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Thuringia

  v4.0 Updated 16 November 2017

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 2

Chapter 1.                EARLY DUKES (KINGS) of THURINGIA. 3

Chapter 2.                LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA [1123]-1247. 10

A.         ORIGINS.. 10

B.         LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA.. 18

Chapter 3.                LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA 1247-1349. 32

Chapter 3.                DUKES of SAXONY (WETTIN) 33

A.         DUKES of SAXONY, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-ALTENBURG.. 33

B.         HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-WEIMAR.. 38

C.        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-EISENACH.. 45

D.        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-GOTHA.. 47

E.         HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-MEININGEN.. 54

F.         HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-HILDBURGHAUSEN, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-ALTENBURG.. 58

G.        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-SAALFELD-COBURG, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-COBURG und GOTHA.. 61

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Thuringia was the area which lay to the east of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia.  Kings of Thuringia in the 5th century are named by Gregory of Tours, who also records that the Merovingian kings Theoderic I and Clotaire I invaded and conquered the territory in 531.  The chronicle known as Fredegar records that King Dagobert I installed Radulf as duke to rule Thuringia and that by the mid-7th century he had rebelled and reasserted the territory's independence.  After King Sigebert defeated duke Radulf, Thuringia was governed by dukes from Würzburg[1]

 

There follows a gap in our knowledge of the history of Thuringia until the mid-8th century, although onomastics suggest a family connection between the dukes at that time and the earlier rulers.  In the late 9th century, Poppo from the family of the Franconian "alten" Babenberger was installed briefly as duke in Thuringia by Emperor Arnulf.  His successors were driven from Thuringia in 913, and another long gap in our detailed knowledge of the territory's history and rulers follows.  Presumably Thuringia was at the time under the influence of Bavaria to the south, but this is not certain.  In any case, the absence of information in contemporary chronicles suggests that little attention was paid to the area over the next couple of centuries. 

 

The recorded history of Thuringia resumes in the early 11th century.  Reconstruction of the family of the early counts and Landgrafen of Thuringia is heavily dependent on records written in the mid-13th century at the monastery of Reinhardsbrunn, which was founded by Graf Ludwig "der Springer" in the late 11th century.  The early parts of the Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis must be considered suspect as the chronicle includes the alleged confirmation by Emperor Konrad II of the privileges of Graf Ludwig "Cum-barba" as count in Thuringia, a document which is purportedly dated 1039 but which was a later 12th century forgery[2].   According to the shorter Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ, which is presumably based on the Cronica and may have been written by the same author, Ludwig "Cum-barba" was "de Karoli et Ludewici regum Francorum stirpe oriundus"[3].  The same source states that Gisela, wife of Emperor Konrad II was "consanguineam" of this first Ludwig.  This statement is repeated in more detail in the Cronica.  Empress Gisela was the daughter of Hermann II Duke of Swabia, from the Konradiner family of Franconia.  Her known descent from the Carolingian French kings was through her maternal grandmother, Mathilde daughter of Louis IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks, who was the second wife of Conrad I King of Burgundy.  The Cronica also records the origin of Graf Ludwig as "ex Francia oriundi Cis Renum", presumably indicating that he was from the left bank of the Rhine either in Lotharingia or further west in France itself.  It also states that he and his brother arrived in Thuringia in 1034.  The statements in these sources are unverifiable as no other source so far identified gives any further information about Ludwig's origin or the circumstances of his arrival in Thuringia.  A further line of enquiry is, however, suggested by Graf Ludwig naming one of his sons Berengar, a name occurring in northern Lotharingia in the 9th and 10th centuries, although any conclusions based solely on onomastics would be speculative. 

 

It is likely that Ludwig "Cum-barba" did have an aristocratic background.  His burial at Mainz St Alban, the burial place of numerous German nobles, suggests that his family was well connected.  In addition, the family quickly rose to prominence in Thuringia, his grandson being appointed Landgraf in 1131.  This rise to power is difficult to understand unless the family had influential relatives. 

 

It would be easy to dismiss the Cronica as a late invention by a monk who wished to glorify the ancestry of the founder of his monastery.  However, the author does not hold his punches elsewhere in the text.  He is hardly complementary about the family when he records that the son of Graf Ludwig "Cum-barba" murdered his wife's first husband so that he could marry her.  In addition, many of the more precise genealogical details in the Cronica and the Historia are corroborated by earlier sources, as will be seen in this document.  It is therefore not impossible that the Reinhardsbrunn monks had at their disposal earlier texts which have since disappeared. 

 

The last Landgraf of Thuringia died in 1247, after which a bitter dispute broke out over the inheritance between his niece Sophie, second wife of Henri II Duke of Brabant, and Heinrich "der Erlauchte" Markgraf von Meissen[4].  The former claimed the territories of Hessen in Franconia, which had been brought into the family by the marriage of Hedwig von Gudensberg and Ludwig I Landgraf of Thuringia.  However, Heinrich Markgraf von Meissen was enfeoffed by Willem II Count of Holland, anti-king of Germany, with the imperial territories previously held by the last Landgraf of Thuringia in return for recognising him as king[5].  The claim of Heinrich, son of Sophie of Brabant, to the Hessian lands was recognised in 1264 and he was confirmed as Landgrafen in Hessen by imperial order dated 1292.  Markgraf Heinrich's successor succeeded as Landgrafen of Thuringia, the territory eventually forming part of the reconstructed electorate of Saxony which was formed in the early 15th century. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EARLY DUKES (KINGS) of THURINGIA

 

 

 

1.         BASINUS, son of --- (-after 464).  King of Thuringia.  Gregory of Tours specifies that Childerich King of the Franks found refuge with Basinus King of Thuringia after being deposed[6], dated to [456/57].  m as her first husband, BASINA, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Basina as wife of Basinus King of Thuringia, specifying that she deserted her first husband to join Childerich after he was restored as king in Gaul[7].  Assuming that Basina existed, it is unlikely that her first name is correct considering that it is the feminine form of her first husband's name.  She married secondly ([464]) Childerich I King of the Franks.  The marriage date is estimated on the basis of how long Childerich was allegedly in exile, assuming that the date of his deposition is accurate, and is appears to be consistent with the estimated dates of birth of the couple's descendants. 

 

 

1.         FISUD [Pisen] .  King of Thuringia.  m ---.  The name of Fisud's wife is not known.  Fisud & his wife had one child: 

a)         RANIGUNDA [Raicunda] .  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Raicundam filia Fisud regis Turingorum" as King Wacho's first wife[8].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Ranigunda filia Pisen regi Turingorum" as Wacho's first wife[9].  Paulus Diaconus names the three wives of Wacho "primam Ranicundam, filiam Regis Turingorum…Austrigosam, filiam regis Gepidorum…tertiam…Herulorum regis filiam…Salingam"[10]m as his first wife, WACHO King of the Lombards in Pannonia, son of ZUCHILO [Unichis] of the Lombards (-540). 

 

 

Three brothers, parents unknown.  The Vitæ Sanctæ Radegundis names "Radegundis natione barbare de regione Thoringa" and her "avo rege Bessino, patruo Hermenfredo, patre rege Bertechario"[11].  However, it seems chronologically unlikely that Baderic and his brothers were sons of King Basinus, assuming that the dates shown for this family grouping are correct. 

1.         BADERICGregory of Tours names Baderic, Hermanfrid and Berthar as three brothers ruling over the Thuringians, specifying that he was killed in battle by his brother Hermanfred allied with Theoderic King of the Franks[12]The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Ermenfredi duo fratres Baldericus et Bertecharius"[13]

2.         HERMANFRED (-Zülpich 534)Gregory of Tours names Baderic, Hermanfrid and Berthar as three brothers ruling over the Thuringians[14]King of the Thuringians.  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum", a marginal addition recording that "Teodericus filius Clodovei ex concubina" threw "Ermenfridum regem" from a wall and killed his two sons[15]Gregory of Tours records that Theoderic King of the Franks and his half-brother King Clotaire I invaded Thuringia in 531, deposed King Hermanfred and annexed the kingdom, specifying in a later passage that Hermanfred was later accidentally pushed from the top of the city walls of Zülpich while talking to Theoderic[16]m ([510]) AMALABERGA, daughter of [HUGA rex Francorum] & his wife Amalafrida the Ostrogoth .  Iordanes names "Amalabergam" as the daughter of "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" and records her marriage to "Thuringorum regi…Herminefredo"[17]Procopius records that “Hermenefrido Thoringorum regi” married "Theoderici…Amelobergam, Amalafridæ sororis suæ filiam"[18]Theodericus rex” wrote to “Herminafrido Regi Thuringorum” granting him “neptis” in marriage[19]The Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ names "Huga rex Francorum…unicam filiam Amalbergam" who married "Irminfredo regi Thuringorum"[20]Gregory of Tours calls Amalaberg, wife of Hermanfrid, a "wicked and cruel woman" who sowed the seeds of civil war between her husband and his brother Baderic[21]She escaped to Ravenna with her children after the Franks attacked Thuringia and killed her husband[22].  King Hermanfred & his wife had four children: 

a)         two sons .  The Liber Historiæ Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum", a marginal addition recording that "Teodericus filius Clodovei ex concubina" threw "Ermenfridum regem" from a wall and killed his two sons[23]

b)         AMALAFRIDAS .  Procopius records that "Amalafridus, vir Gotthus, ex filia nepos Amalafridæ sororis Theoderici Gotthorum regis et filius Hermenefridi regis Thoringorum” was deported to Byzantium with Vitigis King of Italy by Belisarius (in 540)[24]

c)         daughter .  Procopius records that "Amalafridus, vir Gotthus, ex filia nepos Amalafridæ sororis Theoderici Gotthorum regis et filius Hermenefridi regis Thoringorum…sororem eius” married "Anduino Langobardorum regi"[25].  The Codex Theodosianus records that the daughter of Amalaberga became the second wife of King Audoin[26]m as his second wife, AUDOIN King of the Lombards, son of ---. 

3.         BERTHARGregory of Tours names Baderic, Hermanfrid and Berthar as three brothers ruling over the Thuringians, specifying that Hermanfrid defeated and killed his brother Berthar in battle [27]The Liber Historiæ Francorum names "Ermenfredi duo fratres Baldericus et Bertecharius"[28]m ---.  The name of Berthar's wife is not known.  Berthar & his wife had [four or more] children:

a)         sons .  Gregory of Tours refers to the unnamed sons of Berthar[29]

b)         RADEGUND (Erfurt 518-Poitiers 587, bur Poitiers, basilique Sainte-Marie-hors-les-Murs).  Gregory of Tours names Radegund as the orphaned daughter of Berthar[30].  The Vitæ Sanctæ Radegundis names "Radegundis natione barbare de regione Thoringa" and her "avo rege Bessino, patruo Hermenfredo, patre rege Bertechario"[31].  In a later passage, Gregory records that, after the Frankish invasion of Thuringia, Radegund formed part of the booty taken home by Clotaire I King of the Franks, who later married her[32].  The testament of Radegundis dated to [584/87] survives[33]Gregory of Tours records the death of St Radegund on 13 Aug[34].  She was canonised, her feast day is 13 Aug[35]m (531, repudiated) as his second wife, CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar/Lothar] King of the Franks, son of CLOVIS I [Chlodovech] King of the Franks & his second wife Chrotechildis [Clotilde] of Burgundy ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard). 

c)         [AGNES (-after 587).  Radegundis names "sororem meam Agnetem" several times in her testament dated to [584/87][36].  It is possible that the reference is to her "sister" in the religious sense.] 

 

 

CHAMAR, son of ---.  m ---.  The name of Chamar's wife is not known.  Chamar & his wife had one child:

1.         RADULF (-after [632/33]).  Fredegar records that Dagobert I King of the Franks installed "Radulfus dux filius Chamaro" as duke in Thuringia, in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633], specifying that he won many victories against the Wends but revolted against King Sigebert[37]Fredegar records that he defeated King Sigebert's army, and called himself king of Thuringia[38]

 

 

1.         RADULF (-after 28 Jul 775).  It is not known whether Radulf was related to the earlier Radulf King of Thuringia but this is certainly suggested by the name.  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[39]m ---.  The name of Radulf's wife is not known.  Radulf & his wife had one child:

a)         FASTRADA (-Frankfurt-am-Main 10 Oct 794, bur Mainz, St Alban[40])The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 783 at Worms of King Charles and "domne Fastradæ regina"[41]Einhard's Annals record the king's marriage in 783 to "filiam Radolfi comitis natione Francam, nomine Fastradam"[42].  Fastrada, wife of King Charles, is referred to as "de Orientalium Francorum, Germanorum videlicet" by Einhard[43].  Her cruelty triggered the revolt of her husband's illegitimate son Pépin "le Bossu" in 792[44]The Annales Xantenses record the death in Frankfurt in 794 of "Fastrada regina"[45].  Einhard records the death in 794 of "Fastrada regina" at Frankfurt and her burial "Mogontiaci apud sanctum Albanum"[46]Theodulf wrote the epitaph of "Fastradæ reginæ"[47]m (Worms Oct 783[48]) as his third wife, CHARLES I King of the Franks, son of PEPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrada [Berta] "au Grand Pied" ([near Aix-la-Chapelle] 2 Apr [747/48]-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie).  He was crowned CHARLES I “Charlemagne” Emperor of the Romans in 800. 

 

 

1.         THANKULFm ---.  The name of Thankulf's wife is not known.  Thankulf & his wife had one child:

a)         HADULF .  Hadulf son of Thankulf is recorded in the 820s[49]

 

 

1.         THAKULF (-1 Aug or end Aug 873).  Jackman suggests that Thakulf was the grandson of Thankulf[50]The Annales Fuldenses record that "Barbari" sent legates to "Thaculfum" in 849[51], although it is unclear from the context to which "Barbarians" this refers.  The Gesta Francorum records that "Thaculfum" led troops against the Slavs "in Sorabos" in 858[52].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death of "Thaculfus comes et dux Sorabici limitis" in Aug 873[53].  The Gesta Francorum is more specific, recording the death of "Thachulfus comes et dux Sorabici" at the end of Aug 873[54]However, the necrology of Fulda records the death in "873 Kal Aug" of "Thacholf com"[55].  Duke in Thuringia. 

 

2.         RADULF (-[874/80]).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sorabi et Siusli" attacked in 874 after the death of "Thachulfo" and that "Liutbertus archiepiscopus et Ratolfus Thaculfi successor" crossed "Salam fluvium" in Jan 874 and suppressed the revolt "sin bello"[56].  Jackman speculates that Radulf was the son of Duke Thakulf[57].  Duke in Thuringia 874.  Graf der Sorbenmark 874.  The Gesta Francorum also names "Ratolfus" as successor of Thakulf in 874[58]Radulf presumably died before 880 when the Annales Fuldenses record that "Sclavi…Dalmatii et Behemi atque Sorabi" invaded Thuringia in 880 and devastated the land around "Salam fluvium", in which battle "Poppo comes et dux Sorabici limitis" fought[59]

3.         [daughter .  Jackman speculates that Poppo owed his dukedom in Thuringia to having married the daughter of Duke Thakulf, sister of Duke Radulf[60]m POPPO [II], son of --- (-906 or after).  Dux.  Markgraf der Sorbenmark 892.] 

 

 

POPPO [II], son of --- (-906 or after)The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sclavi…Dalmatii et Behemi atque Sorabi" invaded Thuringia in 880 and devastated the land around "Salam fluvium", in which battle "Poppo comes et dux Sorabici limitis" fought[61], and in a later passage more specifically names "Poppone fratre Heinrico et Eginone comitibus", recording that he conquered "Thuringis inferior"[62]"Arnolfus…rex" donated property "in pago Uuormazfelda in comitatu Megingaudi…in villa Dechidestein" to Kloster Fulda on the proposal of "Pobbonis et Deotpoldi [comitum]" by charter dated 21 Jul 889[63]Marchio.  Markgraf der Sorbenmark 892.  "Arnolfus…rex" gave property "nuncupante Hruodeshof in pago Folchfelda in comitatu Ebonis" to "nostræ Fridarun" on the intervention of "Popbonis marchionis nostri" by charter dated 12 Jan 891[64]The Annales Fuldenses record that "Poppo dux Thuringorum" was deprived of his honours in 891[65].  Dux.  Regino records that "Popponis Thuringorum ducis" persuaded "Arat Wirziburgensis episcopus" to campaign against the Slavs, during the course of which the bishop was killed in 892[66]Regino specifies that his dukedom was given to "Chuonrado" and soon after to "Burchardo comitis"[67]Graf in der bayerischen Nordgau 903.  Graf im Volkfeld 906.  "Hludouuicus…rex" confirmed a donation of property "in pago Folcfelda in comitatu Popponis" to Kloster Fulda by charter dated [29 Jun 906][68]

-        FRANCONIAN NOBILITY

 

 

KONRAD, son of [UDO Graf im Lahngau [Konradiner] & his wife Judith [Welf] im Linzgau] ([845/60]-killed in battle near Fritzlar 27 Feb 906, bur Weilburg Martinskirche)Regino names "Chuonradus senior [et] frater eius Gebehardus", specifying that Konrad resided in Hessen at Friedeslar[69].  His birth date range estimated from other estimated birth date ranges of members of the family and the known dates of Konrad's own career.  Regino specifies that the dukedom of "Boppo dux Thuringorum" was given to "Chuonrado" in 892 and soon after to "Burchardo comitis"[70]

 

 

1.         BURKHARD (-killed in battle Thuringia 3 Aug 908).  Regino specifies that the dukedom of "Boppo dux Thuringorum" was given to "Chuonrado" in 892 and soon after to "Burchardo comitis"[71].  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster St Gallen by charter dated 24 Jun 903 in which among "fidelium nostrum" was listed "Purchart marchio Thuringionum"[72].  The Annales Alammanici record that "Burchardus dux Turingorum et Rudolfus episcopus Eginoque" were killed by the Hungarians in Saxony in 908[73]m ---.  The name of Burkhard's wife is not known.  Burkhard & his wife had two children:

a)         BURKHARD .  Widukind names "Burghardum quoque Bardonem", specifying "quorum alter gener regis erat", when recording that Duke Heinrich drove them from Thuringia in 913[74].  “Burchardus comes” donated property to Bonn St Cassius, for the souls of “meæ...parentumque meorum atque...fratris mei Kunradi Francorum...regis”, at the request of “Waldolfi prepositi”, by charter dated to [911/18][75]m ---[in der Wetterau], daughter of KONRAD Graf in der Wetterau [Konradiner] & his wife Glismod ---. 

b)         BARDO .  Widukind names "Burghardum quoque Bardonem" specifying "quorum alter gener regis erat", when recording that Duke Heinrich drove them from Thuringia in 913[76]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA [1123]-1247

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

1.         HAMZO .  The Annalista Saxo names "in Halberstad vero Hamezonem eiusdem eclesie canonicum, avunculum Lodowici comitis de Thuringia"[77].  If avunculus is used in its strict meaning in this text, this indicates that Ludwig was the son of Hamzo's sister.  Canon in Halberstadt. 

2.         [sister .  m ---.]  Two children: 

a)         LUDWIG "Cum-barba" (-[1080], bur Mainz St Alban).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Hugonem comitem et Ludwicum dictum Cum-barba fratrem suum" as "duos consanguineos" of Gisela, wife of Emperor Konrad II, specifying that they were "ex Francia oriundi Cis Renum de…stirpe regum Francorum Karoli et Ludewici"[78].  The precise nature of these relationships, assuming that the Cronica (not generally reliable) is accurate in its statements, is not known.  Jean-Noël Mathieu suggests that the relationship was through the family of the kings of Burgundy, descended from Willa, wife of King Rudolf I, although he does not propose a precise connection[79].  There appear to be too many unknown factors in positing the Carolingian ancestry of the Burgundian kings to be able to consider that such a possibility is other than highly speculative.  Graf in Thuringia. 

