SWABIA, dukes

  v2.0 Updated 05 December 2010

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.            DUKES of ALEMANNIA. 4

Chapter 2.            DUKES of SWABIA (HUNFRIDING) 7

BURKHARD I 909-911, BURKHARD II 917-926, BURKHARD III 954-973. 7

Chapter 3.            DUKES of SWABIA (KONRADINER) 11

HERMANN I 926-949. 11

KONRAD I 983-997, HERMANN II 997-1003, HERMANN III 1003-1012. 13

Chapter 4.            DUKES of SWABIA (SAXON KINGS of GERMANY) 20

LIUDOLF 950-954, OTTO I 973-982, OTTO II 1045-1047. 20

Chapter 5.               DUKES of SWABIA (DUKES of AUSTRIA, BABENBERGER) 21

ERNST I 1012-1015, ERNST II 1015-1027, HERMANN IV 1030-1038. 22

Chapter 6.            DUKES of SWABIA (SALIAN KINGS of GERMANY) 25

HEINRICH 1038-1045. 25

Chapter 7.            DUKE of SWABIA (PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN) 25

OTTO 1045-1047. 25

Chapter 8.                DUKES of SWABIA (MARKGRAFEN von SCHWEINFURT) 26

OTTO 1048-1057. 26

Chapter 9.            DUKES of SWABIA (GRAFEN von RHEINFELDEN) 27

RUDOLF 1057-1079, BERTHOLD I 1079-1090. 27

Chapter 10.           DUKES of SWABIA (ZÄHRINGEN) 28

BERTHOLD II 1092-[1095] 28

Chapter 11.           DUKES of SWABIA (HOHENSTAUFEN) 29

FRIEDRICH I 1079-1105, FRIEDRICH II 1105-1147, FRIEDRICH IV 1152-1167. 29

FRIEDRICH III 1147-1152, FRIEDRICH V 1167-1170, FRIEDRICH VI 1170-1191, KONRAD II 1191-1196, PHILIPP 1196-1208. 34

FRIEDRICH VI 1212-1216, HEINRICH 1216-1235, KONRAD III 1235-1254, KONRAD IV 1254-1268. 36

Chapter 12.           PFALZGRAFEN von SCHWABEN. 37

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Swabia was one of the four original provinces of Germany, covering the territory which later split into the French province of Alsace, the German principalities of Baden and Württemberg, and most of northern Switzerland.  It evolved along different lines from the more centralised province of Bavaria and the larger but more fragmented province of Saxony.  Originally known as Alemannia, the Alemans were defeated by the Merovingian Franks under King Clovis at the end of the 5th century and by the reign of King Theoderic I were under Frankish overlordship.  However, the local rulers were able to preserve semi-autonomy, a situation which was not tolerated by the later Merovingians and early Carolingians, who launched a series of military campaigns against Alemannia in 709, 712, 743 and 746/47.  During the last of these, the Alemannic dukes were deposed and a large part of the Alemannic nobility killed at Canstatt, near Stuttgart[1], following which the territory was ruled by Warin and Ruthard on behalf of Pepin and Charles "Martel"[2]

 

During the following years, the territory was never united again under a single ruler: the Etichonid family ruled in Alsace, while the Alaholfing dynasty ruled in the valleys of the upper Danube and Neckar rivers.  This presumably explains why Alemannia failed to retain its national identity after the Frankish takeover, in contrast to Bavaria[3].  The territory was revived as a separate political entity in the early 10th century, coinciding with the significant decline in central Carolingian authority and the revival of the duchy of Bavaria.  The title used by the early Hunfriding rulers in Swabia is uncertain.  A 903 diploma of Ludwig IV "das Kind" King of Germany refers to the first Hunfriding ruler Burkhard as "marchio Curiensis Rætiæ", indicating the creation of a short-lived march in what is now northern Switzerland.  Other contemporary sources give him the more general titles of "comes et princeps Alamannorum" and "dux".  It is unlikely that either of these latter titles was officially sanctioned by the kings/emperors, as contemporary imperial diplomas give the title comes to Burchard.  Development of an autonomous Swabian duchy was delayed by the rebellions of Burkhard [I] in 911 and of his son Burkhard [II] in 914, although the latter is given the title dux at a later date in contemporary sources.  The new duchy appears to have been firmly established by 926 when Heinrich I King of Germany installed Hermann [Konradiner] as duke.  This was the first direct intervention by the central regal authority in ducal appointments in Germany, but became the accepted pattern during the rest of the 10th century with dukedoms such as Swabia being treated by the king like an office, the title being awarded and removed with regularity depending on the loyalty of the office-holder.  During the following 150 years, the dukes of Swabia were chosen from ten different dynasties, with the Hunriding and Konradiner families being the only ones which provided Swabian rulers over three consecutive generations. 

 

The decline in the central authority of the dukes of Swabia probably dates from the investiture crisis involving Heinrich IV King of Germany, which resulted in the election of a series of anti-kings.  The election of rival kings was mirrored in the appointment of rival dukes in Swabia, with the authority of duke Berthold von Rheinfelden being challenged by Friedrich von Hohenstaufen in 1079, and the latter's authority being challenged in turn in 1092 by duke Berthold [Zähringen].  Although the Staufen duke prevailed on the latter occasion, his Zähringen rival was compensated by recognition of his personal title of duke, which was also transmitted to his descendants.  This represented the first time in which two individuals both peaceably held the title dux at any one time in any of the original German provinces.  The significance is heightened by the fact that the dux was traditionally the sole military as well as political leader in each province.  For Swabia, therefore, the presence of two dukes within the province was a significant change, although the difference would probably have remained symbolic if it had not been for other factors which accelerated the decline in the power of the Swabian dukes.  Foremost was a third ducal presence in Swabia.  In 1096, the Welf family established themselves definitively as dukes of Bavaria.  However, their original power-base was Swabia where they were still major landholders and where contemporary sources such as necrologies show that they also used the title dux.  At the same time, the Staufen dukes were widening their horizon of activity away from Swabia.  Although they took their name from the Swabian castle of Staufen, the family acquired extensive property in Franconia, bequeathed to Duke Friedrich II by his maternal uncle Emperor Heinrich V.  The election of Konrad von Staufen as Konrad III King of Germany in 1138, and that of his nephew as King Friedrich I "Barbarossa" in 1152, signalled the family's definitive removal from the provincial Swabian field of activity to the national stage.  Members of the Staufen family held the title Duke of Swabia until the last male heir Konradin was beheaded in 1268, but it is clear that these were largely honorific appointments.  Contemporary sources reveal little direct involvement by these successor dukes in Swabian government.  During the dispute between Konrad IV King of Germany and the papal party, with Willem II Count of Holland as its figurehead and anti-king, Swabia was largely anti-Staufen. 

 

The reaction against Staufen control enabled the local Swabian nobility to assert their autonomy.  The duchy of Swabia virtually disappeared as a territorial unit and dissolved into a collection of territorial fragments[4].  A further difficulty for Swabia was the transfer of parts of its territory, particularly in Alsace, to neighbouring jurisdictions such as the kingdom of Burgundy and the duchy of Upper Lotharingia (Lorraine). 

 

Religious administration in Swabia centred on the archbishopric of Mainz, established by the Carolingians in 747, which also covered large areas in Saxony and Franconia.  The bishoprics within the Swabian sector of the province were Augsburg (whose jurisdiction also included part of Bavaria), Konstanz, Chur and Strasbourg, all founded in the late 8th or early 9th centuries.  The bishopric of Basel fell within the province of Besançon in the neighbouring kingdom of Burgundy.  The bishoprics of Basel and Strasbourg were responsible for Alsace, Augsburg covered eastern Swabia, while the bishopric of Konstanz covered the area to the south-east, and Chur covered part of present-day Switzerland[5]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    DUKES of ALEMANNIA

 

 

The territory of Alemannia was invaded by the Merovingian Franks but was able to preserve semi-autonomy.  The dukes of Alemannia were finally vanquished by maior domus Pepin [III] (later Pepin King of the Franks) who placed Alemannia in the hands of Counts Ruthard and Warin[6].  After the death of Charles "Martel", the territory rebelled against the Franks, but maior domus Carloman laid waste to Alemannia in 742[7].  The family relationship between the early dukes of Alemannia has not been confirmed by the primary sources so far consulted.  The Alemannian dukes are frequently referred to as "Etichonen".  Any famly connection between them and the Etichonen noble family in Alsace has not yet been identified. 

 

 

1.         LIUTFRED (-587 or after).  Duke of Alemannia.  Fredegar records that "Leudefredus Alamannorum dux" incited the wrath of Guntram King of the Franks and that "Uncelenus dux" was appointed in his place, dated to 587 as the text is placed after a passage dealing with the 28th year of the king's reign[8]

 

2.         UNCELENUS (-after 587).  Duke of Alemannia 587, installed by Guntram King of the Franks.  Fredegar records that "Leudefredus Alamannorum dux" incited the wrath of Guntram King of the Franks and that "Uncelenus dux" was appointed in his place, dated to 587 as the text is placed after a passage dealing with the 28th year of the king's reign[9]

 

3.         CUNZO (-after 613).  Duke of Alemanniam ---.  The name of Cunzo's wife is not known.  Cunzo & his wife had one child: 

a)         FRIDBURGA (-after 613).  The Vita Galli names "Cunzonem ducem…filia eius unica Fridiburga" recording that she was "Sigoboto filio Theodorichi disponsata"[10]Betrothed (613) to SIGEBERT II King of the Franks, illegitimate son of THEODERIC II King of the Franks & his mistress --- ([602/03]-murdered 613). 

 

4.         LIUTHAR (-after [643]).  Duke of Alemannia.  Fredegar records that "Leuthario duci Alamannorum" killed "Otto quidam filius Urones domestici", who who had rebelled against maiordomus Grimoald, in the 10th year of the reign of King Sigebert[11]

 

5.         --- Duke of Alemannia.  The identity of this Alemannian duke is not known.  m --- of Friulia, daughter of GISULF II Duke of Friulia & his wife Romilda --- (before 610-).  Paulus Diaconus names "una Appa alia Gaila…duarum vero nomina non retinemus" as the daughters of "Gisulfus Foroiulanus dux", recording that one later married "Alamannorum regi, alia…Baioariorum principi", without specifying which ones[12]

 

6.         WILLICHAR (-after 709).  Duke of Alemannia.  The Passio Desiderii et Reginfredi names "dux…Willicharius" in "Alamannorum ad locum…Mortunaugia"[13].  The Annales Sancti Maximini Trevirensis record that in 709 "Pippinus perrexit in Alemanniam contra Willarium ducem"[14]

 

7.         GOTTFRIED (-709).  Duke of Alemannia.  "Godafridus dux" donated "Biberburg um vicum ad Neccarum" to the monastery of St Gallen by charter dated 708[15].  The Annales Alammanici record the death of "Gotefrid" in 709[16].  The Annales Sangallenses Maiores record the death in 709 of "Cotefredus dux"[17]m ---.  The name of Gottfried's wife is not known.  Gottfried & his wife had four children: 

a)         LANTFRID [I] (-730).  The Annales Petaviani record that Charles "Martel" travelled to "Suavis contra Lantfridum" in 730[18].  "Lanfrido filio Godofrido" produced the first recorded Swabian Law code[19].  Duke of Alemannia.  The Annales Alammanici record the death of "Lantfridus" in 730[20].  The Annales Augienses record the death in 730 of "Lantfrid"[21]m ---.  The name of Lantfrid´s wife is not known.  Lantfrid [I] & his wife had [one child]: 

i)          [LANTFRID [II] (-751).  The continuator of the Annales Petaviani record the death in 751 of "Lantfridus"[22].  The Annales Moselleni record the death in 751 of "Lantfridus"[23].  The Annales Augienses record the death in 751 of "Lantfrid"[24].  The name of the father of Lantfrid [II] is not known.  He is shown here as the possible son of Lantfrid [I], only because of their name in common, but this is clearly only one of several possibilities.] 

b)         HUOCHING .  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Gotefridus dux" as father of "Huochingus"[25]m ---.  The name of Huoching's wife is not known.  Huoching & his wife had one child: 

i)          NEBE [Hnabi] .  "Nebe" son of "Huochingus" is named by Thegan[26]m HERESWINT, daughter of --- & his wife [Williswint] ---.  Hereswint is named as wife of Nebe[27].  Nebe & his wife had two children: 

(a)       RUODPERT [Robert] (-[785]).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  m ---.  The name of Ruodpert's wife is not known.  Ruodpert & his wife had one child: 

(1)       ERBIO (-after 788).  Erbio son of Robert made a donation to Wissembourg by charter dated 788[28]m ---.  The name of Erbio's wife is not known.  Erbio & his wife had two children: 

a.         UDO (-after 808).  Udo and Eugenia, children of Erbio, made a donation to Wissembourg by charter dated 808[29]

b.         EUGENIA (-after 808).  Udo and Eugenia, children of Erbio, made a donation to Wissembourg by charter dated 808[30]

