after Chlodomer and before Clotaire[120].  "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[121].  He succeeded his father in 511 as CHILDEBERT I King of the Franks, at Paris, his territory covering the Seine and Somme valleys as well as the northern coast of France as far as Brittany, Nantes and Angers.  Gregory of Tours records that King Childebert attacked and defeated Amalric King of the Visigoths[122], which marked the end of the Visigothic government in France and the start of the transfer of their power-base to Spain.  He and his brother Clotaire launched a third attack on Burgundy, besieged Autun and occupied the whole kingdom, deposing King Gondemar II[123].  Gregory of Tours records that the childless King Childebert adopted his nephew Theodebert as his heir after the death of the latter's father[124].  He founded the monastery in Paris which, from the end 11th century, was called Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  Gregory of Tours records the death of King Childebert in Paris and his burial in the church of St Vincent[125].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 558 of "Childebertus rex Francorum"[126]m ULTROGOTHA, daughter of --- (-after 561, bur Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés).  Gregory of Tours names Ultrogotha as the wife of King Childebert, specifying that she was sent into exile with her two daughters by King Clotaire after her husband died[127].  Childebert I & his wife had two children: 

a)         CHRODESINDIS (-after [566/67], bur Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés).  Gregory of Tours records that Ultrogotha and her two (unnamed) daughters were sent into exile by King Clotaire after her husband died[128].  Settipani cites a spurious charter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés dated 20 Aug 566, "falsified in the 11th century from a lost act of King Clotaire I", which names the two sisters[129]

b)         CHRODOBERGA (-after [566/67]).  Gregory of Tours records that Ultrogotha and her two (unnamed) daughters were sent into exile by King Clotaire after her husband died[130].  Settipani cites a spurious charter of Saint-Germain-des-Prés dated 20 Aug 566, "falsified in the 11th century from a lost act of King Clotaire I", which names the two sisters[131]

5.         CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire/Lothar] ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard).  Gregory of Tours names Clotaire as son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, listed after Childebert[132].  He succeeded his father in 511 as CLOTAIRE I King of the Franks, at Soissons. 

-        see below

6.         [THEODECHILDIS ([492/501]-576).  A charter dated 2 Oct [499], classified as spurious in the collection, of "Clodoveus rex Francorum" purports to be written when "filia mea…Theodechildis" was becoming a nun[133].  As noted above, the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ Scriptores series assumes that this charter refers to the daughter of King Theoderich[134].  Another charter, classified as spurious, in the name of "Theodechildis filia Chlodoveo" purports to record a donation to the monastery of St Peter at Sens dated Sep 569[135].  She founded the monastery of Mauriac in Auvergne[136]m ---, king.] 

7.         CHROTHIELDIS [Clotilde] ([502/11]-531, bur Paris, basilique des Saints-Apôtres [later église de Sainte-Geneviève]).  Gregory of Tours refers to the marriage of the (unnamed) sister of the four brothers Theoderich, Chlodomer, Childebert and Clotaire with Amalric King of the Visigoths, arranged after the death of their father, specifying that she was sent to Spain "with a great dowry of expensive jewellery"[137].  Procopius records that “rex…Visigotthorum Amalaricus” married "Regis Theodeberti sororem"[138].  Gregory names her Clotilde in a later passage in which he records that she was maltreated by her husband, and brought back to France by her brother King Childebert who attacked and defeated King Amalric, but died on the journey and was buried in Paris beside her father[139]m (511) AMALRIC King of the Visigoths, son of ALARIC II King of the Visigoths & his wife Theodegotha of the Ostrogoths (502-murdered 531). 

8.         [daughter .  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[140].  This is the only reference so far found to this supposed daughter of King Clovis, whose existence should presumably therefore be treated with caution.  The reference to her supposed grandson Arnold suggests some confusion with the sources which allege the existence of Bilichildis, possible daughter of King Clotaire I (see below).  m ---.]  [Two possible children:]

a)         [AGIULF (-22 Nov ----).  Bishop of Metz.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[141].  A list of bishops of Metz records "Aigulfus" as 26th bishop, holding the position for 20 years, and his death "X Kal Dec"[142].] 

b)         [daughter .  m ---.]  [One possible child:]

i)          [ARNOLD .  Bishop of Metz.  The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[143].  A list of bishops of Metz records "Aigulfus" as 27th bishop, holding the position for 8 years and one month, but omits the date of his death[144].] 

 

 

CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire/Lothar], son of CHLODOVECH King of the Franks & his second wife Chrotechildis of Burgundy ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard).  Gregory of Tours names Clotaire as son of King Clovis and his wife Clotilde, listed after Childebert[145].  "Theodorico, Chlomiro, Hildeberto, Hlodario" are named (in order) as sons of "Chlodoveus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[146].  He succeeded his father in 511 as CLOTAIRE I King of the Franks, at Soissons, his territory covering Soissons, Laon, Noyon, Arras, Cambrai, Tournai and the lower Meuse, the lands which were later to become the kingdom of Neustria.  Gregory of Tours records that King Clotaire and his half-brother King Theoderich invaded Thuringia in 531, deposed King Hermanfred and annexed the kingdom, specifying that Clotaire brought his second wife back as part of his booty[147].  He and his brother King Childebert launched a third attack on Burgundy, besieged Autun and occupied the whole kingdom, deposing King Gondemar II[148] in 534.  He invaded Spain, with his brother King Childebert, and besieged Zaragoza but was forced to withdraw[149].  He inherited the territories of his great-nephew King Theodebert in 555 and those of his brother King Childebert in 558, when he became sole king of the Franks.  Gregory of Tours records his death, in the fifty-first year of his reign on the first anniversary of the killing of his son Chramn, at Soissons from a fever caught while hunting in the forest of Cuise, and his burial at Soissons Saint Medard[150].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 561 of "Chlothachrius rex"[151]

m firstly ([524]) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, GUNTHEUCA [Gondioque], widow of CHLODOMER King of the Franks, daughter of --- [King of Burgundy].  Gregory of Tours names Guntheuc as widow of King Chlodomer and records her second marriage with his brother Clotaire, but does not give her origin[152].  Settipani suggests, for onomastic reasons only, that she may have belonged to the Burgundian royal family which, if correct, means that she must have been the daughter of either King Gondebaud or his brother Godogisel[153].  However, Gregory makes no mention of this in his lengthy description of King Chlodomer's campaigns in Burgundy, an omission which is surprising if the king’s wife was related to his opponents. 

m secondly (531, repudiated) RADEGUND of Thuringia, daughter of BERTHECHAR [Bertaire] King of the Thuringians & his wife --- (Erfurt 518-Poitiers 13 Aug 587, bur Poitiers, basilique Sainte-Marie-hors-les-Murs).  Gregory of Tours names Radegund as the orphaned daughter of Berthar[154].  The Vitæ Sanctæ Radegundis names "Radegundis natione barbare de regione Thoringa" and her "avo rege Bessino, patruo Hermenfredo, patre rege Bertechario"[155].  In a later passage, Gregory records that, after the Frankish invasion of Thuringia, Radegund formed part of the booty taken home by Clotaire I King of the Franks, who later married her[156].  The testament of Radegund dated to [584/87] survives[157].  Gregory of Tours records the death of St Radegund on 13 Aug[158].  She was canonised, her feast day is 13 Aug[159]

[m] thirdly ([532]) INGUNDIS [Ingonde], daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Ingund as the wife of King Clotaire and mother of six of his children[160].  She was King Clotaire's concubine from [517][161]

[m] fourthly ARNEGUNDIS [Aregonde], sister of his third wife Ingonde, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours specifies that King Clotaire's wife Aregonde was the sister of his wife Ingonde, making clear that the marriage was polygamous as he records that Clotaire reported his "marriage" to Aregonde to his wife Ingonde[162].  She is named "Chæregundem" in the Liber Historiæ Francorum[163]

[m] [fifthly] (555, repudiated) [as her second husband], WALDRADA, widow of THEODEBALD King of the Franks, daughter of WACCHO King of the Lombards & his second wife Ostrogotha of the Gepides.  According to Gregory of Tours, King Clotaire "began to have intercourse" with the widow of King Theodebald, before "the bishops complained and he handed her over to Garivald Duke of Bavaria"[164], which does not imply that Clotaire married Waldrada.  Herimannus names "Wanderadam" wife of "Theodpaldus rex Francorum" when recording her second marriage to "Lotharius rex patris eius Theodeberti patruus"[165].  She married thirdly (after 555) Garibald Duke in Bavaria

Mistress (1): CHUNSINA, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Chunsina as the mistress of King Clotaire, mother of Chramn[166].  She is named "Gunsinam" in the Liber Historiæ Francorum[167]

Mistress (2): ---.  The name of King Clotaire's second mistress is not known. 

King Clotaire & his third [wife] had [seven] children:

1.         GUNTHAR ([517]-after 532).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde, specifying that Gunthar died in his father's lifetime[168].  It is assumed that the first three children at least were born illegitimate.  Gregory of Tours reports that he served as an officer in his father's army, but died young[169]

2.         CHILDERICH (-before 561).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde, specifying that Childerich died during his father's lifetime[170].  It is assumed that the first three children at least were born illegitimate. 

3.         CHARIBERT ([520]-Paris end 567, bur [Paris, Saint-Germain des Prés]).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde[171].  It is assumed that the first three children at least were born illegitimate.  He succeeded his father in 561 as CHARIBERT King of the Franks, his territories covering those previously held by his uncle King Childebert, with Paris as his capital[172].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "filii ipsius Charibertus, Guntegramnus, Hilpericus et Sigibertus" divided the kingdom between them on the death of their father in 561[173]Herimannus names "Hariberti rex libidini deditus" when recording his marriages[174].  After his death, his kingdom was divided among his brothers.  m firstly (repudiated) INGOLBERGA [Ingelberge], daughter of --- ([520]-Tours 589).  Gregory of Tours names Ingoberg as the wife of King Charibert, but records that he dismissed her and took Merofled in her place[175]Herimannus records the repudiation by "Hariberti" of his wife "Ingoberga"[176].  She retired to Tours after her repudiation.  Gregory of Tours records the death of Queen Ingoberg, widow of Charibert, in the fourteenth year of King Childebert's reign, saying he thought that she was in her 70th year[177], although this age seems exaggerated considering the likely birth date of her daughter.  [m] secondly (after 561) MEROFLEDIS, daughter of ---, a wool-worker.  Gregory of Tours records that King Charibert fell in love with the two daughters of a wool-worker, Marcovefa and Merofled, and that after Queen Ingoberg humiliated their father by making him prepare wool for the royal household he dismissed the Queen and replaced her by Merofled[178].  [m] thirdly (after 561) THEODECHILDIS, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Theudechild, daughter of the shepherd who looked after King Charibert's flocks, as another of the king's women and that after Charibert died she offered her hand in marriage to King Gontran, who seized most of her goods and packed her off to a nunnery at Arles from which she unsuccessfully tried to escape[179].  [m] fourthly his sister-in-law, MARCOVEFA, sister of MEROFLEDIS, daughter of --- (-before end 567).  Gregory of Tours records the marriage of King Charibert and Marcovefa, sister of Merofled, for which they were excommunicated by "Saint Germanus the Bishop", as well as Marcovefa's death soon after before her husband[180].  King Charibert & his first wife had one child:

a)         BERTA ([before 560]-[601/before 616], bur Canterbury, Church of St Peter and St Paul).  Gregory of Tours records that the daughter of King Charibert and Ingoberg "eventually married a man from Kent and went to live there"[181].  Bede records that "rex Aedilberct in Cantia" had "uxorem…Christianam de gente Francorum regia…Bercta" whom he had received "a parentibus" on condition she retained her religion[182].  It is reasonable to assume that Berta was born before 560, given the subsequent marital history of her father, who died in 567 having married three times after repudiating his first wife, although it is possible that some if not all of his marriages were polygamous.  Kirby suggests that Berta's marriage took place in [580] after analysing the various contradictory chronological indications in contemporary sources[183].  According to Bede, as noted above, King Æthelberht received Bertha "a parentibus".  As her father died in 567, and her mother in 589, this appears to mean that she married before 567 if taken literally, which seems unlikely.  The word "parents" may in this context mean "relatives" more broadly.  Already a Christian when she came to England, she was accompanied by Liudhard, a Frankish bishop[184], although if he attempted to convert her husband his efforts must have been unsuccessful in view of the later conversion of King Æthelberht by St Augustine.  Queen Berta is named in Pope Gregory I's letter of 601 to her husband[185].  Bede records the burial of "Aedilbert tex Cantuariorum" in "portico sancti Martini intro ecclesiam beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli" stating that this was where "Berctæ regina" was buried[186]m ([580]) as his first wife, ÆTHELBERHT King of Kent, son of EORMENRIC King of Kent & his wife --- (after [550]-24 Feb 616, bur Canterbury, Church of St Peter and St Paul). 

King Charibert & his [second] [wife] had one child:

b)         BERTHEFLEDIS (after 561-after 589).  Gregory of Tours names Berthefled as daughter of King Charibert, recording that she lived at the nunnery of St Martin at Tours but left to live at Le Mans (after a visit by Queen Ingiltrude complaining about her daughter Berthegund, which dates the event to 589), and that "she was a woman who ate and slept a lot, and she had no interest at all in the holy offices"[187].  The primary source which confirms that she was born from her father’s second [marriage] has not yet been identified. 

King Charibert & his third wife had one child:

c)         son (b and d after 561).  Gregory of Tours refers to the unnamed son of King Charibert and Theudechild who was buried immediately after his birth[188]

King Charibert & his --- wife had [one child]:

d)         [CHROTIELDIS [Clotilde] ([after 561]-after 590).  Gregory of Tours records that Clotilde, who "used to pretend that she was Charibert's daughter" (which suggests doubt about the correctness of her assertion), led a revolt in the convent of Sainte-Croix in Poitiers, together with Basina daughter of King Chilperich, against abbess Leubovera[189].  She was excommunicated for involvement in political intrigue, but accepted back at her convent.  If Chrotieldis was the daughter of King Charibert, no indication has been found concerning the identity of her mother.] 