-        see below

b)         HUGO .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Hugo comes" as brother of "Ludewicus Cum-barba"[80]m ---.  The name of Hugo's wife is not known.  The charter dated 10 Aug 1109 under which Reinhard Bishop of Halberstadt and "dominus Milo comes" donated property to Kloster Hillersleben which names as present "Wichmannus comes de Thuringia nepos meus"[81] shows that she was presumably the sister of Bishop Reinhard.  Hugo & his wife had one child:

i)          WICHMANN .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Wicmannus" as son of "Hugo comes", specifying that when he died his uncle "Ludewicus Cum-barba" was his heir[82].  Reinhard Bishop of Halberstadt and "dominus Milo comes" donated property to Kloster Hillersleben by charter dated 10 Aug 1109 with the consent of "uxoris sue Ludburga", named as present "Wichmannus comes de Thuringia nepos meus"[83]

 

 

LUDWIG "Cum-barba", son of --- (-[1080], bur Mainz St Alban)Graf in Thuringia.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that "Ludwicum dictum Cum-barba" came to Thuringia in 1034 and settled "in confinio silve que Loybe dicitur inter montem Katherberg et Aldinberg et Corneberg"[84].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis also quotes in full an alleged grant by "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" to "Lodewico comiti consanguineus nostris" dated 27 Apr 1039 which is headed "Privilegium comitis Thuringie"[85].  In the Monumenta Germaniæ Historica compilation of imperial diplomas, this deed is classified as forged, the introduction stating that it was one of the Reinhardsbrunn forgeries of the second half of the 12th century[86].  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ records that "Ludewicus Cum-barba" was buried "Maguntie apud Sanctum Albanum"[87]

m CÄCILIE von Sangerhausen, daughter of ---.  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Ceciliam de Sangirhusen" as the wife of "Ludewicus Cum-barba"[88]

Graf Ludwig & his wife had five children: 

1.         LUDWIG "der Salier/der Springer" (-Reinhardsbrunn 1123)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Ludewicum et Berengerum" as the two sons of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Ludwig founded Reinhardsbrunn[89].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that "Ludevico comitis" was detained in Gebechenstein in 1074, it appearing from the context that this refers to the son of Ludwig "Cum-barba"[90]Graf in ThuringiaThe Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that "Ludevico comitis" founded Reinhardsbrunn in 1085[91].  Two charters, dated 11 Apr [1102/04] and [1104/09], under which Pope Paschal II confirmed the privileges of Kloster Reinhardsbrunn state that the monastery was built by "Liudowicus comes"[92]A charter dated 10 Apr 1139 under which Pope Innocent II confirmed the privileges of Kloster Reinhardsbrunn also states that the monastery had been built by "Ludewico comite"[93].  “Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[94]"Ludowicus de Turingia comes, Arnoldus urbis comes, Sigehardus comes, Bertolfus comes, Ludewicus comes, Gozwinus comes…" witnessed the charter dated 20 Jun 1118 under which Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz donated property "in placito Ludwici comitis" to Kloster St Johannes auf dem Bischofsberge, after the death of "Hildrudis vidue Wulferici ministerialis nostri"[95]The Chronicon Gozecense records the death of "senior Ludewicus apud Reinheresbrunnen" and his burial "in basilica beatæ Dei genetricis"[96].  [m firstly (repudiated) --- of Saxony, daughter of UDALRICH ---.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the first marriage of Ludwig and "filiam ducis Saxonie Udalrici" whom he repudiated[97].  It is possible that this results from confusion with the marriage of Ludwig's eldest daughter with Marchese Ulrich from the family of the Grafen von Weimar (see below).  However, the 1087 date of Ludwig's known marriage to Adelheid von Stade appears late considering the dates attributed to the career of Ludwig's father which would suggest that Ludwig may have been born in the range [1045/55].  It is not impossible therefore that there was an earlier marriage.  It is unlikely, however, that Ludwig's first father-in-law was named "Udalrich" or "Ulrich" if the proposed Saxon origin is correct.  There are no known cases of the use of this name among the Saxon nobility before Ulrich [I] Graf von Weimar, Marchese of Carniola.  The origin of his name cannot be traced, presumably having been introduced into his family either through his paternal grandmother or his great grandmother, neither of whom have been identified with certainty.  The name is more common among the earlier Bavarian and Swabian nobility.m [secondly] (1087) as her second husband, ADELHEID von Stade, widow of FRIEDRICH II von Goseck, daughter of LOTHAR UDO II Graf von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark & his wife Oda von Werl (-8 Oct or 14 Nov 1110, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Annalista Saxo records that the wife of Friedrich [II] was "sororem Udonis marchionis", as well as her second marriage to "Lodewicus comes de Thuringia" who had murdered her first husband[98].  She is named "Adelheida" in a later passage[99]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that Ludwig "adhesit ardentius secreto" with "Adelheidi uxori Frederici comitis palatini Saxonum…Udonis marchionis de Staden filia" and that he killed her first husband in order to marry her[100]The Chronicon Gozecense records her second marriage to "Ludewico", naming their two sons[101].  “Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[102]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1110 XV Kal Nov" of "Adelheidis comitissa uxor Lodewici" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[103].  Graf Ludwig & his [second] wife had [nine] children: 

a)         ADELHEID ([1087]-1146)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cunegundim, Ceciliam, Adelheidim" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[104].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Adelheidis" as third daughter of Graf Ludwig & his wife, recording that she married "Udalrico comiti…de Wymar"[105].  The date of her marriage indicates that Adelheid must have been one of her parents’ older children.  If that is correct, the birth order of the daughters in these two sources is probably incorrect.  The Ekkehardi Chronicon records the death in 1112 of "quidam de Saxonie principus…Oudalricus", specifying that he was "Ludewici comitis gener" but that he had repudiated his wife[106].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1146 of "Alheidis comitissa filia secunda Lodewici"[107]m (before 1102, repudiated) ULRICH II Marchese di Carniola e Istria, son of ULRICH I Marchese di Carniola e Istria [Weimar] & his wife Zsófia of Hungary (-13 May 1112). 

b)         HERMANN (-Schloß Hammerstein 1114).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Ludewicum lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Hermannum…Utonem Cicensem episcopum" as sons of "Ludewicus comes" and his wife Adelheid, specifying that Hermann died "in vinculis in castro Hamerstein"[108]Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[109]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1114 of "Hermannus Ludewici comitis filius" in chains[110]

c)         LUDWIG von Thüringen ([1090]-1140).  The Chronicon Gozecense names (in order) "Raspo Heinricus et…primus comes provincialis Ludewicus" sons of "Ludewico" and his wife Adelheid[111].  He was appointed Landgraf of Thuringia

-        see below

d)         UDO (-1148).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Ludewicum lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Hermannum…Utonem Cicensem episcopum" as sons of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[112]Bishop of Naumburg. 

e)         HEINRICH RASPE [I] (-1130, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Chronicon Gozecense names (in order) "Raspo Heinricus et…primus comes provincialis Ludewicus" sons of "Ludewico" and his wife Adelheid[113].  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 1130 of "Heinricus Raspo, frater Lodowici comitis de Thuringia, signifer regis, clam confossus immatura morte"[114].  The Chronicon Gozecense names "Heinricus" as younger son of "senior Ludewicus", specifying that he was "advocatus" of Goseck[115].  “Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[116].  The Annales Rosenveldenses records the death in 1130 of "Henricus comes de Wodenesberg"[117]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1130 of "Heinricus comes primus Raspen filius fundatoris ecclesie in Reynarsborn" and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[118].  The Annales Erphesfurdenses the death of "Heinricus comes de Thuringia frater Luodewici" in 1134[119], although this date is not corroborated by the other sources cited earlier. 

f)          KONRAD (-after 25 Jul 1110).  Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[120]

g)         KUNIGUNDE (-1118)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cunegundim, Ceciliam, Adelheidim" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[121].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "prima Conegundis" as daughter of Graf Ludwig & his wife, recording that she married "Wichmanno comiti de Saxonia qui et ecclesie Kaldenbornensis fundator"[122].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1118 of "Cunigunda filia comitis Ludovici uxor comitis Wigmanni fundator Caldebornensis"[123]m WICHMANN Graf, son of Graf BERNO & his wife Adelheid --- (-after 1118). 

h)         CÄCILIE (-1141, bur Reinhardsbrunn)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cunegundim, Ceciliam, Adelheidim" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[124].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Ceciliam" as second daughter of Graf Ludwig & his wife, recording that she married "comes de Weldense Gerlacus" and that by him she was mother of "Udonem minorem Cycensem episcopum"[125].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1141 of "Cecilia filia comitis Ludewici primi…relicta comitis Gerlaci" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[126]m GERLACH [I] Graf von Veldenz, son of --- (-before 1141). 

i)          [daughter .  An indication of the family origin of the wife of Burchard [II] von Querfurt is provided by the charter dated 3 Oct 1166, under which [her possible son] “Uto...Nuenburgens...episcopus” confirmed that “felicis memoriæ dominus Uto prædecessor et avunculus meus...Nuenburgensis...episcopus” had confirmed privileges of “Buzaviensi cœnobio[127].  Assuming that “avunculus” in this document can be interpreted in its strict sense of maternal uncle (recognising that it can indicate a more remote family relationship), the second Bishop Udo’s mother was the sister of the first bishop.  The earlier Bishop Udo was the brother of Ludwig I Landgraf of Thuringia.  Their father’s marriage is dated to 1087 (see above).  From a chronological point of view, it is therefore possible that the second Udo’s mother was the sister of these two brothers.  m BURCHARD [II] von Querfurt, son of GERHARD Graf von Querfurt & his wife Oda von Ammensleben (-[after 1159]).  Burggraf von Magdeburg 1136.] 

2.         BERENGAR (-before 25 Jul 1110, bur Sangerhausen)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Ludewicum et Berengerum" as the two sons of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Berenger succeeded in Sangerhausen where he was also buried[128]Graf von Sangerhausenm BERTRADA von Wettin, daughter of KONRAD Graf von Wettin & his wife Othildis von Katlenberg (-1145).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Bertradam" as the daughter of "quintus filius [comitis Tiderici] Conradus comes" & his wife, naming her husband "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia"[129].  “Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[130].  Berengar & his wife had five children: 

a)         KONRAD (-1145).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "comes Conradus de Honsteyn" as son of "Beringerus…Sangirhusen", specifying that "omnes de Honsteyn" were his descendants[131].  He was not the patrilineal ancestor of the later Grafen von Hohenstein (Honstein) according to Europäische Stammtafeln[132]In addition, the History of Ilfeld Monastery names "filius [Elgeri] Elgerus secundus" as "primus comes in Honstein", specifying that he obtained the castle from "comitissa viuda Remvice" who was widow of Esiko Graf von Honstein[133].  No relationship with Graf Konrad is specified in this source.  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filum Conradum et filias quatuor" as the children of "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia" & his wife[134].  “Comes Ludowicus cum nepote suo Conrado comitis...Berngeri filio...cum uxore eiusdem domini Ludowici Adilheida ac filiis eorundem Hermanno, Ludowico, Heinrico, Conrado, dominaque Berchtrada comitis Conradi matre” donated “ecclesiam...Sangershusen” to Reinhardsbrunn by charter dated 25 Jul 1110[135].  Graf von Honstein. 

b)         KUNIGUNDE .  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filum Conradum et filias quatuor" as the children of "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia" & his wife, specifying that one of the daughters "Cunegundam" married "Cuno de Wippera" and that their son was "Lothowicum"[136]m THIMO von Wippra, son of ---. 

c)         three daughters .  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filum Conradum et filias quatuor" as the children of "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia" & his wife[137]

3.         HILDEGARD (-bur Goseck).   The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Hildegardis…Uta…Adelheidis" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Hildegard married firstly "Bopponi comiti de Hennenberc" and secondly "Timoni de Nordeke", naming "Gebehardum qui Cellam Sancti Blasii ad monasterium Reinhersburn" as her son by her second husband[138]The Chronicon Gozecense names "Hildegardis comitissa cuius frater comes fuit Ludewicus", recording her burial at Goseck monastery, and also specifying that "filium suum Domino vovit, Gebehardum scilicet" but that he left the monastery and was killed[139]m firstly POPPO [I] Graf von Henneberg, son of --- (-killed in battle near Melrichstadt 7 Aug 1078).  m secondly THIMO von Nordeck, son of ---.

4.         UTA The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Hildegardis…Uta…Adelheidis" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Uta married "comiti Dieterico de Linderbeche"[140]m DIETRICH Graf von Linderbach, son of ---. 

5.         ADELHEIDThe Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Hildegardis…Uta…Adelheidis" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Hildegard married "in Wiphire dominum"[141]m LUDWIG von Wippra, son of ---.  Ludwig & his wife had one child: 

a)         LUDWIGThe Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Ludewicum" as son of "in Wiphire dominum" & his wife Adelheid[142]m MATHILDE, daughter of ---.  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Mechtildem" as wife of "Ludewicum [in Wiphire]" and their sons "futurum postea Monateriensem episcopum [et] Kunonem laicum"[143]

 

 

 

B.      LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA

 

 

LUDWIG von Thüringen, son of LUDWIG "der Salier/der Springer" Graf in Thuringia & his [second] wife Adelheid von Stade ([1090]-13 Jan 1140, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Chronicon Gozecense names (in order) "Raspo Heinricus et…primus comes provincialis Ludewicus" sons of "Ludewico" and his wife Adelheid[144]Landgraf of Thuringia.  The Annales Stadenses name "Lodewicum [filium Ludowici]" specifying that he secured the "comitatum provincialem in Thuringia" from "Lothario rege" after the latter deprived "Hermannus de Wincenburg"[145]"Willehelmus comes Palatinus, Heinricus marchionis Luibaldi filius, Arnoldus Moguntinus comes, Ludewicus comes Thuringie, Ernest comes et Siczzo comes, Sigefridus et frater eius Bertolfus comites de Nuringes, Emicho comes et frater eius Gerlahus, Megenhardus de Spanheim, Wolframus de Wertheim…" witnessed the charter dated 1132, after 13 Sep, under which Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz donated property "in pago…Weitereibia…in comitatu Sigefridi comitis de Nuringes" to Mainz cathedral[146]"…Comes patrie Ludewicus ibidem principalis advocatus…" witnessed a charter dated 25 Jul 1139 under which Adalbert [II] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed his predecessor's grants to Kloster Jechaburg[147].  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "Ludowicus Thuringiæ comes" at the end of 1139[148], the Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses recording the death of "Luodewicus comes provincie Thuringorum" in 1140[149]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1140 Id Jan" of "Ludewicus primus principalis comes filius fundator nostri" and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[150]

m [as her second husband,] HEDWIG von Gudensberg, [widow of ---,] daughter of GISO [IV] von Gudensberg & his wife Kunigunde von Bilstein (-1148, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Chronicon Gozecense names "Hadewigam comitissam Gise viduam" as the wife of [Ludwig][151], one way of interpreting the whole passage being that she was the widow of Ludwig's brother Heinrich although this seems unlikely to be correct.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the marriage of "Ludewicus primus langgravius" and "Hedwigim" without giving her origin[152], although it is interesting to note that this text follows the passage which records the death of Ludwig's brother Heinrich.  The true family origin of the wife of Landgraf Ludwig is confirmed by the charter dated to [1137/40] under which Arnold Archbishop of Köln confirmed a donation of property "apud Brubach" [Braubach] to Kloster Siegburg by her mother "comitissa quedam Cunigunda…de Bilistein que fuerat uxor Gisonis comitis" and the later confirmation by "domnus Ludewicus comes de Thuringia cum uxore sua, filia predicte Cunigunde"[153].  The primary source which confirms her father´s family as "von Gudensberg" has not yet been identified.  It is not known whether the Chronicon Gozecense is correct in stating that Ludwig was Hedwig´s second husband, even if it identifies him incorrectly, but if so no separate indication of his identity has yet been found.  Hedwig was heiress of a large part of Hessen.  The Annales Pegavienses record the death in 1148 of "Hedewic relicta Loudewicis provincialis comitis"[154].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1148 of "Hedewig relicta primi lantgravii" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[155]

Ludwig I & his wife had seven children: 

1.         LUDWIG ([1128]-Neuenburg am Unstrut 14 Oct 1172, bur Reinhardsbrunn)The Annales Stadenses specifies that "secundus Lodewicus [=filium Ludowici genuit tertium]"[156].  He succeeded his father in 1140 as LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia

-        see below

2.         HEINRICH RASPE [II] (-[1155]).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "secundum sui nominis [=Ludowicum] lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Ludewicum de Thungesbrucken" as the sons of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig[157]Graf von Gudensburg.

3.         LUDWIG (-1189).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "secundum sui nominis [=Ludowicum] lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Ludewicum de Thungesbrucken" as the sons of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig[158]Graf von ThamsbrückThe Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1189 of "Ludewicus comes de Tummesbrucken patruus lantgravii"[159]

4.         CECILIEThe Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Cecilia married "Udelrico duci Boemie"[160]m as his first wife, ULRICH Duke of the Bohemians, son of SOBĚSLAV I UDALRICH Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Adelheid of Hungary (1134-18 Oct 1177).

5.         ADELHEID (-after 1140).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Adelheid was "in ecclesia Sancti Nycolai abbatissa"[161]Abbess in Eisenach.

6.         MECHTILD The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Mechtild married "comiti Dieterico de Werben fratri ducis Bernhardi"[162]m DIETRICH von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT I "dem Bären" Graf von Ballenstedt Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg (-after 5 Sep 1183).  Graf von Werben 1170. 

7.         JUTTA (-9 Sep after 1174)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Jutta married "eiusdem provincie [=Boemie] regis" and naming her sons "regem Odakarum et…comitem Heinricum"[163]m (1153) as his second wife, VLADISLAV II Duke of Bohemia, son of VLADISLAV I Duke of Bohemia & his wife Richinza [Richsa] von Berg (-18 Jan 1174, bur Strahow).  He was crowned King of Bohemia at Regensburg 18 Jan 1158. 

 

 

LUDWIG von Thüringen, son of LUDWIG I Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Hedwig von Gudensberg ([1128]-Neuenburg am Unstrut 14 Oct 1172, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Annales Stadenses specifies that "secundus Lodewicus [=filium Ludowici genuit tertium]"[164].  He succeeded his father in 1140 as LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia., although the following charters show that he was not consistently referred to in contemporary documentation with the title Landgraf  "Ludewicus comes provincialis…" witnessed the charter dated 16 Jun 1147 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed the foundation of Ichtershausen convent by "matrona…Frideruna linea nobis sanguinis propinqua et filius eius Marcwardus de Grumbach vir nobilis"[165].  "Lodewigus provincialis comes…" witnessed the charter dated 22 Oct 1150 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz donated property to Stifte Jechaburg[166].  At first an ally of Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony, he later joined the duke's enemies, feeling threatened by his ambitions in the area south of the Harz[167].  In 1166, he joined the alliance of Saxon princes against Duke Heinrich, attacking the fortress of Althaldensleben 20 Dec 1166 with Albrecht "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg and Wichmann Bishop of Magdeburg[168].  Landgraf Ludwig was one of the signatories of the alliance of Magdeburg 12 Jul 1167, which formalised the opposition to Duke Heinrich[169].  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses record the death of "Loudewigus provincialis comes Thuringiæ" in 1172[170]

m (1150) JUTTA [Claricia] von Staufen, daughter of FRIEDRICH II Duke of Swabia [Staufen] & his second wife Agnes von Saarbrücken ([1135]-7 Jul 1191, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Conradum, qui palatinus comes Rheni…et Clariciam, Ludewici Thuringiæ comitis uxorem" as the two children of Duke Friedrich & his second wife[171]The Urspergensium Chronicon refers to (but does not name) the daughter of "Friedrich I pater ipsius" & his second wife as the wife of "lantgravius de Thuringia"[172].  The Annales Stadenses records that the mother of "quartum [Lodewicum]" and therefore the wife of "tertium [Ludowicum]" was "sororis imperatoris Friderici"[173]The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "imperatoris Friderici sorore Iutha" as the wife of Landgraf Ludwig II[174].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1193 refers to "soror…Berthe" as wife of "lantgravie Thuringie Ludovico"[175].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1191 of "Iutta lantgravia soror Frederici imperatoris mater Ludewici tercii" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[176]

Ludwig II & his wife had five children: 

1.         LUDWIG von Thüringen ([1152]-Palestine 1190).  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses name "Loudewigus provincialis comes Thuringiæ…filius eius Loudewigus" when recording his succession to his father in 1172[177].  He adhered to the alliance of Magdeburg, which formalised the opposition to Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony, at Santersleben, south of Haldensleben, 14 Jul 1167[178].  He succeeded his father in 1172 as LUDWIG III "der Milde/der Fromme" Landgraf of Thuringia.  "Lodewicus…tertius lantgravius" granted property to Stifte Jechaburg by charter dated 1174[179].  After the death of Albrecht "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg, Landgraf Ludwig claimed the county of Weimar[180].  He left on crusade and in [Nov] 1189 arrived by sea at Tyre, where he persuaded Corrado di Monferrato to join in the attack on Acre led by Guy de Lusignan king of Jerusalem[181].  He returned home from the siege, probably ill with malaria, and died en route[182].  According to Ralph of Diceto, he had relations with the enemy from whom he accepted money[183].  He was invested as Pfalzgraf of Saxony by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" at Gelnhausen 13 Apr 1180[184].  "Ludewicus…provincialis Thuringie et Hassie" recognised the rights of Kloster Hilwartshausen by charter dated 1189[185]The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ records that "Ludewicus [tertium…lantgravium]" died "in Terra Sancta"[186].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1193 of "Ludewico tertio lantgravio in Terra Sancta"[187]m firstly (1172, repudiated) MARGARETA von Kleve, daughter of DIETRICH [II] Graf von Kleve & his wife Adelheid von Sulzbach.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum confirms that "Lothewigus lantgravius de Thuringia, filius sororis imperatoris" repudiated his first wife on the grounds of consanguinity to marry "matrem Kanuti regis Danorum"[188]m secondly ([1184], divorced 1187) as her second husband, SOFIA Vladimirovna, widow of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark, daughter of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich Prince of Novgorod Prince of Polotsk & his wife Ryksa [Swantosława] of Poland ([1141]-5 May 1198, bur Ringsted).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Sophiam de Russia" as wife of "Waldemarum II"[189].  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum confirms that "Lothewigus lantgravius de Thuringia, filius sororis imperatoris" repudiated his first wife on the grounds of consanguinity to marry "matrem Kanuti regis Danorum"[190]The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 May" of "Sophia regine Dacie"[191].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial at Ringsted of "sanctus Kanutus dux Dacie…filius suus Waldemarus primus, ampliator huius ecclesia" and the burial next to him at Ringsted of "regina Sophia uxor sua filia Swerchonis regis Suetie" who died "III Id Mai" in 1198[192]Ludwig III & his first wife had one child:  

a)         JUTTA (-[6 Sep 1208/1216]).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Machtildem filiam Ludowici comitis de Thuringia" as wife of "Tidericus comes, filius eius [Dedonis Orientalis marchionis]"[193].  Although the primary source which confirms that she was Ludwig's daughter by his first marriage has not yet been identified, the date of her marriages indicates that it is unlikely that she was born from his second marriage.  m (before 1190) DIETRICH von Wettin Graf von Sommerschenburg und Groitzsch, son of DEDO V "der Feiste" von Rochlitz Graf von Groitzsch, Markgraf der Niederlausitz & his wife Mathilde von Heinsberg heiress of Sommerschenburg (-13 Jun 1207, bur Zschillen).

2.         HERMANN von Thüringen (-Burg Friedenstein bei Gotha 25 Apr 1217, bur Schloß Friedenstein).  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses name "germano suo [=principalis comes Luodewicus] comite Herimanno" when recording his capture in 1180, and "Hermannus frater Ludowici lantgravii" when recording his installation as "palatinus Saxoniæ" in 1181[194].  Pfalzgraf of Saxony 1180.  He succeeded his brother in 1190 as HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia

-        see below

3.         HEINRICH RASPE [III] (-1180).  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses record the death in 1180 of "Heinricus comes Luodewici lantgravii germanus"[195]

4.         FRIEDRICH (-after 5 Sep 1213)The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Ludewicum iuniorem tertium…lantgravium, Fridericum de Cigenhain, Henricum iuniorem cognomento Raspe et Hermannum…huius provincie principem et Saxoni comitem palatinum" as the sons of Landgraf Ludwig II & his wife[196]Graf von Ziegenhain"Comes Fridericus frater landgravii, comes Wikerus, comes Henricus de Cigenhagen…" witnessed the charter dated 1189 under which Beatrix Abbess of Kaufungen a donation of revenue by "dominus Megenwardus ministerialis noster"[197]"…comes Fridericus frater lantgravii…" witnessed the charter dated 1199 under which "Hermannus…lantgravius et palatinus comes Saxonie" confirmed a sale of property to Kloster Hardehausen[198]"Heremannus…lantgravius Thuringie et palatinus comes Saxonie" confirmed a donation to Kloster Kaufungen made by "Helmwicus in Rorenvort et fratres sui ministeriales nostri" by charter dated 1199, witnessed by "comes Fridericus frater lantgravii, comes Wilkerus, comes Heinricus de Cigenhagen…"[199].  “...Fridericus comes de Ziginhagen frater Lantgravii...” witnessed the charter dated 23 May 1205 under which Philipp King of Germany confirmed an exchange between Hersfeld and Hermann Landgraf of Thuringia[200].  Graf von Wildungen.  “Burkardus Magdeburgensis curiæ burggravius et Sophia burggravia” confirmed that “comes Fridericus de Wildunghen et domina Lucardis uxor eiusdem et Ludewicus comes” had donated “bona in Hertoldeshausen in villa Safenhusen” to Kloster Aulesburg by undated charter[201].  “Conradus...Thuringie Lantgravius” granted land, which “Frethericus comes de Wildungen patruus noster” had held in “Cygenhagen”, to “nobilibus viris Godefrido et Bertoldo comitibus de Cygenhagen”, by charter dated 25 Nov 1233[202]m (before 1186) LIUTGARD von Ziegenhain, daughter of GOZMAR [III] Graf von Ziegenhain & his wife --- (-after 1207).  Burkardus Magdeburgensis curiæ burggravius et Sophia burggravia” confirmed that “comes Fridericus de Wildunghen et domina Lucardis uxor eiusdem et Ludewicus comes” had donated “bona in Hertoldeshausen in villa Safenhusen” to Kloster Aulesburg by undated charter[203]The primary source which confirms her parentage has not been identified.  Friedrich & his wife had three children: 

a)         LUDWIGBurkardus Magdeburgensis curiæ burggravius et Sophia burggravia” confirmed that “comes Fridericus de Wildunghen et domina Lucardis uxor eiusdem et Ludewicus comes” had donated “bona in Hertoldeshausen in villa Safenhusen” to Kloster Aulesburg by undated charter[204]

b)         SOPHIE (-after 22 May 1251)Burkardus Magdeburgensis curiæ burggravius et Sophia burggravia” confirmed that “comes Fridericus de Wildunghen et domina Lucardis uxor eiusdem et Ludewicus comes” had donated “bona in Hertoldeshausen in villa Safenhusen” to Kloster Aulesburg by undated charter[205]"Sophia nata quondam Friderici comitis de Wildungen, relicta Burchardi Burggravii Magdeburgensis" donated property to the archbishopric of Mainz by charter dated 2 Apr 1247[206].  “Burchardus et Burchardus burggravii in Magdeburg” donated “silvam...Horne...apud villam Segeremesdorp” to Kloster Walkenried, with the consent of “matre sua domina Sophia”, by charter dated 22 May 1251[207]m BURCHARD [V] von Querfurt Burggraf von Magdeburg, son of BURCHARD [IV] von Querfurt Burggraf von Magdeburg & his wife Sophie von Wettin ([1185/89]-[1246/2 Apr 1247]).  

c)         JUDITH (-7 Oct 1220).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Iuditam filiam Friderici comitis de Cigenhagin, fratris Hermanni comitis Thuringie" as wife of "Fridericus comes iunior", and records her death "1220 Non Oct"[208]m (1181) FRIEDRICH [II] von Brehna, son of FRIEDRICH [I] Graf von Brehna [Wettin] & his wife Hedwig of Moravia (-Acre 16 Oct 1221).  He succeeded his brother in 1203 as Graf von Brehna

5.         JUTTA (-2 Apr ----).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names "Iutham comitissam de Rabinsberc" as the daughter of Landgraf Ludwig II & his wife[209].  1200.  m as his first wife, HERMANN Graf von Ravensburg, son of OTTO [I] von Calvelage Graf von Ravensburg & his wife Oda --- (-after 1218).