(b)       IMMA .  "Imma" daughter of "Nebe" is named by Thegan[31].  Her marriage is suggested by Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris which names "Hildigardam [wife of Charles I King of the Franks] quæ erat de cognatione Gotefridi ducis Alamannorum" and specifies that she was Imma's daughter[32].  The Annales Alamannici record the death in 798 of "Imma"[33]m GEROLD Graf im Kraichgau [Udalrichinger], son of ---. 

c)         THEOTBALD (-after 745).  The Annales Metenses names "Teobaldo, filio Godefridi ducis Alamannorum" when recording his 745 rebellion which was suppressed by Pepin, and his seeking refuge the following year with "Odilonis" [Duke of Bavaria][34].  The Annales Nazariani record "Theotbaldus in Alsacian" in 745[35]

d)         OSTILO

 

8.         HAISTULF (-755).  The Annales Alammanici record the death of "Haistulfus" in 755[36]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    DUKES of SWABIA (HUNFRIDING)

 

 

BURKHARD I 909-911, BURKHARD II 917-926, BURKHARD III 954-973

 

BURKHARD [I], son of ADALBERT [II] "der Erlauchte" Graf im Thurgau [Hunfridinger] & his wife --- (-killed in battle [5 Nov] 911).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  Markgraf in Rätien 891/911.  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster St Gallen by charter dated 24 Jun 903 in which among "fidelium nostrum" was listed "Purchart marchio Curiensis Rætiæ"[37].  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed an exchange of properties between Kloster Fulda and Kloster Echternach after consulting "fidelium nostrorum comitum vero Kebeharti, Liutpoldi, Burcharti, Eginonis, Liutfredi, Iringi et Cunpoldi" by charter dated 19 Mar 907[38].  "Hludowicus…rex" donated property "in pago Palanichoge in comitatu Egenonis in loco Ingilinstat" to Hatto Archbishop of Mainz after consulting "fidelium nostrorum comitum vero Burchardi, Egenonis et Ysaac" by charter dated 8 Jun 908[39].  [Duke of Swabia].  Herimannus records the death in 911 of "Burchardus dux Alamanniæ…orto tumultu occisus est"[40].  The Annales Alamannicorum record that "Purghart comes et princeps Alamannorum" was killed in 911 by "Anshelmo"[41]

m ---.  The name of Burkhard's wife is not known. 

Burkhard [I] & his wife had three children: 

1.         ULRICH (-30 Sep ----).  The Annales Alamannicorum name (in order) "Purchardo et Uodalricho" as sons of "Purghart comes et princeps Alamannorum" specifying that they were expelled from Swabia when their father was killed in 911[42].  Graf im Zürichgau 902/[914/15].  Graf im Thurgau 912/17. 

2.         BURKHARD [II] (-murdered Novara 28/29 Apr 926).  The Annales Alamannicorum name (in order) "Purchardo et Uodalricho" as sons of "Purghart comes et princeps Alamannorum" specifying that they were expelled from Swabia when their father was killed in 911[43].  The Annales Alamannicorum record the rebellion against the king of "Burchardus iunior" in 914[44].  He succeeded in 917 as BURKHARD II Duke of Swabia.  "Heinricus…rex" granted property to "in pago Hegouue in eodem comitatu [Burchardi]…in loco Siginga" to "Baboni…comitis Burchardi vassallo" after consultation with "Burchardi, Ebarhardi, Chuonradi, Heinrici atque Utonis…comitum" by charter dated 30 Nov 920[45].  It is not certain that "Burchardi" refers to the duke of Swabia, although the charter is dated during the period during which the title dux was not consistently used in contemporary documentation and no other Burkhard has yet been identified to whom it can refer.  He was killed during an expedition to northern Italy in support of his son-in-law Rudolf King of Burgundy[46]Herimannus records that "Burghardus dux" was killed in 926[47].  The Annales Sangallenses specify that he was killed in Italy[48]m (before 911) as her first husband, REGINLIND, daughter of [EBERHARD [I] Graf im Zürichgau] & his wife Gisela --- ([885/90]-Insel Ufenau 958 after 29 Apr).  The Annales Alamannicorum record that "Gisle…socrui Purchardi iunioris" donated all her property to St Peter's in 911[49]Regino records that "viduam Burchardi" married "Herimanno"[50].  She married secondly Hermann I Duke of Swabia [Konradiner].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records in Aug the donation of "Stevegeia, Kaltbrunnen et Lindowa" by "domina Regelinda cum filio suo Burcardo duce"[51].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in pago Zuriggaui in comitatu Liudonis commitis" to "Erig" at the request of "Regilinde…comitisse" by charter dated 10 Mar 952[52].  "Otto…rex" donated property "in pago Engrisgouue in comitatu Uualtbrahtti in loco…Uuidhergis" to "matrone fidelique nostre Reginlind" at the request of "Burghardi ducis" by charter dated 29 Apr 958[53].  Duke Burkhard II & his wife had three children: 

a)         BURKHARD [III] (-12 Nov 973, bur Reichenau Island).  His parentage is confirmed by the Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln which records the donation by "domina Regelinda cum filio suo Burcardo duce"[54].  He was installed in 954 as BURKHARD III Duke of Swabia after the duchy was confiscated from Liudolf, son of Otto I King of Germany.  "Otto…rex" donated property "in ducatu Alamannico in comitatu Burchardi ducis Durgeuue…in villa Askinza" which had been confiscated from "Gundranmus comes" to Kloster Einsiedeln by charter dated 6 Jan 958[55].  "Otto…rex" donated property "in pago Engrisgouue in comitatu Uualtbrahtti in loco…Uuidhergis" to "matrone fidelique nostre Reginlind" at the request of "Burghardi ducis" by charter dated 29 Apr 958[56]Herimannus records the death in 973 of "Purghardus dux Alamanniæ" and his burial "in capella sancti Erasmi"[57].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records the death in Nov of "Burkardus dux iunior", recalling his donation "cum matre Regelinda" (see above)[58].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "II Id Nov" of "Uodalrici Purchardi ducis Alamannorum"[59]m HEDWIG of Bavaria, daughter of HEINRICH I Duke of Bavaria [Ottonen] & his wife Judith of Bavaria [Liutpoldinger] (-26 Jul 994).  The Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis records a donation by "Burchardus religios dux et Hadiwich eius coniunx", recording that they founded a monastery "in monte Duello"[60].  Her parentage is deduced from the Vita Oudalrici which records that the mother of the wife of "Purchardo duce Alamannorum" was "filiam materteræ" of "Heinricus filius Purchardi comitis" who was installed as Bishop of Augsburg in 973[61].  "Otto…rex" donated land "Scaleia…in pago Brisggouue in comitatu Birhtilonis" to the church at Worms by charter dated 18 Jun 990 on the petition of "Hadeuige ducis nostræ…consanguineæ"[62].  The Annales Einsidlenses record the death in 994 of "Hadewig dux"[63].  "Otto…rex" confirmed a donation of "villis Bosinga, Messinga, Ancencimbra, Harthusa, Vrsilinga in pago Para et in comitatu Hiltibaldi comitis" to Kloster St Gregor, Petershausen by "bone memorie domine Hadewige ducis" by charter dated 4 Nov 994[64].  "Otto…rex" donated property "Nuzbach…in pago Mordenouua et in comitiatu Cuononis comitis" to Kloster Waldkirch naming "bone memorie Burghardi Alemannorum ducis…sueque contectalis Haduuuige" by charter dated 22 Dec 994[65]

b)         ADALRICH (-after 973).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

c)         BERTA (-after 2 Jan 966).  Liutprand names "Bertam Suevorum ducis Bruchardi filiam" as wife of "Rodulfus rex Burgundionibus"[66].  The Annales Sangallenses record the marriage in 922 of "filiam Purchardi ducis" and "Ruodolfus rex"[67].  "Berta matre nostra" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[68].  Luitprand records the marriage of "Burgundionum rex Rodulfus…viduam Bertam" to King Ugo[69]m firstly (922) RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy, son of RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Willa [de Vienne] (-937).  m secondly (12 Dec 937) as his fourth wife, UGO King of Italy, son of THEOTBALD Comte d'Arles & his wife Berta of Lotharingia [Carolingian]  ([880]-10 Apr 947). 

3.         DIETPIRCH (-17 or 22 Mar after 923, bur Wittislingen).  Dietpirch is named as wife of Hupald in the Vita S. Oudalrici[70].  Herimannus names "Dietpirch" as daughter of "Burchardus dux" and wife of "Hartmannus comes"[71].  The Vita b. Hucbaldi names "Theobergam, filiam Burcardi ducis Sueviæ de genere Veringarum" as wife of "Hucbaldus", specifying that she brought Dillingen to her husband[72].  The necrology of Neresheim records the death "XVI Kal Apr" of "Dietpirga com mater s Udalrici"[73].  The necrology of Ottenburen records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Dietpirc mater s Uodalrici ep"[74]m HUPOLD, son of HARTMANN & his wife --- (-16 Jul [909], bur Wittislingen).  "Hupaldus" is shown as son of "Hartmannus comes" and husband of "Dietpirch". 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES of SWABIA (KONRADINER)

 

 

 

HERMANN I 926-949

 

HERMANN, son of GEBHARD Graf im oberen Rheingau [Konradiner] & his wife Hidda --- (-10 Dec 949, bur Reichenau Island)Regino names "duobus filiis suis [=Gebeardus comes] …pueris Udone et Herimanno" when recording their father's death fighting the Hungarians in 910[75].  Graf 914-915.  He was installed in 926 as HERMANN I Duke of Swabia by Heinrich I King of Germany after the murder of Duke Burkhard II[76]. "Otto…rex" granted property to Waldo Bishop of Chur at the request of "Herimanni…ducis Sueuorum" by charter dated 8 Apr 940[77].  "Otto…rex" granted property "locis Tiuoningovue et Tuzinhusa…in Alemannia" to Kloster Kempten at the request of "fratris nostri Brunonis et Herimanni ducis" by charter dated 18 Jan 943[78].  "Otto…rex" confirmed the immunities of Kloster Essen including over land "excepta in loco Ruoldinghus quam Eggihart et eius coniunx Rikilt" possessed by hereditary right and in land "in comitatu Ecberti et Cobbonis" by charter dated 15 Jan 947, signed by "Heinrici fratris regis, Herimanni ducis, Cuonradi comitis, Erenfridi comitis, Gebehardi comitis, Ekkihardi comitis, Hugonis comitis"[79].  "Otto…rex" granted rights to Kloster St Gallen at the request of "Herimanni ducis Sueuorum" by charter dated 12 Jun 947[80].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in comitatu Herimanni ducis Rehzia" to "abbati nostro Hartberto" at the request of "filie nostre Ite…et Hermanni comitis" by charter dated 7 Apr 948[81].  "Otto…rex" granted property to the church of Cambrai at the request of "germani nostri Brunonis et Cuonradi ducis atque Herimanni ducis" by charter dated 30 Apr 948[82].  "Otto…rex" confirmed the possession of Abtei Süsteren by Kloster Prüm by charter dated 1 Jun 949, signed by "Cuonradus dux, Herimannus dux, Hezzo comes, Godefridus comes, Rudolfus comes, Reginherus comes"[83]Regino records the death "949 IV Id Dec" of "Herimannus dux"[84].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "IV Id Dec" of "Herimanni ducis Alamannorum"[85].  The year is confirmed by the charter dated 1 Jan 950 under which "Otto…rex" confirmed a donation by "Liutolfo nostro filio eiusque…coniuge Ita" to Kloster Reichenau for the soul of "ducis nostri beate memorie Herimanni"[86]

m (926) as her second husband, REGINLIND, widow of BURKHARD II Duke of Swabia, daughter of [EBERHARD II Graf im Zürichgau] & his wife Gisela --- ([885/90]-Insel Ufenau 958 after 29 Apr).  The Annales Alamannicorum record that "Gisle…socrui Purchardi iunioris" donated all her property to St Peter's in 911[87]Regino records that "viduam Burchardi" married "Herimanno"[88].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records in Aug the donation of "Stevegeia, Kaltbrunnen et Lindowa" by "domina Regelinda cum filio suo Burcardo duce"[89].  "Otto…rex" granted property "in pago Zuriggaui in comitatu Liudonis commitis" to "Erig" at the request of "Regilinde…comitisse" by charter dated 10 Mar 952[90].  "Otto…rex" donated property "in pago Engrisgouue in comitatu Uualtbrahtti in loco…Uuidhergis" to "matrone fidelique nostre Reginlind" at the request of "Burghardi ducis" by charter dated 29 Apr 958[91]

Duke Hermann & his wife had one child: 

1.         IDA (-17 May 986).  Widukind names "ducis Herimanni filiam Idam" as wife of Liudolf[92]Regino records the marriage of "filiam Herimanni ducis" and "Liutolfus filius regis" in 947[93].  "Otto…rex" confirmed a donation by "Liutolfo nostro filio eiusque…coniuge Ita" to Kloster Reichenau for the soul of "ducis nostri beate memorie Herimanni" by charter dated 1 Jan 950[94].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records in May the donation of "Siernza" by "domina Ita…uxor Luitolfi ducis"[95]m ([27 Oct 947/7 Apr 948][96]) LIUDOLF [of Saxony], son of OTTO I "dem Großen" King of Germany & his first wife Eadgyth of Wessex (930[97]-Piomba 6 Sep 957, bur St Alban, near Mainz).  His father installed him as LIUDOLF Duke of Swabia in 950, in succession to his father-in-law[98].  He was deposed in 954. 