4.         GUNTCHRAMN [Gontran] ([532/34]-28 Mar 592, bur basilique Saint-Marcel, near Chalon-sur-Saône).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde[190].  He succeeded his father in 561 as GONTRAN King of the Franks, his territories covering those previously held by his uncle King Chlodomer, with Orléans as his capital[191].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "filii ipsius Charibertus, Guntegramnus, Hilpericus et Sigibertus" divided the kingdom between them on the death of their father in 561[192].  He adopted his nephew King Childebert II as his successor in 577, the arrangement being renewed under the treaty of Andelot dated 28 Nov 587[193].  Fredegar records the death of King Guntram "anno 33 regni…V Kal Apr" and his burial "in ecclesia sancti Marcelli" in the monastery which he had built[194]m firstly ([556]) MARCATRUDIS, daughter of MAGNACHAR Duke of the Transjuranian Franks & his wife --- (-after [556]).  Gregory of Tours names Marcatrude, daughter of Magnachar, as the wife of King Gontran, specifying that she poisoned her stepson Gundobald but died soon after her own son[195]m secondly (566) AUSTRECHILDIS [Bobilla], daughter of --- ([548]-Sep 580).  Gregory of Tours names Austrechild "also called Bobilla" as the second wife of King Gontran[196].  She was a servant in the household of his first wife's father.  Gregory of Tours records the death of Queen Austrechild, specifying that "this wicked woman" requested as a dying wish that the two doctors who had unsuccessfully treated her should have their throats cut[197].  An epitaph to “Austrigildis Reginæ” refers to her as “Regum genetrix et Regia conjunx[198].  The record of the Council of Valence dated 22 Jun 585 names “Guntramni Regis…bonæ memoriæ iugalis sua Austrechildis regina vel filiæ eorum Deo sacratæ puellæ…bonæ memoriæ Clodeberga vel Clodehildis[199]Mistress (1): (before [549]) VENERANDA, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Veneranda, servant of one of his subjects, as the mistress of King Gontran before his first marriage[200].  King Gontran & his first wife had one child:

a)         son (-after [556]).  Gregory of Tours refers to, but does not name, the son of King Gontran and Queen Marcatrudis, specifying that he died soon after the murder of his half-brother Gundobald[201]

King Gontran & his second wife had four children:

b)         CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire] ([567]-577 or before).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Clotaire and Chlodomer as the two sons of King Gontran & his second wife but refers to him as having been "left childless" in a later passage which records that he adopted his nephew King Childebert II as his heir[202].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 577 of "regis atque egregii adolescente Chlothacarius et Chlodomeris filii Gunthegramni regis"[203].  An epitaph is written in honour of “Clotharii fratris Chlodomeri[204]

c)         CHLODOMER (-577 or before).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Lothar and Chlodomer as the two sons of King Gontran & his second wife but refers to him as having been "left childless" in a later passage which records that he adopted his nephew King Childebert II as his heir[205].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 577 of "regis atque egregii adolescente Chlothacarius et Chlodomeris filii Gunthegramni regis"[206].  An epitaph is written in honour of “Chlodomeri filii Guntchramni Regis[207]

d)         CHLODOBERGA (-before 22 Jun 585).  The record of the Council of Valence dated 22 Jun 585 names “Guntramni Regis…bonæ memoriæ iugalis sua Austrechildis regina vel filiæ eorum Deo sacratæ puellæ…bonæ memoriæ Clodeberga vel Clodehildis[208]

e)         CHROTHIELDIS (-before 22 Jun 585).  The record of the Council of Valence dated 22 Jun 585 names “Guntramni Regis…bonæ memoriæ iugalis sua Austrechildis regina vel filiæ eorum Deo sacratæ puellæ…bonæ memoriæ Clodeberga vel Clodehildis[209].  The treaty of Andelot dated Nov 587, quoted by Gregory of Tours, confirms donations by King Guntram to his daughter Clotilde[210]

King Gontran had one child by Mistress (1):

f)          GUNDOBALD ([549]-after [556]).  Gregory of Tours names Gundobad as son of King Gontran and his mistress Veneranda, specifying that his father sent him to Orléans and that he was poisoned by his stepmother Queen Marcatrudis[211].    

5.         SIGEBERT ([535]-murdered Vitry [Nov/Dec] 575, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde[212].  He succeeded his father in 561 as SIGEBERT I King of the Franks, at Reims, later at Metz. 

-        see below

6.         CHLODESINDIS (-before 567[213]).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde, specifying that Clothsind married Alboin King of the Lombards[214].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Flutsuinda…filia Flothario regis Francorum" as the first wife of Albuin[215].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Ludusenda…filia Flothari regis" as the first wife of Alboin[216].  Paulus Diaconus names "Chlotharius rex Francorum, Chlotsuindam ei suam filiam" as wife of Alboin[217]m ([556/60]) as his first wife, ALBOIN King of the Lombards, son of AUDOIN King of the Lombards & his wife --- (-murdered 28 Jun 572).  He was crowned King of the Lombards in Italy at Milan in [570]. 

7.         [BILICHILDIS .  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlotharius…rex" had seven children by "Ingunde", the same six as are named in Gregory of Tours with a marginal note adding "Blitchildim" as the seventh child and specifying that she married "Ansbertus nobilissimus" and by him was mother of "Arnoldum"[218].  An alternative origin for Bilichildis is provided by the Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude which names “Dagobertum Regem et Blithildem sororem eius” as children of “Lotharius…[et] Beretrudam” (chronologically impossible if she was the grandmother of Arnoul Bishop of Metz), but commenting that “others say” that Bilichildis was the daughter of “primi Lotharii avi istius”, adding that Bilichildis married “Ansberto Duci nobili in Germania[219].  The Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum names "Hlotharius [rex]…filia…Blithild" and records her marriage to "Ansbertus"[220].  The recorded names of the alleged children of Bilichildis do not have a Merovingian ring about them.  It is uncertain whether Bilichildis existed at all or whether she and her family were invented for the purposes of compiling a Merovingian descent for the Carolingian dynasty, an enterprise undertaken in Metz from the late 8th century onwards.  Her absence from the list of the children of King Clotaire given by Gregory of Tours certainly suggests that she was a spurious later invention, although Gregory's treatment of the families of the early Merovingians was not exhaustive, as can be seen from the examples of Berthoara, daughter of King Theodebald I, and [Theodechildis] sister of the same king (see above), whom Gregory does not mention at all.  Settipani demonstrates convincingly that there are sufficient indications in other primary sources that parts, if not all, these reconstructions may be based on historical fact[221].  Sifting the fact from the fiction is inevitably speculative.  m ANSBERT, son of ---.  A 9th century genealogy names "Ansbertus…ex genere senatorum", his brothers "Deotarium, Firminum, Gamardum, Aigulfum episcopum et Ragnifridum" and their supposed descendants, Ansbert's marriage to "filiam Hlotarii regis Francorum…Blithildem" and their children as shown below[222].] 

King Clotaire & his fourth wife had one child:

8.         CHILPERICH (before 535-murdered Chelles [27 Sep/9 Oct] 584, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  Gregory of Tours names Chilperich as the son of King Clotaire and his wife Aregund[223].  He succeeded his father in 561 as CHILPERICH I King of the Franks, at Soissons.   

-        see below, after SIGEBERT I

King Clotaire had one child by Mistress (1):

9.          CHRAMN (-murdered [30 Nov/31 Dec] 560).  Gregory of Tours names Chramn as the son of King Clotaire and his concubine Chunsina[224].  Gregory records that Chramn was hated by the townsfolk of Clermont-Ferrand, where he lived, for his dissolute way of life, and in a later passage specifies that he moved on to Poitiers where he conspired against his father[225].  Gregory also says that Chramn allied himself with his uncle King Childebert in Paris, later rebelling once more against his father before fleeing to Brittany, where he and his wife and daughters went into hiding with "Chanao Count of the Bretons" but were captured and murdered[226].   The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Cramnus filius Chlothacharii regis" sought a hiding place from "Childeberto patruo suo" in 555[227].  Paulus Diaconus records that "duce Francorum Chramnichis" laid waste to Trentino after defeating a Lombard invasion of France but was defeated by "Euin Tridentum dux" at "Salurnis"[228].  Gregory of Tours records his father, King Clotaire, died on the first anniversary of the killing of his son Chramn[229]m CHALDA, daughter of WILLICHAR & his wife --- (-murdered 560).  Gregory of Tours records that the wife of Chramn was the daughter of Willichar, but does not name her[230]The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Willecharii filiam…Chaldam" as the wife of Chramn, adding in a later passage that "Willecharius…socer eius" fled with the family to "basilicam sancti Martini"[231].  Gregory of Tours says that Chramn fled to Brittany, where he and his wife and daughters went into hiding with "Chanao Count of the Bretons" but were captured and murdered[232].   Chramn & his wife had [two or more] children: 

a)         daughters (-murdered 560).  Gregory of Tours says that Chramn fled to Brittany, where he and his wife and daughters went into hiding with "Chanao Count of the Bretons" but were captured and murdered[233].   No indication has been found concerning the number or names of Chramn’s daughters. 

King Clotaire had one possible child by Mistress (2): 

10.       [GUNDOBALD "Ballomer" (-murdered Mar 585).  Gregory of Tours records that Gundobald claimed to be the son of King Clotaire, who disowned him, that he was brought up by King Childebert and later supported by King Charibert.  He was received in Italy by General Narses, and married and had sons there before moving to Constantinople.  He was invited back to Gaul, landed at Marseille, and was welcomed by Bishop Theodore[234].  He was declared king at Brives-la-Gaillarde in Dec 584, but was betrayed and captured at Comminges by Gontran King of Burgundy, who murdered him[235].]  m (in Italy) ---.  The name of Gundobald’s wife is not known.  Gregory of Tours records that the two sons of Chramn were born in Italy, and that they were taken to Byzantium by their father after the death of their mother[236].  Gundobald & his wife had two children: 

a)         two sons.  Gregory of Tours records that the two sons of Chramn were born in Italy, and that they were taken to Byzantium by their father after the death of their mother[237]

 

 

SIGEBERT, son of CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar] King of the Franks & his third wife Ingundis [Ingonde] ([535]-murdered Vitry [Nov/Dec] 575, bur Lambres transferred to Soissons Saint-Médard).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Gunthar, Childerich, Charibert, Guntram, Sigibert and a daughter Clothsind as the children of King Clotaire and his wife Ingonde[238].  He succeeded his father in 561 as SIGEBERT I King of the Franks, his territories covering those previously held by King Theoderich, with Reims as his capital[239].  These lands were referred to for the first time by Gregory of Tours as Austrasia in 577[240].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "filii ipsius Charibertus, Guntegramnus, Hilpericus et Sigibertus" divided the kingdom between them on the death of their father in 561[241].  After the death of his brother King Charibert, Sigebert seized his lands, retaining in particular Poitiers and Tours against the rival claim of his brother King Chilperich[242].  Gregory of Tours records that King Sigebert died 18 days after his nephew Theodebert and 29 years after the death of King Theodebert, specifying in a later passage that he was killed at Vitry, buried first in the village of Lambres then transferred to the church of Saint-Médard in Soissons[243].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Sigibertus rex Francorum" was killed by men of his brother King Chilperich[244].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Sigispertus rex Francorum" was killed through the treachery of "Hilperici germani sui"[245].  He was probably murdered on the orders of Queen Frédégonde. 

m (early 566) as her first husband, BRUNECHILDIS [Brunequilda/Brunechilde] of the Visigoths, daughter of ATANAGILDO King of the Visigoths & his wife Gosvinta --- ([545/50]-Renève-sur-Vingeanne Autumn 613, bur Autun, abbaye de Saint-Martin).  Gregory of Tours records the marriage of King Sigebert and Brunechildis, daughter of King Atanagildo, describing her as "elegant in all she did, lovely to look at, chaste and decorous in her behaviour, wise in her generation and of good address", specifying that she converted from Arianism to Catholicism and came to France with a large dowry[246].  After her husband's death, her brother-in-law King Chilperich seized her treasure in Paris and banished her to Rouen[247].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Brunihilde matre" became regent after the accession of her son "Childepertus…adhuc puerulus"[248].  She married secondly (Rouen after Easter 576) Merovech, son of King Chilperich I, who was murdered in 577 by Frédégonde.  Herimannus records her second marriage to "Meroveus, Hilperici filius"[249].  Her power in Austrasia appears to have increased when her son King Childebert II assumed more direct control from [584], confirmed under the Treaty of Andelot in 587 which recognised her right to protection[250].  According to Fredegar, after her son's death in 596, she was regent for her grandson King Theodebert until 599 when she was "hunted out of Austrasia"[251].  Wood highlights that Pope Gregory I's correspondence with Queen Brunechildis concerning reform of the Frankish church appears to indicate that she still retained power in Austrasia as late as 602[252].  Fredegar reports that she was found "wandering alone near Arcis in Champagne" by a poor man (who was rewarded with the bishopric of Auxerre for his service)[253], and taken to the court of her grandson Theoderich II King of the Franks at Orléans, where she plotted against King Theodebert, culminating in the latter's overthrow and murder in 612 by King Theoderich.  Fredegar records that she was the "bedfellow" of Protadius, a Roman, whom she "loaded with honours" and appointed patrician over the territory east of the Jura in [603][254].  After King Clotaire II defeated and captured her great-grandsons in 613, Brunechildis was arrested at the villa of Orbe by the constable Herpo and taken to Clotaire.  According to Fredegar, she was tortured for three days, led through the ranks on a camel, and finally tied by her hair, one arm and a leg to the tail of an unbroken horse, being cut to shreds by its hoofs as it ran[255]

King Sigebert & his wife had [four] children: 

1.         INGUNDIS [Ingonde] ([567/68]-[in Africa or Sicily] Autumn 586).  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records the marriage in 579 of "Leovegildus rex Hermenegildo filio" and "filiam Sisberti regis Francorum" but does not name her[256].  Gregory of Tours records that one of the sons of Leovigildo by his first wife married the daughter of Sigibert King of the Franks, in a later passage naming her Ingund, specifying that she married Hermenegildo, older son of Leovigildo, and that she was mistreated by her husband's stepmother[257].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Childebertus rex Ingundem sororem suam" married "Herminigildo, Levigildi Hispanorum regis filio", and that she fled Spain for France after the death of her husband but was captured and taken to Sicily where she died[258].  Gregory of Tours records that her father-in-law left her "to the good graces of the Greeks" after imprisoning her husband and was unable to "force the Greeks to hand" her over[259].  Alternatively, she fled to Africa with her son after her husband was killed, seeking refuge with the Eastern Emperor[260]m (579) HERMENEGILDO of the Visigoths, son of LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths & his first wife --- (-murdered Tarragona 13 Apr 586). 

