ITALY, emperors & kings

  v3.0 Updated 18 June 2014

 

RETURN TO INDEX

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                LATER ROMAN EMPERORS 364-476. 3

Chapter 2.                KINGS of the OSTROGOTHS in ITALY. 22

A.         KING of ITALY 476-493 (SCIRI GOTHS) 22

B.         KINGS of ITALY 493-536 (AMAL GOTHS) 24

C.        KINGS of ITALY 536-552 (OTHER GOTH FAMILIES) 30

Chapter 3.                KINGS of the LANGOBARDS (LOMBARDS) [570]-774. 33

Chapter 4.                KINGS of ITALY 774-887 (CAROLINGIANS) 58

Chapter 5.                KINGS of ITALY 888-924 (MARCHESI of FRIULIA) 65

Chapter 6.                KINGS of ITALY 889-898 (DUKES of SPOLETO) 66

Chapter 7.                KING of ITALY 900-905 (COMTES de VIENNE) 67

Chapter 8.                KING of ITALY 922-926 (KINGS of BURGUNDY) 68

Chapter 9.                KING of ITALY 926-947 (MARCHESE of TUSCANY, COMTES d'ARLES) 68

Chapter 10.               KINGS of ITALY 902-924, 950-962 (MARCHESI of IVREA) 73

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This document shows in detail the families of the later Roman emperors after the accession of Emperor Valentinian I in 364, the Ostrogoth kings of Italy who ruled from 476 to 552, and the Lombard kings who ruled during the following two hundred years.  Thereafter, the families of the Carolingian kings who ruled only in Italy are shown in detail, those whose main kingdoms lay elsewhere are referred to in outline form only to demonstrate how the title passed between the various members of the family.  Lastly, the kings of Italy from the succeeding dynasties are shown, in most cases in outline form only as their complete families are set out in other documents. 

 

The kingdom of Italy was first created in 476, from the remnants of the Roman empire.  It continued in existence, restricted to the northern part of the Italian peninsula, during the 6th to 10th centuries under the Ostrogoths, the Lombards and the dynasties of the Carolingians and their successors.  After 963, northern Italy was administered as part of the Holy Roman Empire.  Italy was not finally united until well into the 19th century, under the leadership of the kings of Sardinia of the family of the counts of Savoy.  

 

The administrative influence of the Roman empire over western and southern Europe was diminishing by the early 5th century.  The decline was hastened by outside pressure from the so-called barbarians of eastern Europe, strengthening regional identities within the empire notably in Gaul led by the Merovingian Frankish monarchy, and internal political squabbling.  The lack of internal cohesion within the failing empire is reflected by the accession of nine emperors in the thirty year period which followed the murder of Emperor Valentinian III in 455, all from different families and only four of whom were born in Italy.  The division of the empire into its eastern and western components, first formalised by Emperor Valentinian I in 364, was a further factor which contributed to decline, although it enabled imperial government to survive in the east long after the empire in the west had disintegrated. 

 

Romulus "Augustulus", last Roman emperor in the West, was deposed in 476.  By this time the western empire was considered of such irrelevance that his successor Odoacar the Goth declared himself king of Italy only, the first time the separate existence of Italy as a political entity was recognised.  The Italian Ostrogoth kingdom survived until 552, nominally within the Roman empire which was not legally abolished.  The sole remaining emperor continued to rule in the east from Constantinople (see the document BYZANTIUM 395-1057), although the Byzantines retained outposts on the Italian mainland well into the 11th century.  After the death of the last Ostrogoth king, direct imperial rule was nominally restored.  It was challenged by the Lombards who arrived in Italy from Hungary on the invitation of Narses, the imperial administrator. 

 

Alboin was crowned first Lombard king in Italy at Milan in 572, later establishing Pavia as his capital.  Lombard rule continued in northern Italy until 774, when the Carolingian Frankish King Charles I (later Emperor Charlemagne) invaded, deposed King Desiderius and proclaimed himself king of Italy.  By this time, autonomous Lombard duchies were well established in the southern half of the peninsula in Benevento, Naples, Salerno (see the document SOUTHERN ITALY (1)) and Spoleto (see CENTRAL ITALY), separated from northern Italy by the expanding central Italian Papal territories which represented another obstacle to the northern kings imposing their authority throughout the country.  Despite the best efforts of the Carolingian kings, particularly Louis King of Italy who attempted to provide better protection for Rome after the Arab sack of 846 as well as extend his authority into the Lombard duchies in the south, the new dynasty never succeeded in establishing its authority throughout the Italian peninsula.  After the death of King Louis in 875, the Italian crown passed to Carolingian monarchs from the line of Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks, until Emperor Charles III who was deposed in 887. 

 

For the following 70 years, the Italian throne passed between the families of the dukes of Friulia, the dukes of Spoleto and the Burgundian dynasties, its authority being further weakened by competition between the rival candidates.  This period of political weakness and uncertainty culminated in the invasions of Italy by Otto I King of Germany in 951 and 961, the coronation of King Otto as emperor in 962, and his deposition of Berengar King of Italy in 963.  Henceforth the northern Italian kingdom (north of the Papal territories) was administered as part of the Holy Roman Empire. 

 

Imperial authority in northern Italy had weakened by the mid-12th century, enabling the northern Lombard cities to establish considerable local autonomy, formalised in the Treaty of Konstanz which was agreed in 1183 by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa".  A single local dynasty was never able to establish control over northern Italy.  Each city developed its own system of administration under its own separate leadership, although by the 14th and 15th centuries many local families such as the Este and Gonzaga had in effect created their own principalities around the cities which they controlled. 

 

I am grateful to Morris Bierbrier for providing reference numbers from the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire ("PLRE")[1], (marked "[MB]") which has not yet been consulted directly. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    LATER ROMAN EMPERORS 364-476

 

 

The administrative influence of the Roman empire over western and southern Europe was diminishing by the early 5th century.  The decline was hastened by outside pressure from the so-called barbarians of eastern Europe, strengthening regional identities within the empire notably in Gaul led by the Merovingian Frankish monarchy, and internal political squabbling.  The lack of internal cohesion within the failing empire is reflected by the accession of nine emperors in the thirty year period which followed the murder of Emperor Valentinian III in 455, all from different families and only four of whom were Italian by birth.  The division of the empire into its eastern and western components, first formalised by Emperor Valentinian I in 364, was a further factor which contributed to decline, although ironically it enabled imperial government to survive in the east long after the empire in the west had disintegrated. 

 

 

GRATIAN (-after Sep 351).  Ammianus Marcellinus records that "Gratianus maior ignobili stirpe" was born "apud Cibalas Pannoniæ" and adds that he was first called "Funarius"[2].  He was rewarded for his military service by appointment as Count of Africa in 327 by Emperor Constantine I, but was later disgraced.  He was appointed count in Brittany by Emperor Constans.  He received the usurper Magnentius in Pannonia in Sep 351, but Emperor Constantius confiscated all his assets in reprisal[3]

m ---.  The name of Gratian´s wife is not known. 

Gratian & his wife had two children: 

1.         VALENTINIAN (Cibalæ, Pannonia [3 Jul] [320/21]-Vergitione 17 Nov 375).  Ammianus Marcellinus implies, but does not state explicitly, that "Valentinianus" was the son of "Gratianus maior ignobili stirpe"[4].  Zosimus records that Valentinian was "Cibali oriundus…Pannoniæ"[5].  A member of the personal guard of Emperor Julian, he was disgraced and returned to Pannonia.  He helped engineer the succession in 363 of Emperor Jovian, after whose death in Feb 364 he was acclaimed by the army at Nikaia 26 Feb 364 as Emperor VALENTINIAN I.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Valentianianus" was proclaimed emperor "Nicææ Bythiniæ…V Kal Mar" (in 364)[6].  Theophanes records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was installed as emperor "cum Gratianum filium imperii collegam…et consulem" and that he renounced "fratrem…Valentem" and Arianism[7].  He formalised a division of the empire into east and west in Jun 364, retaining the latter part while his brother ruled in the former[8].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death "in castello Vergitione" of "Valentinianus Augustus" aged 55[9]m firstly SEVERA [Marina], daughter of ---.  Theophanes records that "Valentinianus senior" repudiated "Severa uxore Gratiani matre" in 360 and married "Iustinam"[10].  Iordanes names "Severa" as first wife of "Valentinianus senior" when recording that she consented to her husband's second marriage[11].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Gratianus Augustus" revoked "Marinam matrem suam Augustam" after his father died[12].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death "III Non Aug" in 449 of "Marina Augusta Valentiniani Augusti uxor"[13], but the year must be incorrect.  m secondly (bigamously) as her second husband, IUSTINA, widow of MAGNENTIUS, daughter of --- (-Milan 391).  Theophanes records that "Valentinianus senior" repudiated "Severa uxore Gratiani matre" in 360 and married "Iustinam"[14].  Iordanes names "Iustina" as second wife of "Valentinianus senior", recording that he married her with the consent of his first wife during the latter's lifetime[15].  Zosimus records that the mother of "minorem Valentiniani filium" was "Magnentii prius uxor", and names her "Iustina" in a later passage[16].  Emperor Valentinian & his first wife had one child: 

a)         GRATIAN (Cibalæ, Pannonia 18 Apr 359-executed Lyon 25 Aug 383).  Iordanes names "Gratiano Valentiniano fratre de Iustina secunda uxore natu" when recording his accession[17].  Theophanes records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was installed as emperor "cum Gratianum filium imperii collegam…et consulem"[18].  His father named him co-Emperor GRATIAN 24 Aug 367, he was recognised as sole emperor after the death of his father[19].  The Chronicon Paschale that his father proclaimed "Gratianus Augustus in Gallis…IX Kal Sep"[20].  He renounced the title Pontifex maximus, borne by all emperors since Augustus[21].  He was forced to flee by the usurper Maximus, was captured at Lyon and executed[22]m firstly (374) CONSTANTIA, daughter of Emperor CONSTANTIUS II & his third wife Faustina --- (361-383).  Ammianus Marcellinus records that "Constantium…uxorem" gave birth to "[filia] posthuma, eiusque nomine appellata" and that she married "Gratiano"[23].  The Chronicon Paschale records that the body of "Constantiæ, Constantini filius" was brought "Constantinopolim…pridie Kal Sep" in 383 and buried "Kal Dec"[24]m secondly ([mid-] 383) LAETA, daughter of --- (-after [408]).  Zosimus names "Laeta, Gratiani quondam principis coniux" and "eiusque mater Pissamena" when recording that Emperor Theodosius granted them a pension[25].  The date of her marriage is calculated on the assumption that she married shortly before her husband died, bearing in mind that his first wife´s body was returned to Constantinople after Gratian was killed. 

Emperor Valentinian & his second wife had four children: 

b)         VALENTINIAN ([Villa Murocincta, near Sirmium] 21 Jan 866 or [2 Jul 371]-15 May 392).  Theophanes names "Valentinianum iuniorem" as the son of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam"[26].  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "XII Kal Feb" in 366 of "Valentinianus Augustus"[27].  Iordanes names "Valentinianum…Gratam Iustamque et Gallam" as the four children of "Valentinianus senior" & his second wife[28].  He was acclaimed as co-Emperor VALENTINIAN II by the army of the Danube at Aquincum, Pannonia, under the regency of his mother, and was recognised as sole emperor after the death of his half-brother[29].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus Gratiani frater et Theodosius imperatores" defeated the rebel "Maximum tyrannum et Victorem filius eius" at Aquileia in 388[30].  After the death of Valentinian's mother, Emperor Theodosius, emperor in the east, extended his authority to include the empire in the west.  Emperor Valentinian was probably assassinated[31].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Valentinianus junior” was killed “apud Viennam” in 392 by “Comitis Arbogasti[32]

c)         GRATA .  Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam"[33].  Iordanes names "Valentinianum…Gratam Iustamque et Gallam" as the four children of "Valentinianus senior" & his second wife[34]

d)         IUSTA .  Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam"[35].  Iordanes names "Valentinianum…Gratam Iustamque et Gallam" as the four children of "Valentinianus senior" & his second wife[36]

e)         GALLA (-May 394).  Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam", adding that "magnus Theodosius" married Galla as his second wife[37].  Iordanes names "Valentinianum…Gratam Iustamque et Gallam" as the four children of "Valentinianus senior" & his second wife, specifying that Galla married Emperor Theodosius after the death of his first wife[38].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Galla Theodosii regis altera uxor" came to Constantinople in 386[39].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Gallia Theodosii uxor" was expelled by "Arcadio privigno suo" in 390[40].  She died in childbirth.  m (387) as his second wife, Emperor THEODOSIUS I, son of THEODOSIUS & his wife Thermantia --- (346-17 Jan 395). 

2.         VALENS (Cibalæ, Pannonia 328-killed in battle 9 Aug 378).  Theophanes records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was installed as emperor "cum Gratianum filium imperii collegam…et consulem" and that he renounced "fratrem…Valentem" and Arianism[41].  His brother named him co-Emperor VALENS 28 Mar 364[42].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Valens, Valentiniani frater" was proclaimed emperor "Constantinopoli in Hebdomo…IV Kal Apr" (in 364)[43].  After the division of the empire into east and west in Jun 364, Emperor Valens ruled in the east, at first from Constantinople and later from Antioch[44]m DOMINICA, daughter of ---.  Theophanes records that "Domnicam Valentis coniugem" retained the Aryan religion[45].  Valens & his wife had three children: 

a)         GALATIUS (-early 372).  Theophanes records that "Galates Valentes filius" died in 368[46]

b)         ANASTASIA .  Theophanes names "Anastasiam et Carossam" as the daughters of "impius…Valens"[47]

c)         CAROSSA .  Theophanes names "Anastasiam et Carossam" as the daughters of "impius…Valens"[48]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         THEODOSIUS (-beheaded early 376).  A general under the service of Emperor Valentinian I, he was decapitated by Emperor Gratian[49]m THERMANTIA, daughter of ---.  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ names "Theodosius genitus patre Theodosio matre Thermantia"[50].  Theodosius & his wife had one child: 

a)         THEODOSIUS (Cauca, near Valladolid 11 Jan 347-Milan 17 Jan 395, bur 8 Nov 395 Constantinople).  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Theodosius was “natione Hispanus, de provincial Gallæciæ, civitate Cauca[51].  After campaigning with his father, he retired to Cauca after his father was executed.  He was named master of cavalry by Emperor Gratian, and led the victory against the Visigoths in Pannonia in end 378[52].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ names "Theodosius genitus patre Theodosio matre Thermantia"[53].  Iordanes records the accession of "Theodosius Spanus" as emperor at Sirmium and his reigning for 17 years[54].  He was proclaimed co-Emperor THEODOSIUS I in the East 19 Jan 379 by Emperor Gratian, ruling jointly with the latter and with Emperor Valentinian II until 392.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Theodosius Augustus" was proclaimed emperor "in Sirmio…XIV Kal Feb" by "Gratiano uxoris fratre" and entered Constantinople "VIII Kal Dec"[55].  Ruling first from Thessaloniki, he entered Constantinople 24 Nov 380[56].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus Gratiani frater et Theodosius imperatores" defeated the rebel "Maximum tyrannum et Victorem filius eius" at Aquileia in 388[57].  Theodosius eliminated the division of the empire, ruling in both east and west after this victory[58].  The Chronicon Paschale records the death "Mediolani…XVI Kal Feb" in 394 (presumably O.S.) of "Theodosius Augustus", and the return of his body to Constantinople and burial "V Id Nov"[59]m firstly (end 376) PLACILLA, daughter of --- (-Autumn 386).  Theophanes names "Placilla" as the first wife of "magnus Theodosius"[60].  Iordanes names "Flacilla" as the first wife of Emperor Theodosius, recording that she died before his second marriage[61].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ also names "Flacilla" as the first wife of Emperor Theodosius[62]m secondly (387) GALLA, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN I & his second wife Justina --- (-May 394).  Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam", adding that "magnus Theodosius" married Galla as his second wife[63].  Iordanes names "Valentinianum…Gratam Iustamque et Gallam" as the four children of "Valentinianus senior" & his second wife, specifying that Galla married Emperor Theodosius after the death of his first wife[64].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Galla Theodosii regis altera uxor" came to Constantinople in 386[65].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Gallia Theodosii uxor" was expelled by "Arcadio privigno suo" in 390[66].  She died in childbirth.  Emperor Theodosius & his first wife had three children: 

i)          ARCADIUS (end 377-1 May 408).  Theophanes names "Arcadius…et Honorius" as the sons of "magnus Theodosius" and his first wife[67].  Iordanes names "Archadium Honoriumque" as the children of Emperor Theodosius & his first wife, recording in a later passage that they later divided the empire, Arcadius ruling in Constantinople for 13 years after the death of their father[68].  His father proclaimed him co-Emperor ARCADIUS at Constantinople 19 Jan 383.  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Arcadius" was proclaimed emperor "Constantinopoli a patre suo Theodosio Augusto in Tribunali Hebdomi…XIV Kal Feb"[69].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Theodosius installed “Arcadium filium suum” as emperor in 383[70].  He succeeded as Emperor in the East in 395.   

-         EMPERORS in the EAST

ii)         HONORIUS (Constantinople 9 Sep 384-15 Aug 423).  Theophanes names "Arcadius…et Honorius" as the sons of "magnus Theodosius" and his first wife[71].  The Chronicon Paschale records the birth "V Id Sep" in 384 of "Honorius, Arcadii germanus frater"[72].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the birth in 384 of “Honorius filius Theodosii[73].  Iordanes names "Archadium Honoriumque" as the children of Emperor Theodosius & his first wife, recording in a later passage that they later divided the empire with his brother, Honorius ruling in Rome[74].  His father proclaimed him co-Emperor HONORIUS at Constantinople 10 Jan 393, he ruled as Emperor in the West after the death of his father in 395.  m firstly (398) MARIA, daughter of STILICO & his wife Serena --- (-[Feb/Mar] 407).  Zosimus records that "Honorio principi" married "Stelicho…filiam…ex Serena", naming her "Mariam" in a later passage[75].  Iordanes records that "Stilico…comis…duæ filiæ Maria et Hermantia" were both wives of Emperor Honorius but died as virgins[76]m secondly (408, repudiated end 408) HERMANTIA, daughter of STILICO & his wife Serena --- (-415).  Zosimus records that "Imperator…Honorius" married "sororem eius Thermantiam" after the death of "Maria coniuge"[77].  Iordanes records that "Stilico…comis…duæ filiæ Maria et Hermantia" were both wives of Emperor Honorius but died as virgins[78].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also names the two sisters and records the same information[79]

Emperor Theodosius & his second wife had one child: 

iii)        GALLA PLACIDIA ([388/early May 394][80]-Rome 27 Nov 450).  Theophanes names "Placidia" as the daughter of "magnus Theodosius" and his second wife[81].  Iordanes names "Placidiam" as the daughter of Emperor Theodosius & his second wife, recording in a later passage that she was captured by "Halaricus rex Vesegotharum" and later married his successor "Atauulfo"[82].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Placidia Honorii principis sorore" was abducted by "Halaricus" and later married "Athaulfo propinquo suo"[83].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “Ataulfus” married “Placidiam” at Narbonne in 414[84].  Her first husband married her after failing to establish an alliance with Emperor Honorius[85].  As part of the peace negotiated by King Walia with the Romans in 416, Galla Placidia was returned to her brother Honorius in early 416[86].  The Chronicon Albeldense names “Ballia” as successor of “Sigericus”, adding that he made peace with Emperor Honorius and returned his sister Placidia to him[87].  Iordanes records the marriage of "Constantio patricio" and Placidia after the latter was returned to Rome by Walia King of the Visigoths[88].  Iordanes records that Placidia was created "Augustam" and her son Valentinian "Cæsar" to lead the opposition to Iohannes who invaded the western empire[89].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in 450 of “Valentiniani Imperatoris mater Placidia…apud Romam[90]m firstly (Narbonne 1 Jan 414) as his third wife, ATAULF King of the Visigoths, son of --- (-murdered Barcelona [Aug/Sep] 416).  m secondly (1 Jan 417) FLAVIUS CONSTANTIUS, son of --- (-2 Sep 421).  He succeeded 8 Feb 421 as Emperor CONSTANTIUS III

2.         HONORIUS .  Claudius names "Honorius" as father of "Serena" in his poem Laus Serenæ[91].  The primary source which confirms that he was the brother of Theodosius has not yet been identified.   m MARIA, daughter of ---.  Claudius names "Flaccillam Mariam" as mother of "Serena" in his poem Laus Serenæ[92].  Honorius & his wife had two children: 

a)         THERMANTIA .  Claudius names "Serena minor, prior…Thermantia natu" as the daughters of "Honorius" in his poem Laus Serenæ[93]

b)         SERENA .  Zosimus records that "Serenæ, principis Theodosii fratris filiæ" was the wife of "Stelichonum" who was one of the two commanders of the Roman army[94]m STILICO, son of --- (-23 Aug ----).  Zosimus records the death "X Kal Sep, Bassi Philippique consulatu" of "Stelicho"[95].  Stilico & his wife had three children: 

i)          EUCHERIUS .  Zosimus records that "Eucherio Stelichonis filio" fled but was brought back to Rome after the death of his father and strangled[96]

ii)         MARIA (-[Feb/Mar] 407).  Zosimus records that "Honorio principi" married "Stelicho…filiam…ex Serena", naming her "Mariam" in a later passage[97].  Iordanes records that "Stilico…comis…duæ filiæ Maria et Hermantia" were both wives of Emperor Honorius but died as virgins[98].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also names the two sisters and records the same information[99]m (398) as his first wife, Emperor HONORIUS, son of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his first wife Flacilla --- (Constantinople 9 Sep 384-Aug 423). 

iii)        HERMANTIA (-415).  Zosimus records that "Imperator…Honorius" married "sororem eius Thermantiam" after the death of "Maria coniuge"[100].  Iordanes records that "Stilico…comis…duæ filiæ Maria et Hermantia" were both wives of Emperor Honorius but died as virgins[101].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also names the two sisters and records the same information[102]m (408, repudiated end 408) as his second wife, Emperor HONORIUS, son of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his first wife Flacilla --- (Constantinople 9 Sep 384-Aug 423). 

