HUNGARY, KINGS

  v3.1 Updated 26 August 2014

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                KINGS of the OSTROGOTHS in PANNONIA. 6

A.         DYNASTY of the SCIRI GOTHS.. 6

B.         DYNASTY of the AMAL GOTHS.. 7

C.        GEPIDS.. 10

Chapter 2.                HUNS. 12

Chapter 3.                KINGS of the LOMBARDS in PANNONIA [510]-572. 14

Chapter 4.                LEADERS of PANNONIAN CROATIA. 20

Chapter 5.                MAGYAR PRINCES of HUNGARY from [900], KINGS of HUNGARY 1000-1301 (ARPÁD) 22

A.         ORIGINS.. 24

B.         PRINCES of TRANSYLVANIA.. 28

C.        PRINCES of HUNGARY 955-1000, KINGS of HUNGARY 1000-1301. 30

Chapter 6.                KING of HUNGARY 1301-1304 (PŘEMYSL) 106

Chapter 7.                KING of HUNGARY 1305-1308 (WITTELSBACH) 106

Chapter 8.                KINGS of HUNGARY 1301-1387 (ANJOU-CAPET) 107

Chapter 9.                KING of HUNGARY 1387-1437 (LUXEMBOURG) 116

Chapter 10.              KINGS of HUNGARY 1437-1457 (HABSBURG) 118

Chapter 11.              KINGS of HUNGARY 1440-1526 (JAGIELLON) 119

Chapter 12.              KING of HUNGARY 1458-1490 (HUNYADI) 123

Chapter 13.              KINGS of HUNGARY 1526-1540 (ZÁPOLYA) 127

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

The territory now known as Hungary formed part of the Roman province of Pannonia.  It lay in the path of successive waves of so-called barbarian invaders who migrated into Europe from central Asia between the 4th and 9th centuries.  Their influence was widespread in Balkan Europe north of the Byzantine empire but for convenience the families of these invaders are shown in this document concerning Hungary, where many of them settled at least temporarily. 

 

The territory of "Pannonia" was organised as a separate province of the Roman empire, centred on what is today Hungary, in AD 10[1].  It was heavily fortified as protection against barbarian incursions from the east.  Gregory of Tours, writing towards the end of the 6th century, records that "it is commonly said" that the Franks originated in Pannonia, before migrating northwards across the river Rhine into Germany and later northern France, citing "the historians whose works we still have"[2].  No other source has so far been identified which corroborates this claim.  If it is correct, the Frankish occupation of Pannonia predated the arrival of the Ostrogoths in the territory. 

 

Loss of Roman control of Pannonia was confirmed when Emperor Valens was defeated by the Goths in 378 at the battle of Adrianople, in neighbouring Thrace.  In the last decades of the 4th century, the Ostrogoths migrated into Pannonia from the area north of the Danube and used it as their base from which to launch their onward migration into Italy.  The mythical origins and later history of the Goths is recorded by Jordanes in his mid-6th century Getica[3].  Well-connected with the contemporary ruling class in Italy, and not too distant in time at least from the later events which he records, it is reasonable to suppose that his narrative is broadly accurate, although impossible to identify the precise moment in the text when myth evolves into fact.  The Ostrogoth settlements in Pannonia came under pressure from the Huns who were competing for territory.  While Hun/Ostrogoth collaboration at the battle of the Catalaunian fields in Gaul[4] indicates some early coordination between the two groups, the onward migration of the Ostrogoths from Pannonia in the 470s was probably motivated in part by pressure from the Huns. 

 

The Langobards, more commonly known as Lombards, were the third set of invaders, migrating from Moravia into Pannonia in the 520s, before being invited into Italy in the 550s.  This preceded their mass migration into the Italian peninsular which is dated to 568/69, although it is not known whether this exodus involved a complete abandonment of the Lombard settlements in Pannonia[5]

 

In the 8th century, Pannonia was part of the Avar khaganate centred on the Tisza river.  Charles I King of the Franks (later Emperor Charlemagne) eliminated the independent Avar state during his campaign in 795-96.  The Croatians, previously subjects of the Avars, established a principality under Frankish overlordship, under the direct suzerainty of the Marchesi of Friulia[6], although this was absorbed into the twin Croatian principality of Dalmatia in the 820s (see the document CROATIA).  The Croatian principality became part of the kingdom of the East Franks, under Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of Germany, after the division of the Frankish empire under the 843 Treaty of Verdun. 

 

Meanwhile, the last invasion of Pannonia, that of the Magyars, was being prepared.  During the 6th-9th centuries, the Magyar tribes formed part of the Khazar confederacy, whose ruler appointed their leader, the "kende".  By 830, seven tribes of Magyars were established above the Maeotis, on the right bank of the River Don, in the region of Lebedia north of the Black Sea, where they led a nomadic existence.  Other Magyar tribes lived in the Ural steppes and in the Caucasus.  The seven tribes formed a loose federation without a single supreme authority[7].  According to Hungarian national tradition, their chieftains elected Árpád, the most powerful among them, as overall leader.  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Hunni sive Hungari" (referring to the Magyar) divided into seven armies, each having 30,000 warriors and a single commander of whom "Arpad" was the most powerful and the first to enter Pannonia[8]

 

An assumption evolved among later medieval historians that the Magyars descended from the Huns.  This is the basis of the narrative of Simon of Kéza's Gesta Hungarorum, the surviving 18th century versions of which are assumed to be based on a late 13th century manuscript which can no longer be traced[9].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Ugek…de genere Magog regis…dux Scythie", apparently also confirming this alleged descent from Attila, when recording that he was the ancestor of Árpád first Magyar leader in Hungary[10].  According to the Gesta Hungarorum, the "Hungarian nation" comprised 108 clans which trace their ancestry to "filios Hunos et Magor" born in the marshes of Meotis after they invaded "Scythia"[11], although the only specific genealogical link with the Huns which is quoted in this source is the alleged descent of the Aba clan from Csaba, supposed son of Attila[12].  The Annals of Lambert record that "regina Ungariorum, mater Salomonis regis" presented the sword of "rex Hunnorum Attila" to "duci Baioriorum Ottoni" after her son was restored as king of Hungary[13], suggesting that the alleged Magyar/Hun connection was not solely an invention of later Hungarian sources.  A connection with the Huns is apparently suggested by the name "Hungary", assigned by western Europeans to the country.  However, there are other theories to explain the origin of the name.  According to Hungarian scholarship, the name derives from the Onogur confederation of tribes to which the ancestors of the Magyars once belonged[14].  Macartney states that the word "Hungarian" is a Slavicised form of the Turkish term "On Ogur" (meaning Ten Arrows), by which the Magyars were known by their Khazar neighbours who held the mouth of the Volga[15].  On the other hand, the Gesta Hungarorum records that "Hunni sive Hungari" finally settled "in fluvio Hung [Ung]" where they built a fortress and, later, six other castles, and that the name "Hungari" given to them by western people derives from this river[16]

 

The Annals of Saint-Bertin record that the Magyars first raided Frankish territory in 862[17].  Under military threat to the east from the Pechenegs, the latter launched a major attack on the original Magyar homeland in 889, forcing the Magyars to migrate westwards and re-settle in the area later known as Bessarabia and Moldavia[18].  According to the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Magyars "passed by Kiev…and on arriving at the Dnieper pitched camp", expelled the Vlakhs and settled on their land[19].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Hunni sive Hungari", indicating the Magyars, passed through "regna Bessorum [Pechenegs], Alborum Comanorum [White Kumans] et civitatem Kyo [Kiev]" on their way to Pannonia[20].  To avoid the threat of further attacks from the east, Árpád led the Magyars further west across the mountains into Transylvania, where the Szekels submitted voluntarily.  From there, they passed into the region which is now Hungary where the existing population was sparse. 

 

In 892, Emperor Arnulf enlisted a contingent of Magyars to help suppress his vassal Sviatopluk King of Moravia, not anticipating the longer term implications of his move.  The Magyars continued to raid on their own account, and in 907 defeated a Bavarian army at Ennsburg and extended their rule to the old Avar frontier at the confluence of the Enns and Danube rivers.  Árpád's own tribe settled in the Dunántúl between Székesfehérvár (where he established his headquarters) and Buda.  Another of the seven tribes, led by Gyula, settled in Transylvania.  The Magyars continued to inflict major damage with their raids on western Europe, although they were defeated by Heinrich "the Fowler" King of Germany at Riade near Merseburg in 933.  Their defeat by Otto I King of Germany at Augsburg in 955 marked the end of this aggressive lifestyle.  The raids ceased and, after his accession in [970], Géza Prince of Hungary sent ambassadors to the court of Emperor Otto I[21]

 

The arrival of Christianity played a significant role in the development of Hungary.  Prince István, son of Géza, received a royal crown from the Pope, who was anxious to extend his sphere of influence and prevent the Orthodox church from gaining ground in Hungary.  István was crowned as first king of Hungary in 1000.  

 

The descendants of Árpád ruled Hungary until 1301.  Traditional dynastic succession was by seniority.  Of the 24 successions between István I in 1000 and András III in 1290, there were only eight cases of the king being succeeded by his eldest son.  During the nine years which followed the extinction of the dynasty in the male line in 1301, four rival claimants for the Hungarian crown emerged.  Representatives of eight different dynasties ruled Hungary over the succeeding 250 years.  Succession of each new dynasty was based on power, backed in most cases by a family connection with the preceding dynasty either through the female line or engineered by marriage. 

 

Despite the long series of foreign monarchs, Hungary remained independent.  Integration with each new monarch's country of origin was avoided by the fiction of personal rule.  The most extreme example was King Albert, from the Austrian Habsburg dynasty, who in his personal capacity ruled Austria, Bohemia and Germany as well as Hungary.  He was also elected King of the Romans, although he died before being crowned emperor.  Even after the dynastic succession settled permanently with the Habsburgs in 1526, there was no political integration between Austria and Hungary, the two countries being ruled separately until the early 20th century under what became known as the Dual Monarchy. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    KINGS of the OSTROGOTHS in PANNONIA

 

 

The Goths originally lived north of the Danube.  According to legend, they had migrated to the Black Sea area from the island of Scandza in the Baltic Sea, before separating into two tribal groups, the Visigoths to the west and the Ostrogoths to the east.  Under pressure from the Huns, they sought permission from the Roman Emperor Valens to move into the Roman Empire to the south of the river Danube.  By 380, the Ostrogoths had settled in Pannonia as federates of Emperor Gratian, but appear to have become subjects of the Huns[22].  Two dynasties of Goth kings are recorded in Pannonia: the Sciri Goths (see Part A below) and the Amal Goths (Part B).  There is considerable uncertainty about the early Ostrogoth kings and their history.  Procopius records that the Goths were given permission by the (western) Roman emperor to settle in “Thraciam”, but he does not specify whether this was after living in Pannonia[23].  The Ostrogoth Theodoric captured Italy and declared himself king in 493.  He and members of his family continued to rule in Italy until 536. 

 

 

 

A.      DYNASTY of the SCIRI GOTHS

 

 

EDICA, son of --- (-killed in battle [467/68]).  He was the leader of the Sciri and united his troops with those of Hunimund King of the Suevi to march against the Pannonian Ostrogoths.  He was killed during the attack[24]

Edica had two sons:

1.         HUNULF .  After the failure of the attack on the Pannonian Ostrogoths, and the death of his father, Hunulf entered the service of the Eastern Empire[25].  He left to join his brother in Italy in 479[26].  After his brother was killed he sought refuge in a church and was used as a target by Ostrogoth archers[27].  Isidor's Historia Gothorum, Wandalorum, Sueborum names "Odoacar rege Ostrogothorum atque…fratre eius Onoulfo" when recording that the latter fled across the Danube after his brother was captured[28]

2.         ODOVACAR ([428/29]-murdered 15 Mar 493).  His birth date range is estimated from Wolfram speculating that Odovacar was 60 years old when put to flight by Theodoric in 489[29].  After his father's death, he became a soldier in Italy, where he led the Heruli, Rugians and Turcilingi and was considered their king[30].  He deposed Romulus "Augustulus", last of the Roman Emperors in the West, in 476, becoming ODOVACAR King of Italy

-        KINGS of ITALY

 

 

 

B.      DYNASTY of the AMAL GOTHS

 

 

Iordanes sets out the supposed ancestors of Athal, in order, as follows "Gapt…Hulmul…Augis…Amal a quo et origo Amalorum decurrit…Hisarnis…Ostrogotha…Hunuil…Athal"[31].  Nothing is known about the Amal Goth leaders, supposed descendants of Athal, who are shown below apart from the sparse amount of information which has been extracted from Iordanes. 

 

 

ATHAL .  Athal had two children: 

1.         ACHIULF .  Iordanes names "Achiulf et Oduulf" as the sons of Athal[32].  Achiulf had four children: 

a)         ANSILA .  Iordanes names "Ansila et Ediulf, Vultuulf et Hermenerig" as the sons of Achiulf[33]

b)         EDIULF .  Iordanes names "Ansila et Ediulf, Vultuulf et Hermenerig" as the sons of Achiulf[34]

c)         VULTWULF .  Iordanes names "Ansila et Ediulf, Vultuulf et Hermenerig" as the sons of Achiulf[35].  Vultwulf had one child: 

i)          VALARAVANS .  Iordanes names "Valaravans" as the son of Vultwulf[36].  Valaravans had one child: 

(a)       VINITHARIUS .  Iordanes names "Vinitharius" as the son of Valaravans[37].  Vinitharius had one child: 

(1)       VANDALARIUS .  Iordanes names "Vandiliarum" as son of Vinitharius[38]

-         see below

d)         HERMENRICH .  Iordanes names "Ansila et Ediulf, Vultuulf et Hermenerig" as the sons of Achiulf[39].  Hermenrich had one child: 

i)          HUNIMUND .  Iordanes names "Hunimundum" as son of "Hermanaricus"[40].  Hunimund had one child: 

(a)       THORISMUND (-killed in battle [451/55]).  Iordanes names "Thorismundo" as son of "Hunimundus"[41].  Iordanes records that "Thorismundo filius eius" succeeded as King of the Goths after the death of "Hunimundus filius quondam regis…Hermanarici" but was killed fighting the Gepids in the second year of his reign[42].  Thorismund had one child: 

(1)       BERIMUD .  Iordanes names "Berimud" as son of "Thorismundo"[43].  Iordanes records that "Beremud…cum filio Vitiricho" left the Ostrogoths to join "Vallia rex Gothorum" [King of the Visigoths in Toulouse][44].  The implication of a later passage in Iordanes, which records that "Valamer…ex consobrino eius genitus Vandalario" succeeded as king after "Thorismundo" was killed[45], is that Berimud's departure was triggered after he was passed over in the succession.  Berimud had one child: 

a.         VETERICUS .  Iordanes names "Vetericum" as son of "Berimud"[46].  Vetericus had one child: 

(i)         EUTHARICH (-[522/23]).  Iordanes names "Eutharicum" as son of "Vetericus" and as husband of "Amalasuentham" and father of their two children[47].  Eutharic was adopted by Emperor Justin in recognition of his father-in-law's decision to designate him his successor after his marriage.  He was given Roman citizenship and became first consul in 519 as FLAVIUS EUTHARICUS CILLIGA[48].  Wolfram estimates that Eutharich died in [522/23][49].  Jordanes specifies that Eutharich predeceased King Theodoric's nomination of his son Athalaric as his successor.  m (515) AMALASUINTHA, daughter of THEODORIC King of the Ostrogoths in Italy & his wife Audofledis of the Franks ([493]-murdered [30 Apr] 535).  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records the marriage in 515 of "Theodericus filiam usam dominam Amalasuintam" and "gloriosi viri dn Eutharici"[50]

2.         ODWULF .  Iordanes names "Achiulf et Oduulf" as the sons of Athal[51]

 

 

VANDALARIUS, son of VINITHARIUS .  Iordanes names "Vandiliarum" as son of "Vinitharius" and father of "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir"[52].  Relative of Thorismund[53]

1.         VALAMIR (-killed in battle [468/69]).  Iordanes names "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir" as the sons of Vandilarius[54].  He and his brothers followed Attila the Hun into Gaul in 451[55].  Valamir commanded the Ostrogoth contingent in Attila's army which was defeated at the battle of the Catalaunian fields[56].  He was considered king of all Ostrogoths in Pannonia.  Iordanes records that "Valamer…ex consobrino eius genitus Vandalario" succeeded as king after "Thorismundo" was killed fighting the Gepids in the second year of his reign[57].  He shared the land with his two brothers, retaining for himself the eastern part of the territory covering lower Slavonia.  In 456, he defeated an attack by the Huns, who are said to have retreated to the River Dnieper[58].  He defeated another Hun attack on Bassianae, near Belgrade, in 467/68, but was killed in battle during a similar attack the following year. 

2.         THEODEMIR [Thiudimir] (-Kyrrhos 474).  Iordanes names "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir" as the sons of Vandilarius[59].  King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, subordinate to his brother Valamir, he ruled over the western part of their domain which covered the county of Somogy and north-eastern Croatia.  He succeeded his brother in [468/49] as King of all the Pannonian Ostrogoths.  Iordanes names "Theodemir" when recording that he succeeded his brother "Valamero rege Gothorum" together with "Vidimero fratre et filio Theodorico"[60].  When the Ostrogoths left Pannonia in [473], Theodemir and his contingent went towards Constantinople.  They settled in Macedonia, based in the city of Kyrrhos[61]

-        KINGS of ITALY

3.         VIDIMIR (-473).  Iordanes names "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir" as the sons of Vandilarius[62].  King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, subordinate to his brother Valamir, he ruled over the central part of their domain which covered upper Slavonia.  Iordanes names "Theodemir" when recording that he succeeded his brother "Valamero rege Gothorum" together with "Vidimero fratre et filio Theodorico"[63].  When the Ostrogoths left Pannonia in [473], Vidimir went into Italy where he suffered several defeats. 

a)         VIDIMIR.  Iordanes records that "Vidimero cum Vidimero filio" were sent to "partes Hesperias" by Theodemir[64].  After his father's death, Emperor Glycerius sent Vidimir and his contingent of Pannonian Ostrogoths to Gaul, where he settled in the Limousin[65]

 

 

 

C.      GEPIDS

 

 

Jordanes states that the Gepids were a sub-group of the Goths, recounting that during the migration from Scandinavia their ship was the slowest, their name being derived from "gepanta" meaning "sluggish ones".  The Gepids migrated southwards and settled east of the river Tisza in present-day Hungary.  By the 370s, they had fallen under the domination of the Huns.  After fighting as Hun allies at the battle of the Catalaunian Fields in 451, their leader Ardaric defeated Ellac, son of Attila, at the battle of Nedao river in 454.  The Ostrogoths defeated a Gepid, Rugian and Scythian alliance at the river Bolia in 469, but in 471 the Gepids captured Sirmium, in territory conquered by the Ostrogoths on their way into Italy.  The Gepids recaptured Sirmium under king Elemund.  The Lombards conquered the Gepid kingdom in the mid-6th century.  Little detailed information has been found relating to the Gepid rulers. 

 

 

1.         TURISIND .  Paulus Diaconus records the death of "Turisindus rex Gepidorum"[66].  Turisind had one child: 

a)         TURISMOD .  Paulus Diaconus names "Turismodus, Turisindi filius"[67]

 

2.         OSTROGOTHA [Austreusa/Austrigosa] .  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Austrigusa filiam Gippidorum" as King Wacho's second wife[68].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Austreusa filia Gibedorum" as Wacho's second wife[69]m as his second wife, WACHO King of the Lombards, son of ZUCHILO [Unichis] of the Lombards (-540). 

 

3.         CUNIMUND (-killed in battle 567).  Paulus Diaconus records the accession of "Cunimundus" as king after the death of "Turisindus rex Gepidorum"[70].  He also reports that Alboin King of the Lombards defeated and killed him in battle in 567, allegedly making his skull into a drinking cup[71], although this should probably not be taken literally as it is the fate of defeated warriors which is recorded in many primary sources relating to eastern European history in the early medieval period[72].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that Albuin fought and killed in battle "rege Gippidorum…Cunimund", weakening the power of the Gepids[73].  Cunimund had one child: 

a)         ROSAMUNDIS (-after 572).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records the marriage of Albuin to "Rosemunda filia Cunimundi" after killing her father in battle[74].  Theophylactus records that "Longobardicć gentis principem…Alboinum" married "adolescentulam Conimundi Gepidarum regis filiam"[75].  Paulus Diaconus names "filiam [Cunimundum] Rosimundam" as second wife of Alboin, who married her after killing her father in battle[76].  Gregory of Tours records that Alboin King of the Lombards married his second wife soon after he had killed her father and that "she loathed her husband as a result" and poisoned him "for she had become enamoured of one of his servants" with whom she fled before they were both caught and put to death[77].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that Albuin was killed in Verona by "Hilmichis et Rosemunda uxore sua per consilium Peritheo", before she was poisoned herself with Hilmichis by "Longinus prćfectus"[78].  According to Paulus Diaconus, she incited the murder of her husband by his own men[79]m ([567] as his second wife, ALBOIN King of the Lombards, son of AUDOIN King of the Lombards & his first wife --- (-murdered Verona 28 Jun 572). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    HUNS

 

 

The earliest records of the exploits of the Huns are contained in the Chronicle of Marcellinus and the mid-6th century Getica of Jordanes.  The late 13th century Gesta Hungarorum names "Wele…Chele file filius ex genere Zemen", his brothers "Cuwe et Caducha", and "ducis…Ethela… Bendacuz filius…de genere Erd oriundi" as leaders of the "Huni in Scitia", dating this to 700[80].  The dating is clearly incorrect, and the origin of the names, which bear no resemblance to any names in the earlier sources, is unknown.  It is possible that the Huns were connected with the Avars.  Paulus Diaconus refers to "Avaribus qui primum Hunni" stating that they changed their name after "regis proprii…Avares"[81], but there is clearly considerable confusion in the early sources relating to the names of the various barbarian tribes.  A presumably spurious charter of Lászlo I King of Hungary, dated 1095, records the descent of the "familić Estoras": "Eursus Dux fuit filius Ducis Essed, qui fuit Eudmedzur, qui Ernaci ducis, fratris Vegeci, qui Edi, qui Chabć regis, qui magni…Atilć, qui Bendeguz Scythić imperatoris, qui Turdć, qui Stemene, qui tandem magni Scytharum imperatoris Opos filius fuit" (adding that the last named lived at the time of Christ)[82]

 

 

Three brothers: 

1.         OCTAR .  Iordanes names "Attila patre genitus Munduzco" and his "germani Octar et Roas", recording that they held the kingdom before Attila[83]

2.         ROAS .  Iordanes names "Attila patre genitus Munduzco" and his "germani Octar et Roas", recording that they held the kingdom before Attila[84]

3.         MUNDUZCO .  Iordanes names "Attila patre genitus Munduzco" and his "germani Octar et Roas", recording that they held the kingdom before Attila[85].  Munduzco had [three] children: 

a)         [REVA .  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Reuwa et Buda" as brothers of "ducis…Ethela…Bendacuz filius…de genere Erd oriundi"[86], although no brother of Attila with a name similar to Reva is referred to in the earlier sources so far consulted.] 

b)         BLEDA (-murdered 445).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Bleda et Attila fratres" raided Illyria and Thrace in 442[87].  Iordanes names "Bleda germano [Attilć]", specifying that he was killed by his brother[88].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Reuwa et Buda" as brothers of "ducis…Ethela…Bendacuz filius…de genere Erd oriundi"[89], the name "Buda" presumably being based on "Bleda".  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Bleda rex Hunnorum" was killed by "Attilć fratris sui" in 445[90]

c)         ATTILA (-453).  Iordanes names "Attila patre genitus Munduzco"[91]The Gesta Hungarorum names "ducis…Ethela…Bendacuz filius…de genere Erd oriundi" as one of the four leaders of the "Huni in Scitia"[92].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Bleda et Attila fratres" raided Illyria and Thrace in 442[93]Paulus Diaconus records that "rex Hunnorum Attila…cum fratre Bleba" ruled a kingdom "intra Pannonias Daciamque" and devastated "Macedoniam Misiamque et Achaiam utrasque etiam Tracias", in a later passage recounting his attack on the kingdom of Burgundy[94].  Iordanes records that Attila unsuccessfully proposed marriage to "Honoriam Valentiniani principis germanam, filiam Placidić Augustć"[95].  The exploits of Attila are also fully recorded in later chronicles such as that of Sigebert of Gembloux, who states that he died of apoplexy on his wedding night in 455[96].  This is based on the account of Iordanes who names "Ildico" as Attila's new bride[97].  Attila had [five] children: 

i)          ELLAC (-killed in battle ).  Iordanes records that "filius Attilć maior natu…Ellac" was killed in battle[98]

ii)         HERNAC .  Iordanes names "Hernac…iunior Attilć filius" when recording that he was assigned to "extrema minoris Scythić sedes"[99].  Sigebert of Gembloux records that "Hernac filius eius" succeeded his father in 455[100]

iii)        DINTZIC .  Iordanes names "Dintzic filius Attilć", recording that he ruled in "inferiorum Pannoniam"[101].  Sigebert of Gembloux records that "Dintzich filius Attilć Hunorum rex" was defeated by the Ostrogoths in 460[102]

iv)       [CSABA .  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Chabam regis Ethelć filium ex Grecorum imperatoris filia…Honorii" when recording that he was favoured by some Hun factions to succeed his father, was forced to flee to Greece after the Huns were defeated, but returned to Scythia[103].  This reflects Iordanes who records that "Hernac…iunior Attilć filius" was assigned to "extrema minoris Scythić sedes"[104].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Chabam regis Ethelć filium" was treated with scorn in Scythia and therefore married a wife "de gente Corosmina" and was ancestor of "generatio Abć"[105].]  [Csaba had two children]: 

(a)       [EDEMEN .  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Edemen et Ed" as the sons of "Chaba filius Ethelć", when recording that Edemen entered Pannonia, his mother being "de Corosminis orta"[106].]

(b)       [ED .  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Edemen et Ed" as the sons of "Chaba filius Ethelć", when recording that Ed remained in Scythia while his brother went to Pannonia[107].]

v)         [ALADAR .  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Aladarium [regis Ethelć filium] ex Cremildi Germanić principissa" when recording that he was favoured by some Hun factions to succeed his father[108].] 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of the LOMBARDS in PANNONIA [510]-572

 

 

The Langobards (more commonly known as Lombards) were another nomadic people who installed themselves in what is now Hungary.  The Istoria Longobardorum states that their name derives from "langeth" (long) and "bardozab" (beard) in their own language[109].  The first historically attested homeland of the "Langobardi" was in the lower Elbe valley in northern Germany[110].  They migrated south-eastwards, probably along the valley of the River Elbe, towards Bohemia, where the first Lombard king Agelmund, son of Agio, was elected[111].  The precise nature of this "election" process is not known.  King Agelmund was killed in a Hunnic assault on a Lombard settlement, although his successor King Lamissio is recorded as having achieved a notable victory against the Huns[112].  The onward migration of the Lombards continued in the late 5th century into Moravia, where they displaced the Heruls who had been the allies of the Ostrogoths of Italy, and into Pannonia (north-west Hungary) in the 520s. 

 

After the Byzantines finally defeated the Ostrogoths in Italy in 552, imperial forces retook control of the whole peninsula as far as the Alps.  Their position was, however, weak, especially after Emperor Justin II forced the retirement of the veteran governor Narses who, it is alleged, invited the Lombards to migrate en masse from Pannonia into Italy from his new base in Naples[113].  The migration is dated to 568/69, maybe involving around 150,000 persons, although it is not known whether the exodus involved a complete abandonment of the Lombard settlements in Pannonia[114]

 

A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names the first five kings of the Lombards "primus…Agelmud genere Guingus, secundus Lamicho, tertius Leth, quartus Fildehoc filius Let, quintus Godehoc"[115] The Istoria Longobardorum assigns lengths of their reigns to the last four of these rulers as follows: "Lamisio" 22 years, "Lecheth" 40 years, "Gildoeth filius Lothoth" 24 years, "Geldeoth" 16 years[116].  The historical value of the information from these two sources is dubious.  An idea of the chronology is given by a manuscript based on the Pauli Historia, which states that during the time of "Godeoc" the ruler in Italy was Odovacer, who is recorded in other sources as reigning from approximately 476 to 493[117]

 

It appears that the Lombards were formed into clans, probably named after early leaders.  The sources name four such clans:

  • Lethings.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum specifies that King Wacho and his family were "Lethinges"[118], presumably descendants of King Leth, the third ruler named above. 
  • Gausus.  Ancestors of King Audouin, who is stated in the Historia Langobardorum to be "ex genere…Gausus"[119]
  • Caupus.  A late manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that King Ariowalt, who ruled in Italy from 625 to 636, was "ex genere Caupus"[120]
  • Arodus.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum states that King Rothari, who ruled in Italy from 636 to 652, was "ex genere Arodus"[121]

 

The Lombard kings until the accession of King Alboin in 560 are recorded below.  For later Lombard rulers, see the document ITALY, EMPERORS and KINGS. 

 

 

KLEPH, son of [GODEOC] .  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Claffo filius Godeoc" as sixth king of the Lombards[122].  The Istoria Longobardorum assigns a reign of 28 years to "Graffo filius Geldeoth"[123].  Kleph had two children: 

1.         TATO .  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Tato filius Cleffoni" as seventh king of the Lombards[124].  Tato had one child: 

a)         HILDECHIS .  Paulus Diaconus records that Wacho defeated "Hildechis filius Tatonis"[125]

2.         ZUCHILO [Unichis] .  Paulus Diaconus names "germani sui [Tatonis] Zuchilonis" when recording the accession of his son Wacho[126].  Zuchilo had one child: 

a)         WACHO (-540).  From the Lething clan.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Wacho filius Unichis", specifying in a later passage that they were "Lethinges"[127].  A later manuscript of the Origo names him "Wacho, filius Unichis, nepos Tatoni"[128].  He deposed King Tato in [510], defeated his son Hildechis, and installed himself as WACHO King of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus names "Wacho filius germani sui [Tatonis] Zuchilonis", recording that he fought "Hildechis filius Tatonis"[129].  The Historia Langobardorum records that Wacho killed "Tattone rege barbane suo cum Vinsilane" and succeeded as king, defeating "Heldechis filio Tattoni" who fled "ad Gibidos" and died[130].  He consolidated his position, and the integration of his tribe as they moved into Pannonia, by his three marriages with daughters of three competing chiefs.  m firstly RANIGUNDA [Raicunda], daughter of FISUD [Pisen] King of Thuringia.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Raicundam filia Fisud regis Turingorum" as King Wacho's first wife[131].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Ranigunda filia Pisen regi Turingorum" as Wacho's first wife[132].  Paulus Diaconus names the three wives of Wacho "primam Ranicundam, filiam Regis Turingorum…Austrigosam, filiam regis Gepidorum…tertiam…Herulorum regis filiam…Salingam"[133]m secondly OSTROGOTHA [Austreusa/Austrigosa], daughter of --- King of the Gepides.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Austrigusa filiam Gippidorum" as King Wacho's second wife[134].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Austreusa filia Gibedorum" as Wacho's second wife[135].  Paulus Diaconus names the three wives of Wacho "primam Ranicundam, filiam Regis Turingorum…Austrigosam, filiam regis Gepidorum…tertiam…Herulorum regis filiam…Salingam"[136]m thirdly SILENGA [Salinga], daughter of --- King of the Heruls.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "filia regis Herulorum…Silinga" as King Wacho's third wife[137].  Paulus Diaconus names the three wives of Wacho "primam Ranicundam, filiam Regis Turingorum…Austrigosam, filiam regis Gepidorum…tertiam…Herulorum regis filiam…Salingam"[138].  King Wacho & his second wife had two daughters:

i)          WISIGARDIS (-[541/42]).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Wisigarda…secundć Walderada" as the two daughters of Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Wisigarda married "Theudiperti regis Francorum"[139].  Paulus Diaconus names "Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Wisigarda married "Theodeperto regi Francorum"[140]m ([540]) as his second wife, THEODEBERT I King of the Franks, son of THEODERIC I King of the Franks & his first wife --- ([499/504]-end 547). 

ii)         WALDRADA.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Wisigarda…secundć Walderada" as the two daughters of Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Waldrada married "Scusuald regis Francorum" and later "Garipald"[141].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Waldrada" as Wacho's second daughter by his second wife, specifying that she married "Chusubald rex Francorum"[142].  Paulus Diaconus names "Wisigarda…[et] secunda Walderada" as the two daughters of King Wacho & his second wife, specifying that Walderada married "Cusupald alio regi Francorum" and later "Garipald"[143].  Gregory of Tours names Vuldetrada as the wife of King Theodebald[144]Herimannus names "Wanderadam" wife of "Theodpaldus rex Francorum" when recording her second marriage to "Lotharius rex patris eius Theodeberti patruus"[145].  According to Gregory of Tours, King Clotaire "began to have intercourse" with the widow of King Theodebald, before "the bishops complained and he handed her over to Garivald Duke of Bavaria"[146], which does not imply that King Clotaire married Waldrada.  m firstly ([554]) THEODEBALD I King of the Franks, son of THEODEBERT I King of the Franks & his first wife Deoteria ([534]-555).  [m secondly (555, repudiated) as his fifth wife, CHLOTHACHAR I [Clotaire] King of the Franks, son of CHLODOVECH King of the Franks & his second wife Chrotechildis of Burgundy ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard).]  m [secondly/thirdly] (after 555) GARIBALD, son of ---.  He became Duke of Bavaria in 590. 

Wacho & his third wife had one child: 

iii)        WALTARI (-547).  Paulus Diaconus names "Waltari" as the son of King Wacho & his third wife, specifying that he reigned for seven years after his father[147].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Waltari" as the son of Wacho & his third wife, specifying that he succeeded his father and reigned seven years[148].  He was installed as WALTHARI King of the Lombards in [540] in succession to King Waccho. 

 

 

[---] .  King of the Pissa. 

m MENIA ---.  The Historia Langobardorum names "mater…Audoin…Menia uxor fuit Pissć regis"[149].  This wording suggests that "Pissć regis" was not the father of Audoin, presumably Menia's second husband.  It is assumed that "Pissć" indicates that he was king of a tribe of that name. 

[Pissa] & his wife had one child: 

1.         AUDOIN (-in Pannonia 560).  The Historia Langobardorum names "Audoin ex genere…Gausus" and his mother "Menia uxor…Pissć regis"[150].  He was installed as AUDOIN King of the Lombards in Hungary in [547] in succession to King Walthari.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Auduin" reigned after Walthari, specifying that he brought the Lombards into Pannonia and, in a later passage, stating that they remained in Pannonia for 43 years[151].  Byzantium encouraged the Lombards to consolidate their position in Pannonia by granting them the city of Noricum and other strongholds, although it is reported that they celebrated by raiding Dalmatia and Illyricum[152].  The war with the Gepids, which started in [547], was settled by a peace treaty imposed by Emperor Justinian in 552, under which the Lombards sent troops to Italy to help Narses rout the Ostrogoths[153].  The Historia Langobardorum records that Audoin died in Pannonia[154]m firstly RODELINDA [Roddenda], daughter of ---.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Roddenda" as mother of "Albuin filius [Auduini]"[155].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Rodelenda" as mother of Alboin[156].  Paulus Diaconus names "Rodelindam" as wife of Audoin and mother of Alboin[157]m secondly --- of the Thuringians, daughter of HERMINAFRID King of the Thuringians & his wife Amalaberga the Ostrogoth.  Procopius records that "Amalafridus, vir Gotthus, ex filia nepos Amalafridć sororis Theoderici Gotthorum regis et filius Hermenefridi regis Thoringorum…sororem eius” married "Anduino Langobardorum regi"[158].  The Codex Theodosianus records that the daughter of Amalaberga became the second wife of King Audoin[159].  King Audoin & his first wife had [two] children: 

a)         ALBOIN (-murdered 28 Jun 572).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Albuin" as son of "Auduin"[160].  Paulus Diaconus names "Alboin, filius Audoin" when recording his succession[161].  He succeeded in 560 as ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Pannonia.  He was crowned ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Italy at Milan in [570]. 

-        KINGS of ITALY

b)         [---.  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          GISULF .  Shield-bearer of Alboin King of the Lombards, who installed him as duke in the region of Friuli after the Longobard migration into Italy in [569][162].  Paulus Diaconus records that King Alboin installed "Gisulfum…suum nepotem" as "ducem…[in] Foroiulanć civitati"[163].  The Chronicle of Andreas Bergomatis records that Alboin conceded Friuli to "nepoti sui Gisolfi"[164].  The precise relationship between Gisulf and King Alboin is unknown and may have been more remote than implied by "nephew" if the word nepos if translated strictly in these passages. 

-         DUKES of FRIULIA

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    LEADERS of PANNONIAN CROATIA 

 

 

Little factual information has been found in the primary sources so far consulted about the Avar Khaganate, installed in Pannonia from the late 6th century and centred on the Tisza river.  The Croatians were one of the vassal tribes of the Avars.  Charles I King of the Franks (later Emperor Charlemagne) launched his first campaign against the Avars in 791, followed by a second in 795-96.  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Ehericum ducem Foroiuliensem, deinde…Pippinum filium regis" captured  the camp of "Hunorum…Hringum" in 796, specifying that "Cagan et Iugurro principibus Hunorum" were killed by their own people[165].  King Charles eliminated the independent Avar state, although a small khaganate continued to exist until at least 822 as a vassal of the Franks.  The Franks were overlords of territory as far east as the Tisza River, which included the Croatian principality in Pannonia[166].  Under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, which settled the disputes between the sons of Emperor Louis I, Pannonian Croatia was assigned to the kingdom of the East Franks ruled by King Ludwig II "der Deutsche"[167].  The expansion of the new Magyar state of Hungary represented a threat to Pannonian Croatia, which requested help from Tomislav Duke of Dalmatian Croatia who defeated the Magyars.  In the early 900s, he established a lasting border along the Drava River, shook off Frankish suzerainty and annexed what remained of Pannonian Croatia[168], the territories later evolving into the kingdom of Croatia.  The little information that has been identified about the leaders of Pannonian Croatia is set out below.  See the document CROATIA, for the leaders of Dalmatian Croatia and the dukes, later kings, of Croatia. 

 

 

1.         VOJNOMIR .  Leader of the Croatians of Pannonia and Slavonia.  He supported the Frankish campaigns against the Avars, accepting Frankish overlordship in the 790s.  The Franks placed the Croatians of Pannonia under the Marchesi of Friulia[169]

 

 

1.         LJUDEVIT (-murdered [823]).  He succeeded as Prince of Pannonian Croatia in [810], with his main residence at Sisak.  Einhard's Annales name "Liudewiti ducis Pannonić inferioris" in 818[170].  Einhard's Annales record that "Liudewitus" sent legates to the emperor in 819[171].  He revolted against the Franks in 819[172], the uprising starting at Kranj.  Einhard's Annales record a meeting at Aachen in 820 in which the rebellion of "Liudewiti" was discussed, "Borna" being the leader of the legates[173].  Thegan records the imperial army´s campaign “adversus orientales Sclavos, quorum dux...Liduit” in the year after the emperor´s second marriage, so in 820[174].  The Royal Frankish Annals record that he was forced to flee to Serbia in 822[175].  The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Baldrico" expelled "Liudovitus", who had defeated "Bornć…Dalmatić ducis"[176].  He defeated Borna Prince of Dalmatian Croatia, but sought refuge with Borna's successor, only to be murdered there soon after[177]m ---, daughter of DRAGOMOSUS.  Dragomosus is named as father-in-law of Ljudevit in the Royal Frankish Annals, when recording the death of the latter in 819 after defecting to support Borna[178].  Einhard's Annales also record that in 819 "Borna…dux Dalmatić" fought "Liudewito" at "Colapium fluvium", that "Draganosus socer Liudewiti" was killed in the battle, and that Borna married his widow[179]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    MAGYAR PRINCES of HUNGARY from [900], KINGS of HUNGARY 1000-1301 (ARPÁD)

 

 

The origin of the Magyar people in the area north of the Black Sea is discussed in the Introduction to the present document.  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Hunni sive Hungari" divided into seven armies, each having 30,000 warriors and a single commander, naming "Arpad" as the most powerful of the commanders and the first to enter Pannonia[180].  The Gesta names the other six commanders:

  • "Zobole [Szabolcs]", leader of the second army who settled "ubi…Chakwara" which "now stands in ruins", ancestor of "generatio Chak [Csák]"[181].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[182], he was related to Álmos, although the precise relationship is not shown. 
  • "Iula", commander of the third army who settled "in partibus Erdevelu [Transylvania]"[183]
  • "Vrs [Örs]", leader of the fourth army who settled "circa flumen Soio [Sajó]"[184]
  • "Cund [Künd]", leader of the fifth army who settled "circa Nyr [Nyírség region]" and his sons "Cudis [Küsid] et Cupian [Kaplony]"[185]
  • "Lel [Lél/Lehel]", leader of the sixth army who first lived "circa Golgocha [Galgóc/Hlohovec]" and later "in partibus Nitrić [Nitra]" after "Messianis [Moravians] et Boemis [Bohemians]" were eliminated, and was ancestor of "Zuard [Zovárd] oritur tribus"[186]
  • "Werbulchu dux [Vérbulcsu]", leader of the seventh army who settled "in Zala circa Lacum Boloton [Lake Balaton ]"[187]

The commentary in the edition of the Gesta which was consulted states that Gyula and Künd [Kende] were the titles of dignitaries rather than names[188].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber gives a different version of these six other Magyar commanders[189]

  • "Eleud pater Zobolsu", ancestor of "genus Saac". 
  • "Cunda pater Curzan". 
  • "Ound pater Ete", ancestors of "genus Calan et Colsoy". 
  • "Tosu pater Lelu". 
  • "Huba", ancestor of "genus Zemera". 
  • "Tuhutum pater Horca", whose sons were "Gyyla et Zombor" ancestors of "genus Moglout". 

While there are similarities between the two versions, the differences underline the semi-legendary nature of these descriptions of the early Magyars and the fruitlessness of attempting to reconcile them. 