 

 

HERMANN von Thüringen, son of LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Judith [Jutta] von Staufen (-Burg Friedenstein bei Gotha 25 Apr 1217, bur Schloß Friedenstein)The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1193 names "Hermannum lantgravium" as son of "lantgravie Thuringie Ludovico" & his wife[210]Pfalzgraf of Saxony 1180.  He succeeded his brother in 1190 as HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia"Heremannus…lantgravius Thuringie et palatinus comes Saxonie" confirmed a donation to Kloster Kaufungen made by "Helmwicus in Rorenvort et fratres sui ministeriales nostri" by charter dated 1199, witnessed by "comes Fridericus frater lantgravii, comes Wilkerus, comes Heinricus de Cigenhagen…"[211]"Hermannus…lantgravius et Saxonie comes palatinus" confirmed the donation by "familia nostra matrona quedam de Vargla, Hedewiga, vidua Cunimundi" to Kloster Ichtershausen by charter dated 15 Nov 1199[212]The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ records that "Hermanno fratri [Ludewici tertii]" died in Gotha and was buried at Eisenach[213].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1218 of "lantgravius Toringie et Hermannus pater Ludovici lantgravii"[214]The necrology of Thuringia records the death "VII Kal Mai" of "Hermannus lantgravius Thuringie"[215]

m firstly ([1182]) as her second husband, SOPHIE, widow of HEINRICH Graf von Wettin, daughter of --- (-1189, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Sophiam filiam cuiusdam nobilis de Austria" as wife of "Heinricus comes de Witin", specifying that she married secondly "Hermannus tunc comes palatinus Saxonie, postmodem etiam comes provincialis Thuringie"[216]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1189 of "Sophie palatina uxor Hermanni lantgravii" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[217], the word "palatina" maybe providing a potential clue to her origin. 

m secondly (1196) SOPHIE von Bayern, daughter of OTTO I Duke of Bavaria [Wittelsbach] & his wife Agnes van Looz (-10 Jul 1238, bur Eisenack St Katharina Kloster).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ names "Sophiam" as first of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie", although the order appears inaccurate in view of Sophie's marriage date, and her husband "Hermannus langravius Thuringie"[218]"Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[219].  “Henricus...Landgravius Thuringiæ et Saxoniæ comes palatinus...manibus matris nostæ et Conradi fratris nostri” donated property “in Ludirsburnin” to Reinhardsbrunn, for the salvation of “contectalis nostræ Elisabeth” on the day of her burial, by charter dated 1231[220].  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "1238 VI Id Iul" of "Sophia mater Heinrico lantgravii" and her burial at Eisenach "in ecclesia beate Catharine"[221].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "VI Id Jul" of "Sophia lantgravia"[222]

Hermann I & his first wife had two children: 

1.         JUTTA ([1183]-Schleusingen 6 Aug 1235).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Iuditam" as the daughter of "Hermannus tunc comes palatinus Saxonie, postmodem etiam comes provincialis Thuringie" and his wife Sophie, naming her husband "Tiderici marchionis Misnensis et Orientalis, filii Othonis marchionis"[223]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the first marriage of "filia prima Iutta" and "Theoderici marchioni Misnensi" and her second marriage to "Bopponem comitem de Hennenberg patruum comitis Bertoldi de Henneberg" as well as her son by her second marriage "Hermannum comitem de Hennenberg" who was father of "Bopponem iuniorem de Hennenberg et Bertoldum episcopum"[224], although "Hermannum" appears to be an error for "Popponem".  m firstly (1194) DIETRICH von Meissen Herr zu Weissenfels, son of OTTO "der Reicher" Markgraf von Meissen [Wettin] & his wife Hedwig von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] ([1162]-17 Feb 1221, bur Kloster Altzelle).  He succeeded in 1197 as DIETRICH "der Bedrängte" Markgraf von Meissenm secondly (Leipzig 3 Jan 1223) as his second wife, POPPO [VII] Graf von Henneberg, son of POPPO [VI] Graf von Henneberg & his wife Sophie von Andechs-Merano (-21 Aug 1245, bur Vessra).

2.         HEDWIG (-1247)The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Hedwigis" as second daughter of "principis Hermanni" and her marriage to "comiti Alberti de Alsacia"[225]The primary source which confirms the precise origin of her husband has not yet been identified.  "Hedewigis comitissa coniunx nostra" witnessed the charter dated 20 May 1222 under which Albrecht Graf von Orlamünde und Holstein confirmed a sale of property to the bishop of Lübeck[226]m (1211) ALBRECHT Graf von Orlamünde, son of SIEGFRIED III Graf von Orlamünde [Askanier] & his wife Sophie of Denmark (1183-18 Dec 1244).

Hermann I & his second wife had six children: 

3.         IRMGARD ([1197]-[1244])The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Irmingardis" as oldest daughter of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that she married "comiti Heinrico de Anhalt"[227]The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Sophiam sororem lantgravii Thuringie" as wife of "Henricum comitem de Anahalt"[228]Her family origin is confirmed by the charter dated 29 Mar 1256 under which her son "Henricus…comes Ascharie" confirmed the donation made by "bone memorie avunculum nostrum Turingie lantgravium Ludewicum" to the nuns of Mehringen (later Petersthal)[229]m (1211) HEINRICH von Ballenstedt, son of BERNHARD von Ballenstedt Duke of Saxony, Graf von Aschersleben und Anhalt & his wife Judyta of Poland ([1170]-[8 May 1251/17 May 1252], bur Ballenstedt).  He succeeded his father in 1212 as HEINRICH I "der Fette" Graf von Anhalt

4.         HERMANN (before 1200-Eisenach 31 Dec 1216).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Ludewicum…Heinricum Raspin…Hermannum qui puer obit et Cunradum" as the four sons of "Hermanno"[230].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Hermannum" as second son of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that he died "in Ysenache"[231].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1216 of "Hermannus lantgravius Ludewicus filius eius primogenitus"[232]The necrology of Thuringia records the death "II Kal Jan" of "Hermannus"[233]

5.         LUDWIG (28 Oct 1200-Otranto 11 Sep 1227)The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the birth "1200 V Kal Nov" of "Ludewicus quartus lantgravius de matre sua Sophia filia ducis Bavarie"[234]He succeeded his father in 1217 as LUDWIG IV "der Heilige" Landgraf of Thuringia and Pfalgraf von Sachsen.  He was titular Markgraf von Meissen from 1226.  The Annales Erphordenses record that "Ludewicus lantgravius" took part in the expedition of Emperor Friedrich II to Palestine in 1227 but died in Otranto, Apulia "VI Id Sep"[235].  He sailed with Emperor Friedrich II from Brindisi 8 Sep 1227 for Jerusalem, but was put ashore gravely ill at Otranto where he died[236].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "II Id Sep" of "Ludewicus lantgravius Thuringie"[237]m (1221) ERSZÉBET of Hungary, daughter of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (Pozsony/Bratislava 1207-Marburg 10 Nov 1231, bur Marburg Elisabethenkirche).  The Altahenses Annales record that "Bela rex Ungarie" was brother of "sancte Elisabeth"[238]She fell under the strong influence of her confessor, the Papal inquisitor Konrad von Marburg, and completely rejected secular life.  After her husband's death, she was apparently evicted from Wartburg Castle by her brother-in-law.  She settled in Marburg where she founded a Franciscan hospital for the poor and sick.  She embraced a regime of extreme fasting, dressed in a grey penitential tunic supposedly sent to her by St Francis of Assisi.  Konrad von Marburg built a finger-shaped church around her grave in her hospital chapel.  Her cult became the object of intense political rivalry between the Teutonic Knights, allied with the Landgraf of Thuringia, and the Archbishop of Mainz.  This resulted in her rapid canonisation by Pope Gregory IX in 1235[239]The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in "XIII Kal Dec 1232" of "Elizabeth domna sancta…Ludovici Thuringie lantgravii" and her burial "apud hospitale de Maerbuch quod ipsa construxit"[240]Her feast-day is 19 Nov[241].  Ludwig IV & his wife had three children: 

a)         HERMANN (-Kreuzberg 3 Jan 1241, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  He succeeded his father in 1227 as HERMANN II Landgraf of Thuringia.  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record the death in 1241 of "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth"[242].  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "1242 III Non Ian" of "lantgravius Hassie filius sancte Elisabeth" in Kreuzburg and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[243]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1241 IV Non Jan" of "Hermannus lantgravius Hassie in Cruczeborg", referring to allegations that he was poisoned by "femina dicta Bertha de Sebecke", and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[244]The necrology of Thuringia records the death "III Non Jan" of "Hermannus lantgravius"[245]Betrothed ([1238], contract broken 1239) to MARGARETA von Hohenstaufen, daughter of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his third wife Isabella of England ([end 1237 or Foggia near Naples 1 Dec 1241]-Frankfurt am Main 8 Aug 1270).  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record that "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth" repudiated his betrothal with "filia imperator"[246], which can only refer to Margareta.  m (9 Oct 1239) as her first husband, HELENE von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, daughter of OTTO I “dem Kind” Herzog von Braunschweig & his wife Mathilde von Brandenburg [Askanier] (18 Mar 1223-6 Sep 1273, bur Wittenberg Franciscans).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Mechtildim…Helenam…Alheidem… Helenam" as the daughters of "Ottonem de Lunenburch" & his wife, specifying that the first "Helenam" married firstly "Hermannus dominus Hassie, filius beate Elisabeth" and secondly "Albertus dux Saxonie"[247].  The Annales Stadenses records the marriage "1239 die Dyonisii" of "Hermannus filius sanctæ Elizabeth" and "Elenam filiam ducis Ottonis de Brunswich"[248].  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record that "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth" married "filiam ducis de Brunswich"[249].  She founded the Kloster of the Franciscan Order at Wittenberg.  She married secondly (Papal dispensation 4o 15 May 1244, [1247/48]) as his third wife, Albrecht I Duke of Saxony

b)         SOPHIE (Wartburg 20 Mar 1224-[Marburg] 29 May 1275, bur Villers)The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the birth "1224 mencio tercio XX die" to "beata Elizabeth" of "filiam Sophiam in castro Wartperg"[250].  The Annales Parchenses record the marriage in 1241 of "Heinricus dux Lotharingie" and "Sophiam filiam beate Elyzabeth de Thuringia"[251]She was heiress of Hessen, which was inherited by her son who became Heinrich I "das Kind" Landgraf und Herr von Hessen.  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Sophia filia beate Elyzabeth"[252]m (1241) as his second wife, HENRI II Duke of Brabant, son of HENRI I "le Guerroyeur" Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1207]-Louvain 1 Feb 1248, bur Villers).

c)         GERTRUD (1226-1297).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the birth in 1226 of "Ludewico secunda filia nomine Sophia" specifying that she became a nun at Kitzingen[253], although the name is clearly an error.  "Sophia filia B. Elizabeth Landgravia Turingie, domina Hassie, quondam ducissa Brabancie" promised donations to Kloster Altenburg, at the request of "sororis nostre Gertrudis magistre in Aldenburg", by charter dated 15 Oct 1278[254].  Abbess at Altenberg near Wetzlar.

6.         KONRAD ([1204]-24 Jul 1241).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ names (in order) "Ludewicum…Heinricum Raspin…Hermannum qui puer obit et Cunradum" as the four sons of "Hermanno", specifying that Konrad became a knight of the Teutonic Order[255].  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[256].  “Henricus...Landgravius Thuringiæ et Saxoniæ comes palatinus...manibus matris nostæ et Conradi fratris nostri” donated property “in Ludirsburnin” to Reinhardsbrunn, for the salvation of “contectalis nostræ Elisabeth” on the day of her burial, by charter dated 1231[257].  The Annales Erphordenses record the dispute in 1232 between "archiepiscopo Maguntino et Cunrado fratre lantgravii" concerning Heiligenberg during which Konrad set fire to Fritzlar 15 Sep[258]Landgraf of Thuringia: Conradus...Thuringie Lantgravius” granted land, which “Frethericus comes de Wildungen patruus noster” had held in “Cygenhagen”, to “nobilibus viris Godefrido et Bertoldo comitibus de Cygenhagen”, by charter dated 25 Nov 1233[259].  He became a Teutonic Knight in [Dec 1233/Aug 1235]: “Heinricus...Lantgravius Thuringie et Saxonie comes palatinus” donated “decimam...in Wettere” to the archbishop of Mainz, requesting him to confer it on Kloster Aulesburg, by charter dated 24 Aug 1235, witnessed by “Frater Hermannus de Salzha magister de domo Teutonica, frater Conradus quondam Lantgravius, Heinricus comes de Stolberg...[260]The Annales Erphordenses record the appointment in 1238 of "frater Cunradus…germanus Heinrici lantgravii" as "domus Teutonico"[261].  Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "IX Kal Aug" of "Frater Conradus lantgravius magister domus Theutonice"[262]

7.         HEINRICH RASPE ([1204]-Wartburg 19 Feb 1247, bur Eisenach Katharinenkloster). “Henricus comes Raspe, Henricus comes de Swarzburg, Diterus comes junior de Berka...” witnessed the charter dated 1227 under which “Ludewicus...Turingiæ Lantgravius et Saxoniæ comes palatinus” settled a dispute between Reinhardsbrunn and Kloster Vallis St. Georgii[263].  He succeeed his brother as HEINRICH RASPE Landgraf of Thuringia, Pfalzgraf von Sachsen, and his nephew in 1241.  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[264].  “Henricus...Landgravius Thuringiæ et Saxoniæ comes palatinus...manibus matris nostæ et Conradi fratris nostri” donated property “in Ludirsburnin” to Reinhardsbrunn, for the salvation of “contectalis nostræ Elisabeth” on the day of her burial, by charter dated 1231[265]Heinricus...Lantgravius Thuringie et Saxonie comes palatinus” donated “decimam...in Wettere” to the archbishop of Mainz, requesting him to confer it on Kloster Aulesburg, by charter dated 24 Aug 1235, witnessed by “Frater Hermannus de Salzha magister de domo Teutonica, frater Conradus quondam Lantgravius, Heinricus comes de Stolberg...[266]Emperor Friedrich II appointed him joint imperial procurator in Germany in 1242, jointly with Wenzel I King of Bohemia, and as a result he became the focus of intrigue by the papal party[267].  He was elected as HEINRICH King of Germany in Veitshöchheim 22 May 1246 by the archbishops of Köln and Mainz[268].  He defeated Konrad IV King of Germany at Frankfurt later in 1246, but was unsuccessful in a subsequent attack against Otto Duke of Bavaria.  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "castrum Warberc 1247 XIII Kal Mar" of "Heinricus rex" and his burial "in monasterio sancte Katharine"[269]The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1248 in die sancta Iuliane in Wartperg" of "Heinricus rex et lantgravius", and his burial at Eisenach[270]The necrology of Thuringia records the death "XV Kal Mar" of "Heinricus lantgravius rex Romanorum"[271].  He died after falling from his horse[272]m firstly (before 16 May 1228) ELISABETH von Brandenburg, daughter of ALBRECHT II Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his wife Mathilde von Lensberg [Wettin] ([1207/16]-1231).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie refers to one of the daughters of "Albertus secundus" as "filiam que fuit lantgravio desponsata"[273].  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi"[274].  “Henricus...Landgravius Thuringiæ et Saxoniæ comes palatinus...manibus matris nostæ et Conradi fratris nostri” donated property “in Ludirsburnin” to Reinhardsbrunn, for the salvation of “contectalis nostræ Elisabeth” on the day of her burial, by charter dated 1231[275]m secondly (Wiener Neustadt Feb 1238) GERTRUD of Austria, daughter of LEOPOLD VI Duke of Austria & his wife Theodora --- (-1241).  The Annales Erphordenses record the marriage in Feb 1238 "in marchia Stirensi Nova civitate" of "sororem ducis Austrie" and "Heinricus Thuringie lantgravius"[276]The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m thirdly (1241) as her first husband, BEATRIX de Brabant, daughter of HENRI II Duke of Brabant & his first wife Maria von Hohenstaufen (1225-11 Nov 1288, bur Abbaye de Marquette near Lille).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names (in order) "Mechtildim comitissam Atrebatensem et Sancti Pauli, Mariam comitissam palatinam Reni, Beatricem lantgraviam Thuringie postea comitissam Flandrie, et Margaretam sanctiomonialem, postea abbatissam in Valle Ducis" as the daughters of "Henricus secundus et quintus dux Brabancie" and his first wife Marie[277]The Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ names "Beatrix" as third of the four daughters of "Henricus…secundus dux" and his wife Maria, her first husband "lantgravio Turingie" and her second husband "Willelmo comiti Flandrie", specifying that she was childless[278]She married secondly (Louvain Nov 1247) Guillaume III Count of Flanders

8.         AGNES ([1204]-24 Feb before 1244, bur Heiligenkreuz)The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Agnes" as second daughter of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that she married "ducis Austrie"[279].  The Annales Mellicenses in 1226 record the marriage of "Heinricus filius Liupoldi ducis" and "Agnetem filiam langravii de Duringia"[280]The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Agnem, sororem Henrici lantgravii Thuringie" as second wife of "Albertus dux"[281]The necrology of Heiligenkreuz records the death "VI Kal Mar" of "ducissa Richardis sor Ludovici Thuringiæ lantgravii mariti s Elizabethæ, ux Henrici…quinti cognomento Crudelis" and her burial "in capitulo no", specifying that her husband was last of the line and that their child was named Gertrud[282].  Although the other details are correct, the name "Richza" is a mistake for "Agnes", resulting from confusion with the wife of Heinrich Duke of Mödling, paternal uncle of Duke Heinrich "der Grausame".  It is curious that this entry does not refer to her second husband, suggesting that there may have been a separation before she died.  m firstly (1225) HEINRICH "der Grausame" of Austria, son of LEOPOLD VI "der Glorreiche" Duke of Austria [Babenberg] & his wife Theodora --- (1208-3 Jan 1228, bur Klosterneuburg).  m secondly (Acre after 1229) as his second wife, ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony, son of BERNHARD I Duke of Saxony, Graf von Aschersleben und von Anhalt & his wife Judyta of Poland (-[27 Sep/7 Nov] 1260, bur Lehnin).

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA 1247-1349

 

 

HEINRICH von Wettin, son of DIETRICH "der Bedrängte" Markgraf von Meissen und der Niederlausitz [Wettin] & his wife Jutta von Thüringen ([21 May/23 Sep] 1218-1288 before 8 Feb, bur Kloster Altzelle).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filiam Hethwigem et filius Othonem…Sophiam et Conradum filium…et tercium Tidericum" as children of "Tidericus comes, filius Othonis marchionis" & his wife[283], although "tercium Tidericum" appears to be an error for "Heinricum".  He succeeded his father in 1221 as HEINRICH "der Erlauchte" Markgraf von Meissen und der Llausitz, minor until 1230.  He succeeded in 1247 as Landgraf of Thuringia and Pfalzgraf von Sachsen, until 1265.  He recognised Willem II Count of Holland as King of Germany and in return was acknowledged as Landgraf of Thuringia and enfeoffed with the imperial territories previously held by the late Landgraf Heinrich Raspe[284].  Children: 

1.         ALBRECHT (1240-Erfurt 20 Nov 1314, bur Erfurt St Marien).  He succeeded in 1265 as Landgraf of Thuringia and Pfalzgraf von Sachsen, until 1307.  He succeeded his father in 1288 as ALBRECHT II "der Entartete" Markgraf von Meissen until 1292.  children: 

a)         FRIEDRICH (1257-Wartburg 16 Nov 1323, bur Eisenach Katharinen Kloster).  He succeeded in 1292 as FRIEDRICH I "der Freidige" Markgraf von MeissenLandgraf of Thuringia 1307.  The Annales Veterocellenses record the death in 1323 of "Fridericus marchio Misnensis"[285].  children: 

i)          FRIEDRICH (Gotha 1310-Wartburg 18 Nov 1349, bur Altzelle).  The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified.  He succeeded his father in 1323 as FRIEDRICH II "der Ernsthafte" Markgraf von Meissen and Landgraf of Thuringia, minor until 1329.  The title of Landgraf of Thuringia continued linked to the Markgrafschaft of Meissen. 