 

 

1.         FLAVIUS CONSTANTIUS (-2 Sep 421).  He succeeded 8 Feb 421 as Emperor CONSTANTIUS IIIm (1 Jan 417) as her second husband, GALLA PLACIDIA, widow of ATAULF King of the Visigoths, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS I & his second wife Galla (-Rome 27 Nov 450).  Iordanes records the marriage of "Constantio patricio" and Placidia after the latter was returned to Rome by Walia King of the Visigoths[103].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records the death in 450 of “Valentiniani Imperatoris mater Placidia…apud Romam[104].  Emperor Constantius & his wife had two children: 

a)         HONORIA ([417/18]-).  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ names "Honoria et Valentiniano" as the children of Placidia Augusta[105].  The order in which the children are named suggests that Honoria was the older child but this is not certain.  Iordanes records that Attila unsuccessfully proposed marriage to "Honoriam Valentiniani principis germanam, filiam Placidiæ Augustæ"[106]

b)         VALENTINIAN (Ravenna 2 Jul 419-murdered 16 Mar 455).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the birth "419 V Non Iul" at Ravenna of "Valentinianus iunior…patre Constantio et Placidia matre"[107].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records his birth "VI Non Iul"[108].  Iordanes names "Placidiam" as the mother of "Valentiniani iunioris imperatoris"[109].  Iordanes records that Placidia was created "Augustam" and her son Valentinian "Cæsar" to lead the opposition to Iohannes who invaded the western empire, and that after Iohannes was defeated Valentinian was created joint emperor at Ravenna by his maternal uncle[110].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records the event, dating it to 424[111].  He succeeded in 423 as Emperor VALENTINIAN III, jointly with his maternal uncle, Emperor in the West.  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus iunior" was made emperor at Ravenna in 425[112].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Valentinianus junior" was named augustus "X Kal Nov" in 425 by "Theodosio juniore Augusto"[113].  Iordanes records that Emperor Valentinian was murdered by Maximus who had invaded the empire[114].  The Chronicon Paschale records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was murdered in 455[115]m (29 Oct 437) as her first husband, EUDOXIA, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS II, Emperor in the East & his wife Eudoxia --- (422-after 462).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the betrothal in 424 of "Valentinianus cæsar" and "Theodosii imperatoris Eudoxiam filiam"[116]Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Valentinianus iunior…Constantii Imperatoris et Placidiæ magnæ filius" and "Theodosio…filiam Eudoxiam…ex Eudocia Augusta, Philosophi filia"[117].  Theophanes records the marriage of "Valentinianus Gallæ Placidiæ et Constantini filius" and "Eudoxiam Theodosii imperatoris filiam ex Eudocia coniuge" in 426[118].  Iordanes records the marriage of Emperor Valentinian III in the third year of his reign to "Eudoxiam Theodosii principis filiam", specifying that her father transferred Illyria to the western empire as her dowry[119].  The Chronicon Paschale records the marriage "Constantinopolim…XII Kal Nov" in 437 of "Valentinianus junior Augustus" and "Eudoxia filia Theodosii et Eudocæ Augustæ"[120].  She married secondly ([Mar] 455) Emperor Petronius Maximus.  After the murder of her first husband, she was forced to marry his successor, but was captured during the Vandal invasion and taken to north Africa with her two daughters[121].  Iordanes records that "Eudoxia Valentiniani uxore" invited "Gizericus…rex Vandalorum" to Rome from Africa, but was taken back to Africa by him with her two daughters[122].  She was freed in 462[123].  Emperor Valentinian & his wife had two children: 

i)          EUDOXIA .  The Chronicon Paschale names "Eudociam et Placidiam" as the two daughters of "Valentinianus junior Augustus" and his wife "Eudoxia filia Theodosii et Eudocæ Augustæ"[124].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus arranged the marriage of “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” and “Valentiniani filiam” in 455[125].  After the death of her father, his successor forced Eudoxia to marry his son, but she was captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister[126].  The primary source which records her first marriage has not so far been identified.  Procopius names "Eudocia and Placidia" as children of "Eudoxia…and Valentinian", recording that Eudocia was married to Huneric, the older son of Gaiseric, while the other was the wife of Olybrius, a Roman senator[127].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Hugnericus" married "Valentiniani filiam" who had been abducted from Rome in captivity[128].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that one daughter of Valentinian married “Gentoni Gaiserici filio” and the other “Olybrio Senatori Urbis Romæ[129]m firstly PALADIUS, son of Emperor PETRONIUS MAXIMUS & his first wife --- (-[murdered May 455]).  m secondly ([455]) as his second wife, HUNERIC, son of GENSERIC King of the Vandals (-484). 

ii)         PLACIDIA .  The Chronicon Paschale names "Eudociam et Placidiam" as the two daughters of "Valentinianus junior Augustus" and his wife "Eudoxia filia Theodosii et Eudocæ Augustæ"[130].  She and her husband were captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister, freed in 462[131].  Procopius names "Eudocia and Placidia" as children of "Eudoxia…and Valentinian", recording that Eudocia was married to Huneric, the older son of Gaiseric, while the other was the wife of Olybrius, a Roman senator[132].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that one daughter of Valentinian married “Gentoni Gaiserici filio” and the other “Olybrio Senatori Urbis Romæ[133]m (before 455) OLYBRIUS, son of --- (-23 Oct or 2 Nov 472).  He succeeded in 472 as Emperor OLYBRIUS

 

 

Two siblings: 

1.         MAXIMUS (-killed Aquileia 388).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus Gratiani frater et Theodosius imperatores" defeated the rebel "Maximum tyrannum et Victorem filius eius" at Aquileia in 388[134].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Theodosius killed “Maximus tyrannus…ab Aquileia V Kal Aug” in 388[135]m ---.  The name of Maximus´s wife is not known.  Maximus & his wife had one child: 

a)         VICTOR (-killed Gaul 388).  Zosimus records that Emperor Theodosius awarded "dignitate Cæsaris" to "Maximum…filium Victorem"[136].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that “filius Maximi…Victor” was killed in Gaul in 388 by “Arbogastem Comitem[137].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus Gratiani frater et Theodosius imperatores" defeated the rebel "Maximum tyrannum et Victorem filius eius" at Aquileia in 388[138]

2.         [brother/sister] .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         PETRONIUS MAXIMUS ([396]-murdered 27 May 455).  Theophanes names "Maximus Maximi nepos" when recording that he murdered Emperor Valentinian[139].  A member of the Roman Anicii family[140].  Iordanes records that Maximus murdered Emperor Valentinian after invading the empire[141].  He succeeded in 455 as Emperor PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, Emperor in the West.  After his accession, he forced his predecessor's widow to marry him, and her daughter Eudoxia to marry his son, triggering the invasion by Genseric King of the Vandals to whom the younger Eudoxia had been promised in marriage for his son.  He was killed by the Romans after he attempted to flee[142], although the primary sources on which this is based have not yet been identified.  m firstly ---.  The first wife of Petronius Maximus was lured to the palace of Emperor Valentinian III who raped her[143], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.  m secondly ([Mar] 455) as her second husband, EUDOXIA, widow of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS II, Emperor in the East & his wife Eudoxia --- (422-after 462).  After the murder of her first husband, she was forced to marry his successor, but was captured during the Vandal invasion and taken to north Africa with her two daughters[144]Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Eudoxia Augusta, Valentiniani Regis vidua" and "Maximo Tyranno"[145].  Emperor Petronius Maximus & his first wife had one child: 

i)          PALADIUS (-[murdered May 455]).  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus installed “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” as cæsar in 455[146].  It is assumed that he was killed at the same time as his father[147]m ([Apr] 455) as her first husband, EUDOXIA, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, Emperor in the West & his wife Eudoxia .  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus arranged the marriage of “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” and “Valentiniani filiam” in 455[148].  After the death of her father, his successor forced Eudoxia to marry his son, but she was captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister[149].  The primary source which records her first marriage has not so far been identified.  She married secondly ([455]) as his second wife, Huneric.  The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Hugnericus" married "Valentiniani filiam" who had been abducted from Rome in captivity[150]

 

 

1.         AVITUS ([390/400]-[Nov/Dec] 456, bur Saint-Julien de Brioude, Auvergne).  He was a member of a noble Gallo-Roman family in Auvergne, proclaimed Emperor AVITUS, Emperor in the West, by Theoderic II King of the Visigoths in Toulouse 9 Jul 455[151].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records the succession of "Avitus" after "Maximum" in 455 and his deposition in 456[152].  He was deposed by Maiorianus, defeated near Piacenza 17/18 Oct 456, installed as Bishop of Piacenza but died while fleeing to Gaul[153]m ---.  The name of Avitus´s wife is not known.  Avitus & his wife had [three or more] children: 

a)         PAPIANILLAm SIDONIUS APOLLINARIUS, son of ---.  The poet. 

b)         other children. 

 

 

1.         MAIORIANUS (-beheaded 7 Aug 461).  A member of a Roman noble family[154].  He deposed and expelled Emperor Avitus in Oct 456, with the help of Ricimer, and was proclaimed Emperor MAIORANUS, Emperor in the West, by the army at Ravenna 1 Apr 457.  The decision was opposed by Emperor Leo, emperor in the east.  Maioranus was captured at Tortona by his former ally Ricimer, tortured and beheaded[155]

 

 

1.         SEVERUS (-murdered 14 Nov 465).  A member of a family originating in Lucania in southern Italy[156].  He was proclaimed Emperor SEVERUS, Emperor in the West, by Ricimer 19 Nov 461[157].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Severus" and his death after reigning four years[158].  He was poisoned, probably by Ricimer[159]

 

 

1.         PROCOPIUS .  A descendant of Procopius, cousin of Emperor Julian, belonging to a family originating in Cilicia, he was general of the armies of the empire of the east under Emperor Theodosius II[160]m LUCINA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified.  Procopius & his wife had [two] children: 

a)         ANTHEMIUS (-murdered 11 Jul 472).  The Chronicon Paschale names "Valentiniano Augusto et Anthemio" as consuls in 455[161].  He was proclaimed Emperor ANTHEMIUS, Emperor in the West, by Emperor Leo, emperor in the east, in early 467 with the agreement of Ricimer and acclaimed emperor by the army in Italy 12 Apr 467[162].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Anthemium" and his naming "eiusque generum Ricimerum" as patricius[163].  Sicily was conquered by the Vandals in Aug 468[164].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that in 472 "patricius Ricimer Romæ" deposed Emperor Anthemius, and that he was murdered 40 days later[165]m Ælia MARCIA EUPHEMIA, daughter of Emperor MARCIANUS, Emperor in the East, & his first wife ---.  Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Marcianus filiam ex priore uxore" and "Anthimio"[166].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  Emperor Anthemius & his wife had two children: 

i)          MARCIANUS .  Theophanes records that "Marcianus" son of "Anthemii, qui Romæ imperavit", husband of "Leontiæ, Verinæ quidem filiæ, imperatricis…Areadnæ sororis", travelled to Constantinople in rebellion against Emperor Zeno[167].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Zenone et Marciano" as consuls in 469 and "Marciano et Festo" as consuls in 472[168]m (474 or after) as her second husband, LEONTIA, widow of IULIUS, daughter of Emperor LEON I, Emperor in the East & his wife Verina ---.  Theophanes names "Marcianus" son of "Anthemii, qui Romæ imperavit", husband of "Leontiæ, Verinæ quidem filiæ, imperatricis…Areadnæ sororis", when recording his rebellion against Emperor Zenon[169]

ii)         ALYPIAIoannes Malalas records the marriage of "Anthemius…filiam" and "Recimero, militum magistro"[170].  The primary source which confirms her name has not so far been identified.  Her marriage is confirmed by Procopius recording that "Anthemius, the emperor of the West, died at the hand of his son-in-law Ricimer"[171]m ([Nov/Dec] 467) RICIMER ---. 

b)         [--- .  m ---.]  One child: 

i)          daughter .  Iordanes records the marriage of "Nepotem filium Nepotiani" and "nepte sua [Anthemio]" at Ravenna after his accession as emperor[172].  It is assumed that this means that one of her parents was the sibling of Emperor Anthemius, although the precise relationship may have been more remote.  m (Ravenna 474) Emperor JULIUS NEPOS, Emperor in the West, son of NEPOTIANUS & his wife --- ([450]-murdered 9 May 480). 

 

 

1.         OLYBRIUS (-23 Oct or 2 Nov 472).  A member of the Roman Anicii family[173].  He and his wife were captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister, freed in 462[174].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Rusticio et Olybrio" as consuls in 464[175].  He was chosen to succeed in 472 as Emperor OLYBRIUS, Emperor in the West, by Ricimer, and acclaimed as emperor [23 Mar or Apr] 472[176].    The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that "patricius Ricimer Romæ" installed "Olybrio" as emperor in 472 after deposing Emperor Anthemius, and that Emperor Olybrius ruled seven months before dying[177]m (before 455) PLACIDIA, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN III & his wife Eudoxia ---.  Procopius names "Eudocia and Placidia" as children of "Eudoxia…and Valentinian", recording that Eudocia was married to Huneric, the older son of Gaiseric, while the other was the wife of Olybrius, a Roman senator[178].  The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that one daughter of Valentinian married “Gentoni Gaiserici filio” and the other “Olybrio Senatori Urbis Romæ[179].  She and her husband were captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister, freed in 462[180].  Olybrius & [his wife] had one child: 

a)         IULIANA .  Her marriage is confirmed by Procopius who names “Areobindus, Olybrii [imperator] gener” as one of the “quatuor…belli Imperatores[181].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Julianam" as daughter of "Olybrius ex Placidia" and records that she married "Areobindi"[182].  The Chronographia Brevis of Patriarch Nikephoros names "Placidia, Areobindi uxor" and her son "Olybrius"[183], but presumably he confuses her name with that of her mother.  m AREOBINDUS, son of DALAGAIFUS & his wife ---.  Theophanes records that "Areobindo Dalagaiphi filio…[consul]" led the army of Emperor Anastasius against "Gotthorum, Bessorum et aliarum Thracicarum nationum", adding that he was "e Dyagesthea Ardaburii filia et Asparis…nepti" and that his "ex patre avus…Areobindus" had commanded the army of Emperor Theodosius against the Persians[184].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Areobindo et Messala" as consuls in 506[185].  Areobindus & his wife had one child: 

i)          OLYBRIUS (-after 526).  The Chronicon Paschale names "Olybrius minor" as son of "Areobindi" and his wife[186]Ioannes Malalas names "Consule Olybrio, Ariobindi filio"[187].  The Chronographia Brevis of Patriarch Nikephoros names "Olybrius" as son of "Placidia, Areobindi uxor"[188].  The Chronicon Paschale names "Olybrio" as sole consul in 491 and in 526[189]m EIRENE, daughter of --- & his wife Magna ---.  The Chronographia Brevis of Patriarch Nikephoros records that "Olybrius", son of "Placidia, Areobindi uxor", married "Irenes…quæ Magnæ Anastasii Imp. sororis filia fuit"[190].  She is recorded as the daughter of Magna[191].  Olybrius & his wife had two or more children (The following descent is shown by Montfaucon in a genealogical table of the descendants of Emperor Valentinian I, but he cites no primary sources on which the information is based[192].):

(a)       [193]PROBAm PROBUS, son of ---.  Probus & his wife had one child: 

(1)       [194]IULIANAm ANASTASIUS, son of ---[195].  Anastasius & his wife had three children: 

a.         [196]AREOBINDUS

b.         [197]PLACIDIA[198]m IOANNES Mysticon ---. 

c.         [199]PROBAm GEORGIUS ---. 

(b)       daughters . 

 

 

1.         GLYCERIUS (-474).  He was named 5 Mar 473 as Emperor GLYCERIUS, Emperor in the West, by Gundobaud of the Burgunds[200].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the installation of "Licerius" as emperor at Ravenna by "Gundibaro patricio"[201].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Nepos" expelled "Glycerium"[202].  The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "Clicerium" was appointed bishop of Salona in Dalmatia by Emperor Leo[203]

 

 

1.         NEPOTIANUSm ---.  The name of Nepotianus´s wife is not known.  Nepotianus & his wife had one child: 

a)         JULIUS NEPOS ([450]-murdered 9 May 480).  A member of an Italian family which had settled in Dalmatia[204].  Iordanes names "Nepotem filium Nepotiani" when recording that he was installed as emperor by Domitian after Emperor Athemius was murdered[205].  He was acclaimed as Emperor JULIUS NEPOS, Emperor in the West, at or near Rome 24 Jun 474[206].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records the succession of "Nepos" after expelling "Glycerium"[207].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that "Orestes" expelled Nepos to Dalmatia in 475 before installing his son as emperor[208]m (Ravenna 474) ---, neptis of Emperor ANTHEMIUS.  Iordanes records the marriage of "Neptotem filium Nepotiani" and "nepte sua [Anthemio]" at Ravenna after his accession as emperor[209]

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known: 

1.         ORESTES (-murdered Piacenza 28 Aug 476).  A member of a Roman family originating in Pannonia[210].  He served Attila as secretary, and later entered the service of Emperor Nepos who appointed him patricius and commander of the army[211].  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Orestes" expelled "Nepote" and installed "Augustulum filium suum" as emperor[212].  Procopius records that “Orestes ipsius pater” governed the western Roman empire for "Augustulum…adolescentulus"[213].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that "Orestes et frater eius Paulus" were killed by "Odovacre" in 476[214]m ---, daughter of ROMULUS Count of Petovio in Norica & his wife ---.  The primary source which records this marriage has not yet been identified.  Orestes & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROMULUS ([460/63]-).  The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Orestes" expelled "Nepote" and installed "Augustulum filium suum" as emperor[215].  He succeeded in 475 as Emperor ROMULUS "Augustulus", Emperor in the West.  Theophanes records that "Oreste…germanus filius Romulus…cognomen Augustulus" was installed as emperor[216].  Procopius records that he was “adolescentulus” when he succeeded and was therefore called "Augustulum"[217].  He was deposed 23 Aug 476 during a rebellion of Italian troops led by Odovacer the Sciri Goth, who was proclaimed king of Italy, and who saved the life of Romulus after obliging him to write his own letter of abdication to the senate[218]

2.         PAULUS (-murdered Piacenza 28 Aug 476).  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records that "Orestes et frater eius Paulus" were killed by "Odovacre" in 476[219]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    KINGS of the OSTROGOTHS in ITALY

 

 

A.      KING of ITALY 476-493 (SCIRI GOTHS)

 

 

The Goths originally lived north of the Danube.  According to their legend, they had migrated to the Black Sea area from the island of Scandza in the Baltic Sea.  They separated into two tribal groups, the Visigoths to the west and the Ostrogoths to the east.  Under pressure from the Huns, they sought permission from the Roman Emperor Valens to move into the Roman Empire to the south of the River Danube.  By 380, the Ostrogoths had settled in Pannonia as federates of Emperor Gratian but appear to have become subjected to the Huns[220].  There is considerable uncertainty about the early Ostrogoth kings and their history (see the document HUNGARY).  Procopius records that the Goths were given permission by the (western) Roman emperor to settle in “Thraciam”, but he does not specify whether this was after living in Pannonia[221]

 

The Gothic kingdom of Italy was established in 476 by Odovacar after he deposed the last Roman Emperor in the West, Romulus "Augustulus".  The Ostrogoth Theodoric captured Italy a few years later and declared himself king in 493.  He and members of his family continued to rule in Italy until 536.  Thereafter a series of non-nobles were installed as kings, their reigns almost completely overshadowed by the military conflict with the Romans who killed the last king Teja in 552.  After this, the Goths in Italy surrendered to the army of the Roman Empire of the East and became subjects of the eastern emperor. 

 

The history of the Ostrogoths from Theodoric's arrival in Italy until the death of King Vitiges is recounted by Jordanes, whose History of the Goths[222] is dated to 551 and gives many genealogical details of the families of Theodoric and his successors.  For the purposes of the present document, it has been assumed that these details are accurate, written as they were relatively soon after the events in question, although the narrative of the chronicle presumably embellishes the personal qualities and roles of the individuals. 

 

 

ODOVACAR, son of EDICA Leader of the Sciri Goths ([428/29]-murdered Laureto 15 Mar 493).  His birth date range is estimated from Wolfram speculating that Odovacar was 60 years old when put to flight by Theodoric in 489[223].  After his father's death, he became a soldier in Italy, where he led the Heruli, Rugians and Turcilingi and was considered their king[224].  He deposed Romulus "Augustulus", last of the Roman Emperors in the West, in 476, becoming ODOVACAR King of Italy.  In 487, Odovacar attacked and destroyed the Rugian kingdom[225].  Following the invasion of Theodoric 28 Aug 489, King Odovacar fled to Ravenna 30 Sep 489.  Odovacar counter-attacked, but was again defeated 11 Aug 490, and retreated once more to Ravenna.  He compromised with Theodoric in Feb 493, agreeing to joint rule over Italy, but Odovacar was captured and killed by Theodoric after the latter entered Ravenna[226].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Odovacer rex" was killed in 493 by "rege Theuderico" at Laureto[227]

m SUNIGILDA, daughter of ROGUS of the Sciri Goths .  Iordanes names Odoacer as "gener Rogus Thorcilingorum Scirorum Herolorumque" when recording his invasion of Italy[228].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.   She was starved to death after her husband was killed by Theodoric[229]

King Odovacar had several children, including:

1.         THELA .  His father marched to Rome in early 490 to proclaim him caesar[230].  He fled to Visigothic Gaul after his father was killed, but was himself killed when he tried to return to Italy[231]

 

 

 

B.      KINGS of ITALY 493-536 (AMAL GOTHS)

 

 

THEODEMIR [Thiudimir], son of VANDALARIUS (-Kyrrhos 474).  Iordanes names "Thiudemer et Valamir et Vidimir" as the sons of Vandilarius[232].  King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, under his brother Valamir, he ruled over the western part of their domain which covered the county of Somogy and northeastern Croatia.  He succeeded his brother in [468/49] as King of all the Pannonian Ostrogoths.  When the Ostrogoths left Pannonia in [473], Theodemir and his contingent went towards Constantinople.  They were settled in Macedonia, based in the city of Kyrrhos[233]

m ---.  The name of Theodemir's wife is not known. 

ConcubineERELEUVA [Erelieva].  She was baptised a Catholic as EUSEBIA[234].  Iordanes names "Erelieva concubina" as mother of Theodoric[235].  She went with her son to Italy. 