 

Hungarian raids on western Europe from Pannonia were frequent and devastating over the course of the next half century.  The Gesta Hungarorum records raids by the Magyars (although the text does not give them this name) into Moravia and Bohemia (where they killed "Waratizlao" in battle), Carinthia (where they killed "Meranić dux Gotfridus…duxque Eburhardus"), Bulgaria, Lombardy (where they murdered Liutward bishop of Vercelli), and Saxony, Thuringia, Swabia and eastern France and Burgundy[190].  Western sources also record these early 10th century Magyar raids, for example Regino notes the death in battle of Liutpold dux of Bavaria in 907 against the Hungarians[191].  The Magyars continued to inflict major damage during their raids on western Europe, although they were defeated by Heinrich "the Fowler" King of Germany at Riade near Merseburg in 933.  The continuator of Regino dates their attack on the monastery of Fulda (with raids on Swabia, Thuringia and Saxony) to 915, another attack on Swabia, Alsace and Lotharingia to 917, a raid on "orientalium Franciam" to 924, another attack on France, Alsace and Swabia to 926, a battle at Worms to 932, an attack on Saxony to 938, a raid into Bavaria and Carinthia (with a battle "in loco Weles") to 944, and a last attack into France and Italy to 954[192].  Magyar raids as far as eastern France are corroborated by the Casus Sancti Galli which names "in Alsatiam…Luitfrido" (Graf im Sundgau - see the document ALSACE) as in "terrć illius potentissimo" when recording that Alsace was devastated by "Ungri"[193].  Although the passage is undated, it precedes text which names "Burgundionum rex Chuonradus, adolescens floridus" which suggests that it should be dated to the late 930s/early 940s.  The first major setback for the Magyars was their defeat at the battle of Augsburg, 10 Aug 955, by Otto I King of Germany where, according to the Gesta Hungarorum, "Lel et Bulchu" were the Hungarian commanders who were later captured at Regensburg and hanged[194].  The defeat at Augsburg in 955 is also recorded by Thietmar[195]

 

If the Gesta is to be believed, Magyar raids on western Europe continued after Augsburg, as a subsequent attack on the monastery of Fulda is recorded, followed by the laying waste of Swabia, an attack on France and the plundering of Susa and Turin[196].  However, it is assumed that these are the same events which are recorded at earlier dates, as noted above, in the continuator of Regino[197]Regino records no further Magyar raids after 954 before the chronicle ends in 967.  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Tocsun" as leader of a Hungarian raid into Greece and Bulgaria, recorded after the defeat at Augsburg, but states that this was their last raid "while living as pagans"[198].  In conclusion, it is likely that major Magyar raids on western Europe ceased after their defeat at Augsburg, which marked the start of their more settled existence in Hungary. 

 

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

The relationships between the first members of this family, as set out in this Part A, appear speculative.  They are as shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[199].  The sources on which this information is based are unlikely to be historically reliable. 

 

[Two possible brothers]: 

1.         [UGEK [Ügyek] .  A Scythian leader, allegedly descended from Attila: the Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Ugek…de genere Magog regis…dux Scythie" in a paragraph dated 819[200]m EMESU, daughter of EUNEDUBLIAN dux.  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Ugek…de genere Magog regis…dux Scythie" married "in Dentumogur, filiam Eunedubeliani ducis…Emesu"[201].]  Ugek had one child: 

a)         ÁLMOS (after [819]-895).  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Almus" as son of Ugek & his wife[202].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Arpad, filius Almi filii Elad filii Vger de genere Turul" was the most powerful of the seven Hungarian commanders after arriving in Pannonia[203].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Almus dux filius Ugek", with his wife and son Árpád, and with "duobus filiis Hulec avunculi sui…Zuard et Cadusa", entered "Ruscia que vocatur Susudal" as far as "civitatem Kyeu"[204]m ---.  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the marriage of "Almus" and "filiam cuiusdam nobilissimi ducis" but does not name her or her father[205].  Álmos & his wife had one child: 

i)          ÁRPÁD (-907).  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Arpad" as son of "Almus" & his wife, specifying that his father brought him "in Pannoniam"[206].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Hunni sive Hungari" divided into seven armies, each having 30,000 warriors and a single commander, and that "Arpad, filius Almi filii Elad filii Vger de genere Turul" was the most powerful of the seven Hungarian commanders[207].  As leader of part of the Magyar armies, he crossed the Verecke and other passes in 895 into the fields of the Carpathian basin[208].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Arpad dux" invaded "terram…inter Thisciam et Budrug usque ad Ugosam" and besieged "castrum Borsoa"[209].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that Árpád was the first Hungarian commander to cross the Ruthenian Alps and settle by the river Ung before crossing the Danube and entering Pannonia where he set up his tent "ubi…Albensis civitatas [Székesfehérvár]" was founded[210].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the death of "dux Arpad" in 807[211], presumably an error for 907.  m ---.  The name of Árpád's wife is not known.  Árpád & his wife had five children: 

(a)       LIÜNTIKA [Levente] .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Liuntica Arpadć filium principem" recording that he led the army which defeated Symeon Prince of Bulgaria "in urbe Mundraga"[212]

(b)       TARKACSU [Tarhos] .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "primus Tarcatzus, secundus Ielech, tertius Iutotzas, quartus Zaltan" as the four sons of "Arpadem magnum Turcić principem"[213]

-         see below

(c)       JELEG [Üllő] "the Epicure".  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "primus Tarcatzus, secundus Ielech, tertius Iutotzas, quartus Zaltan" as the four sons of "Arpadem magnum Turcić principem"[214]m ---.  The name of Jeleg's wife is not known. 

(1)       EZELECH [Ézelő] .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Ezelech" as the son of "Arpade…alter Ielech filium", another passage stating that "omnes quidem Arpade filii mortui sunt" survived by "eorum nepotibus Phale et Tase cum patrueli eorum Taxi"[215]

(d)       JUTOSA [Jutas].  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "primus Tarcatzus, secundus Ielech, tertius Iutotzas, quartus Zaltan" as the four sons of "Arpadem magnum Turcić principem"[216]m ---.  The name of Jutosa's wife is not known. 

(1)       FAUSZ [Fajsz] (-[955]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Phalitzin qui nunc principatum tenet" as the son of "Arpade…tertius Iutotzas filium", another passage stating that "omnes quidem Arpade filii mortui sunt" survived by "eorum nepotibus Phale et Tase cum patrueli eorum Taxi"[217].  Prince of Hungary.

(e)       ZOLTÁN [Zaltas] (896-948).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "primus Tarcatzus, secundus Ielech, tertius Iutotzas, quartus Zaltan" as the four sons of "Arpadem magnum Turcić principem"[218].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Zulte" as son of "Arpad"[219].  Prince of Hungary 907-945.  The Magyars suffered their first important defeat during their raids on western Europe at the hands of Heinrich I "the Fowler" King of Germany at the battle of Riade near Merseburg in 933.  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "dux Zulta" installed "filium suum Tocsun" as duke "super totum regnum Hungarie" and died three years later "de ergastulo"[220], which suggests that his abdication had not been voluntary.  m ---, daughter of MENUMOROUT [Ménmarót].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the marriage of "dux Arpad…filius suus Zulta" and "Menumorout…filiam suam", and that his father-in-law gave Zoltán "Byhor castrum" and, dying without sons, bequeathed all his estates to his son-in-law[221].  Zoltán had one child: 

(1)       TAKSONY (-[970]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Taxin" as the son of "Arpade…quartus Zaltas filium", another passage stating that "omnes quidem Arpade filii mortui sunt" survived by "eorum nepotibus Phale et Tase cum patrueli eorum Taxi"[222].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the birth of "dux Zulta…filium…Tocsun" in 931[223].  Prince of Hungary 955. 

-         see below, Part C

2.         [HULEC .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Hulec" as "avunculi" of "Almus dux filius Ugek"[224].  It is not known whether "avunculi" in this context indicates paternal or maternal uncle, or indeed a more remote family relationship.]  Hulec had two children: 

a)         ZUARD .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Almus dux filius Ugek", with his wife and son Árpád, and with "duobus filiis Hulec avunculi sui…Zuard et Cadusa", entered "Ruscia que vocatur Susudal" as far as "civitatem Kyeu"[225]

b)         CADUSA .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Almus dux filius Ugek", with his wife and son Árpád, and with "duobus filiis Hulec avunculi sui…Zuard et Cadusa", entered "Ruscia que vocatur Susudal" as far as "civitatem Kyeu"[226]

 

 

TARKACSU [Tarkatzúsz], son of ÁRPÁD & his wife --- .  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "primus Tarcatzus, secundus Ielech, tertius Iutotzas, quartus Zaltan" as the four sons of "Arpadem magnum Turcić principem"[227]

m ---.  The name of Tarkacsu's wife is not known. 

Tarkacsu & his wife had one child: 

1.         TAVEL.  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Tebele" as the son of "Arpade primogenitus Tarcatzus filium"[228]m ---.  The name of Tavel's wife is not known.  Tavel & his wife had [three] children: 

a)         TORMAS [Termacs] (-killed in battle Augsburg Aug 955).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Termatzum" as the son of "Tebele"[229].  He stayed at the court of Emperor Konstantinos VII.  Patriarch in Byzantium 948.  He was killed in battle against Otto I King of Germany at Augsburg.  m ---.  The name of Tormas's wife is not known.  Tormas & his wife had [two] children: 

i)          KOPPANY (-killed in battle 998).  Duke in Somogy, in south-western Hungary.  He claimed the throne on the death of Prince Géza as most senior representative of the family, but was defeated and killed by István Prince of Hungary.  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "duce Cappan" was killed after the coronation of "rex Stephanus" but gives no background to his death or indication of any family relationship with the king[230]

ii)         [daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   She was known as PREDSLAVA in Russia.  Europäische Stammtafeln[231] suggests that Predslava was the possible daughter of Tormas but the basis for this speculation is not known.  Her marriage date is estimated from the estimated date of birth of her son.  m (before [960]) SVIATOSLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev, son of IGOR [Ingvar] of Kiev & his wife Olga ([941]-killed in battle 972).] 

b)         [ZERIND.]  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  

c)         [daughter.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[232], she was the daughter either of Tavel or of Tavel's first cousin Tas.  The primary source on which this information is based has not yet been identified.  m LEL (-killed in battle Aug 955).] 

 

 

 

B.      PRINCES of TRANSYLVANIA

 

 

1.         TUHUTUM [Töhötöm] .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Tuhutum pater Horca" as one of the seven commanders of the Magyars, ancestors of "genus Moglout"[233].  Tuhutum had one child: 

a)         HORCA .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Tuhutum pater Horca" as one of the seven commanders of the Magyars, whose sons were "Gyyla et Zombor" ancestors of "genus Moglout"[234].  Horca had two children: 

i)          GYULA .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Gyyla et Zombor" as sons of "Horca"[235].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Iula" as commander of the third of the seven armies of "Hunni sive Hungari" which entered Pannonia but that he settled "in partibus Erdevelu [Erdély/Transylvania]", although according to the editors of the edition "Gyula" was the title of a dignitary, the warlord, in the tribal age before Árpád[236].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Gelou quidam Blacus" was lord of "terra Ultrasiluana"[237].  A Magyar leader in Transylvanian Fehérvár in the Carpathians, he visited the court of Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus [948] and was baptised there as "STEPHANOS"[238].  On his return, he was accompanied by the monk Hierotheos, whom Patriarch Theophylact has ordained "Bishop of Turkia".  He founded the monastery of Veszprém in western Hungary.  m ---.  The name of Gyula's wife is not known.  Gyula & his wife had two children: 

(a)       CAROLDU .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "una…Caroldu et altera Saroltu" as the two daughters of "Geula"[239]

(b)       SAROLT ([954]-after 988).  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "una…Caroldu et altera Saroltu" as the two daughters of "Geula", specifying that the Sarolt was mother of "sancti regis Stephani"[240].  Thietmar names "Beleknegini, the name means beautiful lady in Slavonic" as wife of "Deuvix", commenting that she "drank immoderately and rode a horse like a warrior", adding that "once in a fit of anger she killed a man"[241].  She had been baptised into the Orthodox faith by Bishop Hierotheos at her father's court[242].  Her marriage may have been arranged by her father to build an alliance against the more powerful Bulgars[243]m ([967], repudiated shortly after 975) as his first wife GÉZA Prince of Hungary, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman princess] ([940/45]-1 Feb 997).  

ii)         ZOMBOR .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Gyyla et Zombor" as sons of "Horca"[244]m ---.  The name of Zombor's wife is not known.  Zombor & his wife had one child: 

(a)       GYULA [Prokui] .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "minorem Geulam" as son of "Zumbor", in an earlier passage recording that "minor Gyla" and his two sons became Christians[245].  He was attacked by the army of István I King of Hungary, who was able to incorporate Transylvania into his domains[246].  Thietmar records that "lord Prokui an uncle of the Hungarian king" ruled in territory controlled by Boleslaw I Prince of Poland "near the border with the Hungarians".  He recounts that Prokui "had been driven from his lands by the king and his wife had been taken captive", although the latter was later released[247].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "rex Stephanus" brought "Iula avunculo suo cum uxore et duobus filiis" from "Septem Castris" to Hungary and annexed "Septem Castra" to Pannonia[248].  The Annales Altahenses record that in 1003 the army of "Stephanus rex Ungaricus" captured "avunculum suum Iulum…cum duobus eius filiis" and imposed Christianity on his realm[249].  The text of the Gestis Hungarorum Liber (see above) indicates that "avunculus" in these latter sources should be interpreted as a more remote family relationship than "uncle".  m ---.  The name of Gyula's wife is not known.  Gyula & his wife had two children: 

(1)       BUE .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Bue et Bucne" as sons of "minorem Geulam"[250]

(2)       BUCNE .  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Bue et Bucne" as sons of "minorem Geulam"[251]

 

 

 

C.      PRINCES of HUNGARY 955-1000, KINGS of HUNGARY 1000-1301

 

 

TAKSONY, son of ZOLTÁN Prince of Hungary & his wife --- (-[970/72]).  The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Taxin" as the son of "Arpade…quartus Zaltas filium", another passage stating that "omnes quidem Arpade filii mortui sunt" survived by "eorum nepotibus Phale et Tase cum patrueli eorum Taxi"[252].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the birth of "dux Zulta…filium…Tocsun" in 931[253].  He allied the Magyars with the Pechenegs [Kumans], to whom he gave land around the River Tisza, in order to strengthen his armed forces and secure the defences of his western border[254].  Liutprand records "Taxis Hungariorum rex" invading Italy with his army[255].  The Magyars were defeated in battle by Otto I King of Germany at Augsburg in 955[256].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Tocsun" as leader of a Hungarian raid into Greece and Bulgaria, recorded after its report of the defeat at Augsburg, but states that this was their last raid "while living as pagans"[257].  From about this time, he was accepted as TAKSONY Prince of Hungary

m (947) ---, from the Pechenegs.  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "dux Zulta" arranged the marriage of his son "Tocsun" with "uxorem de terra Cumanorum"[258].  Horváth states that, in allying himself with the Pechenegs, Prince Taksony brought back a wife for himself from their land[259]

Prince Taksony had [three] children:

1.         GÉZA ([940/45]-1 Feb 997).  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzan, Mychlemum et caluum Ladislaum" as the three sons of "Thoxon"[260].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Geysam, quantum ducem Hungarie" as son of "dux Tocsun"[261].  He succeeded his father in [970] as Prince of Hungary. 

-        see below

2.         MIHÁLY ([940/45]-[976/78]).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Geisa, pater B. Stephani, secundus…Michael dux" as the two sons of "Toxin"[262].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzan, Mychlemum et caluum Ladislaum" as the three sons of "Thoxon"[263].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Mihal…frater Geichć" when referring to his two sons[264].  Duke between March and Gran.  m ([970/75]) as her first husband, ADELAJDA [Adleta] of Poland, daughter of [ZIEMOMYSŁ Duke in Poland] & his [second wife ---] ([950/60]-after 997).  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[265], Adelajda was the daughter not sister of Mieszko I Prince of Poland, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  If this is correct, she was an otherwise unrecorded daughter by his first wife (name not known), assuming that Prince Mieszko's marriage to Dobroslawa of Bohemia is correctly dated to 965.  Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband (before his death in [976/78]) and of her three known daughters by her second marriage after [985].  The birth date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted below.  If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate.  After her first husband died, she married secondly ([980]) her husband's older brother Prince Géza, a marriage which may have been arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative and take care of his children.  The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie"[266].  The Breve chronicon Silesić names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie"[267].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity[268].  Duke Mihály & his wife had two known children: 

a)         LÁSZLÓ "Szár/the Bald" (-1029).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Wazul et Zar Ladislaum" as the sons of "Mihal…frater Geichć"[269].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "ducem…Vazul et ducem Ladislaum calvum" as the two sons of "Michael dux"[270].  Duke between March and Gran.  m ([1000]) PREMISLAVA Vladimirovna of Kiev, illegitimate daughter of VLADIMIR I "Velikiy/the Great" Sviatopolkovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress --- (-[1015]).  Baumgarten names the wife of Duke László and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[271].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   László & his wife had one child: 

i)          BONUSLO (-1048).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "Bonuzulo" as the son of "dux…Ladislaus calvus"[272].  Duke between March and Gran. 

b)         VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] (-early 1037).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Wazul et Zar Ladislaum" as the sons of "Mihal…frater Geichć"[273].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "ducem…Vazul et ducem Ladislaum calvum" as the two sons of "Michael dux"[274].  Duke between March and Gran. 

-        see below, (after the descendants of Prince Géza)

3.         [LÁSZLÓ .  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzan, Mychlemum et caluum Ladislaum" as the three sons of "Thoxon", adding that "Ladislaus" had "tres filios…Andream, Belam et Leventem"[275], demonstrating that the source confused him with Vászoly son of Mihály (see above).] 

 

 

GÉZA, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Pss of the Kumans] ([940/45]-1 Feb 997).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Geisa, pater B. Stephani, secundus…Michael dux" as the two sons of "Toxin"[276].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzan, Mychlemum et caluum Ladislaum" as the three sons of "Thoxon"[277].  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Geysam, quantum ducem Hungarie" as son of "dux Tocsun"[278].  He succeeded his father in [970] as Prince of Hungary.  He sent ambassadors to the court of Emperor Otto I, with whom he established friendly relations.  Géza was baptised in 974 as ISTVÁN [Stephen] by priests sent by Pilgrim Bishop of Passau, although he appears to have adopted Christianity more for political expediency than religious conviction as he never renounced his pagan beliefs entirely, declaring himself, according to Macartney, "rich enough to afford two gods" (although this alleged quote may represent an inaccurate report of comments by Thietmar, see below)[279].  He continued to use his pre-baptismal name Géza.  He centralised Magyar government, based at Esztergom, where his bodyguard consisted of Bavarian knights.  The alliance with Bavaria was confirmed after the accession in 985 of Duke Heinrich II, and sealed by the marriage of Duke Heinrich's daughter to Géza's heir in 996[280].  Thietmar names "Deuvix" as father of King István, describing him as "very cruel…when becoming a Christian…he turned his rage against his reluctant subjects [and] sacrificed both to the omnipotent God and to various false gods.  When reproached by his priest for doing so, he maintained that the practice had brought him great wealth and power"[281].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 998 of "Geyza princeps Ungarorum"[282]

m firstly ([967], repudiated shortly after 975) SAROLT of Transylvania, daughter of GYULA Prince of Transylvania & his wife --- ([954]-after 988).  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "una…Caroldu et altera Saroltu" as the two daughters of "Geula", specifying that the Sarolt was mother of "sancti regis Stephani"[283].  Thietmar names "Beleknegini, the name means beautiful lady in Slavonic" as wife of "Deuvix", commenting that she "drank immoderately and rode a horse like a warrior" adding that "once in a fit of anger she killed a man"[284].  The primary source which confirms her name and parentage has not yet been identified.  She had been baptised into the Orthodox faith by Bishop Hierotheos at her father's court[285].  Her marriage may have been arranged by her father to build an alliance against the more powerful Bulgars[286].   

m secondly ([985]) as her second husband, ADELAJDA [Adleta] of Poland, widow of his brother MIHÁLY of Hungary Duke between March and Gran, daughter of [ZIEMOMYSŁ Duke in Poland] & his [second wife ---] ([950/60]-after 997).  The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[287].  The Breve chronicon Silesić names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie" born in 975[288].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity[289].  The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified.   According to Europäische Stammtafeln[290], Adelajda was the daughter not sister of Mieszko I Prince of Poland, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  If this is correct, she was an otherwise unrecorded daughter by his first wife (name not known), assuming that Prince Mieszko's marriage to Dobroslawa of Bohemia is correctly dated to 965.  Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband (before his death in [976/78]) and of her three known daughters by her second marriage after [985].  The date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted above.  If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate.  It is probable that her second marriage was arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative (originally polygamously) and take care of his children. 

Prince Géza & his first wife had [three] children:

1.         [daughter ([969]-after 987).  Thietmar records that Boleslaw of Poland married "a Hungarian woman" after repudiating his first wife but "also sent her away"[291].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified, but from a chronological point of view it is plausible that she was the daughter of Prince Géza.  This marriage probably ended because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary[292]m (end 985, divorced [986/87]) as his second wife, BOLESŁAW of Poland, son of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his second wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia ([967]-17 Jun 1025).  He succeeded his father in 992 as BOLESŁAW I "Chrobry/the Brave" Prince of Poland.  He declared himself King of Poland in 1024.]  

2.         [daughter ([971]-).  Her origin is suggested by her supposed son Günther the monk being shown as nepos of István King of Hungary in Europäische Stammtafeln[293].  According to the late 11th century Vita Guntheri, Günther was (less precisely) "Stephani regis Ungarorum, ipsius venerabilis viri cognati"[294].  According to Kosztolnyik[295], it was after visiting the court of King István that Günther decided to become a hermit, which seems to exclude the possibility that his mother was the king's sister.  It should be remembered that the early 11th century witnessed an influx of foreign monks into Hungary, invited to convert the population to Christianity, a process which may have been favoured by creating propaganda about supposed relationships between these foreigners and the king.  m (shortly before 985) [SIZZO] Graf in Thuringia & his wife ---.]

3.         daughter ([973]-after 988).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m (987, repudiated 988) as his first wife, GAVRIIL RADOMIR of the Bulgarians, son of SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Agatha Chryselia (-murdered Autumn 1015).  He succeeded his father in 1014 as GAVRIIL RADOMIR Tsar of the Bulgarians

Prince Géza & his [first/second] wife had one child:

4.         VAJK (Esztergom [967/75]-Buda 15 Aug 1038, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Gesta Hungarorum records the birth in 967 of "Geicha dux [filium] regem Stephanum"[296].  He was baptised as ISTVÁN [Stephen].  He succeeded his father 997 as Prince of Hungary.  István received a royal crown from Pope Sylvester II and was crowned ISTVÁN I King of Hungary 25 Dec 1000 or 1 Jan 1001. 

-        see below

Prince Géza & his second wife had [three] children:

5.         daughter ([987]-).  Her parentage is established by the Gesta Hungarorum which names "comitem…Aba, sororium sancti regis Stephani" when recording that he was installed as king after the first deposition of King Péter[297].  Chronology suggests that she was the daughter of Prince Géza's second marriage but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.  m SHABA [leader of the Kabars], son of ---.  Comes palatii [Palatine][298] of King István in 1001.  Shaba & his wife had one known child:

a)         ABA (-murdered Feldebrö [Jul/Aug] 1044, bur Sáros Abbey).  His ancestry is indicated by the Gestis Hungarorum Liber which records that "dux Arpad" gave large territories to "Edunec et Edumernec" in "silva Matra", where "Pota nepos eorum" later built a castle, and that "rex Samuel…qui pro sua pietate Oba vocabatur" was descended from him[299].  He was baptised SÁMUEL.  He succeeded in 1041 as SÁMUEL King of Hungary, after deposing his first cousin King Péter.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Petrus rex" was expelled in 1041 and replaced by "Abba"[300].  The Annalium Hildesheimensium records that King Péter was expelled and fled to Heinrich III King of Germany, while the Hungarians chose "Ovonem" as king[301].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "comitem…Aba, sororium sancti regis Stephani" when recording that he was installed as king after the first deposition of King Péter[302].  A violent man, he was, like his predecessor, faced with internal opposition.  In 1044, troops from Emperor Heinrich III invaded Hungary and defeated King Sámuel at Ménfö near Györ 5 Jul 1044.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Abba rex" was killed in 1044 and that "Petrus rex" was restored[303].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that ex-king Péter "cum Henrico cćsare" marched against King Aba in the third year of his reign, the latter counter-attacking against Austria and Carinthia[304].  The Gesta records that the Germans invaded Hungary and defeated King Aba at Ménfő, after which the king fled towards the river Tisza and was strangled "in an old storeroom"[305].  The Chronicon of Bernold records that "Ovonem cum uxore et filiis" were executed by King Petár in 1044[306].  The Aba family in Hungary descended from King Sámuel[307]m ---.  The name of King Sámuel Aba's wife is not known. 

6.         daughter ([989]-1026).  Her parentage is confirmed by Herimannus who names "Petrum, sororis suć [=Stephanus Ungariorum rex] filium, de Venetia natum" when recording his accession in 1038[308].  Chronology suggests that she was the daughter of Prince Géza's second marriage but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  Her marriage is confirmed by the Gesta Hungarorum which names "Petrum Venetum filium sororis suć…cuius pater dux fuerat Venetorum" as successor to King István[309].  As Pietro Orseolo was Doge from 1009 to the early 1020s, he is the only possible Venetian ruler to whom this can relate.  Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records the marriage "Otto Ursiolo dux" and "filiam Geyzć regis Hungarorum et sororem Stephani", dated to 1009 from the context[310]m (1009) PIETRO OTTONE Orseolo, son of PIETRO Orseolo II Doge of Venice & his wife Maria --- ([989]-Constantinople 1031). 

-        see below (after the descendants of King István I)

7.         [daughter .  She is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[311] as the possible daughter of Prince Géza by his second marriage but the basis for this speculation is not known.  She became a nun as SKOLASZTIKA [Scholastica].  Abbess of Somlóvŕsárhely.] 

 

 

VAJK, son of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his [first wife Sarolt of Transylvania] (Esztergom [967/75]-Buda 15 Aug 1038, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Gesta Hungarorum records the birth in 967 of "Geicha dux [filium] regem Stephanum"[312].  The sources are contradictory regarding the identity of his mother.  The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "una…Caroldu et altera Saroltu" as the two daughters of "Geula", specifying that the Sarolt was mother of "sancti regis Stephani"[313].  On the other hand, the Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[314], and the Breve chronicon Silesić names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[315].  Both these Polish sources record the birth of István in 975, which is more consistent with his having been the son of his father´s first marriage.  It is possible that the Hungarian source is more accurate, as the Polish sources may have misrepresented the facts in order to fabricate what could have been seen as a prestigious family relationship between the Polish kings and the first king of Hungary.  Thietmar names "Waik brother-in-law of Duke Heinrich of the Bavarians"[316].  He was baptised as ISTVÁN [Stephen].  He succeeded his father in 997 as Prince of Hungary.  His succession was challenged on grounds of seniority by his older cousin Koppány, whose rebellion was suppressed at Veszprem in 998 with the help of Bavarian cavalry[317].  Prince István received a royal crown from Pope Sylvester II and was crowned ISTVÁN I King of Hungary 25 Dec 1000 or 1 Jan 1001.  He was also granted an apostolic cross, symbolic of the status and authority of the Hungarian church which was responsible to the Pope alone[318].  Rodulfus Glaber records that King István encouraged pilgrims to Jerusalem to cross Hungary rather than travel by sea, making "the road safe for everyone"[319].  "Stephanus…Ungrorum Rex" founded the monastery of St Martin "in monte supra Pannoniam sito" by charter dated 1001[320].  His army attacked his supposed maternal uncle Gyula Prince in Transylvania in 1002 and incorporated Transylvania into his domains[321].  "Stephanus…Hungarorum Rex" donated property to the church of St Emeram "in…castro nostro Nitra" by charter dated to 1006[322].  "Stephanus…Hungarorum Rex" donated property to the church of St Michael, Veszprém by charter dated 1009[323].  "Stephanus…Hungarorum Rex" founded the church of St Adrian, Zala by charter dated 1019, and donated further property by charter dated 1024[324].  His authority was challenged unsuccessfully in south-eastern Hungary by Ohtum [Ajtony], maybe a Khazar prince.  King István confirmed the privileged 'freeman' status of the descendants of the original Magyar conquerors who, in return for providing military support, were exempt from taxes other than church tithes[325].  He reformed the Magyar legal system, enacting many new laws particularly relating to ecclesiastical matters.  The first Hungarian constitution is dated to 1030[326].  He was the author of a Book of Exhortations [Intelmek könyve] to his son, the first known Hungarian literary work, which emphasises the ecclesiastical basis for the king's authority[327].  "Stephanus…Ungarorum Rex" donated property to the church of St Maurice, Bakonbél by charter dated 1037[328].  The necrology of Tegernsee records the death "XVIII Kal Sep" of "Stephanus rex Ungarorum"[329].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1038 of "Stephanus rex"[330].  According to the Gesta Hungarorum, he died in the 46th year of his reign and was buried in "Albć [Székesfehérvár] in ecclesia Beatć Virginis"[331].  He was canonised in 1083 by the Catholic church (“Szent István”), his feast-day being 4 Nov. 

m (996) GISELA of Bavaria, daughter of HEINRICH II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria and Carinthia [Germany] & his wife Gisela of Burgundy ([985]-Passau 7 May 1065, bur Passau Kloster Niedernburg).  Herimannus names "Gisela, huius soror [=Heinricus imperator]" as wife of "Stephano regi Ungariorum"[332].  The Annalista Saxo states that "mater ipsius [Stephanus Ungariorum rex] Gisla" was sister of "Heinrici inperatoris Babenbergensis", when recording her husband's death[333], but clearly the text misstates "mater" for "uxor".  This marriage was agreed by Gisela's brother Duke Heinrich IV and István's father to confirm the Hungarian/Bavarian alliance[334].  According to the legends of St Stephen, she founded Veszprém Cathedral and the convent of Veszprémvölgy[335].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Kysla regina" sent "comitem Sebus" to blind Vazúl, whom her husband wished to appoint as his successor after the death of their son Imre, and have moulten lead poured into his ears[336].  Bak suggests that Queen Gisela was blamed because of anti-German feeling in the Hungarian court[337].  According to another Hungarian chronicle, Queen Gisela took council from "an evil man named Buda" concerning her husband's plan to name his nephew Vazúl as his heir and sent Buda's son Egiruth to do the deed[338].  After her husband died, she was robbed of her possessions by her husband's successor and left Hungary, becoming abbess of Niedernburg. 

King István & his wife had [five] children: 

1.         [OTTO (-young).  Daniel Cornides quotes the theologian Pelbartus, writing in the second half of the 15th century, who names "Otto" as one of the sons of King István I in a sermon recounting the king´s life[339].  Cornides comments that "filiorum natu maximum fuisse Ottonem, probabile est", adding that he would have been named after Emperor Otto III.  It is not known what earlier primary sources might have been available to Pelbartus, which have since disappeared.  However, no primary source has been found which names Otto and, only on the basis of Pelbartus, the evidence for his existence is slight.] 

2.         IMRE [Heinrich] ([1007]-killed Bihar 2 Nov 1031).  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "rex Stephanus" had several sons of whom "Emricum" stood out[340].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Hemericum" as the only son of "sanctus rex de Ungaria Stephanus primus", specifying that he died before his father[341].  The Annales Hildesheimenses name "Heinricus, Stephani regis filius, dux Ruizorum" when recording his death[342].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "rege Stephano" wished to renounce his crown in favour of "Emrico duci suo filio" but was prevented from doing so by the latter's early death[343].  He was killed by a wild boar while hunting.  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1031 of "Henricus filius Stephani regis"[344].  The Altahense Annales record the death in 1033 of "Heinricus filius Stephani Regis Ungarie"[345].  He was canonised together with his father (“Szent Imre”).  [m --- (-after 1031).  Sources are contradictory regarding the possible marriage of Imre.  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[346], she was --- Argyre, daughter of Emperor Romanos III.  Kosztolnyik refers to (unnamed) Byzantine sources which record the Byzantine marriage of Imre[347], suggesting that "the terminology of the Greek text of the founding charter of the monastery for women at Veszprém" supports the position[348].  It is not clear whether these sources specify that she was a member of the Argyre family, but this appears unlikely to be correct.  If Prince Imre did marry a Byzantine princess, the marriage may have been arranged by Emperor Basileios II.  Although Romanos Argyros (later Emperor Romanos III) held office during the later years of the emperor's reign (he was city prefect of Constantinople), the absence of detailed information in Greek primary sources about the Argyros family suggests that it was not at that time especially prominent among the noble families of the empire.  If that is correct, a member of the Argyros family would seem a surprising choice as bride for the heir to the Hungarian throne.  This difficulty would not arise if the marriage took place after the accession of Emperor Romanos in 1028.  If this Byzantine marriage is correct, it is possible that her father-in-law founded the Greek monastery in Veszprém valley for his son's wife[349].  An alternative possibility is that Imre's wife was --- of Poland, daughter of Mieszko II Lambert King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen], as the Annales Sanctć Crucis Polonici record that "Stephanus rex…filium…Emrich" married "Meszkone rege Polonie…filiam"[350].  However, this report in the Annales may have been due to confusion with the marriage of another of King Miesko's daughters, reported in the Gesta Hungarorum as having married the future Béla I King of Hungary while he was in exile in Poland[351].  It does not appear likely that King István's political relations with Poland would have been sufficiently close for him to have arranged a Polish marriage for his heir.  The king's main political alliance was with Germany, whose relations with Poland were tense during the reigns of Emperor Heinrich II and Emperor Konrad II.  A third possibility is provided by the Chronicle of Joannes Archidiaconus Goricensis which suggests that Imre was not married at all when he died, recording that "sancto Stephano" betrothed "Emerici ducis Sclavonić" to "filia Cresimiri" but that the future bridegroom died the following year[352].  His betrothed would have been --- of Croatia, daughter of Krešimir III King of Croatia & his wife ---.] 

3.         [BERNÁT .  Daniel Cornides quotes the 16th century scholar Pierre Pithou´s edition of a work entitled "Annalium et Historić Francorum ab anno Christi 708 ad annum 990" which names "Bernardum" as the son of "Giselam uxorem Stephani regis Hungrorum", but adds that he was the father of "Idam Nammucensem, et reginam Francorum, et uxorem Angilberti Marchionis, et Gertrudem comitissam Flandriensem, et reginam Nacorum"[353].  This is pure fantasy, and it is assumed that the "Annalium et Historić Francorum" was spurious, maybe a production of the same Pithou.  If this is the only evidence for the existence of Bernhard, son of King István I, he can be dismissed completely.] 

4.         [HEDVIG .  According to the early 12th century Vita Eberhardi[354], the mother of Eberhard Graf von Nellenburg (son of Eberhard IV Graf im Zürichgau) was a daughter of István I King of Hungary, although it is somewhat surprising that such a prominent figure as King István, in far off Hungary, would have married his daughter to an obscure Swiss count.  The Annales Scafhusenses record the marriage in 1009 of "Ebbo comes de Nellenburc" and "consobrinam Heinrici regis Hedewigam…de curie regis"[355].  If "consobrinam" is here used in its precise sense, Hedwig would have been the daughter of one of the sisters of Gisela, daughter of Conrad I King of Upper Burgundy.  Hedvig founded Kloster Pfaffenschwabenheim as a widow[356].  If she was the daughter of King István, there is a remote possibility that she was the same daughter who supposedly married Edmund ćtheling (see below), although if this is correct she would have been much older than her second husband.  m (1009) EBERHARD [IV] Graf im Zürichgau, son of [MANGOLD [I] Graf im Zürichgau & his wife ---] (-[1030/34]).] 

5.         [daughter .  Daniel Cornides quotes Belć Regis Notarius, writing in the late 12th/early 13th century, who names "Sunad, filius Dobuka, nepos regis [Sancti Regis Stephani]" when recording that he killed "Ohtum…in castro suo juxta Morisium"[357].  Cornides, in his commentary, assumes that "Dobuka" was the daughter of King István I, on the basis that "nepos" in this passage should be translated as grandson.  A fuller extract of the passage in question, in English translation, records that "Ajtony [Ohtum]", a descendant of one of the original Magyar chiefs, was killed "at the time of the holy King Stephen" by "Csanád [Sunad], son of Doboka [Dobuca] and nephew of the king…in his castle beside the Maros because he was rebellious to the king in all his doings"[358], showing that the events reported took place during the lifetime of King István.  From a chronological point of view, it is unlikely that a grandson of King István would have been adult and active while the king was still alive.  It is therefore assumed that "nepos" indicates a more remote relationship, probably even more remote than "nephew".  In any case, it is far from clear that "Dobuka" was a feminine name and was the mother of Csanád.  It would be highly unusual in a source of this type for a protagonist to be identified by the name of his mother rather than his father.  In addition, it can be seen from the names of the early Magyar leaders (see above) that a terminal "a" does not necessarily signify a feminine name.  It therefore appears more likely that "Dobuka/Doboka" was the name of the father of Csanád, which of course means that it is even less likely that he was King István´s grandson given that the king was succeeded by his nephew.  This whole discussion of course assumes that the passage in question is factually correct.  This is far from certain, given the nature of the Gesta Hungarorum written by the anonymous notary of King Béla, which Macartney described as "the most famous, the most obscure, the most exasperating and most misleading of all the early Hungarian texts"[359]m DOBOKA, son of ---.] 

 

 

Possible relative of the kings of Hungary, precise relationship not known: 

1.         [HEDVIG of Hungary.  Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edmundo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "Hungariorum regem…filiam suam"[360].  Geoffrey Gaimar recounts that "Edgar" (older of the two children of King Edmund whom he names incorrectly in an earlier passage) made "la fille al rei [de Hungrie]" pregnant, was married to her and appointed heir by her father, but adding confusingly that they were parents of "Margarete" who married "rei Malcolom"[361].  The basis for this story, and whether there is any element of truth hidden in it somewhere, is unknown.  Edmund's wife is named Hedwig in Burke's Guide to the Royal Family[362], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  In the absence of further information, the accuracy of these reports must be considered dubious as none of the Hungarian kings during the first half of the 11th century provides an obvious match.  In the case of King István, it is likely that all his daughters predeceased their father in view of the accession of his nephew, King Péter, when he died.  In any case, his daughters would have been beyond child-bearing age when the ćtheling Edmund arrived in Hungary, assuming this arrival took place in [1046] as is probable.  As the ćtheling brothers were closely linked to King András I, it is unlikely that Edmund would have married a daughter of either of his disgraced predecessors King Péter or King Samuel Aba, and any daughters of the former at least would have been too young for such a marriage.  Finally, any daughters of King András himself would certainly have been too young for the marriage.  There is therefore considerable doubt about the historical authenticity of this Hungarian princess or her marriage to Edmund.  m EDMUND of England, son of EDMUND "Ironsides" King of England & his wife Ćldgyth --- (1016-before 1054).]   

 

 

--- of Hungary, daughter of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his second wife Adelajda of Poland ([989]-1026).  Her parentage is confirmed by Herimannus who names "Petrum, sororis suć [=Stephanus Ungariorum rex] filium, de Venetia natum" when recording his accession in 1038[363].  Chronology suggests that she was the daughter of Prince Géza's second marriage but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.  Her marriage is confirmed by the Gesta Hungarorum which names "Petrum Venetum filium sororis suć…cuius pater dux fuerat Venetorum" as successor to King István[364].  As Pietro Orseolo was Doge from 1009 to the early 1020s, he is the only possible Venetian ruler to whom this can relate.  Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records the marriage "Otto Ursiolo dux" and "filiam Geyzć regis Hungarorum et sororem Stephani", dated to 1009 from the context[365]

m (1009) PIETRO OTTONE Orseolo, son of PIETRO Orseolo II Doge of Venice & his wife Maria --- ([989]-Constantinople 1031).  Named "OTTONE" at his confirmation at Verona 996, after his sponsor Emperor Otto III.  His father associated him with the Dogeship after the death of his older brother Giovanni.  He was elected Doge of Venice in 1009 in succession to his father.  Unpopular in Venice for aggrandizing his family, he was forced to flee the city for Istria in [1022/23], but was recalled by the Venetians after the sacking of Grado by Poppo von Treffen Patriarch of Aquileia.  Following further scandals over church appointments, he was deposed as Doge in 1026 and sent to Constantinople. 

