Thuringia

  v3.0 Updated 31 May 2014

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

INTRODUCTION. 1

Chapter 1.                EARLY DUKES (KINGS) of THURINGIA. 3

Chapter 2.                LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA [1123]-1247. 10

A.         ORIGINS.. 10

B.         LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA.. 16

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

Thuringia was the area which lay to the east of the Merovingian kingdom of Austrasia.  Kings of Thuringia in the 5th century are named by Gregory of Tours, who also records that the Merovingian kings Theoderic I and Clotaire I invaded and conquered the territory in 531.  The chronicle known as Fredegar records that King Dagobert I installed Radulf as duke to rule Thuringia and that by the mid-7th century he had rebelled and reasserted the territory's independence.  After King Sigebert defeated duke Radulf, Thuringia was governed by dukes from Würzburg[1]

 

There follows a gap in our knowledge of the history of Thuringia until the mid-8th century, although onomastics suggest a family connection between the dukes at that time and the earlier rulers.  In the late 9th century, Poppo from the family of the Franconian "alten" Babenberger was installed briefly as duke in Thuringia by Emperor Arnulf.  His successors were driven from Thuringia in 913, and another long gap in our detailed knowledge of the territory's history and rulers follows.  Presumably Thuringia was at the time under the influence of Bavaria to the south, but this is not certain.  In any case, the absence of information in contemporary chronicles suggests that little attention was paid to the area over the next couple of centuries. 

 

The recorded history of Thuringia resumes in the early 11th century.  Reconstruction of the family of the early counts and Landgrafen of Thuringia is heavily dependent on records written in the mid-13th century at the monastery of Reinhardsbrunn, which was founded by Graf Ludwig "der Springer" in the late 11th century.  The early parts of the Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis must be considered suspect as the chronicle includes the alleged confirmation by Emperor Konrad II of the privileges of Graf Ludwig "Cum-barba" as count in Thuringia, a document which is purportedly dated 1039 but which was a later 12th century forgery[2].   According to the shorter Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić, which is presumably based on the Cronica and may have been written by the same author, Ludwig "Cum-barba" was "de Karoli et Ludewici regum Francorum stirpe oriundus"[3].  The same source states that Gisela, wife of Emperor Konrad II was "consanguineam" of this first Ludwig.  This statement is repeated in more detail in the Cronica.  Empress Gisela was the daughter of Hermann II Duke of Swabia, from the Konradiner family of Franconia.  Her known descent from the Carolingian French kings was through her maternal grandmother, Mathilde daughter of Louis IV "d'Outremer" King of the West Franks, who was the second wife of Conrad I King of Burgundy.  The Cronica also records the origin of Graf Ludwig as "ex Francia oriundi Cis Renum", presumably indicating that he was from the left bank of the Rhine either in Lotharingia or further west in France itself.  It also states that he and his brother arrived in Thuringia in 1034.  The statements in these sources are unverifiable as no other source so far identified gives any further information about Ludwig's origin or the circumstances of his arrival in Thuringia.  A further line of enquiry is, however, suggested by Graf Ludwig naming one of his sons Berengar, a name occurring in northern Lotharingia in the 9th and 10th centuries, although any conclusions based solely on onomastics would be speculative. 

 

It is likely that Ludwig "Cum-barba" did have an aristocratic background.  His burial at Mainz St Alban, the burial place of numerous German nobles, suggests that his family was well connected.  In addition, the family quickly rose to prominence in Thuringia, his grandson being appointed Landgraf in 1131.  This rise to power is difficult to understand unless the family had influential relatives. 

 

It would be easy to dismiss the Cronica as a late invention by a monk who wished to glorify the ancestry of the founder of his monastery.  However, the author does not hold his punches elsewhere in the text.  He is hardly complementary about the family when he records that the son of Graf Ludwig "Cum-barba" murdered his wife's first husband so that he could marry her.  In addition, many of the more precise genealogical details in the Cronica and the Historia are corroborated by earlier sources, as will be seen in this document.  It is therefore not impossible that the Reinhardsbrunn monks had at their disposal earlier texts which have since disappeared. 

 

The last Landgraf of Thuringia died in 1247, after which a bitter dispute broke out over the inheritance between his niece Sophie, second wife of Henri II Duke of Brabant, and Heinrich "der Erlauchte" Markgraf von Meissen[4].  The former claimed the territories of Hessen in Franconia, which had been brought into the family by the marriage of Hedwig von Gudensberg and Ludwig I Landgraf of Thuringia.  However, Heinrich Markgraf von Meissen was enfeoffed by Willem II Count of Holland, anti-king of Germany, with the imperial territories previously held by the last Landgraf of Thuringia in return for recognising him as king[5].  The claim of Heinrich, son of Sophie of Brabant, to the Hessian lands was recognised in 1264 and he was confirmed as Landgrafen in Hessen by imperial order dated 1292.  Markgraf Heinrich's successor succeeded as Landgrafen of Thuringia, the territory eventually forming part of the reconstructed electorate of Saxony which was formed in the early 15th century. 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1.    EARLY DUKES (KINGS) of THURINGIA

 

 

 

1.         BASINUS, son of --- (-after 464).  King of Thuringia.  Gregory of Tours specifies that Childerich King of the Franks found refuge with Basinus King of Thuringia after being deposed[6], dated to [456/57].  m as her first husband, BASINA, daughter of ---.  Gregory of Tours names Basina as wife of Basinus King of Thuringia, specifying that she deserted her first husband to join Childerich after he was restored as king in Gaul[7].  Assuming that Basina existed, it is unlikely that her first name is correct considering that it is the feminine form of her first husband's name.  She married secondly ([464]) Childerich I King of the Franks.  The marriage date is estimated on the basis of how long Childerich was allegedly in exile, assuming that the date of his deposition is accurate, and is appears to be consistent with the estimated dates of birth of the couple's descendants. 

 

 

1.         FISUD [Pisen] .  King of Thuringia.  m ---.  The name of Fisud's wife is not known.  Fisud & his wife had one child: 

a)         RANIGUNDA [Raicunda] .  The Origo Gentis Langobardorum names "Raicundam filia Fisud regis Turingorum" as King Wacho's first wife[8].  The Historia Langobardorum names "Ranigunda filia Pisen regi Turingorum" as Wacho's first wife[9].  Paulus Diaconus names the three wives of Wacho "primam Ranicundam, filiam Regis Turingorum…Austrigosam, filiam regis Gepidorum…tertiam…Herulorum regis filiam…Salingam"[10]m as his first wife, WACHO King of the Lombards in Pannonia, son of ZUCHILO [Unichis] of the Lombards (-540). 

 

 

Three brothers, parents unknown.  The Vitć Sanctć Radegundis names "Radegundis natione barbare de regione Thoringa" and her "avo rege Bessino, patruo Hermenfredo, patre rege Bertechario"[11].  However, it seems chronologically unlikely that Baderic and his brothers were sons of King Basinus, assuming that the dates shown for this family grouping are correct. 

1.         BADERIC .  Gregory of Tours names Baderic, Hermanfrid and Berthar as three brothers ruling over the Thuringians, specifying that he was killed in battle by his brother Hermanfred allied with Theoderic King of the Franks[12].  The Liber Historić Francorum names "Ermenfredi duo fratres Baldericus et Bertecharius"[13]

2.         HERMANFRED (-Zülpich 534).  Gregory of Tours names Baderic, Hermanfrid and Berthar as three brothers ruling over the Thuringians[14].  King of the Thuringians.  The Liber Historić Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum", a marginal addition recording that "Teodericus filius Clodovei ex concubina" threw "Ermenfridum regem" from a wall and killed his two sons[15].  Gregory of Tours records that Theoderic King of the Franks and his half-brother King Clotaire I invaded Thuringia in 531, deposed King Hermanfred and annexed the kingdom, specifying in a later passage that Hermanfred was later accidentally pushed from the top of the city walls of Zülpich while talking to Theoderic[16]m ([510]) AMALABERGA, daughter of [HUGA rex Francorum] & his wife Amalafrida the Ostrogoth .  Iordanes names "Amalabergam" as the daughter of "Amalfridam germanam suam [Theoderici]" and records her marriage to "Thuringorum regi…Herminefredo"[17].  Procopius records that “Hermenefrido Thoringorum regi” married "Theoderici…Amelobergam, Amalafridć sororis suć filiam"[18].  “Theodericus rex” wrote to “Herminafrido Regi Thuringorum” granting him “neptis” in marriage[19].  The Widukindi Res Gestć Saxonicć names "Huga rex Francorum…unicam filiam Amalbergam" who married "Irminfredo regi Thuringorum"[20].  Gregory of Tours calls Amalaberg, wife of Hermanfrid, a "wicked and cruel woman" who sowed the seeds of civil war between her husband and his brother Baderic[21].  She escaped to Ravenna with her children after the Franks attacked Thuringia and killed her husband[22].  King Hermanfred & his wife had four children: 

a)         two sons .  The Liber Historić Francorum records that "Theudericus et Theudobertus filius eius et Chlotharius rex" invaded Thuringia and attacked "Ermenfredum regem Toringorum", a marginal addition recording that "Teodericus filius Clodovei ex concubina" threw "Ermenfridum regem" from a wall and killed his two sons[23]

b)         AMALAFRIDAS .  Procopius records that "Amalafridus, vir Gotthus, ex filia nepos Amalafridć sororis Theoderici Gotthorum regis et filius Hermenefridi regis Thoringorum” was deported to Byzantium with Vitigis King of Italy by Belisarius (in 540)[24]

c)         daughter .  Procopius records that "Amalafridus, vir Gotthus, ex filia nepos Amalafridć sororis Theoderici Gotthorum regis et filius Hermenefridi regis Thoringorum…sororem eius” married "Anduino Langobardorum regi"[25].  The Codex Theodosianus records that the daughter of Amalaberga became the second wife of King Audoin[26]m as his second wife, AUDOIN King of the Lombards, son of ---. 