-         MARKGRAFEN von MEISSEN

ii)         other children: - see MEISSEN

b)         other children: - see MEISSEN

2.         other children: - see MEISSEN

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3.    DUKES of SAXONY (WETTIN)

 

 

The following information about the Dukes of Saxony is based largely on Huberty[286] and Europäische Stammtafeln[287]

 

 

A.      DUKES of SAXONY, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-ALTENBURG

 

 

JOHANN FRIEDRICH von Sachsen, son of JOHANN "der Beständige" Elector of Saxony & his first wife Sophie von Mecklenburg (Torgau 30 Jun 1503-Weimar 3 Mar 1554, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  An early supporter of the Reformation, he negotiated with the Emperor and other German states as his father's representative.  He succeeded his father in 1532 as JOHANN FRIEDRICH I "der Grossmütige" Elector of Saxony, and joint Herzog von Sachsen, jointly with his brother (until 1542 when he ceded Coburg to his brother).  He continued in his father's footsteps in imposing the Reformation, carrying out the Second Visitation 1533/35, and organising the disbanding and sale of the monasteries.  He founded an academic institution, specialising in theology, at Jena, raised to the status of university by Emperor Ferdinand III in 1557.  He imposed his religious beliefs with stubbornness, contrasting with his own passion for eating, drinking and hunting.  Military conflict with the Emperor was inevitable with Johann Friedrich's increasing use of the "Schmalkaldischen Bundes" to consolidate Protestantism in Saxony and Hessen.  He was defeated at Mühlberg 24 Apr 1547 and imprisoned.  Under the Capitulation of Wittenberg 19 May 1547, the Emperor deprived him of the electorate of Saxony which he awarded to his cousin Moritz along with two thirds of the territories of the Ernestine branch.  Johann Friedrich was freed 19 May 1552, but still refused to give up the electoral title and arms, seeing himself as a Protestant martyr.  The Treaty of Naumburg 24 Feb 1554 represented a final compromise with Elector Moritz: Johann Friedrich received Altenburg, Schmölln, Lucka, Sachsenburg, Eisenberg and Herbsleben, and was given the right to call himself "geborener Kurfürst".  Johann Friedrich's single-minded pursuit of his ambition, fired by his religious zeal, resulted in a further long-term weakening of the position of the Ernestine branch of the Wettin family. 

m (contract 8 Aug 1526, Torgau 9 Feb 1527) SIBYLLE von Kleve, daughter of JOHANN III "der Friedfertige" Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg & his wife Marie von Jülich und Berg (Düsseldorf 17 Jul 1512-Weimar 21 Feb 1554, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

Johann Friedrich & his wife had four children: 

1.         JOHANN FRIEDRICH von Sachsen (Torgau 8 Jan 1529-in prison Steier 19 May 1595, bur Coburg).  He succeeded his father 1554 as JOHANN FRIEDRICH II "der Mittlere" joint Duke of Saxony, jointly with his brothers.  He ruled solely from 1557 when his two brothers relinquished power in his favour.  From 1566, Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha.  He attempted to re-establish the position lost by his father with a disastrous military campaign against Emperor Ferdinand, known as the "Grumbachsche Händel" after his alliance with the Ritter Grumbach.  Johann Friedrich was deposed and deprived of all his territories in 1566.  He was banished from the Empire in 1567.  m firstly (Weimar 26 May 1555) as her second husband, AGNES von Hessen, widow of MORITZ Herzog zu Sachsen, daughter of PHILIPP I "der Grossmütige" Landgraf von Hessen & his first wife Christina Pss zu Sachsen (Marburg 31 May 1527-Weimar 4 Nov 1555, bur Weimar Stadtkirche).  m secondly (Weimar 12 Jun 1558) ELISABETH Pfalzgräfin von Simmern, daughter of FRIEDRICH III Elector Palatine & his first wife Maria Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Birkenfeld 30 Jun 1540-Wiener Neustadt 8 Feb 1594, bur Coburg St Moritz).  Johann Friedrich II & his second wife had four children:

a)         JOHANN FRIEDRICH von Sachsen (Weimar 30 Nov 1559-Weimar 8 Aug 1560, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).

b)         FRIEDRICH HEINRICH von Sachsen (Heldburg 3 Feb 1563-Eisenberg 4 Aug 1572, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).   

c)         JOHANN KASIMIR von Sachsen (Gotha 12 Jun 1564-Coburg 16 Jul 1633, bur Coburg St Moritz).  He received his father's territories, jointly with his brother, in 1570 on the abdication of their uncle.  Under the division of territories agreed with his uncle 6 Nov 1572, Johann Kasimir and his brother jointly retained Gotha, Coburg, Tenneberg, Eisenach, Creuzburg, Treffurt, half of Allstedt, Gerstungen, Breitenbach, Kraynburg (Tiefenort), Sonneberg, Veilsdorf, Lichtenberg, Eisfeld, Heldburg, Volkenroda, Römhild, and Salzungen, the Klosters Sonnefeld, Mönchroden and Allendorf, and the towns of Pössneck, Triptis, Auma, Rodach, Hildburghausen, Neustadt an der Heide, Ummerstadt, Schalkau and Walterhausen.  He agreed a division of territories with his brother 4 Dec 1596, retaining the largest part himself, and established his residence at Coburg.  m firstly (Dresden 16 Jan 1586, divorced 12 Dec 1593) ANNA Pss von Sachsen, daughter of AUGUST Elector of Saxony, Herzog von Sachsen & his first wife Anna Pss of Denmark (Dresden 16 Nov 1567-in prison Veste Coburg 27 Jan 1613).  m secondly (Coburg 16 Sep 1599) MARGARETA Herzogin von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, daughter of WILHELM Herzog von Braunschweig in Lüneburg & his wife Dorothea Pss of Denmark (Celle 6 Apr 1573-Celle 7 Aug 1643, bur Celle Unsere Liebe Frau). 

d)         JOHANN ERNST von Sachsen (Gotha 9 Jul 1566-Eisenach 23 Oct 1638, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  He received his father's territories, jointly with his brother, in 1570 on the abdication of their uncle.  Under the division of territories agreed with his uncle 6 Nov 1572, he and his brother jointly retained Gotha, Coburg, Tenneberg, Eisenach, Creuzburg, Treffurt, half of Allstedt, Gerstungen, Breitenbach, Kraynburg (Tiefenort), Sonneberg, Veilsdorf, Lichtenberg, Eisfeld, Heldburg, Volkenroda, Römhild, and Salzungen, the Klosters Sonnefeld, Mönchroden and Allendorf, and the towns of Pössneck, Triptis, Auma, Rodach, Hildburghausen, Neustadt an der Heide, Ummerstadt, Schalkau and Walterhausen.  He agreed a division of territories with his brother 4 Dec 1596, retaining Eisenach, Creuzburg (with Marksühl), Gerstungen, Breitenbach, Kraynburg, Tenneberg, Volkenroda, Lichtenberg, half of Salzungen, Kloster Allendorf, half of Allstedt, and established his residence at Eisenach.  He succeeded his brother in all his territories in 1633.  m firstly (Wiener Neustadt 23 Nov 1591) ELISABETH von Mansfeld, daughter of JOHANN Graf von Mansfeld & his wife --- (1565-Marksuhl 12 Apr 1596, bur Creuzburg St Nicolai).  m secondly (Rotenburg 14 May 1598) CHRISTINE Landgräfin von Hessen-Kassel, daughter of WILHELM IV Landgraf von Hessen zu Kassel & his wife Sophie Sabine von Württemberg (Kassel 19 Oct 1578-Eisenach 19 Aug 1658, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  Johann Ernst & his first wife had one child:

i)          JOHANN FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (b and d Marksuhl 8 Apr 1596, bur Creuzburg). 

2.         JOHANN WILHELM von Sachsen (Torgau 11 Mar 1530-Weimar 2 Mar 1573, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father 1554 as JOHANN WILHELM joint Duke of Saxony, jointly with his brothers. 

-        see below

3.         JOHANN ERNST von Sachsen (Weimar 5 Jan 1535-Weimar 11 Jan 1535, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).

4.         JOHANN FRIEDRICH von Sachsen (Torgau 16 Jan 1538-Jena 31 Oct 1565, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father 1554 as JOHANN FRIEDRICH III joint Duke of Saxony, jointly with his brothers.  Along with his brother Johann Wilhelm, Johann Friedrich III relinquished power in favour of their brother Johann Friedrich II in 1557. 

 

 

JOHANN WILHELM von Sachsen, son of JOHANN FRIEDRICH I "der Grossmütige" Elector of Saxony & his wife Sibylle von Kleve (Torgau 11 Mar 1530-Weimar 2 Mar 1573, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father in 1554 as JOHANN WILHELM joint Duke of Saxony, jointly with his brothers.  Along with his brother Johann Friedrich III, Johann Wilhelm relinquished power in favour of their brother Johann Friedrich II in 1557.  He established his residence at Coburg in 1566.  Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar.  He succeeded to all his brother's territories in 1566, when the latter was deposed.  He abdicated in favour of his nephews in 1570, but agreed a new division of territories with them 6 Nov 1572 under which he acquired Weimar, Jena, Rossla, Leuchtenburg, Altenburg, Eisenberg, Bürgei, Dornburg, Camburg, Roda, Saalfeld, Kapellendorf, Ringleben, Ichtershausen, Wachsenburg, Georgenthal, Schwarzwald, Reinhardsbrunn, Kloster Lausnitz, and the towns of Buttstädt, Buttlestedt, Madgala, Kaula, Orlamünde, Lobeda, Schmölln, Lucka and Neumark.  He established his residence at Weimar. 

m (Heidelberg 15 Jun 1560) DOROTHEA SUSANNA Pfalzgräfin von Simmern, daughter of FRIEDRICH III Elector Palatine & his first wife Maria Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Simmern 15 Nov 1544-Weimar 8 Apr 1592, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

Johann Wilhelm & his wife had four children: 

1.         FRIEDRICH WILHELM von Sachsen (Weimar 25 Apr 1562-Weimar 7 Jul 1602, bur Weimar St Peter und St Paul/Stadtkirche).  He succeeded his father 1573 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM I Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, jointly with his brother, minor until 1586.  He established his residence at Altenburg.  m firstly (Weimar 5 May 1583) SOPHIE Herzogin von Württemberg, daughter of CHRISTOPH Herzog von Württemberg-Montbéliard & his wife Anna Maria von Brandenburg (Stuttgart 20 Nov 1563-Vacha 21 Jul 1590, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  m secondly (Neuburg an der Donau 9 Sep 1591) ANNA MARIA Pfalzgräfin, daughter of PHILIPP LUDWIG Pfalzgraf von Neuburg & his wife Anna Pss von Kleve (Neuburg an der Donau 18 Aug 1575-Dornburg an der Saale 11 May 1643, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche).  Friedrich Wilhelm I & his first wife had six children: 

a)         DOROTHEA MARIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weimar 8 May 1584-Weimar 9 Sep 1586, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

b)         JOHANN WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weimar 30 Jun 1585-Weimar 23 Jan 1587, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

c)         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weimar 26 Sep 1586-Weimar 19 Jan 1587, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

d)         DOROTHEA SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weimar 19 Dec 1587-Weimar 10 Feb 1645, bur Quedlinburg).  Abbess of Quedlinburg 1618. 

e)         ANNA MARIA Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weimar 31 Mar 1589-Dresden 15 Dec 1626, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche). 

f)          JOHANN PHILIPP Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (Torgau 25 Jan 1597-Altenburg 1 Apr 1639, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche).  He succeeded his father 1602 as JOHANN PHILIPP Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, jointly with his brothers, minor until 1618.  He and his brothers agreed a partition of territories with their uncle 13 Nov 1603, under which the former received jointly Altenburg, Ronneburg, Eisenburg with Kloster Lausnitz, Dornburg, Camburg, the monastery of Heusdorf, Rossla, Bürgel, Roda, Leuchtenberg, Orlamünde, Saalfeld, Zella, and ½ Allstedt, and the towns of Schmölln, Lucka, Camburg and Sulza.  At the same time, the uncle and his nephews ruled jointly over Henneberg, the University of Jena, Georgenthaler Hof at Erfurt, Mühlberg and Tonndorf.  From 1631, at Remda and Schauenforst.  m (Altenburg 25 Oct 1618) as her second husband, ELISABETH Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, widow of AUGUST Herzog zu Sachsen Administrator of Naumburg-Zeitz, daughter of HEINRICH JULIUS Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his second wife Elisabeth Pss of Denmark (Wolfenbüttel 23 Jun 1593-Altenburg 25 Mar 1650, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche).  Johann Philipp & his wife had one child: 

i)          ELISABETH SOPHIA Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Halle 10 Oct 1619-Gotha 20 Dec 1680, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche)m (Altenburg 24 Oct 1636) ERNST I "der Fromme" Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Dorothea Maria Pss von Anhalt (Altenburg 25 Dec 1601-Schloß Friedenstein Gotha 26 Mar 1675, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).  Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha 1641. 

Friedrich Wilhelm I & his second wife had five children: 

g)         ANNA SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Torgau 3 Feb 1598-Oels 20 Mar 1641, bur Oels St Johannes).  m (Oels 4 Dec 1618) as his first wife, KARL FRIEDRICH Herzog von Münsterberg-Oels in Oels, son of KARL II Duke of Münsterberg-Oels in Bernstadt [Podiebrad] & his second wife Elisabeth Magdalena von Brieg [Piast] (18 Oct 1593-Oels 31 May 1647, bur Oels). 

h)         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (Torgau 12 Feb 1599-killed in battle Seelze 25 Oct 1625, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche).  He succeeded his father 1602 as FRIEDRICH II Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, jointly with his brothers.  He and his brothers agreed a partition of territories with their uncle 13 Nov 1603, under which the former received jointly Altenburg, Ronneburg, Eisenburg with Kloster Lausnitz, Dornburg, Camburg, the monastery of Heusdorf, Rossla, Bürgel, Roda, Leuchtenberg, Orlamünde, Saalfeld, Zella, and ½ Allstedt, and the towns of Schmölln, Lucka, Camburg and Sulza.  At the same time, the uncle and his nephews ruled jointly over Henneberg, the University of Jena, Georgenthaler Hof at Erfurt, Mühlberg and Tonndorf.  Colonel in the Danish army. 

i)          JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (Torgau 13 Apr 1600-Brieg 2 Dec 1632, bur Dresden Sophienkirche).  He succeeded his father 1602 as JOHANN WILHELM II Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, jointly with his brothers.  He and his brothers agreed a partition of territories with their uncle 13 Nov 1603, under which the former received jointly Altenburg, Ronneburg, Eisenburg with Kloster Lausnitz, Dornburg, Camburg, the monastery of Heusdorf, Rossla, Bürgel, Roda, Leuchtenberg, Orlamünde, Saalfeld, Zella, and ½ Allstedt, and the towns of Schmölln, Lucka, Camburg and Sulza.  At the same time, the uncle and his nephews ruled jointly over Henneberg, the University of Jena, Georgenthaler Hof at Erfurt, Mühlberg and Tonndorf.  Colonel in the army of Electoral Saxony. 

j)          DOROTHEA Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Torgau 26 Jun 1601-Altenburg 10 May 1675, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche).  Coadjutrix of Quedlinburg 1628-1633.  m (Weimar 24 Jun 1633) ALBRECHT Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach, son of JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Dorothea Maria Pss von Anhalt (Altenburg 27 Jul 1599-Eisenach 20 Dec 1644, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

k)         FRIEDRICH WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (posthumously Weimar 12 Feb 1603-Altenburg 22 Apr 1669, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche).  He succeeded from birth as FRIEDRICH WILHELM II Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, jointly with his brothers.  He ruled solely after the death of his brother Johann Philipp 1639.  Under the pact of Eisenberg reached13 Feb 1640 with Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar following the death of Johann Ernst Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach in 1639, he acquired 1/3 of the possessions of the latter, thereafter ruling in Coburg, Rodach, ½ Schalkau, Römhild, Hildburghausen and Neustadt an der Heide bei Coburg, ½ Allstedt, Sonnenberg, the monasteries of Mönchroden and Sonnefeld, and the town of Pössneck.  Under the partition of the county of Henneberg agreed 9 Aug 1660 with the Elector of Saxony, Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar and Ernst I Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, he received Themar and Meiningen.  m firstly (Schloß Altenburg 18/28 Sep 1638) SOPHIE ELISABETH Markgräfin von Brandenburg, daughter of CHRISTIAN WILHELM Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife --- (Moritzburg, Halle an der Saale 22 Jan/1 Feb 1616-Schloß Altenburg 6/16 Mar 1650, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche).  m secondly (Dresden 11 Oct 1652) as her second husband, MAGDALENE SIBYLLE Herzogin von Sachsen, widow of CHRISTIAN Crown Prince of Denmark, daughter of JOHANN GEORG I Elector of Saxony & his second wife Magdalene Sibylle Pss von Preußen (Dresden 23 Dec 1617-Altenburg 6 Jan 1668, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche).  Friedrich Wilhelm II & his second wife had three children: 

i)          CHRISTIAN Erbherzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (chr 27 Feb Altenburg 1654-Altenburg 5 Jun 1663, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche). 

ii)         JOHANNA MAGDALENE Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Altenburg 14 Jan 1656-Weissenfels 22 Jan 1686, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche)m (Altenburg 25 Oct/4 Nov 1671) as his first wife, JOHANN ADOLF Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels, son of AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his first wife Anna Maria Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Halle 1649-Weissenfels 24 May 1697, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche).  He succeeded in 1680 as Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels

iii)        FRIEDRICH WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg (Altenburg 12 Jul 1657-Altenburg 14 Apr 1672, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche).  He succeeded his father 1669 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM III Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, minor. 

2.         SIBYLLE MARIE von Sachsen (Weimar 7 Nov 1563-Altenburg 20 Feb 1569, bur Sibylle Marie (Weimar 1563-Altenburg 1569, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

3.         JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 22 May 1570-Weimar 18 Jul 1605, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father 1573 as JOHANN joint Herzog von Sachsen, jointly with his brother, minor until 1586. 

-        see below

4.         MARIA von Sachsen (Weimar 7 Oct 1571-7 Mar 1610, bur Quedlinburg).  Abbess of Quedlinburg 1601. 

 

 

 

B.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-WEIMAR

 

 

JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of JOHANN WILHELM Duke of Saxony & his wife Dorothea Susanne Pfalzgräfin von Simmern (Weimar 22 May 1570-Weimar 18 Jul 1605, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father in 1573 as JOHANN joint Duke of Saxony, jointly with his brother, minor until 1586.  He established his residence at Weimar, from which time he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar.  After the death of his older brother, he agreed a partition of territories with his nephews 13 Nov 1603, under which he received Weimar, Jena, Burgau, Königsberg, Oldisleben, Ringleben, Ichtershausen, Wachsenburg, Reinhardsbrunn, Georgenthal, Schwarzwald, Kapellendorf, and the towns of Lobeda, Buttstädt, Rastenburg, Buttelstadt, Neumark and Magdala.  At the same time, he and his nephews ruled jointly over Henneberg, the University of Jena, Georgenthaler Hof at Erfurt, Mühlberg and Tonndorf. 

m (Altenburg 7 Jan 1593) DOROTHEA MARIA von Anhalt, daughter of JOACHIM ERNST Fürst von Anhalt in Zerbst, Bernburg, Köthen und Dessau & his second wife Eleonore von Württemberg (Dessau 2 Jul 1574-Weimar 18 Jul 1617, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

Johann & his wife had twelve children: 

1.         JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Altenburg 21 Feb 1594-Sankt Martin, Hungary 27 Nov/6 Dec 1626, bur St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as JOHANN ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor until 1611. 

2.         CHRISTIAN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (b and d Altenburg 6 Apr 1595). 

3.         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Altenburg 1 Mar 1596-killed in battle Fleury 19 Aug 1622, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as FRIEDRICH joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor until ----. 

4.         JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 31 Mar 1597-Weimar 6 Oct 1604, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

5.         WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Altenburg 11 Apr 1598-Weimar 17 May 1662, bur Weimar Friedhof).  Twin with his stillborn brother.  He succeeded his father in 1605 as WILHELM "der Grosse" joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor. 

-        see below

6.         son stillborn (Altenburg 11 Apr 1598).  Twin with Johann. 

7.         ALBRECHT Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Altenburg 27 Jul 1599-Eisenach 20 Dec 1644, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as ALBRECHT joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor until ----.  He divided territories with his two surviving brothers 12 Sep 1641, taking Eisenach (with Wartburg), Volkenroda, Creuzburg (with Marksuhl and Burkhardtroda), Kraynberg, Gerstungen (with Haus Breitenbach), Salzunhen, Lichtenberg (with Ostheim), Heldburg (with Ummerstadt), Eisfeld, Hildburghausen, Veilsdorf, the monastery of Allendorf and ½ Georgenthaler Hof at Erfurt, from which time he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenachm (Weimar 24 Jun 1633) DOROTHEA Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg, daughter of FRIEDRICH WILHELM I Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg & his second wife Anna Maria Pfalzgräfin (Torgau 26 Jun 1601-Altenburg 10 Apr 1675, bur Altenburg Brüderkirche). 

8.         JOHANN FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Altenburg 19 Sep 1600-Weimar 17 Oct 1628, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father 1605 as JOHANN FRIEDRICH joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor until 1611. 

9.         ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Altenburg 25 Dec 1601-Schloß Friedenstein Gotha 26 Mar 1675, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as ERNST I "der Fromme" Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor until 1611.  He divided territories with his two surviving brothers 12 Sep 1641, taking Gotha (with Reinhardsbrunn), Tenneberg (with Waltershausen), Georgenthal, Schwarzbrunn, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg, Tonndorf and Salzungen, after which he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha

-        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-GOTHA

10.      FRIEDRICH WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 7 Feb 1603-Georgenthal 16 Aug 1619, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor. 

11.      BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 6 Aug 1604-Neuenburg/Oberrhein 18 Jul 1639, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as BERNHARD joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor.  General in the Swedish army 1632.  Herzog von Franken 1633. 