Pietro Orseolo & his wife had two children: 

1.         PIETRO Orseolo ([Venice] [1010/15]- Székesfehérvár [30 Aug] [1060], bur Pécs, St Peter's Cathedral)Herimannus names "Petrum, sororis suć [=Stephanus Ungariorum rex] filium, de Venetia natum" when recording his accession in 1038[366].  His maternal uncle declared him as heir to the throne of Hungary in 1037.  He succeeded in 1038 as PÉTER King of Hungary.  According to the Gesta Hungarorum, "regina…Kysla consilio iniquorum" installed "Petrum Venetum filium sororis suć…cuius pater dux fuerat Venetorum" as king after her husband's death[367].  The Gesta states that King Péter treated "the nobles…with contempt and [devoured] the wealth of the land with a proud eye and an insatiable heart…and behaved with shameful and unbridled lust and that he was deposed in the third year of his reign" in favour of "comitem…Aba, sororium sancti regis Stephani"[368].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Petrus rex" was expelled in 1041 and replaced by "Abba"[369].  The Annalium Hildesheimensium records that King Péter was expelled and fled to Heinrich III King of Germany, while the Hungarians chose "Ovonem" as king[370].  King Péter was restored in 1044 with the help of the German king, whose troops invaded Hungary and defeated King Sámuel at Ménfö near Györ.  The Gesta records that the Germans invaded Hungary and defeated King Aba at Ménfő, after which the latter fled towards the river Tisza and was strangled "in an old storeroom"[371].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Abba rex" was killed in 1044 and that "Petrus rex" was restored[372].  King Peter was obliged to swear allegiance to King Heinrich in 1045 which, combined with the arrival of increasing numbers of foreign advisers, did nothing to improve his popularity.  The Gesta Hungarorum records a national revolt against King Péter after the return to Hungary of his cousins András and Levante, the slaughter of "Teutonicos et Latinos…prćpositi…et abates" (implying that the revolt may have been pagan inspired), King Péter's flight to Moson, his arrest at a village near Székesfehérvár, his having survived being blinded, and his burial at Pécs[373].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Petrus rex" was blinded in 1047 and succeeded by "Andreas rex"[374].  The Annales Altahenses record the rebellion against King Péter and his being blinded[375].  According to the Hildesheim Annals, he was expelled from the country after he was blinded[376].  The Annales Magdeburgenses also record the expulsion of "Petrus Ungarariorum rex" after being captured and blinded[377].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death of "Petrus rex Hungarie" in 1060[378].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "III Kal Sep" of "Petrus Ungariorum rex" but does not mention the year[379].  It is hard to be certain about the year of King Péter's death.  It does not appear, from the sources cited above, that he succumbed when he was blinded, although the Annales Altahenses are silent on the point.  Apart from the report of his death in the Annales Cracoviensis, the only subsequent reference to ex-king Péter is the Annalista Saxo's record of his second marriage (see below) which, if correct, must have taken place after Jan 1055.  The difficulty is the record of his burial in Hungary contained in the Gesta.  Burial in his home country is consistent with his death soon after being blinded.  It is difficult to imagine the authorities having arranged his body's repatriation for burial in Hungary after years of ignominious exile.  m [firstly] TUTA [von Formbach, daughter of HEINRICH [Hesso] I Graf & his wife Himiltrud ---] (-14 Mar [after 1070]).  "Tuta von Formbach" is shown as the wife of Péter King of Hungary in Europäische Stammtafeln[380].  No primary source has been identified which indicates either the marriage of King Péter to "Tuta" or Tuta's parentage.  As shown below, there are late references to a "Queen Tuta" having founded the monastery of Suben (near Schärding in Upper Austria), one of which states that she was "queen of Hungary".  No primary source has been found which links "Queen Tuta" with Tuta, joint founder of Vornbach monastery together with her sister Himiltrud, whose father "Hesso" is assessed by Wegener to have been the same person as Heinrich [I] [von Formbach].  Wegener says[381] that "Queen Tuta" was the second wife of Béla I King of Hungary, the marriage having taken place after the death of his first wife which he dates to "after 1052" (Europäische Stammtafeln suggests that King Béla's first wife died "after 1059"[382]).  He bases his argument on connections with the monastery of Suben founded in 1040.   He explains[383] that Archbishop Eberhard (von Sulzbach) names "Tuta" (in a document dated 1153, more than a century after the events) as "die Gründerin von Suben, Königin", and that in an even later document from the monastery she is called "Königin von Ungarn", although it cannot be concluded from these documents that she was queen at the date she founded the monastery.  He then highlights a connection between possible descendants of King Béla's daughter Sophia (by her first husband Ulrich Marchese of Istria) and the same monastery which, he suggests, indicates that Sophia was the daughter of "Queen Tuta".  The chronology of his argument is shaky as Sophia must have been born before [1050], when King Béla's known Polish wife appears still to have been alive.  Who, then, was "Queen Tuta" and who was her husband?  The existence of a "Queen Tuta" is confirmed by the necrology of Regensburg Monastery which records the death "IV Non Feb" of "Tuta regina"[384], although this gives no indication of the country involved or the date of her death.  Assuming that Tuta was queen of Hungary, and that she lived during the mid-11th century, her possible husbands are King Péter, King Sámuel Aba, King András I and King Béla I.  The last-named is unlikely, as shown above.  His brother and predecessor, King András, is recorded as having married a Russian princess.  This leaves King Sámuel and King Péter.  Nothing is known of the wife of the former, but considering his probable date of birth it is likely that he was married before his accession in 1041, in which case his wife was most likely a Hungarian noblewoman.  This leaves King Péter, a possibility which Wegener apparently ignores.  There appears no factual basis for the speculation that "Queen Tuta" was the wife of King Péter, although the necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran which records her death also includes a reference to the death "III Kal Sep" of "Petrus Ungariorum rex"[385].  An alternative explanation for the Suben connection would be that Sophia was the daughter of King Péter and Tuta.  However, contemporary political realities suggest that a prominent marriage for a daughter of the disgraced King Péter is unlikely.  Until more information comes to light, it is safer to assume that Sophia was the daughter of King Béla and [Ryksa] of Poland, that another (so far unidentified) factor explains the apparent connection between Tuta and Sophia through Suben monastery, and that Tuta was the wife of King Péter.  This last conclusion suggests that it is even less likely that Tuta's parentage was as suggested in Europäische Stammtafeln.  If the marriage took place before Péter's accession, it is difficult to explain why the son of an ex-Doge of Venice (his father had been deposed in 1026) would marry the daughter of an obscure Bavarian noble.  If the marriage occurred after Péter became king, it seems likely that his supporters would have been able to arrange a more prominent marriage for their new ruler, particular as his sister was married to the Markgraf of Austria soon after his accession.  In any case, as explained in the document BAVARIAN NOBILITY, proof that Heinrich [I] [von Formbach] had a daughter named Tuta seems shaky.  It depends on the interpretation of two documents, the first of which is the Codex Traditionum of Formbach monastery which records a donation by "domna Himildrudis filia Hessonis"[386], and the second the same source which records a dispute with Suben monastery and names "due…sorores Touta et Himildrud…nobilissimis"[387].  The basis for assuming that "Hesso" is the same person as "Heinrich [I]" is unclear.  No primary source has been identified which throws light on the year of Tuta's death.  Assuming that her husband's second marriage as shown below is correct, Tuta must have died many years before the "after 1070" which is suggested by Europäische Stammtafeln[388]m [secondly] (Apr 1055) as her second husband, JUDITH von Schweinfurt, widow of BŘETISLAV I Duke of the Bohemians, daughter of HEINRICH von Schweinfurt Markgraf auf dem Nordgau & his wife Gerberga [von Gleisberg] ([1010/15]-2 Aug 1058, bur Prague St Veit).  According to the Annalista Saxo, Judith was expelled from Bohemia by her son Duke Spytihnĕv after his father's death and married "Petri regi Ungariorum" to spite her son[389].  The marriage is not mentioned in Wegener, although he refers cryptically to "Lui von Frizberg, I. Tuta Regina. II. Judith von Schweinfurt"[390]

2.         FROIZZA [Frowila] Orseolo ([1015]-17 Feb 1071, bur Melk)Herimannus refers to "sororis suć [=Peterum regem]" as wife of "marchionem nostrum Adalbertum" when recording her marriage in 1041[391].  She is named in three imperial charters, although these are not consistent about the spelling of her name.   "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property "in circuitu duorum fluminum…Zaiouua" to "marchioni Adalberto et coniugi suć (Froiza)" by charter dated 21 Apr 1048[392].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property to "Adelberti marchionis [et] uxorique sue Froize" dated 12 Nov 1051"[393].  "Heinricus…rex" granted property "in locis Ortvvinesdorf et Pirchehe…in marcha Osterriche et in comitatu Ernestes marchionis" to "Frovvilć Adeberti marhchionis viduć" by charter dated 1 Oct 1058[394].  The necrology of Melk records the death "XIII Kal Mar" of "Frouza marchionissa"[395].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "XIII Kal Mar" of "Fruoza marchionissa"[396]m (shortly before 1041) as his second wife, ADALBERT "der Siegreiche" Markgraf der Ostmark [of Austria], son of LUITPOLD I Markgraf der bayerischen Ostmark, Graf im Traungau, Sundergau und Donaugau & his wife Richwara im Sualafeldgau (-26 May 1055, bur Stift Melk). 

 

 

VÁSZOLY [Vazúl], son of MIHÁLY of Hungary Duke between March and Gran & his wife Adelajda of Poland ([976/78]-early 1037).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Wazul et Zar Ladislaum" as the sons of "Mihal…frater Geichć"[397].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "ducem…Vazul et ducem Ladislaum calvum" as the two sons of "Michael dux"[398].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Stephanum, Mychl et Vanzul" as the three sons of "Geyza", adding that "Vanzul" was killed by "effosionem oculorem" by "reginam Gesla, consortem regis sancti Stephani"[399].  Duke between March and Gran.  Representing the more conservative, traditional element of Hungarian society, he rebelled against King István I and his Catholic pro-western policies[400].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that, after the death of his son Imre, "rege Stephano" sent messengers to bring "Wazul filium sui patruelis" from his prison at "Nistrić" to have him declared successor to the kingdom but that "Kysla regina" sent "comitem Sebus" to blind Vazúl and have moulten lead poured into his ears, after which Vazúl fled to Bohemia from where he was brought back to Hungary[401].  Bak dates this event to 1037, although this appears late if the events happened soon after Imre's death in 1031[402]

m (before [1012]) --- [of Bulgaria], daughter of [SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Agatha Chryselie].  The date of this marriage is estimated from the estimated birth date of the couple's eldest son.  The primary source which confirms the marriage has not yet been identified.  The Gesta Hungarorum reports claims that the three brothers Levente, András and Béla were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun [Tátony]" rather than legitimate[403]

Duke Vászoly had three sons:

1.         ANDRÁS ([1014]-Zirc Autumn 1060, bur Tihany, Benedictine Abbey of St Anian).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Andreas postea rex, secundus…dux Bella demum rex, tertius dux Levente" as the three sons of "dux Vazul"[404].  The Gesta Hungarorum names (in order) "Andrea, Bela et Luenta, filiis Zarladislai" when recording that King István advised them to flee to Bohemia after the mutilation of Vazúl, the commentary suggesting that their father's name was changed by the compiler of the Gesta to disguise the fact that later Hungarian kings were descended from the blinded Vazúl.  The Gesta clarifies in a later passage that András was the oldest son[405].  In another passage, the Gesta reports claims that the three brothers were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun" rather than legitimate[406].  The Gesta records that the three brothers moved from Bohemia to Poland during the second reign of King Péter, but that "Andreas et Luenta" were embittered by the success of their brother Béla in Poland and moved to Ruthenia, where "duce Lodomerić" refused to receive them out of regard for King Péter, and that from there they moved "ad terram…Comanorum"[407].  The estimated birth date of his daughter Adelaida suggests that András must have arrived in Kiev before [1039], assuming that she was born from his second marriage.  The Hungarian nobles sent envoys to Kiev in Spring 1046 inviting the brothers Levente and András to return, which they did in Autumn 1046[408].  After the popular uprising which deposed King Peter in 1046, he succeeded as ANDRÁS I "the Catholic" King of Hungary, crowned at Székesfehérvár.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Petrus rex" was blinded in 1047 and succeeded by "Andreas rex"[409].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King András forced payment of tribute for three years from Austria, Bohemia and Poland, which provoked an attack on Hungary by Emperor Heinrich III[410].  "Andreas…Pannoniorum…Rex" founded Tihan abbey, Balatin by charter dated 1055, signed by "Gilconi comitis, Zache C. Palatii, Wotteh comitis, Ludouici comitis, Ernei comitis, Viti comitis, Martini comitis, Helić comitis, Andreć comitis, Fancel comitis…"[411].  When King András crowned his infant son Salamon as associate king in 1057, his brother Béla was provoked into taking action to secure his own rights of succession.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Andreas rex" crowned "Salamonem filium suum" during his illness[412].  Hungarian forces invaded Byzantine territory in 1059 in reprisal for Byzantium's failure to curb Pecheneg raids in Hungary, but quickly made peace after Emperor Isaakios Komnenos mobilised forces[413].  In 1060, Béla invaded Hungary with a large force, with Polish support, captured King András who died a few days later, and assumed power.  The Gesta Hungarorum records the death of King András in the fifteenth year of his reign and his burial in "Tyhon monasterio"[414].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death in 1060 of "Andreas" and his burial "in suo monasterio Thyan iuxta lacum Balaton"[415].  The Chronicon Posoniense records bitter disputes in 1060 between "Andream et fratrem eius Bela" and that "Andreas rex" died[416], which suggests that the death may have been violent.  m firstly --- (-before [1039]).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, the first wife of András was a pagan in Hungary[417], although the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  m secondly ([1039]) ANASTASIA Iaroslavna of Kiev, daughter of IAROSLAV I Vladimirovich Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife Ingigerd Olafsdottir of Sweden ([1023]-[1074/1096], bur Admont Abbey).  Baumgarten names the second wife of King András and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[418].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   After her husband's death in 1060, she and her sons took refuge at the court of Heinrich IV King of Germany but, leaving her elder son there, she and her younger son then went to Austria[419].  The Annals of Lambert record that "regina Ungariorum, mater Salomonis regis" presented the sword of "rex Hunnorum Attila" to "duci Baioriorum Ottoni" after her son was restored as king of Hungary[420].  She became a nun at Admont in 1074 as AGMUNDA.  King András & his first wife had [one child]:

a)         [son.  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "rex Andreas" had one son "Georgium" by "concubina…quam habuit de villa Morouth"[421].  He was baptised in [1037/38] in Kiev as IURI [George][422].  According to Europäische Stammtafeln, he went to Scotland in 1055, where he is alleged to have been the ancestor of the Drummond family[423].  If this is correct, it is surprising that this Hungarian origin is not mentioned either in The Complete Peerage[424] or in Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peerages[425].  It is stated in Burke's Peerage & Baronetage[426] that the Drummond family "allegedly migrated from Hungary to Scotland in the 11th century" but no details of the alleged ancestry are given earlier than Sir Malcolm Drummond (early 14th century).  In any case, it is unclear why the king of Hungary's eldest son, whose eventual succession prospects must have been good despite the rule of primogeniture not having been established to govern the Hungarian succession, would have left his country in this way.] 

King András & his second wife had three children:

b)         ADELHEID ([1040]-27 Jan 1062).  The Annalista Saxo refers to the wife of Duke Vratislav as "filia Andree regis Ungarie", but does not name her[427].  The Chronica Boemorum names "Adleyta" as the wife of Vratislav of Bohemia but does not give her origin[428].  Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to four known children before her death.  The Chronica Boemorum records the death "1062 VI Kal Feb" of "ductrix Adleyth mater Iudithć et Ludmilć, similiter Bracislai iunioris et Wratislai, qui in primo flore iuventutis occidit XIII Kal Dec"[429]m (1057) as his second wife, VRATISLAV of Bohemia Herzog von Olmütz, son of BŘETISLAV Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Judith von Schweinfurt[430] ([1032]-14 Jan 1092).  He succeeded his brother in 1061 as VRATISLAV II Duke of the Bohemians.  He was declared King of Bohemia at Prague 15 Jun 1085 or 1086. 

c)         SALAMON (1053-killed in battle 1087, bur Pula).  The Chronicon Posoniense records the birth in 1053 of "Samson filius Andree regie"[431].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "filium suum Salomonem adhuc puerulum" when recording that his father declared him heir to the throne in the twelfth year of his reign[432].  Salamon and his mother took refuge at the court of his brother-in-law Heinrich IV King of Germany when his paternal uncle Béla usurped the throne in 1060.  After King Béla I died in 1063, he was installed as SALAMON King of Hungary with support from King Heinrich IV, whose suzerainty he recognised.  Following continuing raids on Hungarian territory by Pechenegs, the Hungarians invaded Byzantine territory along the Danube in [1068], suspecting that the imperial governor of Beograd was sponsoring the Pechenegs.  They captured Beograd in [1071/72] but did not retain it.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Salomon rex" invaded "bulgarense regnum" in 1072[433].  The dispute with Byzantium was settled by treaty in 1074[434].  Although King Salamon had made peace with his cousin Géza, relations deteriorated between them and open warfare broke out in 1074.  The Chronicon Posoniense records disputes in 1071 between "Salomon rex" and "duce magno Geyza Ungarorum"[435].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King Salomon was defeated at "Munorod [Mogyoród]" and fled across the Danube to "Musunium [Moson]", before moving his household to the monastery of Admont in Styria[436].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Salomon" was deposed in 1074[437].  "Heinricus…rex" donated property to Freising church by charter dated 26 Nov 1074 at the request of "Salomon rex Ungarorum"[438], presumably as part of the arrangements agreed for Salamon's exile in Germany.  Ex-King Salamon returned from Germany and conspired against his cousin King László I after the latter's accession in 1077, but he was confined to the Tower of Visegrád.  He was released in 1083 and returned to his wife in Regensburg, but she refused to receive him.  Salamon invaded Hungary again with Pecheneg forces from Moldavia, but was defeated.  He was killed fighting in Byzantine territory.  His death is recorded in the Annalista Saxo in 1087[439].  A different version of his final years is recorded in the Gesta Hungarorum which states that ex-King Salomon retired to Pula on the Adriatic where he lived in complete poverty and was buried, never having returned to his wife[440].  The Chronicon Varadiense records that "Salamon rex" died "in Pola civitate Styrić"[441]m (betrothed 1059, early 1063) as her first husband, JUDITH [Maria/Sophia] of Germany, daughter of Emperor HEINRICH III King of Germany & his second wife Agnčs de Poitou ([1054]-14 Mar [1092/96], bur Admont Abbey).  The Annales of Berthold record the betrothal in 1059 of "Andreas Pannonić rex…filio suo Salomoni adhuc puero" and "sororem eius [Heinrici regis] minorem Iuditham"[442].  The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of "Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum" as "regis Heinrici sororem" but do not name her[443].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King András forced the marriage of "Salomoni regi" and "Henricus imperator…Sophiam suam filiam", specifying that she had earlier been betrothed to "filio regis Francić"[444].  Having left Hungary for Germany after her husband was deposed in 1074, she was living in Regensburg when her husband attempted to reclaim the Hungarian throne.  She refused to receive him when he returned in 1083.  She married secondly ([1089]) as his second wife, Władysław I Herman Prince of Poland ([1043]-4 Jun 1102).  Her second marriage is confirmed by the Chronicć Polanorum which records that King Władysław married "sororem imperatoris tertii Henrici, uxorem prius Salemonis Ungarić regis"[445].  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name as "Iudite"[446].  The necrology of Weltenburg records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudita de Polonia soror Heinrici imperatoris IV"[447].  The necrology of Regensburg St Emmeran records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudita regina"[448].  The necrology of Speyer records the death "II Id Mar" of "Iudda regina imperatricis filia"[449].  [King Salamon & his wife had one [possible] child:] 

i)          [ZSÓFIA (-26 Jun [1110], bur Zwiefalten)Europäische Stammtafeln[450] shows Sophia, wife of Graf Poppo who was ancestor of the Grafen von Berg, as daughter of King Salomon.  The source on which this is based has not yet been identified, but it appears unlikely chronologically.  The granddaughter of Poppo and Sophia, Salome (second wife of Bolesław III Duke of Poland), was born "before 1101" which, assuming that she was her parents' oldest child (which is not known with certainty), would place the birth of her father in [1080] at the latest.  If it is assumed that her paternal grandmother bore her own first child at the early age of 15, this would still place Sophia's birth in [1065] at the latest, when the wife of King Salamon was only about 11 years old.  Until further evidence comes to light, it is assumed that the Hungarian affiliation of Poppo's wife was originally proposed as a hypothesis to explain the unusual first name "Salome" borne by Sophie's daughter and granddaughter.  However, the necrologies of Swabian monasteries show that the name "Salome", although not common, did exist on its own, not as a female form of "Salamon", during this period.  m POPPO Graf, Herr von Roggenstein, son of --- (-11 Aug [1110], bur Zwiefalten).] 

d)         DÁVID (-after 1094, bur Tihany, Benedictine Abbey of St Anian).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "David suo filio" when recording that he was buried in "Tyhon monasterio" with his father[451].  He took refuge with his mother in Austria after his father's death[452].  "Ladislauo…Rex" founded the church of St Egidius, Sumich by charter dated 1091 witnessed by "Dux Lambertus frater eius, Dux David consobrinus, Gerazclauus filius regis Rutenorum gener ipsius…Comes Palatinus Petrus et comes Acha…"[453].  "Dauid…Dux" donated property to the monastery of St Anian, Tihany, with the consent of "Ladislao…rege", by charter dated 1094 witnessed by "…Gula comes Palatinus, Petrus comes…"[454]

2.         BÉLA (1016-Kanisza creek Dec 1063, bur Szekszárd Abbey).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Andreas postea rex, secundus…dux Bella demum rex, tertius dux Levente" as the three sons of "dux Vazul"[455].  The Gesta Hungarorum names (in order) "Andrea, Bela et Luenta, filiis Zarladislai" when recording that King István advised them to flee to Bohemia after the mutilation of Vazúl, the commentary suggesting that their father's name was changed by the compiler of the Gesta to disguise the fact that later Hungarian kings were descended from the blinded Vazúl[456].  He succeeded in 1060 as BÉLA I King of Hungary

-        see below.   

3.         LEVENTE (-1047, bur Taksony).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Andreas postea rex, secundus…dux Bella demum rex, tertius dux Levente" as the three sons of "dux Vazul"[457].  The Gesta Hungarorum names (in order) "Andrea, Bela et Luenta, filiis Zarladislai" when recording that King István advised them to flee to Bohemia after the mutilation of Vazúl, the commentary suggesting that their father's name was changed by the compiler of the Gesta to disguise the fact that later Hungarian kings were descended from the blinded Vazúl[458].  In a later passage, the Gesta reports claims that the three brothers were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun" rather than legitimate[459].  The Gesta records that the three brothers moved from Bohemia to Poland during the second reign of King Péter, but that "Andreas et Luenta" were embittered by the success of their brother Béla in Poland and moved to Ruthenia, where "duce Lodomerić" refused to receive them out of regard for King Péter, and from there "ad terram…Comanorum"[460].  He was the last member of his family not to be baptised, renouncing his rights of succession rather than accept baptism[461].  He was seriously injured in battle against the forces of King Péter and died of his injuries within a year[462]

 

 

BÉLA, son of VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary, Duke between March and Gran & his wife --- of the Bulgarians (1016-Kanisza creek Dec 1063, bur Szekszárd Abbey).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Andreas postea rex, secundus…dux Bella demum rex, tertius dux Levente" as the three sons of "dux Vazul"[463].  The Gesta Hungarorum names (in order) "Andrea, Bela et Luenta, filiis Zarladislai" when recording that King István advised them to flee to Bohemia after the mutilation of Vazúl, the commentary suggesting that their father's name was changed by the compiler of the Gesta to disguise the fact that later Hungarian kings were descended from the blinded Vazúl[464].  In a later passage, the Gesta reports claims that the three brothers were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun" rather than legitimate[465].  The Gesta records that the brothers moved from Bohemia to Poland during the second reign of King Péter and that Béla defeated "Pomoramić ducem" in single combat and married "filia Miskć [Polonorum duce]"[466].  He was baptised in [1037/39] at Gnesen [Gniezno] as ADALBERT[467].  Béla returned to Hungary with his brothers in 1046, and was invested as Duke between March and Gran in 1048, but at some stage returned to Poland.  When his brother King András crowned his infant son Salamon as associate king in 1057, Béla was provoked into taking action to secure his own rights of succession.  He left Poland with his family and in 1060 invaded Hungary with a large force, with Polish support, captured King András who died a few days later, and assumed power as BÉLA I "Benin" King of Hungary, crowned at Székesfehérvár.  The Chronicon Posoniense records bitter disputes in 1060 between "Andream et fratrem eius Bela" and that "Andreas rex" died[468], which suggests that the death may have been violent.  The Annales of Berthold record that in 1060 "Belo fratrum suum Andream…expulit" in Hungary[469].  The Gesta Hungarorum records the accession of "Benyn Bela", commenting that the Hungarians abandoned the faith and baptism for a year before returning to the faith[470].  Hungarian forces conquered and settled Syrmium in [1060][471].  German forces invaded Hungary in support of ex-King Salamon, but King Béla died soon afterwards in his summer palace of Dömös after his throne toppled on him[472].  The Gesta Hungarorum records the death of King Béla in the third year of his reign and his burial at "monasterio…Sceugzard [Szekszárd]"[473].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "III Id Sep" in 1063 of "Bela dictus Belin secundus filius Vazul" and his burial "in suo monasterio Sexardiensi"[474]

m (in Poland [1039/42]) [RYKSA] of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO II LAMBERT King of Poland & his wife Richeza [Ezzonen] ([1018]-after 1059).  The Gesta Hungarorum records the marriage of Béla and "filia Miskć [Polonorum duce]" while he was in exile in Poland but does not name her[475].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska records that "Bela" married "rex Polonie filiam"[476].  Ryksa is shown as her possible name in Europäische Stammtafeln[477], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. 

King Béla & his wife had eight children:

1.         GÉZA ([in Poland] [1044/45]-25 Apr 1077, bur Vac).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Geichć et Ladislai" as sons of "fratris sui Belć" when recording that King András obtained their agreement to the future succession of his son Salomon[478].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzam et Ladislaum" as the two older sons of "Bela" and his wife "rex Polonie filiam", adding that they were both born in Poland[479].  He succeeded his cousin in 1074 as GÉZA I King of Hungary

-        see below

2.         LANKA ([1045]-1095).  Baumgarten names Lanka as the wife of Prince Rostislav and daughter of King Béla but only cites secondary sources in support[480].  She is not shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[481].  Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to three known children before her husband died in early 1067.  m (before 1064) ROSTISLAV Vladimirovich Prince of Rostov, Novgorod and Vladimir in Volynia, son of VLADIMIR Iaroslavich of Kiev Prince of Novgorod & his wife Oda von Stade ([1045]-3 Feb 1067).  Prince of Tmutorokan 1064-1065. 

3.         ZSÓFIA ([1045/50]-18 Jun 1095, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  The Annalista Saxo names "sororem Ladizlai regis Ungarie Sophiam" as wife of Ulrich, and in a later passage records her second marriage[482].  Zsófia has therefore generally been assumed to be the daughter of Béla I King of Hungary[483].  According to Wegener[484], she was the daughter of King Béla by Tuta von Formbach, whom he suggests was the king's second wife.  His argument is based on connections with the monastery of Suben (near Schärding in Upper Austria), founded in 1040.   He explains that Tuta is named in 1153 as "die Gründerin von Suben, Königin", and that in a later document at the monastery she is more specifically referred to as "Königin von Ungarn".  The author makes the connection with Zsófia by highlighting the burial at Suben of Udalschalk Graf im Lurngau and his wife Adelheid.  He identifies the latter as Zsófia's daughter by her first husband who, he suggests, married Udalschalk after the death of her earlier husband Friedrich I Domvogt von Regensburg.  The major difficulty with this hypothesis is Zsófia's own estimated birth date.  She must have been born before [1050], at the very latest, given the birth of her three (possibly four) children by her first husband, who died in early 1070.  If Zsófia was King Béla's daughter, her mother must have been his Polish wife who, according to Europäische Stammtafeln[485], died after 1059.  An alternative possibility is that she was Tuta's daughter, but by another king of Hungary.  Europäische Stammtafeln[486] shows Tuta as the wife of Péter Orseolo King of Hungary.  Contemporary political realities suggest that a prominent marriage for a daughter of the disgraced King Péter is unlikely.  Until more information comes to light, it is safer to assume that Zsófia was the daughter of King Béla and [Ryksa] of Poland, and that another (so far unidentified) factor explains the apparent connection between Tuta and Zsófia through Suben monastery.  Zsófia's second marriage is confirmed by the Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis which names "Sophia filia regis Ungarorum Wadreslai" as wife of "Magnus dux"[487], although King László was her brother not her father.  Zsófia's second marriage presumably took place soon after the death of her first husband in Mar 1070 as Duke Magnus was imprisoned later in 1070.  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "Sophia quoque ductrix…XIV Kal Iunii"[488]m firstly ([1062/63]) ULRICH I Marchese of Carniola and Istria, son of POPPO I [von Weimar] Marchese of Carniola and Istria & his wife Hadamut of Istria (-6 Mar 1070).  m secondly (after 6 Mar 1070) MAGNUS of Saxony, son of ORDULF Duke in Saxony [Billung] & his first wife Wulfhild of Norway (-Erthensburg 25 Aug 1106, bur Lüneburg St Michaelis).  He succeeded his father in 1072 as MAGNUS Duke in Saxony

4.         LÁSZLÓ (in Poland [1046/50][489]-Nitra 20 Jun 1095, bur Somogyvár, transferred 1192 to Nagyvárad Cathedral[490]).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Geichć et Ladislai" as sons of "fratris sui Belć" when recording that King András obtained their agreement to the future succession of his son Salomon[491].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzam et Ladislaum" as the two older sons of "Bela" and his wife "rex Polonie filiam", adding that they were both born in Poland[492].  "Magnus qui et Geysa supremus Hungarorium Dux postea…rex consecratus, Belć regis filius" founded the monastery of St Benedict, Gron, in the presence of "Ladislao Duce germano meo…Iula Comite Palatino", by charter dated 1075[493].  He succeeded his brother in 1077 as LÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary.  He extended the borders of Transylvania eastwards and settled a privileged class of border guards there as protection against incursions by the Kumans[494].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King László inflicted a crushing defeat on the Kumans at "Kyrioleis [Chirasleş]" mountain in Transylvania[495].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Ladizlaus rex et Salomon frater eius" made peace in 1081 and that "crux domini" was struck by lightning in the same year[496].  "Ladislaus…Hungarorum Rex Belć regis filius" confirmed the foundation of the church of Besprem, "cum Sug comite de Bukon (huius filius fuerit Bodus Salamonis in carcere socius)", by charter dated 1082[497].  After the succession of his sister Ilona as Queen of Croatia, he intervened to protect her interests against the considerable opposition she faced from the Croatian nobility, and occupied much of Croatia including part of Dalmatia.  He was obliged to withdraw from Dalmatia to defend Hungary against an attack by Kumans, but retained Pannonian Croatia.  "Ladislaus…Hungarorum Rex" confirmed the privileges of the church of St Adrian "in insula Szalad" by charter dated 20 Dec 1091[498].  "Ladislauo…Rex" founded the church of St Egidius, Sumich by charter dated 1091 witnessed by "Dux Lambertus frater eius, Dux David consobrinus, Gerazclauus filius regis Rutenorum gener ipsius…Comes Palatinus Petrus et comes Acha…"[499].  In 1091, he created a special Croatian banovina between the Drava River and Gvozd Mountains, ruled by his nephew Álmos, but this was recaptured by Peter King of Cro atia in 1095[500].  A charter dated 17 Apr 1093 records that "regem Ladislaum" reformed five churches, witnessed by "…comitibus Spiguen Grab, Gwth…"[501].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "rex Suinimirus" died without leaving an heir from his posterity, and that "quidam ex magnatibus Sclavonie" went "in Hungariam…ad regem Vladisclavum" requesting him to intervene in Croatia to put an end to the chaos which followed the king's death[502].  He was killed during a raid by the Kumans[503].  King László had designated his nephew Álmos as his successor, but Álmos's older brother Kálmán seized the throne in 1095 when King László died[504].  The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records the death in 1095 of "Ladizlaus rex Pannonić"[505].  The Annales Gradicenses record the death in 1095 of "Wladizlaus rex Ungarorum"[506].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1097 of "Ladislaus rex"[507].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "IV Kal Aug" in 1095 of "rex Ladislaus filius secundogenitus regis Belć dicti Belyn" and his burial "in suo monasterio Varadini"[508].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King László was buried at "Warod [Oradea]"[509].  László was later canonised by the Catholic church (“Szent László”), his feast-day is 27 Jun[510]m ([1077 or after]) ADELHEID von Rheinfelden, daughter of RUDOLF Graf von Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia [anti-King of Germany] & his second wife Adelaide de Savoie ([1063/65]-3 May 1090, bur St Blasius).  "Filia eorum Adilheida regina que nupsit regi Ungariorum" and "progenitoribus Rodolfo…rege et Adelheida…regina matertera Heinrici quarti inperatoris" are named in a donation to Sankt-Blasien by charter dated [1079/10 Oct 1086] which also names "cuius filius [Rodolfo et Adelheida] Bertholfus…dux frater regine nostre…cum fratre suo Ottone"[511].  Her birth date is estimated from the estimated birth date range of her supposed daughter Piroska (although, as noted below, there is doubt concerning Piroska's parentage).  The Chronicon of Bernold records that "soror quoque prćfati ducis [Berthaldus dux Alemannić, filius Roudolfi regis] regina Ungarorum" died in the same month and year as her brother[512].  The name of her husband is not stated in any of the contemporary sources so far identified.  However, King László appears to be the most likely possibility: considering Adelheid's estimated birth date, her husband is unlikely to have been King Géza, whose death is recorded in 1077, and King Géza's son Kálmán did not succeeded until 1095, after the recorded date of Adelheid's death as "regina Ungarorum".  This supposition is confirmed by the charter dated 1201 under which Imre King of Hungary restored "prćdio…Merena", donated by "regina Adulheyth, uxor…bonć memorić regis Ladislai", to "ecclesić beati Michaëlis de Vesprimio"[513].  Kerbl suggests that the marriage was arranged by King László as part of his policy of seeking Papal support, his future father-in-law being the candidate for the German throne supported by the Pope[514].  The necrology of Seeon records the death "V Non May" of "Adelheit regina Ungariorum"[515].  King László I & his wife had two daughters:

a)         [PIROSKA] ([1085/90]-13 Aug 1134).  Zonaras records that "filium regem", referring to Ioannes, married "Ungrorum principis filia"[516].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "Ioannes Imperator" and "Irenam, Vladislai filiam", referring to "Vladislao Hungarić regi"[517].  Unfortunately, this apparently straight-forward statement cannot be accepted at face value without further analysis.  The problem is that the same paragraph of Kinnamos's text also names "Almus et Stephanus" as the two sons of "Vladislć Hungarić regi", stating that "Stephanus" succeeded his father and "Almus" fled to "imperatorem".  This report of events in Hungary in the late 11th/early 12th centuries is inconsistent with other primary sources relating to the Hungarian kings, which name no King Stephen/István at that time, identify Kálmán and Álmos as the sons of King Géza I (and nephews of King László I), and suggest that Álmós's rebellion against his half-brother King Kálmán must have taken place after the estimated date of the marriage of Emperor Ioannes.  The marriage of Emperor Ioannes took place during the reign of King Kálmán.  It appears to have been agreed as part of the arrangements to obtain Byzantine acceptance of Hungarian territorial conquests along the Dalmatian coast[518].  Kálmán had poor relations with his predecessor László, who had wished to by-pass him in the Hungarian succession.  The question is therefore whether Kálmán would have maintained László's children at court and included them in his "pool" of marriageable princesses.  The passage in question is found in the earliest part of the narrative of Kinnamos, whose work is dated to the early part of the second half of the 12th century, so several decades after the events.  Some inaccuracies in these early sections of his work would therefore not be surprising.  Nevertheless, there are chronological difficulties assigning the emperor´s wife to other potential parents among the Hungarian royal family.  Her birth date range of [1085/90] is estimated from her having given birth to her first child in early 1106, her husband's own birth date, and also that she continued to bear children until 1119.  It is therefore unlikely that she was the daughter of Géza I King of Hungary (who died in 1077) and sister of King Kálmán.  King Kálmán's birth is estimated in [1065], and his first recorded marriage took place in 1097.  It is therefore not impossible that he married earlier and that the emperor´s wife was his daughter by an otherwise unrecorded first marriage.  The primary source which confirms her supposed original Hungarian name "Piroska" has not yet been identified.  Daniel Cornides states that "Ladislao regi Hungarić, filiam Pyriscam imperatricem Constantinopolitanam" is named in "annales domestici, a Thuroczio vulgati, P. II c. 63", but in a later passage clarifies that "Ladislai Thurotzy" names "nuptam Grćcorum imperatori…Pyriscam seu Pyroscam" as the daughter of King Géza I based on "ex Tomo I antiquć lectionis ab Henrico Canisio Noviomagi anno 1601 publicato"[519].  Cornides cites no primary source which provides the basis for the name in either of his chapters which deal with [Piroska].  This suggests that this original Hungarian name is dubious.  [Piroska] adopted the name EIRENE in Byzantium, as shown by the extract from Ioannes Kinnamos quoted above.  She became a nun as XENA and was canonised by the Greek Orthodox church.  The synaxarium of St Sofia records the death 13 Aug of Empress Eirene[520].  The year of her death is established by the Chronicle of Michael the Syrian which records that “en l´an 1445” [Sep 1133/Aug 1134], while on campagne to retake Kastamouni which had been captured by the emir of Melitene, “l´empereur Jean...reçut la nouvelle que sa femme était morte et que son fils, qui était destiné ŕ régner, était malade” and returned to Constantinople[521].  Her children included at least one set of twins.  m ([1104/05]) co-Emperor IOANNES Komnenos, son of Emperor ALEXIOS I & his wife Eirene Dukaina (13 Sep 1087-in Cilicia 8 Apr 1143).  He succeeded his father in 1118 as Emperor IOANNES II

b)         daughter ([1082/90]-before 1106).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 1091 under which her father "Ladislauo…Rex" founded the church of St Egidius, Sumich, witnessed by "Dux Lambertus frater eius, Dux David consobrinus, Gerazclauus filius regis Rutenorum gener ipsius…"[522].  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Prince Iaroslav as the daughter of King László but only cites one secondary source in support[523]m (before 1091) IAROSLAV Sviatopolkovich of Kiev, son of SVIATOPOLK II Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife --- (-killed in battle May 1123).  He was installed as Prince of Vladimir in Volynia at the conference of Uvetichi 30 Aug 1100[524], but expelled in 1118 by Vladimir "Monomakh" Grand Prince of Kiev[525]

5.         EUFÉMIA [Ludmilla] (-2 Apr 1111).  She and her husband are named, and her origin shown, in Europäische Stammtafeln[526], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  The Chronica Boemorum names "Eufemia" as wife of "Ottonis" and mother of "Suatopluc et Otto" but does not give her origin[527].  The Annales Gradicenses record the death in 1111 of "Eufemia ductrix"[528]m (before 1073) OTTO I "der Schöne" Duke of Brno and Olmütz, son of BŘETISLAV Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Judith von Schweinfurt (-9 Jul [1087], bur Graditz).  

6.         daughter.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium.  m (1068) ANDRONIKOS Dukas, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa ([1057]-after 1081).  He was crowned co-Emperor by his brother Emperor Mikhael VII after the latter assumed sole rule in Oct 1071. 

7.         LAMBERT (after 1050-[1095]).  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Lumpartum" as the third son of "Bela" and his wife "rex Polonie filiam", adding that he was born in Hungary[529].  "Ladislauo…Rex" founded the church of St Egidius, Sumich by charter dated 1091 witnessed by "Dux Lambertus frater eius, Dux David consobrinus, Gerazclauus filius regis Rutenorum gener ipsius…Comes Palatinus Petrus et comes Acha…"[530].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1097 of "Ladislaus rex…et frater eius Lambertus dux"[531]

8.         ILONA [Lepa] (-before 1095).  Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Joannes Archidiaconus Goricensis which records that "bano Svinimir" married "Belć, Geysa et Ladislaus…ducum sororem" in 1064[532].  "Stephanus olim…dux Chroatorum" donated property to "monasterium sancti Stephani", in the presence of "Suinimiri regis domini mei, Lepe regine, Radouani filii regis", by charter dated 1078[533].  The Chronica Hungarorum states that "rex Zolomerus Dalmatić" was "sororius Geysć" when recording the help he gave in the Hungarian war against Carinthia[534].  In [1090], she assumed power as ILONA Queen of Croatia.  Faced with considerable opposition from the Croatian nobility, her brother László I King of Hungary intervened to protect her interests[535]m ([1064]) ZVONIMIR DMITAR Ban of Slavonia, son of --- (-after 1089).  He was crowned [late 1075/early 1076] as ZVONIMIR DMITAR King of Croatia

King Béla had one [probably illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]: 

9.          ZSÓFIA (-after 1116).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the charter dated 1135 which records that "Lampertus comes cum uxore sua Zophia et filio suo Nicolao" constructed "Bozouk…cśnobium" during the reign of King István II and includes a record of properties donated to the monastery, including those which had been granted by "rex Ladislaus" to "comiti Lamperto cum sorore sua"[536].  It is assumed that she was illegitimate as King Béla is recorded as having another daughter named Zsófia (assuming that she was indeed his daughter, see the discussion above).  m ([1077/95]) Count LAMBERT, of the Hont-Pázmány family (-1132). 

 

 

GÉZA, son of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife [Ryksa] of Poland ([in Poland] [1044/45]-25 Apr 1077, bur Vac).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Geichć et Ladislai" as sons of "fratris sui Belć" when recording that King András obtained their agreement to the future succession of his son Salomon[537].  The Kronika Węgiersko-Polska names "Geyzam et Ladislaum" as the two older sons of "Bela" and his wife "rex Polonie filiam", adding that they were both born in Poland[538].  He was sent as a hostage to the imperial court in [1062/63][539], at which time he must have been unmarried in line with the custom of not sending married men as hostages to foreign courts.  He sought refuge in Poland after his father's death in 1063, but later returned to Hungary, made peace with King Salamon, and was appointed Duke between March and Gran[540].  This must have occurred in [1064/67] if it is correct that Géza's second marriage took place before 1067, as suggested below.  The Chronicon Posoniense records disputes in 1071 between "Salomon rex" and "duce magno Geyza Ungarorum"[541].  Relations deteriorated and Géza, possibly with at least financial support from Emperor Mikhael VII[542], defeated King Salamon at Mogyorod, forcing the king to withdraw to the western border and from there to Germany.  Géza succeeded his cousin in 1074 as GÉZA I King of Hungary.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Salomon" was deposed in 1074 and "Magnus rex" crowned in 1075[543].  "Magnus qui et Geysa supremus Hungarorium Dux postea…rex consecratus, Belć regis filius" founded the monastery of St Benedict, Gron, in the presence of "Ladislao Duce germano meo…Iula Comite Palatino", by charter dated 1075[544].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that Géza succeeded King Salomon but died after a reign of three years and was buried at "Wacić [Vác]"[545].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "VIII Kal Mai" in 1077 of "Geysa primogenitus Belć regis" and his burial "in ecclesia Vaciensi quam ipse construxit"[546]

m firstly ([1062]) [SOPHIE de Looz], daughter of [EMMO Comte de Looz] & his wife [Suanehildis of Holland] ([1044/46]-[1065]).  She is named as the first wife of King Géza in Europäische Stammtafeln[547].  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  Kerbl, in his analysis concerning Géza I's [second] Byzantine marriage, does not mention this supposed first marriage[548].  If it is correct, the marriage presumably took place while Géza was a hostage at the imperial court, which Kerbl dates to [1062/63][549].  This is consistent with Sophie having been born in [1044/46].  The Vita Arnulfi names "Arnulfum comitem de Lo et Sophiam ducissam de Hungaria…et ducissam de Hui" as the children of Emmo Comte de Looz, adding that Sophie was the mother of "regem de Hungaria"[550].  This manuscript, written at Oudenbourg abbey, is dated to 1220[551].  This is late to be reliable.  In addition, the document represents the ancestors of Comte Emmo in a way which is inconsistent with earlier primary sources.  As the county of Looz was among the temporal possessions of the Bishop of Ličge and, as such, part of the duchy of Lower Lotharingia under the suzerainty of the German emperor, it would not be improbable for a daughter of the comte de Looz to have been staying at the imperial court and for her marriage to have been arranged with another noble visitor.  The Vita Andreć, first abbot of Averboden, in the Chronicle written by Nicolas Hogeland Abbot of Middelburg, records that "Sophia de Los, Hungarić regina, comitis Arnoldi Lossensis soror" sent letters to her brother after hearing that he intended to found Averboden abbey[552].  This report is clearly anachronistic as the abbey in question was founded in 1135, when Sophie de Looz could not possibly have been queen of Hungary.  The question remains whether Sophie´s supposed marriage to King Géza I is based on speculation, suggested by an as yet unidentified secondary source which was trying to make sense of the passages in the Vita Arnulfi and the Vita Andreć by identifying the most likely Hungarian king who could have been her husband.  Until further sources come to light, it has been decided to show Sophie de Looz in square brackets.  Whatever the truth of the matter, the chronology of the births of King Géza´s older children suggests that their mother could not have been the Byzantine wife whom he married in [1066/75]. 

m secondly ([1066/75]) --- Synadene, daughter of THEODULOS Synadenos & his wife --- Botaneiatissa.  Skylitzes records that Emperor Nikephoros Botaneiates married "sororis suć filiam Synadenen, Theodulo Synadeno genitam" ("τήν αεψιάν αυτου ο βασιλευς") the daughter of Theodoulos Synadenos ("την Συναδηνην, θυγατέρα ουσαν Θεοδουλου του Συναδηνου") to "crali Ungarić" ("τω κράλη Ουγγρίας είς γυναικα") and that she returned to Byzantium after her husband died[553].  The passage does not name the Hungarian king in question.  Kerbl says that Horvát suggested that her husband was Lambert, son of Béla I King of Hungary[554], although it is unclear how Lambert could have been described as "krali" of Hungary as no other record has been identified indicating that he ever reigned as king.  Kerbl also cites Wertner as the first source which proposed that her husband was Géza of Hungary[555].  The narrative of Skylitzes Continuatus ends during the reign of Emperor Nikephoros (who reigned from 1078 until his forced abdication in 1081).  This suggests that the husband of --- Synadene must have died before that date, which supports his identification as King Géza.  However, it is not impossible that the text was written some years later, and that her return to Constantinople was mentioned because it was of recent date at the time of writing.  Nevertheless, it is unlikely that her husband was King László I (who appears to be the only other realistic candidate) as his marriage to Adelheid von Rheinfelden appears to be certain as discussed above.  The remaining potential difficulty is with the date of the marriage.  Wertner suggested that the marriage took place in [Oct 1073/Oct 1074][556].  Nikephoros Botaneiates (later Emperor Nikephoros III) was Byzantine military commander along the Danube, adjacent to Hungarian territory, from 1064 to before 1067 when he was reassigned as governor of Antioch[557].  Kerbl therefore assesses this as the more likely period during which the marriage took place[558].  However, if it is correct, as stated by Skylitzes, that --- Synadene returned to Byzantium after her husband's death, it is probable that she had no surviving children.  If she had had children, it is reasonable to expect that she would have remained with them to protect their interests, especially as the chronology suggests that King Géza's son Kálmán could not in any case have been her son and would therefore have had a superior claim to the throne than any half-brothers.  If this is correct, all of King Géza's children must have been born from his first marriage, which would date his second marriage to --- Synadene to the early 1070s at the earliest. 