3.         BERTHAR .  Gregory of Tours names Baderic, Hermanfrid and Berthar as three brothers ruling over the Thuringians, specifying that Hermanfrid defeated and killed his brother Berthar in battle [27].  The Liber Historić Francorum names "Ermenfredi duo fratres Baldericus et Bertecharius"[28]m ---.  The name of Berthar's wife is not known.  Berthar & his wife had [four or more] children:

a)         sons .  Gregory of Tours refers to the unnamed sons of Berthar[29]

b)         RADEGUND (Erfurt 518-Poitiers 587, bur Poitiers, basilique Sainte-Marie-hors-les-Murs).  Gregory of Tours names Radegund as the orphaned daughter of Berthar[30].  The Vitć Sanctć Radegundis names "Radegundis natione barbare de regione Thoringa" and her "avo rege Bessino, patruo Hermenfredo, patre rege Bertechario"[31].  In a later passage, Gregory records that, after the Frankish invasion of Thuringia, Radegund formed part of the booty taken home by Clotaire I King of the Franks, who later married her[32].  The testament of Radegundis dated to [584/87] survives[33].  Gregory of Tours records the death of St Radegund on 13 Aug[34].  She was canonised, her feast day is 13 Aug[35]m (531, repudiated) as his second wife, CLOTAIRE I [Chlothachar/Lothar] King of the Franks, son of CLOVIS I [Chlodovech] King of the Franks & his second wife Chrotechildis [Clotilde] of Burgundy ([501/02]-Soissons [30 Nov/31 Dec] 561, bur Soissons, basilique Saint-Médard). 

c)         [AGNES (-after 587).  Radegundis names "sororem meam Agnetem" several times in her testament dated to [584/87][36].  It is possible that the reference is to her "sister" in the religious sense.] 

 

 

CHAMAR, son of ---.  m ---.  The name of Chamar's wife is not known.  Chamar & his wife had one child:

1.         RADULF (-after [632/33]).  Fredegar records that Dagobert I King of the Franks installed "Radulfus dux filius Chamaro" as duke in Thuringia, in an undated passage but following one which deals with events in the 12th year of the king's reign [632/633], specifying that he won many victories against the Wends but revolted against King Sigebert[37].  Fredegar records that he defeated King Sigebert's army, and called himself king of Thuringia[38]

 

 

1.         RADULF (-after 28 Jul 775).  It is not known whether Radulf was related to the earlier Radulf King of Thuringia but this is certainly suggested by the name.  "Carolus…rex Francorum et Langobardorum" granted the monastery of Plaisir to Folrad abbot of Saint-Denis by charter dated 28 Jul 775 which name "fidelibus…Ghaerardo, Bernardo, Radulfo, Hilderado, Ermenaldo, Hebroino, Theudbaldo, Agneone comitibus, Haltberto, Laumberto, Haererico et Anselmo comite palatio nostro"[39]m ---.  The name of Radulf's wife is not known.  Radulf & his wife had one child:

a)         FASTRADA (-Frankfurt-am-Main 10 Oct 794, bur Mainz, St Alban[40]).  The Annales Laurissenses record the marriage in 783 at Worms of King Charles and "domne Fastradć regina"[41].  Einhard's Annals record the king's marriage in 783 to "filiam Radolfi comitis natione Francam, nomine Fastradam"[42].  Fastrada, wife of King Charles, is referred to as "de Orientalium Francorum, Germanorum videlicet" by Einhard[43].  Her cruelty triggered the revolt of her husband's illegitimate son Pépin "le Bossu" in 792[44].  The Annales Xantenses record the death in Frankfurt in 794 of "Fastrada regina"[45].  Einhard records the death in 794 of "Fastrada regina" at Frankfurt and her burial "Mogontiaci apud sanctum Albanum"[46].  Theodulf wrote the epitaph of "Fastradć reginć"[47]m (Worms Oct 783[48]) as his third wife, CHARLES I King of the Franks, son of PEPIN "le Bref" King of the Franks & his wife Bertrada [Berta] "au Grand Pied" (near Aix-la-Chapelle 2 Apr 748-Aix-la-Chapelle 28 Jan 814, bur Aix-la-Chapelle, Chapelle Sainte-Marie).  He was crowned CHARLES I “Charlemagne” Emperor of the Romans in 800. 

 

 

1.         THANKULFm ---.  The name of Thankulf's wife is not known.  Thankulf & his wife had one child:

a)         HADULF .  Hadulf son of Thankulf is recorded in the 820s[49]

 

 

1.         THAKULF (-1 Aug or end Aug 873).  Jackman suggests that Thakulf was the grandson of Thankulf[50].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Barbari" sent legates to "Thaculfum" in 849[51], although it is unclear from the context to which "Barbarians" this refers.  The Gesta Francorum records that "Thaculfum" led troops against the Slavs "in Sorabos" in 858[52].  The Annales Fuldenses record the death of "Thaculfus comes et dux Sorabici limitis" in Aug 873[53].  The Gesta Francorum is more specific, recording the death of "Thachulfus comes et dux Sorabici" at the end of Aug 873[54].  However, the necrology of Fulda records the death in "873 Kal Aug" of "Thacholf com"[55].  Duke in Thuringia. 

 

2.         RADULF (-[874/80]).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sorabi et Siusli" attacked in 874 after the death of "Thachulfo" and that "Liutbertus archiepiscopus et Ratolfus Thaculfi successor" crossed "Salam fluvium" in Jan 874 and suppressed the revolt "sin bello"[56].  Jackman speculates that Radulf was the son of Duke Thakulf[57].  Duke in Thuringia 874.  Graf der Sorbenmark 874.  The Gesta Francorum also names "Ratolfus" as successor of Thakulf in 874[58].  Radulf presumably died before 880 when the Annales Fuldenses record that "Sclavi…Dalmatii et Behemi atque Sorabi" invaded Thuringia in 880 and devastated the land around "Salam fluvium", in which battle "Poppo comes et dux Sorabici limitis" fought[59]

3.         [daughter .  Jackman speculates that Poppo owed his dukedom in Thuringia to having married the daughter of Duke Thakulf, sister of Duke Radulf[60]m POPPO [II], son of --- (-906 or after).  Dux.  Markgraf der Sorbenmark 892.] 

 

 

POPPO [II], son of --- (-906 or after).  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Sclavi…Dalmatii et Behemi atque Sorabi" invaded Thuringia in 880 and devastated the land around "Salam fluvium", in which battle "Poppo comes et dux Sorabici limitis" fought[61], and in a later passage more specifically names "Poppone fratre Heinrico et Eginone comitibus", recording that he conquered "Thuringis inferior"[62].  "Arnolfus…rex" donated property "in pago Uuormazfelda in comitatu Megingaudi…in villa Dechidestein" to Kloster Fulda on the proposal of "Pobbonis et Deotpoldi [comitum]" by charter dated 21 Jul 889[63].  Marchio.  Markgraf der Sorbenmark 892.  "Arnolfus…rex" gave property "nuncupante Hruodeshof in pago Folchfelda in comitatu Ebonis" to "nostrć Fridarun" on the intervention of "Popbonis marchionis nostri" by charter dated 12 Jan 891[64].  The Annales Fuldenses record that "Poppo dux Thuringorum" was deprived of his honours in 891[65].  Dux.  Regino records that "Popponis Thuringorum ducis" persuaded "Arat Wirziburgensis episcopus" to campaign against the Slavs, during the course of which the bishop was killed in 892[66]Regino specifies that his dukedom was given to "Chuonrado" and soon after to "Burchardo comitis"[67].  Graf in der bayerischen Nordgau 903.  Graf im Volkfeld 906.  "Hludouuicus…rex" confirmed a donation of property "in pago Folcfelda in comitatu Popponis" to Kloster Fulda by charter dated [29 Jun 906][68]

-        FRANCONIAN NOBILITY

 

 

KONRAD, son of [UDO Graf im Lahngau [Konradiner] & his wife Judith [Welf] im Linzgau] ([845/60]-killed in battle near Fritzlar 27 Feb 906, bur Weilburg Martinskirche)Regino names "Chuonradus senior [et] frater eius Gebehardus", specifying that Konrad resided in Hessen at Friedeslar[69].  His birth date range estimated from other estimated birth date ranges of members of the family and the known dates of Konrad's own career.  Regino specifies that the dukedom of "Boppo dux Thuringorum" was given to "Chuonrado" in 892 and soon after to "Burchardo comitis"[70]

 

 

1.         BURKHARD (-killed in battle Thuringia 3 Aug 908).  Regino specifies that the dukedom of "Boppo dux Thuringorum" was given to "Chuonrado" in 892 and soon after to "Burchardo comitis"[71].  "Hludowicus…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster St Gallen by charter dated 24 Jun 903 in which among "fidelium nostrum" was listed "Purchart marchio Thuringionum"[72].  The Annales Alammanici record that "Burchardus dux Turingorum et Rudolfus episcopus Eginoque" were killed by the Hungarians in Saxony in 908[73]m ---.  The name of Burkhard's wife is not known.  Burkhard & his wife had two children:

a)         BURKHARD .  Widukind names "Burghardum quoque Bardonem", specifying "quorum alter gener regis erat", when recording that Duke Heinrich drove them from Thuringia in 913[74].  “Burchardus comes” donated property to Bonn St Cassius, for the souls of “meć...parentumque meorum atque...fratris mei Kunradi Francorum...regis”, at the request of “Waldolfi prepositi”, by charter dated to [911/18][75]m ---[in der Wetterau], daughter of KONRAD Graf in der Wetterau [Konradiner] & his wife Glismod ---. 

b)         BARDO .  Widukind names "Burghardum quoque Bardonem" specifying "quorum alter gener regis erat", when recording that Duke Heinrich drove them from Thuringia in 913[76]

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2.    LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA [1123]-1247

 

 

A.      ORIGINS

 

 

1.         HAMZO .  The Annalista Saxo names "in Halberstad vero Hamezonem eiusdem eclesie canonicum, avunculum Lodowici comitis de Thuringia"[77].  If avunculus is used in its strict meaning in this text, this indicates that Ludwig was the son of Hamzo's sister.  Canon in Halberstadt. 