 

 

KONRAD I 983-997, HERMANN II 997-1003, HERMANN III 1003-1012

 

KONRAD [Kuno] von Öhningen, son of [KONRAD Graf im Rheingau und in der Ortenau & his wife [Judith ---] or UDO Graf in der Wetterau & his wife [Cunegundis] de Vermandois] (-20 Aug 997).  The question of the paternity of Duke Konrad is discussed in the document FRANCONIA NOBILITY.  Thietmar names "Conradus Suevorum ductor…eiusdem frater Heribertus comes" when recording their deaths[99].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde, filiorumque eius Eggeberti, Luipoldi, Chononis, Lutoldi"[100], although as shown below this list of the couple's sons appears unreliable.  The Chronicon Salernitanum records that "comes Alemannorum Saxonumque…Cono…Cuneus alius validus…missus" fought against the Greeks in southern Italy in [969][101].  Jackman suggests that this refers to the future Konrad I Duke of Swabia, on the basis that "Saxonumque" is added because of his supposed wife's Saxon origin, in addition using this reference to date the couple's marriage[102].  He succeeded in 983 as KONRAD I Duke of Swabia.  Graf im Rheingau 985 and 995.  Graf im Ufgau 987.  Graf in der Ortenau 994.  The Annales Einsidlenses record the death in 997 of "Chuonradus dux" and the succession of "Herimannus filius eius in ducatum"[103].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "XIII Kal Sep" of "Chuonradi ducis Alamannorum"[104]

m ([968][105]) RICHLIND, daughter of [Emperor OTTO I King of Germany & his second wife Adelais of Burgundy] (-[after 1 Nov 1007]).  The Historia Welforum names "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint" as wife of "Couno comes"[106].  Jackson[107] identifies her as daughter of Liudolf [of Saxony] Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor Otto I, but the question is not without controversy.  In view of the clear statement in the Historia Welforum and the spurious charter, it has been decided to show her here as the child of Emperor Otto I despite the unreliability of these sources, but in square brackets to indicate doubt. "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde…"[108].  As discussed below in relation to the supposed children of this couple, there are considerable doubts about the accuracy of information contained in this charter.  The date should not therefore be accepted automatically as the basis for estimating the date of the couple's marriage.  She may be "domna Rilint" from whom "Heinricus…rex" acquired property "in Halla in pago Salzburcgouui in comitatu Thiemonis comitis", which he donated to the bishopric of Bamberg by charter dated 1 Nov 1007[109]

Duke Konrad & his wife had [nine] children: 

1.         [EKBERT .  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde, filiorumque eius Eggeberti, Luipoldi, Chononis, Lutoldi"[110].  The Genealogia Welforum names (in order) "Egebertum marchionem de Stadin, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Chunonem et 4 filias" as children of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris"[111].  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Eggebertum, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Counonem" as the four sons of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that Ekbert obtained "marchiam illam que est in finibus Saxonie versus Danos, Stadin"[112].  Presumably these three documents are all based on the same source.  No other reference has been identified to "marchiam…Stadin".  No record has been found of a Graf von Stade named Egbert.  It is possible that there is confusion with Ekbert [I] "der Einäugige", count in Saxony, who was probably the son of Wichmann [I] (see the document SAXONY DUKES & ELECTORS).]

2.         [LUITPOLD .  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde, filiorumque eius Eggeberti, Luipoldi, Chononis, Lutoldi"[113].  The Genealogia Welforum names (in order) "Egebertum marchionem de Stadin, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Chunonem et 4 filias" as children of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris"[114].  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Eggebertum, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Counonem" as the four sons of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint"[115].  Presumably these three documents are all based on the same source.  The doubts concerning the information contained therein relating to the supposed son named Ekbert do not inspire confidence in the accuracy of anything relating to Luitpold, Liutold and Konrad.] 

3.         [LIUTOLD (-after 999).  The Genealogia Welforum names (in order) "Egebertum marchionem de Stadin, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Chunonem et 4 filias" as children of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris"[116].  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Eggebertum, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Counonem" as the four sons of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that Ekbert obtained "marchiam illam que est in finibus Saxonie versus Danos, Stadin"[117].  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde, filiorumque eius Eggeberti, Luipoldi, Chononis, Lutoldi"[118].  Presumably these three documents are all based on the same source.  The doubts concerning the information contained therein relating to the supposed son named Ekbert do not inspire confidence in the accuracy of anything relating to Luitpold, Liutold and Konrad.]  same person as …?  LIUTOLD (-before 1044).  The co-identity of Liutold son of Duke Konrad and Liutold Comte de Montbéliard is reconstructed by Hlawitschka[119], but this assumes that the son of Duke Konrad of this name existed in the first place.  Comte de Montbéliard. 

-        GRAFEN im SUNDGAU

4.         [KONRAD .  "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property by the spurious charter dated 13 Jan 965 to the church of Oehningen, built according to the document by "domnus Chono comes de Oningen" with the consent of "uxoris sui Richlinde, filiorumque eius Eggeberti, Luipoldi, Chononis, Lutoldi"[120], although as shown below this list of the couple's sons is inconsistent with other sources.  The Genealogia Welforum names (in order) "Egebertum marchionem de Stadin, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Chunonem et 4 filias" as children of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris"[121].  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Eggebertum, Leopaldum, Liutoldum, Counonem" as the four sons of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint"[122].  Presumably these three documents are all based on the same source.  The doubts concerning the information contained therein relating to the supposed son named Ekbert do not inspire confidence in the accuracy of anything relating to Luitpold, Liutold and Konrad.]

5.         HERMANN (-2/3 May 1003).  The Annales Einsidlenses record the death in 997 of "Chuonradus dux" and the succession of "Herimannus filius eius in ducatum"[123].  The Annalista Saxo (apparently incorrectly) records "Herimannum ducem" as son of "Udonis ducis, qui aput Calabriam cum multis occubuit, quando imperator Otto secundus contra Sarracenos pugnavit"[124].  The confusion may be due to Thietmar describing Duke Hermann as "matris meæ avunculi filius"[125], without specifying which "avunculus" to whom this refers.  He was installed in 997 as HERMANN II Duke of Swabia.  A majority of south-western magnates supported Duke Hermann's candidacy for the imperial throne in 1002 after the death of Emperor Otto III, but acknowledged the accession of Heinrich Duke of Bavaria as king of Germany in Oct 1002[126].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "1003 IV Non Mai" of "Herman dux"[127]m ([986]) as her second husband, GERBERGA of Burgundy, widow of HERMANN Graf von Werl, daughter of CONRAD I "le Pacifique" King of Burgundy [Welf] & his second wife Mathilde de France [Carolingian] (-7 Jul 1018).  Herimannus names "filiam Counradi regis Burgundiæ, Gerbirgam" as wife of "Herimannus dux"[128].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Rodulfum II et sororem suam Gepam matrem imperatricis Gisile" as children of "Conradus rex Burgundie" and his wife Mathilde[129].  Wipo names "Herimannus dux Alamanniæ [et] Kerbirga filia Chuonradi regis de Burgundia" as the parents of "regis coniunx Gisela"[130].  "Otto…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property "in villa Stohchusen in pago Locdorp ac comitatu Herimanni comitis" to Kloster Meschede by charter dated 29 Sep 997 by request of "Gerbirge comitisse"[131].  The necrology of Marchtalen records the death "Non Jul" of "Gerbirc ducissa"[132].  No direct record of her first marriage has so far been identified.  However, "Otto tercius…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted privileges to Kloster Oedingen founded by "matrona Gerberga…in comitatu Herimanni eius filii" to the monks of the Marienkapelle at Aachen by charter dated 18 May 1000[133], and Thietmar names "Count Hermann son of Gerberga" when recording his dispute with Dietrich Bishop of Münster in 1016[134].  These two references relate to Hermann [II] Graf von Werl.  In addition, "Rodulfus et Bernhardus nati in…Werla" are named as brothers of Empress Gisela in the Annalista Saxo, although not specifying that they were her uterine brothers[135].  Duke Hermann II & his wife had five children: 

a)         MATHILDE ([988]-20 Jul [1031/32]), bur Worms Cathedral).  Thietmar refers to "Konrad" as son-in-law of Hermann Duke of Swabia, recording that they attacked Strasbourg together after the election of Heinrich II King of Germany in 1002[136].  Wipo names "Mahthilda de filia Chuonradi regis Burgundiæ" as mother of "iunioris Chuononis"[137].  The Alberti Milioli Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus names "comitissam Beatricam…de Gallia…filia comitis Frederic, mater…domina Matilda", but does not give the origin of Mathilde[138].  The Annalista Saxo names "Machtildis" as sister of Gisela, wife of Emperor Konrad II, and also names her third husband[139].  The primary source which records her second marriage has not so far been identified.  However, the Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi names "duabus puellulis Sophia et Beatrice" as daughters of the son of "duce Theodorico", specifying that the empress was their amita and that she adopted them after their father died[140].  She attended the Easter celebrations at Ingelheim in 1030[141].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records the death in Jul of "Mechthild soror imperatricis Gislæ"[142].  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" donated property to the church of Worms naming "filii nostri Heinrici Regis, filie quoque nostre Beatricis" for the souls of "parentum nostrorum defunctorum atavi nostri ducis Chuonradi, avie nostre Iudithe, patris nostri Heinrici, patrui nostri ducis Chuonradi eiusque coniugis Mathildis, sororis etiam nostre Iudithe", all buried at Worms Cathedral, by charter dated 30 Jan 1034[143]m firstly ([1002]) KONRAD, son of OTTO Duke of Carinthia, Graf im Nahe-, Speier-, und Wormsgau [Salier] & his wife Judith --- (-[12/15] Dec 1011).  m secondly ([1016]) FREDERIC of Upper Lotharingia, son of THIERRY I Duke of Upper Lotharingia [Wigeriche] & his wife Richilde [von Bliesgau] ([997/99]-17/18 May 1026).  He was titled Duke during the lifetime of his father, sometimes referred to as FREDERIC II Duke of Upper Lotharingiam thirdly ESIKO Graf im Schwabengau, son of ADALBERT von Ballenstedt & his wife Hidda von der Nordmark (-[1059/60]). 

b)         GISELA (11 Nov 990[144]-Goslar 16 Feb 1043, bur Speyer Cathedral)Herimannus names "sororis suæ [=Herimannus iunior dux Alamanniæ defunctus" as wife of Ernst when recording the latter's succession as Duke of Swabia in 1012[145].  Wipo names "Herimannus dux Alamanniæ [et] Kerbirga filia Chuonradi regis de Burgundia" as the parents of "regis coniunx Gisela"[146].  The Notæ Sancti Blasii name her "Gisla de Werle" when recording her three marriages[147].  The Annalista Saxo names her three husbands, although the order of her first and second marriages is interchanged which appears impossible chronologically[148].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "1043 XVI Kal Mar" of "Gisela imp"[149]Herimannus records her death at Goslar[150].  The Annales Spirenses record the burial at Speyer of "Heinricus senior [=Heinricus IV] et aviam suam"[151], the latter assumed to be Gisela his paternal grandmother rather than his maternal grandmother.  m firstly ([1003/05]) BRUNO [I] Graf [von Braunschweig], son of EKBERT & his wife --- (-murdered [1010/11]).  m secondly ([1012]) ERNST Duke of Swabia, son of LUITPOLD I Markgraf der bayerischen Ostmark [Babenberg-Austria] & his wife Richwara --- (-31 Mar 1015, bur Würzburg).  m thirdly (before Jan 1017) KONRAD Herzog von Franken, son of HEINRICH Graf im Wormsgau [Salier] & his wife Adelheid of Metz [Matfriede] ([990]-Utrecht 4 Jun 1039, bur Speyer cathedral).  He was elected KONRAD II King of Germany 4 Sep 1024, crowned at Mainz 8 Sep 1024.  Crowned King of Italy at Milan Mar 1026.  Crowned Emperor at Rome 26 Mar 1027. 

c)         BERCHTOLD (early 992-early 993, bur Marchtal).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

d)         BEATRIX (-23 Feb after 1025).  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ADALBERO Duke of Carinthia, son of MARKWART III Markgraf der Kärtner Mark [Eppenstein] & his wife Hadamudis von Ebersberg (-28 Nov 1039).

e)         HERMANN (before Oct 995-1 Apr 1012).  Herimannus names "filius eius [=Herimannus dux Alamanniæ] Herimannus puer" when recording his succession as Duke of Swabia[152].  He succeeded his father in 1003 as HERMANN III Duke of Swabia.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1012 of "Heriman dux"[153].  The Liber Anniversariorum of Einsiedeln records the death in Apr of "dominus Hermannus dux adolescentulus filius Hermanni ducis"[154].  The necrology of Marchtalen records the death "Kal Apr" of "Hermannus dux iunior"[155]

6.         [ITA von Öhningen (-16 Oct ----).  The Genealogia Welforum names "de Oningen Itam…cuius pater fuit Chuno comes, mater vero filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" wife of Rudolf[156].  The Historia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that they married "una Roudolfo isti [=Welforum], alia cuidam de Rinveldin, parenti Zaringiorum, tercia regie Rugiorum, quarta comiti de Diezon"[157].  As noted above, these two sources are unreliable in their recording of the sons of Konrad I Duke of Swabia, so should not be assumed to be any more precise in recording his daughters.  Her birth date is estimated assuming that her parents married in [968].  The necrology of Weingarten records the death "XVII Kal Nov" of "Ita com uxor Ruodolfi comitis"[158]m RUDOLF II Graf von Altdorf, son of [RUDOLF I Graf] [Welf] & his wife --- (-10 Mar ----, bur Altdorf).]  