2.         CHILDEBERT (570-[2/28] Mar 596).  Gregory of Tours names Childebert as the son of Sigebert and Brunhild, specifying that he was barely five years old when he succeeded his father under the protection of "Duke Gundovald"[261].  "Hildebertus" is named as son of "Sigibertus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[262].  After the assassination of his father, he was taken to Metz and there recognised 25 Dec 575 as CHILDEBERT II King of the Franks.  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica names "Childebertus filius ipsius" when recording that he succeeded after his father was killed[263].  He was able to increase his own power in Austrasia largely due to the patronage of his uncle Gontran King of the Franks at Orléans, who adopted him as his successor in 577, recognised him as fit to rule in 584, and confirmed his succession at Andelot in 587[264].  He finally succeeded his uncle in Burgundy in 592, but died "in the fourth year after succeeding" according to Fredegar[265].  Paulus Diaconus states that it was alleged that "Childepertus rex Francorum" was poisoned aged 25 "cum uxore propria"[266]Betrothed to THEODELINDIS, daughter of GARIBALD Duke of Bavaria & his wife Waldrada of the Lombards.  Fredegar records that "Ago rex" married "Grimoaldi et Gundoaldi germanam…Teudelendæ ex genere Francorum", specifying that she had been betrothed to "Childebertus"[267]m FAILEUBA, daughter of --- (-[596]).  King Childebert's queen is named Faileuba in the Treaty of Andelot dated 28 Nov 587[268].  Paulus Diaconus says that it was alleged that "Childepertus rex Francorum" was poisoned aged 25 "cum uxore propria", although no reference to his wife's death has been identified in the Frankish sources[269].  [Mistress ---.  As is shown below, one of the sources which reports the birth of Childebert's son Theodebert says that his mother was the king's concubine.]  King Childebert II & his [wife/mistress] had one child: 

a)         THEODEBERT [Thibert] ([586]-executed Chalon 612).  Gregory of Tours records the birth of Theodebert son of Childebert[270].  Fredegar dates his birth to the 25th year of King Gontran[271].  "Theothberto, Theoderico" are named as sons of "Hildebertus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[272].  He was installed in 589 as sub-king at Soissons and Meaux.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childebertus rex…filios duos, seniorem ex concubina…Theudeberto, iuniore…ex regina…Theudericum"[273]He succeeded his father in 596 as THEODEBERT II King of the Franks in Austrasia, with his capital at Metz[274], under the regency of his paternal grandmother until 599 when she was expelled from Austrasia.  Fredegar records that, after defeating King Clotaire II in 600 on the banks of the river Orvanne near Dormelles with his brother, King Theodebert acquired the "entire duchy of Dentelin" between the Seine and Oise and the Channel under the terms of the settlement which followed[275].  Fredegar records that Queen Brunechilde plotted against him from the court of his brother where she had taken refuge after her expulsion from Austrasia, alleging that he was the son of a gardener[276].  Fredegar records that he captured Alsace from his brother in 610[277].  After his brother defeated him near Toul in May 612, he fled to Köln, but was defeated once more at Zülpich [Tolbiac] and captured.  He was sent in chains to Chalon[278].  It would appear that King Theodebert was in some way mentally unstable or subnormal, if we can judge from Fredegar's references to his "simple-mindedness" which his first wife "bore with nobility" and to his "folly" which was despised by Bishop Leudegasius of Mainz[279]m firstly (608) BILICHILDIS, daughter of --- (-murdered 610).  Fredegar records the marriage, in the thirteenth year of the reign of King Theoderich, of King Theodebert and "Bilichildam", specifying that Queen Brunechilde had "bought her from merchants"[280].  There appears to be some chronological discrepancy with this report as elsewhere it is recorded that Queen Brunechilde was expelled from Austrasia in [599].  Fredegar records that Bilichildis was killed by her husband[281]m secondly (610) THEODECHILDIS, daughter of ---.  Fredegar records that King Theodebert married "puella nomen Teudechilde" after he killed his first wife[282].  King Theodebert II & his first wife had one child: 

i)          daughter (-after 613).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus [rex]" wished to marry "neptem suam…filiam fratris sui" but that Queen Brunechildis dissuaded him[283].  Paulus Diaconus records that "mense Iulio…Adeloadus…puero" was betrothed to the daughter of Theodebert II King of the Franks, at the same time being installed as king by his father at Milan[284].  Christie dates this event to 604[285], Settipani to 610[286].  The latter is consistent with the date of King Theodebert's first marriage as shown above.  Betrothed (Jul 610) to ADALOALD of the Lombards, son of AGILOLF King of the Lombards & his [second] wife Theodelindis of Bavaria (-625). 

King Theodebert II & his second wife had one child:

ii)         MEROVECH ([611]-murdered 612).  Fredegar records that "filius eius…Merovius parvolus" was murdered on the orders of King Theoderich by a soldier "who took him by the heels and dashed out his brains on a stone"[287]

King Childebert II & his wife had three children: 

b)         THEODERICH (587-Metz 613).  Gregory of Tours records the birth of Theoderich son of Childebert[288].  Fredegar records his birth in the 28th year of King Guntram[289]The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childebertus rex…filios duos, seniorem ex concubina…Theudeberto, iuniore…ex regina…Theudericum"[290]"Theothberto, Theoderico" are named as sons of "Hildebertus" in the Regum Merowingorum Genealogia[291].  He succeeded his father in 596 as THEODERICH II King of the Franks in Burgundy, with his capital at Orléans[292].  His grandmother Queen Brunechilde encouraged him to make war on his brother after Theoderich accepted her following her expulsion from Austrasia in 599.  After defeating King Clotaire II in 600 on the banks of the river Orvanne near Dormelles with his brother, King Theoderich acquired all the land between the Seine and Loire and the Atlantic under the terms of the settlement which followed[293].  In 602, he and his brother defeated the Gascons and enforced tribute[294].  He defeated his brother near Toul in May 612 and again at Zülpich [Tolbiac] later the same year[295].  He died from dysentery while marching against King Clotaire II[296]m ([607/08], repudiated [608/09]) ERMENBERGA of the Visigoths, daughter of WITERICO King of the Visigoths & his wife ---.  Fredegar records that, in the twelfth year of his reign, King Theoderich sent "Aridium episcopum Lugdunensem, Rocconem et Æborinum comestaboli" to "Bettericum regem Spaniæ" for the hand of "Ermenberta filia eius", but that the marriage was not consummated, apparently because Queen Brunechilde turned her husband against her, and that after a year she was deprived of her dowry and sent back to Spain[297].  King Theoderich II had four illegitimate children by different unknown concubines:

i)          SIGEBERT ([602/03]-murdered 613).  Fredegar records the birth "de concubina filius…Sigybertus" in the seventh year of King Theoderich's reign[298].  Supported by his great-grandmother Queen Brunechilde, he succeeded his father in 613 as SIGEBERT II King of the Franks in Burgundy and Austrasia.  He was defeated by King Clotaire II, captured with his brothers Corbus and Merovech, and killed[299]Betrothed (613) to FRIDBURGA, daughter of CUNZO Duke of Alemmania.  The Vita Galli names "Cunzonem ducem…filia eius unica Fridiburga" recording that she was "Sigoboto filio Theodorichi disponsata"[300]

ii)         CHILDEBERT ([603/04]-after 613).  Fredegar records the birth "de concubina…filius…Childebertus" in the eighth year of King Theoderich's reign[301].  He escaped when his brothers were captured by King Clotaire in 613 and "never again returned"[302].  He may have sought refuge at Arles with abbess Rusticula[303]

iii)        CORBUS ([604/05]-murdered 613).  Fredegar records the birth "de concubina…filius…Corbus" in the ninth year of King Theoderich's reign[304].  He was captured with his brothers Sigebert and Merovech, and killed by King Clotaire II[305]

iv)       MEROVECH ([607/08]-).  Fredegar records the birth "de concubina…filius…Meroeus" in the twelfth year of King Theoderich's reign, specifying that King Clotaire was his godfather[306].  He was captured by King Clotaire II in 613, together with his brothers Sigebert and Corbus, but his life was spared by King Clotaire and he was sent in secrecy to Neustria where he was placed under Count Ingobad's protection and lived "for some years"[307].     

c)         THEODILA (-after 613).  She and her grandmother Queen Brunechilde "poisoned [her brother King Theodebert] against his bride"[308].  Fredegar records that "Theudilanæ germana Theuderici" was captured in 613 after her brother was deposed and taken to King Clotaire II with her grandmother[309]

d)         child (b and d 589).  Gregory of Tours records that Queen Faileuba gave birth to a child who died almost immediately[310]

3.         CHLODESINDIS [Clodesinde] ([575/76]-after 594).  Chlodosind is named as daughter of Queen Brunhilde, and sister of King Childebert, in the Treaty of Andelot dated 28 Nov 587[311].  Paulus Diaconus records the betrothal of "Flavius rex Authari" and "Childebertus…suam germanam", but states that Childebert accepted an offer of another betrothal for her from "Gothorum de Hispania"[312].  No proof has been found that the daughter referred to by Paulus was Chlodesindis but this is assumed to be the case.  Betrothed (before [590] to AUTHACHAR [Authari] King of the Lombards, son of KLEPH King of the Lombards & his wife --- (-5 Sep 590).  Betrothed (594) to RECAREDO I King of the Visigoths, son of LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths & his first wife Theodosia ---  (-Toledo mid-Jun or Dec 601). 

4.         [daughter.  The Vita Columbani names "Chrodoaldus…regi Theuderico fideli" and his wife "amitam Theudeberti regis"[313]m (before 609) CHRODOALD, Duke [of Bavaria] [Agilolfinger], son of ---.] 

 

 

CHILPERICH, son of CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar] King of the Franks & his fourth wife Arnegundis (before 535-murdered Chelles [27 Sep/9 Oct] 584, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  Gregory of Tours names Chilperich as the son of King Clotaire and his wife Aregonde[314].  He succeeded his father in 561 as CHILPERICH I King of the Franks, his territories covering those previously held by his father, with Soissons as his capital[315].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "filii ipsius Charibertus, Guntegramnus, Hilpericus et Sigibertus" divided the kingdom between them on the death of their father in 561[316].  Gregory of Tours records that King Chilperich was forced to flee by his half-brother King Sigebert who conquered his territories[317].  He captured Neustria on the death of his brother King Charibert.  Gregory of Tours records the murder of King Chilperich at Chelles and his burial in the church of St Vincent in Paris[318]

m firstly ([549]) AUDOVERE, daughter of --- (-murdered 580).  Gregory of Tours names Audovera as one of the earlier consorts of King Chilperich[319]Herimannus records that "Audoveram reginam commatrem suam [=Geislundam]" was strangled by her husband's concubine "Fridegundis"[320].  Gregory of Tours records that the mother of Clovis was "murdered in the most cruel fashion"[321], dated to late 580 from the context. 

m secondly (564) GALSWINTHA of the Visigoths, daughter of ATANAGILDO King of the Visigoths & his wife Gosvinta --- (-murdered [567]).  Gregory of Tours records the marriage of King Chilperich and Galswintha, older daughter of King Atanagildo, after the marriage of King Sigebert to her younger sister, specifying that she converted from Arianism to Catholicism and came to France with a large dowry, but never stopped complaining to the king about the insults she had to endure, her husband eventually having her garrotted by one of his servants[322]Herimannus names "Geisluindam, sororem Brunæ [filiam Athanagildi regis Gothorum]" as wife of "Hilpericus frater Sigibertus rex", recording that she was strangled by her husband's concubine "Fridegundis"[323]

m thirdly (568) FREDEGONDE, daughter of --- (-597, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  Gregory of Tours records that King Chilperich married Frédégonde before his marriage to Galswintha, specifying that a great quarrel ensued between the two of them[324].  It is assumed that this indicates that Frédégonde was the king's mistress before his second marriage.  She plotted actively in favour of her sons at the expense of her husband's children by his first marriage.  It is likely that she ordered the murder of her brother-in-law King Sigebert I.  According to the 8th century source, Liber Historiae Francorum, she murdered her husband after he discovered that she was having an affair[325].  She was regent for her son King Clotaire II after his succession in 584.  Fredegar records that Frédégonde died "in the second year of the reign of Theodebert"[326]

King Chilperich I & his first wife had five children:

1.         THEODEBERT [Thibert] ([548/51]-killed 573, bur Angoulême).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudebert, Merovech and Clovis as the sons of King Chilperich and Audovera[327].  Gregory records that Theodebert was captured at Soissons by his uncle King Sigebert I and imprisoned for a year at Ponthion before being sent back to his father[328].  He led his father's troops against his uncle in 573, devastated Touraine, but was killed by Duke Godogisel and Boso[329]