King Géza & his first wife had two children:

1.         daughter ([1064]-).  She and her son are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[559], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  Assuming that her brother Kálmán was born in 1065, this daughter must have been the older child as their mother died in [1065], the same year in which their father remarried.  The other possibility is that they were twins, which appear to have run in the family: King Kálmán's first cousin, Empress Piroska [Eirene] gave birth to at least one set of twins.  m ---, from Hungary.  One child: 

a)         IVAN (-beheaded [1120/25]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   Pretender to the throne of Hungary 1120/25.  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Bors et Juan" claimed the throne, but that "Juan" was beheaded and "Bors" sent back to Greece, dated from the context to the lifetime of István II King of Hungary[560]

2.         KÁLMÁN ([1065]-3 Mar 1116, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Gesta Hungarorum names "filius Geichć regis, Kalomannus" when recording that he succeeded King László I[561].  Kerbl states that Kálmán was the son of Géza I's Byzantine wife, although as noted above he does not mention Géza's supposed first marriage[562]. On the death of his father in 1077, he was passed over in the succession by his uncle King László who intended Kálmán for the church, possibly appointing him as Bishop of Eger in northern Hungary[563].  Subsequently László I designated Kálmán's younger brother Álmos as his successor, but Kálmán seized the throne in 1095 when the king died[564], possibly with help from Poland[565], succeeding as KÁLMÁN "Könyves/the Bookman" King of Hungary.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Colomannus et frater eius Almus" succeeded after the death of "Ladislaus rex" in 1097, "Colomannus rex" being crowned and "frater eius Almus" receiving "diadema" in 1098[566].  According to Lázár, he was "dishevelled, hirsute, half-blind, hunchbacked and lame"[567].  Albert of Aix records "domno Kalomanno rege…Ungarorum" welcoming the first crusaders led by Pierre l´Hermite during their passage through Hungary in 1096[568].  During the course of this journey, the travellers occupied the castle of Zimony [Zemun][569].  King Kálmán recaptured Pannonian Croatia in 1096, killed Peter King of Croatia on the Gvozd mountain, and occupied Beograd in 1097[570].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that the forces of King Kálmán killed "in regnum Dalmatić…regem Petrum in montibus…Gozd"[571].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that Kálmán King of Hungary annexed the remaining parts of Croatia in 1102/03[572].  A charter dated 1102 records that "Colomannus…Rex Ungarić, Croatić atque Dalmatić…postquam coronatus fui Belgradi super mare" donated property to "Monasterio S. Marić Monialium…in Iadera", signed by "Isaac comes, Amec comes, Thomas comes, Andreas comes, Cosmas comes, Bocan comes, Dyonisius comes"[573].  By 1107, he had also taken possession of all the Byzantine-controlled towns in Dalmatia, accepted by Byzantium in a complex series of agreements which included the marriage in [1104/05] of his (supposed) cousin Piroska to Ioannes Komnenos, heir to the Byzantine throne[574].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Colomannus rex" accepted "civitatem Zader" in 1108[575].  He was elected King of Croatia and Dalmatia, which was to remain a separate kingdom from Hungary[576], but he and his successors appointed Bans (usually from among the members of the Croatian nobility) who took charge of Croatian internal affairs.  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King Kálmán sent a Hungarian army to Apulia where it captured the cities of Monopoli and Brindisi for the Venetians and raided the plain of Apulia[577].  In order to secure the succession for his son, he blinded his brother Álmos and the latter's son Béla[578].  He enacted a law forbidding the trial of witches[579].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Qunwes [Könyves]…Kalman" reigned for eighteen years and was buried at Székesfehérvár[580].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "III Non Feb" in 1113 of "Colomannus rex" and his burial "Albć"[581].  The Annales Gradicenses record the death in 1116 of "Colomannus rex"[582].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1117 of "Colomannus rex"[583]m firstly (1097) [FELICIA] of Sicily, daughter of ROGER I Count of Sicily & his second wife Eremburge de Mortain [Normandy] ([1078]-[1102]).  Malaterra records the marriage in 1097 of "Colomannus…rex Ungarorum" and "comitis Rogerii…filiam suam" but does not name her[584].  Given that she gave birth to four known children before her death, it is unlikely that she was born much later than [1078], in which case she would have been the oldest child by Count Roger's second marriage.  Her marriage was arranged, with the help of Pope Urban II, to seal King Kálmán's alliance with the Normans of Sicily against Byzantium.  King Kálmán's wife is named Felicia in Europäische Stammtafeln[585], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  She is sometimes referred to as "Buzilla", but according to Kerbl this is simply a corruption of the French "pucelle"[586]. According to Houben, her name is unknown[587]m secondly (1104, repudiated 1113) IEVFEMIA Vladimirovna of Kiev, daughter of VLADIMIR II Vsevolodich "Monomach" Prince of Pereiaslavl [later Grand Prince of Kiev] & his second wife --- (-4 Apr 1139).  Baumgarten names the second wife of King Kálmán and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[588].  She was repudiated by her husband and sent back to Suzdal before giving birth to her son[589].  King Kálmán & his first wife had four children: 

a)         ZSÓFIA .  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by the Chronica Ungarorum which records that "rex Stephanus" appointed as his heir "filium sororis sue…Saul"[590].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   m SAUL Count of Bihar, son of --- (-after 1118). 

b)         daughter.  Baumgarten refers to the wife of Prince Vladimirko as the daughter of King Kálmán but only cites one secondary source in support[591]m ([1117]) VLADIMIRKO Volodarovich, son of VOLODAR Rostislavich Prince of Peremysl & his wife [Anna] von Pommern (-1153).  He became the first Prince of Galich in 1144. 

c)         LÁSZLÓ (1101-1112).  He is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[592], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. 

d)         ISTVÁN (1101-1 Mar 1131, bur Oradea).  The Chronicon Varadiense records that "Stephanus…secundus filius Colomanni" succeeded his father as king[593].  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising names "rege Stephano, Colomanni filio" when recording his death[594].  He was named as heir to the throne in 1105 and succeeded his father in 1116 as ISTVÁN II King of Hungary and Croatia.  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1117 of "Colomannus rex" and the succession of "filius eius Stephanus"[595].  "Stephanus…Hungarić, Dalmatić, Croatić, Gallitić, Bulgarićque…rex" confirmed the donation to "monasterii S. Benedicti de Gron" by "Geyzć regis avi nostri" by charter dated 1124, which names "Ottonem Borsuensem comitem" and quotes the original charter of King Géza dated 1075 which was witnessed by "Ladislao duce germano meo…Iula comite meo palatino"[596].  He launched two attacks on Byzantine territory, firstly against Beograd in 1125 and secondly against Braničevo/Barancs in 1126, but was obliged to withdraw by a Byzantine counter-attack[597].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Stephanus rex" captured "civitatem Nis" in 1127[598].  A group of Pechenegs fleeing from Kuman suzerainty sought refuge at the court of King István in [1122][599].  He named his nephew Saul as his successor[600], but in 1130 recognised his first cousin Béla as his heir[601].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Stephanus" died in 1131 and was buried "Varadini"[602]m firstly [CRISTIANA] di Capua, daughter of ROBERTO I Prince of Capua & his wife --- (-before 1121).  She is shown as the first wife of King István in Europäische Stammtafeln[603], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  m secondly (1121) ADELHEID von Riedenburg, daughter of STEFAN von Riedenburg Burggraf von Regensburg & his wife ---.  She is shown as the second wife of King István in Europäische Stammtafeln[604], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. 

King Kálmán & his second wife had one child:

e)         BORS KONRAD (Suzdal 1113-killed in battle [1155/56]).  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising names "Boricius, qui et ipse Colomanni sed ex alia quam Stephanus matre, Rutenorum seu Chyos Regis filia" when recording that he claimed the succession after the death of his half-brother King István II[605].  Kreibl cites other contemporary sources which do not refer to this alleged illegitimacy and points out that, if his legitimacy had really been in doubt, it is unlikely that both Emperor Heinrich III and Heinrich "Jasomirgott" Duke of Austria would have supported his candidature for the Hungarian throne[606]Panhypersébastos of Byzantium.  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Bors et Juan" claimed the throne, but that "Juan" was beheaded and "Bors" sent back to Greece, dated from the context to the lifetime of István II King of Hungary[607].  He gained support from Bolesław III Duke of Poland [1132/35], who installed him as Lord of Zips [Spiš][608].  After he failed to secure the throne, he returned to Constantinople but received no support as Hungarian/Byzantine relations had by then improved.  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Borith" rebelled during the reign of King Béla II, claiming to be "filium Colomanni", was supported by "magnum exercitu Ruthenorum et Polonorum" who later abandoned him "knowing his cause to be unjust", and was killed by his own people when fleeing[609].  In 1146, he received the support of Emperor Heinrich III and Heinrich "Jasomirgott" Duke of Austria but his forces were again defeated 11 Sep 1146 between the rivers Fischa and Leitha[610].  Odon de Deuil records that "Boris qui réclamait ses droits héréditaires sur [le] royaume [de Hongrie]" had sent letters to the French king at Etampes, setting out his claim, hid among the crusading army to cross Hungary in 1147 and that, when found, Louis VII King of France refused to hand him over to the king of Hungary[611].  He was killed fighting the Kumans[612]m (before 8 Apr 1143) ANNA Dukaina, daughter of ---.  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising records that Bors, while in Greece, married "consanguineam sibi imperatoris Kaloioannis" but does not specify her name or her precise parentage[613].  Odon de Deuil records that "Boris qui réclamait ses droits héréditaires sur [le] royaume [de Hongrie]" had married "l´empereur de Constantinople…une ničce"[614].  According to Sturdza[615], she was the daughter of Konstantinos Dukas sébastos, son of Mikhael Dukas protostator and sébastos, but the basis for this is not known.  According to Kerbl[616], the marriage likely took place before the death of Emperor Ioannes II with whom Boris enjoyed good relations.  She became a nun as ARETE.  Bors & his wife had one child: 

i)          KÁLMÁN ([1137/1145]-after 1173).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He is assumed to have been born when his father was living in Constantinople.  He adopted the name KONSTANTINOS Dukas Kalamános in Byzantium[617], where he settled.  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Constantino Cilicić duce, quem Calamanum iuvenem vocabant"[618]He became a General in the Byzantine army and was awarded the title sébastos by Emperor Manuel I. In 1163, Constance Pss of Antioch appealed to Konstantinos Kalamános, Byzantine Governor of Cilicia, for military support to maintain her position in Antioch[619].  General Kalamános joined forces with Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, Raymond III Count of Tripoli and Hugues de Lusignan to relieve the siege of the castle of Krak by Nur ed-Din in 1163[620].  He joined the same group in Aug 1164 to relieve another attack on Harenc, but was captured in an ambush at Artah, together with the other leaders, and taken bound to Aleppo, although Kalamános was released almost immediately in return for 150 silken robes[621].  He was appointed Governor of Cilicia in 1167, and also charged with the mission of ending the relationship between Andronikos Komnenos (his predecessor as Governor of Cilicia) and Philippa, sister of Bohémond III Prince of Antioch, although Philippa refused his proposal of marriage[622].  He suppressed the revolt of Thoros II Lord of the Mountains [Armenia-Rupen] who had attacked Byzantine garrisons after accusing Andronikos Komnenos, while Governor, of complicity in the murder in 1165 of his brother Stephané[623].  He was captured in Armenia in 1172/73, after which he was probably succeeded as Governor of Cilicia by Isaakios Dukas (later emperor in Cyprus)[624].  It is not clear whether General Kalamános was captured on two separate occasions, or whether the two occasions described above were two versions of the same event which, if the latter is correct, would have to be re-dated.  His descendants were the Kalomanoi family in Byzantium. 

-         KALAMANOS (BYZANTINE NOBILITY)

King Géza & his [first/second] wife had [two] children:

3.         ÁLMOS ([1068]-Constantinople [1 Sep] 1129, bur Constantinople, transferred 1137 back to Hungary).  After his uncle King László I conquered Pannonian Croatia in 1091, he created a special Croatian banovina between the Drava River and Gvozd Mountains, which was ruled by Álmos but recaptured by Peter King of Croatia in 1095[625].  His uncle designated Álmos as his successor, but Álmos's older brother Kálmán seized the throne in 1095 when King László died[626].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Colomannus et frater eius Almus" succeeded after the death of "Ladislaus rex" in 1097, "Colomannus rex" being crowned and "frater eius Almus" receiving "diadema" in 1098[627].  Álmos rebelled against his brother, declaring himself king of Hungary 1102-1109, but received little support.  He was blinded, together with his son, on the orders of his brother King Kálmán and fled to Constantinople[628].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Almus dux et Bela filius eius" were blinded in 1117[629].  The necrology of Admunt records the death "Kal Sep" of "Almus dux"[630].  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć records that "Almum" was reburied in Hungary in 1137[631].  His body was returned to Hungary during a period of thaw in Hungarian/Byzantine relations[632]m (21 Aug 1104) PREDSLAVA Sviatopolkovna of Kiev, daughter of SVIATOPOLK II MIKHAIL Iziaslavich Grand Prince of Kiev & his first wife ---.   The Primary Chronicle names Predslava daughter of Svyatopolk when recording that she was taken to Hungary 21 Aug 1104 to marry the king's son[633].  Baumgarten names her husband as Álmos but only cites one secondary source in support[634].  Prince Álmos & his wife had three children:

a)         ADELHEID ([1105/07]-15 Sep 1140).  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć names "ductrix Adleyta" as wife of "dux Sobezlaus", specifying that she was retained in Hungary in 1137 for the reburial of "patrem suum Almum" who had died in Greece[635].  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć records the death "1140 XVII Kal Oct" of "ductrix Adleyta"[636]m ([1123]) SOBĚSLAV UDALRICH of Bohemia, son of VRATISLAV II Duke of the Bohemians & his third wife Swiętoslawa [Svatana] of Poland ([1075]-14 Feb 1140).  He succeeded in 1125 as SOBĚSLAV I UDALRICH Duke of the Bohemians

b)         BÉLA ([1109]-13 Feb 1141).  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising names "Bela Almi filio" when recording that his succession was challenged by his cousin Boris[637].  He succeeded in 1131 as BÉLA II "Vak/the Blind" King of Hungary.    

-        see below

c)         HEDVIG .  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising refers to the wife of "Alberto Leopaldo marchionis filio" as sister of King Bela but does not name her[638].  She is named “Hedwig” in Europäische Stammtafeln[639], but the source on which this is based has not been identified.  m (1132) as his second wife, ADALBERT Markgraf of Austria, son of LEOPOLD III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria [Babenberg] & his [first wife --- von Perg] (-9 Nov [1138], bur Klosterneuburg). 

d)         [MARIA (-after 1190).  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć records that "principi Conrado Znoymensi" married "sororem coniugis suć [=dux Sobeslaus] videlicet reginć" in 1132[640], a later passage in the same source naming "patrem suum Almum" in relation to "ductrix Adleyta" (wife of "dux Sobezlaus") specifying that she was retained in Hungary in 1137 for the reburial of her father who had died in Greece[641]m (1132) KONRAD of Moravia, son of LUPOLD of Bohemia Markgraf of Moravia at Znaim & his wife Ida [Uda] von Babenberg (-after 1161).  Markgraf of Moravia at Znaim 1146.  Markgraf of Moravia 1146-1147.  Duke of Moravia 1160.]

4.         [daughter.  She and her husband are referred to in Europäische Stammtafeln[642], but the source on which this is based has not been identified, other than the possibility referred to below.]  m ---, of the Miskolc family.  [One child]: 

a)         [BORS.  He is named as pretender to the Hungarian throne in 1120/25 in Europäische Stammtafeln, which states that he was banished to Byzantium[643].  The primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  It may refer to the Chronica Ungarorum which records that "Bors et Juan" claimed the throne, but that "Juan" was beheaded and "Bors" sent back to Greece, dated from the context to the lifetime of István II King of Hungary[644].  However, it is possible that this passage confuses the rebellion of King István´s half-brother Bors Konrad and that this second alleged Bors was not a separate person.] 

 

 

Brother and sister, parents not known: 

1.         ISTVÁN .  The Notć Genealogicć Bavaricć refers to the third wife of "Marchio Dietpoldus" as "sororem Stephani comitis Ungarie"[645].  It is not known to whom "Stephani comitis Ungarie" refers.  The only known "István" at this time in the Hungarian royal family was King István II, son of King Kálmán, who died in 1131.  No other reference has been found to a king of Hungary being referred to as "comes Ungarie".  However, the paucity of references to other noble families in Hungary suggests that István and Sophia may have been children of a younger son of one of the kings. 

2.         ZSÓFIA .  The Notć Genealogicć Bavaricć refers to the third wife of "Marchio Dietpoldus" as "sororem Stephani comitis Ungarie", although it does not name her[646].  She is named “Sophia” in Europäische Stammtafeln[647], but the source on which this is based has not been identified.  m (after [1135]) as his third wife, DIETPOLD [III] Graf von Vohburg, Cham und Nabberg Markgraf der Nordgau, son of DIEPOLD [II] von Giengen Markgraf im Nordgau & his wife Liutgarde von Zähringen (-1146). 

 

 

The titles "dux" and "banus" attributed to the following person implies a close relationship with the family of the kings of Hungary but the precise connection cannot be established. 

1.         BÉLA (-after 1163).  "Belus dux, Calanus comes, Gereon comes, Paulus, Vamoldus comes, Cadas comes" subscribed the charter dated 1142 by which "Geica rex Ungarić" restored "abbatić montis Pannonić", founded by "Sancti regis Stephani" and withdrawn by "rege Colomano et filio suo rege Stephano"[648].  An extract of privileges granted by Géza II King of Hungary by charter dated 1150 is witnessed by "Belus Banus, Heindricus curialis comes, Appa comes"[649].  "Belos palatinus comes…" witnessed the charter dated 1156 under which "Eusidinus" donated property to "ecclesiam S. Martini in parochia Bors" [Bratha][650].  "Belus palatinus comes, Henricus curialis comes, Appa Budrigiensis comes, Simon Strigraniensis comes, Girch Naugradensis comes, Germanus Huntiensis comes, Petrus Borsiensis comes" witnessed the charter dated 1156 under which "Strigoniensis ecclesie…[archiepiscopus]" donated property to his church[651].  A charter dated 1157 confirmed the foundation by "Walferus…comes" of "abbatiam de Gyssing" [Német Újvár], the dating clause of which refers to "Belus Banus et comes palatinus, Appa comes, Heyndricus curialis comes regis"[652].  "Henricus curialis comes, Appa comes, Gabriel comes, Iulianus comes, Zachit comes" witnessed the charter dated 1157 under which Géza II King of Hungary conferred privileges on "ecclesić S. Adalberti", the dating clause of which refers to "Belo palatino existente"[653].  István III King of Hungary restored property to the church of Zagreb which had been claimed by "Petrus comes" at the court of "Belus banus iudex" and by "Nicolaus comes filius Pauli" during the reign of King Géza II and granted by "Belus Banus" to "Marcellum…Pristaldum Leopoldi, filium Petri", by charter dated 1163, witnessed by "Belo Bano eius causć iudice, Thoma palatino comite, Broccha curiali comite, Boricio bano, Adriano comite, Henrico Bodrugiensi comite, Eusa Sunadiensi comite"[654]

 

 

BÉLA, son of ÁLMOS Prince of Hungary & his wife Predslava Sviatopolkovna of Kiev ([1109-13 Feb 1141, bur Székesfehérvár).  He was blinded, together with his father, on the orders of his uncle King Kálmán and took refuge in the monastery of Pécsvárad[655].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Almus dux et Bela filius eius" were blinded in 1117[656].  He was appointed heir to the throne by his first cousin King István II in [1129][657].  He succeeded in 1131 as BÉLA II "Vak/the Blind" King of Hungary, crowned 28 Apr 1131, one of the rare exceptions of succession to a throne by a blind person in the Balkan region.  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising records that the succession of "Bela Almi filio" was challenged by his cousin Boris[658].  King Béla was under the influence of his domineering wife who took an active part in the government of the country.  A charter dated 3 Sep 1138 records the confirmation of his father´s donation by "Rege Bela secundo, bonć memorić Almi ducis filio, cum Helena regina" to "ecclesiam…Martyris Margarethć…Demesiensi"[659].  The Annales Gradicenses record the death in 1141 of "Bela rex Ungarorum" and the accession of his son[660].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "Id Feb" in 1141 of "Bela cecus" and his burial "Albe"[661].  The necrology of Admunt records the death "Id Feb" of "Bela rex"[662].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King Béla reigned for nine years and two months and was buried at Székesfehérvár[663].  The Chronica Ungarorum records the death in 1140 of "rex Bela" and his burial "in Alba"[664].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "Id Feb" in 1141 of "rex Bela cćcus filius ducis Almus" and his burial "Albć"[665]

m (28 Aug 1127) JELENA of Serbia, daughter of UROŠ I Grand Župan of Serbia & his wife Anna [Diogenissa] (after 1109-after 1146).  A charter dated 3 Sep 1138 records the confirmation of his father´s donation by "Rege Bela secundo, bonć memorić Almi ducis filio, cum Helena regina" to "ecclesiam…Martyris Margarethć…Demesiensi"[666].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  She brought part of northern Serbia, probably north-eastern Bosnia and Mačva/Macsói, to Hungary as her dowry[667].  She led a campaign of revenge against the magnates alleged to have permitted the blinding of her husband, including the execution of 68 magnates at a meeting in Arad in [1131/32][668]

King Béla II & his wife had six children:

1.         ERSZÉBET ([1128]-before 1155).  The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum refers to the first wife of Mieszko III as "filia regis Ungarorum" but does not name her[669].  She is named “Elisabeth” in Europäische Stammtafeln[670], but the primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified.  m ([1136/40]) as his first wife, MIESZKO III Prince of Greater Poland, son of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1126/27]-13 Mar 1202).  

2.         GÉZA ([1130]-3 May 1162).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Geysam, Ladizlaum, Stephanum et Almus" as the four sons of "Bela cecus"[671].  The Annales Gradicenses record the death in 1141 of "Bela rex Ungarorum" and the accession of his son[672].  He succeeded in 1141 as GÉZA II King of Hungary

-        see below.  

3.         LÁSZLÓ ([1132]-14 Nov 1163).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Geysam, Ladizlaum, Stephanum et Almus" as the four sons of "Bela cecus"[673].  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Bladisthlabum" as the two brothers of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas"[674].  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Geizć…fratres…Vladislaus et Stephanus"[675].  After his brother's death, he and his brother István were supported by Emperor Manuel I against their nephew King István III, and he succeeded in 1162 as LÁSZLÓ II King of Hungary.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Ladizlaus et Stephanus fratres Geyze" returned from Greece and deposed King István[676].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Ladislaus dux" usurped the crown for half a year during the reign of King István III[677]m (divorced before 1148) as her first husband, JUDYTA of Poland, daughter of BOLESŁAW III "Krzywousty/Wrymouth" Prince of Poland & his second wife Salome von Berg-Schelklingen ([1133]-8 Jul [1171/75], bur Brandenburg Cathedral).  The Annales Polanorum name "[filiam] Iuditham" in addition to naming the six sons of Prince Boleslas[678].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record that "Boleslaus dat filiam suam regi Ungarie" in 1136, but does not name her[679].  The Chronica principum Polonie names "Boleslaum quartum, Mesiconem tercium, Henricum primum, et Kazimirum secundum, necnon Judittam" as the children of "Boleslaus" and his second wife "ex Theutunica", adding that Judyta married "regi Ungarie"[680].  She married secondly (6 Jan 1148) as his first wife, Otto von Brandenburg, who succeeded his father in 1170 as Otto I Markgraf von Brandenburg.  The Regesta Historia Brandenburgensis records the death "VIII Id Jul" of "Juditha marchionissa gemma Polonorum"[681].  An undated charter, dated to [1190], refers to rights previously granted by "marchio Otto Brand." for the soul of "uxoris sue Juditte marchionisse"[682].  King László & his wife had one child: 

a)         MÁRIA ([1147/48]-).  The Annales Venetici Breves name "comitis Nicolay, filio Vitalis Michaelis ducis" and records his marriage to "neptiam regis [Ungarie] nomine reginam Mariam"[683].  Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records that "Nicolao…ducis nato" married "Arbć comiti Mariam filiam Ladislai de stirpe regali"[684].  If her affiliation is correct, she must have been born when her parents were very young.  m ([before 1165/Dec 1167]) NICCOLŇ Michieli, Patrician of Venice, son of VITALI Michieli II Doge of Venice & his wife ---.  Governor of Arbe. 

4.         ISTVÁN ([1132/33]-murdered Semlin 11 Apr 1165, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Geysam, Ladizlaum, Stephanum et Almus" as the four sons of "Bela cecus"[685].  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Bladisthlabum" as the two brothers of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas"[686].  Ioannes Kinnamos names "Geizć…fratres…Vladislaus et Stephanus"[687].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Stephanus frater suus [Ladislai ducis]" when recording that he usurped the crown for five months and five days after the death of King István III[688].  He fled to Constantinople in [1154/55] after his maternal uncle Beloš of Serbia encouraged him to rebel against his brother King Géza.  However, after Emperor Manuel I made peace with Hungary in 1156, István left for the court of Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" at Würzburg.  He returned to Constantinople in 1158[689].  After the death of his brother King Géza II, he and his brother László were supported by Emperor Manuel against their nephew King István III.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Ladizlaus et Stephanus fratres Geyze" returned from Greece and deposed King István[690].  He succeeded his brother in 1163 as ISTVÁN IV King of Hungary, but was ousted in 1164 by Beloš of Serbia, previously regent for István's older brother King Géza II[691].  Emperor Manuel marched on Hungary with a view to restoring King István IV, but changed his mind at the border and negotiated a peace treaty with King István III.  István IV unsuccessfully attempted to recapture the throne in 1165, but finding little support retreated to Srem, where he was poisoned soon after[692].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Stephanus frater suus [Ladislai ducis]" was driven from the kingdom, settled in Zemun, and was buried at Székesfehérvár[693].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "in castro Zemlen…III Id Apr" in 1173 in exile of "Stephanus" and his burial "Albe"[694]m (1156 or 1158) MARIA Komnene, daughter of ISAAKIOS Komnenos & his first wife Theodora [Kamaterina] ([1144]-1190).  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Bladisthlabum" as the two brothers of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas", stating that István married "Mariam…imperatoris neptem, Isaacio sebastocratore natam"[695].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the marriage of "Geizć…fratres…Stephanus" and "ex fratre neptem…Mariam, Isaacii sebastocratoris filiam"[696].  Her marriage was arranged by her uncle Emperor Manuel I while her husband was staying in Constantinople. 

5.         ÁLMOS (1134-before 1138).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Geysam, Ladizlaum, Stephanum et Almus" as the four sons of "Bela cecus"[697]

6.         ZSÓFIA ([1136/37]-).  The Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć records the marriage in Pentecost 1139 of "filiam suam [=rex Bela]" with "filio regis Theutonicorum Conradi", specifying that the marriage was arranged by Sobeslav Duke of Bohemia[698].  Although neither party is named, Heinrich was King Konrad's only recorded surviving son at that date and King Béla's daughter must have been Sophia as her older sister was already married.  This is confirmed by the Vita Ottonis Episcopi Babenbergensis which names "Belć Ungarici regis…filia eius Sophia" and records her betrothal to "Heinrich puero, Teutonicorum regis Chuonradi filio primogenito"[699].  Nun at Admont.  Betrothed (11 Jun 1139) to HEINRICH BERENGAR von Staufen, son of KONRAD II King of Germany & his second wife Gertrud von Sulzbach ([1136/37]-1150 after Feb). 

 

 

GÉZA, son of BÉLA II "the Blind" King of Hungary & his wife Jelena of Serbia ([1130]-3 or 31 May 1162, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Geysam, Ladizlaum, Stephanum et Almus" as the four sons of "Bela cecus"[700].  The Annales Gradicenses record the death in 1141 of "Bela rex Ungarorum" and the accession of his son[701].  He succeeded his father in 1141 as GÉZA II King of Hungary, under the regency from 1142 of his maternal uncle Beloš of Serbia during which time Hungarian ties with Serbia were strengthened[702].  "Geica rex Ungarić" restored "abbatić montis Pannonić", founded by "Sancti regis Stephani" and withdrawn by "rege Colomano et filio suo rege Stephano", by charter dated 1142, subscribed by "Belus dux, Calanus comes, Gereon comes, Paulus, Vamoldus comes, Cadas comes"[703].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Geyza rex" invaded "Theotonicorum terram" in 1145 and expelled "Herzog", whose army fled[704].  The person to whom "Herzog" refers has not yet been identified.  "Geisa secundus secundi Belć regis filius" confirmed the possessions of the church of Buda by charter dated 1148 in the presence of "Ioanus comitis, Appa comitis, Zaith [Zasit] comitis, Gabrielis dapiferi, Caiphć magistri pincernarum, Bogislai regić camerć presidentis"[705].  Hungarian troops assisted Géza's maternal uncle Uroš II Grand Župan of Serbia in his defence against Byzantium, but the Byzantines won a decisive victory on the River Tara in 1150.  The following year, Emperor Manuel Komnenos declared war on Hungary, besieged Zemun but withdrew without occupying Hungarian territory[706].  Peace was negotiated with Emperor Manuel in 1156[707].  During the reign of Géza II, large-scale German colonisation took place in Transylvania[708].  The necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert records the death "II Kal Jun" of "Geutse Ungarorum rex"[709].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1162 of "Geyza rex"[710].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "Kal Jun" in 1161 of "Geysa" and his burial "Albe"[711].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King Géza reigned for twenty years and was buried at Székesfehérvár[712]

m (1146) IEVFROSINA Mstislavna of Kiev, daughter of MSTISLAV I Vladimirovich "the Great" Grand Prince of Kiev & his second wife [Liubava] Dmitrievna ([1130]-1186 or before).  Her parentage and marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which names “Ingiburgh filia Rizlavi…Ruthenorum Regis et Cristinć Reginć…filia…Ingonis Suevorum Regis et Helena Reginć” as mother of “Waldemarum Regem” and refers to “prćdictć Ingeborgis soror” as mother of “Belć Regis Hungarić” who married “sororem Philippi Regis Francorum[713].  Baumgarten names the wife of King Géza as the daughter of Prince Mstislav but only cites one secondary source in support[714].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "mater regis" was exiled to Greece "eodem tempore"[715], listed under 1187 in the paragraph which records the exile of her son Géza.  Her name and date of death are confirmed by the charter dated 1186 under which her daughter "Elisabeth ducis Bohemie uxor" founded a church in Bohemia for the Knights Hospitallers, who had been favoured by "Eurosine matre mee"[716]

King Géza & his wife had eight children:

1.         ERSZÉBET ([1144/45]-12 Jan after 1189).  The Continuatio Cosmć records the marriage in 1157 of "Friderico filio eiusdem ducis [=Wladizlai ducis]" and "filiam Ungarici regis" but does not name her, specifying that "Heinricus frater Wladizlai ducis" brought her back to Bohemia for the marriage "XIII Kal Feb"[717].  "Elisabeth ducis Bohemie uxor" founded a church in Bohemia for the Knights Hospitallers, who had been favoured by "Eurosine matre mee", by charter dated 1186 which names "frater meus Henricus Pragensis episcopus" [identified as her husband´s paternal first cousin, who succeeded in 1193 as Heinrich Břetislav Duke of Bohemia, indicating that "frater" in this passage was probably used in an ecclesiastical sense][718]m (after 1157) FRIEDRICH of Bohemia, son of VLADISLAV II Duke [King from 1158] of Bohemia & his first wife Gertrud of Austria ([1142]-25 May 1189).  Duke of Olmütz 1169.  He succeeded in 1172 as FRIEDRICH Duke of Bohemia, deposed 1173, restored briefly in 1178

2.         ISTVÁN (1147-murdered Esztergom 4 Mar 1172, bur Esztergom)The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Stephanum et Belam, Arpad et Geysam" as the four sons of "Geysa"[719].  The Chronicon Zagrabiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…rex Wela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geyza" as the four sons of "Gexcha rex"[720].  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Belam" as the two sons of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas"[721].  The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 1162 of "Geyza rex" and the accession of "filius eius Stephanus"[722].  He succeeded his father in 1162 as ISTVÁN III King of Hungary.  "Stephanus…rex Hungarie, beate memorie Geyse regis filius" granted property to "hominem in Supruniensis castri…Forcos", in the presence of "Heidrico palatino comite, Gabriele curiale comite, Ampudino comite, Laurencio comite, Rubeno comite, F--- comite, Dionisio comite, Vidone Pristaldo", by charter dated 1162[723].  His uncles were supported by Emperor Manuel I and succeeded in turn as kings of Hungary.  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Ladizlaus et Stephanus fratres Geyze" returned from Greece and deposed István who fled "in Poson"[724].  István III was restored in 1164 by Beloš of Serbia, previously regent for his father.  Emperor Manuel marched on Hungary with a view to restoring King István IV, but changed his mind at the border and negotiated a peace treaty under which he recognised István III as king and confirmed István's younger brother as Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia and his successor[725].  Further disputes with Byzantium followed, but Hungary was finally defeated by Byzantine forces at Zemun in 1167, after which it was forced to accept the loss of Srem, Dalmatia and part of Croatia[726].  István III King of Hungary granted "villam Luchman" to "nobiles Godefridus et Albertus" Teutonic knights who had left "terra natalis Patrić" during the reign of King Géza II by charter dated 1171[727].  This charter represents the earliest reference so far found to the presence of Teutonic Knights in Hungary.  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King István reigned for eleven years and nine months and was buried at Székesfehérvár[728].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "IV Non Mar" in 1173 of "Stephanus filius Geyse" and his burial "Strigony"[729]Betrothed (1167, repudiated 1168) --- Iaroslavna of Galich, daughter of IAROSLAV Vladimirkovich "Osmomysl" Prince of Galich & his first wife Olga Iurievna of Kiev.  Baumgarten mentions the betrothal of King István and the daughter of Prince Iaroslav, citing secondary sources in support, but comments that the marriage was not finalised and that she was sent back from Hungary in 1169[730]Europäische Stammtafeln refers to this as King István's first marriage, stating that she was repudiated in 1168, but it is not known whether this statement is based on primary sources[731]m (1168) as her first husband, AGNES of Austria, daughter of HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Duke of Austria [Babenberg] & his second wife Theodora Komnene ([1154]-13 Jan 1182, bur Vienna Schottenkloster).  A manuscript Genealogia marchionum Austrie, written [1181/92], names "Liupoldum et Hainricum filios et filiam Agnetem" as the children of "Hainricus dux ex coniuge Theodora Greca", adding that Agnes married firstly "Stephano regi Ungarorum" and secondly "Herimanno duci Karinthie"[732].  She married secondly Hermann II Duke of Carinthia

3.         BÉLA (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Stephanum et Belam, Arpad et Geysam" as the four sons of "Geysa"[733].  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Belam" as the two sons of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas"[734].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Bela frater eius" returned from Greece and succeeded King István[735].  He succeeded his brother in 1172 as BÉLA III King of Hungary

-        see below

4.         ÁRPÁD .  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Stephanum et Belam, Arpad et Geysam" as the four sons of "Geysa"[736].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…rex Bela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geysa" as the four sons of "Geysa rex" (omitting reference to the second son)[737].  The Chronicon Zagrabiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…rex Wela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geyza" as the four sons of "Gexcha rex"[738]

5.         GÉZA (-before 1209).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…rex Bela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geysa" as the four sons of "Geysa rex" (omitting reference to the second son)[739].  The Chronicon Zagrabiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…rex Wela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geyza" as the four sons of "Gexcha rex"[740].  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Stephanum et Belam, Arpad et Geysam" as the four sons of "Geysa"[741].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "dux Geyza" left Hungary "cum Laurencio comite" and entered Austria in 1186, in 1187 travelled on to Bohemia from where "rege fratre suo" brought him back to Hungary[742].  He and is children are shown in Europäische Stammtafeln which states that he was in Byzantium named IOANNES[743], but the source on which this is based has not been identified.  m ---, from Byzantium.  Géza & his wife had four or more children: 

a)         ALEXIOS (-after 1217).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He returned to Hungary after 1209.  1217. 

b)         son (-after 1209).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.   He returned to Hungary after 1209. 

c)         other children. 

6.         ODOLA .  She is named as the wife of Svatopluk in Europäische Stammtafeln[744], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  m ([1164]) SVATOPLUK of Bohemia, son of son of VLADISLAV II King of Bohemia & his first wife Gertrud of Austria (-after 15 Oct 1169).  

7.         ILONA ([1158]-25 May 1199).  The Annales Mellicenses record the marriage in 1174 of "Helenam sororem regis Avarorum" and "Liupoldus…de Austria"[745].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the wife of "dux Austrie Leopoldus" as "sorore regis Bele Hungarie"[746].  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the death in 1199 of "Helena ducissa Austrie"[747].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "VIII Kal Jan" of "Helena ducissa Austrie"[748], although this date is inconsistent with other records.  m (12 May 1172) LEOPOLD of Austria, son of HEINRICH II "Jasomirgott" Duke of Austria & his second wife Theodora Komnene (1157-Graz 31 Dec 1194, bur Heiligenkreuz).  He succeeded his father in 1177 as LEOPOLD V Duke of Austria.    

8.         MARGIT (posthumously 1162-before 1208).  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "dux Geyza…soror eius" married in Greece but does not name her[749].  The primary source which confirms her name and the precise identity of her first husband has not yet been identified.  Her second marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[750], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m firstly ([1177]) ISAAKIOS Dukas "Makrodukas", son of KONSTANTINOS Dukas "Makrodukas", pansebastos, panhypersebastos & his wife Anna Komnene (-executed 1185).  m secondly (after 1186) ANDRÁS Ispán of Somogy (-after 1208). 