2.         [sister .  m ---.]  Two children: 

a)         LUDWIG "Cum-barba" (-[1080], bur Mainz St Alban).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Hugonem comitem et Ludwicum dictum Cum-barba fratrem suum" as "duos consanguineos" of Gisela, wife of Emperor Konrad II, specifying that they were "ex Francia oriundi Cis Renum de…stirpe regum Francorum Karoli et Ludewici"[78].  The precise nature of these relationships, assuming that the Cronica (not generally reliable) is accurate in its statements, is not known.  Jean-Noël Mathieu suggests that the relationship was through the family of the kings of Burgundy, descended from Willa, wife of King Rudolf I, although he does not propose a precise connection[79].  There appear to be too many unknown factors in positing the Carolingian ancestry of the Burgundian kings to be able to consider that such a possibility is other than highly speculative.  Graf in Thuringia. 

-        see below

b)         HUGO .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Hugo comes" as brother of "Ludewicus Cum-barba"[80]m ---.  The name of Hugo's wife is not known.  The charter dated 10 Aug 1109 under which Reinhard Bishop of Halberstadt and "dominus Milo comes" donated property to Kloster Hillersleben which names as present "Wichmannus comes de Thuringia nepos meus"[81] shows that she was presumably the sister of Bishop Reinhard.  Hugo & his wife had one child:

i)          WICHMANN .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Wicmannus" as son of "Hugo comes", specifying that when he died his uncle "Ludewicus Cum-barba" was his heir[82].  Reinhard Bishop of Halberstadt and "dominus Milo comes" donated property to Kloster Hillersleben by charter dated 10 Aug 1109 with the consent of "uxoris sue Ludburga", named as present "Wichmannus comes de Thuringia nepos meus"[83]

 

 

LUDWIG "Cum-barba", son of --- (-[1080], bur Mainz St Alban)Graf in Thuringia.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that "Ludwicum dictum Cum-barba" came to Thuringia in 1034 and settled "in confinio silve que Loybe dicitur inter montem Katherberg et Aldinberg et Corneberg"[84].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis also quotes in full an alleged grant by "Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus" to "Lodewico comiti consanguineus nostris" dated 27 Apr 1039 which is headed "Privilegium comitis Thuringie"[85].  In the Monumenta Germanić Historica compilation of imperial diplomas, this deed is classified as forged, the introduction stating that it was one of the Reinhardsbrunn forgeries of the second half of the 12th century[86].  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić records that "Ludewicus Cum-barba" was buried "Maguntie apud Sanctum Albanum"[87]

m CÄCILIE von Sangerhausen, daughter of ---.  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Ceciliam de Sangirhusen" as the wife of "Ludewicus Cum-barba"[88]

Graf Ludwig & his wife had five children: 

1.         LUDWIG "der Salier/der Springer" (-Reinhardsbrunn 1123).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Ludewicum et Berengerum" as the two sons of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Ludwig founded Reinhardsbrunn[89].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that "Ludevico comitis" was detained in Gebechenstein in 1074, it appearing from the context that this refers to the son of Ludwig "Cum-barba"[90]Graf in Thuringia.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that "Ludevico comitis" founded Reinhardsbrunn in 1085[91].  Two charters, dated 11 Apr [1102/04] and [1104/09], under which Pope Paschal II confirmed the privileges of Kloster Reinhardsbrunn state that the monastery was built by "Liudowicus comes"[92].  A charter dated 10 Apr 1139 under which Pope Innocent II confirmed the privileges of Kloster Reinhardsbrunn also states that the monastery had been built by "Ludewico comite"[93].  "Ludowicus de Turingia comes, Arnoldus urbis comes, Sigehardus comes, Bertolfus comes, Ludewicus comes, Gozwinus comes…" witnessed the charter dated 20 Jun 1118 under which Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz donated property "in placito Ludwici comitis" to Kloster St Johannes auf dem Bischofsberge, after the death of "Hildrudis vidue Wulferici ministerialis nostri"[94].  The Chronicon Gozecense records the death of "senior Ludewicus apud Reinheresbrunnen" and his burial "in basilica beatć Dei genetricis"[95].  [m firstly (repudiated) --- of Saxony, daughter of UDALRICH ---.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the first marriage of Ludwig and "filiam ducis Saxonie Udalrici" whom he repudiated[96].  It is possible that this results from confusion with the marriage of Ludwig's eldest daughter with Marchese Ulrich from the family of the Grafen von Weimar (see below).  However, the 1087 date of Ludwig's known marriage to Adelheid von Stade appears late considering the dates attributed to the career of Ludwig's father which would suggest that Ludwig may have been born in the range [1045/55].  It is not impossible therefore that there was an earlier marriage.  It is unlikely, however, that Ludwig's first father-in-law was named "Udalrich" or "Ulrich" if the proposed Saxon origin is correct.  There are no known cases of the use of this name among the Saxon nobility before Ulrich [I] Graf von Weimar, Marchese of Carniola.  The origin of his name cannot be traced, presumably having been introduced into his family either through his paternal grandmother or his great grandmother, neither of whom have been identified with certainty.  The name is more common among the earlier Bavarian and Swabian nobility.]  m [secondly] (1087) as her second husband, ADELHEID von Stade, widow of FRIEDRICH II von Goseck, daughter of LOTHAR UDO II Graf von Stade Markgraf der Nordmark & his wife Oda von Werl (-8 Oct or 14 Nov 1110, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Annalista Saxo records that the wife of Friedrich [II] was "sororem Udonis marchionis", as well as her second marriage to "Lodewicus comes de Thuringia" who had murdered her first husband[97].  She is named "Adelheida" in a later passage[98].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records that Ludwig "adhesit ardentius secreto" with "Adelheidi uxori Frederici comitis palatini Saxonum…Udonis marchionis de Staden filia" and that he killed her first husband in order to marry her[99].  The Chronicon Gozecense records her second marriage to "Ludewico", naming their two sons[100].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1110 XV Kal Nov" of "Adelheidis comitissa uxor Lodewici" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[101].  Graf Ludwig & his [second] wife had seven children: 

a)         HERMANN (-Schloß Hammerstein 1114).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Ludewicum lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Hermannum…Utonem Cicensem episcopum" as sons of "Ludewicus comes" and his wife Adelheid, specifying that Hermann died "in vinculis in castro Hamerstein"[102].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1114 of "Hermannus Ludewici comitis filius" in chains[103]

b)         LUDWIG von Thüringen ([1090]-1140).  The Chronicon Gozecense names (in order) "Raspo Heinricus et…primus comes provincialis Ludewicus" sons of "Ludewico" and his wife Adelheid[104].  He was appointed Landgraf of Thuringia

-        see below

c)         UDO (-1148).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Ludewicum lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Hermannum…Utonem Cicensem episcopum" as sons of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[105].  Bishop of Naumburg. 

d)         HEINRICH RASPE [I] (-1130, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Chronicon Gozecense names (in order) "Raspo Heinricus et…primus comes provincialis Ludewicus" sons of "Ludewico" and his wife Adelheid[106].  The Annalista Saxo records the death in 1130 of "Heinricus Raspo, frater Lodowici comitis de Thuringia, signifer regis, clam confossus immatura morte"[107].  The Chronicon Gozecense names "Heinricus" as younger son of "senior Ludewicus", specifying that he was "advocatus" of Goseck[108].  The Annales Rosenveldenses records the death in 1130 of "Henricus comes de Wodenesberg"[109].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1130 of "Heinricus comes primus Raspen filius fundatoris ecclesie in Reynarsborn" and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[110].  The Annales Erphesfurdenses the death of "Heinricus comes de Thuringia frater Luodewici" in 1134[111], although this date is not corroborated by the other sources cited earlier. 

e)         KUNIGUNDE (-1118).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cunegundim, Ceciliam, Adelheidim" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[112].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "prima Conegundis" as daughter of Graf Ludwig & his wife, recording that she married "Wichmanno comiti de Saxonia qui et ecclesie Kaldenbornensis fundator"[113].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1118 of "Cunigunda filia comitis Ludovici uxor comitis Wigmanni fundator Caldebornensis"[114]m WICHMANN Graf, son of Graf BERNO & his wife Adelheid --- (-after 1118). 

f)          CÄCILIE (-1141, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cunegundim, Ceciliam, Adelheidim" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[115].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Ceciliam" as second daughter of Graf Ludwig & his wife, recording that she married "comes de Weldense Gerlacus" and that by him she was mother of "Udonem minorem Cycensem episcopum"[116].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1141 of "Cecilia filia comitis Ludewici primi…relicta comitis Gerlaci" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[117]m GERLACH [I] Graf von Veldenz, son of --- (-before 1141).

g)         ADELHEID ([1087]-1146).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cunegundim, Ceciliam, Adelheidim" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus comes" & his wife Adelheid[118].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Adelheidis" as third daughter of Graf Ludwig & his wife, recording that she married "Udalrico comiti…de Wymar"[119].  The Ekkehardi Chronicon records the death in 1112 of "quidam de Saxonie principus…Oudalricus", specifying that he was "Ludewici comitis gener" but that he had repudiated his wife[120].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1146 of "Alheidis comitissa filia secunda Lodewici"[121]m (before 1102, repudiated) ULRICH II Marchese di Carniola e Istria, son of ULRICH I Marchese di Carniola e Istria [Weimar] & his wife Sophia of Hungary (-13 May 1112).  