7.         [ADELIA] .  The Genealogia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris", specifying that the third (unnamed) married "regi Rugorum"[159].  The Historia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that they married "una Roudolfo isti [=Welforum], alia cuidam de Rinveldin, parenti Zaringiorum, tercia regie Rugiorum, quarta comiti de Diezon"[160].  As noted above, these two sources are unreliable in their recording of the sons of Konrad I Duke of Swabia, so should not be assumed to be any more precise in recording his daughters.  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m (after 1011) as his third wife, VLADIMIR I Sviatoslavich Grand Prince of Kiev, son of SVIATOSLAV I Grand Prince of Kiev & his mistress Malusha [Malfred] ([960]-Berestov 15 Jul 1015).]

8.         [JUDITH (-after 1032, bur Bouzonville/Buzendorf).  The Genealogia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris", specifying that the second (unnamed) married "cuidam de Rinvelden parenti Zaringorum"[161].  The Historia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that they married "una Roudolfo isti [=Welforum], alia cuidam de Rinveldin, parenti Zaringiorum, tercia regie Rugiorum, quarta comiti de Diezon"[162].  As noted above, these two sources are unreliable in their recording of the sons of Konrad I Duke of Swabia, so should not be assumed to be any more precise in recording his daughters.  m --- von Rheinfelden, son of ---.]

9.         [KUNIGUNDE [Kunizza] (-6 Mar 1020, bur Diessen).  The Genealogia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Chuno comes [et] filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris", specifying that the fourth (unnamed) married "comite de Andhese"[163].  The Historia Welforum refers to the four daughters of "Couno comes" and "filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint", specifying that they married "una Roudolfo isti [=Welforum], alia cuidam de Rinveldin, parenti Zaringiorum, tercia regie Rugiorum, quarta comiti de Diezon"[164].  As noted above, these two sources are unreliable in their recording of the sons of Konrad I Duke of Swabia, so should not be assumed to be any more precise in recording his daughters.  The De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses names "Kunizza comitissa" as wife of "Fridericus comes dictus Roch", but specifying that she was the sister of "sancta Richgardis que Ebersberg cenobium construxit" and that "Otto imperator magnus" was their "avus"[165].  On the other hand, the Chronico Eberspergense names "Rihcardem sororem Marhwardi presidis de Carinthia"[166].  No other indication has been found that Richardis may have been the sister of Kunigunde.  The De Fundatoribus records that Kunizza founded "monasterium sancti Stephani" in 1020 after the death of her husband.  The necrology of Diessen records the death "Mar Non" of "Chuniza com, sepulta in media basilica s Stephani, uxor Friderici comes Rochen"[167]m FRIEDRICH I Graf [von Diessen], son of --- (-Jerusalem before 1020, bur Jerusalem).]  

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    DUKES of SWABIA (SAXON KINGS of GERMANY)

 

 

LIUDOLF 950-954, OTTO I 973-982, OTTO II 1045-1047

 

1.         LIUDOLF, son of OTTO I "dem Großen" King of Germany & his first wife Eadgyth of Wessex (930[168]-Piomba 6 Sep 957, bur St Alban, near Mainz).  The Annales Quedlingburgenes name "Liudolfo et Liutgarde" as the two children of King Otto I and Eadgyth[169].  Graf.  His father installed him as LIUDOLF Duke of Swabia in 950, in succession to his father-in-law[170].  "Otto…rex" donated property "in pago Brisehguue in comitatu filii nostri Liutolfi" to Kloster Einsiedeln by charter dated 9 Aug 952[171].  He rebelled against his father, together with his brother-in-law Konrad Duke of Lotharingia, was besieged at Mainz, but escaped to capture Regensburg and expel his uncle Heinrich Duke of Bavaria[172].  His father deposed him in 954 as Duke of Swabia, but ultimately forgave his rebellion[173].  His father sent him to Italy to control Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy in Italy, who was attempting to reassert his independence, but Liudolf died there of a fever[174].  Thietmar records the death of Liudolf in Italy 6 Sep, "after scarcely a year" following his departure from his homeland, but does not specify the year[175].  The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death "957 VIII Id Sep" of "Liutolf filius regis"[176].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 Sep" of "Liuidolfus regis filius"[177]Regino specifies that he died in Italy and was buried in Mainz St Alban[178]

a)         other children: see GERMANY KINGS

b)         OTTO (954-Lucca 31 Oct 982, bur Aschaffenburg St Peter and Alexander)Regino records the birth of "Liutolfo filius Otto" in 954[179].  He was appointed OTTO Duke of Swabia in 973 by his uncle King Otto II in succession to Duke Burkhard III.  "Otto…imperator augustus" confirmed donations of property "de locis Ozenheim, Tetingen…in pago Moiinegouwe in comitatu Eberhardi comitis" by "nobis nepos et equivocus noster Otto dux Sweuorum" to "sancti Petri Ascaffaburg" by charter dated 29 Aug 975[180].  King Otto installed him as OTTO Duke of Bavaria in [976], after confiscating it from his cousin Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria[181], although Carinthia and the Italian marches were taken from the duchy and made into the new duchy of Carinthia.  "Otto…imperator augustus" donated property in Regensburg to Friedrich Archbishop of Salzburg by charter dated 21 Jul 976 after consulting "Ottonis Bauariorum ducis, nostri…fratris filii"[182].  He campaigned in Italy with his uncle King Otto II.  He took part in the capture of Tarento, and in the battle 13 Jul 982 at which the German army was defeated by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria[183].  The death of "Otto dux egregius, filius Liudolfi, fratruelis Ottonis secundi", soon after this defeat, is recorded in the Annalista Saxo[184].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "II Kal Nov" of "Ottonis ducis Alamannie"[185].  He is presumably the "Otto dux Sueuorum" whose death is recorded "1 Nov" in The necrology of Merseburg[186]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    DUKES of SWABIA (DUKES of AUSTRIA, BABENBERGER)

 

 

ERNST I 1012-1015, ERNST II 1015-1027, HERMANN IV 1030-1038

 

ERNST von Babenberg, son of LIUTPOLD I Markgraf der bayerischen Ostmark [Austria] & his wife Richwara [im Sualafeldgau] ([985/90]-31 Mar 1015, bur Würzburg)Thietmar names "Ernst son of Markgraf Leopold" when recording that he was among those sent by Heinrich II King of Germany to Lombardy after his election to quell unrest[187].  A list of names in the Verbrüderungsbuch of Reichenau abbey reads "Luitpold marches, Rihuuar, Iudita, Heinrich, Ernust, Poppo, Luitpold, Cunigurrt, Adalbr"[188], which appears to refer to Markgraf Luitpold, his wife and children.  The Chronicle of Otto von Freising, interpolated in the Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, names "Ernesto duci Suevorum, fratri Alberti superioris Pannonis marchionis et archiepiscopi Treverensis Popponis" as first husband of "Gisila [imperatrix]"[189], although he was in fact her second husband.  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his marriage in [1012].  He succeeded in 1012 as ERNST I Duke of Swabia.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1015 of "Ernst dux"[190].  Thietmar records that "Duke Ernst of Swabia" died on 31 Mar after a hunting accident and was buried in Würzburg next to his father "Markgraf Leopold"[191]

m ([1012]) as her second husband, GISELA of Swabia, widow firstly of BRUNO [I] Graf [von Braunschweig], daughter of HERMANN II Duke of Swabia & his wife Gerberga of Upper Burgundy ([990]-Goslar 1043).  Herimannus names "sororis suæ [=Herimannus iunior dux Alamanniæ defunctus" as wife of Ernst when recording the latter's succession as Duke of Swabia in 1012[192].  Wipo names "Herimannus dux Alamanniæ [et] Kerbirga filia Chuonradi regis de Burgundia" as the parents of "regis coniunx Gisela"[193].  The Notæ Sancti Blasii name her "Gisla de Werle" when recording her three marriages[194].  The Annalista Saxo names her three husbands, although the order of her first and second marriages is interchanged which appears impossible chronologically[195].  She married thirdly (before Jan 1017) Konrad II Duke of Franconia, later Emperor Konrad II King of Germany.  The necrology of Fulda records the death "1043 XVI Kal Mar" of "Gisela imp"[196]Herimannus records her death at Goslar[197].  The Annales Spirenses record the burial at Speyer of "Heinricus senior [=Heinricus IV] et aviam suam"[198], the latter assumed to be Gisela his paternal grandmother rather than his maternal grandmother. 

Duke Ernst I & his wife had two children: 

1.         ERNST (]1013/15]-killed in battle auf der Baar 17 Aug 1030, bur Konstanz Mauritiusstift).  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising names "geminosque ex ea [Ernusto duci Suevorum] filios Ernustum et Herimannum"[199], although it is not certain that this should be taken as meaning that the two brothers were twins, reference to which has not yet been identified in other sources.  The Annales Zwefaltenses name "Ernest filius eius [=Ernest dux]" when recording that he succeeded his father as Duke of Swabia[200].  He succeeded his father in 1015 as ERNST II Duke of Swabia.  Wipo, in his description of the election of Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, specifies that he was the son of Duke Ernst and that he was at that time under the guardianship of his paternal uncle Poppo Archbishop of Trier[201].  Initially opposed to the accession of his stepfather Konrad II King of Germany in 1024, he submitted in 1027.  He supported one of his rebellious supporters, Werner Graf von Kiburg, against Emperor Konrad in 1030, was excommunicated and outlawed.  They were both killed in battle against imperial forces[202]Herimannus records the death in battle "XVI Kal Sep 1030" of "Manegoldo comite ex Augiensi, Ernust pridem dux, et Werinhere comes, caput rebellionis, Adalbertus quoque et Werin nobilies milites" specifying that Ernst was buried at Konstanz and Manegold at Augsburg[203].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "XVI Kal Sep" of "Ernest dux et decis Alamannorum"[204]