Theodemir & his wife had one child:

1.         AMALAFRIDA (-murdered [523/25]).  Iordanes names "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" as the mother of "Theodehadi" and wife of "Africa regi Vandalorum…Thrasamundo"[236].  Emperor Zeno used her as ambassador to her half-brother in 487 to thwart his attack on Constantinople[237].  Her second marriage was arranged by her half-brother, Theodoric King of Italy, as part of his efforts to foster the support of the Vandals.  Amalafrida's dowry was Lilybæum in western Sicily[238].  After the death of her husband, she unsuccessfully protested his successor's withdrawal of support from her brother, but she was outmanœuvred and killed[239]m firstly [HUGO ---] (-before 500).  The Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ names "Huga rex Francorum…unicam filiam Amalbergam" who married "Irminfredo regi Thuringorum"[240], but there is no indication to whom "Huga rex Francorum" could refer.  m secondly ([500]) THRASAMUND, King of the Vandals, son of [GENTO the Vandal or GELIMER the Vandal] (before 460-523).  Amalafrida & her first husband had two children:

a)         THEODAHAD (-murdered Dec 536).  Iordanes names "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" as the mother of "Theodehadi qui postea rex fuit" but does not name his father[241].  Disappointed in not succeeding his uncle King Theodoric, Theodahad acquired considerable private estates in Tuscany "where he led a retired life at home" according to Jordanes[242].  He was planning to sell this "kingdom" to the emperor, in return for retirement in Constantinople and an annual pension, when his cousin Queen Amalasuintha recalled him and appointed him co-regent in 534[243].  Procopius records that “Theodatus, filius Amalafridas sororis Theoderici” possessed "agrorum Tusciæ" and planned to deliver "Tusciam in Iustiniani Augusti potestatem"[244].  In a later passage, Procopius records that “Theodatus” was appointed regent by "Amalasuntha"[245].  He arrested the Queen end-534 and imprisoned her on an island in Lake Bolsena[246], assuming the title THEODAHAD King of Italy.  Iordanes records that "Theodahadum consobrinum suum" succeeded Athalric, appointed by the latter's mother whom Theodahad killed soon after his accession[247].  After the Queen's murder, Emperor Justinian ordered a two-pronged attack against Sicily and Dalmatia in revenge.  Theodahad repelled the initial threat in Dalmatia in 536, but an imperial fleet occupied Split and Dubrovnik.  The forces in Sicily, under Belisarius, moved into mainland Italy, occupied Naples.  Theodahad marched as far as Rome to meet the invaders, but was murdered while trying to escape back to Ravenna[248]m GUDELIVA, daughter of ---.  The primary source which names the wife of Theodahad has not so far been identified.  Theodahad & his wife had two children:

i)          THEODEGISKLOS (-536 or after).  Procopius records that “Theodati…filium Theodegisclum” was captured by "Vitigis"  (in 536)[249]

ii)         THEODENANDA .  Procopius records that “Theodati…filiam Theodenantham” married "Ebrimuth" who surrendered to Belisarius "cum omni suo comitatu" and was awarded "patricii dignitatem"[250]m EBRIMUD [Evermud], son of ---.  Iordanes names "Evermud Theodahadi Gothorum regis gener"[251].  He was the military commander of the Ostrogoth forces in Reggio Calabria and surrendered to Belisarius in 536[252]

(a)       [son (-[536]).  The primary source which records the existence of this possible son has not yet been identified.]

b)         AMALABERGA .  Iordanes names "Amalabergam" as the daughter of "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" and records her marriage to "Thuringorum regi…Herminefredo"[253].  “Theodericus rex” wrote to “Herminafrido Regi Thuringorum” granting him “neptis” in marriage[254].  Procopius records that “Hermenefrido Thoringorum regi” married "Theoderici…Amelobergam, Amalafridæ sororis suæ filiam"[255].  The Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ names "Huga rex Francorum…unicam filiam Amalbergam" who married "Irminfredo regi Thuringorum"[256].  Gregory of Tours calls Amalaberg, wife of Hermanfrid, a "wicked and cruel woman" who sowed the seeds of civil war between her husband and his brother Baderic[257].  She escaped to Ravenna with her children after the Franks attacked Thuringia and killed her husband[258]m ([510]) HERMANFRED, King of the Thuringians, son of --- (-534). 

Theodemir had three illegitimate children by his concubine: 

2.         THEODORIC ([451][259]-30 Aug 526).  Iordanes names "Theodericum" as son of Theodemir, in a later passage naming his mother "Erelieva concubina"[260].  He was proclaimed THEODORIC "the Great" King of Italy in Mar 493 after defeating King Odovacar.   

-        see below

3.         THEODIMUND.  The primary source which names him has not yet been identified.  He marched westwards to Durazzo with his brother in 479, leading one of the three marching columns[261]

4.         daughter (-[479]).  The primary source which records her existence has not yet been identified.  She died about the time her half-brother marched westwards to Durazzo[262]

 

 

THEODORIC, son of THEODEMIR King of the Ostrogoths in Pannonia & his concubine Ereleuva --- ([451][263]-Ravenna 30 Aug 526).  Iordanes names "Theodericum" as son of Theodemir, in a later passage naming his mother "Erelieva concubina"[264]Herimannus names "Theodericus, Theodmari filius, rex Ostrogothorum" when recording his arrival in Italy[265].  He was sent as a hostage to Constantinople at the age of seven in [459/61], returning in [469/70] to assume control of the part of the kingdom formerly ruled by his uncle Valamir, under his father as overall king[266].  He left Pannonia with his father in [473], settling at Kyrrhos in Macedonia where his father named him as his successor in 474.  However, by 476 Theodoric had moved back across the Danube and settled in lower Moesia in the city of Novae-Svištov.  While Emperor Zeno was planning to resettle his contingent in Dacia, Theodoric marched westwards to join his relative Sidimund at Durazzo[267].  He marched against Greece in 482 and forced Emperor Zeno to conclude a treaty under which Theodoric was named consul for 484 at Constantinople and given Dacia ripensis and parts of lower Moesia[268].  He acquired Roman citizenship to serve as consul, adopting the name FLAVIUS AMALUS THEODERICUS[269].  Procopius records that “duce Theoderico” was "patricius" and later was appointed to the "consularem" by Byzantium[270].  In 487, he began an offensive against Constantinople, but was bought off by rich presents brought by his half-sister Amalafrida.  He led the Ostrogoths on the move again in 488 into Italy, where he put King Odovacar to flight in Aug 489.  Theodoric captured Verona, then Milan and Pavia, establishing his capital in the latter[271].  King Odovacar counter-attacked, but was again defeated 11 Aug 490.  He compromised with Theodoric in Feb 493, agreeing to joint rule over Italy, but Theodoric captured and personally killed Odovacar after entering Ravenna[272].  He was proclaimed THEODORIC "the Great" King of Italy[273] by the Gothic army in Mar 493, with his capital at Ravenna.  He was recognised as ruler in the west by Emperor Anastasius at Constantinople in 498[274].  Relations with the Franks, cemented by King Theodoric's marriage in [492], deteriorated somewhat in [506] when the Franks persecuted the Alamanni who were under Theodoric's protection[275].  However, despite the close family ties with the Visigothic kingdom after his daughter's marriage with the Visigothic king, King Theodoric was unable or unwilling to provide the necessary military support for his son-in-law against the Franks at the battle of the Vouillé in 507[276].  King Theodoric acted nominally as regent in the kingdom of the Visigoths 507-526 during the minority of his grandson Amalric King of the Visigoths, but declared himself king of the Visigothic kingdom in 511, although he appointed his sword-bearer Teudis (who later succeeded as king of the Visigoths) as governor[277].  He annexed the Visigothic territory between the Alps and the Rhône to the kingdom of Italy, and re-established the Gallic prefecture at Arles in 510[278].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records the death in 526 of "Theudoricus rex Gothorum in urbe Ravenna"[279].  He died from dysentery[280]

m ([492]) AUDOFLEDIS, daughter of CHILDERIC I King of the Franks & his wife Basina ---.  Gregory of Tours names Audofleda as the sister of King Clovis, recording that she married Theodoric King of Italy[281].  Iordanes records the marriage of Theodoric and "Lodoin Francorum regem filiam eius Audefledam" and names her brothers "Celdebertum et Heldebertum et Thiudebertum"[282], although this is presumably an incorrect reference to her nephews and great-nephew with similar names. 

Concubine: ---.  Iordanes records that Theodoric's two daughters were born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis[283].  The name of the concubine of Theodoric is not known. 

King Theodoric & his wife had one daughter:

1.         AMALASUINTHA [Amalswinde] ([493]-murdered [30 Apr] 535).  Iordanes names "Amalasuentham" as daughter of Theodoric[284].  Gregory of Tours records that King Theodoric left his wife Audofleda "with a small daughter…Amalasuntha" when he died[285], although this appears misleading with regard to her age bearing in mind the chronology of events established in other sources.  In a passage which appears to be a complete fabrication, Gregory records that Amalasuntha eloped with one of her slaves, Traguilla, who was later killed by her mother's emissaries who brought Amalasuntha back after "a good beating".  Gregory then recounts that she murdered her mother by poisoning her communion chalice, but was herself killed by "Theudat King of Tuscany" whom the people had called to rule over them[286].  This story may have been Gregory's way of justifying King Theodebert's subsequent attack on Italy, the account of which follows in the succeeding paragraph.  She was regent in Italy for her son in 526.  Procopius records that “ex filia nepos Atalaricus” succeeded on the death of "Theoderico" under the rule of "Amalasuntha matre"[287].  She renounced the territory north of the River Durance in favour of the Burgundians in 530 in the name of her son[288].  On the death of her son in 534, she declared herself AMALASUINTHA Queen of Italy, appointing her cousin Theodahad as co-regent.  Theodahad arrested her end-534 and imprisoned her on an island in Lake Bolsena, where "after spending a very few days in sorrow, she was strangled in the bath by his hirelings" according to Jordanes[289]m (515) EUTHARICH [Eutarico], son of VETERIC & his wife --- (-[522/23]).  Iordanes names "Eutharicum" as son of "Vetericus" and as husband of "Amalasuentham" and father of their two children[290].  The Chronicle of Cassiodorus records the marriage in 515 of "Theodericus filiam usam dominam Amalasuintam" and "gloriosi viri dn Eutharici"[291].  Eutharic was adopted by Emperor Justin in recognition of his father-in-law's decision to designate him as his successor after his marriage.  He was given Roman citizenship and became first consul in 519 as FLAVIUS EUTHARICUS CILLIGA[292].  Wolfram estimates that Eutharich died in [522/23][293].  Jordanes specifies that Eutharich predeceased King Theodoric's nomination of his son Athalaric as his successor.  Eutharic & Amalasuintha had two children:

a)         ATHALARIC ([517/18]-2 Oct 534).  Iordanes names "Athalaricum et Matesuentham" as children of "Amalasuentham…de Eutharico viro suo"[294].  He succeeded in 526 as ATHALARIC King of Italy.  Procopius records that “ex filia nepos Atalaricus” succeeded on the death of "Theoderico" under the rule of "Amalasuntha matre"[295].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Atalericus nepos eius" succeeded King Theodoric in 526[296].  Iordanes specifies that Athalric was 8 years old when he succeeded his maternal grandfather, under the regency of his mother[297]

b)         MATASUNTHA [Mathesuentha] ([518]-).  Iordanes names "Athalaricum et Matesuentham" as children of "Amalasuentham…de Eutharico viro suo", specifying that Matasuntha married firstly "Vitigis" by whom she was childless and secondly "Germanus patricius fratruelis Iustiniani imp"[298].  Procopius records that “Vitigis” married "Matasuntham Amalasunthæ filiæ, maturam iam viro virginem"  to legitimise his position (in 536)[299].  Procopius records that Germanus married secondly "Amalasuntha Theoderici filia Matasuntham” after the death of Vitigis[300]m firstly (end 536) as his second wife, VITIGIS King of Italy, son of --- (-542).  m secondly (542) as his second wife, GERMANUS, nephew of Emperor JUSTINIAN, son of --- (-[551]). 

King Theodoric had two illegitimate daughters by his concubine: 

2.          THEODEGOTHA [Thiudigotho].  Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[301].  Procopius records that “regi Visigothorum Alarico” married "Theoderici…Theudichusam virginem filiam"[302]m ([494][303]) ALARIC II King of the Visigoths, son of EURIC King of the Visigoths & his wife --- (-killed in battle Poitiers 507). 

3.          OSTROGOTHO ([475/80]-before [520]).  Iordanes names "unam…Thiudigoto et aliam Ostrogotho" as the two daughters of Theodoric born "ex concubina…in Moesia" before his marriage to Audofledis, specifying that they came to Italy and were married "unam Alarico Vesegotharum et aliam Sigismundo Burgundzonorum"[304].  Her father arranged her marriage as part of his negotiations for an alliance with the Burgundians.  According to Settipani[305], this marriage took place soon after Theoderic arrived in Italy.  Wolfram suggests[306] that Theodoric's alliance with the Burgundians was settled in 496.  m ([494/96]) as his first wife, SIGISMUND of Burgundy, son of GONDEBAUD King of Burgundy & his wife Caratena (-murdered 523, bur Agaune).  He succeeded his father in 516 as SIGISMUND King of Burgundy

 

 

 

C.      KINGS of ITALY 536-552 (OTHER GOTH FAMILIES)

 

 

Two brothers, parents not known. 

1.         son .  m ---.  Two children: 

a)         VITIGIS ([500][307]-542).  A Goth military commander, he became sword-bearer of King Athalaric and King Theodahad, the latter appointing him as supreme commander of the entire Gothic army which installed him in Nov 536 as VITIGIS King of Italy.  Procopius records that “Vitigin” was elected king by the Goths "apud Regeta"  (in 536)[308].  He immediately marched to Ravenna and married the daughter of Queen Amalasuintha to legitimise his position[309].  Meanwhile Belisarius had occupied Rome, and King Vitigis marched south once more, arriving in Feb 537.  Vitigis made little progress and was obliged to raise the siege in Mar 538 and return to Ravenna.  The army of Belisarius marched northwards from Rome 21 Jun 538, besieged Ravenna in late 539, captured the town in May 540 and deposed King Vitigis who "willingly surrendered himself to the victorious side, together with his wife Mathesuentha and the royal treasure" according to Jordanes[310].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the capture of "Witigis"[311].  Procopius records that Belisarius deported Vitigis to Byzantium[312].  Jordanes records that he lived in exile in Constantinople "where he dwelt for more than two years, bound by ties of affection to Emperor Justinian, and then departed this life" according to Jordanes[313]m firstly (repudiated 536) ---.  Vitigis repudiated her to marry his second wife.  m secondly (end 536) as her first husband, MATASUNTHA, daughter of EUTHARICH & his wife Amalasuintha Queen of Italy ([518]-).  Iordanes names "Athalaricum et Matesuentham" as children of "Amalasuentham…de Eutharico viro suo", specifying that Matasuntha married firstly "Vitigis" by whom she was childless and secondly "Germanus patricius fratruelis Iustiniani imp"[314].  Procopius records that “Vitigis” married "Matasuntham Amalasunthæ filiæ, maturam iam viro virginem"  to legitimise his position (in 536)[315].  She married secondly (542) Germanus.  Procopius records that Germanus married secondly "Amalasuntha Theoderici filia Matasuntham” after the death of Vitigis[316].  Vitigis & his first wife had one child:

i)          son (-after 542).  He was taken to Constantinople with his father and stepmother after the fall of his father[317]

b)         daughter .  m ---.  One child: 

i)          URAIAS (-[540/41]).  Procopius records that “Uraia duce, sororis suæ filio” commanded part of the army of Vitigis[318].  He continued to hold Pavia after the fall of his uncle, but declined to be installed as King of Italy[319]

2.         ULITHEUS (-after [538]).  Procopius records that Belisarius defeated “Ulitheum, Vitigis patruum” who surrendered "cum Gotthorum exercitu", dated to [538][320]

 

 

Two brothers: 

1.         HILDEBAD [Ildibald/Theodbald] (-murdered [May] 541).  His family connection is confirmed by Procopius who records that “Gotthorum regem…Ildibadum” made war together with "Theudin avunculum Visogotthorum regem"[321].  At the fall of King Vitigis, he was in command of Verona.  He was installed as HILDEBAD King of Italy by the Gothic army in 540, although considered a usurper by the Empire and although he only controlled a small strip of land between Pavia and Verona.  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Heldebadum" as king after the capture of Vitigis[322].  He conquered Treviso, installing his nephew as commander, and soon controlled Liguria and Venetia[323].  He moved his capital to Pavia in 540[324].  He was murdered by one of his personal retainers[325]

2.         son .  m ---.  One child: 

a)         TOTILA [Baduila/Badua] (-killed in battle Busta Gallorum [Jun/Jul] 552).  Procopius records that “Totilas…Ildibadi ex fratre nepos” commanded the army at Treviso[326].  He was installed as TOTILA King of Italy in Oct 541 by the Goths of Pavia after the death of King Eraric[327].  Iordanes records that "Baduila iuvenis nepus…Heldebadi" succeeded after Eraric was killed[328].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ records the accession of "Badullam qui et Totila dicebatur" as king[329].  King Totila routed a large Roman army at Faenza in 542, besieged Florence, moved into southern Italy and captured Naples in 543[330].  He began his first siege of Rome in Dec 545, tried again in 547, and finally captured the city in Jan 550.  He was killed at the battle of Busta Gallorum against the Romans[331].  The Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon records that "Narses eunuchus" killed "Totilanem Gothorum regem" in battle in Italy in 554[332].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Baduila rex Gothorum" was killed in 553 "per Narsetem chartularium eunuchum"[333]

 

 

1.         ERARIC (-Oct 541).  Chief of the Rugians, he was proclaimed ERARIC King of Italy in 541 on the death of King Hildebad, but he was deposed and killed by the Goths after five months[334].  The Pauli Historiæ Romanæ names "Erarius" as successor of Vitigis and records that he was strangled within a year[335].  Iordanes records that "Erarius" succeeded after "Heldebadus" was killed[336]

 

 

1.         FRITIGERN, son of ---.  m ---.  The name of Fritigern´s wife is not known.  Fritigern & his wife had [four or more] children: 

a)         TEJA (-killed in battle near Salerno Oct 552).  He was commander at Verona, installed as TEJA King of Italy in Jul 552 at Pavia.  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Teia" succeeded in 553 but was killed in 554 by Narses[337].  He was killed at the battle of Mons Lactarius, the last of the Ostrogoth kings of Italy[338]

b)         other sons. 

c)         ALIGERN.  After the death of his brother, he continued to hold the city of Cumae but surrendered it in [553/54][339]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    KINGS of the LANGOBARDS (LOMBARDS) [570]-774

 

 

The Langobards, more often referred to as the Lombards, were a nomadic people who installed themselves in what is now Hungary.  The Istoria Longobardorum states that their name derives from "langeth" (long) and "bardozab" (beard) in their own language[340].  The first historically attested homeland of the "Langobardi" was in the lower Elbe valley in northern Germany[341].  They migrated southeastwards, probably along the valley of the River Elbe, towards Bohemia, where the first Lombard king Agelmund, son of Agio, was elected[342].  He was killed in a Hunnic assault on a Lombard settlement, although his successor king Lamissio achieved a notable victory against the Huns[343].  The migration of the Lombards continued in the late 5th century into Moravia, where they displaced the Heruls who had been the allies of the Ostrogoths of Italy, and into Pannonia (north-west Hungary) in the 520s (see the document HUNGARY). 

 

After the Roman Empire of the East finally defeated the Italian Ostrogoth kings in 552, the Lombards quickly took control of the whole of Italy as far as the Alps.  However, their position was not strong, especially after Emperor Justin II forced the retirement of the veteran governor Narses.  He retired to Naples and from there, it is alleged, invited the Lombards to migrate en masse from Pannonia into Italy[344].  The migration took place in 568/69, maybe involving around 150,000 persons, although it is not known whether this involved a complete abandonment of the Lombard settlements in Pannonia[345].  Alboin was crowned first Lombard king in Italy at Milan in [570], and subsequently installed his capital at Pavia.  Lombard rule continued in northern Italy until 774, when the Carolingian Frankish King Charles I (later Emperor Charlemagne) invaded, deposed King Desiderius, and proclaimed himself king of Italy. 

 

The dating of the kings of the Lombards in Italy must be considered approximate as it depends on calculation from the lengths of their reigns as stated in Lombard primary sources, not all of which are consistent with each other.  Few dates can be corroborated accurately against non-Lombard sources.  There are no known descents from the Lombard kings linking to families either of later Italian rulers or nobles in other European states.  However, it is likely that the Lombards rulers did leave descendants.  For example, Paulus Diaconus records that Gumpert, younger brother of King Aripert II, emigrated to France with three sons[346].  It also interesting to note onomastic connections between the Lombard kings and later nobility in Germany.  Of particular note in this respect are the names Godeschalk, Cunincpert [Kunbert] and Liutpert. 

 

As will be seen below, according to the primary sources there were nine separate family groups of Lombard kings in Italy.  There is no information which links any of these families to each other through the agnatic line.  It appears that the Lombard nobles were formed into clans, probably named after early leaders.  The primary sources name four such clans:

  • Lethings.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum specifies that King Wacho and his family were "Lethinges"[347], presumably descendants of King Leth, the third Lombard ruler.  This line became extinct in the known male line in 547, before the Lombard migration into Italy.  Details are set out in the document HUNGARY. 
  • Gausus.  The Historia Langobardorum states that King Audoin was "ex genere…Gausus"[348], ancestors of the first family group shown below, that of King Alboin who was installed as the first Lombard king in Italy in [570]. 
  • Caupus.  A late manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that King Ariowalt (who ruled in Italy from 625 to 636) was "ex genere Caupus"[349]
  • Arodus.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum states that King Rothari (who ruled in Italy from 636 to 652) was "ex genere Arodus"[350]

No documentary evidence has been found which names the clans of the other six royal family groups shown below. 

 

The genealogies of the Lombard kings are sparse, containing little information on collateral lines, daughters, children who died young or, more surprisingly, the Lombard queens.  Of the latter, the names and origins of only five are known with certainty, although records indicate that at least 19 of the Lombard kings in northern Italy were married.  In addition, the names of six other queens are known, although there is no indication of their origins.  Four of the queens whose origin is known were from the dynasties of the Merovingian Frankish kings, the Gepids and the Bavarian kings.  The last known queen was a Lombard princess, daughter of a previous ruler who was married to one of his successors.  The only record of any Lombard nobility marrying into the royal families is provided by Paulus Diaconus who records the capture of "filia regis Agilulfi cum viro suo Gudescalco de civitate Parmensi" by the army of "Gallicini patricii"[351].  In addition, four Lombard princesses married Dukes of Benevento.  It is likely that there were more cases of inter-marriage, about which the sources are silent. 