12.      JOHANNA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (posthumously Weimar 14 Apr 1606-Weimar 3 Jul 1609, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

 

 

WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Dorothea Maria Pss von Anhalt (Altenburg 11 Apr 1598-Weimar 17 May 1662, bur Weimar Friedhof).  Twin with his stillborn brother.  He succeeded his father in 1605 as WILHELM "der Grosse" joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor.  He ruled effectively in Weimar from the death of his older brother Johann Ernst in 1626.  On the death of the last Graf von Gleichen in 1631, Wilhelm acquired Remda.  Under the pact of Eisenberg agreed 13 Feb 1640 with Friedrich Wilhelm II Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, following the death of Johann Ernst Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach in 1639, Wilhelm acquired two thirds of the possessions of the latter, thereafter ruling in Eisenach (with Wartburg), Volkenroda, Lichtenberg (with the town of Ostheim), Creuzburg (including Marksuhl and Burkhardtroda), Kraynburg, Gerstungen (with Haus Breitenbach), the monastery of Allendorf, Salzungen, Gotha (with the monastery of Reinhardsbrunn), Heldburg, Ummerstadt, Tennberg, Waltershausen, Veilsdorf and Eisfeld.  He divided territories with his two surviving brothers 12 Sep 1641, taking Weimar, Jena, Burgau, Ringleben, Capellendorf, Berka, Schwansee, Magdala, Brembach and Gebstedt, and the towns of Buttstädt, Buttelstedt, Rastenberg, Lobeda, Neumark and Magdala, and Oldisleben.  He and his brother Ernst agreed a partition of the territories of their deceased brother Albrecht 30 Mar 1645, under which he acquired Eisenach (with Wartburg), Creuzburg (including Marksuhl and Burkhardtroda) and Gerstungen (with Haus Breitenbach), Lichtenberg (with the town of Ostheim), and half of Georgenthaler Hof at Erfurt.  Under the partition of the county of Henneberg agreed 9 Aug 1660 with the Elector of Saxony, Friedrich Wilhelm II Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg and Ernst I Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, Wilhelm received Ilmenau and Kaltennordheim. 

m (Weimar 23 May 1625) ELEONORE DOROTHEA Pss von Anhalt-Dessau, daughter of JOHANN GEORG Fürst von Anhalt-Dessau & his second wife Dorothea Pfalzgräfin von Simmern (Dessau 6/16 Feb 1602-Weimar 26 Dec 1664, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

Wilhelm & his wife had nine children: 

1.         WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (26 Mar Weimar 1626-1 Nov 1626, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

2.         JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 11 Sep 1627-Weimar 15 May 1683, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul, later Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1662 as JOHANN ERNST II Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar

-        see below

3.         JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 16 Aug 1630-Weimar 16 May 1639, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  

4.         ADOLF WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 14 May 1632-Eisenach 22 Nov 1668, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  He succeeded his father 1662 as ADOLF WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenachm (Wolfenbüttel 18 Jan 1663) as her first husband, MARIE ELISABETH Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of AUGUST Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Wolfenbüttel & his third wife Sophie Elisabeth von Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Braunschweig 7 Jan 1638-Coburg 15 Feb 1687, bur Coburg St Moritz).  She married secondly (Gotha 18 Jul 1676) Albrecht Herzog von Sachsen Gotha (-Coburg 6 Aug 1699, bur Coburg St Moritz).  Adolf Wilhelm & his wife had five children: 

a)         KARL AUGUST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 21 Jan 1664-Eisenach 14 Feb 1665, bur St Georgenkirche). 

b)         FRIEDRICH WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 2 Feb 1665-Eisenach 3 May 1665, bur St Georgenkirche). 

c)         ADOLF WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 26 Jun 1666-Eisenach 11 Dec 1666, bur St Georgenkirche). 

d)         ERNST AUGUST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 28 Aug 1667-Eisenach 8 Feb 1668, bur St Georgenkirche). 

e)         WILHELM AUGUST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (posthumously Eisenach 30 Nov 1668-Eisenach 23 Feb 1671, bur St Georgenkirche).  He succeeded from his birth in 1668 as WILHELM AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach

5.         JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 12 Jul 1634-while hunting in Eckhartshausen Forest 19 Sep 1686, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1662 as JOHANN GEORG I Herzog von Sachsen-Marksuhl.  From 1672 Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach

-        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-EISENACH

6.         WILHELMINE ELEONORE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 7 Jun 1636-Weimar 1 Apr 1653, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul). 

7.         BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 14 Oct 1638-Jena 3 May 1678, bur Jena St Michael).  Established his residence at Jena 1662, as BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Jena.  He and his brothers agreed a partition of territories 25 Jul 1672, under which he acquired Jena (with Burgau and Lobeda), Bürgel (with Gniebsdorf), Dornburg, Allstedt, Gelbstedt, Magdala, Kappellendorf, Heusdorf, Apolda, Buttlestedt, Döbritschen, Wiegendorf and ½ Georgenthaler at Erfurt.  m (Paris 10 Jun 1662) MARIE CHARLOTTE de la Trémoïlle, daughter of HENRI de la Trémoïlle Duc de Thouars & his wife Marie de la Tour des ducs de Bouillon (Thouars 26 Jan 1632-Jena 24 Aug 1682).  Mistress (1): MARIE ELISABETH [Emilie] von Kospoth, daughter of --- (-Magdeburg 8 Feb 1716). She was known as “Madame von Alstädt”.  Created Gräfin von Alstädt by Imperial Order Vienna 9 Nov 1676.  Bernhard & his wife had five children: 

a)         WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Jena (Jena 24 Jul 1664-Jena 21 Jun 1666, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).

b)         daughter stillborn (Jena 7 Apr 1666). 

c)         BERNHARD Erbherzog von Sachsen-Jena (Jena 9 Nov 1667-Jena 26 Apr 1668).

d)         CHARLOTTE MARIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Jena (Jena 20 Dec 1669-Gräfentonna 6 Jan 1703, bur Gräfentonna)m (Eisenach 2 Nov 1683, divorced 23 Aug 1690) her first cousin, WILHELM ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of JOHANN ERNST II Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Christine Elisabeth Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Weimar 19 Oct 1662-Weimar 26 Aug 1728, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

e)         JOHANN WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Jena (Jena 28 Mar 1675-Jena 4 Nov 1690, bur Jena Pfarrkirche).  He succeeded his father 1678 as JOHANN WILHELM I Herzog von Sachsen-Jena, minor. 

Bernhard had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1): 

f)          EMILIE ELEONORE von Kospoth (Dornburg 20 Sep 1674-Merseburg 3 May 1709).  She was legitimated as Gräfin von Alstädt by Imperial Order Vienna 9 Nov 1676.  m (Schloß Dornburg 2 Oct 1692) OTTO WILHELM von Tümpling, son of --- (-Karlsbad 28 Jun 1730).  Court Marshall of Ducal Saxony in Merseburg. 

8.         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 19 Mar 1640-Weimar 19 Aug 1656, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  

9.         DOROTHEA MARIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 14 Oct 1641-Moritzburg an der Elster 11 Jun 1675, bur Moritzburg an der Elster)m (Weimar 3 Jul 1656) as his second wife, MORITZ Herzog von Sachsen-Zeitz, son of JOHANN GEORG I Elector of Saxony & his second wife Magdalene Sibylle Pss von Preußen (Dresden 28 Mar 1619-Moritzburg an der Elster 4 Dec 1681, bur Moritzburg). 

 

 

JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of WILHELM "der Grosse" Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Eleonore Dorothea Pss von Anhalt-Dessau (Weimar 11 Sep 1627-Weimar 15 May 1683, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul, later Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1662 as JOHANN ERNST II Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar.  After the death of his nephew Wilhelm August Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach, he and his brothers agreed a partition of territories 25 Jul 1672, under which he acquired Weimar, Ilmenau, Oberweimar, Rossla, Berka, Brembach, Zillbach, Buttstädt, and Rastenberg. 

m (Weimar 14 Aug 1656) CHRISTIANE ELISABETH Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, daughter of JOHANN CHRISTIAN Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg & his wife Anna Gräfin von Oldenburg (Sonderburg 23 Jun 1638-Weimar 7 Jun 1679, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

Johann Ernst & his wife had five children: 

1.         ANNA DOROTHEA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 12 Nov 1657-Quedlinburg 23 Jun 1704, bur Weimar Friedhof).  Abbess of Quedlinburg 1685. 

2.         WILHELMINA CHRISTINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 26 Nov 1658-Sondershausen 30 Jun 1712, bur Sondershausen)m (Sondershausen 1684) CHRISTIAN WILHELM Fürst von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, son of --- (-Sondershausen 10 May 1721, bur Sondershausen). 

3.         ELEONORE SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 22 Mar 1660-Lauchstädt 4 Feb 1687, bur Merseburg Cathedral)m (Weimar 9 Jul 1684) as his first wife, PHILIPP Herzog von Sachsen-Merseburg zu Lauchstädt, son of CHRISTIAN I Herzog von Sachsen-Merseburg & his wife Christiane Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Merseburg 1657-killed in battle Fleury 20 Jun/1 Jul 1690, bur Merseburg Cathedral). 

4.         WILHELM ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 19 Oct 1662-Weimar 26 Aug 1728, bur Weimar Friedhof).  He succeeded his father 1683 as WILHELM ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brother.  After the death of his first cousin Johann Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen-Jena in 1690, he and his brother agreed a partition of territories 12 Jul 1691 with their first cousins under which Wilhelm Ernst acquired Dornburg, Bürgel (with Gniebsdorf), Kappellendorf, Heusdorf, Magdala, Gebstedt, Apola, Buttelstädt, Döbritschen and Wiegendorf.  m (Eisenach 2 Nov 1683, divorced 23 Aug 1690) his first cousin, CHARLOTTE MARIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Jena, daughter of BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Jena & his wife Marie Charlotte de La Trémoïlle (Jena 20 Dec 1669-Gräfentonna 6 Jan 1703, bur Gräfentonna Kirche).  

5.         JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 22 Jun 1664-Weimar 10 Jun 1707, bur Weimar Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1683 as JOHANN ERNST III joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brother.  After the death of his first cousin Johann Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen-Jena in 1690, he and his brother agreed a partition of territories 12 Jul 1691 with their first cousins under which Johann Ernst III acquired Kappellendorf, Heusdorf and Magdala.  m firstly (Zerbst 11 Oct 1685) SOPHIE AUGUSTA Pss von Anhalt-Zerbst, daughter of JOHANN Fürst von Anhalt-Zerbst & his wife Sophie Augusta Herzogin von Holstein-Gottorp (Zerbst 9 Mar 1663-Weimar 14 Sep 1694, bur Weimar Friedhof).  m secondly (Kassel 4 Nov 1694) CHARLOTTE DOROTHEA SOPHIE Landgräfin von Hessen-Homburg, daughter of FRIEDRICH II “mit dem silbernen Bein” Landgraf von Hessen-Homburg zu Hötensleben & his second wife Luise Elisabeth Pss of Courland (Kassel 17 Jun 1672-Weimar 29 Aug 1738, bur Weimar Friedhof).  Johann Ernst & his first wife had five children:  

a)         JOHANN WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 4 Jun 1686-Weimar 14 Oct 1686, bur Weimar Friedhof).  

b)         ERNST AUGUST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 19 Apr 1688-Eisenach 19 Jan 1748, bur Weimar Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1707 as ERNST AUGUST I joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his uncle. 

-        see below.  

c)         ELEONORE CHRISTIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 15 Apr 1689-Weimar 7 Feb 1690, bur Weimar Friedhof).  

d)         JOHANNA AUGUSTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 6 Jul 1690-Weimar 24 Aug 1691, bur Weimar Friedhof).  

e)         JOHANNA CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 23 Nov 1693-Weimar 3 Mar 1751, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

Johann Ernst & his second wife had four children: 

f)          KARL FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 31 Oct 1695-Weimar 30 Mar 1696, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

g)         JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 25 Dec 1696-Frankfurt am Main 1 Aug 1715, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

h)         MARIE LUISE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 18 Dec 1697-Weimar 29 Dec 1704, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

i)          CHRISTIANE SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 7 Apr 1700-Weimar 19 Feb 1701, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

 

 

ERNST AUGUST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of JOHANN ERNST III Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his first wife Sophie Augusta Pss von Anhalt-Zerbst (Weimar 19 Apr 1688-Eisenach 19 Jan 1748, bur Weimar Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1707 as ERNST AUGUST I joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his uncle.  He ruled solely from his uncle's death in 1728.  Having inherited healthy finances from his uncle, he squandered resources on the construction of extravagances such as the castles of Dornburg and Belvedere, and the hunting houses of Bad Berka and Ettersberg.  He also wasted money establishing his own regiment to further his military ambitions.  Field Marshal Lieutenant in the Imperial army 1729, General of Cavalry 1732.  He inherited Eisenach and Jena on the death of his cousin Wilhelm Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach in 1741, but soon came into conflict with the Eisenach administrative authorities.  He was also in dispute with the University of Jena. 

m firstly (Nienburg 24 Jan 1716) as her second husband, ELEONORE WILHELMINE Pss von Anhalt-Köthen, widow of FRIEDRICH ERDMANN Erbherzog von Sachsen-Merseburg, daughter of EMANUEL LEBRECHT Fürst von Anhalt-Köthen & his wife Gisela Agnes [von] Rath (Köthen 7 May 1696-Weimar 30 Aug 1726, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

m secondly (Bayreuth 7 Apr 1734) SOPHIE CHARLOTTE ALBERTINE Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, daughter of GEORG FRIEDRICH KARL Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth & his wife Dorothea Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (Schloß Weferlingen 27 Jul 1713-Ilmenau 2 Mar 1747, bur Ilmenau). 

Mistress (1): FRIEDERIKE von Marschall, daughter of FRIEDRICH WILHELM von Marschall & his wife Christine Elisabeth Vitzthum von Eckstädt. 

Ernst August I & his first wife had eight children:

1.         WILHELM ERNST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 4 Jul 1717-Halle 8 Jun 1719).  Twin with Wilhelmine Auguste.

2.         WILHELMINE AUGUSTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 4 Jul 1717-Weimar 9 Dec 1752, bur Weimar Friedhof).  Twin with Wilhelm Ernst.

3.         JOHANN WILHELM Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 10 Jan 1719-Weimar 6 Dec 1732, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

4.         CHARLOTTE AGNESA LEOPOLDINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 4 Dec 1720-Weimar 15 Oct 1724, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

5.         JOHANNA ELEONORE HENRIETTA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 2 Dec 1721-Weimar 17 Jun 1722, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

6.         ERNESTINA ALBERTINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 28 Dec 1722-Alverdissen 25 Nov 1769, bur Alverdissen)m (Weimar 6 May 1756) PHILIPP ERNST Graf zur Schaumburg-Alverdissen, son of --- (-Bückeburg 13 Feb 1787, bur Stadthagen).  Graf von Schaumburg-Lippe 1777. 

7.         BERNHARDINA CHRISTIANA SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 5 May 1724-Rudolstadt 5 Jun 1757, bur Schwarzburg)m (Eisenach 19 Nov 1744) JOHANN FRIEDRICH Fürst von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, son of --- (-Rudolstadt 10 Jul 1767, bur Schwarzburg). 

8.         EMANUEL FRIEDRICH WILHELM BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 19 Dec 1725-Weimar 11 Jun 1729, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

Ernst August I & his second wife had four children:

9.         KARL AUGUST EUGEN Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 1 Oct 1735-Weimar 13 Sep 1736, bur Weimar Friedhof). 

10.      ERNST AUGUST KONSTANTIN Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 2 Jun 1737-Weimar 28 May 1758, bur Weimar Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1748 as ERNST AUGUST II KONSTANTIN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, minor until 1755.  m (Braunschweig 16 Mar 1756) ANNA AMALIE Pss von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of KARL I Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his wife Philippine Charlotte Pss of Prussia (Wolfenbüttel 24 Oct 1739-Weimar 10 Apr 1807, bur Weimar St Peter & Paul).  Regent of Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach for her son 1758-1775.  Ernst August II Konstantin & his wife had two children: 

a)         CARL AUGUST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 3 Sep 1757-Graditz 14 Jun 1828, bur Weimar Friedhof).  He succeeded his father in 1758 as CARL AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach.  He attracted many famous Germans of his day, including Goethe, Wieland, Schiller, and Herder, to his capital Weimar, which became a centre of cultural activity.  Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach joined the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807.  Carl August received the title of Grand Duke of Saxony 21 Apr 1815. 

-        GRAND DUKES of SAXONY

b)         FRIEDRICH FERDINAND KONSTANTIN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (posthumously Weimar 8 Sep 1758-Wiebelskirchen 6 Sep 1793, bur Weimar cemetery).  Major General in the army of Saxony. 

11.      ERNESTINA AUGUSTA SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 4 Jan 1740-Hildburghausen 10 Jun 1786, bur Hildburghausen)m (Bayreuth 1 Jul 1758) as his third wife, ERNST FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, son of ERNST FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen & his wife Karoline Gräfin zu Erbach-Fürstenau (Königsberg, Franken 10 Jun 1727-Seidingstedt 23 Sep 1780, bur Hildburghausen). 

12.      ERNST ADOLF FELIX Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar (Weimar 23 Jan 1742-Weimar 23 Jan 1743).

Ernst August I had one iIllegitimate child by Mistress (1):

13.       ERNST FRIEDRICH von Marschall (29 Oct 1731-31 Oct 1810).  He was created Freiherr von Brenn by Imperial Order at Vienna 26 Feb 1804).  m (5 Oct 1773) BEATE HELENE Bormann, daughter of --- Bormann [Kantor at Goldberg] & his wife --- (-24 Oct 1819). 

-        MARSCHALL, FREIHERREN von BRENN

 

 

 

C.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-EISENACH

 

 

JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of WILHELM "der Grosse" Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Eleonore Dorothea Pss von Anhalt-Dessau (Weimar 12 Jul 1634-while hunting in Eckhartshausen Forest 19 Sep 1686, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1662 as JOHANN GEORG I Herzog von Sachsen-Marksuhl.  After the death of his nephew Wilhelm August Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach, he and his brothers agreed a partition of territories 25 Jul 1672, under which he acquired Eisenach, Lichtenberg (with Ostheim), Creuzberg (with the monastery of Marksuhl), Burkersroda, Gerstungen (with Haus Breitenbach, Ringleben, Schwansee, Bachstedt, Markvippach, Kaltennordheim, Crayenberg and ½ Georgenthaler at Erfurt, after which he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach

m (Wallau 29 May 1661) as her second husband, JOHANNETTA Gräfin von Sayn-Wittgenstein zu Altenkirchen, widow of JOHANN Landgraf von Hessen-Braubach, daughter of ERNST Graf von Sayn-Wittgenstein in Sayn & his wife Juliane Gräfin von Erbach (Frankfurt am Main 27 Apr 1626-Jena 28 Sep 1701, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

Johann Georg I & his wife had eight children: 

1.         ELEONORE ERDMUTHE LUISE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Friedewald 13/23 Apr 1662-Schloß Pretzsch 9/19 Sep 1696, bur Freiberg Cathedral)m firstly (Eisenach 25 Oct/4 Nov 1681) as his second wife, JOHANN FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach, son of ALBRECHT Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach & his second wife Sophie Margarete Gräfin zu Oettingen-Oettingen (Ansbach 18 Oct 1654-Ansbach 22 Mar 1686, bur Ansbach).  m secondly (Leipzig 17 Apr 1692) JOHANN GEORG IV Elector of Saxony, son of JOHANN GEORG III Elector of Saxony & his wife Anna Sophia Pss of Denmark (Dresden 18 Oct 1668-Dresden from smallpox 27 Apr 1694, bur Freiberg). 

2.         FRIEDRICH AUGUST Erbherzogn von Sachsen-Eisenach (Friedewald 20/30 Oct 1663-killed in battle Pressburg 19 Sep 1684, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

3.         JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Friedewald 24 Jul/3 Aug 1665-Eisenach from smallpox 10 Nov 1698, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  Erbherzogn von Sachsen-Eisenach on the death of his older brother in 1684.  He succeeded his father in 1686 as JOHANN GEORG II Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach.  After the death of his first cousin Johann Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen-Jena in 1690, he and his brother agreed a partition of territories 12 Jul 1691 with their first cousins under which Johann Georg II acquired Allstedt, Zellbach, Remda, Fischberg, Schwabsdorf and Döbritschen.  m (Kirchheim unter Teck 20 Sep 1688) SOPHIE CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Württemberg, daughter of EBERHARD III Herzog von Württemberg & his second wife Marie Dorothea Sophie Gräfin zu Oettingen (Stuttgart 22 Feb/4 Mar 1671-Allstedt 11 Sep 1717, bur Eisenach Georgenkirche). 

4.         MAXIMILIAN HEINRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Friedewald 17 Oct 1666-Altenkirchen 23 Jul 1668, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  Twin with Johann Wilhelm. 

5.         JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Friedewald 17 Oct 1666-Eisenach 4 Jan 1729, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  Twin with Maximilian Heinrich.  After the death of his first cousin Johann Wilhelm I Herzog von Sachsen-Jena in 1690, he and his brother agreed a partition of territories 12 Jul 1691 with their first cousins under which Johann Wilhelm acquired Jena, where he established his residence and succeeded as JOHANN WILHELM II Herzog von Sachsen-Jena.  He succeeded his brother in 1698 as JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenachm firstly (Oranjewoud, Friesland 28 Nov 1690) AMALIA Gräfin von Nassau-Diez, daughter of WILLEM FREDERIK Fürst von Nassau-Diez & his wife Albertina Agnes Pss van Oranje Gräfin von Nassau (The Hague 25 Nov/5 Dec 1655-Allstedt 16 Feb 1695, bur Allstedt).  m secondly (Wolfenbüttel 27 Feb/9 Mar 1697) CHRISTIANE JULIANE Markgräfin von Baden-Durlach, daughter of KARL GUSTAV Markgraf von Baden-Durlach & his first wife Christine Magdalene Pfalzgräfin von Zweibrücken zu Kleeburg (12/22 Sep 1678-Eisenach 10 Jul 1707, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  She inherited Kutzenhausen in 1704, which she sold in 1705 to the Grafen von Hanau.  m thirdly (Weissenfels 28 Jul 1708) MAGDALENA SIBYLLE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weissenfels, daughter of JOHANN ADOLF I Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his first wife Johanna Magdalena Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Halle an der Saale 3 Sep 1673-Eisenach 28 Nov 1726, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  m fourthly (Schloß Philippsruhe, Hanau 29 May 1727) as her second husband, MARIE CHRISTINE FELIZITAS Gräfin von Leiningen-Dachsburg, widow of CHRISTOPH Markgraf von Baden-Durlach, daughter of JOHANN KARL Graf von Leiningen-Dachsburg in Heidesheim & his wife Johanna Magdalene Gräfin von Hanau-Lichtenberg (Schloß Broich, Mülheim an der Ruhr 19/29 Dec 1692-Eisenach 3 Jun 1734, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  Johann Wilhelm & his first wife had two children: 

a)         WILHELM HEINRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Oranjewoud 10/20 Nov 1691-Eisenach 26 Jul 1741, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  He succeeded his father 1729 as WILHELM HEINRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenachm firstly (Idstein 15 Feb 1713) ALBERTINE JULIANE Pss von Nassau-Saarbrücken, daughter of GEORG AUGUST SAMUEL Fürst von Nassau-Saarbrücken-Idstein & his wife Henriette Dorothea Pss von Oettingen (Idstein 29 Mar 1698-Jagdschloß Wilhelmsthal bei Eisenach 9 Oct 1722, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  m secondly (Berlin Stadtschloß 3 Jun 1723) ANNA SOPHIE CHARLOTTE Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Schwedt, daughter of ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt & his wife Marie Dorothea Pss of Courland ([Schwedt] [24] Dec 1706-Schloß Sangershausen 3 Jan 1751, bur Halle an der Saale). 

b)         ALBERTINE JOHANNETTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Oranjewoud 28 Feb 1693-Eisenach 1 Apr 1700, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

Johann Wilhelm & his second wife had seven children:

c)         JOHANNETTE ANTOINETTE JULIANA Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Jena 31 Jan 1698-Schloß Dahme 13 Apr 1726, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche)m (Eisenach 9 May 1721) as his first wife, JOHANN ADOLF Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels, son of JOHANN ADOLF I Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his first wife Johanna Magdalena Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weissenfels 1685-Leipzig 16 May 1746, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche).  He succeeded in 1736 as Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels

d)         KAROLINE CHRISTINE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Jena 15 Apr 1699-Philippsthal 25 Jul 1743, bur Philippsthal)m (Eisenach 24 Nov 1725) KARL I Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal, son of PHILIPP Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal & his wife Katharine Amalie Gräfin zu Solms-Laubach (Schmalkalden 23 Sep 1682-Philippsthal 8 May 1770, bur Philippsthal).  

e)         ANTON GUSTAV Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 12 Aug 1700-Eisenach 4 Oct 1700, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

f)          CHARLOTTE WILHELMINE JULIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 27 Jun 1703-Erfurt 17 Aug 1774, bur Erfurt Predigerkirche). 

g)         JOHANNETTE WILHELMINE JULIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 10 Sep 1704-Eisenach 3 Jan 1705, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

h)         KARL WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 9 Jan 1706-Eisenach 24 Feb 1706, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

i)          KARL AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 10 Jun 1707-Eisenach 22 Feb 1711, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

Johann Wilhelm & his third wife had three children:

j)          JOHANNA MAGDALENE SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Eisenach 19 Aug 1710-Eisenach 26 Feb 1711, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).   

k)         CHRISTIANE WILHELMINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Altenkirchen 3 Sep 1711-Idstein 27 Nov 1740, bur Usingen)m (Eisenach 26 Nov 1734) as his first wife, KARL Fürst von Nassau-Usingen, son of WILHELM HEINRICH Fürst von Nassau-Usingen & his wife Charlotte Amalie Gräfin von Nassau-Dillenburg (Usingen 1 Jan 1712-Biebrich 21 Jun 1775). 

l)          JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Marksuhl 28 Jan 1713-Eisenach 8 May 1713, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche).  