2.         BERENGAR (-before 25 Jul 1110, bur Sangerhausen).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Ludewicum et Berengerum" as the two sons of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Berenger succeeded in Sangerhausen where he was also buried[122].  Graf von Sangerhausen.  m BERTRADA von Wettin, daughter of KONRAD Graf von Wettin & his wife Othildis von Katlenberg (-1145).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Bertradam" as the daughter of "quintus filius [comitis Tiderici] Conradus comes" & his wife, naming her husband "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia"[123].  Berengar & his wife had five children: 

a)         KONRAD (-1145).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "comes Conradus de Honsteyn" as son of "Beringerus…Sangirhusen", specifying that "omnes de Honsteyn" were his descendants[124].  He was not the patrilineal ancestor of the later Grafen von Hohenstein (Honstein) according to Europäische Stammtafeln[125].  In addition, the History of Ilfeld Monastery names "filius [Elgeri] Elgerus secundus" as "primus comes in Honstein", specifying that he obtained the castle from "comitissa viuda Remvice" who was widow of Esiko Graf von Honstein[126].  No relationship with Graf Konrad is specified in this source.  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filum Conradum et filias quatuor" as the children of "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia" & his wife[127].  Graf von Hohnstein. 

b)         KUNIGUNDE .  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filum Conradum et filias quatuor" as the children of "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia" & his wife, specifying that one of the daughters "Cunegundam" married "Cuno de Wippera" and that their son was "Lothowicum"[128]m THIMO von Wippra, son of ---. 

c)         three daughters .  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "filum Conradum et filias quatuor" as the children of "Beringerus comes frater Ludowici comitis senioris de Thuringia" & his wife[129]

3.         HILDEGARD (-bur Goseck).   The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Hildegardis…Uta…Adelheidis" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Hildegard married firstly "Bopponi comiti de Hennenberc" and secondly "Timoni de Nordeke", naming "Gebehardum qui Cellam Sancti Blasii ad monasterium Reinhersburn" as her son by her second husband[130].  The Chronicon Gozecense names "Hildegardis comitissa cuius frater comes fuit Ludewicus", recording her burial at Goseck monastery, and also specifying that "filium suum Domino vovit, Gebehardum scilicet" but that he left the monastery and was killed[131]m firstly POPPO [I] Graf von Henneberg, son of --- (-killed in battle near Melrichstadt 7 Aug 1078).  m secondly THIMO von Nordeck, son of ---.

4.         UTA .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Hildegardis…Uta…Adelheidis" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Uta married "comiti Dieterico de Linderbeche"[132]m DIETRICH Graf von Linderbach, son of ---. 

5.         ADELHEID .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Hildegardis…Uta…Adelheidis" as the three daughters of "Ludewicus Cum-barba" & his wife, specifying that Hildegard married "in Wiphire dominum"[133]m LUDWIG von Wippra, son of ---.  Ludwig & his wife had one child: 

a)         LUDWIG .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Ludewicum" as son of "in Wiphire dominum" & his wife Adelheid[134]m MATHILDE, daughter of ---.  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Mechtildem" as wife of "Ludewicum [in Wiphire]" and their sons "futurum postea Monateriensem episcopum [et] Kunonem laicum"[135]

 

 

 

B.      LANDGRAFEN of THURINGIA

 

 

LUDWIG von Thüringen, son of LUDWIG "der Salier/der Springer" Graf in Thuringia & his wife Adelheid von Stade ([1090]-13 Jan 1140, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Chronicon Gozecense names (in order) "Raspo Heinricus et…primus comes provincialis Ludewicus" sons of "Ludewico" and his wife Adelheid[136]Landgraf of Thuringia.  The Annales Stadenses name "Lodewicum [filium Ludowici]" specifying that he secured the "comitatum provincialem in Thuringia" from "Lothario rege" after the latter deprived "Hermannus de Wincenburg"[137].  "Willehelmus comes Palatinus, Heinricus marchionis Luibaldi filius, Arnoldus Moguntinus comes, Ludewicus comes Thuringie, Ernest comes et Siczzo comes, Sigefridus et frater eius Bertolfus comites de Nuringes, Emicho comes et frater eius Gerlahus, Megenhardus de Spanheim, Wolframus de Wertheim…" witnessed the charter dated 1132, after 13 Sep, under which Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz donated property "in pago…Weitereibia…in comitatu Sigefridi comitis de Nuringes" to Mainz cathedral[138].  "…Comes patrie Ludewicus ibidem principalis advocatus…" witnessed a charter dated 25 Jul 1139 under which Adalbert [II] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed his predecessor's grants to Kloster Jechaburg[139].  The Annalista Saxo records the death of "Ludowicus Thuringić comes" at the end of 1139[140], the Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses recording the death of "Luodewicus comes provincie Thuringorum" in 1140[141].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1140 Id Jan" of "Ludewicus primus principalis comes filius fundator nostri" and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[142]

m [as her second husband,] HEDWIG von Gudensberg, [widow of ---,] daughter of GISO [IV] von Gudensberg & his wife Kunigunde von Bilstein (-1148, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Chronicon Gozecense names "Hadewigam comitissam Gise viduam" as the wife of [Ludwig][143], one way of interpreting the whole passage being that she was the widow of Ludwig's brother Heinrich although this seems unlikely to be correct.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the marriage of "Ludewicus primus langgravius" and "Hedwigim" without giving her origin[144], although it is interesting to note that this text follows the passage which records the death of Ludwig's brother Heinrich.  The true family origin of the wife of Landgraf Ludwig is confirmed by the charter dated to [1137/40] under which Arnold Archbishop of Köln confirmed a donation of property "apud Brubach" [Braubach] to Kloster Siegburg by her mother "comitissa quedam Cunigunda…de Bilistein que fuerat uxor Gisonis comitis" and the later confirmation by "domnus Ludewicus comes de Thuringia cum uxore sua, filia predicte Cunigunde"[145].  The primary source which confirms her father´s family as "von Gudensberg" has not yet been identified.  It is not known whether the Chronicon Gozecense is correct in stating that Ludwig was Hedwig´s second husband, even if it identifies him incorrectly, but if so no separate indication of his identity has yet been found.  Hedwig was heiress of a large part of Hessen.  The Annales Pegavienses record the death in 1148 of "Hedewic relicta Loudewicis provincialis comitis"[146].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1148 of "Hedewig relicta primi lantgravii" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[147]

Ludwig I & his wife had seven children: 

1.         LUDWIG ([1128]-Neuenburg am Unstrut 14 Oct 1172, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Annales Stadenses specifies that "secundus Lodewicus [=filium Ludowici genuit tertium]"[148].  He succeeded his father in 1140 as LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia

-        see below

2.         HEINRICH RASPE [II] (-[1155]).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "secundum sui nominis [=Ludowicum] lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Ludewicum de Thungesbrucken" as the sons of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig[149].  Graf von Gudensburg.

3.         LUDWIG (-1189).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "secundum sui nominis [=Ludowicum] lantgravium, Heinricum Raspin, Ludewicum de Thungesbrucken" as the sons of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig[150].  Graf von Thamsbrück.  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1189 of "Ludewicus comes de Tummesbrucken patruus lantgravii"[151]

4.         CECILIE .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Cecilia married "Udelrico duci Boemie"[152]m as his first wife, ULRICH Duke of the Bohemians, son of SOBĚSLAV I UDALRICH Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Adelaida of Hungary (1134-18 Oct 1177).

5.         ADELHEID (-after 1140).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Adelheid was "in ecclesia Sancti Nycolai abbatissa"[153].  Abbess in Eisenach.

6.         MECHTILD .  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Mechtild married "comiti Dieterico de Werben fratri ducis Bernhardi"[154]m DIETRICH von Brandenburg, son of ALBRECHT I "dem Bären" Graf von Ballenstedt Markgraf von Brandenburg & his wife Sophie von Winzenburg (-after 5 Sep 1183).  Graf von Werben 1170. 

7.         JUTTA (-9 Sep after 1174).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Cecilia…Iutha…Adelheidis…Mechtildis" as the four daughters of "Ludewicus lantgravius" & his wife Hedwig, specifying that Jutta married "eiusdem provincie [=Boemie] regis" and naming her sons "regem Odakarum et…comitem Heinricum"[155]m (1153) as his second wife, VLADISLAV II Duke of Bohemia, son of VLADISLAV I Duke of Bohemia & his wife Richinza [Richsa] von Berg (-18 Jan 1174, bur Strahow).  He was crowned King of Bohemia at Regensburg 18 Jan 1158. 