2.         HERMANN ([1015]-28 Jul 1038).  The Chronicle of Otto of Freising names "geminosque ex ea [Ernusto duci Suevorum] filios Ernustum et Herimannum"[205], although it is not certain that this should be taken as meaning that the two brothers were twins, reference to which has not yet been identified in other sources.  Herimannus names "frater eius [=Ernust dux] iunior Herimannus" when recording his succession as Duke of Swabia in 1030 when his brother was deprived of the title[206].  He succeeded his brother in 1030 as HERMANN IV Duke of Swabia.  He succeeded his father-in-law as Marchese di Susa in 1036.  Wipo records the death "V Kal Aug" of "filius imperatricis Herimannus dux Alemannorum"[207].  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1038 of "Herimannnus dux"[208].  The necrology of St Gall records the death "V Kal Aug" of "Heremanni ducis Alamannnorum"[209]m (1035) as her first husband, ADELAIDA Marchesa di Susa, daughter of MANFREDO UDALRICO Marchese di Susa Conte di Turino & his wife Berta degli Obertenghi (Turin 1020-Canischio in Canavese 27 Dec 1091, bur Turin, cathedral of San Giovanni).  Her first marriage is confirmed by Herimannus who records that "Hermannus quoque dux Alamanniæ" was granted "marcham soceri sui Maginfredi in Italia" by the emperor in 1034[210].  "Adaleida f. quondam Maginfredi marchionis et coniux Ermanni ducis et marchionis" donated property "in loco Porciana" to the monastery of San Stefano at Genoa by charter dated 4 Jul [1038], signed by "Bertæ comitissæ…"[211].  She married secondly (Jan 1042) Enrico Marchese di Monferrato.  Her second marriage is confirmed by the charter dated 1043 under which "Henricus marchio filius quondam Wilielmi similiter marchioni et Adalena comitissa jugales filia quondam bo. me. Oldrici…Maginfredi…marchioni" donated property to San Antonino[212].  "Adalania comitissa filia quondam Odolricus…Magenfridi et conjux Enricus" donated property to Santa Maria di Cavorre by charter dated 1043[213].  Rivaz, in his compiled index of Burgundian charters. notes a charter dated 1043 under which "Henri marquis de Monferrat et Adelaide de Susa son épouse" donated the church of Santa Agata, Susa to the monastery of Saint-Antonin[214].  She married thirdly ([1046]) Oddon de Maurienne Comte de Chablais [Savoie].  The Annalista Saxo names "Adelheidis que soror erat comitis qui agnominatus est de Monte Bardonis in Italia et Immule seu Irmingardis" as wife of "Ottonis marchionis de Italia"[215].  She succeeded her father in 1034 as Marchesa di Susa, heiress of Auriate, Turin, Ivrea and Aosta.  She was regent for her son in 1060 after the death of her husband, playing a significant role in support of Heinrich IV King of Germany, her son-in-law, in his disputes with the Papacy.  She mediated with Pope Gregory VII when King Heinrich submitted to him at Canossa in 1077, and received in return the town of Bugey for the house of Savoy[216].  The necrology of Schaffhausen records the death "XIV Kal Jan" of "Adelheida Taurinensis comitissa"[217].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the possessions of the church at Asti by undated charter placed in the compilation with other charters dated 1093, which notes among others property in "comitatum [Astensi]…habuit et tenuit Adheledis comitissa"[218].  Duke Hermann IV & his wife had [one possible child]: 

a)         [RICHWARA (-before 1056).  According to Wegener, Richwara wife of Berthold [I] [von Zähringen] was the daughter of Hermann IV Duke of Swabia[219].  However, this seems unlikely from a chronological point of view.  Richwara gave birth to five children, presumably between [1045/55], so is unlikely to have been born later than 1030, when her supposed father was only 15 years old and her supposed mother about 10.  m as his first wife, BERTHOLD I von Zähringen, son of BEZZELIN von Villingen & his wife [Luitgard ---] (-Limburg 5/6 Nov 1078, bur Hirsau).  Duke of Carinthia 1061.  Marchese di Verona 1066.]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    DUKES of SWABIA (SALIAN KINGS of GERMANY)

 

 

HEINRICH 1038-1045

 

HEINRICH, son of Emperor KONRAD II King of Germany & his wife Gisela of Swabia (Ostrebeck 28 Oct 1017-Burg Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer Cathedral).  "Cunradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" granted property to the church of Paderborn by charter dated 7 Apr 1027, naming for the first time "filii nostri Heinrici"[220].  Wipo names "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" when recording his first marriage in 1036[221].  He was installed in 1027 as HEINRICH VI Duke of Bavaria, until 1042 when he granted the duchy to Graf Heinrich [Luxembourg].  He was crowned HEINRICH III King of Germany at Aachen 14 Apr 1028.  He was installed as HEINRICH Duke of Swabia 1038-1045. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    DUKE of SWABIA (PFALZGRAFEN bei RHEIN)

 

 

OTTO 1045-1047

 

OTTO, son of EZZO [Erenfried] Pfalzgraf of Lotharingia & his wife Mathilde of Germany [Ottonen] (-Tomburg 7 Sep 1047).  The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names the three sons (in order) "Hermannus, Otto, Ludolphus" of "Herenfridus comes palatinus, qui post Ezo nominatus est" and his wife "Mathilde filia Magni Ottonis", specifying in a later passage that he died at Tonsburg "VII Idus Sep"[222].  Graf im Deutzgau 1025.  "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the property of the church of Würzburg by charter dated 9 Oct 1033, witnessed by "…Ezzo palatinus comes et filius eius Otto…"[223].  He succeeded in 1035 as OTTO Pfalzgraf von Lothringen.  He relinquished the Pfalzgrafschaft in 1045 when he was installed as OTTO Duke of Swabia.  The necrology of Fulda records the death in 1047 of "Otto dux"[224].  "Heinricus…Romanorum imperator augustus" confirmed the foundation of Kloster Brauweiler by charter dated 18 Jul 1051 which names "Richeza regina quondam Poleniæ…pro remedio anime sue fratrisque sui beate memorie Ottonis ducis aliorumque parentum suorum in monasterio Brunwilarensi sepultorum…per manum Heinrici palatini comitis filii patrui sui" and witnessed by "Heinricus comes palatinus, Sicco comes, Starchri comes…"[225]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    DUKES of SWABIA (MARKGRAFEN von SCHWEINFURT)

 

 

OTTO 1048-1057

 

1.         OTTO von Schweinfurt, son of HEINRICH von Schweinfurt Markgraf auf dem bayerischen Nordgau & his wife Gerberga [von Hammerstein] (-28 Sep 1057)The Annalista Saxo names "Otto marchio de Suinvorde" as son of "marchionis Heinrici et Gerberge marchionisse", when recording his appointment as Duke of Swabia[226].  Graf an der unteren Altmühl 1014.  Markgraf auf dem Nordgau 1024-1031.  Graf an der unteren Naab 1034.  Graf an der oberen Naab 1040.  He succeeded in 1048 as OTTO Duke of Swabia.  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "Otto de Suinvorde dux Suevorum" on "IV Kal Oct" and his burial in Schweinfurt[227]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    DUKES of SWABIA (GRAFEN von RHEINFELDEN)

 

 

RUDOLF 1057-1079, BERTHOLD I 1079-1090

 

1.         RUDOLF von Rheinfelden, son of Graf KUNO & his wife --- (-killed in battle near Hohenmölsen near Merseburg [15/16] Oct 1080, bur Merseburg cathedral).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was installed as Duke of Swabia in 1057 by Agnes de Poitou, widow of Emperor Heinrich III[228].  -1079.  He became rector of Burgundy, entrusted with the administration of the kingdom, in 1060[229].  He introduced the stricter monastic rules from Fruttuaria[230] into the monastery of St Blasien in 1072.  He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV.  He was elected RUDOLF King of Germany at Forcheim in Feb 1077 by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich[231].  The pope remained neutral, but after the king's defeat near Flarcheim on the Unstrut 27 Jan 1080, he renewed the excommunication of the king and impliedly declared support for Rudolf as anti-king by granting remission to the sins of his supporters[232].    

a)         other children: see SWABIAN NOBILITY. GRAFEN von RHEINFELDEN

b)         BERTHOLD (-18 May 1090, bur St Blasius).  He was appointed BERTHOLD I Duke of Swabia in 1079 in succession to his father, in opposition to Heinrich IV King of Germany who appointed Friedrich von Staufen to the Swabian duchy.  The Chronicon of Bernold records that "Bertaldi ducis, filii regis Roudolfi" was besieged by supporters of King Heinrich in 1084[233].  The Annales Rosenveldenses records the death in 1090 of "Bertolfus dux filius Rudolfi"[234].  The Chronicon of Bernold records the death in "1090…Maio mense" of "Bertholdus dux Alemanniæ, filius Roudolfi regis"[235].  The Necrology of Schaffhausen records the death "XV Kal Jun" of "Bertaldus dux Alemannia"[236]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  DUKES of SWABIA (ZÄHRINGEN)

 

 

BERTHOLD II 1092-[1095]

 

1.         BERTHOLD von Zähringen, son of BERTHOLD I von Zähringen Duke of Carinthia & his first wife Richwara of Swabia [Babenberg] ([1050]-12 Apr 1111, bur St Peter in Schwarzwald).  The Genealogia Zaringorum names "Berchtoldus" son of "Berchtoldus Cum-barba", referring to him first among the brothers, specifying that he was buried at St Peter in 1111[237].  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records that "Berhtolfus de castro Zaringen" usurped the duchy of Swabia after his father-in-law died[238], although this does not appear to have happened until after the death of his brother-in-law.  He took over the rights and estates of his brother-in-law Berthold von Rheinfelden in Swabia and Burgundy on the latter's death in 1090[239].  He was installed as BERTHOLD II Duke of Swabia in 1092 by Emperor Heinrich IV.  He was unable to obtain effective control and in 1098 renounced his claims to Swabia[240] in favour of Friedrich I von Staufen, although he retained the title of Duke and was enfeoffed with imperial estates in and around Zürich[241].  Mayer says that Berthold II retained "both the Reichsvogtei in Zürich and the title duke"[242].  It has not been possible to verify which view of the duke's position in Zürich is correct.  He was installed in 1092 as BERTHOLD II Duke of Carinthia, in opposition to Duke Heinrich II [Eppenstein].  Together with Duke Welf IV, he organised an oath of peace at Ulm in 1093, valid for Swabia and later extended to Bavaria, to strengthen opposition to the Salian monarchy[243].  He founded Kloster St Peter in Schwarzwald 1093.  He adopted the title Herzog von Zähringen from 1100, after his family castle.  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising comments that Berthold held "the empty title of duke" without the substance[244].  The necrology of St Peter im Schwarzwald records the death "II Id Apr" of "Berchtoldus 2 dux de Zaeringen qui primus huius loci fundator extitit 1111"[245]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11.  DUKES of SWABIA (HOHENSTAUFEN)

 

 

FRIEDRICH I 1079-1105, FRIEDRICH II 1105-1147, FRIEDRICH IV 1152-1167

 

FRIEDRICH von Büren, son of FRIEDRICH von Büren & his wife Hildegard --- ([1050]-1105 before 21 Jul, bur Lorsch Monastery)The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "ducem Fridericum, qui Stophen condidit" as son of "Fridericus de Buren"[246].  The children of "Hildegardis" are named in her donation dated 1094 (in order) "Ottone…Argentinenis ecclesie episcopo Suevorumque duce Friderico, Lodewico, Walthario, Cunrado et filia mea Adalheida"[247].  The De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis names "Fredericus dux Alemannorum [qui fuit Friderici ducis Swevie], qui Romani imperatoris filiæ coniugo, et duo eius fratres Argentinensis episcopus Otto et Conradus"[248].  "Ottone Argentinensi…episcopo" and "fratres mei dux…Suetiæ Fridericus, Ledeuvicus et Galtharius" donated property in "Scelstat villa, in pago Alsatiæ et in comitatu Beirricheim" to the abbey of Conques by charter dated 23 Jul 1095, naming "matre…nostra fratreque nostro Conrado…defunctis"[249].  He was installed as FRIEDRICH I Duke of Swabia at Easter 1079 by Heinrich IV King of Germany.  Jackman[250] speculates that his theory concerning a possible Konradiner origin of Friedrich's mother could have justified Friedrich claiming Swabia for which no other genealogical basis is found, although this begs the question of the extent to which ducal appointments in Germany were based on family relationship in the 11th century.  He built the castle of Stauf near Göppingen from which the family eventually took its name[251].  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records his death "in senectate" and burial "in monasterio Laureacensi"[252]

m (betrothed Regensburg 24 Mar 1079, 1089) as her first husband, AGNES of Germany, daughter of Emperor HEINRICH IV King of Germany ([Summer 1072/early 1073]-24 Sep 1143, bur Klosterneuburg).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records the marriage of "filiam unicam" of King Heinrich IV and "Fridericus dux Suevorum", naming her Agnes in a later passage[253].  In a subsequent passage, the Gesta records the second marriage of Agnes to "Leopaldo Orientali marchioni"[254].  She married secondly (1106) Leopold III "der Heilige" Markgraf of Austria.  The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of "Liupoldus marchio Austrie" and "Agnetem imperatoris Heinrici IV filiam", specifying that the couple had seven children who died in infancy and eleven who survived into adulthood, six sons and five daughters[255].  The marriage presumably took place early in the year if it is correct, as stated by Haverkamp, that it was arranged by Agnes's brother, the future Emperor Heinrich V, to obtain her future husband's support for his rebellion against their father[256].  The Auctarium Mellicense records that Agnes, wife of "Leopoldus marchio", gave birth to 18 children[257].  The Annales Magdeburgenses record the death in 1143 of "Agnes marchionissa mater Cuonradi regis"[258].  The necrology of Nonnberg records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Agnes marchionissa"[259].  The necrology of Kloster Neuburg records the death "VIII Kal Oct" of "Agnes marchionissa fundatrix h e"[260]

Duke Friedrich & his wife had [twelve] children:

1.         [HEILIKA von Staufen (-after 1110, bur Kloster Ensdorf).  According to Europäische Stammtafeln[261], the wife of Friedrich von Pettendorf was the daughter of Friedrich I Duke of Swabia, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  The Fundatio Monasterii Ensdorfensis names "Fridericum et Heylwic" as parents of "Heylice palatine", specifying that they were buried at Ensdorf[262].  m FRIEDRICH von Pettendorf, son of [263][RUOTGER von Feldheim & his wife [Eilika] von Lengenfeld] (-3 Apr 1119, bur Kloster Ensdorf).] 