6.         LUISE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Friedewald 18 Apr 1668-Altenkirchen 26 Jun 1669, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

7.         FRIEDERIKE ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenach (Altenkirchen 5 May 1669-Langensalza 12 Nov 1730, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche)m (Jena 7 Jan 1698) JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels, son of JOHANN ADOLF I Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his first wife Johanna Magdalena Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Halle 1677-Weissenfels 16 Mar 1712, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche). 

8.         ERNST GUSTAV Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach (Marksuhl 28 Aug 1672-Marksuhl 16 Nov 1672, bur Eisenach St Georgenkirche). 

 

 

 

D.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-GOTHA

 

 

ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, son of JOHANN Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his wife Dorothea Maria Pss von Anhalt (Altenburg 25 Dec 1601-Schloß Friedenstein Gotha 26 Mar 1675, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1605 as ERNST I "der Fromme" joint Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, jointly with his brothers, minor until 1611.  He divided territories with his two surviving brothers 12 Sep 1641, taking Gotha (with Reinhardsbrunn), Tenneberg (with Waltershausen), Georgenthal, Schwarzbrunn, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Königsberg, Tonndorf and Salzungen, after which he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha.  He and his brother Wilhelm agreed a partition of the territories of their deceased brother Albrecht 30 Mar 1645, under which Ernst acquired Heldburg (with Ummerstadt), Veilsdorf, Eisfeld, Salzungen, the monastery of Allendorf, Kraynburg and Volkenroda.  Under the partition of the county of Henneberg agreed 9 Aug 1660 with the Elector of Saxony, Friedrich Wilhelm II Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg and Wilhelm Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar, Ernst received Frauenbreitungen, Wasungen and Sand.  He bought Kranichfeld in 1663 from the Grafen von Schwarzburg.  Under the succession agreement 16 May 1672 which followed the death of Friedrich Wilhelm III Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg, Ernst acquired Altenburg, Leuchtenburg, Orlamünde, Camburg, Eisenberg, Roda, Ronneburg, Saalfeld, Gräfenthal, Probstzella, Coburg, Sonnefeld, Hildburghausen, Schalkau, Themar, Untermassfeld, Meiningen, Behringen und Römhild.  He ruled Oldisleben jointly with his brother.  He abdicated in favour of his sons 16 Oct 1674. 

m (Altenburg 24 Oct 1636) ELISABETH SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg, daughter of JOHANN PHILIPP Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburg & his wife Elisabeth Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Halle 10 Oct 1619-Gotha 20/30 Dec 1680, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche). 

Ernst & his wife had eighteen children: 

1.         JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Weimar 18 Sep 1638-Weimar 27 Nov 1638, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).  

2.         ELISABETH DOROTHEA Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Coburg 8 Jan 1640-Butzbach 24 Aug 1709, bur Darmstadt Stadtkirche)Regent of Hessen-Darmstadt 1678-1685 during the minority first of her stepson and afterwards of her son.  m (Schloß Friedenstein Gotha 5 Dec 1666) as his second wife, LUDWIG VI Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt, son of GEORG II Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt & his wife Sophie Eleonore von Sachsen (Darmstadt 25 Jan 1630-Darmstadt 24 Apr 1678, bur Darmstadt Stadtkirche). 

3.         JOHANN ERNST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 16 May 1641-Gotha from smallpox 31 Dec 1657, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).

4.         CHRISTIAN Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (b and d Gotha 23 Feb 1642, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  

5.         SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 21 Feb 1643-Gotha from smallpox 14 Dec 1657, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).

6.         JOHANNA Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 14 Feb 1645-Gotha 7 Dec 1657, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).

7.         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 15 Jul 1646-Friedrichswerth 2 Aug 1691, bur Gotha Friedenstein).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as FRIEDRICH I joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers. 

-        see below

8.         ALBRECHT Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 24 May 1648-Coburg 6 Aug 1699, bur Coburg Moritzkirche).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as ALBRECHT joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Albrecht acquired Coburg, Rodach, Neustadt an der Haide, Sonneberg, Sonnefeld, Mönchroden and Neuhaus, thereafter being known as ALBRECHT III Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg.  He constructed a baroque residence at Coburg, which was managed extravagantly.  He and his first wife sponsored music and opera at their court.  He collected a large library which was later transferred to Coburg University.  m firstly (Gotha 18 Jul 1676) as her second husband, MARIE ELISABETH Herzogin von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, widow of ADOLF WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenach, daughter of AUGUST Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Wolfenbüttel & his third wife Sophie Elisabeth von Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Braunschweig 7 Jan 1638-Coburg 15 Feb 1687, bur Coburg St Moritz).  m secondly (Coburg 24 May 1688) SUSANNA ELISABETH Gräfin Kempinsky, daughter of NIKOLAUS Graf Kempinsky & his wife Marie Ursula Zorn von Plobsheim ([Strasbourg 26 Apr 1643] chr Strasbourg 2 May 1643-Coburg 2 Dec 1717, bur Coburg Moritzkirche).  She was Lady of the Bedchamber of his first wife.  Created Gräfin von Schwisitz und Altenhofen by Imperial order at Vienna 2 May 1689.  child of first marriage:

a)         ERNST AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg (Saalfeld 1 Sep 1677-Saalfeld 17 Aug 1678, bur Saalfeld). 

9.         BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 10 Sep 1649-Meiningen 27 Apr 1706, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as BERNHARD joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  He acquired Ichtershausen, Wachsenburg, Kranichfeld and Tonndorf 1675.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Bernhard acquired Meiningen, Wasungen, Salzungen, Massfeld, Sand, Frauenbreitungen, Herpf, Utendorf, Stepferhausen, Mehlis and Henneberg, thereafter being known as Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen

-        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-MEININGEN

10.      HEINRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 19 Nov 1650-Römhild 13 May 1710, bur Römhild Schloßkirche).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as HEINRICH joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Heinrich acquired Römhild, Königsberg, Themar, Behrungen and Miltitz, thereafter being known as HEINRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Römhild.  He transferred Königsberg to his brother Ernst in 1683.  m (Darmstadt 1 Mar 1676) MARIE ELISABETH Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt, daughter of LUDWIG VI Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt & & his first wife Maria Elisabeth Herzogin von Holstein-Gottorp (Darmstadt 11 Mar 1656-Schloß Glücksburg, Römhild 16 Aug 1715, bur Römhild Schloßkirche). 

11.      CHRISTIAN Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 6 Jan 1653-Eisenberg 28 Apr 1707, bur Eisenberg).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as CHRISTIAN joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Christian acquired Eisenberg, Ronneburg, Roda and Camburg, thereafter being known as CHRISTIAN Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenbergm firstly (Merseburg 13 Feb 1677) CHRISTIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Merseburg, daughter of CHRISTIAN I Herzog von Sachsen-Merseburg & his wife Christiane Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Merseburg 1 Jun 1659-Eisenberg 13 Mar 1679, bur Eisenberg).  m secondly (Darmstadt 9 Feb 1681) SOPHIE MARIE Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt, daughter of LUDWIG VI Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt & & his first wife Maria Elisabeth Herzogin von Holstein-Gottorp (Darmstadt 7 May 1661-Schloß Friedenstein, Gotha 22 Aug 1712, bur Eisenberg).  Christian & his first wife had one child: 

a)         CHRISTIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Eisenberg (Eisenberg 4 Mar 1679-Glücksburg 24 May 1722, bur Glücksburg)m (Eisenberg 15 Feb 1699) as his first wife, PHILIPP ERNST Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, son of CHRISTIAN von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg & his second wife Agnes Hedwig Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (Glücksburg 5 May 1673-Glücksburg 12 Nov 1729, bur Glücksburg Schloßkapelle).

12.      DOROTHEA MARIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 12 Feb 1654-Gotha 17 Jun 1682, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).

13.      ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 12 Jun 1655-Hildburghausen 17 Oct 1715, bur Hildburghausen).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreement 24 Feb 1680, under which Ernst acquired Heldburg, Eisfeld, Hildburghausen, Veilsdorf and Schalkau, thereafter being known as Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen

-        HERZOGEN VON SACHSEN-HILDBURGHAUSEN.  

14.      JOHANN PHILIPP Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 1 Mar 1657-Gotha 19 May 1657, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).  

15.      JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 22 Aug 1658-Saalfeld 17 Feb 1729, bur Saalfeld).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as JOHANN ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Johann Ernst acquired Saalfeld, Gräfenthal, Probstzella and Lehesten, thereafter being known as Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld

-        HERZOGEN VON SACHSEN-SAALFELD.  

16.      JOHANNA ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 2 Sep 1660-Gotha 18 Dec 1660, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).

17.      JOHANN PHILIPP Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 16 Nov 1661-Gotha 13 Mar 1662, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche). 

18.      SOPHIE ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 19 May 1663-Gotha 23 May 1663, bur Gotha Margarethenkirche).

 

 

FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, son of ERNST I "der Fromme" joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha & his wife Elisabeth Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Gotha 15 Jul 1646-Friedrichswerth 2 Aug 1691, bur Gotha Friedenstein).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as FRIEDRICH I joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Friedrich I acquired Gotha, Tenneberg, Wachsenburg, Ichtershausen, Georgenthal, Schwarzwald, Reinhardsbrunn, Volkenroda, Oberkranichfeld, Orlamünde, Altenburg, Pössneck and Tonna.  He ceded Pössneck 1682 to his brother Johann Ernst. 

m firstly (Halle 14 Nov 1669) MAGDALENA SIBYLLE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weissenfels, daughter of AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his first wife Anna Maria Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Halle 2 Sep 1648-Gotha 7 Jan 1681, bur Gotha Friedenstein). 

m secondly (Ansbach 14 Aug 1681) as her second husband, CHRISTINE Markgräfin von Baden-Durlach, widow of ALBRECHT Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach, daughter of FRIEDRICH VI Markgraf von Baden-Durlach & his wife Christine Magdalene Pfalzgräfin von Zweibrücken zu Kleeburg (Wolgast 22 Apr/2 May 1645-Altenburg 21 Dec 1705, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche). 

Friedrich I & his first wife had eight children: 

1.         ANNA SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 22 Dec 1670/1 Jan 1670-Rudolstadt 28 Dec 1728, bur Schwarzburg)m (Schloß Friedenstein, Gotha 15 Oct 1691) LUDWIG FRIEDRICH Erbprinz von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, son of --- (-Rudolstadt 24 Jun 1718, bur Schwarzburg).  He succeeded in 1710 as Fürst von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

2.         MAGDALENA SIBYLLE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 30 Sep 1671-Altenburg 2 Mar 1673, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche). 

3.         DOROTHEA MARIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 22 Jan/1 Feb 1674-Meiningen 18 Apr 1713, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche)m (Gotha 19 Sep 1704) as his first wife, ERNST LUDWIG Erbherzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, son of BERNHARD I Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen & his first wife Marie Hedwig Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt (Gotha 7 Oct 1672-Meiningen 24 Nov 1724, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded in 1706 as ERNST LUDWIG I Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen

4.         FRIEDERIKE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 24 Mar 1675-Karlsbad 28 May 1709, Zerbst Schloßkapelle)m (Zerbst 25 May 1702) as his first wife, JOHANN AUGUST Erbprinz von Anhalt-Zerbst, son of KARL WILHELM Fürst von Anhalt-Zerbst & his wife Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Weissenfels (Zerbst 29 Jul 1677-Zerbst 7 Nov 1742, bur Zerbst Schloßkapelle).  He succeeded in 1718 as JOHANN AUGUST Fürst von Anhalt-Zerbst.   

5.         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 28 Jul 1676-Altenburg 23 Mar 1732, bur Schloß Friedenstein, Gotha).  He succeeded his father in 1691 as FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, minor until 1693.  Acquired Oberkranichfeld 15 May 1695 from the Reuß family.  He inherited the principality of Eisenberg in 1707 from his uncle Christian Herzog von Sachsen-Eisenberg.  He acquired 7/12 of Themar from the estates of his brother Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen-Römhild, who died in 1710.  m (Schloß Friedenstein, Gotha 7 Jun 1696) MAGDALENA AUGUSTA Pss von Anhalt-Zerbst, daughter of KARL WILHELM Fürst von Anhalt-Zerbst & his wife Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Weissenfels (Zerbst 13 Oct 1679-Altenburg or Gotha 11 Oct 1740, bur Gotha Schloß Friedenstein).  Friedrich II & his wife had nineteen children: 

a)         SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 30 May 1697-Gotha from smallpox 29 Nov 1703). 

b)         FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 14 Apr 1699-Gotha 10 Mar 1772).  He succeeded his father in 1732 as FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg

-        see below

c)         child stillborn (Gotha 22 Apr 1700). 

d)         WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 12 Mar 1701-Gräfentonna 31 May 1771, bur Gräfentonna).  General Field Marshal in the Imperial army.  m (Hamburg 8 Nov 1742) ANNA Herzog von Holstein-Gottorp, daughter of CHRISTIAN AUGUST Herzog von Holstein-Gottorp & his wife Albertine Friederike Markgräfin von Baden-Durlach (Gottorp 3 Feb 1709-Gräfentonna 2 Feb 1758, bur Gräfentonna). 

e)         KARL FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 20 Sep 1702-Gotha 21 Nov 1703). 

f)          daughter stillborn (Roda 8 May 1703). 

g)         JOHANN AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 17 Feb 1704-Stadtroda 8 May 1767, bur Stadtroda)m (Stadtroda 6 Jan 1752) as her second husband, his sister-in-law, LUISE Gräfin Reuß zu Schleiz, widow of CHRISTIAN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, daughter of HEINRICH I Graf Reuß zu Schleiz (Staffelstein 3 Jul 1726-Stadtroda 28 May 1773, bur Stadtroda).  Johann August & his wife had four children: 

i)          AUGUSTA LUISE FRIEDERIKE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Stadtroda 30 Nov 1752-Rudolstadt 28 May 1805, bur Schwarzburg)m (Stadtroda 28 Nov 1780) FRIEDRICH KARL Fürst von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, son of --- (-Rudolstadt 13 Apr 1793, bur Schwarzburg). 

ii)         daughter stillborn (Stadtroda 18 Nov 1753). 

iii)        daughter stillborn (Stadtroda 27 Dec 1754).  

iv)       LUISE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Stadtroda 9 Mar 1756-Ludwigslust 1 Jan 1808, bur Luisengruft)m (Gotha 1 Jun 1775) FRIEDRICH FRANZ Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, son of LUDWIG Herzog zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin & his wife Charlotte Sophie Pss von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Schwerin 10 Dec 1756-Ludwigslust 1 Feb 1837, bur Doberan).  He succeeded his uncle in 1785 as FRIEDRICH FRANZ I Herzog von Mecklenburg-SchwerinGroßherzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin 14 Jun 1815. 

h)         CHRISTIAN Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 27 Feb 1705-Gotha from smallpox 5 Mar 1705). 

i)          CHRISTIAN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 28 May 1706-Stadtroda 19 Jul 1748, bur Stadtroda)m (Schleiz 27 May 1743) as her first husband, LUISE Gräfin Reuß zu Schleiz, daughter of HEINRICH I Graf Reuß zu Schleiz & his wife --- (Staffelstein 3 Jul 1726-Stadtroda 28 May 1773, bur Stadtroda).  She married secondly (Stadtroda 6 Jan 1752) her brother-in-law, Johann August Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha.  

j)          LUDWIG ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 28 Dec 1707-Gotha 13 Aug 1763).  Lieutenant General in the army of the Prince-Bishop of Münster. 

k)         EMANUEL Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 5 Apr 1709-Gotha 10 Oct 1710).  

l)          MORITZ Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Altenburg 11 May 1711-Altenburg 3 Sep 1777).  Lieutenant General in the army of Hessen-Kassel. 

m)       SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Altenburg Aug 1712-Altenburg 12 Nov 1712). 

n)         KARL Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 17 Apr 1714-Gotha 10 Jul 1715). 

o)         FRIEDERIKE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 17 Jul 1715-Langensalza 12 May 1775, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche)m (Altenburg 27 Nov 1734) as his second wife, JOHANN ADOLF Erbherzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels, son of JOHANN ADOLF I Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels & his first wife Johanna Magdalena Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Weissenfels 1685-Leipzig 16 May 1746, bur Weissenfels Schloßkirche).  He succeeded in 1736 as Herzog von Sachsen-Weissenfels

p)         child stillborn (Gotha 30 Nov 1716). 

q)         MAGDALENA SIBYLLE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 15 Aug 1718-Gotha 9 Nov 1718). 

r)          AUGUSTA Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 20/30 Nov 1719-Carlton House, London 8 Feb 1772, bur Westminster Abbey)m (St James's Palace, London 29 Apr/8 May 1736) FREDERICK LOUIS Prince of Wales, son of GEORGE II King of Great Britain & his wife Karoline Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Ansbach (Hannover 20 Jan 1707-Leicester House, St Martin-in-the-Fields 20 Mar 1751, bur Westminster Abbey). 

s)         JOHANN ADOLF Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 18 May 1721-Friedrichstanneck 29 Apr 1799).  Lieutenant General in the army of Electoral Saxony.  

6.         JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 4 Oct 1677-killed in battle siege of Toulon 15 Aug 1707, bur Gotha Friedenstein).  Field Marshal Lieutenant in the Imperial army.  Lieutenant General in the armies of Great Britain and the General States. 

7.         ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 7 Feb 1679-Gotha from smallpox 22 Jun 1680, bur Gotha Friedenstein). 

8.         JOHANNA Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 1 Oct 1680-Strelitz 9 Jul 1704, bur Mirow)m (Strelitz 20 Jun 1702) as his second wife, ADOLF FRIEDRICH Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, son of ADOLF FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin & his second wife Maria Katharina Herzogin von Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Dannenberg (Grabow 19/29 Oct 1658-[Strelitz or Bergfeld Jagdschloß] 12 May 1708).  He was known as ADOLF FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz from 1711. 

 

 

FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha, son of FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha & his wife Magdalena Augusta Pss von Anhalt-Zerbst (Gotha 14 Apr 1699-Gotha 10 Mar 1772).  He succeeded his father in 1732 as FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg

m (Gotha 17 Sep 1729) his first cousin, LUISE DOROTHEA Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen, daughter of ERNST LUDWIG I Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen & his first wife Dorothea Marie Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Meiningen 10 Aug 1710-Gotha 22 Oct 1767). 

Friedrich III & his wife had nine children: 

1.         FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 20 Jan 1735-Gotha 9 Jun 1756). 

2.         LUDWIG Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 25 Oct 1735-Gotha 26 Oct 1735).  Twin. 

3.         son stillborn (Gotha 25 Oct 1735).  Twin with Ludwig. 

4.         child stillborn (1739, bur [Schloß Friedenstein, Gotha]).  Twin. 

5.         child stillborn (1739, bur [Schloß Friedenstein, Gotha]).  Twin. 

6.         FRIEDERIKE LUISE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 30 Jan 1741-Gotha 5 Feb 1776). 

7.         ERNST LUDWIG Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 30 Jan 1745-Gotha 20 Apr 1804, bur Gotha Schloßpark).  He succeeded his father in 1772 as ERNST II Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburgm (Meiningen 21 Mar 1769) CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen, daughter of ANTON ULRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen & his second wife Charlotte Amalie Landgräfin von Hessen-Philippsthal (Frankfurt-am-Main 11 Sep 1751-Genoa 25 Apr 1827, bur Gotha Schloßpark or Genoa).  Ernst II & his wife had four children: 

a)         ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 27 Feb 1770-Gotha 3 Dec 1779, bur Gotha Schloßpark).  He was Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha from his father¡s accession in 1772. 

b)         EMIL LEOPOLD AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 23 Nov 1772-Gotha 27 May 1822, bur Gotha Schloßpark).  Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha, following the death of his older brother 1779.  He succeeded his father 1804 as AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburgm firstly (Ludwigslust 21 Oct 1797) LUISE CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of FRIEDRICH FRANZ I Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin & his wife Luise Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Schwerin 19 Nov 1779-Gotha 4 Jan 1801).  m secondly (Kassel 24 Apr 1802) KAROLINE AMALIE Pss von Hessen-Kassel, daughter of WILHELM IX Landgraf von Hessen-Kassel [later WILHELM I Kurfürst von Hessen] & his wife Karoline Pss of Denmark (Hanau 11 Jul 1771-Gotha 22 Feb 1848, bur Gotha Schloßpark).  August & his first wife had one child: 

i)          LUISE Pss von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg (Gotha 21 Dec 1800-Paris 30 Aug 1831, bur Coburg Neues Mausoleum)m firstly (Gotha 31 Jul 1817, divorced Coburg 31 Mar 1826) as his first wife, ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld, son of FRANZ Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld & his second wife Augusta Gräfin Reuß zu Ebersdorf (Coburg 2 Jan 1784-Gotha 29 Jan 1844, bur Coburg Neues Mausoleum).  m secondly (Sankt Wendel 18 Oct 1826) as his first wife, ALEXANDER von Hanstein, son of --- (Burghaig 9 Jun 1804-Schmölln, near Altenburg 18 Apr 1884, bur Pölzig).  He was created Graf von Pölzig by Sachsen-Hildburghausen Order 19 Jul 1826.  Colonel in the Prussian army. 

c)         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 28 Nov 1774-Gotha 11 Feb 1825, bur Gotha Schloßpark).  He converted to Catholicism at Rome in 1817 or 1819.  He succeeded his brother in 1822 as FRIEDRICH IV Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg

d)         LUDWIG Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 21 Oct 1777-Gotha 26 Oct 1777). 

8.         SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 9 Mar 1746-Gotha 30 Mar 1746). 

9.         AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha (Gotha 14 Aug 1747-Gotha 28 Sep 1806).  General in the army of the General States. 