 

 

BÉLA, son of GÉZA II King of Hungary & his wife Ievfrosina Mstislavna of Kiev (1149-23 Apr 1196, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest).  The Chronicon Zagrabiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…rex Wela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geyza" as the four sons of "Gexcha rex"[751].  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Stephanum et Belam, Arpad et Geysam" as the four sons of "Geysa"[752].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…rex Bela, tertius…dux Arpad, quartus…dux Geysa" as the four sons of "Geysa rex" (omitting reference to the second son)[753].  Niketas Choniates names "Stephanum et Belam" as the two sons of "Hunnorum princeps Iazas"[754].  The Chronicon Posoniense records that "Bela frater eius" returned from Greece and succeeded King István[755].  Designated Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia by his father in 1162.  Under the peace treaty signed in 1164 between his brother István III and Emperor Manuel I, Béla was confirmed as Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia, and sent to Constantinople (where he converted to the Greek Orthodox religion and adopted the name ALEXIOS) as István's acknowledged successor.  He was installed as Duke of Szerem by his brother in 1165.  The emperor granted him the title despot, betrothed him to his daughter and acknowledged him as his heir in Byzantium.  The record of the synod of 1166 records the presence of “imperatore domino Manuele Comneno...despota...genero...eius domino Alexio...regi...[756]In 1169, when his own son Alexios Komnenos was born, Béla was demoted from despot to cćsar.  The betrothal was terminated, although Béla remained in Constantinople as a member of the imperial family until 1172, when he succeeded his brother as BÉLA III King of Hungary and reconverted to Roman Catholicism.  He was crowned 13 Jan 1174.  "Bela III secundi Geyzć regis filius…Ungarić, Dalmatić, Croatić, Ramćque rex" confirmed the possessions of the church of Zagreb by charter dated 1175, witnessed by "Farcasio palatino comite, Subano Bano…"[757].  He remained a loyal ally of Byzantium until the death of Emperor Manuel in 1181, even sending troops to help the emperor fight the Seljuks of Konya in Anatolia in 1176[758].  He recovered Dalmatia, part of Croatia and the region of Sirmium in 1181.  Following the murder in 1182 of Maria of Antioch, who was Emperor Manuel's widow and the older half-sister of King Béla's first wife, Béla invaded Byzantine territory in 1183, occupying Beograd and Braničevo/Barancs.  He formed an alliance with Stefan Nemanja Grand Župan of Serbia, sacked Niš and Sardika [Sofija], and moved into Thrace[759].  His relative status as a monarch is shown by his statement of revenues, sent to France during the negotiations for his third marriage, which showed that they were equal to those of his French and English counterparts and only inferior to those of the two emperors[760].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Bela Grćcus" "rid the country of robbers and brigands" and introduced the practice of submitting petitions in written form, as at the Roman Curia[761].  Béla III King of Hungary granted "totam terram pertinentem ad comitatum Modrus" to "comitis Bartholomći de Veglia" by charter dated 1193, witnessed by "Dominico curiali comite et eodem de Budrugensi, Andres comite de Suprum, Both comite de Bohar, Egidio comite de Sala, Fulcone comite de Vosvar, --- comite Sanegg [Macario comite de Zaunuch]"[762].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death "1196…in cena Domini" of "rex Hungarie Bela"[763].  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death "IX Kal May" in 1190 of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysć" and his burial "Albć"[764].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "IX Kal May" in 1190 of "Bela" and his burial "in Albensi ecclesia"[765].  The necrology of Admunt records the death "VIII Kal Mai" of "Bel rex Ungarorum"[766].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Bela Grćcus" was buried at Székesfehérvár[767]

Betrothed (1163, contract broken 1169) MARIA Komnene, daughter of Emperor MANUEL I & his first wife Bertha von Sulzbach (Mar 1152-poisoned Jul 1182).  Niketas Choniates records the betrothal of "Iazć filio Belć" and "imperator…Mariam filiam"[768].  Ioannes Kinnamos records the betrothal between "Belam qui post Stephanum Geizć filius" and "Marić filić suć" (Emperor Manuel I)[769].  She later married Ranieri di Monferrato.  William of Tyre names her and gives her parentage, when recording her marriage[770].  Regent of Byzantium, she was put to death with her husband by Emperor Andronikos I. 

m firstly (1172) AGNES de Châtillon-sur-Loing, daughter of RENAUD de Châtillon-sur-Loing & his first wife Constance Pss of Antioch (1154-1184, bur Székesfehérvár, transferred to Coronation Church Budapest).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agnetam" as second of the three daughters of "Raynaldus de Castellione uxor…relictam principis Raymundi" and her husband "rex Bela de Hungaria"[771].  The Lignages d'Outremer name "Maria e Joanna" as the two daughters of "Rinaldo de Castellion" and his wife "Costanza…la Nova Princessa", stating that Marie married "el re d'Ungaria", "Maria" presumably being an error for "Agnes"[772].  She lived at the court of Emperor Manuel I[773].  She adopted the name ANNA in Hungary.  The Memoria Vivorum in the necrology of Salzburg St Rudpert names "Bela rex Ungarie et consors eiusdem regina Anna et liberi amborum Heimricus, Andreas, Margareta"[774]

Betrothed (after Sep 1185) to THEODORA Komnene, widow of ANDRONIKOS Lapardas sébastos, daughter of --- & his wife [Eirene Komnene Anema].  The primary source which confirms her parentage and betrothal has not yet been identified.   Stiernon suggests that Theodora was the granddaughter of Theodora, daughter of Emperor Ioannes II[775], but this seems to be based on no more than guesswork.  According to Kerbl, her betrothal to King Béla must have taken place after the murder of Emperor Andronikos I, with whom King Béla III did not enjoy close relations[776].  It was presumably arranged by Andronikos's successor Emperor Isaakios II Angelos.  Theodora became a nun in 1186. 

m secondly ([1185/86]) as her second husband, MARGUERITE de France Ctss de Vexin, widow of HENRY associate-King of England, daughter of LOUIS VII King of France & his second wife Infanta dońa Constanza de Castilla y León ([1157]-Acre shortly after 10 Sep 1197).  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1158 that “...archdiaconus Cantuarensis...Thomas regis Cancellarius” arranged the betrothal of “Henricus primogenitus regis Anglorum” and “Margaritam filiam regis Francorum”, in a later passage recording the marriage of “filium regis Anglorum septennum” and “filiam regis Francorum triennem[777].  Ralph de Diceto´s Abbreviationes Chronicorum record in 1186 that “Margarita soror regis Francorum” married “Bela regi Hungarić[778].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Margareta soror regis Philippi" as widow of "iunior Henricus rex Anglorum" and records her second marriage to "Hungarorum regi Bela"[779].  Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by a charter dated 1194/95, reciting the consanguinity between Philippe II King of France and his second wife Ingebjörg of Denmark on which their divorce was based, which records that “Belć Regis Hungarić” married “sororem Philippi Regis Francorum[780].  Her first husband's father arranged her second marriage so he could retain her dowry.  She left for Palestine after being widowed for the second time.  The Chronicle of Ernoul records the arrival of "une reine en Hongrie…veve sans hoir" at Tyre [in 1197] and her death eight days later, specifying that she was the sister of the mother of Henri Comte de Champagne King of Jerusalem and had been "feme…le jouene roi d'Englietere…et suer…le roi Phelippe de France"[781]

King Béla III & his first wife had six children:

1.         IMRE (1174-30 Nov 1204, Eger Cathedral).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysć"[782].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[783].  He succeeded his father in 1196 as IMRE King of Hungary and Croatia.  The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Emiricus filius eius" succeeded his father[784].  "Henricus…Hungarić, Dalmatić, Croatić, Ramć, Servićque rex", after recording that his father King Béla III had granted land "a latere ducatus Sclauonić, iuxta Podgoriam et Goritiam" to "quemdam nobili de Teutonia…Albertum de Michouo" who abused his power, appointed "Stephanus, Nicolai filius…ortum de genealogia Vrsinorum comitum, ac senatorum urbis Romanć" who had married "dominum Hermannum de Goritia in partibus Karinthić…filiam" to control the oppression of the people of "antedicti ducatus Sclaonić" by charter dated 1197[785].  He was recognised as overlord of Serbia by Grand Župan Vukan in 1202 after the latter deposed his brother Stefan, and added "King of Serbia" to his titles[786], although the charter dated 1197 quoted above shows that King Imre had already added the title by then.  In order to recapture Zara in Dalmatia, which had recently fallen into Hungarian hands, Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice arranged with Bonifazio Marchese di Monferrato, leader of the Fourth Crusade, for the crusaders to recapture the city for Venice on their way east, which they did 15 Nov 1202[787].  Kalojan Tsar of Bulgaria annexed Beograd, Braničevo/Barancs and Vidin from Hungary in [1204].  Pope Innocent III intervened by ordering King Imre not to counter-attack, Kalojan having promised to recognise papal suzerainty over Bulgaria in return for a crown[788].  The Chronicon Zagrabiense records the death "II Kal Dec" in 1204 of "Emericus filius regis Bele" and his burial "in Agria"[789].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "Kal Dec" in 1200 of "Emericus" and his burial "in ecclesia Agriensi"[790]m (1198) as her first husband, Infanta dońa CONSTANZA de Aragón, daughter of don ALFONSO II “el Casto” King of Aragon & his wife Infanta dońa Sancha de Castilla ([1179]-Catania 23 Jun 1222, bur Palermo Cathedral).  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Emericus" married "Constancia filia regis Aragonie Cesari Friderico"[791].  The Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium names "Constantia" as oldest of the three daughters of "Ildefonsi", specifying that she married "Regi Ungarić" but returned childless to Aragon after his death[792].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Constantia regina" as wife of "Hemericus filius [regis Hungarie Bela]", specifying that she later married "Frederico imperatori"[793].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records that she took her son to Vienna and, after his death, Leopold Duke of Austria arranged her repatriation to "fratri suo Hyspaniarum regi"[794].  She married secondly (Feb 1210) as his first wife, Friedrich King of Sicily, who was elected Friedrich II King of Germany 5 Dec 1212 at Frankfurt-am-Main, and crowned Emperor in Rome 22 Nov 1220.  The Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Annales record the marriage in 1209 of "Fredericus rex Sicilie" and "Constantiam sororem regis Arragonum"[795].  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of "Fridericus rex Apulie" and "filiam regis Arragonis, relictam regis Ungarie"[796].  Named Regent of Sicily by her husband in 1212, during his absence in Germany until 1220.  She was crowned Empress at Rome with her husband 22 Nov 1220[797].  The monk Conrad´s Brevis Chronica records the death "apud Cataniam" in 1222 of "domina Constantia imperatrix…prima uxor Frederici imperatoris"[798].  King Imre & his wife had one child:

a)         LÁSZLÓ (1199-7 May 1205, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Ladizlaum" as the son of "Emericus" and his wife "Constancia filia regis Aragonie Cesari Friderico"[799].  The Continuatio Admuntensis for 1203 names "Heinricus Ungarorum rex filium suum Labezlaum", specifying that he was crowned by his father when aged 3[800].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that Imre King of Hungary crowned his infant son as king during his own lifetime[801].  He succeeded his father in 1204 as LÁSZLÓ III "Gyermek/the Child" King of Hungary, but was ousted by his uncle András.  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "Non May" in 1201 of "Ladizlaus" after reigning for 6 months and 2 days, and his burial "Albe"[802].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records that his mother took him to Vienna but that he died within a few days, his body being returned to Hungary for burial in the royal sepulchre[803]

2.         MARGIT (1175-after 3 Mar 1229).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[804].  Niketas Choniates records the marriage of Emperor Isaakios and "Belć Hungarić regis filiam", commenting that she was only ten years old at the time[805].  She brought Beograd, Braničevo/Barancs and probably Niš as part of her dowry for her first marriage[806].  The special wedding tax levied by Emperor Isaakios II to finance their elaborate nuptial ceremonies may have contributed to attracting support for the rebellion in Bulgaria by the brothers Ivan Asen and Tedor[807].  She adopted the name MARIA in Byzantium.   The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records the marriage of "Bonifacius marchio" and "Margaritam imperatricem condam Ysachii, sororem Aimerici regis Ungari"[808].  Villehardouin records that the wife of Emperor Isaakios, and stepmother of his son, was "the king of Hungary's sister", in a later passage naming her "the Empress Marie"[809].  Georgius Akropolites records that "rex Thessalonicć" married "Mariam Ungaram", widow of "imperatori Isaacio"[810].  Villehardouin records the marriage of "the Marquis Boniface de Montferrat" and "the lady who had been the Emperor Isaac's wife…the king of Hungary's sister"[811].  Her second marriage was arranged by Bonifazio to advance his claim to be installed as emperor of the new Latin Empire of Constantinople[812], but he was outmanoeuvred by Enrico Dandolo Doge of Venice who secured the appointment of Baudouin Count of Flanders who was considered a less powerful candidate.  Her second husband installed her as regent of Thessaloniki while he was on campaign to conquer Thessaly[813].  She was also regent for her infant son after the death of her husband, but in the face of opposition from local nobles was replaced by Uberto di Biandrate.  The primary source which confirms her third marriage has not yet been identified.  She was restored as regent by Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople to whom Uberto refused to swear allegiance, after the latter was captured in Euboea by the emperor in 1209[814].  Pope Gregory IX confirmed that "[Margaretha] soror…regis Ungarie" acquired "terram…ulterior Sirmia" by bull dated 3 Mar 1229[815]m firstly (1185) as his second wife, Emperor ISAAKIOS II, son of ANDRONIKOS Dukas Angelos & his wife Euphrosyne Kastamonitissa ([1155]-Constantinople in prison [28 Jan/12 Apr] 1204).  m secondly (1204) as his third wife, BONIFAZIO I Marchese di Monferrato King of Thessaloniki, son of GUGLIELMO V "il Vecchio" Marchese di Monferrato & his wife Judith of Austria [Babenberg] (1150-killed in battle 4 Sep 1207).  King of Thessaloniki 1204.  m thirdly (after Sep 1207) NICOLAS de Saint-Omer Lord of Thebes, son of GUILLAUME IV Châtelain de Saint-Omer, Seigneur de Fauquembergues & his first wife Ida d'Avesnes (-[1217/19]). 

3.         ANDRÁS (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egres, Cistercian Abbey)The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysć"[816].  He succeeded in 1205 as ANDRÁS II King of Hungary

-        see below

4.         SALAMON (-young).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysć"[817]

5.         ISTVÁN (-young).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysć"[818]

6.         KONSTANCIA ([1180]-Kloster Tichnowitz 6 Dec 1240).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" & his wife Agnes[819].  The Urspergensium Chronicon records the betrothal of "filio suo [=Friderici I] Friderico duce" and "filiam regis Ungarie", specifying that his earlier death prevented the marriage from proceeding[820].  The Annales Aquenses record the betrothal in 1189 of "Fridericum ducem Suavorum" and "filiam regis Ungarie"[821].  The name of the daughter of the king of Hungary is not given but Konstancia was the only unmarried daughter of King Béla III at the time.  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć records the marriage of "Constantiam sororem regis Ungarić" and "rex Prziemysl" in 1199 after he had repudiated his first wife[822].  She founded Kloster Tichnowitz in 1232.  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć records the death "Id Dec 1240" of "Constantia regina"[823]Betrothed ([1189]) to FRIEDRICH VI Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany & his second wife Beatrix Ctss Palatine de Bourgogne (Modigliana Feb 1167-Acre 20 Jan 1191, bur Acre).  m (1198) as his second wife, PŘEMYSL OTAKAR I King of Bohemia, son of VLADISLAV II King of Bohemia & his second wife Jutta of Thuringia ([1155]-15 Dec 1230). 

 

 

ANDRÁS, son of BÉLA III King of Hungary & his first wife Agnčs [Anna] de Châtillon-sur-Loing (1176-21 Sep 1235, bur Egres, Cistercian Abbey).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "primus…dux Henricus…secundus dux Andreas…tertius dux Salamon et quartus…dux Stephanus" as the four sons of "rex Bela tertius filius Geysć"[824].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Haymericum et Andream…et duas reginas Constantiam de Boemia et Margaretam de Grecia" as children of "rex Bela de Hungaria" and his wife Agnes[825].  After the accession of his brother, András demanded Croatia and Dalmatia as an appanage but this was refused.  He revolted, and by 1198 obtained his demands and became Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia[826].  He and subsequent dukes acted as the king of Hungary's deputy in the kingdom of Croatia.  "Andreas, tertii Belć regis filius…Dalmatić, Croatić, Ramć, Culmćque dux" appointed "Pharensi episcopum" by charter dated 1198, witnessed by "Andrea Bano, comite Macharia, comite Ioseph, comite Marco, comite Andronico filio Bani camerario ducis Wenceslao…"[827].  He conquered western Hum [Hercegovina] as far as the river Neretva in 1198[828].  The Continuatio Admuntensis records that he was arrested in 1203, suspected of plotting to take over the kingdom, and imprisoned "in palacio Strigoniensi quod alio nomine Gran vocatur"[829].  He ousted his nephew in 1205 and succeeded as ANDRÁS II King of Hungary.  He played an active part in the dismemberment of Galich-Volynia after the death of Roman Mstislavich Prince of Galich in 1205, Hungary and Poland eventually agreeing the division of the territories between them under the treaty of Spisz in 1214, although Hungary expelled Poland from Peremyshl and Lyubachev in 1215/1216[830].  In 1211, King András hired the Order of Teutonic Knights, who had been expelled back to Europe from Palestine, to defend the eastern frontier of Transylvania against the Kumans[831], but they attempted to establish their autonomy there under the protection of the Pope.  King András set sail from Split for Palestine on crusade in Oct 1217, but left Acre in early 1218 having achieved little besides acquiring a small collection of religious relics[832].  He returned by the land route, via Constantinople, but at the end of 1218 he was seized in Bulgarian territory and released only after agreeing the marriage of his daughter to Ivan Asen II Tsar of Bulgaria[833].  He threatened war with Serbia after Grand Župan Stefan was crowned king of Serbia by the papal legate in 1217, claiming that he alone had the right to this title, but did not carry out the threat[834].  King András's abuses caused the Hungarian nobles to rebel in 1222 and forced him to issue the Golden Bull, a charter defining the rights of the nobility and restricting the king's right to appoint foreigners to office without the consent of the Council[835].  According to Goldstein, this reform was forced by the rebellion of the lower nobility in Croatia[836].  King András expelled the Teutonic Knights in 1225[837] on the pretext of their having disobeyed his orders.  In 1227, Bortz Khan of the Kumans swore allegiance to the king of Hungary after ordering the baptism of his people, rex Cumanić being added to the titles of the Hungarian king soon after[838].  King András attacked north-west Bulgaria in 1232 and recaptured Beograd and Braničevo/Barancs which he had been forced to cede as part of the dowry of his daughter Maria.  He crossed the Danube into Wallachia where the Hungarians created a Banate in the Severin region[839].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death in 1235 of "Andreas filius Bele" and his burial "in monasterio de Egrus"[840].  The Chronicon Zagrabiense records the death "XI Kal Oct" in 1235 of "rex Andreas filius regis Belć III" and his burial "in monasterio suo Egres"[841].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1235 of "Andreas rex Hungarie" and his burial "in civitate Waradino"[842]

m firstly (before 1203) GERTRUD von Andechs-Merano, daughter of BERTHOLD III Duke of Merano, Marchese of Istria, Graf von Andechs & his wife Agnes von Wettin (-murdered 8 Sep 1213).  The Continuatio Admuntensis refers to "filiam Perhtoldi ducis Meranie" as wife of "Andream fratrem suum [=rex Heinricus Ungarorum]", recording that she was deprived of all her goods and sent back home when her husband was arrested in 1203, but recalled after the death of King Imre in 1204[843].  She was killed by a conspiracy of nobles shocked by the life of luxury she led and favouritism she showed to her German relatives, recounted in József Katona's historical drama Bánk bán[844].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Gerdrudis de Alamana" wife of "Andreas filius Bele" was killed by "Bankbanus de genere Bor oriundus" and buried "in monasterio griseorum monachorum de Pelys"[845].  The Continuatio Prćdictorum Vindobonensium records that "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie" was killed "campestri tentorio IV Kal Oct 1213, eo quot fratri suo carnali patriarche Aquilegensi uxorem Bantzi procaverat, qui teutonice Prenger vocatur"[846].  The necrology of Diessen records the death "IV Kal Oct" of "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie ab hominibus illius terre interfecta…filia Berhtoldi ducis Meranie"[847].  The De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses records that "Gerdrudis regina Ungarie…filia Pertoldi quondam ducis Meranie" was killed "IV Kal Oct" in 1200, although the year is incorrect[848]

m secondly (Feb 1215) YOLANDE de Courtenay, daughter of PIERRE II de Courtenay Seigneur de Courtenay, Comte de Nevers, d’Auxerre et de Tonnerre, Marquis de Namur [later Latin Emperor of Constantinople] & his wife Yolande de Flandre ([1200]-1233, bur Egres Abbey).  William of Tyre (Continuator) specifies that the queen of Hungary (unnamed) was the sister of the Latin emperor of Constantinople[849].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "unam filiarum eius [Namucensis comitis Petri] Hyolenz" as the wife of "Andreas rex Ungarie"[850].  Her marriage was arranged by her uncle, Henri Latin Emperor of Constantinople, to obtain Hungarian support for his new ally Boril Tsar of Bulgaria[851].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1233 of "regina Hoilanz de Hungaria" and her burial "in abbatia de Egis"[852]

m thirdly (Székesfehérvár 14 May 1234) BEATRICE d'Este, daughter of ALDOBRANDINO I d'Este Marchese di Ancona & his wife --- (1215-1245 before 8 May, bur Gemmola).  Her origin is deduced from the Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam which refers to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" as "nepos marchionis Hestensis"[853].  The Chronica of Rolandino Patavino records the marriage in 1235 of "dompna Beatrix olim filia marchionis Aldrevandini" and "regem Ungarie"[854].  The Annales S. Iustinć Patavino record that "Beatrix filia quondam Aldrevandini marchionis Estensis" married "Andree regi Ungarie" in 1235, despite opposition from "filiis regis Bele…et Colomanno"[855].  A later passage in the same source records that Beatrix left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died, later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum", and then returned with her child "ad paternam domum"[856]

King András II & his first wife had five children:

1.         MÁRIA ([1204]-Trnovo Autumn 1237).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the first wife of "Alsannus rex" as "soror Bele regis Hungarie et…sancta Elizabeth" but does not name her[857]Ephrćmius names "Maria de genus de populo Pćoanum" as the wife of "Asanes"[858].  Her father was forced to agree her marriage to effect his release from Bulgaria, where he had been captured on his return from Crusade in late 1218.  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary was detained in Bulgaria by "Oxano Bulgarorum rege" until he agreed the marriage of "suam filiam"[859].  Her dowry included the cities of Beograd and Braničevo/Barancs[860].  Georgius Akropolites records the death of "Asano…uxorem Ungaram" at "citissime Trinobum" while her husband was besieging "Tzuruli castrum"[861]m (Jan 1221) as his second wife, IVAN ASEN II Tsar of the Bulgarians, son of IVAN ASEN I "Stari/the Old" or "Belgun/the Bulgar" Tsar of the Bulgarians & his [first or second wife] --- ([1190]-Jun 1241).

2.         BÉLA (Nov 1206-3 May 1270).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[862].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Bela filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father[863].  He succeeded his father in 1235 as BÉLA IV King of Hungary

-        see below.   

3.         ERSZÉBET (Pozsony/Bratislava 1207-Marburg 10 Nov 1231, bur Marburg Elisabethenkirche).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[864].  The Altahenses Annales record that "Bela rex Ungarie" was brother of "sancte Elisabeth"[865].  She fell under the strong influence of her confessor, the Papal inquisitor Konrad von Marburg, and completely rejected secular life.  After her husband's death, she was apparently evicted from Wartburg Castle by her brother-in-law.  She settled in Marburg where she founded a Franciscan hospital for the poor and sick.  She embraced a regime of extreme fasting, dressed in a grey penitential tunic supposedly sent to her by St Francis of Assisi.  Konrad von Marburg built a finger-shaped church around her grave in her hospital chapel.  Her cult became the object of intense political rivalry between the Teutonic Knights, allied with the Landgraf of Thuringia, and the archbishop of Mainz.  This resulted in her rapid canonisation by Pope Gregory IX in 1235[866].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in "XIII Kal Dec 1232" of "Elizabeth domna sancta…Ludovici Thuringie lantgravii" and her burial "apud hospitale de Maerbuch quod ipsa construxit"[867].  Her feast-day is 19 Nov[868]m (1221) LUDWIG IV "der Heilige" Landgraf of Thuringia, son of HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia, Pfalzgraf von Sachsen & his second wife Sophie of Bavaria [Wittelsbach] (28 Oct 1200-Otranto 11 Sep 1227). 

4.         KÁLMÁN (1208-killed in battle Sajó River 11 Apr 1241, bur Dominican church of St Mary Magdalene Čazma).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[869].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "Colomannus filius Andree regis, dux Sclavonie" came to Dalmatia but "was…still quite young and nor did he do anything which would be thought worth recording", dated to [1229] from the context[870].  His father installed him as Prince of Galich after the 1214 treaty of Spisz, under which Hungary and Poland split Galich between them.  He was arrested in 1216 and sent back to Hungary by Mstislav Mstislavich Prince of Novgorod.  He re-established himself in Galich in 1219 after expelling Mstislav, but the latter expelled him again in 1221[871].  Kálmán was the Hungarian commander of the crusading forces in Bosnia in 1235.  Duke of Slavonia, as shown by the charter dated 20 Jul 1244 (after Kálmán´s death) under which his brother Béla IV King of Hungary confirmed the donation by "fratris sui Colomani ducis Slavonić" to the church in Bosnia[872].  He was defeated and killed by the Mongols at the battle of Sajó River[873].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Colomannus rex" and his burial "in loco fratrum predicatorum apud Cesnam" in a hidden crypt to prevent his body being desecrated by the Tatars[874]m (1214) SALOMEA of Poland, daughter of LESZKO I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Gremislava Ingvarovna of Luck and Dorogobuz [Rurikid] ([1211/12]-10 Nov 1268).   The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the death "1269 IV Id Nov" of "Salomea regina relicta Colomanni regis Hungarorum, germana princeps Bolezlai ducis Cracovie et Sandomirie"[875].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati clarify that she was "Salomena regina Galicie" and "soror ordinis Minorem"[876].  She became a nun after the death of her husband.  "Bolezlaus…Dux Cracovie et Sudomirie" renewed the privileges of Busk monastery granted by "Principis domini Lestkonis quondam…Polonorum Ducis, patris nostri", at the request of "germane nostre…sororis Salomee, quondam Regine et consortis…Hungarorum Regis Colommani", by charter dated 1252[877].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", at the request of "germane nostre sororis…Salomee, quondam Galacie regine", by charter dated 18 May 1255[878]

5.         ANDRÁS ([1210/12]-1234).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[879].  He replaced his father-in-law as Prince of Galich in 1226, until 1234.  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1234 of "dux Andreas…regis Andree filius"[880]Betrothed ([27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217], contract broken 1219) to ZABEL of Armenia, daughter of LEO I King of Armenia [Rupenid] & his second wife Sibylle of Cyprus ([1216]-Ked 23 Jan 1252, bur Trazarg).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the king of Hungary Andre…gave his son as a son-in-law to King Lewon and [this son] would inherit Lewon's throne", during a visit to Tarsus in [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217][881].  It is not certain that András was the son who was betrothed to Zabel.  However, the Hungarian king is unlikely to have betrothed his oldest son to this rather remote princess, especially with the prospect of his inheriting both thrones, while King András's second son Kálmán was already married at that date (assuming his marriage date is correct as stated above).  Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle records that "the son of the Hungarian king was in the vicinity and came to become [Lewon's] son-in-law" while the king was dying, and that King Lewon "ordered his princes to implement the oaths they had sworn to him", in [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1220][882], but the proposed marriage must have been abandoned as soon as the king died as there no further mention of it in the Chroniclem (1221) IELENA Mstislavna, daughter of MSTISLAV Mstislavich "Udaloi" ex-Prince of Novgorod, Prince of Galich & his wife --- of the Kumans.  Baumgarten names the wife of András and gives her origin citing sources in support[883].  Prince András & his wife had [one child]: 

a)         [ERSZÉBET (-[1295/96]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   She and her husband are named in Europäische Stammtafeln[884], but the source on which this is based has not been identified.  According to another table in Europäische Stammtafeln[885], the wife of Moys de Dáró was Ielisaveta Rostislavna of Galich, widow firstly of Mihail II Asen Tsar of the Bulgarians and secondly of Koloman II Tsar of the Bulgarians, daughter of Rostislav Mikhailovich ex-Grand Prince of Kiev, ex-Prince of Galich, Ban of Mačva/Macsói & his wife Anna of Hungary.  She became a nun as SABINAm MOYS de Dáró, Judge of the Kumans (-end 1280).  Palatine of Hungary, Gespan of Sopron.]  One child: 

i)          ERSZÉBET de Dáró.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   m as his second wife, MIKLOS Medgyesi, Voivoide of Transylvania, son of MÓRICZ Medgyesi (-before 1331).  

King András II & his second wife had one child:

6.         IOLANDA ([1215]-Huesca 12 Oct 1251)The Crónica de San Juan de la Peńa records the second marriage of Jaime I King of Aragon and "la filla del Rey de Vngria…Ardeura la qual depues huuo nombre Violant nieta del Emperador de Constantin noble"[886]She was known as VIOLANT in Catalonia.  The Anales Toledanos record the death “IV Non Oct” in 1251 of “Dńa Yoles, Regina Aragonum[887]The Chronicle of the Hôtel de Ville de Montpellier records the death in 1251 "D. Yoles regina Aragonić"[888].  The Thalamus de Montpellier records the death in Sep 1251 at Lérida of "la dona Yoles regina dAragon molher del rei Jacme"[889]m (Barcelona 8 Sep 1235) as his second wife, don JAIME I "el Conquistador" King of Aragon, Conde de Barcelona, son of don PEDRO II King of Aragon & his wife Marie de Montpellier (Montpellier 1 Feb 1208-Valencia 27 Jul 1276, bur Poblet, monastery of Nuestra Seńora).

King András II & his third wife had one child:

7.         ISTVÁN (posthumously Swabia 1236-Venice 1271 shortly after 10 Apr).  The Annales S. Iustinć Patavino record that "Beatrix regina" left Hungary "gravida" after her husband died and later gave birth "in Alemaniam" to "filium…Stephanum"[890].  He was brought up in Italy.  Duke of Slavonia.  Patrician of Venice.  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam records that "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" went to Venice after the death of her first wife and lived and died there "in altissima paupertate et summa miseria"[891]m firstly (1263) as her second husband, ELISABETTA [Caterina] Traversari, widow of TOMASO de Foliano, legitimated daughter of PAOLO Traversari Patrician of Ravenna & his mistress --- (-[1264], bur Ravenna St Vitalis).  The Annales S. Iustinć Patavino record the marriage in 1262 of "Stephanus…Andree regis Ungarie et nobilis regine Beatricis generosa propago" and "Traversarium filiam Guielmi filii Pauli Traversarii, civis Ravennatis nobilissimi"[892].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Andreć Regi Hungarić…filium…Stephanum" married "neptem Pauli Traversarii de Ravenna"[893].  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to "Paulus Traversarius…filium habuit…filia non legitime nata", her legitimation by Pope Innocent IV, her first marriage to "domno Thomasio de Foliano…de Regio", her second marriage to "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie", and her death and burial in "ecclesia sancti Vitalis in Urtien apud Ravennam"[894].  The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified.  m secondly TOMASINA Morosini, daughter of MICHELE Sbarra Morosini Patrician of Venice & his wife --- (-end 1300).  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Stephanus" fled Ravenna for Venice where he married "vir quidam civis Venetensis civitatis…filiam"[895].  Giovanni di Musso´s Chronicon Placentinum records that "Andreć Regi Hungarić…filium…Stephanum" married secondly "Thomaxinam sororem Albertini Moresini"[896].  The continuator of Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records the coronation of "juvenis Andreaxius de regno Hungarico" in Aug 1290, his mother being "Thomasina sorore domini Albertini Mauroceno civis Veneti", explaining that "Andreaxius filius Stephani…Rex Hungarić" after whose death "Regina uxor eius…Azonis marchionis Ferrarić soror" gave birth to a posthumous child "Stephanum antedictum" who went to Venice and married "dicta Thomasina Mauroceno"[897].  Duke István & his first wife had one child:

a)         [ISTVÁN] (1264-young).  The Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam refers to, but does not name, the son of "domnus Stephanus filius regis Hungarie" & his first wife who died young[898]

Duke István & his second wife had one child:

b)         ANDRÁS (Venice [1265/70]-Buda 14 Jan 1301, bur Buda).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Andream" as the son of "Stephanus" and his wife "vir quidam civis Venetensis civitatis…filiam"[899].  He was brought up in Venice.  On the death of King László IV in 1290, András was smuggled out of Venice disguised as a friar by Ladomer Archbishop of Esztergom and brought to Hungary[900].  He was elected to succeed in 1290 by the Hungarian nobles as ANDRÁS III "Velencei/the Venetian" King of Hungary, crowned by the archbishop.  The Pope favoured the rival candidacy of Charles Martel d'Anjou, nephew of the previous monarch, claiming the right to name the Hungarian monarch for himself, on the basis that the first king István I had received his crown from the Pope[901].  Opposition to King András was mainly centred in Croatia, although he was generally accepted as monarch after the death in 1295 of Charles Martel.  He was able to restore some control over the Hungarian nobility, who had asserted their authority during the preceding reign, but also introduced constitutional reforms including a permanent Council whose consent was required for major decisions, although this was not implemented in practice[902].  He named his maternal uncle heir in 1299, triggering another revolt, but was succeeded by Charles Robert d'Anjou, son of Charles Martel[903]Betrothed (6 Jun 1286) to CLARA EUPHEMIA von Görz, daughter of ALBRECHT [II] Graf von Görz & his first wife Euphemia von Glogau [Piast].  The marriage contract between "Dominum Albertum comitem Goricie…filiam suam dominam Claram" and "domino Andrea…duce Sclavonie nepote olim…domini Andree regis Hungarie" is dated 6 Jun 1286, and names "dominum Albertinum Mauroceno de Venecia…avunculus eiusdem domini ducis"[904]m firstly ([19 Aug/24 Sep] 1290) FENENNA of Kujavia, daughter of ZIEMOMYSŁ Prince of Kujavia [Piast] & his wife Salome von Pommerellen ([1276]-[1295]).  The primary source which confirms her name, parentage and marriage has not so far been identified.  m secondly (Vienna 13 Feb 1296) AGNES von Habsburg, daughter of ALBRECHT I Duke of Austria [later King of Germany] & his wife Elisabeth von Görz-Tirol (18 May 1281-Königsfelden 10 Jun 1364, bur Königsfelden).  Her parentage is confirmed by the necrology of Königsfelden which records the death "XIX Kal Feb" of "Andreas rex Ungarie…conthoralis domine Agnetis, Alberti regis Romanorum filia et domine Elizabeth…"[905].  After the death of her husband, she returned to Austria.  She founded Kloster Königsfelden with her mother, in memory of her murdered father, and lived there[906].  The mid-14th century Königsfelden chronicle depicts Agnes as a humble and pious individual.  On the other hand, according to the 16th century Chronicon helveticum of Aegidius Tschudi, she avenged her father's murder by ordering the execution and expulsion of 1000 people (families and followers of his murderers), but it appears this was to a large extent based on Swiss anti-Habsburg propaganda[907].  It appears that Agnes acted as adviser to her brothers the dukes of Austria and was politically active, in particular settling a conflict between Duke Albrecht II and the Swiss confederation[908].  The necrology of Feldbach records the death "IV Id Jun" of "Agnes regina Ungario"[909].  The necrology of Wettingen records the death "IV Id 1364" of "Agnes quondam regina Ungarie, fundatrix monasterii in Campo Regis, inclite mater pauperum et religiosorum, celebratur in Künigsfelden"[910].  King András III & his first wife had one child:

i)          ERSZÉBET (1292-1336).  She was taken to Austria by her stepmother after the death of her father.  Honemann refers to her betrothal to Wenzel of Bohemia[911].  She became a nun at the Dominican convent of Töß near Winterthur in 1308.  The Tösser Schwesterbuch (lives of the nuns at Töß) suggests that Elisabeth was mistreated by her stepmother but this is not corroborated by other sources[912].  Her gravestone records her death in 1336 and that she lived in Töß for twenty-eight years[913]. According to the chronicle of Töß, she died 6 May 1338[914]Betrothed to WENZEL of Bohemia, son of WENZEL II King of Bohemia & his first wife Guta of Austria [Habsburg] (6 Oct 1289-murdered Olmütz 4 Aug 1306, bur Olmütz, transferred to Prague Königsaal).  He was chosen as king of Hungary in 1301 by part of the Hungarian nobility and crowned VENCEL/LÁSZLÓ King of Hungary.  He succeeded his father in 1305 as WENZEL III King of Bohemia

István Duke of Slavonia had two illegitimate children, shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[915] although the primary source on which this is based has not so far been identified:

c)          son.  1271. 

d)         son.  1271. 

 

 

BÉLA, son of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (Nov 1206-Margaret Island, near Buda 2/3 May 1270, bur Esztergom).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Belam, Colomannum Andream et beatam Elyzabeth" as the children of "Andreas filius Bele" and his wife "domina Gerdrudis de Alemania"[916].  The Gesta Hungarorum names "Bela filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father[917].  Béla was governor of Hungary's eastern provinces as rex iunior, and represented his father at the mass baptism of the Kuman people which took place in 1227 in Moldavia on the orders of Bortz Khan[918].    He succeeded his father in 1235 as BÉLA IV King of Hungary.  He did not go to Croatia for a second coronation, breaking the custom which had lasted 130 years[919].  In response to the Pope's call in 1234 for a crusade against 'heretics' in Bosnia, Hungary occupied large parts of Bosnian territory between 1235 and 1241, but was obliged to withdraw in the face of the threat from the Mongols.  Kuthen [Kötöny] Khan of the Kumans and his followers sought refuge in Hungary after the battle of the Volga in 1239, which gave the Mongols the pretext to attack Hungary.  Their presence caused internal resentment in Hungary which culminated in the Khan's murder[920].  Batu Khan's forces passed the Carpathian mountains into Hungary in Feb 1241 and defeated Béla IV at Muhi on the river Sajó 11 Apr 1241[921].  King Béla fled to the castle of Knin in Dalmatia after this defeat, then to Trogir/Trau and finally to the island of Ciovo[922], but the Mongols withdrew in 1242 after hearing news of the death of Great Khan Ogedei 11 Dec 1241 at Karakoram[923].  Relations with Bulgaria improved in 1240, possibly because of the threat posed to both states by the Mongols[924].  Hungary was also attacked on its western borders by Friedrich Duke of Austria, although for a short time King Béla captured Styria in reprisal[925].  In order to protect his eastern frontier, King Béla contracted with the Knights of the Order of St John of Jerusalem [Knights Hospitalers] 2 Jun 1247, granting them the Szörénység as far as south-eastern Transylvania in return for the promise of military support.  They remained there until they relinquished the land in [1258/60][926].  King Béla allowed the Kumans to return to Hungary, settling them on uninhabited land on either side of the River Tisza, the agreement being sealed by the marriage of his son and heir to a Kuman princess in 1253[927].  He was embroiled in a war with Bohemia, and suffered a defeat in 1260 despite reinforcements from Bulgaria supplied by his son-in-law Rostislav Mikhailovich Ban of Mačva/Macsói, who was one of the claimants to the Bulgarian throne after Tsar Koloman II was deposed in 1258[928].  Having made peace with Bohemia in Mar 1261, Hungary attacked Bulgaria, expelling Konstantin Tih (a rival claimant for the Bulgarian throne) from Vidin which he had captured from Rostislav's forces during the latter's temporary absence in Bohemia[929].  Stefan Uroš I King of Serbia declared war on Hungary in 1268, plundered Mačva/Macsói but was himself captured and held for ransom, the marriage between his son and Béla IV's granddaughter probably being agreed as part of the terms for the Serbian king's release[930].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1271 of "Bela rex Hungarie pater ducisse Cracoviensis"[931].  The necrology of Oberaltaich records the death "VI Non Mai" of "Bela rex Ungarie"[932].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "V Non May…in insula Budensi" in 1270 of "rex Bela" and his burial "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[933].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King Béla was buried "apud Fratres Minores Strigonii"[934]

m (1218) MARIA Laskarina, daughter of THEODOROS Laskaris Emperor in Nikaia & his first wife Anna Angelina (-16 or 24 Jul 1270, bur Esztergom).  Georgius Akropolites names "Irene, Maria et Eudocia" as the three daughters of "Theodorum Lascarim imperatorem…ex Anna uxore", stating that "Mariam secundam" married "Ungarić regis…filio", his father arranging the marriage on his journey back from Jerusalem[935].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "rex Bela, regis Andree filius primogenitus" married one of the daughters (mentioned third) of "Lascarum Grecum"[936]Ephrćmius records that "Anna regina coniuge Lascario" had three daughters "Irene et Maria et Eudocia", recording that "Mariam…natu secundo" married "regis Paeonić filio"[937].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that András II King of Hungary arranged the marriage of "suo filio primogenito Bele" and "Lascaro rege Grecorum…filiam eius" while he was in Greece[938].  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1270 of "regina Ungarorum Maria, mater domine Kinge"[939].  The necrology of Oberaltaich records the death "IX Kal Aug" of "Maria regina Ungarie"[940].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Maria regina Ungarie"[941].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "consorte sua Maria…filia imperatoris Grecorum" was buried with her husband "rex Bela" in "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[942].  The Altahenses Annales record that "Maria regina Ungarie" died after her husband "non post longum tempus"[943]

King Béla IV & his wife had ten children:

1.         KATALIN (-Klis Castle 1242, bur Split St Domnius).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.   She died during her family's escape to Dalmatia after the Tatar invasion[944].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Bela rex…due ipsius puelle virgines", while their parents were staying "in Clisse castro", and their burial "in ecclesia beati Domnii"[945]

2.         MARGIT "the Elder" (-Klis Castle 20 Apr 1242, bur Split St Dominius).  [Her marriage is shown in Europäische Stammtafeln[946].  It is not clear who "Guillaume de Saint Omer Lord of Thebes" refers to.  The Lord of Thebes at that time was Bela (son of Margit of Hungary, daughter of Béla III King of Hungary, by her third husband Nicolas de Saint-Omer), who had married Bonne de la Roche-sur-l'Ognon co-heiress of Thebes.  Lord Bela had a younger brother Guillaume who was not Lord of Thebes, but who lived first in Naples and later in Flanders[947].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records the death of "Bela rex…due ipsius puelle virgines", while their parents were staying "in Clisse castro", and their burial "in ecclesia beati Domnii"[948]m ([1240]) GUILLAUME de Saint Omer Lord of Thebes.] 

3.         KINGA [Kunigunde] (1224-24 Jul 1292).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati records the birth in 1234 of "Kinga filia Bolezlay"[949], the Annales Polonorum clarifying that she was "Kinga fila regis Ungarie Bele et de matre Maria" born "in dominica quinquagesima"[950].  The Annales Capituli Cracoviensis record the marriage in 1239 of "Blezlaus filius Lezstkonis" and "filiam regis Hungarie"[951].  Her name is confirmed by the Annales Cracovienses Compilati which record that "dux Boleslaus accepit Kingam" in 1238[952].  "Bolezlaus filius Lesconis…Dux Cracović et Sandomirić" founded the monastery of Krzyzanowice, at the request of "matris nostrć Grzymislavć", for the souls of "patris nostri Lesconis et uxoris nostrć Gunebundis", by charter dated 28 Jun 1254[953].  "Bolezlaus…Cracouie et Sandomirie dux" conferred privileges on the church of Krakow, for the soul of "patris nostri clare memorie Cracouie et Sandomirie ducis Leztconis" and for "nostre genitricis ducisse Grimizlaue et…consortis nostre Cungundis", by charter dated 18 May 1255[954].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the deaths in 1279 of "Boleslaus dux maioris Polonie, Boleslaus dux Cracowie"[955].  She became a nun in 1270.  The Annales Polonorum record the death in 1292 of "domina Kinga ducissa" at Krakow[956].  She was beatified 10 Jun 1690.  m (1239) BOLESŁAV of Poland, son of LESZKO I "Bialy/the White" Prince of Sandomir and Krakow & his wife Gremislava Ingvarevna of Luck and Dorogobuz [Rurikid] (21 Jun 1226-7 Dec 1279).  He succeeded in 1243 as BOLESŁAW V "Wstydliwy/the Modest" Prince of Krakow and Sandomir

4.         ANNA [Agnes] ([1226/27]-).  Her parentage and marriage are indicated by Georgius Akropolites who names "Rosum Urum…Ungarić regis generum" as father-in-law of "Bulgarorum…princeps"[957].  The name of the wife of Rostislav is confirmed by the Annales Polonorum recording the marriage in 1265 of their daughter Gryfina, in a later passage specifying that she was daughter of "ducis Roczislay et…Anna"[958].  A charter dated 15 Jul 1264 records the confirmation by "ipsius patris regis Belć IV" of a donation by "Agnes, viduć post Radislaum ducem Galitić, ducissć Galitić, de Bosna et de Mazo, ac Michaeli et Belć natis eius"[959].  Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Rostislav and gives her origin but only cites one secondary source in support[960]m (1243) ROSTISLAV Mikhailovich ex-Prince of Galich, son of MIKHAIL Vsevolodich Grand Prince of Kiev & his wife Maria Romanovna of Galich ([1225]-1263).  After the Mongol invasion, he sought refuge with Béla IV King of Hungary, married the king's daughter, and was appointed Ban of Mačva/Macsói.  He assumed the title ROSTISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians, and was recognised as such by Hungary[961].    

5.         ERSZÉBET (1236-24 Oct 1271, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage of "Heinricus filius O. ducis Bavarie" and "Elisabeth filia Bele regis Ungarie"[962].  The Altahenses Annales record the death "1271 IX Kal Nov" of "Elizabeth ducissa Bawarie"[963].  The necrology of Tegernsee records the death "IX Kal Nov" of "Elysabeth ducissa Bawarie filia regis Ungarie"[964].  The necrology of Windberg records the death "IX Kal Nov 1271" of "Elysabet ducissa Bawarie"[965].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "IX Kal Nov 1271" of "domina Elizabet filia regis Ungarie ducissa Bawarie"[966]m (1250) HEINRICH von Bayern, son of OTTO II "der Erlauchte" Duke of Bavaria & his wife Agnes von Sachsen [Este] (Landshut 19 Nov 1235-Burghausen 3 Feb 1290, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  He succeeded his father in 1253 as HEINRICH I Joint-Duke of Bavaria, jointly with his brother Ludwig II.  He and his older brother divided the family's territories in 1255, whereupon Heinrich became Duke of Lower Bavaria (Niederbayern). 

6.         KONSTANCIA.  Baumgarten names the wife of Prince Lev and gives her origin citing sources in support[967]m ([1251/52]) LEV Daniilovich of Galich, son of DANIIL Romanovich Grand Prince of Kiev, King of Galich & his first wife Anna Mstislavna of Novgorod ([1228]-1301).  He succeed his uncle in 1269 as LEV King of Galich

7.         ISTVÁN (Dec 1239-1 Aug 1272).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…dux Bela" as the two sons of "rex Bela quartus"[968].  He succeeded his father in 1270 as ISTVÁN V King of Hungary

-        see below

8.         MARGIT "Boldog Margit/Szent Margit" (1242-18 Jan 1271).  Abbess on the Island of Hares/Nyulak szigete near Buda, afterwards called Margaret Island, she refused an offer of marriage from Otakar II King of Bohemia[969].   Steps were taken to procure her canonisation soon after her death at the request of her brother King István V in 1276 and she was beatified.  She was venerated as a saint in medieval Hungary, but officially canonised only in 1943. 