2.         MEROVECH (-murdered Thérouanne 577, bur 584 Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudebert, Merovech and Clovis as the sons of King Chilperich and Audovera[330].  Merovech was held in custody following his marriage, tonsured and sent to the monastery of Anille at Le Mans, but sought refuge in the church of St Martin at Tours before being murdered after he went into hiding in the area of Reims[331].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Meroveus filius Hilperici" was killed in 578[332]m (Rouen after Easter 576) as her second husband, BRUNECHILDIS [Brunequilda/Brunechilde] of the Visigoths, widow of SIGEBERT I King of the Franks, daughter of ATANAGILDO King of the Visigoths & his wife Gosvinta --- ([545/50]-Renève-sur-Vingeanne Autumn 613, bur Autun, abbaye de Saint-Martin).  Gregory records that Merovech married his uncle's widow in Rouen soon after Easter in the year following her first husband's murder[333]

3.         CHLODOVECH [Clovis] (-murdered Noisy-le-Grand end 580, bur Noisy-le-Grand, transferred 584 to Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  Gregory of Tours names (in order) Theudebert, Merovech and Clovis as the sons of King Chilperich and Audovera[334].  Gregory records that he was driven out of Tours and fled to Bordeaux before succeeding in returning to his father[335].  He also records that Clovis's father, at the suggestion of Frédégonde, sent Clovis to Berny in the hope that he would die of the same disease as his younger half-brothers, and that Clovis was later murdered on the orders of Frédégonde[336].  Gregory of Tours records that his body was found and reburied in Paris St Vincent by King Gontran[337]

4.         BASINA (-after 590).  Gregory of Tours records that the sister of Clovis was "tricked by Fredegund's servants and persuaded into entering a nunnery…where she remains to this day"[338], dated to late 580 from the context, although it is not certain that this relates to Basina.  Gregory names Basina as the daughter of King Chilperich and Audovera whom her father confined in a nunnery in Poitiers, when recording that in 584 her father considered sending her to Spain as the bride for Recared, in place of her half-sister[339].  Gregory also records that she became a nun at the convent of Sainte-Croix in Poitiers, but was involved in the revolt against abbess Leubovera[340]

5.         CHILDESWINDIS [Childesinde] ([567]-).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childesinda" as the daughter of King Chilperich & his first wife[341]

King Chilperich II & his third wife had six children:

6.         RIGUNDIS ([569]-).  Gregory of Tours names "Princess Rigunth" when recounting that she sympathised when Gregory was accused of treachery by her mother[342].  Gregory names Rigunth as daughter of King Chilperich when recording her betrothal to Recared, son of King Leuvigild, and her voyage to Spain with a large retinue[343].  On learning of the death of her father, she was abandoned before returning to her mother's palace where she led a life of debauchery[344]Betrothed (early 584) to RECAREDO of the Visigoths, son of LEOVIGILDO King of the Visigoths & his first wife Theodosia --- (-Toledo mid-Jun or Dec 601).  He was elected to succeed his father in 586 as RECAREDO King of the Visigoths

7.         CHLODEBERT (-Soissons St Médard 580, bur Soissons St Crispin and St Crispinian).  Gregory of Tours names Chlodebert as the son of Chilperich & Frédégonde when recording his death in the church of St Médard, Soissons and his burial "in the church of the holy martyrs Crispin and Crispinian"[345], the context of the passage dating the event to 580. 

8.         SAMSON (573-late 577).  Gregory of Tours names Samson as the younger son of Chilperich & Fredegund when recording his death after having a high temperature and diarrhoea "before completing his fifth year"[346], the context of the passage dating the event to late 577. 

9.         DAGOBERT ([579/80]-580, bur Saint-Denis).  Gregory of Tours refers to (but does not name) a younger son of Chilperich & Fredegund when recording his hurried baptism while dying and his burial in Paris Saint-Denis[347], the context of the passage dating the event to 580.  Fortunatus, dated to the late 6th century, wrote an epitaph to “Dagoberto…puerilis obis”, naming "Chlodovechi…proavi…Chilpericque patris, vel Fredegunde genus"[348]

10.      THEODERICH ([582/83], chr Paris 18 Apr 583-early 584, bur Paris).  Gregory of Tours records the birth of a son to King Chilperich and his baptism at Easter with the name Theoderich by Ragnemod Bishop of Paris[349], dated from the context to [582/83].  Gregory records his death from dysentery a year after his baptism and his burial in Paris[350]

11.      CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire] (Spring 584-[18] Oct 629, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  Gregory of Tours records the birth of a son to King Chilperich[351], dated to early 584 from the context, although in a later passage in which he names him Clotaire he records that he was four months old when his father died[352].  He succeeded his father in 584 as CLOTAIRE II King of the Franks, under the regency of his mother Queen Frédégonde. 

-        see below

 

 

CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire], son of CHILPERICH I King of the Franks & his third wife Frédégonde (Spring 584-[18] Oct 629, bur Paris Church of St Vincent[353]).  Gregory of Tours records the birth of a son to King Chilperich[354], dated to early 584 from the context, although in a later passage in which he names him Clotaire he records that he was four months old when his father died[355].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the birth of "Chlotharium [filius Chilperici]" around the same time as the death of his older brother Theoderich[356].  He succeeded his father in 584 as CLOTAIRE II King of the Franks, under the regency of his mother Queen Frédégonde.  He was defeated by his cousins, the brothers King Theodebert II and King Theoderich II, in 600 on the banks of the river Orvanne near Dormelles, after which he agreed terms under which he held only twelve cantons between the Seine, the Oise and the sea[357].  After the defeat of King Theodebert II in 612, and death of King Theoderich II in 613, the Austrasian nobility invited King Clotaire to lead their rebellion against Queen Brunechilde.  After the capture, torture and murder of the queen, Clotaire was recognised as sole King of the Franks.  In 623, he was obliged to accede to the request of the Austrasians for their own king and installed his son Dagobert as King of Austrasia. 

[m [firstly] ADALTRUDIS, daughter of --- (-bur Rouen Saint-Pierre).  "Hlotharii rege Francorum…duæ uxores reginæ…Haldetrudis…et Bertetrudis" were buried in "basilica sancti Petri apostolic Rothomacum"[358].  The editor of the compilation in which this text is reproduced suggests that "Haldetrudis" is in fact an error for a variation of "Waldrada", the widow of King Theodebald who reportedly married King Clotaire I, not King Clotaire II, as his fifth wife.  This first marriage of King Clotaire II is dubious.  If it is correct that Merovech was the son of King Clotaire II (which is uncertain, see below), the estimated birth date of King Clotaire's known son Dagobert (in [610/11]) suggests that his older brother (reportedly active in 604) must have been born from an earlier union, although it is possible that his mother was the king's concubine rather than his wife.] 

m [firstly/secondly] BERETRUDIS [Bertrada or Berthe], daughter of --- (-[618/19], bur Rouen Saint-Pierre).  The Gesta Dagoberti names "Bertedrude regina" as wife of "Chlotharius filius Chilperici" and mother of King Dagobert[359].  Fredegar names "Erchynoaldus…consanguineus…de genetricis Dagoberti" as maior domus in Neustria after the death of Aega[360], although the exact relationship between Erchinoald and Beretrudis is not known.  Settipani suggests[361] that she may have been the daughter of Richomer, patricius of Burgundy & his wife Garitrudis, maternal grandparents of Erchinoald.  Fredegar records that "Bertetrudis regina" died in the 35th year of the reign of King Clotaire II[362], although there must be some doubt about the dating in light of the birth of Chilperich, son of King Clotaire's son by his marriage to Sichildis (see below).  "Hlotharii rege Francorum…duæ uxores reginæ…Haldetrudis…et Bertetrudis" were buried in "basilica sancti Petri apostolic Rothomacum"[363]

m [secondly/thirdly] ([618/19]) SICHILDIS, sister of GOMATRUDIS[364], daughter of ---.  The Gesta Dagoberti records that, after the death of "Bertedrude regina", her husband married "Sichildem"[365].  The Gesta Dagoberti names "Brunulfus…frater Sichildis reginæ"[366].  According to Fredegar, her husband accused her of "misconduct" with Boso of Etampes, son of Audolenus, whom the king ordered killed by Duke Arnebert[367]

Possible children of King Clotaire II by his first marriage, or illegitimate:

1.         [MEROVECH (-after 25 Dec 604).  Fredegar records that "Clotharius" sent "filium suum Maeroeum et Landericum maioris domus" to lead his troops against Berthoald maior domus of Burgundy, in the ninth year of King Theoderich's reign, and that Merovech was captured while Landeric fled[368].  Presumably he was executed as no further mention of him has been found.  There must be some doubt that Merovech could have been the son of King Clotaire II.  Considering that King Clotaire was born in 584, he is unlikely to have been the father of someone sent into battle in 604.  It is recognised that other sons of Merovingian kings started military careers at an early age, presumably as symbolic figureheads, for example Gunthar oldest son of King Clotaire I and Theodebert, oldest son of King Chilperich I.  However, Merovech could not have been more than six/seven years old at the time at the very most, which appears considerably younger than these other cases.] 

2.         [EMMA .  "Emma Francorum regis filia et regis Eadbaldi copula" subscribed her husband's 618 charter[369].  Although Emma seems an unlikely name for a Merovingian princess, given the more complex names which are typical of the family, Settipani suggests that it is the diminutive of a name containing a root similar to "Ermen-", like Ermenberga or Ermentrudis, which would also provide an explanation for the root "Eormen-" in the name of her son[370].  Stenton says[371] there seems no doubt that Eadbald's second wife belonged to the Frankish royal house but that her parentage has not been ascertained.  Werner suggests[372] that she was the daughter of Erchinoald, maior domus of Neustria, as the name root "Eorcen-" (similar to "Erchin-") was used among her descendants.  Settipani[373] identifies Emma's parents as shown here, seemingly because he eliminates all other possible couples from the known members of the Merovingian royal family from a chronological viewpoint.  He prefers a Merovingian ancestry to explain the name "Hlothhere" given to Emma's grandson, similar to "Chlothachar" or "Clotaire", the name of Emma's supposed father.  m (after [618]) as his second wife, EADBALD King of Kent, son of ÆTHELBERHT King of Kent & his first wife Berta of the Franks (-20 Jan 640).] 

King Clotaire II & his [first/second] wife had two children:

3.         DAGOBERT ([610/11-Saint-Denis 19 Jan 639, bur église abbatiale de Saint-Denis).  The Gesta Dagoberti names "Dagobertus" as son of "Chlotharius filius Chilperici…ex Bertedrude regina"[374].  His father appointed him as DAGOBERT I King of the Franks in Austrasia in 623[375].  He succeeded his father in most of Neustria in 629 and, after his half-brother's death in 631, established himself as sole king of the Franks. 

-        see below

4.         child (-young [617/18]).  The Vita Rusticulæ sive Marciæ records the death of a young son of King Clotaire II[376]

King Clotaire II & his [second/third] wife had one child:

5.         CHARIBERT ([618/19]-631, bur Blaye, basilique Saint-Romain).  The Gesta Dagoberti names "Hairbertum" as the son of King Clotaire & his wife "Sichildem"[377].  According to Fredegar, after his father died Charibert "made an attempt to seize the kingdom but his cause made little headway since he was simple-minded"[378], although the reference may have been intended to reflect merely his youth rather than mental incapacity.  His brother King Dagobert installed him in 629 as CHARIBERT II King of the Franks, governing the territory between the Loire and the Spanish border.  Fredegar records that King Dagobert granted "pagum Tholosanum, Cathornicum, Agenninsem, Petrocorecum et Santonecum" to "fratri suo Cairiberto", who established his capital at Toulouse and expanded his territory by subjugating Gascony in the third year of his brother's reign[379].  Fredegar records the death of "Charibertus rex" in the ninth year of King Dagobert's reign[380]m ---.  The name of King Charibert's wife is not known.  King Charibert II & his wife had one child: 

a)         [CHILPERICH ([630]-after 631 young).  Fredegar records that "Charibertus rex" left "filium parvolum…Chilpericum" who only survived his father for a short time, recording that "it was said that Dagobert's followers brought about his assassination"[381].  If the marriage date of Chilperich's paternal grandparents is correct as shown above, Chilperich's father could not have been more than twelve years old when his son was born.] 