2.         BERTRADA [Bertha] von Staufen .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ADALBERT, Graf.

3.         FRIEDRICH von Staufen (1090-Alzey 4 or 6 Apr 1147, bur Walburg Abbey).  The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "ducem Fridericum", father of "regem Fridericum", as son of "ducem Fridericum, qui Stophen condidit" and "filia regis Heinrici"[264].  He succeeded his father as FRIEDRICH II "der Einäugige" Duke of Swabia in 1105.  Regent of Germany 1116.  His maternal uncle Emperor Heinrich V considered him as his successor and bequeathed him the Salian dynasty's family properties to increase his personal prestige[265], but on the Emperor's death in 1125 Friedrich was passed over as candidate for the German throne in favour of Lothar von Süpplingenburg Duke of Saxony whom the German nobility saw as less of a dynastic threat.  After refusing to hand over his inherited crown lands to the new king, Duke Friedrich was outlawed[266].  Friedrich eventually submitted to Emperor Lothar in 1135 with his brother.  He agreed to transfer the crown lands, but was allowed to remain as Duke of Swabia[267].  "Dux Fridericus…" witnessed a charter dated 25 Jul 1139 under which Adalbert [II] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed his predecessor's grants to Kloster Jechaburg[268].  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records the death of Duke Friedrich and his burial "in monasterio sanctæ Waltpurge…in terminis Alsatiæ sito"[269].  The Necrology of Zwiefalten records the death "VIII Id Apr" of "Fridericus dux de Stouphin"[270]m firstly ([1119/21]) JUDITH of Bavaria, daughter of HEINRICH "dem Schwarzen" Duke of Bavaria [Welf] & his wife Wulfhild of Saxony [Billung] (after 1100-22 Feb [1130/31], bur Walburg im Heiligen Forst, Alsace).  The Historia Welforum names (in order) "Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem" as the four daughters of "Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde", specifying that Judith married "Friderico Suevorum duci"[271].  The Annalista Saxo names "Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias" as children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild, specifying that one of the daughters (mentioned first in the list of daughters, but not named) married "Fridericus dux Suevorum"[272]m secondly ([1132/33]) AGNES von Saarbrücken, daughter of FRIEDRICH I von Saarbrücken Graf im Saargau & his wife Gisela --- (-after 1147).  The Urspergensium Chronicon refers to the second wife of "Friedrich I pater ipsius" as "de genere comitum…Zwainbrug et de Sarbrug"[273].  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising records the marriage of "Fridericus dux, mortua uxore sua Iuditha" and "Friderici comitis de Sarbruch, fratris Alberti episcopi, filiam Agnetem"[274].  Duke Friedrich II & his first wife had two children: 

a)         FRIEDRICH von Staufen (1122-drowned Göks or Saleph River, Asia Minor 10 Jun 1190, bur Tarsus [entrails], Antioch St Peter [flesh], Tyre Cathedral [legs]).  The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "regem Fridericum" as son of "ducem Fridericum"[275].  The Historia Welforum names "Fridericum imperatorem nostrum et uxorem Mathei ducis Lotharingiæ" as the children of "Friderico Suevorum duci" and his wife Judith[276].  He succeeded in 1147 as FRIEDRICH III Duke of Swabia, resigning in 1152 in favour of his cousin.  He was elected as FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 4 Mar 1152, crowned at Aachen 9 Mar 1152.  King of Italy 1154.  Crowned Emperor at Rome 18 Jun 1155. 

-        see below

b)         BERTHA [Judith] von Staufen (-[18 Oct 1194/25 Mar 1195], bur Abbaye de Clairlieu).  The Historia Welforum names "Fridericum imperatorem nostrum et uxorem Mathei ducis Lotharingiæ" as the children of "Friderico Suevorum duci" and his wife Judith[277].  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Fridericum…et Iuditham" as the two children of Friedrich Duke of Swabia & his first wife, and Judith's marriage to "Matthaeo Lotharingiorum duci"[278].  The Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi refers to the wife of "Matheum ducem" as "sorore Friderici imperatoris"[279].  "Matheus Lotharingorum dux et marchio" donated property to Kloster Stürtzelbronn, with the consent of "coniugis mee Berthe et Balduini fratris mei" by charter dated 13 Jan 1143[280].  “Bertha…Lotharingorum ducissa…et filii mei Theodericus, Simon Dux et Marchio, Fredericus, et junior eorum Matthæus, soror quoque ipsorum Aleidis Ducissa Burgundiæ” donated property to Mont Saint-Trinité, for the soul of "viri mei nobilis ducis Matthæi", by charter dated to [1177][281].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1193 names "Berta sorore imperatoris Frederici" as wife of "ducis Lotharingie Mathie qui dux Mosellanorum dicebatur"[282]m (before 25 Mar 1139) MATHIEU I Duke of Lorraine, son of SIMON I Duke of Lorraine & his wife Adelaide de Louvain ([1119]-13 May 1176, bur Abbaye de Clairlieu). 

Duke Friedrich II & his second wife had three children:

c)         JUTTA [Claricia] von Staufen ([1135]-7 Jul 1191, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Conradum, qui palatinus comes Rheni…et Clariciam, Ludewici Thuringiæ comitis uxorem" as the two children of Duke Friedrich & his second wife[283].  The Urspergensium Chronicon refers to (but does not name) the daughter of "Friedrich I pater ipsius" & his second wife as the wife of "lantgravius de Thuringia"[284].  The Annales Stadenses records that the mother of "quartum [Lodewicum]" and therefore the wife of "tertium [Ludowicum]" was "sororis imperatoris Friderici"[285].  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "imperatoris Friderici sorore Iutha" as the wife of Landgraf Ludwig II[286].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1193 refers to "soror…Berthe" as wife of "lantgravie Thuringie Ludovico"[287]m (1150) LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia, son of LUDWIG I Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Hedwig von Gudensberg ([1128]-Neuenburg am Unstrut 14 Oct 1172, bur Reinhardsbrunn). 

d)         KONRAD von Staufen ([1134/36]-8 Nov 1195, bur Kloster Schönau bei Heidelberg).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Conradum, qui palatinus comes Rheni…et Clariciam, Ludewici Thuringiæ comitis uxorem" as the two children of Duke Friedrich & his second wife[288].  The Urspergensium Chronicon names "Cuonradum" as son of "Friedrich I pater ipsius" & his second wife[289].  The document dated 17 Sep 1156 established the duchy of Austria is witnessed by "…Conradus frater imperatoris…"[290].  He was appointed KONRAD Pfalzgraf [von Lothringen] in 1156, but appears to have held jurisdiction in a territory in the Rhineland unlike his predecessors.  As he appears to have had no connection with Lotharingia, it is more appropriate to consider him as Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.  Vogt of Worms cathedral.  Vogt of Lorsch. 

-        PALATINATE

e)         LIUTGARD von Staufen (-after [1155]).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

4.         HILDEGARDIS von Staufen .  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

5.         KONRAD von Staufen (1093-Bamberg 15 Feb 1152, bur Bamberg Cathedral).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He was elected in 1138 as KONRAD III King of Germany

a)         -        other children: see GERMANY KINGS

b)         FRIEDRICH von Staufen ([1144/45]-Rome 19 Aug 1167, bur Kloster Ebrach).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "fratrem parvulum Fridericum" when recording the death of his older brother Heinrich[291].  Graf von Rothenburg.  He was installed in 1152 as FRIEDRICH IV Duke of Swabia, under the regency of his cousin Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany.  Received Egerland.  He died of malaria while fighting on Emperor Friedrich I's Italian expedition of 1167[292]

6.         GISELA von Staufen [Giselhildis].  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. 

7.         HEINRICH von Staufen (-before 1102).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. 

8.         BEATRIX von Staufen (-after 1146).  The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.  She founded Michelstein convent in 1146. 

9.         KUNIGUNDE [Kunizza] von Staufen .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m HEINRICH, Herzog.

10.      SOPHIA von Staufen .  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  m ADALBERT, Graf.

11.      GERTRUD von Staufen (-after 1182).  "Heremannus palatinus comes de Stahelekke" assumed the Vogtei of Kloster Lorch, at the request of "domne Gertrudis…contoralis nostre fratrisque sui Friderici…ducis Swevie", by charter dated 1138[293].  According to the Genealogica Wettinensis, Gertrud wife of Hermann von Stahleck was one of the six daughters of "Conradus Misnensis et Orientalius marchio [filius Thiemonis]" & his wife, specifying that she founded "ecclesiam in honore beati Theodori Bavenberg" after her husband died[294], but this is proved incorrect by the charter dated 1138.  In 1157, she founded Kloster St Theodor in Bamberg, where she became a nun as FIDES.  m ([1127]) HERMANN von Stahleck Graf von Stahleck, son of GOSWIN Graf von Stahleck & his wife Luitgard von Heimbach (-Ebrach 2 Oct 1156, bur Ebrach, transferred to Bildhausen).  He was installed in [1138] as HERMANN III Pfalzgraf von Lothringen by his brother-in-law Konrad III King of Germany, resigned in 1155.] 

12.      RICHILDE von Staufen ([1100]-).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines refers to the wife of "comes Hugo Cholez" as sister of "ut dicitur, imperatoris Conradi" but does not name her[295].  "Hugo comes Roceiensis" donated property to "ecclesiam…in Eberneicurte", for the soul of "uxoris Richildis pie memorie", with the consent of "filiorum meorum Roberti Wiscardi et uxoris eius Elisabeth, Ebali et Hugonis et filiarum mearum Clementie, Sibille et Sare que cognominatur Agnes", by charter dated 1154[296]m (after 1117) as his second wife, HUGUES "Cholet" Comte de Roucy, son of EBLES [II] Comte de Roucy & his wife Sibylle of Apulia ([1090]-[1160], bur Reims St Thierry). 

 

 

FRIEDRICH III 1147-1152, FRIEDRICH V 1167-1170, FRIEDRICH VI 1170-1191, KONRAD II 1191-1196, PHILIPP 1196-1208

 

FRIEDRICH von Staufen, son of FRIEDRICH II "der Einäugige" von Staufen Duke of Swabia & his first wife Judith of Bavaria (1122-drowned Göks or Saleph River, Asia Minor 10 Jun 1190, bur Tarsus [entrails], Antioch St Peter [flesh], Tyre Cathedral [legs]).  The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "regem Fridericum" as son of "ducem Fridericum"[297].  The Historia Welforum names "Fridericum imperatorem nostrum et uxorem Mathei ducis Lotharingiæ" as the children of "Friderico Suevorum duci" and his wife Judith[298].  He succeeded in 1147 as FRIEDRICH III Duke of Swabia, resigning in 1152 in favour of his cousin.  He was elected FRIEDRICH I "Barbarossa" King of Germany at Frankfurt-am-Main 4 Mar 1152, crowned at Aachen 9 Mar 1152, crowned Emperor at Rome 18 Jun 1155 by Pope Hadrian IV[299]

1.         -        other children: see GERMANY KINGS

2.         FRIEDRICH von Staufen (Pavia 16 Jul 1164-[28 Nov 1168/1170]), bur Lorch).  He was installed as FRIEDRICH V Duke of Swabia in 1167 by his father after the death of his cousin.  

3.         HEINRICH von Staufen (Nijmegen Nov 1165-castilo Favara, near Messina 28 Sep 1197, bur Palermo Cathedral).  He was crowned HEINRICH VI King of Germany at Aachen 15 Aug 1169. 

a)         KONSTANTIN ROGER FRIEDRICH von Staufen (Iesi, Ancona 26 Dec 1194-Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, Foggia, of dysentery 13 Dec 1250, bur 25 Feb 1251 Palermo cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1197 as FEDERIGO I King of Sicily, under the regency of his mother, crowned 17 May 1198 at Palermo cathedral.  Elected FRIEDRICH II King of Germany, FRIEDRICH VI Duke of Swabia 5 Dec 1212 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned at Mainz 9 Dec 1212 and at Aachen 25 Jul 1215.  He resigned Swabia in 1216 in favour of his son Heinrich.  Crowned Emperor in Rome 22 Nov 1220. 