 

 

LUDWIG von Thüringen, son of LUDWIG I Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Hedwig von Gudensberg ([1128]-Neuenburg am Unstrut 14 Oct 1172, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Annales Stadenses specifies that "secundus Lodewicus [=filium Ludowici genuit tertium]"[156].  He succeeded his father in 1140 as LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia., although the following charters show that he was not consistently referred to in contemporary documentation with the title Landgraf  "Ludewicus comes provincialis…" witnessed the charter dated 16 Jun 1147 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz confirmed the foundation of Ichtershausen convent by "matrona…Frideruna linea nobis sanguinis propinqua et filius eius Marcwardus de Grumbach vir nobilis"[157].  "Lodewigus provincialis comes…" witnessed the charter dated 22 Oct 1150 under which Heinrich [I] Archbishop of Mainz donated property to Stifte Jechaburg[158].  At first an ally of Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony, he later joined the duke's enemies, feeling threatened by his ambitions in the area south of the Harz[159].  In 1166, he joined the alliance of Saxon princes against Duke Heinrich, attacking the fortress of Althaldensleben 20 Dec 1166 with Albrecht "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg and Wichmann Bishop of Magdeburg[160].  Landgraf Ludwig was one of the signatories of the alliance of Magdeburg 12 Jul 1167, which formalised the opposition to Duke Heinrich[161].  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses record the death of "Loudewigus provincialis comes Thuringić" in 1172[162]

m (1150) JUTTA [Claricia] von Staufen, daughter of FRIEDRICH II Duke of Swabia [Staufen] & his second wife Agnes von Saarbrücken ([1135]-7 Jul 1191, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Gesta Friderici of Otto of Freising names "Conradum, qui palatinus comes Rheni…et Clariciam, Ludewici Thuringić comitis uxorem" as the two children of Duke Friedrich & his second wife[163].  The Urspergensium Chronicon refers to (but does not name) the daughter of "Friedrich I pater ipsius" & his second wife as the wife of "lantgravius de Thuringia"[164].  The Annales Stadenses records that the mother of "quartum [Lodewicum]" and therefore the wife of "tertium [Ludowicum]" was "sororis imperatoris Friderici"[165].  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "imperatoris Friderici sorore Iutha" as the wife of Landgraf Ludwig II[166].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1193 refers to "soror…Berthe" as wife of "lantgravie Thuringie Ludovico"[167].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1191 of "Iutta lantgravia soror Frederici imperatoris mater Ludewici tercii" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[168]

Ludwig II & his wife had five children: 

1.         LUDWIG von Thüringen ([1152]-Palestine 1190).  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses name "Loudewigus provincialis comes Thuringić…filius eius Loudewigus" when recording his succession to his father in 1172[169].  He adhered to the alliance of Magdeburg, which formalised the opposition to Heinrich "der Löwe" Duke of Saxony, at Santersleben, south of Haldensleben, 14 Jul 1167[170].  He succeeded his father in 1172 as LUDWIG III "der Milde/der Fromme" Landgraf of Thuringia.  "Lodewicus…tertius lantgravius" granted property to Stifte Jechaburg by charter dated 1174[171].  After the death of Albrecht "der Bär" Markgraf von Brandenburg, Landgraf Ludwig claimed the county of Weimar[172].  He left on crusade and in [Nov] 1189 arrived by sea at Tyre, where he persuaded Corrado di Monferrato to join in the attack on Acre led by Guy de Lusignan king of Jerusalem[173].  He returned home from the siege, probably ill with malaria, and died en route[174].  According to Ralph of Diceto, he had relations with the enemy from whom he accepted money[175].  He was invested as Pfalzgraf of Saxony by Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" at Gelnhausen 13 Apr 1180[176].  "Ludewicus…provincialis Thuringie et Hassie" recognised the rights of Kloster Hilwartshausen by charter dated 1189[177].  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić records that "Ludewicus [tertium…lantgravium]" died "in Terra Sancta"[178].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1193 of "Ludewico tertio lantgravio in Terra Sancta"[179]m firstly (1172, repudiated) MARGARETA von Kleve, daughter of DIETRICH [II] Graf von Kleve & his wife Adelheid von Sulzbach.  The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified.  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum confirms that "Lothewigus lantgravius de Thuringia, filius sororis imperatoris" repudiated his first wife on the grounds of consanguinity to marry "matrem Kanuti regis Danorum"[180]m secondly ([1184], divorced 1187) as her second husband, SOFIA Vladimirovna, widow of VALDEMAR I "den Store/the Great" King of Denmark, daughter of VLADIMIR Vsevolodich Prince of Novgorod Prince of Polotsk & his wife Ryksa [Swantosława] of Poland ([1141]-5 May 1198, bur Ringsted).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Sophiam de Russia" as wife of "Waldemarum II"[181].  Arnold's Chronica Slavorum confirms that "Lothewigus lantgravius de Thuringia, filius sororis imperatoris" repudiated his first wife on the grounds of consanguinity to marry "matrem Kanuti regis Danorum"[182].  The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 May" of "Sophia regine Dacie"[183].  The burial records of Ringsted record the burial at Ringsted of "sanctus Kanutus dux Dacie…filius suus Waldemarus primus, ampliator huius ecclesia" and the burial next to him at Ringsted of "regina Sophia uxor sua filia Swerchonis regis Suetie" who died "III Id Mai" in 1198[184].  Ludwig III & his first wife had one child: 

a)         JUTTA (-[6 Sep 1208/1216]).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Machtildem filiam Ludowici comitis de Thuringia" as wife of "Tidericus comes, filius eius [Dedonis Orientalis marchionis]"[185].  Although the primary source which confirms that she was Ludwig's daughter by his first marriage has not yet been identified, the date of her marriages indicates that it is unlikely that she was born from his second marriage.  m (before 1190) DIETRICH von Wettin Graf von Sommerschenburg und Groitzsch, son of DEDO V "der Feiste" von Rochlitz Graf von Groitzsch, Markgraf der Niederlausitz & his wife Mathilde von Heinsberg heiress of Sommerschenburg (-13 Jun 1207, bur Zschillen).

2.         HERMANN von Thüringen (-Burg Friedenstein bei Gotha 25 Apr 1217, bur Schloß Friedenstein).  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses name "germano suo [=principalis comes Luodewicus] comite Herimanno" when recording his capture in 1180, and "Hermannus frater Ludowici lantgravii" when recording his installation as "palatinus Saxonić" in 1181[186].  Pfalzgraf of Saxony 1180.  He succeeded his brother in 1190 as HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia

-        see below

3.         HEINRICH RASPE [III] (-1180).  The Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses record the death in 1180 of "Heinricus comes Luodewici lantgravii germanus"[187]

4.         FRIEDRICH (-after 5 Sep 1213).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Ludewicum iuniorem tertium…lantgravium, Fridericum de Cigenhain, Henricum iuniorem cognomento Raspe et Hermannum…huius provincie principem et Saxoni comitem palatinum" as the sons of Landgraf Ludwig II & his wife[188].  Graf von Ziegenhain 1186.  "Comes Fridericus frater landgravii, comes Wikerus, comes Henricus de Cigenhagen…" witnessed the charter dated 1189 under which Beatrix Abbess of Kaufungen a donation of revenue by "dominus Megenwardus ministerialis noster"[189].  "…comes Fridericus frater lantgravii…" witnessed the charter dated 1199 under which "Hermannus…lantgravius et palatinus comes Saxonie" confirmed a sale of property to Kloster Hardehausen[190].  "Heremannus…lantgravius Thuringie et palatinus comes Saxonie" confirmed a donation to Kloster Kaufungen made by "Helmwicus in Rorenvort et fratres sui ministeriales nostri" by charter dated 1199, witnessed by "comes Fridericus frater lantgravii, comes Wilkerus, comes Heinricus de Cigenhagen…"[191]m (before 1186) LIUTGARD von Ziegenhain, daughter of GOZMAR [III] Graf von Ziegenhain & his wife --- (-after 1207).  The primary source which confirms her origin and marriage has not yet been identified.  Friedrich & his wife had two children: 

a)         SOPHIE (-after 2 Apr 1247).  "Sophia nata quondam Friderici comitis de Wildungen, relicta Burchardi Burggravii Magdeburgensis" donated property to the archbishopric of Mainz by charter dated 2 Apr 1247[192]m BURCHARD [V] von Querfurt Burggraf von Magdeburg, son of BURCHARD [IV] von Querfurt Burggraf von Magdeburg & his wife Sophie von Wettin ([1185]-[1243/46]).  

b)         JUDITH (-7 Oct 1220).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Iuditam filiam Friderici comitis de Cigenhagin, fratris Hermanni comitis Thuringie" as wife of "Fridericus comes iunior", and records her death "1220 Non Oct"[193]m (1181) FRIEDRICH [II] von Brehna, son of FRIEDRICH [I] Graf von Brehna [Wettin] & his wife Hedwig of Moravia (-Acre 16 Oct 1221).  He succeeded his brother in 1203 as Graf von Brehna

5.         JUTTA (-2 Apr ----).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names "Iutham comitissam de Rabinsberc" as the daughter of Landgraf Ludwig II & his wife[194].  1200.  m as his first wife, HERMANN Graf von Ravensburg, son of OTTO [I] von Calvelage Graf von Ravensburg & his wife Oda --- (-after 1218).

 

 

HERMANN von Thüringen, son of LUDWIG II "der Eiserne" Landgraf of Thuringia & his wife Judith [Jutta] von Staufen (-Burg Friedenstein bei Gotha 25 Apr 1217, bur Schloß Friedenstein).  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines in 1193 names "Hermannum lantgravium" as son of "lantgravie Thuringie Ludovico" & his wife[195].  Pfalzgraf of Saxony 1180.  He succeeded his brother in 1190 as HERMANN I Landgraf of Thuringia.  "Heremannus…lantgravius Thuringie et palatinus comes Saxonie" confirmed a donation to Kloster Kaufungen made by "Helmwicus in Rorenvort et fratres sui ministeriales nostri" by charter dated 1199, witnessed by "comes Fridericus frater lantgravii, comes Wilkerus, comes Heinricus de Cigenhagen…"[196].  "Hermannus…lantgravius et Saxonie comes palatinus" confirmed the donation by "familia nostra matrona quedam de Vargla, Hedewiga, vidua Cunimundi" to Kloster Ichtershausen by charter dated 15 Nov 1199[197].  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić records that "Hermanno fratri [Ludewici tertii]" died in Gotha and was buried at Eisenach[198].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in 1218 of "lantgravius Toringie et Hermannus pater Ludovici lantgravii"[199].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "VII Kal Mai" of "Hermannus lantgravius Thuringie"[200]

m firstly ([1182]) as her second husband, SOPHIE, widow of HEINRICH Graf von Wettin, daughter of --- (-1189, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Sophiam filiam cuiusdam nobilis de Austria" as wife of "Heinricus comes de Witin", specifying that she married secondly "Hermannus tunc comes palatinus Saxonie, postmodem etiam comes provincialis Thuringie"[201].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1189 of "Sophie palatina uxor Hermanni lantgravii" and her burial at Reinhardsbrunn[202], the word "palatina" maybe providing a potential clue to her origin. 