 

 

DAGOBERT, son of CLOTAIRE II King of the Franks & his second wife Beretrudis [Bertrada or Berthe] ([610/11-Saint-Denis 19 Jan 639, bur église abbatiale de Saint-Denis).  The Gesta Dagoberti names "Dagobertus" as son of "Chlotharius filius Chilperici…ex Bertedrude regina"[382].  His father appointed him as DAGOBERT I King of the Franks in Austrasia in 623, under pressure from the Austrasian aristocracy to have their own king.  He was educated by Pépin de Landen, maior domus in Austrasia, and Arnoul Bishop of Metz.  He succeeded his father in 629, was able to confine the government of his half-brother to the south-west of France, and even acquired this land on his half-brother's death in 631, establishing himself as sole king of the Franks based in Paris.  Under pressure once again from the Austrasians for their own king, Dagobert appointed his son Sigebert to rule as king of Austrasia at Metz in [633/34].  Bede records that Æthelberg Queen of Northumbria sent her two children "in Galliam" to her friend "regi Daegberecto" after she fled to France following the death of her husband King Eadwine in battle in 633[383].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "rex Daygobertus" from a fever at "Spinogilo villa in paygo Parisiacense urbis" and his burial "in basilica beati Dionisii martyris"[384].  The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIV Kal Feb" of "Dagoberti regis Francorum, ecclesie Beati Dyonisii incliti fundatoris"[385].  Fredegar records his death from dysentery in the 16th year of his reign and his burial place[386]

m firstly (Clichy or Reuilly 626, repudiated [629/30]) GOMATRUDIS, sister of Queen SICHILDIS[387], daughter of ---.  Fredegar records the marriage in Clichy of "germanam Sichieldæ regini nomen Gometrudæ" in the 42nd year of the reign of King Clotaire II, in a later passage reording that they marriage took place in Reuilly[388].  The Gesta Dagoberti records the marriage of King Dagobert to "germanam Sichildis reginæ Gomatrudem" in the 42nd year of the reign of his father[389].  According to Fredegar, her husband left her at Reuilly where he had married her[390].  The Gesta Dagoberti records that King Dagobert left Gomatrudis at "Romiliaco villa" because she was sterile[391]

m secondly ([629/30]) NANTECHILDIS, sister of LANDEGISEL, landowner in Limousin, daughter of --- (-[645]).  According to Fredegar, Nantechildis was "a maiden of the bed-chamber" whom the king made queen[392].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "regina sua [=Dagoberti rex] Nanthilde de genere Saxonorum"[393].  The Gesta Dagoberti records the death of "germanus Nanthildis regina…Landegiselus" and his burial at Saint-Denis[394].  According to Fredegar, the king on his deathbed commended "his Queen Nantechildis and Clovis his son" to Aega[395].  She acted as regent for her son jointly with maior domus Aega[396].  After the death of the latter, Queen Nantechildis retained control.  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "genitoris nostri Dagobercthi regis…genetrix nostra domna Nantechilda", the latter also subscribing the document, in his donation of property to the abbey of St Denis dated to [645][397].  Fredegar records that she appointed Flaochad as maior domus in Burgundy, and died later the same year[398]

[m] thirdly (polygamously) WULFEGUNDIS, daughter of ---.  "Vulfefundis" is named as one of the three queens of King Dagobert by Fredegar who says the king "surrendered himself to limitless debauchery, having three queens and mistresses beyond number"[399].  This implies that the king's third and fourth marriages were polygamous, which is apparently confirmed by Queen Nantechildis still being queen when Dagobert died[400]

m fourthly (polygamously) BERTECHILDIS, daughter of ---.  "Berchildis" is named as one of the three queens of King Dagobert by Fredegar[401]

Mistress (1): (630) RAGINTRUDIS, daughter of ---.  Fredegar records the marriage of King Dagobert in the eighth year of his reign to "puella nomen Ragnetrudæ" and the birth of "filium…Sigybertum" in the same year[402]

King Dagobert I had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

1.         SIGEBERT ([9 Oct 630/19 Jan 631]-1 Feb 656, bur Metz, basilique de Saint-Martin).  Fredegar records the marriage of King Dagobert in the eighth year of his reign to "puella nomen Ragnetrudæ" and the birth of "filium…Sigybertum" in the same year[403].  The Gesta Dagoberti records the birth of his (unnamed) son to King Dagobert and Ragintrudis in the eighth year of his reign[404].  On the other hand, the Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Sighiberto et Chlodovecho" as the two sons of "Dagobertus rex…ex regina sua Nanthilde"[405], although this seems to be the only source which disagrees about the name of his mother.  His father appointed him as SIGEBERT III King of the Franks in Austrasia in [Dec 633/Jan 634].  After his father's death, maior domus Pépin and the latter's son Grimoald, governed Austrasia in his name.  Fredegar records that his forces were unable to repress the 639 rebellion of Radulf who declared himself king of an independent Thuringia[406].  He was canonised by the Catholic church in 1170.  m CHIMNECHILDIS [Himnilde/Emnehilde], daughter of --- (-676 or after).  The Passio Præiecti records the influence of "Imnichilde regine"[407].  The Gesta Episcopi Tullensis names "regem Dagobertum…genitricis ipsius Chimechildis reginæ" when recording a donation by the former[408].  "Childericus rex Francorum et Chinechildis regina…Bertuino comiti et Bertelando vicario" donated property "villam…Barisiacum…in pago Laudunensi" to "Amando episcopo" by charter dated to [1 Aug 661][409].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Bonifacio duci" donated property on the advice of "Emhilde regine" to the monastery of St Gregory in Vosges by charter dated to [660/62][410].  "Childericus rex Francorum" donated property on the request of "Amelrico, Bonefacio ducibus" and the advice of "Emnehildæ reginæ" by charter dated to [664/66][411].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated 6 Sep 667[412].  King Sigebert III & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         DAGOBERT ([652/56]-murdered Woëvre forest 23 Dec 679, bur Stenay, basilique Saint-Rémi).  On the death of his father, Grimoald, maior domus in Austrasia, exiled Dagobert to Ireland where he may have lived at the abbey of Slane[413].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "filium eius [=Sighiberto rege] parvolum…Daygobertum" when recording that maior domus Grimoald had him tonsured and exiled with "Didonemque Pectavensem urbis episcopum in Scocia"[414].  He was brought to France [2 Apr/1 Jul] 676 by maior domus Wulfoald and Queen Chimnehildis, his mother, in opposition to King Theoderich III and maior domus Ebroin.  After a brief period of conflict, it was agreed that King Theoderich should retain Neustria and Burgundy while Dagobert succeeded as DAGOBERT II King of the Franks in Austrasia.  "Dagobertus rex Francorum" names "genitor noster Sigibertus rex" in his charter dated 1 Aug 677[415].  He was murdered on the orders of maior domus Ebroin. 

b)         [BILICHILDIS (-murdered forest of Lognes, near Chelles [18 Oct/10 Nov] 675, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  The Passio Leudegarii states that it was reported that "Childericum" married "filia sui…avunculi", the editor of the edition consulted assuming that this means that Bilichildis was the daughter of King Sigebert III[416].  Given that avunculus normally indicates maternal uncle, the text appears insufficiently clear to conclude that the wife of King Childerich II was the daughter of King Sigebert III or, if she was, that she was his legitimate daughter.  No other source has been found which corroborates the origin of Queen Bilichildis.  However, contemporary Merovingian charters frequently use "avunculus" to include paternal uncle, which suggests that this may have been a general localised usage at the time.  The fact that she and her supposed mother are named together in the charter dated 6 Sep 667 of "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…" confirming the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy[417] suggests that Chimnechildis ["Emnehildis"] and Bilihildis may have been mother and daughter.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericum" and his pregnant wife were murdered by Bodilo[418].  The Vita Lantberti records the murder of "rex Hildericus…cum coniuge sua…Bilhilde filioque…Dagoberto"[419]m ([666/8 Sep 667]) CHILDERICH II King of the Franks, son of CLOVIS II King of the Franks & his wife Bathildis --- (-murdered forest of Lognes, near Chelles [18 Oct/10 Nov] 675, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).] 

King Dagobert I & his second wife had [four] children:

2.         CHLODOVECH [Clovis] (633-[Oct/Nov] 657).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Sighiberto et Chlodovecho" as the two sons of "Dagobertus rex…ex regina sua Nanthilde"[420].  He succeeded his father in [638/39] as CLOVIS II King of the Franks in Neustria, under the regency of his mother and maior domus Aega. 

-        see below

3.         [REGINTRUDIS .  The De Rebus Treverensibus sæculi VIII-X Libellus names "Ludewicum et tres filias…Regindrudim, Irminam, Adelam" as the children of King Dagobert and "regina…Nantilde", specifying that Regintrudis was married but giving no details about her husband[421].  A charter dated 1 Apr 685, classified as spurious in the collection, of "Adela…abbatissa Dagoberti regis quondam filia" purports to record her donation to the monastery "in villa Palatiolo in ripa Mosellæ" and names "germana mea Regentrude"[422].  No reference to the three supposed sisters Regintrudis, Irmina and Adela, or to their supposed parentage, has yet been found in near contemporary sources.  There must be some doubt whether they were historical figures or, if they were, that they were the children of King Dagobert & his second wife.  m ---.] 

4.         [IRMINA .  The De Rebus Treverensibus sæculi VIII-X Libellus names "Ludewicum et tres filias…Regindrudim, Irminam, Adelam" as the children of King Dagobert and "regina…Nantilde", specifying that Irmina was a nun at Trier[423].  A charter dated 26 Aug 646, classified as spurious in the collection, of "Dagobertus…rex…regina Nantildis" purports to record a donation to the monastery "Horreensi in Treverica urbe" stated to have been founded by "Irmina filia nostra" and also names "sponso suo Herimanno…comite"[424].  Four charters 698, classified as spurious in the collection, of "Ermina…abbatissa" purport to record her donations, although none refers to her supposed parentage[425].  No reference to the three supposed sisters Regintrudis, Irmina and Adela, or to their supposed parentage, has yet been found in near contemporary sources.  There must be some doubt whether they were historical figures or, if they were, that they were the children of King Dagobert & his second wife.  m HERMANN, son of ---.] 

5.         [ADELA .  The De Rebus Treverensibus sæculi VIII-X Libellus names "Ludewicum et tres filias…Regindrudim, Irminam, Adelam" as the children of King Dagobert and "regina…Nantilde", specifying that Adela founded a monastery "in villa Palciolum…Kal Apr anno 12 regni Theoderici regis" where she became the first abbess[426].  A charter dated 1 Apr 685, classified as spurious in the collection, of "Adela…abbatissa Dagoberti regis quondam filia" purports to record her donation to the monastery "in villa Palatiolo in ripa Mosellæ" and names "germana mea Regentrude"[427].  No reference to the three supposed sisters Regintrudis, Irmina and Adela, or to their supposed parentage, has yet been found in near contemporary sources.  There must be some doubt whether they were historical figures or, if they were, that they were the children of King Dagobert & his second wife.] 

 

 

1.         CHILDEBERT, son of maior domus GRIMOALD & his wife --- (-662).  He succeeded in 656 as CHILDEBERT (III) King of the Franks.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that maior domus Grimoald installed "filium suum" as king after the death of King Sigibert III, having exiled "filium eius [=Sighiberto rege] parvolum…Daygobertum"[428].  Settipani summarises the debate on Childebert's paternity, highlighting that 8th century sources could be interpreted as indicating that Childebert, son of King Sigebert, was adopted by Grimoald[429].  If this is correct, it is not certain why the Liber Historiæ Francorum is apparently so clear in its statement about Childebert’s paternity.  He appears to have continued as king despite Grimoald's capture and execution by the Neustrians in 657. 

 

 

CHLODOVECH [Clovis], son of DAGOBERT I King of the Franks & his second wife Nantechildis (633-[Oct/Nov] 657).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Sighiberto et Chlodovecho" as the two sons of "Dagobertus rex…ex regina sua Nanthilde"[430].  The Gesta Dagoberti and Fredegar both record his birth in the 12th year of his father's reign[431].  From the moment of his birth, his father planned his succession in Neustria, while his older half-brother was to continue to rule in Austrasia.  He succeeded his father in [638/39] as CLOVIS II King of the Franks in Neustria, under the regency of his mother and maior domus Aega.  After the death of the latter, his successor Erchinoald became effective ruler in Neustria.  "Chlodovius rex Francorum" names "genitoris nostri Dagobercthi regis…genetrix nostra domna Nantechilda", the latter also subscribing the document, in his donation of property to the abbey of St Denis dated to [645][432].  King Clovis II was involved in the capture and execution of Grimoald maior domus of Austrasia.  According to the Continuator of Fredegar, "in his latter years his mind became affected"[433].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum states that King Clovis was dedicated to fornication, gluttony and drink and died after reigning 16 years[434].  According to The Continuator of Fredegar, he died after reigning 18 years[435]

m (648) BATHILDIS, daughter of --- (-convent of Chelles [680], bur convent of Chelles, église Sainte-Croix).  The Vita Sanctæ Balthildis names "Balthildaem reginam…ex genere Saxonum", without giving further details about her origin, and records her marriage to "Chlodoveum Dagoberti quondam regis filium"[436].  According to the Continuator of Fredegar, she was "a sensible and attractive woman"[437].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the marriage of "Chlodovechum filium eius [=regis Daygoberti]" and "de genere Saxonorum…Balthilde[438].  She was regent in Neustria for her son King Clotaire III[439], and installed her son Childerich as king in Austrasia.  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" donated property to the monastery "in civitatis Trecassinæ" by charter dated to [657/58] which names "genitor noster Chlodoveus…genitrix nostra Baltildis regina", the latter also subscribing the charter[440].  She was forced to retire to the convent of Chelles in 664, when her son King Clotaire III reached the age of majority, by maior domus Ebroin. 

King Clovis II & his wife had three children: 

1.         CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire] ([650]-[10 Mar/9 May] 673, bur église Notre-Dame de l'abbaye de Chelles).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names (in order) "Chlotharium, Childericum atque Theudericum" as the three sons of "Chlodoveus…ex Balthilde regina eius", recording that the eldest son Clotaire succeeded his father after a reign of 16 years, with his mother as regent[441].  He is named avunculus of King Clovis III in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[442].  He succeeded his father in 657 as CLOTAIRE III King of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy, under the regency of his mother and maior domus Erchinoald.  Even after attaining the age of majority in 664, the government of the kingdom was in the hands of maior domus Ebroin.  "Chlothacharius rex Francorum" donated property to the monastery "in civitatis Trecassinæ" by charter dated to [657/58] which names "genitor noster Chlodoveus…genitrix nostra Baltildis regina", the latter also subscribing the charter[443].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Chlotharius rex puer" died after reigning for four years[444]

2.         THEODERICH ([651]-[2 Sep 690/12 Apr 691], bur Arras, basilique Saint-Vaast).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names (in order) "Chlotharium, Childericum atque Theudericum" as the three sons of "Chlodoveus…ex Balthilde regina eius"[445].  He succeeded his brother in 673 as THEODERICH III King of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy. 