9.         JOLÁN [Helena] ([1238/44]-16/17 Jun after 1303).  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the marriage in 1259 of "dux Boleslaus Polanorum" and "Iohelam filiam regis Hungarie"[970].  She was beatified 26 Sep 1827.  m (1250) BOLESŁAW of Poland, son of WŁADYSŁAW Prince of Greater Poland & his wife Hedwig [von Pommerellen] (after 1221-13 Apr 1279).  He succeeded in 1247 as BOLESŁAW "Poboźny/the Pious" Prince of Kalisch, until 1249 and 1253.  He was Prince of Gnesen from 1249/50, and Prince of Greater Poland 1257. 

10.      BÉLA ([1245]-1269, bur Esztergom).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…dux Bela" as the two sons of "rex Bela quartus"[971].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "domina Maria regina, Grecorum imperatorum stirpe progenita…filio suo Bele…secundus…regis filius" was appointed duke of Croatia while still a minor[972].  He was installed by his father as Duke of Slavonia, Dalmatia & Croatia in 1262, territories previously held by his older brother István, who immediately rebelled against their father[973].  The Annales Cracovienses Compilati record the death in 1270 of "Boleslaus filius Bele regis Hungarie"[974].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "duce Bela filio suo" was buried with his father "rex Bela" in "Strigony in ecclesia fratrum minorum"[975]m (24/25 Oct 1264) as her first husband, KUNIGUNDE von Brandenburg, daughter of OTTO III Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his wife Beatrix [Božena] of Bohemia ([1247/52]-after 8 Jun 1292).  The Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć records the marriage "IV Kal Oct 1264" of "filiam Ottoni marchioni" and "filio regis nominee Belć"[976].  The Historia Annorum 1264-1279 records the marriage in 1264 of "Bela frater Stephani regis Ungarie" and "filiam marchionis Brannburgensis", but does not name her[977].  The Altahenses Annales record the marriage "1262 in autumpno" of "filiam Ottonis marchionis de Brandenburch" and "Bele iuniore regi Ungarie"[978].  The Historia Annorum 1264-1279 records the marriage in 1264 of "Bela frater Stephani regis Ungarie" and "filiam marchionis Brannburgensis", but does not name her[979].  She is named in the Cronica Principum Saxonie which shows (in order) "Iohannem de Praga, Ottonem Magnum, Albertum, Ottonem, Conegundim, Mechtildim" as children of "Otto III" & his wife, specifying that Kunigund married "Bele filie Bele regis Ungarie, fratris beate Elisabet" in 1264, and also records her second marriage to "duci de Limburch"[980].  She married secondly ([10 Jan 1278]) as his second wife, Walram IV Duke of Limburg

 

 

ISTVÁN, son of BÉLA IV King of Hungary & his wife Maria Laskarina of Nikaia (18 Oct 1239-1 Aug 1272, Csepel Island, Dominican Monastery).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Stephanus postea rex, secundus…dux Bela" as the two sons of "rex Bela quartus"[981].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the birth "in festo beati Luce 1239" of "regi Hungarie filius masculus…Stephanum"[982].  The Altahenses Annales name "Stephanum filium [Belć regis Ungarie]" when recording his succession to his father[983].  His father appointed him Prince of Transylvania in 1257.  He led the Hungarian troops which invaded Bulgaria in 1261, restoring his brother-in-law Rostislav, who was one of the claimants to the Bulgarian throne after Tsar Koloman II was deposed in 1258, at Vidin.  Duke of Slavonia, Dalmatia and Croatia, his father transferred these territories to his younger brother Béla in 1262, whereupon István revolted, although peace was concluded 5 Dec 1262 under which the country was divided and István retained the territory north of the Danube along the border with Bulgaria with the titles "rex iunior" and "dominus Cumanorum".  Civil war broke out again in 1264, peace once more being confirmed in István's favour in 1266[984].  He succeeded his father in 1270 as ISTVÁN V King of Hungary.  The Altahenses Annales record the death "1272 circa Kal Aug" of "Stephanus rex Ungarie"[985].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records the death "in magna insula" of "Stephanus" and his burial "in ecclesia beate Virginis in insula Budensi in loco Beginarum"[986].  The Gesta Hungarorum records that King István was buried "in insula…Beatć Virginis"[987]

m (1253) --- of the Kumans, daughter of --- Khan of the Kumans (1240-after 1290).  This marriage was agreed as part of King Béla's arrangements for settling the Kumans on empty land on either side of the River Tisza[988].  She was baptised with the name ERSZÉBET.  Regent for her son King László IV in 1272, she was hated by the Hungarians[989]

King István V & his wife had six children:

1.         ERSZÉBET (1255-[1313/26]).  She became a nun after the death of her first husband, but escaped.  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records that "quondam Baronem…Zauissium" married "sororem Regis Ungarić" after the death of his wife, the widow of Otakar Přemysl II King of Bohemia[990].  Pachymeres records the marriage of "sororem defunctć Augustć, matris Augusti iunioris…filia regis Ungarić…germanam tertiam" and the king of Serbia, despite the couple's consanguinity (due to his brother already being married to her sister)[991]m firstly (1287) as his third wife, ZAVIŠ von Rosenberg zu Skalitz und Falkenstein, son of BUDIWOJ von Krumau [Rosenberg] & his wife Perchta von Skalitz (-beheaded Schloß Frauenberg 24 Aug 1290, bur Hohenfurt).  m secondly ([1295], repudiated [1298/99]) as his third wife, STEFAN UROŠ II MILUTIN King of Serbia, son of STEFAN UROŠ I King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- ([1253]-Castle Nerodimlja, Amselfeld 29 Oct 1321, bur Sardika [Sofija]).  

2.         KATALIN ([1255/57]-).  Pachymeres records that "cralem Serbić Stephanum Uresim…primogenitus" was already married to "regis Pannonić filiam" when Emperor Mikhael VIII proposed the betrothal of his second daughter to Stefan Uroš I's second son[992].  Pachymeres records the marriage of "germani sui maioris Stephani" and "sororem defunctć Augustć, matris Augusti iunioris…filia regis Ungarić"[993].  Her marriage was probably agreed as part of the terms for her future father-in-law's release from captivity by the Hungarians in 1268[994]m ([1267/68]) STEFAN DRAGUTIN of Serbia, son of STEFAN UROŠ I King of Serbia & his wife Jelena --- (-12 Mar 1316, bur Ras).  Joint King [Mladi Kralj] of Serbia 1271.  He rebelled against his father, whom he defeated with Hungarian support near Gacko, and succeeded 1276 as STEFAN DRAGUTIN King of Serbia, abdicated 1282.  He proposed his son as a rival candidate for the Hungarian throne. 

3.         MÁRIA ([1257]-25 Mar 1324, bur Naples, Santa Maria Donna Regina).  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "rex Stephanus quintus filius Bele regis…[filiam] Maria" married "Karolo claudo fiilio Karoli magni"[995].  She claimed the throne of Hungary 21 Sep 1290, following the death of her brother King Laszlo IV.  She was crowned Queen by a Papal legate in Naples 1291, but transferred her rights to her son Carlo Martelo.  The Pope confirmed her sole rights in Hungary 30 Aug 1295.  The Annales Ludovici di Raimo record the death "Venerdi Santo...25 di Marzo" in 1324 of "la Regina Maria moglie del Re Carlo II, madre di Re Roberto"[996]m (Naples [May/Jun] 1270) CHARLES of Sicily Principe di Salerno, son of CHARLES I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Béatrice Ctss de Provence et de Forcalquier ([1254]-Palace of Poggioreale 6 May 1309, bur Naples Dominican church, transferred by order of his son King Roberto I to Aix-en-Provence, Convent Notre-Dame de Nazareth, and again to église de Saint-Barthélemi Aix-en-Provence).  He succeeded his father in 1285 as CHARLES II "le Boiteux" King of Sicily and Jerusalem.  Pope Nicolas IV ordered him to bear the title King of Sicily, crowning him such 29 May 1289 at Rieti cathedral.  Maria & her husband had fourteen children: 

a)         CHARLES MARTEL of Sicily (early Sep 1271-Naples from the plague 12 Aug 1295, bur Naples, Cathedral of San Gennaro).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Karolum Marcellum" as the son of "rex Stephanus quintus filius Bele regis…[filiam] Maria" and his wife "Karolo claudo fiilio Karoli magni"[997]The Flores historiarum of Bernard Guidonis names "quondam Karoli Martelli, qui fuit filius primogenitus Karoli secundi regis Sicilić" when recording his daughter´s marriage[998]Principe di Salerno 1289.  He styled himself KÁROLY I King of Hungary from 20 Mar 1292, but it does not seem that he was ever crowned or indeed ruled in his Kingdom.   

-        see below, Chapter 8.  KINGS of HUNGARY 1301-1387 (ANJOU-CAPET)

b)         other children: see SICILY

4.         ANNA ([1260]-[1281]).  Pachymeres names "Anna Ungara" as wife of Emperor Andronikos II and their two sons "Michćlem et Constantinum", a later passage confirming her precise parentage by specifying that "filiam Caroli" married "filiam regis Hungarić" who was "matertera" of the future co-Emperor Mikhael IX[999].  Georgius Phrantzes records that "Hungarorum regis filia" was the first wife of "imperator Andronicus"[1000].m (1274) as his first wife, co-Emperor ANDRONIKOS Palaiologos, son of Emperor MIKHAEL VIII & his wife Theodora Dukaina Komnene Palaiologina Batatzaina (25 Mar 1259-13 Feb 1332).  He succeeded his father in 1282 as Emperor ANDRONIKOS II

5.         LÁSZLÓ (1262-murdered Kereczeg [Körösszeg] Castle 10 Jul 1290, bur Csanad Cathedral).  The Altahenses Annales name "Ladizlaus primogenitus" as one of the two sons of "Stephanus rex Ungarie"[1001].  He succeeded his father in 1272 as LÁSZLÓ IV "Kun/the Kumanian" King of Hungary, under the regency of his mother.  Wild and undisciplined, he favoured his mother's people the Kumans, plunging Hungary into religious turmoil which resulted in the Pope laying the country under interdict and authorising the bishops to preach a crusade against him.  A settlement was mediated by Christian barons whereby the Kumans undertook to accept Christianity and exchange their tents for fixed abodes[1002].  Resentment against the king built up, the nobles taking advantage of a weakening of royal authority to assert more control in the government of the kingdom[1003].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "rex Ladizlaus" was killed in 1290 "ante festum Margarethe virginis prope castrum Kyriszug ab…Cumanis…et specialiter ab Arbuz Turtule et Kemenche"[1004].  He was murdered in his tent by Kumans while camped in Bihar county[1005]m (5 Sep 1272) ISABELLE of Sicily, daughter of CHARLES I King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] & his first wife Béatrice Ctss de Provence (1261-[20 Dec 1290/23 Jun 1304]).  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "rex Ladizlaus" married "filiam regis Karoli de Apulia"[1006].  The Istoria of Saba Malaspina records the marriage of "filiam regis" [Charles I King of Sicily] and "Hungarić principis", in [1269/70] from the context[1007].  She adopted the name MÁRIA in Hungary.  She was repudiated by her husband in favour of his Kuman mistress, but taken back after he was forced to abandon the latter.  The Annales Colmarienses record that "rex Ungarie" repudiated his Christian wife for "Cumanam" in 1281[1008]Mistress: EDUA [Aydua/rising moon][1009], a Kuman.  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "rex Ladizlaus" had "Eduam Cupchech et Mandulam…ac alias quamplures in concubinas"[1010].  He was forced to abandon her and take back his wife[1011]

6.         ANDRÁS (1268-1278).  He is named in Europäische Stammtafeln[1012], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified.  Duke of Slavonia. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KING of HUNGARY 1301-1304 (PŘEMYSL)

 

 

After the death in 1301 of András III King of Hungary, the last representative in the male line of the Árpád Dynasty, Pope Boniface VIII supported the accession of Charles Robert of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] as Károly II King of Hungary (see Chapter 8).  Charles Robert was the great-nephew of László IV King of Hungary, King András's predecessor, and so was one of the closest relations to the previous ruling house.  However, Papal support was forthcoming mainly because of the close connection between the Papacy and the Angevin kings of Naples and Sicily, which dated from Pope Urban IV's proposal of Charles de France Comte d'Anjou, son of Louis VIII King of France, as king of Sicily to replace the rulers of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.  A powerful group of Hungarian nobles preferred the candidacy of Wenzel of Bohemia, the son of the powerful Wenzel II King of Bohemia and Poland.  He was crowned as King of Hungary, which triggered civil war in Hungary, but he left the country in 1304. 

 

 

WENZEL of Bohemia, son of WENZEL II King of Bohemia & his first wife Guta of Austria [Habsburg] (6 Oct 1289-murdered Olmütz 4 Aug 1306, bur Olmütz, transferred to Prague Königsaal).  He was chosen as king of Hungary in 1301 by part of the Hungarian nobility opposed to the succession of Charles Robert d'Anjou, and crowned VENCEL/LÁSZLÓ King of Hungary also in 1301.  The ensuing civil war ended in 1304 when Wenzel agreed to leave Hungary[1013].  He succeeded his father in 1305 as WENZEL III King of Bohemia

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    KING of HUNGARY 1305-1308 (WITTELSBACH)

 

 

After László V King of Hungary left the country in 1304, large sections of the nobility were still unable to accept the accession of Charles Robert of Sicily (King Károly II) as king.  They chose Otto III Duke of Lower Bavaria, from the powerful Wittelsbach family, who was elected as Béla V King of Hungary in 1305.  His support dwindled and eventually he was captured by the forces of King Károly II.  He was forced to abandon his claim as the price for release from captivity, whereupon Károly II was confirmed as king. 

 

 

OTTO von Niederbayern, son of HEINRICH I Duke of Lower Bavaria [Niederbayern] & his wife Erszébet of Hungary (11 Feb 1261-Landshut 9 Sep 1312, bur Kloster Seligenthal).  The Altahenses Annales record the birth "1261 in proxima nocte post sancta Scolastice virginis" of "domina Elysabeth ducissa Bauwarie filium…Ottonem"[1014].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavarić names (in order) "Ottonem, Stephanum, Ludwicum" as the three sons of "Henricus dux"[1015].  He succeeded his father in 1290 as OTTO III Joint-Duke of Lower Bavaria.  He emerged as a rival candidate for the throne of Hungary, supported by the Hungarian nobility after the departure of Wenzel of Bohemia, and was elected at Székesfehérvár 6 Dec 1305 as BÉLA V King of Hungary.  He was captured in 1308 by supporters of Charles Robert and released only when he agreed to abandon his claim[1016].  The Historia Episcoporum Pataviensium et Ducum Bavarić records the death in 1312 of "Otto dux Bavarie…filium Henricum"[1017].  The necrology of Raitenhaslach records the death "V Id Sep" of "Otto rex Ungarie et dux Bauarie"[1018].  The necrology of Seligenthal records the death "V Id Sep 1313" of "dominus Otto rex Ungarie et dux Bawarie"[1019]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    KINGS of HUNGARY 1301-1387 (ANJOU-CAPET)

 

 

After the death in 1290 of László IV King of Hungary, the dead king's sister Mária, wife of Charles II King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet], claimed the throne of Hungary.  She was crowned queen by a Papal legate in Naples in 1291, but transferred her rights to her son Charles Martel who succeeded as titular King Károly I.  Meanwhile in Hungary, the archbishop of Esztergom promoted the candidacy of the dead king's first cousin András, the last representative in the male line of the Árpád dynasty, who was elected as András III King of Hungary.  Popes Nicholas IV (died 1294) and Celestine V continued to support the Angevin candidate.  Papal support was forthcoming mainly because of the close connection between the papacy and the Angevin kings of Naples and Sicily, which dated from Pope Urban IV's proposal of Charles de France Comte d'Anjou, son of Louis VIII King of France, as king of Sicily to replace the rulers of the Hohenstaufen dynasty.  After King András died in 1301, Pope Boniface VIII supported the accession of Charles Robert of Sicily, son of the titular King Károly I, as Károly II King of Hungary.  He was crowned king at Esztergom in Spring 1301.  He was opposed successively by Wenzel of Bohemia, who was crowned as László V King of Hungary also in 1301, and Otto III Duke of Lower Bavaria who was crowned as Béla V King of Hungary in 1304.  Although support for each of his rivals was strong at the outset, King Károly succeeded in imposing himself as Hungarian leader and was confirmed as king in 1307 and again in 1309. 

 

 

CHARLES MARTEL of Sicily, son of CHARLES II King of Sicily and Jerusalem [Anjou-Capet] & his wife María of Hungary (early Sep 1271-Naples from the plague 12 Aug 1295, bur Naples, Cathedral of San Gennaro).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Karolum Marcellum" as the son of "rex Stephanus quintus filius Bele regis…[filiam] Maria" and his wife "Karolo claudo fiilio Karoli magni"[1020]The Flores historiarum of Bernard Guidonis names "quondam Karoli Martelli, qui fuit filius primogenitus Karoli secundi regis Sicilić" when recording his daughter´s marriage[1021]Principe di Salerno 1289.  He was appointed Vicar General of Naples 12 Sep 1289, a post which he held until his resignation 16 Feb 1294.  He was declared heir to the kingdom of Hungary on the assassination 10 Jul 1290 of his maternal uncle László IV King of Hungary, but was opposed by the Hungarians who installed his great-uncle as King András III.  The Pope, claiming the right to name the Hungarian monarch, favoured his candidacy[1022].  His mother transferred her rights as Queen of Hungary to him, after she was crowned Queen in 1291.  Following a revolt in Hungary against King András, Carlo Martelo was installed as King by diploma 6 Jan 1292.  He styled himself KÁROLY King of Hungary from 20 Mar 1292, but it does not seem that he was ever crowned or indeed ruled in his kingdom. 

m (Vienna Jan 1281) KLEMENTIA von Habsburg, daughter of RUDOLF I King of Germany Duke of Austria & his first wife Gertrud [Anna] von Hohenberg ([1262]-end-Aug 1295, bur Naples, Cathedral of San Gennaro).  The Annales Colmarienses record that "filia rgis Ruodolphi" was sent to Lombardy for her marriage to "filio regis Caroli" in 1281[1023].  The Chronicon Dubnicense records that "Karolum Marcellum" married "filia imperatoris Rodolphi Clemencia"[1024].  Her marriage was planned between her father and Pope Gregory X Oct 1275 to confirm her father’s alliance with Charles I King of Sicily, her future husband’s grandfather. 

King Károly & his wife had three children: 

1.         CHARLES ROBERT of Sicily (1288-Visegrad 16 Jul or 15 Aug 1342, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Karobertum, quasi Karolum Robertum" as the son of "Karolum Marcellum" and his wife "filia imperatoris Rodolphi Clemencia"[1025].  He was recognised as King of Hungary after the death in 1301 of King András III and crowned KÁROLY I King of Hungary at Esztergom in Spring 1301. 

-        see below

2.         BEATRIX of Hungary (Naples after 25 Mar 1290-Convent of Saint-Just, Royannais [1354]).  The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the marriage of "Joannes Delphinus" and "Beatricem, Caroli secundi Sicilić et Hierusalem regis neptem, Caroli regis Ungarić filiam", and her dowry "Serrum Castrum et ius sibi in Aragrandi et Bassamolio" agreed by contract "III Non Jun" in 1298[1026].  The marriage contract between "Karolum secundum…regem Hierusalem et Sicilić…pro Dom. Beatrice minore septennio nepte sua primogenita bonć memorić…principis Dom. Karoli primogeniti eius Hungarić regis" and "Dom. Humberti Dalphini Viennen. et Albonis comitis dominique de Turre ac Joannis Dalphini primogeniti sui" is dated 25 May 1296[1027].  When her husband died, she became a nun at Cîteaux.  Abbesse de Val de Bressieu, diocese of Grenoble until 15 Feb 1340, when she transferred to the Abbaye des Ayes.  Her son founded for her the convent of Saint-Just dans le Royannais.  The Aymari Rivalli De Allobrogibus records the burial of "Beatrix Humberti mater" at "cśnobio Sancti Justi"[1028].  Valbonnais quotes accounts dated May 1355 relating to the jewelry of "l´ancienne Dauphine", concluding that they relate to Beatrix of Hungary and that she must therefore have died in 1354[1029]m (contract Naples 25 May 1296) JEAN de la Tour du Pin et de Coligny, son of HUMBERT de la Tour du Pin et de Coligny, Dauphin de Viennois & his wife Anne Dauphine de Viennois [Bourgogne-Capet] (before [1277]-Pont de Sorgues, Avignon 4 Mar 1319, bur Grenoble église Saint-André).  He succeeded his father in 1307 as JEAN II Dauphin de Viennois, Comte d'Albon. 

3.         CLEMENCE of Hungary (Naples 8 Feb 1293-Paris 1328, bur Paris, église des Jacobins)The Continuatio of the Chronicle of Guillaume de Nangis records that "circa Natale Domini" in 1314 "cambellanum et secretarium suum Hugonem de Bovilla" was sent "ad partes Sicilić" to bring back "Clementiam regis Hungarić filiam" to marry "Ludovicus rex Francić et Navarrć", and in a later passage records their marriage "julio mense in festo beatć Christinć...apud sanctum Dionysium" in 1315[1030].  The Flores historiarum of Bernard Guidonis records the marriage 31 Jul 1315 of "Ludovicus rex" and "Clementiam filiam quondam Karoli Martelli, qui fuit filius primogenitus Karoli secundi regis Sicilić"[1031]She was consecrated Queen of France with her husband, Notre-Dame de Reims 24 Aug 1315.  The Chronique Parisienne records the death “le jeudi“ 13 Oct 1328 of “Climence la roynne de France et de Navarre...fame jadiz de Louys roy de France et de Navarre” and her burial “le lundi ensuivant en l´eglise des Freres Prescheurs Jacobins[1032]m (Paris 31 Jul 1315) as his second wife, LOUIS X King of France, “le Hutin” son of PHILIPPE IV “le Bel” King of France & his wife Juana I Queen of Navarre (Paris 4 Oct 1289-Château du Bois de Vincennes 5 Jun 1316, bur église de l'Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). 

 

 

CHARLES ROBERT of Sicily, son of CHARLES MARTEL of Sicily, Prince of Salerno [KÁROLY I titular King of Hungary] [Anjou-Capet] & his wife Klementia von Habsburg (1288-Visegrad 16 Jul or 15 Aug 1342, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Chronicon Dubnicense names "Karobertum, quasi Karolum Robertum" as the son of "Karolum Marcellum" and his wife "filia imperatoris Rodolphi Clemencia"[1033].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) names "Karulus, filius Karuli Regis Sicilić, factus Rex Ungarić" when recording his second marriage[1034].  Pope Boniface VIII excluded Charles Robert from the succession to Sicily 24 Feb 1297, but reserved for him the crown of Hungary.  He was recognised as king of Hungary after the death in 1301 of King András III and crowned KÁROLY I King of Hungary at Esztergom in Spring 1301.  He was widely accepted as king in Croatia, but Hungary was divided and chose Wenzel of Bohemia, who was crowned as László V King of Hungary also in 1301.  The ensuing civil war continued until 1304, when Wenzel agreed to leave Hungary.  The Pope recognised King Károly as king of Hungary by papal bull 31 May 1303, but another rival Otto of Bavaria was crowned as Béla V King of Hungary in 1304.  He was captured in 1308 by supporters of King Károly and released only when he agreed to abandon his claim[1035].  Meanwhile, King Károly was recognised as 10 Oct 1307 at Rakos, church of St Peter, near Pest, and by the synod of Pest which opened 27 Nov 1307.  He was crowned again at Pest 15 Jun 1309, and finally in the Basilica of Székesfehérvár 27 Aug 1310 with the true Hungarian crown[1036].  He claimed the crown of Sicily on the death of his grandfather in 1309, but Pope Clement V declared his uncle Robert as the successor.  In 1312, King Károly defeated his last internal opponents, the Amadé and Csák families at Rozgony, and re-established royal authority on a firm footing[1037].  In 1330, the voivoda of Wallachia disputed the suzerainty of King Károly who suffered a military defeat[1038].  Also in 1330, an assassination plot against the king and his family was foiled by royal bodyguards[1039].  King Károly derived wealth from exploiting Hungarian and Transylvanian gold mines, whose production was estimated at a third of the world's total at the time, enabling him to stabilise the currency and reform direct taxation while still maintaining a sumptuous and refined court[1040].  He organised a meeting at Visegrád in 1335 with the Polish and Bohemian kings where they reached agreement on economic matters to the detriment of the dukes of Austria[1041].  He reached agreement with the king of Poland in 1339 that, if the latter died childless, a Hungarian prince would succeed to the Polish throne.  The Chronicon Varadiense records the death 18 Jul 1342 of "Carolum regem Hungarić" and his burial "Albć in ecclesia maiori"[1042]

m firstly ([1306]) MARIA von Beuthen, daughter of KASIMIR Herzog von Beuthen und Kosel [Piast] & his wife Helena --- ([before 1295]-Temesvár [now Timişoara, Romania] 15 Dec 1317, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.   The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Maria prima uxor Karoli" died in 1315 "in Temeswar" and was buried "in Alba"[1043]

m secondly ([24 Jun/Sep] 1318) BEATRIX de Luxembourg, daughter of Emperor HEINRICH VII, Comte de Luxembourg & his wife Marguerite de Brabant (1305-Temesvár [now Timişoara, Romania] Nov 1319, bur Varazdin Cathedral, Croatia).  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the second marriage in 1318 of "Karulus, filius Karuli Regis Sicilić, factus Rex Ungarić" and "Regem Boemić…unam de sororibus…Beatrix"[1044].  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" married secondly in 1317 "Beatricem filiam regis Romanorum, sororem regis Bohemorum de terra Lucelburgensi", adding that she died within one year and was buried "Waradini"[1045].  The Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci) records the death in 1319 of "Beatrix Regina Ungarić"[1046].  She died after childbirth. 

m thirdly (6 Jul 1320) ELŹBIETA of Poland, daughter of WŁADYSŁAW I "Łokietek/Ellenbogen" King of Poland & his wife Jadwiga of Greater Poland [Piast] (1305-Buda 29 Dec 1380).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" married thirdly in 1320 "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie"[1047].  The Chronica principum Polonie name "dominam Elizabeth alias Phenemiam reginam Ungarie" as the daughter of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie"[1048].  She lost four fingers during the course of the 1330 attack on the king and his family[1049].  She was designated heir to the Polish crown, in case her brother King Kazimierz died without male issue, at Visegrád in Mar 1339 by agreement between her husband and her brother[1050].  This succession arrangement was confirmed in 1351 and 1355 when her son King Lajos was named heir apparent to Poland[1051].  She was regent of the kingdom of Poland during her son’s absence 1370-1375.  Royal Lieutenant of Croatia and Dalmatia 1375 until her death. 

Mistress: GUZE [Elisabeth] Csák, daughter of GYÖRKE Csák & his wife ---.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and relationship with King Károly has not yet been identified.  

King Károly I & his second wife had one child: 

1.         child (b and d Autumn 1319).  The primary source which confirms his/her parentage has not yet been identified.  

King Károly I & his third wife had five children:

2.         KÁROLY (b and d 1321, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" had one son "Karolum" by his third wife "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie" and that he died the same year and was buried "in Alba"[1052]

3.         LÁSZLÓ (Belgrade 1 Oct 1324-early Mar 1329).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" had a second son "Ladislaum" by his third wife "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie", adding that he died in 1329[1053]

4.         LAJOS (4/5 Mar 1326-Tarnow/Tyrnau 10/11 Sep 1382, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" had a third son "Lays" by his third wife "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie" born in 1326[1054].  He succeeded his father in 1342 as LAJOS "Nagy/the Great" King of Hungary

-        see below

5.         ANDRÁS (30 Nov 1327-murdered San Pietro a Maiella, near Aversa 18/19 Sep 1345, bur Naples Cathedral).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" had a fourth son "Andreas" by his third wife "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie" born in 1327[1055].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "duce…Ludovico postea rege…Andrea facto rege Sicilić, Stephano Dalmatić Slavonić et Croatić duce" as the three sons of "Carolum regem Hungarić"[1056].  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon names "Andreć fratris Regis Ungarić" when recording his marriage[1057].  His father travelled to Naples end-Summer 1333 hoping to have András adopted by his great-uncle Robert I King of Sicily, and declared his heir.  He was created Duke of Calabria in 1333, and lived at Naples thereafter.  The Pope granted him the title of king of Sicily on the succession of his wife, but excluded him from the government.  He claimed a part in the government and the right to be crowned, but was entrapped and murdered, either on the orders of his cousins Charles of Durazzo or Louis of Tarento or his wife.  m (contract 8 Nov 1332, Santa Chiara Naples 26 Sep 1333, consummated 22/23 Jan 1344) as her first husband, JEANNE of Sicily, daughter of CHARLES of Sicily Duke of Calabria & his second wife Marie de Valois (Naples [1328]-strangled Castello San Fele/Muro, Basilicate 22 May 1382, bur Naples Santa Chiara).  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records that "Andreć fratris Regis Ungarić" married "filiam filii Regis Roberti…Iohannam"[1058].  She succeeded her father in 1344 as JEANNE I Queen of Sicily and Jerusalem.  András & his wife had one child: 

a)         CHARLES MARTEL of Sicily (posthumously Naples 25 Dec 1345-Visegrad 1348, after 10 May, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame).  Duke of Calabria.  Prince of Salerno 11 Dec 1346, as heir to the kingdom of Sicily.  On the murder of his prospective father-in-law by his uncle Lajos King of Hungary, the latter had Carlo Martelo sent to Visegrad in Hungary, where he died soon after.  Betrothed to (1347) JEANNE di Durazzo, daughter of CHARLES di Durazzo Duke of Durazzo & his wife Marie of Sicily (1344-poisoned château d'Śuf, Naples 20 Jul 1387, bur Naples, church of San Lorenzo). 

6.         ISTVÁN (26 Dec 1332-9 Aug 1354, bur Székesfehérvár).  The Chronicon Varadiense names "duce…Ludovico postea rege…Andrea facto rege Sicilić, Stephano Dalmatić Slavonić et Croatić duce" as the three sons of "Carolum regem Hungarić"[1059].  The Chronica principum Polonie name "domini Ludwici regis Ungarie ultimi et Stephani dicti Virer" as the children of "dominam Elizabeth alias Phenemiam reginam Ungarie", daughter of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie"[1060].  Duke in Hungary, as such governing Transylvania, and later Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia.  The Chronicon Varadiense records that "Stephano Dalmatić Slavonić et Croatić duce" son of "Carolum regem Hungarić" died "in vigilia beati Laurentii" in 1354 "de exercitu moto contra Rascianos"[1061]m (Buda Jan 1350) as her [second] husband, MARGARETA of Bavaria, [widow of JOHANN I "das Kind" Duke of Lower Bavaria,] daughter of Emperor LUDWIG IV King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria Pfalzgraf bei Rhein & his second wife Marguerite de Hainaut [Avesnes] Ctss de Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland (1325-1374).  The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the marriage in 1350 of "rex Ungarie Karolus…frater suus iunior" and "sororem ducum Bawarie, filiam Ludewici"[1062].  She married secondly (before 13 Aug 1358) Gerlach von Hohenlohe in Uffenheim.  István & his wife had two children: 

a)         ERSZÉBET of Slavonia (1352-died before 1380, bur Tarento San Cataldo).  Her husband granted her the island of Corfu on their marriage[1063]m ([20] Oct 1370) as his second wife, PHILIPPE II Prince of Tarento and Morea Emperor of Romania [Sicily-Anjou-Capet], son of PHILIPPE I Prince of Tarento and Morea Emperor of Romania & his second wife Catherine de Valois Empress of Constantinople (1329-Tarento 25 Nov 1374, bur Tarento San Cataldo). 

b)         JAN of Slavonia (1354-1363 before 9 Aug).  Heir presumptive to the throne of Poland, under the terms of the Polish/Hungarian Treaty 24 Jun 1355.  

King Károly I had an illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

7.          KÁLMÁN (early 1318-1376).  Elected Bishop of Györ [Raab] 14 May 1337.  Provost of Esztergom. 

 

 

LAJOS, son of KÁROLY I King of Hungary & his third wife Elźbieta of Poland (4/5 Mar 1326-Tarnow/Tyrnau 10/11 Sep 1382, bur Székesfehérvár, church of Notre Dame).  The Chronica Ungarorum records that "Karoli" had a third son "Lays" by his third wife "Elizabeth filiam regis Polonie" born in 1326[1064].  The Chronicon Varadiense names "duce…Ludovico postea rege…Andrea facto rege Sicilić, Stephano Dalmatić Slavonić et Croatić duce" as the three sons of "Carolum regem Hungarić"[1065].  The Chronica principum Polonie name "domini Ludwici regis Ungarie ultimi et Stephani dicti Virer" as the children of "dominam Elizabeth alias Phenemiam reginam Ungarie", daughter of "Wladislaum dictum Lockot…regem Polanie"[1066].  He succeeded his father in 1342 as LAJOS "Nagy/the Great" King of Hungary, crowned at Székesfehérvár.  He reconquered Macedonia and Kosovo from the Serbs in 1342, and the voivodes of Moldavia and Wallachia accepted his suzerainty in 1344.  He marched against Naples in 1347 to avenge his brother's murder, proclaimed himself king of Sicily and Jerusalem, but the country rebelled against him and reinstated Queen Jeanne.  During a follow-up Italian campaign in 1350, he conquered Bari, but made peace with the Queen 23 Mar 1352 and returned to Hungary while reserving his right to succeed her.  In 1351, he confirmed the Golden Bull, with an explicit declaration of equality among the nobles[1067].  He reconquered Galicia and Lodomeria in 1354[1068], and Dalmatia from the republic of Venice in 1355.  In 1351 and 1355, Kazimierz III King of Poland confirmed Lajos as his heir apparent to Poland[1069].  In 1357, he compelled Stjepan Tvrtko Ban of Bosnia to surrender most of western Hum [Hercegovina] as a belated dowry for King Lajos's marriage to Kotromanić's daughter, in return for recognising him as ruler of Bosnia and Usora under Hungary suzerainty[1070].  He invaded northern Bosnia in 1363, although Bosnia successfully defended itself against this incursion, and subjugated Serbia and Bulgaria.  He succeeded his maternal uncle Kazimierz III King of Poland in 1370, in accordance with the 1355 dynastic agreement, and was crowned LUDWIK King of Poland at Krakow 17 Nov 1370 by Iaroslav Archbishop of Gniezno, primate of Poland.  After conferring the government of Poland on his mother, he returned to Hungary.  He concluded an alliance with Charles V King of France in 1374 with a view to deposing Jeanne Queen of Sicily.  As a result of his victory against Sultan Murad in Moravia, he delayed the Balkan advance of the Ottomans for about 10 years.  Domestically, Hungary's economy continued to flourish with the undiminished income from gold production[1071].  He founded a university at Pécs in 1367, although it proved short-lived.  The first comprehensive Hungarian national chronicle also dates from his reign.  He died of leprosy. 

m firstly (contract 3 Aug 1342) MARGARETA of Bohemia, daughter of Emperor KARL IV King of Germany, King of Bohemia & his first wife Blanche [Marguerite] de Valois (24 May 1335-1349 before 7 Oct). 

m secondly (Krakow 20 Jun 1353) JELISAVETA Kotromanić of Bosnia, daughter of STJEPAN II Kotromanić Ban of Bosnia & his wife Elźbieta of Kujavia [Piast] ([1340]-in prison Novigrad near Zadar, Dalmatia shortly before 16 Jan 1387).  Regent in Hungary and Poland on the death of her husband.  She was taken prisoner with her daughter Maria by Jan Horvat after visiting Djakovo in late 1386, and taken to a castle in Novigrad near Zadar where she was strangled in front of her daughter[1072]

King Lajos I & his second wife had four children:

1.         MÁRIA of Hungary (1365-1366). 

2.         KATALIN of Hungary (1370-1377)Betrothed (1374) to LOUIS de France, son of CHARLES V "le Sage" King of France & his wife Jeanne de Bourbon (Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 13 Mar 1372-murdered Paris 23 Nov 1407, bur Paris, église des Célestins).  Comte de Valois 1 Sep 1375, Duc de Touraine Nov 1386, and Duc d'Orléans 1392. 

3.         MÁRIA of Hungary (1371-Buda 1395, bur Warasdin).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "seniorem Mariam…aliam Hedwigim" as the two daughters of "Ludwicum regem Ungarie", adding that Mária married "Sigismundo marchioni Brandeburgensi, filio domini Karoli imperatoris"[1073].  On the death of her father in 1382, she was declared heir to the throne and named MÁRIA King (rex) of Hungary, Dalmatia and Croatia, with her mother as regent.  She was crowned at Alba regia 17 Sep 1382.  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records that "Lodwicus rex Ungarorum…filiam suam primogenitam" married "Sigismundo filio Karoli imperatoris" who thereby acquired the kingdom of Hungary[1074].  A rebellion, led by Jan Horvat Ban of Mačva/Macsói and his brother Paul Bishop of Zagreb, broke out in 1385 in support of Charles III King of Sicily who claimed the throne as the nearest male relative to Maria's father[1075].  Queen Mária was forced to renounce her rights 31 Dec 1385, following the invasion of Hungary by King Charles, who was crowned king of Hungary at Buda.  She was restored in Feb 1386 after Charles was murdered.  She was taken prisoner with her mother by Jan Horvat after visiting Djakovo in late 1386, and taken to a castle in Novigrad near Zadar[1076].  Her second husband arrived in Hungary, was accepted as king by the nobles in Alba Regalis, and besieged Novigrad to secure Maria's release.  She died after falling from her horse[1077]m firstly (by proxy Apr 1385, marriage abandoned) as his first wife, LOUIS de France, son of CHARLES V " le Sage" King of France & his wife Jeanne de Bourbon (Hôtel de Saint-Pol, Paris 13 Mar 1372-murdered Paris 23 Nov 1407, bur Paris, église des Célestins).  Comte de Valois 1 Sep 1375, Duc de Touraine Nov 1386, and Duc d'Orléans 1392.  m secondly (Aug 1385, in person Buda 31 Mar 1387) as his first wife, SIGMUND de Luxembourg Markgraf von Brandenburg and Moravia, son of Emperor KARL IV King of Germany, King of Bohemia & his fourth wife Elisabeth von Pommern (Prague 28 Jun 1368-Znaim/Znojmo 9 Dec 1437, bur Nagyvárad [today Oradea, Romania]).  He was crowned as ZSIGMOND King of Hungary 31 Mar 1387 in the Basilica of Székesfehérvár. 

4.         JADVIGA of Hungary (Krakow 18 Feb 1373-Krakow 12 Jun 1400, bur Krakow, Cathedral St Stanislas).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "seniorem Mariam…aliam Hedwigim" as the two daughters of "Ludwicum regem Ungarie", adding that Jadviga was betrothed to "filio Lewpoldi ducis Austrie" but that he married another bride[1078].  Her mother installed her as JADWIGA King (rex) of Poland 1384, contrary to the last wishes of her father who wished to maintain the unity of the two crowns, crowned at Krakow 15 Oct 1384.  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records that "filia minor regis Ungarorum" was betrothed to "duci Austrie" but later married "Poloni…duci…Vladislao vel Wolislao" but that the marriage was childless[1079].  She won Galicia and Silesia back from Hungary.  She died in childbirth.  The procedure for her beatification was opened at Krakow 22 Apr 1949 by Prince Cardinal Sapieha, Archbishop of Krakow.  Betrothed (contract Buda 29 Jul 1385) to WILHELM von Habsburg, son of LEOPOLD III Duke of Austria & Steiermark & his wife Verde [Viridis] Visconti of Milan (1370-Vienna 15 Jul 1406, bur Vienna).  He succeeded his father in 1386 as WILHELM Duke of Steiermark and Inner-Austriam (Krakow 14 Feb 1386) as his first wife, JOGAILA [Jagiello] Grand Prince of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] Grand Prince of Lithuania & his wife Uljana of Tver [Rurikid] ([1351]-Grodek 31 May 1434, bur Krakow Cathedral).  Baptised Krakow Feb 1386 as WŁADYSŁAW, shortly before his marriage, when he was recognised as WŁADISŁAW II King of Poland

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    KING of HUNGARY 1387-1437 (LUXEMBOURG)

 

 

The death without male heirs in 1382 of Lajos I King of Hungary triggered another succession crisis.  His daughter Mária was crowned "King" (rex) of Hungary, but a rebellion broke out in favour of Charles III King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] who was her nearest male heir.  After a period of uncertainty, the Hungarian nobility proposed the candidature of Sigmund of Bohemia, younger brother of Wenzel King of Bohemia and King of Germany, and son of the recently deceased Emperor Karl IV.  It was decided that he should marry Queen Mária to legitimise his position.  He married Mária by proxy in Aug 1385, and was elected as Zsigmond King of Hungary in Jun 1386. 