 

The death of King Kleph in 574 was followed by a 12 year interregnum when the Lombards "lived … under the rule of twelve dukes" according to Fredegar[352].  Paulus Diaconus records that the different cities were ruled by different dukes "Zaban [in] Ticinum, Wallari [in] Bergamum, Alichis [in] Brexiam, Eoin [in] Tridentum, Gisulfus [in] Forumiulii"[353]

 

 

ALBOIN, son of AUDOIN King of the Lombards & his first wife --- (-murdered Verona 28 Jun 572).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Albuin" as son of "Auduin"[354].  Paulus Diaconus names "Alboin, filius Audoin" when recording his succession[355].  He succeeded in 560 as ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Pannonia.  Paulus Diaconus reports that King Alboin defeated and killed in battle Cunimund King of the Gepids in 567, allegedly making his skull into a drinking cup[356].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that Albuin fought and killed in battle "rege Gippidorum…Cunimund", weakening the power of the Gepids[357].  Narses, the Byzantine administrator in Italy, invited Alboin to Italy in revenge for his forced retirement by Empress Sophia, the invasion dated to 568.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that Albuin led his people to Italy after being invited by Narses[358].  Gregory of Tours records that Alboin King of the Lombards had abandoned his own country and emigrated to Italy "with all his Lombard people"[359].  He captured Milan in 569, Tuscany in 570 and Pavia in 572.  He was crowned ALBOIN King of the Lombards in Italy at Milan in [570], and made his capital at Verona[360].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that Albuin ruled in Italy for three years but was killed in Verona by "Hilmichis et Rosemunda uxore sua per consilium Peritheo"[361].  The Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica records that "Aluinus Lombardorum rex" was killed in 573 "factione coniugis suæ" by his own men at night[362].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Albuenus rex Langobardorum" was killed in 572 "a suis, id est, Hilmægis" at Verona with the connivance of his wife[363]

m firstly ([556/60]) CHLODESINDIS, daughter of CHROTHACHAR I [Clotaire] King of the Franks & his third wife Ingund (-before [567]).  Gregory of Tours names Clothsind as the daughter of King Clotaire & his wife Ingund, specifying that she married Alboin King of the Lombards[364].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Flutsuinda…filia Flothario regis Francorum" as the first wife of Albuin[365].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Ludusenda…filia Flothari regis" as the first wife of Alboin[366].  Paulus Diaconus names "Chlotharius rex Francorum, Chlotsuindam ei suam filiam" as wife of Alboin[367]

m secondly ([567]) ROSAMUNDIS, daughter of CUNIMUNDUS King of the Gepids.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records the marriage of Albuin to "Rosemunda filia Cunimundi" after killing her father in battle[368].  Theophylactus records that "Longobardicæ gentis principem…Alboinum" married "adolescentulam Conimundi Gepidarum regis filiam"[369].  Paulus Diaconus names "filiam [Cunimundum] Rosimundam" as second wife of Alboin, also reporting that he married her after killing her father in battle[370].  Gregory of Tours records that Alboin King of the Lombards married his second wife soon after he had killed her father, that "she loathed her husband as a result" and poisoned him "for she had become enamoured of one of his servants" with whom she fled before they were both caught and put to death[371].  According to Paulus Diaconus, she incited the murder of her husband by his own men[372].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that Albuin was killed in Verona by "Hilmichis et Rosemunda uxore sua per consilium Peritheo", before she was poisoned herself with Hilmichis by "Longinus præfectus"[373]

King Alboin & his first wife had one child:

1.         ALBSUINDA (-after 572).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Albsuinda" as the daughter of Albuin & his first wife[374].  Paulus Diaconus names "Alpsuindam" as the daughter of Alboin & his first wife[375].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that, after the murder of Rosamundis, "Longinus præfectus" sent "Albsuinda filia Albuin regis" to Constantinople[376]

 

 

KLEPH, son of --- (-murdered 574).  He succeeded in 573 as KLEPH King of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus records that King Kleph had his throat cut by his own men after reigning one year and six months[377].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Cleph" ruled for two years[378].  The Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica records that "Clebus rex Langibardorum" was killed in 574 "a puero suo"[379].  The death of King Kleph in 574 was followed by a 12 year interregnum when the Lombards "lived … under the rule of twelve dukes"[380]

m MASANE, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus names "Masane" as the wife of King Kleph[381]

King Kleph & [his wife] had one child: 

1.         AUTHACHAR [Authari] (-Ticinum 5 Sep 590).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Autarine filio Claffoni" was installed as king after a twelve year period of rule by Langobard dukes[382].  No proof has been found that he was the son of Masane.  "Autari, Clefoni filius" was elected AUTHACHAR King of the Lombards in 584 by the Lombard dukes who restored the monarchy in his favour[383].  Paulus Diaconus records the death "apud Ticinum Nonas Sep" of King Authari from poison after a reign of six years[384].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum states that King Authari ruled for seven years[385]Betrothed (before [590], contract broken) to CHLODESINDIS [Clodesinde], daughter of SIGEBERT I King of the Franks & his wife Brunechildis of the Visigoths ([575/76]-after 594).  Chlodosind is named as daughter of Queen Brunhilde, and sister of King Childebert, in the Treaty of Andelot dated 28 Nov 587[386].  Paulus Diaconus records the betrothal of "Flavius rex Authari" and "Childebertus…suam germanam", but states that Childebert accepted an offer of another betrothal for her from "Gothorum de Hispania"[387].  No proof has been found that the daughter referred to by Paulus was Chlodesindis but this is assumed to be the case.  m (before [590]) as her first husband, THEODELINDIS, daughter of GARIBALD Duke of Bavaria & his wife Waldrada of the Lombards.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Theudelenda filia Garipald et Walderade de Baiuaria" as the wife of "Autarine filio Claffoni"[388].  Paulus Diaconus records the betrothal of "Flavius…rex Authari" and "Garibaldi…regis…Theudelindam suam filiam" and their subsequent marriage "Idus Maius"[389].  The Salzburg Annals name "Gerbaldi regis filiam Theodelingam" when recording her marriage to "Otharius rex Lombardorum"[390].  She is named by Fredegar as the sister of Grimoald and Gundoald, and kinswoman of King Clotaire II[391].  The marriage of "Theodolindum filiam Gerwaldi regis Baioariorum" to "Otharius rex Longobardorum" is recorded in the Excerpta Altahensia[392].  The Annales Ducum Bavariæ record her second marriage to "Aigilulfus rex Lombardum"[393].  She married secondly Agilolf King of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of her first husband, "Theudelinda" wisely chose "Agilulfum ducem Taurinatium" as her husband and king of the Lombards[394].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Theudelenda filia Garipald et Walderade de Baiuaria" married secondly "Acquo" who installed himself as king[395].  The Chronicle of Andreas of Bergamo names "Teudelinda filia Garibaldi Baioariorum rex" as the wife first of Autari and then of Agilolf[396]

 

 

AGILOLF [Ago], son of --- (-615).  According to Fredegar, Ago was the son of King Authachar[397].  None of the Lombard sources specify this.  It must be incorrect in view of King Ago's marriage to Theodelindis, the widow of his predecessor.  If she had been Ago's stepmother, this would surely have been the subject of adverse comment in contemporary sources.  Duke of Turin.  Paulus Diaconus names "inter ceteros Langobardorum duces Agilulf dux Taurinensium civitatis"[398].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Acquo dux Thuringus" came from "Thaurinis", made himself king and married "Theudelendæ reginæ"[399].  A later manuscript of the Origo names him "Agiluf Turingus ex genere Anawat"[400].  He succeeded as AGILOLF King of the Lombards in [590].  Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of her first husband, "Theudelinda" wisely chose "Agilulfum ducem Taurinatium" as her husband and king of the Lombards[401].  Fredegar dates the accession of "Ago dux" to the thirty first year of the reign of Guntram King of the Franks[402].  He was evidently faced with considerable opposition after his accession as Paulus Diaconus records that King Agilulf killed "Mimulfum ducem de insula Sancti Iuliani", that "Gaidulfus…Pergamensis dux" rebelled in the town of Bergamo, and that "dux Ulfari" rebelled "aput Tarvisium" but was captured[403].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Acquo" killed "duces revelles suos, Zangrolf de Verona, Mimulf de insula Sancti Iuliani et Gaidulf de Bergamum"[404].  The rebellions persisted, as shown by Paulus Diaconus recording that the king suppressed the rebellion of "Zangrulfum Veronensium ducem", that "Gaidulfum…Pergamensem ducem" died after being spared a second time, and that "Warnecautiam" was killed "aput Ticinum"[405].  The same source also records that "Gaidoaldus dux de Tridento et Gisulfus de Foroiuli" rebelled against Agilolf King of the Lombards but were pardoned[406].  King Agilulf's reign was also marked by frequent Avar incursions into Lombard territory, as shown by Paulus Diaconus recording that "Agilulfus rex" made peace with the Avars which was later renewed, a subsequent invasion of Istria by "Avaribus et Sclavis", and a later invasion during which "Gisulfus Foroiulianis dux" was killed[407].  The Historia Langobardorum states that "Agilwaldo" ruled for 25 years[408].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Agilulf rex qui et Ago est appellatus" died after reigning for 25 years[409].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Acquo" ruled for six years[410]

[m firstly ---.  There is no record of an earlier marriage of King Agilolf.  However, it is likely considering the references in Paulus Diaconus to his married daughter (see below) before the record of the birth of his son by Queen Theodelindis, unless this daughter was illegitimate.] 

m [secondly] (after 590) as her second husband, THEODELINDIS, widow of AUTHARI King of the Lombards, daughter of GARIBALD Duke of Bavaria & his wife Waldrada of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus records that, after the death of her first husband, "Theudelinda" wisely chose "Agilulfum ducem Taurinatium" as her husband and king of the Lombards[411].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Theudelenda filia Garipald et Walderade de Baiuaria" married secondly "Acquo" who installed himself as king[412].  The Chronicle of Andreas of Bergamo names "Teudelinda filia Garibaldi Baioariorum rex" as the wife first of Autari and then of Agilolf[413].  Fredegar records the marriage of "Ago rex" and "Grimoaldi et Gundoaldi germanam…Teudelendæ ex genere Francorum", specifying that she had been betrothed to "Childebertus"[414].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Theudelinda regina" constructed the basilica of John the Baptist at Modicia and established the royal palace at Monza[415].  Pope Gregory I presented her with gifts to reward her efforts in converting the Lombards to Catholicism[416]

King Agilolf & [his first wife] had one child:

1.         daughter .  Paulus Diaconus records the capture of "filia regis Agilulfi cum viro suo Gudescalco de civitate Parmensi" by the army of "Gallicini patricii" who took them to Ravenna[417].  Paulus Diaconus records that the quarrel with the Romans persisted due to the capture of the king's daughter, that she was released "cum viro ac filiis" by "Smaracdo patricio" and returned to Parma, but subsequently died after a difficult childbirth[418]m GODESCHALK, son of ---. 

King Agilolf & his [second] wife had two children:

2.         ADALOALD ([600/05]-625).  Paulus Diaconus records the birth of "Agilulfo regi…filius de Theudelinda regina…Adaloald" at the palace of Modicia, and his subsequent baptism "VII Id Apr" in the church of St John at Modicia[419].  Fredegar names "filium…Adoaldo et filiam…Gundoberga" as the children of King Ago & his wife Theudelinda[420].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Adelwald filius Agluf" succeeded his father[421].  His birth date range is estimated from Paulus Diaconus recording that "mense Iulio…Adeloadus…puero" was installed as king by his father at Milan, in the presence of delegates from Theodebert II King of the Franks to whose daughter he was betrothed at the same time[422].  The chronicle of Andreas of Bergamo records that "Adalovald filio suo [=Agilulf]" was crowned as associate king by his father[423].  Christie dates this event to 604[424], Settipani to Jul 610[425].  The former date appears less probable as the first marriage of King Theodebert is dated to 608, his daughter presumably being born soon after.  He succeeded his father in 615 as ADALOALD King of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus records that "filio suo Adaloald admodum puerum" succeeded his father but was expelled after ruling with his mother for ten years[426].  Fredegar recounts his falling under the influence of Eusebius, representative of Emperor Maurice, and agreeing to place the kingdom under the emperor's authority.  According to Fredegar, he was poisoned[427].  The Historia Langobardorum states that "Adelwald" ruled for 10 years[428]Betrothed (Milan Jul [610]) to --- of the Franks, daughter of THEODEBERT II King of the Franks & his first wife Bilichildis (-after 613).  Paulus Diaconus records that "mense Iulio…Adeloadus…puero" was betrothed to the daughter of Theodebert II King of the Franks, at the same time as being installed as king by his father at Milan[429]

3.         GUNDBERGA .  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Gunperga" as the daughter of "Acquo de Theodelenda"[430].  Fredegar names "filium…Adoaldo et filiam…Gundoberga" as the children of King Ago & his wife Theudelinda[431].  Fredegar records the marriage of "germanam Adloaldo regi…Gundebergam" and "Charoaldum ducem Taurinensem"[432].  He describes her as "in all things good-natured and full of Christian piety", but also records her implication in a plot to kill her husband.  She was imprisoned in the fortress of Lomello, but re-established as queen three years later after the matter was judged by combat[433].  Fredegar is the only authority which refers to her alleged second marriage.  He says that after she induced "Chothacharius quidam unum ex ducibus de terretorio Brissia" to marry her, he "confined her in a single room in the palace at Pavia and … kept her in seclusion for five years"[434].  Her alleged third marriage is mentioned only in Paulus Diaconus which names "Gundipergam, Agilulfi et Theudelindæ filiam" when recording that "Rodoald" married her after the death of his father King Rothari, also specifying that she was accused of adultery with her own servant Carellus but declared innocent of the charge[435].  No single source mentions both these alleged second and third marriages of Gundberga.  It is unlikely that both are correct.  The marriage to Rothari is more plausible, to explain his accession to the throne.  If this is right, the marriage to Rodoald is even less likely as he would have been Gundberga's stepson, a fact which if true would have been the subject of comment in contemporary records.  m firstly ARIOWALT, son of --- (-636).  He was elected ARIOWALT King of the Lombards in 625.  m secondly (636) as his [second] marriage, ROTHARI, son of ROTBERT & his wife --- (-652).  He succeeded as ROTHARI King of the Lombards in 636 as a result of this marriage.  [m thirdly (652) RODOALD King of the Lombards, son of ROTHARI King of the Lombards & his first wife --- (-653).] 

 

 

1.         ARIOWALT [Charoald], son of --- (-636).  Duke of Turin.  Fredegar names "Charoaldum ducem Taurinensem"[436].  He was elected as ARIOWALT King of the Lombards in 625.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Arioald" succeeded after Adaloald was deposed[437].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Aroal" ruled for twelve years after "Acquo", a later manuscript of the same source naming him "Ariovald ex genere Caupus"[438].  The royal capital was moved to Pavia in the 620s[439].  Fredegar records that "Taso unus ex ducebus Langobardorum cum agerit Tuscana provincial" rebelled against King Ariowalt after his accession[440].  The Historia Langobardorum states that "Arioldo" ruled for ten years[441].  Paulus Diaconus records that "Arioald" ruled for 12 years[442]m [as her first husband,] GUNDBERGA of the Lombards, daughter of AGILOLF King of the Lombards & his wife Theodelindis of Bavaria.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Gunperga" as the daughter of "Acquo de Theodelenda"[443].  Her first marriage is mentioned by Fredegar, who says she was "in all things good-natured and full of Christian piety", but also describes her implication in a plot to kill her husband.  She was imprisoned in the fortress of Lomello, but re-established as queen three years later after the matter was judged by combat[444].  Gundberga married secondly (636) Rothari, who succeeded as King of the Lombards because of this marriage.  Fredegar is the only authority which refers to this second marriage.  He says that, after she induced Rothari to marry her, he "confined her in a single room in the palace at Pavia and … kept her in seclusion for five years"[445].  Paulus Deaconus reports that Gundperga married [thirdly] (652) Rodoald King of the Lombards, naming "Gundipergam, Agilulfi et Theudelindæ filiam" when recording that "Rodoald" married her after the death of his father King Rothari, specifying that she was accused of adultery with her own servant Carellus but declared innocent of the charge[446].  No single source mentions both of these alleged second and third marriages of Gundberga.  It is unlikely that both are correct.  The marriage to Rothari is more plausible, to explain his accession to the throne.  If this is right, the marriage to Rodoald is even less likely as he would have been Gundeberga's stepson, a fact which if true would likely have been the subject of comment in contemporary records. 

 

 

1.         NANDIUSm ---.  The name of Nandius´s wife is not known.  Nandius & his wife had one child: 

a)         ROTHARI, son of --- (-652, bur Basilica of St John the Baptist, Modicia).  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Rothari ex genere Arodus" succeeded "Aroal", a later manuscript of the same source naming him "Rothari rex filius Nandius ex genere Arodus"[447].  Paulus Diaconus names "Rothari genere Arodus" when recording his accession and his promulgation of laws[448].  Duke of Brescia.  He succeeded in 636 as ROTHARI I King of the Lombards.  According to Fredegar, Rothari succeeded because he married Gundberga, widow of his predecessor, who "sent for [him] … and compelled him to abandon his wife in order to marry her"[449].  He captured Genoa, Albenga, Varigotti, Savona, Oderzo and Luni from the Byzantines, razing their walls to the ground[450].  He promulgated a total of 388 laws, forming the basis of the Lombard legal code[451].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Rothari" ruled for 17 years[452].  The Historia Langobardorum states that "Rothari" ruled for 16 years[453].  Paulus Diaconus records that "rex Rothari" died after reigning for 16 years and four months and was buried "iuxta basilicam beati Iohannes baptistæ"[454]m [firstly] ---.  Nothing is known of Rothari's first wife.  However, Fredegar records that Rothari "…abandon[ed] his wife in order to marry" Gundberga[455]m [secondly] (636) as her [second] husband, GUNDBERGA of the Lombards, widow of ARIOWALT King of the Lombards, daughter of AGILOLF King of the Lombards & his wife Theodelindis of Bavaria.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Gunperga" as the daughter of "Acquo de Theodelenda"[456].  Fredegar records the marriage of "germanam Adloaldo regi…Gundebergam" and "Charoaldum ducem Taurinensem"[457].  He describes her as "in all things good-natured and full of Christian piety", but also records her implication in a plot to kill her husband.  She was imprisoned in the fortress of Lomello, but re-established as queen three years later after the matter was judged by combat[458].  Fredegar is the only authority which refers to this marriage.  He says that after she induced "Chothacharius quidam unum ex ducibus de terretorio Brissia" to marry her, he "confined her in a single room in the palace at Pavia and … kept her in seclusion for five years"[459].  [Gundperga married [thirdly] (652) Rodoald King of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus names "Gundipergam, Agilulfi et Theudelindæ filiam" when recording that "Rodoald" married her after the death of his father King Rothari[460].]  No single source mentions both the alleged second and third marriages of Gundberga, which appear to be mutually exclusive.  The marriage to Rothari is more plausible, to explain his accession to the throne.  If this is correct, the marriage to Rodoald is even less likely as he would have been Gundberga's stepson, a fact which if true would have been the subject of comment in contemporary records.  King Rothari & [his first wife] had one child: 

i)          RODOALD (-653).  Paulus Diaconus names "rex Rothari…Rodoald suo filio" when recording that he succeeded his father[461].  He succeeded his father as RODOALD King of the Lombards.  Paulus Diaconus records that Rodoald was killed after reigning "septem diebus et quinque…annis"[462].  [m (652) as her [third] marriage, GUNDBERGA of the Lombards, widow [firstly] of ARIOWALT King of the Lombards and widow secondly of ROTHARI King of the Lombards, daughter of AGILOLF King of the Lombards & his wife Theodelindis of Bavaria.  Paulus Diaconus names "Gundipergam, Agilulfi et Theudelindæ filiam" when recording that "Rodoald" married her after the death of his father King Rothari, specifying that she was accused of adultery with her own servant Carellus but declared innocent of the charge[463].  This marriage is unlikely to be correct as Gundberga would have been Rodoald's stepmother, assuming that her second marriage is correct as reported by Fredegar (see above).] 

 

 

CHARIBERT, son of GUNDOALD Duke in Bavaria & his wife --- (-after [628]).  Fredegar names "Gundeberto et Chairiberto" as the two sons of Gundoald & his wife[464].  He supported his cousin Gundberga Queen of the Lombards in her dispute with her husband[465].  This dispute must have taken place in 628 at the earliest, assuming that the queen remained in exile for three years and her husband's accession took place in 625. 

same person as…?  ARIPERT (-Ticino 661, bur Basilica of the Saviour, Ticinum).  Paulus Diaconus records that Rodoald was succeeded by "Aripert, filius Gundoaldi, qui fuerat germanus Theudelindæ reginæ"[466].  If this is correct, King Aribert was the first cousin, on her mother's side, of Queen Gundberga, the wife of at least two of King Aribert's predecessors.  Primary sources report the activities of Queen Gundberga in detail, suggesting that she may have been a person of sufficient influence at the Lombard court to have engineered the succession of her relative.  However, the relationship is not corroborated in other identified sources, all of which are silent on the origin of King Aripert.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Aripert" succeeded "Rothari" and ruled for nine years[467].  He succeeded in 652 as ARIPERT I King of the Lombards.  He reigned at Ticino until 661.  He built the basilica of the Saviour at Ticino in which he and his descendants were buried[468].  Paulus Diaconus records the death of King Aribert "aput Ticinum" after a reign of nine years[469]

m ---.  The name of King Aripert's wife is not known. 

King Aripert I & [his wife] had three children:

1.         PERCTARIT [Pertharit/Berthari] ([638/42]-686, bur Basilica of the Saviour, Ticinum).  "Pertarit et Gudiperti" are named (in order) as sons of Aripert[470].  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "adulescentibus Perctarit et Godeperto" as sons of Aripert, specifying that Godepert ruled at Ticino while Perctarit ruled in Milan, commenting that there was discord and hatred between the two brothers[471].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his son's birth in [660].  He succeeded his father in 661 as PERCTARIT King of the Lombards, jointly with his brother Godepert, at Milan.  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Berthari" succeeded "Grimoald"[472].  When his brother was overthrown by Grimoald Duke of Benevento, Perctarit fled to the khagan of the Avars in Scythia without his wife and son[473].  He returned to Lodi and was temporarily reconciled with Grimoald, but was forced to flee again to the kingdom of the Franks[474].  He was preparing to move to Kent when he learned that Grimoald had died[475].  He returned in 671 and was restored as king at Ticino.  He signed a peace treaty with the Byzantines in 680, Christie commenting that the event "is only cursorily signalled by the sources" without specifying which the sources in question[476].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Pertari" ruled for 18 years[477]m RODELINDA, daughter of --- (-after 672).  Paulus Diaconus names "Rodelindam" as wife of King Perctarit, when recording that she and her son were exiled to Benevento by Duke Grimoald after he deposed her husband[478].  They were recalled to Ticino on her husband's restoration[479].  Styled "regina", she built a basilica to the mother of God at Ad Perticas outside the walls of Ticino after her return[480].  King Perctarit & his wife had two children: 

a)         CUNINCPERT [Kunbert] ([660]-700, bur Basilica of the Saviour, Ticinum).  Paulus Diaconus names "parvulum filium Cunincpertum" as the son of King Perctarit when recording that he was exiled to Benevento with his mother after his father fled in 662[481].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Cunipert filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father "Pertari" and ruled for 13 years[482].  He and his mother were recalled to Ticino on his father's restoration as king[483].  His father associated him as king from [678/79][484], and he succeeded as sole ruler in 688 as CUNINCPERT King of the Lombards.  He was expelled temporarily by Alahis Duke of Brescia, but was restored in 690 after the latter lost his support[485].  Paulus Diaconus records that King Cunincpert died after reigning 12 years and was buried "iuxta basilicam domini Salvatoris"[486]m HERMELINDA, daughter of ---.  Paulus Diaconus names "Hermelindam ex Saxonum Anglorum genere" as wife of King Cunincpert[487].  She was may have been [EORMENHILD] of Kent, daughter of ECGBERHT King of Kent.  Kirby suggests that Hermelinda is a "Kentish-type name (Eormenhild?)"[488].  If she belonged to the royal house of Kent, it is likely from a chronological point of view that she was the daughter of King Ecgberht, given her husband's birth estimated in [660].  Paulus Diaconus recounts how Hermelinda inadvertently aroused her husband's passion for Theodote after seeing her at the baths, presumably at Ticino[489].  King Cunincpert & his wife had one child: 

i)          LIUTPERT (-702).  Paulus Diaconus names "Liutperto filio adhuc puerilis ætatis" succeeded his father King Cunincpert with "Ansprandum" as his tutor[490].  The Chronicle of Andreas of Bergamo also records that "Liutperti filio suo [=Cuniperti]" was a child when his father died[491].  He succeeded in 700 as LIUTPERT King of the Lombards.  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Liutpert filius Cunipert" when recording that he succeeded his father and ruled for five years[492].  His father's first cousin, Raginpert, rebelled against Liutpert.  Raginpert's son and successor, Aripert, defeated Liutpert's supporters, captured King Liutpert "infantulum" and killed him in the bath[493]

b)         WIGLINDA ([Benevento 662 or Ticino after 672]-).  Paulus Diaconus names "Wigilinda, soror Cunincperti, filia Perctarit regis" as wife of "Romuald…eius filius Grimualdus"[494].  She is not referred to by Paulus Diaconus when he records her mother's exile[495], which suggests that she was born either in Benevento later in 662 or in Ticino after 672.  m GRIMOALD II Duke of Benevento, son of ROMUALD I Duke of Benevento & his wife Theuderada (-690). 