m secondly (1196) SOPHIE von Bayern, daughter of OTTO I Duke of Bavaria [Wittelsbach] & his wife Agnes van Looz (-10 Jul 1238, bur Eisenack St Katharina Kloster).  The Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavarić names "Sophiam" as first of the five daughters of "Otto dictus de Schiren…dux Bawarie", although the order appears inaccurate in view of Sophie's marriage date, and her husband "Hermannus langravius Thuringie"[203].  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[204].  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "1238 VI Id Iul" of "Sophia mater Heinrico lantgravii" and her burial at Eisenach "in ecclesia beate Catharine"[205].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "VI Id Jul" of "Sophia lantgravia"[206]

Hermann I & his first wife had two children: 

1.         JUTTA ([1183]-Schleusingen 6 Aug 1235).  The Genealogica Wettinensis names "Iuditam" as the daughter of "Hermannus tunc comes palatinus Saxonie, postmodem etiam comes provincialis Thuringie" and his wife Sophie, naming her husband "Tiderici marchionis Misnensis et Orientalis, filii Othonis marchionis"[207].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the first marriage of "filia prima Iutta" and "Theoderici marchioni Misnensi" and her second marriage to "Bopponem comitem de Hennenberg patruum comitis Bertoldi de Henneberg" as well as her son by her second marriage "Hermannum comitem de Hennenberg" who was father of "Bopponem iuniorem de Hennenberg et Bertoldum episcopum"[208], although "Hermannum" appears to be an error for "Popponem".  m firstly (1194) DIETRICH von Meissen Herr zu Weissenfels, son of OTTO "der Reicher" Markgraf von Meissen [Wettin] & his wife Hedwig von Brandenburg [Ballenstedt] ([1162]-17 Feb 1221, bur Kloster Altzelle).  He succeeded in 1197 as DIETRICH "der Bedröngte" Markgraf von Meissenm secondly (Leipzig 3 Jan 1223) as his second wife, POPPO [VII] Graf von Henneberg, son of POPPO [VI] Graf von Henneberg & his wife Sophie von Andechs-Merano (-21 Aug 1245, bur Vessra).

2.         HEDWIG (-1247).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Hedwigis" as second daughter of "principis Hermanni" and her marriage to "comiti Alberti de Alsacia"[209].  The primary source which confirms the precise origin of her husband has not yet been identified.  "Hedewigis comitissa coniunx nostra" witnessed the charter dated 20 May 1222 under which Albrecht Graf von Orlamünde und Holstein confirmed a sale of property to the bishop of Lübeck[210]m (1211) ALBRECHT Graf von Orlamünde, son of SIEGFRIED III Graf von Orlamünde [Askanier] & his wife Sophie of Denmark (1183-18 Dec 1244).

Hermann I & his second wife had six children: 

3.         IRMGARD ([1197]-[1244]).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Irmingardis" as oldest daughter of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that she married "comiti Heinrico de Anhalt"[211].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Sophiam sororem lantgravii Thuringie" as wife of "Henricum comitem de Anahalt"[212].  Her parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 29 Mar 1256 under which her son "Henricus…comes Ascharie" the donation by "bone memorie avunculum nostrum Turingie lantgravium Ludewicum" to the nuns of Mehringen (later Petersthal)[213]m (1211) HEINRICH von Ballenstedt, son of BERNHARD von Ballenstedt Duke of Saxony, Graf von Aschersleben und Anhalt & his wife Judyta of Poland ([1170]-[8 May 1251/17 May 1252], bur Ballenstedt).  He succeeded his father in 1212 as HEINRICH I "der Fette" Graf von Anhalt

4.         HERMANN (before 1200-Eisenach 31 Dec 1216).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Ludewicum…Heinricum Raspin…Hermannum qui puer obit et Cunradum" as the four sons of "Hermanno"[214].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Hermannum" as second son of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that he died "in Ysenache"[215].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death in 1216 of "Hermannus lantgravius Ludewicus filius eius primogenitus"[216].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "II Kal Jan" of "Hermannus"[217]

5.         LUDWIG (28 Oct 1200-Otranto 11 Sep 1227).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the birth "1200 V Kal Nov" of "Ludewicus quartus lantgravius de matre sua Sophia filia ducis Bavarie"[218].  He succeeded his father in 1217 as LUDWIG IV "der Heilige" Landgraf of Thuringia and Pfalgraf von Sachsen.  He was titular Markgraf von Meissen from 1226.  The Annales Erphordenses record that "Ludewicus lantgravius" took part in the expedition of Emperor Friedrich II to Palestine in 1227 but died in Otranto, Apulia "VI Id Sep"[219].  He sailed with Emperor Friedrich II from Brindisi 8 Sep 1227 for Jerusalem, but was put ashore gravely ill at Otranto where he died[220].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "II Id Sep" of "Ludewicus lantgravius Thuringie"[221]m (1221) ELISABETH of Hungary, daughter of ANDRÁS II King of Hungary & his first wife Gertrud von Andechs-Merano (Bratislava 1207-Marburg 10 Nov 1231, bur Marburg Elisabethenkirche).  The Altahenses Annales record that "Bela rex Ungarie" was brother of "sancte Elisabeth"[222].  She fell under the strong influence of her confessor, the Papal inquisitor Konrad von Marburg, and completely rejected secular life.  After her husband's death, she was apparently evicted from Wartburg Castle by her brother-in-law.  She settled in Marburg where she founded a Franciscan hospital for the poor and sick.  She embraced a regime of extreme fasting, dressed in a grey penitential tunic supposedly sent to her by St Francis of Assisi.  Konrad von Marburg built a finger-shaped church around her grave in her hospital chapel.  Her cult became the object of intense political rivalry between the Teutonic Knights, allied with the Landgraf of Thuringia, and the Archbishop of Mainz.  This resulted in her rapid canonisation by Pope Gregory IX in 1235[223].  The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records the death in "XIII Kal Dec 1232" of "Elizabeth domna sancta…Ludovici Thuringie lantgravii" and her burial "apud hospitale de Maerbuch quod ipsa construxit"[224].  Her feast-day is 19 Nov[225].  Ludwig IV & his wife had three children: 

a)         HERMANN (-Kreuzberg 3 Jan 1241, bur Reinhardsbrunn).  He succeeded his father in 1227 as HERMANN II Landgraf of Thuringia.  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record the death in 1241 of "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth"[226].  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "1242 III Non Ian" of "lantgravius Hassie filius sancte Elisabeth" in Kreuzburg and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[227].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1241 IV Non Jan" of "Hermannus lantgravius Hassie in Cruczeborg", referring to allegations that he was poisoned by "femina dicta Bertha de Sebecke", and his burial at Reinhardsbrunn[228].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "III Non Jan" of "Hermannus lantgravius"[229]Betrothed ([1238], contract broken 1239) to MARGARETA von Hohenstaufen, daughter of Emperor FRIEDRICH II & his third wife Isabella of England ([end 1237 or Foggia near Naples 1 Dec 1241]-Frankfurt am Main 8 Aug 1270).  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record that "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth" repudiated his betrothal with "filia imperator"[230], which can only refer to Margareta.  m (9 Oct 1239) as her first husband, HELENE von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, daughter of OTTO I “dem Kind” Herzog von Braunschweig & his wife Mathilde von Brandenburg [Askanier] (18 Mar 1223-6 Sep 1273, bur Wittenberg Franciscans).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names (in order) "Mechtildim…Helenam…Alheidem… Helenam" as the daughters of "Ottonem de Lunenburch" & his wife, specifying that the first "Helenam" married firstly "Hermannus dominus Hassie, filius beate Elisabeth" and secondly "Albertus dux Saxonie"[231].  The Annales Stadenses records the marriage "1239 die Dyonisii" of "Hermannus filius sanctć Elizabeth" and "Elenam filiam ducis Ottonis de Brunswich"[232].  The Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis record that "Hermannus landgravius filius sancte Elysabeth" married "filiam ducis de Brunswich"[233].  She founded the Kloster of the Franciscan Order at Wittenberg.  She married secondly (Papal dispensation 4o 15 May 1244, [1247/48]) as his third wife, Albrecht I Duke of Saxony

b)         SOPHIE (Wartburg 20 Mar 1224-[Marburg] 29 May 1275, bur Villers).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the birth "1224 mencio tercio XX die" to "beata Elizabeth" of "filiam Sophiam in castro Wartperg"[234].  The Annales Parchenses record the marriage in 1241 of "Heinricus dux Lotharingie" and "Sophiam filiam beate Elyzabeth de Thurin gia"[235].  She was heiress of Hessen, which was inherited by her son who became Heinrich I "das Kind" Landgraf und Herr von Hessen.  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "IV Kal Jun" of "Sophia filia beate Elyzabeth"[236]m (1241) as his second wife, HENRI II Duke of Brabant, son of HENRI I "le Guerroyeur" Duke of Brabant & his first wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1207]-Louvain 1 Feb 1248, bur Villers).

c)         GERTRUD (1226-1297).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the birth in 1226 of "Ludewico secunda filia nomine Sophia" specifying that she became a nun at Kitzingen[237], although the name is clearly an error.  "Sophia filia B. Elizabeth Landgravia Turingie, domina Hassie, quondam ducissa Brabancie" promised donations to Kloster Altenburg, at the request of "sororis nostre Gertrudis magistre in Aldenburg", by charter dated 15 Oct 1278[238].  Abbess at Altenberg near Wetzlar.