 

 

SIGMUND de Luxembourg Markgraf von Brandenburg, son of Emperor KARL IV, King of Germany, King of Bohemia & his fourth wife Elisabeth von Pommern (Prague 15 Feb 1368-Znaim/Znojmo 9 Dec 1437, bur Nagyvárad [today Oradea, Romania]).  The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records the birth 15 Feb 1368 of "Domino Imperatori…ex Domina Elizabeth Imperatrice sua coniuge, filius tertius in ordine…Zigismundus"[1080].  Markgraf von Brandenburg 1378-1395 and 1411-1415.  He was elected as ZSIGMOND King of Hungary at Székesfehérvár 10 Jun 1386, in light of his forthcoming marriage with Mária King of Hungary, crowned 31 Mar 1387 in the Basilica of Székesfehérvár.  Recognising the danger from the Ottomans, he led a campaign in 1395 which enjoyed some success.  In 1396, King Zsigmond organised a Christian crusade, including troops from France, but suffered a major defeat at Nikopolis 22 Sep 1396[1081], although the Ottoman threat to Europe was averted by attacks on their eastern front in Asia Minor by Timur Khan of the Tartars who captured Sultan Bayezid I at the battle of Ankara 28 Jul 1402.  At first extremely unpopular in Hungary as an intruder and foreigner, King Zsigmond was even held in prison in Buda by a group of nobles in 1401 for several weeks[1082].  After Miklos Garai procured his release, he returned to Bohemia to raise an army.  He obtained Austrian support in 1402 by promising that Albrecht Duke of Austria would be his heir if he died without male issue[1083].  In 1403, Ladislas King of Sicily [Anjou-Capet] arrived in Hungary to campaign actively for the throne, but he hesitated to march on Buda and eventually returned to Naples.  This gave Zsigmond the chance to rally support by offering amnesty to all his opponents who deserted Ladislas, and by end-1403 he had recaptured Buda, Visegrad and Esztergom[1084].  He established the Dragon Order in Dec 1408, aimed at defending the Hungarian royal house from all enemies domestic and foreign[1085].  Elected SIGMUND King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 14 Sep 1410, confirmed 21 Jul 1411, crowned at Aachen 8 Nov 1414.  Elected ZIKMUND King of Bohemia at Hradschin 28 Jul 1410, crowned at Prague 27 Jul 1420 after the death of his older half-brother King Wenzel IV, when he also succeeded as Duke of Luxembourg.  He was defeated by the Ottomans in a campaign to recover Galambóc in 1428[1086].  Crowned King of Italy at Milan 25 Nov 1431.  Crowned Emperor SIGMUND at Rome 31 May 1433.  He encouraged international trade by abolishing internal duties, regulating tariffs on foreign goods and standardising weights and measures throughout the country.  Due to his frequent absences attending to business in the other countries which he ruled, he was obliged to consult Diets in Hungary with more frequency than his predecessors and institute the office of Palatine as chief administrator while he was away[1087].  He designated his son-in-law as his successor in both Hungary and Bohemia. 

m firstly (Aug 1385, in person Buda 31 Mar 1387) as her second husband, MÁRIA King of Hungary, daughter of LAJOS I King of Hungary & his second wife Jelisaveta Kotromanić of Bosnia (1371-Buda 1395, bur Warasdin).  The Chronica principum Polonie name "seniorem Mariam…aliam Hedwigim" as the two daughters of "Ludwicum regem Ungarie", adding that Mária married "Sigismundo marchioni Brandeburgensi, filio domini Karoli imperatoris"[1088].  On the death of her father in 1382, she was declared heir to the throne and named King of Hungary, Dalmatia and Croatia, with her mother as regent.  She was crowned at Székesfehérvár 17 Sep 1382.  The Catalogus abbatum Sanganensium records that "Lodwicus rex Ungarorum…filiam suam primogenitam" married "Sigismundo filio Karoli imperatoris" who thereby acquired the kingdom of Hungary[1089].  A rebellion, led by Jan Horvat Ban of Mačva/Macsói and his brother Paul Bishop of Zagreb, broke out in 1385 in support of Charles III King of Sicily who claimed the throne as the nearest male relative to Mária's father[1090].  Queen Mária was forced to renounce her rights 31 Dec 1385, following the invasion of Hungary by King Charles, who was crowned king of Hungary at Buda.  She was restored in Feb 1386 after Charles was murdered.  She was taken prisoner with her mother by Jan Horvat after visiting Djakovo in late 1386, and taken to a castle in Novigrad near Zadar[1091].  Her second husband arrived in Hungary, was accepted as king by the nobles in Alba Regalis, and besieged Novigrad to secure Mária's release.  She died after falling from her horse[1092]

m secondly (contract 6 Dec 1405, 1408) BARBARA of Cilli, daughter of HERMAN [II] Count of Cilli [Celje], Ban of Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia & his wife Anna von Schaunberg ([1392]-Melnik 11 Jul 1451, bur Prague).  She became wealthy by lending cash to her husband and acquiring numerous castles by way of pledge for the loans[1093].  She was regent of Hungary 1412-1414 and 1416-1418.  She died of plague. 

King Zsigmond & his second wife had one child:

1.         ELISABETH [Erszébet] [de Luxembourg] Princess of Bohemia and Hungary (Prague 28 Feb 1409-Raab/Györ 19 Dec 1442, bur Székesfehérvár).  On the death of her husband, she claimed the regency in Hungary while waiting for the birth of her child, but a council of nobles at Buda elected Władisław III “Warneczyk” King of Poland as King of Hungary in early 1440 before the birth.  After her son Ladislas was born in Feb 1440, she succeeded in getting him crowned as king with support from the Bohemian warlord Giskra who occupied north-west Hungary.  m (Esztergom 28 Sep 1421) ALBRECHT V Duke of Austria, son of ALBRECHT IV "das Weltwunder" Duke of Austria im Land ob und unter der Enns & his wife Johanna [Sophia] von Bayern (Vienna 10 Aug 1397-Langendorf/Neszmély near Esztergom 27 Oct 1439, bur Székesfehérvár).  Designated by his father-in-law as his successor in both Hungary and Bohemia, he was elected ALBERT King of Hungary 18 Dec 1437, crowned 1 Jan 1438 at Székesfehérvár, and elected ALBRECHT King of Bohemia 27 Dec 1437 at Prague, crowned 29 Jun 1438 at Prague.  Elected ALBRECHT II King of the Romans at Frankfurt-am-Main 18 Mar 1438. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  KINGS of HUNGARY 1437-1457 (HABSBURG)

 

 

The death without male heirs in 1437 of Zsigmond King of Hungary represented another potential succession problem for the country.  However, the king had married his daughter Elisabeth to Albrecht V Duke of Austria, and had designated his son-in-law as his successor before he died.  He was elected as Albert King of Hungary in 1437.  Unfortunately, the problem was merely postponed as Albert died only two years later, leaving as successor his as-yet unborn son, who was to become László V King of Hungary, but whose succession was challenged by Władysław III King of Poland who was elected as Ulászló I King of Hungary. 

 

 

ALBRECHT of Austria, son of ALBRECHT IV "das Weltwunder" Duke of Austria & his wife Johanna [Sophia] von Bayern (Vienna 10 Aug 1397-Neczmély near Esztergom 27 Oct 1439, bur Székesfehérvár).  He succeeded his father in 1404 as ALBRECHT V Duke of Austria im Land ob und unter der Enns.  Designated by his father-in-law as his successor in both Hungary and Bohemia, he was elected ALBERT King of Hungary 18 Dec 1437, crowned 1 Jan 1438 at Székesfehérvár, and elected ALBRECHT King of Bohemia 27 Dec 1437 at Prague, crowned 29 Jun 1438 at Prague.  He was also elected ALBRECHT II King of the Romans at Frankfurt-am-Main 18 Mar 1438.  He was organising an army for a campaign against the Ottomans when he died from dysentery. 

1.         other children: see AUSTRIA

2.         LADISLAUS Archduke of Austria (posthumously Komárom [today Komárno, Slovakia] 22 Feb 1440-Prague 23 Nov 1457, bur Prague St Veit).  He succeeded at birth as LADISLAUS Duke of Austria, under the regency of his mother.  She also succeeded in getting him crowned as LÁSZLÓ V “Utószülött/Posthumous” King of Hungary at Székesfehérvár with support from the Bohemian warlord Giskra who occupied north-west Hungary[1094].  However, after the arrival in Buda of his rival, Władisław III King of Poland who had already been elected King of Hungary, László and his mother left (with the Hungarian crown) for the court of Friedrich III Duke of Austria.  The resulting civil war was mediated by the church, which resulted in the acceptance of the King of Poland as king of Hungary.  He succeeded in 1444 after the death of Władisław King of Poland, as King of Hungary, under the regency of Jan Hunyadi.  He remained under the tutelage of Friedrich III Duke of Austria, who was forced to release him in 1452.  He was crowned King of Hungary in 1453, still under the de facto regency of Jan Hunyadi.  He was crowned LADISLAUS King of Bohemia 28 Oct 1453.  He allowed himself to fall under the influence of Ulrich Count of Cilli, a relative of his maternal grandmother, who was a rival of the Hunyadi family and was murdered.  In Mar 1457 King László ordered the execution of László Hunyadi for his involvement in the murder of Ulrich Count of Cilli[1095].  He died of plague. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  KINGS of HUNGARY 1440-1526 (JAGIELLON)

 

 

The death in 1439 of Albert King of Hungary triggered yet another succession crisis for Hungary.  His early death resulted in the rival candidacy of his as-yet unborn son, who was to become László V King of Hungary, and of Władysław III King of Poland who was elected as Ulászló I King of Hungary.  After the death of King Ulászló I in 1444, King László prevailed, but when the latter died in 1457 Hungary was plunged yet again into crisis.  Mátyás Hunyadi, younger son of the former regent of King László, was elected king in Jan 1458.  On his death in 1490, another Polish king of the House of Jagiellon was elected as Ulászló II King of Hungary. 

 

On the death of Lajos II King of Hungary at the battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary entered its final succession struggle.  This was played out between the dead king's brother-in-law Ferdinand Archduke of Austria, who was elected as Ferdinánd I King of Hungary, and János Zápolya who was crowned as János I King of Hungary.  Yet another civil war followed, which was settled when the two candidates agreed to divide the country between them and recognise each other's titles.  After King János I died in 1540, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I entered into the picture, supposedly on behalf of the infant King János II.  The sultan captured Buda in 1541, effectively creating a third division of Hungary.  After a period of temporary exile in Silesia, János II returned to Hungary in 1566 and was recognised by the Sultan as Prince of Transylvania, an autonomous new principality under Turkish suzerainty which was to continue its separate existence until the early 18th century.  The Habsburg archdukes of Austria continued to be elected as kings of Hungary, ruling in the western part of the country until the expulsion of the Ottomans, and thereafter in the whole of Hungary until the end of the First World War. 

 

 

JOGAILA [Jagiello] Grand Prince of Lithuania, son of ALGIRDAS [Olgierd] Grand Prince of Lithuania & his wife Uljana of Tver [Rurikid] ([1351]-Grodek 31 May 1434, bur Krakow Cathedral).  Baptised Krakow Feb 1386 as WŁADYSŁAW, shortly before his first marriage, when he was recognised as WŁADISŁAW II King of Poland

1.         other children: see POLAND

2.         WŁADISŁAW (31 Oct 1424-killed in battle Varna 10 Nov 1444).  He succeeded his father in 1434 as WŁADISŁAW III “Warneczyk” King of Poland.  He was elected ULÁSZLÓ I King of Hungary by a council of nobles at Buda in early 1440, before the birth of Ladislas [László], posthumous son of his predecessor Albrecht Duke of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia.  After his arrival in Buda, he was recognised as king by most of László's supporters.  The resulting civil war was mediated by the church, which resulted in the acceptance of the King of Poland as king.  A papally sponsored Hungarian/Serb led crusade in 1443 recaptured Smederovo, Niš and Sofija, but was turned back at Adrianople.  Sultan Murad II negotiated peace terms under which he agreed to the restoration of the Serb state and a ten-year truce[1096].  The Pope encouraged King Władisław to launch a second crusade the following year, in which Serbia refused to participate, in defiance of the agreed truce, but he was defeated and killed in battle by Sultan Murad at Varna 10 Nov 1444.

3.         KAZIMIERZ (30 Nov 1427-Grodno 7 Jun 1492, bur Krakow Cathedral).  Grand Prince of Lithuania 1440.  He succeeded his brother in 1444 as KAZIMIERZ IV "the Great" King of Poland

a)         WŁADISŁAW (Krakow 1 Mar 1456-Buda 13 Mar 1516)He succeeded in 1471 as LADISLAUS II King of Bohemia.  He was elected as ULÁSZLÓ II "Dobre/OK" King of Hungary and Croatia in 1490. 

-        see below.  

b)         other children: see POLAND

 

 

WŁADISŁAW of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ IV "the Great" King of Poland & his wife Elisabeth Adss of Austria (Krakow 1 Mar 1456-Buda 13 Mar 1516).  He succeeded in 1471 as LADISLAUS II King of Bohemia.  He was elected as ULÁSZLÓ II "Dobre/OK" King of Hungary and Croatia in 1490 by a council of nobles at Pest, where István Zápolya was his leading supporter[1097], although this violated the 1463 treaty between his predecessor and Emperor Friedrich III, whose son Maximilian claimed the Hungarian throne and attacked Hungary.  He was referred to as "King Dobre" (meaning "OK" in Polish) from his habit of assenting to any proposal laid before him, but in the Polish language because he spoke no Hungarian[1098].  The invader agreed a new treaty in 1491 which confirmed the Habsburg succession should Ulászló leave no male heir[1099].  The majority of Hungarian nobles remained loyal to László VI, who obligingly repealed his predecessor's tax innovations, disbanded the 'Black Army' and agreed to convoke the Diet regularly.  Royal revenues decreased so dramatically that King Ulászló was obliged to sell his predecessor's art collections[1100].  After extensive Ottoman raids on Croatia and Slovenia, King Ulászló's forces were defeated at Krbava Polje [Udbina] in Sep 1493.  Dissatisfied both with the 1491 treaty and with King Ulászló's perceived weakness against the Ottomans, Újlaki Lőrinc [Lovro Iločki], ruler of Srem, unsuccessfully tried to overthrown Ulászló in 1494.  Opposition persisted, culminating in an assembly convoked in 1505 by the Zápolya family of Transylvania which prohibited a foreigner from occupying the Hungarian throne, effectively annulling the 1491 treaty, although the resulting crisis in relations with the Habsburgs was dispelled by the birth of Ulászló's son the following year.  King Ulászló nevertheless agreed a new treaty with Emperor Maximilian affirming the 1491 treaty, sealed by the betrothal of his daughter to Maximilian's grandson[1101].  A special tax levied on Transylvania to celebrate the 1506 birth of the crown prince triggered a rebellion by the Székelys, which was defeated.  Dissatisfaction continued to simmer, leading to the Dózsa Peasant Revolt in 1514 against the nobility, which was crushed at the battle of Temesvár by Jan Zápolya[1102]

m firstly (Frankfurt an der Oder 20 Aug 1476, divorced Rome 7 Apr 1500) as her second husband, BARBARA von Brandenburg, widow of HEINRICH IX Duke of Glogau [Piast], daughter of ALBRECHT ACHILLES Elector of Brandenburg & his second wife Anna von Sachsen (Ansbach 30 May 1464-Ansbach 4 Sep 1515, bur Heilsbronn). 

m secondly (secretly 4 Oct 1490, divorced 7 Apr 1500) as her second husband, BEATRICE of Naples, widow of MÁTYÁS Hunyadi “Corvinus” King of Hungary and Bohemia, daughter of FERRANTE I King of Naples [Aragón] & his first wife Isabelle Guilhem de Clermont [Isabella di Chiaramonte] Signora di Tarento (1457-Ischia 23 Sep 1508).  King Ulászló married her secretly but later considered the marriage void on the basis that he had been forced into it[1103].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "la regina de Ungaria…maddama Beatrice de Aragona figliola de re Ferrante primo" returned from Hungary 16 May 1501 because "lo marito lavea renunciata per causa che non faceva figlioli"[1104].  

m thirdly (6 Oct 1502) ANNE de Foix, daughter of GASTON II de Foix Comte de Candale & his first wife Catherine de Foix ([1484]-Buda 26 Jul 1506, bur Székesfehérvár). 

King Ulászló & his third wife had two children:

1.         ANNA (Prague 23 Jul 1503-Prague 27 Jan 1547, bur Prague St Veit).  Her betrothal was agreed to seal her father's second agreement with Emperor Maximilian in [1506] regarding the eventual Habsburg succession to the Hungarian throne[1105]m (Linz 27 May 1526) FERDINAND I Archduke of Austria, son of PHILIPP Archduke of Austria, FELIPE I King of Castile & his wife dońa Juana "la Loca" de Castilla y Aragón Queen of Castile (Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid 10 Mar 1503-Vienna 25 Jul 1564, bur Prague St Veit).  After Lajos II King of Hungary was killed in battle at Mohács in Aug 1526, Jan Zápolya was acclaimed as king of Hungary in Oct 1526 at Tokaj and again in Nov 1526 by a Hungarian assembly in Székesfehérvár[1106].  A rival assembly held by the Frankapan/Frangepán family at Cetin elected Archduke Ferdinand as FERDINÁND King of Hungary at Pressburg 17 Dec 1526 and at Buda 7 Oct 1527, crowned 3 Nov 1527 at Székesfehérvár.  He was also elected FERDINAND I King of Bohemia at Prague 23 Oct 1526, crowned 24 Feb 1527 at Prague St Veit.  Civil war followed in Hungary, King János was forced to flee temporarily to Poland but returned with Turkish help.  Unable to establish his position completely, he agreed to divide Hungary with King Ferdinánd, the division being accepted by János's ally Sultan Suleiman in return for an oath of allegiance and payment of a large cash tribute[1107].  A compromise was mediated between the two claimants in 1538 at Várad under which each recognised the other's title, and King János agreed that King Ferdinand should inherit the whole kingdom should he die without a male heir.  He was elected as FERDINAND I King of Germany at Köln 5 Jan 1531, crowned 11 Jan 1531 at Aachen.  On the death of King János in 1540, his supporters recognised his infant son as king of Hungary.  King Ferdinánd sent an army against Buda, but Sultan Suleiman occupied Buda himself in Aug 1541, recognised János II as king under Ottoman suzerainty, and incorporated a large expanse of territory in the centre of Hungary into the Ottoman Empire.  In 1547, King Ferdinánd concluded a truce with the Sultan under which the latter recognised him as de facto ruler in those parts of Hungary which he then held, in return for payment of an annual tribute.  In 1551, after Regent Isabella was persuaded on behalf of her son to renounce his claims to Hungary in return for a duchy in Silesia, King Ferdinánd occupied Transylvania, although Isabella and her son were reinstated in 1566 after the Ottomans counter-attacked[1108].  He was crowned Emperor FERDINAND I at Frankfurt-am-Main 14 Mar 1558.  After his death, the crown of Hungary passed to his successors in the House of Habsburg who were elected as kings of Hungary in addition to Archdukes of Austria and Emperors. 

-        ARCHDUKES of AUSTRIA, KINGS of HUNGARY

2.         LAJOS (1 Jul 1506-killed in battle Mohacs 29 Aug 1526, bur Székesfehérvár).  His birth dispelled the crisis with the Habsburgs triggered by the 1505 assembly as it effectively postponed their eventual succession to the Hungarian throne in accordance with the terms of the 1491 treaty[1109].  He succeeded his father in 1516 as LAJOS II King of Hungary and Croatia, LUDWIG II King of Bohemia.  He was surrounded by a circle of corrupt advisers and an active opposition led by János Zapolya.  He could do little to restore the fortunes of the country.  The frontier garrisons were left without pay and the fortresses fell into ill-repair.  The king disbanded his own army for lack of funds[1110].  Sultan Suleiman demanded tribute from Hungary in 1520 and, when this was refused, captured Beograd.  Turkish incursions increased, and large parts of Croatia were annexed before a major attack in 1526 culminating in the overwhelming Ottoman victory at Mohacs 29 Aug 1526 where King Lajos was killed, although Sultan Suleiman subsequently withdrew his troops from the Balkans[1111]m (Prague 13 Jan 1522) MARIA Adss of Austria, daughter of PHILIPP Archduke of Austria, FELIPE I King of Castile & his wife dońa Juana "la Loca" de Castilla y Aragón Queen of Castile (17 Sep 1505 –18 Oct 1558).  Her brother King Ferdinánd I appointed a Council to rule Hungary, under Queen Maria's presidency.  He replaced her in 1528, deferring to the wishes of the Hungarians, by István Count Báthory whom he appointed Palatine[1112]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  KING of HUNGARY 1458-1490 (HUNYADI)

 

 

On the death in 1457 of László V King of Hungary, Hungary faced yet another succession crisis.  Mátyás Hunyadi, younger son of the former regent of King László, was elected king in Jan 1458.  On his death in 1490, another Polish king of the House of Jagiellon was elected as Ulászló II King of Hungary. 

 

 

SERBA, son of --- . 

m ---.  The name of Serba´s wife is not known. 

Serba & his wife had three children: 

1.         VOJK Hunyád (-[1444]).  He was a boyar from Wallachia.  There was a rumour that he was the illegitimate son of Zsigmond King of Hungary[1113]m ERSZÉBET Morzsina of Demsus, daughter of ---.  Vojk & his wife had seven children: 

a)         JÁNOS Hunyadi (1407-1456).  After starting from a relative low position, he rose to become a leading military commander.  Voivoda of Transylvania [Erdelyi vajda], where he built the fortress of Vajdahunyad[1114].  He was appointed regent on the accession of King László V in 1444, assuming the title Governor in 1446[1115].  He won a major victory against the Ottomans defending Beograd 22 Jul 1456, but shortly after died of plague[1116].  Georgius Phrantzes records the death "anno 6965" of "Hungarorum dux et princeps Iancus"[1117]m ERSZÉBET Szilágyi de Horogszeg, daughter of --- Szilágyi de Horogszeg & his wife --- (-1484).  János Hunyadi & his wife had two children:

i)          LÁSZLÓ Hunyadi (1433-beheaded 1457).  His father appointed him Ban of Croatia in 1453 in defiance of Frederic Count of Cilli who had conquered part of the lands of the former Ban, Tallóci Péter [Peter Talovac], and claimed the Banship for himself[1118].  He was seized and executed on the orders of László V King of Hungary for involvement in the murder of Ulric Count of Cilli the previous year[1119].  His execution was botched, taking four blows to sever his head, which had the effect of creating him a martyr and increasing support for his younger brother's take-over of the monarchy[1120]

ii)         MÁTYÁS Hunyadi (Kolozsvár 1440-Klausenburg, Vienna 6 May 1490, bur Székesfehérvár).  On the execution of his brother, he was arrested and exiled to Prague.  He was liberated a few weeks after the death of King László V, and was elected MÁTYÁS "Corvinus" King of Hungary 23 Jan 1458. 

-         see below

b)         JÁNOS Hunyadi (-1442). 

c)         VOJK Hunyadi

d)         MARIA m MANZILLA Ban of Wallachia. 

e)         KLARAm --- Pongrácz de Dengeleg.  1442. 

f)          daughter.  m JÁNOS Székely de Kövend (-1448). 

g)         daughter ([1398]-)m PETRU II Voivode of Moldavia, son of ALEXANDRU "cel Bun/the Good" Voivode of Moldavia & his fourth wife Marina --- (-after Dec 1448).  No children. 

2.         MOGA

3.         RADUL [László] (-after 1429).  m ANNA

 

 

1.         daughter .  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[1121], she was a relative of Mátyás King of Hungary but the precise relationship is not known.  m ([1465/66]) as his second wife, VLAD III "Dracula" Voivode of Wallachia, son of VLAD Voivode of Wallachia & his first wife --- (-beheaded Dec 1476).  Vlad was the historical figure who provided the basis for the legends and novels about Count Dracula. 

 

 

MÁTYÁS Hunyadi, son of JÁNOS Hunyadi & his wife Erszebet Szilágyi de Horogszeg (Kolozsvár 1440-Klausenburg, Vienna 6 May 1490, bur Székesfehérvár Cathedral).  On the execution of his brother, he was arrested and exiled to Prague[1122].  He was liberated a few weeks after the death of King László V, and was elected MÁTYÁS "Corvinus" King of Hungary 23 Jan 1458 at a council of nobles convened by his maternal uncle Mihály Szilágyi at the Rákos meadow (later a suburb of Pest) and at Buda the next day, and crowned.  He was named "Corvinus" after the raven which was the family's heraldic emblem.  Mihály Szilágyi acted as regent, until he was sent to fight against the Ottomans where he was killed[1123].  Opposition, led by László Garai and Újlaki Miklós [Nikola Iločki], found support from Friedrich III Duke of Austria.  Under peace terms agreed in 1463, Friedrich of Austria would succeed as king of Hungary should Mátyás die without a male heir, and King Mátyás was crowned again in Mar 1464 with the true Hungarian crown which Friedrich returned[1124].  In 1469, he conquered Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia, and adopted the title MATTHIAS King of Bohemia in opposition to Georg Podiebrad, but was deposed in 1471.  He also actively campaigned for the imperial crown as successor to Emperor Friedrich, and in 1478 forced the latter to cede Lower Austria and Styria to Hungary[1125].  He created the powerful standing 'Black Army', named after its commander 'Black' Jan Haugwitz.  Under his patronage, the arts and architecture flourished in Hungary, although many of his buildings in Buda were destroyed in the later Ottoman invasion.  His 'Corvina' library and collection of objets d'art were famous throughout Europe[1126].  In order to finance this, he was obliged to raise huge amounts in taxes, mainly from the nobility and partly in violation of their fiscal privileges[1127].  When the Diet objected to his porta tax in 1470, he dissolved the Diet[1128].  Opposition focused around Kazimierz King of Poland, who in 1471 crossed the Carpathians with the aim of taking the Hungarian throne, although the enterprise quickly collapsed[1129].  At the time of his death, King Mátyás was negotiating with Maximilian of Austria for recognition of his illegitimate son as his heir, and his betrothal to Maximilian's daughter. 

m firstly (1455) ELISABETH of Celje, daughter of ULRIC II Count of Celje [Cilli], Ban of Slavonia, Croatia and Dalmatia & his wife Katarina Kantakuzene Branković (1441-[6 Nov] 1455).  The Masarelli Vatican manuscript names Gelsa as the daughter of Ulrich count of Cilly & his wife, stating that she married Matthias King of Hungary[1130].  Theodoros Spandounes records that the daughter of "il conte de Cil" and his wife married "Mathias rč di Ungheria"[1131]

Betrothed (17 Jan 1458) to ANNA Garay, daughter of LÁSZLÓ [II] Garay Ban of Macsó, Palatine & his wife Alexandra von Teschen [Piast] (-after 1460). 

m secondly (contract 1 May 1461, 1463) KATHARINA Podiebrad, daughter of JIŘI Podiebrad King of Bohemia & his first wife Katharina Freiin von Sternberg (11 Nov 1449-8 Mar 1464, bur Buda).  This marriage was arranged by her father as the price for releasing her future husband from his custody in Prague[1132]

m thirdly (Naples 16 Sep 1476, in Hungary 13 Dec 1476, repudiated) as her first husband, BEATRICE of Naples, daughter of FERRANTE I King of Naples [Aragón] & his first wife Isabelle Guilhem de Clermont [Isabella di Chiaramonte] Signora di Tarento (1457-Ischia 23 Sep 1508).  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records the marriage 7 Sep 1476 of "maddamma Beatrice de Ragona figliola del Re Ferrante primo" and "Re Mactia Re de Ungaria"[1133].  The court historian, Bonfini, described in detail the civilising influence of Queen Beatrice ranging from the introduction of latin cuisine to the sponsoring of foreign artists and authors[1134].  There were suspicions that she poisoned her husband[1135].  She married secondly (secretly 4 Oct 1490, divorced 7 Apr 1500) as his second wife, Ulászló II King of Hungary, LADISLAUS King of Bohemia (Krakow 1 Mar 1456-Buda 13 Mar 1516).  King Ulászló married her secretly but later considered the marriage void on the basis that he had been forced into it[1136].  The mid-16th century Chronicle of Gaspare Fuscolillo records that "la regina de Ungaria…maddama Beatrice de Aragona figliola de re Ferrante primo" returned from Hungary 16 May 1501 because "lo marito lavea renunciata per causa che non faceva figlioli"[1137].  

Mistress (1): BARBARA Edelpöck, from Breslau (-1495).  She later married FRIEDRICH von Enzersdorf

King Mátyás had an illegitimate son by Mistress (1):

1.          JÁNOS Corvin Hunyadi (1473-12 Oct 1504).  The Hungarian nobility refused to accept his succession on the death of his father in 1490.  He accepted the election of Vladislav II King of Bohemia as Ulászló II King of Hungary (see above), and was appointed hereditary Duke of Slavonia and Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia[1138].  He established his main residence at Bihać after his marriage.  Duke of Liptó.  Graf von Hunyád.  Prince of Hungary.  m (Bihac 1496 before 7 Apr) as her first husband, BEATRIX Frangepán, daughter of BERNÁT Count Frangepán at Modruš and Vinodol & his wife donna Luisa Marzano d'Aragona ([1480]-1510 before 27 Mar).  She married secondly (Gyula 21 Jan 1509) as his first wife, Georg "der Fromme" joint-Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach. 

a)         KRISTÓF (-1505). 

b)         ERSZÉBET (1496-1508). 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13.  KINGS of HUNGARY 1526-1540 (ZÁPOLYA)

 

 

On the death of Lajos II King of Hungary at the battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary entered its final succession struggle.  This was played out between the dead king's brother-in-law Ferdinand Archduke of Austria, who was elected as Ferdinánd I King of Hungary, and János Zápolya who was crowned as János I King of Hungary.  Yet another civil war followed, which was settled when the two candidates agreed to divide the country between them and recognise each other's titles.  After King János I died in 1540, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I entered the picture, supposedly on behalf of the infant King János II.  He captured Buda in 1541, effectively creating a third division of Hungary.  After a period of temporary exile in Silesia, János II returned to Hungary in 1566 and was recognised by the Sultan as Prince of Transylvania [“Erdélyi fejedelem], an autonomous new principality under Turkish suzerainty which was to continue its separate existence until the early 18th century.  The Habsburg Archdukes of Austria continued to be elected as kings of Hungary, ruling in the western part of the country until the expulsion of the Ottomans, and thereafter in the whole of Hungary until the end of the First World War. 

 

 

1.         LÁSZLÓ [Vajdafi] Déak de Déakfalva.  Lord of Solymos.  He became ispán (a Slavonic term for a local administrator and tax collector who maintained an armed force of freemen at his vár [fortress]) of the salt monopoly in Transylvania after leaving the service of János Hunyadi[1139]m ---.  The name of László´s wife is not known.  László & his wife had two children: 

a)         IMRE Zápolya (-1487).  Ban of Croatia and Slovenia.  He made his fortune by making large loans to King Mátyás, for very large returns[1140]m URSULA Bebek, daughter of ---.    

b)         ISTVÁN Zápolya (-25 Dec 1499).  Lord of Trenczin.  Starost of Silesia 1475.  He was a leading supporter of the election of Władysław of Poland (Ladislaus II King of Bohemia) as Ulászló II King of Hungary in 1490[1141].  Palatine of Hungary 1492.  m firstly --- Homonnai(-Drugeth), daughter of SIMON Homonnai(-Drugeth) & his wife ---.  m secondly (11 Aug 1483) JADWIGA von Teschen, daughter of PREMISLAW II Herzog von Teschen [Piast] & his wife Anna of Masovia [Piast] ([1469]-6 Apr 1521).  István Zápolya & his second wife had three children: 

i)          JÁNOS Zápolya (1487-17 or 21 Jul 1540).  He succeeded in 1526 as JÁNOS I King of Hungary

-         see below

ii)         GYÖRGY Zápolya ([1494]-29 Aug 1526). 

iii)        BORBÁLA Zápolya (1495-2 Oct 1515)m (28 May 1512) as his first wife, ZYGMUNT I “Stary/the Old” King of Poland, son of KAZIMIERZ IV "the Great" King of Poland & his wife Elisabeth Adss of Austria (1 Jan 1467-1 Apr 1548). 

 

 

JÁNOS Zápolya, son of ISTVÁN Zápolya & his second wife Jadwiga von Teschen [Piast] (1487-17 or 21 Jul 1540).  Lord of Trenczin.  Voivoide of Transylvania 1511.  He defeated the Dózsa Peasant Revolt in 1514 at the battle of Temesvár, and another revolt in Transylvania in 1517 after which he confiscated the rebels' property for the crown[1142].  After King Lajos II was killed in battle at Mohács in Aug 1526, Jan Zápolya was acclaimed as JÁNOS I King of Hungary in Oct 1526 at Tokaj and again in Nov 1526 by a Hungarian assembly in Székesfehérvár[1143].  A rival assembly held by the Frangepán family at Cetin elected Archduke Ferdinand as king of Hungary 31 Dec 1526[1144].  Civil war followed, King János was forced to flee temporarily to Poland but returned with Turkish help.  Unable to establish his position completely, he agreed to divide the country with King Ferdinand, this being accepted by János's ally Sultan Suleiman in return for an oath of allegiance and payment of a large cash tribute[1145].  A compromise was mediated between the two claimants in 1538 at Várad under which each recognised the other's title, and King János agreed that King Ferdinand should inherit the whole kingdom should he die without a male heir[1146]

m (23 Feb 1539) IZABELLA of Poland, daughter of ZYGMUNT I “Stary/the Old” King of Poland, Grand Prince of Lithuania & his second wife Bona Sforza of Milan (18 Jan 1519-15 Sep 1559).  She was regent for her son on his accession in 1540.  In 1551, she renounced on his behalf his claim to Hungary in return for a duchy in Silesia. 

King János I & Queen Izabella had one child:

1.         JÁNOS ZSIGMOND Zápolya (7 Jul 1540-14 Mar 1571).  On the death of his father two weeks after his birth, he was proclaimed JÁNOS II King of Hungary by a small group of nobles assembled at Rákos, under the regency of his mother.  King Ferdinand sent an army against Buda, but Sultan Suleiman occupied Buda himself in Aug 1541 (starting the Ottoman occupation which was to last until 1686), recognised János II as King under Ottoman suzerainty, and incorporated a large expanse of territory in the centre of Hungary into the Ottoman Empire.  In 1547, King Ferdinand concluded a truce with the Sultan under which the latter recognised him as de facto ruler in those parts of Hungary which he then held, in return for payment of an annual tribute.  In 1551, Regent Isabella was persuaded on behalf of her son to renounce his claims in return for a duchy in Silesia, and Ferdinand occupied Transylvania.  Jan Zsigmond was reinstated in 1566 after the Ottomans counter-attacked, when the Sultan formally declared Transylvania an autonomous principality under Turkish suzerainty[1147], and he succeeded as JÁNOS ZSIGMOND Prince of Transylvania.  He had a close personal relationship with his counsellor Gáspár Békés[1148]

 

 



[1] The history of Roman province of Pannonia is summarised in the UNRV History of the Roman Empire website, available at <http://www.unrv.com/provinces/pannonia.php> (16 Sep 2006). 

[2] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin), II.9, p. 125. 

[3] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, in particular p. 77. 

[4] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 247. 

[5] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 64. 

[6] Fine, J. V. A. (1991) The Early Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 252. 

[7] Macartney, C. A. (1962) Hungary: A Short History (Edinburgh University Press), Chapter 1, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003). 

[8] Kézai, S., Veszprémy, L. and Schaer, F. (eds. and trans.) (1999) Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum (CEP), 26 and 27, pp. 79 and 81. 

[9] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum, Introduction, pp. xv-xix. 

[10] Endlicher, S. L. (ed.) (1849) Rerum Hungaricarum, Monumenta Arpadiana (Sangalli), Gestis Hungarorum Liber 3, p. 5. 

[11] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 6, pp. 23-5. 

[12] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 22, p. 73. 

[13] Lamberti Annales 1071, MGH SS V, p. 185. 

[14] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum, Szúcs, J. 'Theoretical elements in Master Simon of Kéza's Gesta Hungarorum', p. xlvi. 

[15] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[16] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 25, p. 79. 

[17] Annals of Saint-Bertin, 862. 

[18] Kosztolnyik, Z. J. (2002) Hungary under the Early Árpáds, 890s to 1063 (East European Monographs, Boulder, distributed by Columbia University Press, New York), pp. 1-5. 

[19] Cross, S. H. and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, O. P. (trans. & eds.) (1973) The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text (Cambridge, Massachusetts) ("Russian Primary Chronicle") 888-898, p. 62. 

[20] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 25, p. 79. 

[21] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[22] Wolfram (1998), p. 250. 

[23] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn), De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 7. 

[24] Wolfram (1998), pp. 264-6. 

[25] Wolfram (1998), p. 266. 

[26] Wolfram (1998), p. 278. 

[27] Wolfram (1998), p. 283. 

[28] Isidori Historia Gothorum , Wandalorum, Sueborum, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 283. 

[29] Wolfram (1998), p. 280. 

[30] Wolfram (1998), p. 266. 

[31] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[32] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[33] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[34] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[35] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77.  

[36] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[37] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[38] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[39] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[40] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[41] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[42] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 122. 

[43] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[44] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 103. 

[45] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 122. 

[46] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[47] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77 and 123. 

[48] Wolfram (1998), p. 328. 

[49] Wolfram (1998), p. 521 footnote 490. 

[50] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 515, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159. 

[51] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[52] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[53] Wolfram (1998), p. 251. 

[54] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[55] Wolfram (1998), p. 258. 

[56] Wolfram (1998), p. 247. 

[57] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 122. 

[58] Wolfram (1998), p. 261. 

[59] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[60] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 44. 

[61] Wolfram (1998), pp. 267 and 269. 

[62] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[63] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 44.  

[64] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 45. 

[65] Wolfram (1998), p. 268. 

[66] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 69. 

[67] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.23, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 61. 

[68] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[69] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[70] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 69. 

[71] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 69. 

[72] For example, the death of Sviatoslav Prince of Kiev, recorded in the Russian Primary Chronicle 972, p. 90. 

[73] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[74] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[75] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Theophylacti Simocattć Historiarum, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) ("Theophylactus") VI, 10, p. 261. 

[76] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68. 

[77] Gregory of Tours IV.41, p. 236. 

[78] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 5. 

[79] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 88. 

[80] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 6, p. 25. 

[81] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 69. 

[82] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić (Buda), Tome I, p. 488. 

[83] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 105. 

[84] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 105. 

[85] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 105. 

[86] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 6, p. 25. 

[87] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 442, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 81. 

[88] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 105. 

[89] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 6, p. 25. 

[90] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 445, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 81. 

[91] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 105. 

[92] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 6, p. 25. 

[93] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 442, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 81. 

[94] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. II 14, pp. 201 and 202. 

[95] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 115. 

[96] Sigeberti Chronica 447-455, MGH SS VI, pp. 309-10. 

[97] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 123. 

[98] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 125. 

[99] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 127. 

[100] Sigeberti Chronica 455, MGH SS VI, p. 310. 

[101] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 128. 

[102] Sigeberti Chronica 460, MGH SS VI, p. 310. 

[103] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 19 and 20, pp. 67 and 69-73. 

[104] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 127. 

[105] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 22, p. 73. 

[106] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 22, p. 73. 

[107] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 22, p. 73. 

[108] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 19, p. 67. 

[109] Epitome ex Pauli Historia Factć II, Istoria Lonogobardorum, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 196. 

[110] Christie (1998), p. 1. 

[111] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.13-14, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 56-7. 

[112] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.16-17, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 57-8. 

[113] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 75. 

[114] Christie (1998), p. 64. 

[115] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[116] Epitome ex Pauli Historia Factć II, Istoria Lonogobardorum, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 196. 

[117] Epitome ex Pauli Historia Factć I, De regibus qui prćferunt Winolis et Statione eorum, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 195. 

[118] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 3 and 4. 

[119] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[120] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 6 and 7. 

[121] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[122] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[123] Epitome ex Pauli Historia Factć II, Istoria Lonogobardorum, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 196. 

[124] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[125] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I 21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[126] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I 21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[127] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 3 and 4. 

[128] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[129] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[130] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[131] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[132] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[133] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[134] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[135] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[136] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[137] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[138] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[139] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[140] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[141] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[142] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[143] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[144] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 202. 

[145] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 553, MHG SS V, p. 88. 

[146] Gregory of Tours IV.9, p. 203. 

[147] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21 and I.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59

[148] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[149] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[150] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[151] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[152] Procopius, III 33, cited in Christie (1998), p. 35. 

[153] Christie (1998), p. 36. 

[154] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[155] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[156] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[157] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68. 

[158] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico IV.25, p. 593. 

[159] Mommsen, T. (ed) (1954) Codex Theodisianus Vol 1 (2nd edn. reprint, Berlin), VII 8.5, p. 328, cited in Wolfram (1998), pp. 320 and 470. 

[160] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[161] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.23, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 61. 

[162] Christie (1998), pp. 76-7. 

[163] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.9, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 77. 

[164] Andreć Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[165] Annales Fuldenses 796, MGH SS I, p. 351. 

[166] Fine (1991), p. 252. 

[167] Fine (1991), pp. 256 and 261. 

[168] Fine (1991), p. 262. 

[169] Fine (1991), p. 252. 

[170] Einhardi Annales 818, MGH SS, p. 205. 

[171] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS, p. 206. 

[172] RFA 819, p. 106. 

[173] Einhardi Annales 820, MGH SS, p. 207. 

[174] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, 27, MGH SS I, p. 596. 

[175] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 822, p. 111. 

[176] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 625. 

[177] Fine (1991), p. 255. 

[178] RFA 819, p. 106. 

[179] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS, p. 207. 

[180] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 26 and 27, pp. 79 and 81. 

[181] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 28, p. 83. 

[182] ES II 153, which gives no details of the descent. 

[183] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 29, p. 83. 

[184] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 30, p. 83, footnote 4 stating that he was ancestor of the Örsúr. 

[185] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 31, p. 85. 

[186] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 32, p. 85. 

[187] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 33, p. 85. 

[188] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum, p. 83 footnote 3 and p. 84 footnote 1.  

[189] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 6, p. 8. 

[190] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, pp. 87 and 89. 

[191] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 907, MGH SS I, p. 614. 

[192] Continuator Reginonis 915, 917, 924, 926, 932, 938, 944 and 954, MGH SS 1, pp. 614, 615, 616, 617, 619 and 623. 

[193] Ekkehardi IV Casus S. Galli 3, MGH SS II, p. 110. 

[194] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 40, pp. 91-3. 

[195] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 2.10 and 2.11, pp. 97-8. 

[196] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 41, pp. 95-7. 

[197] Continuator Reginonis 915, 917, 924, 926, 932, 938, 944 and 954, MGH SS 1, pp. 614, 615, 616, 617, 619 and 623. 

[198] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 42, pp. 99-101. 

[199] ES II 153. 

[200] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 3, p. 5. 

[201] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 3, p. 5. 

[202] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 3, p. 5. 

[203] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 27, p. 81. 

[204] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 7, p. 8. 

[205] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 4, p. 6. 

[206] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 4, p. 6.  

[207] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 26 and 27, pp. 79 and 81. 

[208] Lázár, I. (1993), trans. Albert Tezla, Hungary - A Brief History (Budapest, Corvina), Introduction, Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003). 

[209] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 14, p. 15. 

[210] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 26 and 27, pp. 79 and 81-3. 

[211] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 52, p. 48. 

[212] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1840) Constantini Porphyrogeniti De Thematibus et De Administrando Imperio, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) 40, p. 172. 

[213] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[214] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[215] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[216] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[217] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[218] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[219] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 51, p. 47. 

[220] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 54. 

[221] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 51, p. 47. 

[222] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[223] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 55, p. 51. 

[224] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 7, p. 8. 

[225] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 7, p. 8. 

[226] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 7, p. 8. 

[227] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[228] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[229] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[230] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 103. 

[231] ES II 128 and 153. 

[232] ES II 153. 

[233] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 6, p. 8. 

[234] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 6, p. 8. 

[235] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 6, p. 8. 

[236] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 29, p. 83, and the commentary in footnote 3. 

[237] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 24, p. 24. 

[238] Kosztolnyik (2002), pp. 32, 57 and 59. 

[239] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26. 

[240] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26. 

[241] Thietmar 8.4, p. 364.      

[242] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 34. 

[243] Lázár, I. (1996) Erdély roved története, trans. T. J. de Kornfeld, Transylvania, a Short History (Simon Publications), p. 30, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at <http://www.hungary.com/corvinus/lib/> (20 Jul 2003). 

[244] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 6, p. 8. 

[245] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26, and 24, p. 24. 

[246] Lázár (1996), p. 30. 

[247] Thietmar 8.4, pp. 363-4. 

[248] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 103. 

[249] Annales Altahenses Maiores 1003, MGH SS XX, p. 790. 

[250] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26. 

[251] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26. 

[252] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175. 

[253] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 55, p. 51. 

[254] Horváth, András Pálóczi (1989) Pechenegs, Cumans, Iasians: Steppe peoples in medieval Hungary (Corvina), pp. 7 and 10.  This marriage is not mentioned in ES II 153. 

[255] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.33, MGH SS III, p. 336. 

[256] Thietmar 2.10 and 2.11, pp. 97-8. 

[257] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 42, pp. 99-101. 

[258] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 53. 

[259] Horváth (1989), p. 10.  This marriage is not mentioned in ES II 153. 