2.         GODEPERT [Gundebert] ([638/42]-murdered [662]).  "Pertarit et Gudiperti" are named (in order) as sons of Aripert[496].  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "adulescentibus Perctarit et Godeperto" as sons of Aripert, specifying that Godepert ruled at Ticino while Perctarit ruled in Milan, commenting that there was discord and hatred between the two brothers[497].  His birth date range is estimated on the basis of his son's birth in [660].  He succeeded his father in 661 as GODEPERT King of the Lombards, jointly with his brother Perctarit, at Ticino.  He quarrelled with his brother and sent "Garipald Taurinatium ducem" to Grimoald Duke of Benevento for assistance, promising him his sister's hand in marriage[498].  He was defeated by Grimoald who installed himself as King of the Lombards and murdered Godepert[499]m ---.  The name of King Godepert's wife is not known.  King Godepert & [his wife] had one child:

a)         RAGINPERT ([660]-late 701).  Paulus Diaconus names "Godepert filium parvulum…Raginpertum" when recording that he was rescued by servants loyal to his father and brought up in secret after his father's murder[500].  Duke of Turin.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Raginpertus dux Taurinensium quem quondam rex Godipertus" defeated the regent Ansprand and "Rotharit Bergamensium ducem" at Novaria[501].  He installed himself as RAGINPERT King of the Lombards at Milan 701, reigning jointly with his son, but died in the same year[502]m ---.  The name of King Raginpert's wife is not known.  King Raginpert & [his wife] had two children:

i)          ARIPERT (-Ticinum 712, bur Ticinum, Church of Holy Saviour).  Paulus Diaconus names "[Raginpertus] filius eius Aripert" when recording that, after his father died, he fought King Liutpert "cumque Ansprando et Atone et Tatzone necnon at Rotharit ac Faraone" at Ticino[503].  He succeeded in 701 as ARIPERT II King of the Lombards, ruling jointly with his father until the latter died later in the same year.  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Aripert filius Rachipert" when recording that he succeeded "Liutpert" and ruled for 12 years[504].  During the reign of Pope John VII (705-707), King Aripert restored to the papacy the former papal patrimony in the Cottian Alps by donation[505].  When Rotharit proclaimed himself king, Aripert marched against him, captured Laudis and Bergamo, and exiled Rotharit to Turin where he was murdered.  Aripert expelled Ansprand from Comacina, the latter fleeing to Bavaria.  The Bavarians invaded Italy in [710], but King Aripert defeated them near Ticino.  His army rebelled against him and Aripert sought refuge in the Frankish kingdom.  He was drowned in the river at Ticino while attempting to escape with a large quantity of gold, and buried in "basilicam domini Salvatoris" after reigning for 12 years[506]

ii)         GUMPERT (-after 712).  Paulus Diaconus names "germanus [Ariperto] Gumpertus", specifying that he fled with his family to the Frankish kingdom on his brother's death and remained there for the rest of his life[507]m ---.  The name of Gumpert's wife is not known.  Gumpert & his wife had three children: 

(a)       RAGINPERT [Ragimpertus] ([705/10-]).  He must have been an infant when his father fled with his family in 712.  Paulus Diaconus refers to the three sons of Gumpert naming "quorum qui maior natu…Ragimpertus", specifying that he ruled in Orléans[508]

(b)       son.  Paulus Diaconus refers to the three sons of Gumpert[509]

(c)       son.  Paulus Diaconus refers to the three sons of Gumpert[510]

3.         daughter .  Paulus Diaconus records that "Grimuald" married "Ariperti regis filiam" soon after starting to rule at Ticino[511]m ([663]) as his second wife, GRIMOALD I Duke of Benevento, son of GISULF II Duke of Friulia & his wife --- (-671, bur Ticinum, Basilica of St Ambrosius).  He overthrew Godepert and installed himself as GRIMOALD King of the Lombards in 662[512].  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum records that "Grimoald" succeeded "Aripert" and ruled for 9 years[513].  King Grimoald & his second wife had one child: 

a)         GARIPALD (-after 671).  Paulus Diaconus names "Garibald" as the sons of King Grimoald & his wife "Ariperti regis filia"[514].  Although still a child, he succeeded his father in 671 as GARIPALD King of the Lombards, but was deposed almost immediately by Perctarit[515]

 

 

1.         ANSPRAND, son of --- (-712, bur Basilica of Hadrian).  King Cunincpert appointed him guardian for his son when the latter succeeded in 700 as king of the Lombards[516].  Ansprand fled after the battle at which Liutprand's forces were finally defeated by King Aripert II, first to the island of Commacina, then to Clavenna and later to Bavaria where he took refuge with Theutpert dux of Bavaria, remaining there for nine years[517].  Paulus Diaconus records that Ansprand invaded Italy (after ten years exile in Bavaria) with Duke Theutpert, deposed King Aribert and succeeded as ANSPRAND King of the Lombards, although he died three months later[518].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Asprand" when recording that he succeeded "Aripert" and ruled for three years[519]m THEODORADA, daughter of --- (-after 702).  Paulus Diaconus records that Theodorada wife of King Ansprand had her nose and ears cut by King Aripert II after boasting that she would some day become queen of the Lombards[520].  King Ansprand & his wife had [four] children:

a)         SIGIPRAND (-[702/05]).  Paulus Diaconus names "Sigiprandum, Ansprandi filium" when recording that he was blinded with "omnesque qui ei consanguinitate" by King Aripert II while his father was in exile in Bavaria[521]

b)         LIUTPRAND (-[late 743/early 744], bur Basilica of Hadrian).  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Liudprand filius eius" when recording that he succeeded his father "Asprand" and ruled for 23 years[522].  Liutprand is named son of Ansprand in the Chronicle of Andreas Bergomatis[523].  He was not disfigured like his relations in 702 because he was "despicabilem personam et adhuc adulesentulum" and was later allowed to leave to join his father in Bavaria[524].  Paulus Diaconus records his accession in 712 as LIUTPRAND King of the Lombards after his father died[525].  He attacked Ravenna, destroyed Classe, and occupied the Byzantine forts of Bologna and Osimo in [727][526].  Paulus Diaconus records that King Liutprand died after reigning for 31 years and seven months, and was buried "in basilica beati Adriani martyris"[527]m GUNTRUT of Bavaria, daughter of THEODEBERT [Theutpert] Duke of Bavaria & his wife Elinhast ---.  Paulus Diaconus records the marriage of "Guntrut filiam Teutperti Baioariorum ducis" and "Liutprand rex"[528].  King Liutprand & his wife had one child: 

i)          daughter.  Paulus Diaconus records that "Liutprand rex" & his wife had a single daughter[529]

c)         [---.  m ---.]  Three nephews ["nepos"] of King Liutprand, maybe by different parents:

i)          HILDEPRAND (-744).  According to Paulus Diaconus, he was the nephew ["nepos"] of King Liutprand[530], although the source does not specify his parentage.  He captured Ravenna with Peredeo, but was taken prisoner by imperial troops from Venetia while Peredeo was killed[531].  He was proclaimed HILDEPRAND King of the Lombards in 744 as his [uncle] lay dying, but was quickly replaced by Ratchis[532].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Utprand" when recording that he succeeded "Liudprand" and ruled for eight months[533].  One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus records that King Hildebrand reigned for 7 months[534]

ii)         AGIPRAND (-744).  Paulus Diaconus records that Liutprand King of the Lombards installed "Agiprandum suum nepotem" as Duke of Spoleto[535], although the source does not specify his parentage.  Dux of Clusium in 742, he was sent by King Liutprand to escort Pope Zacharias on his return from Interamna and restore to him certain cities which the Lombards had seized[536]

iii)        GREGORIUS (-742).  Paulus Diaconus records that Liutprand King of the Lombards installed "suum nepotem Gregorium" as duke of Benevento after deposing Duke Gisulf[537].  "Gregorius" is named "nepos Lioprandi"[538], who installed him as GREGORIUS Duke of Benevento in [734/35] in place of Gisulf. 

d)         AURONA (-after 702).  Paulus Diaconus records that "germana Liuprandi…Aurona" was disfigured by King Aripert II like her mother in 702[539]m ---.  The name of Aurona's husband is not known.  Aurona & her husband had [two] children: 

i)          [AUFUSUS .  Paulus Diaconus names "regis [Liutprand] nepotem…sororis eius filium, Aufusum" recording that he was inadvertently shot with an arrow by one of his attendants during a hunting expedition with his uncle in the wood of Urbs near Ticinum[540].  It is not certain that Aurona was his mother.  However, no other sister of King Liutprand is referred to by name in the sources.] 

ii)         GUMPERGA .  Paulus Diaconus names "Gumpergam…filia Auronæ, Liutprandi regis sororis" as wife of "Romoald dux Beneventi"[541]m ([715]) as his first wife, ROMUALD II Duke of Benevento, son of GISULF Duke of Benevento & his wife ([690]-731). 

 

 

Other relations of King Liutprand, although the exact relationships are not known:

 

1.         PETROS .  Paulus Diaconus names "Ticinensis ecclesiæ episcopus Petrus, qui quia regis erat consanguineus"[542], without specifying his parents.  He was exiled to Spoleto by King Aripert II.  Bishop of Ticinum during the reign of King Liutprand, he built a basilica to Sabinus on his own property[543]

 

2.         ROTHARI (-killed after 744).  Paulus Diaconus names "Rothari eius [Liutprand rex] consanguineus", although the precise relationship is not known, recording that he attempted to assassinate King Liutprand at a banquet in his own house in Ticino but was caught and killed, together with his four sons[544]m ---.  The name of Rothari´s wife is not known.  Rothari & his wife had four children: 

a)         four sons (-killed after 744).  Paulus Diaconus records that Rothari had four sons, when reporting they were all killed with their father[545]

 

 

Brothers: 

1.         RATCHIS, son of PEMMO Duke of Friulia & his wife Ratperga --- (-after 757).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[546].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Achis filius Pimon" when recording that he succeeded "Utprand" and ruled for five years[547].  King Liutprand appointed him Duke of Friulia, after the dismissal of his father, although Ratchis persuaded the king to accept his father back into favour[548].  He attacked the Slavs living in Carniola and also accompanied the king on his expedition against Spoleto and Benevento[549].  He was chosen as RATCHIS King of the Lombards when King Hildeprand was deposed in 744.  He besieged Perugia where he was visited by Pope Zacharias, a few days later abdicating his throne and leaving with his wife and children for Rome where he was ordained as a priest[550].  He was sent to the monastery of Montecassino in 749[551].  One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus records that King Ratchis reigned for 4 years and 9 months[552].  After the death of King Aistulf in Dec 756, Ratchis unsuccessfully tried to seize the throne from Desiderius[553].  He succeeded his brother in 756 as RATCHIS Duke of Spoletom TASIA, daughter of ---.  One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus names "Tasia" as the wife of King Ratchis, recording that she founded the convent "in Plumbariola" with her daughter where they both died[554].  "Tasia" is named as wife of "Rachis rex Langobardorum"[555].  She came from Rome[556].  She accompanied her husband to Rome after he abdicated549.  King Ratchis & his wife had [several] children: 

a)         ROTRUDA .  One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus names "Rottruda" as the daughter of King Ratchis & his wife, recording that she founded the convent "in Plumbariola" with her mother where they both died[557].  "Rottruda" is named as daughter of "Rachis rex Langobardorum" & his wife Tasia[558]

b)         children.  He had an unnamed number of children who accompanied their parents to Rome after their father's abdication[559]

2.         RATCHAIT .  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[560].  He was present when his brother Aistulf was narrowly prevented from killing King Liutprand[561]

3.         AISTULF [Aistulfus] (-756).  Paulus Diaconus names (in order) "Ratchis et Ratchait et Ahistulfum" as the three sons of Pemmo & his wife[562].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Aistulfus frater eius" when recording that he succeeded his brother "Achis" and ruled for eight years[563].  "Astulphus" is named as the brother of Ratchis in the Benedicti Chronicon, although this incorrectly names their father as King Liutprand[564].  Aistulf tried to attack King Liutprand after the latter tried to arrest his supporters following the dismissal of his father[565].  He succeeded in 749 as AISTULF King of the Lombards.  He occupied Ravenna and made it the Lombard capital.  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Aistulfus summus Rex Langobardorum" confirmed the donation of property "in Beneventanæ provinciæ" to Volturno monastery by "Gisolfus Dux" by charter dated 750[566].  He succeeded in 751 as AISTULF Duke of Spoleto.  In 752, he captured a series of border fortresses near Rome, but agreed a peace treaty with Pope Stephen III (II), although he broke the peace after four months when he tried to impose tribute on the citizens of Rome[567].  A manuscript describing the foundation of Nonantula monastery records that "Flavius Aistulfus…rex…et…conjugem nostrum Gisaltrudam" donated property to Nonantula by charter dated 753[568].  King Aistulf occupied the exarchate of Ravenna and refused to withdraw despite pleas and bribes from the pope.  Eventually, the latter appealed to the Franks for help[569].  The Frankish army under Pippin besieged Ticino, the siege being lifted when King Aistulf promised to free Ravenna.  He failed to keep the promise and attacked Rome in early 756.  The Franks renewed the siege of Ticino, but King Aistulf died after falling from his horse while hunting[570].  One of the continuators of Paulus Diaconus records the death of King Aistulf in 754 after a reign of four years[571].  Another continuator of Paulus Diaconus records that King Aistulf reigned for 7 years and 5 months[572]m GISELTRUDA, sister of ANSELM, daughter of ---.  A manuscript describing the foundation of Nonantula monastery records that "Aistulfus rex" married "Giseltruda…Anselmi…abbatis olim ducis soror", her brother being the founder of the monastery[573]

 

 

DESIDERIUS, son of --- (-Corbie after 774).  A Lombard dux, King Aistulf sent him to command Lombard troops in Tuscia, where he learnt of the king's death in Dec 756 and assembled troops to seize the throne[574].  He succeeded in 758 as DESIDERIUS Duke of Spoleto, until 759.  With the support of Fulrad and Frankish troops, as well as the promise of Roman soldiers from Pope Stephen II (III), he prevailed over his rival Ratchis and installed himself as DESIDERIUS King of the Lombards[575].  A later manuscript of the Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Desiderius" when recording that he succeeded "Aistulfus" and ruled for 17 years and three months before being taken captive to France[576].  The Chronicon Vulturnense records that "Desiderius…Romanæ dignitatis Imperator Augustus et gentis Langobardorum Rex" donated property to Volturno monastery by undated charter[577].  His relations with Rome deteriorated under Pope Stephen III (IV) who refused to consecrate Desiderius's candidate as Bishop of Ravenna and to whom the king refused to cede territories which he had promised to return to the papacy.  Despite attempts by the new pope Hadrian I to negotiate, the king continued to seize papal cities and in 772 marched on Rome.  After unsuccessfully pressuring King Desiderius to return the captured cities, Charles I King of the Franks, allied with the papacy, besieged Pavia and then Verona in 773/74.  King Desiderius surrendered in Jun 774[578] and was sent into exile with his wife and daughter to the monastery of Corbie[579]

m ANSA, daughter of --- (-bur Brescia[580]).  "Anza" is named as wife of "Desiderius rex"[581].  She was captured with her husband at Pavia in 774 and lived in exile in the monastery of Corbie578.  Paulus Diaconus wrote a poem in memory of "Ausonii coniux…regis Ansa"[582]

King Desiderius & his wife had [five] children:

1.         ADELGIS [Adelchis] (-after 788).  "Adalgisus" is named as son of Desiderius by Einhard[583].  He accompanied his father when the latter advanced on Rome in 772[584].  When the Franks advanced on Pavia in 773, Adelgis fled to Verona[585].  The Annales Laurissenses record that "Adalghisus filius Desiderii regis" fled across the seas in 774 and arrived at Constantinople[586].  The Royal Frankish Annals and Theophanes both record that, after his father's overthrow he fled to Constantinople, where he was said to have been made patrikios[587], to seek support for his restoration[588].  He invaded Italy in [787/88] with a combined Lombard/Byzantine force[589].  He was repelled by the Franks who were also helped by his nephew Grimoald Duke of Benevento[590]m ---.  The name of Adelgis's wife is not known.  Adelgis & his wife had [one] child: 

a)         [GRIMOALD (-after [788/95]).  No proof has been found that Grimoald was the son of Adelgis but this seems a reasonable supposition.  He sent envoys and gifts to Emperor Konstantinos VI for the hand of Euanthia, sister of Empress Maria[591].  He is described as "King of the Lombards" but this does not seem to conform with the political reality of the time.  m firstly ([788/95][592]) EUANTHIA, daughter of PHILARETOS & his wife ---.  m secondly ---.  Grimoald abandoned his first wife and married his mistress[593].] 

2.         ADALPERGA (-after Feb 788).  The Chronicon Salernitanum names Adalperga, daughter of Desiderius, as wife of "Arichis Beneventanus dux"[594].  She is referred to as the wife of Duke Arichis in the Versus de Annis by Paulus Diaconus, the initial letters of each verse of the poem reading "Adelperga pia"[595].  Paul the Deacon dedicated his history of the Roman Empire to her[596].  Pope Hadrian I records "Adalberga relicta Arigihs…duas filias suas secum" in a letter to Charles I King of the Franks dated to [777/78][597]m ([758]) ARICHIS II Duke of Benevento, son of --- ([736]-Salerno 26 Aug 787, bur Salerno Cathedral). 

3.         LIUTBERGA [Liutpirc] (-after 788).  Einhard names "Liutberga…filia Desiderii regis Langobardorum" as the wife of "Tassilonem ducem"[598].  The wife of "Tassilonis ducis" is called "filia Desiderii regis" by Einhard[599].  Named as the wife of Duke Tassilo in the Royal Frankish Annals, which describe her as "his rancorous wife … a woman hateful to God".  She and her daughters became nuns when her husband was deprived of his dukedom in 788[600]m TASSILO Duke of Bavaria, son of ODILO King of Bavaria & his wife Chiltrudis [Carolingian] (-after 794). 

4.         daughter.  Einhard calls King Charles's first wife "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum"[601].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Berhta regina" brought "filiam Desiderii regis Langobardorum" back from Italy as the wife for "Karolo filio suo"[602].  Her husband sent her back to her father after repudiating her.  She may have been the unnamed daughter who was recorded as having accompanied her parents into exile at the monastery of Corbie (see above).  m (769, repudiated [770/early 771]) as his first wife, CHARLES I King of the Franks, son of PEPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrada [Berta] "au Grand Pied" (near Aix-la-Chapelle 2 Apr 748-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie).  He defended the Pope against the Lombards, conquering their kingdom in 773.  He adopted the title "rex Francorum et Langobardorum atque patricius Romanorum" 5 Jun 774.  He was crowned CHARLES I “Charlemagne” Emperor of the Romans in Rome 25 Dec 800. 

5.         [GERBERGA (-after Dec 771).  Her parentage is supposedly proved by the Annales Lobienses which record that "uxor eius [=Karlomannus] cum duobus filiis et Otgario marchione" took refuge with "Desiderium regem, patrem suum" after the death of her husband[603].  Settipani highlights that this may be incorrect, assuming that the text results from confusion with the first wife of Carloman's older brother Charles being the daughter of King Desiderius, and the fact that Gerberga sought refuge at the Lombard court[604].  Another factor is also significant in deciding the question:  numerous authorities, for example the Annales Fuldenses[605], record the visit to Italy of Queen Berta, mother of Charles and Carloman, to bring back the bride for her son Charles, but none mentions two sisters being brought back as brides for the two brothers.  On the other hand, the fact that King Desiderius supported the candidacy of Gerberga's son Pepin to succeed his father could have been motivated by a close family relationship (see CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY).  There is no direct proof of the date of Gerberga's marriage.  The Annales Laurissenses name "Girberga uxor [Carlomanni]"[606].  She is not mentioned in any of the surviving charters of her husband[607].  There is no direct proof of the date of her marriage.  If Gerberga was the daughter of King Desiderius, it is reasonable to suppose that the marriage would have taken place at the same time as the marriage of Carloman's brother, whose first wife was the daughter of King Desiderius, although this would leave little time for two children to have been born from the marriage before Carloman died.  m ([769]) CARLOMAN Joint King of the Franks, son of PIPPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrada [Berta] "au Grand Pied" de Laon (751-Samoussy, near Laon 4 Dec 771, bur Reims, église de l'abbaye de Saint-Rémi).] 

 

 

The following small family group may have been related to the previous Lombard kings in Italy, which would have provided the basis for Hrodgaud to have claimed the throne.  If this is correct, the precise relationship is not known. 

 

Three brothers, parents not known: 

1.         HRODGAUD [Rotgaud] (-killed in battle 776).  The Annales Laurissenses record that "Hrodgaudus Langobardus" rebelled in Italy in 775 and was killed in 776[608].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Hruodgaudus Langobardus" claimed the kingdom of Italy in 775 but was killed by "Karolus" in the following year[609].  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property confiscated from "Rotgaudus Langobardus et germanus illius Felix", specifying that "Rotgaudo infideli ducem" and that they were both killed, to the church of Aquileia by charter dated 21 Dec 811, which specifies that the third brother "Lodolfus" remained loyal and retained his property[610].  The charter recites who held the property after Rotgaud, which appears to indicate that he was the same person as the rebel in 776.  No trace has been found of another Lombard rebel named Rotgaud. 