6.         HEINRICH RASPE ([1204]-Wartburg 19 Feb 1247, bur Eisenach Katharinenkloster). "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[239].  He succeeed in 1241 as HEINRICH RASPE Landgraf of Thuringia, Pfalzgraf von Sachsen.  Emperor Friedrich II appointed him joint imperial procurator in Germany in 1242, jointly with Wenzel I King of Bohemia, and as a result he became the focus of intrigue by the papal party[240].  He was elected as HEINRICH King of Germany in Veitshöchheim 22 May 1246 by the archbishops of Köln and Mainz[241].  He defeated Konrad IV King of Germany at Frankfurt later in 1246, but was unsuccessful in a subsequent attack against Otto Duke of Bavaria.  The Annales Erphordenses record the death "castrum Warberc 1247 XIII Kal Mar" of "Heinricus rex" and his burial "in monasterio sancte Katharine"[242].  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the death "1248 in die sancta Iuliane in Wartperg" of "Heinricus rex et lantgravius", and his burial at Eisenach[243].  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "XV Kal Mar" of "Heinricus lantgravius rex Romanorum"[244].  He died after falling from his horse[245]m firstly (before 16 May 1228) ELISABETH von Brandenburg, daughter of ALBRECHT II Markgraf von Brandenburg [Askanier] & his wife Mathilde von Lensberg [Wettin] ([1207/16]-1237).  The Cronica Principum Saxonie refers to one of the daughters of "Albertus secundus" as "filiam que fuit lantgravio desponsata"[246].  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi"[247]m secondly (Wiener Neustadt Feb 1238) GERTRUD of Austria, daughter of LEOPOLD VI Duke of Austria & his wife Theodora Angelina (-1241).  The Annales Erphordenses record the marriage in Feb 1238 "in marchia Stirensi Nova civitate" of "sororem ducis Austrie" and "Heinricus Thuringie lantgravius"[248].  The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified.  m thirdly (1241) as her first husband, BEATRIX de Brabant, daughter of HENRI II Duke of Brabant & his first wife Maria von Hohenstaufen (1225-11 Nov 1288, bur Abbaye de Marquette near Lille).  The Oude Kronik van Brabant names (in order) "Mechtildim comitissam Atrebatensem et Sancti Pauli, Mariam comitissam palatinam Reni, Beatricem lantgraviam Thuringie postea comitissam Flandrie, et Margaretam sanctiomonialem, postea abbatissam in Valle Ducis" as the daughters of "Henricus secundus et quintus dux Brabancie" and his first wife Marie[249].  The Genealogia Ducum Brabantić Heredum Francić names "Beatrix" as third of the four daughters of "Henricus…secundus dux" and his wife Maria, her first husband "lantgravio Turingie" and her second husband "Willelmo comiti Flandrie", specifying that she was childless[250].  She married secondly (Louvain Nov 1247) Guillaume III Count of Flanders

7.         KONRAD ([1204]-24 Jul 1241).  The Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić names (in order) "Ludewicum…Heinricum Raspin…Hermannum qui puer obit et Cunradum" as the four sons of "Hermanno", specifying that Konrad became a knight of the Teutonic Order[251].  "Heinricus Thur. lantgravius et Saxonie comes palat." confirmed a donation by charter dated 16 May 1228, with the consent of "matris nostre Sophie, uxoris nostre Elisabeth, fratris nostri Cunradi" and names "frater noster beate memorie Ludewicus lantgravius"[252].  The Annales Erphordenses record the dispute in 1232 between "archiepiscopo Maguntino et Cunrado fratre lantgravii" concerning Heiligenberg during which Konrad set fire to Fritzlar 15 Sep[253].  The Annales Erphordenses record the appointment in 1238 of "frater Cunradus…germanus Heinrici lantgravii" as "domus Teutonico"[254].  Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.  The necrology of Thuringia records the death "IX Kal Aug" of "Frater Conradus lantgravius magister domus Theutonice"[255]

8.         AGNES ([1204]-24 Feb before 1244, bur Heiligenkreuz).  The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis names "Agnes" as second daughter of "Hermannus" & his second wife, specifying that she married "ducis Austrie"[256].  The Annales Mellicenses in 1226 record the marriage of "Heinricus filius Liupoldi ducis" and "Agnetem filiam langravii de Duringia"[257].  The Cronica Principum Saxonie names "Agnem, sororem Henrici lantgravii Thuringie" as second wife of "Albertus dux"[258].  The necrology of Heiligenkreuz records the death "VI Kal Mar" of "ducissa Richardis sor Ludovici Thuringić lantgravii mariti s Elizabethć, ux Henrici…quinti cognomento Crudelis" and her burial "in capitulo no", specifying that her husband was last of the line and that their child was named Gertrud[259].  Although the other details are correct, the name "Richza" is a mistake for "Agnes", resulting from confusion with the wife of Heinrich Duke of Mödling, paternal uncle of Duke Heinrich "der Grausame".  It is curious that this entry does not refer to her second husband, suggesting that there may have been a separation before she died.  m firstly (1225) HEINRICH "der Grausame" of Austria, son of LEOPOLD VI "der Glorreiche" Duke of Austria [Babenberg] & his wife Theodora Angelina (1208-3 Jan 1228, bur Klosterneuburg).  m secondly (Acre after 1229) as his second wife, ALBRECHT I Duke of Saxony, son of BERNHARD I Duke of Saxony, Graf von Aschersleben und von Anhalt & his wife Judyta of Poland (-[27 Sep/7 Nov] 1260, bur Lehnin).

 

 

 



[1] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), pp. 61-2. 

[2] D K II 293, p. 415, marked "unecht" in the compilation. 

[3] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 1, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[4] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1258, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 622. 

[5] Bayley, C. C. (1949) The Formation of the German College of Electors in the mid-Thirteenth Century (Toronto), p. 40. 

[6] Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974) Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (Penguin) II.12, p. 129. 

[7] Gregory of Tours II.12, p. 129. 

[8] Origo Gentis Langobardorum 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 4. 

[9] Historia Langobardorum Codicis Gothani 4, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 9. 

[10] Pauli Historia Langobardorum I.21, MGH SS rer Lang I, p. 59. 

[11] Vita Sanctć Radegundis Liber I, 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 365. 

[12] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[13] Liber Historić Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 277-8. 

[14] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[15] Liber Historić Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[16] Gregory of Tours III.7 and 8, pp. 167-69. 

[17] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 132. 

[18] Dindorf, W. (ed.) (1833) Procopius, Vol. II, Corpus Scriptorum Historić Byzantinć (Bonn), De Bello Gothico I.12, p. 65. 

[19] RHGF IV, p. 8. 

[20] Widukindi Res Gestć Saxonicć I.9, MGH SS III, p. 420. 

[21] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[22] Wolfram, H. (1998) History Of The Goths (Berkeley, California), p. 320. 

[23] Liber Historić Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 277. 

[24] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico IV.25, p. 593. 

[25] Procopius, Vol. II, De Bello Gothico IV.25, p. 593. 

[26] Mommsen, T. (ed) (1954) Codex Theodisianus Vol 1 (2nd edn. reprint, Berlin), VII 8.5, p. 328, cited in Wolfram (1998), pp. 320 and 470. 

[27] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[28] Liber Historić Francorum 22, MGH SS rer Merov II, pp. 277-8. 

[29] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[30] Gregory of Tours III.4, p. 164. 

[31] Vita Sanctć Radegundis Liber I, 2, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 365. 

[32] Gregory of Tours III.7, p. 168. 

[33] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 7, p. 8. 

[34] Gregory of Tours IX.2, p. 481. 

[35] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin), p. 295. 

[36] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Regum Francorum, no. 7, p. 8. 

[37] Fredegar, IV, 77, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 159. 

[38] Fredegar, IV, 87, MGH SS rer Merov II, p. 164. 

[39] DD Kar. 1, 102, p. 146. 

[40] Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (“RFA”) 794, p. 73. 

[41] Annales Laurissenses 783, MGH SS I, p. 164. 

[42] Einhardi Annales 783, MGH SS I, p. 165. 

[43] Einhard 18, p. 453. 

[44] RFA 792, p. 71. 

[45] Annales Xantenses 794, MGH SS II, p. 222. 

[46] Einhardi Annales 794, MGH SS I, p. 181. 

[47] Theodulfi Carmina, XXIV Epitaphium Fastradć reginć, MGH Poetć Latini ćvi Carolini I, p. 483. 

[48] RFA 783, p. 61. 

[49] Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 145. 

[50] Jackman (1997), p. 145. 

[51] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 849, MGH SS I, p. 365. 

[52] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 858, MGH SS I, p. 371. 

[53] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[54] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 873, MGH SS I, p. 387. 

[55] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123. 

[56] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 874, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[57] Jackman (1997), p. 150. 

[58] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 873, MGH SS I, p. 386. 

[59] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[60] Jackman (1997), p. 150. 

[61] Annales Fuldenses Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393. 

[62] Annales Fuldenses, pars quinta 882, MGH SS I, p. 396. 

[63] D Arn 58, p. 82. 

[64] D Arn 83, p. 124. 

[65] Annales Fuldenses, pars quinta 891, MGH SS I, p. 407. 

[66] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[67] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[68] D LdK 46, p. 167. 

[69] Reginonis Chronicon 906, MGH SS I, p. 611. 

[70] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[71] Reginonis Chronicon 892, MGH SS I, p. 605. 

[72] D LK 20, p. 125. 

[73] Annales Alammanicicorum continuatio Sangallensis altera 908, MGH SS I, p. 54. 

[74] Widukind I.22, MGH SS III, p. 427. 

[75] Perlbach, M. ‘Aus einem verlorenen Codex traditionum der Bonner Münsterkirche St Cassius und Florentius’, Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde, Tome XIII (Hannover, 1888) (“Bonn St Cassius”), 21, p. 158. 

[76] Widukind I.22, MGH SS III, p. 427. 

[77] Annalista Saxo 1085. 