-        see below

3.         CHILDERICH (-murdered forest of Lognes, near Chelles [18 Oct/10 Nov] 675, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names (in order) "Chlotharium, Childericum atque Theudericum" as the three sons of "Chlodoveus…ex Balthilde regina eius"[446].  "Theuderici regis" names "germano nostro Childerico quondam rege" in his deed dated 681[447].  He is named avunculus of King Clovis III in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[448].  He was installed in [18 Oct/9 Dec] 662 as CHILDERICH II King of the Franks in Austrasia by his mother after the death of maior domus Grimoald, under the regency of his aunt Queen Chimnechildis.  "Childericus rex Francorum et Chinechildis regina…Bertuino comiti et Bertelando vicario" donated property "villam…Barisiacum…in pago Laudunensi" to "Amando episcopo" by charter dated to [1 Aug 661][449].  "Childericus rex Francorum, Bonifacio duci" donated property on the advice of "Emhilde regine" to the monastery of St Gregory in Vosges by charter dated to [660/62][450].  "Childericus rex Francorum" donated property on the request of "Amelrico, Bonefacio ducibus" and the advice of "Emnehildæ reginæ" by charter dated to [664/66][451].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericum…alium fratrem eius [Chlotharii regis]" reigned in Austrasia with "Vulfoaldo duce", and that after his brother King Theoderich III was deposed he became King of the Franks, also backed by Wulfoald[452].  According to the Continuator of Fredegar, King Childerich was "altogether too light and frivolous", aroused "scandal and contempt…among the Frankish people" and was murdered with his pregnant queen by Bodilo[453].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum also records that "Childericum" and his pregnant wife were murdered by Bodilo[454]m ([664/6 Sep 667]) BILICHILDIS, daughter of [SIGEBERT III King of the Franks & his wife Chimnechildis] (-murdered forest of Lognes, near Chelles [18 Oct/10 Nov] 675, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…" confirmed the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated 6 Sep 667[455].  The Passio Leudegarii states that it was reported that "Childericum" married "filia sui…avunculi", the editor of this edition assuming that this means that she was the daughter of King Sigebert[456].  Given that avunculus normally indicates maternal uncle, this text appears insufficiently clear to conclude that the wife of King Childerich II was the daughter of King Sigebert III or, if she was, that she was his legitimate daughter.  No other source has been found which corroborates the origin of Queen Bilichildis.  However, contemporary Merovingian charters frequently use "avunculus" to include paternal uncle, which suggests that this may have been a general localised usage at the time.  The fact that she and her supposed mother are named together in the charter dated 6 Sep 667 of "Childericus rex Francorum, Emnehildis et Bilihildis…reginæ…" confirming the property of the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy[457] suggests that Chimnechildis ["Emnehildis"] & Bilihildis may have been mother and daughter.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Childericum" and his pregnant wife were murdered by Bodilo[458].  King Childerich II & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         DAGOBERT (-murdered forest of Lognes, near Chelles [18 Oct/10 Nov] 675, bur Paris, Saint-Germain-des-Prés).  The Vita Lantberti records the murder of "rex Hildericus…cum coniuge sua…Bilhilde filioque…Dagoberto"[459]

b)         CHILPERICH (-Noyon early 721, bur Noyon).  "Chilperichus rex Francorum" names "avunculus noster Theodericus et consobrini nostri Chlodovius, Childebercthus et Dagobercthus quondam regis" in his deed dated 29 Feb 716[460].  "Chilperichus rex Francorum" names "genetur noster Childaericus…abuncoli nostri Chlodocharius et Theodericus, quondam regis" in his deed dated [5] Mar 716[461].  He survived the massacre of his parents and brother, and was placed in a monastery, receiving the name Daniel.  The Annales Metenses name "Danielum quondam clericum…atque Chilpericum" as successor of King Dagobert II[462].  He was proclaimed CHILPERICH II King of the Franks in Austrasia [24 Jun/31 Dec] 715 by Neustrian nobility after they defeated the Austrasians.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the succession of "Danielem quondam clericum" under the name "Chilpericum"[463].  The Continuator of Fredegar records that he and maior domus Ragamfred were defeated by Charles "Martel" at Vinchy, Cambrésis 21 Mar [717][464].  He was deposed by Charles "Martel" in [Feb 718] and replaced by King Clotaire IV.  He was handed to Charles "Martel" by Eudes Duke of Aquitaine at Noyon and died soon after, having reigned for six years[465].  The Gesta Francorum records the death in 720 of "Hilperico"[466].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Chilperico rege" after a reign of 5 years and his burial in "Noviomo civitate"[467]

c)         [daughter .  The Vita Nivardi Episcopi Remensis records that "Reolus" married "Childericus rex Francorum…regis filiam" while he was still "comes" before he became bishop of Reims.  The same source says that this daughter was "neptam…beati Nivardi", who was the predecessor of Reolus at Reims, and that she and Reolus had a son "Gedeonem"[468].  No other source has been found which identifies the relationship between Nivard and the wife or mistress of King Childerich II.  m REOL, son of ---.  Bishop of Reims.] 

 

 

THEODERICH, son of CLOVIS II King of the Franks in Neustria & his wife Bathildis --- ([651]-[2 Sep 690/12 Apr 691], bur Arras, basilique Saint-Vaast).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names (in order) "Chlotharium, Childericum atque Theudericum" as the three sons of "Chlodoveus…ex Balthilde regina eius", recording in the following paragraph that Theoderich succeeded his brother after a reign of 4 years[469].  The parentage of "Theodorici regis" is given in the Cartulaire de Saint-Bertin[470].  He succeeded his brother in 673 as THEODERICH III King of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy, under the protection of the maior domus Ebroin.  After the latter was deposed and imprisoned at Luxeuil, King Theoderich was deposed, tonsured[471], forced to become a monk at Saint-Denis, and replaced by his younger brother Childerich.  After the latter's assassination, King Theoderich was restored in Neustria end 675.  After the maior domus Berthar was defeated by the Austrasians, King Theoderich was forced to flee but was captured by Pépin, maior domus in Austrasia.  According to the Continuator of Fredegar, he died "after a reign of seventeen years"[472].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Theudericus rex" after a reign of 19 years[473].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records the death in 693 of “Theodericus Rex” and the accession of “Clodoveus filius eius[474]

m CHROTECHILDIS [Rotilde] [Doda], daughter of --- (-692 or after).  "Theudericus rex Francorum" donated property at the request of "regine nostre Chrodochilde…et…Berchario maiorem domos nostre" to the abbey of St Denis by charter dated 30 Oct 688[475].  "Chrotechildis regina" is named as mother of King Clovis III in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[476].  She was regent for her son King Chlodovech III until 692.  The necrology of Arras Saint-Vaast names "Theodericus rex Galliæ, Doda uxor regina"[477].  The epitaph of King Theoderich III and his wife bore the inscription "rex Theodericus…cum coniuge  Doda", assumed to be another name by which Rotilde was known[478].  Settipani approves the theory of Maurice Chaume that the wife of King Theoderich III was Doda, daughter of maior domus Ansegisel[479].  The primary source evidence which provides the evidence for this theory has not yet been identified.  As noted in the document MEROVINGIAN NOBILITY, Doda was the possible name of Ansegisel’s mother, based only on a later source. 

King Theoderich III & his wife had [three] children: 

1.         CHLODOVECH [Clovis] ([678]-695, bur Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne, basilique Saint-Etienne).  "Chlodoveus rex Francorum" names "avunculi nostri Chlothacharii et Childerici…et genitor nostri Theuderici quondam regis…avos nostros Chlodoveus quondam rex" in his deed dated 1 Jun 691, subscribed by "genitricis nostræ Chrodechildis reginæ"[480].  He is named as son of Theoderich in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[481].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Chlodoveus filius eius [=Theuderici regis]…puer…ex regina…Chrodchilde" when recording his succession to his father and reign of two years[482].  He succeeded his father in 690 as CLOVIS III King of the Franks, under the authority of Pépin d'Herstal [Carolingian], but died after "having reigned four years"[483].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records the death in 695 of “Clodoveus puer Rex” and the accession of “Childebertus frater eius[484]

2.         CHILDEBERT (-14 Apr 711, bur Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne, basilique Saint-Etienne).  "Childebertus rex Francorum" names "geneture nostro Theuderico condam rige" in his deed dated 14 Mar 697[485].  "Hildebertus" is named brother of King Clovis III in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[486].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Childebertus frater eius [=Chlodoveus rex]" when recording that he succeeded his brother[487].  He succeeded his brother in 695 as CHILDEBERT III King of the Franks, under the authority of Pépin d'Herstal [Carolingian].  The Annales Metenses record the death of "Hildebertus rex" in 708 and his burial "Cauciaco in basilica sancti Stephani martyris"[488].  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records the death of "Childebertus rex" after a reign of 17 years and his burial "Cauciaeco monasterio in basilica sancti Stephani protomartyris"[489].  The Continuator of Fredegar records his death after reigning sixteen years and his burial place[490].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records the death “XVIII Kal Mai” in 712 of “Childebertus Rex Francorum[491]m [ERMENECHILDIS], daughter of ---.  Settipani states that Ermenechildis is named as the wife of King Childebert III in the 12th century Gesta Episcoporum Tullensis[492].  She is not named in the Vita Dagoberto III Regis Francorum which relates the life of her son[493].  King Childebert III & his wife had one child: 

a)         DAGOBERT ([697/98]-[3 Sep/31 Dec] 715, bur Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne, basilique Saint-Etienne).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Daygobertus puer filius eius [=Childebertus rex]" when recording that he succeeded his father[494].  The Vita Dagoberto III Regis Francorum names "Dagobertus rex…Theodericus avus ipsius…Hildebertus pater ipsius"[495].  "Dagoberctus rex Francorum" names "consobrinus noster Guntramnus rex…avi nostri Chlothacharius et item Dagobertus seu etiam Chlodoveus, nec non et Chlothacharius…et avus noster Theudericus…et avunculus noster item Chlodoveus…et genitor noster Childebertus quondam reges" in his deed dated 18 Jan 712[496].  "Dagobertus" is named son of King Childebert III in the Cartulaire of Saint-Bertin[497].  He succeeded his father in 711 as DAGOBERT III King of the Franks, under the authority of Pépin d'Herstal [Carolingian].  The Continuator of Fredegar and the Liber Historiæ Francorum both record that he died "after a reign of five years"[498].  The Monumenta Epternacensia record that "Dagobertus rex" was killed in 715 "in Cortia silva" and buried "Satiniaco"[499]m ---.  The name of King Dagobert III's wife is not known.  King Dagobert III & his wife had one child: 

i)          THEODERICH ([712]-[16 Mar/30 Apr] 737, bur église de l'abbaye de Saint-Denis).  The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Theudericum…filium Dagoberto iunioris" recording his succession and reign of six years[500].  "Theudericus rex Francorum" names "proavi nostri Clodovei et…avunculorum nostrorum Clothacharii et Childerici…et avorum nostrorum Theuderici et Childeberti atque consobrini nostri Chilperici quondam regis" in his deed dated 3 Mar 721[501].  After being taken from the monastery of Chelles, Charles "Martel" installed him [30 Jan/13 May] 721 as THEODERICH IV King of the Franks.  He was not replaced as King of the Franks until six years after his death. 

3.         [BERTRADA [Berta].  Abbess of Prüm.  Settipani suggests that Bertrada, abbess of Prüm and great grandmother of Charlemagne, was the daughter of King Theoderich III, basing this on the transmission of the names Charibert and Theoderich into the Carolingian family[502]m ---.] 

 

 

1.         CHLOTHACHAR [Clotaire] (-[late] 718).  The parentage of King Clotaire IV is not stated in any of the contemporary sources consulted.  The later sources are contradictory about his origin.  The Chronicon Vedastinum records the accession of "Lotharius filius eius" on the death of his father King Dagobert[503].  The Historia Regum Francorum records that "Dagobertus genuit Theodericum, Theodericus genuit Clotharium"[504], although this is impossible chronologically if it is correct that King Theoderich IV was born in [712].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the accession of "Lotharius patruus eius" after the death of "Dagobertus iunior Francorum rex"[505], which if correct would mean that Clotaire IV was the son of King Theoderich III.  Settipani favours this last theory in his discussion of the conflicting sources[506] but there appears to be no basis for deciding which of the different theories is correct.  He was installed in [Feb 718] as CLOTAIRE IV King of the Franks in Austrasia by Charles "Martel" but died soon after[507].  The Gesta Francorum records the death in 719 of "Hlotharius rex"[508].  The Chronicon Vedastinum records death in 724 of "Lotharius, Dagoberti filius"[509]

 

 

1.         CHILDERICH (-after 752).  The parentage of King Childerich III is unknown.  The Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium names "Theoderici regis, patris Hilderici…regis novissimi ex genere Merovingorum"[510], another in a later passage naming him more generally "Hildericus rex, Merovingorum ex genere ortus…"[511].  "Childerichus rex Francorum" names "parens noster Theudericus quondam rex" in his charter dated 23 Apr 743[512], the use of the word "parens" suggesting a more remote relationship, assuming that the charter refers to King Theoderich IV.  Settipani discusses the different theories regarding the parentage of King Childerich III[513], but there appears to be no basis for deciding which of them may be correct.  He was installed as CHILDERICH III King of the Franks [16 Feb/3 Mar] 743 by Pépin "le Bref" [Carolingian], after the interregnum which followed the death of King Theoderich IV.  "Childerichus rex Francorum" with "Karolomanno maiori domus, rectori palatio nostro" confirmed donations to the monastery of Stablo and Malmedy by charter dated Jul 744[514].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that he was deposed [22 Dec 751/23 Jan 752], tonsured and sent to the monastery of Sithiu[515].  The Chronicon Sancti Medardi Suessionensis records that “Hildricus” was deposed in 750 and tonsured “in Monasterio beati Medardi Suessionensis[516]m ---.  The name of King Childerich III's wife is not known.  King Childerich III & his wife had one child: 

a)         THEODERICH.  The Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium records that "Hildericus rex, Merovingorum ex genere ortus…cuius filius…Theodericus" was placed in the monastery in 753[517]

 

 



[1] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin), II.9, p. 125. 

[2] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, in particular p. 77. 

[3] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), pp. 33-4 and 37. 

[4] Wood (1994), p. 35, citing James, E. (1988) The Franks (Oxford) pp. 35-8. 

[5] Gregory of Tours II.9, p. 125. 

[6] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 16. 

[7] Gregory of Tours II.9, p. 125. 

[8] Epistulæ Austrasiacæ 2, MGH Epistolæ 3, discussed in Wood (1994), p. 41. 