2.         FELIX (-killed [776]).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property confiscated from "Rotgaudus Langobardus et germanus illius Felix", specifying that "Rotgaudo infideli ducem" and that they were both killed, to the church of Aquileia by charter dated 21 Dec 811, which specifies that the third brother "Lodolfus" remained loyal and retained his property[611]

3.         LODOLF (-after 776).  "Karolus…augustus…imperator Romanum…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" donated property confiscated from "Rotgaudus Langobardus et germanus illius Felix", specifying that "Rotgaudo infideli ducem" and that they were both killed, to the church of Aquileia by charter dated 21 Dec 811, which specifies that the third brother "Lodolfus" remained loyal and retained his property[612]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4.    KINGS of ITALY 774-887 (CAROLINGIANS)

 

 

Charles I King of the Franks (later Emperor Charlemagne) declared himself king of Italy in 774.  He installed his oldest surviving son Pepin as king of Italy in 781.  After the latter's death in 810, it is probable that his father resumed direct control over Italy but it has not been possible to verify this with certainty.  King Pepin's son Bernard was installed as king of Italy in 813.  After the death of Emperor Charlemagne in 814, his son Emperor Louis I ignored the rights of King Bernard who rebelled and was killed.  The emperor resumed direct control over Italy.  From then until 887 different members of the Carolingian family were installed successively as kings of Italy, in addition to ruling other parts of the Carolingian empire.  These kings are shown in outline form below (for full details, follow the hyperlinks), except for the families of King Pepin, King Bernard and King Louis which are shown in full as they did not rule elsewhere. 

 

 

CHARLES I King of the Franks, son of PEPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrada [Berta] "au Grand Pied" (near Aix-la-Chapelle 2 Apr 748-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie).  He defended the Pope against the Lombards, conquering their kingdom in 773.  He adopted the title "rex Francorum et Langobardorum atque patricius Romanorum" 5 Jun 774, in effect succeeding as CHARLES I King [of Italy] although no record has been found in the surviving charters that he used this title.  Crowned Emperor CHARLES I at Aachen 25 Dec 800. 

1.         other children: see CAROLINGIANS

2.         CARLOMAN [Pepin] (777-8 Jul 810, bur Milan).  "Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[613]He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[614] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified.  He was crowned PEPIN King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome, named King of the Lombards and installed at Pavia, ruling under the regency of Adalhard. 

-        see below

3.         HLUDOWIC [Louis] (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Vienne [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. 

-        see below, after King Bernard

 

 

CARLOMAN [Pepin], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (777-Milan 8 Jul 810, bur Verona, San Zeno Maggiore).  "Pippinus" is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' second son[615]He was baptised "PEPIN" in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian, Settipani commenting that his name was changed from Carloman[616] but the primary source which identifies him by this name has not so far been identified.  He was crowned PEPIN King of Italy 15 Apr 781 at Rome[617], named King of the Lombards and installed at Pavia, ruling under the regency of Adalhard.  He invaded the duchy of Benevento in early 793.  The 796 victory of "rex Pippinus" against the Avars led by "Cacanus rex" (which reflects the title "Khagan" not his name) is commemorated in a contemporary poem[618].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Ehericum ducem Foroiuliensem, deinde…Pippinum filium regis" captured  the camp of "Hunorum…Hringum" in 796, specifying that "Cagan et Iugurro principibus Hunorum" were killed by their own people[619].  At the partition of the empire agreed at Thionville in 806, Pepin was designated sovereign of Italy, Bavaria, Carinthia (except Nordgau) and Alemannia south of the River Danube.  He subjugated Istria, the towns of Dalmatia, and Venice in [810][620].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death "810 VIII Id Iul" of "Pippinum filius eius regem Italiæ"[621].  The Annales Sancti Emmerammi record the death "810 Id Iul" of "Pippinus"[622]

Mistress (1): (from [795]) --- .  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that Pepin's son Bernard was born "…ex concubina"[623].  However, other sources do not refer to the fact that he was illegitimate.  The question is not beyond doubt.  Assuming that he was illegitimate, the name of King Pepin's mistress is not known.  Settipani quotes a name list in the Liber confraternitatum augiensis which reads "Karolus maior domus, Pippin rex, Karlomannus maior domus, Karolus imperator, Karolus rex, Pippin rex, Bernardus rex, Ruadtrud, Ruadheid, Svanahild regina, Bertha regina, Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina, Ruadheid, Hirminkar regina"[624].  He makes the obvious links between "Karolus maior domus…Svanahild regina", "Pippin rex…Bertha regina" and "Karolus imperator…Hiltikart regina, Fastrat regina, Liutkart regina", deducing that the last named "Ruadheid" must be linked logically to "Pippin rex".  However, this link is not inevitable.  It is based on three assumptions: firstly that the second "Pippin rex" was Pepin King of Italy (he is the most likely candidate, but it could also be Pepin King of Aquitaine, son of Emperor Louis I); secondly that there are no female names linked either to "Karolus rex" or to "Bernardus rex", which cannot be proved; and thirdly, that all the females listed were partners of the males listed, which is certainly not the case in view of the absence of Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" who is assumed to be the husband of "Hirminkar regina".  Rösch suggests Bertha as the possible name of King Pepin's wife, citing Stromeyer[625].  Settipani suggests that she was a close relative of Adalhard Abbé de Corbie and his half-brother Wala to explain the appointment of the former as regent for her son Bernard King of Italy in 813. 

King Pepin had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

1.          BERNARD ([797]-Milan 17 Aug 818, bur Milan, San Ambrosio)Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina"[626].  He was confirmed 11 Sep 813 at Aix-la-Chapelle as BERNARD I King of Italy

-        see below

King Pepin had five [illegitimate] children by [Mistress (1)].  Einhard, who names these daughters, makes no mention of whether they were legitimate or not.  If they were illegitimate, it is not known whether they were full sisters of Bernard. 

2.          ADELAIS ([798]-after 810).  "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[627].  She was taken from Italy to the imperial court in 807[628]same person as…?  AEDA The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[629].  Her precise origin is mentioned in the charter dated 885 by which "Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, although the accuracy of this document is not known[630].  m BILLUNG, son of ---. 

3.          ADULA ([800/810]-after 810).  "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[631].  She arrived at the imperial court before 814. 

4.          GUNTRADA ([800/810]-after 810).  "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[632].  She arrived at the imperial court before 814. 

5.          BERTAIDE ([800/810]-after 810).  "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[633].  She arrived at the imperial court before 814. 

6.          THEODRADA ([800/810]-after 810).  "Adailhaidem, Atulam, Guntradam, Berthaidem ac Theoderadam" are named as daughters of Pippin by Einhard[634].  She arrived at the imperial court before 814.  [According to Winkhaus[635], one of the last four daughters married LAMBERT I Comte de Nantes, son of WIDO Comte et Marquis de Nantes & his wife --- (-Ticino 30 Dec 836), but the source on which this is based has not been identified.] 

 

 

BERNARD, illegitimate son of PEPIN I King of Italy & his mistress --- ([797]-Milan 17 Aug 818, bur Milan, San Ambrosio).  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina"[636].  Bernard is named only son of Pippin by Einhard[637].  Regino names "Bernhardus filius Pippin rex Italiæ" when recording his death in 818[638].  Settipani cites a litany of St Gallen which lists Bernard among Carolingians of illegitimate birth[639].  He was brought up at Kloster Fulda.  His paternal grandfather sent him back to Italy in autumn 812, granting him the title "rex Langobardorum" in Apr 813.  Einhard's Annales that "Walanem filium Bernhardi patruelis sui" was sent to Italy in 812 as guardian for "Bernhardum filium Pippin nepotem suum [Karoli imperatoris]"[640].  He was confirmed 11 Sep 813 at Aix-la-Chapelle as BERNARD I King of Italy, as vassal of the emperor, ruling under the regency of Adalhard abbé de Corbie[641].  Although he swore allegiance to his uncle Emperor Louis I "le Pieux" on the latter's accession in 814, the emperor passed the Ordinatio Imperii in Jul 817 which failed to mention Bernard's royal status, effectively depriving him of any role in government and of his royal title.  Bernard rebelled unsuccessfully in Dec 817.  He was tricked into returning to France to ask for the emperor's forgiveness at Chalon-sur-Saône, but was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle where he was sentenced to death.  The Annales Xantenses record that "Bernhardus rex Langobardorum" was blinded in 818[642].  Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "Bernhardus filius Pippini ex concubina" was blinded and died on the third day which followed this[643].  After his death, Italy was once more placed under the direct rule of the emperor[644]

m ([813]) CUNIGUNDIS, daughter of --- (-after 15 Jun 835).  Settipani refers to an act of the monastery of San Alessandro, Parma dated 15 Jun 835 which names her[645].  The origin of Cunigundis is not known.  Settipani suggests[646] that she was Cunigundis, daughter of Héribert, relative of St Guillaume Comte de Toulouse in order to explain the transmission of the name Héribert into the family of Bernard King of Italy.  This is highly speculative.  It would also mean that Héribert was older than suggested in the document CAROLINGIAN NOBILITY, as it is unlikely that Cunigundis was born later than 800 assuming that the birth date of her son is correctly estimated at [815]. 

King Bernard & his wife had one son:

1.         PEPIN ([815]-after 850)Regino names "Pippinum" son of "Bernhardus filius Pippin rex Italiæ"[647].  Seigneur de Péronne et de Saint Quentin[648].  Comte near Paris after 834. 

-        COMTES de VERMANDOIS

 

 

HLUDOWIC [Louis], son of CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Vienne [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul).  He succeeded his father in 814 as Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux”.  He did not use the titles King of the Franks or King of Italy in order to emphasise the unity of the empire.  He promulgated the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms 817, which established his eldest son as heir, his younger sons having a subordinate status, a decision which was to lead eventually to the civil war between his sons.  His nephew Bernard King of Italy was ignored in the Ordinatio Imperii.  He rebelled against his uncle, but was defeated and killed after which Italy was once more placed under the direct rule of the emperor.   

1.         LOTHAIRE [Lothar] (795-Kloster Prüm 29 Sep 855, bur Kloster Prüm).  He succeeded his father in 840 as Emperor LOTHAR I.     

a)         LOUIS "le Jeune" ([825]-near Brescia 12 Aug 875, bur Milan, San Ambrosio)Regino names "Hludowicum, Hlotharium et Carolum" as the three sons of Emperor Lothar & his wife[649].  He was sent to Italy as king in 844, crowned in Rome in 844 as LOUIS King of Italy by Pope Sergius II.  After the Arab sack of Rome in 846, he led troops south to arrange better protection for the city.  They started by unsuccessfully attempting to recapture Bari, but more importantly Louis was able to achieve a settlement to the civil war between Benevento and Salerno by arranging a division of territories between the two sides under the Radelgisi et Siginulfi Divisio Ducatus Beneventani signed in early 849[650].  He was crowned joint Emperor LOUIS II in Rome in Apr 850 by Pope Leo IV, ruling jointly with his father.  He was sole emperor after the death of his father in 855.  He claimed part of the territory inherited by his brother Lothaire, a final settlement being achieved between the three brothers at Orbe, Jura in Oct 856.  He acquired Geneva, Lausanne and Sitten from his brother Lothaire in 859.  After the death of his brother Charles in 863, Louis and his surviving brother Lothaire agreed a division of Charles's territories, Louis taking half of Provence and part of Transjuranian Burgundy.  On the death of his brother Lothaire, their uncle Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks appropriated his territories ignoring Emperor Louis's protests[651].  From his base at Benevento King Louis began preparations to recapture Bari from the Arabs in 865.  He negotiated Byzantine naval help for the project in 868/69, the agreement being confirmed by his daughter's betrothal.  However, the Byzantine fleet which arrived in summer 869 departed abruptly, although the reasons for this are unclear, and the betrothal was terminated.  Bari eventually fell in Feb 871 to a combined Frankish/Lombard army[652].  [Betrothed ([842/43], contract broken) to [--- of Byzantium], daughter of Emperor THEOPHILOS & his wife Theodora ---.  This betrothal is referred to by Settipani[653].  According to the Continuata Constantinopolitana, the negotiations did not get as far as a formal betrothal[654].]  m (betrothed 851 before 5 Oct, [852]) ENGELBERGA, daughter of --- (-[896/901]).  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" names "sponsam nostram Angilbergam" in a charter dated 5 Oct [860] by which he granted Campo Miliacio in the county of Modena to her[655].  Her origins are unknown.  According to some secondary sources[656], she was Engelberga, daughter of Adalgis [I] Count of Parma, Duke of Spoleto [Supponidi].  Jean-Noël Mathieu highlghts that this is supported only by Count Suppo [III] being referred to in 870 as consobrinus of the emperor´s wife[657].  The origin of Empress Engelberga is discussed briefly by Odegaard, who dismisses the proposed Supponidi connection but proposes no alternative theory[658].  Some clue is also suggested by Emperor Karl III who confirmed grants to "Angilbergam…Hludouuici…imperatori consobrini nostri coniugem augustam, dilectam sororem nostram" by charter dated 23 Mar 880[659].  In addition, Emperor Karl refers to Engelberga's daughter as "neptam nostram Hermingardam…filioque suo Hludouuico nepoti nostro et sororibus eius"[660].  Jean-Noël Mathieu suggests that these references could mean that Engelberga was the uterine half-sister of the emperor, the daughter of his mother Emma by an otherwise unknown first marriage[661].  However, this assumes that "soror" and "neptis" should be interpreted in these documents in their strictest sense, although a wide variety of meaning is attributed to the terms in contemporary sources.  Another possibility is that Engelberta was related to Emperor Karl III through his wife Richardis who was the daughter of Graf Erchanger (see FRANCONIA).  The different possibilities are too numerous and uncertain for further speculation about Engelberga´s parentage to be worthwhile.  Engelberga´s over-bearing manner triggered her arrest and that of her husband at Benevento in Aug 871, although their release was negotiated within a month by the bishop of Benevento[662].  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[663].  Suspected of supporting the usurpation of her son-in-law King Boso, she was imprisoned in a convent in Alemannia by Charles III "le Gros" King of the East Franks, but returned to Italy with his permission in Oct 882[664].  Abbess of San Sisto at Piacenza in 896.  Emperor Louis II & his wife had two children:

i)          GISELA ([852/55]-before 28 Apr 868).  The necrology of Brixen records that "Domnus Hludowicus Imperator tradidit filiam suam Gisla"[665].  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" appointed "filia nostra Gisla" as abbess of San Salvatore by charter dated at Brescia 13 Jan 861, which also names "mater eius Engilburga"[666].    

ii)         ERMENGARDIS ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice).  "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[667]Regino records the marriage of "Hirmingardem filiam Hludowici imperatoris" and "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ"[668].  "Ludowicus…rex" granted "nepta nostra Hirmingarda" property at Morcula and Almenno in the county of Bergamo by a charter dated 26 Feb 875[669].  Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 878.  She married without her father's knowledge and against his wishes[670].  "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender by charter dated 25 Jul 879, subscribed by "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis"[671].  She was regent for her son King Louis from 890.  Betrothed (869, contract broken autumn 869) to co-Emperor KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor BASILEIOS I & his first wife Maria --- (-3 Sep 879).  This betrothal sealed the alliance between the fathers of the two parties, but was annulled after the alliance broke down in 871[672].  The primary source on which it is based has not so far been identified.  m ([Mar/Jun] 876) as his second wife, BOSO dux in Italy, Governor and Comte de Provence, son of comte BUVINUS & his wife --- of Arles (-Vienne, Isère 11 Jan 887, bur Vienne, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice).  Comte de Troyes 877.  He was crowned King [of Provence] in Oct 879. 

2.         LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch).  Under the division of imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks.    

a)         CARLOMAN ([830]-Altötting 29 Sep 880).  He succeeded as CARLOMAN King of Italy in 877, until 879 when he abdicated in favour of his brother Charles. 

b)         CHARLES (839-Neudingen an der Donau 13 Jan 888, bur Insel Reichenau).  He succeeded his brother in 879 as CHARLES III King of Italy in Nov 879.  Crowned Emperor KARL III "der Dicke" in 881.  He was deposed in 887. 

3.         CHARLES (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).  Under the division of imperial territories by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks.  He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II "le Chauve" at Rome 25 Dec 875 by Pope John VIII, elected CHARLES II King of Italy at Pavia 876. 

4.         other children: - see CAROLINGIANS.    

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5.    KINGS of ITALY 888-924 (MARCHESI of FRIULIA)

 

 

The Italian nobles did not hold their property from the king, which meant that the latter depended on his personal influence to retain power.  With numerous rival factions all vying for power, this resulted in many changes in ruler during the 9th and 10th centuries.  After Emperor Charles III was deposed in 887, the Italian crown passed in turn to the families of the dukes of Friulia, the dukes of Spoleto and the Burgundian dynasties, the central royal authority being further weakened by competition between rival candidates.  The families of these kings are shown in this and the succeeding chapters of this document, in outline form only (hyperlinked to other documents) except in the case of King Ugo. 

 

This period of political weakness and uncertainty culminated in the invasions of Italy by Otto I King of Germany in 951 and 961, the coronation of King Otto as emperor in 962, and his deposition of Berengar King of Italy in 963.  Thereafter the northern Italian kingdom (north of the Papal territories) was administered as part of the Holy Roman Empire. 

 

 

BERENGARIO di Friulia, son of EBERHARD Marchese of Friulia & his wife Gisela [Carolingian] ([840/45]-murdered Verona 7 Apr 924).  He succeeded his brother in 874 as BERENGARIO I Marchese di Friulia.  He was elected in 888 as BERENGARIO I King of Italy, supported principally by the German faction in Italy.  He was defeated by Guido of Spoleto in 889.  He re-emerged as sole king in Italy in 898 after the death of Lambert of Spoleto.  Louis King of Provence was elected as king of Italy in 900, with support particularly from Anscario Marchese of Ivrea.  Berengario defeated Louis twice, the second time conclusively in 905 when he had his rival blinded.  Berengario was crowned Emperor at Rome in 916.  He allied himself with the Hungarians to defeat Rudolf II King of Burgundy-Transjurania, who emerged as another rival candidate for the Italian throne.  Berengario was later forced back to Verona by Rudolf, who finally defeated at Firenzuola 29 Jul 923.  Berengario returned to Verona intending to call on the Hungarians for help, but was murdered there soon after.   

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6.    KINGS of ITALY 889-898 (DUKES of SPOLETO)

 

 

GUIDO di Spoleto, son of GUIDO II Duke and Count of Spoleto & his wife Ita of Benevento (855-River Taro 12 Dec 894, bur Parma Cathedral).  He became Duke of Camerino in 876, and succeeded his nephew in [882/83] as GUIDO III Duke of Spoleto[673].  He was called to France by nobles opposed to Emperor Charles III "le Gros", and consecrated King of France at Langres by Bishop Gilon in [Jan/Feb] 888.  He returned to Italy after the election of Eudes as King of France 29 Feb 888.  He was elected GUIDO I King of Italy at Pavia 12 Feb 889, in opposition to Berengario Marchese di Friulia.  During this time he transferred the duchy of Spoleto to his great nephew Duke Guido IV.  Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 Feb 891 by Pope Stephen V[674].  He died after a blood haemorrhage. 

1.         LAMBERT ([876]-near Marengo 15 Oct 898).  His father appointed him as LAMBERT associate King of Italy in May 891, and 30 Apr 892 he was crowned co-Emperor by Pope Formosius[675].  Supported by his mother, Lambert took advantage of the illness of Emperor Arnulf and was recognised as King of Italy by Pope Stephen VI in 896, confirmed at the Synod of Ravenna in May 898[676].  He died following a fall from his horse[677]

2.         other children: see SPOLETO

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7.    KING of ITALY 900-905 (COMTES de VIENNE)

 

 

LOUIS, son of BOSON Comte de Vienne, King of Lower Burgundy [Bourgogne transjurane] & his second wife Ermengard of Italy [Carolingian]  (880-Arles 5 Jun 928).  He was adopted by his maternal great uncle Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/le Gros" at Kirchen-am-Rhein end May 887, at the request of his mother, rendering him eligible to be elected king according to the rules of Carolingian succession[678].  He was elected LOUIS King [of Provence] at Valence in 890 by the Archbishops of Lyon, Arles, Vienne and Embrun, ruling over Provence and Viennois under the regency of his mother[679].  He was called to Italy in 896 by opponents of Berengario King of Italy, captured Pavia, expelled Berengario, and was elected LOUIS III King of Italy at Pavia 12 Oct 900, crowned the same day.  He claimed the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV, and was crowned Emperor LOUIS III in Rome 15 or 22 Feb 901, although this was only recognised in Lombardy and Tuscany.  He was expelled from Pavia by King Berengario in Jul 902, whereupon he returned to Vienne, although he continued to use the title emperor.  He was recalled to Italy in 905 by Adalbero II Marchese of Tuscany and reconquered the kingdom, but was captured by King Berengario at Verona and blinded 21 Jul 905.  He was freed and returned to Provence, where he continued to reign at Vienne but in name only as Hugues Comte d'Arles was appointed governor[680]

-        see PROVENCE

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8.    KING of ITALY 922-926 (KINGS of BURGUNDY)

 

 

RUDOLF son of RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy & his wife Willa [de Vienne] (-937)Herimannus names "Roudolfus filius eius [=Roudolfus rex Burgundiæ]" when recording his accession[681].  He succeeded his father in 912 as RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy.  He was invited to Italy by the magnates of north-west Italy who opposed King Berengario's use of Hungarian mercenaries, and in 922 was elected as RUDOLF I King of Italy.  He defeated King Berengario at Firenzuola in 923 and forced his retreat to Verona.  However, the Italians rebelled against Rudolf in 925 and offered the crown to Hugues Comte d'Arles[682]

-        KINGS of UPPER BURGUNDY

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9.    KING of ITALY 926-947 (MARCHESE of TUSCANY, COMTES d'ARLES)

 

 

HUGUES, son of THEOTBALD Comte d'Arles & his wife Berta of Lotharingia [Carolingian]  ([880]-10 Apr 947).  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[683].  "Hugo et Lotharius…reges" name "patris et matris nostræ Teubaldi…et Berte" in their donation to Cluny dated 8 Mar 934[684], although this incorrectly implies that Ugo and Lothar were brothers instead of father and son, which is proved by other sources.  Comte de Vienne.  He was elected as UGO King of Italy in 926.  In 931, he deposed his uterine half-brother Lambert Marchese of Tuscany, acquiring the march of Tuscany which he granted to his brother Boso, whom he replaced in 936 by his own illegitimate son[685].  King Ugo attempted to establish control over Rome by his third marriage, but was driven off by his stepson Alberico[686].  He expelled Berengario d´Ivrea from his territories in 941, and abolished the March of Ivrea, but was defeated by Berengario who returned to Italy from exile in Germany in 945.  Ugo was declared deposed by a diet at Milan, but Berengario allowed him to retain the title of king.  The primary source which records his date of death has not yet been identified. 