 

 

 

E.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-MEININGEN

 

 

 

BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, son of ERNST I "der Fromme" joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha & his wife Elisabeth Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Gotha 10 Sep 1649-Meiningen 27 Apr 1706, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as BERNHARD joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  He acquired Ichtershausen, Wachsenburg, Kranichfeld and Tonndorf 1675.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Bernhard acquired Meiningen, Wasungen, Salzungen, Massfeld, Sand, Frauenbreitungen, Herpf, Utendorf, Stepferhausen, Mehlis and Henneberg, thereafter being known as BERNHARD I Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen

m firstly (Schloß Friedenstein Gotha 20 Nov 1671) MARIE HEDWIG Landgräfin von Hessen-Darmstadt, daughter of GEORG II Landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt & his wife Sophie Eleonore von Sachsen (Gießen 26 Nov 1647-Marienburg, Ichtershausen 19 Apr 1680, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). 

m secondly (Schöningen 25 Jan 1681) as her second husband, ELISABETH ELEONORE Pss von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, widow of JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, daughter of ANTON ULRICH Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his wife Elisabeth Juliane Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg (Wolfenbüttel 30 Sep/9 Oct 1658-Meiningen 15/25 Mar 1729, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). 

Bernhard & his first wife had seven children:

1.         ERNST LUDWIG Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Gotha 7 Oct 1672-Meiningen 24 Nov 1724, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  Erbherzog von Sachsen-Meiningen in 1681.  He succeeded his father in 1706 as ERNST LUDWIG I Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen.  He resisted sharing power with his brothers, adopting absolute rule in Meiningen in the style of Louis XIV.  This triggered bitter disputes within the family, which continued after Ernst Ludwig's death.  He acquired Sonneberg and Neuhaus 1720 from the estates of his uncle Albrecht Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg, who had died 1699.  He acquired two-thirds of Römhild in 1720 from the estates of his uncle Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen-Römhild, who had died in 1710.  He inherited Altenstein from the Herren von Hund in 1722.  He exchanged half Schalkau for Queienfeld, Schwikershausen, Rentwertshausen and Berkach with his first cousin Ernst Friedrich Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.  m firstly (Gotha 19 Sep 1704) DOROTHEA MARIA Herzogin von Sachsen-Gotha, daughter of FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha & his first wife Magdalene Sibylle Herzogin von Sachsen-Weissenfels (Gotha 22 Jan/1 Feb 1674-Meiningen 18 Apr 1713, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  m secondly (Schloß Ehrenburg, near Coburg 3 Jun 1714) as her third husband, ELISABETH SOPHIE Markgräfin von Brandenburg, widow firstly of FRIEDRICH KASIMIR Duke of Courland and secondly of CHRISTIAN ERNST Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, daughter of FRIEDRICH WILHELM Elector of Brandenburg & his second wife Dorothea Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Berlin 26 Mar/5 Apr 1674-Römhild 22 Nov 1748, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  Ernst Ludwig I & his first wife had five children: 

a)         JOSEF BERNHARD Erbherzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 27 May 1706-Rome 22 Mar 1724, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).

b)         FRIEDRICH AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 4 Nov 1707-Meningen 25 Dec 1707, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).

c)         ERNST LUDWIG Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Coburg 8 Aug 1709-Meiningen 24 Feb 1729, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded his father inn 1724 as ERNST LUDWIG II Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, minor.  He ruled jointly with his uncles from 1727. 

d)         LUISE DOROTHEA Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 10 Aug 1710-Gotha 22 Oct 1767)m (Gotha 17 Sep 1729) FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha, son of FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha & his wife Magdalena Augusta Pss von Anhalt-Zerbst (Gotha 14 Apr 1699-Gotha 10 Mar 1772).  He succeeded in 1732 as FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha

e)         KARL FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 18 Jul 1712-Meiningen 28 Mar 1743, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded his brother in 1729 as KARL FRIEDRICH Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, jointly with his uncles, minor until 1733. 

2.         BERNHARD Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Gotha 28 Oct 1673-Brussels 25/26 Oct 1694, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).

3.         JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Gotha 29 Dec 1674-Gotha 8 Feb 1675, bur Ichtershausen).

4.         MARIE ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Ichtershausen 11 Aug 1676-Ichtershausen 22 Dec 1676, bur Ichtershausen).

5.         JOHANN GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Ichtershausen 3 Oct 1677-Ichtershausen 10 Oct 1678, bur Ichtershausen).

6.         FRIEDRICH WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Ichtershausen 16 Feb 1679-Meiningen 10 Mar 1746, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded in 1727 as FRIEDRICH WILHELM joint Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, jointly with his nephews and his half-brother. 

7.         GEORG ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Ichtershausen 26 Mar 1680-Meiningen from smallpox 1 Jan 1699, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). 

Bernhard & his second wife had five children:

8.         ELISABETH ERNESTINA ANTONIA Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 3 Dec 1681-Gandersheim 24 Dec 1766, bur Gandersheim).  Abbess of Gandersheim 1713. 

9.         ELEONORE FRIEDERIKE Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 2 Mar 1683-Meiningen 13 May 1739, bur Meiningen).  Canoness at Gandersheim 1708.

10.      ANTON AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 20 Jun 1684-Meiningen 7/17 Dec 1684, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).

11.      WILHELMINA LUISE Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 20 Dec 1686-Bernstadt 5 Oct 1753, bur Bernstadt)m (Meiningen 20 Dec 1703) KARL Herzog von Württemberg-Bernstadt, son of JULIUS SIGISMUND Herzog von Württemberg-Juliusburg & his wife Anna Sophie Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Juliusburg 1/11 Mar 1682-Bernstadt 8 Feb 1745, bur Bernstadt).

12.      ANTON ULRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen 22 Oct 1687-Frankfurt am Main 27 Jan 1763, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  He succeeded in 1727 as ANTON ULRICH Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, jointly with his nephews and his half-brother. 

-        see below

 

 

ANTON ULRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, (Meiningen 22 Oct 1687-Frankfurt am Main 27 Jan 1763, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  A talented individual, well educated, he acquired artistic, musical and literary tastes in addition to being strong-willed and having statesmanlike qualities.  He sacrificed a military career to marry morganatically, living in Amsterdam after his first marriage.  He succeeded in 1727 as ANTON ULRICH Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, jointly with his nephews and his half-brother.  He acquired Schloß Schalkau from the Schaumberg family in 1732.  Anton Ulrich ruled solely from the death of his half-brother in 1746.  After his second marriage, he resided in Frankfurt-am-Main, ruling Meiningen from afar. 

m firstly (morganatically, in secret in Holland 1711) PHILIPPINE ELISABETH Caesar, daughter of DAVID Caesar [Lieutenant at Kassel] & his wife Sophie Dorothea Döne (Kassel 6 Mar 1683-Meiningen 14 Aug 1744, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche).  She was lady in waiting to Anton Ulrich's sister Elisabeth Ernestina.  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, she bore the title “Herzogin von Sachsen”. 

m secondly (Homburg vor der Höhe 26 Sep 1750) CHARLOTTE AMALIE Pss von Hessen-Philippsthal, daughter of KARL Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal & his wife Karoline Christine Pss von Sachsen-Eisenach (Philippsthal 11 Aug 1730-Meiningen 7 Sep 1801, bur Meiningen Englischer Garten).  Regent of Sachsen-Meiningen for her sons during their minority 1763-1781.  She returned to Meiningen from Frankfurt-am-Main after the death of her husband and strove to restore the state's financial stability, which had suffered during the Seven Years War and years of continual strife in the princely family, through careful planning and economy of expenditure.  Inspired by the Enlightenment, her other achievements in Meiningen included reform of the judicial system, introduction of poor relief, establishment of an atmosphere of cultural renaissance, and religious tolerance. 

Anton

Ulrich & his first wife had ten children: 

1.         PHILIPPINE ANTOINETTE (1/2 Aug 1712-Meiningen 21 Jan 1785, bur Meiningen).  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, with the title Herzogin von Sachsen.  

2.         PHILIPPINE ELISABETH (10 Sep 1713-Meiningen 18 Mar 1781, bur Meiningen).  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, with the title Herzogin von Sachsen.  

3.         PHILIPPINE LUISE (10 Oct 1714-Meiningen 25 Oct 1771, bur Meiningen).  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, with the title Herzogin von Sachsen.  

4.         PHILIPPINE WILHELMINA (11 Oct 1715-16 Apr or Nov 1718). 

5.         BERNHARD ERNST (14 Dec 1716-12 or 14 Jun 1778, bur Meiningen).  Ennobled as Fürst by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, with the title Herzog von Sachsen.  This Order accorded the right of succession, but this was reversed by Imperial decision 4 Sep 1747 after a lengthy procedure following protests from the members of the House of Saxony. 

6.         ANTONIE AUGUSTE (29 Dec 1717-19 Sep 1768, bur Meiningen).  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, with the title Herzogin von Sachsen.  

7.         SOPHIE WILHELMINE (23 Feb 1719-24 Nov 1723).  

8.         KARL LUDWIG (30 Oct 1721-[20 May 1727]).  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order at Vienna 21 Feb 1727, with the title Herzogin von Sachsen.  

9.         CHRISTINE FRIEDERIKE (13 Dec 1723-young). 

10.      FRIEDRICH FERDINAND (12 Mar 1725-17 Jun 1725).  

Anton Ulrich & his second wife had eight children: 

11.      CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 11 Sep 1751-Genoa 25 Apr 1827, bur Gotha Schloßpark or Genoa)m (Meiningen 21 Mar 1769) ERNST LUDWIG Erbherzog von Sachsen-Gotha, son of FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg & his wife Luise Dorothea Herzogin von Sachsen-Meningen (Gotha 30 Jan 1745-Gotha 20 Apr 1804, bur Gotha Schloßpark).  He succeeded in 1772 as ERNST II Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha

12.      WILHELMINE LUISE CHRISTIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 6 Aug 1752-Kassel 3 Jun 1805, bur Barchfeld)m (Meiningen 18 Oct 1781) ADOLF Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld, son of WILHELM Landgraf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld & his wife Charlotte Wilhelmine Pss von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (Ypres 29 Jun 1743-Barchfeld 17 Jul 1803, bur Barchfeld “in der Frau Landgräfin ihrem Garten”). 

13.      ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 11 Sep 1753-Frankfurt am Main Feb 1754, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). 

14.      KARL Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 19 Nov 1754-Sonneberg 21 Jul 1782, bur Meiningen Englischer Garten).  He succeeded his father in 1763 as KARL Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, jointly with his brother Georg I, under the regency of his mother until 1775.  He was of a frail constitution.  m (Gedern 5 Jun 1780) as her first husband, LUISE Pss zu Stolberg-Gedern, daughter of CHRISTIAN KARL Fürst zu Stolberg-Gedern & his wife --- (Gedern 13 Oct 1764-Karlsruhe, Silesia 24 May 1834, bur Karlsruhe).  She married secondly (Meiningen 11/21 Jan 1797) Eugen Herzog von Württemberg

15.      LUDWIG Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 16 Mar 1756-Frankfurt am Main 25 Mar 1761, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). 

16.      FRIEDRICH WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 18 Nov 1757-Frankfurt am Main 13 Apr 1758, bur Meiningen Schloßkirche). 

17.      GEORG Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt 4 Feb 1761-Meiningen 24 Dec 1803, bur Meiningen, Englischer Garten).  He succeeded his father in 1763 as GEORG I Joint Herzog von Sachsen-Meiningen, jointly with his brother Karl, under the Regency of his mother until 1781.  He ruled solely from the death of his brother in 1782.  He continued his mother's policy of enlightened despotism, in particular improving schools, roads, industry and forestry (founding the Forestry Academy 1801).  He laid out the English gardens, and the park of Altenstein.  m (Langenburg 27 Nov 1782) LUISE ELEONORE Pss zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg, daughter of CHRISTIAN ALBRECHT LUDWIG Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg & his wife Caroline Pss zu Stolberg-Gedern (Langenburg 11 Aug 1763-Meiningen 30 Apr 1837, bur Meiningen, Englischer Garten).  Regent 1803-1821 during the minority of her son, she was unable to pursue the reforms of her husband because of the Napoleonic wars.  Her father-in-law's project to found the "Gymnasium Bernhardinum" was finally completed by her in 1821. 

-        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-MEINUNGEN 1803-1918

18.      AMALIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Meiningen (Frankfurt am Main 4 Mar 1762-Carolath 28 May 1798, bur Carolath)m (Meiningen or Frankfurt am Main 10 Feb 1783) HEINRICH KARL ERDMANN Prinz von Carolath-Beuthen, son of --- (-Carolath 1 Feb 1817, bur Carolath).  He succeeded in 1791 as Fürst von Carolath-Beuthen

 

 

 

F.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-HILDBURGHAUSEN, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-ALTENBURG

 

 

ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, (Gotha 12 Jun 1655-Hildburghausen 17 Oct 1715, bur Hildburghausen).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreement 24 Feb 1680, under which Ernst acquired Heldburg, Eisfeld, Hildburghausen, Veilsdorf and Schalkau, thereafter being known as ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.  He acquired Königsberg in 1683 from his brother Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen-Römhild.  He established Hildburghausen as his residence in 1684, and constructed the Residenzschloß (which was destroyed during the Second World War) in 1685/95 under the direction of Elias Gedeler and Johann Schnabel.  The Baroque gardens, in the French style, were laid out in 1700.  Ernst acquired Sonnefeld 23 Jul 1705 from the estates of his brother Albrecht Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg, who had died in 1699.  He encouraged the settlement of Huguenots in Hildburghausen by Edict of 31 Jul 1711.  He acquired Behringen and Miltitz 1714 from the estates of his brother Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen-Römhild, who had died in 1710. 

m (Arolsen 30 Nov 1680) SOPHIE HENRIETTE Gräfin von Waldeck, daughter of GEORG FRIEDRICH Graf [later Fürst] von Waldeck & his wife --- (Arolsen 3/13 Aug 1662-Erbach 15 Oct 1702, bur Hildburghausen). 

Ernst & his wife had five children: 

1.         ERNST FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Arolsen 21 Aug 1681-Hildburghausen 9 Mar 1724, bur Hildburghausen).  Major General in the army of the General States 1709.  Heer van Culemborg 1714-1720.  He succeeded his father in 1715 as ERNST FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.  General Field Marshal Lieutenant in the Imperial army 1721.  m (Erbach 4 Feb 1704) SOPHIE ALBERTINA Gräfin von Erbach-Erbach, daughter of GEORG LUDWIG I Graf von Erbach-Erbach & his wife Amalie Katharina Gräfin von Waldeck (Erbach 30 Jul 1683-Eisfeld 4 Sep 1742, bur Hildburghausen).  Ernst Friedrich I & his wife had fourteen children: 

a)         ERNST LUDWIG HOLLANDINUS Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 23 Nov 1704-Hildburghausen 27 Nov 1704, bur Hildburghausen). 

b)         SOPHIA AMALIA ELISABETH Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 5 Oct 1705-Hildburghausen 28 Feb 1708, bur Hildburghausen).

c)         ERNST LUDWIG Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 6 Feb 1707-Hildburghausen 17 Apr 1707, bur Hildburghausen).

d)         ERNST FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 17 Dec 1707-Hildburghausen 13 Aug 1745, bur Hildburghausen).  He succeeded his father in 1724 as ERNST FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, minor until 1728. 

-        see below

e)         FRIEDRICH AUGUST Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 8 May 1709-Hildburghausen 4 Mar 1710, bur Hildburghausen). 

f)          LUDWIG FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 11 Sep 1710-Nijmegen 10 Jun 1759, bur Nijmegen).  General of Infantry of the General States.  Governor of Nijmegen.  General Field Marshal in the Imperial and Electoral Bavarian armies.  m (Weikersheim 4 May 1749) as her second husband, CHRISTIANE LUISE Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön, widow of ALBRECHT FRIEDRICH LUDWIG Graf von Hohenlohe-Weikersheim, daughter of JOHANN FRIEDRICH Herzog von Holstein-Plön-Norburg & his first wife Magdalene Juliane Pfalzgräfin von Birkenfeld (Plön 27 Nov 1713-Heilbronn 6 Apr 1778, bur Weikersheim). 

g)         daughter stillborn (Hildburghausen 2 Aug 1711). 

h)         daughter stillborn (Hildburghausen 24 Aug 1712). 

i)          ELISABETH ALBERTINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 3 Aug 1713-Neustrelitz 29 Jun 1761, bur Mirow)m (Eisfeld 5 Feb 1735) KARL LUDWIG FRIEDRICH Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz zu Mirow, son of ADOLF FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz & his first wife Marie von Mecklenburg-Güstrow (Strelitz 23 Feb 1708-Mirow 5 Jun 1752, bur Mirow). 

j)          EMANUEL FRIEDRICH KARL Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 26 Mar 1715-Hildburghausen 29 Jun 1718, bur Hildburghausen).  

k)         ELISABETH SOPHIA Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 13 Sep 1717-Hildburghausen 4 Oct 1717, bur Hildburghausen).

l)          daughter stillborn (Hildburghausen 17 Mar 1719).

m)       GEORG FRIEDRICH WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 15 Jul 1720-Hildburghausen 10 Apr 1721, bur Hildburghausen).

n)         son stillborn (Hildburghausen 15 Feb 1721). 

2.         SOPHIE CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Arolsen 23 Dec 1682-Eisfeld 20 Apr 1684, bur Hildburghausen).  

3.         SOPHIE CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 23 Mar 1685-Hildburghausen 4 Jun 1710, bur Hildburghausen).

4.         KARL WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Arolsen 25 Jul 1686-Arolsen 2 Apr 1687, bur Hildburghausen).

5.         JOSEPH FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Erbach 5 Oct 1702-Hildburghausen 4 Jan 1787, bur Hildburghausen).  He converted to Catholicism at Naples in 1727.  Field Marshal in the Imperial army.  He sponsored an orchestra at his court in Vienna, its Konzertmeister from 1752 being Christoph Willibald Gluck.  From 1751, Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf studied with the orchestra, which was disbanded when Herzog Joseph left Vienna to assume the regency at Hildburghausen.  Regent 1780 for his great nephew Friedrich Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.  m (Paris 17 Apr 1738, separated 1752) MARIE ANNE VICTOIRE Pss de Savoie-Carignan, daughter of LOUIS THOMAS Prince de Savoie-Carignan Comte de Soissons & his wife Uranie de la Cropte Dame de Beauvais (Paris 11 Sep 1683-Turin from apoplexy 11 Oct 1763, bur Turin).  She was principal heiress of her uncle Prince Eugène and inherited his Belvedere Palace in Vienna which she sold in 1752 to Empress Maria Theresia. 

 

 

ERNST FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, son of ERNST FRIEDRICH I Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen & his wife Sophie Albertina Gräfin von Erbach-Erbach (Hildburghausen 17 Dec 1707-Hildburghausen 13 Aug 1745, bur Hildburghausen).  He succeeded his father 1724 as ERNST FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, minor until 1728.  Field Marshal in the Imperial and Palatinate armies. 

m (Fürstenau 19 Jun 1726) KAROLINE Gräfin von Erbach-Fürstenau, daughter of PHILIPP KARL Graf von Erbach-Fürstenau & his wife Amalie Charlotte Gräfin von Kunowitz (Fürstenau 29 Sep 1700-Hildburghausen 7 May 1758, bur Hildburghausen).  Regent of Hildburghausen for her son in 1745. 

Ernst Friedrich II & his wife had four children: 

1.         ERNST FRIEDRICH KARL Erbherzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Königsberg, Franken 10 Jun 1727-Seidingstadt 23 Sep 1780, bur Hildburghausen).  He succeeded his father in 1745 as ERNST FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, minor until 1748.  General of Infantry in the Danish army.  A theatre was established at Hildburghausen in 1755, in the Ball- und Festhaus (which had been built in 1721/22).  Years of financial mismanagement resulted in the appointment in 1769 of an Imperial Debt Commission, which attempted to re-establish financial order in the following decade.  Matters were made worse by a famine in 1770/71.  m firstly (Hirschholm Castle, near Copenhagen 1 Oct 1749) LOUISA Pss of Denmark, daughter of CHRISTIAN VI King of Denmark & his wife Sophie Magdalene Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Copenhagen 19 Oct 1726-Hildburghausen 8 Aug 1756, bur Hildburghausen).  m secondly (Christiansborg Castle, Copenhagen 20 Jan 1757) CHRISTIANE SOPHIE CHARLOTTE Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth, daughter of FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth & his wife Viktoria Charlotte Pss von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (Schloß Neustadt an der Aisch 15 Oct 1733-Seidingstadt 8 Oct 1757, bur Hildburghausen).  m thirdly (Bayreuth 1 Jul 1758) ERNESTINA AUGUSTE SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar, daughter of ERNST AUGUST I Herzog von Sachsen-Weimar & his second wife Sophie Charlotte Albertine Markgräfin von Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Weimar 4 Jan 1740-Hildburghausen 10 Jun 1786, bur Hildburghausen).  Ernst Friedrich III & his first wife had one child: 

a)         SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 5 Dec 1755-Hildburghausen 10 Jan 1756, bur Hildburghausen). 

Ernst Friedrich III & his second wife had one child: 

b)         SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 4 Oct 1757-Hildburghausen 17 Oct 1757, bur Hildburghausen). 

Ernst Friedrich III & his third wife had six children: 

c)         SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 22 Feb 1760-Coburg 28 Oct 1776, bur Coburg).  m (Hildburghausen 6 Mar 1776) FRANZ FRIEDRICH ANTON Erbherzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld, son of ERNST FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld & his wife Sophie Antonie Pss von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Coburg 15 Jul 1750-Coburg 9 Dec 1806, bur Coburg Mausoleum).  He succeeded his father in 1800 as Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld

d)         KAROLINE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 4 Dec 1761-Oehringen 10 Jan 1790, bur Oehringen)m (Oehringen 13 Mar 1778) her uncle, EUGEN Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, son of ERNST FRIEDRICH II Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen & his wife Karoline Gräfin zu Erbach-Fürstenau Hildburghausen 8 Oct 1730-Oehringen 4 Dec 1795, bur Oehringen). 

e)         FRIEDRICH Erbherzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 29 Apr 1763-Jagdhaus Hummelhain, Altenburg 29 Sep 1834, bur Altenburg Schloßkirche).  He succeeded his father in 1780 as FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, minor until 1787 under the regency of his great uncle Joseph.  Field Marshall Lieutenant in the Austrian Army.  General of Infantry in the Bavarian Army.  Under the Treaty of 12 Nov 1826, he renounced the duchy of Hildburghausen, and received the principality of Altenburg, becoming Herzog von Sachsen-Altenburgm (Hildburghausen 3 Sep 1785) CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, daughter of KARL Erbprinz von Mecklenburg-Strelitz [later KARL II Herzog von Mecklenburg-Strelitz] & his first wife Friederike Caroline Luise Pss von Hessen-Darmstadt (Hannover 17 Nov 1769-Hildburghausen 14 May 1818, bur Hildburghausen).

-        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-ALTENBURG

2.         ALBRECHT Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 8 Aug 1728-Hildburghausen 14 Jun 1735, bur Hildburghausen). 

3.         EUGEN Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 8 Oct 1730-Oehringen 4 Dec 1795, bur Oehringen).  Lieutenant General in the Danish army.  m (Oehringen 13 Mar 1778) his niece, KAROLINE Pss von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, daughter of ERNST FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen & his third wife Ernestina Auguste Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar (Hildburghausen 4 Dec 1761-Oehringen 10 Jan 1790, bur Oehringen).  

4.         SOPHIE AMALIE KAROLINE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (Hildburghausen 21 Jul 1732-Oehringen 19 Jun 1799, bur Oehringen).  m (Hildburghausen 28 Jan 1749) LUDWIG FRIEDRICH KARL Erbprinz zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Oehringen, son of --- (-Oehringen 27 Jul 1805, bur Oehringen).  He succeeded in 1765 as Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Oehringen.