[9] His credibility as a source is fully discussed in Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours, The History of the Franks (Penguin), Introduction, pp. 31-6. 

[10] Gregory of Tours V.14, p. 268. 

[11] Gregory of Tours II.9, p. 125. 

[12] Gregory of Tours II.9, p. 125. 

[13] Liber Historiæ Francorum 5, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 245 and 246. 

[14] Gregory of Tours II.9, p. 125. 

[15] Liber Historiæ Francorum 5, MGH SS Rer Merov II, p. 246. 

[16] Wood (1994), pp. 33-4 and 37. 

[17] Gregory of Tours II.9, p. 125. 

[18] Liber Historiæ Francorum 6, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 246. 

[19] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 51. 

[20] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 128. 

[21] Gregory of Tours II.18 and 19, p. 132. 

[22] Epistulæ Austrasiacæ 2, MGH Epistolæ 3, discussed in Wood (1994), p. 41. 

[23] Liber Historiæ Francorum 9, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 251. 

[24] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129. 

[25] Liber Historiæ Francorum 7, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 249. 

[26] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129. 

[27] Gregory of Tours II.31, p. 145. 

[28] Wood (1994), p. 44. 

[29] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187. 

[30] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[31] Gregory of Tours II.31, pp. 144-5. 

[32] RHGF IV, p. 51. 

[33] Gregory of Tours II.42, pp. 156-7. 

[34] Liber Historiæ Francorum 9, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 251. 

[35] Gregory of Tours II.42, p. 157. 

[36] Gregory of Tours II.42, p. 157. 

[37] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129. 

[38] Liber Historiæ Francorum 6, MGH Auct. Ant. II, p. 246. 

[39] Liber Historiæ Francorum 14, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 260. 

[40] Wood (1994), p. 48, suggests that Clovis's conversion may have taken place in 508. 

[41] Gregory of Tours II.32, pp. 145-6, and the Chronicle of Marius of Avenches, cited in Wood (1994), pp. 41 and 43. 

[42] Gregory of Tours II.37, pp. 153-4. 

[43] Wood (1994), p. 46. 

[44] Gregory of Tours II.40 and 41, pp. 155-6. 

[45] Gregory of Tours II.43, p. 158. 

[46] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[47] Settipani (1993), p. 56. 

[48] Settipani (1993), p. 57, footnote 68, points out that "Rotilde" is the correct form. 

[49] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[50] Fredegar, III 17-20, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 99. 

[51] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 2, p. 114. 

[52] Gregory of Tours II.30 and 31, pp. 143-4. 

[53] Gregory of Tours II.43 and IV.1, pp. 158 and 197. 

[54] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin Books), p. 89. 

[55] Gregory of Tours II.28, p. 141. 

[56] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[57] Chronicle of 511, 689 and 690, cited in Wood (1994), p. 48. 

[58] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[59] Gregory of Tours III.7 and 8, pp. 167-9. 

[60] Liber Historiæ Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[61] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.4, MGH SS VII, p. 285. 

[62] Gregory of Tours III.23, p. 184. 

[63] ES I.1 1. 

[64] Gregory of Tours III.5, p. 166. 

[65] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ, II, 1, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 132. 

[66] MGH SS XXXVI, p. 132, footnotes 3 and 9.  

[67] Gregory of Tours III.1, p. 162. 

[68] Gregory of Tours III.3, pp. 163-4. 

[69] Liber Historiæ Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[70] Gregory of Tours III.24, p. 184. 

[71] Gregory of Tours III.32, p. 189. 

[72] Settipani (1993), p. 63. 

[73] Gregory of Tours III.37, p. 193. 

[74] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 548, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[75] Gregory of Tours III.22 and III.23, pp. 183 and 184. 

[76] Gregory of Tours III.27, p. 185. 

[77] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[78] Gregory of Tours III.20, p. 183. 

[79] Gregory of Tours III.27, p. 185. 

[80] Gregory of Tours III.23, p. 184. 

[81] Gregory of Tours III.26, p. 185. 

[82] Gregory of Tours III.27, p. 185. 

[83] Settipani (1993), p. 65. 

[84] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 203. 

[85] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 555, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[86] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[87] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[88] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[89] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 202. 

[90] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 553, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[91] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 203. 

[92] Fortunat Carmina Liber II XI, MGH Auctores Antiquissimi IV.1, pp. 40-1. 

[93] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Gothico IV.20, p. 560. 

[94] Fortunati Carmina Historica, IV, XXV, RHGF II, p. 497. 

[95] Gregorii episcopi Turonensis Liber in gloria confessorum, MGH SRM, I, 2, p. 773. 

[96] Flodoard II.1, MGH SS XIII, p. 447 and MGH SS XXXVI, p. 132. 

[97] Settipani (1993), p. 65. 

[98] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 2, p. 114. 

[99] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, p. 114, footnote 1. 

[100] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 16, p. 132. 

[101] Gregory of Tours II.29, p. 142. 

[102] Gregory of Tours II.29, p. 142. 

[103] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[104] Gregory of Tours III.6, pp. 166-7. 

[105] Liber Historiæ Francorum 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 276. 

[106] Gregory of Tours III.6, pp. 166-7. 

[107] Liber Historiæ Francorum 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[108] Settipani (1993), p. 66. 

[109] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 167. 

[110] Liber Historiæ Francorum 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[111] Gregory of Tours III.18, pp. 180-1. 

[112] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 167. 

[113] Liber Historiæ Francorum 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[114] Gregory of Tours III.18, pp. 180-1. 

[115] Gregory of Tours III.6, p. 167. 

[116] Liber Historiæ Francorum 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[117] Gregory of Tours III.18, p. 182. 

[118] Vita Sancti Chlodovaldi, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 357. 

[119] Attwater, p. 89. 

[120] Gregory of Tours III.1, p. 162. 

[121] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[122] Gregory of Tours III.10, p. 170. 

[123] Gregory of Tours III.11, p. 171. 

[124] Gregory of Tours III.24, p. 184. 

[125] Gregory of Tours IV.20, p. 215. 

[126] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 558, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[127] Gregory of Tours IV.20, p. 215. 

[128] Gregory of Tours IV.20, p. 215. 

[129] Settipani (1993), p. 68 footnote 148, citing Pardessus, J. M. (1843-49) Diplomata, chartæ, epistolæ, leges aliaque instrumenta ad res Gallo-Francicas spectantia (Paris) Vol. I, 1858, no. 172. 

[130] Gregory of Tours IV.20, p. 215. 

[131] Settipani, p. 68 footnote 148, citing Pardessus, J. M. (1843-49) Diplomata, chartæ, epistolæ, leges aliaque instrumenta ad res Gallo-Francicas spectantia (Paris) Vol. I, 1858, no. 172. 

[132] Gregory of Tours III.1, p. 162. 

[133] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 2, p. 114. 

[134] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, p. 114, footnote 1. 

[135] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 16, p. 132. 

[136] Settipani (1993), pp. 58-9, citing the sources for her affiliation and highlighting her possible co-identity with Theodechildis daughter of King Theoderich. 

[137] Gregory of Tours III.1, p. 162. 

[138] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.13, p. 69. 

[139] Gregory of Tours III.10, p. 170. 

[140] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264. 

[141] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264. 

[142] Catalogus Epsicoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 2, p. 269. 

[143] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264. 

[144] Catalogus Epsicoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 2, p. 269. 

[145] Gregory of Tours III.1, p. 162. 

[146] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[147] Gregory of Tours III.7, pp. 167-8. 

[148] Gregory of Tours III.11, p. 171. 

[149] Gregory of Tours III.29, pp. 186-7. 

[150] Gregory of Tours IV.21, p. 217. 

[151] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 561, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[152] Gregory of Tours III.6, pp. 166-7. 

[153] Settipani (1993), p. 66. 

[154] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[155] Vita Sanctæ Radegundis Liber I, 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 365. 

[156] Gregory of Tours III.7, p. 168. 

[157] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 7, p. 8. 

[158] Gregory of Tours IX.2, p. 481. 

[159] Attwater, p. 295. 

[160] Gregory of Tours IV.3, pp. 197-8. 

[161] Settipani, p. 70. 

[162] Gregory of Tours IV.3, pp. 197-8. 

[163] Liber Historiæ Francorum 27, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 286. 

[164] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 203. 

[165] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 553, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[166] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[167] Liber Historiæ Francorum 27, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 286. 

[168] Gregory of Tours IV.3, pp. 197-8. 

[169] Gregory, III 21, and IV 25. 

[170] Gregory of Tours IV.3, pp. 197-8. 

[171] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[172] Gregory of Tours IV.22, p. 217. 

[173] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 561, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[174] Herimanni Augiensis Chronic on 563, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[175] Gregory of Tours IV.26, p. 219. 

[176] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 563, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[177] Gregory of Tours IX.26, p. 513. 

[178] Gregory of Tours IV.26, p. 219. 

[179] Gregory of Tours IV.26, pp. 219-21. 

[180] Gregory of Tours IV.26, p. 220. 

[181] Gregory of Tours IV.26, p. 219. 

[182] Plummer, C. (1895) Venerabilis Bædæ opera historica, Tomus prior (Oxford) Bædæ Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum ("Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer)"), Book I, Chapter XXV, p. 44. 

[183] Kirby, D. P. (revised 2000) The Earliest English Kings (Longman), p. 26. 

[184] Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer), Book I, Chapter XXV, p. 44, and Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), I, 9, p. 12. 

[185] Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford University Press), p. 109. 

[186] Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer), Book II, Chapter V, p. 90. 

[187] Gregory of Tours IX.33, p. 518. 

[188] Gregory of Tours IV.26, p. 219. 

[189] Gregory of Tours IX.39 and X.15-17, pp. 526 and 567-75. 

[190] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[191] Gregory of Tours IV.22, p. 217. 

[192] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 561, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[193] Gregory of Tours V.17 and IX.20, pp. 274-5 and 503-7. 

[194] Fredegar, IV, 14, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 127. 

[195] Gregory of Tours IV.25, pp. 218-19. 

[196] Gregory of Tours IV.25, p. 219. 

[197] Gregory of Tours V.26, pp. 298-9. 

[198] RHGF II, p. 536. 

[199] MGH Conc. I, p. 162. 

[200] Gregory of Tours IV.25, p. 218. 

[201] Gregory of Tours IV.25, p. 218. 

[202] Gregory of Tours IV.25 and V.17, pp. 219 and 275. 

[203] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 577, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 239. 

[204] RHGF II, p. 536. 

[205] Gregory of Tours IV.25 and V.17, pp. 219 and 275. 

[206] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 577, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 239. 

[207] RHGF II, p. 536. 

[208] MGH Conc. I, p. 162. 

[209] MGH Conc. I, p. 162. 

[210] Gregory of Tours IX.20, p. 504, the complete text of the treaty being set out in MGH LL 1, p. 5. 

[211] Gregory of Tours IV.25, p. 218. 

[212] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[213] The date of her husband's second marriage. 

[214] Gregory of Tours IV.3, pp. 197-8. 

[215] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[216] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[217] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68. 

[218] Liber Historiæ Francorum 27, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 285. 

[219] Ex Chronico Marcianensi de Sancta Rictrude, RHGF 3, p. 522. 

[220] Carmen de Exordio Gentis Francorum, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini II, pp. 142-3. 

[221] Settipani, C. 'L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), pp. 185-229. 

[222] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245. 

[223] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[224] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[225] Gregory of Tours IV.13 and IV.16, pp. 207-8 and 211-12. 

[226] Gregory of Tours IV 17 and 20, pp. 213 and 215-16. 

[227] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 555, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[228] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 97. 

[229] Gregory of Tours IV.21, p. 217. 

[230] Gregory of Tours IV.17, p. 213. 

[231] Liber Historiæ Francorum 28, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 286 and 287. 

[232] Gregory of Tours IV 17 and 20, pp. 213 and 215-16. 

[233] Gregory of Tours IV 17 and 20, pp. 213 and 215-16. 

[234] Gregory of Tours VI.24, p. 352. 

[235] Gregory of Tours VII.10, p. 394 and VII.34-38, pp. 418-23.  Wood (1994), pp. 93-100, discusses the significance of Gundobald's rebellion in the context of contemporary politics. 

[236] Gregory of Tours VII.36, p. 419. 

[237] Gregory of Tours VII.36, p. 419. 

[238] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[239] Gregory of Tours IV.22, p. 217. 

[240] Settipani (1993), p. 78. 

[241] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 561, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[242] Settipani (1993), p. 78. 

[243] Gregory of Tours IV.51 and V.1, pp. 248 and 254. 

[244] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 576, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 239. 

[245] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.10, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 97. 

[246] Gregory of Tours IV.27, p. 221.  It should be recalled that Brunhild was still alive when Gregory wrote his History

[247] Gregory of Tours V.1, p. 254. 

[248] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.10, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 97. 

[249] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 576, MHG SS V, p. 89. 

[250] Gregory of Tours, IX 11 and 20. 

[251] Fredegar, IV, 19, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[252] Wood (1994), p. 131. 

[253] Fredegar, IV, 19, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[254] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 130. 

[255] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[256] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [579], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 215. 

[257] Gregory of Tours IV.39 and V.38, pp. 233 and 301-2. 

[258] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 103-4. 

[259] Gregory of Tours VI.40 and VI.43, pp. 371 and 376. 

[260] Settipani (1993), p. 79. 

[261] Gregory of Tours V.1, p. 254. 

[262] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732, and Chesnius T.I.P. 793), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[263] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 576, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 239. 

[264] Fredegar, IV, 7, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 125. 

[265] Fredegar, IV, 16, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 127. 

[266] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.11, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 120. 

[267] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 133. 

[268] Gregory of Tours IX.20, p. 505, the complete text of the treaty being set out in MGH LL 1, p. 5. 

[269] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.11, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 120. 

[270] Gregory of Tours VIII.37, p. 470. 

[271] Fredegar, IV, 5, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 125. 