m firstly (912) as her second husband, WILLA [Guille], widow of RUDOLF I King of Upper Burgundy, daughter of --- (-before 924).   "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…et uxoris quondam meæ Willæ…et præsentis conjugis meæ Hildæ atque fratrum et sororum mearum" in a donation by charter dated 924[687], although the primary source which confirms that she was the widow of King Rudolf has not so far been identified.  The origin of Willa is not known.  Chaume[688] and Hlawitschka[689] suggest that she was Willa, daughter of Boson King [of Provence], the former considering that she was the daughter of King Boson's second marriage while the latter suggests that his first wife was her mother.  If Willa was the daughter of King Boson, it is more likely that she was the daughter of his first marriage as her first husband is recorded as already having children in 888, assuming that Willa was their mother.  However, this appears inconsistent with Willa's second marriage in 912, when her second husband would have been about 30 years old, while Willa herself would have been over 50 if her first children had been born in the early 880s.  The only indication of her date of death is the charter dated 924 under which her second husband "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…et uxoris quondam meæ Willæ…et præsentis conjugis meæ Hildæ"[690]

m secondly (924 or before) HILDA, daughter of ---.  "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…et uxoris quondam meæ Willæ…et præsentis conjugis meæ Hildæ" in a donation by charter dated 924[691].  "Aldam…ex Francorum genere Teutonicorum" is named as wife of King Ugo by Liutprand[692].  Apart from this indication of Germanic origin, nothing is known about Hilda's parents. 

m thirdly (Ticino, Castro Sancti Angeli 932[693]) as her third husband, MAROZIA, widow firstly of ALBERICO Marchese di Spoleto and secondly of GUIDO Marchese of Tuscany, daughter of TEOFILACTO Senator of Rome & his wife Theodora --- (-in prison 7 Jan [932/37]).  Liudprand names "Marotiam et Theodora" as the two daughters of Theodora[694].  The wife of "Albericus marchio" is referred to as "Theophilacti filia" in the Benedicti Chronicon, although not named[695].  Liudprand names "Maroziam scortum Romanam" as wife of Guido[696], and in a later passage names "Marozia, scortum impudens satis" when recording her marriage to King Ugo after the death of her second husband[697].  The Memorial of "Maroza" states that she died "Jan VII indic IX"[698]

m fourthly (12 Dec 937) as her second husband, BERTA of Swabia, widow of RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy, daughter of BURKHARD II Duke of Swabia & his wife Regelinda [Eberhardinger] (-after 2 Jan 966).  Liutprand names "Bertam Suevorum ducis Bruchardi filiam" as wife of "Rodulfus rex Burgundionibus"[699].  The Annales Sangallenses record the marriage in 922 of "filiam Purchardi ducis" and "Ruodolfus rex"[700].  "Berta matre nostra" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[701].  Luitprand records the marriage of "Burgundionum rex Rodulfus…viduam Bertam" to King Ugo[702]

Mistress (1): WANDELMODA, daughter of ---.  Liudprand names "Wandelmoda…muliere nobilissima" as mother of "Hubertum"[703]

Mistress (2): PEZOLA, daughter of ---.  926/30.  Liutprand names "Pezolam vilissimorum servorum sanguine cretam" as one of the concubines of King Ugo, specifying that she was given the nickname "Venerem" by the people[704]

Mistress (3): ROTRUD [Rosa], [wife/widow] of GISILBERTO Conte Palatino, daughter of WALPERTUS & his wife Cristina --- (-after 29 Mar 945).  Liutprand names "Rozam, Walperti…filiam" as one of the concubines of King Ugo, specifying that she was given the nickname "Iunonem" by the people[705].  In an earlier passage, he names "Walperti…Rosam…gnatam suam" as wife of "Gilleberto comiti palatio", specifying that Walpert was one of the leading judges in Pavia[706] and that he was husband of Cristina[707]

Mistress (4): STEPHANIA, daughter of ---.  Liutprand names "Stephaniam, genere Romanam" the third of King Ugo's concubines, specifying that she was given the nickname "Semelen" by the people [708]

Mistress (5): ---.  No information has been identified in primary sources about Godofredo abbot of Nonantula and his mother. 

King Ugo & his second wife had two children:

1.         ALDA [Hilda] ([925]-954).  Her parentage is confirmed by Liutprand who names Alda as daughter of King Ugo and "Lotharii regis nati sui germanam", when recording her marriage to Alberico[709]m (936) ALBERICO Patrician and Princeps of the Romans, son of ALBERICO Marchese di Spoleto & his wife Marozia (-954). 

2.         LOTHAR ([926/28]-Turin 22 Nov 950).  Lothar is named son of King Ugo and "Aldam…ex Francorum genere Teutonicorum" by Liutprand[710].  "Lautharius" is named as son of "Ugo rex"[711].  "Hugo et Lotharius…reges" name "patris et matris nostræ Teubaldi…et Berte" in their donation to Cluny dated 8 Mar 934[712], which incorrectly implies that Ugo and Lothar were brothers.  Joint King of Italy 931.  He succeeded his father in 947 as LOTHAR King of Italy.  He may have been poisoned by Berengario d´Ivrea, who proclaimed himself King of Italy after Lothar died.  m (947 before 27 Jun) as her first husband, ADELAIS of Burgundy, daughter of RUDOLF II King of Burgundy [Welf] & his wife Berta of Swabia (-Kloster Selz, Alsace 16 Dec 999, bur Kloster Selz).  Luitprand names "Adelegidam" daughter of Rudolf & Berta, when recording her marriage to "regi Lothario"[713].  She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century.  Willa, wife of Berengario d´Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec 950, ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr 951 and "afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger" according to Thietmar[714].  Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep 951, although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug 951 to Reggio[715].  She married secondly (Pavia [Oct/Nov] 951) as his second wife, Otto I King of Germany.  King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep 951, proclaimed himself King of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband.  The Annalista Saxo records "Adelheidam reginam" as "coniuge rege Lothario" when she married Otto[716].  Flodoard refers to "uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis" when recording her second marriage[717].  She was crowned Empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb 962[718].  "Aleidis sororis" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[719].  "Adelheidis imperatrix cum filia Athelheidhe abbatissa in Italiam profecta est propter quasdam discordias inter se et filium factas", although it is unclear to whom "filia Athelheidhe" refers unless this is an error for Mathilde[720].  She replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in 991[721].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "999 17 Kal Ian" of "Adalheid imperatrix"[722].  King Lothar & his wife had one child: 

a)         EMMA ([948/50]-2 Nov after 988).  Flodoard names "Emmam filiam…regis quondam Italici" when recording her marriage to "Lotharius rex"[723].  The Annalista Saxo specifies that the daughter of Empress Adelaida by her first marriage was the wife of King Lothaire, but does not give her name[724].  Her brother-in-law Charles accused Queen Emma of adultery with Adalbero Bishop of Laon[725].  She retired to Dijon after the death of her husband[726]m (early 966) LOTHAIRE King of the West Franks, son of LOUIS IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks [Carolingian] & his wife Gerberga of Germany (Laon end-941-Laon 2 Mar 986, bur Reims Saint-Rémi). 

King Ugo had one illegitimate son by Mistress (1): 

3.          UBERTO ([920/25]-[15 Sep 967/Mar 970]).  Liudprand names "Hubertum" as son of King Ugo by Wandelmoda[727].  He was installed by his father as Marchese of Tuscany in 937.   

-        MARCHESI of TUSCANY

King Ugo had two illegitimate children by Mistress (2): 

4.          BERTA ([927/30]-Autumn 949).  Liutprand specifies that the wife of Romanos was the illegitimate daughter of King Ugo, "the Greeks not enquiring about the nobility of her mother"[728], and in a later passage names her Berta "filiam suam quam ex meretrice Pezola ipse genuerat" specifying that she was called EVDOKIA in Byzantium[729]Theophanes Continuatus records the marriage in Sep of "Hugonem regem Franciæ…filiam" and "Romanus imperator…Romano Constantini generi sui filio", stating that she lived five years with her husband[730], which confuses the identity of Berta's father.  Cedrenus records that "filia Hugonis", married to "Romano", died a virgin[731]m (944) as his first wife, ROMANOS, son of Emperor KONSTANTINOS VII & his wife Helena Lekapene ([938/39]-15 Mar 963).  He was crowned co-Emperor 6 Apr 945.  He succeeded his father in 959 as Emperor ROMANOS II

5.          BOSO (-[May 949/51/25 Mar 951]).  Liutprand names Boso as son of King Ugo and "Pezolam vilissimorum servorum sanguine cretam", specifying that he was later installed as Bishop of Piacenza in succession to Wido[732].  Bishop of Piacenza.  Imperial Chancellor. 

King Ugo had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress (3):  

6.          ROTLIND ([930]-after 14 Oct 1001).  "Rolend cometissa filia bone memorie domni Ugoni regis diacconus sancta Ticinensis ecclesie filius bone memorie Bernardi comiti, mater et filii" are named in a 14 Oct 1001 document confirming their renunciation of a claim to the cloister of the Holy Saviour and St Felix of Pavia, which also names "Otto protosparius et comes palacii seu comes…Adelbertus et Mainfredus marchionibus, Wibertus comes filius bone memorie Dadoni itemque comes…Otbertus filius quondam Aponi…Umfredus vasalli Ferlende cometisse" and the unnamed children of "Rolend cometissa"[733]m firstly (before 29 Mar 945) Count ELISARDIUS (-before Sep 948).  m secondly ([950]) BERNARDO Conte di Pavia, son of --- (-[976/14 Oct 1001]).  He is referred to as deceased in the 14 Oct 1001 document which names his wife.   

King Ugo had one illegitimate son by Mistress (4): 

7.          TIBALDO .  Liutprand names "Tedbaldum" as son of King Ugo and "Stephaniam, genere Romanam", specifying that he was later archdeacon at Milan and acted as vicario after the death of the archbishop[734].  Archdeacon at Milan before 948/961. 

King Ugo had one illegitimate son by Mistress (5):   

8.          GODOFREDO .  Abbot of Nonantula.  No information has been yet been found in primary sources about Godofredo abbot of Nonantula and his mother. 

 

 

1.         TEOBALDO (-936).  "Tedbaldus…proxima Hugoni regi affinitate coniunctus" is named Marchese di Spoleto and Camerino by Liutprand[735].  His precise relationship to Ugo King of Italy is not known.  He succeeded in 928 as TEOBALDO Marchese of Spoleto

 

 

 

 

Chapter 10.  KINGS of ITALY 902-924, 950-962 (MARCHESI of IVREA)

 

 

ADALBERTO d´Ivrea, son of ANSCARIO I Marchese d´Ivrea & his wife [Volsia di Susa] (-[17 Jul 923/8 Oct 924]).  He succeeded his father [898/902] as ADALBERTO I Conte e Marchese d´Ivrea.  He rebelled against Berengario I King of Italy in 896, supporting the rival candidate Louis III King of Provence as King of Italy.  After the defeat of the latter in 905, Adalberto was exiled across the Alps back to Burgundy.  He rebelled a second time against Berengario in alliance with Lambert Archbishop of Milan, this time in support of Rudolf II King of Burgundy-Transjurania, another rival candidate for the Italian throne.  Initially defeated, he and Rudolf finally defeated Berengario at Firenzuola 29 Jul 923. 

1.         BERENGARIO ([900]-Bamberg 6 Jul 966).  Liutprand names Berengar as son of "Adelberto Eporegiæ civitatis marchione [et]…Gisla Berengarii regis filia"[736].  He took part in the battle of Firenzuola against his maternal grandfather.  He succeeded his father in [923/24] as BERENGARIO II Marchese d´Ivrea.  In [940], he was forced to flee Ivrea by Ugo King of Italy, who abolished the March of Ivrea.  He was invited to the court of King Ugo, who intended to blind him, but was warned by Ugo's son Lothar and made his escape.   He found refuge with Hermann Duke of Swabia, later settling at the court of OttoI King of Germanyt.  Returning to Italy in 945, he defeated King Ugo who was declared deposed by a diet at Milan, although Berengario allowed him to retain the title of king and himself assumed the title summus consiliarius[737].  He was proclaimed BERENGARIO II King of Italy by a general diet at Pavia 15 Dec 950, after the death of Lothar King of Italy.  However, Otto I King of Germany invaded Italy, on the pretext of King Berengario's mistreatment of Adelais, the wife of his predecessor King Lothar, and himself took the title king of Italy at Pavia 23 Sep 951.  Having submitted to Otto, Berengario proposed himself as viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the council of Augsburg Aug 952.  Berengario reasserted his independence.  Otto sent his son Liudolf to reimpose order, but the latter died there of fever in 957.  After several further years of tyrannical rule, Otto invaded Italy again in Aug 961 in response to requests for his intervention from Pope John XII and Hubert [de Provence] Duke of Spoleto, one of Berengario's main vassals.  Otto forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Leo near Montefeltro in 962, finally captured Berengario in 963, and took him as a prisoner to Bamberg, where he died soon after[738].  The necrology of Fulda records the death "966 2 Non Aug" of "Berenger rex"[739]m ([930/31]) WILLA d’Arles, daughter of BOSO Comte d’Avignon Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Willa --- ([910]-Bamberg after 966).  "Bertam, Willam, Richildam et Gislam" are named (in order) the four daughters of Boso & Willa by Liutprand[740].  Willa is named "rex Hugo neptim suam…ex Willa uxore sua Boso Tusciæ provinciæ marchio regis frater" by Liutprand when he also records her marriage to Berengar[741].  She ordered the imprisonment of Adelheid, widow of her husband's predecessor Lothar [de Provence] King of Italy.  She retreated with her husband to the fortress of San Leo in the face of Otto King of Germany's invasion, but was captured and taken to Bamberg with Berengario.  She died as a nun.  King Berengario & his wife had [seven] children: 

a)         ADALBERTO d´Ivrea ([932/936]-Autun 30 Apr 971[742])"Adalbertus" is named as son of "Berengarius"[743].  His father installed him in 951 as ADALBERTO joint King of Italy.  When Otto I King of Germany invaded Italy in 962, Adalberto retreated with his brother Guido to fortresses near Lakes Como and Garda.  Conspiring with Pope John XII, he entered Rome in Oct 963 but was put to flight by Emperor Otto I in the following month, along with Pope John whom Otto deposed for his betrayal. 

-        MARCHESI of IVREA

-        other children: MARCHESI of IVREA

 



[1] Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire 3 Vols. (Cambridge University Press, 1971, 1980 and 1992).

[2] Lindenbrog, F. (ed.) (1609) Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum (Hamburg), Liber XXX, pp. 457-8. 

[3] Zosso, F. and Zingg, C. (1995) Les Empereurs Romains (Editions Errance, Paris), p. 157. 

[4] Ammianus Marcellinus, Liber XXX, p. 458. 

[5] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1837) Zosimi comitis et ex advocate fisci historiæ interprete Leunclavio, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) ("Zosimus"), Liber III, 36, p. 173. 

[6] Dindorf, L. (ed.) (1832) Chronicon Paschale, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol. I, p. 555. 

[7] Classen, J. (ed.) (1839) Theophanes Chronographia, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), Vol. I, 5857/357, p. 85. 

[8] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 159. 

[9] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 560. 

[10] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[11] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[12] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 560. 

[13] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 586. 

[14] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[15] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[16] Zosimus, Liber IV, 19, p. 193, and 43, p. 226. 

[17] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[18] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5857/357, p. 85. 

[19] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 160 and 165. 

[20] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 557. 

[21] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 165. 

[22] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 166. 

[23] Ammianus Marcellinus, Liber XXI, p. 215, also mentioned Liber XXIX, p. 438. 

[24] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 562. 

[25] Zosimus, Liber V, 39, p. 303. 

[26] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[27] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 556. 

[28] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[29] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 166-7. 

[30] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 388, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[31] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 168. 

[32] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 349. 

[33] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[34] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[35] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[36] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[37] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[38] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[39] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 386, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[40] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 390, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[41] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5857/357, p. 85. 

[42] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 158. 

[43] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 556. 

[44] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 159 and 161. 

[45] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, pp. 88-9. 

[46] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5868/368, p. 100. 

[47] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88.  

[48] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[49] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 168. 

[50] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 189. 

[51] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 347. 

[52] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 169. 

[53] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 189. 

[54] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[55] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 561. 

[56] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 168-9. 

[57] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 388, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[58] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 170. 

[59] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 565 and 566. 

[60] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[61] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[62] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 192. 

[63] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[64] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[65] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 386, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[66] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 390, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[67] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[68] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41. 

[69] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 562. 

[70] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 348. 

[71] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[72] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 563. 

[73] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 348. 

[74] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41. 

[75] Zosimus, Liber V, 4, p. 250, and 12, p. 261. 

[76] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41. 

[77] Zosimus, Liber V, 28, p. 263. 

[78] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41. 

[79] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 408, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 69. 

[80] The two dates being that of her parents' marriage and that of her mother's death in childbirth. 

[81] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5860/360, p. 88. 

[82] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 40 and 41. 

[83] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 410, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 70. 

[84] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 353. 

[85] Wood, I. (1994) The Merovingian Kingdoms (Longman), p. 7. 

[86] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[87] Chronicon Albeldense 17, Patrologia Latina Vol. 129, col. 1133C. 

[88] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[89] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[90] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 367. 

[91] Claudianus Laus Serenæ, line 96, available at <http://www.divusangelus.it/claudianus/lausserenae.htm> (10 Jul 2008).  

[92] Claudianus Laus Serenæ, line 69, available at <http://www.divusangelus.it/claudianus/lausserenae.htm> (10 Jul 2008).  

[93] Claudianus Laus Serenæ, line 118, available at <http://www.divusangelus.it/claudianus/lausserenae.htm> (10 Jul 2008).  

[94] Zosimus, Liber IV, 57, p. 243. 

[95] Zosimus, Liber V, 34, p. 296. 

[96] Zosimus, Liber V, 34 and 35, pp. 295 and 297. 

[97] Zosimus, Liber V, 4, p. 250, and 12, p. 261. 

[98] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41. 

[99] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 408, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 69. 

[100] Zosimus, Liber V, 28, p. 263. 

[101] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 41. 

[102] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 408, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 69. 

[103] Iordanes Romanorum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[104] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 367. 

[105] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 192. 

[106] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 115. 

[107] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 410, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 70. 

[108] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XII, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 192. 

[109] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 40. 

[110] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[111] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 424, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 76. 

[112] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 425, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 76. 

[113] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 580. 

[114] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118. 

[115] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 592. 

[116] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 424, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 76. 

[117] Dindorf, L. (ed.) (1831) Ioannes Malalas, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) XIV, p. 355. 

[118] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5926/426, p. 142. 

[119] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 42. 

[120] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 582. 

[121] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[122] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43. 

[123] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 200. 

[124] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 582. 

[125] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369. 

[126] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[127] Procopius, History of the Wars, Book III, c. 7. 

[128] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187. 

[129] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 379. 

[130] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 582. 

[131] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 192 and 200. 

[132] Procopius, History of the Wars, Book III, c. 7. 

[133] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 379. 

[134] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 388, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[135] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 349. 

[136] Zosimus, Liber IV, 46, p. 230. 

[137] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 349. 

[138] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 388, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 62. 

[139] Theophanes Vol. II, 5945/445, p. 71. 

[140] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[141] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118. 

[142] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[143] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[144] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[145] Ioannes Malalas XIV, p. 365. 

[146] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369. 

[147] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[148] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369. 

[149] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192. 

[150] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187. 

[151] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 193. 

[152] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 455 and 456, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 157. 

[153] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 194. 

[154] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 194. 

[155] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 194. 

[156] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 197. 

[157] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 198. 

[158] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XV, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 208. 

[159] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 198. 

[160] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 198. 

[161] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 591. 

[162] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 198. 

[163] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XV, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 208. 

[164] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 199. 

[165] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 472, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 158. 

[166] Ioannes Malalas XIV, p. 368. 

[167] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5971/471, p. 196 (the Latin translation of this passage from the Greek is inaccurate). 

[168] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 598 and 599. 

[169] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5971/471, p. 196 (the Latin translation of this passage from the Greek is inaccurate). 

[170] Ioannes Malalas XIV, p. 368. 

[171] Procopius, History of the Wars, Book III, c. 7. 

[172] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43. 

[173] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 199. 

[174] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 200. 

[175] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 593. 

[176] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 200. 

[177] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 472, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 158. 

[178] Procopius, History of the Wars, Book III, c. 7. 

[179] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 379. 

[180] Zosso and Zingg (1995), pp. 192 and 200. 

[181] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. 1, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Persico I.8, p. 39. 

[182] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 594. 

[183] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1839) Georgius Syncellus et Nicephoros Cp., Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Sancti Nicephori Patriarchæ Constantinopolitani Chronographia Brevis ("Nicephori Chronographia Breve"), p. 755. 

[184] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5997/497, p. 224. 

[185] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 609. 

[186] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, p. 594. 

[187] Ioannes Malalas XVI, p. 392. 

[188] Nicephori Chronographia Brevis, p. 755. 

[189] Chronicon Paschale, Vol. I, pp. 606 and 526. 

[190] Nicephori Chronographia Breve, p. 755. 

[191] PLRE 2, 626 [MB]. 

[192] Montfaucon, B. de (1708) Palæographia Græca (Paris), p. 207. 

[193] PLRE 3, 1058 [MB]. 

[194] PLRE 3, 728 [MB]. 

[195] PLRE 3, 63 [MB]. 

[196] PLRE 3, 110 [MB]. 

[197] PLRE 3, 1042 [MB]. 

[198] PLRE 3, 1058 [MB]. 

[199] PLRE 3, 1058 [MB]. 

[200] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 201. 

[201] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XV, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 211. 

[202] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 475, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 91. 

[203] Karbić, D., Matijević Sokol, M. and Sweeney, J. R. (eds. trans.) (2006) Thomæ archidiaconi Spalatensis, Historia Salonitanorum atque Spalatinorum pontificum (CEP) ("Thomas Archdeacon of Split") 5, p. 23. 

[204] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 203. 

[205] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43. 

[206] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 203. 

[207] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 475, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 91. 

[208] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 475, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 158. 

[209] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 43. 

[210] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 205. 

[211] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 206. 

[212] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 475, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 91. 

[213] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 6. 

[214] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 476, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159. 

[215] Marcellini v. c. comitis Chronicon 475, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 91. 

[216] Theophanes, Vol. I, 5965/465, p. 184. 

[217] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 6. 

[218] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 206. 

[219] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 476, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159. 

[220] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 250. 

[221] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 7. 

[222] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1.  

[223] Wolfram (1998), p. 280. 

[224] Wolfram (1998), p. 266. 

[225] Wolfram (1998), p. 278. 

[226] Wolfram (1998), pp. 281-3. 

[227] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 493, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 233. 

[228] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 44. 

[229] Wolfram (1998), p. 283. 

[230] Wolfram (1998), p. 282. 

[231] Wolfram (1998), p. 283. 

[232] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[233] Wolfram (1998), pp. 267 and 269. 

[234] Wolfram (1998), p. 261. 

[235] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 128. 

[236] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[237] Wolfram (1998), p. 278. 

[238] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[239] Wolfram (1998), p. 308. 

[240] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.9, MGH SS III, p. 420. 

[241] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[242] Jordanes, LIX, p. 51. 

[243] Jordanes, LIX, p. 51, and Wolfram (1998), p. 333. 

[244] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.3, pp. 16-17. 

[245] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.4, p. 23. 

[246] Jordanes, LIX, p. 51, and Wolfram (1998), p. 338. 

[247] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 48.  