 

 

 

G.      HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-SAALFELD-COBURG, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-COBURG und GOTHA

 

 

JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, son of ERNST I "der Fromme" joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha & his wife Elisabeth Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Altenburg (Gotha 22 Aug 1658-Saalfeld 17 Feb 1729, bur Saalfeld).  He succeeded on the abdication of his father in 1674 as JOHANN ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha, jointly with his brothers.  The brothers divided their territories between them by agreements 24 Feb 1680, 8 Jun 1681 and 24 Sep 1681, under which Johann Ernst acquired Saalfeld, Gräfenthal, Probstzella and Lehesten, thereafter being known as JOHANN ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld.  He bought Pössneck in 1682 from his brother Friedrich Herzog von Sachsen-Gotha.  He acquired Römhild and five-twelfths of Themar in 1714 from the estates of his brother Heinrich Herzog von Sachsen-Römhild, who had died in 1710. 

m firstly (Merseburg 18 Feb 1680) SOPHIE HEDWIG Herzogin von Sachsen-Merseburg, daughter of CHRISTIAN I Herzog von Sachsen-Merseburg & his wife Christiane Herzogin von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Merseburg 4 Aug 1660-Saalfeld 2 Aug 1686, bur Saalfeld). 

m secondly (Maastricht 2/12 Dec 1690) CHARLOTTE JOHANNA Gräfin von Waldeck, daughter of JOSIAS Graf von Waldeck & his wife --- (Arolsen 13 Dec 1664-Hildburghausen 1 Feb 1699, bur Saalfeld). 

Johann Ernst & his first wife had five children:

1.         CHRISTIANE SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 14 Jun 1681-Saalfeld 3 Jun 1697, bur Saalfeld).

2.         daughter stillborn (Saalfeld 6 May 1682).

3.         CHRISTIAN ERNST Erbherzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 18 Aug 1683-Saalfeld 4 Sep 1745, bur Saalfeld).  He succeeded his father in 1729 as CHRISTIAN ERNST joint Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld, jointly with his half-brother.  He acquired Coburg, Rodach, Neustadt an der Haide, Gestungshausen and Mönchroden in 1735, as part of the disputed and much delayed inheritance of Albrecht Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg who had died in 1699, after which he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeldm (Obergreiz 18 Aug 1724) CHRISTIANE FRIEDERIKE von Koss, daughter of GÜNTHER CHRISTOPH von Koss [Inspector of Forests/Oberforstmeister at Obergreiz] & his wife Anna Elisabeth von Breitenbauch (Saalfeld 24 Aug 1686-Saalfeld 15 May 1743, bur Saalfeld).  Ennobled as Fürstin by Imperial Order 1724. 

4.         CHARLOTTE WILHELMINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 4 May 1685-Hanau 5 Apr 1767, bur Hanau)m (Coburg 26 Dec 1705) PHILIPP REINHARD Graf von Hanau-Lichtenberg, son of --- (-Schloß Philippsruhe 4 Oct 1712, bur Hanau). 

5.         child stillborn (Saalfeld 2/12 Aug 1686).

Johann Ernst & his second wife had children:

6.         WILHELM FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Arolsen 16/26 Aug 1691-Saalfeld 28 Jul 1720, bur Saalfeld).

7.         KARL ERNST Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 12 Sep 1692-Cremona 30 Dec 1720, bur Saalfeld).  Herr zu Lienden ter Lede en Oudwaard.

8.         SOPHIE WILHELMINA Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 9/19 Aug 1693-Rudolstadt 4 Dec 1727, bur Schwarzburg).  m (Saalfeld 8 Feb 1720) FRIEDRICH ANTON Fürst von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, son of --- (1692-Rudolstadt 1 Sep 1744, bur Schwarzburg). 

9.         HENRIETTE ALBERTINE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 8 Jul 1694-Saalfeld 1 Apr 1695, bur Saalfeld).

10.      LUISE EMILIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 24 Aug 1695-Coburg 21 Aug 1713, bur Saalfeld).

11.      CHARLOTTE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 30 Oct 1696-Saalfeld 2 Nov 1696, bur Saalfeld). 

12.      FRANZ JOSIAS Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 25 Sep 1697-Rodach 16 Sep 1764, bur Coburg St Moritz).  He succeeded his brother in 1720 as Herr zu Lienden ter Lede en Oudwaard, until 1733.  He succeeded his father in 1729 as FRANZ JOSIAS Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld, jointly with his half-brother.  He acquired Coburg, Rodach, Neustadt an der Haide, Gestungshausen and Mönchroden in 1735, as part of the disputed and much delayed inheritance of Albrecht Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg who had died in 1699, after which he was known as Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld.  He ruled solely after the death of his half-brother in 1745.  m (Rudolstadt 2 Jan 1723) ANNA SOPHIE Pss von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, daughter of LUDWIG FRIEDRICH I Fürst von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt & his wife --- (Rathsfeld 9 Sep 1700-Schloß Römhild 11 Dec 1780, bur Coburg St Moritz).  Franz Josias & his wife had eight children: 

a)         ERNST FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 8 Mar 1724-Coburg 8 Sep 1800, bur Coburg St Moritz).  Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1735.  He succeeded his father in 1764 as ERNST FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld

-        see below

b)         JOHANN WILHELM Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Coburg 11 May 1726-killed in battle Hohenfriedberg, near Striegau, Silesia 4 Jun 1745).  Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1735. 

c)         ANNA SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Coburg 3 Sep 1727-Coburg 10 Nov 1728, bur Coburg).

d)         CHRISTIAN FRANZ Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Coburg 25 Jan 1730-Coburg 18 Sep 1797, bur Coburg).  Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1735. 

e)         CHARLOTTE SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Coburg 24 Sep 1731-Schwerin 2 Aug 1810, bur Schwerin Nikolaikirche).  Herzogin von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1735.  m (by proxy Coburg 25 Apr 1755, in person Schwerin 13 May 1755) LUDWIG Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin, son of CHRISTIAN LUDWIG II Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin & his wife Gustave Karoline Herzogin von Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Grabow 6 Aug 1725-Schwerin 12 Sep 1778, bur Schwerin Nikolaikirche). 

f)          FRIEDERIKE MAGDALENE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Coburg 21 Aug 1733-Coburg 29 Mar 1734, bur Coburg).

g)         FRIEDERIKE KAROLINE Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Coburg 24 Jun 1735-Schloß Schwaningen 18 Feb 1791).  Herzogin von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1735.  m (Coburg 22 Nov 1754) as his first wife, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH KARL ALEXANDER Erbmarkgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach, son of KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH "der tolle Markgraf" Markgraf von Brandenburg in Ansbach & his wife Friederike Luise Pss of Prussia (Ansbach 24 Feb 1736-Denham Valence, Berkshire 5 Jan 1806, bur Denham Valence).  He succeeded in 1757 as CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH KARL ALEXANDER Markgraf von Brandenburg-Ansbach, and in 1769 as Markgraf von Brandenburg-Bayreuth

h)         FRIEDRICH JOSIAS Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld (Schloß Ehrenburg, Coburg 26 Dec 1737- Schloß Ehrenburg, Coburg 26 Feb 1815, bur Coburg St Moritz).  General Field Marshal in the Imperial army.  m (Coburg before 24 Dec 1789) THERESE Stroffeck, daughter of --- [Master of Forests in Bohemia] & his wife --- (-after 1815). 

-        FREIHERREN von ROHMANN

13.      HENRIETTE ALBERTINE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld (Saalfeld 20 Nov 1698-Coburg 5 Feb 1728, bur Saalfeld). 

 

 

ERNST FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld, son of FRANZ JOSIAS Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld & his wife Anna Sophie Pss von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Saalfeld 8 Mar 1724-Coburg 8 Sep 1800, bur Coburg St Moritz).  Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1735.  He succeeded his father in 1764 as ERNST FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld

m (Wolfenbüttel 23 Apr 1749) SOPHIE ANTONIE Pss von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, daughter of FERDINAND ALBRECHT II Herzog von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel & his wife Antoinette Amalie Pss von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (Wolfenbüttel 23 Jan 1724-Coburg 17 May 1802, bur Coburg St Moritz). 

Ernst Friedrich & his wife had seven children: 

1.         FRANZ FRIEDRICH ANTON Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 15 Jul 1750-Coburg 9 Dec 1806, bur Coburg Mausoleum).  He succeeded his father in 1800 as FRANZ Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburgm firstly (Hildburghausen 6 Mar 1776) SOPHIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, daughter of ERNST FRIEDRICH III Herzog von Sachsen-Hildburghausen & his third wife Ernestina Auguste Sophie Herzogin von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (Hildburghausen 22 Feb 1760-Coburg 28 Oct 1776, bur Coburg St Moritz).  m secondly (Ebersdorf 13 Jun 1777) AUGUSTA Gräfin Reuß zu Ebersdorf, daughter of HEINRICH XXIV Graf Reuß zu Ebersdorf & his wife Karoline Ernestine Graf zu Erbach-Schönberg (Ebersdorf 19 Jan 1757-Coburg 16 Nov 1831, bur Coburg Mausoleum). 

-        HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-SAALFELD-COBURG, HERZOGEN von SACHSEN-COBURG und GOTHA 1826-1918

2.         KARL Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 21 Nov 1751-Coburg 16 Feb 1757, bur Coburg St Moritz). 

3.         FRIEDERIKE JULIANE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 14 Sep 1752-Coburg 24 Sep 1752, bur Coburg St Moritz). 

4.         KAROLINE ULRIKE AMALIE Herzogin von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 19 Oct 1753-Coburg 1 Oct 1829, bur Coburg St Moritz).  Canoness at Gandersheim 1768, Deaconess 1795/1810.  Deaconess at Coburg 1802. 

5.         LUDWIG KARL FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 2 Jan 1755-Coburg 4/5 Jul 1806, bur Coburg St Moritz).  General Field Marshal Lieutenant in the Imperial army.  Mistress (1): --- Brutel de la Rivière, daughter of ---.  Ludwig Karl Friedrich had one illegitimate child by Mistress (1):

a)         LUDWIG FRIEDRICH EMIL von Coburg (Hildburghausen 1779-Coburg 1827).  m (Coburg 1817) THEKLA Gräfin Vitzthum von Eckstädt, daughter of --- (Dresden 1799-Rothspalk bei Langhagen 1880). 

-        FREIHERREN von COBURG

6.         HEINRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 12 Apr 1756-Coburg 8 Jul 1758, bur Coburg St Moritz). 

7.         FRIEDRICH Herzog von Sachsen-Saalfeld-Coburg (Coburg 4 Mar 1758-Coburg 26 Jun 1758, bur Coburg St Moritz). 

 

 



[1] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), pp. 61-2. 

[2] D K II 293, p. 415, marked "unecht" in the compilation. 

[3] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 1, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[4] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1258, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 622. 

[5] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 40. 

[6] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin) II.12, p. 129. 

[7] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129. 

[8] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[9] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[10] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[11] Vita Sanctæ Radegundis Liber I, 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 365. 

[12] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[13] Liber Historiæ Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 277-8. 

[14] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[15] Liber Historiæ Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[16] Gregory of Tours III.7 and 8, pp. 167-69. 

[17] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[18] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ (Bonn), De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65. 

[19] RHGF IV, p. 8. 

[20] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.9, MGH SS III, p. 420. 

[21] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[22] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 320. 

[23] Liber Historiæ Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[24] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico IV.25, p. 593. 

[25] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico IV.25, p. 593. 

[26] Mommsen, T. (ed) (1954) Codex Theodisianus Vol 1 (2nd edn. reprint, Berlin), VII 8.5, p. 328, cited in Wolfram (1998), pp. 320 and 470. 

[27] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[28] Liber Historiæ Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 277-8. 

[29] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[30] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[31] Vita Sanctæ Radegundis Liber I, 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 365. 

[32] Gregory of Tours III.7, p. 168. 

[33] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 7, p. 8. 

[34] Gregory of Tours IX.2, p. 481. 

[35] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin), p. 295. 

[36] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 7, p. 8. 

[37] Fredegar, IV, 77, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 159. 

[38] Fredegar, IV, 87, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 164. 

[39] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[40] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 794, p. 73. 

[41] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. 

[42] Einhardi Annales 783, MGH SS I, p. 165. 

[43] Einhard 18, p. 453. 

[44] RFA 792, p. 71. 

[45] Annales Xantenses 794, MGH SS II, p. 222. 

[46] Einhardi Annales 794, MGH SS I, p. 181. 

[47] Theodulfi Carmina, XXIV Epitaphium Fastradæ reginæ, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, p. 483. 

[48] RFA 783, p. 61. 

[49] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 145. 

[50] Jackman (1997), p. 145. 

[51] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 849, MGH SS I, p. 365. 

[52] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 858, MGH SS I, p. 371. 

[53] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[54] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 873, MGH SS I, p. 387. 

[55] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[56] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 874, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[57] Jackman (1997), p. 150. 

[58] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[59] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[60] Jackman (1997), p. 150. 

[61] Annales Fuldenses Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[62] Annales Fuldenses, pars quinta 882, MGH SS I, p. 396. 

[63] D Arn 58, p. 82. 

[64] D Arn 83, p. 124. 

[65] Annales Fuldenses, pars quinta 891, MGH SS I, p. 407. 

[66] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[67] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[68] D LdK 46, p. 167. 

[69] Reginonis Chronicon 906, MGH SS I, p. 611. 

[70] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[71] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[72] D LK 20, p. 125. 

[73] Annales Alammanicicorum continuatio Sangallensis altera 908, MGH SS I, p. 54. 

[74] Widukind I.22, MGH SS III, p. 427. 

[75] Perlbach, M. ‘Aus einem verlorenen Codex traditionum der Bonner Münsterkirche St Cassius und Florentius’, Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde, Tome XIII (Hannover, 1888) (“Bonn St Cassius”), 21, p. 158. 

[76] Widukind I.22, MGH SS III, p. 427. 

[77] Annalista Saxo 1085. 

[78] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1025 and 1026, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 517. 

[79] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX siècle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 176. 

[80] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 2, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[81] Codex Brandenburgensis, Dritte Abteilung - Die Altmark, Band 22, XXV Kloster Hillersleben, II, p. 411. 

[82] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 2, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[83] Codex Brandenburgensis, Dritte Abteilung - Die Altmark, Band 22, XXV Kloster Hillersleben, II, p. 411. 

[84] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1034, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 517. 

[85] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 519. 

[86] D K II 293, p. 415, marked "unecht" in the compilation. 

[87] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[88] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[89] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4 and 5, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820 and 821. 

[90] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1074, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 524. 

[91] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1085, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 526. 

[92] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) (“Mainz Urkunden 12th Century”), 1 and 3, pp. 3 and 5. 

[93] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 20, p. 21. 

[94] Schannat, J. F. (1723) Vindemiæ Literariæ (Fulda, Leipzig), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[95] Menzel, K. & Sauer, W. (eds.) (1885) Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1 (Wiesbaden), 168, p. 97. 

[96] Chronicon Gozecense II.14, MGH SS X, p. 154. 

[97] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1062, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 522. 

[98] Annalista Saxo 1056. 

[99] Annalista Saxo 1125. 

[100] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1062, MGH SS XXX.1, pp. 522-3. 

[101] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[102] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[103] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1110, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 527. 

[104] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[105] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1065, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 523. 

[106] Ekkehardi Chronicon 1112, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 246. 

[107] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1146, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 536. 

[108] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[109] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[110] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1114, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 528. 

[111] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[112] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[113] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[114] Annalista Saxo 1130. 

[115] Chronicon Gozecense II.14, MGH SS X, p. 154. 

[116] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[117] Annales Rosenveldenses 1130, MGH SS XVI, p. 104. 

[118] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1130, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 532. 

[119] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1134, MGH SS XVI, p. 18. 

[120] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[121] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[122] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1065, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 523. 

[123] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1118, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 531. 

[124] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[125] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1065, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 523. 

[126] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1141, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 535. 

[127] Schoettgen, C., & Kreysig, G. C. (1755) Diplomataria et Scriptores Historiæ Germanicæ Medii Aevi (Altenburg), Tome II, XII, p. 427. 

[128] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[129] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[130] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[131] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1060, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 521. 

[132] ES XVII 91. 

[133] Iohannis Capitis Historia Monasterii Ilfeldensis, MGH SS XXV, p. 587. 

[134] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[135] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, IX, p. 111. 

[136] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[137] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[138] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820-1. 

[139] Chronicon Gozecense I.21, MGH SS X, p. 148. 

[140] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820-1. 

[141] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820-1. 

[142] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[143] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[144] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[145] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[146] Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1, 188, p. 128. 

[147] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 21, p. 23. 

[148] Annalista Saxo 1139. 

[149] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1140, MGH SS XVI, p. 18. 

[150] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1140, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 535. 

[151] Chronicon Gozecense II.14, MGH SS X, p. 154. 

[152] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1130, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 532. 

[153] Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1, 194, p. 132. 

[154] Annales Pegavienses 1148, MGH SS XVI, p. 258. 

[155] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1146, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 536. 

[156] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[157] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[158] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[159] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1189, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 544. 

[160] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[161] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[162] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[163] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[164] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[165] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 34, p. 37. 

[166] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 42, p. 46. 

[167] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 94. 

[168] Jordan (1986), pp. 100-1. 

[169] Jordan (1986), p. 102. 

[170] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1172, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[171] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362. 

[172] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 345. 

[173] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[174] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[175] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193, MGH SS XXIII, p. 870. 

[176] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1191, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 548. 

[177] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1172, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[178] Jordan (1986), p. 102. 

[179] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 82, p. 85. 

[180] Jordan (1986), p. 155. 

[181] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol.  3, p. 25. 

[182] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 29. 

[183] Ralph of Diceto II, pp. 82-3, cited in Runciman, Vol. 3, p. 29 footnote 2. 

[184] Jordan (1986), p. 173. 

[185] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 107, p. 109. 

[186] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[187] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1193, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 550. 

[188] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum III, 16, MGH SS XXI, p. 158. 

[189] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1151, MGH SS XXIII, p. 841. 

[190] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum III, 16, MGH SS XXI, p. 158. 

[191] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[192] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historiæ Danicæ medii ævi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Sepulchalia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[193] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230, footnote 72 specifying that she is called "Iuditam" in a charter dated 1191. 

[194] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1181, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[195] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1180, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[196] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[197] Roques, H. von (ed.) (1900) Urkundenbuch des Klosters Kaufungen in Hessen (Cassel) ("Kaufungen"), Band I, 29, p. 35. 

[198] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 138, p. 141. 

[199] Kaufungen, Band I, 32, p. 38. 

[200] Wenck, H. B. (1803) Hessische Landesgeschichte (Darmstadt, Giessen), Tome III, Urkundenbuch, XCV, p. 93. 

[201] Wenck, H. B. (1789) Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (Frankfurt, Leipzig), Urkundenbuch, CXXII, p. 156. 

[202] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXIV, p. 150. 

[203] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXXII, p. 156. 

[204] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXXII, p. 156. 

[205] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXXII, p. 156. 

[206] Gudenus, V. F. de (1743) Codex Diplomaticus Moguntiaca (Goettingen), Tome I, CCXLVIII, p. 599. 

[207] Die Urkunden des Stiftes Walkenried (Hannover, 1852) (“Walkenried (1852)”), Vol. I, 275, p. 195. 

[208] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[209] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[210] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193, MGH SS XXIII, p. 870. 

[211] Kaufungen, Band I, 32, p. 38.  

[212] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 136, p. 139. 

[213] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[214] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1218, MGH SS XXIII, p. 907. 

[215] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[216] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230, footnote 76 stating that this is an error as the wife of Heinrich was "Sophia…filia Friderici comitis palatini de Sommerschenburg" although no primary source is cited for this statement. 

[217] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1189, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 544. 

[218] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavariæ et Agnetis Ducissæ, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[219] Rein, W. (ed.) (1863) Urkundenbuch, Geschichte und Beschreibung der thüringischen Klöster, I, Ichtershausen (Weimar) (“Ichtershausen”), 39, p. 79. 

[220] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, XXV, p. 121. 

[221] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[222] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[223] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[224] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 563. 

[225] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[226] Hasse, P. (ed.) (1886) Schleswig-Holstein Regesten und Urkunden (Hamburg, Leipzig), Band I, 386, p. 170. 

[227] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[228] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[229] Codex Diplomaticus Anhaltinus, Teil II, 217, p. 165. 

[230] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[231] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[232] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1216, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 589. 

[233] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[234] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 563. 

[235] Annales Erphordenses 1227, MGH SS XVI, p. 27. 

[236] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 178. 

[237] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[238] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[239] Crossley, Paul 'The Architecture of Queenship: Royal Saints, Female Dynasties and the Spread of Gothic Architecture in Central Europe', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (Boydell Press), pp. 265-66. 

[240] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1232, MGH SS XXIII, p. 930. 

[241] Attwater (1970), p. 113. 

[242] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[243] Annales Erphordenses 1242, MGH SS XVI, p. 34. 

[244] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1241, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 617. 

[245] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[246] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[247] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[248] Annales Stadenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 365.  

[249] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[250] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1224, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 600. 

[251] Annales Parchenses 1241, MGH SS XVI, p. 607. 

[252] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[253] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1226, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 608. 

[254] Wenck, H. B. (1803) Hessische Landesgeschichte mit einem Urkundenbuch, Band III, Urkundenbuch (Darmstadt) ("Hessische Landesgeschichte Urkundenbuch, Band III"), CLXVIII, p. 146. 

[255] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringiæ 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[256] Ichtershausen 39, p. 79. 

[257] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, XXV, p. 121. 

[258] Annales Erphordenses 1232, MGH SS XVI, p. 27. 

[259] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXIV, p. 150. 

[260] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXVII, p. 152. 

[261] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[262] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[263] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, XXII, p. 119. 

[264] Ichtershausen 39, p. 79. 

[265] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, XXV, p. 121. 

[266] Hessischen Landesgeschichte, Band II (1789), Urkundenbuch, CXVII, p. 152. 

[267] Bayley (1949), pp. 16-17. 

[268] Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), pp. 256-7. 

[269] Annales Erphordenses 1247, MGH SS XVI, p. 35. 

[270] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1241, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 617. 

[271] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[272] Bayley (1949), pp. 19-20. 

[273] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 478. 

[274] Ichtershausen 39, p. 79. 

[275] Schannat (1723), Tome I, V, Chartarium Reinhartsbornense, XXV, p. 121. 

[276] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[277] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 65. 

[278] Genealogia Ducum Brabantiæ Heredum Franciæ 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[279] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[280] Annales Mellicenses 1226, MGH SS IX, p. 507. 

[281] Cronica Principum Saxonie, MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[282] Necrologium Monasterii S Crucis Recentius, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 112. 

[283] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 229. 

[284] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 40. 

[285] Annales Veterocellenses 1323, MGH SS XVI, p. 44. 

[286] Huberty, M., Giraud, A. & Magdelaine, F. & B. (1976) L’Allemagne Dynastique, Tome I (Le Perreux-sur-Marne). 

[287] ES I.1 154-66.