-        see below

4.         KONRAD von Staufen (Modigliana Feb 1167-Acre 20 Jan 1191, bur Acre).  He was installed as FRIEDRICH VI Duke of Swabia in 1170 by his father after the death of his older brother.  He accompanied his father when he left on crusade in May 1189.  During the dispute with Emperor Isaakios II, Friedrich captured Didymoticum in Thrace to pressurise the return of German hostages captured by the Byzantine Emperor[300].  He assumed command of the German army after the death of his father, but the army was seriously diminished by the time it reached Antioch 21 Jun 1190, after suffering heavy losses while crossing Cilicia.  Duke Friedrich left Antioch end Aug 1190, by which time his army was further reduced[301].  After arriving at the siege of Acre in Oct 1190, he launched a fierce but unsuccessful attack on the city[302].  He died during the course of the siege of Acre[303]

5.         KONRAD von Staufen ([Feb/Mar 1172]-murdered Durlach 15 Aug 1196, bur Lorch).  Herr von Weissenburg-am-Sand und Eger.  Hg von Rothenburg 1188-1191.  He succeeded his brother in 1191 as KONRAD Duke of Swabia

6.         PHILIPP von Staufen ([Feb/Mar 1177]-murdered Bamberg 21 Jun 1208, bur Speyer cathedral).  Provost of St Maria at Aachen 1189/90.  Elected Bishop of Würzburg in 1190.  He resigned his ecclesiastical appointments in 1193.  He was installed as Duke of Tuscany by his brother in 1195.  He succeeded his brother in 1196 as PHILIPP Duke of Swabia.  He was elected PHILIPP King of Germany at Ichtershausen 6 Mar and at Mühlhausen, Thürgau 8 Mar 1198, crowned at Mainz 8 Sep 1198.  He supported the claim to the Byzantine throne of his brother-in-law Alexios Angelos, who had sought refuge at his court in 1201[304].  He and Alexios promised the leaders of the Fourth Crusade enormous sums in return for assisting in the removal of Alexios III Emperor of Byzantium[305].  He was murdered by Otto von Wittelsbach, in revenge for the annulment of his betrothal to Philipp's daughter[306]

 

 

FRIEDRICH VI 1212-1216, HEINRICH 1216-1235, KONRAD III 1235-1254, KONRAD IV 1254-1268

 

KONSTANTIN ROGER FRIEDRICH von Hohenstaufen, son of Emperor HEINRICH VI King of Germany & his wife Constance of Sicily (Iesi, Ancona 26 Dec 1194-Castel Fiorentino near Lucera, Foggia, 13 Dec 1250, bur 25 Feb 1251 Palermo Cathedral).  He succeeded his father in 1197 as FEDERIGO I King of Sicily, under the regency of his mother, crowned 17 May 1198 at Palermo cathedral.  Elected FRIEDRICH II King of Germany, FRIEDRICH VI Duke of Swabia 5 Dec 1212 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned at Mainz 9 Dec 1212 and at Aachen 25 Jul 1215.  He resigned Swabia in 1216 in favour of his son Heinrich.  Crowned Emperor in Rome 22 Nov 1220. 

-        other children: see GERMANY KINGS

1.         HEINRICH (1211-near Martorano [12] Feb 1242, bur Cosenza cathedral).  He was crowned King of Sicily at Palermo Feb 1212, while his father prepared to visit Germany.  His father installed him as HEINRICH Duke of Swabia in 1216.  Rector of Burgundy 1218.  Elected HEINRICH VII King of Germany 20 and 26 Apr 1220 at Frankfurt-am-Main, crowned 8 May 1222 at Aachen.  He ruled through a Council of Regency, led by Engelbert Archbishop of Köln (who was assassinated in 1223), then Ludwig Duke of Bavaria, until 1228.  Imprisoned in 1235 for having rebelled against his father, at Rocca San Felice near Melfi, later at Nicastro in Calabria.  He died after falling from his horse while being transferred to Martirano. 

2.         KONRAD (Andria 25 Apr 1228-Heerlager, near Lavello, Italy, 21 May 1254, bur Messina cathedral).  He was elected KONRAD IV King of Germany and KONRAD IV Duke of Swabia at Vienna Feb 1237.  He was defeated at near Frankfurt in 1246 by Heinrich "Raspe" Lgf of Thuringia, whom Pope Innocent IV had named anti-King of Germany[307].  He succeeded his father 1250 as King of Sicily, arriving in Apulia Jan 1252.  He died of dysentery. 

a)         KONRAD "Konradin" (Burg Wolfstein, Isar 23 or 25 Mar 1252-beheaded Naples, Piazza del Mercato 29 Oct 1268, bur Naples, Santa Maria del Carmino).  He succeeded his father as KONRAD V Duke of Swabia and King of Sicily in 1254.  He was defeated and captured by Charles d'Anjou King of Sicily 23 Aug 1268 at Tagliacozzo, Abruzzi, imprisoned in the Castel del Ovo, Naples, and beheaded in the Market Square of Naples. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12.  PFALZGRAFEN von SCHWABEN

 

 

1.         FRIEDRICH von Büren, son of FRIEDRICH Graf im Sundergau & his wife --- (-[1068])The Tabula consanguinitatis Friderici I regis et Adelæ reginæ (which provided the basis for their divorce) names "Fridericum de Buren" as son of "Fridericus", brother of "Berta"[308]Pfalzgraf von Schwaben 1053.  He founded the convent of Lorch. 

 

 

1.         MANEGOLD "der Ältere" (-1094)Pfalzgraf von Schwaben.  Pope Celestine II granted protection to Kloster Anhausen, constructed by "egregie recordationis…Manegoldo palatino comite eiusque filiis…Gualteri Augustensis episcopi…Adelberto et Odelrico", by charter dated 26 Nov 1143[309]m ADELHEID, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.   She and her husband founded the convent of Langenau.  She has been identified as Adelheid, daughter of Friedrich von Büren Pfalzgraf von Schwaben & his wife Hildegard.  The children of "Hildegardis" are named in her donation dated 1094 (in order) "Ottone…Argentinenis ecclesie episcopo Suevorumque duce Friderico, Lodewico, Walthario, Cunrado et filia mea Adalheida"[310].  Their father is deduced from the mention in one version of the manuscript of De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis of "Fredericus dux Alemannorum [qui fuit Friderici ducis Swevie] ", a subsequent passage implying that his brothers all died before Friedrich[311].  It is possible that this co-identification is speculative, based on the assumed transmission of the Pfalzgrafschaft von Schwaben from Friedrich von Büren to Manegold.  Manegold & his wife had four children: 

a)         MANEGOLD (-[1114/25]).  "Waltherus…Augustensis ecclesie minister…cum fratribus meis Manegoldo, Adelberto, Odalrico" granted privileges to Kloster Anhausen by charter dated Oct 1143[312]

b)         ADALBERT (-[1143]).  "Waltherus…Augustensis ecclesie minister…cum fratribus meis Manegoldo, Adelberto, Odalrico" granted privileges to Kloster Anhausen by charter dated Oct 1143[313]

c)         ULRICH (-after 1123).  "Waltherus…Augustensis ecclesie minister…cum fratribus meis Manegoldo, Adelberto, Odalrico" granted privileges to Kloster Anhausen by charter dated Oct 1143[314]

d)         WALTER (-1153).  Bishop of Ausgsburg.  "Waltherus…Augustensis ecclesie minister…cum fratribus meis Manegoldo, Adelberto, Odalrico" granted privileges to Kloster Anhausen by charter dated Oct 1143[315]

 

 

 



[1] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 58. 

[2] Reuter (1991), p. 64. 

[3] Reuter (1991), pp. 59-60. 

[4] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 33. 

[5] Reuter (1991), p. 60. 

[6] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 43. 

[7] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”), 742, p. 37. 

[8] Fredegar, IV 8, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 125. 

[9] Fredegar, IV 8, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 125. 

[10] Vita Galli Auctore Wettino 15, MGH SS rer Merov IV, pp. 264-5. 

[11] Fredegar, IV, 88, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 165. 

[12] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 129. 

[13] Passio Desiderii et Reginfredi Martyrum Alsegaudiensium 3, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 57. 

[14] Annales Sancti Maximini Trevirensis 709, MGH SS II, p. 212. 

[15] Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band I c 700-1137 (Stuttgart, 1849, reprint 1972) ("Württembergisches Urkundenbuch"), 2, p. 2. 

[16] Annales Alammanici 709 (710), MGH SS I, p. 22. 

[17] Annales Sangallenses Maiores 709, MGH SS I, p. 73. 

[18] Annales Petaviani 730, MGH SS I, p. 9. 

[19] Lex Alamannorum temporibus Lantfridi renovata, MGH LL 3, V, p. 85.  . 

[20] Annales Alammanici 730, MGH SS I, p. 24. 

[21] Annales Augienses 730, MGH SS I, p. 67. 

[22] Annalium Petavianorum Continuatio 751, MGH SS I, p. 11. 

[23] Annales Moselleni 751, MGH SS XVI, p. 495. 

[24] Annales Augienses 751, MGH SS I, p. 67. 

[25] Thegani, Vita Hludowici Imperatoris, MGH SS II, p. 590. 

[26] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 2, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[27] Codex Laureshamensis, no. 2101, cited in Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 128. 

[28] Brückner, A. (ed.) (1949) Regesta Alsatiæ ævi Merovingici et Karolini 496-918, Vol. I (Strasbourg-Zurich), no. 327, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 126. 

[29] Brückner, A. (ed.) (1949) Regesta Alsatiæ ævi Merovingici et Karolini 496-918, Vol. I (Strasbourg-Zurich), no. 327, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 126. 

[30] Brückner, A. (ed.) (1949) Regesta Alsatiæ ævi Merovingici et Karolini 496-918, Vol. I (Strasbourg-Zurich), no. 327, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 126. 

[31] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 2, MGH SS II, p. 591. 

[32] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 2, MGH SS II, p. 590-1. 

[33] Annales Alamannici 798, MGH SS I, p. 48. 

[34] Annales Metenses 745 and 746, MGH SS I, pp. 328 and 329. 

[35] Annales Nazariani 745, MGH SS I, p. 27. 

[36] Annales Alammanici 755, MGH SS I, p. 28. 

[37] D LK 20, p. 125. 

[38] D LK 53, p. 178. 

[39] D LK 60, p. 189. 

[40] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 911, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[41] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 911, MGH SS I, p. 55. 

[42] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 911, MGH SS I, p. 55. 

[43] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 911, MGH SS I, p. 55. 

[44] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 914, MGH SS I, p. 56. 

[45] D H I 2, p. 40. 

[46] Reuter (1991), p. 142. 

[47] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 926, MHG SS V, p. 113. 

[48] Annales Sangallensis 925, MGH SS I, p. 78. 

[49] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 911, MGH SS I, p. 55. 

[50] Reginonis Chronicon 926, MGH SS I, p. 615. 

[51] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[52] D O I 147, p. 228. 

[53] D O I 193, p. 274.   

[54] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[55] D O I 189, p. 271.   

[56] D O I 193, p. 274.   

[57] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 973, MHG SS V, p. 116. 

[58] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[59] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[60] Casus Monasterii Petrishusensis I.43, MGH SS XX, p. 637. 

[61] Gerhardi Vita S. Oudalrici 28, MGH SS IV, p. 415. 

[62] D O III 63, p. 469. 

[63] Annales Einsidlenses 994, MGH SS III, p. 144. 

[64] D O III 152, p. 562. 

[65] D O III 158, p. 569. 

[66] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.60, p. 299. 

[67] Annales Sangallensis 922, MGH SS I, p. 78. 

[68] Cluny II.1127, p. 217. 

[69] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[70] Gerhardi, Vita S. Oudalrici I.1, MGH SS IV, p. 385. 

[71] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon, Introduction, MGH SS V, p. 67 footnote 1. 

[72] Vita b. Hucbaldi, sancti Udalrici episcopi Augustani, quoted in Annales Neresheimenses 1074, MGH SS X, p. 20 footnote 23.  

[73] Fragmenta Necrologii Neresheimenses, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 95. 

[74] Necrologium Ottenburanum, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 99. 

[75] Continuator Reginonis Trevirensis 910, MGH SS I, p. 614. 

[76] Reuter (1991), p. 142. 

[77] D O I 54, p. 136. 

[78] D O I 26, p. 112. 

[79] D O I 85, p. 166. 

[80] D O I 90, p. 172. 

[81] D O I 99, p. 181. 

[82] D O I 100, p. 182. 

[83] D O I 111, p. 194. 

[84] Reginonis Chronicon 949, MGH SS I, p. 620. 

[85] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[86] D O I 116, p. 198. 

[87] Annales Alammanicorum Continuatio Sangallensis altera 911, MGH SS I, p. 55. 

[88] Reginonis Chronicon 926, MGH SS I, p. 615. 

[89] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[90] D O I 147, p. 228. 

[91] D O I 193, p. 274.   

[92] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ III.6, MGH SS III, p. 452. 

[93] Reginonis Chronicon 947, MGH SS I, p. 620. 

[94] D O I 116, p. 198. 

[95] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[96] Keller, Kloster Einsiedeln, 37-40, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 34. 