[272] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[273] Liber Historiæ Francorum 37, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 306. 

[274] Fredegar, IV, 16, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 127. 

[275] Fredegar, IV, 20, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[276] Fredegar, IV, 27, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 132. 

[277] Fredegar, IV, 37, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 138. 

[278] Fredegar, IV, 38, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 139. 

[279] Fredegar, IV, 35, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134. 

[280] Fredegar, IV, 35, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134, "quam Brunechildis a neguciatoribus mercaverat". 

[281] Fredegar, IV, 37, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 138. 

[282] Fredegar, IV, 37, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 138. 

[283] Liber Historiæ Francorum 39, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 309. 

[284] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 127. 

[285] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 147. 

[286] Settipani (1993), p. 84. 

[287] Fredegar, IV, 38, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 139. 

[288] Gregory of Tours IX.4, p. 482. 

[289] Fredegar, IV, 7, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 125. 

[290] Liber Historiæ Francorum 37, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 306. 

[291] Regum Merowingorum Genealogia (Cod S. Galli, 732), Regum Francorum Genealogiæ, MGH SS II, p. 307. 

[292] Fredegar, IV, 16, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 127. 

[293] Fredegar, IV, 20, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[294] Fredegar, IV, 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 129. 

[295] Fredegar, IV, 38, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 139. 

[296] Fredegar, IV, 39, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 140. 

[297] Fredegar, IV, 30, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 132. 

[298] Fredegar, IV, 21, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 129. 

[299] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[300] Vita Galli Auctore Wettino 15, MGH SS rer Merov IV, pp. 264-5. 

[301] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 130. 

[302] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[303] Settipani (1993), p. 86. 

[304] Fredegar, IV, 24, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 130. 

[305] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[306] Fredegar, IV, 29, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 132. 

[307] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[308] Fredegar, IV. 31, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 132. 

[309] Fredegar, IV, 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 141. 

[310] Gregory of Tours IX.38, p. 524. 

[311] Gregory of Tours IX.20, p. 505, the complete text of the treaty being set out in MGH LL 1, p. 5. 

[312] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 108. 

[313] Vita Columbani I.22, MGH SS rer Merov IV, p. 95. 

[314] Gregory of Tours IV.3, p. 197. 

[315] Gregory of Tours IV.22, p. 217. 

[316] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 561, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 237. 

[317] Gregory of Tours IV.23, p. 218. 

[318] Gregory of Tours VI.45, pp. 379-81. 

[319] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 223. 

[320] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 563, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[321] Gregory of Tours V.39, p. 304. 

[322] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 222. 

[323] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 563, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[324] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 222. 

[325] Liber Historiae Francorum, 35, cited in Wood (1994), p. 124. 

[326] Fredegar, IV, 17, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 127. 

[327] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 223. 

[328] Gregory of Tours IV.23, p. 218. 

[329] Gregory of Tours IV.50, p. 247. 

[330] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 223. 

[331] Gregory of Tours V.14 and V.18, pp. 267 and 282. 

[332] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 578, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 239. 

[333] Gregory of Tours V.2, p. 255. 

[334] Gregory of Tours IV.28, p. 223. 

[335] Gregory of Tours IV.47, p. 243. 

[336] Gregory of Tours V.39, pp. 303-4. 

[337] Gregory of Tours VIII.10, p. 441. 

[338] Gregory of Tours V.39, pp. 304-5. 

[339] Gregory of Tours VI.34, pp. 364-5. 

[340] Gregory of Tours IX.39 and X.15-17, pp. 526 and 567-75. 

[341] Liber Historiæ Francorum 31, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 293. 

[342] Gregory of Tours V.49, p. 319. 

[343] Gregory of Tours VI.34 and VI.45, pp. 364 and 378-9. 

[344] Gregory of Tours VII.39 and IX.34, pp. 425 and 521-2. 

[345] Gregory of Tours V.34, pp. 297-8. 

[346] Gregory of Tours V.22, p. 288. 

[347] Gregory of Tours V.34, pp. 297-8. 

[348] Fortunati Carmina Historica, IV, XXV, RHGF II, p. 523. 

[349] Gregory of Tours VI.23 and VI.26, pp. 351 and 355. 

[350] Gregory of Tours VI.34, p. 364. 

[351] Gregory of Tours VI.41, p. 375. 

[352] Gregory of Tours VII.7, p. 392. 

[353] Fredegar, IV, 56, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 148. 

[354] Gregory of Tours VI.41, p. 375. 

[355] Gregory of Tours VII.7, p. 392. 

[356] Liber Historiæ Francorum 35, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 301.  

[357] Fredegar, IV, 20, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 128. 

[358] Liber Historiæ Francorum, alter biographus § 41 addit, quoted in Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagenses 17, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 565 footnote 1. 

[359] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 401. 

[360] Fredegar, IV, 84, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 163. 

[361] Settipani (1993), p. 95. 

[362] Fredegar, IV, 46, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 144. 

[363] Liber Historiæ Francorum, alter biographus § 41 addit, quoted in Vita Audoini Episcopi Rotomagenses 17, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 565 footnote 1. 

[364] Who in 626 married, as his first wife, Queen Sichildis's stepson King Dagobert II. 

[365] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 5, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 402. 

[366] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 16, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 406. 

[367] Fredegar, IV, 54, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 148. 

[368] Fredegar, IV, 25 and 26, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 130-1. 

[369] S 6. 

[370] Settipani (1993), p. 98 footnote 381. 

[371] Stenton, p. 61. 

[372] Werner, K. F. 'Les rouages de l'administration', Périn, P. and Feffer, L. C. (eds.) (1985) La Neustrie: Les pays au nord de la Loire de Dagobert à Charles le Chauve (vii-ix siècles) (Créteil), p. 42. 

[373] Settipani (1993), p. 98 footnote 382. 

[374] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 401. 

[375] "In the thirty ninth year" of his father's reign, Fredegar, IV, 47, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 144. 

[376] Settipani, p. 99, citing Vita Rusticulæ sive Marciæ 9, MGH SS rer Merov IV, p. 345, although this reference appears to be incorrect. 

[377] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 5, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 402. 

[378] Fredegar, IV, 56, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 148. 

[379] Fredegar, IV, 57, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 149. 

[380] Fredegar, IV, 67, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 154. 

[381] Fredegar, IV, 67, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 154. 

[382] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 401. 

[383] Bede Historia Ecclesiastica (Plummer), Book II, Chapter XX, p. 126. 

[384] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 314. 

[385] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 307.       

[386] Fredegar, IV, 79, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 161. 

[387] Stepmother of King Dagobert II. 

[388] Fredegar, IV, 53 and 58, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 147 and 150. 

[389] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 13, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 404. 

[390] Fredegar, IV, 58, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 150. 

[391] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 22, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 408. 

[392] Fredegar, IV, 58, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 150. 

[393] Liber Historiæ Francorum 42, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 314. 

[394] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 26, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 410. 

[395] Fredegar, IV, 79, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 161.

[396] Fredegar, IV, 80 , MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 161. 

[397] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 18, p. 19. 

[398] Fredegar, IV, 89 and 90, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 165-66. 

[399] Fredegar, IV, 60, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 151. 

[400] Fredegar, IV, 79 , MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 171.

[401] Fredegar, IV, 60, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 151. 

[402] Fredegar, IV, 59, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 150. 

[403] Fredegar, IV, 59, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 150. 

[404] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 24, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 409. 

[405] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 314. 

[406] Fredegar, IV, 87, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 164. 

[407] Passio Præiecti episcopi et martyris Arverni 24, MGH SS rer Merov V, p. 240. 

[408] Gesta Episcopi Tullensis 15, MGH SS VIII, p. 635. 

[409] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 25, p. 25. 

[410] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 26, p. 26. 

[411] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 28, p. 27. 

[412] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[413] Stephanus, Vita Wulfridi, 28, cited in Wood (1994), p. 223. 

[414] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 316. 

[415] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 45, p. 42. 

[416] Passio Leudegarii Episcopi Augustodunensis I.9, MGH SS rer Mero V, p. 290, footnote 4. 

[417] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[418] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 318. 

[419] Vita Lantberti Abbatis Fontanellensis et Episcopi Lugdunensis 5, MGH SS rer Mero V, p. 612. 

[420] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 314. 

[421] De Rebus Treverensibus sæculi VIII-X Libellus 12, MGH SS XIV, p. 104. 

[422] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 52, p. 169. 

[423] De Rebus Treverensibus sæculi VIII-X Libellus 12, MGH SS XIV, p. 104. 

[424] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 52, p. 169. 

[425] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 55-59, pp. 173-7. 

[426] De Rebus Treverensibus sæculi VIII-X Libellus 12 and 16, MGH SS XIV, pp. 104 and 105, the latter quoting the supposed foundation charter. 

[427] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Spuria I, no. 52, p. 169. 

[428] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 316. 

[429] Settipani (1993), pp. 106-8. 

[430] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 314. 

[431] Gesta Dagoberti I Regis Francorum 32, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 412, and Fredegar, IV, 76, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 159. 

[432] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 18, p. 19. 

[433] Fredegar (Continuator), 1, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 169. 

[434] Liber Historiæ Francorum 44, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 316. 

[435] Fredegar (Continuator), 1. 

[436] Vita Sanctæ Balthildis, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, pp. 483 and 485. 

[437] Fredegar (Continuator), 1, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 169. 

[438] Liber Historiæ Francorum 43, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 315. 

[439] Fredegar (Continuator), 1, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 169, and Liber Historiæ Francorum 44, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317. 

[440] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 33, p. 31. 

[441] Liber Historiæ Francorum 44, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317. 

[442] Guérard, M. (ed.) (1840) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Saint-Bertin (Paris), p. 35. 

[443] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 33, p. 31. 

[444] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317. 

[445] Liber Historiæ Francorum 44 and 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317. 

[446] Liber Historiæ Francorum 44, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317. 

[447] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 53, pp. 47-8. 

[448] Saint-Bertin, p. 35. 

[449] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 25, p. 25. 

[450] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 26, p. 26. 

[451] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 28, p. 27. 

[452] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317.  

[453] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 169. 

[454] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 318. 

[455] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[456] Passio Leudegarii Episcopi Augustodunensis I.9, MGH SS rer Mero V, p. 290, footnote 4. 

[457] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 29, p. 28. 

[458] Liber Historiæ Francorum 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 318. 

[459] Vita Lantberti Abbatis Fontanellensis et Episcopi Lugdunensis 5, MGH SS rer Mero V, p. 612. 

[460] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 81, p. 72. 

[461] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 82, p. 73. 

[462] Annales Metenses [716], MGH SS I, p. 323. 

[463] Liber Historiæ Francorum 52, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 326. 

[464] Fredegar (Continuator), 10, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 174. 

[465] Fredegar (Continuator), 10, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 174. 

[466] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 720, MGH SS I, p. 344. 

[467] Liber Historiæ Francorum 53, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 328. 

[468] Vita Nivardi Episcopi Remensis 1 and 10, MGH SS rer. Merov. V, pp. 160 and 168. 

[469] Liber Historiæ Francorum 44 and 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 317. 

[470] Saint-Bertin, p. 33. 

[471] Fredegar (Continuator), 2, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 169. 

[472] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 172.  

[473] Liber Historiæ Francorum 49, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 323. 

[474] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[475] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 57, p. 51. 

[476] Saint-Bertin, p. 36. 

[477] Van Drival (ed.) Nécrologe de l'abbaye de Saint-Vaast d'Arras (1878) (Arras), p. 4. 

[478] RHFG III, p. 367, quoted in Settipani, p. 115 footnote 491. 

[479] Settipani (1993), p. 115, footnote 495 citing Chaume, M. 'La famille de saint Guillaume de Gellone' Annales de Bourgogne (1929), p. 48, n. 1 [not yet consulted]. 

[480] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 58, p. 52. 

[481] Saint-Bertin, p. 34. 

[482] Liber Historiæ Francorum 49, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 323. 

[483] Fredegar (Continuator), 6, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 172. 

[484] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[485] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 70, p. 62. 

[486] Saint-Bertin, p. 36. 

[487] Liber Historiæ Francorum 49, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 323. 

[488] Annales Metenses 711, MGH SS I, p. 322. 

[489] Liber Historiæ Francorum 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 324. 

[490] Fredegar (Continuator), 7, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 172. 

[491] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[492] Settipani, p. 119, which gives no citation for the Gesta

[493] Vita Dagoberti III Regis Francorum, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 511. 

[494] Liber Historiæ Francorum 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 324. 

[495] Vita Dagoberti III Regis Francorum 1 and 3, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 512 and 513. 

[496] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 80, p. 71. 

[497] Saint-Bertin, p. 41. 

[498] Fredegar (Continuator), 9, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 173, and Liber Historiæ Francorum 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 324. 

[499] Monumenta Epternacensia 715, MGH SS XXIII, p. 60. 

[500] Liber Historiæ Francorum 53, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 328. 

[501] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 91, p. 80. 

[502] Settipani (1993), p. 116. 

[503] Chronicon Vedastinum 716, MGH SS XIII, p. 699. 

[504] Historia Regum Francorum, MGH SS XIII, p. 251. 

[505] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 719, MGH SS XXIII, p. 703. 

[506] Settipani (1993), pp. 116-8. 

[507] Fredegar (Continuator), 10, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 174. 

[508] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 719, MGH SS I, p. 344. 

[509] Chronicon Vedastinum 724, MGH SS XIII, p. 700. 

[510] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium 8, MGH SS II, p. 281. 

[511] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium 14, MGH SS II, p. 289. 

[512] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 96, p. 86. 

[513] Settipani (1993), pp. 126-9. 

[514] MGH Diplomatum Imperii I, Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 97, p. 87. 

[515] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 750, p. 39. 

[516] Chronica Sancti Medardi Suessionensis, Spicilegium II, p. 487. 

[517] Gesta Abbatum Fontanellensium 14, MGH SS II, p. 289.