[78] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1025 and 1026, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 517. 

[79] Mathieu, J. N. 'Recherches sur les origines de deux princesses du IX sičcle: la reine Guille de Bourgogne et l'impératice Engelberge', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 176. 

[80] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 2, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[81] Codex Brandenburgensis, Dritte Abteilung - Die Altmark, Band 22, XXV Kloster Hillersleben, II, p. 411. 

[82] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 2, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[83] Codex Brandenburgensis, Dritte Abteilung - Die Altmark, Band 22, XXV Kloster Hillersleben, II, p. 411. 

[84] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1034, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 517. 

[85] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 519. 

[86] D K II 293, p. 415, marked "unecht" in the compilation. 

[87] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[88] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[89] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4 and 5, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820 and 821. 

[90] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1074, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 524. 

[91] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1085, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 526. 

[92] Stumpf, K. F. (ed.) (1863) Urkunden zur Geschichte des Erzbisthums Mainz im zwölften Jahrhundert (Acta Maguntina Seculi XII) (Innsbruck) (“Mainz Urkunden 12th Century”), 1 and 3, pp. 3 and 5. 

[93] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 20, p. 21. 

[94] Menzel, K. & Sauer, W. (eds.) (1885) Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1 (Wiesbaden), 168, p. 97. 

[95] Chronicon Gozecense II.14, MGH SS X, p. 154. 

[96] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1062, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 522. 

[97] Annalista Saxo 1056. 

[98] Annalista Saxo 1125. 

[99] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1062, MGH SS XXX.1, pp. 522-3. 

[100] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[101] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1110, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 527. 

[102] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[103] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1114, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 528. 

[104] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[105] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[106] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[107] Annalista Saxo 1130. 

[108] Chronicon Gozecense II.14, MGH SS X, p. 154. 

[109] Annales Rosenveldenses 1130, MGH SS XVI, p. 104. 

[110] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1130, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 532. 

[111] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1134, MGH SS XVI, p. 18. 

[112] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[113] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1065, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 523. 

[114] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1118, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 531. 

[115] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[116] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1065, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 523. 

[117] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1141, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 535. 

[118] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 7, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[119] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1065, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 523. 

[120] Ekkehardi Chronicon 1112, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 246. 

[121] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1146, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 536. 

[122] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 820. 

[123] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[124] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1060, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 521. 

[125] ES XVII 91. 

[126] Iohannis Capitis Historia Monasterii Ilfeldensis, MGH SS XXV, p. 587. 

[127] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[128] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[129] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 228.   

[130] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820-1. 

[131] Chronicon Gozecense I.21, MGH SS X, p. 148. 

[132] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820-1. 

[133] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, pp. 820-1. 

[134] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[135] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 4, MGH SS XXIV, p. 821. 

[136] Chronicon Gozecense I.17, MGH SS X, p. 147. 

[137] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[138] Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1, 188, p. 128. 

[139] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 21, p. 23. 

[140] Annalista Saxo 1139. 

[141] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1140, MGH SS XVI, p. 18. 

[142] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1140, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 535. 

[143] Chronicon Gozecense II.14, MGH SS X, p. 154. 

[144] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1130, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 532. 

[145] Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus, Band I, Part 1, 194, p. 132. 

[146] Annales Pegavienses 1148, MGH SS XVI, p. 258. 

[147] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1146, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 536. 

[148] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[149] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[150] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[151] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1189, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 544. 

[152] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[153] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[154] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[155] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 10, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[156] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[157] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 34, p. 37. 

[158] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 42, p. 46. 

[159] Jordan, K., trans. Falla, P. S. (1986) Henry the Lion: a Biography (Clarendon Press, Oxford), p. 94. 

[160] Jordan (1986), pp. 100-1. 

[161] Jordan (1986), p. 102. 

[162] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1172, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[163] Gesta Friderici Imperatoris Ottonis Frisingensis I.21, MGH SS XX, p. 362. 

[164] Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergensium Chronicon, MGH SS XXIII, p. 345. 

[165] Annales Stadenses, MGH SS XVI, p. 326.  

[166] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[167] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193, MGH SS XXIII, p. 870. 

[168] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1191, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 548. 

[169] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1172, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[170] Jordan (1986), p. 102. 

[171] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 82, p. 85. 

[172] Jordan (1986), p. 155. 

[173] Runciman, S. (1978) A History of the Crusades (Penguin Books), Vol.  3, p. 25. 

[174] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 29. 

[175] Ralph of Diceto II, pp. 82-3, cited in Runciman, Vol. 3, p. 29 footnote 2. 

[176] Jordan (1986), p. 173. 

[177] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 107, p. 109. 

[178] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[179] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1193, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 550. 

[180] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum III, 16, MGH SS XXI, p. 158. 

[181] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1151, MGH SS XXIII, p. 841. 

[182] Arnoldi Chronica Slavorum III, 16, MGH SS XXI, p. 158. 

[183] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg. 

[184] Gertz, M. C. (ed.) (1918) Scriptores Minores Historić Danicć medii ćvi (Copenhagen), Vol. II, Sepulchalia, I Tabula Ringstadiensis, p. 83. 

[185] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230, footnote 72 specifying that she is called "Iuditam" in a charter dated 1191. 

[186] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1181, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[187] Annales Sancti Petri Erphesfurdenses 1180, MGH SS XVI, p. 23. 

[188] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[189] Roques, H. von (ed.) (1900) Urkundenbuch des Klosters Kaufungen in Hessen (Cassel) ("Kaufungen"), Band I, 29, p. 35. 

[190] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 138, p. 141. 

[191] Kaufungen, Band I, 32, p. 38. 

[192] Gudenus, V. F. de (1743) Codex Diplomaticus Moguntiaca (Goettingen), Tome I, CCXLVIII, p. 599. 

[193] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[194] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 11, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[195] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1193, MGH SS XXIII, p. 870. 

[196] Kaufungen, Band I, 32, p. 38. 

[197] Mainz Urkunden 12th Century, 136, p. 139. 

[198] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[199] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1218, MGH SS XXIII, p. 907. 

[200] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[201] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230, footnote 76 stating that this is an error as the wife of Heinrich was "Sophia…filia Friderici comitis palatini de Sommerschenburg" although no primary source is cited for this statement. 

[202] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1189, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 544. 

[203] Genealogia Ottonis II Ducis Bavarić et Agnetis Ducissć, MGH SS XVII, p. 376. 

[204] Rein, W. (ed.) (1863) Urkundenbuch, Geschichte und Beschreibung der thüringischen Klöster, I, Ichtershausen (Weimar) (“Ichtershausen”), 39, p. 79. 

[205] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[206] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[207] Genealogica Wettinensis, MGH SS XXIII, p. 230. 

[208] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 563. 

[209] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[210] Hasse, P. (ed.) (1886) Schleswig-Holstein Regesten und Urkunden (Hamburg, Leipzig), Band I, 386, p. 170. 

[211] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[212] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[213] Heinemann, O. van (ed.) (1875) Codex Diplomaticus Anhaltinus (Dessau), Teil II, 217, p. 165. 

[214] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[215] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[216] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1216, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 589. 

[217] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[218] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 563. 

[219] Annales Erphordenses 1227, MGH SS XVI, p. 27. 

[220] Runciman (1978), Vol. 3, p. 178. 

[221] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[222] Hermanni Altahenses Annales 1270, MGH SS XVII, p. 406. 

[223] Crossley, Paul 'The Architecture of Queenship: Royal Saints, Female Dynasties and the Spread of Gothic Architecture in Central Europe', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (Boydell Press), pp. 265-66. 

[224] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1232, MGH SS XXIII, p. 930. 

[225] Attwater (1970), p. 113. 

[226] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[227] Annales Erphordenses 1242, MGH SS XVI, p. 34. 

[228] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1241, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 617. 

[229] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[230] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[231] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[232] Annales Stadenses 1239, MGH SS XVI, p. 365.  

[233] Annales Sancti Pantaleonis Coloniensis 1241, MGH SS XXII, p. 536. 

[234] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1224, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 600. 

[235] Annales Parchenses 1241, MGH SS XVI, p. 607. 

[236] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[237] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1226, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 608. 

[238] Wenck, H. B. (1803) Hessische Landesgeschichte mit einem Urkundenbuch, Band III, Urkundenbuch (Darmstadt) ("Hessische Landesgeschichte Urkundenbuch, Band III"), CLXVIII, p. 146. 

[239] Ichtershausen 39, p. 79. 

[240] Bayley (1949), pp. 16-17. 

[241] Haverkamp, A. (1988) Medieval Germany 1056-1273 (Oxford University Press), pp. 256-7. 

[242] Annales Erphordenses 1247, MGH SS XVI, p. 35. 

[243] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1241, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 617. 

[244] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[245] Bayley (1949), pp. 19-20. 

[246] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 478. 

[247] Ichtershausen 39, p. 79. 

[248] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[249] Oude Kronik van Brabant, Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus, Second Series (Utrecht 1855), deerde deel, Part 1, p. 65. 

[250] Genealogia Ducum Brabantić Heredum Francić 8, MGH SS XXV, p. 390. 

[251] Historia Brevis Principum Thuringić 12, MGH SS XXIV, p. 822. 

[252] Ichtershausen 39, p. 79. 

[253] Annales Erphordenses 1232, MGH SS XVI, p. 27. 

[254] Annales Erphordenses 1238, MGH SS XVI, p. 32. 

[255] Kalendarium Necrologicum Thuringicum, p. 457. 

[256] Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis 1200, MGH SS XXX.1, p. 564. 

[257] Annales Mellicenses 1226, MGH SS IX, p. 507. 

[258] Cronica Principum Saxonie , MGH SS XXV, p. 476. 

[259] Necrologium Monasterii S Crucis Recentius, Passau Necrologies (II), p. 112.