[260] Bielowski, A. (ed.) (1864) Monumenta Polonić Historica (Lwów) Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 488. 

[261] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 54. 

[262] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historić Hungaricć fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Leipzig) Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[263] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 488. 

[264] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[265] ES II 153.  She is not shown in ES II 120. 

[266] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Polonić, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[267] Breve chronicon Silesić, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34. 

[268] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9. 

[269] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[270] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[271] Baumgarten (1927), p. 8, citing Genealogia J. Pistori Niddani, p. 761. 

[272] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[273] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[274] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[275] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, pp. 488-9. 

[276] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[277] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 488. 

[278] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 54. 

[279] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[280] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[281] Thietmar 8.4, p. 364.      

[282] Endlicher, S. L. (ed.) (1849) Rerum Hungaricarum, Monumenta Arpadiana (Sangalli), Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[283] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26. 

[284] Thietmar 8.4, p. 364.      

[285] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 34. 

[286] Lázár (1996), p, 30. 

[287] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[288] Breve chronicon Silesić, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34. 

[289] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9. 

[290] ES II 153.  She is not shown in ES II 120. 

[291] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193. 

[292] Dzięcioł (1963), p. 215. 

[293] ES II 153. 

[294] Vita Guntheri Eremitć 4, MGHSS XI, p.  277.  Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 178, says that it was after visiting the court of King István that Günther decided to become a hermit. 

[295] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 178. 

[296] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[297] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 47, p. 111. 

[298] The court official who acted as the king's deputy in Hungary. 

[299] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 32, p. 29. 

[300] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[301] Annalium Hildesheimensium Continuatio 1042, MGH SS III, p. 103. 

[302] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 47, p. 111. 

[303] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[304] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 48, p. 113. 

[305] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 50, p. 119. 

[306] Bernoldi Chronicon 1044, MGH SS V, p. 425. 

[307] ES II 153, although no details of this descent are shown. 

[308] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1038, MHG SS V, p. 123. 

[309] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 45, p. 107. 

[310] Andreć Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber IX, Cap. II, Pars I, RIS XIV, col. 235. 

[311] ES II 153. 

[312] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[313] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26. 

[314] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.  

[315] Breve chronicon Silesić, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34. 

[316] Thietmar 4.59, p. 193. 

[317] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[318] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[319] France, J., Bulst, N. and Reynolds, P. (eds. and trans.) (1989) Rodulfi Glabri Historiarum Libri Quinque, Rodulfus Glaber Opera (Oxford) III.2, p. 97. 

[320] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić (Buda), Tome I, p. 280. 

[321] Lázár (1996), p. 30. 

[322] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 285. 

[323] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 289. 

[324] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, pp. 304 and 307. 

[325] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1. 

[326] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 316. 

[327] Lázár (1993), Chapter 4, and Macartney (1962), Chapter 1.   

[328] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 327. 

[329] Necrologium Tegernseense, Freising Necrologies, p. 136. 

[330] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[331] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 45, p. 107. 

[332] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 995, MHG SS V, p. 117. 

[333] Annalista Saxo 1038. 

[334] Macartney. 

[335] Bak, János B. 'Queens as Scapegoats in Medieval Hungary', in Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 224 footnote 6. 

[336] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, pp. 103-5. 

[337] Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225. 

[338] Domanovszky, A. (ed.) Chronici Hungarici compositio sćculi XIV, c. 69, SRH, I, 320, quoted in Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225. 

[339] Cornides, D. (1778) Regum Hungarić qui seculo XI regnavere, genealogiam illustrat, p. 228, footnote 30, quoting "Pelbartus Serm. 2 de S. Stephano".  [available in full view on Google Book]

[340] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[341] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1041, MGH SS XXIII, p. 786. 

[342] Annales Hildesheimenses 1031, MGH SS III, p. 98. 

[343] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, pp. 103-5. 

[344] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[345] Ekkehardi, Altahense Annales 1033, MGH SS XVII, p. 364. 

[346] ES II 153. 

[347] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 179. 

[348] Moravcsik, G. (ed.) (1984) Fontes Byzantini historić Hungaricć ćvo ducum et regem ex stirpe Árpád descendentium: Az Árpád-kori Magyar törtenet bizánci forrásai (Budapest), cited in Kosztolnyik (2002), pp. 179 and 192. 

[349] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 179, referring to the Greek text of the founding charter of the monastery. 

[350] Annales Sanctć Crucis Polonici, MGH SS XIX, p. 678. 

[351] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121. 

[352] Academia scientiarum et artum Slavorum meridionalium (1878) Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb) ("Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium"), Vol. VII, 230, p. 472, quoting Joannes archidiaconus goricensis, scriptor aćculi XIV, Krčelić, B. De regnis Dalmatić, Croatić et Sclavonić notitić prćliminares, pp. 101-2. 

[353] Cornides (1778), p. 228, footnote 30 continuation on p. 231, quoting "apud Petrum Pithoeum in Annalium et Historić Francorum ab anno Christi 708 ad annum 990. Scriptoribus coćtaneis XII, p. 225". 

[354] Vita s. Eberhardi ex comite Nelleburgensi c. 1, Acta sanctorum Bollandiana, 60 vols. (Paris, Rome, 1864-76) Apr. I, 667, cited in Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 178.   

[355] Annales Scafhusenes 1009, Bernoldi Chronicon Introduction, MGH SS V, p. 388. 

[356] ES XII 85. 

[357] Cornides (1778), p. 228, footnote 30 continuation on p. 240, quoting "Anonym. Belć Regis Notarius, Cap. XI". 

[358] Rady, M. (trans.) ´The Gesta Hungarorum of Anonymus, the anonymous notary of King Béla´, Slavonic and East European Review, 87 (4) (2009), pp. 681-724, online version consulted at <http:discovery.ucl.ac.uk/18975/1/18975.pdf> (27 Jan 2011), ii, p. 17. 

[359] Macartney, C. A. (1953) The Medieval Hungarian Historians: A Critical and Analytical Guide (Cambridge), p. 59, quoted in Rady ´The Gesta Hungarorum´, Introduction, p. 1. 

[360] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 733D. 

[361] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 4524-4650, pp. 158-9. 

[362] Montgomery-Masingberd, H. (ed.) (1973) Burke's Guide to the Royal Family.         

[363] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1038, MHG SS V, p. 123. 

[364] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 45, p. 107. 

[365] Andreć Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber IX, Cap. II, Pars I, RIS XIV, col. 235. 

[366] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1038, MHG SS V, p. 123. 

[367] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 45, p. 107. 

[368] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 46 and 47, pp. 109 and 111. 

[369] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[370] Annalium Hildesheimensium Continuatio 1042, MGH SS III, p. 103. 

[371] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 50, p. 119. 

[372] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[373] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 53, pp. 123-5. 

[374] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[375] Annales Altahenses Maiores 1046, MGH SS XX, p. 803. 

[376] Annalium Hildesheimensium Continuatio 1047, MGH SS III, p. 104. 

[377] Annales Magdeburgenses 1047 8, MGH SS XVI, p. 172. 

[378] Annales Capituli Cracovienses 1060, MGH SS XIX, p. 587. 

[379] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[380] ES II 153, although she is shown as the wife of Béla I King of Hungary in ES XVI 37. 

[381] Wegener, W. Genealogischen Tafeln zur mitteleuropäischen Geschichte (Verlag Degener, 1965/67), Table 9.     

[382] ES II 154. 

[383] Wegener (1965/67), p. 141. 

[384] Necrologium Monasterii Superioris Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 334. 

[385] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[386] Codex Traditionum Monasterii Formbacensis, CCCLXV, Urkundenbuch des Landes ob der Enns, Vol. I, p. 731. 

[387] Codex Traditionum Monasterii Formbacensis, CCCLVIII, Urkundenbuch des Landes ob der Enns, Vol. I, p. 729. 

[388] ES II 154. 

[389] Annalista Saxo 1058. 

[390] Wegener (1965/67), pp. 80 and 141 footnote 2, the latter quoting a manuscript "Haus Frizberg (Post Wildon) 1955, S. 1-26".  

[391] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1041, MHG SS V, p. 123. 

[392] D H III 215, p. 287. 

[393] D H III 278, p. 379. 

[394] D H IV 40, p. 49. 

[395] Necrologium Mellicense Antiquissimum, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 522. 

[396] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[397] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101. 

[398] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[399] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489. 

[400] Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225. 

[401] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, pp. 103-5. 

[402] Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225. 

[403] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 55, p. 125. 

[404] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[405] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, p. 107, and footnote 1, and 54, p. 125. 

[406] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 55, p. 125. 

[407] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121. 

[408] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 397. 

[409] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[410] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 57, p. 127. 

[411] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 388. 

[412] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[413] Fine (1991), p. 210. 

[414] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 58, p. 131, footnote 3 specifying that his gravestone still survives in the crypt of the monastery. 

[415] Chronicon Varadiense, 6, p. 253. 

[416] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[417] ES II 154. 

[418] Baumgarten (1927), p. 9, citing Wertner, M. Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 117-23. 

[419] Hóman, B. (1940) Geschichte des ungarischen Mittelalters (Berlin), p. 269, cited in Kerbl, R. (1979) Byzantinische Prinzessinnen in Ungarn zwischen 1050-1200 und ihr Einfluß auf das Arpadenkönigreich (VWGÖ, Vienna), p. 14. 

[420] Lamberti Annales 1071, MGH SS V, p. 185. 

[421] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historić Hungaricć fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Leipzig) ("Chronicon Dubnicense"), p. 66. 

[422] ES II 154. 

[423] ES II 154. 

[424] CP IV article Drummond, p. 469. 

[425] Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peerages (London, 1883) reprint (Genealogical Publishing Co. Inc, Baltimore, 1978). 

[426] Burke's Peerage & Baronetage 106th Edition, First Impression (Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 1999), Vol. 2, article Perth, p. 2223. 

[427] Annalista Saxo 1061. 

[428] Cosmć Pragensis Chronica Boemorum II.16, MGH SS IX, p. 77. 

[429] Cosmć Pragensis Chronica Boemorum II.20, MGH SS IX, pp. 79-80. 

[430] Who allegedly married secondly, as his second wife, Péter Orseolo King of Hungary, see above. 

[431] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55. 

[432] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 58, p. 131. 

[433] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[434] Fine (1991), p. 211. 

[435] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[436] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 60 and 61, p. 135. 

[437] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[438] D H IV 276, p. 353. 

[439] Annalista Saxo 1087. 

[440] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 61, p. 137. 

[441] Chronicon Varadiense, 7, p. 253. 

[442] Bertholdi Annales 1059, MGH SS V, p. 271. 

[443] Annales Yburgenses 1074, MGH SS XVI, p. 436. 

[444] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 57, p. 127. 

[445] Chronicć Polanorum II.1, MGH SS IX, p. 445. 

[446] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 559. 

[447] Necrologium Weltenbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 369. 

[448] Necrologium Monasterii S Emmerammi Ratisbonensis, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 301. 

[449] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 319. 

[450] ES II 154.  Although ES XII 62 shows Graf Poppo's wife as Sophia, it does not state her origin or shown her own and her husband's years of death. 

[451] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 58, p. 131. 

[452] Homan, B. (1940) Geschichte des ungarischen Mittelalters (Berlin), p. 269, cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 14. 

[453] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 468. 

[454] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 487. 

[455] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[456] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, p. 107, and footnote 1. 

[457] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[458] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, p. 107, and footnote 1. 

[459] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 55, p. 125.  

[460] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121. 

[461] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[462] Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell Press), p. 86. 

[463] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251. 

[464] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, p. 107, and footnote 1. 

[465] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 55, p. 125. 

[466] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121. 

[467] ES II 154. 

[468] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[469] Bertholdi Annales 1060, MGH SS V, p. 271. 

[470] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 59, p. 133. 

[471] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[472] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[473] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 59, p. 133. 

[474] Chronicon Varadiense, 8, p. 254. 

[475] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121. 

[476] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489. 

[477] ES II 154. 

[478] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 58, p. 131. 

[479] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489. 

[480] Baumgarten (1927), p. 16, citing Tatyszczew Histoire de Russie II 119 and Chronique de la société généalogique russe ŕ Moscou (1908) VIII. 

[481] ES II 135 and 154. 

[482] Annalista Saxo 1062 and 1070. 

[483] See for example ES II 154. 

[484] Wegener (1965/67), p. 141. 

[485] ES II 154. 

[486] ES II 153. 

[487] Chronicon Sancti Michaelis Luneburgensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 390. 

[488] Annalista Saxo 1095. 

[489] Homan, Geschichte, p. 249, cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 11. 

[490] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin Books), p. 214. 

[491] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 58, p. 131. 

[492] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489. 

[493] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 428. 

[494] Lázár (1996), p. 37. 

[495] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 62, p. 139. 

[496] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[497] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 448. 

[498] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 466. 

[499] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 468. 

[500] Fine (1991), p. 284. 

[501] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 480. 

[502] Karbić, D., Matijević Sokol, M. and Sweeney, J. R. (eds. trans.) (2006) Thomć archidiaconi Spalatensis, Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (CEP) ("Thomas Archdeacon of Split") 17, p. 93. 

[503] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[504] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[505] Mariani Scotti Chronicon, Continuatio I, 1085, MGH SS V, p. 562. 

[506] Annales Gradicenses 1095, MGH SS XVII, p. 648. 

[507] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[508] Chronicon Varadiense, 10, p. 254. 

[509] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 62, p. 139. 

[510] Attwater (1970), p. 214. 

[511] Braun, J. W. (ed.) (2003) Urkundenbuch des Klosters Sankt Blasien im Schwarzwald, Teil I ("Sankt-Blasien"), 33, p. 47. 

[512] Bernoldi Chronicon 1084, MGH SS V, p. 441. 

[513] Fejér, G. (ed.) (1829) Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić (Buda), Tome II, p. 385. 

[514] Kerbl (1979), p. 7. 

[515] Necrologium Seonense, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 217. 

[516] Büttner-Wobst, T. (ed.) (1897) Ioannes Zonaras, Tome III, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) XVIII, 24, p. 748. 

[517] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1836) Ioannes Cinnamus, Nicephorus Bryennius, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) ("Ioannes Kinnamos") Liber I, 4, p. 9. 

[518] Macartney (1962), Chapter 3. 

[519] Cornides (1778), pp. 45 and 47. 

[520] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), Revue des études byzantines, Tome 27 (1969), p. 247, available at <http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_0766-5598_1969_num_27_1_1423> (21 Dec 2012), citing Delehaye, H. (1902) Synaxarium Ecclesić Constantinopolitanć (Brussels), pp. 897-90. 

[521] Chabot, J. B. (ed. & trans.) (1905) Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris), Tome III, Livre XVI, Chap. V, p. 234. 

[522] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 468. 

[523] Baumgarten (1927), p. 16, citing Wertner Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 205-10. 

[524] Franklin, S and Shepard, J The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (Longman, 1998), p. 271.  

[525] Franklin & Shepard (1998), p. 340. 

[526] ES II 154. 

[527] Cosmć Pragensis Chronica Boemorum III.9, MGH SS IX, p. 105. 

[528] Annales Gradicenses 1111, MGH SS XVII, p. 649. 

[529] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, Cronica Ungarorum, p. 489. 

[530] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 468. 

[531] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[532] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 230, p. 473, quoting Joannes archidiaconus goricensis, scriptor aćculi XIV, Krčelić, B. De regnis Dalmatić, Croatić et Sclavonić notitić prćliminares, pp. 101-2. 

[533] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, Acta, 51, p. 66. 

[534] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. VII, 230, p. 473, quoting Schwandtner, J.G. (ed.) (1765) M. Joan. de Thurocz chronica Hungarorum, c. XLVII and LVI, pp. 184 and 211. 

[535] Fine (1991), p. 284. 

[536] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 82. 

[537] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 58, p. 131. 

[538] Kronika Węgiersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489. 

[539] Homan, Geschichte, p. 270, cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 8. 

[540] Kerbl (1979), p. 14.    

[541] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[542] Kerbl (1979), p. 50. 

[543] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[544] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome I, p. 428. 

[545] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 62, p. 139. 

[546] Chronicon Varadiense, 9, p. 254. 

[547] ES II 154. 

[548] Kerbl (1979), pp. 1-57. 

[549] Kerbl (1979), p. 8. 

[550] Vita Arnulfi Episcopi Suessioniensis I.3, MGH SS XV.2, p. 879. 

[551] Butkens, C. (1724) Trophées tant sacrés que profanes du duché de Brabant (The Hague), Vol. I, Preuves, p. 6. 

[552] Wouters, M. J. (1849) Notice historique sur l´ancienne abbaye d´Averboden (Gand), Annexes, Vita B. Andreć primi abbatis Averbodiensis monasterii, XIII, p. 147. 

[553] Migne, J. P. (1889) Georgius Cedrenus, Ioannes Scylitzes, Michael Psellus, Patrologić cursus completus, Series Grćca Tomus CXXII (Paris) Excerpta ex breviario historico Joannis Scylitzć curopalatć ("Skylitzes"), col. 475.  The Greek text is quoted in full in Kerbl (1979), pp. 2-3, from Tsolakes, E.T. Tsolakes συνέχεια τς Χρονογραφίας το ωάννου Σκυλίτση (Ioannes Skylitzes Continuatus), ταιρεία Μακεδονικν Σπουδν, Ιδρυμα Μελετν Χερσονήσου το Αμου 105, Thessalonike (1968), pp. 103-186, 185. 

[554] Kerbl (1979), p. 1, citing Horvát, I. (1834) Tudományos Gyüjtemény (Budapest), p. 95.   

[555] Kerbl (1979), p. 1, citing Wertner, M. (1892) Az Árpádok családi története (Nagy Becskerek), p. 186.   

[556] Kerbl (1979), p. 1, citing Wertner, M. (1892) Az Árpádok családi története (Nagy Becskerek), p. 186.   

[557] Laurent, V. Chronologie, p. 246 (28), cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 18. 

[558] Kerbl (1979), pp. 15-16 and 18-19. 

[559] ES II 154. 

[560] Chronica Ungarorum, 50, p. 243. 

[561] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 64, p. 139. 

[562] Kerbl (1979), p. 24.     

[563] Kerbl (1979), p. 59. 

[564] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[565] Kerbl (1979), p. 60. 

[566] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[567] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[568] RHC, Historiens occidentaux, Tome IV (Paris, 1879), Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana ("Albert of Aix (RHC)"), Liber I, Cap. VI, p. 274.  

[569] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[570] Fine (1991), p. 284. 

[571] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 64, p. 141. 

[572] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 17, pp. 95 and 97. 

[573] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 31. 

[574] Macartney (1962), Chapter 3. 

[575] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[576] Fine (1991), pp. 285-86. 

[577] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 64, p. 139. 

[578] Fine (1991), p. 234. 

[579] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[580] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 64, p. 139. 

[581] Chronicon Varadiense, 11, p. 255. 

[582] Annales Gradicenses 1116, MGH SS XVII, p. 649. 

[583] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[584] Pontiari, E. (ed.) (1927-8) De rebus gestis Rogerii Calabrić et Sicilić comitis et Roberti Guiscardi ducis fratris eius (Bologna) (“Malaterra”), IV.23, p. 101. 

[585] ES II 154. 

[586] Kerbl (1979), p. 21. 

[587] Houben, H. (trans. Loud, G. H. & Milburn, D.) (2002) Roger II of Sicily, A Ruler between East and West (Cambridge University Press), p. 23. 

[588] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Wertner Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 222-3. 

[589] Hungarian Chronicle, c. 149, cited in Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 226, and Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[590] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historić Hungaricć fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Leipzig) Chronica Ungarorum, 50, p. 242. 

[591] Baumgarten (1927), p. 25, citing Tatyszczew Histoire de Russie, II 119. 

[592] ES II 154. 

[593] Chronicon Varadiense, 12, p. 255. 

[594] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[595] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[596] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 67. 

[597] Fine (1991), p. 235. 

[598] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[599] Horváth (1989), p. 31. 

[600] Kerbl (1979), p. 68. 

[601] Kerbl (1979), p. 74. 

[602] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 98. 

[603] ES II 154. 

[604] ES II 154. 

[605] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[606] Kerbl (1979), p. 63. 

[607] Chronica Ungarorum, 50, p. 243. 

[608] Kerbl (1979), pp. 73-6. 

[609] Chronica Ungarorum, 51, p. 243. 

[610] Kerbl (1979), p. 96. 

[611] Guizot, M. (1825) Histoire des croisades par Foulcher de Chartres, Histoire de la croisade de Louis VII par Odon de Deuil (Paris), Odon de Deuil, Livre II, pp. 301-5. 

[612] Kerbl (1979), p. 99. 

[613] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[614] Odon de Deuil, Livre II, p. 302. 

[615] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grčce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 293. 

[616] Kerbl (1979), p. 78. 

[617] Sturdza (1999), p. 293. 

[618] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 6, p. 216. 

[619] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin), Vol. 2, p. 365. 

[620] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 367. 

[621] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, pp. 369-70. 

[622] Rüdt-Collenberg, W. H. (1968) 'L'Empereur Isaac de Chypre et sa fille (1155-1207)', Byzantion XXXVIII, reprinted in Familles de l'Orient latin XIIe-XIVe sičcles (Variorum Reprints, London, 1983), I, p. 130. 

[623] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 364. 

[624] Rüdt-Collenberg (1968), p. 130.   

[625] Fine (1991), p. 284. 

[626] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[627] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[628] Fine (1991), p. 234. 

[629] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[630] Necrologium Admuntense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 287. 

[631] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć MGH SS IX, p. 143. 

[632] Kerbl (1979), p. 77. 

[633] Russian Primary Chronicle 1104, p. 202. 

[634] Baumgarten (1927), p. 11, citing Wertner Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, p. 251. 

[635] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć MGH SS IX, p. 143. 

[636] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć MGH SS IX, p. 146. 

[637] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[638] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[639] ES II 154. 

[640] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć MGH SS IX, p. 140. 

[641] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć MGH SS IX, p. 143. 

[642] ES II 154. 

[643] ES II 154. 

[644] Chronica Ungarorum, 50, p. 243. 

[645] Notć Genealogicć Bavaricć, MGH SS XXIV, p. 76. 

[646] Notć Genealogicć Bavaricć, MGH SS XXIV, p. 76. 

[647] ES XVI 78. 

[648] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 117. 

[649] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 130. 

[650] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 138. 

[651] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 140. 

[652] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 144. 

[653] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 146. 

[654] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 165. 

[655] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5.  . 

[656] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 56. 

[657] Fine (1991), p. 236. 

[658] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VII. 21, MGH SS XX, p. 259. 

[659] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 94. 

[660] Annales Gradicenses 1141, MGH SS XVII, p. 651. 

[661] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 99. 

[662] Necrologium Admuntense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 287. 

[663] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 65, p. 143. 

[664] Chronica Ungarorum, 50, p. 243. 

[665] Chronicon Varadiense, 13, p. 255. 

[666] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 94. 

[667] Fine (1991), p. 236. 

[668] Hungarian Chronicle, c. 160, quoted in Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 226 footnote 17. 

[669] Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum, MGH SS XIX, p. 562. 

[670] ES II 154. 

[671] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 99. 

[672] Annales Gradicenses 1141, MGH SS XVII, p. 651. 

[673] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 99. 

[674] Meineke, A. (ed.) (1835) Nicetć Choniatć Historia, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) ("Niketas Choniates"), Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[675] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203. 

[676] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[677] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 67, p. 143. 

[678] Annales Polanorum II 1128, MGH SS XIX, p. 624. 

[679] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1136, MGH SS XIX, p. 589. 

[680] Chronica principum Polonić, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 92. 

[681] Regesta Historia Brandenburgensis, p. 236. 

[682] Codex Brandenburgensis, Erster Haupttheil - Band 24, Mittelmärkische Urkunden, IV, p. 325. 

[683] Annales Venetici Breves 1167, MGH SS XIV, p. 71, the date "17 Dec" being inserted in the margin. 

[684] Andreć Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber IX, Cap. XV, Pars XV, RIS XIV, col. 292. 

[685] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 99. 

[686] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[687] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203. 

[688] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 68, p. 143. 

[689] Kerbl (1979), pp. 106-9. 

[690] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[691] Fine (1991), p. 239. 

[692] Fine (1991), pp. 239-41. 

[693] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 68, p. 143. 

[694] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[695] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[696] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 1, p. 203. 

[697] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 99. 

[698] Canonici Wissegradensis Continuatio Cosmć MGH SS IX, p. 145, the date "Jun 11" being inserted in the margin by the editor. 

[699] Herbordi, Vita Ottonis Episcopi Babenbergensis 51, MGH SS XII, p. 772. 

[700] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 99. 

[701] Annales Gradicenses 1141, MGH SS XVII, p. 651. 

[702] Fine (1991), p. 236. 

[703] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 117. 

[704] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[705] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 129. 

[706] Fine (1991), pp. 237-38. 

[707] Kerbl (1979), p. 107. 

[708] Lázár (1996), p. 41. 

[709] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 91. 

[710] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[711] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[712] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 66, p. 143. 

[713] Liljegren, J. G. (ed.) (1829) Diplomatarium Suecanum, Svensk Diplomatarium, Tome I 817-1285 (Stockholm) 101, p. 125. 

[714] Baumgarten (1927), pp. 25-6, citing Wertner, M. Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 311-5. 

[715] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[716] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 230. 

[717] Monachi Sazavensis Continuatio Cosmć 1157, MGH SS IX, p. 160. 

[718] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 230. 

[719] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[720] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historić Hungaricć fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Leipzig) Chronicon Zagrabiense, 14, p. 256. 

[721] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[722] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[723] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 164. 

[724] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[725] Fine (1991), pp. 239-40. 

[726] Fine (1991), p. 242. 

[727] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 184. 

[728] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 67, p. 143. 

[729] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 101. 

[730] Baumgarten (1927), pp. 16 and 71, citing Grot, De l'Histoire de la Hongrie et du monde slave, Annal. Reg. Hung., Lib. III, p. 157, and Karamzine II note 40. 

[731] ES II 154. 

[732] Jaksch, A. von (ed.) (1904) Monumenta historica ducatus Carinthić, Band III, Die Kärntner Geschichtsquellen 811-1202 (Klagenfurt) ("Kärntner Geschichtsquellen (1904)"), 1164, p. 436. 

[733] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[734] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[735] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[736] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[737] Chronicon Varadiense, 14, p. 256. 

[738] Chronicon Zagrabiense, 14, p. 256. 

[739] Chronicon Varadiense, 14, p. 256. 

[740] Chronicon Zagrabiense, 14, p. 256. 

[741] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[742] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[743] ES II 154. 

[744] ES II 154. 

[745] Annales Mellicenses 1174, MGH SS IX, p. 504.  The Continuatio Zwetlensis Altera, p. 541, specifies that she was "sororem Bele regis Avarerum".  

[746] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1195, MGH SS XXIII, p. 872. 

[747] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis II Codex B, 1199, MGH SS IX, p. 620. 

[748] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[749] Chronicon Posoniens e, p. 57. 

[750] ES II 154. 

[751] Chronicon Zagrabiense, 14, p. 256. 

[752] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[753] Chronicon Varadiense, 14, p. 256. 

[754] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 165. 

[755] Chronicon Posoniense, p. 57. 

[756] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetć Choniatć Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254. 

[757] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 188. 

[758] Fine (1991), p. 243. 

[759] Fine, J. V. A. (1994) The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest (Ann Arbour, University of Michigan Press), p. 6. 

[760] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[761] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 69, pp. 143-5. 

[762] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 292. 

[763] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 873. 

[764] Chronicon Varadiense, 16, p. 256. 

[765] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[766] Necrologium Admuntense, Salzburg Necrologies (Regio Styriaca), p. 287. 

[767] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 69, p. 145. 

[768] Niketas Choniates, Liber IV Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, 1, p. 167. 

[769] Ioannes Kinnamos Liber V, 5, p. 215. 

[770] RHC, Historiens occidentaux I, Historia Rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum ("L'estoire de Eracles Empereur et la conqueste de la terre d'Outremer") (“WT”) XXII.IV, p. 1067. 

[771] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[772] Nielen, M.-A. (ed.) (2003) Lignages d'Outremer (Paris), Le Vaticanus Latinus 7806, El parentado de Beimonte principe 9, p. 172. 

[773] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 365. 

[774] Monumenta Necrologica S Rudperti Salisburgensis, 'Memoria Vivorum', Salzburg Necrologies, p. 83. 

[775] Stiernon, L. 'Notes de titulature et de prosopographie Byzantines, Theodora Comnčne et Andronic Lapardas sébastos', REB 24 (1966), pp. 89-106, cited in Kerbl (1979), p. 149. 

[776] Kerbl (1979), p. 150. 

[777] Historić Anglicanć Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Abbreviationes Chronicorum, col. 511. 

[778] Historić Anglicanć Scriptores X (1652), Radulphus de Diceto, Abbreviationes Chronicorum, col. 518. 

[779] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1185, MGH SS XXIII, p. 858. 

[780] Diplomatarium Suecanum 101, p. 125. 

[781] Mas Latrie, M. L. (ed.) (1871) Chronique d'Ernoul et de Bernard le Trésorier (Paris) (“Ernoul”) 26, p. 302. 

[782] Chronicon Varadiense, 16, pp. 256-7. 

[783] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[784] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 70, p. 145. 

[785] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 304. 

[786] Fine (1994), p. 48. 

[787] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 114-15. 

[788] Fine (1994), pp. 48 and 55. 

[789] Chronicon Zagrabiense, 17, p. 257. 

[790] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[791] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[792] Ex Gestis Comitum Barcinonensium, RHGF XII, p. 380. 

[793] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1196, MGH SS XXIII, p. 873. 

[794] Continuatio Admuntensis 1205, MGH SS IX, p. 591. 

[795] Ryccardus de Sancti Germano Annales 1209, MGH SS XIX, p. 334. 

[796] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis III 1208, MGH SS IX, p. 634. 

[797] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 166. 

[798] Epistola fratres Conradi…Panormitana ad episcopum Cathanensem, sive Brevis Chronica 1027-1083, RIS I.2, p. 278. 

[799] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 100. 

[800] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 590. 

[801] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 23, p. 141. 

[802] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[803] Continuatio Admuntensis 1205, MGH SS IX, p. 591. 

[804] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[805] Niketas Choniates, Imperiii Isaacii Angeli, Liber 1, 4, p. 481. 

[806] Fine (1994), p. 10. 

[807] Fine (1994), p. 11. 

[808] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem 1204, MGH SS XXXII, p. 25. 

[809] Shaw, M. R. B. (trans.) (1963) Joinville and Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Penguin) (“Villehardouin”), 11, p. 82, and 12, p. 92. 

[810] Bekkerus, I. (ed.) (1836) Constantinus Manasses, Ioel, Georgius Acropolita, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) Georgius Akropolites 8, p. 15. 

[811] Villehardouin, 13, p. 96. 

[812] Fine (1994), p. 63. 

[813] Fine (1994), p. 63. 

[814] Fine (1994), p. 87. 

[815] Smičiklas, T. (ed.) (1905) Codex Diplomaticus Regni Croatić, Dalamatić et Slavonić, Diplomatički Zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije I Slavonije (Zagreb), Vol. III, p. 305. 

[816] Chronicon Varadiense, 16, pp. 256-7. 

[817] Chronicon Varadiense, 16, pp. 256-7. 

[818] Chronicon Varadiense, 16, pp. 256-7. 

[819] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[820] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 358, passage undated but footnote 42 specifies "1189". 

[821] Annales Aquenses 1189, MGH SS XXIV, p. 39. 

[822] Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć, Annalium Pragensium Pars I, 1199, MGH SS IX, p. 169. 

[823] Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć, Annalium Pragensium Pars I, 1240, MGH SS IX, p. 171. 

[824] Chronicon Varadiense, 16, pp. 256-7. 

[825] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1167, MGH SS XXIII, pp. 849-50. 

[826] Fine (1994), p. 22.   

[827] Codex Diplomaticus Hungarić, Tome II, p. 318. 

[828] Fine (1994), p. 45. 

[829] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203, MGH SS IX, p. 590. 

[830] Martin, J. (1995) Medieval Russia 980-1584 (Cambridge), p. 127, and Fennell, J. (1983) The Crisis of Medieval Russia 1200-1304 (Longman), p. 37. 

[831] Christiansen (1997), p. 82. 

[832] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 147-9. 

[833] Fine (1994), pp. 108 and 129. 

[834] Fine (1994), p. 108. 

[835] Fine (1994), p. 149, and Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[836] Goldstein, I., trans. Jovanović, N. (1999) Croatia: A History (Hurst & Company, London), p. 22. 

[837] Lázár (1996), p. 45.   

[838] Horváth (1989), p. 48. 

[839] Fine (1994), p. 129. 

[840] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 103. 

[841] Chronicon Zagrabiense, 19, p. 258. 

[842] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1235, MGH SS XXIII, p. 937. 

[843] Continuatio Admuntensis 1203 and 1204, MGH SS IX, p. 590. 

[844] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5.  See also Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 227. 

[845] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[846] Continuatio Prćdictorum Vindobonensium 1213, MGH SS, p. 726. 

[847] Necrologium Diessense , Augsburg Necrologies, p. 7. 

[848] De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses III, MGH SS XVII, p. 330. 

[849] WTC XXIX.XVIII, p. 294. 

[850] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1217, MGH SS XXIII, p. 906. 

[851] Fine (1994), p. 101. 

[852] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1233, MGH SS XXIII, p. 933. 

[853] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, pp. 166-67. 

[854] Rolandini Patavini Chronica, Lib. III, 9, MGH SS XIX, p. 60. 

[855] Annales S. Iustinć Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 154. 

[856] Annales S. Iustinć Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 155. 

[857] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1240, MGH SS XXIII, p. 950. 

[858] Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1840) Ephrćmii Monachi Imperatorum et Patriarcharum, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) ("Ephrćmius") 8385, p. 337. 

[859] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 25, p. 165. 

[860] Fine (1994), p. 129. 

[861] Georgius Akropolites 36, p. 60. 

[862] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[863] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 72, p. 145. 

[864] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[865] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[866] Crossley, Paul 'The Architecture of Queenship: Royal Saints, Female Dynasties and the Spread of Gothic Architecture in Central Europe', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (Boydell Press), pp. 265-66. 

[867] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1232, MGH SS XXIII, p. 930. 

[868] Attwood (1970), p. 113. 

[869] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[870] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 30, p. 197. 

[871] Fennell (1983), pp. 37-8. 

[872] Academia scientiarum et artum Slavorum meridionalium (1892) Monumenta spectantia historiam Slavorum meridionalium (Zagreb) ("Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium"), Vol. XXIII, Actć Bosnć, XL, p. 8. 

[873] Fine (1994), p. 145. 

[874] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 37, p. 289. 

[875] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1269, MGH SS XIX, p. 604. 

[876] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1269, MGH SS XIX, p. 604. 

[877] Rzyszczewski, L. & Muczkowski, A. (eds.) (1847) Codex Diplomaticus Polonić Tome I (Warsaw), XL, p. 65. 

[878] Piekosiński, F. (ed.) (1874) Monumenta medii ćvi historica, Tome I, Cathedralis ad S. Venceslaum ecclesić Cracoviensis diplomatici codicis partem primam 1166-1366 (Cracow) ("Krakow St Wacław"), XLIII, p. 60. 

[879] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[880] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1234, MGH SS XXIII, p. 934. 

[881] Bedrosian, R. (trans.) (2005) Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle (Venice Manuscript) (New Jersey) 102, 665 A.E [27 Jan 1216/25 Jan 1217]. 

[882] Smbat Sparapet's Chronicle 102, 668 A.E [26 Jan 1219/25 Jan 1217]. 

[883] Baumgarten (1927), p. 43, citing Fejer III 1 356, Wertner Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 452-5, and chr. russes II 334. 

[884] ES II 155. 

[885] ES II 131. 

[886] Ximénez de Embún y Val, T. (ed.) (1876) Historia de la Corona de Aragón: Crónica de San Juan de la Peńa: Part aragonesa, available at Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes <http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=12477> (3 Aug 2007) XXXV, p. 148. 

[887] Anales Toledanos II, Espańa Sagrada XXIII, p. 418. 

[888] Histoire Générale de Languedoc (2nd Edn.) Tome V, Preuves, III, "Chronique de l´hôtel de ville de Montpellier", p. 531. 

[889] Société Archéologique de Montpellier (1841) Le petit Thalamus de Montpellier, extracts available at <http://www3.webng.com/lengadoc/talamus.htm> (23 Apr 2008). 

[890] Annales S. Iustinć Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 155. 

[891] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, pp. 166-67. 

[892] Annales S. Iustinć Patavini, MGH SS XIX, p. 183. 

[893] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 593. 

[894] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, pp. 166-67. 

[895] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 110. 

[896] Chronicon Placentinum, RIS XVI, col. 593. 

[897] Andreć Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Tomus II, cum continuatione Raphayni Caresini, RIS XIV, col. 402. 

[898] Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam, Ordinis Minorem, MGH SS XXXII, pp. 166-67. 

[899] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 110. 

[900] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[901] Fine (1994), p. 207. 

[902] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[903] Fine (1994), p. 208. 

[904] Firnhaber, F. ´Heinrich Graf von Hardeck, Burggraf von Duino´, Archiv für Kunde österreichischer Geschichts-Quellen, Zweiter Jahrgang, Band I (Vienna, 1849), XIII, p. 198. 

[905] Necrologium Habsburgicum Monasterii Campi Regis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 357. 

[906] Honemann, V. 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter: Agnes and Elizabeth of Hungary', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 110. 

[907] Honemann, Volker 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter', p. 112. 

[908] Honemann, Volker 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter', pp. 114-15. 

[909] Necrologium Feldbacense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 389. 

[910] Necrologium Wettingense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 588. 

[911] Honemann, Volker 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter', p. 111. 

[912] Honemann, Volker 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter', pp. 116-18. 

[913] Honemann, Volker 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter', p. 111. 

[914] Honemann, Volker 'A Medieval Queen and her Stepdaughter', p. 111. 

[915] ES II 155. 

[916] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 102. 

[917] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 72, p. 145. 

[918] Horváth (1989), p. 48. 

[919] Fine (1994), p. 149. 

[920] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[921] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 252.   

[922] Lázár (1996), p. 51. 

[923] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 252. 

[924] Fine (1994), p. 133. 

[925] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[926] Lázár (1996), p. 54. 

[927] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[928] Fine (1994), pp. 173-4. 

[929] Fine (1994), p. 174. 

[930] Fine (1994), p. 203. 

[931] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1271, MGH SS XIX, p. 605. 

[932] Necrologium Altahć Superioris, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 224. 

[933] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 105. 

[934] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 72, p. 145. 

[935] Georgius Akropolites 15, p. 29. 

[936] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1221, MGH SS XXIII, p. 911. 

[937] Ephrćmius 7720, p. 312. 

[938] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 25, p. 165. 

[939] Annales Polonorum I 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 638. 

[940] Necrologium Altahć Superioris , Regensburg Necrologies, p. 224. 

[941] Necrologium Sćldentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[942] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 105. 

[943] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[944] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[945] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 39, p. 303. 

[946] ES II 155, although not in ES III 4 623 (Les Châtelains de Saint-Omer), nor in Sturdza (1999), p. 548. 

[947] ES III.4 623 and Sturdza (1999), p. 648. 

[948] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 39, p. 303. 

[949] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1234, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[950] Annales Polonorum I 1234, MGH SS XIX, p. 632. 

[951] Annales Capituli Cracoviensis 1239, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[952] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1238, MGH SS XIX, p. 597. 

[953] Codex Diplomaticus Polonić Tome I, XLIV, p. 73. 

[954] Krakow St Wacław, XLIII, p. 60. 

[955] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1279, MGH SS XIX, p. 605. 

[956] Annales Polonorum I 1292, MGH SS XIX, p. 651. 

[957] Georgius Akropolites 62, p. 134. 

[958] Annales Polonorum I 1265 and 1279, MGH SS XIX, pp. 636 and 644. 

[959] Monumenta Historiam Slavorum Meridionalium, Vol. XXIII, Actć Bosnć, LXXXI, p. 15. 

[960] Baumgarten (1927), p. 35, citing Wertner, M. Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 463-75. 

[961] Fine (1994), p. 171. 

[962] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1244, MGH SS XVII, p. 394. 

[963] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1271, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[964] Necrologium Tegernseense, Freising Necrologies, p. 136. 

[965] Necrologium Windbergense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 383. 

[966] Necrologium Sćldentalense, Regensburg Necrologies, p. 360. 

[967] Baumgarten (1927), p. 49, citing Wertner, M. Az Arpadól czáládi törtenété, pp. 485-8, chr rus. I 185. 

[968] Chronicon Varadiense, 20, p. 259. 

[969] Lázár (1993), Chapter 5. 

[970] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1259, MGH SS XIX, p. 600. 

[971] Chronicon Varadiense, 20, p. 259. 

[972] Thomas Archdeacon of Split 49, p. 367. 

[973] Fine (1994), p. 175. 

[974] Annales Cracovienses Compilati 1270, MGH SS XIX, p. 604. 

[975] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 105. 

[976] Canonicorum Pragensium Continuationes Cosmć, Annales Otakariani, 1264, MGH SS IX, p. 186. 

[977] Historia Annorum 1264-1279 1264, MGH SS IX, p. 649. 

[978] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1262, MGH SS XVII, p. 403. 

[979] Historia Annorum 1264-1279 1264, MGH SS IX, p. 649. 

[980] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, pp. 479-80. 

[981] Chronicon Varadiense, 20, p. 259. 

[982] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1239, MGH SS XXIII, p. 947. 

[983] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[984] Horváth (1989), pp. 68-9. 

[985] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1272, MGH SS XVII, p. 407. 

[986] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 106. 

[987] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 71, p. 149. 

[988] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[989] Fine (1994), p. 204, and Macartney (1962), Chapter 2.   

[990] Chronica Pragensis (Chronicon Francisci), Liber I, Caput V, Scriptores Rerum Bohemicarum, Tomus II, p. 35. 

[991] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber IV, 1, p. 280. 

[992] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1835) Georgii Pachymeris De Michaele et Andronico Palaeologis, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) Vol I, De Michaele Palaeologo, Liber V, 6, p. 350. 

[993] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber IV, 1, p. 280. 

[994] Fine (1994), p. 203. 

[995] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 111. 

[996] Annales Ludovici de Raimo, RIS XXIII, col. 221. 

[997] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 111. 

[998] RHGF XXI, E floribus chronicorum auctore Bernardo Guidonis, p. 724. 

[999] Georgii Pachymeris, Andronicus Palćologus, Liber I, 33, p. 87, and Liber II, 18, p. 153. 

[1000] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Georgios Phrantzes, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn) Liber I, 4, p. 27. 

[1001] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1272, MGH SS XVII, p. 407. 

[1002] Macartney (1962), Chapter 2. 

[1003] Fine (1994), pp. 204-6. 

[1004] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 108. 

[1005] Horváth (1989), p. 82. 

[1006] Chronicon Dubnicense, p. 107. 

[1007] Istoria di Saba Malaspina, V, V, Re, G. del (ed.) (1868) Cronisti e scrittori sincroni Napoletani, Vol. 2 (Naples), p. 298. 

[1008] Annales Colmarienses Maiores 1280, MGH SS XVII, p. 207. 

[1009] Horváth (1989), p. 78.