[248] Wolfram (1998), pp. 339-41. 

[249] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.11, p. 58. 

[250] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.8, p. 39. 

[251] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 48. 

[252] Wolfram (1998), p. 341. 

[253] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[254] RHGF IV, p. 8. 

[255] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65. 

[256] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.9, MGH SS III, p. 420. 

[257] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin) III.4, p. 164. 

[258] Wolfram (1998), p. 320. 

[259] Wolfram (1998), p. 262. 

[260] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 128. 

[261] Wolfram (1998), p. 274. 

[262] Wolfram (1998), p. 274. 

[263] Wolfram (1998), p. 262. 

[264] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 128. 

[265] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 482, MHG SS V, p. 84. 

[266] Wolfram (1998), p. 267.  According to Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 52, Theoderic returned in [475]. 

[267] Wolfram (1998), pp. 270-4. 

[268] Wolfram (1998), p. 277. 

[269] Wolfram (1998), pp. 277 and 286. 

[270] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.1, p. 7. 

[271] Wolfram (1998), p. 289. 

[272] Wolfram (1998), pp. 281-3. 

[273] His title was Flavius Theodericus rex, rather than rex Gothorum, see Wolfram (1998), p. 286. 

[274] Wolfram (1998), p. 284. 

[275] Wolfram (1998), p. 314. 

[276] Wolfram (1998), p. 309. 

[277] Wolfram (1998), p. 245. 

[278] Wolfram (1998), p. 309. 

[279] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 526, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235. 

[280] Wolfram (1998), p. 331. 

[281] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187. 

[282] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[283] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[284] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[285] Gregory of Tours III.31, p. 187. 

[286] Gregory of Tours III.31, pp. 187-8. 

[287] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.2, p. 12. 

[288] Wolfram (1998), p. 312. 

[289] Jordanes, LIX, p. 51. 

[290] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77 and 123. 

[291] Cassiodori Senatoris Chronica 515, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 159. 

[292] Wolfram (1998), p. 328. 

[293] Wolfram (1998), p. 521 footnote 490. 

[294] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 77. 

[295] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.2, p. 12. 

[296] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 526, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 235. 

[297] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 48. 

[298] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 123. 

[299] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.11, p. 61. 

[300] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.39, p. 447. 

[301] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[302] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65. 

[303] Date estimated on the basis of the marriage taking place soon after King Theoderic came to Italy, which is suggested by Iordanes

[304] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 131. 

[305] Settipani (1993), p. 61, footnote 97. 

[306] Wolfram (1998), p. 311. 

[307] Wolfram (1998), p. 344. 

[308] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.11, p. 58. 

[309] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 49, and Wolfram (1998), p. 343. 

[310] Jordanes, LX, p. 52, and Wolfram (1998), pp. 344-9. 

[311] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XVI, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 224. 

[312] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.1, p. 280. 

[313] Jordanes, LX, pp. 52-3. 

[314] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, pp. 77 and 123. 

[315] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico I.11, p. 61. 

[316] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.39, p. 447. 

[317] Wolfram (1998), p. 350. 

[318] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico II.12, p. 196. 

[319] Wolfram (1998), p. 350. 

[320] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico II.10, p. 184. 

[321] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico II.30, p. 274. 

[322] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XVI, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 224. 

[323] Wolfram (1998), pp. 351-2. 

[324] Wolfram (1998), p. 289. 

[325] Wolfram (1998), p. 352. 

[326] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico III.2, p. 289. 

[327] Wolfram (1998), p. 353. 

[328] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 50. 

[329] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XVI, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 224. 

[330] Wolfram (1998), pp. 354-5. 

[331] Wolfram (1998), pp. 357-60. 

[332] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 554, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 203. 

[333] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 553, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[334] Wolfram (1998), pp. 352-3. 

[335] Pauli Historiæ Romanæ Liber XVI, MGH SS Auct. ant. II, p. 224. 

[336] Iordanes Romanorum , MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 50. 

[337] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 553 and 554, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 236. 

[338] Wolfram (1998), p. 247. 

[339] Wolfram (1998), pp. 361-2. 

[340] Epitome ex Pauli Historia Factæ II, Istoria Lonogobardorum, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 196. 

[341] Christie, N. (1998) The Lombards (Blackwell, Oxford), p. 1. 

[342] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.13-14, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 56-7. 

[343] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.16-17, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 57-8. 

[344] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 74. 

[345] Christie (1998), p. 64. 

[346] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[347] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 3 and 4. 

[348] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9.  

[349] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 6 and 7. 

[350] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[351] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.20, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 123. 

[352] Fredegar, IV, 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 143. 

[353] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.32, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 90. 

[354] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[355] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.23, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 61. 

[356] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 69. 

[357] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[358] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[359] Gregory of Tours IV.41, pp. 235-6. 

[360] Christie (1998), p. 145. 

[361] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 5. 

[362] Iohannis Abbatis Biclarensis Chronica [573], MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 213. 

[363] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 573, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 238. 

[364] Gregory of Tours IV.3, pp. 197-8. 

[365] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[366] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[367] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68. 

[368] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[369] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1834) Theophylacti Simocattæ Historiarum, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) VI, 10, p. 261. 

[370] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68. 

[371] Gregory of Tours IV.41, p. 236. 

[372] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 88. 

[373] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 5. 

[374] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[375] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 68. 

[376] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 5, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 5. 

[377] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.31, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 90. 

[378] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[379] Marii Episcopi Aventicensis Chronica 574, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 238. 

[380] Fredegar, IV, 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 143. 

[381] Pauli Historia Langobardorum II.31, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 90. 

[382] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[383] Fredegar, IV, 45, and Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[384] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 113. 

[385] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[386] Gregory of Tours IX.20, p. 505, the complete text of the treaty being set out in MGH LL 1, p. 5. 

[387] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 108. 

[388] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[389] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 109. 

[390] Annales Sancti Rudberti Salisburgenses 600, MGH SS IX, p. 767. 

[391] Fredegar, IV, 34 and 51, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 133 and 145. 

[392] Excerpta Altahensia 590, MGH SS IV, p. 36. 

[393] Annales Ducum Bavariæ 590, MGH SS XVII, p. 365. 

[394] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 113. 

[395] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[396] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[397] Fredegar, IV, 34 and 45, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 134 and 143. 

[398] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 110. 

[399] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[400] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[401] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 113. 

[402] Fredegar, IV, 13, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 127. 

[403] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 117. 

[404] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[405] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.13, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 121. 

[406] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 125. 

[407] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.4, IV.24 and IV.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 117, 125 and 128. 

[408] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 10. 

[409] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.41, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[410] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[411] Pauli Historia Langobardorum III.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 113. 

[412] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[413] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[414] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 133. 

[415] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.21 and IV.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 123 and 124. 

[416] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.5-6 and 21-2, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 117-8 and 123-4. 

[417] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.20, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 123. 

[418] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 125-6. 

[419] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.25 and IV.27, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 125. 

[420] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 133. 

[421] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[422] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 127. 

[423] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[424] Christie (1998), p. 147. 

[425] Settipani (1993), p. 84. 

[426] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.41, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[427] Fredegar, IV, 49 and 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[428] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 10. 

[429] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.30, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 127. 

[430] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[431] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 133. 

[432] Fredegar, IV, 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[433] Fredegar, IV, 51, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[434] Fredegar, IV, 70, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 156. 

[435] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[436] Fredegar, IV, 49, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[437] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.41, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 133. 

[438] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 6 and 7. 

[439] Christie (1998), p. 147. 

[440] Fredegar, IV, 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[441] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 10. 

[442] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.42, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 134. 

[443] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[444] Fredegar, IV, 49 and 51, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[445] Fredegar, IV, 70, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 156. 

[446] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[447] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 6 and 7. 

[448] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.42, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 134. 

[449] Fredegar, IV, 70, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 156. 

[450] Fredegar, IV, 71, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 156. 

[451] Christie (1998), p. 113. 

[452] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 7. 

[453] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 10. 

[454] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[455] Fredegar, IV, 70, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 156. 

[456] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[457] Fredegar, IV, 50, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[458] Fredegar, IV, 51, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[459] Fredegar, IV, 70, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 156. 

[460] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[461] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[462] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[463] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.47, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[464] Fredegar, IV, 34, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 134. 

[465] Fredegar, IV, 51, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 145. 

[466] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.48, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 136. 

[467] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 7. 

[468] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, V.37, VI.17 and VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 138, 157. 

[469] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 138. 

[470] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[471] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 138. 

[472] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 7. 

[473] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 139. 

[474] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.2, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 142-3. 

[475] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232, and Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 155. 

[476] Christie (1998), p. 101. 

[477] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[478] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 139. 

[479] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 155. 

[480] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.34, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 156. 

[481] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 139. 

[482] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[483] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 155. 

[484] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 156. 

[485] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.38-41, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 157-9. 

[486] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 170. 

[487] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 157. 

[488] Kirby, D. P. (2000) The Earliest English Kings (Longman), p. 36. 

[489] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.37, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 157. 

[490] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[491] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 233. 

[492] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[493] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.20, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[494] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.2, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 164. 

[495] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 139. 

[496] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 232. 

[497] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 139. 

[498] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 138. 

[499] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.18, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[500] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 138. 

[501] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.18, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[502] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.18 and 35, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 171 and 176. 

[503] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.19, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 171. 

[504] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[505] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.28, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[506] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[507] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[508] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[509] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[510] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[511] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.1, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 142. 

[512] Pauli Historia Langobardorum IV.51 and V.1, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 138 and 142. 

[513] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 6, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 7. 

[514] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 155. 

[515] Pauli Historia Langobardorum V.33, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 155. 

[516] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.17, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 170. 

[517] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.19 and 21, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 171 and 172. 

[518] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 176. 

[519] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[520] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[521] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[522] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[523] Andreæ Bergomatis Chronicon 1, MGH SS III, p. 233. 

[524] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[525] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.35, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 177. 

[526] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.49, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 181. 

[527] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.58, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 186-7. 

[528] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.44, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 179-80. 

[529] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.43, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 180. 

[530] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.54 and 55, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 183-4. 

[531] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.54, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 184. 

[532] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.55, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 184. 

[533] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[534] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Casinensis 2, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 198. 

[535] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.57, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 185. 

[536] Liber Pontificalis 93.11. 

[537] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.55, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 184. 

[538] Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti, "Duces Beneventi", MHG SS III, p. 201.

[539] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.22, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 172. 

[540] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.58, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 186. 

[541] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.50, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 182. 

[542] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.58, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 186. 

[543] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.58, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 186. 

[544] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 178. 

[545] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.38, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 178. 

[546] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[547] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[548] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 182. 

[549] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.52 and 56, MGH SS rer Lang I, pp. 183 and 185. 

[550] Liber Pontificalis 93.23. 

[551] Christie (1998), p. 104. 

[552] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Casinensis 3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 198. 

[553] Liber Pontificalis 94.50. 

[554] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Casinensis 3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 199. 

[555] Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti, "Reges Langobardorum" 744, MHG SS III, p. 200.

[556] Benedicti Chronicon 16, MGH SS III, p. 702. 

[557] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Casinensis 3, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 199. 

[558] Cronica de Monasterio Sanctissimi Benedicti, "Reges Langobardorum" 744, MHG SS III, p. 200.

[559] Liber Pontificalis 93.23. 

[560] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[561] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 183. 

[562] Pauli Historia Langobar dorum VI.26, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 174. 

[563] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[564] Benedicti Chronicon 15 and 16, MGH SS III, p. 702. 

[565] Pauli Historia Langobardorum VI.51, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 183. 

[566] Chronicon Vulturnense, Liber I, RIS I.2, p. 351. 

[567] Liber Pontificalis 94.5. 

[568] Opusculum de fundatione monasterii Nonantulani, Cap. IV, RIS I.2, p. 191. 

[569] Liber Pontificalis 94.15-16, and Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 753, p. 40. 

[570] Liber Pontificalis 94.48, and RFA 756, p. 42. 

[571] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Lombarde, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 217. 

[572] Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Continuatio Casinensis, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 199. 

[573] Opusculum de fundatione monasterii Nonantulani, Cap. I, RIS I.2, p. 189. 

[574] Liber Pontificalis 94.48. 

[575] Liber Pontificalis 94.50. 

[576] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 7, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 6. 

[577] Chronicon Vulturnense, RIS I.2, p. 352. 

[578] Christie (1998), p. 106. 

[579] Annales Laurissenses Maiores, MGH SS VI, 774, and Annales Sangallenses Maiores, MGH, SS 1, pp. 73-85. 

[580] Settipani (1993), p. 199 footnote 45. 

[581] Chronicon Novaliciense III.1, MGH SS VII, p. 98. 

[582] Pauli Diaconi Carmina, VIII Super Sepulchrum Domnæ Ansæ Reginæ, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 45. 

[583] Einhard 6, p. 446. 

[584] Liber Pontificalis 97.23. 

[585] Liber Pontificalis 97.31. 

[586] Annales Laurissenses 774, MGH SS I, p. 152. 

[587] RFA 774, p. 50, and Theophanes AM 6267. 

[588] Kreutz, B. M. (1996) Before the Normans. Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries (Philadelphia), p. 6. 

[589] Theophanes AM 6281. 

[590] Hodgkin, Thomas (1880-99) Italy and her Invaders 8 vols. (Oxford), vol. 8, pp. 81-2, cited in Kretuz (1996), p. 162 footnote 24. 

[591] Nicetas of Amnia, Vita Sancti Philareti (BHG 1511z), ed. M.-H. Fourmy and M. Leroy, "La Vie de S. Philarete", Byzantion 9 (1934), pp. 113-167, 143, in which Grimoald is referred to as "Argouses".  [PBE I, CD-Rom]

[592] The period of the marriage of Empress Maria to Emperor Konstantinos VI. 

[593] Theodore the Studite, Ep 31. 

[594] Chronicon Salernitanum 9, MGH SS III, p. 476. 

[595] Paulus Diaconus, Versus de Annis, p. 3, lines 28-30. 

[596] Kretuz (1996), p. 6. 

[597] MGH Epistolarum Tomus III, Karolini Aevi I, Codex Carolinus, 80, p. 612. 

[598] Einhardi Annales 786, MGH SS I, p. 173. 

[599] Einhard 11, p. 448. 

[600] RFA 788, pp. 66-7. 

[601] Einhard 18, p. 453. 

[602] Annales Fuldenses 770, MGH SS I, p. 348. 

[603] Annales Lobienses 771, MGH SS XIII, p. 228.  

[604] Settipani (1993), p. 186. 

[605] Annales Fuldenses 770, MGH SS I, p. 348. 

[606] Annales Laurissensis 771, MGH SS I, p. 148 (only in one ms.). 

[607] MGH Diplomata II, pp. 61-76. 

[608] Annales Laurissenses 775 and 776, MGH SS I, p. 154. 

[609] Annales Fuldenses 775 and 776, MGH SS I, p. 349. 

[610] DD Kar. 1, 214, p. 285. 

[611] DD Kar. 1, 214, p. 285. 

[612] DD Kar. 1, 214, p. 285. 

[613] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[614] Settipani (1993), p. 211. 

[615] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265. 

[616] Settipani (1993), p. 211. 

[617] RFA 781, p. 59. 

[618] Tituli Sæculi VIII, XI De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 116. 

[619] Annales Fuldenses 796, MGH SS I, p. 351. 

[620] Settipani (1993), p. 211. 

[621] Annales Fuldenses 810, MGH SS I, p. 355. 

[622] Annales Sancti Emmerammi Ratisponensis maiores 810, MGH SS I, p. 93. 

[623] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 22, MGH SS II, p. 596. 

[624] Settipani (1993), pp. 167-8, quoting Liber confraternitatum augiensis, MGH Lib Confr II, 460, p. 292. 

[625] Rösch, S. (1977) Caroli Magni Progenies (Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch), p. 67, citing Stromeyer, M. (1963/67) Merian-Ahnen aus dreizehn Jahrhunderten (C.A. Starke). 

[626] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 22, MGH SS II, p. 596. 

[627] Einhard 19, p. 454. 

[628] Settipani (1993), p. 212. 

[629] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306. 

[630] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Raumer, G. W. von (1836) Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis, Tome I (Berlin), p. 24. 

[631] Einhard 19, p. 454. 

[632] Einhard 19, p. 454. 

[633] Einhard 19, p. 454. 

[634] Einhard 19, p. 454. 

[635] Winkhaus, E. 'Ahnen zu Karl dem Großen und Widukind' in 765 (773) Ahnenstämmen (1950-53), cited in Rösch (1977), p. 67.  This marriage is not in Settipani (1993), p. 212. 

[636] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 22, MGH SS II, p. 596. 

[637] Einhard 19, p. 454. 

[638] Reginonis Chronicon 818, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[639] Settipani, p. 211 footnote 142, which does not give the citation for the source. 

[640] Einhardi Annales 812, MGH SS, p. 199. 

[641] RFA 812 and 813, p. 95. 

[642] Annales Xantenses 817, MGH SS II, p. 224. 

[643] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 22 and 23, MGH SS II, p. 596. 

[644] Settipani (1993), pp. 212-3. 

[645] Settipani (1993), p. 213, citing Werner, K. F. 'Hludowicus Augustus: gouverner l'empire Chrétien - idées et réalités', Charlemagne's heir (1990), p. 32 footnote 103. 

[646] Settipani (1993), p. 213.  According to Rösch (1977), p. 74, the origin of Cunigundis is unknown. 

[647] Reginonis Chronicon 818, MGH SS I, p. 567. 

[648] Rösch (1977), p. 86. 

[649] Reginonis Chronicon 851, MGH SS I, p. 568. 

[650] Kretuz (1996), pp. 28 and 32. 

[651] Settipani (1993), pp. 268-9. 

[652] Kretuz (1996), pp. 40, 42, and 43-5. 

[653] Settipani (1993), p. 267. 

[654] Continuata Constantinopolitana, cited by Davids, A. Empress Theophano [MB]. 

[655] MGH Diplomata, IV, 30, p. 125. 

[656] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Band I, p. 634, and Ennen, Edith Frauen im Mittelalters, p. 59. 

[657] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 177, citing (footnote 54) Hlawitschka, E. (1960) Franken, Alemannen, Bayern und Burgunder in Oberitalien (774-962) (Freiburg), pp. 271-3. 

[658] Odegaard, Charles E. 'The Empress Engelberga', Speculum 26 (1951), 77-103. 

[659] DD Karl, 22, p. 36. 

[660] DD Karl, 165, p. 267. 

[661] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 178. 

[662] Kreutz (1996), pp. 46-7. 

[663] D Lu II 48, p. 159. 

[664] Settipani (1993), p. 269. 

[665] Muratori, L. A. (1778) Antiquitates Italicæ Medii ævi, Tome XIV, col. 106. 

[666] D Lu II 34, p. 135. 

[667] D Lu II 48, p. 159. 

[668] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589. 

[669] D Lu D 157, p. 220. 

[670] Settipani (1993), p. 270. 

[671] Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes des rois de Provence 855-928 (Paris) 16, p. 31. 

[672] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 264. 

[673] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Band IX, p. 69. 

[674] Settipani (1993), p. 274 footnote 571. 

[675] Settipani (1993), p. 274 footnote 571. 

[676] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Band V, p. 1623. 

[677] Thiele, Band II, Teilband 2, Tafel 389. 

[678] Settipani (1993), p. 377. 

[679] Settipani (1993), p. 377. 

[680] Settipani (1993), pp. 377-8. 

[681] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 912, MHG SS V, p. 111. 

[682] Wickham, C. (1981) Early Medieval Italy, Central Power and Local Society 400-1000 (Macmillan, London), p. 177. 

[683] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[684] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny ( Paris), Tome I, 417, p. 403. 

[685] Wickham (1981), p. 179. 

[686] Wickham (1981), p. 178.  

[687] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[688] Chaume, M. (1925) Les origines du duché de Bourgogne (Dijon), Vol 1, p. 382 note 3, cited in Settipani (1993), p. 374. 

[689] Hlawitschka, E. (1976) 'Die verwandschaftlichen Verbindungen zwischen dem hochburgundischen und dem niederburgundischen Köingshaus. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Geschichte Burgunds in der 1. Hälfte des 10. Jahrhunderts', Festschrift für Peter Acht (Munich), pp. 28-57. 

[690] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[691] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689. 

[692] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.20, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[693] Benedicti Chronicon 32, MGH SS III, p. 715. 

[694] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.48, MGH SS II, p. 297. 

[695] Benedicti Chronicon 29, MGH SS III, p. 714. 

[696] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.40, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[697] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.41, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[698] MGH Poetæ Latini medii ævi, V.1, Die Ottonenzeit, Grabschriften, p. 343. 

[699] Liudprandi Antapodosis II.60, p. 299. 

[700] Annales Sangallensis 922, MGH SS I, p. 78. 

[701] Cluny Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[702] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[703] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.20, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[704] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.13, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[705] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.13, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[706] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.39, MGH SS III, p. 311. 

[707] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.39, MGH SS III, p. 312. 

[708] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.13, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[709] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.3, MGH SS III, p. 316. 

[710] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.20, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[711] Regum Italiæ et Imperatorum Catalogi, ex codice Ambrosiano O. 53, MGH SS III, p. 216. 

[712] Cluny Tome I, 417, p. 403. 

[713] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[714] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 2.5, p. 93.   

[715] Thietmar 2.5, pp. 93-4. 

[716] Annalista Saxo 951. 

[717] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 401. 

[718] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101. 

[719] Cluny Tome II, 1127, p. 217. 

[720] Annalista Saxo 978. 

[721] Thietmar 4.15, p. 162. 

[722] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[723] Flodoard 966, MGH SS III, p. 407. 

[724] Annalista Saxo 999. 

[725] McKitterick, R. (1983) Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians 751-987 (Longman, London and New York), p. 325.   

[726] Settipani (1993), p. 333. 

[727] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.20, MGH SS III, p. 306. 

[728] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.20, MGH SS III, p. 332. 

[729] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.14, MGH SS III, p. 331. 

[730] Bekker, I. (ed.) (1838) Theophanes Continuatus, Ioannes Cameniata, Symeon Magister, Georgius Monachus Continuatus, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn) Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Romani imperium, 46, p. 431. 

[731] Migne, J. P. (1889) Cedreni Historiarum Continuatio, Patrologiæ cursus completus, Series Græca Tomus CXXII (Paris) ("Cedrenus II"), col. 62. 

[732] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.13, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[733] D O III 411, p. 843. 

[734] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.13, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[735] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.8, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[736] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.4, MGH SS III, p. 328. 

[737] Wickham (1981), p. 179. 

[738] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101. 

[739] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[740] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.10, MGH SS III, p. 318. 

[741] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.7, MGH SS III, p. 317. 

[742] This date is given by Szabolcs de Vajay, Annales de Bourgogne, tome 34, 1962 Jul-Sep no 135.  Other authors place Adalberto's death in [972/75], without more precision. 

[743] Regum Italiæ et Imperatorum Catalogi, ex codice Ambrosiano O. 53, MGH SS III, p. 216.