[97] Widukind 3.1, p. 104, which states that he "was still a tender youth no more than seventeen years of age" when his mother died, quoted in Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), p. 92, footnote 22. 

[98] Thietmar 2.4, p. 93. 

[99] Thietmar 4.60, p. 194. 

[100] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[101] Chronicon Salernitanum 173, MGH SS III, p. 556, undated but the date 969 is inserted in the margin of the edition. 

[102] Jackman (1997), p. 34. 

[103] Annales Einsidlenses 997, MGH SS III, p. 144. 

[104] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[105] Jackman (1997), p. 34. 

[106] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[107] Jackman (1997), pp. 32-48. 

[108] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[109] D H II 157, p. 186. 

[110] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[111] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[112] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[113] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[114] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[115] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[116] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[117] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[118] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[119] Hlawitschka, E. (1987) Untersuchungen zu den Thronwechseln der ersten Hälfte des 11. Jahrhunderts und zur Adelsgeschichte Süddeutschlands. Zugleich klärende Forschungen um "Kuno von Öhningen", Vorträge und Forschungen, Sonderband 35 (Sigmaringen), pp. 103-4, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 81. 

[120] D O I 445, p. 601. 

[121] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[122] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[123] Annales Einsidlenses 997, MGH SS III, p. 144. 

[124] Annalista Saxo 1002. 

[125] Thietmar 5.22. 

[126] Reuter (1991), pp. 186-7. 

[127] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[128] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 998, MHG SS V, p. 118. 

[129] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 986, MGH SS XXIII, p. 773. 

[130] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 4, MGH SS XI, p. 261. 

[131] D O III 254, p. 670. 

[132] Fragmenta Necrologii Marchtalensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 201. 

[133] D O III 363, p. 792. 

[134] Thietmar 7.49, p. 342. 

[135] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[136] Thietmar 5.12, p. 213. 

[137] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 2, MGH SS XI, p. 258. 

[138] Alberti Miliolo Notarii Regini Liber de Temporibus, De Gestis comitisse Matildis suorumque antecessorum CLXI, MGH SS XXXI, p. 435. 

[139] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[140] Chronicon Sancti Michælis, monasterii in pago Virdunensi 32, MGH SS IV, p. 84. 

[141] Poull, G. (1994) La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar (Nancy), p. 23. 

[142] Fragmenta Libri Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 212. 

[143] D K II 204, p. 275. 

[144] Szabolcs de Vajay 'Mathilde, Reine de France inconnue', Journal des Savants (Oct-Dec 1971), pp. 241-60, 250 footnote 31. 

[145] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1012, MHG SS V, p. 119. 

[146] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 4, MGH SS XI, p. 261. 

[147] Notæ Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 827. 

[148] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[149] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[150] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1043, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[151] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[152] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1004, MHG SS V, p. 118. 

[153] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[154] Liber Anniversariorum Einsiedlenses, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 358. 

[155] Fragmenta Necrologii Marchtalensis, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 201. 

[156] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[157] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[158] Necrologium Weingartense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 221. 

[159] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[160] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[161] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[162] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[163] Genealogia Welforum 4, MGH SS XIII, p. 734. 

[164] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 6, MGH SS XXI, p. 460. 

[165] De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses III, MGH SS XVII, p. 329. 

[166] Chronico Eberspergense, MGH SS XX, p. 12. 

[167] Necrologium Diessense, Augsburg Necrologies, p. 7. 

[168] Widukind 3.1, p. 104, which states that he "was still a tender youth no more than seventeen years of age" when his mother died, quoted in Thietmar, p. 92, footnote 22. 

[169] Annales Quedlinburgenses 946, MGH SS III, p. 56. 

[170] Thietmar 2.4, p. 93. 

[171] D O I 155, p. 236. 

[172] Thietmar 2.6, p. 95. 

[173] Thietmar 2.6 to 2.8, pp. 95-7. 

[174] According to Thietmar 2.12, p. 100, Liudolf had once more rebelled against his father and left for Italy. 

[175] Thietmar 2.12, p. 100. 

[176] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses 957, MGH SS XIII, p. 198. 

[177] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[178] Reginonis Chronicon 957, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[179] Reginonis Chronicon 954, MGH SS I, p. 623. 

[180] D O II 117, p. 131. 

[181] Thietmar 3.5, p. 150. 

[182] D O II 134, p. 150. 

[183] Thietmar 3.20, pp. 143-4. 

[184] Annalista Saxo 982. 

[185] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[186] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg. 

[187] Thietmar 5.24, p. 222. 

[188] Autenrioth, J. (1979) Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (Hannover), p. 146, available at <http://www.dmgh.de/> (31 Dec 2006). 

[189] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1024, MGH SS XXIII, p. 782. 

[190] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[191] Thietmar 7.14, pp. 316-7. 

[192] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1012, MHG SS V, p. 119. 

[193] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 4, MGH SS XI, p. 261. 

[194] Notæ Sancti Blasii, MGH SS XXIV, p. 827. 

[195] Annalista Saxo 1026. 

[196] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[197] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1043, MHG SS V, p. 124. 

[198] Annales Spirenses, MGH SS XVII, p. 83. 

[199] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VI. 28, MGH SS XX, p. 241. 

[200] Annales Zwefaltenses 1015, MGH SS X, p. 53. 

[201] Mommsen, T. E. and Morrison, K. F. (trans.) (1962) Imperial Lives and Letters of the Eleventh Century (New York), "Wipo, On the election and consecration of Conrad II (1024)", from "The Deeds of Conrad II (Gesta Chuonradi II imperatoris)", reproduced in Hill, pp. 192-201.  . 

[202] Reuter (1991), p. 203, and Annalista Saxo 1029. 

[203] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1030, MHG SS V, p. 121. 

[204] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[205] Chronicon Ottonis Frisingensis VI. 28, MGH SS XX, p. 241. 

[206] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1030, MHG SS V, p. 121. 

[207] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 37, MGH SS XI, p. 273. 

[208] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.  

[209] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462. 

[210] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1034, MHG SS V, p. 122. 

[211] Carutti, D. (1889) Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ, marchionum in Italia (Turin) ("Regesta comitum Sabaudiæ"), CXVII, p. 41. 

[212] Carutti, D. (1888) Il conte Umberto I e il re Ardoino (Rome), p. 142, no citation reference. 

[213] Carutti (1888), p. 142, no citation reference. 

[214] Chevalier, U. (ed.) (1875) Diplomatique de Bourgogne par Pierre de Rivaz (Paris) ("Rivaz") LXXIX, p. 37, citing Hist. Patriæ Monum., Ch. t. I, p. 550. 

[215] Annalista Saxo 1067. 

[216] Marie José (1956) La Maison de Savoie, Les Origines, Le Comte Vert, Le Comte Rouge (Paris, Albin Michel), p. 33. 

[217] Necrologium Scafhusenses, Bernoldi Chronicon Introduction, MGH SS V, p. 393. 

[218] D H IV 427, p. 572. 

[219] Wegener, W. (1965/67) Genealogischen Tafeln zur mitteleuropäischen Geschichte (Verlag Degener)p. 196. 

[220] D K II 82, p. 110. 

[221] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 35, MGH SS XI, p. 272. 

[222] Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio 5 and 17, MGH SS XI, pp. 398 and 404. 

[223] D K II 199, p. 264. 

[224] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[225] D H III 273, p. 370. 

[226] Annalista Saxo 1047. 

[227] Annalista Saxo 1057. 

[228] Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), p. 107. 

[229] Jackman (1997), p. 109.  According to Haverkamp (1988), p. 107, this appointment coincided with Rudolf's installation as Duke of Swabia in 1057. 

[230] Haverkamp (1988), p. 187. 

[231] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 67. 

[232] Haverkamp (1988), p. 117. 

[233] Bernoldi Chronicon 1084, MGH SS V, p. 441. 

[234] Annales Rosenveldenses 34, MGH SS XVI, p. 101. 

[235] Bernoldi Chronicon 1089, MGH SS V, p. 449. 

[236] Necrologium Scafhusenses, Bernoldi Chronicon Introduction, MGH SS V, p. 392. 

[237] Genealogica Zaringorum 3, MGH SS XIII, p. 735. 

[238] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I. 7, MGH SS XX, p. 357. 

[239] Haverkamp (1988), p. 123. 

[240] Barraclough, G. (1967) Medieval Germany 911-1250 (Oxford), Vol II, p. 181. 

[241] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 85, and Haverkamp (1988), p. 123. 

[242] Barraclough (1967), Vol. II, p. 181. 

[243] Haverkamp (1988), p. 161. 

[244] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.9, MGH SS XX, p. 358. 

[245] Necrologium minus monasterii S Petri Nigræ Silvæ, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 334. 

[246] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[247] Grandidier Histoire d'Alsace II, p. 160, text quoted in De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 999, footnote 1. 

[248] De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 997. 

[249] Desjardins, G. (ed.) (1879) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Conques en Rouergue (Paris) ("Conques"), no. 575, pp. 405-6.   

[250] Jackman (1997), p. 98. 

[251] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 117. 

[252] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.9, MGH SS XX, p. 358. 

[253] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I. 8 and 9, MGH SS XX, pp. 357 and 358.  

[254] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.10, MGH SS XX, p. 358. 

[255] Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis I 1106, MGH SS IX, p. 610. 

[256] Haverkamp (1988), p. 125. 

[257] Auctarium Mellicense 1106, MGH SS IX, p. 536. 

[258] Annales Magdeburgenses 1143 6, MGH SS XVI, p. 187. 

[259] Monumenta Necrologica Monasterii S Erentrudis Nonnbergensis, Salzburg Necrologies, p. 61. 

[260] Monumenta Necrologica Claustroneoburgensis, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 3. 

[261] ES I.1 14. 

[262] Fundatio et notæ Monasterii Ensdorfensis 96, MGH SS XV.2, p. 1082. 

[263] Wegener (1965/67), p. 82. 

[264] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[265] Haverkamp (1988), p. 137. 

[266] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 118. 

[267] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 121. 

[268] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) ("Mainz Urkunden 12th Century"), 21, p. 23. 

[269] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.39, MGH SS XX, p. 373. 

[270] Necrologium Zwifaltense, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 240. 

[271] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[272] Annalista Saxo 1106. 

[273] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 345. 

[274] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362. 

[275] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[276] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[277] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[278] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.14, MGH SS XX, p. 360. 

[279] Genealogica ex Stirpe Sancti Arnulfi descendentium Mettensis 4, MGH SS XXV, p. 383. 

[280] Remling, F. X. (ed.) (1852) Urkundenbuch zur Geschichte des Bischöfe zu Speyer (Mainz) (“Speyer Urkundenbuch“) 83, p. 91. 

[281] Miraeus (Le Mire), A. (1723) Opera diplomatica et historica, 2nd edn. (Louvain), Tome I, Donationes Belgicæ, Liber I, LXXI, p. 395. 

[282] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193, MGH SS XXIII, p. 870. 

[283] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362. 

[284] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 345. 

[285] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[286] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[287] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193, MGH SS XXIII, p. 870. 

[288] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362. 

[289] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 345. 

[290] Constitutio Ducatus Austriæ, MGH LL 2, p. 99. 

[291] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.62, MGH SS XX, p. 388. 

[292] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 159. 

[293] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band III, Nachtrag, 6, p. 466. 

[294] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228, footnote 38 specifying that her husband was "Hermanno de Stahleck". 

[295] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1119, MGH SS XXIII, p. 823. 

[296] Kurth, G. (ed.) (1903) Chartes de l´abbaye de Saint-Hubert en Ardenne (Brussels) ("Ardenne Saint-Hubert"), Tome I, XCII, p. 117. 

[297] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[298] Historia Welforum Weingartensis 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 463. 

[299] Fuhrmann (1995), p. 144. 

[300] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol. 3, pp. 11 and 13. 

[301] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, pp. 16-17. 

[302] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 29. 

[303] Beha ed-Din ibn Shedad Life of Saladin, trans. Conder, Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society, Vol. XIII (London, 1897), p. 236, cited in Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 32, footnote 3. 

[304] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 112. 

[305] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 115. 

[306] Sturdza, M. D. (1999) Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (2e edition Paris), p. 530. 

[307] Sturdza (1999), p. 531. 

[308] Wibaldi Epistolæ 408, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Tome I, p. 547. 

[309] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band II, CCCXIX, p. 30. 

[310] Grandidier Histoire d'Alsace II, p. 160, text quoted in De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis, MGH SS XV.2, p. 999, footnote 1. 

[311] De Fundatione Monasterii Sancti Fides Sletstatensis, MGH SS XV.2, pp. 997 and 1000. 

[312] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band II, CCCXVIII, p. 26. 

[313] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band II, CCCXVIII, p. 26. 

[314] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band II, CCCXVIII, p. 26. 

[315] Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Band II, CCCXVIII, p. 26.